TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS By SUSAN E STRIEPE SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE DR. ROLAND, CHAIR DR. DELACRUZ, MEMBER A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TH E DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 2 Summary of Capstone Project Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS By Susan E. Striepe December 2012 Chair: Craig Roland Major: Art Education My research topic revolves around the question of how art museums can appeal to teenagers. I found this question relevant because there is not a substantial body of research that e xplo res this topic. I speculat ed that t he implications of less engaged teenage audience s in respect to art museum s could have long term consequences for both art museums and teenagers when teenagers mature to become adults I considered that o ne possibilit y could be that art museums could cease to exist, as they are dependent on the community for support. I extrapolated that teenagers would then be deprived of this valuable access to cultural discourse Added to these propositions, I discovered through my l iterature review that art museums are currently moving from being primarily object centered to being more cognizant of their audiences. In order to research this topic I interviewed four art museum teenage educational program managers, I analyzed eighteen websites of art museum teenage programs, and observed three different teenage programs. In addition, I interviewed seven teenagers that were partic ipating in one of the programs i n which I observed. I used the constant comparative method of grounded analys is on the data I collected in order to discern significant patterns that might inform me more about how art museums can appeal to teenagers From the triangulation of data,
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 3 I discovered that issues of identity were the most prominently referred to topic an d engagement the least referred to topic In addition, I distinguished that most of the categories were faceted and interrelated with one another. I noticed in c ross case analysis that individual educational programs vary widely in their focus and that fie ld observations raised the significance of engagement as well as the socialization of teenagers in comparison to e ither the websites or the interviews. I have deduced from the data that individual programs differ and offer unique experiences for teenagers, who are in turn diverse themselves. Additionally, I have compiled t wo recommendations that emerged from this research and they are that teenage program websites might benefit by having videos that capture the engagement and aspects of socialization of the teenagers in their programs and that further research conducted on what appeals to teenagers in art museums from the teenagers' perspectives would be beneficial to both the teenagers and art museums Keywords: teenagers, art museums, education, research, identity, engagement
Table of Contents List of Tables and Figures pg. 5 Chapter 1: Statement of the Problem pg. 6 Chapter 2: Literature Review pg. 8 Chapter 3: Research Methods pg. 1 7 Chapter 4: Results pg. 2 6 Chapter 5: Discussion pg. 3 2 References pg 36 Footnotes pg. 41 Appendix pg. 4 3
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 5 List of Tables and Figures Tables Table B 1 Questions Directed to Program Coordinators pg. 47 Table C 1 Questions Directed to Teenage Participants pg. 4 8 Table I1 Category Frequency Ranking pg. 5 4 Figures Fig ure 1 Interview Comparisons pg. 4 9 Figure 2 Comparison of Field Observations pg. 50 Figure 3 Three Sources of Comparison pg. 51 Figure 4 Triangulation pg. 52 Figure 5 Question Categories pg. 53
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 6 Chapter 1: Statement of the Problem The primary pur p ose of this study was to gain a better underst anding of how art museums can appeal to teen ager s In order to accomplish this, I investigate d a number of art museums that offered teen age educational programs I collect ed information from seven teenagers thr ough interviews and observations, while they were in the process of participating in art museum programs I also interviewed four art museum program managers 1 and analyzed eigh teen art museum teen program websites. By comparing the data collected about the programs from the websites, p rogram managers, and from the teenagers I have posit ed four key understandings as to how art museums can appeal to teenagers Statement of the Problem A ccording to Chang (2006) teenagers are the least likely of any demograp hic group to visit museum s The absence of teen demographic s from attending art museums is also evident in the lack of studies on teenage educational programming in museum research literature Many art museums in America do not offer p rograms specifically targeted toward teenagers However, when the Walker Art Center of Minneapolis St. Paul in Minnesota instituted a more teen centered program, their teenage attendance shot up by 11% (Schwartz, 2005). T he low attendance of teenagers to art museums may likely affect the long term value of art museum s in America If teenagers do not visit art museum s there is a greater possibility that they will not do so as adults either (Rabkin & Hedberg, 2011) I propose that many art museum s convey visual aspect s of our cu ltural discourse and if people are cut off from this access (even voluntarily), people's kno wledge of one aspect of their cultural heritag e 2 and the debates surrounding our culture represented by the visual arts will be curtailed
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 7 The primary question t hat guide d this capstone project was : How can art museum s appeal to teenagers? From this research question, I have developed a body of key understandings and have propose d suggestions for further research Significance or Importance of the Study I feel t his study is important because if teenagers are not exposed to the richness of this visual form of cultural discourse that is represented by the collections and interpretations of artwork in art museums, they will have difficulty recognizing how the worthy intellectual associations with the visual aspects of culture can have personal value in their lives when they become adults If art museums are not supported by society, they would cease to exist and a whole aspect of our cultural discourse would be lost I think this study is important to the field of art education because many art museum s offer teen ager s a glimpse into ways that art functions within society Successful teen programs can inspire teen ager s to become artists, art historians, organizers, ad vocate s, or curators in an authentic setting. In this way, the teenagers can expand the knowledge of their own identities and their potential capacities through the social context of the art museum. Teen art museum programs can potentially offer a concrete learning experience in the domain of art and expand the teenagers' knowledge base of th e discipline of art Finally, t he primary significance of t his study has been to provide a body of information about how art museum s can appeal to teenagers as t his ki nd of study has not been addressed in scholarly literature.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 8 Chapter 2 : Literature Review This literature review revolves around the question of how art museum s can appeal to teenagers. Demographic research has clearly shown that adolescents are the least likely of all age groups to attend museums (Chang, 2006). Chang's analysis also aligned visitor motivation with cultural and educational factors all of which concur with the findings of the study by Rabkin and Hedberg (2011) This alignment can be relate d to Vy gotsky's (1979) concept of the zone of proximal development 3 (p. 84), making it more germane that museum programs should be designed to match the purpose of the museum with the needs of the visitors. The understanding that there is a dynamic interch ange between visitor s and museum s in that visitors knowledge levels vary widely and need to be addressed accordingly 4 differs markedly from past ideas, where the visitor's role in art museum s was conceived as a form of passive appreciation of the static collections of objects. This relationship that matches prior knowle dge to learning can make the art museum more relevant to the visitor, a n idea upon which Falk and Dierking (2011) have elaborated By examining the primary needs of the adolescent, identity in relation to social context and learning, the zone of proximal development can be established and both the educational purposes of most art museum s can be fulfilled and the needs of participating adolescent s can be met Identity F ormation It would be in the interests of a rt museum s to consider the interrelationship between identity formation, social context, and learning if the museum wishes to appeal to teenagers through relevancy issues Developmentally, adolescents are forming their notions of identit y, and subsequently identity is highly relevant to their everyday lives through the way they think I dentity also determines their actions in a social context. In turn, adolescents' social context s
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 9 have a bearing on their identity formation, as well as on their cognitive learning. Examining adolescents' relationships between social context, learning, and identity may seem complex, however Falk and Storksdieck (2005) developed a contextual model of learning that demonstrated that it was possible to measure the complexity of factors that contributed to museum learning. There has been a substantial amount of literature published that is related to the identit y formation of adolescents. Erik Erikson 's work with identity formation in ado lescen ts is foundational to the understanding of a core portion of developmental psychology Erik Erikson is well known for linking iden tity formation with adolescents (Erikson, 1968) What is less well known amongst neophytes is that Erikson also linked social context wi th adole scent identity formation ( Newman & Newman, 2009; Tanti, Stukas, Halloran & Foddy, 2011) Erikson regarded identity as multidimensional he included : moral, social, cultural and cognitive aspects of identity in his understanding of the topic (Schwartz, 2001) Baumeister and Muraven (1996) gave a functional and working definition of self when they wrote, "Identity is a set of meaningful definitions that are ascribed or attached to self, including social roles, reputation, a structure of values and priorities, and a conception of one's personality" (p. 406). These are broad and inclusive definitions that have helped me to interpret the significance of identity factors that have arisen in my res earch. These definitions have also helped me understand how adolescen t identity formation has played a role in the ways that art museums can appeal to teenagers. Not only has Erikson's work on adolescents' identity formation with regard to social context been foundational but Schwartz (2001), and Goossens and Phinney (1996 ) have traced, through their historical reviews the ongoing concern in research with the relationship between adolescent identity formation and social context All the studies that link adolescent identity
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 10 forma tion to social context are entirely pertinen t to the ways art museum s can appeal to teenagers because art museum s provide a n alternative 5 social context for teenagers The museum, as an alternative context, can contribute to the critical teen developmental stage of identity transformation. Consequen tly, articles that dealt only with identity formation in adolescents were excluded from this literature review and by contrast, articles that incorporated the interplay between the adolescent's identity formation and social context were included in this l iterature review Other authors whose works have been included in this literature review examined various angles of identity in relation to social context, like the examination between the differing aspects of personal and so cial identity formation (Tanti et al. 2011) or identity in relation to occupational choices (Danielsen, Lorem & Kroger, 2000). The wide range of research examining various aspects of identity formation in adolescents established the complexity and depth of the issue and at the same ti me affirmed the scientific plausibility of Erik Erikson's theory. Both these studies, Tanti et al. and Danielsen et al., employed experimental methods. In addition to these studies, I have found that the ethnographic research study conducted by Ito et al. (2010) has been helpful in highlighting the importance of diversity and individuality of adolescents' identity formation in relationship to their socio cultural context. The study questioned the use of a universal designator for defining adolescent identit y and suggested that identity be viewed more individua lly. This literature review shows a sel ection of articles from peer reviewed journals and published books that have included both empirical research and historical surveys in order to get a balanced, s cientific, and accurate perspective on the topic of adolescent identity formation and social context. None of these articles have dealt specifically with the adolescents' identity
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 11 formation within the social context s of art museum s Research still needs to be done on adolescent s social identity formation in the context of art museum s The Role of the Art M useum Historically, the purpose s of most art museum s have changed over the last hundred years, from a generally passive aesthetic appreciation (deriving pleasure and enjoyment from perceived beauty) of the collections to an educational approach centered on meaning making and learning for the visitors The changing nature and purpose of museums, in general, is discussed in several books and articles, some o f which included historical reviews (Burnham & Kai Kee, 2011; Ebitz, 2005; Hooper Greenhill, 2010; Marstine, 2006; Rice, 2003) and also in Hein's (1998) analysis of visitor studies. All of these authors related a similar narrative, but each from their own perspective. Burnham, Kai Kee, Ebitz, and Rice discussed it from the perspective of art museum s Marstine from a broader museum stance, Hein from a museum educational perspective, and Hooper Greenhill from the perspective of public education and the museum school relationship T his literature shows the many roles museum s p urvey demonstrating museum s adaptability by matching the purpose and function of museum s to cultural and societal changes and needs Today, most museums define themselves as being primar ily educational (Newsom, 1975). Some articles included statistics in their empirical research (Chang, 2006; Hooper Greenhill, 2010; Newsom, 1975) that highlight ed the many museum s changing perceptions and self definitions although the articles referred t o museums in general and not specifically to art museum s Rabkin and Hedberg (2011) presented some data that correlated the relationship of teenagers specifically to art museum s although more research data and statistics examining the relationship of teen agers to art museums would be useful in examining this topic further
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 12 Despite the assertions that many museums view themselves as educational, there were few articles in museum journals or other published material dealing with educational issues in relatio n to art museum s although there have been some articles published in art education journals and the Journal of Museum Education Standing in stark contrast to the lack of published material linking education and art museums are Villeneuve's (2007) edit ion of articles on the increasing important role of education in the art museum Ari as and Gray (2007), whose article appeared in Villeneuve's (2007) publication, described various strategies in which art museums could create programs that could incorporate a dolescents. Added to this, Hooper Greenhill (2010) conducted and presented e xtensive empirical research that supported the educat ional role of museum s (although not specifically art museums) and gave an international perspective on this issue, as he conduc ted his research within British museums. S everal peer reviewed journals quoted the studies from this book The shortcoming of Hooper Greenhill's book was that it largely analyzed museum s in the context of serving schools and the government sanctioned educa tional system in Britain and did not examine museum s as an independent entity serving the needs of adolescents outside the context of the school system Another publication (Fortney and Shepherd (eds.), 2010) that dealt with the relationship between school s and museum s revealed how i ntegral collaboration wa s to a ffect the success of museum program s Collaboration wa s viewed both from within museum departments and included outside institutions as well Museums were seen as participating in the broader conte xt of society, which can make it more appealing to the lives of visitors in general and therefore teenagers as well. In addressing issues of how programs can appeal to teenagers, ways in which teenagers can become actively involved in art museum s should be considered.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 13 Cultural Discourse Art museum s should include teenagers in the active demographic of visitors in order that both the teenagers and art museum s may benefit If adolescents grow up disconnected from art museum s there is a greater likelihood t hat as adults they would not be inclined to support art museum s (Rabkin & Hedberg, 2011) This idea is also supported by Chang (2006), who demonstrated through his statistical analysis of data that there was a correlation between educational levels and mus eum attendance. Likewise, I posit that if adolescents, once grown, do not have art museum s t hat represent their culture s or in which they can become exposed to cultural debates they would inevitably be come culturally impoverished 6 Dewey (1934) discussed the implications of the art object as a transmission of the culture to which it belonged and most art historical books have made this basic assumption as well. Cultural representation can be a form of identity within which people of a society can relate. R ecognizing the larger context of cultural identity as an extension of individual and social identity is significant in relation to the topic of connecting the museum to teenagers. However, a large body of papers dealing with visual culture art education, t hat many authors propose represents our current culture, were excluded from this review as they generally did not relate visual culture studies to the context of art museum s In addition, I excluded visual culture art education studi es as it was too broad a topic and because it took the spotlight off the needs of the teenagers and placed it squarely on visual culture as a system and entity within which the teenager only played a passing and minor role. Nevertheless I did include a survey of cultural defini tions and philosophies by Storey (2006) that not only addressed visual culture, but viewed culture from a post modernist stance by relating the varying philosophies and perspectives on culture over time. This viewpoint has allowed me to enlarge my understan ding as to the way changing definitions of culture, from
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 14 a historical perspective, has related to the changing roles of art museums within the broader context of society. In addition, t he article by Schwart z (2005) acted as a good counterpoint to these vis ual culture studies because the programs (e.g. The Museum of Modern Art 's High School Museum Studies Program and other teen programs offered by the Andy Warhol Museum, the Brooklyn Museum, and the Walker Art Center amongst others ) were teen centered. Her article had several shortcomings that included small samples and seemed to lack analysis and evaluation However, the article was valuable because there have not been many articles besides Villeneuve's (2007) publication, that have dealt with art museums incorporating teenagers into their programs and policies. Some examples of the activities offered in the teen programs mentioned by Schwartz ranged from teen curated exhibitions, fashion shows, dance parties, artist talks, and publishing a magazine All o f these examples are similar to the ones mentioned by Arias and Gray (2007) and relate to the changing ro l es teenagers have play ed in the context s of various art museum s Teenagers in these scenarios have been described as active participants in meaning ma king, rather than as passive consumers of culture. Another article written by Martin and Yoder (2009) also examined the active participation of teenagers in an art museum but it was a descriptive and experiential account and only examined one program. Mor e articles dealing with teenagers roles in art museum s more thorough analysis of existent programs, and more extensive surveys of what art museums are doing and what they can and should be doing to meet the needs of teenagers would fill a gap in this res earch area. Cognitive Development, Social context, and I dentity The statistical correlation between the varying levels of education and museum attendanc e that Chang (2006) as well as Rabkin and Hedberg (2011) established highlights an important factor whe n considering how art museum s can appeal to teenagers that knowledge is
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 15 an important element in the rel ationship between visitors and many museum s In making interested museum s relevant to teens it is important to consider t he interplay between cognition, social context, and iden tity Vygotsky (1978), Piaget (1950), and Eisner (2002) have all correlated cognition with social context and development of the self. Eisner's approach was theoretical, Piaget's and Vygotsky's approaches were theoretical as well, b ut they combined and supported their theories with experimental methods. Their experimental methods were not included in this survey as the literature review is influenced more by their theories than an analysis of their experimental studies Gardner (2011 ) critiqued Piaget's experimental methods in relationship to the theories he developed from his experimental methods and favored Vygotsky's approach. One reason is that Gardner's studies showed that there was a separation in the way information was learned in the different domains (subject areas) and tha t concrete operational learning continued throughout a person's life These new perspectives on domain knowledge acquisition and concrete operational learning have relevance to art museum s as art museum s ar e so domain specific and concrete operational learning could easily be designed into the educational programs of art museum s because the collections in the art museum s are advantageously already concrete objects All three of these books (by Vygotsky, Piag et, and Gardner) were theoretical, but the authors have established their reputations through their experimental research th at was published elsewhere. Vygotsky, Eisner, Gardner, and Piaget have become widely known and influential in their fields. I would be remiss, if I did not mention Falk and Dierking's publication The Museum E xperience (2011) based on their seminal research on visitor studies in museums. Falk and Dierking connect learning for the visitor to the personal, social, and physical context of the museum setting. It is apparent in Falk and Dierking's concept of personal context that there is a
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 16 connection with Gardner's ideas of learning as a continuum (2011) and Vygotsky's (1979) concept of the "zone of proximal development" (p. 84) Sim ilar to Vygotsky's concept is Cs ikszentmihaly's (2008) concept of flow which may well have emerged from Dewey's (1934) ideas on flow as a descriptor of experience. In turn, Dewey's theoretical approach to learning as experience is complimented by Falk and Dierki ng's research and their integration of the three contexts that together facilitate learning Conclusion This literature review presented research and theory in the area that linked identity, social context, and cognition The literature revie w also uncov er ed research that revealed museums changing role s from being object oriented to audience centered as witnessed through the museum's increasingly new emphasis on education. In addition, t he literature also examined research in the area of adolescent identi ty in re lation to the adolescent's social context Overall, however, there remains a lack of substantial research that relates these components to how art museums appeal to teenagers. I propose the research that examines how art museum s appeal to teenagers if actively applied to art museum programs, would prove useful to many art museums, their communities, and would ultimately benefit interested teenagers.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 17 Chapter 3 : Research Methods Many a rt museums are lacking teen ager s as partic i patory demographics ( Chang, 2006 ; Ng, 2009; Rabkin & Hedberg; Trestcott, 2009 ). The low attendance of teenagers is especially noticeable if the museums do not engage teenagers in programs that are specifically designed for them ( Schwartz, 2005). Conversely teenagers are miss ing an important component of their cultural knowledge w hen they are not exposed to the art museum's rich learning environment (Chalmers, 1974 ; Dewey, 1934 ) The purpose of this case study has been to establish an understanding of how art museum s appeal to teenagers. In order to gain insight into the teenagers' attitudes and responses to the unique environment of art museum s and to what measures art museums have taken to appeal to teenagers I obs erve d teenagers in three teen targeted art museum programs an d interviewed seven of them in one program I also examined eigh teen art museum teen program websites posted by well renowned American art museum s In addition, I interviewed four art museum teenage program managers. In order to move forward in this resear ch, I obtained IRB approval ( Appendix A ). The IRB ethical obligations required that I gain signatures of consent from the museum program managers before I could interview them. I did not need to get a signature from the students, but they did need to be in formed of their rights. After I gather ed data from the websites, observations, and interviews I look ed for patterns of correspondence fro m which I develop ed key understandings about how art museums appeal to teenagers. Study Design My research has take n t he form of what Baxter and Jack (2008) de fine as a descriptive, multiple case study design 7 Like the case studies of Snipes, Doolittle, & Hurlihy (2002) and Hughes, Kar p, Fermin, & Bailey (2005) I ch os e multiple cases that I cross compare d in order to
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 18 del ineate key understandings of how the museum ap p eals to teenagers. The multiple case studies contrast sharply to the single case study, like Cohen's (1990). Cohen used a detailed description of the encounters within his study and presented them in a narrati ve that allowed the reader to construct meaning In contrast, I have cross compar e d the cases in my multiple case study The results have been organized in a way for the reader to evaluate, but the level of meaning construction has be en reduced in comparis on to Cohen's single case study. One of the primary advantages to having used multiple case studies is that I have been able to obtain a wider viewpoint as to how art museums can appeal to teenagers As a qualitative design, in contrast to a quantitative design, this case study has not test ed any hypothesis or examine d one particular var iable (Lodico, Spaulding, & Voegtle, 2006) it s purpose has been to enlarge the understanding of how art museum s can appeal to teen ager s. I have been the prime investigator T hrough personal interaction s with the participants I w as able to discern and record subtle inflections, innuendos and allusions in conversations with the participants This type of communication has alert ed me to the possible interc onnections between v ari ables regarding how art museums can appeal to teenagers The underlying philosophy behind this study is that of social constructivism 8 a term defined and used by Lodico et al. (2006). This philosophy has been borne out as I have take n into account the multiple subjectivities and multi ple meanings of the participants when I observe d programs interview ed participants and examined websites I have been cognizant of my own perspectives that I have brought to the situations. The complex issues of social co ntext, identity formation, and cognitive learning that are involved in the teenagers' interactions in the art museum setting (Falk & Storksdieck, 2005) have made a qualitative research method a better choice than a quantitative research method (Yin, 2009) Furthermore, I was not in a position to alter the behavior of the participants in order to satisfy the testing or
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 19 manipulation of variables common in quantitative research (Yin, 2009) as it would have change d the understandin g of how art museums can appe al to teenagers Population As the case study has been a qualitative study, I used purposeful sampling 9 The case study is a bounded system 10 (Merriam, 1998, 2009; Stake, 1995 ; Yin, 2009 ) so I select ed a small sample that fulfill ed the criteria for the p henomenon that I planned to investigat e which wa s how the art museum s can appeal to teenagers In this case, I ch ose to observe teenagers, between the ag es of thirteen and nineteen that participate d in three teen centered art museum programs from two majo r cities in America and interviewed seven teenagers from one of the programs. In addition I interviewed four art museum teenage program managers that represented well renowned art museums from four major cities in America I also examined eighteen teenage program websites posted by major art museums from different geographical regions of the United States. Narrowing the sample in this manner help ed me focus the study A ll the programs that I selected in which to interview and observe offered a variety of d ifferent types of programs that the teenagers could participate in. The art museums varied from small and regional to large and international and from contemporary to a cross section of t raditional and contemporary art None of the art museums that I chose focused exclusively on traditional art. I ch ose five major American art museums in large urban centers because the major museums have built solid reputations and have sufficient funding that have enabled them to develop quality programs. By observing the programs in action, interviewing the program managers for the teenage programs, and examining the websites of art museum s that offered teenage programs I cross compared the data so that I was able to locate patterns of correspondence I exclude d art museu ms that did not
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 20 offer teenage programs or were not prominent Data Collection I gather ed data through telephonic interviews, on site observations, and information listed for teen programs on art museum websites I simultaneously analyze d the data as I col lect ed it, a strategy recommended by Merriam (2009) and Stake (1998). In order to go ahead and pursue data collection, I received permission from the teenage program managers I nterviews. Initially, I conduct ed semi structured to unstructured (Merriam, 2009) telephonic interviews (i.e. loosely guided by questions) with the four program managers of the teen art museum programs from which I audio recorded Through these semi structured questions ( Table B 1 ) and unstructured questions I acquire d vital infor mation about the overall teen program s from the program managers perspectives I follow ed strategies, li ke asking open ended questions followed by close ended questions suggested by Harvey (2011) though I applied it more loosely After the interview s I transcribed the audio recording s and sent a copy of the transcription s to each of the participant s concerned and as required by the IRB protocol. Once I was in the setting of one of the teen program s I conducted largely unstructured interviews (i.e. spon taneous questions) with seven teen participants. This component consist ed of small group interviews mixed with observation, semi structured questions and unstructured questions ( Table C 1 ) I ask ed these questions face to face with the participants and in the context of the program in action. These more informal interview techniques differ ed from O'Connor's (2002) formal (i.e. fixed questions) interview technique s To a large degree, fixed questions determine responses and I was more interested in the parti cipants' perspectives than my own preconceived notions of teen art museum programs. From the teenage interviews, I wrote field notes from what I remembered and observed during the interview session.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 21 Observation s. I conducted t hree on site observations of t hree very different programs for teenagers My goal wa s to be an observer (Merriam, 2009) within the context of an active teen centered art museum program In this role, I did not want to interrupt the flow of the program s In one setting, I carefully bal ance d my observations with the interviews. In all three settings, I observe d how the students socially interact ed with one another and how they respond ed to various situations. By observing, I learn ed how teenagers responded to different kinds of situation s and topics. I understood that my presence would influence the participants to a certain extent (Bott, 2010) and hence affect the data that I collect ed Document s. I use d the website information from the art museum teenage programs to cross compare with the data I collected from the observations and the interviews The information gathered from these three sources allowed me to triangulate the data in order to reduce bias in the study. Data Analysis The data I collect ed consist ed of field notes, audio rec ordings, transcriptions, as well as the information garnered from the art museum teenage program websites I used a software program called TAMS Analyzer 4.0 which was a Creative Commons licensed program I analyze d the data according to the constant comp arative method of grounded analysis an inductive methodology 1 1 that Glaser and Strauss (1967) outlined. Alkin and Daillak (1979) define d constant comparative analysis as a methodology for aggregating findings in research. Using the constant comparative p rocess, I categorize d the data according to emerging themes. By emergent, I mean that I did not impose preexisting categories upon the data. By contrast as I read the data I applied a category that reflected the meaning within the data itself While the d ata wa s being transcribed and coded, I constantly compare d it to existent categories I form ed subcategories
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 22 when there we re refinements to be made. At a certain point the categories became saturated. By saturated, I mean that when I read new data, I found that I was not applying new categories, but was applying categories that I had already created. I coalesce d the categories by focusing on how the categories fitted into the major themes The in terplay of the major themes has formed the structure from whic h I w as able to derive theories of how art museums appeal to teenagers The juncture at which I discerned that the theories appeared to be accurate statem ents of the original situations was when I determined that the analysis wa s complete. Stake (1995) men tioned that data source triangulation, which is when data is collected at different times or places, is one way of verifying data. By observing teenagers parti cipating in different museum pro grams interviewing art museum teenage program man a gers and exam ining teenage programs listed in art museum websites, I us ed data source triangulation. I did not pursue other forms of triangulation, like investigator or theoretical triangulation as it would have require d a group of researchers to conduct the investigat ion. Pilot Studies I conducted two pilot studies in order to practice and learn more about interview techniques, as well as learn more about my target participants. First p ilot study The first pilot study was conducted with a coordinator of an art museum teen program My professor referred her to me I emailed her a list of questions and she said she would prefer a phone interview. T wo weeks of negotiation transpired before the interview could take place, as she had to go out of town during that interim pe riod. I did not record the conversation, as I was not sure of the legality in recording phone conversations. Instead, I wrote down fragments of the conversation on paper. I had a list of questions that I was planning to ask. I used these as a starting poin t for the conversation, however the conversation took its own turn
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 23 and I pursued spontaneous questions that related to the conversation and my topic. During the course of the conversation, I learned many facts about the museum programs that were not advert ised on the website. After the interview, I did not write field notes and I have forgotten many details from the conversation. I learned that writing field notes after interviews is essential. I also learned that in the natural flow of a conversation, one has to let go of planned questions. Lastly, I learned that when organizing interviews, the proposed date of the interview could change. As my research question was not as evolved at the time of this interview I did not gain a simple answer as to how art m useum s can appeal to teenagers. I did, however, learn that this art museum was searching for ways to become more relevant to teen ager s by offering programs and opportunities that they could not get elsewhere. I was surprised that one of the programs they o ffered was an online program that essentially followed a school curriculum. The museum in a duplicate role of the school is one of the reasons wh y I decided to eliminate school related art museum programs from my sample groups. In contrast, I was determine d to concentrate on the uniqueness of the museum setting as a new and different kind of opportunity for teenagers to engage in the domain of art. Second p ilot study My target question for the study revolved around teenagers. I chose as a candidate my sixt een year old daughter, who is a budding artist. I asked her some general questions about what teenagers like in a rt program s She had attended a few in the past and was anticipating attending another one that summer. I took notes, but did not transcribe th em. My note taking was better with my daughter's interview than the phone interview, as I wrote down more information. I had felt rushed in the phone interview with the museum co ordinator and I could not concentrate on writing. I followed up the interview with my daughter two weeks later. I asked questions that were similar to the ones in Table C 1 I noted common themes between the
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 24 two interviews with my daughter that revolved around peer groups and the desire to be treated like an adult. I subsequently tr anscribed the notes. I found that my natural tendency was to prompt people when they we re searching for words and I was concerned that this would introduce bias into my case studies. Limitations I have aim ed to be aware of t he primary limitation s of case s tudies throughout my research which is that case studies describe a particular situation and cannot be generalized to other situations. Generalizations cannot be made from particular instances because logic philosophers would describe these as fallacies ( Groarke, 2012). Other issues that may limit the value of my research are issues of subjectivity and bias. These can appear at all stages of the research and ar e largely centered upon the practices of the researcher. My biggest concern was that the question s I formulate d would merely confirm my underlying research theories. In this way I would have contaminate d my data collection This is where triangulation has been imperative. Misinformation in interviews through for example, elision by the participants may also have interrupt ed the veracity of my data gathering (Roulston, 2010). However, elision itself can be interpreted and can become meaningful data if recognized, but the limitation is in the speculative and multiple ways it could be interpreted. When I categorize d d ata in the analytic phase of my research, I had to make sure that I did not impose preordained categories and relied on emerging themes instead (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). This reduce d some bias, although Constas (1992) argued that t hemes di d not emerge, but instead they were created. The different emphasis made a point about the bias that is introduced by the researcher in the stage of an alysis. Constas (1992) maintained that this bias may be somewhat reduced when the researcher reveals the process he/she used to create the categories.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 25 I have had to bear all these limitations in mind when I analyze d and present ed my data. One way I have done this is that I established and maintain ed a chain of evidence between my research question, data coll ection, analysis, and final presentation. Summary/Conclusion The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of how art museums can appeal to teenagers. I have developed four key findings that can form a rationale around which either further resea rch can explore or which can benefit current art museum teenage programs.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 26 Chapter 4 Some teens had gathered in groups and were sitting cross legged in big circles in the gallery spaces talking and looking around. There was a general sense of flow, torre nts, currents, and waves. This movement was accentuated when the live band started to play and whole groups of teenagers started dancing to the music, while others looked on in engrossed joy, mesmerized by the whole evening. 1 2 Cultural Heritage The purpose of the study is to find out how art museums can appeal to teenagers as teenagers have been an underrepresented demographic of the art museum demographics ( Chang, 2006; Ng, 2009; Rabkin and Hedberg, 2011; Trestcott, 2009). This is pertinent to current tren ds of art museums as the focus of art museums has been shifting from one where spotlighting the art object was central to current circumstances where education has increasingly taken on a primary role (Marstine, 2006). Subsequently, the visitor s to art mus eum s are now playing a more pivotal role in the planning of exhibitions and increasingly research into visitor learning is being analyzed (Falk and Dierking 2011) In addition, it could be argued that the value of the interchange between the art museums an d teenagers has a long term cultural impact in our society. It is possible that teenagers who have not visited art museums or particip ated in art museum programs may see little relevance to the existence of art museum s when they become adults. Certainly, s tatistics do show that the lack of art education correlates to the lack of participatory support for art museums (Rabkin & Hedberg, 2011). Art museum s are precariously dependent on society for their support and if adults wi thin a society do not support art museums their existence could be threatened along with the cultural reservoir that they carr y and this in turn would be lost to that generation.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 27 I propose that the flow between teenagers, art museums, and society is one of interrelationships and that ext racting one aspect without viewing it holistically would not be representative of the phenomenon. Hence, my choice of case studies as the preferred research method and social constructivism as my philosophical framework. Both case studies and social constr uctivism incorporate a holistic approach to the subject matter that is researched. Categories The interrelationship of factors that describe the phenomenon of how art museum s appeal to teenagers has emerged in my research in the form of categories used to describe occurrences or instances of events mentioned in the data. The data was collected from the teenage program pages of eighteen art museum websites, from four interviews with art museum teenage program manag ers (Appendix D ), and from the field notes that I wrote when I observed three different types of art museum teen programs (Appendix E ), one in which I interviewed seven teenagers. Initially fourteen categories emerged out of the data, but I found that some categories were duplicates and yet other c ategories were representative of much larger themes and hence were subsumed within the more all encompassing categories. Six categories emerged out of these refinements. They are cognitive, diversity, engagement, identity, prog ram, and socialization (Appen dices F and G ). Relationships Probably the most noteworthy of the categories that have emerged from the data is that of identity. It stands out as the most frequently referred to topic. The other two topics that occur more frequently than the other categor ies are the program and cognitive categories. Identity is composed of many different elements and interrelates with many of the other categories, even those that are least mentioned.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 28 Identity. Some aspects of identity relate to when teenagers think of the mselves as: independent "That's exciting for them because they get to kind of curate i t and choose the art they like. (program manager 1 3 p ersonal communication, August 16 2012) ; as artists "The students get to work with artists. They do artist residenci es and w ork with contemporary artists. (program manager, personal communication, August 29, 2012) ; or as leaders "They organize the teen nights." (program manager, personal communication, August 16, 2012). Sometimes, the art museum program managers active ly nurture d identity formation of the teenagers: I encourage all of them. I do these, kind of, exit interviews with them at the end of summer. I tell each of them individually, "You need to take more opportunity to lead and this is the kind of leader that I see you developing into and I think you should take advantage of these opportunities." (program manager, personal communication, August 16, 2012). Identity and socialization. Besides identity functioning as a pure category, its importance is also in the way it interrelates with the other categories. The vignette mentioned at the beginning of this chapter is a good example of the interrelationship between the categories of identity and socialization. The interplay was demonstrated where students formed gr oupings and assessed themselves in respect to others "talking and looking around" or whether they chose to watch other people dance or be an active dancer themselves. The way people socialize can reflect or impact a person's identity in the way a person se es themselves in relation to others. The reason why socialization has maintained its own category is that it is a way of learning and thus relates equally well to the cognitive category. Cognitive. Like the identity category, the cognitive category has var ying facets. One example is in the differentiated way people learn, "I noticed later that this student was far ahead
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 29 of the other students." 1 4 Another example is in the development of critical thinking skills, "However, when it comes to their big ideas, bi g proposals, events that they do, the core ideas where they come from, come from them, by themselves." (program manager, personal communication, August 15, 2012). The development of cognitive skills is yet another area that art museums nurture, "They come over and do these really cool things called digital stories." (program manager, personal communication, August 16, 2012). Not surprisingly cognitive development in the teenagers was also nurtured from the inspiration derived from both the collections in th e art museums and from visiting artists that these in stitutions were able to attract: [Celebrity] came down from New York and worked with them for a whole week. Talking about inspiration, and art, and the artistic process. And they did an intensive study of the modern and contemporary collection with the curator here and me. And then they went back and responded with this amazing huge mural. (program manager, personal communication, August 16, 2012). Cognitive and program. The above quote is a good exampl e where learning has taken place because of the inherent qualities of the institution itself, the art museum. Most a rt museum s within t he larger context of society have to collaborate with institutions outside their own and inter departmentally within thei r own institution s for the teen programs to function smoothly. Two examples can be seen on the websites of both the Brooklyn Museum and the Warhol where they mention collaboration with other institutions. In addition, the program has to consider how it is represented, how it markets itself, and how it promotes itself. These issues of corporate identity impact the program's ability to acquire funding, attract participants, and in turn offer a variety of quality programs that can benefit the community. Consid erations of selection and inclusion through diversity and engagement in teenage programs that incorporate identity,
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 30 socialization, and cognitive considerations are key factors that play a role in how the programs can appeal to teenagers. Reflexivity One of my biggest concerns with the gathering of data was that my research questions would determine the data in the interviews. Despite the fact that I triangulated my data from other sources, field observations and websites, I decided to code my questions as w ell in order to find out what the correlation might be between my research questions and the interviewees responses The bar graph in Appendix H shows that six types of categories from the research questions overlap with the interview ee s' responses (viz. cognitive, diversity, engagement, identity, program, and socialization) However, there are two additional categories that are more significant than the other categories (viz. motivation and neutral commentary) that differed from the response categories B oth motivation and neutral commentary serve the other six categories, but I decided to leave them separate in the question chart, so that the slant of my questions would be more transparent. On closer examination of my research questions, I determined that they were primarily concerned with the motivation of teenagers, and that neutral commentary was used to encourage the interviewees to elaborate on their perspectives. I also found that even though the majority of the categories were the same between the q uestions that I asked and the responses I received from the teenage program managers the hierarchical rankings did not correspond in four out of the six similar categories (Appendix I) The purpose of my research was to gain an understanding of how art mu seums can appeal to teenagers and as it involved case studies that by their nature are about the particular, it has to be borne in mind that one cannot make generalizations about the findings however one's understanding of the topic may be enlarged In or der to combat bias in my research, I used a
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 31 process of triangulation. I collected data from three sources (websites, interviews and field notes) and analyzed it according to emergent categories. I ascertained that the categories were faceted and interrelat ed with one another. I also determined that the questions that I asked the program managers largely did not determine a hierarchical correspondence between the emergent categories even though the categories were largely the same The categories reflected t hat issues relating to identity, the functioning of the program, cognitive factors engagement, socialization, and diversity were connected to how art museums can appeal to teenagers. Conclusion My research centered on the research question of how art mus eums can appeal to teenagers and through a process of triangulation I collected data and analyzed it according to emergent categories. I a scertained that the categories we re faceted an d interrelate d with one another. I also determined that the questions th at I asked the program managers largely did not determine a hierarchical correspondence between the emergent categories The categories reflected that issues relating to identity, the functioning of the program, cognitive factors engagement, socialization and diversity were connected to how art museums appeal to teenagers.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 32 Chapter 5 In determining how art museum s can appeal to teenagers, I have found that the analysis of my data has directed my attention to six emergent categories that even though inter related have formed hierarchies of significance. In order to interpret t he data, I detected that it was essential to cross compare the data to ascertain what the implications might be. Cross Case Comparison Although identity featured most prominently when the data was collated, it is interesting to note that there were instances in certain cases that it was listed as only the secon d most mentioned topic (Appendices D and E ). These exceptions seem to underscore the interrelationship and interdependence of t hese categories. Yet, when I compared the different type of programs in a field situation, what was most noticeable was that in each instance one category seemed to spike considerably more than the other categories (Appendix E ). For example, identity was m ost important in the museum internship program, socialization was most important in the teen night program, and cognitive factors were most important in the studio program. It seems that these programs work in tandem and may sometimes draw in different dem ographics by appealing to teenagers as individuals rather than as a generalized group. This idea is supported by such commentary from the teenage program managers, for example, "I think the program works for differe nt audiences in different ways," (program manager, personal communication, August 15, 2012), "It's tough to compare them because they all kind of serve different functions and relate to the teens in different ways," (program manager, personal communication, August 15, 2012), and "They come to us, like I said, from so many different backgrounds, so many different parts of the city, so many different frameworks." (program manager, personal communication, August 29, 2012).
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 33 The virtual absence of the topic of engagement from being mentioned on the web sites and in one interview and its generally low relevancy in comparison to other categories might prove to be a worthy cause for future investigation. This is particularly relevant as the engagement category was ranked higher in the field observations tha n in the websites or interviews. Engagement is something that may be more noticeable in a physical context and hence the use of videos might well enhance the appeal to teenagers if added to the websites. Out of the eighteen websites only four websites made use of videos, all of the videos demonstrated teen engagement to varying degrees and in different ways. Socialization, like engagement, emerged more prominently in the field observations than either on the websites or the interviews. This is another aspe ct that may enhance the appeal to teenagers if video footage that incorporates aspects of socialization within the programs is inc lud ed into the websites. Another avenue that would be useful to pursue is to gain more feedback from the teenagers themselve s as to how they relate to the programs, what appeals to them, and what their concept of an ideal program would be. I found that the program where I interviewed the seven teenagers resulted in a spike of the identity category. This raised questions as to w hether the spike was due to the program, due to the interests of the teenagers, due to the questions that I asked, or a combination of all three factors. Key Understandings I have discovered f our key points that have arisen in the cross case comparison in relation to how art museums can appeal to teenagers : Aspects of programs, diversity, identity, learning, socialization, and engagement are interrelated and support each other.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 34 Individual programs differ and offer unique experiences for teenagers, who in tu rn are diverse themselves. The importance of engagement and socialization in teenage programs is largely unrecognized. Further research is recommended to find out from the teenagers themselves what type of programs would appeal to them. Conclusion In unde rstanding how art museums can appeal to teenagers I have discerned that many art museums are interconnected with the co mmunities to which they serve. The art museums that I examined have responded to their communities by developing different types of progr ams that address the different concerns of teenagers and have taken into account issues of diversity and inclusiveness. In order to ensure the success of these programs, a selection of art museum teenage program managers have collaborate d inter departmenta lly within their own institutions and with outside institutions. F or example websites mention ed that the Art Institute of Chicago collaborates with the After School Matters program and that the North Carolina Museum of Art collaborates with the North Caro lina Virtual Public School Other programs have reach ed out to the ir communities by visiting schools, or have offer ed tours to school groups as a way of introducing and familiarizing students with art museum s and opportunities available to the teenagers wi thin art museum s Yet other programs offer ed possibilities for portfolio development and other types of art exposure in response to the lack of support for art classes in the public school system within their respective communities as well as to take advan tage of the inspiration from the collections themselves or the visiting artists that these art museums we re able to attract As one of the many forms of testament to considerations of diversity and inclusiveness, some art
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 35 museums offered programs that were not exclusively studio programs catered to budding artists, these took the shape of such programs as museum internships and teen council s which fostered leadership, organizat ional, and other types of skill building and knowledge development in teenagers On a parting note I find it important to mention that in my findings the range of programs offered to teenagers by many art museums do, in fact, appeal to the teenagers on multiple levels. My findings address the needs and concerns of teenagers that rela te to identity issues, socialization, diversity, engagement, and cognitive factors This framework may be helpful as a guide to self reflection on behalf of some art museum teenage program managers. I would propose that examining the under recognized issue s of engagement and socialization especially in re lationship to the other elements such as identity and cognitive development may be useful leads to new types of programming or marketing of the existent programs I would further suggest that future resea rch should be pursued in understanding how art museum s can appeal to teenagers from the teenagers' perspectives.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 36 References Alkin, M. C., & Daillak, R. H. (1979). A study of evaluation utilization. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 1 (4), 41 4 9. Arias, C., & Gray, D. A. (2007). Adolescents in the art museum: Key considerations for successful programs. In P. Villeneuve (Ed.)., From periphery to center : Art museum education in the 21st century. (pp. 96 102). Reston, VA: The National Art Education Association. Baumeister, R. F. & Muraven, M. I. (1996). Identity as adaptation to social, cultural, and historical context. Journal of Adolescence, 19 405 416. Baxter, P. & Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implement ation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13 ( 4 ) 544 559. Bott, E. (2010). Favorites and others: Reflexivity and the shaping of subjectivities and data in qualitative research. Qualitative Research, 10 (2), 159 173. Burnham, R. & Kai Kee, E. (20 11). Teaching in the art museum: Interpretation as experience Los Angeles, CA: The J. Paul Getty Museum. Chalmers, F. G. (1974). A cultural foundation for education in the arts. Art Education, 27 (1), 20 25 Chang, E. (2006). Interactive experiences and co ntextual learning in museums. National Art Education Association, 47 (2), 170 186 Cohen, D. K. (1990). A revolution in one classroom: The case of Mrs. Oublier. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 12 (3), 311 329. Constas, M. A. (1992). Qualitative a nalysis as a public event: The documentation of category development procedures. American Educational Research Journal, 29 (2), 253 266.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 37 Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2008). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics. Danielsen, L. M., Lorem, A. E. & Kroger, J. (2000, March). The impact of social context on the identity formation process of Norwegian late adolescents. Youth & Society, 31 (3), 332 362. Dewey, J. (1934). Art as experience. New York, NY: Penguin Group (U SA) Inc. Ebitz, D. (2005). Qualifications and the professional preparation and development of art museum educators. Studies in Art Education, 46 (2), 150 169. Eisner, E. W. (2002). The arts and creation of mind. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Erikso n, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company Inc. Falk, J. H. & Dierking, L. D. (2011). The museum experience. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. Falk, J. H. & Storksdieck, M. (2005). Using the contextual model of le arning to understand visitor learning from a science center exhibition. In Dierking, L. D. & Falk, J. H. (Eds.), Science learning in everyday l ife (pp. 744 778). doi: 10.1002/sce.20078 Fortney, K. & Sheppard, B. (Eds.) (2010). An alliance of spirit: Muse ums and school partnerships. Washington D.C., MD: American Association of Museums. Gardner, H. (2011). The unschooled mind: How children think and how schools should teach. (20 th ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research New Brunswick, NJ : AldineTransaction. Goossens, L. & Phinney, J.S. (1996). Commentary: Identity, context, and development. Journal of Adolescence, 19 491 496.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 38 Groarke, L. (2012). Informa l logic. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.) T he Stanford e ncyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2012/entries/logic informal/ Harvey, W. S. (2011). Strategies for conducting elite interview s Qualitative Research 11 (4), 431 441. Hein, G. E. (1998). Learning in the museum. New York, NY: Routledge. Hooper Greenhill, E. (2010). Museums and education: Purpose, pedagogy, performance. London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Hughes, K. L., Karp, M. M., Fermin, B. J. & Bailey, T. R. (2005). Pathways to college access and s uccess. Washingt on D.C., MD : U.S. Department of Education. Ito, M Baumer, S., Bittani, M., Boyd, D., Cody, R., Herr Stephenson, B., Tripp, L. (2010). Hanging out, messing around, and geeking out: K ids living and learning with new media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Lodico, M. G., Spaulding, D. T ., & Voegtle, K. H. (Eds.). (2006). Introduction to educational research. In Lodico, D. Spaulding, & K. Voegtle (Eds.), Methods in Educational Research: Fro m Theory to Practice (pp. 1 21). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. Marti n, K. & Yoder, M. (2009 ). Museum studies: Connecting the elementary and secondary experience. Arts Act, 144 ( 5), 40 43. Marstine, J. (Ed.). (2006). New museum theory and practice. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Merriam, S. K. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass Publishers. Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA : Jossey Bass.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 39 Newman, B. M. & Newman, P. R. (2009). Development through life: A psychosocial approach Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Newsom, B. Y. (1975). On understanding art museums. Arts in the Community, 16 (2), 46 53. Ng, D. (2009, Decembe r 10). NEA report shows declining attendance in arts events nationwide. Los Angeles Times Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/culturemonster/2009/12/nea report shows declining attendance in arts events nationwide.html O'Connor, C. (2002). Black women beating the odds from one generation to the next: How the changing dynamics of constraint and opportunity affect the process of educational resilience. American Educational Research Journal, 39 (4), 855 903. Piaget, J. (1950). The ps ychology of intelligence. New York, NY: Routledge. Rabkin, N. & Hedberg E. C. (2011). Arts education in America: What the declines mean for arts participation. Washington D. C., MD: National Endowment for the Arts. Reeves, C. L. (2010). A difficult negot iation: Fieldwork relations with gatekeepers. Qualitative Research, 10 (3), 315 331. Rice, D. (2003). Balancing act: Education and the competing impulses of museum work. Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies, 29 (1), 6 19, 90. Roulston, K. (2010). Conside ring quality in qualitative interviewing. Qualitative Research, 10 (2), 199 228. Schwartz, D. F. (2005 Sep/Oct ). Dude, where's my museum? Inviting teens to transform museums. Museum News 36 41.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 40 Schwartz, S. J. (2001). The evolution of Eriksonian and neo E riksonian identity theory and research: A review and integration. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 1 (1), 7 58. Snipes, J., Doolittle, F., & Hurlihy, C. (2002). Foundations for success: Case s tudies of how urban school systems impr ove student achievement. New York, NY: MDRC. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Storey, J. (2006). Cultural theory and popular culture: An introduction ( 4th ed.). Athens, GA: University of Georgi a Press. Tanti, C., Stukas, A. A., Halloran, M. J. & Foddy, M. (2011). Social identity change: Shifts in social identity during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34 555 567. Trestcott, J. (2009, June 16). Two national surveys show art audience decline s. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp dyn/content/article/2009/06/15/AR2009061503026.html Villeneuve, P. (Ed.). (2007). From periphery to center: Art museum education in the 21st century. Reston, VA: The N ational Art Education Association. Vygotsky, L.S. (1979). Mind in s ociety: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 41 Footnotes 1 I have used the term art museum teenage educational program managers throughout th e research paper as an all encompassing designation for the role that these educational administrators assume, although their actual ti tles vary from museum to museum. 2 I have used the term cultural heritage to refer to the legacy of the multiple forms of art that have been transmitted and transformed throughout history representing all civilizations until the many present forms of art that are witnessed today. I assert that people from all civilizations have the right to this knowledge and should have access to this legacy. 3 The zone of proximal development is when a person is placed into a new learning context and the new learning ma terial that they are exposed to matches their developmental and prior knowledge level. 4 The acknowledgement that visitors to art museums have different learning levels is apparent in the vast array of different intermediaries of interpretation that are av ailable to the visitor, for example: wall labels, audio tours, docent led tours, brochures, workshops, big idea concepts applied to curatorial design, museum talks and lectures, and website information. 5 The alternative context compared to home or school thus enriching the identity formation of teenagers, by introducing more variables and possibilities in the construction of their identities. The concept of varying levels of com plexity in identity formation with relation to social context was addressed in the study by Dielsen, Lorem, and Kroger (2000). 6 Chalmers (1974) stated that, "art is a medium that transmits the cultural heritage, maintains certain cultural values, and indirectly effects cultural change and improvement" (p. 21). If someone were to be denied this access, I would posit that they would be disconnected from t heir own cultural heritage or from the accompanying meaningful cultural discourse Cultural
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 42 discourse would include critical thinking like reflective, philosophical, and intellectua lly purposeful thinking regarding culture I would describe this lack of access as being culturally impoverished. 7 This understanding is that the research will describe a phenomenon in a contemporary context and examine different perspec tives between and amongst cases (Yin, 2009). 8 Social constructivism wa s defined by Lodico et al. (2006) as an outlook that took into account the complexity o f phenomena embraced multiple perspectives and multiple meanings and posited that individuals socially constructed their realities 9 Merriam (2009) described purposeful sampling as, "based on the assumption that the investigator wants to discover, understand, and gain insight and therefore must select a sample from which the most can be learned" (p. 77). 10 The bou nded syste m wa s described by Stake (1995) as a "purposiveintegrated system" (p. 2). 1 1 Inductive reasoning is when one develops generalized theories from specific observations. By contrast, deductive reasoning works from generalized theories, or hypothese s, to derive specific observations. 1 2 This is an excerpt from my observations made in my field notes that I wrote after having attended a teen event held at an art museum. 1 3 In order to respect the privacy of each of the individual art museum teenage progr am managers, I am referring to them generically as program managers. However, the dates do indicate different interviews although two interviews took place on the same day 1 4 This is an excerpt taken from my field note observations recorded after having at tended a studio arts program held at an art museum.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 43 Appendix A IRB Permission Forms
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TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 47 Appendix B Table B 1 Questions directed toward Program Coordinators Examples of Questions 1. Which programs work the best? In what ways are they successful? 2. How long have the program s been running? 3. How relevant do you think the attrition/retention rate is to your program ? 4. How much autonomy do the teenagers have ? How do the teenagers respond? 5. How collaborative are the programs ? How do the teenager s respond? 6. How would you describe the diversity within the program ? 7 How much emphasis is there on leadership within the program ? 8 What is the role of mentorship in the program ? Is this important to the teens ? 9 Do some teenagers get school cr edit for the programs ? 10 Do some teenagers ask for references after having participated in the programs ? 11 How focused is the program on art versus administration ? 12 What role do you think teens socializing plays within the programs ? 13 In socia l media or technology used within the program ? 14 Why do you think teens come to participate in the programs ?
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 48 Appendix C Table C 1 Questions directed toward Teenage Participants Examples of Questions 1. Have you attended programs before? 2 What other programs have you attended ? 3. What have you enjoyed the best in this program ? 4. What other programs are you doing this summer ? 5. Do you plan any of the activities ? 6 Are you taking art classes at school ? 7 How important is art to yo u? Are you planning on doing art as a career? 8 How has your view of art changed? 9 How has your view of art museums changed? 10 Has participating in these programs changed your career goals?
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 49 Appendix D Figure 1 Interview comparisons. M1 t o M4 = representing the four distinct interviews obtained from the four specific teenage program managers from four separate art museums.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 50 Appendix E Figure 2 Comparisons of field observations. Museum Internship = a program for teenagers that explores the occupational aspects of art museum professionals in a constructivist manner (students curate their own show); Teen Event = a social event hosted by the teen council of the art museum that gives the visiting teenagers an opportunity to experience the a rtwork and the art museum in an indirect way and the teen council a real life learning experience ; Studio Class = classes that expose students to contemporary artists and art making practices that may ultimately assist the students in building their portfo lios.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 51 Appendix F Figure 3 Three source s of comparison. This is a c lustered column chart representing the number of instances a fa ctor within each category occurred in comparison to the three different sources from which the data was collected. Website s = data taken from eighteen different American art museum websites that specifically offered teen programs; Field Notes = data taken from written observations based on site visits to three different types of art museum teen program s ; and Interviews = data derived from the transcripts of four audio recorded interviews with four teenage program managers from four different art museums.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 52 Appendix G Figure 4 Triangulation. This is a stacked column chart representing the number of instances a facto r within each category is mentioned in the data. The categories can be defined as follows: Cognitive = refers to forms of cognitive development and the multiple ways and types of learning that take place in art museums ; Diversity = refers to instances that largely relate to the way demographics interplay with program management; Engagement = refers to the immersion, intensity, and commitment witnessed in the teenagers ; Identity = a complex array of qualities that link teenagers self perception both within themselves and in relation to others including role playing and career exploration It also i ncludes the program managers' mentorship of the teenagers ; Program = refers to issues that affect the art museum program like collaboration, marketing, funding, s elf reflection, exclusivity, and selective processes; and Socialization = refers to instances that reflect the teenagers engaged in various forms of social behavior
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 53 Appendix H Figure 5 Question categories. The question categories are the same as men tioned in Appendix D with the addition of motivation and neutral commentary. Motivation = questions that were framed in a way that pursued answers as to what appealed to tee nagers about the programs; and N eutral Commentary = remarks made by the researcher that were structured to encourage further elaboration on behalf of the interviewee.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 54 Appendix I Table I 1 Category frequency ranking Ranking Questions Interviews Websites Field Notes #1 Identity Program Identity Identity #2 Program Identity Cognitive Socialization #3 Diversity Diversity Program Cognitive #4 Socialization Cognitive Socialization Program #5 Cognitive Socialization Diversity Engagement #6 Engagement Engagement Engagement Diversity Note. This table lists the frequency with which categ ories were cited. #1 = the most frequently cited; and #6 = least frequently cited; Questions = the categories that emerged when the questions from the interviews were coded; Interviews = the categories that emerged from the interviews; Websites = the categ ories that emerged from the websites; and Field Notes = the categories that emerged from the field notes.
TEENAGERS AND ART MUSEUMS 55 Bio graphical Sketch Susan Striepe was born in East London, South Africa. She received a BA in Art History and Russian from the University of the Witw atersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa and a BFA in Graphic Design from the Watkins College of Art, Design, and Film in Nashville, Tennessee. She completed her MA in Art Education at the University of Florida.