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Ethically addressing enviornmental and sustainability issues through art education: art and social practice

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Title:
Ethically addressing enviornmental and sustainability issues through art education: art and social practice
Creator:
Reese, Carolina
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla
Publisher:
College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
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Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis

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Subjects / Keywords:
Art education ( jstor )
Art objects ( jstor )
Art teachers ( jstor )
Arts ( jstor )
Climate change ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Environmental art ( jstor )
Environmental education ( jstor )
Environmental ethics ( jstor )
Research methods ( jstor )

Notes

Abstract:
This project highlights research on the connection between environmental ethics, sustainability, and art education, emphasizing these themes within the context of art education, without prioritizing object-making. Specifically, I propose limiting material production and emphasizing social activism by linking art education with Social Practice as a means for addressing environmental and sustainability issues. Using historical and philosophical inquiry research methodologies, I produced two resources for teachers interested in adding Environmental Social Practice to their art education curriculum. The first is an online guide via ISSUUTM which serves as a brief starting resource on environmental ethics, sustainability and Social Practice as they relate to art education. The second product is a sustainable, living web resource by way of a Pinterest® page which contains current web content on environmental ethics, sustainability, Social Practice, and environmental art education. For added search-ability, both proproducts along with further information are accessible on my webpage, carolinareeseart.com.
General Note:
Art Education terminal project

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the submitter.

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ETHICALLY ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES THROUGH ART EDUCATION: ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE By CAROLINA REESE A CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012 ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 1

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2012 Carolina Reese ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 2

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Acknowledgements It is with gratitude that I acknowledge the dedicated help and support of my committee chair, Professor Michelle Tillander. She set the bar high and championed me to reach it with her passion and verve. Without her guidance this capstone would not be what it is, and I am indebted to her for that. I would also like to thank my committee member, Professor Elizabeth Delacruz, whose professional and personal advice and support throughout my studies at the University of Florida have encouraged me to do my best. In addition, I owe a debt of gratitude to Professor Craig Roland, whose sage advice, wisdom, and humor have given me the courage to take risks and pursue lofty goals. I would also like to thank my classmate, Amy Cranfill, who has gone through this process alongside me. We have been in the trenches together and her support, advice (at all hours), and spunky encouragement has meant the world to me. Finally, I cannot imagine successfully completing this project without the support of my family. Thank you to my mom for putting school first and showing me what hard work looks like. My husband, David, is my partner in every sense of the word. Graduate school as a parent is no easy task and he has supported me in every single way. Thank you. Last but not least is my daughter, Isabella. She inspires me everyday to be a better parent and educator. Peanut, I do this all for you. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 3

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ABSTRACT OF CAPSTONE PROJECT PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS ETHICALLY ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES THROUGH ART EDUCATION: ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE By Carolina Reese December 2012 Chair: Michelle Tillander Committee Member: Elizabeth Delacruz Major: Art Education Abstract This project highlights research on the c onnection between environmental ethics, sustainability, and art education, emphasizing these themes within the context of art education, without prioritizing object-making Specically, I propose limiting material production and emphasizing social activism by linking art education with Social Practice as a means for addressing environmental and sustainability issues. Using historical and philosophical inquiry research methodologies, I produced two resources for teachers interested in adding Environmental Social Practice to their art education curriculum. The rst is an online guide via ISSUU TM which serves as a brief starting resource on environmental ethics, sustainability and Social Practice as they relate to art education. The second product is a sustainable, living web resource by way of a Pinterest ¨ page which contains current web content on environmental ethics, sustainability, Social Practice, and environmental art education. For added search-ability, both products along with further information are accessible on my webpage, carolinareeseart.com. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 4

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Table of Contents ......................................................................................................................................... Title Page 1 ........................................................................................................................... UF Copyright page 2 ......................................................................................................................... Acknowledgements 3 .................................................................................................................... UF Formatted Abstract 4 ............................................................................................................................. Table of Contents 5 ...................................................................................................................................... Introduction 7 ..................................................................................................... Statement of the Problem 7 ............................................................................................. Purpose or Goals of the Study 9 ............................................................................................................ Research Questions 11 ........................................................................... Rationale and Significance of the Study 11 ...................................................................................................................... Assumptions 13 ............................................................................................................ Definition of Terms 14 .......................................................................................................................... Literature Review 15 ........................................................................................... The State of the Environment 15 .................................................................................. Environmentalism in Art Education 16 ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 5

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.................................................................................................... What is Social Practice? 17 ................................................................................................................................. Methodology 17 .................................................................................................. Data Analysis Procedures 19 ......................................................................................................................... Limitations 20 Findings ........................................................................................................................................ 20 ................................................................................................... Social Practice Examples 21 ........................................................................................ Social Practice in the classroom 29 Summary Across all Findings ........................................................................................... 31 Discussion and Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 32 Discussion and Interpretation of Findings ........................................................................ 33 Significance, Implications and Recommendations ............................................................ 34 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 37 ..................................................................................................................................... References 39 .............................................................................................. List of Figures and Figure Captions 43 .......................................................................................................................... Author Biography 44 ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 6

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You may be noticing more recycling programs starting up in communities and schools. Many of us are now reaching for environmentally conscious cleaning supplies, paying attention to how much water we waste, buying eco-friendly light bulbs and Energy Star¨ appliances. It is interesting to see how much eco-friendly products are becoming part of our mainstream markets. In the first quarter of 2012, the Toyota Prius, which was once considered a niche oddity, was the third best-selling car in the world (Ohnsman & Hagiwara, 2012, para.1). Environmental issues and sustainability are now mainstream conversation, from the classroom to the White House. How are these current environmental concerns translating into the art education classroom? I am researching the connection between environmental ethics, sustainability issues and art education by way of Social Practice. According to the California College of the Arts (2012) Social Practice uses themes such as aesthetics, ethics, collaboration, and social activism (among others) to engage art in social issues and into the public arena. As opposed to traditional objectbased methods of art creation, I believe Social Practice to be particularly important to environmental and sustainability issues because it challenges the emphasis on and significance of the value of art objects and is more deeply rooted in anti-materialistic movements that aim to forge deeper bonds between people and society, and for the purposes of this project people and the environment (Row, 2010, p. B3). Statement of the Problem What is our ethical duty (if any) to our planet? What do we do to affect sustainability globally and locally? These are questions art educators face when teaching environmental issues. Specifically, art educators who teach environmental issues need to look at environmental ethics and sustainability as an integral part of their curriculum, that is, active sustainable solutions. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 7

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With climate change at the forefront of social consciousness, curricula that aim to address such issues by solely making tribute-type art objects or recycle art materials, may not be adequately helping the environment and can possibly be exacerbating the problem by making more objects that ultimately end up in landfills. It is becoming ethically more necessary for educators across disciplines to address our human connection to the environment. Becoming more critical, art educators can move beyond the status quo and examine different strategies that will have a greater impact on environmental change. We need only listen to the current discourse in newspapers and news channels to see that climate change and environmental destruction is of great concern to scientists, economists, politicians, and citizens alike. On a national scale, President Obama's campaign platform states, "We know that global climate change is one of the biggest threats of this generationan economic, environmental, and national security catastrophe in the making" (DNC, 2012). Locally, communities are struggling to limit waste, recycle, and change the current course of climate change. Examples of this can be seen most recently in San Francisco, California where on October 1, 2012, a new city-wide legislation goes into effect to try to curb waste. Matt Richtel (2012) reported for The New York Times on this legislation as "one of the nation's most farreaching bag ordinances, banning bags at all retailers big and small, and also restaurants and eventually requiring they charge 10 cents for paper and compostable carryout bags" (para. 14). Ordinances like these are becoming more common as communities struggle to address sustainability issues with a growing population and limited resources. Art Education's has a long standing history of teaching environmentalism and linking sustainability issues to artmaking. According to Blandy & Hoffman (1993), two active voices in ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 8

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environmental art education, April 22, 1970 Earth Day started the modern environmental movement (p. 24). Earth Day not only served as a major political and social catalyst for environmental change, but also sparked conversations between educators and artists about the relationship of aesthetics and environmentalism (Blandy &Hoffman, 1993, p. 24). Conversations continued, but the eco-art education movement was slow to gain acceptance. Not until 1992 did The National Art Education Association (NAEA) recognize environmentalism by making it the theme of its annual convention, "the land, the people, the ecology of art education" (Blandy &Hoffman, 1993, p. 31). However, according to Blandy and Hoffman (1993), "it was disappointing that conference organizers did not capitalize on the provocative theme the 1992 NAEA Convention offered by providing ecologically responsible alternatives to usual convention practice" (p. 31). From the nineties onward, scholars, educators, and artists have collaborated to provide suggestions for developing environmental art education pedagogy. Inwood (2010) states that, "whether grounded on scientific or aesthetic footings, they recommend a pedagogy that is community-based, interdisciplinary, experiential, interactive, dialogic, ideologically aware, and built on the values of empathy, sustainability, and respect for the environment" (para. 8). As the environment is now a global issue, the values of empathy, sustainability, and respect for the environment need to be grounded in an active art educational practice, responsibly connected to research, reality, and social practice movements. Purpose or Goals of the Study I am looking to move away from the historical value and practice of traditional object making and create a guide on Environmental Social Practice, a different model under which to ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 9

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address environmental ethics and sustainability. As a tool for professional development, I have developed and produced an online guide for art educators that serves as an entry point through which art educators can become familiar with Environmental Social Practice. Additionally, I also developed a timely art education and social media platform on which to follow current trends in Environmental Social Practice. Thus, my research resulted in two products, an online guide and a Pinterest ¨ page. The online guide will address environmental and sustainability issues in art education via Social Practice. The guide will be published on ISSUU TM online, an online platform that allows people to publish online material in a professional way. Furthermore, ISSUE TM is useful as a publishing resource because educators can search the site for subject specific publications, making it easily accessible. The online guide will have content on environmental ethics, sustainability and social practice as they relate to art education. The guide includes a brief history of environmental art education, Social Practice projects, and a rationale for social practice as an environmentally ethical way to address environmental and sustainability. In addition, the guide will contain suggestions of ways in which teachers can incorporate Social Practice into their school culture. Because environmental issues change over time it is important that this project not be static, but rather a living, sustainable, product responsive to changes in the environment and art education. Thus, an extension to the guide will be a Pinterest ¨ page that will hold links as well as be dynamic to what is new and trending in environmental issues as they pertain to art education. Environmental Social Practice is a fully accessable digital reference that does not require the use of paper, ink, or fuel for distribution. According to Best Colleges Online, Pinterest ¨ has become ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 10

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a new favorite technology tool among educators to connect with other educators, get ideas for classroom activities, and find inspiration ("37 ways," 2012). Pinterest ¨ is available on the web and through a smart phone app, making it mobile and convenient. Among its millions of users, university faculty are now using the interface as a way to share images and ideas with students, for the curatorial processes and what Finchman (Glenn, 2012) calls SPACE' "S is for sourcing story ideas and trending topics; P is for promotion and publishing students' work. A is for aggregation of pictures; C is for curating top news, and E is for engaging with others." Through a dynamic journalistic view and process, SPACE' extends the guide dynamically and into the future. Research Questions For my research project, I am guided by specific research questions. The three questions below direct my research into the connection between environmental ethics, sustainability issues, and art education by way of Social Practice as well as how to disseminate the findings in a sustainable way. 1. How do we tackle contemporary environmental issues in Art Education programs using Social Practice? 2. How does Social Practice differ from traditional object-based art education? 3. How can technology such as Pinterest ¨ a social media app, be used as a vehicle for addressing environmental issues in Art Education? Rationale and Significance of the Study Social Practice is beneficial to art education as it integrates different strategies with the purpose of creatively bringing about social change. Authors Blandy, Congdon & Krug (1998) ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 11

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stated the connection between art, art education, and ecological restoration as "a form of stewardship; it is about working together to direct people's creative energies to heal fragile places by cleaning up rivers, planting trees, detoxifying water and soil, and working with alternative waste disposal and waste water systems in the natural environment and urban landscape" (p. 238). Stewardship engages integration and collaboration. Thus, the rationale for this project stems from the belief that the environment can benefit from the integration and collaboration between the arts, sciences, and other disciplines. Cross subject integration is not only key for Environmental Social Practice, but is a fundamental component of art education. Researchers like Lynch (2007) argue specifically that integrated curricula allow for richer, more meaningful learning as they allow students to use their bodies, minds, and voices to express meaning. In allowing students to be hands on in their learning, by making art (or in this instance ecologically restoring), collaborating with others, and voicing their ideas, art educators are empowering students to be responsible for their own learning. Specific to art education, art educators use integrated curricula because it mimics the practices of contemporary artists, showing that it often takes stepping outside the subject of art to successfully create a visual representation of an idea.(Stewart & Walker, 2005). It is common in contemporary art that artists research and reference biology, anthropology, history, environmental science, geography, etc. in order to make their social / political points. This project is of significance to art educators not only because of its innovative support of environmental activism as a method of art education, but because it also bridges newer technology (ISSUU TM and Pinterest ¨ ) with relevant environmental and art education information. The research engages innovation as it also addresses environmental ethics. The online guide ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 12

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provides the introduction while Pinterest ¨ 's online pinboards' can save web content from photos to blogs and can be easily accessed whether on computer, smartphone, or iPad making this information not only current but readily available via a popular technological tool (see Figure 1). Assumptions To begin, this project suggests that art teachers put object-making secondary and not as the primary focus; thus, I assume that art educators will be open-minded or receptive to an art practice which does not emphasize making objects. In addition, I assume that teachers will understand that moving away from object making might present challenges for them as traditional school culture (administrators, parents, and even students) may be uncomfortable deviating from traditional art practices. My capstone is composed of all digital components, using the websites ISSUU TM and Pinterest ¨ I assume that art educators have access to a ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 13 Figure 1. Environmental Social Practice page for iPhone.

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computer, smart phone, and/or iPad in order to access the ISSUU TM and Pinterest ¨ webpages. Additionally, I assume that art educators reference ISSUU TM for art education periodicals or, if not, that my online guide will come up in Google TM web engine searches for environmental art education, sustainability, art education, or environmental issues in art education. Finally, I assume art educators know of the existence of Pinterest ¨ and use it to search for art education information. Definition of Terms Environmental Ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011) defines environmental ethics as "the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its nonhuman contents" (Brennan & Lo, 2011). Sustainability. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (n.d.), sustainability is "Everything that we need for our survival and well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on our natural environment. Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations" (What is Sustainability?, para. 1). Environmental Art Education. Hilary Inwood (2010), university art educator, defines Environmental Art Education (or eco-art education as she calls it) as the integration of "art education with environmental education as a means of developing awareness of and engagement with concepts such as interdependence, biodiversity, conservation, restoration, and sustainability" (para. 4) ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 14

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Social Practice. According to the California College of the Arts (2012) Social Practice uses themes such as aesthetics, ethics, collaboration, and social activism (among others) to engage art in social issues and into the public arena (Overview, para. 1). Literature Review Literature for this project started with searches on environmental art education and Social Practice. Scholarship on Environmental Social Practice as it relates to art education is scarce, however, there is research within the context of social activism and the benefits and importance of social activism as a method of teaching art education. Additionally, there is scholarship on the importance of ecological and environmental connections to art education. The lack of information on Environmental Social Practice coupled with significant literature on climate change and the state of the planet led me to believe that more research and scholarship was needed on the topic of Environmental Social Practice within the context of environmental art education. The State of the Environment Literature on the state of the environment ranged from government sources such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Democratic National Committee, to reporters such as Matt Richtel from the New York Times I specifically chose not to overwhelm this project with excessively complicated scientific data on climate change, but rather wanted to bring to light the mainstream effort and attention paid to sustainability issues and the environment both nationally and locally. The Democratic National Committee (2012) platform revealed that climate change is not only of importance but considered "one of the biggest threats of this generation." This platform came in time to see the Northeast devastated in October 2012 ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 15

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by the rare Hurricane, turned super storm, Sandy. New York City's Mayor Michael Bloomberg, after viewing the devastation in his city, noted the importance with which government needs to regard climate change, writing, The floods and fires that swept through our city left a path of destruction that will require years of recovery and rebuilding work. ... In just 14 months, two hurricanes have forced us to evacuate neighborhoods something our city government had never done before. If this is a trend, it is simply not sustainable. Our climate is changing. And while the increase in extreme weather we have experienced in New York City and around the world may or may not be the result of it, the risk that it might be given this week's devastation should compel all elected leaders to take immediate action. (Harper, 2012, para. 1) In following this sense of urgency, Richtel (2012) reported for The New York Times that communities are starting to not only take notice, but pass drastic legislation to curb waste, such as San Francisco's new ordinance banning all plastic bags. Environmentalism in Art Education Scholarship on environmentalism, sustainability, and art education promote environmental consideration, however, few scholars from my literature review call for activism and environmental restoration. A leading researcher in the field of Environmental Social Practice in art education, Blandy (2011) supports participatory environmental restoration, or activism, as a necessary method for addressing environmental issues in art education. Similarly, Hicks (2007) also expresses the importance of physically working with and restoring the environment as art education. She states, "place can also be re-created by a public process that restores ecological ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 16

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health, while building social justice, community, and democratic engagement" ( p. 335). Blandy and Hick's scholarship is pivotal to the purpose of this capstone as their research emphasizes the distinct difference between art object-making and Social Practice, giving precedence to activism as an ethically responsible method of addressing environmental issues. In contrast, other researchers such as Rademaekers (2011) believe that the sustainability movement needs art to survive as material practice and sticks with traditional object-making as a preferred method. What is Social Practice? Fletcher (2011) and Blandy (2011) are two scholars in art education who give an insightful view into Social Practice within art education. Blandy (2011) offers examples, of what he calls sustainability and participatory culture, in which art education explores bioregional problems and physically contributes to solutions via ecological restoration. Particularly, one program is The Sustainable Cities Initiative at the University of Oregon which partners the University with one city per year to find sustainable city design solutions. Fletcher (2011) goes further, discussing the Art and Social Practice MFA program at Portland State University (PSU). His speech, Art, Society, and Sustainability describes field trips and experiential learning that merge art and environmental activism. Furthermore, he highlights the difference between Social Practice and traditional studio work, giving examples of student projects that emphasize collaboration between art and environmentalism. While Blandy's writing is theoretical in its coverage of ecological restoration, Fletcher details examples of what constitutes Social Practice. Beyond Blandy and Fletcher, my literature search on scholarship linking Social Practice to environmental art education is nonexistent. Methodology ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 17

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My research will focus primarily on three themes; environmental ethics (and by extension environmental issues), sustainability, and Social Practice. I used a combination of research methods, specifically, both historical and philosophical inquiry to learn about these themes and put together the online guide and Pinterest ¨ page. According to authors Koroscik, J., & Kowalchuk (1997), historical inquiry involves collecting, evaluating, and interpreting data related to past events. For this project, I collected information on the history of environmental art education, what has been done in the past, as well as searches for Environmental Social Practice projects, and evaluated their connection with art education. Philosophical inquiry, as a research method, according to Koroscik, J., & Kowalchuk (1997), uses "[t]he analysis of key features of a concept or discipline with the purpose of adding to or articulating relevant paradigm within the eld" (p. 80). For the purposes of this project, I collected information on environmental issues and sustainability within the field of art education with a specific focus on articulating the relevance of Social Practice as a method for addressing environmental and sustainability issues in art education. The research is needed as curricula that aim to address environmental and sustainability issues with tribute-type art objects or recycle art materials, are not actively participating in environmental improvement. It is critical that art educators address the human connection to the environment and examine Social Practice as a method with which art education can inspire change. Specifically as it pertains to the online guide, I researched the following areas: Definitions of environmental ethics, sustainability, and social practice. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 18

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Content that links environmental ethics and sustainability to art education. The history of art education with regards to environmental projects. Current practices in Social Practice education with connections to art education. Environmental social practice projects that connect sustainability to art. This research was conducted through searching written articles, published interviews, books, scholarly publications, lectures, videos, and content on existing Art & Social Practice programs in higher education. Searches were conducted on JSTOR, EBSCO, and Google search engines as well as the University of Oregon's Architecture and Allied Arts Library. In addition, I obtained permission from the artists referred to in this paper, Katherine Ball and Newton and Mayer Harrison, for use of all images pertaining to their work contained herein. For the Pinterest ¨ page on Environmental Social Practice, I researched web content (text, images, and videos) of the following: Current Social and Political content on environmental issues. Art education projects on environmental issues and sustainability. Professional Social Practice projects that address the environment and sustainability. Images related to environmental ethics, sustainability, and environmental art. Blogs on environmental art, environmental ethics, and environmental art education. Data Analysis Procedures First, in order to find out how to tackle contemporary environmental issues in Art Education programs using Social Practice, I used historical inquiry as a research method to gather historical context and provide an overview of art education's historical strategies toward addressing environmental issues. Data resulting from this research was processed and compiled ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 19

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into a narrative, reporting a sequence of events on environmental art education's history. Next, in suggesting that art educators adopt Social Practice as a method for addressing environmental and sustainability issues, I conducted philosophical inquiry research which required analyzing features of environmental issues, sustainability, environmental ethics, and Social Practice. I took the information and analyzed for relevance to art education. Limitations This research project did not intend to include human subjects or personal observations of either Social Practice projects or art educational programs. The project is exploratory in nature meant to introduce art educators to Environmental Social Practice. Not using human subjects limits the possibility of seeing Environmental Social Practice in the classroom. Future research on environmental issues and sustainability in art education via Social Practice would benefit from first hand observations of Environmental Social Practice curricula, case studies, and analyzing human subjects involved in Environmental Social Practice projects. Social Practice is not solely limited to environmentalism, however this project is. It is possible that this limits my research as Social Practice is expansive and includes several different areas of social justice which may be applicable to broader themes in art education beyond environmentalism. Findings The goal of this project was to create online resources on Environmental Social Practice for art educators. The main research question I addressed was how to tackle contemporary environmental issues in Art Education programs using Social Practice. Consequently, I challenged traditional art education thinking to consider activism, by way of Social Practice, ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 20

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when teaching environmental issues. The findings are divided into two sections. The first section highlights a range of professional artist projects that employ Social Practice.The projects in the first section may seem beyond the scope of what can be accomplished in a classroom setting; thus, the second section puts said projects into context by suggesting adaptations that make Social Practice doable at a K-12 level. Social Practice Examples Readers may recall as established earlier in this paper that Social Practice involves engaging art in addressing social issues by using (to varying degrees) aesthetics, ethics, collaboration, and social activism (among others). Below are samples of projects that used Social Practice to address environmental issues. While there are countless other samples of environmental Social Practice work I could have used, these projects were particularly touching for me because of their commitment to the environment. The artists highlighted in the subsequent sections went above and beyond traditional studio work to spark social change. No Swimming. Katherine Ball is a great example of an artist who chooses to employ ecological activism and social engagement in her work ("Art and Social Practice," n.d.). In 2011, Katherine's project on Indianapolis Island (in conjunction with the Indianapolis Museum of Art), titled No Swimming took her on a six-week-long residency aboard a floating self-sustainable igloo-like structure (see Figure 2) to ecologically intervene and clean the 100 Acres Lake of E.coli and toxic waste from illegal dumping ("Art and Social Practice," n.d.). After scientifically researching clean water methods and consulting with clean water specialists, she constructed a mycoboom, a long burlap sack filled with straw and inoculated with mushroom spawn. The ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 21

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mushroom spawn (see Figure 3) created a web within the straw which then acts as a filter, thus cleaning the water (Ball, 2011). In addition, Ball wanted to educate the community, involving them in the process of cleaning their water system by welcoming regular visitors, holding tours, and workshops (see ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 22 Figure 2. Katherine Ball aboard her row boat on the 100 Acres Lake. Figure 3 Oyster mushrooms growing off of the mycoboom and cleaning the water.

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Figure 4). She taught children and adults about the environmental issues within the 100 Acres Lake, why clean water is important, and how to check water for bacteria, etc (Ball, 2010). No Swimming solidifies Fletcher's distinction between Social Practice versus traditional object-based work. Ball had to collaborate to make several objects, from the Igloo structure to the mycoboom sacks. However, as Fletcher points out: the objects are designed to function as having a utility within a greater project that has some other goal other than a commercial one. Commerciality is deemphasized. You still might make an object, but they are at the service of a larger project with a different concept other than commercial sale. (Fletcher, 2011) Ecological intervention within the lake served a greater purpose than the objects Ball made. Moreover, her inclusion of the community stresses the importance of participatory ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 23 Figure 4. One of the weekly community workshops Katherine held along the lake.

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learning experiences, those in which the community (not just the artist) are involved and learn from the project. Blandy (2011) describes participatory culture as necessary to art because there is strong support for sharing what an artist creates with others and even mentoring, or passing along experiences to novices. Solutions Revolution. Unsatisfied with simply writing to their local officials and hoping for legislation on climate change, artists Katherine Ball and Alec Neal of SEA Change in Portland, Oregon and environmentalist Paul Thompson of Cool Planet Edina, Minnesota set out on a cross country bike journey (see Figure 5) to film local communities actively working on solving climate issues ("Solutions Revolution," n.d.) The project, entitled Solutions Revolution started in Portland, OR and ended in Washington, D.C., stopping in several cities and documenting innovative solutions and programs that employ homegrown local solutions and sharing them with legislators in D.C.. The route was made public and the artists encouraged ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 24 Figure 5. Riding through an oil derrick in Montana.

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people to join them and participate in the ride for as long as they wished (see Figure 6). After the bike trip, Katherine and Alec went to Cancun, Mexico for the United Nations Climate Change Conference where they volunteered and shared their findings with U.N. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 25 Figure 6. Riding through the Walker Sculpture Garden in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Figure 7. Documenting the journey of communities' programs to solve climate change.

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delegates ("Solutions Revolution," n.d.) Katherine and Alec's determination to spread the message of climate change not only through their documentary (see Figure 7) but in meeting with delegates at the United Nations shows a commitment to what Blandy calls performing democracy. He quotes John Dewey in stating, "[d]emocracy is performed by working with others, building consensus, designing inclusive discussions, resolving conflict, acting on common concerns, and planning for the future" (Blandy, 2011, p. 10). Greenhouse Britain. Newton and Helen Harrison are some of the pioneers of eco-art. According to Boetzkes (2010) "[t]hrough their collaboration with scientists, engineers, architects, and other specialists, in sustainable development, the artists have attempted to narrow the gap between the labor or restoration and aesthetic appreciation of the living environment" (p. 196). The Harrisons' project, Greenhouse Britain (2007-2009), aimed to find design solutions to an alternative landscape as waters rise and populations seek to move inland and live more sustainably (Greenhouse Britain, n.d., para. 2). Figure 8 shows the impact of flooding as ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 26 Figure 8 How the rising waters displace people.

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projected by how many people would be displaced given different rises in water levels. Whereas Ball and Neal had specific real-time problems with which to contend in No Swimming and Solutions Revolution the Harrisons focused on proactive design solutions to potential environmental problems, specifically, rising waters due to global warming. The exhibition, Mayer & Harrison (2007) note, was to generate thinking and design around four key issues: ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 27 Figure 9 Eco Tower for high-rise living.

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(1) [m]oving some percentage of millions of people to high ground, (2) [c]reating appropriate habitat for them while looking at creating a more carbon sequestering landscape, (3) [m]oving endangered means of production to high ground, and (4) [p]roducing the amount of energy necessary to do so when low ground power plants become dysfunctional from flooding (p. 13). While this project seems more like traditional artwork in that it is an exhibition to be viewed in museums; it falls under the guidelines of social practice in that it combines aesthetics, ethics, collaboration and social activism. The Harrisons collaborated with scientists and architects in devising plans for the withdrawal of populations displaced by rising waters (Boetzkes, 2010, p. 199). Boetzkes (2010) notes that one of the phases of the Greenhouse Britain project is the design of an eco-tower (see Figure 9), a high rise city encased in a tower that "would hold schools, offices, shops, and public spaces at its base and gardens and two-story apartments in the upper floors, and each would be topped with a wind turbine" (p. 199). Each tower would house fifteen thousand people. It is important to note that design can play an important function in Social Practice when physical activism is not yet possible, i.e., when educators cannot take students outdoors to work or have access to a local environmental issue in which to become involved. This need not deter educators from pursuing Social Practice. Hicks and King (2007) discuss the importance of first being able to confront the possibility of environmental collapse. Thus, projects like the Harrisons' are important because they bring awareness to the looming threat of flooding and as Hicks and King (2007) put it, "help guide human beings towards a more informed and responsible engagement with the natural world" (p. 332). They also state that the arts (e.g., ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 28

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Greenhouse Britain ) "can help us to develop a sophisticated awareness of how our place is created not just by the ecological processes of nature, but also by the human narratives and practices that integrate civic life into the biotic community" (Hicks & King, 2007, p. 335). Thus, the investigational nature of design and design thinking can be just as beneficial to the environment as is working with nature directly. Social Practice in the classroom The examples above are a variety of Social Practice projects. It is understood that in a K-12 setting, it may not be possible for teachers to go off campus, have access to environmentally destroyed land on-site, or even the permission from administration to pursue activism-type projects. However, Social Practice is still possible in the classroom as the projects above can be adapted for K-12 education. The following subsections give examples of ways K-12 educators might adapt these examples to the classroom. The examples range from full involvement in environmental activities with nature, to more subdued activities emphasizing design and problem solving. The range of student and teacher involvement provides different options for teachers who may have access to the outdoors or natural material, or those who might be in highly urban areas and need to stay inside. No Swimming is an example of creatively using scientific research and collaboration with experts to achieve a greater goal, clean water. While students may not have access to a dirty lake, they can have an in-class unit of study on environmentalism and water issues. A teacher can (in possible collaboration with the science department and local water experts) guide students to study the affects of contaminated water and do smaller experiments on cleaning water using plants and/or mushrooms. Students can document the process of cleaning smaller tubs of water ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 29

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via photography, documentary film-making, blogs, and even class webpages. Conclusively, students can then present their findings, photographs, documentary film, etc to administrators, other students, or parents. Solutions Revolution involves documenting the process of fact-finding as Ball, Neal, and Thompson take their cross-country bike tour in search of communities that are actively engaging in sustainable activities. While students in a traditional K-12 setting most likely do not have the possibility of doing this, there is nothing to suggest they cannot actively learn more about how their community is addressing sustainability and environmental issues. Furthermore, students can take their findings via documentary filmmaking or photography and present them to their local city council. Active involvement in the political process for the benefit of the environment is Social Practice. Organizations like the Brooklyn Children's Museum's Green Threads program aim to teach educators exactly how to teach students about the environment and conservationism (Brooklyn Children's Museum, 2012). Green Threads has a published in-depth guide, "My Green Community: An Educator Guide," in which they cover ways to take students into the community and observe environmental challenges such as water issues, waste management, food production, energy consumption, and wildlife conservation (Brooklyn Children's Museum, 2012). This guide shows that Social Practice is viable in a K-12 setting. Greenhouse Britain is unlike the other two projects in section one because it employs design thinking to address environmental problems that have not yet occurred. For more traditional art educators who may be uncomfortable with abandoning object-making and adding activism into their curriculum, Greenhouse Britain is a good example of how simple design and design thinking can aim to find solutions to environmental issues and connect students with their ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 30

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environment. Students can follow the example of the Harrisons by exploring the possible ecological dangers to their community, or even just their school, should waters rise or climates change. The recent Hurricane Sandy in the Northeast is a sobering reminder that any coastline is vulnerable to flooding. Art educators can encourage students to study the physical structure of their school or homes and come up with design solutions that would better protect their community or school from environmental dangers. Similar to the eco-tower the Harrisons' designed, students can consult with local builders or architects to design safer structures. Summary Across all Findings The main research question in this paper asked how to tackle contemporary environmental issues in Art Education programs using Social Practice. The findings, three different environmental Social Practice projects, show how contemporary artists tackle real-life and potential environmental problems using activism. The link between these projects ( No Swimming, Solutions Revolution, and Greenhouse Britain ) and the research question of doable work at the K-12 level comes with the adaptations I set forth above. All three projects above are broad in scheme and demand collaboration and extensive resources to achieve. It certainly is no small feat to bike across the country, live isolated on a floating igloo, or design the fate of millions displaced by rising water. However, the adaptations all take a broad scope and narrow it down to a local community level; asking students to study water issues in their classrooms, explore their immediate communities for environmental problems, and design safer structures to aid their school (or home) in the event of rising water or other natural disasters. Discussion and Conclusion The goal of this research was to address environmental and sustainability issues in art ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 31

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education by challenging traditional object-making and suggesting Social Practice as an alternative method. This project stemmed from a combination of a scarcity of scholarship on Social Practice with an abundance of scholarship on the pressing urgency of climate change and the importance of environmentalism in art education. Human interaction with nature is an important enduring idea, emphasizing meaningful connections with the environment and allowing students to explore their sense of place. I used a combination of both historical and philosophical inquiry research methods to explore environmental ethics and issues, sustainability, and Social Practice. I found three environmental Social Practice projects with a wide range of differences in necessary materials and physical involvement. The results of my research were made into an online guide published on ISSUU TM (see Figure 10) and an ongoing environmental Social Practice page on Pinterest ¨ ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 32 Figure 10 A screenshot of one of the pages of the online publication, the rest of which is available at http:// issuu.com/c_reese/docs/reese_publication_pdf_nov24_singlepage?mode=window&backgroundColor=%23222222 and at carolinareeseart.com

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(see Figure 11). For added exposure and search-ability, I have also included links to both pages on my personal teaching website, carolinareeseart.com. The following discussion addresses strategies and recommendations for art educators wishing to incorporate Environmental Social Practice into their curriculum. Discussion and Interpretation of Findings Based on the findings of my research, environmental Social Practice for K-12 education is fascinating unchartered territory. It is unchartered because the lack of scholarship on environmental Social Practice in K-12 art education creates a challenge in promoting a different methodology than solely focused object-making. Given the discourse on climate change and the continued pressure on government to curb carbon emissions and look for alternative fuel sources, sustainability and the environment will continue to permeate the classroom. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 33 Figure 11 Environmental Social Practice on Pinterest, which is available at http://pinterest.com/CarolinaReese/ environmental-social-practice/ and carolinareeseart.com

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I found three Social Practice projects that address environmental issues in three different ways; No Swimming physically intervenes with an existing environmental problem, Solutions Revolution takes an exploratory and documentary look at climate change solutions and presents those to legislators, and Greenhouse Britain takes a preventive approach to climate change dangers by designing alternate living scenarios for millions of displaced citizens. The wide spectrum of Social Practice work means there is a variety of ways for art educators to either dip their toes in the activist waters or dive right in. Significance, Implications, and Recommendations With the lack of scholarship on environmental Social Practice in art education and teachers' limited time to thoroughly research new methodologies in the field (planning time never seems long enough) the online guide and the Pinterest ¨ page serve to be significant resources on Social Practice in art education. Both resources are designed for time-crunched educators who are in search of easily accessible information on environmental art education. However, projects with significant environmental goals and impacts can seem overwhelming, leaving teachers to wonder how they can make large projects doable within their schools. Having taught in public elementary and high school, I understand that proposing new or different methods of curriculum is not easy and can be met with resistance or trepidation. The implications of the findings within this research mean approaching school administrators, parents, and students with lessons that may not involve traditional art object making. I encourage art educators to prepare themselves with information not just from my research but from scholarship that shows the benefits of activism and the need for environmental education at the K-12 level. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 34

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To start, Stewart and Walker's Rethinking Curriculum in Art discusses how meaningful learning involves enduring ideas, meaningful integration, and mimicking contemporary art methods (Steward & Walker, 2005, p.108). The authors explain that contemporary artists often "cross knowledge boundaries as part of their artmaking practice" (Steward & Walker, 2005, p. 110). This means art educators can take the opportunity to partner with their school's science department and incorporate scientific practice and research into their Social Practice lessons. Inter-department collaboration, specifically in today's climate that values science as a core subject, is a good way to open the door to acceptance of Social Practice. In addition, books like Teaching Meaning in Artmaking emphasize that by teaching big ideas (of which nature is a part) they are instilling relevance and personal connections between students and their work (Walker, 2001, p. 1). Furthermore, community involvement and activism to help our environment fits in line with service learning and all the benefits that come with it. While service learning is a topic for another paper, there are similarities in the benefits students gain from activism. According to the Hands On Network (2012) there are numerous benefits to service projects that are tied to school lessons, some of which include: Service learning can enhance personal development in areas such as self esteem, moral reasoning, social skills, communication skills, problem-solving abilities and concern for others and society Involvement in service learning makes the subject matter in school real and relevant for students as they try out their knowledge and skills When young people serve others, they can see that they are valued and can make a real difference ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 35

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As young people discover their own abilities to address issues, they are empowered to become active citizens and communities begin to see them in a different light Young people learn leadership skills as they take responsibility for designing and implementing service experiences. (para. 3) The tide is changing as higher education institutions increasingly provide concentrations of study in Social Practice. As of 2012, the first art college opened an environmental social practice undergraduate concentration option. According to The Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) (2012) its Sustainability & Social Practice program "gives students the opportunity to contribute to a fine arts discourse around environmental and urban issues, and to pursue new knowledge as they discover ways to engage the concepts of sustainability through social engagement" (para. 3). MICA (2012) emphasizes Social Practice as an important part of its academic offerings because: Arts and social organizations, government and the business community will require participation and creative problem solving from artists and designers as they move toward ecologicallyand socially-responsible practices. Students in the program can go on to work for architectural and urban planning firms, form socially-engaged collaborative art groups, or work in urban agriculture, among many other possibilities. (para. 3) Once teachers have approval to add environmental Social Practice to their curriculum, it is imperative that they plan accordingly. If working outdoors, nature can be slow or unpredictable, and thus teachers should know planting and harvesting schedules and adjust for changes in weather. Accordingly, teachers may want to start the unit at the beginning of the ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 36

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semester or year, giving plants, observations, etc. enough time to grow or change and revisit it after the appropriate time has passed. Teachers should research the plants they might be using and refrain from any which may cause allergic reactions to students or possibly be invasive to other local plant life. While working with mushrooms spores is safe, teachers should be aware of any students with chronic asthma and make accommodations for them. If working indoors, either documenting, photographing, or otherwise, the necessary equipment should be available and enough time given for environmental change to take place. For example, if the class is doing a clean water project using mushrooms or plants, these elements need a certain amount of time to grow, cultivate and clean the water. Finally, teachers should be prepared for projects to possibly fail. Despite research, experiments come with risk and not all succeed. Katherine Ball mentioned that the mushrooms were not a silver bullet to clean the lake and she continued to research a plant/mushroom combination (personal communication, October 31, 2012) Going forward I would like to see more case study research on what Environmental Social Practice looks like in the classroom. Further research needs to be done on the practical application of Environmental Social Practice in a K-12 setting. Conclusion Before starting this project, I recycled, turned out the lights when I left the room, and drove a hybrid, all the makings of an environmentalist. After viewing Dr. Fletcher's speech at PSU I came to the realization that I should be doing more, specifically within my classroom. I hope this project proves to be eye-opening for other art educators as well. We may not be able to live on a floating igloo or ride cross-country, but there is definitely more we can do to expose our students to the significance of climate change. The artists included in this project, Ball, Alec, & ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 37

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The Harrisons, all exemplify the potential to become the change we wish to see in our planet. Now is the time to advocate for Social Practice within our curriculum and adapt what we have seen in this project and on the Environmental Social Practice Pinterest page to bring environmental activism to our students. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 38

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References Anderson-Inman, L, & Kessinger, P. (2000). Promoting historical inquiry: GATHER model. Retrieved from http://anza.uoregon.edu/TeachersWWW/Gather_model.html Ball, K. (2011). No Swimming: 2011 Indianapolis Island residency. Retrieved from https:// www.imamuseum.org/island2011/ Blandy, D. (2011). Sustainability, participatory culture, and the performance of democracy: Ascendant sites of theory and practice in art education. Studies In Art Education, 52 (3), 243-255. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/login.aspx? direct=true&db=aft&AN=525894249&site=ehost-live Blandy, D., Congdon, K., Krug, D. (1998). Art, ecological restoration, and art education. Studies in Art Education, 39 (3), 230-243. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1320366 Blandy, D. & Hoffman, E. (1993). Toward an art education of place. Studies in Art Education, 35 (1), 22-33. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1320835 Boetzkes, A. (2010). The ethics of earth art Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Brennan, A., & Lo, Y., (2011, September 21). Environmental Ethics. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2011/ entries/ethics-environmental/ Brooklyn Children's Museum. (2012). My green community: An educator guide. Retrieved from http://www.bcmgreenthreads.org/educators-guide/ California College of the Arts. (2012). Social Practice workshop. Retrieved from http:// www.cca.edu/academics/graduate/fine-arts/socialpractices ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 39

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Democratic National Committee. (2012). 2012 Democratic national platform: Moving America forward. Retrieved from http://www.democrats.org/democratic-nationalplatform#ensuring-safety Fletcher, H. (2011, November 23). Art, society and sustainability [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/tWuytvwSkWc Glenn, A. (2012, March 20). How educators are using Pinterest for showcasing, curation. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2012/03/how-educators-are-usingpinterest-for-showcasing-curation080.html Hands On Network. (2012, August 23). 18 benefits of service learning. [Web blog]. Retrieved from http://handsonblog.org/2011/08/23/18-benefits-of-service-learning/ Herper, M. (2012, November 1). Michael Bloomberg endorses Barack Obama because of climate change. Forbes Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2012/11/01/ michael-bloomberg-endorses-obama-because-of-climate-change/ Hicks, L. & King, R. (2007). Confronting environmental collapse: Visual culture, art education, and environmental responsibility. Studies in Art Education, 48 (4), 332-335. Inwood, H. (2010). Shades of green: Growing environmentalism through art education. Art Education 63 (6), 33-38. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu / login.aspx?direct=true&db=aft&AN=505368506&site=ehost-live Lynch, P. (2007). Making meaning many ways: An exploratory Look at integrating the Arts with classroom curriculum. Art Education, 60 (4), 33-8. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 40

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Maryland Institute College of Art. (2012). Sustainability & Social Practice. Retrieved from http://www.mica.edu/Programs_of_Study/Undergraduate_Programs/ Studio_Concentrations/Sustainability_and_Social_Practice_.html Mayer, H & Harrison, N. (2007, July). Greenhouse Britain pamphlet. Retrieved from http:// greenhousebritain.greenmuseum.org/downloads/ Ohnsman, A & Hagiwara, Y. (2012, May 29). Toyota prius escapes niche to surge into global top three. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-05-29/toyota-prius-escapesniche-to-surge-into-global-top-three.html Portland State University. (n.d.). Katherine Ball. Retrieved from http:// www.psusocialpractice.org/katherine-ball/ Rademaekers, J. (2011, April). Why the sustainability movement needs art to survive. Paper presented at the Staging Sustainability Conference, Toronto. Retrieved September 30, 2012, from Academia.edu database. Richtel, M. (2012, September 28). Paper or plastic? Some communities say neither. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/29/business/energyenvironment/communities-curb-use-of-paper-and-plastic-shopping-bags.html? pagewanted=all Row, D. (2010, May 17). PSU conference sees art differently. The Oregonian, pp. B1,B3. Smith Koroscik, J., & Kowalchuk, E. (1997). Reading and interpreting research journal articles. In S. D. L. Pierre & E. Zimmerman (Eds.), Research methods and methodologies for art education (pp. 75-102). Solutions Revolution. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://solutionsrevolution.org / ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 41

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Staff Writers (2012, February 5). 37 ways teachers should use pinterest. Retrieved from http:// www.bestcollegesonline.com/blog/2012/02/05/37-ways-teachers-should-use-pinterest/ Stewart, M., & Walker, S. (2005). Rethinking curriculum in art Worcester, MA: Davis Publications. The Harrison Studio (n.d.). Greenhouse Britain 2007-2009. Retrieved from http:// theharrisonstudio.net/?page_id=376 The Harrison Studio (n.d.). Newton and Helen Mayer Harrison. Retrieved from http:// theharrisonstudio.net / United States Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.). Sustainability. Retrieved from http:// www.epa.gov/sustainability/basicinfo.htm Herper, M. (2012, November 1). Michael Bloomberg endorses Barack Obama because of climate change. Forbes Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewherper/2012/11/01/ michael-bloomberg-endorses-obama-because-of-climate-change/ ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 42

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List of Figures and Figure Captions 1. ............................................................... Environmental Social Practice page for iPhone. 13 2. ............................................ Katherine Ball aboard her row boat on the 100 Acres Lake. 22 3. ...................... Oyster mushrooms growing off of the mycoboom and cleaning the water. 22 4. ..................... One of the weekly community workshops Katherine held along the lake. 23 5. ......................................................................... Riding through an oil derrick in Montana 24 6. ....................... Riding through the Walker Sculpture Garden in Minneapolis, Minnesota 25 7. ............... Documenting the journey of communities' programs to solve climate change. 25 8. ............................................................................. How the rising waters displace people. 26 9. ........................................................................................ Eco Tower for high-rise living. 27 10. A screenshot of one of the pages of the online publication, the rest of which is available at http://issuu.com/c_reese/docs/reese_publication_pdf_nov24_singlepage? mode=window&backgroundColor=%23222222 ................ and at carolinareeseart.com 32 11. Environmental Social Practice on Pinterest, which is available at http://pinterest.com/ CarolinaReese/environmental-social-practice/ ...................... and carolinareeseart.com 33 ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 43

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Author Biography Carolina Reese was born in Bogota, Colombia and moved to the United States when she was 4 years old. Her path to Art Education is unorthodox but brings with it experience from several different fields. She holds a Bachelors in Business Administration in International Finance and Marketing from the University of Miami. It was during her undergraduate studies that she discovered a love of art, studying art history abroad at the American University of Paris and completing an internship at Christie's Fine Art Auctioneers. After working as a Private Banker for a few years, Carolina changed careers and attended New School University's Parsons School of Design where she obtained an Associate Degree in Fashion Design. She worked as an Assistant Buyer for Macy's until the loss of her husband, George, and single motherhood forced a career change due to the extensive travel. A fortuitous opportunity to teach art at a local elementary school arose and became the start of an exciting career. After two years of teaching elementary art, Carolina chose to expand her teaching skills and enrolled in the University of Florida's Masters of Art Education program. Happily remarried, Carolina, her husband David and daughter Isabella now reside in Eugene, Oregon. In addition to Art Education, she works as a photographer, specializing in sports documentary photography. She is interested in Social Practice and how activism in social issues plays a role in art education. After graduation, Carolina hopes to expand on her knowledge of Social Practice and is considering a PhD. ART AND SOCIAL PRACTICE 44