The University of Florida College of Design, Construction and Planning Restoring an Urban Legend Cobbs Creek Golf Course 2012 Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Honors Thesis By Eamon Sullivan Faculty Advisor Les Linscott
The University of Florida College of Design, Construction and Planning Restoring an Urban Legend Cobbs Creek Golf Course 2012 Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Honors Thesis By Eamon Sullivan Faculty Advisor Les Linscott Cobbs Creek Golf Course was built in 1916 in West Philadelphia. After a large grass roots movement re nowned architect Hugh Wilson with the help of George Crump, AW Tillinghast, HB Smith and William Flynn were commissioned to design a course within Fairmont Park. The course was established as a place for the pub lar public golf course in the United States. Time has taken its toll on Cobbs Cree GC. The course has lost its character, large fairways were lost to The vision for its restoration will tap into its roots and its original character. A form of forensic archi stream restoration, sustainable maintenance techniques and new ways to reenergize golf within Philadelphia. This is a very unique project which delicately balances historical restoration with sustainability. Abstract
T C Introduction..............................................................................6 Casestudies.............................................................................20 Components of Golden Age Golf Course................................34 Site Analysis...........................................................................46 Site Synthesis.........................................................................71 Cobbs Creek Golf Course Restoration..................................90 Clubhouse Restoration.........................................................133 The Proving Grounds...........................................................138 A Model for Restoring Cobbs Creek....................................152 Changing the Perception of Golf Maintenance...................170 Conclusion.............................................................................185
Page 7 I
Page 8 Project Intent Cobbs Creek Golf Course is very near to my heart. I owe my passion for golf and golf course architec ture and landscape architecture to it. I grew up playing this course since I was 5 years old yet every time I play I notice something new. This is the sign of a truly special golf course. Im pursuing this project to develop my skills as a landscape architect and more importantly develop a vision for the future of Cobbs Creek Without a vision it is my fear that this gem will be lost.
Page 9 Internship at Augusta National Golf Club
Page 10 The idea for Cobb's Creek was started by Philadelphian native and master golf architect, AW Tilling gave in. Parks that would be well suited for a golf course. Hugh Wilson was fresh off his design of the Merion Cricket Club( now Merion Golf Club) just 3 miles away in Ardmore. Wilson spent 6 months on the today's Cobb's Creek laying out holes. The golf course was laid on the land working with the sites unique features and haz ards. The course was designed with few bunkers, unique greens and with great variety. Wilson receives credit for the design but he had plenty of help from renowned Philadelphian architects. Cricket Club, all came to collaborate on the "best public golf course in the world." This amount of collabora tion was commonplace during the times, but the amount of talent on one design was rare. Cobbs Creek Golf Course is invaluable to the history of public golf in America and to the history of classical golf course design. There are few public courses in the nation which have such a pedigree. Brief History
Page 11 become a reception hall and locker room. The popularity of the Cobbs Creek Golf Course was due to its splendid design, challenge, great playability and the reasonable rates for membership.
Page 12 Today The Cobbs Creek Golf Course of today has been subjected to many different stresses. Envi ronmental stresses poor management and ownership changes have led to the Cobbs Creek of today. The course has lost its character, large fairways were lost to overgrown trees, bold green designs were washed Rapid growth upstream has led to increased environmental pressures on the creek system, leading to parts of the course at risk. The Cobbs Creek of today is the result of 100 years of mismanagement. Crowded fairways abysmal bunkers and tiny fairways all are the result of poor management. It is not the fault of anyone organization it needs a new vision.
Page 13 4th Hole Olde Course
Page 14 Vision Philadelphia is one of the top cities in the country for golf. Merion Golf Club, Pine Valley Golf Club, public golf within Philadelphia is slowly dying. This is due in part to the lack of any easily accessible, fun and challenging course with in the city. My vision is to restore Cobbs Creek GC so that it will challenge any golf course in the area and any public golf course in the country. My vision is to make Cobbs Creek the center for all golf in Philadelphia. A place where private mem bers can come compete with the best of the public golfers. A place where public and private golfers can come together to teach and share their time with young intercity golfers. My vision is to create a place where people who love golf can come share in the history of Cobbs Creek Golf Course.
Page 15 Members of Philadelphia Golf Association Meeting to Discuss the Opening of Cobbs Creek GC
Page 16 Program The program for the Cobbs Creek Golf Course Revitalization and Restoration is driven by the same principles that lead to its creation. Cobbs Creek was created in a time where very few public golf courses existed. The founders of Cobbs Creek wanted to create a place where golfers of all backgrounds could play. The founders also set forth that Cobbs Creek should create an environment that facilitated learning. As well as learning and serving as a test for new golfers, Cobbs Creek was developed as a place where the best of Philadelphia could test their skills. Over the last 100 years Cobbs Creek has seen large tourna ments and some of the best amateurs walk its fairways. The program for Cobbs Creek should focus on new golf development, teaching the fundamentals of golf and providing a fun and challenging course for all skill levels. By creating a strong program that focuses on the main principles of the foundation of Cobbs Creek the
Page 17 Program Elements GOLF -18 Hole Restoration of Olde Course -9 Hole Redesign of Karakung Course -Practice Green -Short Game Area PRACTICE AND LEARNING FACILITIES -Par 3 Learning Course -Teaching Driving Range -Practice Green -Educational Center GOLF COURSE FACILITIES Restore Gathering Areas around Club house Restore Existing Halfway House
Page 18 Project Goals Outlined below are goals to restore and revitalize the Cobb's Creek Golf Course. GOAL 1: RESTORE ORIGINAL CHARACTER OF COBB'S CREEK GOLF COURSE -Reinstate original strategies and use original layout as guide for restoration -Develop golf course focused on pure golf -Restore natural aesthetics and accent the natural beauty of the site -Create strong visual connections through the golf course. GOAL 2: REDESIGN KARAKUNG GOLF COURSE TO EMPHASIZE THE PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL GOLF COURSE ARCHITECTURE. -Reassess current golf course layout -Avoid routing in areas that cannot provide long term viability -Emphasize variety, in terrain, length, and natural aesthetics GOAL 3: CREATE SUSTAINABLE MAINTENANCE PLAN FOR THE LONG TERM VIABILITY OF COBBS CREEK GOLF COURSE. -Prioritize maintenance areas -Develop plan that balances playability with affordability -Develop plan to reduce irrigation outputs
Page 19 Outlined below are goals to restore and revitalize the Cobb's Creek Golf Course. GOAL 1: RESTORE ORIGINAL CHARACTER OF COBB'S CREEK GOLF COURSE -Reinstate original strategies and use original layout as guide for restoration -Develop golf course focused on pure golf -Restore natural aesthetics and accent the natural beauty of the site -Create strong visual connections through the golf course. GOAL 2: REDESIGN KARAKUNG GOLF COURSE TO EMPHASIZE THE PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL GOLF COURSE ARCHITECTURE. -Reassess current golf course layout -Avoid routing in areas that cannot provide long term viability -Emphasize variety, in terrain, length, and natural aesthetics GOAL 3: CREATE SUSTAINABLE MAINTENANCE PLAN FOR THE LONG TERM VIABILITY OF COBBS CREEK GOLF COURSE. -Prioritize maintenance areas -Develop plan that balances playability with affordability -Develop plan to reduce irrigation outputs Original 12thOlde Course GOAL 4: RESTORE AND PROTECT COBBS CREEK WITHOUT COMPROMISING GOLF STRATEGY. -Provide solution for stream erosion -Provide buffer to golf course -Restore lost habitats -Protect environmentally sensitive areas
Page 21 Case Studies
Page 22 Alister MacKenzie designed Pasatiempo to highlight the beauty of the Santa Cruz Mountains. With nature as his guide, the layout moved through sloping terrain with dramatic views at every turn. Pasatiem po was designed for those that simply enjoyed golf. Advancements in agronomy, available resources, and increased in televised golf events, lush green golf courses became the status quo. Luxurious golf resorts pressured superintendents to keep golf courses green at all costs. Millions of gallons of water were used to keep golf courses a lush green. After 10 years of drought and increased water regulations in California, Pasatiempo Golf Course was forced to rethink the way they used water. Renaissance Golf and Paul Chojnacky,golf course superintendent, wanted to bring the course back to how Alister MacKenzie had envisioned it. MacKenzie had envisioned Pasatiempo as a California golf course that was deeply rooted in the surrounding context, creating a very unique sense of place. To accomplish this Renaissance Golf used photos to restore The result: CHARACTER. A reinstatement of Pasatiempo's California character. TURF REDUCTION. Replaced 32 irrigated acres with non-irrigated native grasses. WATER. The renovation saved 17 million gallons of water annually. FIRM, FAST FAIRWAYS. Reduction of water allows more creative shot making. Pasatiempo Golf Club
Page 23 pasatiempo.com pasatiempo.com
Page 24 Course Architecture. When George Thomas designed the North Course he wanted to create a course that strongly represented the "soul of the game". Thomas saw the" soul" of golf as a makeup of variety, natu ral aesthetics and bold strategy, the North course is just that. The routing found on the North Course is as unique as the gorges and mountains that it overlooks. The routing is a combination of demanding and excit ing golf and spectacular views. or moved, green sizes shifted, fairways shrunk and trees pressed into the playing areas. The North Course had lost the "soul" that made it great. In 2005 the Greens Committee wanted to bring the "soul" back to the North Course. So they enlisted master architect Gil Hanse to lead the renovation. Gil Hanse and his team used photos from the 1930's to guide their effort. Hanse in many instances included the rerouting of 3 holes, including the famous 17th. The restoration of these holes was critical to the integrity of the original design. Tree and rough removal along with the addition of tall fescue and natu ral hazards brought back the rough and rugged look that epitomizes the "soul of the game". The result: TREE REMOVAL. Open up views, play and ease agronomic stress. BUNKER RESTORATION. Bunkers restored, eliminated or reshaped based on photos from 1930's. INCREASED FAIRWAY WIDTHS. To offer more strategic options from tee to green. GREENS RESTORED Greens brought back to current shape and size. Los Angeles Country Club: North Course
Page 25 thelacc.org thelacc.org thelacc.org before after after
Page 26 Pinehurst No. 2, is one of the world's most celebrated golf courses. It has served as the site of more sin gle golf championships that any golf course in the states. It opened in 1907, No. 2 was designed by Donald Ross, who called it "the fairest test of championship golf I have ever designed." No. 2 is best known for its crowned, undulating greens which are hailed worldwide. An urge for championship play spread across the US like a virus. Players wanted skinny fairways, thick rough and slick greens, for most courses this destroyed sense of place and creativity of players. Pine hurst fell victim to this mindset. Losing its wide fairways, raw bunkers and natural hazards. In 2010 renowned architects Coore and Crenshaw were commissioned to bring Pinehurst back to what Donald Ross had envisioned, a course that balanced strategy, skill and creativity in a natural setting. Coore and Crenshaw wanted "uncover not recover" and "reinstate the character" that Donald Ross had left. His toric photos from the 1940s were used to uncover missing bunkers, playing surfaces and adjust. The result: INCREASED FAIRWAY WIDTHS. To offer more strategic options from tee to green. REPLACEMENT OF ROUGH. Removal of 35 acres of rough and replaced with areas that better emulate nature, a combination of wire grass, hardpan sand, and pine straw. SMART IRRIGATION. Reduction of irrigation heads from 450 to 1,100. BUNKER RESTORATION. Bunkers restored, eliminated or reshaped based on photos from 1940's. Pinehurst Resort: No. 2
Page 27 golfclubatlas.com golfclubatlas.com golfclubatlas.com
Page 28 Somerset Hills Country Club is a timeless golf course with a charming character that leaves members routing and best variety of shots instead of leaving their trademark. Variety is the key to Somerset Hills: variety of terrain, variety of length, variety of approach shots and variety of greens. Somerset Hills Country Club had noticed that the golf course was slowly slipping away from what AW Tillinghast had envisioned. Greens had shrunk, losing hole locations, fairways had narrowed, losing angles brought back closer to the original design so they called commissioned Renaissance Golf. Before Renaissance Golf began work on the course, they wanted the membership to outline a basic framework for the renovation. The framework was simple it called to: PRESERVE THE INTEGRITY OF THE GOLF COURSE. To accomplish this Renaissance Golf wanted to restore strategy by widening fairways, enlarging greens sizes and adjusting hazards. One of the focuses of the renovation was to improve the green sur Somerset Hills Country Club
Page 29 outandback.com outandback.com outandback.com
Page 30 The Resort at the Mountain is located in the western foothills of Mount Hood. A 27 hole golf course spans breath taking natural features, the Salmon River and Mount Hood. The Salmon River is known for and its playability as well as the viability of the river. The golf course worked hand in hand with the US Forestry Department as well as Oregon Fish and Wildlife to restore the Salmon River. The project aimed to provide an intelligent solution for stream erosion. They developed an installment of rip rap walls, logjams, and boulder bank revetment along the damaged stream bank. This solution was a "win win win", it provided more habitat for the Coho Salmon, diverted and slowed erosion, and enhanced the aesthetics of the river. The result: HABITAT. Increased habitat quality habitat for Coho Salmon and other wildlife. EROSION CONTROL. Reduced lateral migration of banks towards golf course. WATER QUALITY. Improved water quality. AMENITIES. The Resort at the Mountain
Page 31 nwfsc.noaa.gov nwfsc.noaa.gov nwfsc.noaa.gov nwfsc.noaa.gov
Page 32 balls and new clubs made architects rethink and adjust designs and routings to keep the game challenging. comparing the technology of 1917 to today, there is no comparison. Golf technology in 1917 was fairly dry, a set loft for cast iron club heads and a wooden(hickory) shaft. Golf technology als. The challenge that once existed on Cobb's Creek needs to be brought back. In order to make the course exciting and enjoyable for all golfers, length should be added to the course. The goal of adding length is not to challenge Tiger Woods but rather to let the average Joe play the course the way Hugh Wilson intended. BRASSIE 220 YARDS MID IRON 175 YARDS MASHIE 150 YARDS MASHIE NIBLICK 125 YARDS NIBLICK 100 YARDS PUTTER Typical Set in 1917 Design and Technology
Page 33 When Cobbs Creek was rerouted during the 1940s to make room for military outpost in the western part of the site. Holes were shifted and squeezed to provide a golfer with 18 holes. After the rerouting golfers were forced to move away from the routing they loved. Most of the golfers who have been playing the course for many years wanted to stick to the original layout. So golfers would play and ignore the new layout for the original, making golf at times very dangerous. White Pines and an assortment of evergreens were brought in to block old angles and disrupt the play to the original layout. The trees are spaced evenly, making it easy to distinguish planted from natural occurring trees Behind these beautiful pines lies the original layout to a once beautiful golf course. Behind the Pines
Page 35 C G A G C
Page 36 Greens Putting greens are to golf courses what faces are to portraits -C.B. MacDonald Putting greens are the main components of great golf courses. The mojority of play is spent on the putting greens, so it is vital to make them interesting and fun. A properly designed green should reward shots that have taken on more risk and penalize those that have not. Golden Age design calls for greens that seamlessly blend into the surrounding landscape and should played, calling for wide green entrances with little obstruction around them. These entrances should be
Page 37 golfclubatlas.com golfclubatlas.com
Page 38 Fairways and Rough Wide fairways are a critical part of golf as, they create interest and strategy. The 20 yard wide fair fairways take the fun out of playing golf. Fairways should maintain 50-60yards at the landing area to allow for strategy from the tee. By strategically widening fairways throughout Cobbs Creek, this will renew and restore strategy. In the case of Cobbs Creek, smaller fairways Rough areas should act as a half stroke penalty for players that hit into it. It is too often that golf courses suffer from superintendents that try to impress golfers with high thick rough. Rough that is too high and thick is a nuisance for players and slows the speed of play dramatically. Secondary rough areas should consist of sparsely seeded high grass areas to serve as a penalty for poorly struck shots, frame holes and add to the aesthetics of the golf course. These areas should seam as a
Page 39 Small Narrow fairways are oen found in Penal school of design. ese narrow fairways reward the long straight hitter and remove creativity and drastically reduce strategy. Wide fairways are a standard on Golden Age Golf Courses. ese wide fairways are the lifeline to strategy, creativity and fun.Large fairways provide a challenge for every skill set and reward strategy.
Page 40 Tees Tees are a crucial element of golf course design. The tee is the beginning point of every hole and makes an immediate impression on the golfer. Cobbs Creek GC was built in a time where walking was a golfers only option so locating tees close to greens was a crucial element of design. Today that is a key element of ing tees into the landscape. A variance of tees should be created to accommodate all types of golfers. By providing alternate tees maintenance to occur without disrupting play. It is my opinion that large tees that are slightly raised above the surrounding grade with a free form shape are best because it more closely emulates what is found in nature.
Page 42 Bunkers Cobbs Creek GC has few bunkers all occurring around greens. These bunkers lack any cohesive style, are in poor shape and have lost their interest The bunkers represented at Cobbs Creek fail to accurately portray the character of Cobbs Creek. Bunkers should be unique to a golf course and should represent ele ments seen in nature. Golden Age bunkers are were designed to look raw, primitive and controlled by na ture. Bunkers are vital to contributing to the visual energy and character of a golf course. It is too often that bunkers are found perfectly raked and groomed. Bunkers are hazards, and should be designed as such. Haz Hugh Wilsons bunkers at Merion Golf Club are some of the most famous bunkers in the world. He was bunkers seen on the Scottish links and British Heathland courses. The placement of bunkers at Merion GC have contributed to the enduring success. It is my intent not to mimic Merions bunkers but to rather use them as a guide for placement and appearance. Additionally,the placement of bunkers is vital for the long term success of a golf course. The placement of bunkers provides strategy and makes the game interesting, without them the game would be dull. Bun thrill. Bunkers should never require a forced carry and always allow for the weaker player to manuever around them.
Page 43 golfclubatlas.com golfclubatlas.com
Page 44 Vegetation which can be enjoyed by all. Vegetation also plays a role in how a golf course can be played, a golf course with thick heather will play differently than a course with sprawling oaks. It is the author's opinion that trees and other tall veg etation should be used sparingly around playing surfaces. While it is not the intent to clear all trees from The large Poplars, Oaks and White Pines are some of the most common trees found on the course. Large mature species should be preserved in order to create an established and mature appearance. On the smaller scale, grasses and small shrubs should be used to help create a unique character. Dense and thick small scale vegetation should not be placed within the playing envelope, it is an unfair hazard and slows special sense of place.
Page 45 golfclubatlas.com golfclubatlas.com golfclubatlas.com
Page 47 S A
Page 48 Site Location Cobbs Creek Golf Course is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It lies approximately 10 miles west of Cent er City Philadelphia, on the border of Montgomery(North) and Darby(West) Counties. The City of Philadelphia runs deep with history. The Liberty Bell, Independence Hall and City Hall are some the most popular sites along with its rich history the city tial golf courses in the United States. During the 1920s, es were built within the shadows of Philadelphia. Pine Valley Golf Club, Merion Golf Club and Aronomink Golf Club are just a few shining examples. Each course added to Philadelphias prestigious resume for their unique and challenging layouts. cbs.com
Page 49 Cobbs Creek Golf Course Merion Golf Club Philadelphia International Airport Center City Philadelphia
Page 50 Surrounding Context 69th Street Terminal Cobbs Creek Park McCall Golf Club Typical Residential Morris Park Cobbs Creek GC is sur rounded by a variety of different land uses. The majority of the immediate surrounding context is single family residential. Located at the southern part of the site is the 69th Street Ter minal, a major transportation hub in West Philadelphia. To the west of the site is McCall Golf Club, a small execu tive golf course designed by Wil liam Flynn. centred within parks providing unique opportunities to blend pas sive open and active open spaces.
Page 51 Residential Single Family Housing Cobbs Creek Park Natural Area McCall Golf Club 18 Hole Executive Golf Course Morris Park small gathering areas Residential Single Family Housing Cobbs Creek Park Natural Area 69th Street Terminal A Transportation HUB for SEPTA
Page 52 Inventory Olde Golf Course 18 Holes 6,200 Yards Karakung Golf Course 18 Holes 5,700 Yards The inventory for Cobbs Creek is straight forward. It can be separated in two portions, clubhouse and the rest. The clubhouse area contains 2 beautiful historic buildings, a dilapidated cart barn, a driving range, 4,500 sqft practice putting green, maintenance garage and 120 spot parking. The rest of the golf course consists of 36 holes of golf, a driving range, miniature golf course, batting cages and an abandoned halfway house( located near todays 9th hole).
Page 53 1 2 3 4 5 2 1 3 5 4
Page 54 Existing Site Conditions 1 3 4 2
Page 55 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 7 6 7
Page 56 Existing Site Conditions (cont.) 8 9 10 11
Page 57 13 12 14 13 12 11 8 10 9 14
Page 58 Existing Site Conditions (cont.) 15 16 17 18
Page 59 19 21 20 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Page 60 Climate Average Annual Rainfall (in.) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 32.3 34.8 43.2 53.1 63.5 72.3 77.6 76.3 68.8 57.2 47.1 37.4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 3.52 3.52 2.74 3.81 3.49 3.88 3.29 4.39 3.82 3.88 2.75 3.16 Average Monthly Temperatures (*F) Average Monthly Wind Speeds (Mph) Philadelphias climate is nearly perfect for play ing year-round golf. January and February are the worst while April and May provide some of the best playing conditions due to the cool temperatures and low amounts of precipitation. In the past 10 years, weather patterns have be come more and more unpredictable. Severe droughts 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 10.3 10.9 11.3 10.8 9.5 8.8 8.2 8 8.3 8.8 9.6 10
Page 61 Prevailing SeasonalWinds Winter Spring Summer Fall
Page 62 heart of Philadelphia. Cobbs Creek Golf Course is the second largest single-owner property along the Cobbs Creek Watershed. John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge is the largest. The opportunity to create new habi tats and connections is too big to overlook. Green Space Context heinz.fws.gov
Page 63 Site John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge Delaware River Center City Philadelphia 13 Miles
Page 64 Vegetation Over the almost one hundred years that Cobbs Creek GC has been open, unmanaged plant growth has crowded the golf course and greatly affecting design intent. While beautiful, large shade trees have encroached on putting greens making it a challenge to keep putting surfaces healthy. Cobbs Creek GC has many wonderful specimen Poplars, a variety of Oaks, Cherry trees, White Pines and Maples. The playing surfaces today are a compilation of many different variety of grasses. The rough and fairways are composed of a variety of Annual Rye, Kentucky Bluegrass, Fine Fescue, Bentgrass and pockets of Bermuda. Putting surfaces are composed of A1 Creeping Bent. Unfortunately, a large amount of the vegetation found on the property are invasive plants. Norwegian Maples, Japanese Knotweed, Kudzu, and Tree of Heaven are part of the invasive plant species found on the course.
Page 65 Mature Poplars Mature Cherry Grove Norwegian Maple Mature Shumard Oaks Mature White Pines Mature Poplars Current Vegetation
Page 66 Soil Survey Rowland Silt Loam (Ro)-Located in the Floodplains -12-36 to water table -Moderatly Well Drain Soil Chester Silt Loam (Ce) -Located in Uplands -80 to water table -Well Drained Hatboro Silt Loam (Ha) Located in the Floodplain -7-9 to water table Poorly Drained 8% 29 Acres 18% 65 Acres 5.7% 20 Acres Manor Loam (Ma) -Located in Uplands -80 to water table Well Drained Manor Chester Stony Loams (Mc) -Located on Upland slopes -80 to water table -Stony and Well Drained Urbana Silt Loam (Ur) Located in Uplands -18-36 to water table -Moderatly Well Driained 20% 76 Acres 5.3% 19 Acres 19% 75 Acres ` Common Soils Found The site provides a wide variety of soil types. Approximately 75% of the site is composed of silt loams: Chester Silt Loam, Manor Loam and Urbana Silt Loam. These are well drained, upland soils and are highly suitable for golf course playing surfaces. Approximately 15% of the site is composed of poorly drianed
Page 67 UdC UdC UdB UdB CeB CeB CeB CeB CeC MaD MaD MaD MaD McE McE Ro Ro Ro Ro Ae MaC MaC MaD MaC MaC MaB MaB UrB UrB UrB UrB Ha Ha Ae UdB MaC UdB CeC MaB MaC Ub UrA UrA 20% 76 Acres 5.3% 19 Acres 19% 75 Acres `
Page 68 50 Year Floodzone Hydrology Cobbs Creek Golf Courses biggest asset is also its biggest liability. Cobbs Creek was used to create interest in the routing of the course. But to day the creek is becoming a major problem. Flood ing, pollution, and littering have turned parts of the course into an eyesore. Flooding of Cobbs Creek is a serious issue. 9 of 36 holes on the course today come in contact with either Cobbs Creek or Indian River Creek. Over the last 4 years, the creeks have seen a fully managing water will be a serious issue for many years to come.
Page 69 Indian River Creek Cobbs Creek 50 Year Floodzone 50 Year Floodzone
Page 70 Topography 2 1 3 4 9 5 7 6 8 10 11 15 18 13 12 14 16 17 Topography and Golf Course Relationship When Cobbs Creek GC was designed, the topography played an intricate role in how the course was laid out. The rolling landscape ter. When Wilson laid the course out, he used the natural landforms to create hazards. The course contains 2 large ridge lines, one on either side of Landsdowne Ave. These ridge lines have slopes of excess of 25% slope and are not suitable for golf. The majority of the site lies within slopes of 5%-10%, ideal for placing landing areas. Original Karakung GC Layout 1 Original Cobbs Creek GC Layout Slope Analysis
Page 71 228 184 194 72 110 178 178 178 170 94 146 118 High Point Low Point Topographic Map: 2 Foot Contours
Page 72 S S
Page 73 S S
Page 74 Constraint Soft Bufffer of Conservation area. Opportunity Connection to 69th Street Station Opportunity Connection to Morris Park Opportunity Unique topog raphy Opportunity Improve views from clubhouse across course Opportunity Restore historic wetland and stream Opportunity Improve creek aesthetics Opportunity Buffer views to US 1 Opportunity Improve views across site Opportunity Interesting topography Opportunity Interesting topography Opportunity Unique ridge for green sites Constraint Opportunity Scenic rolling topography Site Synthesis Expand Playing Surface Viewpoint Topography Creek Buffer Buffer Views Remove Foilage Unique Feature
Page 75 Opportunity Improve views from clubhouse Opportunity Improve views from clubhouse Opportunity to scenic wetland area Constraint Buffer 69th Street Terminal Opportunity New expanded teeing area and practice green Constraint Buffer Landsdowne Ave. Opportunity New driving range teeing area Opportunity Improve aesthetics of creek Opportunity Buffer views of parking lot Opportunity Possible clubhouse gathering areas Opportunity Improve entrance aesthetics Clubhouse Synthesis Expand Playing Surface Viewpoint Topography Creek Buffer Buffer Views Remove Foilage Unique Feature
Page 76 Opportunity Retain heavy buffer Opportunity Enlarge creek buffer Opportunity Add heavy buffer of road Opportunity To lengthen and add a new angle from tee Opportunity Open up views from clubhouse Holes 1 and 2 Opportunity to scenic wetland area Expand Playing Surface Viewpoint Topography Creek Buffer Buffer Views Remove Foilage Unique Feature
Page 77 Constraint Tree Encroaching on playing area Opportunity Impove aesthetics of creek Opportunity Remove trees and open up views Constraint Trees encroaching on playing area 2nd 1st 2nd 2nd
Page 78 3,4 and 5 Opportunity Improve aesthetics of creek Opportunity Expand creek buffer and improve aesthetics Opportunity Retain heavy buffer of railway Opportunity Add creek buffer to help manage water Opportunity Open up views of creek from fairway and tee Opportunity Expand tee box and lengthen for improved views Opportunity Remove trees to unveil hillside Opportunity Restore lost bunker Holes Opportunity Add heavy buffer of Landsdowne Ave. Expand Playing Surface Viewpoint Topography Creek Buffer Buffer Views Remove Foilage Unique Feature
Page 79 Opportunity Improve creek aesthics Opportunity Remove build up to improve Opportunity Thin trees to give view of hillside and improve strategy Opportunity Remove bridge to open up views of creek and fairway 4th 5th 5th 4th
Page 80 6,7,8 and 16 Opportunity To create new angle from tee Opportunity Take advantage of views from fairway Constraint Buffer homes Opportunity Expand fairway to moving topography Opportunity Move tee box to original alignment Constraint fairway Opportunity Possible connection between greens(6, 16) Opportunity Move fairway to take advantage of sliding topography Opportunity Reroute fairway to take advantage of topography Holes Expand Playing Surface Viewpoint Topography Creek Buffer Buffer Views Remove Foilage Unique Feature
Page 81 Opportunity Expand fairway to encompass sloping topography Opportunity Expand approach to encompass sloping topography 7th 7th 6th Opportunity Expand fairway to encompass sloping topography Opportunity Restore and enlarge effectiveness of bunker
Page 82 9,10 and 11 Opportunity Adjust tee to origi nal routing Opportunity Revive old struc ture on site Opportunity Expand approach to encompass sloping topography Opportunity Add new set of tees Opportunity Reroute fairway to encom pass interesting greenside topogrpahy Opportunity into landscape Opportunity Buffer green to pro tect from play Opportunity Renew effectiveness of bunker Opportunity Take advantage of views from fairway Opportunity Renew effectiveness Holes Expand Playing Surface Viewpoint Topography Creek Buffer Buffer Views Remove Foilage Unique Feature
Page 83 Opportunity Reroute fairway to encompass interesting greenside topogrpahy Opportunity Renew bunker effectiveness Opportunity Revive old structure on site Opportunity Remove vegetation to unveil hillside Opportunity Expand approach to encompass sloping topography 9th 9th 11th 11th Opportunity Restore effectiveness of bunkers
Page 84 12 and 13 Opportunity Restore original tee boxes Opportunity Renew original island green Constraint Original tee boxes located Opportunity Remove driving range facility Opportunity Restore effective ness of bunkers Opportunity Expand fairway to encompass sloping topography Holes Opportunity Restore historic wetland and stream Opportunity Rethink engineered grading Expand Playing Surface Viewpoint Topography Creek Buffer Buffer Views Remove Foilage Unique Feature
Page 85 Opportunity Restore historic wetland Opportunity Remove trees and fence line Opportunity New fairway routing Opportunity Rework and regrade of the rest of the site Opportunity Restore to historic stream layout
Page 86 14 and 15 Opportunity Expand fairway to encompass interest ing topography Opportunity Expand fairway to encompass sloping topography Opportunity Possible connection between greens(7, 15) Constraint No room to expand or shift angles from tee Opportunity Lengthen hole by moving tees back Opportunity Create heavy buffer along US-1. Opportunity Shift fairway away from homes Constraint Create heavy buffer along homes Opportunity Expand approach to hillside Holes Expand Playing Surface Viewpoint Topography Creek Buffer Buffer Views Remove Foilage Unique Feature
Page 87 Opportunity Renew bunker effectiveness Opportunity Buffer facing housing for saftety and aesthetics Opportunity Reroute fairway to encompass interesting greenside topogrpahy 14th 15th Opportunity Buffer facing housing for saftety and aesthetics Opportunity Lessen fairway crowding 14th 15th
Page 88 17 and 18 Opportunity Space to lengthen hole Constraint Buffer Landsdowne Ave and parking lot Opportunity Move fairway to inter esting topography Opportunity Take advantage of views from tee box Opportunity Thin hillside to improve Opportunity Expand approach around green Opportunity Expand creek buffer and restore creek aesthetics Opportunity Expand teeing area and re Holes Expand Playing Surface Viewpoint Topography Creek Buffer Buffer Views Remove Foilage Unique Feature
Page 89 Opportunity Room to expand approach Opportunity Restore effectiveness of bunkers Opportunity Move fairway to interesting topograph Opportunity Open Views from Clubhouse
Page 91 C C G C R
Page 92 Clubhouse Area Driving Range Olde Course Karakung Course Proving Grounds 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Site Masterplan
Page 93 Par 70 6514 yards Cobbs Creek Golf Course Masterplan 5
Page 94 The Process The process for golf course restoration is very complicated. I feel strongly that proper golf ing the wind, witnessing the shots, taking in the views, then cross referencing with research. His toric photos and articles can settle much of the debate about placement of golf course elements. My restoration comes from playing the course for 20 years, analyzing, determining op playing my concept. This authentic inquiry has equated to a thorough model for restoring Cobbs Creek Golf Course.
Page 95 Field Concepts Field Sketches Historic Referencing
Page 96 is has to decide whether to take on the creek or layup. The tee box area was integrated with the warm up area, thjs allows for a wide variety of setups. The tee box was moved back and to the left to make the golfer hit a blind tee shot to stay on the best line to the green. Bun kers in front of the green were moved to create more interest around the green. 1st Hole Par 4 490 yards
Page 97 The 2nd is a strong hole but will reward well hit shots. Additional tees were added to create variety and lengthen the hole. The new set of tees( right) leave the golfer with a blind tee shot down the best line of play. Fairway was added to bring the creek into play from the tee. 2nd Hole
Page 98 Par 4 354 yards 3rd Hole The 3rd hole is a classic risk reward hole, it allows stronger players to attack the green but risk they sinking there hopes in Cobbs Creek. The fairway was widened and brush hiding the creek was eliminated to bring the creek into play. After referencing his toric photos of the green complex more fairways was added to the left of the green and an Par 3 300 yards
Page 100 4th Hole The 4th is a short par 3 that sits along the banks of Cobbs Creek. A silt buildup was removed to ease Par 3 184 yards
Page 101 The 4th is a short par 3 that sits along the banks of Cobbs Creek. A silt buildup was removed to ease 5th Hole
Page 102 Par 4444 yards 6th Hole ing. From the tee the player must clear a 60 foot ridge line to reach the fairway. Tee shots down the right side of the fairway have a better angle but run the risk of falling off the table. Shots into the green will Par 4420 yards
Page 103 atop a 30 foot ridge. Bunker to the right of the fairway was added to challenge the best the best line to the green. Fairway was added around the approach to accommodate poor hit shots and to allow for up and downs. 7th Hole
Page 104 Par 4460 yards 7th Hole 8th Hole After the gruelling 6th and 7th the golfer is given a break, after clearing a 40 foot sweeping ridgeline. The variety of the eight hole is second to none. The tee shot overlooks a sweeping 40 foot topography change short iron into a backboard green. Par 4383 yards
Page 106 9th Hole The 9th hole is a short downhill par 4 that requires a thoughtful drive off the tee and an accurate pitch into a sloping green. Approach to the left of the green was added to incorporate sliding topography. Par 4400 yards
Page 107 The 10th hole was lost to the rerouting in the 1940s. The green side bunkers will be adjusted to create more interest from the tee for more advanced players while the shorter hitter has more options from the tee. 10th Hole
Page 108 Par 3 -200 yards 10th Hole 10th Hole 10th Hole 11th Hole shambles. Strategy from the tee is crucial, shots down the right have a better shot at attacking the green. Four bunkers were added along the approach to challenge any golfer going for the green in 2. Par 5510 yards
Page 110 12th Hole Old photos and newspaper articles were reference when restoring the 12th. An abandoned creek bed was added to recreate what Wilson had intended for this short 2 shotter. There are a various number of tee box Par 3 141 yards
Page 112 13th Hole The 13th runs along the realigned Cobbs Creek, adding interest from the tee and restoring the creeks natural patterns. The green is perched on a hillside making strategy from the tee crucial for scoring. A large Par 5550 yards
Page 113 The 14th is a short uphill par 4. The green was enlarged and the approach widened to encompass the sloping topography to the right of the green. Trees were removed along the right side of the fairway and the fairway was widened. 14th Hole
Page 114 Par 4 337 yards 15th Hole The 15th hole continues the trek uphill. The tee shot require the golfer to clear a 25 foot rise and an existing rock outcrop. The best line to the green is down the right side of the fairway the golfer takes on a huge swale. Finding the swale to the right leaves the golfer with a blind tee shots. The fairway was widened to the right and trees were added down the left to buffer homes. Par 4 300 yards
Page 115 The 16th green sits on a ledge with a large 10 foot drop off to the left. The green side bunker was moved from the left side to the right. This requires golfers to either take on the hazard or risk falling down the left. The fairway was widened especially in the approach and greens complex. 16th Hole
Page 116 Par 4441 yards 17th Hole This par 3 is a Hugh Wilson Signature hole, it very closely emulates the 17th at Merion GC Both are long downhill par 3s surrounded by hazards. Additional tee boxes were added to accommodate all players. The green was expanded and the bunkering changed similar to what existed. Par 3 190 yards
Page 117 Concept Sketch
Page 118 18th Hole favor any one skill set. The 18th drops 40 feet providing beautiful views of the Philadelphia skyline and a exciting tee shot. The green is guarded by a large bunker in the front this bunker is makes the golfer chose his path from the tee carefully. Par 4 410 yards
Page 120 K G R
Page 121 Par 37 3,485 yards Karakung Golf Course
Page 122 to have a good angle into the green. The green is perched on a hillside, the crowned green makes for inter esting up and downs. 1st Hole Par 4 327 yards
Page 123 The 2nd hole is an interesting hole, it plays closer to a 3.5 than a par 4. A well struck drive down the large ridge line leaves a short pitch into a green hanging out on the ridgeline. Behind the green is a large backboard allowing the more creative players to sling shot to a close pin. 2nd Hole
Page 124 Par 4 321 yards 3rd Hole green that is set on the edge of a ridgeline. Shot type and trajectory are necessary for accessing some of the pins on this green. Par 3121 yards
Page 125 The 4th is a par 5 that rewards golfers for well played strategy. A well struck tee shot will carry the ridge line at the landing area rewarding them with extra yardage. From the landing area the player must decide to go for the green that sits behind a small creek. A classic risk reward hole. firstname.lastname@example.org. 4th Hole
Page 126 Par 5 -565 yards 5th Hole The green complex at the 5th sits on different levels. Keeping the ball to the left on this hole is para mount for scoring. Two ridgelines bisect the fairway creating interest and adding to variety. Par 4 400 yards
Page 128 6th Hole green that is set on the edge of a ridgeline. Shot type and trajectory are necessary for accessing some of the pins on this green. Par 4 440 yards
Page 130 7th Hole free tee shot to the right and brave a slanting topography to the left. Shots from the left take the sloping Par 4 370 yards
Page 132 8th Hole Is a great example of the best Cobbs Creek has to offer, sweeping hillsides and gen tle streams. This is one of the most fun tee shots on the entire golf course, hit it and watch it roll. After hitting a long drive down the right side the golfer must take on green that is placed on the top of a hill sits 25 feet about his feet in the fairway. A very fun hole. Par 5 512 yards
Page 133 be weary of the small bunker in the fairway, it can most certainly ruin your round. The greenside bun kers allow for a variety of shots into the green 9th Hole Is a great example of the best Cobbs Creek has to offer, sweeping hillsides and gen tle streams. This is one of the most fun tee shots on the entire golf course, hit it and watch it roll. After hitting a long drive down the right side the golfer must take on green that is placed on the top of a hill sits 25 feet about his feet in the fairway. A very fun hole.
Page 134 C
Page 135 C Clubhouse MasterPlan Clubhouse Driving Range Reception Hall Maintenance Facility 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 3 4
Page 136 Clubhouse Image Board
Page 137 Clubhouse Image Board Section A: Scale 1=10 Section B: Scale 1=10 Sparsely Planted Fescue Densely Planted Fescue Clubhouse Elevations
Page 138 A B C Section C: Scale 1=10 Densely Planted Fescue Fairway Wetland
Page 139 T P G
Page 140 Cobbs Creek was created in a time where very few public golf courses existed. The founders of Cobbs Creek wanted to create a place where golfers of all backgrounds could play. They also set forth that Cobbs Creek should create an environment that facilitated learning. The Proving Grounds taps into the same principles set forth by its founders. The Proving Grounds is a place where beginners can develop their skills in a learning environment. By creating an atmosphere that is out provides many different options for play. The addition of lighting to the course could serve as a community gathering place. Fundraisers could be held, new midnight golf programs could be put in place to provide a place where youth could get off the street, or it could simply become a new source of late night entertainment for people of all ages. The ideas are limitless ... Proving Grounds: Energizing Golf
Page 141 Charlie Sifford (above) was the 1st African American Touring Professional. He learned the game at Cobbs Creek. golfclubatlas.com
Page 142 Proving Grounds Master Plan 1 Himalayas Putting Course Interpretive Educational Trail Par 3 Course/ Practice Area Clubhouse 1 2 3 4 2 3 4
Page 143 Proving Grounds Image Board
Page 144 Versatility of the Proving Grounds The Proving Grounds was designed to allow for versatility. The course has no tee boxes or bunkers, formula equates to a golf course that can change on a daily basis. The routing of the course can be set based on a players skills set and current playing conditions, also allowing for golf clinics and other learning events. Because of its versatility and variety of greens complexes, golfers are forced to use their imagina tion and creativity to make it around this short course. This entertaining new addition to Cobbs Creek Golf Course will allow golfers of all skills levels to experience golf in a relaxed environment. Golf Clinic
Page 145 Conceptual Green Site Sketches
The Himalayas Course provides another option for beginners and experienced players to play golf. This model is based off a large putting course in Saint Andrews, Scotland and is an alternative to the typi cal miniature golf course. The course allows for the routing of the course to change on a daily basis and encourages the players to use their imaginations to make their way around. This is truly a unique and fun model that can let everyone participate and enjoy golf. The Himalayas Course robertmatre.com robertmatre.com robertmatre.com
Page 147 Himalayas Putting Course Sketch
Page 148 Interpretive Educational Trail The idea for the interpretive educational trail came naturally. The proving grounds was established as a place for learning, thus allowing the trail to educate people on how our natural ecosystem functions and illustrates the elements for restoration. Since the trail is located in a degraded creek, the habitat revetment system will be used to educate users on our ecosystem and will also create new habitats. Signs will be set up at each major vantage point to educate the users on how each element functions and how they can improve their watershed. The trail parallels the Proving Grounds and runs along a degraded part of the Indian River Creek. Enhanced Wetland Tree Revetment Log Jam Revetment Welcome Sign
Page 149 Interpretive Educational Trail Welcome Sign
Page 150 Interpretive Educational Trail Image Board
Page 153 A M R C C
Page 154 Cobbs Creek Golf Course has a unique opportunity to merge a golf course and stream restoration pro ject. Being in the Northern part of the Cobbs Creek Watershed, Cobbs Creek Golf Course has the ability to improve ecological functions on site and downstream. The site contains nearly 2.1 miles of natural creeksthe second highest density on any one single property on the watershed. These systems serve an ecological function and are aesthetically pleasing amenities. This model for restoring Cobbs Creek also provides the opportunity to show that golf courses and nat ural ecosystems can coexist. My model for restoration will change the perception of golf courses impact on the environment. Enhanced stream corridors,enhanced wetlands and bioengineered revetments are used to improve a long term sustainable model because the systems are anchored into the banks to resist movement dur negative impact of man. These revetments can be easily made with trees that will be removed from the golf course. Over time, they will blend into the natural environment and will become part of a complex ecosys tem. Cobbs Creek, an Opportunity
Page 155 heinz.fws.gov heinz.fws.gov heinz.fws.gov
Page 156 Elements for Restoration To improve the habitats along Cobbs Creek corridor, a wide variety of elements were created that can implemented with materials found on the site and provide stability to this shifting ecosystem.
Page 157 heinz.fws.gov heinz.fws.gov robertmatre.com
Page 158 Trees placed at 20 to 40 degree from the stream bank help prevent bank erosion New habitat is formed and allows for the restoration of habitat on the banks. Each tree is secured to the shore line to allow for subtle movement. Tree Revetment
Page 159 Log Jam Revetment Provides new habitat for aquatic and terrestrial wildlife Each tree is secured to the shore line to allow for subtle movement. Logs provide functionality and provide an added aesthetic value
Page 160 New habitat is formed for aquatic and terrestrial wildlife Each tree is secured to the shore line and to one another to allow for subtle movement. Rootwad Revetment
Page 161 Placement of small stones mimics the natural patterns of a stream and creates new habitat for invertebrates. Boulders placement is important to slowing bank erosion Large boulder placement slows water and replicate inherent character of stream
Page 162 Fish, Invertebrates Amphibian and Reptile Terrestrial Wildlife Wetland This typical wetland model can be created in low areas to capture and treat water as well as create are major issues. The placement of this model should not be placed within the relative proximity of the golf FLOOD ZONE Amphibian and Reptile
Page 163 FLOOD ZONE SCALE 1=5 Fish, Invertebrates Amphibian and Reptile Amphibian and Reptile FLOOD ZONE
Page 164 Submerged Zone Submerged Zone Transition Zone Saturated Zone Enhanced Wetland area. This can be done by overlapping ecological functions and using a series of habitat zones to clean water before it enters a stream. FLOOD ZONE FLOOD STORAGE Transition Zone
Page 165 FLOOD STORAGE SCALE 1=5 Transition Zone Saturated Zone Submerged Zone Submerged Zone Transition Zone FLOOD ZONE
Page 166 Golf Course Filtration/ Trapping Nutrient Uptake; Stormwater Detention Fairway Rough FLOOD ZONE This enhanced stream corridor model provides the same function as an expansive wetland but in a very small area. The same physical, chemical, and ecological functions can be performed in an enhanced Enhanced Stream Corridor Sediment Settling FLOOD STORAGE
Page 167 FLOOD ZONE Filtration/ Trapping Nutrient Uptake; Stormwater Detention Sediment Settling Golf Course Rough SCALE 1=5 FLOOD STORAGE
Page 168 Element Placement This concept model illustrates how these habitats and revetments can be used along the creek system
Page 171 S M P
Page 172 Changing the Perception of Maintenance One of the goals set out with this project is to change the perception of golf course maintenance. For a long time golf course maintenance has been seen as an abuser of our natural environments and a massive machine that eats up our natural resources. In this chapter I am setting out a few basic guidelines that can be used at Cobbs Creek to change the perception of golf course maintenance. One of the problems with golf course maintenance is the average golfer. The average golfer relates green with being great because this is what they see on TV. These golfer courses are green one week a year but since the average golfer sees this every week on TV they believe that this is normal. Unfortunately that is not the case, green doesnt necessarily equate to great playing surfaces but it does equate to higher costs and increased pressure on our ecosystem. Why take all the time and money to keep every square inch perfect when in actuality he spends 70 % of his time in a few areas? Maintenance should be focused on the greens, approaches and landing areas the rest should be of playable quality.The goal of the maintenance plan at Cobbs Creek is to achieve fast and
Page 173 golfclubatlas.com
Page 174 Conserving Water One of the most important issues facing the future of golf is water use. For many years, golf courses required large amounts of water to keep every acre perfect. Unfortunately, droughts, government restric tions and booming populations have limited the available water for golf courses and it is not going to get any better. Golf courses must adapt or die! Perception of what a healthy golf course looks like is a huge problem today. Golfers must understand that Augusta green grass isnt neces sary to have optimal playing conditions. While green grass is aesthetically pleasing, it is very costly, increases playing costs, and stresses our ecosys tems, while not necessarily equating to better playing conditions. At Cobbs playing surfaces will be the norm. To reduce the water usage: -Focus irrigation on greens and landing areas. -Create rough areas that require no water. -Hand Water! Tees
Page 175 Irrigation is focused on greens, approaches and landing areas. Greens Approaches Landing Areas Fairways Model Irrigation Pattern
Page 176 Turf Selections Tees and Fairways Fine Fescue (30%) Patriot Bermuda (30%) Perennial Rye (40%) Rough Kentucky Bluegrass Perennial Rye Fine Fescue golfclubatlas.com golfclubatlas.com
Page 177 Greens and Approaches Crenshaw Bentgrass Southshore Bentgrass Providence Bentgrass L-93 Bentgrass Fescue and Native Rough Fine Fescue golfclubatlas.com mnuzzo.com golfclubatlas.com
Page 178 Golf Maintenance Strategies Tees Cut at .5 Cut twice a week Reel Gang Mover Growth Regulator every 21 days Rough Cut at 2 Cut twice a week Rotary Gang Mower Fescue and Native Rough Maintained Sparsely Cut twice a Year Rotary Gang Mower Ensure no growth of large vegetation
Page 179 Fairways Cut at .5 Cut Twice a week Reel Gang Mover Growth Regulator every 21 days Greens Cut at .12 Cut 6 Days a week Low Does of Growth Regulator every 21 days Approach Cut at .156 Cut 4 Days a week Low Does of Growth Regulator every 21 days
Page 180 Reducing Mowing cThe gang mower is a vital element for reducing costs and reducing the negative impact on the envi ronment. The gang mower is versatile mower that can cover a lot of ground quickly. It can be rigged to cut rough with a rotary connection or rigged to cut fairways and tees with a reel attachment. Connected to a master. gcsaa.org
Page 181 Nutrient Outputs The intention of supplementing playing surfaces is to improve playing conditions, not to enhance aesthetics. Thus, nutrient inputs should be limited to the greens and approaches. Too of money and fertilizers to obtain perfectly green golf courses. The greens and approaches should be supplemented with low doses regularly throughout the year. This will allow the plant to establish deep roots and will in turn become much stronger than a plant that is fed only in times of high stress. Practices like topdressing (addition of sand to playing surfaces) should be limited or eliminated. Topdressing is a common practice but studies show that topdressing increases soil temperatures and leads to leeching of nutrients. To reduce this leeching, a system that requires the use of organic fertiliz ers should be added. They are known to improve both root sys tems and playing conditions. Again, the goal of nutrient input is to improve playing conditions; not aesthetics. gcsaa.org
Page 182 Buffering Waterways Buffering the creeks and streams in Cobbs Creek GC is vital to preventing fertilizer from seeping into the natural water system. The creeks and streams at Cobbs Creek GC should buffered by natural wetland and stream corridor plants. These buffers should provide the same functions as a natural occurring stream buffer. Not only does buffering protect our waterways but it also improves the aesthetics of the golf course and contributes to the unique sense of place. mnuzzo.com
Page 183 Models for Buffering Waterways
Page 184 Bunker Maintenance Buffering the creeks and streams in Cobbs Creek GC is vital to preventing fertilizer from seeping into the natural water system. The creeks and streams at Cobbs Creek Golf Course should buffered by natural wetland and stream corridor plants. These buffers should provide the same functions as a natural occurring stream buffer. Not only does buffering protect our waterways, but it also improves the aesthetics of the golf course and contributes to the unique sense of place. robertmatre.com
Page 186 C
Page 187 Conclusion I hope one day Cobbs Creek can be restored and when it does I hope that I can have a hand in bringing her back to her former glory. I would take this time to thank my Mom for her dedicated support throughout my life. Love You Mom. To my friends and family thank you for your support.
Page 189 Bibliography GCSAA Golf Course Superintendents Association of America. GCSAA. Web. 7 Feb. 2012.
. GolfClubAtlas.com The Study of Golf Course Architecture. GolfClubAtlas.com. Web. 10 Jan. 2012.
. Home Page Northwest Fisheries Science Center NOAA Fisheries (National Marine Fisheries Ser vice) Northwest Fisheries Science Center. Home Page. Stream Bank Erosion. Web. 20 Jan. 2012.
. Matre, Robert. Robert Matre Home. Robert Matre. Web. 15 Feb. 2012.
. Mike Nuzzo Golf Course Design and Architecture. Mike Nuzzo Golf Course Design and Architecture. Web. 5 Mar. 2012.
. Out and Back. Out and Back. Web. 20 Feb. 2012.
. Pasatiempo Golf Course. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. . Restoring the North Course. Los Angeles Country Club. Web. 25 Jan. 2012. .