Syllabus of Subjects for Examination for the Certificate of Registration: General nursing


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Syllabus of Subjects for Examination for the Certificate of Registration: General nursing
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19 p.
The Nursing Council of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas ( Author, Primary )
Bahamas. Laws, Statutes, etc. ( Author, Secondary )
The Nursing Council of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas
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Nassau, Bahamas
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Nursing education--Bahamas.   ( lcsh )
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College of The Bahamas
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College of The Bahamas
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18 19 171817 17141515151591011II1212PageTABLEOFCONTENTSECTIONIIICAUSATION,NATURE,PREVENTIONANDTREATMENTOFDISEASE. Microbiology Pharmacology Basicpathophysiology;PrinciplesofMedicine, SurgeryandCommunityMedicineOtherAspectsofTreatmentAgencies--Hospital--Community3.C.CLINICAL EXPERIENCE:I. .., 4.SECTIONIISTUDYOFTHEHUMAN INDIVIDUAL AND HIS ENVIRONMENT.I.HumanAnatomyandPhysiology2.Microbiologyandparasitology 3.Nutrition4.Sociology 5. PsychologyA.IntroductiontoNursing Legislation 4 RulesandRegulations for NursingStudents4--Geographical Considerations 5--The roleoftheRegistered Nurse--CommonwealthofThe Bahamas 5--PhilosophyofNursing 6--DefinitionandFunctionsofthe Registered Nurse 6 B SYLLABUS:PREFACEANDINTRODUCTIONETC. 8SECTION IPRINCIPLES ANDPRACTICEOFNURSINGIntroduction:1.FundamentalsofNursing 2. MaternalandChildHealth3. Medico-Surgical Nursing4.Psychiatric Nursing5.CommunityNursing6.TheProfessionofNursingParts


INTRODUCTION TO NURSING LEGISLATIONItwas inMay1971,with the repealofthe Midwives ordinancesof1936, that the Nurses and Midwives Act 1971, was passed. This enactment was thestatutoryinstrument to regulate the education and practiceofNurses and Midwives in The CommonwealthofThe Bahama Islands. The Nursing Council came into being with the official appointmentofthe Council in Januaryof1972 by the MinisterofHealth. The Councilisresponsible to the MinisterofHealth for the implementationofthe Act, which gives wide powers related to the control and regulationofNursing.Allpractising Nurses and Midwives are obligate-dtoregister with the Nursing Council or be liable for prosecution,Allpractising Trained Clinical Nurses are statutorily obligated to enroll. The Education and trainingof in all aspects are under controlofthe Nursing Council and all students entering a Nurse Education Programme are required tobeindexed.RulesandRegulationsforNursingStudents1.Nursing Students undergoing an approved education or training pro gramme must apply to have their names entered in the IndexofNursing Students.2.No person shall be acceptedasa nursing student unless she has obtained theageofseventeen years. 3. The namesofan applicant cannotbeentered upon the index, until she has attained theageof17 years. 4. The council required the submission of evidenceofage, evidenceofeducational achievements, datesofcommencementoftraining in' order that the nameofthe Nursing student may be recorded in the index. 5. Notificationofdiscontinuationoftraining mustbereported to the Council. 6. Sickness in excessof21days during the three years mustbemadeupbefore the studentiseligible to take the Examination for Registration unless:4


-(a) She has received training as a nursingstudentfor aperiodofnotlessthanthreeyears andcompletedhercourseoftraining.(b)Sheishonestandofgoodmoral character.(c)She hasdepositedwiththe Registrar, a certificate from theapprovedtraininginstitutionin which she receivedhertrainingtotheeffectthatshehassatisfied therequirementsof(a)or(b).GeographicalConsiderationsTheCommonwealthofThe Bahama Islands consistofan archipeligooftwohundredislandsandcays, coveringanareaof4,500square miles.Thepopulationofapproximately250,000inhabittwenty-oneofthese large islands., Thebulkofthepopulation,iscontainedin the capital, New Providence,anisland21miles longand7 miles wide. The balanceofthepopulationisdistributedamongtheFamily Islands are separatedfromeachotherbywaterandtheland massesfurthersubdividedbywater,sothattransportationonone island presents difficulties incommunicationand travelwithsettlementson the same Island.Healthservices areminimuminmanyofthese Family Islands. There may be a HealthCentrewithadoctorand nurses in residenceor...morecommonaGovernmentClinicandGovernmentNurse midwife in residence. The Registered Nurse in these circumstancesmustmeetthe medical needsofthepopulationofthese areas,andwheretheneedisurgentoranemergency exists, arrangementsmustbemadetotransportthepatientsbyEmergency FlightintoNew Providence. These Islands also lie inthehurricanebelt,withwhich disaster along withothernaturalorchemical disastermustbe dealtwithbythe nursewhowill lead the medical team, until help arrives.Thegeographical and socialproblemsofTheBahamas are reflected in thepreparationofthe nursetofunctionprimarily in thiscommunityandtheworldatlarge.TheRoleofTheRegisteredNurse -CommonwealthofTheBahamasI.Toplanandgive comprehensive nursing caretoindividuals. familiesandcommunities.5


2.Toperform the necessary nursing functions which will assist in diagnostic, therapeutic and supportive measures. 3.Tointerprethealth measurestothe individual, his family and thecommunity,utilising available resources in ordertoassist the individual in the maintenanceofhealth and continued care. 4.Isawareofthe necessity for continuous self-evaluation and assumes responsibility for .personal and professional development. 5. To recognise, identify and evaluate individual needs and nursing problems basedonscientific principles and their application.PhilosophyofNursing:Webelieve that: 1. Nursingisa service to humanity. 2. The nurse's aimisto serve the individual and society regardlessofrace, creed, colour or political beliefs. 3. The service encompasses all health needs andisnotrestricted to the sick in mindorbody,therefore, the practice of nursingisthe physical, social emotional and spiritual careoftheilland the preservationofhealth. Thus comprising preventitive, supportive, curative andreohabilitative nursing care. 4. The practiceofnursing must be flexible and adaptabletomeet changes in the Community.TheDefinitionofaNurse:The nurseisa pelson who has completed a programmeofbasic nursing education, andisqualified and authorised in her countrytosupply the most responsible serviceofa nursing nature for the promotionofhealth, the pre ventionofillness and the careofthe sick. She/heisone who recognises and understands the fundamentals health needsofthe individual and knows how these needs can best be met. 6


She/he possess a bodyofscientific knowledge whichisbased upon and keeps pace with general scientific advancement and applies this knowledge in meeting the nursing needsofthe individual and the community. She/he possess discriminative judgement which enables hertorecognise nursing activities from those activitiesofother professional or non-professional groups.7


SYLLABUSPREFACE: This syllabus setsoutin broad terms the subjectstobe studied during preparation for Registration in the Generalpartofthe Register maintained by the Nursing Council, Commonwealthofthe Bahamas.Theimplementationofthis syllabus may be carriedoutbyarranging thebroadareas around the selected ""Care"ofthe curriculum. The three main sections are: 1. Principles and PracticeofNursing. 2. The Human Individual and his Environment. 3. The causation, nature, prevention, andtreatmentofdisease.Theabove aspects must be interrelated when possibleandtaught concurrently during the three years. The nursingstudentmust be actively involved in the learning operation in the school and in the clinical area. Learning experiences should be selected and planned in series,toenhance the understandingofthe theoretical con cepts learned by the student. Knowledge from the physical, biological and social services must play an integral partinthe nursing programme.Useofthe problem, solving technique, illustrates clearly the need forthe"integrated" approach, when the problem calls for theuseof various fieldsofknowledge, various waysoffacing a situation and various methodsofwork. Knowledge from the social and behavioural scienceisnecessary in orderthatthestudentisawareofthe influenceofsocio-economic and cultural factors upon theCommunity.This would include the health services, Governmental and Voluntary Organisation. An important "beginning" roleofthe nursingstudentisthatofa healtheducator,promot ing in the Community a stateofphysical and mental well-being. 8


Includedinthe syllabusisa section on "ProfessionofNursing"inwhich preparation for leadership involves Communication, and PrinciplesofManagement,toprepare the nurse for her leadership role. The section on Emergency and Disaster Nursing, Related Techniques and Procedure aimtomeet the special needsofthis Community. Learning experiences must be planned to take place in recognised educational institutions, and the community, including the Family Islands.SECfION1.PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICEOFNURSING1.FundamentalsofNursing(a) THE CONCEPT OF HEALTH OR WELLNESS1.Wellnessasinfluenced by the individual's socio-economic, cultural and hereditary background. 2. The Nurses' Role in maintaining wellness. 3. Community Health Problems, Community Health Agencies. (b) ORIENT A TION TO HOSPITALANDAGENCIES 1. The Therapeutic Environment. 2. The planofthe hospital and work of various departments. 3. The patient's records .. kardex. 4. The NursingProcess. (c) THE INDIVIDUAL IN HOSPITAL Illness, the patient and family, conceptofpatient's needs, classificationofneeds, physical needs, psychological needs, spiritual needs, social needs.1.Physical Needs:for: oxygen, food and water, elimination exercise, rest and sleep, protection from the environment, co-ordina tionofits processes and its result.9


2. Psychological Needs: for: affection, security, acceptance, sym pathetic understanding. 3. Spiritual Needs: for: respectofbeliefs, support for religious practice. 4. Social Needs: for: social and diversional activities. (d) MEETING THE NEEDS OF PATIENTS IN HOSPITAL Admission to Hospftal--Hygiene and comfort needs, nutritional needs including oxygen needs, fluid balance etc; Provisionofa safe environment, the need for exercise, rest and sleep; Conceptsofmaintenanceofhomeo stasis, Specific observational skills, Interpersonal relations, roles, legal responsibility; Supplementary nursing functions. FrustrationofNeeds--Problem--solving approaches. General--problemsofcareofpatients who have wounds, fevers, constipation, and diarrhoea, Anorexia, nausea or vomiting, urinary problems, pain fluid and Electrolyte problemsaswell as the terminallyillpatients. MATERNALANDCHILD HEALTH NURSING 1. Perspectives in maternal and child health in The Bahamas; Population, ecology and reproduction, statistics, cultural, environmental and social factors that influence the family unit. 2. Maternal Health: Pregnancy and reproductive cycle, physical psy chosocial consideration, Ante-natal, Natal and Post-natal care, Disorders of menstruation, pregnancy, Puerperium, Menopause; Disorders, displacements and disorders of the female genital tract. 3. Infant and Child Health: Careofthe infant at birth and various stages; Infants with special needs; Growth development and health supervision; Factors influencing emotional, mental and physical development from birthtoadolescence (ages and stages). Principlesofnursing care for infants and children. (Medical-Surgical nursingofthe paediatric patient tobeincluded with adults). 10 .., .


MEDICAL-SURGICAL NURSING In this section individual careisgiven to the patients, specific to the Medical-Surgical disorder. PrinciplesofMedicine and Surgery are applied, related to the nursing careofthese patients. Those diseases entities common to the Bahamas are emphasised, initially, followed by those which are less ) common. Supportive and Therapeutic modalities common to medical and surgical condi tions; Illness as a human experience; The patient with asurgiccrl problem, Principles and practiceofrehabilitation; Cancer Nursing, Patients with conditionsofthe Respiratory Tract and Thoracic conditions; The patient with haematological disorders; Patients with cardio-vascular disorders; Patients with digestive disorders; Patients with conditions involving the kidneys, Urinary Tract and the Reproductive System; Patients with problemsofthe Integumentary System; Patients with allergic disorders; Patients with Endocrine and metabolic disorders. Nursinginconditionsofthe Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat. Patients with problems affecting the Nervous System; Nursing in Musculoskeletal conditions; The patient with problems duetoAlcoholism. PSYCHIATRIC NURSING 1. Introduction: Communication skills; group dynamics; group therapy; observation, recording and reporting; Cultural conditions, Voodoo, obeah. 2. Human Behaviour and Development: Developmentofthe Individual. Structureofthe psycle; mental mechanisms; Theoriesofpersonality development.3.Principles and PracticeofPsychiatric Nursing: Interpersonal relation ships and effective communication; The promotionofa therapeutic environment; Patterns of patients disorders with special emphasis on Addiction, Alcohol and Drug, Psychiatric treatment; The roleofthe Nurseinthe Psychiatric Team.11


4. New Approaches to Mental Illness in the Community: Day hospitals, Half-way houses; Sheltered workshops; Mental hygiene functionsofthe Nurse; Factors that create stress; Community mental health programmes in The Bahamas. COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSINGI.FoundationsofCommunity Nursing: Forcesthatinfluence human behaviour; Communication and personal relations. Interviewing and Counselling, Principlesofteaching; Leadership and community organisations; Epidemiology and the essentialsofinvestigative methodsofstudy; The team in community nursing. 2. The Nurse as a Family Health Worker in the Community: Structure, composition, relationshipsoffamilies; Evaluating health statusoffamilies; Analysisofhealth needsofindividual family members; Community structure for health; The team approachtomeeting the health needsoffamilies. 3. Responsibilities for the MaintenanceofFamily Health: Town plann ing, housing; Sanitation, Water Supplies; Fire protection and other safety measures; Education; Community Health Services. THE PROFESSION OF NURSING DevelopmentofNursing--Past, present, and future; The HistoryofNursing with special referencetoThe Bahamas; Professional adjustments; Health and Nursing Legislation; Nursing educational programmes; Learning and workingasa nursing student; Career opportunities; Ethics for nursing; A philosophyofNursing; Interpersonal relations; Communication--Communi cation skills and techniques, principlesofteaching; Working in a team--Leadership; Legal aspectofnursing practice; Official Nurses Organisations Local, national, regional, and international; Management for better patient care; Parliamentary procedures; English--a studyoflanguage,useofwordsasa meansofcommunication; expressionofideas, values, emotions through words, andhowthese change with the times etc.; Stressisplaced on the useofEnglish.12


1.THESTUDYOFMAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENT Man as a social animal--Sociology: Scope andmethodsofsociology; Definitionandmeaningofsociology: Man insociety;Methodsofstudyused by sociologists;Relatedfields; Socialinteractionand the individual;Patternsofinteraction.2. Socialstratificationand social behaviour: Socialstructureand socialbehaviour;roleofcultureandits influenceonbehaviour, folkways, ways, moves,institutions,social groups--socialcontroland social deviation.3.CultureandPersonality: Natureofpersonality: theoriesofpersonality;roleofculturein personalitydevelopment:determinatesofpersonalitystructure;Measuresofpersonality; Value systemseffectsandinterpretation.4.SocialInstitutions:Natureofsocialinstitutions;The Family in Bahamian society, formsoffamily organization--forces influencing the family life; Religion,Education,Economics,Government,the Step-ParentsandtheFamily Role. 5. Social Problems: Thenatureofsocial problems; Socialproblemsand personal values; Resolutionofsocialrroblems:Populationand social problems. MAN AND HISBEHAVIOUR-PSYCHOLOGY I.HumanMotivation: Manandhis basic needs; Psychological needs asdeterminatesofbehaviour;Natureofmotivation:unconsciousmotivation;Attitudes,Environmental stimulation. 2.EnvironmentandHumanBehaviour: Definition and cbjectivesofpsychology: Natureofbehaviour:Conceptsoflife:Humanbehaviour as learnedthroughculture;Major environmental influences: selfconcept;Behaviourandthe processoflearning.13


3.. Perception and Learning: The processofattending and perceiving; Learning and remembering; Thinking; Adaptive behaviour; Intelli gence; Measurementofintelligence and special abilities; Uses and limitations. 4. Personality: Stagesofpersonality development, childhood, ado lescence, adulthood, old age; Meaningofpersonality, self concept, mental mechanisms, Assessmentofpersonality, Personality disorders. 5. Group Dynamics: Group processes; group morale and leadership.SECTION IITHESTUDYOFMAN AND HIS ENVIRONMENTA.THE HEALTH OF THE PEOPLE OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE BAHAMAS. I. Demographic and geographical comiderations regarding the planningofhealth services. 2. Population growth--vital statistics, immigration policies and move ment.B.ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING HEALTH:I.Limited exploitationofnatural resources re-agriculture, water power. 2. Housing problems. 3. Working mothers.C.HEALTH SERVICES--COMMONWEALTH OF THE BAHAMAS.1.Environmental factors that have influenced health. 2. Common health problems. 3. Organisationofthe health services.14


MAN ASANINDIVIDUAL(The BiologyofMan)Thestudyofthestructureand functionofthehumanbody.(Studyofstructure to be correlated with function)Laboratorywork and demonstrationtobe utilised where relevant. Cellsandtissues--Formand Movement. Coordinationasit relates to the nervous system, chemical, Hormonal--Feedback.Nutritionand energy;Foodas a sourceofenergyandmaterials forgrowthnormal nutritional--Internal transport. Homeostatic mechanisms, Regulationofbodyfluids, including the functionofthe urinary system.Structureand functionsofthe liver. Defenceofthe Body--skinandR. E. system;Reproductionand Heredityoutlineofgrowthanddevelopment.MAN AND HISENVIRONMENTRelations withotherOrganism (Microbiology and Communal Health) a) The multiplicityoflife; dependencyonplants.b)Viruses:Theirnature,andmethodsofspread. c)Bacteria:Pathogenicandnonpathogenic diseases spreadbyfood andwaterand their prevention. d)Immunity:Immunityas relatedtosmall pox, diptheria, tuberculosis effectonendemicandepidemic disease.e)Fungi:Fungi inthedestructionoforganic rnatter such as food sourceofantibiotics,andcauseofdiseases.f)ParasitesInfestationMan's position as host in the life cycleofdiseases duetoinfestations by roundworms, tape worms, lice.Otherorganismsinparasitic life cycles--malaria and typhoid.15


g)Foodand Water .. Hygienic preparation and storage. Water, preparation, distribution and storage. Common water borne diseases, water pollution.16


SECTIONIII CAUSATION,NATUREANDPREVENTIONOFDISEASES ANDTREATMENT.NatureandCauseofDisease:(pathophsiology) Congenital abnormalities. Nutritional deficiencies or excesses in the diet failure in Endocrine disorders. Emotional stresses. Trauma--typeofinjury and processesofhealing. Inflammation, symptoms and signs--local and general affects, and results. Allergy and immune response. Infection--typesoforganisms and methodsofspreadofinfection, reaction. New growth; types and characteristics. Degenerations. Poisons. Undetermined origin. These are general headings which setoutbroadly the applicationofthe nature and cureofdisease to the studyofall typesofconditions which will include general and specialised medical and sUi"gical conditions affectingallage groups and all systems and organs in the body. A studyofany condition from which a patient may be suffering eitherofa general or specialised character should -include: Applied anatomy and physiology. Definition. Pathology. Aetiology.17


Clinical features. Diagnosis. Treatment: First Aid where appropriate Medicaland/orsurgical aspects. Drug therapy Dietary measures Nursing care. Socio-Economic factors Rehabilitation/Prognosis Complica tions Prevention.MaintenanceofHealthandpreventionofdiseaseFactors and personnel contributingtothe maintenanceofhealthincluding health education. Factors contributingtothe breakdown in health. The influenceofhome and economic background in the preventionofdisease andasanassociated causeofdisease.TreatmentofDiseaseDISASTERANDEMERGENCYNURSINGBasic knowledgeofFirst Aid, PrinciplesofMedico-Surgical Nursing shouldbecompleted.PartITheNatureofDisasterandEmergenciesThe threatofDisaster; Thermonuclear Disaster; the natureofnuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare; Some Characteristicsof Disaster; Readiness for Disaster; OrganisationofCivil Defence and its medical facilities; Emergency AdmissiontoHospital; PrinciplesofEmergency and Disaster Nursing; Improvising for people, suppliesandequip ment.18


.. PartIIPartIIINursingConsiderationsinMedical EmergenciesandInjuriesEmergency measures in shock and haemorrhage; Wounds; Injuries resulting from excessive heat and cold; Skeletal Injuries; Poisons; Common Emergenciesofthe Digestive System; Respiratory and Cardiac Embarassment, Psychological First Aid, Radiation Injuries, Emergency Childbirth .HealthandWelfare Services in Disaster AreasHealth Services for the non-injured dislocated population, Establish ing reception centres for the dislocated population, PreventionofEpidemic following disasters.PartIVPrinciplesofrights and dutiesofnurses--Geneva Convention.19