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Masterplan for post-secondary education in the Bahamas: the report


Material Information

Masterplan for post-secondary education in the Bahamas: the report
Abbreviated Title:
Post-secondary education in the Bahamas
Physical Description:
p. 83
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Education
Place of Publication:
Nassau, Bahamas
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Education--Bahamas.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:


General Note:
This Master Plan for Post-Secondary Education in The Bahamas is the outcome of the work of a Central Study Team (CST) set up for the purpose by the Minister' of Education to address issues surrounding the progress or growth of post-secondary education within the Bahamas.
Creation/Production Credits:
This report is also known locally as the "Silver Report" because one of the authors was named Silver.

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Source Institution:
College of The Bahamas
Holding Location:
College of The Bahamas
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All rights reserved by the source institution.
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,This Master Plan for Post-Secondary EducationinThe Bahamasisthe outcomeofthe workofa Central Study Team (CST) setupfor the purposebythe Minister' ofEducation. The project was cont.:eived aspanofthe Second Technical and Vocational Training Project (World Bank Loan 3004-BM). The Central Study Team consistedofrepresentativesofthe four institutions mainly concerned and others, including the MinistryofEducation and other Ministries. It was chairedbyOr Keva Bethel. PrincipalofThe CollegeofThe Bahamas. andMsPaula Sweeting, Senior Officer (Teniary). Ministryof Education. and it had thesupponofa teamofthree consultants (one British and two American) secured through theCenterfor the StudyofHigher Education. Pennsylvania State University. A Central Steering Committee. consistingofrepresentatives from Government Depanments, industry and commerce, the churches, professions and trade unions. and the institutions concerned. was also appointedtoreceive and comment on drafts ofthe Master Plan. The membershipofthe CST and CSCislistedinAppendixA.The first meetingofthe Central Study Team was heldinSeptember1990and the final draftofthe Plan was agreedinNovember1991.




ABBREVIATIONSBATELCOBEC BGCSEBHTCBSNCCOB CEESCEOCGPACHTMCOBCSCCST EC GCE GPAITCJBTEOAS SACS UCOB UNESCOUWI-CHTMBahamas Telecommunications CorporationBahamas Electricity CorporationBahamas General CertificateofEducation Bahamas Hotel Training College The Bahamas SchoolofNursingCommunity College or TheBahamasContinuing Education and Extension Services(ofCOB)ChiefE:

EXECUTIVESUMMARYThe projt:l:L conuUl.;teli 10 1990-91.was intended toovercomefragmentation and a lackofcoordinationinpost-secondary education. and to recommend howitmighthetterrespond to the needsofthe economy and society. A Central Study Team was appointed10be responsible for prOducing a Master Plan, with the support ofa small teamofconsultants. Thereponwastobe received and reviewedbya Central Steering Committee.2 Eachofthe four public institutionsconcernedThe CollegeofTheBahamas.TheBahamas SchoolofNursing, Bahamas Hotel TrainingCollege. and The Industrial TrainingCentrewas requiredtoconducta self-study.Thereponsofthese,togetherwitheconomiC,demographic and otherdata collectedbytheCentral Study Team. consuhation with employers. schools and olhers. and detailed discussiunbythe CST. contributed the basis on which proposals wereformulatedTheself-studies described present strengths and concerns. and looked to the future. Consideration was given to previous plans. aims and repons on public post-secondary education, as well as to the education and training activities ofotherGovernmentdepanmentsand agencies. and private post-secondary institutions and their plans and needs. 3Inadditiontoquestionsofcoordination and rationalization.the project addressed issuesofaccesstotypesofpost-secondary education, preseot and future opponunitiesinTheBahamas and overseas. improved easeofprogression through the system. and the assuranceofstandards. 4Theproposalsaretherefore intended to simplify. coordinate and improve post-secondary education and training as currently offeredbythe four institutions; strengthen its relationship with education and training underotherauspices; increase students'opportunities. especially


at the bachelor"s degree. trade and technician levels: give the system greater flexibilitytorespondto el.:onomic.:andsodal needs: increase thepanidpationrateinpost-secondary education: improve opponunities for the Family Islands: develop a four-year institution which can rapidly reach the conditionofa University [Q which the Government has long been committed: gIve institutions greater comrol over their plannning and expenditure: improve library and other resource provision necessary to suppOrt programmes which can produce the slciJled manpower neededbyThe Bahamas. and enable studentsto take advantage of the greater programme and institutional flexibilitytoobtain increased choice. including for continuing education on a full timeor part-time hasis. 5 The proposals involve the creation of: a) A Bahamas Coordinating Board for Post-St:condary Educa(ion. a Government-appointed. autonomous Board to ensure adequate policy development. and the planning and coordinationofinstitutions and their programmes. b)AnAccredi(ation Board, a Government-appointed, autonomous Board to oversee standardsinpublic institutions. and to meet the needs ofprivate institutions seeking accreditation at post secondary level.c)The University CollegeofThe Bahamas. offering programmes initiallyupto bachelor's degree level. dtvtloping post-graduate and master's level work, and enhancing its capability to conduct applicable researchinparticular; with its own Governing Board with rotating membership, and the autonomy necessary to allow control over its planning and expenditure; not offering College Preparatory programmes. and aiming at an ultimate sizeofsome 5.()(X) students: operating on a single, custom-built campus appropriate for work at the University College and then University level. d) The Community CollegeofThe Bahamas.combining ano extending the work now conductedbythe IndmilriaJ Training Centre. 'f


Bahamas Hotel Training College. othercrah.lrade. technical and vocational programmes. and programmesup totwo-year Associate Degree levelinselected areas: with its own Governing Board with rotating memhership. and the autonomy necessary(0 allow control OVer its planning and expenditure:operating on multiple sites. with an ultimate targetofsome 20.CXX>students. e) The Centre for Continuing, Extension and Distance Education, developed from the basisofthe present Continuing Education and Extension Services DivisionofCOB. with responsibility for developing a Distance Education scheme to serve the Family Islandsinpanicular. and workingincollaboration with the U niversitv College and Community College.f)A library appropriately housed. equipped andstocked to serve the needsofall post-secondary education. and the research and information needsofthe community. g) A credit accumulation and transfer scheme that will enable studentsto obtain credit for in-house training schemesofpublic and private enterprises and accredited coursesinother institutions. as a basis for entry to -College programmes; to obtain credit within the institutions for purposesofprogression and transfer: toobtain credit towards post-graduate and masters' programmes. 6 Accurate estimatesofthe ofimplementing the proposals have not been possible. and indicative guidelines point towards the alternatives and parameters that will need tobe considered once the proposals have been broadly adopted. 7 Recommendations for implementation include the establishmentofthe Coordinating Boardinthe springof1992and the Accreditation Boardinthe autumnof1992,together with the Boardsofthe individuaJ institutions. The Central Steering Committee and Central Study teamwillhave interim functions until the Coordinating Body isestablished. The tirst bachelor's degree.inbanking, will belaunchedbyCOB in


1991. otherswillfollow under the University College. and other kindsof planning can beundenaken by ITC. BHTC and others tohasten [he establishment and operationofthenew institutions.1997 ISas the target date forthe designation ofThe University ofThe Bahamas7


IITHEPROJECTThedecisiontoJa.unchtheproject arose oU( ofan awarenessofthe fragmented and uncoordinated way in whiCh the country'spOStsecondary education and training had grown upin the 1970sand early1980..InDecember1986the Honourable PaulL.Adderley. MinisterofEducation. issued a policy decision that theGovemmemwould address the problem. and one result was a studyof existing hotel and tourism training programsinearly1988.This led to the plan, developed with World Bank support. for a new facility onthe campusofTheCollegeofTheBahamas (COB),tohousetheBahamasHOlel College (BHTC).theUniversityofthe West Indies Centre for Hotel and Tourism Management(UWl-CHTM).and the Bahamahost programoftheMinistryofTourism. This proposed sharingoffacilities was a first step, pointing towardsfunherneed for program coordination amongsl COB, BHTC and UWI-CHTM. A projectbriefwas drawnupfor a more comprehensive approachtothe planningofpost-secondary education. This brief suggested the following priority issues for considerationinpreparing a master plan forthemediumand long-term developmentofpost-secondary education inTheBahamas: -(a) the fragmented and largely uncoordinated institutions COB. BHTC. UWI-CHTM. and the Bahamas SchoolofNursing (BSN); (b)thevinually total lackofprogram aniculation among them andtheneedto adapt andaniculateprograms to on-going developments in education and training systemsinothercountries. notablyGreatBritain and theU.S.A.;(c) inadequately developed system forthetrainingofadequate numbersofqualified primary and secondary academic teachers, and no currently operating system for training secondary vocational/technical teachers; (d)thepresent under-utilizationof existing facilities for8-


lechnic.:ian training (while technicians areinhigh demand inthe labour market>; (e) weaknessesinprimary and secondary education. especiallyinthe Family Islands. which currently force COB to direct substantial resourcestoremedial secondary education:(t)the high costsofprimary and secondary educationinthe Family Islands, which inevitably influence resourcespotentially available for post-secondary and highereducation: (g)thesmall sizeofthe country's populationincombination with the access and proximity topost-secondary and higher education institutionsintheUWl system and on theU.S.mainland. which implies that only very coumryspeciticorelse relatively high-volume in-eountry education and training programs can be justitied on a comparative cost basis: and (h) the need to develop entirely new programs justitiedbyand linked to tourism development. such as for the performingans,cultural preservation, including advanced localansand crafts, etc." Related to these aims were also such issues as previously expressed intentionstodevelop COB to university status, with a substantial capability for applied research.Theprojectbriefsuggested that the productionofa master plan should be based on: "(a) adeepinsight intothecurrent statusofeachofits post-secondary education institutions, hence the necessity for a self-study carriedOu(by the institutional personnel and student leaders themselves; (b) the development changes each institution wants to make and a tentative timetable for them; (c) the financial. human and physical reSOurces thatarerequired and are available.orfor whichthereisa reasonable expectation they can be made available; (d) how the expected resultsofthe planned developmental actions would contribute totheattainmentofthe


nation's economic and social ohjectives during the plan period. as well as to the attainmentofthe institution's objectives; (e) would the natio!1al demand for theeducatedllrainedmanpower resulting from the planned actions he' sufficienttojustify the increased expenditures required: and(t)other peninent information. Above all. the planned actionsofthe respective institutions. and the 'master plan' as a whole. must be the resultofan honest critical analysisofeach participating institution. via its self-study; and an acceptance that reforms and reorientation. while frequently painful. are necessary and desirable". The plan was tobe the productofcollaboration among representativesofgovernment ministries, business and industry, the participating institutions. and a teamofconsultants. (See Appendix B for the fullprojecthrie!".)2Inaddition to awarenessofthe lackofcoordination the new project had rootS in analysesofthe economic and social contextsofpost-secondary education.. The Government's own considerationofmanpower and training needs was supportedbythe workofspecialistsfrom UNESCO and the World Bank, and hy local and regionalinvestigations by CARICOM and others. The report that pointed most directly towards the master planning project was a Staff Appraisal Report produced by a World Bank teaminconnection with the Second Technical and Vocational Training Projectin1988.Thisreponendorsed the view that post-secondary educationinTheBahamas was uncoordinated and, extending the argumenttocover training under the National Training Council. thoughtthatthe Government's basically sound strategy for human resource development needed tobe strengthened. Institutions wereofrecent creation, and their growing size and diversity "increase the need for improved inter-institutional coordination and articulation", including for tourism training programmes. Post-secondary education was in general fragmented. and "particularly COB suffers from a lackofan overall development plan10.


based on national priorities. Government has not yet established clear long term plans and priorities for post-secondary education". This broad-ranging analysis led .to the proposal that a master planning project should be includedinthe overall developments under the World Bank loan. 3 The Central Study Team wastobe responsible for producing a Master Plan. and the CST wastohave available toitself-studies that would be producedbyeachofthe four institutions. Proposals for the supporting teamofconsultants were issued. andofthe responses the one offeredbytheCenterfor the SWdyofHigher Education at State University was accepted. This endorsed the need for a highly collaborative approach to the project. The senior consultant/investigator was the former Principalofa British college, with experienceofhigher education alsointhe United States and Canada. One American consultant was a specialist 10 vocational/technical education. and theotheringeneral education with an interestin nurse education.Aninitial visit by the senior consultantwokplaceinMay1990.and the workofthe CST beganinearnestinSeptember1990.BHTC was already engagedinproducing a self-study report for [he purposeofaccreditationbythe Commission on Occupational Education Institutionsofthe Southern AssociationofColleges and Schools. The decision to establish the Central SteeringCommiueewas postponed and this was establishedinJune1991.with the aimofreceiving and reviewing draftsofthe Master Plan. and acting as a consultative group for the implementationofwhatever decisions would be taken by the Government following receiptofthe tinalPlan4Itwas clear from the outset that expectationsofthe project covered not only the detailofprogramme and institutional coordination but also wider, urgent issues relatingtostudent access to post-secondary educationinThe Bahamas. the extensionofopportunities for example at technician and baccalaureate levels. the future statusofthe'I


institutions. the ahilityofstudents10progress through the system. the relationship ofthe four institutions to olherspublic and private. standanJs throughout post-secondary education. and therefore questionsofaccreditation, and the deploymentofresources. The CST determined and addressed the priority issues for its discussions. assembled available data, considered alternative ideas and suggestions, and through its own experience and thatofthe consuJtams relleeted onthe viewsofemployers and schools, public and private institutions, opponunitiesinGrand Bahama and theother-FamiJy Islands. theexperience and possibilitiesofdistance education. and the aspirations forpost-secondary educationofGovernment Ministers past andpresentItconsidered overseas expenence. panicularly with regard to coordination and accreditation, looking at American and British models as well as information on recent developmentsinJamaica brought by oneofthe co-chairs and the seniorconsultantThe CST helped to lay the hasis for work on the institutions' self-studies. received regularreponson their progress and then the self-studyreponsthemselvesinJune1990.5 During the lifetimeofthe projectotherdevelopments and changes took place which affected its work. In nursing, for example. there were moves towards the long-discussed programme amalgamation between COB and the Bahamas SchoolofNursing. BHTC successfully submitted itsreponfor accreditation by the Southern AssociationofColleges and Schools. The Ministry ofEducation was developing the Bahamas General CertificateofEducation (BGCSE), intended to replace existing examinations in1993.A project on the curriculumofsecondary education was launchedunderthe auspicesofthe Inter American Development Bank. Aspanofthe Second Technical and VocationaJ Training Project a Technical Instructor Training Programme was also begun.Inmore general terms, the national economy was affectedbythe downturn 10 international tourism as a resultofrecession and theGulfWar.I ...


6 While the project was in progress there were changesinboth the Cabinet and the senior administrative personnelofthe MinistryofEducation. as well asin'theMinistryofHealth and other Ministries. Both the Honourable PaulL.Adderley and the Honourable BernardJ.Nonage gave the projectimponantministerialsuppon.as did the two PermaneOl Secretaries at the Ministry. MrGunhArcher and Mr LutherE.Smith.TheCentra] StudyTeamand the consultants had the invaluablesupponthroughoutofMrLB.Darville. Project Coordinator at the MinistryofEducation. A wide varietyofpeople at the MinistryofHealth, the MinistryofTourism, the MinistryofPublic Personnel,otherpublic agencies and the public utilities, public and private schools, the churches, commerce andotherareasofBahamian life generously gave their time and provided information.2


III TH E SELF-STUDIESEachofthe four institutions directly addressedby the project conducted a sell-study and submitted arepon(BHTCusing for this purposethereponithad already preparedhythe summerof1990forthe SOUlhernAssociationof Colleges and Schools).Theinstitutions had availabletheself-study guidelinesoftheNonhCentral and Middle States regional accreditation agenciesintheUSA. They were asked to describe and analyse their present situations. andtocomment on future needs. aspirations and possibilities. COB.BSNand fTC each established accnualteam responsible forthe 1I0ai repon.and sub committees to work on specitic aspectsofthe study. Here wesummarize the institutions' statements on the present position. andinthe following two sections we consider wider aspectsofpost-secondary provisioninTheBahamas. and the future orientations that emerge from the self-studies(forfuller information from the self-studies see Appendices C-F). l't FT


ATHECOLLEGEOFTHEBAHAMASA White Paper ofthe MinistryofEducation and Culturein1972prepared the wayforthe establishmentofThe CollegeofTheBahamas. forecasting thatitwould he "the apexofthe systemsofprimary and secondary education for the nation".It was tomeet theneedsofThe Bahamasineducation. training and cultural development,provide for "thefunherorcontinuous educationofcitizens...include hotel. technical. business and educational studies. the academic arts and the creative ans",Itwas to be a centreofresearch, anditwould "influence policies regarding the provision and operationofa national library. public archives and museums",TheCollege was establishedbyan ActofParliament the following year.ItformedpanofGovernment policy to expand andenhanceeducational provisioninan independent. developing country. TheCollege was createdbythe amalgamationoftwo teachers' colJeges. a technical college and the sixth formofTheGovernmentHigh School, and still with some uncertainty about its precisecharacterand concern about its lackofautonomy. the College openedinSeptember1975,Itoffered programmes leading to associate degrees. diplomas and certificates.inaddition to ItAItlevel studies and a remedial "College Preparatory" program. 2 There were difficulties relating to the proportionofthe budget and effort devotedtoduplicatingtheworkofthesecondary schools. the small numberofgraduates insomeareas,poorconditions and lackofautonomy.In1979theGovernmentadopted a Proposed Policy for the Continued DeyelopmentofThe Colleee ofTheBahamas, mandating the College's function as "fostering agreatersenseofnational identity among students" and as "functioningina manpower training role", Concentration wastobe on programmesinareasofgreatest need, includingteachertraining, applied science and technical and vocational studies.Theintention was to phaseoutthe College Preparatory I(


programme In a year. New and more stringent admissions requirements were inuoduced. resullingina decreaseinstudent numbers for the period.1979-83.During the following periodofstability the College increased the rangeofits programmesinresponsetoincreasing demand. particularly duelOthe growthofthe tourism. banking and insurance sectorsofthe economy. and the needsofa growing public service sector. Some new buildings were constructed on tbe Oakes Field campus. the College'sFreeponCenuewas launched in1986.and a distance education programme designed to extend the College's influence beyond New Providence had achieved an enrolmentof2.000 sludents (two-thirds full-lime)hythe heginningofthe(990s.3 The Leys Report, producedbya groupofconsultants in1968.considered the need for the establishmentofa college, and one which would be "capableofsteady and progressive development towards a higher status".InspiteofbUdgetary andotherdifficulties the intention was from the earliest days. in fact.toprogress towards four-year programmes. capitalizing on the College's links with the Universityofthe West Indies andotherteniarylevel institutionsahroadInrecent years. with its two-year programmes stabilized. the College began to plan forit.sdevelopment towards four-year bachelors' degree awarding status. and the Prime Minister and successive MinistersofEducation (and the initial hrief for the present project) have confirmed four-year status as the aim for the College.Itwas also mandatedbythe Honourable MinisterofEducation In 1987to "review its current structure and offerings with a view to adding new programmesorexpanding upon existing ones in areasofperceived need". A numberofCollege task forces were established at that time. comprising faculty, administration and membersofthe public.toconsider such additionsand/ormodifications. panicularly in non-traditional. non-academicorcareer-oriented programmes.Asa result it was anticipated that newdepanmentswouldbeestablishedindesign (graphics and fashion), the


performing and visual ans, tourism andresonmanagement. manufacturing and Steps have also been taken recentlytoimprove the College's research capability.Allsuch developments point towards the descriptionofthe Collegebythe Minister of Educationin1975 as amulti-purpose serving as far as possible every important need of The Bahamas". 4 The College's explicit philosophy and purpose include both the almsofcontributingtonational development efforts and fostering a senseofnational identity. andofhelping the personal developmentofstudents. Many programmes are aimed directly at meeting perceived economic and social needs. For example, the Business and Administrative Studies Division offers programmesinaccounting, bank.ing and finance. computerdata processing and management There 3re a varietyoftechnical and vocational programmesinthe Technology Division-Inthe Humanities, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences itisprogrammes that leadtovocational qualifications that have carried the highest enrolments. Associate degree programmesintourism studies and resort management have heen introducedorareplannedSome Divisions. notably Humanities and Social Sciences. offer courses with Bahamian content. for example Bahamian dialect, Bahamian literature, Bahamian srudies, and the politics and govemmentofThe Bahamas. These divisions also sponsor projects and activities involving the community and providing a forum for showcasing indigenous culture. The Continuing Education and Extension Services Division also contributes to the fultilment ofthjs objective.InaUofthis activity, however, the general educationofthe st.udentisnotoverlookedThe College's philosophyisoneofproviding a sound programmeofgeneral education. which will expose the student to important knowledge and ideas, teach himtothink critically, enable himtodevelop an ofthe world around him. assist himtoevaluate that world and his place init".


5In1989-90 the College enrolled2500full-lime and part-time students. as well as1.300enrolledinits evening institutes. The percentageofthe high school graduating population applying tothe College was53 % in1985-86.!luclUated between 49 % and71 % for the next four years. and was51 % in The selection processIScompetitive. given the existing constraints, amI inthe late19805approaching 30% of applicants were being accepted. Thereisa growing trend for accepted studentstobe from the private high schools. which raises questions about the performance levelsofand career plansofpublic school students. and about the College's commitment and abilitytominimize the effectsoftraditional harriersto p

BachelorofBusiness Administration Del;ree Prol:ramme Programmes in ace.Qunting, banking and management at this level have been designed and thereareplans to offer theminthe near future. Associate pro2rammes These form the coreofthe College's work. with100programmesofvarious kinds.inthe formofDouble Majors. Combined Majors, Single Majors. and Associate DegreesinApplied Sciences. (G.C.E."A"levels are also offeredintive subjects and these. as well as the Associate Degree may be used for transfer purposes.) Vocational Qualifications Theseareofferedinthe formofAssociate Degrees. Certificates and Diplomasinthe following areas: Busjness and Administratiye Studies; DiplomasinBanking and Trusteeship: CertificatesinComputerData Processing, Word Processing and Office Assistant Humanities: Associate Degrees in Journalism and Mass Comm unication, Library and Information Services; CertificateinArt and Music. Social Science: Associate DegreesinSocial Work. Public Admin istration. Tourism. Law and National Security: Advanced Certif icatesinSocial Work and Public Administration: Diplomas10Social Work: CertiticateofProficiency in Social Work. AssociateofArts and AssociateofApplied Science Degreesinthirteen options; CertiticateinBuilding Construction. Continui0i: Education and Extension Services: .Professional Development seminarsareofferedinconjunction with off-shore institutions. Education prQ2rammes (offered by the Education Division)BEdinHistory and English (UWI); CertificateofSecondaryand Primary Education(J BTE); some sixteen subjectsorsubject combinations at the Associate Degree level for secondary nut


teachers: Associate DegreeinGeneral Studies for primary school teac.:hers. TheCEESDivision has also provided upgrading courses for Family Island teachersinthe core subjects through Distance Education Project. originally establishedin association with the OAS. Upgradinl: programmesThe College Preparatory and Pre-Technology Programme, aredesigned to upgrade students' qualifications prior (Q College level work. Through evening institUlesinthe Family Islands and New Providence theCEESDivision offers Royal SocietyofArtsGCE courses for students notinthe regular programme. Adult and Continuing Education Courses are offered ina wide varietyofsubjectsby all the College's Divisions.mOstofthem arranged through theCEESDivision. Examples inc:lude arts. crafts. physical titness. social scienc.:es. technology and business management. 7 The College's Associate Degree. Diploma and Certiticate programmesarestructured to provide a general education component, a componentofspecialized knowledge and skills, and an electivecomponentFor the Associate Degree. for example, the general education component requires six credit hours eachofCollege English skills. humanities. social sciences and natural sciences. and three credit hoursofmathematics. Two non-<:redit courses. Student Development Seminar and Library Orientation. are also required. Nine credit hoursofelectives enable the student to strengthen either this general educationortheareaofspecialized study.Inorderto analyse the levelofachievementofstudents a sampleof1169graduating between1985and1990was taken, and theirGradePoint Average(GPA)waslahulated The minimum acceptahle levelofGPAis2.0. 81% ofthe students completed their programmes with a Cumulative GradePoint Average (CGPA)ofhetween 2.0 and2.99,and onder 20% therefore obtained aCGPAof3.0orover. Performance varied across 4,


the Divisions but allofthem have a majority of their graduating student'i achieving at the lower end ofthe spectrum. On the basis oftheir performance at the' College students were abletoobtain credit exemptions at a rangeofcolleges and universities in other countries, including the U oited States and Canada. Between1985 and 1990Florida International University, for example, admitted35students fromCOB.allwith full exemption. 8 The full-time employeesofthe College, as at October1990.numbered361.ofwhom six were senior management (Principal, Vice Principal. Registrar. Bursar. Academic Dean and Assistant Registrar),IIwere middle management. and157faculty. The Principal chairs the Academic Board. whichisresponsible for the academic affairsofthe College. The Education Actof1962gave the MinisterofEducation responsibity for "the superintendence. t1irection, and controlofall primary, secondary. andfunhereducationinthe Bahamas whichiswholly maintained from Government funds". The CollegeofThe Bahamas Actof1974further confirmed the Government's directional and operational controls which the MinisterofEducation shares with the MinisterofFinance. The functions and powersofthe CouncilofCOB are also set outinthe1974Act. andarecircumscribedbythe allocationtothe MinisterofEducationofthe power to "give the Council such directions as he thinks tit with respect to the exerciseofits functions...either generally orinanypanicularcase". The MinisterofEducation.nOtthe Council. has the powerto tix fees, and the MinisterofFinance has the powertocontrol all expenditure. Long term planningisfaced with various difficulties. including the regular. complete reconstitutionofthe Council. leaving the College repeatedly without a Council NevenheJess. in additiontothe continuous processesofpolicy-makingbythe College's management and committees. formal planningofa long-term natureisundenaken. Self analysis and institutional planning have been a featureofannual faculty seminars since1979.College-wide task forces have been formed at


four-year intervals to study and make recommendations on aspectsofthe College'swork..In1988,for e:<:ample. task forces were established to consider the MinisterofEducation's mandate for the ProposedfutureDevelopmentofThe ofThe Bahamas. and they considered the futureofthe College as a four-year institution.All aspects ofthe College's work are,infact. the subjectofconsistent scrutinybythe management. the Academic Board, the Chairperson's Committee, and advisory committees. The Collegeisawareofthe need to supplement its procedures with one for programme review and evaluation. 9Oflhe College's157full-lime faculty. 66 are male and91female. 47 % arefrom The Bahamas.19 % from the Caribbean.13 % from Europe, 9% from theUSand the remainder from other countries.16 % hold aPh.D.degree and 54 % a MaSler', degree. A faculty evaluation system has been introduced. on the basisofcriteria relating to teaching. service to the Division orCollege, and researchorservice to the community. For the .year 1989-9018 % ofthe faculty were rated as outstanding, 56 % good,16 % satisfactory, and10%weakorpoor. Feedbackisprovided to faculty members following the evaluation. Those rated as weak are referredtoa senior colleague for assistance, and workshopsto improve instructionareoccasionallyheld10The missionofthe College's library constantly expands to meet the demandsofa wide varietyofacademic and special programmes. Becauseofthe developing natureofthe society and the economytowhich the College responds. the library hastosupponthe needsofthis diversity inits programmes. as well as the research andrderenceneedsofits studentsandfaculty, and many outside the College in government.otherinstitutions and elsewhere, The Collegelibraryisan essentialpanofall the functionsofthe College. In its premises. resources. funding, staffing and opponunities for planning and improvement, the libraryisseriously deficient Ithas difficulty in recruiting professional


lihrarians ocause of inadequate hudgets.Ithas an out-of-date and inadequate bookstock:.. andisjudged asingeneral unahle adequately tosupponthe instructional programmesofthe College. and the needsof its students and faculty.IIThe College provides an extensive rangeofsuppon services for students. throughitscentral oftices. the faculty. special services relatingtosuch areas asjobplacements and personalcounselling, and the CollegeofThe Bahamas UnionofStudents. These are services whicharedesigned to ensure that students have accesstoacademic advice. and can overcome personal prohlems, be securely housed, overcome obstacles arising from healthor physical disability. and 10 general henefit from whateverisnecessarytosee them through to successful completionoftheir programmes. and to appropriate transferoremployment afterwards.12Oneofthe intended featuresofthe College was the promotionofresearch necessary for the academic healthofthe and for the needsofThe Bahamas. Although acenainamountofresearchisconductedbyindividual faculty. and plans have been formulated. the necessary resources have not yet been made available to enable a systematic research activity to develop. The College has elaborated a research policy. and requests for funding to appoint a DirectorofResearch have been submitted. An exampleofthe way research could be developedisProjectQ.a research initiative relatingtothe Bahamas Quincentennial Commission, and designed to establish an instituteofanthropological and historical studies which could present nationally relevant data to scholars. classroom teachers and the community.13The Collegeiswholly dependent upon the Government for its finances. Education receives the largest shareofGovernment expenditure. and this share has been consistent over the past decade. The College's shareofthe Ministry's expenditure increasedinthe 2.3


I" I I I IIII Iperiod1984-89from 6.6 % to8.3 %. TheColleges expenditure rosefrom55.3 lO 59.1million. 'hut was reuUl.:ed bysome 2.5 % in1990.TheCollege's annual hudgetisapproved for one year. butitisnot known until the beginningofthe secondsemester(January)ofthe academic year. making planning difficult Afunher difficulty isthat budgetallocationsarenow releasedquanerly.ReceiptS and expendituresarechannelled via the Consolidated Fund, whichismanagedbythe Treasury. The College's lackofautonomyinmatters related to expenditure results fromTheCollegeofTheBahamas Ace which laid down that "no expenditure shall be incurredbythe College without thepriorapproval inwritingoftheMinisterof Financ.;e". Afunherexampleofthe College's lackofcontroloverits financesisthe provision laid downinthe Act that any gifts. donations. grantsorothermoneys receivedhythe College Rshallbe expended insuch manners as the MinisterofFinance may direct R At present lUition rates are 525 per credil, making the typical costoftuition 5600-775 per credit The present tuition rate would needtobe raised to 555 per credittoparallel. for example. current private high school rates.14Insummary. COB has established itself as a credible institutionofpost-secondary education. offering Associate Degree andotherawards.It has atlracted a dedicated and competent faculty and administrative staff. and has earned public respect for the qualityofits work: and its graduates.Asa result high school students who might otherwise have gone abroad fortheirpost-secondary education have been applyingtotheCollegeinincreasing numbers.It has developed a wide rangeofprogrammesinresponse to declared'mission. hasoperateda centreinFreeport, has established tirm links withtheUniversityofthe West Indies and many universities and colleges intheUnjted States.Canadaand elsewhere. Its students have been successfulinObtaining credit fortheirwork when transferring to fouryearinstitutions abroad.Ithas established strong connections with schools and employers. and contributes to the cultural lifeofThe


Bahamasina varietyofways.Ithas regularly revieweditsactivities and priorities. and its planning has l.:ontinuallyindudedthe proposed developmentoffour-year baccalaureate degree programmes. and research.Ithas. within its constraints. heen responsivetothe needs and directions setbythe Government. employers. students and the community. and has given leadershipinthe developmentofprogrammes and a cadreoftrained personnel for The Bahamas. Concerns relating to the workofthe College (asof the otherinstitutions)are discussed below in SectionV.BTHEBAHAMASSCHOOLOFNURSING The educationofnursesinThe Bahamas under the MinistryofHealthisa joint effort between nursing education and nursing service under the DirectorofNursing. Since the first recordofformal trainingin1902the educationofnurses and midwives has heeninconstant evolution, includinginconjunction with the General Nursing CouncilofEngland and Walesinthe1960s.The Nurses and Midwives Actof1971provided for the formationofa Nursing Coundl. the statutory body which goves the education and the practiceofNursinginThe Bahamas.In1982theChiefNursing Ofticerk proposed that nurse education should be placedinan institutionofhigher learning. Following joint meetings between the MinistryofHealth and MinistryofEducation an AssociateofAnsDegreeinNursing was established in1984at The CollegeofThe Bahamas. TheBSNDiploma programmeisscheduledtobe phased oulby1992.2 The overall aimofthe Bahamas SchoolofNursingisto provide curricula and facilitate the leaching and learning processinordertoproduce a varietyofpractitioners who will practise nursing effectively.BSNiscommittedtothe preparationofbeginning practitionerstoprovide care for individuals. families. groups andlorcommunities at zJI


basic levels: to function as a memberofan inter-disciplinary teamina varietyofhealth cafe settings:touse a preventative approachtohealth care; to use research material as a basis for the provisionofpatient care: toadjusttochange andtoassume responsibility for personal andprofes..o.;:ional growth.BSN has an overaJl philosophy bao.;:ed on the Christian philosophy. sees health care as a basic human right. and nur.sing as an active ongoing process through which the learner and the practitioner integrate knowledge, skills and altitudestogain and maintain competency throughout their career. Tbe curricula and knowledge baseofthe SchoolofNursingaregroundedinthose and are designed toencourage positive relationships amongst education. service. community and allied agencies. 3Inthe period 1983-90'heBSNIntroductory Cou",e and'heCOB Associate Degree programme graduated316Registered Nurses.BSNgraduated197students from the Clinical Programme, and a totalof183from its midwifery, community, psychiatric and maternal and child health programmes. The total nursingstaffinThe Bahamasin1990consistedof631Registered Nurses, 467 Trained Clinical Nurses and 370 Nursing Auxiliaries. and BSN'S basic programmes and tive post-basic programmes aim to ensure an adequate supplyofnurses whose basic and continuing education enable themtocontributetothe profession and promote improvementsinits standards. The facultyofBSNconsistofnurse educators whoarequalifiedbyeducation and experience to teach the programmes. that is, they meet the criteriaofthree years post-basic clinical experience andareholdersofCertificates in Nursing Education from recognized programmes. The Principal Nursing Officer and the five Senior Nursing Officers have each completed over 30 yearsinnursing, two having masters' degrees, two with first degrees and two with Nursing Education Certificates.Ofthe eleven other full-time faculty three have completed over thirty years service, two have first degrees. seven have Nur..;ng Education Certiticates, and the others have speciality certifi.cates.Otherqualifi.ed


resource persons are used In programme implementation. 4 The RegisteredNurseProgramme lasts three years. and graduates are eligibletoapply for registration with the Nursing Council. CommonwealthofThe Bahamas. Candidates have to be between the agesofJ7and35.and are requiredtohave a good basic education with a minimumof nve GeE"0"level subjects at gradesA.B.C.orthe equivalent (these must include English and a science subject). The programme combines theory and clinical experiences. Since (he establishmentofthe AssociateofScience Degree at COBin1984all facuhy ofthe SchoolofNursing have participatedinteaching the nursing courses for this programme. and the curriculum commineeischairedbya nurse educator fromBSN.Itisforeseen that the transition fromBSNtoa DivisionofTheCollegeofThe Bahamas will therefore be smooth. ami the ground has been laid for the amalgamationofthe two programmes. and an extensionto bachelor's degree status. 5 The Trained Clinical Nurse Programme prepares men and women to perform practical nursing effectively, under the supervisionofa Registered Nurseina varietyofhealth care settings.Itisan IS-month programme. and graduatesareeligibletoapply for enrollment to the Nursing CouncilofThe Bahamas. Applicants have tobe between17and 40 yearsofage, andtohave tive Bahamas Junior Cenitic3te subjects (including credits in English and Health Science)ortheequivalent6Thetive programmes consist of: Mjdwjfeey Pro2Iamme: previous programmes were replaced under the1971Nurses and Midwives Act by a one-year course for Registered Nurses. and is offered according to manpower need.Itleadstocertification and registration as a mjdwife with the Nun;ng CouncilofThe Bahamas.isarrangedintwO


---semesters and integrates theoretical withdinicalinstruction. Community Health Nursim:Proeramme: a one-year programmeestablishedin1972.toreplace a systemofinservice awardstopursue studies outside The Bahamas. A revised curriculum was completedin1986,and centres around the community and its L:omponcm groups. and the attainment and maintenam:eofoptimum health by the family throughout the life cyde.Theprogramme has operated len times. Psychiatric PrQerammes: two programmes. one for Registered Nurses and ont: for Trained Clinical Nurses. the former having been offered twice and the latter tive times. Theprogrammes last nine momhs. On completionofthecourse a Registered Nurse will be abletoapply the nursing processinthemanagement and careofpatients and families with various maladaptive behaviour patterns. assessthehealth needsofthe patient and use relevant knowledge from the physical and behavioural sciencesinthe rehabilitationofthepatientTheClinical Nurseis expected todevelop competencyinclinical skillsinthe practiceofpsychiatric nursing, assessing patient needs and implementing a plan fortheprevention. treatmentorrehahilitationofthepatientMaternal and Child Health Pro2ramme: a six-month programme introducedin1984.and so far offered only once. for Trained Clinical Nurses.Theaimisto enhance the qualityofcaretothe community and reducemonalityamong mothers and children. 7 The ScboolofNursing occupies new buildings opened in1987,providingadequatespace and amenities. including a library whichiswell appointed hut has aninadequatesupplyofbooks. periodicals andotherlearning materials. An Advisory Board forBSNcontains representatives from nursing education and service on matters relatingtothebasic programmes. and each post-basic programme has its own AdvisoryBoardThereare anumberofstanding committees and z,


regular meeungs. and thereiscollaboration withservu;eand other agencies. The prob'Tammes. al:tivities and fal:ilities ofthe Sl:hool are regularly reviewed. and there are internal and external evaluation l:omminees. A student nurses organization holds educational and recreational activities. ami isinvitedtosend a representativetoall relevant standing committees. 8 The budgetisprepared and submittedinJuneofeach yeartothe Permanent Secretary, MinistryofHealth. and the Ministry allocates the School's budget by31stDecember. The expenditureofthese approved estimatesiscontrolledbythe MinistryofHealth.Itisdifficult to assess detailed costingofthe School as many items purchased through the cemral unit are not cost-eoded tothe School.Theapproved budget forBSNwas 51.477.370in1989.51.257.682in1990. and SI.263.254 in1991.These ligures contained 565.000.S50.OOO andSIO. respectively for capital expenditure. and approximately 80% ofthe hudget was for personal emoluments. C BAHAMASHOTELTRAININGCOLLEGEThe Bahamas Hotel Training College was formedin1973to provide an education and training centre which would be responsivetoneedsofthe developing tourism industryofThe Bahamas and the Caribbean.TheCollegeisaccreditedhythe on Occupational Education Institutionsofthe Southern AssociationofColleges and Schools (SACS) in the USA. An Occupational Education Institution as defined by the Policies and Standardsisone -that has as its major purpose the preparationofindividuals for employment in jobs. An occupational education institution should recognize the achievementofskills, competencies. attitudes, and knowledge through the issuanceofawards such as certificates, diplomas,orotherappropriate credentials...


Instructional programs offeredhyoccupational education institutionsaredesigned to provide a sequenceof t::uucational and skill development experiences. programs are designed toprepare an individual for entry, promotion.orupdatingina specitit: occupationordusterofoccupations at less than a haccalaureate leve'''. The explicit purposeofthe College, therefore, is"the training and educationofemployees for hotels. tourism organizations and allied industries. for the developmentoftheir careers... post-secondary education which willpreparepeople for useful careers...(and) offer a continuouscareerdevelopment opportunity for all employeesofthe tourism industry". The organizational structureofthe Collegeisintended to enhance teachinginthe technical. vocational areas skiJI oriented training programmes dictated by the needsofthe indu.'itry. From its inception the College has provided hoth academic and on the-job programmes. 2 BHTC was established as a "quasi-government institution"bythe Bahamas Hotel Training Coonl.:il. also establishedin1973.and it took its tirst studentsinSeptember1974.In the academic year 1989-90 the College had a totalof361Diploma and Certiticate students, 74ofthe latter at the Training CentreinFreepon. The College runs summer school sessions primarily for employet::s inthe hotel industry, evening coursesaspartofthe regular programme schedule, and an adult education programme mainly on apan-limeevening basis. Alsoin1989-90 the College had two full-lime senior administrators.16fuH-time instructors/tutors. ten registry and secretarial staff, and tive maintenancestaff.3 The College has several meansofassuring that it is serving the needsofthoseinits targetareaThe membersofthe Council. the College's governing body, include representatives from the hotel industry. The CouncilIS,in fact, a tripartite body establisbed by 30


agreement amongst the MinisterofEducation on behalfofthe Government, The Bahamas Hotel Association onbehalfofthe industry. and the Bahamas Hotel Catering and Allied Workers' Union. Advisory committees. hotel management and staff, community leaders. union representatives and others provide continual feed-back about the College's and services. A Senior Staff Committee meets on a regular basistomake plans and evaluate progress. Thereare periodic meetingsofall faculty and alsoofthe administration andsupponstaff. A newly created I nstitutional Advisory Committee has discussed the purpose and qualityof service ofcourse offerings. The Executive Director and senior staff attend frequent meetings with industry representatives to discuss progress and areas fordevelopmentTheCollege also has committeestoreview examination.s and hring programme coordinatorstogether. as well as a Student Council. 4Inaddition to the planning functionsofthe Council and the College administration, faculty and staff. the Council periodically commissions independent study reports. which are presented to Council andareinthe main acted upon aspanofthe overall policiesofthe institution. Recent long-range planning has included a European Community funded project for a joint regional hotel training initiativebyBHTC and the Caribbean Hotel Training Institute. EC funding for an801100bedroom dormitory building for BHTC Nassau campus. and new Nassau campus construction by the World Bank and the BabamasGovernmentImportant new facilities will result from these projects, and the regional initiativewiHprovide an initial teamof five professionally qualified itinerant faculty whowillconduct training programmes. BHTC will also spearhead the implementationofa Caribbean Regional Cenification Board and aCareerPasspon Database for cross-<::redit transfers between hotel schools within the Caribbean regIon. 5 The requirements for student admissions into B HTC vary


accordingtothe programme. Though not applicabletofull-time study. the College offers a school link programme. which exposes school studentstothe College"s programmes and facilities. with a view (Q acquainting them with the hospitality industry and to attracting them to the College's fuJI-time programmes when they complete high school. This "Slipstream Programme" takes place over8-10weeks on a day release basis. and the student visits include hotels. restaurants. travel agencies. cruise liners and casinos. The school students meet with general managers, headsofdepanment.personnel directors andotherpersonnel. Student recruitment exercises are conducted at the senior high schools. within the hotels and local community groups. The 'Collegeispublicized through the media. then presented through video and slide presentations.. This represents a large-scale annual recruitment exercise. which ISretlectedinthe increaseinenrollmentsby 50% in'hethree years from Sep,emher1987.6 BHTC programmes include the following: Qrdjna[y National Diploma Pro2ramme: a two-year programme to prepare students for supervisory and middle management positionsinthe hotel and catering operations secror ofthe hospitality industry. The premiseofthe programmeisthat practicaland technical skillsareviable paths towards successIncareersinthe hospitality industry.Ittherefore provides instructioninthe practicaland theoretical areasofhotel and catering operations, upgrades practical and technical skills from shorter certificate programmes in the College, and prepares students for degree level programmes from the junior yearofa four-year college. Former graduates have been successfully following career paths in the industry. Regular consultationisheld with senior management personnel within tbe industry concerning admission level requirements (an applicant requires a minimumofthreeGeE"0"levelsorequivalent, including English and mathematics,orsuccessful completionofthe .v


Colleges Placement Examination). National ADprentice Chefs proeramme. a three-year day release programme designed to prepare competent chefs for the industry.Itaims to provide the training vehicle for the hotel industryinthe culinary tield. provide cenitication through BHTCinaffiliation with the Bahamas Culinary Association and the American Culinary Federation. and enable students10progresstoresponsiblejobswith the CommonwealthofThe Bahamas. National Apprentice Waiters prQ2ramme: a two-year day release programmetoimprove the professiQnal qualificationsfQr food and beverage service personnel. Bahamas (eWeate inGeneral (aterineSkills, a one-year programmetotake school leavers who have not reached the academic standards required for the Diploma Programme, concentrating on the practical areas and with less academic course work than the Diploma Programme. One term((2weeks> prQ2rammes tbat have been successfully run ofa BahamasCejtjcateinBakerySki1Js.a BahamasCeiticatein BOQk-keepine and Front Desk Skjlls. a BahamasCeniticateinCulinary Skills, and a Bahamas Ceojtjc3teinfoodService Skjlls (as well as others that have been offered but not run for lackofdemand).Allofthese require applicants10have a minimumofthree BJCs. including English and mathematics.orsuccessful completion ofthe College's Placement Examination. 7 The methodoffunding the operationsofthe College was laid downbytheTripaniteAgreement in1973.Operating costs were tobe methythe Council outofmonies provided as follows:..A.Halfofthe operational expensesofthe Councilbythe MinistertQa sum not less than $200,000perannumB.The contributionsofthe Industry will equal the contributionsofthe Minister... and will be administered by 33


The Bahamas Hotel Association,C.The Union shall contributt:: 5 % ofthe combined contrihutionsofthe Minister and the Industrytoa sum nOl less than S20.()(X) per annum.\989-90 \31.585 31,6n 12.595 500.000 255.000 \988-9 125,90357,4317,n9450.000 280.0001987-8\36,30646,18612,078400.000 305.000In the period 1987-90,however, the College's revenues have 10 fact consistedofthe following: Reyenue source Tuition Services and fees Glfts, endowments etc. Government granL'i Industry grants Interest on fixed deposits5,05310.9934,44\Asa resultofthe economic downturn resulting from the drop intourism Government and industry grants were reducedin 1990-91. thoughinthat year the Union was able10make a small contribution10the College something it had heen unabletodo for some years. Although these weretohave no impact on the running costsofthe College, the EC funding for the regional hotel training initiativewas$4.48 million (US equivalent),ECfunding for the dormitory building was $2.2 million (US equivalent), and the costofthe Nassau construction project was Sl4 million. 8ThepremisesofBHTC are regarded as Government property and as such theyareunder the administrationoftheMinisUy ofEducation which performs routine maintenance. Additionally, the College has a budget heading for repairs and maintenance with which in the recent past tbe Nassau campus has undergone a major processofrehabilitation. Tbe premises inFreeponwere donatedtothe GovernmentbytbeGrandBabamaPonAuthority, and BHTC"s sbareoftbe premises consistSofkitchen facilities. a training restaurant. two


classrooms. and offices.Atthe Nassau campus three new huildings have heen consuucted. and the administration huilding destroyed last year by fire has been replaced.DTHEINDUSTRIALTRAININGCENTREIn February1980the Cabinet considered a memorandumbythe MinisterofEducation amI Culture for the establishmentofan Industrial Training Programme. and the Cabinet gave ito;; authorizationItdid so against a hackgroundofchangesineconomic activitiesinThe Bahamas from the late1960s.with a dropinconstruction activity and an upsurgeofbanking and related service industries. Unemployment had grown, panicularly amongst those aged14-24.Inthe late1970sa construction hoom followed without the trained personnel availahle. and The Bahamas had to imponanisans such as carpenters. masons and plumhers. The skinsofunemployed Bahamians did not match thejobopponunities, so despite the recoveryin the economy unemployment persisted at high levels, and severe social problems became apparent, panicularly among unemployed youth. Four major conditions intluenced the decision to maketechnical and vocational education a priority: a) high youth unemployment: b) the levellingoffof tourism related jobs and the need to diversify;c)high migration from the Family IslandstoNew Providence andGrandBahama due to a lackofeconomic activities on the islands; d) the severe shortageofwell trained Bahamian craftsmen. AnAd Hoc Training Committee. made upofrepresentativesofGovernment. industry and tr.aining, made recommendations which culminatedinthe establishmentofthe Industrial Training Programme.Theobjective at the outset was to provide basicjobskillstoas many individuals as possibleintheshonestpossible time. With an emphasis on carpentry and plumbing, lhree month evening courses were beguninApril1980witb150and120trainees respectively. The courses were extendedtosix months the ....'


following year. with five monthsinclassroom training and one month in job e;(perience. The rangeofprogrammesswas e;(panded. In1984tbe Soldier Road Campus vacatedbyCOB became the ofticial siteofthe Industrial Training Centre. Programme offerings continued to be increased. though numbers droppedin1983-85asa resultofchangesinprogramme emphases and a limitation on the sizeof classes. In 1990-91 there are733trainees attheNassauCenueand 85 inGrandBahama. 2 The1980decisions involved the creationofa National Training Council.Aninterim Council was createdin1983,and following a review ofitsprogress areponwas submittedin1984and the Cabinet recommended the formationofthe Council. and altbough no action was taken to formalize the National Training Council a large Dumberofprogrammes have heen operated under the aegisofthe interim bodyinNassau. Grand Bahama. Abaco and Exuma. These form only a fractionofthe Council's intended activities, which were to include a very wide rangeoftraining and retraining activities. a manpower projection system. the definition and monitoringofstandards in training programmes and national certification standards for trades. and advisory semces. ITC hasnOlhad the benefit of. for e;(ample, the manpower projection systemingearingitsprogrammes to the needsofindustry. 3 ITC aims to provide tecbnical and vocational for school leavers.10order to meet the training needsofindustriesinTbe Bahamas. From the beginning the aim was reduce unemployment, and programmes were targeted at school leavers without sufficient slci1Js to tind employment, and without the qualifications to pursue trainingatCOB. Since the emphasis was on practical skins academic excellence was not a criterion for admission to the programmes, which were to be available to all young persons interested in learning a trade. ITC sought to identify tbe needsof industry and provide training that would 3j,


facilitate economic growth.Itaimed. not to train complete craftsmen and technicians. but todevelop the altitudes and hasic skills ofthe trade that would allow them to perform under supervision. Additional training would be necessary. and was seen as the ofindustry. Students weretobe able to prepare for. secure. enter and experience success in their occupational career. The role mapped out for lTC wastounderstand the needsofindustry andofthe students. to foster a respect for the dignityofwork. promote high standardsofworkmanship, help students to meet changing occupational requirements and develop occupational adaptabiliry, and offer supportive educational programmes and services. 4 Student enrollmentwasnecessarily high in the first four years. reaching a peakof788ttaineesin1984.given the demand for trained construction workers. After tbe dropinnumbers in themid-1980snumbers rose to733in1991.an escalationofenrollment resulting from the recession. When the programme began in1980it was anticipated tbat there would he difficulty in atlr3cting potential trainees. and a stipendofS42perweek:wasofferedIndustrial. technical and vocational education had tow status. butthishas slowly changed.Theacademic abilitiesoftraineesinthese programmes has improved tremendously. and for the733training spaces in1991ITC received1.500applications. the majority having at least someBlCpasses. The improvementinacademic abilitiesoftrainees has allowed fTC to operate slightly more advanced training. This has meant. bowever, excluding individuals who are not academically inclined and whom the Centre has a mandate totrain5AllITC programmes are ten months in length. Tbey cover: air conditioning and refrigeration. arts and craft. auto body repair.automecbanic, carpentry, commercial skills, cosmetology, electrical installation. electronics. joinery, light clothing, masonry, office machine repair. painting and decorating, plumbing, tailoring, welding. Manyof 31 .n


7theseare offered inmultiple courses (for example. tive coursesincosmetology and fourincommercialski1lsand electronics). The programmes with the largest numberofenrollment.s are cosmetology, commercial skills and dectronics. Nine of'these programmes are offered at Freepon. The numberofclassesin non-<:onstruction trades has steadily increased. and those intended to attract female applicants have increased particularly since1988,and in addition the enrollmentoffemalesinmanyofthe non-traditional trades such as welding, masonry. carpentry and plumbingisincreasing. trainees are given Entrepreneurial Skills Training. related Mathematics. related Communication SkillsaDdFirst Aid and Safety. Tbe need for generaJ education and stronger related studiesis growing. Efforts are underway to develop national craft standards in the various trades. Tbe Centre's personnel,incooperation with the subject advisory committee and engineers from the MinistryofWorks, have developed standards for Basic and Journeymen Welders. which bavebeen accepted as the NationalstandardWorkisongoing to develop a master Jevel welding and a three-year standarcJ.s certificationinair conditioning andothercrafts. Although ITC programmesareregularly offeredinGrand Bahama. those conductedin 1984-86 in Abaca and Exuma have not beenrepeated6 ITC has a small administrative team. consisting of a manager, accOuntant. personnel officer. supplies officer. and a pan-time placement officer. It has a facultyof58 instructor.;. 32 (55%)ofwhom are part time employees. 36ofthe instructors were interviewed by a consultant at the endof1989.61%ofthem had six year.; ormoreoffull-time industrial experience in their trade, and60percentwer:estill involved part-timeorfulJ-time in industry. However. 57% ofthe instructors had fiveorfewer yearsofexperience in technical and vocational education. Only about aquarterbadthreeormore yearsoftraining in teaching, and aquarterhad less than one yearoftrainingintheir trade. Beginning in1990,and aspartofthe Second Technical and 3l?


Vocational Project. a scheme for the training of technical instructors was launched.. It was intended that the instructor training programme amI a Cenified Technical Instructor Corps wouldcomeunder theNTCand the ITe. Cooperative ties would be developed with the MinistryofEducation Technical Education Division andtheTechnical EducationDepanmemofCOB. A consultant was appointed through the AssociationofCanadian Community Colleges. 7 fTC does not control its own staffing (except for pan-time instructors). full-timestaffbeing hired through the MinistryofEducation. Although a salary scale similar to thatofBHTC was aprpovedinprinciplebythe Cabinet. it cannot be implemented untiJ the Councilislegalized. Somestaffare currently paid out of COB's bUdget, while others are paid through the MinistrY ofEducation on the technical salary scale. ITC alsohasno control over its finances.Allpurchases have to be approved by the MinistryofEducation andbythe MinistryofFinance. and the Centre does not always receive the equipment and suppJies it orders, or the quality that it orders. The procedures involved lead to funds being unspent:in1988-90some51.5millionwonhofequipment and supplies that could have been acquired were notacquiredInpractice. the Centre's budget has been reduced each year since1989.from523millionin1989to 52 milliooin1990and51.5in1991.In1990over 60 % ofthe hudget went on trainee stipends and pan-time instructors' salaries, while only10 % was spent on training supplies, capitalasselSand repairs to capital assets. Asthe budget declines, trainee enrolJmentisincreasing and consuming more than 50 % ofthebudgetThereistherefore Iitlle finance available to purchase equipment and suppliesaDdto improve facilities. 8 TheBiUthat was intended to become the National Trajnim: Act l286. was not enacted, andinits absence an effective National Training Council has not come into existence, and ITC operateswitha skeleton S')


administrative team. Although ITC l:onducts the rangeof al:tivities outlined above. itisunlike the other three institutions describedinthat itis essenlially an interim body w;lh no guaranteed future.d


IVPOST-SECONDARYEDUCATIONINTHEBAHAMASInadditionlOthe four institutions above thereareotheropponunities for post-secondary education and traininginThe Bahamas. public and private. openorindustry-specific. A numberofoffshore institutions have operatedinthepast and some still operate. as a means for students totoroll for American degrees or other qualitications. Such institutions require Bahamian Government authorization but they arenOldirecLly discussed here. Theotherpublic and private provision. however. has direct relevance for the discussion ofthe future pattern of post-secondary educationinThe Bahamas.2 Under the Education Act1970private"funhereducation" institutionsarerequired to apply for registration to the MinistryofEducation. and registered institutions are required to report annually on student numhers. instruction staff andothermalters. Although institutions not providing this information may be de-registered.in fact very liltle information about the private institutions reaches the Ministry. In recent years the numberofregistered private institutions has been about 35-40. mostofthem offering commercial orcomputer courses and preparation for GCE andBle.Not muchisknown centrally about the levelofmostofthe courses provided. and few institutions offer them at levelsorinsubjects comparable with thoseofthepublic institutions. A numherofchurch-related institutions alsooperateat the post secondary level. 3ThemOStambitiousofthepost-secondary private institutionsisSuccess Training College, withsome300 students. six full-time and 20orsopan-timefaculty (manyofthemteachersinsecondary schools). Programmes range from basic secretarial,GCE,RSA and Pitman courses, to Diploma and Associate Degree programmes. The rangeofsubjectsisvery wide, the facilitiesadequate(except for the lackofa <>,


library. a deficiency the Collegeisattemptingtorectify), and relations with a varitty ofArne.rican institutions for transfer purposes are well established Its past ambitionstooperate masters' degree programmes (panicularlvinmanagement and financial services) have not been realized The Collegeisanxioustosecure accreditation. and would seemto be a secure featureofthe private post-secondary field.Othercommercially-based institutions, such as the recently renamed Bahamian Community College. do not operate at the degree awarding level. 4 Church-related post-secondary institutions are either Bible Colleges or seminaries.orare developments from church-related secondary education.. From the basisofthe workinthe BaptIst secondary schools. for example. a four-year degree programmeISplanned.in religiotl.'i studies and other subjects. and the of accreditation has been under discussion. The Methodist Queen's College has established a Centre forFunherEducation. running evening courses forGCE"0"level. "special help", busine.'iS and commerce coun:es. and special interest skill courses. 5Inthe fieldoftraining thereisa wide range of activity, hoth public and private.Inthe private commercial and industrial areas there are training activities ofvarious kinds for ex.ample those providedbybanks for their employees, and courses including for a CertiticateofMerit organized by the Bahamas Employers Federation and the Industrial Society (including a Management Development Programme, Industrial Relations for Shop Stewards. Instructional Skills and others). A considerable volumeoftraining activity js undenaken in the public sector. Eachofthe public utilities has a training operation. and an extensive arrayofcoursesismounted annualJy in each case. The Bahamas Electricity Corporation, for example. runs courses atbasic engineering trade and craft levels, technician level, computing,reponwriting for foremen and assistant managers. projects management and conlract administration, for different levelsof


examinationsinaccounting. and many others. The utilities alsosupponstaff for attendance a,t courses elsewhere. including at COB and at overseas institutions. The activitiesofthe Water and Sewerage Corporalion's TrainingCentreinclude not only directly work-related courses (e.g. heavy plant operators. watertreatmenl..)but also the preparationofemployees for COB programmes. andsupponfor employees at COBsecretarialtechnical. business communication andothercourses. 6Itwill be helpful to take three examplesof training activities within Government services: a) The Babamahost under the MinistryofTourism. Thisisa lecture and self-improvement training scheme. aimed at improving standardsofvisitor satisfaction. Its declared objectivesareto "create self-awareness and foster positive attitudes among thoseinthe hospitality industry.to increase self-<:ontidence on the ba"iis ofKnowledge about The Bahamas.toemphasize "the imponanceofmaintaining standardsofperformance". a professional approach10service. and the imponilnceofgiving value for money. The programmeisthe official educalion and training armofthe MinistryofTourism. has a coreoffuJI-time and a varietyofpan-time instructors. and topics covered include tourism and the economy. the geography and historyofTheBahamas, and culture and folkJore. Theseshoncoursesarefor public service drivers. Bahamasair. hotel and leisure facility employees. managers and others.In199022Babamahost sessions were conductedinNew Providence, with751graduates. InGrandBahama and the Family Islands there were 590 graduatesofthe programme. b) The Public Service Trainjni: Centre, the Trainjng Divisionofthe Ministry ofPublic Personnel.Itconducts a systematic training needs analysisofthe Ministries and departmentsand works with Ihemintbe implementationoftheir policies. It focuses on the improvementofthe "results-producing capacitiesofupper level management". upgrading


"managerial. supervisory and policy executingskiUs".and sensitizing officers to a programmeof"personal and organizational self-renewaltomeet the new and emerging needsofthe1990's".TheCenuetherefore runs a seriesofservice-wide programmes, departmemal seminars. consultancy andotherservices. and various programmesincollahoration with the Cominuing Education and Extension ServicesofCOB. With as..'\istance from the UniversityofPittsburgh. the Centre also runs an Advanced DiplomainPublic Administration and Policy Managemem for senior Ministry ofticials. c) The Police CoUeee. The training programme for the police force lasts 20 weeks. including a four-week "education course" Candidatesarerequiredtohave tive"0"levels. including mathematics and English. and sit an entrance examination unless they have a bachelor's degree. The100orso recruits on each course undertake a complex programme. at the conclusionofwhich they hecome "probationary constables" andaresubsequently assessed for continued serviceornotThereissubstantial wastageinthe tirst tlve yearsofservice. The College also runs courses for sergeants andchiefinspectors and others. and a varietyofin-service courses. Instructorsareexperienced police officers. andpan-timelecturers contribute from elsewhere (e.g. on law from the Attorney General's Oftice). Recruits range from those with minimum qualifications. perhaps treating the police force as a "last reson" for employment. to those withBAorMA degrees. Women recruits tendtobethebenerqualified. Few police oUicers attempt to use their training as credit for entty into other professionsorlevelsofeducation. though a small number do higher level programmesinthe United States.Allthe College's programmesareconducted at the ColJege itself: The Royal Bahamas Police has itself also conducted educational and training activities, either aloneorin collaboration withotherbodies. On different occasions it has. for example, run classes in English language and mathematics for regular officers. management seminars for senior officers, and courses on security and intelligence. narcotics investigation andothermatters with


otherGovernment and overseas agencies. 7 Manyofthese activities In public and private organizations involve substantial numbers ofpeople.TheTraining Centreofthe Bahamas Telecommunications Corporation. for example. annually assists some 800-900 students.Bythe endof1990the Bahamahost programme had 8,475 graduates. A considerable rangeofcontinuing education" or "adult" education activitiesisconducted byotherbodies not outlined here including the Royal Bahamas Defence Force. the Red Cross. the Salvation Army (School fortheBlind), Ahilities Unlimited for those with disabilities, andotherMinistries (for instance, Ihe MinistryofYouth. Sport."i and Community Affairs). A limiled amountofeducation and trainingisconducted by correspondence or distance education.inaddition to Ihat provided by COB. The Bahamas InstituteofBankers andtheInstituteofCanadian Bankers. for example. offer opponunities forcareerenhancement by correspondence. 8A special place in the patternofposl-secondary educationinTheBahamasisoccupiedhythe Universityofthe West IndiesCentrefor Hotel and Tourism Management (CHTM). Since this Centreisdirectly responsible to a Steering CommitteeofUWI. andnOlto the Bahamas MinistryofEducation, il W3.Oi not includedinthe self-study process forthepresent project. although it hasbeenrepresented by its HeadofDepanmenton the Central Study Team.CHTM offers a full-timeescprogramme in Hotel Management and Tourism Management and a DiplomainHOlelManagementA DiplomainTourism Managementisplanned.In1989.ofthe44 students 28 were ontheSSc programmeinhotel management.13on Ihe SSe programmeinTourismManagement.andthreeon Ihe Diploma programme.ThenumberofBabamian students entering tbis programme has always been low. Students fromBHTCarenot abletogain direct enlry. and COB student"i eligible (by an Associate Degree in Business)10do so rarely ll-,'


7apply. The Head ofDepanmentreponedinApril1990that at that time there was only onestudemfromTheBahamasatthe CHTM:"Itisnow evident thatthereisno interest from students from the Collegeofthe Bahamastoenterthe CHTM".Ofthe147graduatesoftheCHTMin.he period 1979-89.IIwere from The The ({uestion ofaniculation between the Bahamas institutions and theUWIhas been a subjectofprolonged discussion, and suggestions have recenlly heen made byUWItoimprove access by Bahamian studentstothe Centre. 9 h isnot possibletogive an accurate tigureofthe numbersofBahamian students who complete their studiesinothercountries.Theissuesofstudent choice and abilitytopay for overseas education. and the amountofpublic and private resources supponing students abroad,areimponamtothe present planning exercise. The numberofstudent visas issued by theUSEmbassyinNassau from OctoberI,1989through August31.1990was1J86(1019"academic" visas:. and167"vocational" visas).In1991there were73Bahamian students studyingatUWI campuses otherthaninNassau..Thenumber studying intheUKfellinrecent years. particularly as a resultofincreasesinfees, but although the precise numberisnot known. itisnow increasing.OtherBahamian students areatcolleges and universitiesinCanadaand elsewhere.Inaddition toGovernment scholarships for manyofthese students, private companies and others make scholarships available. In Grand Bahama. for instance,therearesignificant scholarship schemes by thePonAuthority andSynteJLThepublic utilitieS provide support for employees to study intheUSA,theUKand elsewbere. A calculation bytheCentral Bank putsthefunds going tosupponBahamian students abroadatwell over $20 million peryear, counting only those funds for which formal currency exchangeissoughtJOThe MinistryofEducation. a.'i we bave seen in a numberofrespects, plays a directpaninthecontrol and tinancingofthe


III II II I institUlions involvedinthe self-study. except for the Bahamas SchoolofNursing. which will remain the responsibility of the MinistryofHealth until its amalgamation' with The CollegeofThe Bahamas. The Ministry's relationshiptothe other three institutions. although differentin each case (for BHTC the Government providing only one shareofthelOtalhudget).isoneofvarying degreesofoversight and control.Inappoints. or has control over the appointment,offaculty. Together with the MinistryofFinance it has responsihility for expenditures.Itappoints members ofCOB Council. and the Minister has powers to guide, to direct and to intervene.Inthe caseofITC the Ministry receives and may adjust budcget proposals before theyaresubmitted as .panofthe Ministry's budget to the MinistryofFinance. Capital outlayisthe responsibilityof the GovernmentIn additiontocapilal and operating costs. the Bahamas Government contributestothe maintenanceofpost-secondary educationina numberofotherways.The1991estimates. for example. provided for a51million allocation for bonded scholarships and 5300.000 for student loans. 5100.000 for reacher trainee fees at COB, approaching $300,000 for COB student grants, scholarships and in-service awards aUofwhich tigures were down on thoseofthe previous year. Direct Government fundingofthe institutions has recently amounted. as we have seen.toover57minionfor COB.$L5millioo for ITC. $500.000 for BHTC, and approximately51.25million forBSN.Total Government funding substantially exceeds these amounts. when accountistakenofthe fundingofthe activitiesofthe MinistryofTourism. the Ministryof Public Personnel. andotheractivities in the public sector outlined above. While the pre."ent project was invitedtoconsider questionsofarticulation and rationalization among the four main institutions. those Questions havetobeplacedinthis wider settingofoverall provision and accessbyschool leavers and otherstoinitialandcontinuing education and traininginThe Bahamas.IIThe pictureofpost-secondary education therefore raises questions '1:7


IIUllJnly ofaniculation and the avoidanceofduplication. but alsoof the deploymentofresources. the roleofprivate post-secondary education and the monitoringofstandards across both public and private institutions. the discrete natureofmanyofthe activities and their quaJitications(orlackofthem) and therefore difticultiesofprogression intoorthrough higher levelsofeducationortraining. and the concentrationofprovisioninNew Providence and Grand Bahama. with sporadic effortstoextendpanicular activities tothe Family Islands. Although provisioninthe public sectoriscomplex and varied, it isdifficult to ponray whatison otTerinallofthese institutions and activities as a '\-ystemlt, a conclusion thatisaddressedinSectionVIIhelow.


V CONCERNSFor the purpose'sofplanningitis important 10underline several Sel'i ofconcerns those emphasizedbythe four main institutions In relation to theirownoperationsandfutures. those which emerge ascommon to allofthem. and those concerns for the future identitiedmore widely.Ofthe four institutions. specific concerns are morereadily identitlable in the casesofTheCollegeofTheBahamasand the industrial TrainingCentre.asrecentdecisions and developmenl'li have(0some extent muted thoseoftheother(Woinstitutions.2TheBahamas SchoolofNursing lookstothe future withconcernswhichare mainly"those associated with thetransferinto an institution ofhigher It:arning. Itisimportant for nursingtomaintain its identity andtocontinue lO grow as a profession.Itisalso vital that the institutionof higher learning recognises that nursingisa profession with a strong practical component so that the Nursing Division may make its own policies suitahle for the educationof nursesR ThedecisiontohecomepanofCOB has meant seeing the future in termsofmoves towards a baccalaureate degree for Registered Nurses, the possihilityofmasters' degrees in nursingaswellasolherposl-basic programmesandspecialized courses, an increaseinlibrary holdings, the establishmenl of researchinthe Nursing Division. andgrealeropportunities for continuing education for faculty.BSNhas planned possible roules throughthesYSlem far as maslers' degrees for existing Diploma Registered Nurses, Associate Degree Registered NursesandEnrolled Nurses. While planning for such possible progression BSN has in mind the importanceofthe professional components in the educationof OllTSes, andisclearly anxioustoensurethatthesearenot lostorminimized in the wider concernsofa larger institutioILA movetofour-yeardegreestatus for nursing would mean increased staffing insomeessential curriculum areas, and the transferofpOSt-


II[I I IIbasic programmes and development toward masters' degrees would mean a further txpansion of. particularly, slaffing resources.BSNand the new DivisionofHealth Sciences (whichitis intended tohouseinthe present premises) are fortunate in having new and appropriate accommodation. making itpossibletorecommend directions for resource developmentofotherkinds. 3 The reportofBHTC for its accreditation coincided with improvementsinexisting facilities and prospectsoffunherimprovement" a.'i aresultofWorld BankandEC support. Its concerns have therefore focused on the limitations imposed uponitbyconsiderationsofscale. The weaknessofthe Collegeisthatof"asmall institution and often desperatelyinneedofadditional personnelonthe full-time teaching staff'. The College sees itself as "not large enoughtobe able to afford the luxuryofsingle subject tutors". Therearetherefore operational difticulties and scheduJing problems. An exampleofits prohlemsofscaleisthatofmedia services.Ithas no designated viewing room for audio-visuaJ materials. a limited amountofreference texts and periodicals. and no full-time media staff (maintenance and repairs are carried out by private media repair companies). The College was hard hit by its budget reductionsin1991,preventing it from tillingimponantmanagerial and faculty vacancies. 4 The concerns emerging from COB's review clusterina numberofclearly detined categories: a) The ColJege has almost from the beginning considered that it has not been given the opponunitytobalance accountability with a requisite degreeofautonomy. The budgetary arrangements make itdifficult for the Collegetoplan.ineverything from staffing and programmes to grants for attendance at courses and conferences.Itbelieves that "whatismissing in the structureofcontrolshythe Minislries ofEducation and Financeisa visionofThe CollegeofThe Bahamas as an institutionofhigher education, capableof S't>


exerclsmg responsibility fur its academic and administrative operations. within broad guidelines laid down nationally and interpretedbythe College's Council. management and committees".Itslackofautonomy was impeding "its present functioning and future progress".Asearly as1976consultants (in Education for Natjonal Procress) were advising that the Government and the College neededto"review the conceptofthe College itself and its relationshiptothe MinistryofEducation". The College now recommends that The ofThe Bahamas Act"beamended to take accountofits transitiontofull higher education status...toprovide it with the degreeofbudgetary autonomy appropriatetoan institution at this level", b) The College underlines the weaknessesinits governing and academic structures.AllCouncil members are appointed at the same time and for one year.preventing continuity. The structure. methodofappointment and periodoftenureofthe Council therefore needs to be reviewed. including making provision for faculty representation on the CounciL c) The College emphasizes the provisionofadequate resources to enableittocarry out its mission and plan and develop as appropriate. The premisesareinadequate for the purposeof carrying out "its mission as the upper levelofGovernment provisionofpost-secondary education", and someofits needsareacute including the needtoupgrade and modernize the library. with regard to premises. processes and resources. Aspanofthe re-examinationofthe future method and leveloffunding, the College underlines the urgent need to review fee levels.d)Atthe openingofthe CollegeID1977theRlHon.LyndenO.Pindling, Prime MinisterofThe CommonwealthofThe Bahamas, stated: "Ten years from today wewilli have developed the UniversityofThe Bahamas ... the CollegeofThe Bahamas will have given way to the UniversityofTheBahamas", A UNESCO reviewofEducatjon, Trajnjne and Socjetyin1986echoed various comments by Ministers and


COB on development towards a four-year degree granting Preliminary discussions had begun, and UNESCO recommended careful planning to meet a provisional targetdateof1990.Lackofresources and the appropriate conditions have delayed implementationofa move rowards four-year degrees. but a heginningisbeing madein1991with banlcing. The Collegeisproposingtoconsolidate existing programmes where possible. and ro begin a phased developmentofother bachelors' degrees. heginning with nursing. accounting and management. and teacher education. followed by tourism. pre-law. engineering, journalism and natural sciences. These developments have resource implications. and also the long-delayed transfer from the Collegeofits College Preparatory and Pre-Technicalprogrammes. The Collegeisconcerned also about the lackofbalance in its recruitment, with some areasofnational imponance failingto attract candidates. It has needofa programme evaluation machinerytosupplement its existing monitoring procedures.Itislookingtothe possibilityofdeveloping post-graduate diploma and masters' degrees,inordertorespond to increasing demand. e) The transferofCollege Preparatory work from the College can be achievedbyencouraging high schoolstoadd another year's work. allowing studentstorepeat levelsorthe future BGCSE.byexperiments such as the one currently conducted with The Bahamas Baptist College. andbythe establishmentof "a new community-college type institution with more tlexible admissions" than COB.t)Despite having a well qualified and professionally competent faculty. the College emphasizes that moraleislow.Salaries do not retlect the level and qualityof work, and salaries and fringe benetitsarenot competitive with thoseinbusiness and industry. Staffing levelsarepoor. Differences in conditionsofservice between Bahamians and non-Bahamians make for dissatisfaction. The College urges the implementationofnew salary scales, the removalofbarriers that divide faculty, a sabbatical policy and morereadyaccess to academic and professionaldevelopmentg) The College also underlines its inability to implement the


research plans detined foritat its foundation.byMinisters. UNESCO and andinits own planning.Itemphasizes the needtostrengthen its capabilitytoundenakeapplicabJe researchinpanicular.inorderto to the needsofthe Government. industry and commerce, society and the institution's own curriculum and teaching h)Thereisemphasis on the need to contrihute more fullytothe pre-service and in-service preparationofteachers. and to collaborate more closely with the MinistryofEducation Learning ResourcesUnitA serious concernisthe failuretoauractsufticient numbersofintending teachers.i)The College expresses general concernsoftwOother kinds. Its 1989-90 enrollment tigures show that1.5 % ofthe populationofThe Bahamas was servedhythe Collegeinthat year -a low figure whensetagainst the fact that aquanerofthe populationisofschool age. The College, secondly, has found itSelf increasinglyincompetition with non-accredited private institutions. since The Bahamas has not developed a systemofaccreditation.Ittherefore stronglysupponsmoves towards the establishmentofsuch a system, to include both public and private institutions. 5 The concernsofthe Industrial TrainingCentrerevolve around a small numberofceotral concepts. The tirst and dominant concern is thatoflackofdirection. and panJcularly the failure to implement proposals for a National Training Council with responsibility for the coordination and managementoftechnical and vocational education and training.Allthe specific concernsaresubsumed in the. lTC's regret that the National Training Council has been and in the recommendationthatParliament should pass the Bill intended for adoptionin1986.6A related concernisthe lackofautonomy, given that the Centre bas a mission to respond to national needs butisunable properlyto \)


evaluate those needs and makeappropriateplans.Itdoes not have a secure policy and hudgetary hase.doesnOlhave a large enoughmanagement team to enable it to go beyond the day (0 day runningofthe institution and carry out the long-term planning anddevelopmentnecessaryifthe institutionis [0 carryoutitsmandate.Itconsiders essential the adoptionofa salary scalethatwouldenableittocompetewith industry andatrraClandrelainquality instructors.7 IngeneralITC emphasizes theneedto makebetterfinancial provision to enableittoaccomplish its mission. It needs theequipmentand supplies whichcansupponquality technicalandvocational training.Inadditiontoimprovementsinmanagementand staffing itunderlines theladeofa learning resources unit with responsibilities for curriculumdevelopmentand staff development. a technical library and audio-visualandotherresourcesandservices. It poinlo;; to theneedfor housingpanicularlyfor Family Island trainees.andthe endingofthestipend system(tobereplaced by a small fee, and a system of tinancial aid for thosewhoquaJify for assistance).TheCentreurges priority for increased tinance to enabletheCentretomeetthe known and future needsofBahamianindustry and commerce, and theautonomythat wouldenableittoenterinto specific training contraclo;; with companies willing to paytbeCentreto provide trainingthatwouldmeettheirpanicularneeds. 8Theareas of mostcommonconcern to the instilUtionsareall inter-related: tinance, amoDomy. planningand-toa lesser extent accreditationandcenitication.AUtbeinstitutions expressanunderlying tinancial difficulty in meetingthepresentand'future needsoftbeeconomy, tbe society, the professions.Theyarenotunaware of the economic difficulties facingthecountry,butunderline acommitmentto the long-termdevelopmentofthecountry's economyaDdservicesthatcan onlybeimplemented with a sufficientdeploymentofresources.Theyexpress theneed.secondly. forthedegreeof \'12


autonomy that would enable themtooperate as competent. mature and responsible institutions. B HTC. as a resultofits tripartite basis, already has a degreeofautonomy. but COB and ITCinpanicular indicate theconsuaimsimposed on their activitieshythe detailed supervisionoftheir expenditureby the MinistriesofEducation and Finance. They also both underline the need for them to be abletoalter their status with regard tothingfees and contracting for incomeinthemarketThe institutions, thirdly, feel these constraints not only on their present activities. but on their abilitytoplan. COB and ITC have concerns, different in detail, about their respective Councils, research and manpower forecasting. The instilUtions are all forward lookingintheir desiretoserve the constituences for whicb they have mandates, and are awareoftheir relationships to the wider sectorsofeducation and work. They are awareofthe practicaland physical difticuhiesofproviding for present and increased numbers ofstudentsinNew Providence and Grand Bahama, and the problemofextending their activitiestoprovide equitable access for the populationsofthe Family Islands. These difficulties include thoseofadequate premises, residential facililies for sludents. stafting, equipment. libraries andotherfacilities. The Central Study Team.inlooking at the future patternofposi-secondary educationinThe Bahamas has been clearly awareofthe achievemenL'i hut alsoofIhe difficulties highlightedinthe self-studies carried outbythe institutions. 9 Ministers, private institutions. employers and others have pointed to someofthe issues oullined above, but also to some others. Questionsofaccess10initial and training further training have been raised, notablyinrelation to the Family Islands. and the expansionofthe provision alreadyinplace in Freeport. Queslionsofquality assurance and accreditation have been raised in many connections, as has the questionoftransfer between education and training programmesofdifferent kinds. The balanceofopportunity between post-secondary educalion in The Bahamas andinolhercountries, and the '5{


appropriate ofensuring a supplyofqualified manpower. have frequently surfaced. These andotherconcerns that have been identitied have been addressed in the proposals containedinSection VII below.


VICONTEXTSFORPLANNINGPlanning the developmentofan education system and component parts takes placeina varietyofinter-related contexts, which may emergewithdifferent ordersofpriorityatdifferent times. Changesintheeconomyorin panicuJar sectorsofthe economy.inpopulation andiLSdistribution.inpolitkaldirection, andinsodalandcultural aspirationsareofdirect relevance both for the deploymentofresources for educational purposes, and for the responsesofeducational institutions and their faculties and students. Public and private.investment in education looks forshan-termorlonger-term outcomes,and the two may be m compeulJon. Determining prioritiesisparticularly important and difficult insmall countries and with its populationofjustoveraquanerofa million,TheBahamasis,for example. oneofthe18Commonwealth countries with a populationofaquanerofa millionorless. Countriesofthis scaJeface problemsofhigh vulnerabilitytointernational economic changes, andseek:toestablish themselves both as independent nations and as members ofregional groupingsoralliances. Planning for post-secondary education therefore takes placeinmultiple contexts. 2 Using1980Census figures.theDepanmentofStatisticsin1987 a populationofjustover 253,000in1990,and the1990Census in fact gaveitspreliminary count (May1990)as 254,685. The1990 Preliminary Results indicate thatthepopulation bad increased by2L56 % inthe decade. an average annual growth rateofI.97 % -slightly lower than that fortheprevious decade (mainly as a resultofdeclines inthebinhand immigration rates). New Providencein1990,with a populationof171,542,accounted forjustover67 % ofthetotalpopulation. an increase which continued the previousLTendofa shiftofpopulationtoNew Providence fromtheFamily Islands.GrandBabama accounted for 16% ofthepopulation. New Providenceand s7


Grand Bahama therefore registered the greatest population gainsinthis period, while otherFam,ilyIslands registered either small gainsorlossesofdifferent magnitudes. The Bahamasisnot only a country with a population dispersed across 17islands with populations numbered in either hundredsorthousands, and others with smaller numbers. butisalso one with a persistent population movement towards the main urban centresofNew Providence and Grand Bahama. Over83 % ofthe population are residentinthose two islands. Abaco. Andros and Eleuthera account for more thananother 10%. 3 The Bahamian economyisbased primarily on tourism and financial operations.. After a dip at the beginningofthe19805tourism rose steadilyinthe1980s,until the international recession and theGulfwarof 1991. Tourism and finance have been the principal meansofcounteracting the country's trade balance. The Bahamas has, however, faced the traditional problemsofa small country with a limited rangeofproduction and manufactures, and intentions to diversify the economy through agriculture and fisheries, for example have been difficult to implementThe country therefore has the problemofinvesting in activities that will resultina more baJanced economy,orstrengthening further its e:

levels at which COB and ITC operateisdependent on the policy priorities and forecastsofthe Government, and thoseofindustry, commerce and public services. 4 The developmentofmanufacturing industry has been weak., and has heen concentrated largelyinGrand Bahama, while the main Government and public services. including post-secondary education, are concentratedinNew Providence. Oneofthe difficulties faced by existing companiesisthe continuedshonage of skilled technicians, mechanics and other personnel. Thereisno reservoirofskilled technical and manpower for the establishmentofnew companiesorthe extensionofexisting ones. Some small enterprises (includinginthe hospitality and leisu.re industries) have needofnon specialist technicians. While there has heen a change in the past decade in attitudes towards technology and technical training, thereisstill emphasishyMinisters and others on the need to overcome traditional resistancetotechnology.Theimplications for post secondary education are considerable. Existingeffonsinthe fields oftechnical instructor training, mobile units and occupatiooaJ training centres areimponantITC's interest in contract trainingtomeet the needsofspecific firms or sectorsisone response to known and future needs. The shonageofapplicants for someofCOB's economically imponant programmesisa problem for the education system and society generally. The imponance attached by employersinGrand Bahama to the Freeport Centre raises questions about the developmentofthe work conducted there by COB, BHTC andne.The steady growthofthe participationofwomen in the labour force (for example, from 57.4 % in1980to64 % in1986)points towards other considerations to be taken into account in relating post-secondary education to economic policy and the realitiesofthe labourmarket5Thevulnerabilityofthe tourist industry to international conditionsisretlected in the levellingoffofjobs in the industryinthe !,l


late1980s. and the jobs crisisofthe early 1990s. Manyofthe countriesinthe Caribbean region are faced with the same problemofheavy reliance on tourism. and Caribbean-wide discussions bothofeconomic diversitication andofimprovementsinprovision for tourism have taken place under various auspices.InThe Bahamas consideration has been given to further extensionoftourist-related facilities in New Providenceand Ihe Family Islands. and10improving lhe levelofservice providedby hospitality industry personnel. Within the industry in The Bahamas (and in association with theUWTCentre) attention has been giventodeveloping a national certification programme for the Bahamas hospitality industry, one which would enhance existing training provision, classify levelsofexpenise, and helptomotivate employees.Thetripartite basis established for BHTC has been one meansofresponding to changesinthe industry, andifimprovements in the qualityofinitial and in-service training for personnel in the industry are to be effected the abilityofthe institutions concerned to respond rapidly and flexiblyisofconsiderable imponance. The relevant activities are thoseofBHTC. COB and the Bahamahost Programme, and on a wider front, thoseoftheUWICentre. ProposalsinSection VII below address these issues. 6 Other featuresofBahamian society form contexts for the planning and provisionofpost-secondary education. Educational policy and planning may respond to change,orto clearer insights into the present situation. Healthisa signiticant example. With support from the Inter-American DevelopmentSaole:plans were formulated for the replacementoftwo hospitals. in Nassau and Freeport.Anassociated Bahamas Health Project has conducted a needs assessementoffuture health-related personnel, and has proposed a national manpower coordinating committee. The outcomeofany such analysisisa pictureof existing and projected services. management and employment needs. and projectionsoftraining needstomeet the likely demand for the replacementofexisting personnel or the expansionofpanicular services. bo


It is knowledgeofthis kind that determines. for example, how ohen COB should offer the Associate Degree programmeinEnvironmental.Health Sciences that it introducedin1985..Knowledgeofthis kind also helps to determine hoth the curriculaofnurse education programmes, and the rangeofpost-basic and short-eourse provision. 7 Post-secondary education. likethe country itself,isresponsivetoa numberofditTereDt but inter-eonnected international contexts. The Bahamas has traditional links with the CommonwealLh. and through the United Kingdom with Europe. Its economyisclosely related to thatofthe United States. The Prime Minister describes the country as beingofthe Western Hemisphere. and therefore "wearevery concerned about developments in the region, and wewillbe active, and playing active rolesinhemispheric agencies" (Collinwood and Dodge, political LeadershipjnThe Bahamas). Although on the fringesofthe Caribbean, The Bahamas has links through CARICOM and other agencies with Caribbean and neighbouring countries.It has the responsibilitiesofan independent nation and the needsofa country which shares regional economic and other problems. Post-secondary educationisaffected indirectlybymanyofthese connections. but directlyinsome cases.InOctober1990,for example, the PrincipalofCOB accompanied the MinisterofEducillion at a meetingofCommonwealth Ministers which discussed a Higher EducationSupponScheme for developing Commonwealth countries, concerned with such matters as library resources, textbook and faculty andstaffdevelopment BHTC ha"i had European financialsuppan,and has been involvedinplanning a Caribbean developmentinthe fieldofcertification and accreditl.ltion. The ManagerofITCiscurrently Presidentofthe Caribbean Association (or Technical/Vocational Education and Training, and the PrincipalofCOBisa memberofthe Councilofthe Association of Caribbean Tertiary Institutions.Inteacher education andinother ways the relationship with (he Universityofthe West Indiesisstrong. and the networkofrelationshipsbythebI


IIII II7vanous institutionswithsister institutions throughout the world is extensive. These regional and imerna60nal contexts provideopponunities for exchanging students. personnel, information and ideas. They make collaboration possible at different levels, and theysupplement the necessarily limitedopponunitiesand experienceofinstitutionsina relatively small country.8AtiDalcontext forpost-secondary educationisthe widereducational system itself.In1988-89 the (mal enrollment in Babamianschools was almost 60,000.ofwhom approximately three-quaners wereinMinistryofEducation schools. More than 36,000 wereinprimaryand aU-age schools, and23,.500in secondary schools. There are morethan 3.000 teachers.ofwhomthree-quanersarein Ministry schools. More than halfofthe teachersareBahamian. The numbersofschools, teachers and pupils vary considerablyinrelationtothe distributionofpopulation across the Bahamian islands and communities., with the largest numbersofschools in New Providence. Andros. EJeutbera and Grand Bahama. The distribution and sizeofschools makes it difficult in many cases to provide in-service programmes for teachers, and thereisoften a sense that Family Island schoolsareUDder-privilegedbycomparison with thoseinNew Providence. Family Island secondary schools have difficulties in Obtaining and retaining expatriatestafffor shonageareas.Governmentmeasuresareunder discussiontoimprove the recruitment and conditionsofteachers. and measures relatingtochanges in the curriculum and examinations have been recently introduced.TheCentral Advisory Council for Education has been activeinthese andother respec'ts, including recommendations regarding the curriculum, school autonomy and a cultural enrichment programme for schools.Inonewayoranother the wholeofthe educational system has been brought under scrutiny. 9 Thereareobvious ways in which the systemofschooling relates to post-secondary provision.Thestatusoftechnical andpractical by .


knowledgeinthe schools a direct bearing on recruitment for programmes in. for example. tet.:hnology, agriculture and tourism. The natureofthe examination and qualification system at school level influences thinking about admissions procedures at post-secondary institutions.Inthe present phaseofplanning the crucial factorsineducation and society are those which affect the post-secondarypanicipation rate. Of the eligible population lhe current panicipationrateinsome formoffull-time post-secondary educationisnot more than 5 %, and the Government and the institutions themselves are awareofthe need to increase the rate. The proposalsinSectionVIIbelow haveinview a targetofa10 % rate, against a backgroundofthe decreasing growth rateofthe population. and the possibilitiesofdiversificationofthe economy. which would intluence the kindsofjobs for which education and training programmesareplanned. Thisisnot a question onlyofmanpower forecasting and institutional provision. butisone alsoofthe culture within which decisions about further education aTe takenArticulation between secondary and post-secondary education depends partly on careers guidance. the recruitment effortsofthe post-secondary institutions, and an understandingofthe rangeofoppportunities available. It also depends on a diversityofroutes through the post-secondary system. and the perceptionofteachers. parents and the pupils themselvesofthe varietyoffull-time. part-time and mixed mode possibilities. distance education and in-house training, as meanstoqualifications andemploymentThe educational context for post-secondary planningistherefore an involvementofthe whole educational system in developing the cultural basis on which increased accesstopost-secondary education can take place.10The proposalsinSection VII also take accountofthe needsofteachers for greater in-service training and support. For lackofresources COB has been unable lo makeanadequate contributioninthis field. and at leastone independent school, has given consideration to providing its own in-service programme with accreditation from '3


overseas. The MinistryofEducation's Learning ResourcesU nit. again with limited resources, makes a significant contribution to supporting schools and teachers throughout the Family Islands.An OAS supported project to develop distance education was aimed specifically at improving the curriculum and teaching in the FamiJy lsland schools...but was discominued for lackofresources. The needofunqualitied and relatively inexperienced teachers, and teachers and administrators in the schools more generally, for constant developmentisoneofthe key educational contexts for future planning, building particularly on the experienceofthe Learning ResourcesUnitIIThe proposals in the following section therefore follow not only from the analyses and perspectivesofthe post-secondary institutions but aJso fromtheeconomic and other considerations briefly outlined. The assumption is that post-secondary provision has to take accountofthe wishes and choicesofstudents, but alsoofthe conditions which influence those choices,theemployment opportunities to which they point. and the needsofthe nation to sustain an acceptable rateofeconomic and sociaJdevelopment


VIITHEPROPOSALS The principles on which the proposalsare based follow from the national and institutional features outlined above. They include the need forgreaterinstitutional and programme articulation and increased accesstopost-secondary education,hetteropportunities for tlexible progression through the system. a more rapid achievementofthe goals thathave been set for and by the institutions, a more rational deploymentofresources. and increased capability for post-secondary education to be responsivetoneedsandresponsible for ways for meetingthem_The MinisterofEducation has summarized the needs that changes in post-secondary education should take into account:"Ithe needofthe country for skilled manpower: 2 theneedoftheGovernmentfor the most effective useofresources in the present inorderto have the most positive outcomes in the future; 3 the needofthe institutions foradequatefinance. mainly. but not solely, from public sources; 4 the needofthe institutions for levelsofautonomy appropriate to a levelofmature development; 5 the needofthe society for contrihutionstoits cultural expression and development; 6 the needofstudents for accesstoand progression through the system; 7 the needofstudents for optionstocomplete their studies inTheBahamas; 8 the needofnursing, banking, tourism. teaching andotherindustries and services to recruitatthe right levelofprofessional preparation, and to secure appropriate kindsofin-service training; 9 the needoftheGovernmentand the economy for applicable research". With its present structures education inTheBahamasis b5>'"


(not adequate to meet these challenges. 2 The basic search thereforeisfor a systemofpost-secondary education that would bring together alltheelements required, permit the developmentofthe kindsofprogrammes needed, and make the changes necessary for tbe institutions, students and outcomes. Additionally, access and progression, equity, and the assuranceofstandards between the main public sector institutions and other institutions and programmesinthe public and private sectors have been important elements in shaping the following proposals. 3A Bahamas Coordinatini Board for Post-Secondary Education. This Board will be responsible to the Government for overseeing all post-secondary institutions in The Bahamas. [t will identify and recommend means to provide for economic,cuItural and individual development through degree and non-degree programmes at the tertiary level. Its functions will include planning, coordinating the mission and scopeofinstitutions, and developing annual recommendations to the Minister of Education regarding fiscal support for the institutions. The Board will be appointedbythe MinisterofEducation following consultation with bodies reflecting the economic, cultural and geographical diversityofThe Bahamas including leadersofindustry and commerce, the professions, the clergy, labour, education and Government service The fifteenorso members will therefore also reflect that diversity. They will be appointed for three-year terms, renewableoDce,aDdby rotation to assure both continuity and turnover. They will be appointed by individual invitation, and Wi)) not be "representatives"ofparticular constituencies. Non-voting, ex-officio members will include the MinisterofEducation, tbe Permanent Secretaryofthe MinistryofEducation, and the DirectorofPublic EducatiolL The Board will have aChiefEducation Officer andstaffTheCEOwill be the regular meansofcommunication between the Board and tbe institutions, passing information, proposals and


recommendations between them. and overseeing the detailsofplanning and data collection for post-secondary education as a whole. The Boardwillalso have advisory or other bodies as appropriate. For example, the National Training Council couldbean advisory body to the Board on all matters to do with vocational and technical education and training. While nominated and financedby Government, therefore, the Board will have the independence necessary to make judgments about and oversee the implementationofpolicy for post-secondary education. 4 An Accreditation Board. With an equivalent levelofautonomy, and working in close conjunction with the Coordinating Board. will be an Accreditation Board responsible for assuring the quality and comparabilityofall institutional and programmatic aspectsofpost-secondary education. The Coordinating Board will be required to act on the outcomesofthe evaluation functionsofthe AccreditationBoardThe Accreditation Board will apply the same accreditation standardstoall institutions for the same levelofqualifications. It will apply the same criteria to public and private institutions seeking to secureorrenew accreditation. The Board, either itselforthroughreview committees,willconduct all institutional reviews. but will have the authority to delegate programme accreditation in specific areas tootherbodies (for example, in nursing, hotel and tourism,ortechnical programmes). Offshore institutions wishing to offer post-secondary programmes in The Bahamas will be required to be accredited Companies offering in-house training programmeswi))alsobeabletoseek accreditationofsuch programmes as contributory to qualifications recognized by the AccreditationBoardThe Board's grantingofaccreditation will therefore beatdifferent levels, and will related to credit accumulation possibilities discussed below. The Board will consistofmembers nominated by the MinisterofEducation after appropriate consultation, and will need to reflect a rangeoffamiliarity and experienceofpost-secondary institutions and 01


processes. Given the lackofother academic institutions within the country from whichtoselect members with relevant experience and able to make an independent contribution, it will benecessary to include members with experienceofaccreditation' and quality assurance procedures in other countries includingtheUniversityofthe West Indies, the United States, Britain and Canada. It will beimportant for the Boardtohave members from commerce, public service and elsewhere, but given the natureofthe workofthe Board, a majorityofits members willbefrom academiclife"education and the professions. 5A University CQlle2e ofThe Bahamas (UCOB). The proposalisto recQnstitute the existingfQurpost-secQndary institutions as two institutions, the firstofwhichisa University CollegeofThe Bahamas. This will contain the levelsofwork appropriate to an institution concentrating essentially on degree-level qualifications. It will rapidly develop bachelor's level degreesofthe kind and in the phases proposed in COB's self-study, and will offer Associate Degrees and other qualifications relating totheareas for which it provides baccalaureate level teachingorfor which it is planningtodoso.Itwill aimtQdevelop post-graduate and masters' degrees.Itwill be the institution at which all four-year programmes will be developed, including those in nursing for which decisions have already been taken, and in tourism andresonmanagement currently being developedbyCOB.Itwill notofferanyoftheCollege Preparatory, Pre Technology, secretarialorotherpre-degree level programmes currently offeredbyCOB. The University College will have its own Governing Board, anditwill have the autonomy necessarytocontrol its own expenditure, subjecttonormal auditing procedures. Its budget for submissiontothe MinistryofEducation willbeprepared in consultation with the Coordinating Board and will be received as a blockgrantAsa corporate body the University College willbeabletoraise funds from other sources, receive donations, and in consultation with the 1,&


Coordinating Board establish fee levels. The Board will be appointed on the same principles those relating to the Coordinating Board, but will a]so include faculty and student representation, and will similarly be appointed for a three-year period and be replacedbyrotationtoensure continuity. The Board will be responsible for the appointmentofthe Principal It will delegate all matterstodo with teaching and assessment tothe AcademicBoardThe College may wish to conductjointdegrees or other programmes with other institutions, suchasthe Universityofthe West Indies. The name "University College"isintended to reflect the past historyoftertiary level education at The CollegeofThe Bahamas, and point forward tothe intended developmentoftheUCDaas a University. 6 Although research may be widely conducted, its predominant location win beatthe UeDB.Itisimponantfor faculty to have opportunities to pursue their individual research interests (including as partofthe patternoffaculty professional development) but planning the futureofpost-secondary education means placing emphasis on institutional and national research needs. The former may focus on the curriculum and the improvementofclassroom instruction, and the latter on applicable research in response to needs assessment conductedinthe institution or elsewhere. Economic and social developmentisincreasingly becoming (in the wordsofa recent World Bankrepon)"more knowledge-intensive": eachcountry "will need to develop a capacity to undertake research to address its own problems...to ensure .... economic viability and development". For The Bahamas this will include such concerns to be addressedaseducation, health, transportation and a rangeofsocial and technological issues. The research may be policy-related or field-related, and may be funded by Government, the private sector or research foundations, maybeconducted independently or jointly, within departments or in specially created temporary or permanent centres. A "research environment"ofvisiting scholars and the meansofmaking widely available the outcomes b-l


ofresearchinthe country and from other countries will beimportant not only to the VCOB but alsotothose who benefit from the applicationofresearch Government, industry, commerce, the professions and society generally. 7A Community ofThe Bahamas (CCOBl. The new CQmmunity College will undertake pre-University CQllege general education and lower level programmes. currently offeredatCOB, BHTC and ITC. Itwinhave relatively open entry, and its highest levelofprogramme will be the Associate Degree. Itwillshare with tbe secondary schools responsibility for College Preparatory level work, and offer a rangeQfcourses aiming both at specific occupational outcomes and at flexible preparation for work or further study. It will incorporate the majorityofprogrammes currently offered by BHTC, transferring tothe VCOB those beyond the Associate Degree level. In cases suchashotel and tourism programmes studentswillbe able to go through the more practical route currently offered by BH TC or the more management-oriented route that will be a featureofthevcoa'sprogrammes, and be able to spend four years in the VCOB or transfer to theVCOBafter the initial programme in the Community College. The CCOB will incorporate alltheprogrammes currently offered by lTC, extending tbeminthe directionsofneed highlightedin lTC's self study. The technical/vocational programmeswillbe either terminal or preparatory forhilgherlevel work in the UCOB's technology programmes.Byretaining the present craft and trade level programmes and extending into the next levelsofwork, the CCOB will respond to current shortagesattechnicianlevelAs "open access" institution, theCCOB will provide the wider access recommended by both fTC and COB in their self-studies, and will be a major factor in promotJing not only increased access but a]so easier progression through post-secondary education on tbe basisofdifferent modesofstudy andofa credit system as outlined below. The CCOB will, like the University College, have its own Board, appointed on tbe basisofthe to


same principles, with the same degreeoffinancial autonomy, and subject to the same procedures under the Coordinating Board.Itwill have the same powers to raise finance and control expenditureasthe UCOB, and its Governing Board will represent an appropriate rangeofindustriaJ, commerciaJ, professional and other expertise. Through the..Coordinating Board and in other ways the CCOB will work closely with the UCOB in planning prorammes and the deploymentofresources, andincertain fields will share both facilities and staffing. 8A Centre for Extension and Distance Education. The present Continuing Education and Extension Services DivisionofCOB will necessarily have a wider role to playinthe new structure. (t will be apanofneitherofthe two main teaching institutions, butwiJIwork closely with both.Itwill have its own Board, containing representativesofthe two Colleges, and will have direct fundingasinthe caseofthe other two institutions. It will be subject tothe same coordinating proceduresasthe other institutions. The Centre will continue to provide the rangeofextension servicesasat present, but will have two main developmental functions. First, it will be working with a wider rangeofdepartmentsinthe two Colleges, andwiJIhave a major role in pioneering new programmes, especially at the in-service level, and win be an important bridge between the Colleges and the worldofwork and the community. Secondly, it will be responsible for continuing to explore opportunities for developing distance education at various levels and in various tields, particularly for the Family (slands. This may mean an independent Bahamian distance education development,orit may mean workingwithCaribbean, American and Commonwealth distance education operations. Equity requires such a development, and attempts by COB and ITC particularly to expandinthis way have so far been either modestorfrustrated Distance education may offer opportunities at the pre-College or College levels, for qualifications, as partofa patternofstudy which includes attendanceatan institution also, the useofexisting premises such as 7/


(II IIschools, churches or hospitals. and extending in-service and professional development opportunitiestonurses, teachers, technicians, administrators and others who are relatively isolated and otherwise havefeworno opponunitiestogain access to knowledge, skills and developmentsintheir respective tields. More than anyotherproposal this affects the Family Islands, and thereisa rangeofoptions for its implementation. 9 Library. A single library will serve the needsofpost-secondary education, though it will have branch libraries, the number depending on the locationof .the institutions. This may be conceived as a "nationaJ library", though the terminology will depend on decisions elsewhere about the future library service for The Bahamas, andtherelationship between library provision for post-secondary education and other needs. This library win, however. need to be a strong library serving the academic requirementsofstudents, faculty, and all those in The Bahamas for whom an information and research libraryisimportantThe librarywillbe computerized to enable accesstothe catalogue to be obtained from branches. A centralized libraryofthis kindwillbeessential for all the developments arising from these proposals.10InherentInthese proposals for increased access and easier progressionisthe conceptof"credit". Someofthe existing programmes in the institutions involve the allocationofcredit, including by COB and essential for those students transferring to institutions in the United States.Anaccreditation system as proposed above, however, makes it possible considerably to extendtheconceptofcredit accumulation and transfer. This means a numberofthings. First, all courses at the Colleges will be rated for credit, so that students can build up a credit protile that can carry them throughtoa varietyofqualifications, eachofwhich will have its own credit requirements and be recognized by the AccreditationBoardTransfer between the institutions will therefore be easier to plan. Secondly, courses inother 12---


public sector institutions will. under the accreditation system. be eligible to apply for credit rating, to enable students to enter CCOB or UCOB programmes. ThiswiJlapply, for example, to Bahamahost courses. those offeredbythe Public Service Training Centre, and the general educationorother componentsofprogrammes at the Police College. Manyofthe courses run by theCentrefor Continuing, Extension and Distance Education, either aloneorin collaboration,willsimilarly be able to be credit rated. Teachers and others attending in-service courses, including by distance education, will have credit accumulated towards qualifications. Thirdly, the same will applytoaccredited private institutions, making their students with sufficient credits eligible to apply for entry to programmesatthe two Colleges. Fourthly, private and public corporations winbeabletoapply for accreditation for particular in-house education and training programmes, and studentswillbe able to use the credit towards Conege qualifications. This will apply, for example, to the courses run by BEC, BATELCO and others. Fifthly, for those students who donot work for qualifications, the creditwinformpartoftheir recorded profile, and will be available for considerationifapplying for re-entry to part-time or full-time study at a later date. Finally, the conceptofcredit will apply to the developmentoffuture programmes atthepost-graduate and masters' degree level. Post-basic courses in nursing, diploma level workbythe Public Service Training Centre, andotheradvanced workwiJIindue course either become masters' programmesorwill earn credit for students towards such programmes. Since the Accreditation Board will be responsible for standards across all post-secondary institutions and programmes, it willberesponsible for the operationo.fthecredit accmulation and transfer system, ensuringtheapplicationofacceptable, standardcriteriaIIOnthebasisofthe above proposals, the diagramoffuture provisionatthe post-secondary level inTheBahamaswilltherefore be asfoHows: 1'3


MinisterofEducationPrivateBahamas.AccreditationBoardI .JPublicCouncil CouncilBahamasCoordinatingBoardforPost-SecondaryEducation... ',;' .. ,I, I'I '-------". .... I IIICouncilIUniversityCollegeoftheBahamasCentreforIILibraryContin-uing,Extension &DistanceEducCommunityCollegeoftheBahamas 1._._. FreeportCentrePROPOSEDSYSTEMOFPOST-SECONDARYEDUCATION


12The above proposed structure for post-secondaryeducation responds to the objectives set out in the termsofreference of the projectItalso makes possible close attention to a numberofaspectsofpost-secondary education not addressed in detail in the project For example, the credit system and more flexible opportunities for progression, together with wider access in general, will enable the system to respond more fully to the needsofstudents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and also to students with disabilities. A second exampleisthe opportunity for more autonomous institutions not only to plan their programmes within the coordination machinery, but also to plan collaborative activities more readily, and to make rational decisions on what nottooffer, given more appropriate availability elsewhere in the countryorabroadThe limitationofthe numberofprincipal teaching institutions to two, the centralizationoflibrary and distance education and extension services, and the frameworkofcoordination and accreditation,willprovide the country with the rational system it currently lacks.


VIII COSTS The most difficult aspectofforecasting implementationofthe proposalsisthatofestimating costs. and therefore the realistic rate at which the proposals can beimplementedInthe time scale and with the resources available, it has not been possible to estimate with any degreeofaccuracy the costs involved, particularly as in relation to major elements in the proposals there are alternativestobe investigated Buildings may be constructedoradaptedDifferent locations may be chosen for different purposes. Distance education can be implemented at different levelsoftechnological sophistication. The following are therefore someofthe indicative costings and related recommendations that have beenexplored2(norderto achieve a post-secondary serving10%ofthe population by theyear2000, theVniversity Collegewillhave approximately 5,000 and theCommunity College some 20.000. Initially, with the lossofits College Preparatory and other work, and the build-upoffour-year programmes, theVCOBwill be smaller than the present COB, but will needtoplan to almost double its sizeina relatively short spaceoftime. Consideration has been given to the possibilityofestablishing theVCOBontheentire Oakes Fieldareaoranother site in New Providence, but also to the potential for locating the Vniversity College at a site inGrandBahamaoranother Family Island where the infrastructureisalready in place for example, AndrosorAbaco. There are difficulties inallpossible decisions, but itisclear that for an institution to operate effectively at this level new, customized premises arerequiredThe aim in anearfutureisto transform the College into TheVniversityofThe Bahamas, and tbis, and the interim developmentoftheVDiversity College, can be achieved onlybyproviding the kindofbuildings and facilities that will make it possible for appropriate programmestobe delivered at appropriate


levels. A major capital costistherefore involved in this proposal, but the orderofmagnitude can be determined onlybyacceptanceofthe proposal in principle,tobe followedbydetailed examinationofdecisions regarding the location, scale and requirementsofthe newVCOs.3 The recurrent costs and their phased development can also be estimated only as the phasingofthe introductionofnew programmesisagreedSome programmes, while moving to baccalaureate status, may begin with modest numbers and require relatively modest initial increases in full-timeorpart-time faculty support. Others may be more ambitious, in order to meet extensive needs. The latter may be true, for example,ofthetransferofthe BEd programme from UWl toVeDB,and its extension into other fieldsofurgent need inTheBahamas including primary education and other secondary fields, suchasscience and mathematics. Other recurrent costs may also vary considerably in relation to the enhanced programmes for example, in computing, laboratories, equipment and supplies. 4 The costingofthe proposed developmentoftheCommunity Collegeissimilarly difficult, given the need to extend agreement in principle on the proposal to greater detailofits programmes, bothinNew Providence and in the Family Islands. Several campuses in New Providence could be used for the proposed CCOB. What will be neededwillbe detailed estimatesofthe future take-upoffull-time and part-time programmes, the extentofthe premises and facilities required. the continuing need for updating available equipment in specific fieldsofstudy (such as food and beverage and electrical trades), and the projected needs .for skilled manpowerinexisting and projected areasofeconomicdevelopment5 Detailed consideration was as an exampleofthe financial planning that will need to take place. to the future developmentofthe


rlibrary for post-secondary education. Some basic principles included150volumes per full-time faculty member and 25-30 volumesperfull time student, with a minimumof 350400 perundergraduate major and minor fieldsofstudy. and 6,000 volumesperdiscipline for a master's level fieldItisestimated that to keep the library's collection up to date an annual aHocationof6%ofthe institutions' recurrent budget will berequiredFor the collection and library space0.10sqftpervolumeisrequired for the first 150,000 volumes. An estimateofone "user space" for every fourorfive students (depending on the amountofresidential provision) is required.25%ofthe sum j ofspace provided for users and booksis need e for administrativeaCUvtty.One professional librarianisneeded for each 500 full-time students,upto10,000fuJI-time students, with an additional professional librarian for each additional1,000students, and one for each100,000volumes and for each 5,000 volumes addedperyear. Also needed are library assistants, clerks, student aid, remedial technician andothersupport staff The new library will serve the needsofexisting programmes, for which book, periodical and learning materials provisionisalready seriously inadequate, and new programmes as theyareintroduced Without the establishmentofa library on such a basis the developmentofaccess and provision in post-secondary education cannot be sustained. A new building for the library and learning resourcesisa pre-requisite, and the MinistryofEducation has in the past produced preliminary architect's drawings for such a building. 6 Distance education possibilities were considered in depth, with referencetothe previous OAS-supported project,current activitybythe Continuing Education and Extension Services DivisionofCOB, recent American developments, the distance education projectofUWI,and others. The rangeofpossibilities is wide, and it has not been possible in the project to build up a detailed enough pictureofwhich distance education methods would be most appropriate, and what resources would be needed especiaJly as thereisneed to explore the precise


opportunities for collaborative activityinthis field. From the pointofviewofequity, however, the costingofsuch a development for the benefitofthe Family Islands has some priority. 7 Consideration was gIven to the costofestablishing the Coordinating Board for Post-Secondary Education. A rough estimateofthe personal emoluments was based on payment only to Chief Executive Officer and hisorher staff. On the basisofaCEOand a Deputy CEO, two research officers, computer programmers, secretaries andothersupport staff, these amount to some $400,000 per year, which, together with other operational charges, would total some $500,000peryear.Itwas also assumed that the Board would need to be independentofany institution, and possibly occupy its own building. No estimateofthe costofsuch premises was made, though the necessary facilities were considered to include a Board Room, computer centre, re!,ristry, offices andotherfacilities. 8 No estimate was madeofthe costofthe Accreditation Board. Muchofits work would beofapeer review nature which would entail expenses but not necessarily any emolument, and the Board and its staff, which would be smaller than thatofthe Accreditation Board, might well share its premises. 9 All the above relate to increased costs, but further calculations will be neededof savings and the recoveryofcosts.Ithas not been possible to estimate the tinancial implicationsoftelescoping the four main teaching institutions into two,orpossible projectionsofthe savings to The Bahamasofproviding programmes in the country for which students have so far had publicorprivate financial support overseas.Therecoveryofcosts relatestothe provision, for example,ofaccreditation services to private institutions, and full-cost courses and leased services provided for public and private institutionsbythe Colleges and the Centre for Continuing, Extension and Distance


Education.10Therearematters which have long beenofmajor concern to institutions involvedinthis project, hut for which solutions have not been found. and which have not been directly addressedinthisprojectThis applies particularlytostudent residence, which has heen an especially acute problem for COB and lTC, notably with regardtopotential students from the Family Islands. Oneofthe key featuresoftheplanningofnew facilities for BHTC and theUWlCentre has been residential accommodation.Partofthe discussion about tbe locationofthe UCOB has been accesstosuitable housing for students, and the extentofprovision at Community College level will make further considerationofpossible solutions to the problem a matterofurgencyIIPrecise costingofthe proposals will inevitably requtre further detailed work once agreement on the broad outlinesofthe proposals has been reached. The same will apply to the sourcesoffunding for the implementationofthe proposals.[nadditiontoconsiderationofGovernment investment attention will needtobe given toothersourcesofloans and financialsupportIn this connection the future possible rolesofthe World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, fund raising from alumni and othes for specific purposes, and contributions by and collaboration with the private sector, will needtobe taken intoaccount So IJ


IXIMPLEMENTATION The Master Plan will have been receivedbythe MinisterofEducation before the endof1991.Since the outlinesofthe Plan are already known to the Minister, itishoped tbat the Government will be able immediately to welcome the Planinprinciple, and. tbat Government decisions with regard to implementationofthe Plan will be made within six monthsofits being received. The most urgentofthese decisions will be the creationofthe Coordinating Board under independent chairmanship,SIncethe rhythmofmanyotherdevelopments will depend on the existingofthisBoardIf consultation on the compositionofthis Board were to take placeinthe springof1992it could he operationalbyJuly1992.The appointmentofthe Accreditation Board could follow in the early autumn.Theaccreditation procedures for public and private institutions could be in place ready to take decisions for the academic year1992-93.An important partofthis planning wiH be discussion with existing and incipient regional accreditation machineries (includingintourism and nursing) with a view to establishing formsofcollaboratiolL 2 Under the auspicesofthe Coordinating Board consultation could take place on the future compositionoftheBoardsofthe new institutions, and these, in consultation with the Coordinating Board, could in the autumnof1992nominate the future Principalsofthe University College and the Community College. 3 In the early stagesofimplementation, notablyiIithe springof1992,the Central Steering Committee will have an important continuing advisory role. Similarly it may prove importanttoprolong the lifeofthe Central Study Team for several monthsafterthe deliveryofthePlan, as a forum, together with appropriate other specialists and Ministries, for the discussionofthe costing andotherdetails on which


further investigation and discussion will he necessary. 4 Once the basic decisionsaboutimplementation have beentakenseveral linesofdevelopment will be necessary.Forthe UCDB the linesofprogrammatic development have alreadybeenforeshadowed, with the introductionoftheBAin Banking,andthe planning for the followingyearofaBAin AccountingandManagement, as well as the plans for a bachelor's degree in nursingandothersubject areas.Theestablishmentofthe CCOB, alongside negotiations with the publicandprivate secondary schools. will make it possible fortheUCOBtocomeinto existence having transferred elsewhere responsibility for College Preparatory programmes. 5 The newCentrefor Continuing, Extension and Distance Education will have the responsibilityofurgently building on the work that has alreadybeendoneand making specific recommendations for future developments in distance education. 6 Even before tinal decisions havebeenmadeabout the locationofthe UCOBandCCOB anad hoc working party could begin the processofmaking detailed plans forthelibrarydevelopment It will work in liaison with. anyotherbodies involved in library planningofotherkinds forTheBahamas. 7Thedesignationofthe UCDBandtheCCOB will follow immediately on the takingofthe necessary prior decisions. The future designationoftheueoaas The UniversityofTheBahamas will follow fromotherdevelopments, notablythecompletionoftheirbachelors' degrees by the first cohortsofstudents,thesetting in placeofenhanced research capabilitY,the planning(andifpossibletheoperation)ofpostgraduateprogrammes, andtheestablishmentofstrong internal machineryforprogrammereviewandinstitutional self-evaluation.ThefirstBAdegrees will be awarded in1995,and1997wouldthereforebe


IIII II,II I Ia suitable target date for U designation. 8 Although a good dealofthe planning and implementationofaspectsofthese proposalswillbecome the responsibilityofthe new..Boards and new institutions, a good dealofthe preparatory work could be accomplished by the existing institutions, the MinistryofEducation and other Ministries, the Central Study Team and the Central Steering Committee.Itshould be possible, for example,tobegin more. systematic estimatesofthe numbersofstudents currently completing their studies abroad who,ifthe opportunity had been available, would have remained in The Bahamas to doso.Discussions with Government and other agencies could take place on the areasofresearch to be given priority. Discussions on possible joint programmes with theUWlcould take place. Pilot schemesorconsideration in principleofcredit rating for in-house trainingorother courses could be begun. More detailed discussionofthe range and levelsofwork in the future Community College could be begun by lTC, BHTC and others. 9 Implementationofthese proposals will inevitably be a multi pronged process from the beginning, and a collaborative effort by many partners the committees and Boards discussed, the MinistryofEducation, other Ministries, and the Government itself, public and private agencies, industry and commerce, professional bodies, the public and private componentsofthe educational system, and many others. The outcome will bethe endingofthe "irrationaJJy fragmented and largely uncoordinated systemofpost-secondary education and training" described in the project brief; the accomplishment the aimof"reforms and re-orientation" defined in the brief; the openingofmore systematic access to and success in a coherent systemofpost-secondary education which embraces a rangeofactivities in public and private institutions; and investment in a patternofpost-secondary education that will matcht.heeconomic, social and educational aspirationsofthe country.



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