Area and industrial development publications


Material Information

Area and industrial development publications
Physical Description:
10 v. : ; 27 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. -- Office of Industry and Commerce
Office of Industry and Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Industrialization -- Bibliography -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 13 (Apr. 1951)-no. 22 (Apr. 1953).
General Note:
No. 13-22 issued as Business information service.
General Note:
Title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 026322205
oclc - 10576983
ddc - 016.33891 U47
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Preceded by:
Projects and publications of interest to planning and development agencies
Succeeded by:
Area and industrial development aids

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Full Text


Business Information Service

SINCLAIR WEEKS, Secretary H. B. McCOY, Director

Washington 25, D. C. Price 20 cents April 1953


(No. 22)

Markets After the Defense Expansion
A January 1953 publication of the U. S. Department of Commerce indicates that secu-
rity expenditures will range from $55 to $60 billion some "&in the latter half of 1953
and continue at that approximate rate during most of tduction in 1955 to
about the $50 to $55 billion range. -
This study shows that business expects its ceniturs for aV and equipment in
1953 will about equal the 1952 record total. By/ _94 a re action m ke place, but no
very sharp change in that year was revealed by ihesurvey returns fr siness. A con-
tinuation of residential construction at high 1 ve 1t for another yea two is expected,
with a drop thereafter to somewhat lower levels un-lP's an un cede replacement de-
mand is created. Most businessmen feel that thei'K' .' ent in0hof civilian goods
are about right, but in the next few years the mov CIo inventories probably
will reverse direction more than once. A decline has hiredd in the rate of in-
crease in business inventories required to support defense expansion, and liquidation of
this type of inventories may begin in 1954 or earlier, considerably before defense buying
Consumer spending in the future will depend largely upon the trend of disposable
personal income, which in turn will be governed largely by the level of business activity
and tax rates. Fluctuations in commercial exports are not expected to have an important
independent influence on the volume of domestic production. With respect to the outlook
for markets as a whole, any change in the military program now under review by Congress
in connection with the fiscal 1954 budget can of course make a difference in future
trends, but there appear to be prospects of another year of good business in 1953. It is
stated that a downturn in 1954 is a real possibility and that the projected reduction in
defense spending in 1955 would test the strength of the economy. A lowering of Federal
tax rates concurrently with the drop in defense outlays, and an increase in civilian pur-
chases by State and local governments are mentioned as the chief forces now foreseen
(aside from deliberate steps to prevent business recession) as a stimulus to private
Sustaining Economic Forces Ahead
The staff of the Joint Committee on the Economic Report (82d Congress) has likewise
studied the probable effect of reduced outlays for defense facilities expansion after the
peak of defense expenditures and points out that "It would be a tragic mistake to base
our confidence in the economic outlook on the high level of Government expenditures for



defense. There are other more powerful forces sustaining the economy at high levels."
Population growth is cited as outstanding among these other influences, for the prospec-
tive level of 175 million in 1960 will mean a gain of approximately 24 million during the
1950's as compared with about 19 million for the 1940's. To house this increase without
reducing present standards would mean that housing requirements for the remainder of the
1950-1960 decade will at least average as high as the annual average constructed during
the "good years" 1947 to 1952.
The Committee release concludes: "Taken as a whole, the evidence accumulated in this
report indicates that, in most lines of investment, the 'good' years of the recent past
may well become the normal pattern for the years ahead. It is estimated that the invest-
ment needs to be met by 1960 in the areas enumerated in this report will reach $500 bil-
lion at today's prices. (Housing, $100 billion; producers' durable equipment and nonresi-
dential construction, $300 billion; highways, $60 billion; schools and hospitals, $40 bil-

1960 Prospects, Based on Alternate Assumptions
A report by the National Planning Association "examines the changes which might take
place if the national security program should be reduced from a possible $60 billion peak
to a 'maintenance' level of $40 billion, or possibly $50 billion, by 1960." It shows that
during this period our economic potential will increase by about 29 percent over the level
of 1951, which means an increase in our gross national product from $329 billion to $425
billion, measured in terms of 1951 prices. "To take the place of defense demand, either
consumption, domestic business investment, net capital export, or nondefense government
spending could increase not only in absolute dollars but also as a percent of total pro-
duction." It analyzes the following six hypothetical patterns of a possible full employ-
ment economy for 1960, assuming for one set of patterns a level of national security
spending of $40 billion and for another set a $50 billion level: (1) high consumption and
high taxes, (2) high consumption and moderate taxes, (3) high domestic investment and mod-
erate taxes, (4) both high domestic and foreign investment and moderate taxes, (5) very
low taxes, and (6) very high government (Federal, State and local) purchases and moderate
taxes. On these bases an adjusted model is constructed which combines some features of
each of the hypothetical models. These models are related to the budget and tax policies,
private and public investment policies, and private and public price and wage policies
needed to maintain an economy of high level activity and stable prices. The conclusion is
reached that certain adjustments in private and public policies must be made, but that
large defense expenditures, though needed for security purposes, are not. required as props
for a prosperous economy.
Markets After the Defense ExPansion, a publication of the U. S. Department of Commerce, is for sale by the Superin-
tendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 1952. 90 pp. 55 cents.
The materials prepared for the Joint Committee on the Economic Report by its staff, entitled the Sustaining economic
Forces Ahead, may be obtained from the Joint Committee on the Economic Report, Washington 25, D. C., free, or from the
Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C., at 20 cents a copy. 1952. 70
The National Planning'Association report, entitled The American Bconomy in 1960, by Gerhard Coin, with assistance of
Marilyn Young, may be obtained from that association, 1606 New Hampshire Ave., N.W., Washington 9, D. C., as Planning
Pamphlet No. 81, 1952. 166 pp. $2.00-$1.20 educational rate.


Reports on sources of disagreement between the Corps of Engineers and the Department
of Agriculture in water resources development programs and on economic evaluation and
allocation of costs have been made by the House of Representatives' Subcommittee to Study
Civil Works, submitted to its parent Committee on Public Works.


APRIL 1953

APRIL 1953


Flood Control Program of Department of Agriculture
The Flood Control Act of June 22, 1936 is cited as the authority whereby Congress
designated the Corps of Engineers to be in charge of flood-control works on the waterways
or main streams, and placed "Federal. investigations of watersheds and measures for run-
off and water-flow retardation and soil-erosion prevention on watersheds" under the juris-
diction of the Department of Agriculture. The report makes 9 recommendations, the first
three of which are as follows:
1. That legislation be enacted to cancel present directives and authority for the Department of Agri-
culture to make flood control surveys presently authorized under flood-control law or resolutions of the
Committee on Public Works.
2. That no additional authorizations for examination and survey for flood control by the Department of
Agriculture paralleling authorization of the Corps of Engineers be made.
3. That so much of the Flood Control Act of 1936, as amended and supplemented, as authorizes and di-
rects the Secretary of Agriculture to cause preliminary examinations and surveys for runoff and water-flow
retardation and soil-erosion prevention be repealed.

Civil Functions Program of Corps of Engineers
Referring to the very large volume of river and harbor and flood-control work author-
ized for prosecution by this agency, the large backlog of incompleted surveys and the need
for additional surveys in current problem areas, the subcommittee expresses the belief
that there is a necessity of revising the program so as to bring it up to date and of then
keeping it current.

Economic Evaluation of Federal Water Resource Development Projects
In this report it is concluded that economic evaluation is one of the most important
elements for consideration in connection with.any project. A benefit-cost ratio deter-
mined from an appraisal of estimated direct benefits and all direct costs necessitated to
complete the project is described as extremely helpful as one measure of a project's eco-
nomic merits, but it is warned that such a ratio is but an estimate and only one measure
of the national and public worth of a project.

The Allocation of Costs of Federal Water Resource Development Projects
This report discusses various projects and practices and observes that "at the pres-
ent time the agencies of the executive branch are operating in considerable confusion in
the problem of allocation of costs. While Congress has in a few instances been specific
in designating what agency should allocate costs and what purposes costs should be allo-
cated to, it has not been adequately specific in outlining a policy to be followed in all
instances... The subcommittee is favorably impressed by the separable costs, remaining
benefits procedure that has been developed by the Inter-agency River Basin Committee....
The subcommittee is inclined to believe it desirable that this method generally be adopted
for future use."
Each of the four reports discussed above is a Report to the Conmittee on Public forks, Bouse of Representatives, by
Mr. Jones of Alabama, from the Subcommittee to Study Civil Works, 82d Congress, Second Session. With the exception
of the report on the Department of Agriculture, which is out of print but available for reference in Government de-
pository libraries, these reports are available from the Committee on Public Works, House of Representatives, Washing-
ton 25, D. C. Dec. 5, 1952. Free.


To determine which problems of post-attack industrial rehabilitation can be faced-
locally and which must be resolved at higher levels of government, the National Security
Resources Board (now merged with the Office of Defense Mobilization) authorized a commu-
nity pilot operation in the San Francisco Bay Area. The San Francisco Bay Area Council
and the Stanford Research Institute have now completed the study, which embodies the judg-
ment of an industrial community as to means of preparing for such rehabilitation.


The four problem areas emphasized in the report are (1) physical rehabilitation, (2)
production continuity, (3) manpower, and (4) priorities and legislation. As the report
presents many specific recommendations for action by the .Federal Government, State Govern-
ments, local area organizations, and individual plants in local areas it is of vital in-
terest to industrial communities, local government and industry throughout the Nation.
The report expresses the belief that ultimate responsibility for post-attack rehabilita-
tion lies with the local community and that "Although in each major industrial community
there must be an arm of the Federal rehabilitation authority, it should be one which has
sufficient autonomy to initiate action locally within the framework of Federal policy,
with local people manning the staff."
Community Plan for Industrial Survival, a study for the National Security easources Board by the San Francisco Bay
Area Committee on post-attack industrial rehabilitation, may be obtained from Stanford Research Institute, Stanford,
Calif. 1952. 10 pp. $2.00.


A series of concise booklets on civil defense has been prepared by the American In-
stitute of Architects in close collaboration with Federal civil defense authorities. The
titles listed below indicate the subject matter of each release.
Civil Defense: the Architect's Part, 23 pp.; Defense Measures in Industrial Plants, 8 pp.; Defense Measures in Multi-
Story Buildings, 12 pp.; Defense Neasures in Schools, 8 pp.; and Defense Measures in Nospitals, 10 pp. All of these
pamphlets were published in 1951-1952 and are available from the Publications Order Dept., The American Institute of
Architects, 1741 N.Y. Ave., N.W., Washington 6, D. C., at 25 cents each.


An ever-growing amount of helpful information bearing on the solution of plant loca-
tion and industrial development problems is becoming available, as is indicated by the
items which follow.

Plant Location Manual
A work on location of industrial plants, which distils years of experience of a suc-
cessful factory locating service, is now available. The need for such a work is indicated
in the statement that while great technological progress has been made by the more than
300,000 manufacturing firms in the United States, the techniques for determining where new
plants should be built have not kept pace with this progress. One of the most helpful
features of this work is the section devoted to hints for industrial development groups,
including sources of leads. As indicative of development possibilities that may be un-
covered is mentioned a recent study of the factory locating service which revealed that
only 13,'560 tons of a building materials product were manufactured in a Central State,
whereas 96,000 tons of it were consumed in that State.
Plant Location, by Leonard C. Yaseen, Senior Partner, Fantus Factory Locating Service, is published by Business Re-
ports, Inc., Roslyn, N. Y. 1952. 149 pp. $12.50.

Handling Industrial Inquiries
A large amount of information on handling industrial inquiries and dealing with in-
dustrial prospects has been prepared by the California State Chamber of Commerce for the
use of chambers of commerce in that State, but should also be useful elsewhere.
How to Bandle Industrial Inquiries, in processed form, may be obtained from Mr. Herbert F. Ormsby, Director, Research
Dept., California State OCamber of Commerce, 350 Bush St., San Francisco, Calif. 1952. 16 pp. Free.
Program for Locating the New Plant
An article suggests a complete procedure for determining plant location, citing ex-
perience of business firms at each stage. A consulting engineer, for instance, claims


APRIL 1953


that the first step in every location study is the one most frequently overlooked, namely,
determining the real objectives of the new plant. Subjects discussed include the numeri-
cal weighting of location factors, means of reducing the task to manageable proportions,
sources of information, making contacts, and the decision.
"A Program for Locating the New Plant, by Robert M. Atkin, is a 9-page reprint of an article which appeared in the
November-December 1952 issue of Harvard Business Review, Soldiers Field P.O., Boston 63, Mass. $1.00 for single copy,
$1.30 for two copies, etc.

Special Plant Location 'Inducements Surveyed
A recent release on special inducements to influence plant location incorporates
findings of a previous ASPO study which lists the following as permitting municipalities
to issue bonds (general obligation bonds in Mississippi, revenue bonds in all others):
Alabama, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee and Puerto Rico. In addition to such
instances of specific authorization, a broad law that establishes local authorities in
Pennsylvania permits cities in that State to issue bonds for the purpose of building fac-
tories (the city of Hazleton has taken advantage of this authority).
With respect to exemption and preferential taxation it is noted that a study made by
the National Association of Assessing Officers in 1949 showed that 17 States and Alaska
allow some preferential tax treatment to industrial property. States offering permanent
tax preference for personalty are shown to be Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
and Virginia. For temporary exemption of real estate the following States are cited:
Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and
Vermont. As offering both permanent tax preference for personalty and temporary exemp-
tion for real estate, the report lists Delaware, Kentucky, and Maryland.
The recentrelease adds to the foregoing findings information as to special tax ex-
emptions permitted in Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, Louisiana,
Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South
Carolina, and Vermont.
The previous study mentioned is the Planning Advisory Service Report No. 22, Conwunity Inducements to Industry, pub-
lished by the American Society of Planning Officials, 1313 East 60th St., Chicago 37, Ill. Jan. 1951.
Report of Study on Special Inducements to Influence Plant Location, by Albert E. Redman, Director, Industrial Develop-
ment Department, Ohio Chamber of Commerce, 820 Huntington Bank Bldg., Columbus 15, Ohio. Revised Oct. 1, 1952. 13
pp. A limited number of copies is available upon application to this address.

Evaluation of Area Efforts to Attract and Build Industry
A survey made three years ago to ascertain how communities in the Third Federal Re-
serve District have been using their own capital to attract and expand industry has been
brought up to date. Especially interesting is the account of operations of industrial de-
velopment corporations or foundations. An example is the one-industry (railroad repair
shops) town of Altoona, which found itself vulnerable to sudden economic changes and
formed in 1946 Altoona Enterprises, Inc. After operating the corporation for a while on a
hand-to-mouth financial basis the city developed the Altoona Industrial Payroll Insurance
Plan, by which business firms and others make outright contributions into a common fund.
To date $600,000 has been raised by this method, part of which was presented to one com-
pany and part used to build a plant. Towns in the anthracite area, notably Scranton, have
been the most active in promoting industrial development.
It is observed that from a broad economic viewpoint it would be desirable for such
activities to move against the business cycle, increasing in depressions and decreasing
during booms. Yet it appears that a community can be most successful, at less cost, in
times of rapid business expansion, and least successful, at more cost, when business is
not expanding so much.
"Operation Boot Strap-A Second Look" is a 9-page article appearing in the December 1952 issue of the Business Review,
published by the Department of Research, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Phila. 1, Pa. Free.


APRIL 1953


State and Local Taxation as Industrial Location Factor
Studies have been made in a number of States of the relative importance of State and
local tax structures in influencing industrial location, and a number of such studies are
reviewed briefly in a recent article. At the outset it is stated that even if a firm
could neglect all location factors except that of taxation, the problem would remain very
complex because of such variables as property exemption, assessment practice, incidence of
business taxes, and the provision of government services.
A University of North Carolina study measures actual differences between State and
local tax bills of identical firms located at various sites, computing hypothetical tax
bills for selected hosiery, furniture and cigarette manufacturing companies at 96 urban
and rural sites, selected from 19 States. Although these computations indicated large
variations between tax bills computed for different States, it was discovered that few
locations offer uniformly high or uniformly low tax loads to all types of industrial
firms. The conclusion was reached that for most manufactured products, the probable in-
fluence of taxation upon demand appears to be negligible compared with other demand deter-
minants, and that "tax considerations do not influence the locational choices of indus-
trial firms which must locate in the same taxing jurisdictions as their customers." The
statistical findings run contrary to a number of widely-held beliefs. They indicate, for
instance, that in Massachusetts, where the textile industry has been in a relative de-
cline, a typical hosiery firm in a representative locality would actually enjoy a lower
State and local tax bill than in most Southern States, where that industry is growing.
Both studies indicate that taxation differentials do not represent much of a "pull"
in industrial location.
"Taxes and Industrial Location, by John D. Garwood, appears in the December, 1952 issue of Yational tax Journal, pub-
lished by the National Tax Association, P.O. Box 1799, Sacramento 8, Calif. 5 pp. Single copy 1. 50.
Effects of taxation on Industrial Location, by Joe Summers Floyd, Jr. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel
Hill, N.C. 1952. 155 pp. $3.00.
Transportation Factors in Newsprint Marketing
A current study examines the significance of transportation costs and services in the
marketing and flow of newsprint from the mill-manufacturer to the consumer-publisher and
evaluates the relationship of such transportation factors to newsprint supply, cost, pric-
ing, and newsprint plant location.
transportation Pactors in the Marketing of Iustprint, by Edward Margolin and William P. Mclndon, was prepared in the
Office of Transportation, U. S. Department of Commerce and is for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. -Gov-
ernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 1952. 126 pp. 40 cents.

Quality and Treatment of Water in West
A discussion of this subject, important in plant location, and a tabulation of anal-
yses of water supplies in the principal cities and towns in the eleven Western States,
claimed to be.compiled for the first time, is available. A key indicates whether or not
the water is soft, suitable for boiler feedwater with internal treatment chemicals alone;
moderately hard, suitable for boiler feedwater with internal treatment chemicals only, but
needing presoftening for economy; hard, requiring excessive amounts of internal treatment
chemicals for boiler feedwater, with presoftening almost mandatory; very hard, necessitat-
ing presoftening; suitable for zeolite softening; hot lime soda softening desirable for
boiler feedwater-possibly more efficient than zeolite softening; silica above desirable
value-may be a problem in boilers; special study recommended.
Quality and freatsent of fater in the Vest, by Bay W. Hawksley, is a reprint of a series of articles published in
Vestern'Industry. Available from King Publications, 609 Mission St., San Francisco 5, Calif. 1952. 21 pp. SD cents.

Typical Electric Bills in 1952
Compilations of typical electric bills as of January 1, 1952 are available separately
"for (1) typical residential electric bills for cities of 2,500 population and more and (2)

APRIL 1953


typical electric bills for residential, commercial, and industrial service in cities of
50,000 and more. Such data have a bearing on comparable living and business costs and
therefore are pertinent in industrial and business location.
Typical Residential Electric Bills 1952, FPC R-45, 74 pp., and typical Electric Bills 1952, FPC R-44, 36 pp., may be
obtained only from the Federal P'ctnr Commission, Washington 25, D. C. 50 cents each.
More Industrial Development Foundations Planned
The trend toward forms ion of industrial development foundations to encourage the
development of new industry in New England is mentioned in a current release. New Hamp-
shire's experiment is less than a year old, the Rhode Island legislature is reported as
having just enacted enabling legislation by unanimous vote, advisory committees of the
Vermont Development Commission and the Connecticut Development Commission are reported as
recommending immediate action to establish such corporations, and study of the problem is
under way by the Massachusetts Industrial Commission. The Michigan Economic Development
Commission is appointing a committee to recommend whether or not such a corporation
should be established in that State.
newsletter, mentioned in Michigan Department of Economic Development, P. O. Box 1286, Lansing, Mich., published as a
service to chambers of commerce and other business development groups in Michigan. The director of the Department's
Industry Service Division has written a report on interviews in New England with representatives of existing and pro-
posed industrial development foundations.

Planned Industrial Centers in New England
A dozen planned industrial centers have been established in New England since 1945,
ranging from the redevelopment of vacant shipyards to entirely new construction on pre-
viously vacant land. They have been sponsored by private real estate developers, manu-
facturers, distributors, and civic groups. A current article describes the nature of
these centers, their operations, and their advantages. The U. S. Department of Commerce
expects to publish about mid-year a national study of planned industrial centers.
"Planned Industrial Centers,* a 3-page article in the February 1953 issue of Monthly Review, published by the Federal
Reserve Bank of Boston, Boston, Mass.

Texas Consumption of Outside Chemic.als and Allied Products
An analysis of Texas purchases of outside chemicals and related products and the
techniques involved are of interest in revealing new local industrial opportunities.
Out-of-State P1rchases of Chewicals and Allied Products by fexas Organizations, 1951, by James R. Bradley, W. B. Lang-
ford, and L. S. Paine, is available as Research Report 37 from the Texas Engineering Experiment Station, The Texas A.
and M. College System, College Station, Texas. 1952. 8 pp.

Tacoma Report Makes Specific Industrial Development Recommendations
Recommended programs to expand market coverage by existing firms, initiation of a
new product development program which would draw ideas from the entire community, and a
plan to secure manufacturing and sales rights from Eastern firms are examples of workable
programs suggested in a Tacoma report for the development of the area's industry.
A Plan and Progrfe for Payrolls and Prozvitry for facoma, by A. E. MacInnis, is available from the author, 702 No.
Eye St., Tacoma, Wash. 1952. 16 pp.

British Study of Cost of Industrial Movement
Lack of industrial workers in some areas and pockets of unemployment elsewhere have
led many British firms which lacked workers to open branch plants in areas where labor was
available. A current release gives tentative results of a study of costs at the new
plants as compared with costs which would have been incurred through expansion of the main
plants. Branch plants of a group of shoe manufacturers experienced much higher total
costs in the first year of operation, but these fell sharply over the first three years,
It was found that production could have been increased and costs lowered if more key-
workers could have gone to the new plants. In the boot and shoe firms studied it was

APRIL 1953


found that little advantage was taken of new branch plants as an opportunity to reorganize
and improve production methods.
The Cost of Jndlustral Movement, by W. F. Luttrell, published as Occasional Papers XIV of the National Institute of
Economic and Social Research. Cambridge University Press, American Branch, 32 East 57th St., New York 22, N. Y.
1952. 104 pp. $3.75.


How Business Uses the Censuses
An article discusses briefly the five major censuses (population, housing, business,
manufactures, and agriculture) as to census years and content, and their application to
methods of selling a product and where and how much will be sold.
"How Business Uses the Censuses, by Harry Deane Wolfe, director of market research for Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Co., a
3-page article in the October 1952 issue of Review of New Jersey Business, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick.
N. J.

1953 Censuses of Industry, Trade and Transportation
Censuses of manufacturing, mineral industries, wholesale and retail trade, services
and transportation will be taken early in 1954 covering the year 1953. The Census of
Manufactures will cover, for an estimated 275,000 factories, common inquiries as to plant
identification, kind of industry, employment, payrolls, hours of work, cost of materials
consumed, power equipment, water consumption, and value of products shipped.
The Census of Mineral Industries will collect data, for the first time since 1939 and
for approximately 35,000 mines, quarries, and oil and gas establishments, on the number,
size, location and character of operations in the mineral industries, as well as data on
number of workers, value of products, principal expenses, expenditures for plant and
equipment, quantity of fuels and electric energy consumed, and horsepower of power equip-
ment installed.
The Census of Business will cover about 3 million retail, wholesale, and service es-
tablishments; theaters and other amusement places, and hotels and tourist courts. In-
quiries will relate to location, kind of business, corporate relations, employment and
payrolls, operating expenses, inventories, annual sales, credit sales, and merchandise
line sales.
The Census of Transportation will be more restricted in scope than the other phases
of the 1953 censuses, for statistics already are regularly available for those transporta-
tion systems which are required to file reports with Federal regulatory agencies. Such
available data will be augmented through a series of surveys designed to fill in the two
major gaps, namely truck ownership and transportation (except carriers reporting to
I.C.C.) and transportation service used by manufacturers. The census data will be com-
bined with data available from other agencies and published as a Handbook of Transporta-
tion Statistics, the first of its kind and scope.

Census Geographic Reports and Maps
The following releases in the Geographic Reports series are available without charge
from the Bureau of the Census, Washington 25, D. C.: Municipal Annexations and Detach-
ments, April 2, 1950-April 1, 1951, Series Geo. No. 3; Population Density lap of the
United States by Counties: 1950, Series Geo. No. 4; Land Area and Population of Incor-
porated Places of 2,500 or More: April 1, 1950, Series Geo. No. 5; and Minor Civil Divi-
sions and Places of the United States: 1950, Series Geo. No. 6.
Separate maps recently published by Census (sold by the Superintendent of Documents,
U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. at prices indicated) include:
State Minor Civil Division Naps, showing subdivisions of counties and location of all incorporated places and those
unincorporated places with 1,000 inhabitants or more outside urbanized areas of larger cities. 36 x 48 in. 20 cents
a sheet.
-1 1424

APRIL 1953


Ignited States County Outline Map. Shows boundaries and names of all counties in U. S. 26 x 40 in. 30 cents.
0. S., Population Distribution, Urban and Rural: 1950. Urban population centers shown by red symbols, rural by green
symbols. 40 x 62 in. 35 cents.
Map of U. S. Sh~oing Location of Drained Agricuitural Lands: 1950. Shows land in drainage enterprises and drained
land in irrigation enterprises as revealed in 1950 Census. Three colors. 20 x 31 in. 30 cents.

Governmental Revenue In 1951
Tax collections of local governments in the United States represented $56 per capital
in 1951, according to an 11-page Census report bearing this caption, dated August 1052,
available without charge from the Bureau of the Census, Hashington 25, D. C.

State Tax Collections in 1952
A 10-page report bearing this caption, dated August 1952 and available without charge
from the Bureau of the Census, shows that State tax revenue reached a record high in fis-
cal 1952, having moved upward for the loth consecutive year.

Revised Household Projections
The Census Bureau's revised projections of the number of households, families and re-
lated units for July 1955 and 1960, taking into account data from the 1950 Census of Pop-
ulation and superseding similar projections made in 1946, are available in Current Popula-
tion Report Series P-20, No. 42.


A report on the expansion of defense production facilities reveals that when the de-
fense expansion is completed in 1955, we shall have doubled our production facilities in a
decade and half. By the end of 1952, two-thirds of the planned expansion was to be in
place and by the end of 1953 the expansion program should be about 94 percent complete.
A more recent release indicates the degree of geographic concentration of defense fa-
cility expansion projects. As of September 30, 1952, nearly 60 percent of the geograph-
ically distributed projects and over 56 percent of the total estimated cost of such proj-
ects were concentrated in seven States, for which values are given below:

Estimated cost Value in place
Millions of dollars

Pennsylvania... 2,171.3 1,065.5
Texas.......... 1,867.9 899.5
Ohio............ 1,261.2 790.4
Michigan....... 989.7 503.5
Illinois....... 799.8 392.3
California..... 713.5 388.6
Minnesota...... 646.6 136.7

Allocations by States are not made for projects involving transportation, storage and
public utilities, estimated to cost $8,009 million, or 35 percent of the total cost of all
reported projects. These facts are presented in a press release which shows by industry
the number of certificates of necessity and reported cost, and the value in place; also
the distribution by State of the cost and progress of such projects.
expanding Oar Industrial Night, 1952, 30 pp., may be obtained free from the Production Section, Office of Defense Mobi-
lization, New GAO Bldg., Washington 25, D. C.
'Facilities Expansion Program under Certificates of Necessity," press release DPA-522, is available from the Office
of Defense Mobilization, Executive Office of the President, New GAO Bldg., Washingaon 25, D. C. Feb. 26, 1953. 7 pp

APRIL 1953



The notable increase of regional economic research since the early thirties has coin-
cided in time with a lessening of regional differences, according to a recent article. In
contrast with the hundreds of national economic series presented each month in the Survey
of Current Business, the regional researcher is indicated as fortunate to find as many as
a dozen available for the local community-a reason given as explaining a "preoccupation
with statistical trivia" on the part university bureaus of business research and others.
These university bureaus have, however, played a leading role as "data developers," as
have also the Federal Reserve banks.
"Pegional Economic Research-An Appraisal," is a 6-page article appearing in the December 1952 issue ot Arizona Bust-
'.eSs and Rconomic Review, published by the Bureau of Business Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, Aria.


The commission established about a year ago to study the land and water resources of
the Missouri River Basin and to make recommendations "for the better protection, develop-
ment and use of those resources" has made its report.
The majority statement, made by 8 of the 11 members of the commission, recommends a
5-member Missouri Basin Commission, to be appointed by the President, to "direct and co-
ordinate the activities of all Federal agencies relating to resource development within
the basin."
The minority statement claims that the majority proposal means placing the ultimate
power entirely in the Federal Government. General concurrence is indicated with the ma-
jority's recommendations as to powers and functions that a coordinating agency should"
have, but the minority feels that these "can best be worked out by common agreement be-
tween the State and the Federal Governments in the compact negotiations."
Missouri: Land and Vater: the Report of the Missouri Basin Survey Commission is for sale by the Superintendent of
Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 1953. 295 pp. $1.75.


Low, medium and high population projections are now available for the Pacific North-
west and separately for Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and 11 Montana counties, for the years
1960 and 1975.
PoPulation Projections for the Pacific northwest States and Region 1960 and 1975, prepared by the Subcommittee on Com-
prehensive Program and approved by the Columbia Basin Inter-Agency Committee, may be obtained from the Secretary of
that Committee at 510 Failing Bldg., 618 S. W. 5th Ave., Portland 4, Ore. 1952.


A textual and statistical comparison has been made of the '57 largest metropolitan
areas in terms of 41 population and housing characteristics, based upon data from the
1950 and 1940 Census for such areas.
Bow Does Your City Rate?: Comparison of the 57 Largest Metropolitan Areas in 41 Population and Housing Characteris-
tics, by Edward B. Olds, is published by the Research Bureau, Social Planning Council of St: Louis and St. Louis
County, 505 N. 7th St., St. Louis 1, Mo. 1952. 112 pp.


Nationwide prospects of rapidly increasing needs for additional school facilities
lend interest to a recent school enrollment forecast made for the Metropolitan District of
Miami, and to the description of the methodology employed.
Forecast of School gmrollwent, 1952 to 1962, For the Metropolitan District of Miami, Dode County, Plorida, by Reinhold
P. Wolff and Mable D. Mills. Bureau of Business and Economic Research, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 1952.
31 pp.

APRIL 19'53



The increasing number of urban-occupied persons who work in the city but dwell in
the open country beyond the immediate urban fringe is cited in an article as the "new
centrifugal movement" and thus distinguished from the older pattern of urban decentrali-
zation which has been confined mainly to a suburban trend. Reasons given for the "new"
movement include the obvious ones of the private motor car, the all-weather highway, and
extension of rural electrification; also the septic tank, the electrically-propelled pump,
the general rise in real incomes, the high cost of city living, and the lure of the open
country. There is described a pilot study of Columbia, Missouri, a city of 32,000 in
1950, which covered only open-country families residing at least a half mile beyond the
city's boundaries and having one or more members gainfully employed in the city.
"Developing Patterns of Urban Decentralization," by Noel P. Gist, is a 9-page article appearing in the March, 1952
issue of Social Porces, printed for the University of North Carolina Press by The Williams & Wilkins Co., Mount Royal
and Guilford Ayes., Baltimore 2, Md. $1.50 a copy.


Until recently interindustry economics, or the study of commodity and service flows
among the Nation's industries, has been studied and applied only on a national basis. The
first application of this interindustry flow analysis to the economy of a smaller area was
made by the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis to its district. The Bank feels that "Ap-
plied in regional analysis, this new tool provides a new and sharply focused picture of
important economic relationships in a region." The regional estimates presented are based
on and tie in with the Interindustry Relations Study for 1947, a very large statistical
study by the Division of Interindustry Economics, U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, cover-
ing the interindustry flow of commodities and services for all industries in the United
States. The first part of the Federal Reserve study presents the balance of trade esti-
mates for the District, while the second part presents data from which these estimates
were made and suggests other uses for such an analysis.
Monthly Review, June 1952 issue, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo. 10 pp. plus detailed flow chart.
Free. Information pertaining to the Interindustry Relations Study for 1947 is available free from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C. This national study is described in 'The Interindustry
Relations Study for 1947, by W. Duane Evans and Marvin Hoffenberg, reprinted from The Review of economics and Statis-
tics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 1952. 142 pp. $1.00.


In our bulletin of March 1952 (page 11) were mentioned instances of the use of "Sam-
ple Waybill Analyses" by the Interstate Commerce Commission, indicating rail flow of prod-
ucts between States and regions, to round out economic reports on certain areas. Recent
ICC reports, now available, are indicated below. All are based on one percent samples of
waybills. The mileage block distributions mentioned are shown for 25 such blocks, based
on the indicated starting mileage-1 to 24 miles, 25 to 49 miles, etc.-up to 3,000 miles
and over.
Mileage Block Distribution of traffic and Revenue, by Commodity Class, Territorial Movement and Tyfe of Rate, 1951, is
available separately for each of the following: Products of Agriculture, Animals and ProducLs, Products of Forests,
Products of Mines, Manufactures and Miscellaneous and Forwarder Traffic. State-to-State Distribution of Products of
Agriculture: traffic and Revenue, State-to-State Distribution of Animals and Products: traffic and Reix.-ne, State-
to-State Distribution of Products of Forest: traffic and Revenue, State-to-State Distribution of Products of Mines:
Traffic and Revenue, State-to-State Distribution of Manufactures and Miscellaneous and Forwarder traffic (C.L.):
traffic and Revenue, and State-to-State Distribution of All Commodities Combined: Traffic and Revenue, all for 1951:
State-to-State Distribution of Carload Tonnage by Major Commodity Groups, 1950: lew Sngland States, State-to-State
Distribution of Carload fonnage By Major Commodity Groups, 1950: "Ist South Central States, State-to-State Distribu-
tion of Carload fonnage by Major Coasodity Orov$s, 1950: Middle Atlantic States, and State-to-State Distribution of
Carload fonnage By Major Cosmodity Groups, 1950: Pacific States are also available in separate analyses. These proc-
essed reports may be obtained without charge from the Bureau of Transport Economics and Statistics, Interstate Com-
merce Commission, Washington 25, D. C.

- 1424

APRIL 1953



A recently available study inquires into reasons why the construction industry's ac-
tivities fluctuate more violently than do most forms of economic activity, with recurring
adverse effects on the industry itself and on industries which supply it, and examines
proposed remedies for this malady. A notable contribution is the searching analysis of
debated proposals (1) to vary the volume of construction in a contracyclical manner to aid
in stabilizing the general economy or (2) to maintain an even volume of construction at
all times in order to neutralize construction as a major disrupting force.
Stabilizing Construction: The Record and Potential, by Miles L. Colean and Robinson Newcomb, is a research study for
the Committee for Economic Development. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 330 West 42nd St., New York 36, N. Y. 1952.
340 pp. S6.00.


On the basis of a mail questionnaire sent to a random sample of resident license
holders in the State of Washington, a recent study estimated that $100,000,000 was spent
in that State during 1950 for wildlife or in its pursuit, including approximately
$20,000,000 paid for the State's catch of commercial fish. It is pointed out that a few
other States have tried to measure 'the economic and business significance of their wild-
life resources, but that most of these studies have been of such dissimilar nature as to
render comparisons between States difficult.
Economic Aspects of Vildlife Resources of the State of Washington, by Robert F. Wallace, is published by the Bureau of
Economic and Business Research, The State College of Washington, Pullman, Wash. 1952. 42 pp. $1.00.


A comprehensive discussion of surveys, polls and sampling describes step by step pro-
cedures for carrying out such investigations as consumer and market surveys, surveys of
the census type, and social surveys, including preparation of a survey report. An 88-page
bibliography is included.
Surveys, Polls & Samples, by Mildred B. Parten. Harper & Brothers, Publishers, 49 E. 33d St., New York 16, N. Y.
1950. 624 pp. $5.00.


A current article which identifies rapidly growing, moderately growing, and declin-
ing industries in the United States will be of special interest to those concerned with
industrial development work, as the "growth" industries are naturally the most active in
expansions and branch plant locations. A table shows physical production trends of over
160 selected industries and products in the period 1940 to 1951, classified according to
the three growth characteristics just mentioned.
*Growth Trends in the Economy," an article by Louis J. Paradise and Francis L. Hirt, appearing in the January 1953
issue of Survey of Current Business, published by the Office of Business Economics, U. S. Department of Commerce, and
for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. Single copy 30.


An economic base study of the Northeast industrial area of Pennsylvania is of special
interest because of the fact that its anthracite mining counties have experienced increas-
ingly high unemployment during the last three decades. The report strikes a hopeful note
in the expectation that the creation of a steel-producing center in the Delaware River
Valley north of Philadelphia will have a most important effect upon the economy of Penn-
sylvania and neighboring Atlantic Coast States.

APRIL 19'53


A Summary of the study appears in the Economics and Business Bulletin, Septc mer 1952 issue, published by the School
of Business and Public Administration, Temple Univerasit, Philadelphia 22. Pa., which made the study. 1952. 44 pp.
The detailed conclusions for each industry studied are incorporated in the research sections of the study, available
from the Pennsylvania Bureau of Employment Security, Harrlsburg, Pa.


A summary report of the Chicago industrial study published recently by the Chicago
Plan Commission makes recommendations whereby it is claimed that the demand for land can
be met; proposes an "industrial performance code" with specifications governing industrial
layout, and proper planning of thoroughfares, truck routes, and mass transportation; rec-
ommends eventual relocation to industrial districts of many plants now in residential
neighborhoods as a means of eliminating truck and employee traffic and parking from the
residential areas; and proposes, as a necessary part of the preparation of the City Plan,
a further review of Chicago's railroad pattern to determine the possibility of some con-
solidation of railroad lines.
Chicago Industrial Study: Swamary Report is published by the Chicago Plan Conmission, Chicago, 11. 1952. 58 pp.


The major forces affecting the design of industrial plants and the relationship of
plant design to community planning are considered in a collection of conference papers and
statements. Included are papers on the design of industrial plants, plant design and hu-
man relations research, color in industrial plants, organized industrial districts, and
industrial plants and community relations.
The Design of Industrial Piants-Paters and Statements Presented At the fenth Ann Arbor Conference, november 6 and 7,
1952, is available from the College of Architecture and Design, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 102 pp.


"Contrary to the opinions of many people, the evidence today indicates a declining
concentration in American business....This means that smaller firms are increasing their
share of the market at the expense of the larger ones," states a currently released book-
let on the role and problems of small business.
Small Business: Its Role ana Its Problems may be obtained from the Economic Research Dept., Chamber of Commerce of
the United States, Washington 6, D. C. 1953. 33 pp. 50 cents.


A map suggesting "have" and "have not" counties, in terms of having job opportunities
in manufacturing for their local people, has been published by the Indiana Economic Coun-
cil. This map shows estimates of the absolute difference between the number of jobs pro-
vided by firms in a county and the number of resident factory workers, as of the Spring of
1950. The factory job counts are from the Bureau of Old Age and Survivors Insurance re-
port, and the counts of workers in manufacturing from the 1950 Census of Population. This
technique is more safely used when large differences are found.
Contrasted with this method is a map of Indiana published by the Indiana State Em-
ployment Service, whereon percentages indicate the distribution of employees by county of
residence for major employers in selected industrial areas.
"Are the Implications of 'Factory Commuting' Considered in Your Long-Range Planning?,' a 4-page article appearing in
the November 1952 issue of the News Bulletan, published by the Indiana Economic Council, 140 N. Senate Ave., Indianap-
olis 4, Ind.
"Survey of Commuting Patterns in Selected Indiana Areas, "a 3-page report by the Indiana Employment Security Division,
Indiana State Employment Service, 141 S. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 1947.

APRIL 19'53



Rural industries 1947 for about 10 percent of the total number of pro-
duction workers in manufacturing in the United States, but from 1939 to 1947 employment
in such industries expanded at a lesser rate than for all manufacturing. Agricultural
underemployment is shown to be most acute in the seven Southeastern States, where an es-
timated potential of a million farm workers exists for all-farm employment in the face of
a decline of 770,000 farm workers 1940-1948 and a net migration of more than two million
persons out of the area during the same period. It is concluded that the expansion of
rural industries cannot be an important solution to a problem of this magnitude, although
it should be encouraged. It is proposed that efforts to create off-farm jobs should be
concentrated on non-rural industries such as the machinery industries which from 1939 to
1947 accounted for over one-fourth of the national expansion in manufacturing employment,
although a very small portion of this occurred in the Southeast. As the major location
factor in many machinery fields is a source of skilled and semi-skilled workers, programs
for training such workers in the Southeast should be developed.
Rural Industries and Agricultural Development, by Stefan H. Roboek, a 15-page reprint from the August 1952 issue of
the Journal of Pares conosics, American Farm Economic Association, Menasha, Wia.


The extent to which the manufacturing industry has shifted from the East to the South
and West since the end of World War II is indicated in a recent report on employment,
hours and earnings, by State and area, for the period 1947-51. This volume presents in
varying detail employment data for 102 metropolitan areas.
Another current compilation indicates employment trends in 100 metropolitan areas
,1947-51 for privately operated establishments in nonagricultural industries and, where
available, employment trends for government units (Federal, State, and local).
suploysent, Bowus and Barnings: State and Area Data 1947-51 is available from the Bireau of Labor Statistics, Depart-
ment of Labor, Washington 25, D. C. 1952. 90 pp. Free.
B ploysent in Metropolitan Areas: Suployment trends, 1947-51, 100 Netropolitan Areas, is available from the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C. 1952. Free.


A recent bulletin on this subject continues more than a half century of reporting in
this field by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. It covers growth in Negro population 1900-
1950, significant population changes 1940-50, educational status 1940 and 1950, recent
labor force and employment trends, and income and wages, and includes a brief annotated
bibliography on these subjects.
Negroes in the United States: Their Jm#loysent and Bconosic Stats, Bulletin No. 1119, is for sale by the Superintend-
ent of Documents. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 1952. 58 pp. 30 cents.


The proceedings of the Detroit Metropolitan Area Regional Commission's second annual
conference cover such subjects as the planning problems of local units of government and
cooperation between them, township planning and development problems, planning for indus-
trial growth, traffic and parking, and zoning problems.
1952 Spring Conference: Cooperative Planning for Regional Development, sponsored by Detroit Metropolitan Area Regional
Planning Commission, 1002 Cadillac Square Bldg., Detroit 26, Mich. 1952. 77 pp.


APRIL 1953



A symposium review of some basic.principles and problems underlying urban planning is
now available. Included are discussions of the planning process, land use and zoning, re-
development, transportation, and fiscal programming; also a 37-page annotated bibliogra-
An Approach to Urban Planning, edited by Gerald Breese and Dorothy E. Whiteman, is available from the Princeton Uni-
versity Press, Princeton, N. J. 1953. 147 pp. $2.00.


A manual on land subdivision now available will be useful for both the government
official concerned and the land owner who intends to subdivide.
Suggested Land Subdivision Regulations, a publication of the Housing and Home Finance Agency, is for sale by the Su-
perintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 1952. 65 pp. 45 cents.


A report of the Cleveland City Planning Commission is a model for concise answers to
such vital questions as the number of parkers who come downtown, where they come from and
where they go downtown, their parking habits, what are the critical problem area blocks,
how many downtown parking spaces are available, how many more parking spaces are needed,
and what should be done about it.
Cleveland Downtown Parking Survey: Final Report, 1952, 43 pp., and a limited supply of the technical Supplement, 112
pp., presenting statistical data on the survey, are each available from the Cleveland City Planning Commission, 501
City Hall, Cleveland 14, Ohio.


'A brief descriptive list of selected publications of the Area Development Division,
Office of Industry and Commerce, U. S. Department of Commerce is now available.
"Selected Publications of the Area Developsent Division," may be obtained from the Sales and Distribution Division,
Office of Publications Management, U. S. Department of Coomerce, Washington 25, D. C. 1953. 2 pp. 5 cents.


The task of collecting, analyzing, and compiling into usable reports all available
data on 17 different minerals necessary to America's economic security and defense has
been delegated by the National Security Resources Board to the Bureau of Mines, Department
of the Interior. As mentioned in the Area and Industrial Development Publications bulle-
tin of January 1953 the report on asbestos was then available, and since that time the
additional reports listed below have been released. Separate reports on aluminum, baux-
ite, beryllium, chromium, cobalt, iron ore, iron and steel scrap, rubber, tin, and tung-
sten will be released later.
Asbestos $1.75, Antimony 11.25, Copper $3.75, Lead $3.50, Manganese $4.25; Nichke $2.00, and Zinc $2.75. All of these
reports are for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. at the
prices indicated.


In a revision of its 1951 annotated bibliography the Library of Congress lists 387
entries of marketing maps, covering the entire United States, regions, States, and roughly
the 40 Standard Metropolitan Areas which were most populous in 1950.
Marketing Naps of the United States: An Annotated Bibliography. Marie C. Goodman and Walter W. Ristow. Sold by the
Card Division, Library of Congress, Washington 25, D. C. 1952. 100 pp. 70 cents.

APRIL 1953



I 111111111 l111i ii81111i11111I11111
3 1262 08748 9802


Government and private publications which contain data on the United States market,
both national and regional, are listed and described briefly in a recent bibliography.
Sources of Information on the United States market, World Trade Series No. 339, Business Information Service, is
available from the Sales and Distribution Division, Office of Publications Management, U. S. Department of Commerce.
Washington 25, D. C. 1952. 20 pp. 20 cents.

Prepared by Sterling R. March, Area Development Division


Field Service

204 10th St., S. W.

86 Forsyth Street, N. W.

200 E. Lexington Street

40 Broad Street

117 Ellicott Street

306 Federal Building

Area 2 Sergeant Jasper Bldg.
West End Broad Street

307 Federal Office Bldg.

221 N. La Salle Street

105 West Fourth Street

925 Euclid Avenue

III4 Commerce Street

142 New Custom Houe

1214 Griswold St.

Regional efflee.

Chamber of Commerce Bldg.

224 Post Office Bldg.

430 Lamar Avenue

425 Federal Bldg.

903 McGee Street

112 West 9th Street

631 Federal Building

229 Federal Building

36 N. E. First Street

207 E. Michigan Street

607 Marquette Avenue

308 Federal Bldg.

333 St. Charles Avenue

NEW YORK 13, N. Y.
346 Broadway

114 N. Broadway

105 Federal Office Bldg.

1015 Chestnut Street

311 N. Central Avenue

717 Liberty Avenue

217 Old U.S. Court Hoae

304 Post Office Annex

11179 Wells Avenue

400 East Main Street

910 New Federal BMg.

109 West Second South

870 Market Street

218 U.S. Court House
& Post Office Bldg.

12 U. S. Court Hous


For local telephone number, consult U. S. Governmnt section of phone book.
- Me44

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