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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
OFFICE OF INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE
CHARLES SAWYER, Secretary H. R. MHCOY. Director
Washington, D. C. 10 cents March 1952
AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS
AREA DEVELOPMENT DIVISION \
Victor Roterus, Chief
STATE AND REGIONAL POPULATION IN 1960 .:
A comparison of 1950 population with the Census Bureau's media s'r es of pu
projections for 1960 indicates that the West will increase by nearlpi ent b
than twice as fast as the Nation as a whole (nearly 12 percent). Nex thbW
projected rate of population growth come the South, North Central Reglon, astern
Region, with 11 percent, 9 percent, and 8 percent, respectively. The Pacific States, with
a prospective gain of 30 percent, are far in the lead, followed by the Mountain States (17
percent), South Atlantic States (14 percent), East North Central States (11 percent), West
South Central States (10 percent), the Middle Atlantic, East South Central, and New Eng-
land States (8 percent each), and the West North Central States (4 percent).
In the Census 1960 medium projections for individual states, California and Florida
lead with an indicated increase over 1950 of 33 percent, followed by Arizona with 29 per-
cent, Nevada 28 percent, Oregon 25 percent, Washington 21 percent, New Mexico 20 percent,
Maryland 18 percent, and Michigan and Delaware 15 percent each. Only one state, North
Dakota, shows no increase in the projections and, in fact, a slight decrease. In New Eng-
land, Connecticut alone is indicated as equaling the projected rate of increase for the
Nation as a whole. It should again be stressed that in all of these comparisons the 1960
figures are from the Census Bureau's medium series of population projections, as distin-
guished from its high and low series.
An article appearing in a recent magazine article, written by staff members of the
United Nations Population Division, also projects the population to 1960, but only for the
country as a whole. It indicates that growth of the total population during the 1950's
will be more rapid than during the 1930's, but less rapid than during the 1940's. A down-
ward trend in birth rates is stated to have been underway for 100 years before it struck
bottom during the economic depression of the 1930's. Prosperity not only encouraged the
newly married couples to start their families more promptly, but also enabled those
married earlier to have the children they had postponed when jobs were scarce and wages
low. The combined result has been a marked pick-up in population growth. It is indicated
that future birth rates may move in cycles, booms varying with depressions.
An earlier population projection, prepared by members of the staff of the Census Bureau
and the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, projects regional distribution of the United
States population to 1975. These projections are superseded by the above-mentioned Census
release insofar as the latter is based on more recent data. However, the 1975 projections
contain a helpful discussion of the history of projections for geographic areas, the ratio
and other projection methods, and a selected bibliography bearing on these subjects. Also
discussed are several quick methods of projecting region and state population by age, and
an illustration of one of these methods is presented. This particular field is not
covered by Census reports.
AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS
The Census Bureau plans to publish shortly a provisional revision of the total U. S.
population figures now presented in Series P-25, No. 43, and P-25, No. 56 and used in the
1975 project mentioned above. These revised totals can then be used to adjust the state
and regional projections.
"Current Population Reports: Population Estimates," Series P-25, No. 56, by Helen L. White and Jacob S. Siegel, is
available without charge from the Bureau of the Census, U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C.
"Population: Prospects and Problems in 1960," by P. K. Whelpton and John V. Grauman, an 11-page article appearing in
the January 1952 issue of Dun's Review, 99 Church St.. New York 8, N. Y. 35 cents a copy.
"Projections of the Regional Distribution of the Population of the United States to 1975," by Margaret Jarman Hagood
and Jacob S. Siegel, published in Agricultural Economics Research, Vol. 11l, No. 2, April 1951, pp. 41-52. A limited
number of reprints are available from Dr. Margaret Jarman Hagood, Division of Farm Population and Rural Life, Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, Washington 25, D. C., and from Mr. Jacob S. Siegel, Population and Housing Division. Bureau of
the Census, Washington 25, D. C.
QUESTION AND ANSWER GUIDE ON INDUSTRIAL DISPERSION PROGRAM
For the purpose of assisting local communities in furthering the national industrial
dispersion program, a guide has been prepared, in question and answer form, as a supple-
ment to the brochure "Is Your Plant a Target?," which was approved by the President last
August in announcing the program. As some confusion and uncertainty has developed among
manufacturers and communities as to the dispersion criteria, including questions as to
what constitutes a "highly industrialized section" and a "densely populated section" of an
urban area, this work fills an important need in answering such questions in clarifying
An atomic bomb industrial target is declined as follows: "With reference to the dis-
persion policy, it is considered to be any four-mile diameter circle containing defense-
supporting plants with combined employment on all shifts of 16,000 or more workers (as de-
termined by procedures detailed in the Manual mentioned under Question 16)." A highly in-
dustrialized section is described as "the line that connects the centers of all contiguous
four-mile diameter circles containing 16,000 industrial workers." Similarly, a densely
populated section is defined as "the line that connects the centers of all contiguous
four-mile diameter circles containing 200,000 persons." In all, 44 sets of questions and
answers are presented.
The Area Development Division, U. S. Department of Commerce, will soon publish a
Guide for Preparing a Community Industrial Dispersion Survey which will outline in detail
the method of identifying target areas and selecting dispersed sites in a local marketing
A Question a~d Ans-er Guide on the National Industrial Dispersion Program has been prepared by the National Security
Resources Board in collaboration with representatives of the Office of Defense Mobilization, U. S. Department of Com-
merce, Munitions Board, U. S. Air Force, Federal Civil Defense Administration and Defense Production Administratian.
Copies may be obtained without charge from the National Security Resources Board, Executive Office of the President,
Washington 25, D. C.
CAPITAL EXPENDITURES BY MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
Large, medium and small concerns have all shared in the expansion of defense facili-
ties during the present emergency, but the relative expansion from 1950 to 1951 by firms
with assets over $5 million has been greater than of those with assets of less than that
amount, according to an article appearing in the Survey of Current Business. This differ-
ence is attributed in part to the emphasis at this stage of the mobilization program on
expansion of basic materials capacity--fields where large firms predominate because of
high capital requirements--also to the more stringent allocations of scarce materials in
certain nondefense industries where the smaller firms predominate.
New capital expenditure data by manufacturing groups are presented in this article
for the first time. It is shown that by late 1951 only defense and defense-supporting in-
dustries were continuing to show increases in investment rates, stimulated by the proposed
facilities certified to manufacturers under the rapid tax amortization program, of which
only one-third was in place at the end of the year.
"Capital Expenditures by Manufacturing Industries in the Postwar Period," is a 7-page article appearing in the Decm-
her 1951 issue of the Survey of Current Business published by the U. S. Department of Commerce. Sold by the Seperin-
tendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. or field offices of the Department of
Commerce. Annual subscription, including weekly statistical supplement, $3.25; single copies 30 cents. The February
issue of the Survey of Current Business carries a similar review for 1951 and also anticipated expenditure for the
first quarter of 1952.
AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS
DECENTRALIZATION POST-WAR HOPE
The severe post-Civil War depression was reversed through development of the rail-
roads and the opening up of the West-the age of the railroad town. After World War I it
was the automobile and the developments that went with it-highway construction, garages,
restaurants, hotels, etc.
The Journal of Commerce now asks, "What is there to offer after the present emer-
gency?" Development of television is not expected to equal the importance of the railroad
or the automobile, but the suburbanization of our American cities, and the accompanying
decentralization of industry and distribution, is suggested as the "ace in the hole."
Cited is a study of population trends made by the New York State Department of Com-
merce which shows the amazing growth of the suburbs around New York City and the rapid de-
velopment of the smaller communities upstate. The Government's Industry dispersal program
is mentioned as a broad move toward the suburbanization of industry which has already be-
come a major economic trend.
"The Ace in the Hole," an editorial in The Journal of Commerce issue of November 27, 1951. Offices at 63 Park Row,
New York 15, N. Y.
Basic data which bear out the trends discussed will be found in Census summary releases on the "Population of Urbanized
Areas" and the "Population of Standard Metropolitan Areas." More detailed data on Standard Metropolitan Areas will be
found in the separate reports for each area. There is no charge for these releases unless more than one copy of each
is desired. They may be obtained from the Bureau of the Census, Washington 25, D. C., or from any field office of the
U. S. Department of Commerce.
SMALL BUSINESS RECOMMENDATIONS OF CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE
A recent progress report of the Select Committee on Small Business of the House of
Representatives contains many recommendations. Many of the Committee's previous recom-
mendations, including the establishment of a Small Defense Plants Administration, were
adopted by the Congress and the executive agencies of the Government during 1951. Recom-
mendations for further action include the following:
Replacement of military small-business specialists in the procurement offices by
civilian employees when administratively possible.
More extensive use of existing procurement regulations authorizing payment of justi-
fiable price differentials in negotiated procurement.
More extensive use of multiple awards in negotiated procurement.
Utilization of qualified production pools in procurement.
Revision of procurement procedures to assist small businesses in obtaining Government
contracts when threatened with extinction because of Government restrictions on use of ma-
terials for civilian manufacture.
Waiving of performance bond posting where public interest is not jeopardized.
Prohibition of "set-off" clauses, which prevent subcontractors from assigning their
accounts to banks without obtaining consent of prime contractor.
Delegation of authority to Federal Reserve banks to make guarantees on loans not ex-
ceeding a specified amount.
Delegation by defense agencies of as much authority as possible to regional and field
offices so that small-business men may obtain decisions quickly and without trip to Wash-
Interpretative prefaces, written in layman's language, for all regulations.
Progress Retort-first Session of the Select Committee on Small Business, House of Refresentattves 82nd Congress:
Union Calendar No. 397; House Report No. 1228. Available without charge from the House Document Room, House of Repre-
sentatives, Washington 25, D. C. 1952. 77 pp.
PROCUREMENT ASSISTANCE IN UNEMPLOYMENT AREAS
The Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization has issued an important order,
effective February 7, 1952, designed to provide for procurement by negotiated contracts
and purchases with responsible concerns located in an area of current or imminent labor
surplus, including a surplus of manpower possessing skills necessary to fulfill Government
contracts, in cases where the public interest requires such action to achieve objectives
specified in the order. Detailed implementation is provided in the order for carrying out
the new procedure.
The above order was based on the recent opinion, given by the Comptroller General of
the United States at the request of the Director of Mobilization, as to whether the
AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS
procurement procedures in question are authorized by law so as to permit the expenditure
of public funds under contracts so awarded. Tne opinion concludes:
"....section 2(c) (1) of the Armed Service Procurement Act of 1947 authorizes the ne-
gotiation of contracts, without advertising, when determined by the Agency head to be nec-
essary in the public interest.during the period of a national emergency declared by the
President. Such a national emergency was proclaimed by the President on Decemberl6, 1950.
Despite such authority, it would not normally appear to be in the public interest for the
military departments to make awards of contracts to a firm or group of firms when it is
known at the time that the services or supplies are obtainable elsewhere at a lower price.
If, however, the military establishments determine that, for the reasons set forth in your
letter, it is necessary in the public interest that awards be made in specific instances
at prices other than the lowest which might be obtainable, this Office will not be re-
quired to object to otherwise proper payments under contracts so awarded. It is under-
stood, of course, that, if in its review of transactions of the type here in question,
this Office feels that there has been an improper exercise of authority to negotiate
contracts and made awards for the purpose indicated, it may be necessary to report such
instances to the Congress for its consideration or to take such other action as may be
Defense Manpower Policy No. 4: Placement of Procurement in Areas of Current or Imminent Labor Surplus my be obtained
from the Office of Defense Mobilization, Washington 25, D. C.
DPA SERVICE ON BASIC MATERIALS AND ALTERNATES
A periodic release by the Conservation Division, Defense Production Administration,
lists basic materials and alternates. This information, issued on a bimonthly basis,
shows the relative availability of certain basic materials and indicates alternate mate-
rials which are readily available. Nearly 400 materials are arranged alphabetically
within their commodity classifications in one of three groups ranging from short supply to
As these lists are constantly revised, the latest available should always be used.
However, the short bibliographies which appear at the end of each issue are not cumula-
tive. Issue No. 5 will carry for the first time a summary of selected Technical Defense
Production Aids prepared by the Office of Small Business.
"List of Basic Materials and Alternates" may be obtained from Printing Services, Department of Commerce, Washington
25. D. C., or from any field office of that Department. 4 pp. No charge.
GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS FOR FREE USE
Government-owned patents totaling 2,339 in number are available without charge to any
American manufacturer under nonexclusive, royalty-free license which may be obtained from
the Government agencies administering the patents. A list of these patents has been com-
piled by the Office of the Chairman of the Government Patents Board and published particu-
larly as a service to the small American manufacturer by the U. S. Department of Commerce
through the cooperation of the Office of Field Service and NPA. If a patent listed in-
terests the reader he may ascertain from the nearest U. S. Department of Commerce field
office listed on the back cover whether an abstract of the patent is available for inspec-
tion, or he may send the patent number and 25 cents for each copy to the Commissioner of
Patents, U. S. Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C. Patents are listed in order
of patent number and are also grouped by Standard Industrial Classification.
Government-owned Inventions For Free Use, prepared by the Office of the Chairman, Government Patenta Board, is aold by
the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 104 pp. $1.
WATER RESOURCES POLICY DRAFT BILL
Recommendations for legislation, submitted to the President by the former Water Re-
sources Policy Commission as a proposed water resources act, were released for publication
February 18, 1951. The Commission had previously issued separate reports on "A Water
Policy for the American People," "Ten Rivers in America's Future," and "Water Resources
The highlights of these recommendations include: (1) establishment of not more than
15 river basin commissions to coordinate activities of existing Federal agencies and
assure unified planning of river basin programs on a multiple-purpose basis; (2) partici-
pation of the region in planning its water resources programs through two representatives
AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS
on each commission (to be elected by an advisory committee constituted by the Governors of
interested states and composed of 25 representatives of state and local governments and of
farm, labor, business, and recreational interests); (3) establishment of a Federal board of
review to coordinate work of the river basin commissions and assure achievement of na-
tional purposes in accordance with developed principles and standards; and (4) establish-
ment of standard principles governing reimbursement of the Federal Government for benefits
from water resources undertakings, including provision for cooperation of state and local
governments in securing just payment for benefits.
During the past year, by direction of the President, the Bureau of the Budget has
been reviewing the reports of the former Commission, including the above-mentioned draft
legislation, and discussing the various issues with affected Federal agencies, with the
object of advising the President with respect to proposed water policy legislation in gen-
eral. It is understood that the Bureau has about completed its draft of such legislation
for submission to the President.
STATUS OF TOPOGRAPHIC AND OTHER MAPPING
Less than 25 percent of the country is adequately mapped for present day require-
ments, according to the Map Information Office of the U. S. Geological Survey. In view of
this situation it is noteworthy that that office will release this spring single maps of the
United States showing the areas covered to date by the following types of mapping: topo-
graphic. aerial mosaics, horizontal control, vertical control, and geologic mapping.
There is no charge for these maps, but maps showing the status of geologic mapping in in-
dividual states will be priced at from 50 to 75 cents each.
In addition the Map Information Office is issuing a new series of state base maps on
a scale of 1:500,000 (eight miles to the inch) and new small-scale topographic maps of the
United States at 1:250,000 (1 inch equals approximately 4 miles).
Information concerning the availability of maps, aerial photographs, geodetic control, and related data may be ad-
dressed to the Map Information Office, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington 25, D. C. Maps may be ordered from the
Chief of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington 25, D. C., or from its office at Denver 15, Colo., for maps
of areas west of the Mississippi.
IMPROVED PUBLIC TRANSIT AS REMEDY URBAN TRAFFIC PROBLEM
A well-reasoned plea for improved and coordinated public transportation as the best
means of moving people in large metropolitan communities has been made by the manager of
the Urban Transit Division, General Electric Company, Erie, Pa. As an indication of the
traffic and transit problem it is claimed that whereas horsedrawn carriages used to travel
an average of 11 miles per hour in New York midtown traffic, the average speed of the
automobile today on the same streets is 6 miles per hour.
The fundamental problem is described as one of moving people, not vehicles. It is
claimed that one lane on a city street, with cross traffic, can move a maximum of about
1,500 passengers per hour in automobiles, and grade-separated freeways about 2,500 passen-
gers per hour in automobiles; whereas a public-transit lane on city streets with trolley
coaches, buses, and streetcars can move as high as 60,000 passengers per hour. The pro-
posal is made that public transit systems in our metropolitan areas, and also railroad
commuter services in larger population centers, be built up to a point where they will
attract a substantially greater number of riders.
Such public transit projects, particularly the rights of way, will have to be fi-
nanced through general lien credit, it is intimated. This thinking is on the theory that
these rights of way cannot be fully supported out of passenger revenue, and that they
should not be fully supported by that source because all people in a large metropolitan
area benefit greatly by a modern rapid transit system, whether they use it or not.
"Co-ordinated Transportation for Large Metropolitan Communities," by E. E. Kearns, a paper recommended by the AIFE
Committee on Land Transportation, is available from the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 33 West 39th St.,
New'York 18, N. Y. Jan. 1952. 6 pp. 30 cents to members, 60 cents to nonmembers.
NEW ENGLAND'S COMPETITIVE STATUS
A recent analysis of New England's competitive advantages and disadvantages discloses
that wages in this region are declining in relation to those in other areas, that only the
South has lower wages, and that the Federal Government has drained billions of dollars out
of New England by spending less there than it took out.
AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS
Among the region's disadvantages mentioned by the author of the analysis, a New Eng-
land economist, are relatively higher fuel power costs, antiquated plant, failure to capi-
talize on the economies of water transportation, and unavailability of raw materials. The
writer feels that the following could improve the region's competitive status and stimu-
late growth of new industries: an improved relation with the Federal Government, better
exploitation of river resources, improvement in the tax structure, and better working con-
ditions and more advanced social legislation in the less developed competitive regions.
"New F.ngland's Economic Problems." by Seymour E. Harris, a 6-page article appearing in the January 1952 imsue of Dun's
Review, 99 Church St., New York 8, N. Y. Single copy 35 cents.
GUIDE FOR APPRAISING A COMMUNITY
Communities interested in appraising their economic and social resources will find
helpful a university-prepared guide for such purposes. In three parts it covers (1)
appraising these resources, (2) appraising small manufacturing business, and (3) sources
of counsel and assistance. The items presented are intended to be thought provocative
rather than a complete coverage of every phase of subject, yet the detail in which sub-
jects are treated will be found quite helpful. Organizations are listed which can be of
further assistance to community leaders.
Appraising Our Community--ts Economic and Social Resources, prepared by the Extension Division, Bureau of Comunity
Development, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. April 1951. 23 pp. mimeo.
GUIDE FOR PREPARING COMMUNITY ADVERTISING BROCHURES
A critical hard-hitting review of industrial development brochures of communities is
now available and well worth study. This publication is the result of more than 200 in-
terviews and extensive correspondence with manufacturers, distributors, local and state
officials, members of public relations and advertising agencies, and editors of business
The subjects covered include: the ten percent of brochures that are different,
sources of help for the writer, content and layout, size and format, statistical material,
costs and financing, sponsorship, tie-in promotions, brochures in related fields, methods
of distribution, follow up, examples of "A-grade" and "B-grade" copy, representative
titles, worn-out slogans and most'common faults. A selected bibliography is appended.
"Send for Illustrated Brochure:" A Study of Promotion Material Issued by Chambers of Commerce and Other Comunity De-
velopment Agencies, is available from the Bureau of Research, University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, Calif. Jan.
1952. 46 pp. $2.25.
EXPERIENCE WITH COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATIONS
A recently published study of experience with, and organization of, community devel-
opment corporations, often called industrial foundations, was developed largely for Kansas
readers, but is also a helpful guide to general experience with this type of organization.
Included is a description of community development corporations, their purposes, accom-
plishments, organization and operation.
The Community Development Cooroation sn Kansas, by J. D. Morgan, was sponsored by the Kansas Industrial Development
Commission and published by the Bureau of Business Research, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans. Jan. 1951. 48 pp.
COMMUNITY ADVERTISING-METHODS AND RESULTS
A recent study of community advertising concludes that most advertisers are satisfied
that their money has been well spent, although few results in dollars or jobs can be
clearly identified. Practically all of the advertisers interviewed feel that their adver-
tis'ing is effective only as part of a comprehensive program which includes personal
contacts, community education, close study of industrial trends, and thorough follow-up of
This helpful report shows also advertising media most used, media most productive,
principal benefits resulting from advertising, location factors featured in 200 advertise-
ments, criteria for selecting an advertising agency, the importance of a comprehensive
program, examples of headlines and slogans, and includes a bibliography.
Bidding for Industrial Payrolls: A Study of Current Methods and Results in Community Advertising is published by the
Bureau of Research. University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, Calif. Nov. 1951. 37 pp.
AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS
TAX EXEMPTIONS TO ENCOURAGE INDUSTRY
The advisability of granting tax exemptions to encourage industry are weighed in a
magazine article. Three criteria are cited which, according to tax theorists, should all
be met to establish a valid case for such exemption: (1) the property seeking exemption
should be used in rendering a service affected with a bona fide public interest, either
supplementing the same service rendered by the municipality or representing a service in
which the locality does not directly engage, but nevertheless has a genuine interest; (2)
the service must be capable of being fostered adequately on a purely commercial basis,
without additional assistance in the form of grants-in-aid, free supplies, etc.; and (3)
the exemption should not be granted unless it can be done without serious disproportion
between the benefit and the cost to the municipality concerned.
All tax exemptions are stated to fall into one of the following categories: (1) ex-
emption of real estate, machinery or inventories for either a limited time or permanently-
this is the most prevalent type; (2) a classified property assessment that reduces valua-
tions by a percentage favorable to one class of property only; (3) a method somewhat simi-
lar to the foregoing except that it affords an advantageously low mill rate; (4) token
assessments whereby companies usually make a nominal return of their personal property in-
dependent of the actual valuations; (5) taking a statistical average for a number of years
and substituting this for an assessment during an abnormal year; (6.) requirement of full
amount of all general property taxes, but supplying certain services free where they are a
proprietary function of the municipality; and (7) an outright subsidy with the donation of
land, building or capital.
"Tax Exemptions To Encourage Industry," by Seward B. Snell. A 5-page article appearing in the May 1951 issue of
Taxes: The Tax Nagazine, published by Commerce Clearing House, Inc., 214 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago 1, 111. Single
copy 50 cents.
TAX RATES OF 41 STATES COMPARED
In order to show the relative tax burden of the State of Washington, a special
assistant to the Governor has made a comparative study of state taxes and local property
taxes in 41 states. Omitted are Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, South
Carolina, and Virginia for the stated reason that local tax data were unavailable from
these states. For most of the states covered the data are as of 1950 or 1949. In addi-
tion to the state totals, data are also presented per $1,000 income of residents. On this
latter basis the various states are ranked from the highest to the.lowest. States shown
as having the heaviest tax per $1,000 income of residents, in a descending scale, are
Louisiana, Kansas, Colorado, Vermont, California, Arizona, Montana, Utah, North Dakota,
and Florida. In the lowest part of the scale, still in descending order, are Illinois,
Ohio, Indiana, Texas, Pennsylvania, and Missouri.
The question as to whether or not locations of new plants are chosen on the basis of
variations in state and local tax rates is answered with a "probably not." It is stressed
that in the last 20 years the Federal tax burden climbed from 4 cents on the dollar to 27
cents, while state and local taxes dropped from 13.2 cents to 7.6 cents, showing that the
state and local share of the tax take has turned from a major into a minor factor.
"Fact and Fiction on Washington State's Tax Burden," a 5-page article by Roger A. Freeman, appeared in the February
1952 issue of Pacific Northwest Industry, published by the University of Washington, Seattle 5, Wash. Subscription
price $2 a year.
TAX RATE OF AMERICAN CITIES COMPARED
Those concerned with the comparative status of municipal tax and assessment rates
will find helpful a study of 408 American cities (30,000 population or greater) which is a
yearly feature of the National Municipal Review. 'The currently published article compares
the 1950 tax rates of these cities from the standpoints of assessed value; percent per-
sonalty tax; actual tax rate, as levied per $1,000 assessed valuation for city, school,
county, state, and total taxes; estimated ratio of assessed value to current market value;
and adjusted tax rate on 100 percent basis of assessment.
"Tax Rates of American Cities," by Citizens Research Council of Michigan, a 20-page article appearing in the January
1952 issue of National Municipal Review, published by the National Municipal League, 299 Broadway, New York 7, N. Y.
Annual subscription S5; single copy 50 cents.
8 AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS MARCH 1952
UNGUIDED AND UNCORRELATED .INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
A West Coast city manufacturer is quoted as follows in response to an appeal by the
local chamber of commerce for support of further "industrial development":
"In response to your letter regarding an increase in our subscription to the chamber
of commerce for the specific purpose of bringing in more industry, new people, and new
payrolls, including greater quantities of sewage pollution on our beaches and rivers,
greater congestion in living quarters and in our temporary school buildings, greater con-
gestion of traffic and carbon dioxide gas pollution in our streets, and general destruc-
tion of our natural resources wherever increased population can spoil and destroy them-if
these are the things you want, I certainly am not for them.
"Since we are in the manufacturing business we are naturally interested in payrolls,
transportation, housing, schools, etc. We are considering plant expansion ourselves, but
it certainly will not be in this city under present conditions. In fact, we are moving as
far away from these congested conditions as we possibly can get, to a small town where we
will have room to breathe and happy home-owning employees, far removed from the mess we
have here. Until these conditions are cured, I am against bringing any more people to
"As you know, I have been active in the hopeful development of recreational and other
facilities for the past ten years. I have headed up chamber of commerce committees on
civic improvements and conservation of natural resources, but with practically no success.
We are getting to be like and other places where you cannot see or breathe freely
for the smog and soot floating in the air. For selfish reasons we are crowding more and
more people into less and less breathing space, and you ask me to be a party to it. Until
such time as we can make some reasonable provisions to take care of the folks we have al-
ready here, I will not only not support the program, but I will oppose it as vigorously as
I possibly can."'
Quoted from the January 24, 1952, issue of "Direction Finding," a service published by Industrial Survey Associates,
605 Market St.. San Francisco 5, Calif.
ZONING MANUALS AVAILABLE
In view of the scarcity of detailed and up-to-date zoning guides, communities needing
such information will be interested to learn that the Southern Association of State
Planning and Development Agencies has prepared a helpful guide for boards of zoning ad-
justment. The general zoning enabling legislation which has been adopted by most Southern
states was used in the preparation of this work, but as a number of cities in the area
have special zoning legislation, such boards should view this guide in the light of the
laws under which they operate. The three main subjects covered are (1) why a board of
zoning adjustment, (2) powers and duties of the board, and (3) steps for board action.
The appendix presents sample bylaws for such a board and a sample form for appeals to that
This manual is issued as a companion to a guide to zoning for small towns of approxi-
mately 10,000 population or less, published in 1946.
A Guide for a Board of Zoning Adjustment is published by the Southern Association of State Planning and Development
Agencies, 301 State Finance Bldg., Richmond, Va., 1951. 27 pp. t1.
A Guide to Zoning For Small Totns was reproduced by the Tennessee State Planning Commission, 517 Coamerce St., Nash-
ville 3, Tenn., Nov. 1949. No price is indicated.
Principles of Industrial Zoning, a 13-page booklet prepared by the National Industrial Zoning Committee. which repre-
sents six nation-wide organizations, may be obtained from the committee, located at 820 Huntington Bank Bldg.. Colum-
bus 15, Ohio.
WORKER INTERVIEWS REVEAL COMMUNITY INFLUENCES
Interviews of long-time residents in each of four large American cities, conducted by
the head of the sociology department of a large university, indicate the speakers' reac-
tion to the type of community in which they live and its influence on their attitudes and
outlook. As only one person in each city was interviewed, it is not claimed, of course,
that the result reflects a cross-section of opinion for these cities or for the Nation.
All four were men between the ages of 35 and 45, white, married, and earning between two
and four thousand dollars a year. The localities chosen were a southern industrial city,
a mid-western city, a northeastern industrial city, and a northeastern residential and in-
AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS
The questions asked included many which elicited opinions as to what sort of place
is to live in; what they liked about it; what they didn't like about; whether or
not it had a good city government; what "a good city government" meant to them; what they
thought of the schools, police and fire protection, and treatment from the police and
courts, including differential treatment, if any; and what they thought of the neighbor-
hood in which they lived. In general, where those interviewed liked their communities
there was evidence of a normal, contended outlook and social viewpoint, with prospects of
continuing residence and employment. Where those interviewed disliked their communities
their attitudes presented quite a contrary picture, bordering on distrust and bitterness
and a desire to move elsewhere.
Four American Talk About Their Cities: Illustrative Interviews from the Study of Cities. Study No. 15, conducted for
Dr. Robert C. Angell, Chairman, University of Michigan Sociology Department, in 1947. Requests for copies should be
addressed to the Survey Research Center, University of Michigan. Ann Arkor, Mich.
REGIONAL DATA AVAILABLE FROM RESERVE BOARD
Much regional data are released periodically by the Board of Governors of the Federal
Reserve System, apart from and sometimes in addition to the information supplied in the
Board's monthly Federal Reserve Bulletin. Some of these releases are listed below.
Weekly Department Store Sales Indexes (Based on dollar amounts)
Department Store Sales, By Cities (Percent change from corresponding period a year
Changes in Commercial and Industrial Loans, by Industry and Purpose (in millions of
dollars, by industry, purpose, and Federal Reserve District)
Condition of Weekly Reporting Member Banks In Leading Cities
Deposits, Reserves, and Borrowings of Member Banks
Bank Debits-Debits to Deposit Accounts Except Interbank Accounts
Assets and Liabilities of All Member Banks, by Districts
Interdistrict Settlement Fund (Clearings, withdrawals, deposits, transfers, and
balance in fund at close of business)
Department Store Stocks (Based on retail value figures)
Department Store Sales Indexes (1947-49 average equals 100)
Bank Debits to Deposit Accounts Except Interbank Accounts
Principal Assets and Liabilities, by States, of All Banks in the United States and
Bank Debits-Debits to Deposit Accounts Except Interbank Accounts
The foregoing may be obtained without charge from the Division of Administrative Services, Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System, Washington 25, D. C. The Board's monthly Federal Reserve Bulletin carries a detailed list of
the Board's publications.
Under "Books," for instance, is listed Distribution of Bank Deposits by Counties and Standard Metropolitan Areas, as
of December 30, 1950. 125 pp. No charge.
REPORTS OF NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
The National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences has released a list
of many useful publications in print as of December 1951. Included is a directory of in-
dustrial research laboratories of the U. S., giving names of presidents and research exec-
utives of 2,845 such organizations, location of laboratories, numbers and kinds of re-
search scientists and other personnel, research activities, and whether consulting serv-
ices are offered. An appendix lists cooperating government laboratories and universities
and colleges offering research services to industry. The material is indexed by area and
type of research activity.
10 AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS MARCH 1952
A List of Publications in Print December 1951, 22 pp. No charge.
Industrial Research Laboratories of the U. S., compiled by Myron J. Rand, 9th edition, 445 pp., $5.
Bibliography No. 1: Effect of Limited Access Expressuays on Existing Street Systems-19u---mimeo. 15 pp. 15 cents.
Bibliography No. 2: Selected Bibliography on righway Safety-Annotated. 1947. 51 pp. 45 cents.
Bibliography Bo. 2-Supplement No. 1: Selected Bibliography on Bighazy Safety-Annotated. 1949. 12 pp. 15 cents.
Bibliography No. 4: Oses of Bighuay Planning Survey Data. 1948. 23 pp. mimeo. 30 cents.
Bibliography No.11: Origin-Destination Surveys and Traffic Volume Studies. 1951. 277 pp. $3.
Roadside Development-1951: Reports and Papers of 30th Annual Meeting of the Committee on Roadside Development.
120 pp. 51.80.
Orders for the foregoing should be addressed to the Publications Office, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution
Ave., Washington 25, D. C.
MANUFACTURING TREND DATA, 1947-50
During the period 1947 to 1950, all of the states except Rhode Island and Mississippi
showed increases in value added by manufacture, reflecting in part price increases during
the period, but four regions and many states experienced decreases in the number of pro-
duction workers, indicating that the postwar declines of 1949 had not been entirely off-
set. The South Atlantic, West South Central, Mountain and Pacific States fared best in
employment, showing gains ranging from 3 percent each for the South Atlantic and West
South Central to 6 percent for the Mountain and 8 percent for the Pacific States. New
England experienced the greatest percentage decline (over 5 percent), with Rhode Island
falling off 10 percent.
With respect to value added by manufacture, the largest percent gains were made by
the East North Central, West South Central, and Pacific States (27 percent each). It
should be noted that according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics the wholesale price index
for manufactured products rose from 146.0 in 1947 to 156.8 in 1950, or 7 percent.
The foregoing is based upon the 1950 Annual Survey of Nanufactures Preliminary Report Series MAS-50-3, General Statis-
tics for Geographic Divisions and States: 1950, 1949,'and 1947. Separate reports are also available in this series
for each of the nine regions.
Although indicated as preliminary, all of the following 1950 Annual Survey reports actually give final figures: MAS-
50-3 series mentioned above; MAS-50-4, Value of Manufacturers Inventory for Selected Industry Groups; MAS-50-5, Cost
of Fuel Consumed and Purchased Electric Energy for Industrial Groups; MWS-50-6, Expenditures for Plant and Equipment;
MAS-50-7, Metals Consumed by Metal Product Producers for Selected Industries; and MAS-50-8, Selected General Statis-
tics by Size of Establishment for Major Industry Groups and Selected Industries. Single copies are available without
charge from the Bureau of the Census, Washington 25, D. C., or from field offices of the U. S. Department of Commerce.
REGIONAL NONAGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT DATA
In November 1951 Los Angeles' nonagricultural establishments had over 94,000 more em-
ployees than in November 1950, manufacturing accounting for 54,000 of this increase.
Baltimore's nonagricultural firms experienced an increase of 30,500 employees during this
period, of which manufacturing represented an increase of 18,400. Wichita's comparable
establishments had a gain of 24,400 during the year, of which the major portion was also
This type of information is given in the monthly employment and payrolls releases of
the U. S. Department of Labor, which include employment in nonagricultural establishments
by industry division, by state, and by industry division for selected cities. In each
case-data are given for the current month and the corresponding month of the previous
year; also for the preceding month.
Employment and Payrolls: Detailed Report November 1951, released February 1952, is available without charge frm the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, Washington 25, D. C.
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION GOALS HANDBOOK 1952
A handbook recently published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture contains final
national and state production and acreage goals based on revised crop statistics for 1950
and 1951. These goals were determined on the basis of needs for the various products, and
the goals for each state followed recommendations of that state as much as possible. This
publication indicates some of the specific adjustments required if the very high produc-
tion target-6 percent above 1951 levels-is to be achieved. Helpful information is also
AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS
presented relating to crops covered by special legislation, agricultural manpower, and ma-
terials and facilities affecting farm production, storage, transportation, and marketing.
195 Frc-ductl Goals Handbook, published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. Jan. 1952.
129 pp. A limited number of copies are avamlatle from that department without charge.
NEW BASE PERIOD FOR INDEX NUMBERS
Two Federal agencies are now revising their index numbers pursuant to the recommenda-
tion of the Bureau of the Budget that the base period for such indexes be shifted from
prewar periods to the postwar years 1947-49.
The Federal Reserve Board now publishes several indexes on this new base period and
plans to convert all of the other series to this base during 1952. Revision of its weekly
indexes of department store sales, including the change from the 1935-39 base, is expected
to be completed by the end of April, but the new base period for the Board's monthly in-
dexes of sales and stocks by major departments will probably not be adopted before the end
of the year. The monthly index of industrial production will be changed from the 1935-39
base within several months.
The Board's mon hly index of output of major consumer durable goods, first published
in the October 1951 .isue of the Federal Reserve Bulletin, already uses the 1947-49 base
period. The monthly indexes of sales and stocks of department stores was changed from
1935-39 to the new base as part of the general revision of the' department store indexes.
The Board's index of industrial production is not expected to be changed to the 1947-49
base period before fall. For all other series originated by the Board and published in
relative form in the Federal Reserve Bulletin or in mimeographed releases the new base
period is currently being adopted.
Most of the indexes of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, are
expected to be changed to the 1947-49 base period during the calendar year 1952. The com-
prehensive revision of the Wholesale Price Index will be effective with the release for
January 1952, and that of the Consumers' Price Index with the January 1953 release. Be-
ginning with the January 1952 report the following will be changed from the 1939 to the
1947-49 base: proauction-worker employment index, all manufacturing; and production-
worker payroll index, all manufacturing. Certain hours and earnings industry indexes and
series now on a 1939 base use the Consumers' Price Index and therefore cannot be changed
to the new base until revision of the latter is completed. Indexes of union wage scales
will be placed on the new base with publication of annual surveys for 1951. Indexes of
the valuation of urban building authorized, by class of construction, formerly based on
the monthly average for 1935-39, will be placed on the new base with the release of data
for January 1952.
STATE EXPORT-IMPORT STUDIES BASED ON ICC DATA
Although the Interstate Commerce Commission's "Sample Waybill Analyses" indicate rail
flow of products between states and regions, comparatively little use has been made of
this information to date in rounding out economic reports for such areas. It is therefore
reassuring to learn that at the State University of Iowa and the University of Seattle
separate studies are proceeding in this field.
A current article presents a small portion of an unpublished and uncompleted study
being made at Iowa State University, concerning traffic movements based upon the ICC
sample waybill analyses for 1949. Percentages of exports to and imports from a seven-
state area, including Iowa, have been computed for each of the five ICC major commodity
groups: (1) products of agriculture; (2) animals and products; (3) manufactures and mis-
cellaneous; (4) products of mines; and (5) products of forests. These groups, while not
broken down in the present article, are broken down in the basic ICC data and also in the
worksheets of the uncompleted study. The ratio of exports to and imports from this area
have been accepted as an index of the deficit or surplus status of the industrial situa-
tion of the State or region. The uncompleted study calls for an analysis of (1) resource
input-output of regions; (2) changes in the location of primary and secondary producers,
including an effort to discover the relevance of rail freight rates upon such shifts; and
(3) effects of transportation rates upon processing locations.
At the University of Washington, preliminary maps are available showing state-to-
state rail freight movement for 13 states, based upon the ICC waybill analyses for 1948.
As in the case of the above-mentioned article, however, these maps cover only the five ICC
major commodity groups, without a breakdown.
UNIVERSITY UO- I-LUKIU
12 AREA AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLICATIONS 3 1262 08748 9646
"The Iowa Economy as Portrayed.by Rail Freight Traffic Movement," a 6-page article by Prof. Leo W. Sweeney, appeared
in the December 1951 issue of the lohk Business Digest, published by the Bureau of Business and Economic Research,
State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. Prof. Sweeney states that in the more comprehensive unpublished study he
has mapped and analyzed state to state movements of the various commodities comprising the five ICC groups, and that
specific questions will be answered insofar as possible upon request addressed to the Bureau of Business and Ecoomic
"Maps of State-To-State Rail Freight Movement for 13 States of the United States in 1948"-Preliminary Report No. 3,
by Edward L. Ullman and others, June 1951, may be obtained from the author at the Department of Geography, University
of Washington, Seattle, Wash.
"Carload Waybill Analyses, 1950: State-to-State Distribution of All Conmoditiea Combined. Traffic and Revenue"; also
separate reports for each of the five ICC commodity groups are available from the Bureau of Transport Economics eand
Statistics, Interstate Commerce Commission, Washington 25. D. C.
A list of carload waybill analyses released by IOC to date, including 22 separate reports for 1950. Each analysis is
given an identification number by which it may be ordered. Available from the ICC at the above-mentioned address.
COUNTY INCOME DATA IN SOUTHERN STATES
Tennessee may now be added to the states, such as New York, Iowa, Missouri, and
Arkansas, for which estimates of income by county are available. These estimates repre-
sent a breakdown of the state income payment estimates published annually by the U. S. De-
partment of Commerce. As the state data are relied upon greatly by market analysts and
enter into almost all state and regional economic investigations, one can readily visual- .:: .:l
ize the benefits which will result from extending these state income estimates to the "
local or county level.
The Tennessee county estimates are for 1947 and are presented for each of the 15
largest income counties and for 80 other counties as a group. They show (1) total income
payments to individuals by type of Income and (2) major industrial sources of gross income
payments. The Bureau of Business Research of the University of Tennessee, which prepares
these estimates, is a member of the "Conference on Measurement of County Income,"
organized in 1949 to publish county income statistics. The other conference members are
the bureaus of business research of the universities of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mis-
sissippi, North Carolina, and Virginia, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. A report,
which includes income estimates for all counties in the seven states, is now being pre-
pared for publication by the Conference.
"Study Shows Income by Counties in Tennessee," a 3-page article appearing in the euas Letter for December 1951, pub-
lished by the Division of University Extension, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.
Requests for copies of the Conference report on county income in the seven states, now being prepared for publication,
may be addressed to the Bureau of Business Research, College of Business Administration, University of Tennessee,
Knoxville. Tenn. Copies will be sent as soon as the report becomes available.
As mentioned in Area and Industrial Publications bulletin of January 1952, "Income Payments to Individuals in New York
State Counties," is an 8-page article in the August 1951 issue of the New York State Commerce Review, 112 State St., I
Albany 7, N. Y., giving 1948 and 1949 county income estimates. The November 1951 issue of the same publication pre-
sents county estimates for 1950. County income estimates for Missouri and Arkansas are published by the Federal Re- '"
serve Bank of St. Louis, St. Louis, Mo.
STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURES AND FINANCING
State and local government expenditures during 1951 have been substantially larger ,
for construction of schools and public housing, moderately greater for hospitals and other
institutions, but somewhat smaller for public administrative and recreational projects,
according to a review by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The rapid
rise in construction costs led to the deferment of all but the most urgently needed con-
struction outlays, and less favorable borrowing terms in the spring and early summer of
1951 resulted in postponement of numerous prospective bond issues.
Construction statistics presented for the first ten months of 1951 and the two pre-
ceding years show that expenditures by state and local governments for the elapsed 1951
period reached a peak of $5,188 million for highways and a peak of $1,256 million for hos-
pitals and institutional construction. The total of $1,900 million for local public fa-
cilities was somewhat less than in the 1950 period but substantially greater than in 1949.
"Postkar Construction rPpenditures of State and Local Governrents and Their Financing," an article by Elinor Harris,
appears in the November 1951 issue of the Federal Reserve Bulletin, published by the Board of Governors of the Federal
Reserve System, Washington 25, D. C., price 32 per year or 20 cents.
Sterling R. March, Editor
Area Development Division
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