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The effects of regular education inservice training on teacher anxiety, knowledge about individualization, and attitudes toward mainstreaming

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The effects of regular education inservice training on teacher anxiety, knowledge about individualization, and attitudes toward mainstreaming
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Effects of regular education inservice training on teacher anxiety ..
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McAdams, Martha Lou Watson, 1949-
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xii, 159 leaves : ; 28 cm.

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Anxiety ( jstor )
Educational research ( jstor )
Inservice education ( jstor )
Inservice teacher education ( jstor )
Inservice training ( jstor )
Special education ( jstor )
Student mainstreaming ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teacher attitudes ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Special Education -- UF
Individualized instruction ( lcsh )
Mainstreaming in education ( lcsh )
Special Education thesis Ph. D
Teachers -- Attitudes ( lcsh )
Teachers -- In-service training ( lcsh )
Teachers -- Psychology ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 149-157.
General Note:
Vita.
General Note:
Typescript.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Martha Lou Watson McAdams.

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THE EFFECTS OF REGULAR EDUCATION INSERVICE TRAINING
ON TEACHER ANXIETY, KNOWLEDGE ABOUT INDIVIDUALIZATION,
AND ATTITUDES TOWARD MAINSTREAMING






BY

MARTHA LOU WATSON MCADAMS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1981




THE EFFECTS OF REGULAR EDUCATION INSERVICE TRAINING
ON TEACHER ANXIETY, KNOWLEDGE ABOUT INDIVIDUALIZATION,
AND ATTITUDES TOWARD MAINSTREAMING
BY
MARTHA LOU WATSON MCADAMS
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1981


Copyright 1981
by
Martha Lou Watson McAdams


DEDICATION
This dissertation is dedicated to the memory of my
mother who taught me to value an education and instilled in
me a love for teaching and children.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to express sincere appreciation to the
members of her doctoral committee, Dr. Ronald Nutter, Dr.
Charles Forgnone, Dr. Robert Algozzine, Dr. Mary Lou Koran
and Dr. James Hale. Their help and advice during this study
and the entire doctoral program are greatly appreciated.
A sincere thank you goes to Dr. Ronald Nutter for his
friendship and professional guidance which endured through
out the entire doctoral program. Dr. Robert Algozzine is
extended a special thank you for his continual confidence,
encouragement and guidance.
The writer wishes to express gratitude to Walt Mickler
and his staff at the Area Regional Resource Center; especially
Mary Blase. Their interest and cooperation made this study
possible. A debt of gratitude must be acknowledged to the
teachers who participated in this study.
The author is extremely grateful to her in-laws, Marian
and Burch McAdams. Without their help, which was above and
beyond the call of duty, this work would not have been possible.
With gratitude, the writer wishes to acknowledge the im
pact that her father and stepmother, Sam and Nelda Watson,
had on her ultimately accomplishing this goal. They have
always provided love, encouragement, and confidence.
iv


Finally, to the author's husband, Hal, and son, David,
she expresses deepest appreciation and eternal gratitude for
their sacrifice, love, patience and unrelenting faith during
this entire endeavor. Without their support, this goal would
never have been accomplished.
v


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES ix
ABSTRACT xi
CHAPTER
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose 5
Research Questions 5
Assumptions 6
Definitions 7
Delimitations 9
Limitations 10
2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11
Stages of Concerns of Teachers 11
Teacher Anxiety 16
Teacher Attitudes 19
Teacher Expectancies 19
Effects of Contact on Teacher Attitude .... 26
Inservice Education 28
Best Practices 29
Best Practice Statements 30
Research Studies 47
Summary 47
vi


Page
3 METHODS AND MATERIALS 56
Statement of Hypothesis 56
Variables 57
Independent 57
Dependent 57
Control 58
Intervening 58
Instrumentation 58
Knowledge 58
Attitude 59
Anxiety 60
Demographic Data 61
Subjects 61
Procedures 63
Design 67
Data Collection 68
Data Analysis 71
4 RESULTS 73
Analysis of Variance 73
Correlation Coefficients 83
Regression Analysis 89
Summary 95
5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 97
Significance of Study 97
Discussion 100
Conclusions 100
Implications for Inservice
Teacher Education 106
vii


Page
Suggestions for Future Research 108
Summary 111
APPENDICES
A ID/PP KNOWLEDGE TEST 113
B ATTITUDES TOWARD MAINSTREAMING SCALE 121
C TEACHING ANXIETY SCALE 124
D DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET 128
E FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, YEARS
OF TEACHING EXPERIENCE 130
F PRACTICUM DAILY LESSON PLANS 133
G PRACTICUM INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PLAN 135
H COVER LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP
FOR PRETEST 141
I FOLLOW UP LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP
FOR PRETEST 143
J COVER LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP
FOR POSTTEST 145
K FOLLOW UP LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP
FOR POSTTEST 147
REFERENCE NOTES 148
REFERENCES 149
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 158
viii


LIST OF TABLES
Page
1 Best Practice Statements 31
2 Best Practices Endorsed 32
3 Best Practices of Inservice Education
Literature and Research Reviews 33
A Survey Research, Group Opinions
and Opinions 35
5 Criticisms of Best Practice Literature 37
6 Research Studies 48
7 Means, Standard-Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for ID/PP
Knowledge Test 74
8 Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for Attitudes
Toward Mainstreaming Scale 75
9Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for General
Mainstreaming Factor of Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale 76
10Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for Traditional
Learning Disabilities Factor of Attitudes
Toward Mainstreaming Scale 77
11Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for Learning
Capability Factor of Attitudes
Toward Mainstreaming Scale 78
12 Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for Teaching
Anxiety Scale 79
13 Comparison of Simple Means Using
Scheffe's Procedure 82
ix


Page
14 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Demographic Data and Dependent
Variables for fill Subjects 84
15 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Demographic Data and Dependent
Variables for Elementary Group 85
16 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Demographic Data and Dependent
Variables for Secondary Group 86
17 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Demographic Data and Dependent
Variables for Control Group 87
18 Prediction Equations and Summary of
Regression Analysis for ID/PP Knowledge
Test, ATMS and TCHAS 90
19 Prediction Equations and Summary of
Regression Analysis for ID/PP Knowledge
Test, ATMS and TCHAS and Years of
Teaching Experience 91
20 Prediction Equations and Summary of
Regression Analysis for ID/PP Knowledge
Test, ATMS and TCHAS and Credit Hours
in Special Education Courses 92
x


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECTS OF REGULAR EDUCATION INSERVICE TRAINING
ON TEACHER ANXIETY, KNOWLEDGE ABOUT INDIVIDUALIZATION,
AND ATTITUDES TOWARD MAINSTREAMING
By
Martha Lou Watson McAdams
December 1981
Chairman: Charles J. Forgnone
Major Department: Special Education
The purpose of this study was to determine if inservice
training designed to teach informal diagnosis and prescrip
tive programming (ID/PP) affects teacher anxiety, teacher
attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped students and know
ledge about ID/PP. In addition, it investigated the rela
tionships between teacher anxiety, teacher attitudes toward
mainstreaming and knowledge about ID/PP.
The subjects in this study were volunteer regular edu
cation teachers whose schools belonged to a rural educational
cooperative in a midwestern state. The 29 elementary teachers
and 28 secondary teachers received 40 hours of training on
ID/PP. In addition, they participated in a three-week prac-
ticum where they worked individually with students. This
program incorporated 12 out of 16 concepts from best practice
statements generated from a literature review focused on
xi


inservice training. A randomly selected control group, con
sisting of 9 elementary teachers and 10 secondary teachers,
did not participate in the training. In this pretest/post
test nonequivalent control group design, the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale, the Teaching Anxiety Scale and an ID/PP
knowledge test were dependent variables.
The results of this study indicated that the anxiety
level of teachers and the attitudes toward mainstreaming were
not significantly influenced by participation in inservice
training; however, differences in knowledge regarding informal
diagnosis and prescriptive programming were noted. No strong
correlations between teacher anxiety and teachers' attitudes
toward mainstreaming nor teacher anxiety and knowledge re
garding ID/PP nor teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming
and teachers' knowledge regarding ID/PP were indicated.
Similarly, scores on various measures were not good predictors
of each other. However, an analysis of years of teaching ex
perience and number of credit hours completed in special edu
cation courses indicated that they were good predictors of
teacher anxiety.
It was anticipated that the ID/PP training would have
impact upon teacher attitudes and anxiety as well as their
knowledge regarding ID/PP; this was not the case. Several
explanations for this outcome are discussed. Future research
in the area of inservice training addressing behavioral ap
proaches to measuring attitudinal changes and different
approaches to alleviate teacher anxiety would appear warranted
based on this research.
xii


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Within the last eight years the right to education
movement in the United States has made great strides. Land
mark court decisions have lead our Congressional leaders to
enact legislation providing for a free and appropriate edu
cation for all. Public Law {P. L.) 94-142, the Education for
All Handicapped Children Act, became law on November 29,
1975. It is now mandatory that all handicapped children
receive an education in the least restrictive environment.
Basically, least restrictive environment means that the
handicapped student should be placed in the most beneficial
learning situation for him/her; however, as much as possible
handicapped students should be integrated into regular pro
grams (Cole & Dunn, 1977). Least restrictive environment
is sometimes referred to as mainstreaming. Mainstreaming
refers to placing handicapped students into regular educa
tion programs, or the mainstream of education. The least
restrictive environment for some handicapped students may
be in the mainstream of education.
Students who previously have been isolated from the
nonhandicapped now will be receiving an education with them.
Thus, it is essential that the teachers who will be involved
in the mainstreaming classes be given adequate preparation
1


2
so that they will be able to more effectively deal with the
influx of this new population (Harvey, 1976; Saettler, 1976;
Siantz & Moore, 1978; Turnbull & Turnbull, 1978).
Many teachers have expressed concern about being able
to deal with exceptional students in regular classes (Alberto,
Castricone & Cohen, 1978; Graham, Hudson, Burdg & Carpenter,
1980; Hudson, Graham & Warner, 1979; Rude, 1978; Voeltz,
Bailey, Nakamura & Azama, 1979). Traditionally, inservice
education has been utilized to correct deficits in teachers'
skills (Schmid & McAdams, 1981). In recognition of the need
for general educators to receive inservice training, the
Division of Personnel Preparation of the Office of Special
Education and Rehabilitation has established regular educa
tion inservice as one of its priorities (Harvey, 1976;
Saettler, 1976).
Edelfelt (1974) expressed the opinion that inservice
education in the past has been inadequate and ineffective.
This is not surprising when one realizes that the field of
inservice education is lacking a strong research base (Corono
& Clark, 1978; Cruikshank, Lorish & Thompson, 1979; Rubin,
1978). Rubin (1978) indicated that few problems in educa
tion are in more need of an all-out effort at theory building
based on research other than inservice education.
Most of the models suggested for use in inservice pro
grams today are based on opinion rather than empirical evi
dence (Corono & Clark, 1978; Rubin, 1978). Educators have
seen a need for inservice training and have started


3
providing it ignoring the absence of an empirical base on
which to formulate effective practice.
Bensky, Shaw, Gouse, Bates, Dixon, and Beane (1980)
reported that as compliance with P. L. 94-142 increases,
reported stress from the tasks related to it increases.
Furthermore, regular teachers identified diagnosis and
assessment as the most stressful activities related to P. L.
94-142. Research investigating the effects of teacher an
xiety and stress has revealed that it may have detrimental
effects both on teachers and on their students (Coates &
Thoresen, 1976; Keavney & Sinclair, 1978; Kyriacou & Sutcliffe,
1977).
Researchers have discovered that teacher attitudes and
subsequent expectations can positively or adversely affect
student achievement, teacher behavior and student behavior
(Berryman, Neal & Robinson, 1980; Brophy & Good, 1970;
Dole, Honack & Kefer, 1970; Good & Brophy, 1972; Gottlieb,
Semmel & Veldman, 1978; Palardy, 1969; Rowe, 1969; Silberman,
1969). Since teacher attitudes are probably closely tied
to the effectiveness of education of the handicapped, re
searchers have generally recognized the need to study teachers'
attitudes toward mainstreaming (Reynolds & Greco, 1980).
In needs assessment studies conducted since passage of
P. L. 94-142, teachers have been asked to indicate areas in
which they feel they need additional training. Many teachers
see individualization as an area where they need training.
In at least four statewide studies, the ability to individualize


4
instruction has been identified as an area of need (Alberto
et al., 1978; Graham et al., 1980; Hudson et al., 1979;
Voeltz et al., 1979)- To individualize their instructional
programs, teachers need to have basic skills in identifying
where a child is functioning (informal diagnosis) and be
able to take that information and develop an instructional
plan for the child (prescriptive programming). In Rude's
(1978) study of the Comprehensive System of Personnel Develop
ment (CSPD) section of 1978 Annual Program Plans, programming
was the top priority for needed training. Child evaluation
procedures were ranked fourth in the highest priorities of
needed training topics nationwide.
Research in the area of inservice education is needed.
In particular, determining the effectiveness of inservice
training which teaches individualization techniques to teachers
through teaching informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming skills appears warranted. Attention should also be
paid to the effects of training on areas which are known to
influence the effectiveness of teachers, such as teacher an
xiety and teacher attitude.
Statement of the Problem
The importance of inservice education for all instruc
tional staff is recognized throughout the educational litera
ture. This recognition is evidenced by articles in popular
periodicals, textbooks, research studies and special publi
cations (Childress, 1969). Although much has been written
about inservice teacher education, the literature provides


5
little direction for persons responsible for making decisions
regarding this segment of professional development. The
problem is that there is a lack of definition, clear concepts,
facts and conditional propositions (Cruikshank, Lorish &
Thompson, 1979). For example, what impact inservice education
has on various teacher attributes, such as teacher anxiety,
has been a neglected topic. Indeed, there have been few con
trolled studies done in the area of inservice teacher educa
tion. In general, the practice of inservice education has
not been guided by empirically derived evidence.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to contribute to the
establishment of best practices in inservice teacher educa
tion. Toward that goal two specific areas were evaluated.
First, an inservice training program of regular teachers,
which incorporated concepts based on 75% of identified in-
service best practice statements, to teach informal diagno
sis and prescriptive programming's effects on teacher an
xiety and teachers' attitudes toward the mainstreaming of
handicapped students was investigated. Second, teacher an
xiety, teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped
students and knowledge about informal diagnosis and prescrip
tive programming were studied to determine if there were-
relationships among them.
Research Questions
The following research questions were germane to this
study:


6
1. To what extent is anxiety level of teachers influ
enced by participation in inservice training?
2. To what extent are teachers' attitudes toward main-
streaming handicapped students influenced by par
ticipation in inservice training?
3. To what extent is teachers' knowledge regarding
informal diagnosis and prescriptive programming
influenced by participation in inservice training?
4. To what extent are teacher anxiety and teachers'
attitude toward mainstreaming handicapped students
related?
5. To what extent are teacher anxiety and knowledge
regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming related?
6. To what extent are teachers' attitudes toward main-
streaming handicapped students and teachers' know
ledge regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive
programming related?
Assumptions
For the purposes of this research, the following as
sumptions were made:
1. That there is a difference between groups which
do receive training in informal diagnosis and
prescriptive programming and those that do not
receive such training.
That the subjects that receive training and control
group members are similar in teaching skills.
2.


7
3. That the effectiveness of a training package can
be measured.
4. That subjects in the experimental groups and the
control group had the same needs for inservice
training.
Definitions
For clarity, the following key terms which appear in
this paper are applied according to these definitions:
1. Anxiety -- A state of being uneasy, apprehensive
or worried about what may happen; misgiving
(Webster's New World Dictionary, 1966). For pur
poses of this study, the operational definition
of anxiety will be the score that subjects obtain
on the Teaching Anxiety Scale (Parsons, 1973).
2. AttitudeTeachers' attitude toward mainstreaming
handicapped children is operationally defined as
the subject's score on the Attitudes Toward Main-
streaming Scale (Berryman, Neal & Robinson, 1980).
3. Control Group -- A group of subjects who partici
pate to offset the validity problems involved with
using a pretest-posttest design. The purpose of
this measurement control is to determine if dif
ferences in posttest scores are because the sub
jects completed the pretest.
4. Handicapped Children -- Children whose performances
in school-related behaviors vary from the norm
to the extent that special instruction, assistance,


8
and/or equipment are required. Children may be
classified as exceptional because of intellectual,
physical, and/or behavioral and/or sensory reasons.
The term handicapped is more restrictive than the
term exceptional in that it does not include the
gifted (Meyen, 1978).
5. KnowledgeTeachers' knowledge about informal diag
nosis and prescriptive programming is operationally
defined as the subject's score on the Informal
Diagnosis and Prescriptive Programming Test (Mid
west Regional Resource Center, 1975).
6. MainstreamingThe practice of educating handi
capped children in regular classrooms and the provi
sion of support services when necessary. The prac
tice is gaining wide popularity in meeting educational
needs of the mildly handicapped (Meyen, 1978).
7 Informal Diagnosis and Prescriptive Programming
(ID/PP ) A training package developed by the Mid
west Regional Resource Center (MRRC). This 40 hour
activity-based training package includes ten modules:
1 Identifying the Problem
2. Task Analysis
3. Error Pattern Analysis
4. Systematic Modifications
5. Setting Priorities
6. Behavioral Objectives
Learning Methods
7.


9
8. Task Analysis of Materials
9. Matching Material Characteristics with Learner
Characteristics
10. Developing an Individual Educational Plan.
For purposes of this study, XD/PP training includes
a three-week practicum experience consisting of
working individually with handicapped students.
8. Inservice EducationAll activities engaged in by
the professional personnel during their service and
designed to contribute to improvement on the job
(Hass,. 1957).
9. StressA positive or negative reaction occurring
when there is a substantial perceived or real im
balance between environmental demand and the re
sponse capability of the individual (Selye, 1956).
Delimitations
This investigation included 76 regular classroom teachers
from a rural environment in the midwestern United States.
All teachers were from schools which belonged to a rural edu
cational cooperative.
In this study, one type of inservice training was used.
This activity-based inservice training included 40 hours of
workshop experience and a three-week practicum. The workshop
included lectures, demonstrations and readings, individual,
small and large group activities and offered "hands-on"
experience.


10
Limitations
One limitation of this study is that subjects who re
ceived the inservice training were volunteers. This limits
the generalizability of the study to similar populations.
A second limitation of this study is the differences
in trainers. Although the persons who conducted the in-
service activities had specific training on how to conduct
inservice training, differences in their facilitative styles
and personalities could have effected the impact of the
training package. Different trainers using the same training
package may not have the same effect.


CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
This review of the literature begins with a discussion
of a theory of stages of concerns of teachers which suggests
there are differences between inservice and preservice tea
chers. Two attributes which affect inservice teachers' ef
fectiveness are then discussed, teacher anxiety and teacher
attitudes. Finally, a critical review of inservice educa
tion literature which supported 16 best practice statements
is presented.
Stages of Concerns of Teachers
Corono and Clark (1978) point out that we will receive
the dividends we expect to get from inservice training only
when it is specifically designed to serve the system of which
it is a part. They point out that most research and develop
ment efforts in teacher education have been aimed at pre
service practice.
Why is it important to look at preservice teacher edu
cation differently? One reason for this may be that inservice
teachers have different concerns than preservice teachers.
In the 1960's, Francis Fuller began looking at the dif
ferences between preservice and inservice teachers due to the
widespread opinion that education courses are not relevant
to the needs of teachers. She proposed that preservice


12
teachers were not prepared to benefit from the courses being
taught. As she phrased it, "education courses may well be
answering quite well questions students are not asking"
(Fuller, 1969, p. 208).
Fuller (1969) piloted her research with two studies in
volving student teachers in group counseling sessions. The
first study involved six student teachers who met two hours
each week for eleven weeks with a counseling psychologist.
The following semester, eight students were co-counseled by
two counseling psychologists. The counseling sessions were
taped and then typescripts were made from the recordings.
Two judges categorized the statements made into seven cate
gories. Fuller concluded from the results that student
teachers were concerned mostly with themselves during the
first part of their experience. Toward the end of their stu
dent teaching; however, they began to shift to be more con
cerned with pupils.
In the second study, 29 student teachers were asked at
two-week intervals to write, "what you are concerned about
now?" (Fuller, 1969, P- 214). All of the subjects expressed
concerns about self. None of the subjects were concerned
primarily with what pupils were learning.
In a large (N=736), two-phase study of strain in teaching
and emotional problems of teachers in England, Gabriel (as
cited in Fuller, 1969) surveyed experienced and inexperienced
teachers. He compared their problems and satisfactions.
Inexperienced teachers saw criticism from superiors and


13
maintaining discipline as problems. They reported receiving
satisfaction from praise from inspectors and holidays. Ex
perienced teachers were significantly (pi.01) less concerned
with discipline and criticism. They were significantly (pi.05)
more concerned with slow progress of pupils. Furthermore,
experienced teachers reported receiving satisfaction from
success of former pupils. Fuller (1969) interpreted these
results as supporting her findings.
Based on her clinical observations and research, Fuller
(1969) proposed three phases of concerns of teachers. The
first phase was pre-teaching phase of non-concern that en
compassed education majors who rarely had specific concerns
related to teaching. The second phase was an early teaching
phase of concern with self. This second phase consisted of
covert concerns (i.e., How adequate am I?) which are most
frequently experienced by student teachers and beginning
teachers. The third phase was a late concerns phase charac
terized by concern with pupils. Concerns in this phase fo
cused on pupil learning and teacher professional development
and were generally concerns of experienced, superior teachers.
Research by Treese (1971) tends to support the idea that
preservice teachers and inservice teachers may have different
concerns. Treese (1971) used 46 preservice and 21 inservice
teachers to study the effects of microteaching on teaching
attitudes, anxieties, and values. The Taylor Manifest An
xiety Scale (Taylor, 1953), the Minnesota Teacher Attitude
Inventory, and the Allport Vernon Lindzez Study of Values


14
were used as dependent variables. The treatment consisted
of seven weeks of microteaching involving set induction,
questioning of three orders, varying the stimuli, and closure
skills. After the microteaching sessions attitude scores
were significantly raised for preservice teachers but not
inservice teachers. Preservice teachers' anxiety scores were
significantly lowered but inservice teachers' scores were not.
Scores on the values scale were significantly increased for
the inservice teachers but were not affected for the pre
service teachers. On all three dependent variables, preservice
teachers reacted differently to the microteaching than inser
vice teachers.
While conducting research to validate the Teaching An
xiety Scale (TCHAS), Parsons (1973) found evidence to support
the hypothesis that preservice and inservice teachers have
different concerns. She compared the mean scores on the
TCHAS for 192 inservice teachers (7=60.51) with the scores
for 407 preservice teachers (7=45.06). The preservice teachers
were significantly more anxious than the inservice teachers.
In addition, scores on the TCHAS significantly decreased for
130 preservice teachers after their student teaching experi
ence. Scores on the Manifest Anxiety Scale (Taylor, 1953),
however, did not significantly change after the student
teaching experience. Parsons interpreted this difference to
support the concept that the TCHAS measured teaching anxiety
distinctly differently from general anxiety. She believed
her data were consistent with Fuller's findings.


15
To test Fuller's theory of phases of teacher concerns,
Fuller, Parsons and Watkins (1974) examined Teacher Concern
Statements (TCS) from 265 inservice and 994 preservice teachers.
The concerns expressed on the TCS were categorized into six
categories; three early concerns and three late concerns.
These categories were (a) concerns about role, (b) concerns
about adequacy, (c) concerns about being liked or liking,
(d) concerns about teaching, (e) concerns about pupil needs,
and (f) concerns about educational improvement. Content
analysis of the TCS revealed that preservice teachers were
more concerned about benefit to self and inservice teachers
were more concerned about benefits to pupils. Teachers tended
not to have both early and late concerns simultaneously.
Of the total sample, 75% had concerns in either the early or
late stages, while only 25% had concerns in both stages.
However, Fuller, Parsons, and Watkins believe on the basis
of their clinical observations that in stressful situations,
survival or self-concerns of teachers tend to increase.
Fuller (1974) used the results of her research (Fuller,
Parsons & Watkins, 1974) to refine her phrases of concerns
of teachers into three stages. She proposed that develop-
mentally, teachers move from stages of concern about self,
to concerns about the teaching task, and finally to concerns
about impact they have on pupils.
Based on Fuller's teacher concerns theory, it appears
reasonable to propose that research in teacher education in
general should not be applied to inservice teachers the same


16
as it is applied to preservice teachers. Research specific
to inservice training should be designed and its results
utilized to enhance inservice training practices. In general,
the goal of inservice education is to improve or change
teachers' attitudes, knowledge, skills or behaviors to en
hance teacher effectiveness. There are many attributes which
affect inservice teachers. Two of these attributes are
teacher anxiety and teacher attitudes.
Teacher Anxiety
Several studies have investigated the effects of inser
vice teachers' anxiety. In 1973, Doyal and Forsyth investi
gated the relationship between teacher and student anxiety
levels. The subjects were 234 third grade students and their
10 teachers. The students' scores on the Test Anxiety Scale
for Children fSarason, Lighthall, Davidson, Waite & Ruebush,
1960) were correlated with the teachers' scores on the Mani
fest Anxiety Scale (Taylor, 1953). There was a positive
correlation (r =.65) between teacher anxiety and the students'
test anxiety. These results suggest that the anxiety level
of teachers does influence the test anxiety level of their
students.
Moskowitz and Hayman (1974) studied first-year, typical
and "best" teachers in three junior high schools. The "best"
teachers were selected by the students. "Best" was defined
as, . liked the teacher a lot and you learned a lot from
this teacher" (Moskowitz & Hayman, 1974, p. 224). The Flint
interaction analysis system (Moskowitz, 1967) and anecdotal


17
records were used to investigate teacher behaviors. "Best"
teachers were determined to be much more relaxed and at ease
than the typical and first-year teachers.
Koon (1971) used direct behavioral observation to deter
mine the effects of teacher anxiety, as measured by the Test
Anxiety Questionnaire (Mandier & Sarason, 1952) and teacher
expectations on teacher-student interactions. Koon found
that, unlike low anxiety teachers, high anxiety teachers
used significantly less task-oriented behavior with students
expected to be competent than those they expected to be in
competent. High anxiety teachers also used fewer positive
reinforcements.
Washburne and Heil (1960) selected fifty-five third,
fourth, and fifth grade teachers from nine public schools to
investigate what characteristics of teachers affect childrens'
growth. The students of these teachers were given the Stanford
Achievement Test and the Ohio Social Acceptance Scale at the
beginning and end of the school year. At the end of the
school year, the students were given the Otis Group Intelli
gence Test, Form AS and the Assessing Childrens' Feelings
instrument. The teachers were observed and rated on the
Teacher Observation Scale six to eight times during the school
year. In addition, the teachers completed the Teacher Educa
tion Examination and the Manifold Interest Schedule at the
end of the school year. The teachers were grouped into
three groups: the turbulent person, the self-controlling per
son, and the fearful person. Results of this study verified


18
the major hypothesis that different kinds of teachers get
varying amounts of achievement from students. The self
controlling teachers get the most achievement from their stu
dents. The fearful teachers got the least achievement from
their students. The fearful teacher was described as anxious
and variable in behavior. In addition, the fearful teacher
was reported to induce anxiety in pupils and to arouse defen
sive reactions in them.
Four studies have been discussed here that indicate that
for inservice teachers, teacher anxiety does affect their
students. Teacher anxiety has been shown to affect student
anxiety (Doyal & Forsyth, 1973), teacher-pupil interactions
(Koon, 1971 )> teacher effectiveness as perceived by students
(Moskowitz & Hayman, 1974), and student achievement (Washburne
& Heil, 1960).
In addition to these studies using inservice teachers,
several investigators have looked at the effects of preser
vice teachers' anxiety. Kracht and Casey (1968) found that
student teacher anxiety correlated negatively with teacher
warmth. According to Petrusick (1966), high anxiety student
teachers gave their pupils less verbal support, engaged in
more hostile speech and behavior, and had more disruptive
pupils than low anxiety student teachers. More anxious stu
dent teachers were reported by Clark (1972) to give lower
grades than less anxious student teachers. Mattsson (1974)
found that teacher effectiveness ratings by pupils were highest
for low anxiety student teachers. Although these last four


19
studies involved preservice teachers, they lend support to
the supposition that teacher anxiety does affect students.
Teacher Attitudes
According to Haring (1957), "the attitudes and under
standings that teachers have about exceptional children in
fluence the intellectual, social and emotional development
of these children" (p. 103). In recent years, much research
has been conducted to investigate the effects teachers' atti
tudes and subsequent expectations have on teacher-student
interactions, classroom climate, and student achievement.
Teacher Expectancies
In 1931, W. I. Thomas (cited in Palardy, 1969) wrote,
"if men define . situations as real, they are real in their
consequencies" (p. 370). This idea is what has become known
as the self-fulfilling prophecy. The self-fulfilling pro
phecy is based on two assumptions. First, that when you make
a definition about a situation, you are also making a prophecy
about it. Second, that making a prophecy about a situation
creates the conditions through which the prophecy is realized
(Palardy, 1969). There is evidence that the self-fulfilling
prophecy phenomenon may be occurring in educational settings.
Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) pioneered the research on
the effects of teacher expectancies. A randomly selected
group of elementary students were described to their 18
teachers as likely to show marked intelligence gains during
the school year. An intelligence test was given at the be
ginning, middle and end of the school year to the experimental


20
and control groups. The experimental group showed a signi
ficantly higher gain on the intelligence test than the con
trol group. Although there has been much criticism of this
study (Claiborn, 1969; Jensen, 1969; Snow, 1969; Thorndike,
1968), it was the impetus for research on the effects of
teacher expectancies and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Although investigators have induced expectancies in some
research studies, the most relevant research in the expectancy
area comes from investigations involving naturally occurring
expectancies and their effects on the classroom environment
(Brophy & Good, 1974; Curran, 1977). One of the first stu
dies to utilize naturalistic expectancies was conducted by
Palardy (1969). In the middle of the school year, forty-
two first grade teachers completed and returned a question
naire. Based on one item designed to elicit teacher beliefs
about reading success of first grade boys, teachers were
divided into three groups. Results of the Ginn Pre-Reading
Test, which had been administered in late September, indi
cated there were no differences in reading readiness between
the girls and the boys at the beginning of the school year.
Toward the end of the school year the teachers administered
the reading section of the Stanford Achievement Test to their
107 students. These scores indicated that boys whose teachers
expected them to perform less well than girls did obtain lower
scores. Likewise, higher achievement was demonstrated by
boys whose teachers expected them to perform as well as the
girls.


21
Prior to administering an intelligence test, Dole, Honack
and Refer (1970) had teachers estimate their students' in
telligence quotients. Boys' intelligence quotients were sys
tematically under estimated, while girls' intelligence quo
tients were systematically over estimated. At the end of
the school year, reading achievement scores indicated that
students whose intelligence quotients had been over estimated
had achieved more than one would predict based on their true
intelligence quotients. The reading scores for students whose
intelligence quotient had been under estimated were lower
than would be predicted based on their true intelligence quo
tients. In addition, the students of teachers who tended
to under estimate intelligence scored lower on the reading
achievement test than students of teachers who tended to over
estimate intelligence.
Rowe (1969) investigated teacher expectancy effects on
wait time. She requested that twelve teachers identify the
top five and lowest five students in their classes. During
three science and three mathematics classes, the wait time
after teacher questions was sampled. The teachers allowed
significantly less wait time for the lowest students. The
less able students had to respond more quickly than more
able students or lose their opportunity to answer the question.
Brophy and Good (1970) investigated the effects teacher
expectancies have on student-teacher interactions. The study
occurred in a school where the classes were formed by grouping
for homogeneity on readiness and achievement scores. Four


22
first grade teachers were asked to rank their students in
the order of their achievement. In each class, the three
highest girls and the three highest boys on the list, along
with three boys and three girls low on the list were selected
for observational study. Two observers using an observation
system developed to investigate only the dyadic contacts be
tween the teacher and an individual child observed two after
noon and two morning sessions of each class. The teachers
were naive to the true purpose of the study. The results
indicated that teachers were more likely to accept poor per
formance from low expectation students. Teachers demanded
better performance for high expectation students, awarded
them significantly more praise, and gave them significantly
less criticism for both behavior and incorrect answers.
Not all studies involving effects of teacher expectancies
have utilized an expectancy/self-fulfilling prophecy para
digm. Results of these investigations, however, also support
the effects of teacher attitudes.
Silberman (1969) investigated the ways and extent teachers
attitudes toward their students are revealed in the class
room behavior of the teacher. Subjects were ten third grade
teachers from five suburban communities. Teachers were inter
viewed to determine toward which students they felt attach
ment, concern, indifference or rejection. These four students
and two randomly selected control students were then observed
for 20 hours. The students were then interviewed to deter
mine whether they or each of the other five students received


23
more teacher contact, positive and negative evaluations, and
acquiescence. Results indicated that teacher attitudes sig
nificantly affected the distribution of contact, positive
and negative evaluations, and acquiescence. In addition,
five out of eight correlations between students predictions
and actual observations and between other students' predic
tions and actual observations were significantly positive.
Apparently, both recipient students and other students were
aware of behavioral expressions of their teachers' attitudes.
Silberman concluded that teachers' actions which express
their attitudes significantly alter the daily classroom ex
perience of recipient students.
Good and Brophy (1972) replicated and extended the work
by Silberman (1969). The subjects were nine first grade class
room teachers. The teachers were naive to the true purpose
of the experiment. In September each teacher was asked to
rank their students in order, according to the levels of
achievement expected. The Brophy-Good dyadic interaction
observation system (Brophy & Good, 1970) was used to make 16
observations of 2i hours each. After three months of class
room observations had been completed, the teachers completed
a questionnaire to determine for which students they felt
attachment, concern, indifference or rejection. The results
of this study supported Silberman's (1969) contention that
teachers' attitudes toward students correlate with differen
tial teacher behavior.


24
Gottlieb, Semmel and Veldman (1978) correlated teachers'
perceptions of 324 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded
childrens' academic competence and misbehavior with peers'
sociometric ratings. To obtain peers' sociometric ratings,
a sociometric scale was administered to entire classes of
students while the mainstreamed student was present. Peer
perceptions of behavior were obtained through a questionnaire
The Teacher Rating Scale was used to obtain teachers' per
ceptions of the mainstreamed student's behavior. Results of
this study indicated that teachers' perceptions of the main
streamed student correlated significantly with peers socio
metric responses. The amount of contact teachers and peers
had with the retarded student did not relate significantly
with social status. The authors concluded that a powerful
influence over the social status of the retarded children in
the regular classroom is the teachers' perceptions.
Curran (1977) investigated the influence of teachers'
tolerance for behaviors which characterize emotionally dis
turbed students on their expectations for mainstreaming can
didates who demonstrated these behaviors. A five-part
questionnaire was completed by 289 subjects. The question
naire assessed demographic characteristics, the teacher's
tolerance for behaviors, and experiential background. A
fictitious psychological report which described a child demon
strating either a conduct disorder or a personality problem
was included. The final part of the questionnaire was the
Mainstreaming Expectancy Scale which the teacher completed


2
in regard for the students described in the fictitious re
ports. Results of this study suggest that a teacher's
tolerance for the behaviors the mainstreaming candidate demon
strated had a significant effect on their expectations. It
was also found that years of teaching experience, courses
completed in special education and previous contact with
handicapped students were not good predictors of a teacher's
expectations for mainstreaming candidates.
Several other studies have investigated factors which
influence the teacher-student relationship and support the
concept of a teacher expectancy phenomenon. Becker (1952),
Mackler (1969), and Rist (1970) have established the pre
judicial effects of social class on teacher expectancies.
Coates (1972), Data, Schaefer and Davis (1968), and Rubovits
and Moehr (1973) have studied the negative effects of race
on teacher expectancies. Adams and Cohen (1974) and Algozzine
(1976) have confirmed that perceived facial attractiveness
influences teacher expectancies.
The research in this section supports the concept that
teachers are influenced by the expectancies and attitudes
they have regarding the students they teach. Negative atti
tudes and expectations have a detrimental effect on the
teacher-student relationship. In addition, negative atti
tudes of educators toward mainstreaming handicapped students
may cause a self-fulfilling prophecy phenomenon to occur.


26
Effects of Contact on Teacher Attitude
Allport (1954) proposed as a part of his theories re
garding attitude formation towards minority groups that con
tact contributes to a reduction of prejudice. Several
investigators have conducted research which supports this
theory in regard to attitudes toward the handicapped.
Effron and Effron (1967) used a 70 item questionnaire
to study the structure of attitudes toward mental retardation
and the educably mentally retarded. Respondents were pri
marily inservice and preservice teachers in special and regu
lar education. Special education teachers were the only group
that differed from the others in their acceptance of intimate
contact with the retarded. The authors interpreted their
findings to support the hypothesis, "... that personal con
tact is probably the only way of changing the more personal
and less intellectual facet of attitudes'-' (Effron & Effron,
1967, p. 107).
Wechsler, Suarez and McFadden (1975) investigated teachers'
attitudes toward the education and emotional adjustment of
physically handicapped students by administering a question
naire to 547 teachers. Attitudes toward the education of
physically handicapped students and their relationship to
personal background of teachers were examined. The back
ground variable found to be most clearly and consistently
associated with the teachers' attitudes was previous experi
ence with handicapped children.


27
Shotel, lao and McGettigan (1972) studied the effects
of a resource room program on the teachers' attitudes toward
handicapped children. Questionnaires were completed by 128
regular classroom teachers at the beginning and end of the
school year. The experimental group was composed of the
teachers from three schools where self-contained special edu
cation classes were disbanded and resource rooms established.
The control group members were teachers from three schools
where the self-contained classes were retained. The schools
were matched for size and student population. The findings
of this study indicate that integrating the handicapped into
regular classes had no significant effects on teachers' atti
tudes toward learning disabled students, positive effects on
teachers' attitude toward emotionally disturbed students, and
negative effects on teachers' attitudes toward educably
mentally retarded students.
Haring (1956) investigated the effects of thirty hours
of inservice training which included fifteen hours of small
group discussions on teacher attitudes. Teachers from four
schools were pretested and posttested with four tests designed
to measure knowledge and acceptance of exceptional children,
and the personality characteristics of the teachers. Results
of the study indicated that the training was effective in
increasing knowledge about exceptional children. Teachers
from two schools showed no significant changes in attitudes.
However, teachers from the other two schools showed signi
ficant changes in attitudes. The two schools that became


28
more accepting in their attitudes had significantly more ex
ceptional children in the classrooms. Haring concluded that
inservice programs designed to change attitudes should in
clude experiences in working with exceptional students. Know
ledge alone was not enough to modify teachers' attitudes.
Based on the results of the research reported here, in-
service training programs which are designed to influence
teacher attitudes should include opportunities for experiences
in working with handicapped students. Because of the nega
tive attitudes and expectations generally held by regular
educators, if training programs do not promote attitudinal
changes, the handicapped child has less of a chance of being
successfully mainstreamed (Curran, 1977). A significant
amount of research has been conducted regarding inservice
training; a critical analysis of that work indicated that few
of the results are generalizable to other settings, that there
is a lack of valid data, that goals and objectives have been
unclear, and that inservice is usually poorly planned. Re
gardless, the literature on inservice training does offer
some guidelines for best practice.
Inservice Education
References for this review of the literature were ob
tained from several sources. These sources included the
Current Index of Journals in Education (CIJE), an ERIC
search, textbooks, reference lists from articles, published
reviews of the literature and an annotated bibliography
(National Council of States on Inservice Education, 1976).


29
Best Practices
Some inservice education is considered effective by
participants and trainers, some is not. What are some of
the elements of effective inservice training? How can a
trainer increase his/her chances of conducting inservice
training that will be considered effective? To answer these
questions, a review of literature regarding best practices
for inservice education was conducted. The following cri
teria were established regarding which articles and reports
to include in this section.
Only literature written since 1957 was reviewed. All
information regarding inservice education outside of the
United States was eliminated. Only opinion articles which
were substantiated with reviews of the literature or a
theoretical model were included. All articles endorsed best
practices, made recommendations, or drew conclusions about
effective inservice.
Several steps were taken to arrive at a list of best
practice statements. First, after reviewing literature on
inservice education, thirteen articles and reports were
determined to meet the criteria for inclusion and were
analyzed in depth. Next, best practice statements were
listed on a chart as they were encountered in the literature.
Checks were used to indicate which articles were in agree
ment with each of the basic statements. After all 13 articles
were reviewed, the check marks for each statement were totaled.
All statements with less than four checks, in other words,


30
mentioned in less than four articles, were eliminated. As
a result, a list of 16 statements of best practice was obtained
The statements generated are listed in Table 1. Table 2 in
dicates which authors endorsed which best practice statements.
These articles used several techniques to generate
recommendations and best practice statements. Two articles
were based on research reviews, four on literature reviews
and three on survey research. Two lists were the result of
group opinions and two were from opinion articles based on
models or previous literature reviews. Tables 3 and 4 pro
vide a list of the studies, procedures the authors used to
arrive at the best practice endorsement, the product the
authors generated, criticisms of the article and best prac
tices endorsed. For a listing of the criticisms of this
literature, see Table 5.
Best Practice Statements
Effective inservice education is usually school-based
rather than college-based. This practice was mentioned in
eight of the thirteen selections reviewed (Andrews, 1980,
Group I; Brimm & Tollett, 1974; Hutson, 1979; Johnson, 1975;
Lawrence, -1974; Siantz, in press; Texas Education Agency,
1978; Zigarmi, Betz & Jensen, 1977). In 1974, Lawrence con
ducted a comprehensive review of research related to inser
vice education of teachers. In his review of 97 studies,
he found that school-based inservice programs concerned with
complex teacher behaviors tended to have greater success than
college-based programs dealing with complex behaviors. He


31
Table 1
Best Practice Statements
1. Effective inservice is usually school-based rather
than college-based.
2. Evaluation should be built into inservice activities.
3. Individualized programs are usually more effective
than those using the same activities for the entire group.
4. Inservice should be activity-based.
5. Demonstrations, supervised practice and feedback are
more effective than having teachers store up ideas and
behavior for a future time.
6. Activities which are a general effort of the school
rather than "single-shot" programs are more effective.
7. Participants should help plan the goals and activi
ties of inservice training.
8. Rewards or reinforcements should be built-in to an in-
service program.
9. Participants should be able to relate learnings to
their back-home situation.
10. Inservice should be offered at convenient times for
the participants.
11. Trainers should be trained specifically in how to con
duct inservice training and inservice education in
general.
12. Administrators should be involved with the training
and fully support it.
13. Goals and objectives should be clear and specific.
14. Inservice should be planned in response to assessed
needs.
15.
Inservice should be directed at changing teachers'
behaviors not students' behaviors.
16. Inservice should be voluntary rather than mandatory.


Table 2
Best Practices Endorsed
Type of
Article
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Allshouse & Ondell
1979
Lit.
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Andrews, Group I
1980
Group
Opinion
X
X
X
X
X
Andrews, Group II
1980
Group
Opinion
X
X
X
Brimm & Tollett
1974
Survey
Research
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Havelock & Havelock
1973
Opinion
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Hutson
1979
Lit.
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Johnson
1975
Group
Opinion
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
King, Hayes & Newman
1977
Survey
Research
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Lawrence
1974
Research
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Lippet & Fox
1971
Opinion
X
X
X
X
X
Siantz
In Press
Lit.
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Tx. Ed. Agency
1978
Lit.
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Wilen & Kindsvatter
1978
Research
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
Zigarmi, Betz & Jensen
1977
Survey
Research
X
X
X
X
X
X
TOTALS
8
8
7
4
5
4
14
7
6
5
5
6
6
8
5
4
U)
no


Table 3
Best Practices of Inservice Education
Literature and Research Reviews
Author
Procedures for Inclusion
Product
Criticisms*
Best
Practices
Endorsed**
Allshouse &
Ondell,
1979
General literature review, pro
cedures for arriving at con
clusions not specified.
Concepts
critical for
effective
inservice
Doesn't specify
procedures; (1 )
Doesn't specify
group applies
to (2)
2, 3, 4, 5, 7,
8, 9, 14, 15
Hutson
1979
General literature review,
criteria for inclusion of
statements were: empirical
support, cogency of argument,
and repetition in the litera
ture
Statements of
Best Practice
Doesn't specify
groups applies
to (2)
1, 2, 6, 7, 8,
11, 12, 13, 14
15
Lawrence
1974
Review of 97 research studies;
criteria for inclusion:
College or school-based in-
service to improve competen
cies of teachers and have
experimental, quasi-experi-
mental or low-control design
that ensured some validity
Patterns of
effective
inservice
Doesn't specify
groups applies
to (2)
1, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 15
Siantz
In Press
General literature review,
criteria for inclusion in
cluded supported by research
and literature
Statements of
Best Practice
Doesn't specify
procedures; (1)
Doesn't specify
groups applies
to (2)
1 2, 6, 7, 8,
11, 12, 13, 14
15
Texas Ed.
Agency,
1978
General literature review, pro
cedures for arriving at con
clusions not specified
Principles
underlying
effective
inservice
Doesn't specify
procedures; ( 1 )
Doesn't specify
group applies
to (2)
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 13,
14, 15
* See Table 5.
** See Table 1.
u>
OJ


Author
Procedures for Inclusion
Wilen &
Kindsvatter
1978
Research review; reviewed 5
studies and guidelines syn
thesized from studies. Cri
teria for inclusion not
specified
* See Table 5
** See Table 1
Table 3 extended
Product
Criticisms*
Best
Practices
indorsed**
Guidelines
Doesn't specify
2, 7, 9, 10,
to improve
groups applies
13, 14
inservice
to (2); Doesn1t
training
tell how selected
studies to review
(3)
u>


Table 4
Survey Research, Group Opinions & Opinions
Author
Subjects
Procedures
Results
Criticisms
Best Practices
Andrews
1980
Group I
32 classroom
teachers,K-6
Group consen
sus of parti
cipants on
recommenda
tions for
effective in-
service ; Af -
ter 2 yrs.
school-based
inservice
with college
consultants
List of recom
mendations for
effective
inservice
Doesn't spec- -
ify procedures
to arrive at
conclusions(1)
Doesn't spec
ify group
applies to (2)
1, 5, 7, 9, 10
Andrews,
1980
Group 2
College con
sultants ,
unknown
number
Group consen
sus of college
consultants
on recommen
dations for
inservice;
after 2 yr.
school-based
inservice
with
college
consultants
List of
recommenda
tions
Doesn't spec
ify procedures
(1); Doesn't
specify group
applies to (2)
7, 11, 12
Brimm &
Tollett
1974
646 teachers
from TN, stra
tified pro-
portial sam
ple to include
2% of
teachers
Survey research
65% return rate
34 item scale
questionnaire
on attitudes
toward in-
service
Substantiated
notion that
inservice is
poorly planned
inadequately
executed &
lacks proper
evaluation
procedures
Doesn't spec
ify group
applies to
(2)
1. 2, 3, 7, 9,
12, 14


Table 4 extended
Author
Subjects
Procedures
Results
Criticisms
Best Practices
Havelock &
Havelock
1973
Opinion
Based on a
model for
inservice
Doesn't
specify
group applies
to (2)
2, 4, 5, 7, 8,
11, 13
Johnson
1975
87
participants
Group lists
were compiled
from partici
pant attending
workshop on
rethinking
inservice
List of
recommenda
tions
Doesn't
specify pro
cedures ( 1 ) ;
Doesn't
specify group
applies to
(2)
1, 3, 7, 8, 10,
12, 16
King, Hayes
& Newman
1977
1300 inservice
programs
Survey re
search des
criptions of
programs were
analyzed
Arrived at 7
distinct pro
cesses common
to successful
programs;list t
of recurring
descriptors
for success
ful programs
Doesn't
specify
procedures to
arrive at con
clusions (1);
Doesn't spe
cify group
applies to (2)
2, 7, 8, 9, 10,
13, 14, 16
Lippett &
Fox
1971
Opinion chap
ter in text
Based on
literature
review by
author ear
lier in text
Doesn't spec
ify group
applies to (2)
3, 7, 11, 12,
16
Zigarimi,
Betz &
Jensen
1977
1239 teachers
from SD random
sample repre
senting every
school
Survey re
search questior
naire on types
of inservice
received &
usefulness
of those
activities
Some of the
methods used
most often were
seen as less
helpful;2-week
workshop one
considered
most helpful
Doesn't spec
ify group ap
plies to (2);
Doesn't spec
ify return
rate (4)
1, 3, 7, 10,
14, 16


37
Table 5
Criticisms of Best Practice Literature
1. Specific procedures used to arrive at conclusions/
recommendations not included.
2. Does not answer the question, do the conclusions apply
equally to inservice programs involving urban, sub
urban, rural, secondary, and elementary teachers
(Cruikshank et al., 1979).
3. Specific procedures for determining studies to in
clude not provided.
4. Survey research that does not specify return rate.


38
also suggested that teacher attitudes are more likely to be
influenced by school-based inservice education.
Brimm and Tollett (1974) conducted a statewide study
in Tennessee to ascertain teacher attitudes toward inservice
education programs using a questionnaire. Fifty-five per
cent of the teachers surveyed preferred that inservice ac
tivities be conducted in their own school setting.
In 1975, a two-and-a-half-day workshop to reconcep
tualize inservice education was sponsored by the National
Education Association (NEA). The 87 participants at that
workshop generated recommendations for inservice (Johnson,
1975). One of the recommendations of that group was that
inservice education should be field-based.
Evaluation should be built into inservice activities.
This practice was mentioned in eight of the thirteen selec
tions reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979; Brimm & Tollett,
1974; Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Hutson, 1979; King, Hayes
& Newman, 1977; Siantz, in press; Texas Education Agency,
1978; Wilen & Kindsvatter, 1978). Havelock and Havelock
(1973) developed 15 summary statements on principles of good
training. They proposed that these statements could serve
as a guide and checklist for the trainer or training program
developer. One statement stresses the importance of evalua
tion in training.
After reviewing material on the development of inservice
education, Allshouse and Ondell (1979) identified ten com
ponents which contribute to effective inservice education


39
and emphasize active participation. Evaluation of inservice
was included in their discussion. In Brimm and Tollett's
(1974) survey, 96% of the respondents agreed to a statement
about development of evaluation for inservice programs.
Individualized programs are usually more effective than
those using the same activities for the whole group. This
practice was mentioned in seven of the thirteen selections
reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979; Brimm & Tollett, 1974;
Johnson, 1975; Lawrence, 1974; Lippett & Fox, 1971; Texas
Education Agency, 1978; Zigarmi et al., 1977). Lawrence
(1974) found that inservice education programs that have
differentiated training experiences for different teachers
are more likely to accomplish their objectives than are pro
grams that have common activities for all participants. Of
the 97 studies he reviewed, 43 used an individualized approach.
Of those, 80% had significantly positive outcomes, 10% showed
no significant differences and 10% had mixed results. Of the
54 studies which used common activities, 68% had significant
positive outcomes, 24% showed no significant differences
and 8% had mixed results.
Teachers apparently agree with the concept of individu
alization of inservice. In Brimm and Tollett's (1974) sur
vey of teachers, 94% indicated agreement with the statement
that inservice programs must include activities which allow
for the different interests which exist among individual
teachers.


40
Orte of the recommendations from the 1975 NEA workshop
was that "inservice education should reflect the same prin
ciples that educators endorse for studentse.g. individualized
instruction and freedom to choose among alternatives" (Johnson,
1975, p. 73). Allshouse and Ondell (1979) also endorsed the
concept of individualization in inservice education.
Inservice should be activity-based. This practice was
mentioned by four of the thirteen selections reviewed (Alls
house & Ondell, 1979; Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Lawrence,
1974; Texas Education Agency, 1978). Adults, like children,
learn by doing; hence, inservice education which is struc
tured to provide active participation of teachers rather
than passive acceptance of the content is more likely to pro
duce change (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979). In Lawrence's
(1974) review, 66 studies used active roles. Eighty-three
percent of these had significant positive outcomes, 12%
showed no significant difference and 5% had mixed results.
Of the 31 studies in which teachers assumed receptive roles,
only 51% had significant differences, 29% showed no signifi
cant differences and 20% showed mixed results.
Havelock and Havelock (1973) indicated that training
experiences should have the power to capture and hold the
attention of trainees. They further suggest that this usu
ally means the trainees need to actively use many of their
senses and behavioral skills in the experience.
Demonstrations, supervised practice and feedback are
more effective than having teachers store Up ideas and


4 1
behavior for a future time. This practice was mentioned in
five of the thirteen selections reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell,
1979; Andrews, 1980; Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Lawrence,
1974; Texas Education Agency, 1978). Continuous and ongoing
feedback to participants appears to be an essential part of
effective inservice (Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Allshouse &
Ondell, 1979). Looking at the studies reviewed by Lawrence
(1974), 61 included trial and feedback. Of these, 84% showed
significant positive outcomes, 10% showed no significant
differences and 6% indicated mixed results. In 36 of the
studies, teachers were expected to store ideas and behaviors
for a future time and no feedback was provided. Fifty-five
percent of these studies showed significant positive out
comes, 31% showed no significant differences, 14% showed
mixed results.
Activities which are a general effort of the school
rather than "single-shot" programs are more effective. This
practice was mentioned in four of the thirteen selections
reviewed (Hutson, 1979; Lawrence, 1974; Siantz, in press;
Texas Education Agency, 1978). In his review, Lawrence (1974)
found that inservice activities which are linked to a general
effort of the school (programmatic) are more effective than
"single-shot" programs. Eighteen of the programs reviewed
used a programmatic approach94% were successful and 6% had
mixed results. Of the 79 studies which used a "single-shot"
approach68% had positive outcomes, 22% had no significant
differences and 10% reported mixed results.


42
Participants should help plan the goals and activities
of the inservice training. This practice was the only one
endorsed in all 13 selections reviewed. At the NEA work
shop, the participants recommended that inservice should be
planned by the people affected (Johnson, 1975). Havelock
and Havelock (1973) stress the importance of including
representative of trainees in the planning of training events.
Allshouse and Ondell (1979) suggest that it is critical
for teachers to be involved in the identification and or
ganization of training activities. In Brimm and Tollett's
study (1974), an overwhelming majority (93%) of the respondents
stated that teachers need to be involved in the development
of purposes and activities for inservice programs.
Twenty-one of the 97 studies reviewed by Lawrence (1974)
used this approach, 76 studies did not. For the 21 studies
letting participants help in planning and choosing activities,
95% of the programs had significant positive outcomes. For
the 76 studies not utilizing this approach, only 67% had
significant positive outcomes.
Rewards or reinforcements should be built-in to an in-
service program. This practice was mentioned in seven of
the thirteen selections reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979;
Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Hutson, 1979; Johnson, 1975;
King et al., 1977; Siantz, in press; Texas Education Agency,
1978). Havelock and Havelock (1973) endorse the use of rein
forcement in inservice training. Reinforcement or reward
for appropriate response is one of the oldest and most


43
well-founded principles of learning in animals and humans.
Inservice training designers should be continuously conscious
of this principle and should look for times, places, and
situations in which effective positive reinforcements can be
applied. According to Allshouse and Ondell (1979), college
credit, extra pay, and released time have all proven valuable
inducements for teachers to participate in inservice activities
Participants should be able to relate learnings to their
back-home situation. This practice was mentioned in six of
the thirteen selections reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979;
Andrews, 1980; Brimm & Tollett, 1974; Havelock & Havelock,
1973; King et al., 1977; Wilen & Kindsvatter, 1978). Ninety
percent of the teachers in the Brimm and Tollett (1974) sur
vey agreed to this statement, "one of the most important ways
to judge the effectiveness of an inservice program is whether
the teacher uses the results of the training in his class
room" (p. 252). Ninety-four percent of the teachers felt the
real test of an inservice program is whether it helps the
teacher to cope with his professional tasks more success
fully; 90% felt the primary purpose of inservice is to up
grade the teacher's classroom performance; and 66% agreed
with the statement that inservice education should relate
directly to problems encountered in the classroom. Allshouse
and Ondell (1979) state that:
the purpose of inservice education is to
impart skill and information with intended
carryover into the classroom or school.
If the program of inservice is not designed
and executed in such a way that the results


44
can be applied and used by participants,
the acquisition of knowledge or increase of
awareness of new developments in.the field
will effect little change in behavior, (p. 7)
Havelock and Havelock (1973) stress that transfer of
inservice objectives to the classroom must be accomplished
before any inservice program may be deemed successful,
o') Inservice should be offered at convenient times for
the participants. This practice was mentioned in five of
the thirteen selections reviewed (Andrews, 1980, Johnson,
1975; King et al., 1977; Wilen & Kindsvatter, 1978; Zigarmi
et al., 1977)- The consensus of investigators was that in-
service activity should be built into the regular school day
if possible. If not, then care should be taken to schedule
the activity at times convenient and attractive to the teachers.
Trainers should be trained specifically in how to con
duct and plan inservice in general. This practice was men
tioned in five of the thirteen selections reviewed (Andrews,
1980; Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Hutson, 1979; Lippett &
Fox, 1971; Siantz, in press). It was commonly agreed that
the fact that one is a college professor, administrator, or
lives more than 200 miles from the inservice site does not
automatically qualify them to conduct inservice activities.
Administrators should be involved with the training and
fully support it. This practice was mentioned in six of the
thirteen selections reviewed (Andrews, 1980; Brimm & Tollett,
1974; Hutson, 1979; Johnson, 1975; Lippett & Fox, 1971,
Siantz, in press). According to the participants of the NEA
workshop (Johnson, 1975), inservice should include all school


personnel at every level"teachers, administrators, county
officers, higher education personnel, and state department
personnel" (p. 73).
In response to Brimm and Tolletts (1974) questionnaire,
68% of the respondents agreed with the statement that, "the
implementation of innovation presented in inservice programs
is often a function of the support received from school ad
ministrators" (p. 522).
Goals and objectives should be clear and specific.
This practice was mentioned in six of the thirteen selec
tions reviewed (Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Hutson, 1979;
King et al., 1977; Siantz, in press; Texas Education Agency,
1978; Wilen & Kindsvatter, 1978). Several authors endorse
the concept that objectives and goals of inservice educa
tional programs must be written and specified clearly (Have
lock & Havelock, 1973). The results of the Brimm and Tollett
(1974) survey indicated that this policy may not always be
followed. Only 27% of the respondents agreed with the state
ment that the objectives on inservice programs in any system
are always specific.
Inservice should be planned in response to assessed
needs. This practice was mentioned in four of the thirteen
selections reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979; Brimm &
Tollett, 1974; Hutson, 1979; King et al., 1977; Siantz, in
press; Texas Education Agency, 1978; Wilen & Kindsvatter,
1978; Zigarmi et al., 1977). Inservice education which does
not focus upon resolving the teachers' or the administrators'


46
assessed needs will not have long range success in creating
change {Allshouse & Ondell, 1979). Apparently; however,
some programs do not bother to study the needs of teachers.
In response to the statement, "most inservice programs arise
from a study of the needs and problems of teachers," only
34% of the respondents to Brimm and Tollett's (1974) survey
agreed. In fact, 45% of the respondents disagreed with the
statement.
Inservice should be directed at changing teachers'
behaviors, not students' behaviors. This practice was men
tioned in five of the thirteen selections reviewed (Allshouse
& Ondell, 1979; Hutson, 1979; Lawrence, 1974; Siantz, in
press; Texas Education Agency, 1978). In Lawrence's (1974)
research review, 36 studies used pupil outcomes as a cri
terion. Of these studies, 13 showed no significant dif
ferences in pupil behavior following inservice training of
their teachers. Seven of those 13 studies, however, showed
significant positive changes in teacher behaviors. Allshousjs
and Ondell (1979) endorse the belief that results of inser
vice should be used by the teacher participants in order to
be considered effective.
Inservice should be voluntary rather than mandatory.
This practice was mentioned in four of the thirteen selec
tions reviewed (Johnson, 1975; King et al., 1977; Lippett &
Fox, 1971; Zigarmi et al., 1977). All agreed with the 87
participants at the NEA workshop, ¡.that voluntary participa
tion should be encouraged in inservice education rather than
mandatory activities (Johnson, 1975).


47
Research Studies
In addition to the statements of best practice which
were derived from informed opinion, this reviewer identified
four empirical studies of interest in this investigation.
The following criteria were established regarding which articles
and reports to include in this section. Only literature
written since 1957 was reviewed. No information regarding
inservice education outside of the United States was included.
Research studies which were not published in a journal
and thus not subject to critical review were eliminated.
Articles which did not contain enough information to evaluate
the research conducted were also omitted. Only studies
which involved trial of inservice training or comparison of
two or more were included. The most common reason for elimi
nation of a study was that it did not give enough information
about the procedures to critically review it.
Two studies included in this review are one-shot case
studies. The other two articles are reports of comparisons
of two formats and a control. Table 6 lists the four articles,
type of design, treatment (independent variables), measures
(dependent variables), results and criticisms.
Smith and Otto (1969) conducted a one-shot case study
to determine if a personal reading course for teachers im
proved reading instruction in content areas. Subjects were
19 junior and senior high teachers. Five evening sessions
of two hours were used to provide instruction to teachers
on improving their own reading skills. Rate, interpretation,


Table 6
Research Studies
Article
Subjects
Treatment
Measures
Results
Criticisms
Smith & Otto
1969
One-shot case
study
19 Junior &
Senior High
Teachers
Reading im
provement
course
1 )Pre-post
Nelson Denny
Reading Test
2 )Pre-post
Attitude In
ventory
3)Post course
questionnaire
1 )No major
differences
in attitudes
2)Reading
skills
3¡Question
naire teachers'
indicate wil
ling to teach
skills taught
in course
Unable to
determine
appropriateness
of statistics
used; No control
or alternative
treatment group;
reliability &
validity of
measures not
discussed
Schmid &
Scranton, 1972
One-shot case
study
17 special
ed. and 6
regular class
room teachers
5-phase pro
gram in
behavior
modification
1 )Pre-post
survey on
knowledge of
of behavior
modification
1 ¡Significant
differences
between pre
post data
No control or
alternate treat
ment group; re
liability &
validity of
measures not
discussed;
measure effec
tiveness of
training in only
one area.
Lee, 1970
Pretest-Post-
test control
group design
51 volunteer
elementary
teachers
1 ¡Sensitivity
training (Vs )
classroom
training on
principles of
human re
lations
1¡Pre-post
Minn.
Teacher Attit
tude
2) Pre-post
Q-Sort
3)Post opin
ion AJAbsen-
teeism
1)t-group bet
ter than con
trol on all
but 2 measures
2)t-group bet
ter than
classroom only
on attendance
Reliability &
validity of
measures used
were not dis
cussed


Article
Subjects
Treatment
Kasdon &
Kelly, 1969
Post-test
only
control
design
96 elementary
teachers by a
stratified
random process
96 elementary
pupils random
ly selected
from teachers
class
1)Simulation
activities to
teach aware
ness of ins
tructional
levels of pu
pils in class
2) time of
training
Table 6 extended
Measures
Teacher aware
ness of instru
ctional read
ing level by
testing stu
dent with
Standard Read
ing Inventory
& Compare with
readability
of reading
text
Results
1) There were
significant
differences
between con
trol 8c group
2)Time of
training made
a difference
3)No differ
ence between
primary and
intermediate
Criticisms
Measured effec
tiveness of
training in only
one area.


50
literal comprehension, and vocabulary were covered during
each session.
Smith and Otto (1969) reported that there were no major
differences in teacher attitudes or reading skills on the
pre-post Nelson Denny Reading Test or the attitude inventory.
However, analysis of results of a post-course questionnaire
indicated that teachers were willing to teach to their stu
dents skills they were taught. The authors failed to give
enough information in their report to determine if appro
priate statistical procedures were used. Reliability and
validity of the measures used in this study were not addressed.
In addition, a limitation of this study as well as all the
other studies reviewed (included and excluded articles) in
both the best practice literature and the research studies
was that they did not answer the question: do the conclu
sions apply equally to inservice programs involving urban,
suburban, rural, secondary and elementary teachers? This
criticism was raised by Cruikshank, Lorish and Thompson
(1979).
Schmid and Scranton (1972) conducted a one-shot case
study dealing with behavior modification techniques. Seven
teen special education teachers and six regular classroom
teachers completed a nine-week, five-phase training program
which included obtaining pre-post measures, self-instruction,
group sessions and practice with students. Analysis of the
pre-post survey on knowledge of behavior modification in
dicated significant differences between pre-post data.


51
This study was limited in that there was no control or
comparison group. Also, Schmid and Scranton (1972) did not
discuss the reliability or validity of the measures they
used.
Lee (1970) conducted a study designed to investigate
and evaluate the effectiveness of sensitivity training in
an inservice training program in human relations for class
room teachers. Subjects were 51 volunteer public elementary
school teachers. All grade levels were represented in all
three groups.
In this pretest-posttest control group design study,
subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups,
sensitivity training, classroom training and control. The
classroom group received 20 hours of instruction, demon
stration, and discussion on the principles of human relations.
The control group received no training during the study.
The sensitivity group received training in two T-groups.
These subjects received 20 hours of intensive interpersonal
sensitivity training aimed at increased self-actualization
and human relations skills.
Five dependent measures were obtained for the three
groups. These measures were: pre-post data from records
of teacher absenteeism and student absenteeism, during the
semester in which the study took place; pre-post scores on
the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI); pre-post
scores on a Q-sort instrument designed to measure correlat
tions between subjects' perception of their real and ideal


52
selves; and a 30-item opinion inventory upon which parents
and administrators were asked to rate teachers' human rela
tions skills.
Results of the study indicate that sensitivity training
was more effective than the control as measured by the MTAI,
Q-sort and student attendance. No significant difference
was found between the T-group and the control using the 30-
item opinion inventory or teacher absenteeism as measures.
The sensitivity training was significantly better than the
classroom group only on the student attendance measure.
Thus, the authors concluded that the sensitivity training
was effective.
The Lee (1970) study did have several important fea
tures. It compared two different techniques with a control
rather than comparing one group with itself or one group
with a group receiving no training. However, there are
some limitations to this study that must be pointed out.
Since a pre-posttest control group design was utilized,
a threat to external validity was introduced; the possi
bility of there being an interaction between testing and
treatment (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). Another limitation
was the lack of discussion of reliability and validity of
measures utilized. This study, also, involved only elemen
tary teachers.
Kadson and Kelly (1969) conducted a study in an attempt
to answer three questions:
1 ) were pupils of teachers who parti
cipated in a simulation-type


53
inservice program assigned reading
materials more appropriate for their
instructional reading levels than
pupils of teachers who did not
participate?
2) Does the time of the school year
when an inservice program is
scheduled make a difference in
its effectiveness?
3) Are those who teach grades two and
three more aware of pupils' in
structional reading levels than
those who teach grades four and
five? (p. 79)
A three-group posttest-only control group type of re
search design was used in this study. Subjects were selected
by a stratified random process and then assigned to the
three groups by a stratified random process. The 96 class
room teachers were from a single middle-class suburban
school system. A pupil sample was selected randomly from
the classes of the teacher sample--one pupil from each class.
The three groups used in the study were a control group,
which received no training during the study, and the two
treatment groups. Both treatment groups received the same
training utilizing simulation techniques to provide teachers
with a knowledge of and the ability to administer an informal
reading inventory in order to select more accurate reading
materials appropriate for their pupils' instructional reading
levels in their classrooms. One group, however, received
training in the summer just prior to the beginning of the
school year, the other group was trained in the fall after
school had started.
The dependent variable was teacher awareness of the
pupils' instructional reading level in the respective


54
classrooms of the three teacher samples. Awareness was
determined by measuring the instructional reading levels of
the pupil sample on the Standard Reading Inventory and the
readibility level of the instructional reading material.
Analysis of the results of this study revealed that
there was a significant difference between the control group
and the group receiving the training in the summer. Thus,
the training was effective, if offered before school started,
as measured by the dependent variable. There were no dif
ferences between primary and intermediate teachers.
Following Strauss' (1969) 20 guidelines for evaluating
research reports, only two minor points were noted in this
research; failure to state limitations and next steps for
research. The only major limitations noted were particular
to inservice training research and not the quality of the
research design or report.
This study did not answer the question as noted pre
viously being neglected by all the literature reviewed,
that is, they did not limit their conclusions to specific
populations. Another criticism is that the authors judged
effectiveness in only one way (Havelock & Havelock, 1973;
McAdams Note 1 ) .
Summary
In this review of the literature, research which sup
ports Fuller's (1969) theory of stages of concerns of teachers
was presented. Based on Fuller's theory, it appears that
training strategies should be different for inservice teachers
than preservice teachers.


55
Several studies were reviewed which support the posi
tion that teacher anxiety is an attribute of teachers that
has potential to influence the effectiveness of teacher-
pupil interactions and warrants investigation. In addition,
literature supporting the teacher expectancy/self-fulfilling
prophecy hypothesis and the effects teachers' attitudes
have on the student-teacher relationship was presented.
These studies point out that to increase the likelihood of
success of mainstreaming, teachers attitudes toward main-
streaming need to be investigated and attempts made to im
prove them.
Finally, best practice statements have been identified
through a review of literature on inservice teacher education.
In actual practice, however, it appears few reported best
practices are used (Corono & Clark, 1978; Schmid & McAdams,
1981). Research on inservice training appears to consist
largely of uncontrolled, one-shot case studies. There appears
to be a lack of controlled, reliable research studies. The
two controlled studies reviewed here did not attempt to
determine the effectiveness of a complex, multi-faceted
design. One study judged effectiveness of the training through
knowledge gains. The other determined effectiveness through
attitudinal changes. The area of determining if inservice
training can impact on teacher attitudes, teacher anxiety
level, and knowledge remains to be investigated.


CHAPTER 3
METHODS AND MATERIALS
This study was organized to investigate if an inservice
training program of regular teachers, which incorporated
practices based on 75% of identified inservice best practice
statements, to teach informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
grammings has an effect on teacher anxiety, teachers' atti
tude and teachers' knowledge. In addition, the study was
designed to investigate the relationships between teacher
anxiety, teachers' attitudes toward mainstreamed handicapped
students and knowledge about informal diagnosis and prescrip
tive programming.
Statement of Hypothesis
This study was designed to test the following hypo
theses :
1. There is no significant difference in subjects'
anxiety level, attitude toward mainstreaming handi
capped students or knowledge regarding informal
diagnosis and prescriptive programming as a result
of participation in inservice training.
2. There is no relationship between teacher attitude
toward mainstreaming handicapped students and
teacher knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and
prescriptive programming.
56


57
3. There is no relationship between teacher attitude
toward mainstreaming handicapped students and teacher
anxiety level.
4. There is no relationship between teacher anxiety
level and teacher knowledge regarding informal diag
nosis and prescriptive programming.
Variables
In this section, the independent and dependent varia
bles are described. In addition, the control and inter
vening variables are listed.
Independent
The independent variable under investigation was the
type of training the teachers received in informal diagnosis
and prescriptive programming. This included a practicum ex
perience of 3 weeks.
Dependent
There were three dependent variables in this study:
1. Knowledge of teachers about informal diagnosis and
prescriptive programming as measured by the Infor
mal Diagnosis and Prescriptive Programming (ID/PP)
Test
2. Attitude of teachers toward mainstreaming handi
capped students as measured by the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale.
3. Anxiety level of teachers as measured by the
Teaching Anxiety Scale.


58
Control
The following were considered controlled variables:
1. Public vs. private school teachers (only public
school teachers were included in this study).
2. Regular vs. special education teachers (only regular
education teachers were included in this study).
Intervening
The following were considered intervening variables:
1. Teacher personality.
2. Teacher competence prior to beginning of the study.
3. Philosophical agreement/disagreement with individu
alization.
4. Teacher motivation.
5. Academic degree held.
6. Age of teacher.
7. Years of teaching experience.
8. Sex of teacher.
9. Number of credit hours previously completed in
special education courses.
Instrumentation
A questionnaire comprised of three instruments and a
demographic data sheet was used in this study. The instru
ments measured knowledge about informal diagnosis and pre
scriptive programming, teacher anxiety and attitude toward
mainstreaming.
Knowledge
Knowledge about informal diagnosis and prescriptive
programming was measured by using a test developed as part


59
of the ID/PP training package (Midwest Regional Resource
Center, 1975). The 43 point test has multiple choice, true-
false, and short answer questions (see Appendix A). This
test purports to measure the components of ID/PP as defined
by the training package. The areas the test is reported to
measure and related point distributions are task analysis
8; error pattern analysis7; systematic modifications5;
behavioral objectives--5; matching material characteristics
to learner characteristics -- 4; appropriate learning methods
5; and general information about informal diagnosis9-
Internal consistency reliability information was obtained
from the tests completed by the subjects in this study. The
coefficient alpha for the ID/PP knowledge test was .52 for
the pretest and .64 for the posttest. Salvia and Ysseldyke
(1978) suggest a reliability of .60 as a minimum for group data.
Attitude
Attitude towards mainstreaming handicapped students
was measured by the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
(ATMS see Appendix B). The eighteen-statement scale was
developed to specifically meet the criteria of brevity, ease
of administration, usefulness with persons other than spe
cial educators and satisfactory validity and reliability
(Berryman, Neal & Robinson, 1980). The validation sample
consisted of 159 subjects, 78% female and 22% male. The
cross-validation sample included 164 subjects, 84% female
and 16% male. Both samples included preservice and inser
vice teachers representing 17 teaching fields. Three factors,


60
Learning Capability, General Mainstreaming, and Traditional
Learning Disabilities, became apparent from the analysis of
each sample. Cronback alpha reliability coefficients for
the total scale were .89 and .88 for the two samples; for
the factors the coefficients ranged from .76 to .84. Pearson
correlation coefficients between individual factors and total
scale scores ranged from .81 to .86. Factor inter-correlations
ranged from .42 to .55 (Berryman & Neal, 1980).
Anxiety
Anxiety of regular teachers was measured by the Teaching
Anxiety Scale (TCHAS see Appendix C). TheTCHAS," . was
designed to provide a tool for measuring anxiety specific
to the task of teaching" (Parsons, 1973, p. 1). The TCHAS con
tains 29 self-report statements about teacher reactions to
teaching. The respondents indicate emotional responses to
a variety of different situations related to teaching and
attitudes toward teaching as a profession. A 1-5 choice op
tion for each item ranges from low agreement (never) to high
agreement (always). Approximately half of the items were
negatively worded to off-set the effects of response acqui
escence .
The alpha coefficients of internal consistency for the
TCHAS range from .87 to .94. The test-retest reliability
correlation for this 29-item instrument was established over
intervals from one day to two months. The Pearson product
moment correlations ranged from .83 to .95.


61
When comparing student teachers self-reports of teacher
anxiety and observations of the anxiety level of these
teachers by their teaching supervisor, Parsons (1973) dis
covered a significant correlation (p .05). This evidence
suggests that to at least some degree the teaching anxiety
reported on the TCHAS corresponded to what teacher super
visors believed to be teaching anxiety in their student
teachers.
Demographic Data
Demographic data about subjects in this study were
obtained from a demographic data sheet. The sheet contained
nine questions for subjects to answer, including informa
tion about the teacher's sex, age, academic degree, years
of teaching experience, prior exposure to mainstreaming and
number of credit hours obtained in special education courses
(see Appendix D).
Subjects
The target population for this study was regular class
room teachers of grades K-12 in a rural environment. The
sub-population from which the sample was drawn was regular
classroom teachers of grades K-12 in one educational co
operative in a midwestern state. Teachers whose schools
belonged to the cooperative were invited to volunteer for
inservice to be conducted during the summer. Incentives
offered to the teachers included payment of tuition, gradu
ate credit, certification/recertification credit, paid travel,
and lunch provided for the five days of training. The


62
volunteering teachers were divided according to grade level
taught (i.e., elementary and secondary groups). Twenty-
nine elementary teachers and twenty-eight secondary teachers
participated in the study. Subjects for the control group
were selected from a master list of teachers teaching in the
educational cooperative. A random number table was used to
determine which teachers were mailed the test. Teachers
who had participated in the training during previous summers
were eliminated. Nineteen teachers completed both the pre
test and posttest.
The group of elementary teachers was composed of 27
females and 2 males. The teacher's ages ranged from 21 to
59. These subjects had completed a mean of 2.0 credits
in special education courses. The years of teaching ex
perience ranged from zero to thirty-five with a mean of 10.83
years of experience (see Appendix E for frequency distribu
tion). Twenty elementary teachers had their bachelor's
degree and nine had their master's degree.
The group of secondary teachers was composed of 19
females and 9 males. The teacher's ages ranged from 21 to
59. These subjects had completed a mean of 1.11 credit
hours in sepcial education courses. The years of teaching
experience ranged from one to twenty-two with a mean of 9.21
years of experience (see Appendix E for frequency distribu
tion). Eighteen secondary teachers had their bachelor's
degree, eight had their master's degree and two had their
educational specialist's degree.


63
The control group was composed of 16 females and 3
males. The teacher's ages ranged from 21 to 65. The control
group members had completed a mean of 6.84 credit hours in
special education courses. The years of teaching experience
ranged from 2 to 37 with a mean of 12.21 years of experience
(see Appendix E for frequency distribution). Ten of the
control group members had their bachelor's degree and nine
had their master's degree. There were 9 elementary teachers
and 10 secondary teachers in the control group.
Procedures
During the first week of June, 1981, subjects in the
experimental groups received five days of training. The
elementary teachers were trained by three qualified trainers.
The trainers had participated in ID/PP training in the past.
During the same week, secondary teachers received training
from three different qualified trainers.
The training packages used were the Informal Diagnosis
and Prescriptive Programming (ID/PP) workshop developed by
the Midwest Regional Resource Center. The training packages
were similar except that examples were on an elementary
level for the elementary group and on a secondary level for
the secondary group. The workshop was comprised of the fol
lowing ten modules: (a) identifying the problem, (b) task
analysis, (c) error pattern analysis, (d) systematic modi
fications, (e) setting priorities, (f) behavioral objectives,
(g) learning methods/style, (h) task analysis of materials,
(i) matching material characteristics with learner


64
characteristics, and (j) developing an individual educa
tional plan.
After completing the five day workshop, the experimental
groups participated in a practicum experience. The practicum
was directed by staff employed by the educational coopera
tive. Subjects were assigned to grade levels appropriate
to their regular teaching assignment. The subjects attended
the practicum for three weeks. During the practicum the
subjects worked on an individual basis with students iden
tified as having learning problems. Subjects worked with
their students each day for 45 to 90 minutes depending on
the age of the child. The project staff observed subjects
on an average of twice each week and offered feedback on the
subject's performance. In addition, daily lesson plans (see
Appendix F) and Individual Educational Programs (see Appen
dix G) were required for each student. Practicum sites were
summer school classes in districts in the educational co
operative. Participants attended three-hour afternoon ses
sions twice a week during the practicum experience. These
sessions were designed to familiarize participants with
various handicapping conditions. The topics covered in
the afternoon sessions were:
(a) teaching strategies in relation to the mentally
retarded child,
(b) teaching strategies in relation to the learning
disabled child (2 sessions),


65
(c) teaching strategies in relation to the emotionally
disturbed child,
(d) teaching strategies in relation to the physically
handicapped child and the child with chronic
health problems, and
(e) teaching strategies in relation to the hearing or
visually impaired child.
Sixteen best practice statements supported in the lit
erature were discussed in the literature review. Twelve
of the 16 statements were incorporated in the design of the
inservice training used in this study. This inservice
training was school-based rather than college-based. Eva
luation was built-in as a component of the training. The
ID/PP training was activity-based. Demonstrations were fol
lowed by individual and small group activities during which
participants practiced skills. Feedback was given to par
ticipants following each activity.
Rewards or incentives were an important part of this
design. Incentives offered participants included payment
of tuition, graduate credit, certification/recertification
credit, payment for travel expenses, and lunch provided for
the five days of training. In the past, participants have
indicated that ID/PP training can be, and is, used in their
classrooms effectively (McAdams, Note t).
This training was offered during the summer so class
room teachers could participate. The trainers for this
training had previously received training in how to deliver


66
inservice training and general information about inservice
training.
Specific goals and objectives for ID/PP training have
been developed and are listed in the manual for trainers
(Midwest Regional Resource Center, 1975). The ID/PP training
package was designed to answer needs as determined by needs
assessments conducted in the mid-western United States by
the MRRC. The need for this training for the teachers served
by the educational cooperative was established by a needs
assessment conducted by personnel from the cooperative.
ID/PP training was designed to change teachers' behavior
in the classroom rather than students' behavior. Finally,
this training was on a voluntary basis rather than being
mandatory.
Four of the identified best practice statements were
not incorporated into the training used in this study. These
elements were not utilized due to the need to have control
over the inservice training for the study. The four elements
not included were individualization rather than group
activities, participant input into planning goals and ac
tivities administrator involvement, and involvement of the
total school in a general effort rather than a "single-shot"
program. These four factors could be incorporated in the
design of training using ID/PP if it were not a controlled
study situation. Thus, the training design utilized in this
study incorporated 75% of the identified best practice prin
ciples for inservice training. The control group received
no training.


67
Design
This study utilized a quasi-experiemntal, field-based
approach. The design used is a non-equivalent control group
design. According to Campbell and Stanley (1963), notation
of the design is depicted as
OX.O
OXgO
0 0
In this design "X^" is the elementary group that re
ceived AO hours of ID/PP training and a three-week practicum
The secondary group that recieved 40 hours of ID/PP training
and a three-week practicum is depicted by "Xg." The depend
ent variables are represented by "0." The control group re
ceived no training.
Campbell and Stanley (1963) discuss eight potential
threats to internal validity. These are testing, history,
maturation, instrumentation, regression, mortality, selec
tion and selection interactions. In this study, testing,
history, maturation and instrumentation were not considered
problems since the experimental and control groups completed
the same questionnaires with the same instructions at approx
imately the same time. Regression was not a threat since
subjects were not selected based on any type of scores.
Mortality was higher in the control group than in the
other two groups, thus causing a threat to internal validity
To counteract the possibility of mortality in the control
group, members were offered an incentive to participate.
The incentive was a chance in a drawing for $50 worth of
instructional or informational materials of the winner's


68
choice. However, of the 35 teachers who completed the pre
test, only 19 completed the posttest.
Selection and the selection interactions may be con
sidered threats to this study. The elementary and secondary
teachers who received the training were volunteers. Control
group members were selected at random from a list of teachers
in the educational cooperative. However, those that re
sponded could be considered volunteers also, in that they
chose whether to participate or not.
Sources of threats to external validity are also raised
by Campbell and Stanley (1963). The threat of interaction
of testing and treatment to the external validity of this
study is viable since groups may have only been effected by
the treatment because they completed the pretest. Inter
action of selection and treatment poses a threat to the
generalizability of these results. Effects of the treatment
may well be specific to teachers who volunteer to partici
pate in inservice training activities.
The threat to external validity represented by reactive
arrangements may be present. Participants were informed
that the test information was to help the school district
evaluate its inservice training program.
Data Collection
There were four sections to the questionnaire: (a) the
Teaching Anxiety Scale (TCHAS), (b) the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS), (c) the ID/PP knowledge test,
and (d) the demographic page. The questionnaire was assembled


69
so that three sections were alternated in their order. The
fourth section, the demographic page, was always last. With
the TCHAS as A, the ATMS as B, the ID/PP knowledge test as
C, and the demographic data sheet as D, the following com
binations of tests were distributed at random:
A B C A B C
B C A C A B
C A B B C A
D D D D D D
This procedure was used to minimize the order effect on the
different measures.
Data were collected twice during this study. Question
naires were distributed to the experimental groups prior to
the beginning of training on the first day of the five-day
workshop. Subjects were given approximately 45 minutes to
complete the questionnaire. Subjects were requested to put
the last four digits of their Social Security number on each
section of the questionnaire. To ensure that subjects re
mained anonymous, they were not required to put their names
on their questionnaires .
Posttest measures were obtained from the experimental
groups on the last day of the practicum. The same test pro
cedures were used as described earlier except that the demo
graphic data sheet was not included in the posttest measures.
On the first day of the workshop pretests were
mailed to 120 randomly selected teachers with a cover letter
(see Appendix H). Stamped and self-addressed return enve
lopes were enclosed. Procedures regarding order of the


70
four sections of the questionnaire and Social Security num
bers were the same as used with the experimental group.
As an incentive for control group members to complete
and return the questionnaire, subjects who participated
were eligible for a drawing for $50 worth of informational
or instructional materials of their choice. Each question
naire was numbered so records of respondents could be kept.
After 14 days, a follow-up letter was sent to non
respondents (see Appendix I). A copy of the questionnaire
and a stamped, self-addressed return envelope were enclosed.
A total of 37 pretests were completed and returned. One
subject was dropped from the study because they had pre
viously completed the workshop and practicum. Another sub
ject was eliminated because they requested not to receive
the posttest.
On the last day of the practicum, the posttests were
mailed to the control group with a cover letter (see Appen
dix J) and a stamped, self-addressed return envelope. After
14 days a follow-up letter was sent to non-respondents (see
Appendix K). A copy of the questionnaire and a stamped,
self-addressed return envelope were enclosed. A total of
23 posttests were completed and returned. Three subjects
were eliminated because they failed to complete all sec
tions of the questionnaire. One subject was eliminated be
cause they were an administrator rather than a regular edu
cation teacher. Thus, the number of control group members
was 19.


71
Data Analysis
Individual scores for the ID/PP knowledge test were
obtained by totaling the number of points on the test.
The individual scores for the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming
Scale were arrived at by adding the ratings for each item on
the total scale. The scores for the three factors of the
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale were derived by adding
the ratings for the items identified as a member of each
factor. The items identified as part of the General Main-
streaming factor were 1, 4, 8, 9, 10, 15 and 17. Items 5,
6, 7, 11, 12, 14 and 16 comprised the Learning Capability
factor. The Traditional Learning Disabilities factor con
tained items 2, 3, 13 and 18 (see Appendix B).
To obtain the individual scores for the Teaching An
xiety Scale, the items which required reverse scoring were
identified. The 14 items were 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14,
17, 20, 22, 24, 25 and 28 (see Appendix C). The ratings
for these 14 items were recoded (i.e., 1 became 5, 2 became
4, 3 remained 3, 4 became 2, and 5 became 1). The ratings
were then added to obtain a total score.
The raw data from the three instruments which comprised
the test were analysed by an analysis of variance with re
peated measures (ANOVR) (Games, Gray, Herron & Pitz, 1974).
The ANOVR was run six times, once for each dependent vari
able (scores on the ID/PP knowledge test, the Attitudes
Toward Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS), and the Teaching Anxiety
Scale (TCHAS)) and for the three factors of the ATMS.
Alpha was set at .05.


72
Pearson correlation coefficients were computed for the
data collected from the demographic page of the pretest and
the scores on the ID/PP knowledge test, the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale and the Teaching Anxiety Scale. Scores
from the pretest and posttest for the ID/PP knowledge test,
the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and the Teaching
Anxiety Scale were used.
Data from the posttest Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming
Scale, Teaching Anxiety Scale and ID/PP knowledge test were
analyzed using multiple regression analysis. First, the
scores from the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and the
Teaching Anxiety Scale plus the years of teaching experience
were used to predict the ID/PP knowledge test scores. Scores
from the Teaching Anxiety Scale and the ID/PP knowledge
test plus the years of teaching experience were then used
to predict the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale scores.
Next, scores from the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
and the ID/PP knowledge test plus the years of teaching ex
perience were used to predict the Teaching Anxiety Scale
scores. These three analyses were then rerun with number
of credit hours completed in special education courses re
placing years of teaching experience. Alpha was set at .05
for all analyses.


CHAPTER 4
RESULTS
To address the question of the extent to which anxiety
level of teachers, teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming
and teachers' knowledge regarding ID/PP were influenced by
participation in inservice training, data were subjected to
a two factor mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures.
The extent of the relationship between teacher anxiety,
teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming and knowledge re
garding ID/PP was evaluated through an analysis of product
moment correlations between variables and the prediction
of scores on the dependent variables through multiple re
gression procedures. Each procedure is discussed separately.
Analysis of Variance
The results from the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
(ATMS), the Teaching Anxiety Scale (TCHAS), and the informal
diagnosis and prescriptive programming (ID/PP) knowledge test
were analyzed by a mixed analysis of variance with repeated
measures. Each dependent variable was analyzed separately
across the three groups and two occasions (e.g., pretest and
posttest). In addition, the three factors from the ATMS,
General Mainstreaming, Learning Capabilities and Traditional
Learning Disabilities, were analyzed separately. Tables 7
to 12 contain the means, standard deviations, and analysis
of variance summary table for each of the six scores.
73


7 4
Table 7
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
ID/PP Knowledge Test
Pretest Posttest
Elementary X = 13.93 X r 26.97
S r 4.33 S = 4.92
Secondary X = 12.14 X = 22.21
S : 3.69 S = 6.91
Control X = 15.63 X = 14.79
S = 5.84 S = 5.42
Source
MS
df
F
PROB.
Between Subjects
Group
340.23
2
7.65
.00
Error
44.45
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
2728.53
1
261.51
.00
Group X Pretest/Posttest
580.90
2
55.67
.00
Error
10.43
73


75
Table 8
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for -
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
Pretest
Posttest
Elementary
X = 51-03
X = 47.24
S = 10.63
S = 13.17
Secondary
I = 51.04
57 = 50.07
S = 9.35
S z 11.60
Control
X = 54.37
X = 52.84
S = 12.09
S = 12.05
Source
Between Subjects
Group
Error
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
Group X Pretest/Posttest
Error
MS df F PROB.
231.29 2
204.67 73
181.29 1
31.24 2
59.17 73
1.13 .33
3.06 .08
.53 .59
Note: Maximum possible score is 90.


76
Table 9
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
General Mainstreaming Factor of
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
Pretest
Posttest
Elementary
X = 24.00
Y = 22.41
S = 6.04
S = 6.72
Secondary
X = 25.21
Y = 24.50
S = 6.05
S = 5.80
Control
X = 25.53
X = 25.53
S = 6.50
S = 6.44
Source
MS
df F
PR0B.
Between Subjects
Group
71
.23
2
1.11
.34
Error
64
.19
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
28,
.66
1
2.09
.15
Group X Pretest/Posttest
7,
.48
2
.55
.58
Error
13,
73
73
Note: Maximum possible score is 35.


77
Table 10
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
Traditional Learning Disabilities Factor of
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
Pretest Posttest
Elementary X = 12.48 X = 12.48
S = 3.03 S = 3.03
Secondary X = 11.79 X = 11.79
S = 2.63 S = 2.63
Control X = 13.21 X = 13.21
S = 4.14 S = 4.14
Source
MS
df F
PROB.
Between Subjects
Group
23.24
2
1.13
.33
Error
20.63
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
0.00
1
0.00
1.00
Group X Pretest/Posttest
0.00
2
0.00
1.00
Error
0.00
73
Note: Maximum possible score is 20.


78
Table 11
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
Learning Capability Factor of
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
Pretest Posttest
Elementary X = 13.59 X = 12.38
S = 3.56 S = 3.79
Secondary 3? = 13.82 X = 13.14
S = 3.61 S = 4.03
Control X = 15.26 X = 14.37
S = 4.33 S = 3.95
Source
MS
df F
PROB.
Between Subjects
Group
39.47
2
1.81
.17
Error
21.87
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
33.16
1
4.25
.04
Group X Pretest/Posttest
1 .00
2
0.13
.88
Error
7.80
73
Note: Maximum possible score is 35.


79
Table 12
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
Teaching Anxiety Scale
Pretest Posttest
Elementary X = 54.59 X 52.86
S = 11.79 S = 11.72
Secondary 3T = 61.89 X = 59.89
S = 14.74 S = 12.65
Control X = 55.11 X = 53.16
S = 13.20 S = 15.22
Source
MS
df
F
PR0B.
Between Subjects
Group
870.28
2
2.83
.07
Error
307.94
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
134.53
1
3.57
.06
Group X Pretest/Posttest
0.30
2
0.01
.99
Error
37.68
73
Note: Range of possible scores is 29 to 145.


80
The tests of interest here were whether there were any
interactions between group membership and pre-posttest
scores. There was a significant interaction between pre
posttest scores and group for the ID/PP knowledge test.
Figure 1 graphically displays this interaction. There were
no significant interactions for the Teaching.Anxiety Scale,
the total Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale or any of the
three factors of the ATMS.
Since the group x pre-posttest interaction was sig
nificant for the ID/PP knowledge test, simple effects were
studied using Scheffe's follow-up procedure with individual
variances and covariances as error estimates. Individual
variances and covariances were used in the follow-up analysis
since tests of the homogeneity of the variance-covariance
matrix and the assumption of homogeneous variances and corre
lations between repeated measures were significant. The re
sults of the Scheffe procedure are presented in Table 13.
An analysis of the results of this follow-up procedure
indicated that there were significant differences in the pre
test and posttest scores of the three groups. The control
group scored significantly higher (X = 15.63) on the pretest
than the secondary (X = 12.14) or elementary groups (X = 12.43).
The elementary and secondary groups were not significantly
different on the pretest.
On the posttest, however, the control group scored sig
nificantly lower (X = 14-79) than the secondary (X = 22.21)
or elementary groups (X = 14.79). The elementary group scored
significantly higher than the secondary group.


Mean Score on ID/PP Knowledge Test
81
Figure 1. Interaction of Group and Pretest/Posttest
Legend: *Elementary
OSecondary
XControl


82
Table 13
Comparison of Simple Means Using
Scheffe's Procedure
Comparison
F
Statistic
Lower Limit
of
Confidence
Interval
Upper Limit
of
Confidence
Interval
PRETEST
Elem.-Control
1 .08*
.62
2.78
Sec.-Control
2.31*
1.18
5.80
Elem.-Sec.
A.81
-3.02
6.60
POSTTEST
Elem.-Control
7.81*
4.27
20.09
Sec.-Control
4.10*
3.32
11.52
Elem.-Sec.
2.98*
1.78
7-74
PRETEST-POSTTEST
Elementary
b-
t-
C\J
10.27
15.81
Secondary
.11*
.73
.95
Control
1.91*
8.16
11.98
*significant at .05 level.


83
In comparing the pretest and posttest scores for each
group, it was found that the elementary and secondary groups
scored significantly higher on the posttest than on the pre
test. The control group scores on the posttest (X = 14.79)
were significantly lower than on the pretest (X = 15-63).
A review of the results from the analysis of variance
indicates that anxiety level of teachers and teachers' atti
tudes toward mainstreaming handicapped students as measured
by the dependent variables were not significantly influenced
by participation in inservice training. However, teachers'
knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming was significantly influenced by participation in
inservice training. Teachers who participated in the training
program significantly increased their knowledge about informal
diagnosis and prescriptive programming.
Correlation Coefficients
Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were
computed between demographic data and the pretest and post
test scores on the three dependent variables. The results
of this analysis for all three groups are presented in Table
14. The same analysis was repeated for each group separately.
The results of these analyses are presented in Tables 15 to
17.
When interpreting the magnitude of correlation coeffi
cients, Borg and Gall (1979) suggest .65 as the criterion
for a close relationship. They suggest that a very close
relationship between two variables is indicated by a


Table 14
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Demographic Data and
Dependent Variables for All Subjects
Group
Degree
Exper
ience
Hours
Pre
ID/PP
Post
ID/PP
Pre
ATMS
Post
ATMS
Pre
TCHAS
Post
TCHAS
Group
Degree
.12
Exper
ience
.05
.38
Hours
.25
.16
.02
Pre
ID/PP
. 1 1
.06
-. 15
.27
Post
ID/PP
-.63
-.11
-.11
-.07
.38
Pre
ATMS
. 12
-.11
-07
-.23
-.02
-.11
Post
ATMS
. 18
-. 10
-.07
-. 10
-.05
-.15
.56
Pre
TCHAS
.05
-.07
-.23
-.24
-.03
.09
. 14
.06
Post
TCHAS
.04
-.16
-.25
-.26
-.05
.05
.16
.21
.79


85
Table 15
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Demographic Data and
Dependent Variables for Elementary Group
Exper- Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Degree ience Hours XD/PP ID/PP ATMS ATMS TCHAS TCHAS
Degree
Exper
ience .37
Hours
.04
-.23
Pre
ID/PP
.01
-.16
.15
Post
ID/PP
-.03
-. 13
.14
.55
Pre
ATMS
-.16
.06
-.00
.13
.23
Post
ATMS
-.23
-.17
.06
. 15
.31
.25
Pre
TCHAS
-.19
-.43
.08
.12
.10
.19
-.02
Post
TCHAS
-.33
-.38
-.13
.17
.16
.23
.29


86
Table 16
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Demographic Data and
Dependent Variables for Secondary Group
Exper- Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Degree ience Hours ID/PP ID/PP ATMS ATMS TCHAS TCHAS
Degree
Exper
ience .47
Hours .19 .00
Pre
ID/PP
. 13
-.29
.46
Post
ID/PP
-.18
-.02
.17
.59
Pre
ATMS
-. 19
-.10
.06
-.12
-.25
Post
ATMS
-. 18
-.18
-.04
-. 12
-.29
.67
Pre
TCHAS
.04
.03
-.23
.02
.22
.20
.14
Post
TCHAS
-.09
.03
-.32
-.20
.03
.31
.32


87
Table 17
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Demographic Data and
Dependent Variables for Control Group
Degree
Exper
ience
Hours
Pre
ID/PP
Post
ID/PP
Pre
ATMS
Post
ATMS
Pre
TCHAS
Post
TCHAS
Degree
Exper
ience
.38
Hours
.25
.03
Pre
ID/PP
.04
-.21
.21
Post
ID/PP
.24
-.14
.24
.89
Pre
ATMS
.02
.19
-.57
-.20
-.06
Post
ATMS
.14
. 18
-.37
-.30
-.15
.91
Pre
TCHAS
-.22
-.21
-.41
-.02
.00
.08
.04
Post
TCHAS
-.17
-.30
-.35
.04
.04
.02
.02
91


Full Text
7
3. That the effectiveness of a training package can
be measured.
4. That subjects in the experimental groups and the
control group had the same needs for inservice
training.
Definitions
For clarity, the following key terms which appear in
this paper are applied according to these definitions:
1. Anxiety -- A state of being uneasy, apprehensive
or worried about what may happen; misgiving
(Webster's New World Dictionary, 1966). For pur
poses of this study, the operational definition
of anxiety will be the score that subjects obtain
on the Teaching Anxiety Scale (Parsons, 1973).
2. AttitudeTeachers' attitude toward mainstreaming
handicapped children is operationally defined as
the subject's score on the Attitudes Toward Main-
streaming Scale (Berryman, Neal & Robinson, 1980).
3. Control Group -- A group of subjects who partici
pate to offset the validity problems involved with
using a pretest-posttest design. The purpose of
this measurement control is to determine if dif
ferences in posttest scores are because the sub
jects completed the pretest.
4. Handicapped Children -- Children whose performances
in school-related behaviors vary from the norm
to the extent that special instruction, assistance,


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Charles J. Forgnone, Chairman
Professor of Special Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Ronald E. Nutter,
Assistant Professor of
Special Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Robert F. Algozzine^ "
Associate Professor of
Special Education


Page
14 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Demographic Data and Dependent
Variables for fill Subjects 84
15 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Demographic Data and Dependent
Variables for Elementary Group 85
16 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Demographic Data and Dependent
Variables for Secondary Group 86
17 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for
Demographic Data and Dependent
Variables for Control Group 87
18 Prediction Equations and Summary of
Regression Analysis for ID/PP Knowledge
Test, ATMS and TCHAS 90
19 Prediction Equations and Summary of
Regression Analysis for ID/PP Knowledge
Test, ATMS and TCHAS and Years of
Teaching Experience 91
20 Prediction Equations and Summary of
Regression Analysis for ID/PP Knowledge
Test, ATMS and TCHAS and Credit Hours
in Special Education Courses 92
x


43
well-founded principles of learning in animals and humans.
Inservice training designers should be continuously conscious
of this principle and should look for times, places, and
situations in which effective positive reinforcements can be
applied. According to Allshouse and Ondell (1979), college
credit, extra pay, and released time have all proven valuable
inducements for teachers to participate in inservice activities
Participants should be able to relate learnings to their
back-home situation. This practice was mentioned in six of
the thirteen selections reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979;
Andrews, 1980; Brimm & Tollett, 1974; Havelock & Havelock,
1973; King et al., 1977; Wilen & Kindsvatter, 1978). Ninety
percent of the teachers in the Brimm and Tollett (1974) sur
vey agreed to this statement, "one of the most important ways
to judge the effectiveness of an inservice program is whether
the teacher uses the results of the training in his class
room" (p. 252). Ninety-four percent of the teachers felt the
real test of an inservice program is whether it helps the
teacher to cope with his professional tasks more success
fully; 90% felt the primary purpose of inservice is to up
grade the teacher's classroom performance; and 66% agreed
with the statement that inservice education should relate
directly to problems encountered in the classroom. Allshouse
and Ondell (1979) state that:
the purpose of inservice education is to
impart skill and information with intended
carryover into the classroom or school.
If the program of inservice is not designed
and executed in such a way that the results


APPENDIX D
DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET


156
Siantz, J., & Moore, E. Inservice programming and preservice
priorities. In J. Smith (ed.), The Map, The Mission
and The Mandate. Boothwyn, PA: Educational Resources
Center, 1978.
Silberman, M. L. Behavioral expression of teachers' atti
tudes toward elementary school students. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 1969, .6(1, 402-407-
Smith, R. J., & Otto, W. Changing teacher attitudes toward
teaching reading in the content areas. Journal of
Reading, 1969, J_2, 299-304.
Snow, R. Unfinished Pygmalion. Contemporary Psychology,
1969, 14, 197-199-
Sparks, D., & Hammond, J. Managing Teacher Stress and Burn
out. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher
Education, 1981.
Strauss, S. Guidelines for analysis of research reports.
Journal of Educational Research, 1969, 63., 165-169-
Styles, K., & Cavanagh, G. Stress in teaching and how to
handle it. English Journal, 1977, 66_, 76-79.
Taylor, J. A. A personality scale of manifest anxiety.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1953, 48,
285-290.
Texas Education Agency. Review of the literature. In A
Review of Inservice Education in Texas. Austin: Texas
Education Agency, 1978.
Thorndike, R. L. Review of "Pygmalion in the classroom."
American Educational Research Journal, 1968, 5, 708-711.
Treese, W. D. The effects of microteaching on teaching atti
tudes, anxieties and values (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Missouri, 1971). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 1972, 33, 217A-218A. (University Micro
films, No. 72-19253).
Turnbull, H. R., & Turnbull, A. P. Free Appropriate Public
Education: Law and Implementation. Denver: Love Pub
lishing Co., 1978.
Voeltz, L., Bailey, E., Nakamura, A., & Azama, M. A needs
assessment of special education inservice training pri
orities for teachers. Educational Perspectives, 1979,
J8, 12-17.


42
Participants should help plan the goals and activities
of the inservice training. This practice was the only one
endorsed in all 13 selections reviewed. At the NEA work
shop, the participants recommended that inservice should be
planned by the people affected (Johnson, 1975). Havelock
and Havelock (1973) stress the importance of including
representative of trainees in the planning of training events.
Allshouse and Ondell (1979) suggest that it is critical
for teachers to be involved in the identification and or
ganization of training activities. In Brimm and Tollett's
study (1974), an overwhelming majority (93%) of the respondents
stated that teachers need to be involved in the development
of purposes and activities for inservice programs.
Twenty-one of the 97 studies reviewed by Lawrence (1974)
used this approach, 76 studies did not. For the 21 studies
letting participants help in planning and choosing activities,
95% of the programs had significant positive outcomes. For
the 76 studies not utilizing this approach, only 67% had
significant positive outcomes.
Rewards or reinforcements should be built-in to an in-
service program. This practice was mentioned in seven of
the thirteen selections reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979;
Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Hutson, 1979; Johnson, 1975;
King et al., 1977; Siantz, in press; Texas Education Agency,
1978). Havelock and Havelock (1973) endorse the use of rein
forcement in inservice training. Reinforcement or reward
for appropriate response is one of the oldest and most


150
Borg, W. R., &Gall, M. D. Educational Research: An Intro
duction (3rd ed.l. New York: Longman, 1979.
Brimm, J. L., SsTollett, D. J. How do teachers feel about in-
service education? Educational Leadership, 1974, 31,
521-525.
Brophy, J. E., &Good, T. L. Teachers' communication of dif
ferential expectations for children's classroom perform
ance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1970, 61,
365-374.
Brophy, J. E., &Good, T. Teacher-Student Relationships:
Causes and Consequencies. Boston: Holt, Rinehart,
Winston, 1974.
Campbell, D. Z., & Stanley, J. C. Experimental and Quasi-
Experimental Designs for Research. Chicago: Rand-
McNally College Publishing Company, 1963.
Childress, J. R. Inservice education of teachers. In R. L.
Ebel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Research. London
McMillian, Co., 1969.
Claiborn, W. L. Expectancy effects in the classroom: A
failure to replicate. Journal of Educational Psychology,
1969, 60, 377-383.
Clark, S. L. A study of the relationship between secondary
student teachers' anxiety levels and their assignation
of letter grades under stimulated conditions (Doctoral
dissertation, Columbia University, 1972). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1972, 32, 3834A. (University
Microfilms No. 72-4166).
Coates, B. White adult behaviors toward black and white
children. Child Development, 1972, 43, 143-154.
Coates, T. J., &Thoresen, C. E. Teacher anxiety: A review
with recommendations. Review of Educational Research,
1976, 46(2), 159-184.
Cole, R. W., & Dunn, R. A new lease on life for the handi
capped: Ohio copes with 94-142. Phi Delta Kappan,
1977, 10, 3-6.
Corono, L., & Clark, C. M. An aptitude-treatment-interaction
approach to inservice teacher training. In L. Rubin
(Ed.), The Inservice Education of Teachers. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1978.
Cruikshank, D. R., Lorish, C., & Thompson, L. What we think
we know about inservice education. Journal of Teacher
Education, 1979, 30(1), 27-32. ;


2
so that they will be able to more effectively deal with the
influx of this new population (Harvey, 1976; Saettler, 1976;
Siantz & Moore, 1978; Turnbull & Turnbull, 1978).
Many teachers have expressed concern about being able
to deal with exceptional students in regular classes (Alberto,
Castricone & Cohen, 1978; Graham, Hudson, Burdg & Carpenter,
1980; Hudson, Graham & Warner, 1979; Rude, 1978; Voeltz,
Bailey, Nakamura & Azama, 1979). Traditionally, inservice
education has been utilized to correct deficits in teachers'
skills (Schmid & McAdams, 1981). In recognition of the need
for general educators to receive inservice training, the
Division of Personnel Preparation of the Office of Special
Education and Rehabilitation has established regular educa
tion inservice as one of its priorities (Harvey, 1976;
Saettler, 1976).
Edelfelt (1974) expressed the opinion that inservice
education in the past has been inadequate and ineffective.
This is not surprising when one realizes that the field of
inservice education is lacking a strong research base (Corono
& Clark, 1978; Cruikshank, Lorish & Thompson, 1979; Rubin,
1978). Rubin (1978) indicated that few problems in educa
tion are in more need of an all-out effort at theory building
based on research other than inservice education.
Most of the models suggested for use in inservice pro
grams today are based on opinion rather than empirical evi
dence (Corono & Clark, 1978; Rubin, 1978). Educators have
seen a need for inservice training and have started


29
Best Practices
Some inservice education is considered effective by
participants and trainers, some is not. What are some of
the elements of effective inservice training? How can a
trainer increase his/her chances of conducting inservice
training that will be considered effective? To answer these
questions, a review of literature regarding best practices
for inservice education was conducted. The following cri
teria were established regarding which articles and reports
to include in this section.
Only literature written since 1957 was reviewed. All
information regarding inservice education outside of the
United States was eliminated. Only opinion articles which
were substantiated with reviews of the literature or a
theoretical model were included. All articles endorsed best
practices, made recommendations, or drew conclusions about
effective inservice.
Several steps were taken to arrive at a list of best
practice statements. First, after reviewing literature on
inservice education, thirteen articles and reports were
determined to meet the criteria for inclusion and were
analyzed in depth. Next, best practice statements were
listed on a chart as they were encountered in the literature.
Checks were used to indicate which articles were in agree
ment with each of the basic statements. After all 13 articles
were reviewed, the check marks for each statement were totaled.
All statements with less than four checks, in other words,


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71
Data Analysis
Individual scores for the ID/PP knowledge test were
obtained by totaling the number of points on the test.
The individual scores for the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming
Scale were arrived at by adding the ratings for each item on
the total scale. The scores for the three factors of the
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale were derived by adding
the ratings for the items identified as a member of each
factor. The items identified as part of the General Main-
streaming factor were 1, 4, 8, 9, 10, 15 and 17. Items 5,
6, 7, 11, 12, 14 and 16 comprised the Learning Capability
factor. The Traditional Learning Disabilities factor con
tained items 2, 3, 13 and 18 (see Appendix B).
To obtain the individual scores for the Teaching An
xiety Scale, the items which required reverse scoring were
identified. The 14 items were 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14,
17, 20, 22, 24, 25 and 28 (see Appendix C). The ratings
for these 14 items were recoded (i.e., 1 became 5, 2 became
4, 3 remained 3, 4 became 2, and 5 became 1). The ratings
were then added to obtain a total score.
The raw data from the three instruments which comprised
the test were analysed by an analysis of variance with re
peated measures (ANOVR) (Games, Gray, Herron & Pitz, 1974).
The ANOVR was run six times, once for each dependent vari
able (scores on the ID/PP knowledge test, the Attitudes
Toward Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS), and the Teaching Anxiety
Scale (TCHAS)) and for the three factors of the ATMS.
Alpha was set at .05.


76
Table 9
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
General Mainstreaming Factor of
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
Pretest
Posttest
Elementary
X = 24.00
Y = 22.41
S = 6.04
S = 6.72
Secondary
X = 25.21
Y = 24.50
S = 6.05
S = 5.80
Control
X = 25.53
X = 25.53
S = 6.50
S = 6.44
Source
MS
df F
PR0B.
Between Subjects
Group
71
.23
2
1.11
.34
Error
64
.19
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
28,
.66
1
2.09
.15
Group X Pretest/Posttest
7,
.48
2
.55
.58
Error
13,
73
73
Note: Maximum possible score is 35.


54
classrooms of the three teacher samples. Awareness was
determined by measuring the instructional reading levels of
the pupil sample on the Standard Reading Inventory and the
readibility level of the instructional reading material.
Analysis of the results of this study revealed that
there was a significant difference between the control group
and the group receiving the training in the summer. Thus,
the training was effective, if offered before school started,
as measured by the dependent variable. There were no dif
ferences between primary and intermediate teachers.
Following Strauss' (1969) 20 guidelines for evaluating
research reports, only two minor points were noted in this
research; failure to state limitations and next steps for
research. The only major limitations noted were particular
to inservice training research and not the quality of the
research design or report.
This study did not answer the question as noted pre
viously being neglected by all the literature reviewed,
that is, they did not limit their conclusions to specific
populations. Another criticism is that the authors judged
effectiveness in only one way (Havelock & Havelock, 1973;
McAdams Note 1 ) .
Summary
In this review of the literature, research which sup
ports Fuller's (1969) theory of stages of concerns of teachers
was presented. Based on Fuller's theory, it appears that
training strategies should be different for inservice teachers
than preservice teachers.


95
Mainstreaming Scale used to predict Teaching Anxiety Scale
scores with the model using scores on the ID/PP knowledge
test, the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and the num
ber of credit hours completed in special education courses to
predict scores on the Teaching Anxiety Scale. An estimate of
the squared multiple correlation between number of credit
hours completed in special education courses and teacher an
xiety of .06 was generated. This indicated that of the vari
ance in Teaching Anxiety Scale scores unaccounted for by the
scores on the ID/PP knowledge test and the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale, 6% was associated with number of credit
hours completed in special education courses. Although num
ber of credit hours in special education courses was statis
tically a good predictor of scores on the Teaching Anxiety
Scale, it does not appear to be of practical significance.
A review of the results of the multiple regression analysis
procedure reveals that years of teaching experience and num
ber of credit hours taken in special education courses were
good predictors of teaching anxiety. However, teachers'
attitudes toward mainstreaming, teaching anxiety level and
knowledge, regarding ID/PP were not related.
Summary
The results from the analysis of variance indicated that
participation in inservice training appears to improve teachers'
knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming. Participation in inservice training did not appear
to influence teacher anxiety levels or teachers' attitudes
toward mainstreaming handicapped students.


152
Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. Behavioral expression of teacher
attitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1972,
63, 617-624.
Gottlieb, J. Semmel, M. D., & Veldman, D. J. Correlates of
social status among mainstreamed mentally retarded
children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1978, 70,
396-405.
Graham, S., Hudson, Z., Burdg, N. B., & Carpenter, G. Educa-,
tional personnel's perceptions of mainstreaming and re
source room effectiveness. Psychology in the Schools,
1980, 21, 128-134.
Haring, N. G. A study of the attitudes of classroom teachers
toward exceptional children (Doctoral dissertation,
Syracuse Dniversity, 1956). Dissertation Abstracts,
1957, 21 > 103-104. (University Microfilms No. 57-166).
Harvey, J. Future trends in personnel preparation. Excep
tional Children, 1976, h3, 148-150.
Hass, C. G. Inservice education today. In N. B. Henry (ed.),
Inservice Education: 56th Yearbook of the National
Society for the Study of Education, Part I. Chicago:
The National Society for the Study of Education, 1957.
Havelock, R. G., & Havelock, M. C. Training for Change Agents.
Ann Arbor, Michigan: Institute for Social Research,
1973.
Heller, H. W. Focus on inservice education. Teacher Educa
tion/Special Education, 1978, 2(1), 3-6.
Hudson, F., Graham, S., & Warner, M. Mainstreaming: An
examination of the attitudes and needs of regular class
room teachers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 1979,
2(3), 58-62.
Hutson, H. Inservice Best Practices: The Learnings of
General Education. Bloomington, Indiana: National
Inservice Network, 1979-
Jensen, A. R. Review of "Pygmalion in the Classroom."
American Scientist, 1969, 51, 44A-45A.
Johnson, M. Looking back at thinking ahead: 87 educators
in session. In R. A. Edelfelt and M. Johnson (eds.),
Rethinking Inservice Education. Washington, D.C.:
National Education Association, 1975.
Kadson, L. M., & Kelly, D. Simulation inservice education for
teachers in reading. The Journal of Experimental Edu
cation 1969, 28, 79-86.


17
records were used to investigate teacher behaviors. "Best"
teachers were determined to be much more relaxed and at ease
than the typical and first-year teachers.
Koon (1971) used direct behavioral observation to deter
mine the effects of teacher anxiety, as measured by the Test
Anxiety Questionnaire (Mandier & Sarason, 1952) and teacher
expectations on teacher-student interactions. Koon found
that, unlike low anxiety teachers, high anxiety teachers
used significantly less task-oriented behavior with students
expected to be competent than those they expected to be in
competent. High anxiety teachers also used fewer positive
reinforcements.
Washburne and Heil (1960) selected fifty-five third,
fourth, and fifth grade teachers from nine public schools to
investigate what characteristics of teachers affect childrens'
growth. The students of these teachers were given the Stanford
Achievement Test and the Ohio Social Acceptance Scale at the
beginning and end of the school year. At the end of the
school year, the students were given the Otis Group Intelli
gence Test, Form AS and the Assessing Childrens' Feelings
instrument. The teachers were observed and rated on the
Teacher Observation Scale six to eight times during the school
year. In addition, the teachers completed the Teacher Educa
tion Examination and the Manifold Interest Schedule at the
end of the school year. The teachers were grouped into
three groups: the turbulent person, the self-controlling per
son, and the fearful person. Results of this study verified


86
Table 16
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Demographic Data and
Dependent Variables for Secondary Group
Exper- Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Degree ience Hours ID/PP ID/PP ATMS ATMS TCHAS TCHAS
Degree
Exper
ience .47
Hours .19 .00
Pre
ID/PP
. 13
-.29
.46
Post
ID/PP
-.18
-.02
.17
.59
Pre
ATMS
-. 19
-.10
.06
-.12
-.25
Post
ATMS
-. 18
-.18
-.04
-. 12
-.29
.67
Pre
TCHAS
.04
.03
-.23
.02
.22
.20
.14
Post
TCHAS
-.09
.03
-.32
-.20
.03
.31
.32


151
Cruikshank, W. M., & Paul, J. L. The psychological charac--
teristics of brain-injured children. In W. M. Cruikshank
(ed.), Psychology of Exceptional Children and Youth (3rd
ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971.
Curran, T. J. The influence of ecological fit on teachers'
expectations (Doctoral Dissertation, Pennsylvania State
University, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International,
1977, 38, 701-A. (University Microfilms No. 77-17682).
Data, L., Schaefer, E., & Davis, M. Sex and scholastic apti
tude as variables in teachers' ratings of the adjustment
and classroom behavior of Negro and other seventh grade
students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1968, 59,
94-101.
Dole, W., Honack, G., & Refer, E. Teachers' perceptions: Do
they make a difference? Journal of Assessment for the
Study of Perception, 1970, 7_, 21-30.
Doyal, G. T., & Forsyth, R. A. The relationship between teacher
and student anxiety levels. Psychology in the Schools,
1973, Jj3, 231-233.
Edelfelt, R. A. Inservice education of teachers: Priority
for the next decade. Journal of Teacher Education,
1974, 25(3), 250-252.
Effron, R. E., & Effron, H. Y. Measurement of attitudes to
ward the retarded and an application with educators.
American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1967, ]2_, 100-107.
Fuller, F. F. Concerns of teachers: A developmental concep
tualization. American Educational Research Journal,
1969, 6(2), 207-226.
Fuller, F. F. A conceptual framework for a personalized
teacher education program. Theory into Practice, 1974,
13, 112-122.
Fuller, F. F., Parsons, J. S., & Watkins, J. E. Concerns of
Teachers: Research and Reconceptualization. Paper pre
sented at the meeting of the American Educational Re
search Association, 1974. (ERIC Document Reproduction
Service No. ED 091 439).
Games, P. A., Gray, S., Herron, W. L., & Pitz, G. F. Analysis
of Variance with Repeated Measures Main Program. Uni-
versity Park Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State Uni
versity Computer Center, 1974.
Gickling, E. E-, & Theobald, J. T. Mainstreaming's affect or
effect. Journal of Special Education. 1975, 2, 317-328.


CHAPTER 4
RESULTS
To address the question of the extent to which anxiety
level of teachers, teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming
and teachers' knowledge regarding ID/PP were influenced by
participation in inservice training, data were subjected to
a two factor mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures.
The extent of the relationship between teacher anxiety,
teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming and knowledge re
garding ID/PP was evaluated through an analysis of product
moment correlations between variables and the prediction
of scores on the dependent variables through multiple re
gression procedures. Each procedure is discussed separately.
Analysis of Variance
The results from the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
(ATMS), the Teaching Anxiety Scale (TCHAS), and the informal
diagnosis and prescriptive programming (ID/PP) knowledge test
were analyzed by a mixed analysis of variance with repeated
measures. Each dependent variable was analyzed separately
across the three groups and two occasions (e.g., pretest and
posttest). In addition, the three factors from the ATMS,
General Mainstreaming, Learning Capabilities and Traditional
Learning Disabilities, were analyzed separately. Tables 7
to 12 contain the means, standard deviations, and analysis
of variance summary table for each of the six scores.
73


106
knowledge about informal diagnosis and prescrip
tive programming.
2. Inservice training in informal diagnosis and pre
scriptive programming does not affect teacher an
xiety levels as measured by the Teaching Anxiety
Scale.
3. The effects of inservice training in informal diag
nosis and prescriptive programming on teachers'
attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped students
are questionable.
4. Teacher attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped
students are not significantly related to teacher
anxiety levels or knowledge regarding informal diag
nosis and prescriptive programming.
5- Teacher anxiety levels are not significantly re
lated to knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and
prescriptive programming.
Implications for Inservice Teacher Education
Several implications for inservice teacher education
can be made from the results of this investigation and the
accompanying literature review. One implication is that
stages of concerns about the specific topic of the training
should be assessed prior to conducting inservice training.
This would avoid situations such as teachers with concerns
dealing with their impact on students receiving training de
signed to address concerns about the task of teaching itself.


82
Table 13
Comparison of Simple Means Using
Scheffe's Procedure
Comparison
F
Statistic
Lower Limit
of
Confidence
Interval
Upper Limit
of
Confidence
Interval
PRETEST
Elem.-Control
1 .08*
.62
2.78
Sec.-Control
2.31*
1.18
5.80
Elem.-Sec.
A.81
-3.02
6.60
POSTTEST
Elem.-Control
7.81*
4.27
20.09
Sec.-Control
4.10*
3.32
11.52
Elem.-Sec.
2.98*
1.78
7-74
PRETEST-POSTTEST
Elementary
b-
t-
C\J
10.27
15.81
Secondary
.11*
.73
.95
Control
1.91*
8.16
11.98
*significant at .05 level.


2
in regard for the students described in the fictitious re
ports. Results of this study suggest that a teacher's
tolerance for the behaviors the mainstreaming candidate demon
strated had a significant effect on their expectations. It
was also found that years of teaching experience, courses
completed in special education and previous contact with
handicapped students were not good predictors of a teacher's
expectations for mainstreaming candidates.
Several other studies have investigated factors which
influence the teacher-student relationship and support the
concept of a teacher expectancy phenomenon. Becker (1952),
Mackler (1969), and Rist (1970) have established the pre
judicial effects of social class on teacher expectancies.
Coates (1972), Data, Schaefer and Davis (1968), and Rubovits
and Moehr (1973) have studied the negative effects of race
on teacher expectancies. Adams and Cohen (1974) and Algozzine
(1976) have confirmed that perceived facial attractiveness
influences teacher expectancies.
The research in this section supports the concept that
teachers are influenced by the expectancies and attitudes
they have regarding the students they teach. Negative atti
tudes and expectations have a detrimental effect on the
teacher-student relationship. In addition, negative atti
tudes of educators toward mainstreaming handicapped students
may cause a self-fulfilling prophecy phenomenon to occur.


131
#
Years
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
f
Elementary
Group
1
f f
Secondary Control
Group Group
f
Total
1
1


116
15. A child is asked to spell orally the word "house".
He does so incorrectly. Which is the first systematic
modification of that task you would make?
a. Give the child an incomplete sentence to read.
Structure it so the word required to complete it
is "house". Ask the child to read the sentence and
complete it by writing in the missing word.
b. Ask the child to write the word "house" instead of
spelling it orally.
c. Show the child a picture of a house and ask him
to orally spell the word that correctly names the
picture.
d. Give the child a sentence with "house" in it and
ask him to point to the word "house".
16. Write a behavioral objective. Include in it three
components. (3 points)
17- Task Analysis directs one's attention primarily to:
a. the child.
b. the objective.
c. the teacher.
d. the environment.
18. Which of the following is not a step in Error Pattern
Analysis?
a. Identify the errors.
b. Describe the errors.
c. Task analyze the errors.
d. Write a tentative conclusion.


REFERENCE NOTES
1. McAdams, M. Informal Diagnosis and Prescriptive Pro
gramming Summer Workshop and Practicum 1980: An Evalua
tion Report. Salina, Kansas. Area Educational Resource
Center, 1981.
2. Morsink, C. Personal communication, March, 1981.
148


75
Table 8
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for -
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
Pretest
Posttest
Elementary
X = 51-03
X = 47.24
S = 10.63
S = 13.17
Secondary
I = 51.04
57 = 50.07
S = 9.35
S z 11.60
Control
X = 54.37
X = 52.84
S = 12.09
S = 12.05
Source
Between Subjects
Group
Error
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
Group X Pretest/Posttest
Error
MS df F PROB.
231.29 2
204.67 73
181.29 1
31.24 2
59.17 73
1.13 .33
3.06 .08
.53 .59
Note: Maximum possible score is 90.


68
choice. However, of the 35 teachers who completed the pre
test, only 19 completed the posttest.
Selection and the selection interactions may be con
sidered threats to this study. The elementary and secondary
teachers who received the training were volunteers. Control
group members were selected at random from a list of teachers
in the educational cooperative. However, those that re
sponded could be considered volunteers also, in that they
chose whether to participate or not.
Sources of threats to external validity are also raised
by Campbell and Stanley (1963). The threat of interaction
of testing and treatment to the external validity of this
study is viable since groups may have only been effected by
the treatment because they completed the pretest. Inter
action of selection and treatment poses a threat to the
generalizability of these results. Effects of the treatment
may well be specific to teachers who volunteer to partici
pate in inservice training activities.
The threat to external validity represented by reactive
arrangements may be present. Participants were informed
that the test information was to help the school district
evaluate its inservice training program.
Data Collection
There were four sections to the questionnaire: (a) the
Teaching Anxiety Scale (TCHAS), (b) the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS), (c) the ID/PP knowledge test,
and (d) the demographic page. The questionnaire was assembled


60
Learning Capability, General Mainstreaming, and Traditional
Learning Disabilities, became apparent from the analysis of
each sample. Cronback alpha reliability coefficients for
the total scale were .89 and .88 for the two samples; for
the factors the coefficients ranged from .76 to .84. Pearson
correlation coefficients between individual factors and total
scale scores ranged from .81 to .86. Factor inter-correlations
ranged from .42 to .55 (Berryman & Neal, 1980).
Anxiety
Anxiety of regular teachers was measured by the Teaching
Anxiety Scale (TCHAS see Appendix C). TheTCHAS," . was
designed to provide a tool for measuring anxiety specific
to the task of teaching" (Parsons, 1973, p. 1). The TCHAS con
tains 29 self-report statements about teacher reactions to
teaching. The respondents indicate emotional responses to
a variety of different situations related to teaching and
attitudes toward teaching as a profession. A 1-5 choice op
tion for each item ranges from low agreement (never) to high
agreement (always). Approximately half of the items were
negatively worded to off-set the effects of response acqui
escence .
The alpha coefficients of internal consistency for the
TCHAS range from .87 to .94. The test-retest reliability
correlation for this 29-item instrument was established over
intervals from one day to two months. The Pearson product
moment correlations ranged from .83 to .95.


1 14
Informal Diagnosis and Prescriptive
Programming Knowledge Test
1. A procedure(s) that does not require information about
a child.
a. Task Analysis
b. Error Pattern Analysis
c. Prescriptive Programming
d. a and c
2. A procedure(s) that could be useful as a diagnostic
tool.
a. Task Analysis
b. Error Pattern Analysis
c. Prescriptive Programming
d. a and b
3. Which of the following is true?
a. Task Analysis is a standardized diagnostic procedure
that yields valid diagnostic information.
b. Error Pattern Analysis is a standardized diagnostic
procedure that yields valid diagnostic information.
c. Error Pattern Analysis tries to control for all pos
sible sources of error.
d. Task Analysis and Error Pattern Analysis are informal
diagnostic procedures which do not guarantee validity
4. List four principles to consider when evaluating a
material to see if its characteristics match a child's
learning characteristics. (4 points)
5.A reason(s) for using Error Pattern Analysis is:
a. to become more familiar with a child's strengths
and weaknesses.
b. to ascertain points at which consistent errors are
made.
c. to try to isolate skills needing remediation.
d. all of the above



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PAGE 172

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PAGE 174

81,9(5 6,7 < A


WALT MICKLER. Coordinator
AREA EDUCATIONAL
DEA OELLIEN, Resource Specialist
RESOURCE CENTER
SALINA CENTER 3023 CANTERBURV DRIVE
PHONE 1913)823 .263 SALINA. KANSAS 8.01
June 15, 1981
Dear Teacher:
Recently you received a letter asking you to help us eva
luate our inservice training program. As of yet we have not
received a response from you.
We know what it's like to have many demands on your tine.
Remember we are offering an incentive for your help. If you com
plete the enclosed questionnaire and the one that will be sent
to you the last week in June, you will be eligible for a drawing
to receive $50 worth of informational or instructional materials
of your choice. If the questionnaire takes you 30 minutes to
complete, you may be earning $50 an hour. That's pretty good
pay!
More importantly; however, your help is needed to effectively
evaluate our training program. Although you have not received
the training, we need your response. It is important for us to
make a comparison between teachers who have taken the training and
those who have not.
Won't you please take the time to help us by completing and
mailing the enclosed questionnaire? Thank you for your time.
Sincerely,
Walt Mickler, Coordinator
Martha McAdams, Graduate Student
WM/MM/mb
PROVIDING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES FOR CENTRAL KANSAS
PROFESSIONAL STAFF DEVELOPMENT
ASSESS PROFESSIONAL NEEOS LOCATE t LINK RESOURCES PROVIDE SERVICES
A1ILDIC-U.3 D. II
TwinvAurr usd.no
OISWORTH-U.SD. .JIT LORJIAJNE-U S.D. .JU
GEORGE W.AitOTT.SUTT. CCIC LINTON. SUIT.
H DUNG TON-, u.S D .IT MINNEAPOLIS.US D. IJJ
RURAL VISTA-.U
143


30
mentioned in less than four articles, were eliminated. As
a result, a list of 16 statements of best practice was obtained
The statements generated are listed in Table 1. Table 2 in
dicates which authors endorsed which best practice statements.
These articles used several techniques to generate
recommendations and best practice statements. Two articles
were based on research reviews, four on literature reviews
and three on survey research. Two lists were the result of
group opinions and two were from opinion articles based on
models or previous literature reviews. Tables 3 and 4 pro
vide a list of the studies, procedures the authors used to
arrive at the best practice endorsement, the product the
authors generated, criticisms of the article and best prac
tices endorsed. For a listing of the criticisms of this
literature, see Table 5.
Best Practice Statements
Effective inservice education is usually school-based
rather than college-based. This practice was mentioned in
eight of the thirteen selections reviewed (Andrews, 1980,
Group I; Brimm & Tollett, 1974; Hutson, 1979; Johnson, 1975;
Lawrence, -1974; Siantz, in press; Texas Education Agency,
1978; Zigarmi, Betz & Jensen, 1977). In 1974, Lawrence con
ducted a comprehensive review of research related to inser
vice education of teachers. In his review of 97 studies,
he found that school-based inservice programs concerned with
complex teacher behaviors tended to have greater success than
college-based programs dealing with complex behaviors. He


107
Administrators and teacher trainers attempting to imple
ment inservice programs should look carefully at the goals
of the inservice program. If the goal of the program is to
increase knowledge, then a workshop or course designed to
disseminate information should be implemented and evaluated
along the knowledge dimension alone. If the goal of the in-
service program is to increase knowledge and improve skills
or teach new skills, then a workshop designed to disseminate
information and allow opportunities to practice skills should
be implemented and evaluated along the knowledge and skill
dimensions. If the goal of the program is to improve atti
tudes, then a workshop designed to increase knowledge is not
enough. Teachers should have opportunities to have contact
with handicapped persons. Specific strategies addressing
attitudes may also need to be incorporated in the training
design. This type of program should be evaluated through be
havioral changes reflecting changes in attitudes.
Inservice training in the past has not been designed
based on best practice statements. Traditionally, someone
decides that the days designated for inservice should be
scheduled and general plans are made. Inservice training
should be designed to incorporate as many of the identified
best practice statements as possible. Administrators should
be made aware of the fact that effective inservice doesn't
just happen. For a program to be effective, it should be
specifically designed with as many concepts from the best
practice statements as feasible incorporated into it.


Table 4
Survey Research, Group Opinions & Opinions
Author
Subjects
Procedures
Results
Criticisms
Best Practices
Andrews
1980
Group I
32 classroom
teachers,K-6
Group consen
sus of parti
cipants on
recommenda
tions for
effective in-
service ; Af -
ter 2 yrs.
school-based
inservice
with college
consultants
List of recom
mendations for
effective
inservice
Doesn't spec- -
ify procedures
to arrive at
conclusions(1)
Doesn't spec
ify group
applies to (2)
1, 5, 7, 9, 10
Andrews,
1980
Group 2
College con
sultants ,
unknown
number
Group consen
sus of college
consultants
on recommen
dations for
inservice;
after 2 yr.
school-based
inservice
with
college
consultants
List of
recommenda
tions
Doesn't spec
ify procedures
(1); Doesn't
specify group
applies to (2)
7, 11, 12
Brimm &
Tollett
1974
646 teachers
from TN, stra
tified pro-
portial sam
ple to include
2% of
teachers
Survey research
65% return rate
34 item scale
questionnaire
on attitudes
toward in-
service
Substantiated
notion that
inservice is
poorly planned
inadequately
executed &
lacks proper
evaluation
procedures
Doesn't spec
ify group
applies to
(2)
1. 2, 3, 7, 9,
12, 14


9
8. Task Analysis of Materials
9. Matching Material Characteristics with Learner
Characteristics
10. Developing an Individual Educational Plan.
For purposes of this study, XD/PP training includes
a three-week practicum experience consisting of
working individually with handicapped students.
8. Inservice EducationAll activities engaged in by
the professional personnel during their service and
designed to contribute to improvement on the job
(Hass,. 1957).
9. StressA positive or negative reaction occurring
when there is a substantial perceived or real im
balance between environmental demand and the re
sponse capability of the individual (Selye, 1956).
Delimitations
This investigation included 76 regular classroom teachers
from a rural environment in the midwestern United States.
All teachers were from schools which belonged to a rural edu
cational cooperative.
In this study, one type of inservice training was used.
This activity-based inservice training included 40 hours of
workshop experience and a three-week practicum. The workshop
included lectures, demonstrations and readings, individual,
small and large group activities and offered "hands-on"
experience.


24
Gottlieb, Semmel and Veldman (1978) correlated teachers'
perceptions of 324 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded
childrens' academic competence and misbehavior with peers'
sociometric ratings. To obtain peers' sociometric ratings,
a sociometric scale was administered to entire classes of
students while the mainstreamed student was present. Peer
perceptions of behavior were obtained through a questionnaire
The Teacher Rating Scale was used to obtain teachers' per
ceptions of the mainstreamed student's behavior. Results of
this study indicated that teachers' perceptions of the main
streamed student correlated significantly with peers socio
metric responses. The amount of contact teachers and peers
had with the retarded student did not relate significantly
with social status. The authors concluded that a powerful
influence over the social status of the retarded children in
the regular classroom is the teachers' perceptions.
Curran (1977) investigated the influence of teachers'
tolerance for behaviors which characterize emotionally dis
turbed students on their expectations for mainstreaming can
didates who demonstrated these behaviors. A five-part
questionnaire was completed by 289 subjects. The question
naire assessed demographic characteristics, the teacher's
tolerance for behaviors, and experiential background. A
fictitious psychological report which described a child demon
strating either a conduct disorder or a personality problem
was included. The final part of the questionnaire was the
Mainstreaming Expectancy Scale which the teacher completed


12
teachers were not prepared to benefit from the courses being
taught. As she phrased it, "education courses may well be
answering quite well questions students are not asking"
(Fuller, 1969, p. 208).
Fuller (1969) piloted her research with two studies in
volving student teachers in group counseling sessions. The
first study involved six student teachers who met two hours
each week for eleven weeks with a counseling psychologist.
The following semester, eight students were co-counseled by
two counseling psychologists. The counseling sessions were
taped and then typescripts were made from the recordings.
Two judges categorized the statements made into seven cate
gories. Fuller concluded from the results that student
teachers were concerned mostly with themselves during the
first part of their experience. Toward the end of their stu
dent teaching; however, they began to shift to be more con
cerned with pupils.
In the second study, 29 student teachers were asked at
two-week intervals to write, "what you are concerned about
now?" (Fuller, 1969, P- 214). All of the subjects expressed
concerns about self. None of the subjects were concerned
primarily with what pupils were learning.
In a large (N=736), two-phase study of strain in teaching
and emotional problems of teachers in England, Gabriel (as
cited in Fuller, 1969) surveyed experienced and inexperienced
teachers. He compared their problems and satisfactions.
Inexperienced teachers saw criticism from superiors and


19
studies involved preservice teachers, they lend support to
the supposition that teacher anxiety does affect students.
Teacher Attitudes
According to Haring (1957), "the attitudes and under
standings that teachers have about exceptional children in
fluence the intellectual, social and emotional development
of these children" (p. 103). In recent years, much research
has been conducted to investigate the effects teachers' atti
tudes and subsequent expectations have on teacher-student
interactions, classroom climate, and student achievement.
Teacher Expectancies
In 1931, W. I. Thomas (cited in Palardy, 1969) wrote,
"if men define . situations as real, they are real in their
consequencies" (p. 370). This idea is what has become known
as the self-fulfilling prophecy. The self-fulfilling pro
phecy is based on two assumptions. First, that when you make
a definition about a situation, you are also making a prophecy
about it. Second, that making a prophecy about a situation
creates the conditions through which the prophecy is realized
(Palardy, 1969). There is evidence that the self-fulfilling
prophecy phenomenon may be occurring in educational settings.
Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) pioneered the research on
the effects of teacher expectancies. A randomly selected
group of elementary students were described to their 18
teachers as likely to show marked intelligence gains during
the school year. An intelligence test was given at the be
ginning, middle and end of the school year to the experimental


70
four sections of the questionnaire and Social Security num
bers were the same as used with the experimental group.
As an incentive for control group members to complete
and return the questionnaire, subjects who participated
were eligible for a drawing for $50 worth of informational
or instructional materials of their choice. Each question
naire was numbered so records of respondents could be kept.
After 14 days, a follow-up letter was sent to non
respondents (see Appendix I). A copy of the questionnaire
and a stamped, self-addressed return envelope were enclosed.
A total of 37 pretests were completed and returned. One
subject was dropped from the study because they had pre
viously completed the workshop and practicum. Another sub
ject was eliminated because they requested not to receive
the posttest.
On the last day of the practicum, the posttests were
mailed to the control group with a cover letter (see Appen
dix J) and a stamped, self-addressed return envelope. After
14 days a follow-up letter was sent to non-respondents (see
Appendix K). A copy of the questionnaire and a stamped,
self-addressed return envelope were enclosed. A total of
23 posttests were completed and returned. Three subjects
were eliminated because they failed to complete all sec
tions of the questionnaire. One subject was eliminated be
cause they were an administrator rather than a regular edu
cation teacher. Thus, the number of control group members
was 19.


102
Bensky et al. found that implementation of P. L. 94-142 has
placed additional stress on classroom teachers. Fuller,
Parsons & Watkins (1974) proposed that under stress condi
tions, teachers' concerns may revert back to self or survival
concerns. Perhaps this inservice training was not effective
in reducing teacher anxiety because it addressed a higher
level of concerns than the teachers actually possessed.
An alternate explanation is that the Teaching Anxiety
Scale (TCHAS) was not sensitive to changes that did occur in
teachers' anxiety levels. Although the TCHAS has been shown
to assess teaching anxiety specifically and not general
levels of anxiety, it was not designed to specifically mea
sure anxiety toward teaching handicapped students. Perhaps
teachers' general teaching anxiety level was not reduced but
they may feel less anxious about working with the handicapped.
Another explanation is offered by Coates and Thoresen (1976).
They suggest that one reason anxiety studies in the past
haven't shown changed in teacher anxiety is that they use
paper and pencil tests rather than behavioral data.
The results of this study indicate that teachers' atti
tudes toward mainstreaming handicapped students were not in
fluenced by participation in the inservice training. Two
logical deductions can be made from this finding. One is
that the attitudes of the teachers were not changed. The
second is that the instrument used, the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale (ATMS), did not measure changes that did
occur.


100
cuts may lead to placement of even more handicapped children
into the mainstream of education (Morsink, Note 2). With
less money available to provide inservice education plus the
additional needs for it due to budget cuts, the need for
professionals to look for effective training strategies will
become even more apparent. In addition, inservice training
which deals with more than one problem will be needed.
"Innovations designed specifically for inservice
training on the basis of research on teaching and learning
have rarely been considered or implemented" (Corono & Clark, 1978,
p. 168). An investigation which dealt with the effectiveness
of inservice training to teach skills needed to teach handi
capped children in the regular classroom seemed timely.
Additionally, the significance of this study increased when the
effects of training on two variables known to influence teacher
effectiveness, teacher attitude and teacher anxiety were in
vestigated .
Discussion
There were four major hypotheses tested in this study.
The first hypothesis addressed differences in subjects' an
xiety level, attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped stu
dents or knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and prescrip
tive programming as a result of participation in inservice
training.
The null hypothesis was accepted for teacher anxiety
level and attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped students
but not for knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and


WALT MICKLER, Coordir
AREA EDUCATIONAL
SAUNCENTER 303 CANTERBURY DRIVE
DEA OELLIEN. Resource Specialist
RESOURCE CENTER
PHONE ¡0131 023-7263 SAUNA KANSAS 6 T401
June 1, 1931
Dear Teacher:
The Area Educational Resource Center and the Central Kansas
Cooperative are attempting to evaluate the effectiveness of their
inservice training program. In order to determine its effective
ness, a graduate student from the University of Florida is asking
participants in the training program and teachers who have not
received the training to complete questionnaires.
Your name has been selected at random from teachers in Salina
to help in this evaluation attempt. Enclosed you will find a copy
of a questionnaire which has three parts. We ask that you com
plete this questionnaire and return it in the enclosed envelope by
June 12th. You will receive a second copy of the questionnaire
the last week in June and will be asked to complete that also and
return it to us by July 10th. The questionnaire takes approximately
30 minutes to complete. All information will be treated confiden
tially. No one in Salina will see your answers.
We realize that your time is important and would like to
offer an incentive for your taking the time to help us. If you
complete both questionnaires and mail them on time, you will be
eligible for a drawing to receive $50 worth of informational or
instructional materials of your choice.
In order for us to do an effective job of evaluating our pro
gram, it is important that we have your cooperation. Please take
the time to complete the questionnaire and return it to us. You
might be the winner of the drawing! Your cooperation will be
greatly appreciated.
Sincerely,
Walt Mickler, Coordinator
Martha McAdams, Graduate Student
WM/MM/mb
PROVIDING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES FOR CENTRAL KANSAS
PROFESSIONAL STAFF DEVELOPMENT
ASSESS PROFESSIONAL NEEDS LOCATE t LINK RESOURCES PROVI0E SERVICES
141


Student's Name
Annual Goal Priority # ( )
Short Term Objectives
(Written in measurable
terms)
Name & Position
of Person
Responsible
Hours
Per
Week
Implemen
tation
Date
Completion
Date
Special Methods
and/or
Materials
Comments
139


83
In comparing the pretest and posttest scores for each
group, it was found that the elementary and secondary groups
scored significantly higher on the posttest than on the pre
test. The control group scores on the posttest (X = 14.79)
were significantly lower than on the pretest (X = 15-63).
A review of the results from the analysis of variance
indicates that anxiety level of teachers and teachers' atti
tudes toward mainstreaming handicapped students as measured
by the dependent variables were not significantly influenced
by participation in inservice training. However, teachers'
knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming was significantly influenced by participation in
inservice training. Teachers who participated in the training
program significantly increased their knowledge about informal
diagnosis and prescriptive programming.
Correlation Coefficients
Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were
computed between demographic data and the pretest and post
test scores on the three dependent variables. The results
of this analysis for all three groups are presented in Table
14. The same analysis was repeated for each group separately.
The results of these analyses are presented in Tables 15 to
17.
When interpreting the magnitude of correlation coeffi
cients, Borg and Gall (1979) suggest .65 as the criterion
for a close relationship. They suggest that a very close
relationship between two variables is indicated by a


126
Please put the last 4 digits of your SS #
Almost Almost
Never Infrequently Occasionally Frequently Always
12 3 4 5
12345 28. I am certain that my own personal "hang-ups"
do not hinder my teaching effectiveness.
12345 29. I'm uncertain whether I can tell the dif
ference between really seriously disturbed
students and those who are merely "goofing
off" in class.
Reprinted by permission of the author.
Source: Parsons, J. S., Assessment of Anxiety Using the
Teaching Anxiety Scale: Hanual and Hesearch Report. Paper
presented at the meeting of the American Educational Re
search Association, 1973. (ERIC Document Reproduction Ser
vice No. ED063 257).


103
Research by Treese (1971) supports the explanation that
teacher attitudes were not changed by the inservice training.
He found that a microteaching experience did not affect the
teaching attitudes of inservice teachers.
One cause for there being no attitudinal changes may
be that the practicum experience focused on working with stu
dents individually. In a mainstreaming situation, class-
room teachers spend most of the time working in a group setting
rather than individually. Teachers may have seen that when
working with an individual student they could apply the know
ledge and skills learned in the training, but it may not
appear practical in a classroom situation. Therefore, their
attitudes toward mainstreaming did not improve.
Information from two informal sources would suggest
that attitudinal changes did occur and that the ATMS was not
sensitive to them. Self-reports of subjects to the training
staff indicated that they had changed their attitudes as a
result of the training experience.
In addition, the university which offered graduate
credit for participation in the training had the subjects
complete a course evaluation form. Subjects were asked to
rate the course on a five point Likert scale for several vari
ables. One was considered low and five was considered high
on the scale. When asked to rate whether the course had im
proved attitudes, 92% rated that their attitude improvement
was high (i.e., 4 or 5 on the scale). The mean rating for
that item was 4.6.


16
as it is applied to preservice teachers. Research specific
to inservice training should be designed and its results
utilized to enhance inservice training practices. In general,
the goal of inservice education is to improve or change
teachers' attitudes, knowledge, skills or behaviors to en
hance teacher effectiveness. There are many attributes which
affect inservice teachers. Two of these attributes are
teacher anxiety and teacher attitudes.
Teacher Anxiety
Several studies have investigated the effects of inser
vice teachers' anxiety. In 1973, Doyal and Forsyth investi
gated the relationship between teacher and student anxiety
levels. The subjects were 234 third grade students and their
10 teachers. The students' scores on the Test Anxiety Scale
for Children fSarason, Lighthall, Davidson, Waite & Ruebush,
1960) were correlated with the teachers' scores on the Mani
fest Anxiety Scale (Taylor, 1953). There was a positive
correlation (r =.65) between teacher anxiety and the students'
test anxiety. These results suggest that the anxiety level
of teachers does influence the test anxiety level of their
students.
Moskowitz and Hayman (1974) studied first-year, typical
and "best" teachers in three junior high schools. The "best"
teachers were selected by the students. "Best" was defined
as, . liked the teacher a lot and you learned a lot from
this teacher" (Moskowitz & Hayman, 1974, p. 224). The Flint
interaction analysis system (Moskowitz, 1967) and anecdotal


21
Prior to administering an intelligence test, Dole, Honack
and Refer (1970) had teachers estimate their students' in
telligence quotients. Boys' intelligence quotients were sys
tematically under estimated, while girls' intelligence quo
tients were systematically over estimated. At the end of
the school year, reading achievement scores indicated that
students whose intelligence quotients had been over estimated
had achieved more than one would predict based on their true
intelligence quotients. The reading scores for students whose
intelligence quotient had been under estimated were lower
than would be predicted based on their true intelligence quo
tients. In addition, the students of teachers who tended
to under estimate intelligence scored lower on the reading
achievement test than students of teachers who tended to over
estimate intelligence.
Rowe (1969) investigated teacher expectancy effects on
wait time. She requested that twelve teachers identify the
top five and lowest five students in their classes. During
three science and three mathematics classes, the wait time
after teacher questions was sampled. The teachers allowed
significantly less wait time for the lowest students. The
less able students had to respond more quickly than more
able students or lose their opportunity to answer the question.
Brophy and Good (1970) investigated the effects teacher
expectancies have on student-teacher interactions. The study
occurred in a school where the classes were formed by grouping
for homogeneity on readiness and achievement scores. Four


154
Meyen, E. L. Exceptional Children and Youth: An Introduc
tion Denver: Love Publishing Co., 1978.
Midwest Regional Resource Center. Informal Diagnosis and
Prescriptive Programming: A Workshop. Des Moines, Iowa
Drake University, 1975 (revisions in 1976, 1978, 1979)-
Miller, W. Dealing with Stress: A Challenge for Educators.
Bloomington, Indiana: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foun
dation, 1979- (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
ED 178 522).
Moore, J., & Fine, M. J. Regular and special class teachers'
perceptions of normal and exceptional children and their
attitudes toward mainstreaming. Psychology in the
Schools, 1978, 15, 253-259-
Moskowitz, G. The Flint System. In A. Simon (ed.), Mirrors
for Behavior: An Anthology of Classroom Observations
Instruments. Philadelphia, PA: Research for Better
Schools, 1967.
Moskowitz, G., & Hayman, J. L. Interaction patterns of first
year, typical and "best" teachers in inncer-city schools
The Journal of Teacher Education, 1974, 6(7, 224-230.
National Council of States on Inservice Education. An
Annotated Bibliography on Inservice Education. Syra
cuse: Syracuse University, 1976.
Palardy, J. M. What teachers believeWhat children achieve.
Elementary School Journal, 1969, 6£, 370-374.
Parsons, J. S. Assessment of Anxiety Using the Teaching
Anxiety Scale: Manual and Research Report. Paper
presented at the meeting of the American Educational
Research Association, 1973. (ERIC Document Reproduc
tion Service No. ED 063 257).
Peale, N. 0. The Power of Positive Thinking. Englewood
Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1952.
Petrusick, M. M. Some relationships between anxiety and the
classroom behavior of student teachers (Doctoral disser
tation, University of Washington, 1966). Dissertation
Abstracts, 1966, 27, 1691A. (University Microfilms No.
66-12038).
Reynolds, W. M., & Greco, V. T. The reliability and validity
of a scale for measuring teachers' attitudes towards
mainstreaming. Educational and Psychological Measure
ment, 1980, 40, 463-469.


39
and emphasize active participation. Evaluation of inservice
was included in their discussion. In Brimm and Tollett's
(1974) survey, 96% of the respondents agreed to a statement
about development of evaluation for inservice programs.
Individualized programs are usually more effective than
those using the same activities for the whole group. This
practice was mentioned in seven of the thirteen selections
reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979; Brimm & Tollett, 1974;
Johnson, 1975; Lawrence, 1974; Lippett & Fox, 1971; Texas
Education Agency, 1978; Zigarmi et al., 1977). Lawrence
(1974) found that inservice education programs that have
differentiated training experiences for different teachers
are more likely to accomplish their objectives than are pro
grams that have common activities for all participants. Of
the 97 studies he reviewed, 43 used an individualized approach.
Of those, 80% had significantly positive outcomes, 10% showed
no significant differences and 10% had mixed results. Of the
54 studies which used common activities, 68% had significant
positive outcomes, 24% showed no significant differences
and 8% had mixed results.
Teachers apparently agree with the concept of individu
alization of inservice. In Brimm and Tollett's (1974) sur
vey of teachers, 94% indicated agreement with the statement
that inservice programs must include activities which allow
for the different interests which exist among individual
teachers.


13
Student's Name
4.Are there vision, hearing, speech, or health problems?
5.Can he do the work expected of his peers? (NOTE: If No,
this is a programming problem which will involve careful
arrangement of antecedent events.)
6.Is he motivated to the work? (NOTE: If No, this is a
programming problem which will involve careful attention
to consequent events).
7.What skill strengths and interests can be used in pro
gramming?
8.What materials and methods of instruction can be used in
programming?
9.Are there specific forms of communication which are most
likely to help this child?
-Receiving information
-Expressing himself


4 1
behavior for a future time. This practice was mentioned in
five of the thirteen selections reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell,
1979; Andrews, 1980; Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Lawrence,
1974; Texas Education Agency, 1978). Continuous and ongoing
feedback to participants appears to be an essential part of
effective inservice (Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Allshouse &
Ondell, 1979). Looking at the studies reviewed by Lawrence
(1974), 61 included trial and feedback. Of these, 84% showed
significant positive outcomes, 10% showed no significant
differences and 6% indicated mixed results. In 36 of the
studies, teachers were expected to store ideas and behaviors
for a future time and no feedback was provided. Fifty-five
percent of these studies showed significant positive out
comes, 31% showed no significant differences, 14% showed
mixed results.
Activities which are a general effort of the school
rather than "single-shot" programs are more effective. This
practice was mentioned in four of the thirteen selections
reviewed (Hutson, 1979; Lawrence, 1974; Siantz, in press;
Texas Education Agency, 1978). In his review, Lawrence (1974)
found that inservice activities which are linked to a general
effort of the school (programmatic) are more effective than
"single-shot" programs. Eighteen of the programs reviewed
used a programmatic approach94% were successful and 6% had
mixed results. Of the 79 studies which used a "single-shot"
approach68% had positive outcomes, 22% had no significant
differences and 10% reported mixed results.


125
Please put the last 4 digits of your SS #
Almost Almost
Never Infrequently Occasionally Frequently Always
1
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5
13. I feel confident about my ability to impro
vise in the classroom.
14. I feel other teachers think I'm very com
petent .
15. I feel panicky when a student asks me a
question I can't answer.
16. I feel anxious because I don't know yet
whether I really want to be a teacher.
17. I feel better prepared for teaching than
other teachers in my school.
18. Lack of rapport with my students is one of
my biggest worries.
19. I would feel anxious if the principal in
formed me he was coming to my class to ob
serve .
20. I find it easy to speak up in the staff room.
21. I worry about being able to keep the students
interested in what I teach them.
22. I find it easy to admit to the class that
I don't know the answer to a question a stu
dent asks.
23. Deciding how to present information in the
classroom makes me feel uncertain.
1 2 3 4 5 24. I feel I have good recall of the things I
know when I am in front of the class.
12345 25. I feel I am as competent in the classroom as
other teachers in my school.
12345 26. I'm concerned about how to use my testing of
students as a useful indication of how ef
fectively I'm teaching them.
12345 27. I'm worried that differences in background
between my students and me prevent me from
teaching effectively.


159
Jr., on October 6, 1979. Their son, David, was born on
March 28, 1981. She has conducted over 500 hours of inser
vice training and is interested in continuing to teach
teachers.


10 A
One of the major components of this training was the
practicum experience where teachers actually applied the
knowledge and skills learned in the workshop setting in working
individually with students with learning problems. Allport's
(1954) theory of attitude formation would suggest that the
teachers' attitudes would improve after having contact with
handicapped students. Research by Effron and Effron (1967)>
Shotel et al. (1972), Haring (1956), and Wechsler, Suarez &
McFadden (1975) confirm the hypothesis that attitudes toward
the handicapped improved after contact with them. This lends
support the for explanation that there were changes in atti
tudes not depicted in the scores on the ATMS.
The second hypothesis tested in this study was that there
is no relationship between teacher attitudes toward main-
streaming handicapped students and teacher knowledge regarding
informal diagnosis and prescriptive programming; this hypo
thesis was accepted. An additional finding was that previous
credit hours completed in special education courses and years
of teaching experience were not good predictors of teacher
attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped students. Curran
(1977) also found that years of teaching experience and num
ber of special education courses completed were not good
predictors of teacher attitudes. Results of this study and
Curran's (1977) study both substantiate the conclusion Haring
(1957) made that knowledge alone was not sufficient to change
teacher attitudes.


105
Hypothesis three for this study addressed the relation
ship between teacher attitudes toward mainstreaming handi
capped students and teacher anxiety level. No relationship
was indicated between these variables. The author believed
that teachers who had negative attitudes toward mainstreaming
would also be more anxious. This belief was not confirmed.
One explanation may be that the Teaching Anxiety Scale does
not measure anxiety toward teaching the handicapped specifi
cally.
The fourth hypothesis tested in this study was there
is no relationship between teacher anxiety level and teacher
knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming. This hypothesis was accepted based on the results
of both the multiple regression procedures and correlations.
Knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming was not a good predictor of teacher anxiety. An
additional finding of this study was that years of teaching
experience was a good predictor of teacher anxiety. This
finding was supported by Parson's (1973) study where she
found that teaching anxiety decreases as teaching experience
increases. Number of credit hours completed in special edu
cation courses was also a good predictor of teacher anxiety.
Conclusions
Based on the results of this study, the following con
clusions can be drawn:
1. Xnservice training in informal diagnosis and pre
scriptive programming does improve teachers'


ir
Yea
O
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1
3
3
7
4
3
4
6
4
4
6
3
3
4
4
3
2
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
Frequency Distribution,
Years of Teaching Experience
f
Elementary
Group
1
2
2
2
3
3
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
f f
Secondary Control
Group Group
1
2
5
1
1
2
2
1
3
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
130


78
Table 11
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
Learning Capability Factor of
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
Pretest Posttest
Elementary X = 13.59 X = 12.38
S = 3.56 S = 3.79
Secondary 3? = 13.82 X = 13.14
S = 3.61 S = 4.03
Control X = 15.26 X = 14.37
S = 4.33 S = 3.95
Source
MS
df F
PROB.
Between Subjects
Group
39.47
2
1.81
.17
Error
21.87
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
33.16
1
4.25
.04
Group X Pretest/Posttest
1 .00
2
0.13
.88
Error
7.80
73
Note: Maximum possible score is 35.


Table 20
Prediction Equations and Summary of Regression Analysis for
ID/PP Knowledge Test, ATMS, TCHAS, and Credit Hours in Special Education Courses
Prediction Equation
df
F
P
r2
y
ID/PP
Knowledge
Test
= 25.40 1 Ox +
ATMS
. 04x -
TCHAS
. 08x
Hours
3
0.81
.50
.03
y
ATMS
= 45.03 .27x +
ID/PP
Knowledge
Test
20x -
TCHAS
. 11 X
Hours
3
1 .96
. 13
.08
ro
y
TCHAS
= 43.72 + .22x + .11x -
ATMS ID/PP
Knowledge
Test
-4 6x
Hours
3
1.93
.04
. 11


MULTIPLICATION WORKSHEET 1
247
2.
247
3.
545
x 25
x 801
x 247
1235
257
4877
4940
000
1800
(5175)
97400
1090000
(97647)
( 1096615
6175
197347
134615
247
5.
247
x 45
x 42
1245
49?
9880
9880
100125)
(15375"
11115
10374
The correct answers are written beneath the problem.


Table 18
Prediction Equations and Summary of Regression Analysis for
ID/PP Knowledge Test, ATMS, and TCHAS
Prediction
Equation
df
F
P
r2
y
ID/PP
Knowledge
Test
= 24.54 .10x +
ATMS
. 05x
TCHAS
2
1.06
.35
.03
y
ATMS
= 43.79 .26x +
ID/PP
Knowledge
Test
. 21x
TCHAS
2
2.84
.06
.07
vO
O
y
TCHAS
= 40.12 + .25x + .I4x
ATMS ID/PP
Knowledge
Test
2
2.08
.13
.05


15
To test Fuller's theory of phases of teacher concerns,
Fuller, Parsons and Watkins (1974) examined Teacher Concern
Statements (TCS) from 265 inservice and 994 preservice teachers.
The concerns expressed on the TCS were categorized into six
categories; three early concerns and three late concerns.
These categories were (a) concerns about role, (b) concerns
about adequacy, (c) concerns about being liked or liking,
(d) concerns about teaching, (e) concerns about pupil needs,
and (f) concerns about educational improvement. Content
analysis of the TCS revealed that preservice teachers were
more concerned about benefit to self and inservice teachers
were more concerned about benefits to pupils. Teachers tended
not to have both early and late concerns simultaneously.
Of the total sample, 75% had concerns in either the early or
late stages, while only 25% had concerns in both stages.
However, Fuller, Parsons, and Watkins believe on the basis
of their clinical observations that in stressful situations,
survival or self-concerns of teachers tend to increase.
Fuller (1974) used the results of her research (Fuller,
Parsons & Watkins, 1974) to refine her phrases of concerns
of teachers into three stages. She proposed that develop-
mentally, teachers move from stages of concern about self,
to concerns about the teaching task, and finally to concerns
about impact they have on pupils.
Based on Fuller's teacher concerns theory, it appears
reasonable to propose that research in teacher education in
general should not be applied to inservice teachers the same


APPENDIX A
ID/PP KNOWLEDGE TEST


Demographic Data
Please write your Social Security Number
1 Female Male
2. Age: 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69
3. Highest degree earned:
Associate Bachelor Masters Specialist _
Doctorate _
4. How many years (including this one) have you been teaching?
5. My role in my school is:
elementary classroom teacher grade(s)
secondary classroom teacher grade(s)
subject(s)
special education teacher
subject specialist (i.e., art, music, etc.) _
grade(s) subject(s)
administrator _
substitute teacher _
other (specify)
6. How many years have you been involved in mainstreaming
handicapped sutdents (including this year)?
Never 1 year 2 yrs. 3yrs. 4 yrs. 5yrs. +
7. Have you received formal training in mainstreaming
(workshops, courses)?
No yes Briefly describe:
8.How many credit hours have you completed in Special Edu
cation courses?
128


inservice training. A randomly selected control group, con
sisting of 9 elementary teachers and 10 secondary teachers,
did not participate in the training. In this pretest/post
test nonequivalent control group design, the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale, the Teaching Anxiety Scale and an ID/PP
knowledge test were dependent variables.
The results of this study indicated that the anxiety
level of teachers and the attitudes toward mainstreaming were
not significantly influenced by participation in inservice
training; however, differences in knowledge regarding informal
diagnosis and prescriptive programming were noted. No strong
correlations between teacher anxiety and teachers' attitudes
toward mainstreaming nor teacher anxiety and knowledge re
garding ID/PP nor teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming
and teachers' knowledge regarding ID/PP were indicated.
Similarly, scores on various measures were not good predictors
of each other. However, an analysis of years of teaching ex
perience and number of credit hours completed in special edu
cation courses indicated that they were good predictors of
teacher anxiety.
It was anticipated that the ID/PP training would have
impact upon teacher attitudes and anxiety as well as their
knowledge regarding ID/PP; this was not the case. Several
explanations for this outcome are discussed. Future research
in the area of inservice training addressing behavioral ap
proaches to measuring attitudinal changes and different
approaches to alleviate teacher anxiety would appear warranted
based on this research.
xii


31
Table 1
Best Practice Statements
1. Effective inservice is usually school-based rather
than college-based.
2. Evaluation should be built into inservice activities.
3. Individualized programs are usually more effective
than those using the same activities for the entire group.
4. Inservice should be activity-based.
5. Demonstrations, supervised practice and feedback are
more effective than having teachers store up ideas and
behavior for a future time.
6. Activities which are a general effort of the school
rather than "single-shot" programs are more effective.
7. Participants should help plan the goals and activi
ties of inservice training.
8. Rewards or reinforcements should be built-in to an in-
service program.
9. Participants should be able to relate learnings to
their back-home situation.
10. Inservice should be offered at convenient times for
the participants.
11. Trainers should be trained specifically in how to con
duct inservice training and inservice education in
general.
12. Administrators should be involved with the training
and fully support it.
13. Goals and objectives should be clear and specific.
14. Inservice should be planned in response to assessed
needs.
15.
Inservice should be directed at changing teachers'
behaviors not students' behaviors.
16. Inservice should be voluntary rather than mandatory.


80
The tests of interest here were whether there were any
interactions between group membership and pre-posttest
scores. There was a significant interaction between pre
posttest scores and group for the ID/PP knowledge test.
Figure 1 graphically displays this interaction. There were
no significant interactions for the Teaching.Anxiety Scale,
the total Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale or any of the
three factors of the ATMS.
Since the group x pre-posttest interaction was sig
nificant for the ID/PP knowledge test, simple effects were
studied using Scheffe's follow-up procedure with individual
variances and covariances as error estimates. Individual
variances and covariances were used in the follow-up analysis
since tests of the homogeneity of the variance-covariance
matrix and the assumption of homogeneous variances and corre
lations between repeated measures were significant. The re
sults of the Scheffe procedure are presented in Table 13.
An analysis of the results of this follow-up procedure
indicated that there were significant differences in the pre
test and posttest scores of the three groups. The control
group scored significantly higher (X = 15.63) on the pretest
than the secondary (X = 12.14) or elementary groups (X = 12.43).
The elementary and secondary groups were not significantly
different on the pretest.
On the posttest, however, the control group scored sig
nificantly lower (X = 14-79) than the secondary (X = 22.21)
or elementary groups (X = 14.79). The elementary group scored
significantly higher than the secondary group.


Teaching Questionnaire
Please put the last 4 digits of your SS # _
Your answers will be kept strictly confidential. Your pro
fessors and teaching supervisors will not have access to this
information.
Instructions: Please read each question carefully. Answer
every question, even if it seems vague to you or difficult
to answer. Circle only one number for each question. Be
sure the circle goes only around one number.
Use the following scale for all questions:
Almost
Never
1
12 3 4
12 3 4
Almost
Infrequently Occasionally Frequently Always
2 3 4 5
5 1.1 feel calm and collected when I think about
holding parent-teacher conferences.
5 2. If I have trouble answering a student's
questions, I find it difficult to concentrate
on questions that follow.
12345 3. I feel uncomfortable when I speak before a
group.
12345 4. I feel calm when I am preparing lessons.
12345 5. I'm worried whether I am a good teacher.
12345 6. I find teaching a satisfying profession.
12345 7. I would feel calm and collected if a stu
dent's parent observed in my classroom.
12345 8. I feel inferior to other teachers in my
school.
12345 9. I feel that students will follow my instruc
tions .
12345 10. I feel secure with regard to my ability to
keep a class under control.
12345 11. I'm less happy teaching than I thought I'd
be.
12345 12. I feel nervous when I am being observed by
my supervisor.
124


Individual Education Plan
Student's Name Sex: M F
Age Birth Date Grade
Parents or Guardian Address
EVALUATION PROFILE
Overall Intellectual Functioning
Academic Skill Areas
Heading
Word recognition
Oral comprehension
Arithmetic computation
Arithmetic reasoning
Spelling
Screening
Vision
Hearing
Correlated Areas Assessed
Auditory perception
Visual perception
Gross motor coordination
Fine motor coordination
Oral language comprehension
Oral language expression
Social-Emotional
LOW AVERAGE HIGH
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
135


APPENDIX E
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION,
YEARS OF TEACHING EXPERIENCE


110
The training used in this study incorporated 75% of the
concepts from the best practice statements and an effect on
knowledge was obtained. If all of the best practice state
ments had been incorporated in the design, would the results
have been different? Perhaps,, some statements are appli
cable to all types of inservice training and some are spe
cific to the goals of the training. For instance, ."inservice
should be offered at convenient times for the participants"
may apply to any type of training. However, maybe inservice
should be activity-based for training designed to increase
or improve skills but it may not be as necessary if knowledge
dissemination is the only desired outcome. It may be that
there are certain best practices applicable to training de
signed to impact on knowledge with different statements
applicable for training designed to impact on attitudes and
still different statements applicable to training designed
to impact on skills and behaviors. This remains to be in
vestigated.
The recipients of the training may also have bearing
on which best practices are applicable. Different statements
may be important to incorporate when designing training for
urban teachers than when designing training for rural teachers.
Urban teachers may find college-based training more appealing
than rural teachers. All of these questions remain to be
answered.


13
maintaining discipline as problems. They reported receiving
satisfaction from praise from inspectors and holidays. Ex
perienced teachers were significantly (pi.01) less concerned
with discipline and criticism. They were significantly (pi.05)
more concerned with slow progress of pupils. Furthermore,
experienced teachers reported receiving satisfaction from
success of former pupils. Fuller (1969) interpreted these
results as supporting her findings.
Based on her clinical observations and research, Fuller
(1969) proposed three phases of concerns of teachers. The
first phase was pre-teaching phase of non-concern that en
compassed education majors who rarely had specific concerns
related to teaching. The second phase was an early teaching
phase of concern with self. This second phase consisted of
covert concerns (i.e., How adequate am I?) which are most
frequently experienced by student teachers and beginning
teachers. The third phase was a late concerns phase charac
terized by concern with pupils. Concerns in this phase fo
cused on pupil learning and teacher professional development
and were generally concerns of experienced, superior teachers.
Research by Treese (1971) tends to support the idea that
preservice teachers and inservice teachers may have different
concerns. Treese (1971) used 46 preservice and 21 inservice
teachers to study the effects of microteaching on teaching
attitudes, anxieties, and values. The Taylor Manifest An
xiety Scale (Taylor, 1953), the Minnesota Teacher Attitude
Inventory, and the Allport Vernon Lindzez Study of Values


62
volunteering teachers were divided according to grade level
taught (i.e., elementary and secondary groups). Twenty-
nine elementary teachers and twenty-eight secondary teachers
participated in the study. Subjects for the control group
were selected from a master list of teachers teaching in the
educational cooperative. A random number table was used to
determine which teachers were mailed the test. Teachers
who had participated in the training during previous summers
were eliminated. Nineteen teachers completed both the pre
test and posttest.
The group of elementary teachers was composed of 27
females and 2 males. The teacher's ages ranged from 21 to
59. These subjects had completed a mean of 2.0 credits
in special education courses. The years of teaching ex
perience ranged from zero to thirty-five with a mean of 10.83
years of experience (see Appendix E for frequency distribu
tion). Twenty elementary teachers had their bachelor's
degree and nine had their master's degree.
The group of secondary teachers was composed of 19
females and 9 males. The teacher's ages ranged from 21 to
59. These subjects had completed a mean of 1.11 credit
hours in sepcial education courses. The years of teaching
experience ranged from one to twenty-two with a mean of 9.21
years of experience (see Appendix E for frequency distribu
tion). Eighteen secondary teachers had their bachelor's
degree, eight had their master's degree and two had their
educational specialist's degree.


Page
3 METHODS AND MATERIALS 56
Statement of Hypothesis 56
Variables 57
Independent 57
Dependent 57
Control 58
Intervening 58
Instrumentation 58
Knowledge 58
Attitude 59
Anxiety 60
Demographic Data 61
Subjects 61
Procedures 63
Design 67
Data Collection 68
Data Analysis 71
4 RESULTS 73
Analysis of Variance 73
Correlation Coefficients 83
Regression Analysis 89
Summary 95
5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 97
Significance of Study 97
Discussion 100
Conclusions 100
Implications for Inservice
Teacher Education 106
vii


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Martha L. McAdams was born in West Helen, Arkansas, on
August 19, 1949. She grew up in a small town in Arkansas
and graduated from Springdale High School in 1967. She
received her bachelor's degree in special education in 1970
with a major in mental retardation.
After graduation, Ms. McAdams taught a class for bi
lingual educable mentally retarded students in Brownsville,
Texas. In 1971, she moved to Houston, Texas, where she
taught classes for minimal brain-injured students and attended
graduate school at the University of Houston.
Ms. McAdams returned to her hometown, Springdale,
Arkansas, in 1973, where she taught kindergarten classes and
a class for educable mentally retarded students. In 1975,
Ms. McAdams received a master's degree in special education
with a major in learning disabilities and a minor in early
childhood from the University of Arkansas. That fall, she
became supervisor of special education in Springdale.
In 1976, Ms. McAdams became director of special services
in Bentonville, Arkansas. She was responsible for adminis
tering the district's special education, Title I and Migrant
programs.
Ms. McAdams moved to Gainesville, Florida, in 1978, to
attend the University of Florida. She married Hal B. McAdams,
158


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECTS OF REGULAR EDUCATION INSERVICE TRAINING
ON TEACHER ANXIETY, KNOWLEDGE ABOUT INDIVIDUALIZATION,
AND ATTITUDES TOWARD MAINSTREAMING
By
Martha Lou Watson McAdams
December 1981
Chairman: Charles J. Forgnone
Major Department: Special Education
The purpose of this study was to determine if inservice
training designed to teach informal diagnosis and prescrip
tive programming (ID/PP) affects teacher anxiety, teacher
attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped students and know
ledge about ID/PP. In addition, it investigated the rela
tionships between teacher anxiety, teacher attitudes toward
mainstreaming and knowledge about ID/PP.
The subjects in this study were volunteer regular edu
cation teachers whose schools belonged to a rural educational
cooperative in a midwestern state. The 29 elementary teachers
and 28 secondary teachers received 40 hours of training on
ID/PP. In addition, they participated in a three-week prac-
ticum where they worked individually with students. This
program incorporated 12 out of 16 concepts from best practice
statements generated from a literature review focused on
xi


personnel at every level"teachers, administrators, county
officers, higher education personnel, and state department
personnel" (p. 73).
In response to Brimm and Tolletts (1974) questionnaire,
68% of the respondents agreed with the statement that, "the
implementation of innovation presented in inservice programs
is often a function of the support received from school ad
ministrators" (p. 522).
Goals and objectives should be clear and specific.
This practice was mentioned in six of the thirteen selec
tions reviewed (Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Hutson, 1979;
King et al., 1977; Siantz, in press; Texas Education Agency,
1978; Wilen & Kindsvatter, 1978). Several authors endorse
the concept that objectives and goals of inservice educa
tional programs must be written and specified clearly (Have
lock & Havelock, 1973). The results of the Brimm and Tollett
(1974) survey indicated that this policy may not always be
followed. Only 27% of the respondents agreed with the state
ment that the objectives on inservice programs in any system
are always specific.
Inservice should be planned in response to assessed
needs. This practice was mentioned in four of the thirteen
selections reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979; Brimm &
Tollett, 1974; Hutson, 1979; King et al., 1977; Siantz, in
press; Texas Education Agency, 1978; Wilen & Kindsvatter,
1978; Zigarmi et al., 1977). Inservice education which does
not focus upon resolving the teachers' or the administrators'


prescriptive programming. Knowledge regarding informal diag
nosis and prescriptive programming improved for teachers who
participated in the training programming but not for the con
trol group. This finding was in agreement with the studies
by Haring (1956) which found that inservice training about
exceptional students did improve teachers' knowledge. In
addition, although there were no significant differences be
tween the elementary and secondary groups on the knowledge
test at the beginning of the training, the elementary group
was significantly higher on the posttest. This suggests that
training affected the secondary group differently than the
elementary group.
Data from this study suggest that teacher anxiety
levels were not significantly reduced as a result of partici
pation in inservice training. This data supports the findings
of Treese (1971) who found that inservice teachers anxiety
levels were not affected by training through microteaching.
It should be noted; however, that Treese investigated general
level of teachers and not teaching anxiety specifically.
There are some plausible explanations of why the teaching
anxiety levels of teachers were not reduced. Fuller's (1969,
197^) theory of stages of concerns of teachers supports one
explanation for this finding. The training conducted in this
study focused on the "how to" of the teaching process in
order to increase teacher effectiveness in working with stu
dents with learning problems. Thus, task and impact concerns
of teachers were addressed. As mentioned previously,


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Mary L. Koran
Professor of Foundations
of Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
as A. Hale
ssociate Professor of
Educational Administration
and Supervision
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the Department of Special Education in the College of Edu
cation and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as par
tial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
December 1981
Dean for Graduate Studies
and Research


55
Several studies were reviewed which support the posi
tion that teacher anxiety is an attribute of teachers that
has potential to influence the effectiveness of teacher-
pupil interactions and warrants investigation. In addition,
literature supporting the teacher expectancy/self-fulfilling
prophecy hypothesis and the effects teachers' attitudes
have on the student-teacher relationship was presented.
These studies point out that to increase the likelihood of
success of mainstreaming, teachers attitudes toward main-
streaming need to be investigated and attempts made to im
prove them.
Finally, best practice statements have been identified
through a review of literature on inservice teacher education.
In actual practice, however, it appears few reported best
practices are used (Corono & Clark, 1978; Schmid & McAdams,
1981). Research on inservice training appears to consist
largely of uncontrolled, one-shot case studies. There appears
to be a lack of controlled, reliable research studies. The
two controlled studies reviewed here did not attempt to
determine the effectiveness of a complex, multi-faceted
design. One study judged effectiveness of the training through
knowledge gains. The other determined effectiveness through
attitudinal changes. The area of determining if inservice
training can impact on teacher attitudes, teacher anxiety
level, and knowledge remains to be investigated.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES ix
ABSTRACT xi
CHAPTER
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose 5
Research Questions 5
Assumptions 6
Definitions 7
Delimitations 9
Limitations 10
2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11
Stages of Concerns of Teachers 11
Teacher Anxiety 16
Teacher Attitudes 19
Teacher Expectancies 19
Effects of Contact on Teacher Attitude .... 26
Inservice Education 28
Best Practices 29
Best Practice Statements 30
Research Studies 47
Summary 47
vi


WALT MICKIER, Coordir
AREA EDUCATIONAL
SALIN* CENTER
3023 CANTERBURY ORIVE
DEA OELLIEN, Resource Specialisl
RESOURCE CENTER
PHONE 19131 23-7263 SAUNA. KANSAS 67401
June 26, 1981
Dear Teacher:
Thank you for completing our first questionnaire. Enclosed
you will find a second copy. Please complete the questionnaire
and return it to us in the enclosed stamped self-addressed enve
lope. As mentioned previously, your answers will be treated con
fidentially. No one in Salina will see your individual answers.
The drawing for $50 of instructional or informational mate
rial will be conducted the latter part of July. The lucky winner
will be contacted at that time.
By responding to both of our questionnaires, you are helping
us evaluate the effectiveness of our inservice training program.
Without your help this would not have been possible. We appre
ciate your cooperation.
If you have any questions or would like to know the name of
the winner of the drawing, please call 823-7263. Again, thank
you for your help.
Sincerely,
Walt Mickler, Coordinator
Martha McAdams, Graduate Student
WM/MM/mb
PROVIOINO EOUCATIONAL SERVICES FOR CENTRAL KANSAS
PROFESSIONAL STAFF DEVELOPMENT
ASSESS PROFESSIONAL NEEOS LOCATE A LINK RESOURCES PROVIDE SERVICES
D.L SAUKE-U.S D 1337
Th. t WARREN PCTEJISCN 5LTT
USWORTM-U.S D. #337
ceoacew. Ajon.si
HERINCTON U S D. IU
i. s. wbuh. sut.
LORRAINE-.U S.D. >321 RURAL V1STA U.S D. nil
CENE UNTON. SUIT ELMEJU REID. SU?T.
MINNEATOUS-U S D. 13 SALINA- U S.D 33!
W.W.MUSXC SUTT LLOWI SCNUT.R.SUPT
SOLOMON U S
SOUTH LAST Ol
145


Mainstreaming Questionnaire
Please put the last 4 digits of your SS #
Please read each statement carefully. Respond to every
statement by circling the number that corresponds with your
opinion.
Use the
following
scale:
Strongly
Somewhat
Disagree
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Agree
Somewhat
Disagree
Disagree
1
2
3
4
5
6
Remember:
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
Please respond to each statement.
6 1. Students with behavior disorders who cannot
readily control their own behavior should
be in regular classrooms.
6 2. Blind students who cannot read standard
printed material should be in regular class
rooms.
6 3. Students with cerebral palsy who cannot con
trol movement of one or more of their limbs
should be in regular classrooms.
6 4. In general, mainstreaming is a desirable
educational practice.
6 5. Students who stutter should be in regular
classrooms.
6 6. Students with speech difficult to under
stand should be in regular classrooms.
6 7- Students with diabetes should be in regu
lar classrooms.
6 8. Educable mentally retarded students should
be in regular classrooms.
6 9- Students who present persistent discipline
problems should be in regular classrooms.
6 10. Students should have the right to be in
regular classrooms.
6 11. Physically handicapped students not con
fined to wheelchairs should be in regular
classrooms.
6 12. Students with epilepsy should be in regular
classrooms.
121


CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
In this study the effects of a regular education inser
vice training program on teacher anxiety, teacher attitudes
and knowledge were investigated. The training program in
corporated 75% of best practice statements generated from a
review of the literature on inservice training. In addition
to the effects of the training, the relationships between
teacher anxiety, teacher attitudes and knowledge were inves
tigated. In this chapter, the findings of this study are
discussed. There are six sections: (a) significance of
study, (b) discussion, (c) conclusions, (d) implications,
(e) suggestions for future research, and (f) summary.
Significance of Study
Historically, "inservice education has been the neg
lected step-child of teacher training" (Edelfelt, 1974, p. 250
It has been relegated to Saturdays, time after school,
evenings, "single-shot," and "quick-and-dirty" workshops.
Most contemporary education conferences have at least
one session directed toward the topic of inservice educa
tion (Heller, 1978). Concern for inservice has increased
to the point that the Department of Education funded a
National Council of States on Inservice Education. Inser
vice for general educators, in particular, has become a
97


Copyright 1981
by
Martha Lou Watson McAdams


98
priority for the Office of Special Education and Rehabili
tation's Division of Personnel Preparation (Harvey, 1976;
Saettler, 1976).
Some investigators (Edelfelt, 1974; Hass, 1957) strongly
suggest that inservice education has been inadequate and
has failed to improve professional performance. If the
purpose of inservice is to improve teachers' ability to teach,
it makes sense to investigate some of the factors which in
fluence teachers' ability to work effectively with their
students.
Teacher attitude is one of the factors which influences
the teacher-student relationship (Curran, 1977; Good & Brophy,
1972; Gottlieb, Semmel & Veldman, 1978; Reynolds & Greco,
1980; Silberman, 1969). Teachers' attitudes toward main-
streaming handicapped students may determine how well main-
streaming will work (Martin, 1974; McMillian, Jones & Meyers,
1976; Moore & Fine, 1978; Williams & Algozzine, 1977).
Cruikshank and Paul (1971) stressed the importance of teacher
attitudes when they stated, "teacher expectancy is a real
phenomenon and possibly never more evident than in the teacher
handicapped child relationship" (p. 370).
Stress and anxiety appear to be pervasive in our modern
society. According to Dr. S. Blanton (cited in Peale, 1952),
an eminent psychiatrist, "anxiety is the great modern plague"
(p. 122). Teachers, as are other professionals, are subject
to anxiety and stress (Coates & Thoresen, 1976; Keavney &
Sinclair, 1978; Parsons, 1973; Styles & Cavanagh, 1977).


THE EFFECTS OF REGULAR EDUCATION INSERVICE TRAINING
ON TEACHER ANXIETY, KNOWLEDGE ABOUT INDIVIDUALIZATION,
AND ATTITUDES TOWARD MAINSTREAMING
BY
MARTHA LOU WATSON MCADAMS
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1981


85
Table 15
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Demographic Data and
Dependent Variables for Elementary Group
Exper- Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Degree ience Hours XD/PP ID/PP ATMS ATMS TCHAS TCHAS
Degree
Exper
ience .37
Hours
.04
-.23
Pre
ID/PP
.01
-.16
.15
Post
ID/PP
-.03
-. 13
.14
.55
Pre
ATMS
-.16
.06
-.00
.13
.23
Post
ATMS
-.23
-.17
.06
. 15
.31
.25
Pre
TCHAS
-.19
-.43
.08
.12
.10
.19
-.02
Post
TCHAS
-.33
-.38
-.13
.17
.16
.23
.29


Page
Suggestions for Future Research 108
Summary 111
APPENDICES
A ID/PP KNOWLEDGE TEST 113
B ATTITUDES TOWARD MAINSTREAMING SCALE 121
C TEACHING ANXIETY SCALE 124
D DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET 128
E FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION, YEARS
OF TEACHING EXPERIENCE 130
F PRACTICUM DAILY LESSON PLANS 133
G PRACTICUM INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PLAN 135
H COVER LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP
FOR PRETEST 141
I FOLLOW UP LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP
FOR PRETEST 143
J COVER LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP
FOR POSTTEST 145
K FOLLOW UP LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP
FOR POSTTEST 147
REFERENCE NOTES 148
REFERENCES 149
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 158
viii


52
selves; and a 30-item opinion inventory upon which parents
and administrators were asked to rate teachers' human rela
tions skills.
Results of the study indicate that sensitivity training
was more effective than the control as measured by the MTAI,
Q-sort and student attendance. No significant difference
was found between the T-group and the control using the 30-
item opinion inventory or teacher absenteeism as measures.
The sensitivity training was significantly better than the
classroom group only on the student attendance measure.
Thus, the authors concluded that the sensitivity training
was effective.
The Lee (1970) study did have several important fea
tures. It compared two different techniques with a control
rather than comparing one group with itself or one group
with a group receiving no training. However, there are
some limitations to this study that must be pointed out.
Since a pre-posttest control group design was utilized,
a threat to external validity was introduced; the possi
bility of there being an interaction between testing and
treatment (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). Another limitation
was the lack of discussion of reliability and validity of
measures utilized. This study, also, involved only elemen
tary teachers.
Kadson and Kelly (1969) conducted a study in an attempt
to answer three questions:
1 ) were pupils of teachers who parti
cipated in a simulation-type


UNIVER SIT Y
^3 1262 08554 9870


Table 6
Research Studies
Article
Subjects
Treatment
Measures
Results
Criticisms
Smith & Otto
1969
One-shot case
study
19 Junior &
Senior High
Teachers
Reading im
provement
course
1 )Pre-post
Nelson Denny
Reading Test
2 )Pre-post
Attitude In
ventory
3)Post course
questionnaire
1 )No major
differences
in attitudes
2)Reading
skills
3¡Question
naire teachers'
indicate wil
ling to teach
skills taught
in course
Unable to
determine
appropriateness
of statistics
used; No control
or alternative
treatment group;
reliability &
validity of
measures not
discussed
Schmid &
Scranton, 1972
One-shot case
study
17 special
ed. and 6
regular class
room teachers
5-phase pro
gram in
behavior
modification
1 )Pre-post
survey on
knowledge of
of behavior
modification
1 ¡Significant
differences
between pre
post data
No control or
alternate treat
ment group; re
liability &
validity of
measures not
discussed;
measure effec
tiveness of
training in only
one area.
Lee, 1970
Pretest-Post-
test control
group design
51 volunteer
elementary
teachers
1 ¡Sensitivity
training (Vs )
classroom
training on
principles of
human re
lations
1¡Pre-post
Minn.
Teacher Attit
tude
2) Pre-post
Q-Sort
3)Post opin
ion AJAbsen-
teeism
1)t-group bet
ter than con
trol on all
but 2 measures
2)t-group bet
ter than
classroom only
on attendance
Reliability &
validity of
measures used
were not dis
cussed


109
Further research is warranted to substantiate the hypo
thesis that under stressful situations inservice teachers
regress to self and survival concerns. Along this same line,
research is needed to determine the stages of concerns of
teachers toward mainstreaming.
This study unsuccessfully attempted to obtain reductions
in teacher anxiety by increasing teachers' knowledge regarding
informal diagnosis and prescriptive programming. Further
research is needed to test other strategies to reduce teaching
anxiety and stress.
At the outset of this investigation, the author under
took a review of the literature on inservice teacher educa
tion expecting to find best practice statements which had
been substantially validated through research; this was not
the case. Sixteen best practice statements which were sup
ported by opinion, literature, questionnaires and evaluations
of inservice training were generated. However, these state
ments in and of themselves have not been empirically tested.
An extension of this investigation would be to attempt to
validate these statements with empirical evidence. There are
several wa.ys this could be approached. One approach would
be to design training which incorporated the principles behind
all 16 of the best practice statements. This could systema
tically be tested against the same type of training with one
best practice statement eliminated at a time until all 16
had been tested.


Summary
Four major hypotheses were evaluated in this study. It
was anticipated that inservice training would influence
teachers' attitudes and anxiety levels as well as knowledge
about informal diagnosis and prescriptive programming; however,
this was not the case. Several explanations were offered
for these findings. The major conclusions of this study were
stated. Implications for inservice teacher education and
suggestions for future research were discussed.


26
Effects of Contact on Teacher Attitude
Allport (1954) proposed as a part of his theories re
garding attitude formation towards minority groups that con
tact contributes to a reduction of prejudice. Several
investigators have conducted research which supports this
theory in regard to attitudes toward the handicapped.
Effron and Effron (1967) used a 70 item questionnaire
to study the structure of attitudes toward mental retardation
and the educably mentally retarded. Respondents were pri
marily inservice and preservice teachers in special and regu
lar education. Special education teachers were the only group
that differed from the others in their acceptance of intimate
contact with the retarded. The authors interpreted their
findings to support the hypothesis, "... that personal con
tact is probably the only way of changing the more personal
and less intellectual facet of attitudes'-' (Effron & Effron,
1967, p. 107).
Wechsler, Suarez and McFadden (1975) investigated teachers'
attitudes toward the education and emotional adjustment of
physically handicapped students by administering a question
naire to 547 teachers. Attitudes toward the education of
physically handicapped students and their relationship to
personal background of teachers were examined. The back
ground variable found to be most clearly and consistently
associated with the teachers' attitudes was previous experi
ence with handicapped children.


46
assessed needs will not have long range success in creating
change {Allshouse & Ondell, 1979). Apparently; however,
some programs do not bother to study the needs of teachers.
In response to the statement, "most inservice programs arise
from a study of the needs and problems of teachers," only
34% of the respondents to Brimm and Tollett's (1974) survey
agreed. In fact, 45% of the respondents disagreed with the
statement.
Inservice should be directed at changing teachers'
behaviors, not students' behaviors. This practice was men
tioned in five of the thirteen selections reviewed (Allshouse
& Ondell, 1979; Hutson, 1979; Lawrence, 1974; Siantz, in
press; Texas Education Agency, 1978). In Lawrence's (1974)
research review, 36 studies used pupil outcomes as a cri
terion. Of these studies, 13 showed no significant dif
ferences in pupil behavior following inservice training of
their teachers. Seven of those 13 studies, however, showed
significant positive changes in teacher behaviors. Allshousjs
and Ondell (1979) endorse the belief that results of inser
vice should be used by the teacher participants in order to
be considered effective.
Inservice should be voluntary rather than mandatory.
This practice was mentioned in four of the thirteen selec
tions reviewed (Johnson, 1975; King et al., 1977; Lippett &
Fox, 1971; Zigarmi et al., 1977). All agreed with the 87
participants at the NEA workshop, ¡.that voluntary participa
tion should be encouraged in inservice education rather than
mandatory activities (Johnson, 1975).


118
24. There are six questions to ask yourself when defining
the child's problem. Which is not one?
a. Who is affected?
b. What skills are deficit?
c. What kinds of information are needed to program
for the child?
d. Are there ways to meet this problem?
25. List three systematic modifications for the following
task. (3 points)
This is what the teacher says:
"Look at the example box...
EXAMPLE
d
1
m
2
t
3
b
4
I am going to read a made-up word to you. Listen carefully
and decide which letter makes the beginning sound of the
word. Ready? Tuv...tuv. Which letter makes the beginning
sound? (Wait for a response.). Good. The letter t does,
so fill in the circle beside t;. (Pause.). Now we will be
gin the test. Listen carefully to the words I am going to
read to you. Decide which letter makes the beginning sound
of each word and fill in the circle beside your answer.
Ready?
This is the Task Analysis of the above task:
a attend to oral directions
b demonstrate an understanding of concepts in directions
("beginning sounds")
c locate correct item
d repeat stimulus word
e isolate beginning sound
f match letter sound and letter symbol (sound-symbol
correspondence)
g select correct response by filling in the circle
Systematic Modifications:
1 .
2.
3.


122
Please put the last 4 digits of your S3 #
Strongly Somewhat Disagree Strongly
Agree Agree Agree Somewhat Disagree Disagree
1 2 3 4 5 6
123456 13. Hearing impaired students, who are not
deaf, should be in regular classrooms.
123456 14. Physically handicapped students confined
to wheelchairs should be in regular class
rooms .
123456 15. It is feasible to teach gifted, normal,
and mentally retarded students in the
same class.
123456 16. Visually handicapped students who can
read standard printed material should be
in regular classrooms.
123456 17. Mainstreaming will be sufficiently success
ful to be retained as a required educa
tional practice.
123456 18.
Deaf students should be in regular class
rooms .
Reprinted by permission of the author.
Source: Berryman, J. D., Neal, W. R. and Robinson, J. E.
The validation of a scale to measure attitudes toward the
classroom integration of disabled students. Journal of
Educational Research, 1980, 73, 199-203.


66
inservice training and general information about inservice
training.
Specific goals and objectives for ID/PP training have
been developed and are listed in the manual for trainers
(Midwest Regional Resource Center, 1975). The ID/PP training
package was designed to answer needs as determined by needs
assessments conducted in the mid-western United States by
the MRRC. The need for this training for the teachers served
by the educational cooperative was established by a needs
assessment conducted by personnel from the cooperative.
ID/PP training was designed to change teachers' behavior
in the classroom rather than students' behavior. Finally,
this training was on a voluntary basis rather than being
mandatory.
Four of the identified best practice statements were
not incorporated into the training used in this study. These
elements were not utilized due to the need to have control
over the inservice training for the study. The four elements
not included were individualization rather than group
activities, participant input into planning goals and ac
tivities administrator involvement, and involvement of the
total school in a general effort rather than a "single-shot"
program. These four factors could be incorporated in the
design of training using ID/PP if it were not a controlled
study situation. Thus, the training design utilized in this
study incorporated 75% of the identified best practice prin
ciples for inservice training. The control group received
no training.


REFERENCES
Adams, G., & Cohen, A. Children's physical and interpersonal .
characteristics that effect student-teacher interactions.
The Journal of Experimental Education, 1974, 42, 1-5.
Alberto, P. A., Castricone, N. R., & Cohen, S. B. Main-
streaming: Implications for training regular class
teachers. Education and Training of the Mentally Re
tarded, 1978, J2, 90-92.
Algozzine, R. What teachers perceive Children receive?
Communication Quarterly, 1976, 2M3), 41-47.
Allport, G. W. The Name of Prejudice. Cambridge, Massachu
setts: Addison Wesley, 1954.
Allshouse, C., &0ndell, V. L. C.A.S.E. Research Committee
Information Packet on Inservice Training. Indiana
University: C.A.S.E., 1979.
Andrews, T. E. (Ed.) Inservice Recommendations. Gainesville,
Florida: University of Florida/Alachua County Schools-
Teacher Crops Project, 1980.
Baker, J. L., & Gottlieb, J. Attitudes of teachers toward
mainstreaming retarded children. In J. Gottlieb (Ed.),
Educating Mentally Retarded Persons in the Mainstream.
Baltimore: University Park Press, 1980.
Becker, H. Social class variables in the teacher-pupil re
lationship. Journal of Educational Sociology. 1952. 25.
451-465. ~~
Bensky, J. M., Shaw, S. F., Gouse, A. S., Bates, H., Dixon,
B., & Beane, W. E. Public law 94-142 and stress: A
problem for educators. Exceptional Children, 1980, 47,
24-29.
Berryman, J. D., &Neal, W. R. The cross validation of the
attitudes toward mainstreaming scale (ATMS). Educational
and Psychological Measurement, 1980, 4£, 469-475~T
Berryman, J. D., Neal, W. R., & Robinson, J. E. The validation
of a scale to measure attitudes toward the classroom
integration of disabled students. Journal of Educational
Research, 1980, 73, 199-203. ;
149


3
providing it ignoring the absence of an empirical base on
which to formulate effective practice.
Bensky, Shaw, Gouse, Bates, Dixon, and Beane (1980)
reported that as compliance with P. L. 94-142 increases,
reported stress from the tasks related to it increases.
Furthermore, regular teachers identified diagnosis and
assessment as the most stressful activities related to P. L.
94-142. Research investigating the effects of teacher an
xiety and stress has revealed that it may have detrimental
effects both on teachers and on their students (Coates &
Thoresen, 1976; Keavney & Sinclair, 1978; Kyriacou & Sutcliffe,
1977).
Researchers have discovered that teacher attitudes and
subsequent expectations can positively or adversely affect
student achievement, teacher behavior and student behavior
(Berryman, Neal & Robinson, 1980; Brophy & Good, 1970;
Dole, Honack & Kefer, 1970; Good & Brophy, 1972; Gottlieb,
Semmel & Veldman, 1978; Palardy, 1969; Rowe, 1969; Silberman,
1969). Since teacher attitudes are probably closely tied
to the effectiveness of education of the handicapped, re
searchers have generally recognized the need to study teachers'
attitudes toward mainstreaming (Reynolds & Greco, 1980).
In needs assessment studies conducted since passage of
P. L. 94-142, teachers have been asked to indicate areas in
which they feel they need additional training. Many teachers
see individualization as an area where they need training.
In at least four statewide studies, the ability to individualize


115
6.What are the first two things to do when a child is
referred to you?
b.
c.
d.
Define the problem
testing.
Define the problem
testing.
Define the problem
of information you
Define the problem
and begin formal diagnostic
and begin informal diagnostic
and identify what other kinds
need.
and write behavioral objectives.
7.When applying the process of systematic modification,
the two rules to follow are:
a. Make major alterations in the main subtasks but
change as few subtasks as possible.
b. When modifying a task, make the alteration as minor
as possible and make only one alteration in a task
at a time.
c. Do an Error Pattern Analysis of the task and then
make major alterations in the main subtasks.
d. Make at least two changes in every task and make the
alterations after doing a task analysis of the ob
jective .
8.Which of the following is not one of the potential uses
of Task Analysis as described by Barbara Bateman?
a. Grouping learners
b. Readiness of learners
c. Reinforcement of learners
d. Motivation of learners.
A child was given the following problem as part of a
math worksheet.
= 5+4
9.Which of the following would not appear in a Task Analy
sis of this problem?
a. Can match symbols and quantities
b. Can match symbols and operation
c. Can remember the visual symbol of "9"
d. Can write the numeral "9"


133
Daily Learning Plan
Date
Obj.
#
Methods/Materials/Setting
Estimated
Time
Reinforcement
Learning
Outcome



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PAGE 174

81,9(5 6,7 < A


61
When comparing student teachers self-reports of teacher
anxiety and observations of the anxiety level of these
teachers by their teaching supervisor, Parsons (1973) dis
covered a significant correlation (p .05). This evidence
suggests that to at least some degree the teaching anxiety
reported on the TCHAS corresponded to what teacher super
visors believed to be teaching anxiety in their student
teachers.
Demographic Data
Demographic data about subjects in this study were
obtained from a demographic data sheet. The sheet contained
nine questions for subjects to answer, including informa
tion about the teacher's sex, age, academic degree, years
of teaching experience, prior exposure to mainstreaming and
number of credit hours obtained in special education courses
(see Appendix D).
Subjects
The target population for this study was regular class
room teachers of grades K-12 in a rural environment. The
sub-population from which the sample was drawn was regular
classroom teachers of grades K-12 in one educational co
operative in a midwestern state. Teachers whose schools
belonged to the cooperative were invited to volunteer for
inservice to be conducted during the summer. Incentives
offered to the teachers included payment of tuition, gradu
ate credit, certification/recertification credit, paid travel,
and lunch provided for the five days of training. The


63
The control group was composed of 16 females and 3
males. The teacher's ages ranged from 21 to 65. The control
group members had completed a mean of 6.84 credit hours in
special education courses. The years of teaching experience
ranged from 2 to 37 with a mean of 12.21 years of experience
(see Appendix E for frequency distribution). Ten of the
control group members had their bachelor's degree and nine
had their master's degree. There were 9 elementary teachers
and 10 secondary teachers in the control group.
Procedures
During the first week of June, 1981, subjects in the
experimental groups received five days of training. The
elementary teachers were trained by three qualified trainers.
The trainers had participated in ID/PP training in the past.
During the same week, secondary teachers received training
from three different qualified trainers.
The training packages used were the Informal Diagnosis
and Prescriptive Programming (ID/PP) workshop developed by
the Midwest Regional Resource Center. The training packages
were similar except that examples were on an elementary
level for the elementary group and on a secondary level for
the secondary group. The workshop was comprised of the fol
lowing ten modules: (a) identifying the problem, (b) task
analysis, (c) error pattern analysis, (d) systematic modi
fications, (e) setting priorities, (f) behavioral objectives,
(g) learning methods/style, (h) task analysis of materials,
(i) matching material characteristics with learner


UNIVER SIT Y
^3 1262 08554 9870


LIST OF TABLES
Page
1 Best Practice Statements 31
2 Best Practices Endorsed 32
3 Best Practices of Inservice Education
Literature and Research Reviews 33
A Survey Research, Group Opinions
and Opinions 35
5 Criticisms of Best Practice Literature 37
6 Research Studies 48
7 Means, Standard-Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for ID/PP
Knowledge Test 74
8 Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for Attitudes
Toward Mainstreaming Scale 75
9Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for General
Mainstreaming Factor of Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale 76
10Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for Traditional
Learning Disabilities Factor of Attitudes
Toward Mainstreaming Scale 77
11Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for Learning
Capability Factor of Attitudes
Toward Mainstreaming Scale 78
12 Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis of
Variance Summary Table for Teaching
Anxiety Scale 79
13 Comparison of Simple Means Using
Scheffe's Procedure 82
ix


157
Washburne, C., & Heil, L. M. What characteristics of teachers
affect childrens' growth? The School Review, 1960,
68, 420-428.
Webster's New World Dictionary. New York: World Publishing
Company, 1966.
Wechsler, H., Suarez, A. C., & McFadden, M. Teachers' atti
tudes toward the education of physically handicapped
children: Implications for the implementation of Massa-.
chusetts Chapter 766. Journal of Education, 1975, 157
(1),. 17-24.
Weiskopf, P. E. Burn-out among teachers of exceptional
children. Exceptional Children, 1980, 47_, 18-23.
Wilen, W. W., & Kindsvatter, R. Implications of research for
effective inservice education. Clearing House, 1978,
51, 392-395.
Williams, R. J., & Algozzine, B. Differential attitudes
toward mainstreaming: An investigation. The Alberta
Journal of Educational Research, 1977, 2_3, 207-211.
Zigarmi, P., Betz, L., & Jensen, D. Teachers' preferences
in and perceptions of inservice education. Educational
Leadership, 1977, 34, 545-551.


14
were used as dependent variables. The treatment consisted
of seven weeks of microteaching involving set induction,
questioning of three orders, varying the stimuli, and closure
skills. After the microteaching sessions attitude scores
were significantly raised for preservice teachers but not
inservice teachers. Preservice teachers' anxiety scores were
significantly lowered but inservice teachers' scores were not.
Scores on the values scale were significantly increased for
the inservice teachers but were not affected for the pre
service teachers. On all three dependent variables, preservice
teachers reacted differently to the microteaching than inser
vice teachers.
While conducting research to validate the Teaching An
xiety Scale (TCHAS), Parsons (1973) found evidence to support
the hypothesis that preservice and inservice teachers have
different concerns. She compared the mean scores on the
TCHAS for 192 inservice teachers (7=60.51) with the scores
for 407 preservice teachers (7=45.06). The preservice teachers
were significantly more anxious than the inservice teachers.
In addition, scores on the TCHAS significantly decreased for
130 preservice teachers after their student teaching experi
ence. Scores on the Manifest Anxiety Scale (Taylor, 1953),
however, did not significantly change after the student
teaching experience. Parsons interpreted this difference to
support the concept that the TCHAS measured teaching anxiety
distinctly differently from general anxiety. She believed
her data were consistent with Fuller's findings.


40
Orte of the recommendations from the 1975 NEA workshop
was that "inservice education should reflect the same prin
ciples that educators endorse for studentse.g. individualized
instruction and freedom to choose among alternatives" (Johnson,
1975, p. 73). Allshouse and Ondell (1979) also endorsed the
concept of individualization in inservice education.
Inservice should be activity-based. This practice was
mentioned by four of the thirteen selections reviewed (Alls
house & Ondell, 1979; Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Lawrence,
1974; Texas Education Agency, 1978). Adults, like children,
learn by doing; hence, inservice education which is struc
tured to provide active participation of teachers rather
than passive acceptance of the content is more likely to pro
duce change (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979). In Lawrence's
(1974) review, 66 studies used active roles. Eighty-three
percent of these had significant positive outcomes, 12%
showed no significant difference and 5% had mixed results.
Of the 31 studies in which teachers assumed receptive roles,
only 51% had significant differences, 29% showed no signifi
cant differences and 20% showed mixed results.
Havelock and Havelock (1973) indicated that training
experiences should have the power to capture and hold the
attention of trainees. They further suggest that this usu
ally means the trainees need to actively use many of their
senses and behavioral skills in the experience.
Demonstrations, supervised practice and feedback are
more effective than having teachers store Up ideas and


87
Table 17
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Demographic Data and
Dependent Variables for Control Group
Degree
Exper
ience
Hours
Pre
ID/PP
Post
ID/PP
Pre
ATMS
Post
ATMS
Pre
TCHAS
Post
TCHAS
Degree
Exper
ience
.38
Hours
.25
.03
Pre
ID/PP
.04
-.21
.21
Post
ID/PP
.24
-.14
.24
.89
Pre
ATMS
.02
.19
-.57
-.20
-.06
Post
ATMS
.14
. 18
-.37
-.30
-.15
.91
Pre
TCHAS
-.22
-.21
-.41
-.02
.00
.08
.04
Post
TCHAS
-.17
-.30
-.35
.04
.04
.02
.02
91


18
the major hypothesis that different kinds of teachers get
varying amounts of achievement from students. The self
controlling teachers get the most achievement from their stu
dents. The fearful teachers got the least achievement from
their students. The fearful teacher was described as anxious
and variable in behavior. In addition, the fearful teacher
was reported to induce anxiety in pupils and to arouse defen
sive reactions in them.
Four studies have been discussed here that indicate that
for inservice teachers, teacher anxiety does affect their
students. Teacher anxiety has been shown to affect student
anxiety (Doyal & Forsyth, 1973), teacher-pupil interactions
(Koon, 1971 )> teacher effectiveness as perceived by students
(Moskowitz & Hayman, 1974), and student achievement (Washburne
& Heil, 1960).
In addition to these studies using inservice teachers,
several investigators have looked at the effects of preser
vice teachers' anxiety. Kracht and Casey (1968) found that
student teacher anxiety correlated negatively with teacher
warmth. According to Petrusick (1966), high anxiety student
teachers gave their pupils less verbal support, engaged in
more hostile speech and behavior, and had more disruptive
pupils than low anxiety student teachers. More anxious stu
dent teachers were reported by Clark (1972) to give lower
grades than less anxious student teachers. Mattsson (1974)
found that teacher effectiveness ratings by pupils were highest
for low anxiety student teachers. Although these last four


47
Research Studies
In addition to the statements of best practice which
were derived from informed opinion, this reviewer identified
four empirical studies of interest in this investigation.
The following criteria were established regarding which articles
and reports to include in this section. Only literature
written since 1957 was reviewed. No information regarding
inservice education outside of the United States was included.
Research studies which were not published in a journal
and thus not subject to critical review were eliminated.
Articles which did not contain enough information to evaluate
the research conducted were also omitted. Only studies
which involved trial of inservice training or comparison of
two or more were included. The most common reason for elimi
nation of a study was that it did not give enough information
about the procedures to critically review it.
Two studies included in this review are one-shot case
studies. The other two articles are reports of comparisons
of two formats and a control. Table 6 lists the four articles,
type of design, treatment (independent variables), measures
(dependent variables), results and criticisms.
Smith and Otto (1969) conducted a one-shot case study
to determine if a personal reading course for teachers im
proved reading instruction in content areas. Subjects were
19 junior and senior high teachers. Five evening sessions
of two hours were used to provide instruction to teachers
on improving their own reading skills. Rate, interpretation,


Author
Procedures for Inclusion
Wilen &
Kindsvatter
1978
Research review; reviewed 5
studies and guidelines syn
thesized from studies. Cri
teria for inclusion not
specified
* See Table 5
** See Table 1
Table 3 extended
Product
Criticisms*
Best
Practices
indorsed**
Guidelines
Doesn't specify
2, 7, 9, 10,
to improve
groups applies
13, 14
inservice
to (2); Doesn1t
training
tell how selected
studies to review
(3)
u>


94
that scores on the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and
the ID/PP knowledge test plus number of credit hours completed
in special education courses were useful in predicting scores
on the Teaching Anxiety Scale. The Bonferonni procedure was
used as a follow-up to the overall F test. Results from this
procedure indicated that number of credit hours completed in
special education courses was useful in predicting scores on
the Teaching Anxiety Scale when the other variables are held
constant. The other variables were not useful in predicting
the Teaching Anxiety Scale scores.
Next, a comparison of the model with the scores on the
ID/PP knowledge test and the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming
Scale used to predict Teaching Anxiety Scale scores was made
with the model using scores on the ID/PP knowledge test, the
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and number of years of
teaching experience to predict scores on the Teaching Anxiety
Scale. An estimate of the squared multiple correlation be
tween years of teaching experience and teacher anxiety of .06
was generated. This indicates that of the variance in Teaching
Anxiety Scale scores unaccounted for by the scores on the ID/
PP knowledge test and the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale,
6% was associated with years of teaching experience. Although
number of years of teaching experience was a statistically
significant predictor of scores on the Teaching Anxiety Scale,
it does not appear practically significant.
Likewise, a comparison was made of the model with the
scores on the ID/PP knowledge test and the Attitudes Toward


108
There are some implications specific to future training
programs using the informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming workshop with a practicum experience design. Since
teachers will be using the skills developed through this
training in regular classrooms, it is suggested that when
feasible, the practicum experience should include working
with an individual student initially to practice the skills,
then integrating these skills into the back-home situation
with support from the practicum supervisors. Trainers should
be aware that teachers' attitudes may not be effected by the
workshop and practicum experience. If changing attitude is
a major goal of the training, then strategies to specifically
address attitudes may need to be incorporated into the design.
Likewise, if alleviating teacher anxiety is a goal, specific
strategies to do so may be needed.
Suggestions for Future Research
Further research is needed to substantiate the findings
that training in informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming and a practicum experience do not improve teachers'
attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped students. Be
havioral observations should be employed to measure attitu-
dinal changes.
It appears that teacher attitudes were not influenced
in this study. Further research is indicated to determine
if the practicum experience were changed to provide opportu
nities to use informal diagnosis and prescriptive programming
in a classroom situation rather than on a one-to-one basis
would improve teacher attitudes toward mainstreaming.


28
more accepting in their attitudes had significantly more ex
ceptional children in the classrooms. Haring concluded that
inservice programs designed to change attitudes should in
clude experiences in working with exceptional students. Know
ledge alone was not enough to modify teachers' attitudes.
Based on the results of the research reported here, in-
service training programs which are designed to influence
teacher attitudes should include opportunities for experiences
in working with handicapped students. Because of the nega
tive attitudes and expectations generally held by regular
educators, if training programs do not promote attitudinal
changes, the handicapped child has less of a chance of being
successfully mainstreamed (Curran, 1977). A significant
amount of research has been conducted regarding inservice
training; a critical analysis of that work indicated that few
of the results are generalizable to other settings, that there
is a lack of valid data, that goals and objectives have been
unclear, and that inservice is usually poorly planned. Re
gardless, the literature on inservice training does offer
some guidelines for best practice.
Inservice Education
References for this review of the literature were ob
tained from several sources. These sources included the
Current Index of Journals in Education (CIJE), an ERIC
search, textbooks, reference lists from articles, published
reviews of the literature and an annotated bibliography
(National Council of States on Inservice Education, 1976).


5
little direction for persons responsible for making decisions
regarding this segment of professional development. The
problem is that there is a lack of definition, clear concepts,
facts and conditional propositions (Cruikshank, Lorish &
Thompson, 1979). For example, what impact inservice education
has on various teacher attributes, such as teacher anxiety,
has been a neglected topic. Indeed, there have been few con
trolled studies done in the area of inservice teacher educa
tion. In general, the practice of inservice education has
not been guided by empirically derived evidence.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to contribute to the
establishment of best practices in inservice teacher educa
tion. Toward that goal two specific areas were evaluated.
First, an inservice training program of regular teachers,
which incorporated concepts based on 75% of identified in-
service best practice statements, to teach informal diagno
sis and prescriptive programming's effects on teacher an
xiety and teachers' attitudes toward the mainstreaming of
handicapped students was investigated. Second, teacher an
xiety, teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming handicapped
students and knowledge about informal diagnosis and prescrip
tive programming were studied to determine if there were-
relationships among them.
Research Questions
The following research questions were germane to this
study:


77
Table 10
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
Traditional Learning Disabilities Factor of
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
Pretest Posttest
Elementary X = 12.48 X = 12.48
S = 3.03 S = 3.03
Secondary X = 11.79 X = 11.79
S = 2.63 S = 2.63
Control X = 13.21 X = 13.21
S = 4.14 S = 4.14
Source
MS
df F
PROB.
Between Subjects
Group
23.24
2
1.13
.33
Error
20.63
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
0.00
1
0.00
1.00
Group X Pretest/Posttest
0.00
2
0.00
1.00
Error
0.00
73
Note: Maximum possible score is 20.


64
characteristics, and (j) developing an individual educa
tional plan.
After completing the five day workshop, the experimental
groups participated in a practicum experience. The practicum
was directed by staff employed by the educational coopera
tive. Subjects were assigned to grade levels appropriate
to their regular teaching assignment. The subjects attended
the practicum for three weeks. During the practicum the
subjects worked on an individual basis with students iden
tified as having learning problems. Subjects worked with
their students each day for 45 to 90 minutes depending on
the age of the child. The project staff observed subjects
on an average of twice each week and offered feedback on the
subject's performance. In addition, daily lesson plans (see
Appendix F) and Individual Educational Programs (see Appen
dix G) were required for each student. Practicum sites were
summer school classes in districts in the educational co
operative. Participants attended three-hour afternoon ses
sions twice a week during the practicum experience. These
sessions were designed to familiarize participants with
various handicapping conditions. The topics covered in
the afternoon sessions were:
(a) teaching strategies in relation to the mentally
retarded child,
(b) teaching strategies in relation to the learning
disabled child (2 sessions),


CHAPTER 3
METHODS AND MATERIALS
This study was organized to investigate if an inservice
training program of regular teachers, which incorporated
practices based on 75% of identified inservice best practice
statements, to teach informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
grammings has an effect on teacher anxiety, teachers' atti
tude and teachers' knowledge. In addition, the study was
designed to investigate the relationships between teacher
anxiety, teachers' attitudes toward mainstreamed handicapped
students and knowledge about informal diagnosis and prescrip
tive programming.
Statement of Hypothesis
This study was designed to test the following hypo
theses :
1. There is no significant difference in subjects'
anxiety level, attitude toward mainstreaming handi
capped students or knowledge regarding informal
diagnosis and prescriptive programming as a result
of participation in inservice training.
2. There is no relationship between teacher attitude
toward mainstreaming handicapped students and
teacher knowledge regarding informal diagnosis and
prescriptive programming.
56


65
(c) teaching strategies in relation to the emotionally
disturbed child,
(d) teaching strategies in relation to the physically
handicapped child and the child with chronic
health problems, and
(e) teaching strategies in relation to the hearing or
visually impaired child.
Sixteen best practice statements supported in the lit
erature were discussed in the literature review. Twelve
of the 16 statements were incorporated in the design of the
inservice training used in this study. This inservice
training was school-based rather than college-based. Eva
luation was built-in as a component of the training. The
ID/PP training was activity-based. Demonstrations were fol
lowed by individual and small group activities during which
participants practiced skills. Feedback was given to par
ticipants following each activity.
Rewards or incentives were an important part of this
design. Incentives offered participants included payment
of tuition, graduate credit, certification/recertification
credit, payment for travel expenses, and lunch provided for
the five days of training. In the past, participants have
indicated that ID/PP training can be, and is, used in their
classrooms effectively (McAdams, Note t).
This training was offered during the summer so class
room teachers could participate. The trainers for this
training had previously received training in how to deliver


APPENDIX J
COVER LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP FOR POSTTEST


WALT MICKLER, Coordinator
AREA EDUCATIONAL
SALINA CENTER 3023 CANTERBURY ORIVE
DEA OELLIEN, Resource Specialist
RESOURCE CENTER
PH0NE|9I3|823 7263 SALINA KANSAS 67401
July 10, 1981
Dear Teacher:
A short time ago you completed a questionnaire to help us
evaluate our inservice training program. We want to thank you
for completing that first questionnaire. Recently you received
a letter asking you to complete a second copy of the same ques
tionnaire. As of yet we have not received a response from you.
Your help is needed to effectively evaluate our training
program. Although you have completed the questionnaire once, we
need for you to answer the questionnaire a second time.
Remember we are offering an incentive for your help. If
you complete the enclosed questionnaire, you will be eligible
for a drawing to receive $50 worth of instructional or informa
tional materials of your choice. Since you completed the first
questionnaire, you are one of only 30 teachers eligible for this
drawing.
More importantly; however, in order for us to do an effec
tive job of evaluating our program, it is important that we have
both your first and second questionnaires. Please take the time
to help us by completing and mailing the enclosed questionnaire.
Thank you for your time and effort.
Sincerely,
Walt Mickler, Coordinator
Martha McAdams, Graduate Student
WM/MM/mb
TWTN VALLEY .S O. Mf
MM3 C MtC LAIN KOTT
PROVIOING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES FOR CENTRAL KANSAS
PROFESSIONAL STAFF DEVELOPMENT
ASSESS PROFESSIONAL NEEDS LOCATE A LINK RESOURCES PROVIDE SERVICES
niSWORTH-US.D. tin LORRAINE U S D Oil
ceorcew, Alton, suet. cdie unto*. sun.
NEAINCTONU.SD MB MINNEAPOLIS-U.S.D. Oil
RURAL VISTA- U S D. Mil
LLCTOI SCKUTS.SUPT
SOLOMON U S O till
SOUTHEAST Or SALINE- U 10 UN
147


27
Shotel, lao and McGettigan (1972) studied the effects
of a resource room program on the teachers' attitudes toward
handicapped children. Questionnaires were completed by 128
regular classroom teachers at the beginning and end of the
school year. The experimental group was composed of the
teachers from three schools where self-contained special edu
cation classes were disbanded and resource rooms established.
The control group members were teachers from three schools
where the self-contained classes were retained. The schools
were matched for size and student population. The findings
of this study indicate that integrating the handicapped into
regular classes had no significant effects on teachers' atti
tudes toward learning disabled students, positive effects on
teachers' attitude toward emotionally disturbed students, and
negative effects on teachers' attitudes toward educably
mentally retarded students.
Haring (1956) investigated the effects of thirty hours
of inservice training which included fifteen hours of small
group discussions on teacher attitudes. Teachers from four
schools were pretested and posttested with four tests designed
to measure knowledge and acceptance of exceptional children,
and the personality characteristics of the teachers. Results
of the study indicated that the training was effective in
increasing knowledge about exceptional children. Teachers
from two schools showed no significant changes in attitudes.
However, teachers from the other two schools showed signi
ficant changes in attitudes. The two schools that became


APPENDIX I
FOLLOW UP LETTER TO CONTROL
GROUP FOR PRETEST


50
literal comprehension, and vocabulary were covered during
each session.
Smith and Otto (1969) reported that there were no major
differences in teacher attitudes or reading skills on the
pre-post Nelson Denny Reading Test or the attitude inventory.
However, analysis of results of a post-course questionnaire
indicated that teachers were willing to teach to their stu
dents skills they were taught. The authors failed to give
enough information in their report to determine if appro
priate statistical procedures were used. Reliability and
validity of the measures used in this study were not addressed.
In addition, a limitation of this study as well as all the
other studies reviewed (included and excluded articles) in
both the best practice literature and the research studies
was that they did not answer the question: do the conclu
sions apply equally to inservice programs involving urban,
suburban, rural, secondary and elementary teachers? This
criticism was raised by Cruikshank, Lorish and Thompson
(1979).
Schmid and Scranton (1972) conducted a one-shot case
study dealing with behavior modification techniques. Seven
teen special education teachers and six regular classroom
teachers completed a nine-week, five-phase training program
which included obtaining pre-post measures, self-instruction,
group sessions and practice with students. Analysis of the
pre-post survey on knowledge of behavior modification in
dicated significant differences between pre-post data.


57
3. There is no relationship between teacher attitude
toward mainstreaming handicapped students and teacher
anxiety level.
4. There is no relationship between teacher anxiety
level and teacher knowledge regarding informal diag
nosis and prescriptive programming.
Variables
In this section, the independent and dependent varia
bles are described. In addition, the control and inter
vening variables are listed.
Independent
The independent variable under investigation was the
type of training the teachers received in informal diagnosis
and prescriptive programming. This included a practicum ex
perience of 3 weeks.
Dependent
There were three dependent variables in this study:
1. Knowledge of teachers about informal diagnosis and
prescriptive programming as measured by the Infor
mal Diagnosis and Prescriptive Programming (ID/PP)
Test
2. Attitude of teachers toward mainstreaming handi
capped students as measured by the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale.
3. Anxiety level of teachers as measured by the
Teaching Anxiety Scale.


136
Student's Name
ACADEMIC ANALYSIS
1. Are the child's basic skills at grade level for his cur
rent grade placement?
-Reading
-Arithmetic
-Spelling
2. What skill components are missing?
-Reading
-Arithmetic
-Spelling
-Other
3. Does he demonstrate problems in? (If yes, describe.)
-Listening
-Taking notes
-Classroom discussion
-Chalkboard presentations
-Completing homework
-Completing assignments in class
-Taking tests


APPENDIX B
ATTITUDES TOWARD MAINSTREAMING SCALE


138
Student' s
Name
Baseline
In reference to objectives, what are the current levels
of student knowledge and skill, and/or current learning
problems?


59
of the ID/PP training package (Midwest Regional Resource
Center, 1975). The 43 point test has multiple choice, true-
false, and short answer questions (see Appendix A). This
test purports to measure the components of ID/PP as defined
by the training package. The areas the test is reported to
measure and related point distributions are task analysis
8; error pattern analysis7; systematic modifications5;
behavioral objectives--5; matching material characteristics
to learner characteristics -- 4; appropriate learning methods
5; and general information about informal diagnosis9-
Internal consistency reliability information was obtained
from the tests completed by the subjects in this study. The
coefficient alpha for the ID/PP knowledge test was .52 for
the pretest and .64 for the posttest. Salvia and Ysseldyke
(1978) suggest a reliability of .60 as a minimum for group data.
Attitude
Attitude towards mainstreaming handicapped students
was measured by the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
(ATMS see Appendix B). The eighteen-statement scale was
developed to specifically meet the criteria of brevity, ease
of administration, usefulness with persons other than spe
cial educators and satisfactory validity and reliability
(Berryman, Neal & Robinson, 1980). The validation sample
consisted of 159 subjects, 78% female and 22% male. The
cross-validation sample included 164 subjects, 84% female
and 16% male. Both samples included preservice and inser
vice teachers representing 17 teaching fields. Three factors,


117
19.List three learning methods: (3 points)
EXAMINE MULTIPLICATION WORKSHEET I.
20.The following are possible sources of error. Which
one can be ruled out as a source of error on Multi
plication Worksheet I?
a. Attending to the task
b. Understanding the language of directions
c. Hearing adequately
d. Writing numbers
21.Analyze Multiplication Worksheet I and write the major
pattern of errors you find. (2 points)
22. All steps in a Task Analysis should be stated in words
that represent:
a. observable behaviors
b. processes
c. relationships
d. skills
23. What must be considered when evaluating a child's
learning characteristics?
a. What does he need to be taught?
b. Where does he need to start?
c. What is the best way to present information to
him?
d. All of the above.


Definition Page for the Informal Diagnosis and
Prescriptive Programming Knowledge Test
Task Analysis is a process of breaking an objective into
the small subtasks needed to complete it.
Error Pattern Analysis is a technique for gathering infor
mation about the errors a child makes. When using EPA, the
teacher examines the responses made by a child and writes
a statement(s) in behavioral terms about the errors he has
made.
Systematic Modification is a process of restructuring sub
tasks in order to assess the amount and kind of assistance
the child needs in order to do the subtask. If a child
can't complete a certain subtask, the teacher can modify
it so the child can complete it correctly.
Reprinted by permission of the author.
Source: Midwest Regional Resource Center, Informal Diag-
nosis and Prescriptive Programming: A Workshop, Des Moines,
Iowa: Drake University, 1975.


Table 3
Best Practices of Inservice Education
Literature and Research Reviews
Author
Procedures for Inclusion
Product
Criticisms*
Best
Practices
Endorsed**
Allshouse &
Ondell,
1979
General literature review, pro
cedures for arriving at con
clusions not specified.
Concepts
critical for
effective
inservice
Doesn't specify
procedures; (1 )
Doesn't specify
group applies
to (2)
2, 3, 4, 5, 7,
8, 9, 14, 15
Hutson
1979
General literature review,
criteria for inclusion of
statements were: empirical
support, cogency of argument,
and repetition in the litera
ture
Statements of
Best Practice
Doesn't specify
groups applies
to (2)
1, 2, 6, 7, 8,
11, 12, 13, 14
15
Lawrence
1974
Review of 97 research studies;
criteria for inclusion:
College or school-based in-
service to improve competen
cies of teachers and have
experimental, quasi-experi-
mental or low-control design
that ensured some validity
Patterns of
effective
inservice
Doesn't specify
groups applies
to (2)
1, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 15
Siantz
In Press
General literature review,
criteria for inclusion in
cluded supported by research
and literature
Statements of
Best Practice
Doesn't specify
procedures; (1)
Doesn't specify
groups applies
to (2)
1 2, 6, 7, 8,
11, 12, 13, 14
15
Texas Ed.
Agency,
1978
General literature review, pro
cedures for arriving at con
clusions not specified
Principles
underlying
effective
inservice
Doesn't specify
procedures; ( 1 )
Doesn't specify
group applies
to (2)
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 13,
14, 15
* See Table 5.
** See Table 1.
u>
OJ


Table 2
Best Practices Endorsed
Type of
Article
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Allshouse & Ondell
1979
Lit.
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Andrews, Group I
1980
Group
Opinion
X
X
X
X
X
Andrews, Group II
1980
Group
Opinion
X
X
X
Brimm & Tollett
1974
Survey
Research
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Havelock & Havelock
1973
Opinion
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Hutson
1979
Lit.
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Johnson
1975
Group
Opinion
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
King, Hayes & Newman
1977
Survey
Research
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Lawrence
1974
Research
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Lippet & Fox
1971
Opinion
X
X
X
X
X
Siantz
In Press
Lit.
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Tx. Ed. Agency
1978
Lit.
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Wilen & Kindsvatter
1978
Research
Review
X
X
X
X
X
X
Zigarmi, Betz & Jensen
1977
Survey
Research
X
X
X
X
X
X
TOTALS
8
8
7
4
5
4
14
7
6
5
5
6
6
8
5
4
U)
no


153
Keavney, G., & Sinclair, K. E. Teacher concerns and teacher
anxiety: A neglected topic of classroom research.
Review of Educational Research, 1978, 48(2), 273-290.
King, J. C., Hayes, P. C., & Newman, I. Some requirements
for successful inservice education. Phi Delta Kappan,
1977, 58, 686-687.
Koon, J. R. Effects of expectancy, anxiety, and task diffi
culty on teacher behavior (Doctoral dissertation, Syra
cuse University, 1971). Dissertation Abstracts Inter-
national, 1971, 32, 821A. (University Microfilms No.
71-18492) .
Kracht, C. R., & Casey, J. P. Attitudes, anxiety, and student
teaching performance. Peabody Journal in Education,
1968, 45, 214-217.
Kyriacou, C., & Sutcliffe, J. Teacher stress: A review.
Educational Review, 1977, 29., 249-306.
Lawrence, G. Patterns of Effective Inservice Education: A
State of the Art Summary of Research on Materials and
Procedures for Changing Teacher Behaviors in Inservice
Education. Report prepared for the State of Florida,
Department of Education, 1974.
Lee, W. S. Human relations training for teachers: The ef
fectiveness of sensitivity training. California Journal
of Educational Research, 1970, 2J_, 28-34.
Lippett, R., & Fox, R. Development and maintenance of effec
tive classroom learning. In Louis J. Rubin (ed.),
Improving Inservice Education: Proposals and Procedures
for Change. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1971.
Mackler, B. Grouping in the ghetto. Education and Urban
Society, 1969, 2, 80-96.
Mandler, G-, & Sarason, S. B. A study of anxiety and learning.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1952, 47.
166-173.
Martin, E. W. Some thoughts on mainstreaming. Exceptional
Children, 1974, 4J_, 150-153.
Mattsson, K. D. Personality traits associated with effec
tive teaching in rural and urban secondary schools.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 1974, 66, 123-128.
McMillian, D. L., Jones, R. L., & Meyers, C. E. Mainstreaming
the mildly retarded: Some questions, cautions and
guidelines. Mental Retardation, 1976, 14, 3-10.


DEDICATION
This dissertation is dedicated to the memory of my
mother who taught me to value an education and instilled in
me a love for teaching and children.


51
This study was limited in that there was no control or
comparison group. Also, Schmid and Scranton (1972) did not
discuss the reliability or validity of the measures they
used.
Lee (1970) conducted a study designed to investigate
and evaluate the effectiveness of sensitivity training in
an inservice training program in human relations for class
room teachers. Subjects were 51 volunteer public elementary
school teachers. All grade levels were represented in all
three groups.
In this pretest-posttest control group design study,
subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups,
sensitivity training, classroom training and control. The
classroom group received 20 hours of instruction, demon
stration, and discussion on the principles of human relations.
The control group received no training during the study.
The sensitivity group received training in two T-groups.
These subjects received 20 hours of intensive interpersonal
sensitivity training aimed at increased self-actualization
and human relations skills.
Five dependent measures were obtained for the three
groups. These measures were: pre-post data from records
of teacher absenteeism and student absenteeism, during the
semester in which the study took place; pre-post scores on
the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI); pre-post
scores on a Q-sort instrument designed to measure correlat
tions between subjects' perception of their real and ideal


Article
Subjects
Treatment
Kasdon &
Kelly, 1969
Post-test
only
control
design
96 elementary
teachers by a
stratified
random process
96 elementary
pupils random
ly selected
from teachers
class
1)Simulation
activities to
teach aware
ness of ins
tructional
levels of pu
pils in class
2) time of
training
Table 6 extended
Measures
Teacher aware
ness of instru
ctional read
ing level by
testing stu
dent with
Standard Read
ing Inventory
& Compare with
readability
of reading
text
Results
1) There were
significant
differences
between con
trol 8c group
2)Time of
training made
a difference
3)No differ
ence between
primary and
intermediate
Criticisms
Measured effec
tiveness of
training in only
one area.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to express sincere appreciation to the
members of her doctoral committee, Dr. Ronald Nutter, Dr.
Charles Forgnone, Dr. Robert Algozzine, Dr. Mary Lou Koran
and Dr. James Hale. Their help and advice during this study
and the entire doctoral program are greatly appreciated.
A sincere thank you goes to Dr. Ronald Nutter for his
friendship and professional guidance which endured through
out the entire doctoral program. Dr. Robert Algozzine is
extended a special thank you for his continual confidence,
encouragement and guidance.
The writer wishes to express gratitude to Walt Mickler
and his staff at the Area Regional Resource Center; especially
Mary Blase. Their interest and cooperation made this study
possible. A debt of gratitude must be acknowledged to the
teachers who participated in this study.
The author is extremely grateful to her in-laws, Marian
and Burch McAdams. Without their help, which was above and
beyond the call of duty, this work would not have been possible.
With gratitude, the writer wishes to acknowledge the im
pact that her father and stepmother, Sam and Nelda Watson,
had on her ultimately accomplishing this goal. They have
always provided love, encouragement, and confidence.
iv


7 4
Table 7
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
ID/PP Knowledge Test
Pretest Posttest
Elementary X = 13.93 X r 26.97
S r 4.33 S = 4.92
Secondary X = 12.14 X = 22.21
S : 3.69 S = 6.91
Control X = 15.63 X = 14.79
S = 5.84 S = 5.42
Source
MS
df
F
PROB.
Between Subjects
Group
340.23
2
7.65
.00
Error
44.45
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
2728.53
1
261.51
.00
Group X Pretest/Posttest
580.90
2
55.67
.00
Error
10.43
73


23
more teacher contact, positive and negative evaluations, and
acquiescence. Results indicated that teacher attitudes sig
nificantly affected the distribution of contact, positive
and negative evaluations, and acquiescence. In addition,
five out of eight correlations between students predictions
and actual observations and between other students' predic
tions and actual observations were significantly positive.
Apparently, both recipient students and other students were
aware of behavioral expressions of their teachers' attitudes.
Silberman concluded that teachers' actions which express
their attitudes significantly alter the daily classroom ex
perience of recipient students.
Good and Brophy (1972) replicated and extended the work
by Silberman (1969). The subjects were nine first grade class
room teachers. The teachers were naive to the true purpose
of the experiment. In September each teacher was asked to
rank their students in order, according to the levels of
achievement expected. The Brophy-Good dyadic interaction
observation system (Brophy & Good, 1970) was used to make 16
observations of 2i hours each. After three months of class
room observations had been completed, the teachers completed
a questionnaire to determine for which students they felt
attachment, concern, indifference or rejection. The results
of this study supported Silberman's (1969) contention that
teachers' attitudes toward students correlate with differen
tial teacher behavior.


6
1. To what extent is anxiety level of teachers influ
enced by participation in inservice training?
2. To what extent are teachers' attitudes toward main-
streaming handicapped students influenced by par
ticipation in inservice training?
3. To what extent is teachers' knowledge regarding
informal diagnosis and prescriptive programming
influenced by participation in inservice training?
4. To what extent are teacher anxiety and teachers'
attitude toward mainstreaming handicapped students
related?
5. To what extent are teacher anxiety and knowledge
regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming related?
6. To what extent are teachers' attitudes toward main-
streaming handicapped students and teachers' know
ledge regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive
programming related?
Assumptions
For the purposes of this research, the following as
sumptions were made:
1. That there is a difference between groups which
do receive training in informal diagnosis and
prescriptive programming and those that do not
receive such training.
That the subjects that receive training and control
group members are similar in teaching skills.
2.


APPENDIX H
COVER LETTER TO CONTROL GROUP FOR PRETEST


155
Rist, R. Student social class and teacher expectations:
The self-fulfilling prophecy in ghetto education.
Harvard Educational Review, 1970, 4_0, 411-451.
Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. Pygmalion in the Classroom.
New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1968.
Rowe, M. B. Science, silence, and sanctions. Science and
Children, 1969, 6, 11-13.
Rubin, L. A field-based research agenda. In L. Rubin (ed.),
The Inservice Education of Teachers: Trends, Processes
and Prescriptions. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1978.
Rubovits, P. C., & Moehr, M. C. Pygmalion black and white.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973,
25, 210-218.
Rude, C. R. Trends and priorities in inservice training.
Exceptional Children, 1978, 4, 172-176.
Saettler, H. Current priorities in personnel preparation.
Exceptional Children, 1976, 43^, 147-176.
Salvia, J., & Ysseldyke, J. E. Assessment in Special and
Remedial Education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
1978.
Sarason, S. B., Lighthall, F. F., Davidson, K. S., Waite,
R. R., & Ruebush, B. K. Anxiety in Elementary School
Children. New York: John Wiley, I960.
Schmid, R., & McAdams, M. Inservice education. In A. H.
Fink and C. Kokaska (eds.), Career Education for the
Behavior Disordered. Reston, VA: Council for Excep
tional Children, 1981.
Schmid, R., & Scranton, T. R. A field-trial of the longitu
dinal inservice training model. Education, 1972, 93.
195-198.
Selye, H. The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw-Hill.
1956.
Shotel, J. R., lao, R. P., & McGettigan, J. F. Teacher
attitudes associated with the integration of hancicapped
children. Exceptional Children, 1972, 38, 677-683.
Siantz, J. A review of inservice education: Models, methods,
results and implications for practitioners. In N. L.
Kaye and L. C. Burrello, Training Manual on Inservice
for Regular Education Personnel. In Press.


10
Limitations
One limitation of this study is that subjects who re
ceived the inservice training were volunteers. This limits
the generalizability of the study to similar populations.
A second limitation of this study is the differences
in trainers. Although the persons who conducted the in-
service activities had specific training on how to conduct
inservice training, differences in their facilitative styles
and personalities could have effected the impact of the
training package. Different trainers using the same training
package may not have the same effect.


93
Results of the first analysis indicated that scores on
the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and the Teaching
Anxiety Scale were not useful in predicting scores on the ID/
PP knowledge test. The results of the second analysis indi
cated that scores on the Teaching Anxiety Scale and ID/PP
knowledge test were not useful in predicting scores on the
Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale. The results of the
third analysis indicated that scores on the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale and the ID/PP knowledge test were not
useful in predicting scores on the Teaching Anxiety Scale.
Results of the fourth and fifth analyses indicated that
placing years of teaching experience in the models did not
result in useful predictions. However, results of the sixth
analysis indicated that scores on the Attitudes Toward Main-
streaming Scale and the ID/PP knowledge test plus years of
teaching experience were useful in predicting scores on the
Teaching Anxiety Scale. The Bonferonni procedure was used
as a follow-up of the overall pretest. Results from this pro
cedure indicated that number of years of teaching experience
was useful in predicting scores on the Teaching Anxiety Scale
when the other variables were held constant. The other vari
ables were not useful in predicting the Attitudes Toward Main-
streaming Scale scores.
Results of the seventh and eighth analyses indicated
that placing number of credit hours completed in special edu
cation courses in the models did not result in useful predic
tions. The results of the ninth analysis, however, indicated


20
and control groups. The experimental group showed a signi
ficantly higher gain on the intelligence test than the con
trol group. Although there has been much criticism of this
study (Claiborn, 1969; Jensen, 1969; Snow, 1969; Thorndike,
1968), it was the impetus for research on the effects of
teacher expectancies and self-fulfilling prophecies.
Although investigators have induced expectancies in some
research studies, the most relevant research in the expectancy
area comes from investigations involving naturally occurring
expectancies and their effects on the classroom environment
(Brophy & Good, 1974; Curran, 1977). One of the first stu
dies to utilize naturalistic expectancies was conducted by
Palardy (1969). In the middle of the school year, forty-
two first grade teachers completed and returned a question
naire. Based on one item designed to elicit teacher beliefs
about reading success of first grade boys, teachers were
divided into three groups. Results of the Ginn Pre-Reading
Test, which had been administered in late September, indi
cated there were no differences in reading readiness between
the girls and the boys at the beginning of the school year.
Toward the end of the school year the teachers administered
the reading section of the Stanford Achievement Test to their
107 students. These scores indicated that boys whose teachers
expected them to perform less well than girls did obtain lower
scores. Likewise, higher achievement was demonstrated by
boys whose teachers expected them to perform as well as the
girls.


67
Design
This study utilized a quasi-experiemntal, field-based
approach. The design used is a non-equivalent control group
design. According to Campbell and Stanley (1963), notation
of the design is depicted as
OX.O
OXgO
0 0
In this design "X^" is the elementary group that re
ceived AO hours of ID/PP training and a three-week practicum
The secondary group that recieved 40 hours of ID/PP training
and a three-week practicum is depicted by "Xg." The depend
ent variables are represented by "0." The control group re
ceived no training.
Campbell and Stanley (1963) discuss eight potential
threats to internal validity. These are testing, history,
maturation, instrumentation, regression, mortality, selec
tion and selection interactions. In this study, testing,
history, maturation and instrumentation were not considered
problems since the experimental and control groups completed
the same questionnaires with the same instructions at approx
imately the same time. Regression was not a threat since
subjects were not selected based on any type of scores.
Mortality was higher in the control group than in the
other two groups, thus causing a threat to internal validity
To counteract the possibility of mortality in the control
group, members were offered an incentive to participate.
The incentive was a chance in a drawing for $50 worth of
instructional or informational materials of the winner's


38
also suggested that teacher attitudes are more likely to be
influenced by school-based inservice education.
Brimm and Tollett (1974) conducted a statewide study
in Tennessee to ascertain teacher attitudes toward inservice
education programs using a questionnaire. Fifty-five per
cent of the teachers surveyed preferred that inservice ac
tivities be conducted in their own school setting.
In 1975, a two-and-a-half-day workshop to reconcep
tualize inservice education was sponsored by the National
Education Association (NEA). The 87 participants at that
workshop generated recommendations for inservice (Johnson,
1975). One of the recommendations of that group was that
inservice education should be field-based.
Evaluation should be built into inservice activities.
This practice was mentioned in eight of the thirteen selec
tions reviewed (Allshouse & Ondell, 1979; Brimm & Tollett,
1974; Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Hutson, 1979; King, Hayes
& Newman, 1977; Siantz, in press; Texas Education Agency,
1978; Wilen & Kindsvatter, 1978). Havelock and Havelock
(1973) developed 15 summary statements on principles of good
training. They proposed that these statements could serve
as a guide and checklist for the trainer or training program
developer. One statement stresses the importance of evalua
tion in training.
After reviewing material on the development of inservice
education, Allshouse and Ondell (1979) identified ten com
ponents which contribute to effective inservice education


44
can be applied and used by participants,
the acquisition of knowledge or increase of
awareness of new developments in.the field
will effect little change in behavior, (p. 7)
Havelock and Havelock (1973) stress that transfer of
inservice objectives to the classroom must be accomplished
before any inservice program may be deemed successful,
o') Inservice should be offered at convenient times for
the participants. This practice was mentioned in five of
the thirteen selections reviewed (Andrews, 1980, Johnson,
1975; King et al., 1977; Wilen & Kindsvatter, 1978; Zigarmi
et al., 1977)- The consensus of investigators was that in-
service activity should be built into the regular school day
if possible. If not, then care should be taken to schedule
the activity at times convenient and attractive to the teachers.
Trainers should be trained specifically in how to con
duct and plan inservice in general. This practice was men
tioned in five of the thirteen selections reviewed (Andrews,
1980; Havelock & Havelock, 1973; Hutson, 1979; Lippett &
Fox, 1971; Siantz, in press). It was commonly agreed that
the fact that one is a college professor, administrator, or
lives more than 200 miles from the inservice site does not
automatically qualify them to conduct inservice activities.
Administrators should be involved with the training and
fully support it. This practice was mentioned in six of the
thirteen selections reviewed (Andrews, 1980; Brimm & Tollett,
1974; Hutson, 1979; Johnson, 1975; Lippett & Fox, 1971,
Siantz, in press). According to the participants of the NEA
workshop (Johnson, 1975), inservice should include all school


4
instruction has been identified as an area of need (Alberto
et al., 1978; Graham et al., 1980; Hudson et al., 1979;
Voeltz et al., 1979)- To individualize their instructional
programs, teachers need to have basic skills in identifying
where a child is functioning (informal diagnosis) and be
able to take that information and develop an instructional
plan for the child (prescriptive programming). In Rude's
(1978) study of the Comprehensive System of Personnel Develop
ment (CSPD) section of 1978 Annual Program Plans, programming
was the top priority for needed training. Child evaluation
procedures were ranked fourth in the highest priorities of
needed training topics nationwide.
Research in the area of inservice education is needed.
In particular, determining the effectiveness of inservice
training which teaches individualization techniques to teachers
through teaching informal diagnosis and prescriptive pro
gramming skills appears warranted. Attention should also be
paid to the effects of training on areas which are known to
influence the effectiveness of teachers, such as teacher an
xiety and teacher attitude.
Statement of the Problem
The importance of inservice education for all instruc
tional staff is recognized throughout the educational litera
ture. This recognition is evidenced by articles in popular
periodicals, textbooks, research studies and special publi
cations (Childress, 1969). Although much has been written
about inservice teacher education, the literature provides


88
correlation of over .85. For purposes of this study, .65
was viewed as significant and practical.
None of the correlations between the dependent variables
and each other were significant for the total group or any
individual group. In reviewing the results shown in Table
Vi, there is one correlation of practical importance for all
three groups. That is the correlation between the pretest
and posttest scores on the Teaching Anxiety Scale.
There were no significant relationships indicated in
Table 15 for the elementary group alone. In reviewing the
results in Table 16 for the secondary group alone, there are
two correlations which could be considered of practical im
portance. These two correlations are between the pretest and
posstest scores on the Teaching Anxiety Scale and the pre
test and posttest scores on the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming
Scale.
In reviewing the results shown in Table 17, there are
three correlations which indicate a significant relationship
for the control group. These correlations are between the
pretest and posttest scores on the three dependent variables.
In summary, there were significant relationships found
between pretest and posttest scores for (a) the total group
on the Teaching Anxiety Scale, (b) the secondary and control
groups on the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale, and (c)
the control group on the ID/PP knowledge test. Teacher an
xiety and teachers' attitude toward mainstreaming handicapped
students were not significantly related. Likewise, teacher


sg
anxiety and teachers' knowledge regarding informal diagnosis
and prescriptive programming were not significantly related.
The relationship between teachers' attitude toward mainstreaming
handicapped students and teachers' knowledge regarding informal
diagnosis and prescriptive programming was not significant.
Regression Analysis
A multiple regression procedure was used to predict the
scores on the posttest for each dependent variable. The
years of teaching experience and number of credit hours com
pleted in special education courses were included as indepen
dent variables. Analyses of nine models were conducted.
The first model was tested to determine if scores on
the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and the Teaching
Anxiety Scale were useful in predicting scores on the ID/PP
knowledge test. The second model was tested to determine if
scores on the Teaching Anxiety Scale and the ID/PP knowledge
test were useful in predicting scores on the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale. The third model was tested to determine
if scores on the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and
the ID/PP knowledge test were useful in predicting scores on
the Teaching Anxiety Scale. The fourth, fifth, and sixth
models were the same as the three above except that years of
teaching experience was added as an independent variable.
The seventh, eighth, and ninth models were the same as the
three above except number of credit hours in special education
courses was substituted for years of teaching experience.
Tables 18 to 20 contain prediction equations and a summary of
the analysis for the nine models tested.


APPENDIX G
PRACTICUM
INDIVIDUAL EDUCATION PLAN


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Within the last eight years the right to education
movement in the United States has made great strides. Land
mark court decisions have lead our Congressional leaders to
enact legislation providing for a free and appropriate edu
cation for all. Public Law {P. L.) 94-142, the Education for
All Handicapped Children Act, became law on November 29,
1975. It is now mandatory that all handicapped children
receive an education in the least restrictive environment.
Basically, least restrictive environment means that the
handicapped student should be placed in the most beneficial
learning situation for him/her; however, as much as possible
handicapped students should be integrated into regular pro
grams (Cole & Dunn, 1977). Least restrictive environment
is sometimes referred to as mainstreaming. Mainstreaming
refers to placing handicapped students into regular educa
tion programs, or the mainstream of education. The least
restrictive environment for some handicapped students may
be in the mainstream of education.
Students who previously have been isolated from the
nonhandicapped now will be receiving an education with them.
Thus, it is essential that the teachers who will be involved
in the mainstreaming classes be given adequate preparation
1


APPENDIX F
PRACTICUM
DAILY LESSON PLANS


APPENDIX C
TEACHING ANXIETY SCAL


58
Control
The following were considered controlled variables:
1. Public vs. private school teachers (only public
school teachers were included in this study).
2. Regular vs. special education teachers (only regular
education teachers were included in this study).
Intervening
The following were considered intervening variables:
1. Teacher personality.
2. Teacher competence prior to beginning of the study.
3. Philosophical agreement/disagreement with individu
alization.
4. Teacher motivation.
5. Academic degree held.
6. Age of teacher.
7. Years of teaching experience.
8. Sex of teacher.
9. Number of credit hours previously completed in
special education courses.
Instrumentation
A questionnaire comprised of three instruments and a
demographic data sheet was used in this study. The instru
ments measured knowledge about informal diagnosis and pre
scriptive programming, teacher anxiety and attitude toward
mainstreaming.
Knowledge
Knowledge about informal diagnosis and prescriptive
programming was measured by using a test developed as part


69
so that three sections were alternated in their order. The
fourth section, the demographic page, was always last. With
the TCHAS as A, the ATMS as B, the ID/PP knowledge test as
C, and the demographic data sheet as D, the following com
binations of tests were distributed at random:
A B C A B C
B C A C A B
C A B B C A
D D D D D D
This procedure was used to minimize the order effect on the
different measures.
Data were collected twice during this study. Question
naires were distributed to the experimental groups prior to
the beginning of training on the first day of the five-day
workshop. Subjects were given approximately 45 minutes to
complete the questionnaire. Subjects were requested to put
the last four digits of their Social Security number on each
section of the questionnaire. To ensure that subjects re
mained anonymous, they were not required to put their names
on their questionnaires .
Posttest measures were obtained from the experimental
groups on the last day of the practicum. The same test pro
cedures were used as described earlier except that the demo
graphic data sheet was not included in the posttest measures.
On the first day of the workshop pretests were
mailed to 120 randomly selected teachers with a cover letter
(see Appendix H). Stamped and self-addressed return enve
lopes were enclosed. Procedures regarding order of the


APPENDIX K
FOLLOW UP LETTER TO CONTROL
GROUP FOR POSTTEST


Table 19
Prediction Equations and Summary of Regression Analysis for
ID/PP Knowledge Test, ATMS, TCHAS and Years of Teaching Experience
Prediction Equation
df F P r2
y = 26.64 ,10x + .03x .11x
ID/PP ATMS TCHAS Exper-
Knowledge ience
Test
3 1.00 .39 .04
y = 44.91 ,2?x + .20x .05x
ATMS ID/PP TCHAS Exper-
Knowledge ience
Test
3 1.90 .14 .07
y = 46.64 + ,22x + .09x .40x
TCHAS ATMS ID/PP Exper-
Knowledge ience
Test
3 2.88 .04 .11


Table 14
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for Demographic Data and
Dependent Variables for All Subjects
Group
Degree
Exper
ience
Hours
Pre
ID/PP
Post
ID/PP
Pre
ATMS
Post
ATMS
Pre
TCHAS
Post
TCHAS
Group
Degree
.12
Exper
ience
.05
.38
Hours
.25
.16
.02
Pre
ID/PP
. 1 1
.06
-. 15
.27
Post
ID/PP
-.63
-.11
-.11
-.07
.38
Pre
ATMS
. 12
-.11
-07
-.23
-.02
-.11
Post
ATMS
. 18
-. 10
-.07
-. 10
-.05
-.15
.56
Pre
TCHAS
.05
-.07
-.23
-.24
-.03
.09
. 14
.06
Post
TCHAS
.04
-.16
-.25
-.26
-.05
.05
.16
.21
.79


Mean Score on ID/PP Knowledge Test
81
Figure 1. Interaction of Group and Pretest/Posttest
Legend: *Elementary
OSecondary
XControl


8
and/or equipment are required. Children may be
classified as exceptional because of intellectual,
physical, and/or behavioral and/or sensory reasons.
The term handicapped is more restrictive than the
term exceptional in that it does not include the
gifted (Meyen, 1978).
5. KnowledgeTeachers' knowledge about informal diag
nosis and prescriptive programming is operationally
defined as the subject's score on the Informal
Diagnosis and Prescriptive Programming Test (Mid
west Regional Resource Center, 1975).
6. MainstreamingThe practice of educating handi
capped children in regular classrooms and the provi
sion of support services when necessary. The prac
tice is gaining wide popularity in meeting educational
needs of the mildly handicapped (Meyen, 1978).
7 Informal Diagnosis and Prescriptive Programming
(ID/PP ) A training package developed by the Mid
west Regional Resource Center (MRRC). This 40 hour
activity-based training package includes ten modules:
1 Identifying the Problem
2. Task Analysis
3. Error Pattern Analysis
4. Systematic Modifications
5. Setting Priorities
6. Behavioral Objectives
Learning Methods
7.


22
first grade teachers were asked to rank their students in
the order of their achievement. In each class, the three
highest girls and the three highest boys on the list, along
with three boys and three girls low on the list were selected
for observational study. Two observers using an observation
system developed to investigate only the dyadic contacts be
tween the teacher and an individual child observed two after
noon and two morning sessions of each class. The teachers
were naive to the true purpose of the study. The results
indicated that teachers were more likely to accept poor per
formance from low expectation students. Teachers demanded
better performance for high expectation students, awarded
them significantly more praise, and gave them significantly
less criticism for both behavior and incorrect answers.
Not all studies involving effects of teacher expectancies
have utilized an expectancy/self-fulfilling prophecy para
digm. Results of these investigations, however, also support
the effects of teacher attitudes.
Silberman (1969) investigated the ways and extent teachers
attitudes toward their students are revealed in the class
room behavior of the teacher. Subjects were ten third grade
teachers from five suburban communities. Teachers were inter
viewed to determine toward which students they felt attach
ment, concern, indifference or rejection. These four students
and two randomly selected control students were then observed
for 20 hours. The students were then interviewed to deter
mine whether they or each of the other five students received


53
inservice program assigned reading
materials more appropriate for their
instructional reading levels than
pupils of teachers who did not
participate?
2) Does the time of the school year
when an inservice program is
scheduled make a difference in
its effectiveness?
3) Are those who teach grades two and
three more aware of pupils' in
structional reading levels than
those who teach grades four and
five? (p. 79)
A three-group posttest-only control group type of re
search design was used in this study. Subjects were selected
by a stratified random process and then assigned to the
three groups by a stratified random process. The 96 class
room teachers were from a single middle-class suburban
school system. A pupil sample was selected randomly from
the classes of the teacher sample--one pupil from each class.
The three groups used in the study were a control group,
which received no training during the study, and the two
treatment groups. Both treatment groups received the same
training utilizing simulation techniques to provide teachers
with a knowledge of and the ability to administer an informal
reading inventory in order to select more accurate reading
materials appropriate for their pupils' instructional reading
levels in their classrooms. One group, however, received
training in the summer just prior to the beginning of the
school year, the other group was trained in the fall after
school had started.
The dependent variable was teacher awareness of the
pupils' instructional reading level in the respective


72
Pearson correlation coefficients were computed for the
data collected from the demographic page of the pretest and
the scores on the ID/PP knowledge test, the Attitudes Toward
Mainstreaming Scale and the Teaching Anxiety Scale. Scores
from the pretest and posttest for the ID/PP knowledge test,
the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and the Teaching
Anxiety Scale were used.
Data from the posttest Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming
Scale, Teaching Anxiety Scale and ID/PP knowledge test were
analyzed using multiple regression analysis. First, the
scores from the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale and the
Teaching Anxiety Scale plus the years of teaching experience
were used to predict the ID/PP knowledge test scores. Scores
from the Teaching Anxiety Scale and the ID/PP knowledge
test plus the years of teaching experience were then used
to predict the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale scores.
Next, scores from the Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Scale
and the ID/PP knowledge test plus the years of teaching ex
perience were used to predict the Teaching Anxiety Scale
scores. These three analyses were then rerun with number
of credit hours completed in special education courses re
placing years of teaching experience. Alpha was set at .05
for all analyses.


99
Research on teacher anxiety and stress demonstrates
that it may have a negative influence on both the social
and emotional adjustments of students (Coates & Thoresen,
1976; Doyal & Forsyth, 1973; Koon, 1971; Moskowitz & Hayman,
1974; Washburne & Heil, 1960). Implementation of P. L. 94-142
has placed additional stress on regular classroom teachers
(Bensky, Shaw, Gouse, Bates, Dixon & Beane, 1980). Teacher
anxiety causes stress which leads to teacher burn-out (Miller,
1979; Sparks & Hammond, 1981). Although no national figures
are available on the number of teachers affected by burn
out, it is recognized as a major problem in education today
(Bensky et al., 1980; Sparks & Hammond, 1981; Weiskopf, 1980).
Burn-out costs the educational system money and quality
personnel.
Regular education teachers perceive a need for inservice
training. Results of needs assessment studies indicate that
regular classroom teachers lack confidence in their ability
to teach handicapped students (Baker & Gottlieb, 1980; Gick-
ling & Theobald, 1975; Shotel, Iano & McGettigan, 1972).
It might appear that our present-day economy has placed
educators in a situation where they must come to grips with
the reality that fiscal resources are limited in education.
Furthermore, proposed cuts in the Federal budget have the
potential to impact inservice education. If less money is
provided for personnel preparation in special education,
as is now proposed, more regular teachers will be placed in
the role of educating the handicapped. Programmatic budget


79
Table 12
Means, Standard Deviations and Analysis
of Variance Summary Table for
Teaching Anxiety Scale
Pretest Posttest
Elementary X = 54.59 X 52.86
S = 11.79 S = 11.72
Secondary 3T = 61.89 X = 59.89
S = 14.74 S = 12.65
Control X = 55.11 X = 53.16
S = 13.20 S = 15.22
Source
MS
df
F
PR0B.
Between Subjects
Group
870.28
2
2.83
.07
Error
307.94
73
Within Subjects
Pretest/Posttest
134.53
1
3.57
.06
Group X Pretest/Posttest
0.30
2
0.01
.99
Error
37.68
73
Note: Range of possible scores is 29 to 145.


37
Table 5
Criticisms of Best Practice Literature
1. Specific procedures used to arrive at conclusions/
recommendations not included.
2. Does not answer the question, do the conclusions apply
equally to inservice programs involving urban, sub
urban, rural, secondary, and elementary teachers
(Cruikshank et al., 1979).
3. Specific procedures for determining studies to in
clude not provided.
4. Survey research that does not specify return rate.


CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
This review of the literature begins with a discussion
of a theory of stages of concerns of teachers which suggests
there are differences between inservice and preservice tea
chers. Two attributes which affect inservice teachers' ef
fectiveness are then discussed, teacher anxiety and teacher
attitudes. Finally, a critical review of inservice educa
tion literature which supported 16 best practice statements
is presented.
Stages of Concerns of Teachers
Corono and Clark (1978) point out that we will receive
the dividends we expect to get from inservice training only
when it is specifically designed to serve the system of which
it is a part. They point out that most research and develop
ment efforts in teacher education have been aimed at pre
service practice.
Why is it important to look at preservice teacher edu
cation differently? One reason for this may be that inservice
teachers have different concerns than preservice teachers.
In the 1960's, Francis Fuller began looking at the dif
ferences between preservice and inservice teachers due to the
widespread opinion that education courses are not relevant
to the needs of teachers. She proposed that preservice


Table 4 extended
Author
Subjects
Procedures
Results
Criticisms
Best Practices
Havelock &
Havelock
1973
Opinion
Based on a
model for
inservice
Doesn't
specify
group applies
to (2)
2, 4, 5, 7, 8,
11, 13
Johnson
1975
87
participants
Group lists
were compiled
from partici
pant attending
workshop on
rethinking
inservice
List of
recommenda
tions
Doesn't
specify pro
cedures ( 1 ) ;
Doesn't
specify group
applies to
(2)
1, 3, 7, 8, 10,
12, 16
King, Hayes
& Newman
1977
1300 inservice
programs
Survey re
search des
criptions of
programs were
analyzed
Arrived at 7
distinct pro
cesses common
to successful
programs;list t
of recurring
descriptors
for success
ful programs
Doesn't
specify
procedures to
arrive at con
clusions (1);
Doesn't spe
cify group
applies to (2)
2, 7, 8, 9, 10,
13, 14, 16
Lippett &
Fox
1971
Opinion chap
ter in text
Based on
literature
review by
author ear
lier in text
Doesn't spec
ify group
applies to (2)
3, 7, 11, 12,
16
Zigarimi,
Betz &
Jensen
1977
1239 teachers
from SD random
sample repre
senting every
school
Survey re
search questior
naire on types
of inservice
received &
usefulness
of those
activities
Some of the
methods used
most often were
seen as less
helpful;2-week
workshop one
considered
most helpful
Doesn't spec
ify group ap
plies to (2);
Doesn't spec
ify return
rate (4)
1, 3, 7, 10,
14, 16


96
Results of the Pearson Product moment correlations show
that there were no significant correlations between teacher
anxiety, teachers' attitudes toward mainstreaming and knowledge
regarding informal diagnosis and prescriptive programming.
The results of the multiple regression procedure indicate
that the scores on any dependent variable are not predicted
by the scores on the other dependent variables. Number of
credit hours completed in special education courses and num
ber of years of teaching experience were good predictors of
teacher anxiety.


Finally, to the author's husband, Hal, and son, David,
she expresses deepest appreciation and eternal gratitude for
their sacrifice, love, patience and unrelenting faith during
this entire endeavor. Without their support, this goal would
never have been accomplished.
v