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The relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction as reported by community college presidents

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The relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction as reported by community college presidents
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Evans, Gilbert Lee
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viii, 174 leaves : ; 29 cm.

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Boards of trustees ( jstor )
Climatology ( jstor )
College presidents ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Community colleges ( jstor )
Job satisfaction ( jstor )
Organizational communication ( jstor )
Perceptual organization ( jstor )
Professional communication ( jstor )
Professional development ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Leadership -- UF ( lcsh )
Educational Leadership thesis, Ph. D ( lcsh )
City of Palatka ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1996.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 167-173).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gilbert Lee Evans.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
AND JOB SATISFACTION AS REPORTED BY
COMMUNITY COLLEGE PRESIDENTS


















By

GILBERT LEE EVANS, JR.






















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1996















ACKNOWLEDGMENT


I would first like to thank almighty God for allowing

me to complete this task. If it had not been for Him, I

would not have made it. To my major professor, Dr. David

Honeyman, thanks for always being there to assist. To my

church family, The House of God Church, thanks for your

prayers and support. To my mother and father, Gilbert, Sr.

and Ernestine Evans, thanks for being the greatest parents

in the world. To my brothers, Maurice and Darryle, thanks

for being so understanding.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

LIST OF TABLES .


v


ABSTRACT . vii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION .. 1


Purpose
Rationale
Definition of Terms
Significance of Study
Limitation .

2 LITERATURE REVIEW


Job Satisfaction .. 13
Job Satisfaction Theories ... 14
Organizational Climate 26
Organizational Climate Theories ... 27
Factors Under Investigation That Influence
Job Satisfaction 39
Factors Under Investigation That Influence
Organizational Climate 45
The American Community College ... 52
The Role and Profile of the Community
College President .. 59
Additional Factors that May Affect Job
Satisfaction and Climate for Community
College Presidents ... 63
Summary .. 66

3 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 69

Methodology .. .. 70


. 77


Summary .










4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

Survey Responses .
Community College Presidents' Profile
Research Question 1 .
Research Question 2 .
Research Question 3 .
Research Question 4 .
Research Question 5 .
Summary .

5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .


. 78

. 79
. 80
. 84
. 92
. 102
. 113
. 118
. 120

. 124


Conclusions . .
Recommendations .
Summary . .

APPENDICES

A ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR QUESTION 5 .

B ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR BOARDS OF TRUSTEES .

C SURVEY INSTRUMENT .

D COVER LETTER

REFERENCES

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . .


125
132
137















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Community College Presidents:
Distribution by Gender ... 80

2 Community College Presidents:
Distribution by Ethnic Origin ... 80

3 Community College Presidents: Distribution
by Gender and Ethnic Origin ... 81

4 Community College Presidents: Distribution
by classification of Community College 83

5 Community College Presidents: Distribution
by Number of Years of Experience as Chief
Administrator .. 83

6 Community College Presidents: Distribution
by Current Position Title 84


7 Community College Presidents' Perceptions
of Organizational Climate: Frequency
Distributions 86

8 Community College Presidents' Perceptions
of Organizational Climate: Mean
Distributions .... 87

9 Community College Presidents' Perceptions
of Organizational Climate:
Correlation Table 88

10 Community College Presidents' Satisfaction
with Organizational Climate: Frequency
Distributions .. ... 94

11 Community College Presidents' Satisfaction
with Organizational Climate: Mean
Distributions ... 95









12 Community College Presidents' Satisfaction
with Organizational Climate:
Correlation Table .... 96

13 Community College Presidents' Overall
Satisfaction with College: Frequency and
and Mean Distributions .. 101


14 Importance of Job Satisfaction Variables
to Community College Presidents:
Frequency Distributions ... 103

15 Importance of Job Satisfaction Variables
to Community College Presidents:
Mean Distributions 104


16 Importance of Job Satisfaction Variables
to Community College Presidents:
Correlation Table 105

17 Community College Presidents' Overall
Satisfaction with Position: Frequency
and Mean Distributions .. 111

18 Community College Presidents' Overall
Satisfaction with Board of Trustees:
Frequency and Mean Distributions 112

19 Community College Presidents' Perception
of Significance of Board of Trustees:
Frequency and Mean Distributions ... 112

20 The Relationship Between Measures of
Job Satisfaction and Measures of
Organizational Variables 114

21 Summary of Significant Relationships Found
Between Organizational Climate Factors
and Job Satisfaction Variables 122















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of
the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
AND JOB SATISFACTION AS REPORTED BY
COMMUNITY COLLEGE PRESIDENTS

By

Gilbert Lee Evans, Jr.

December 1996

Chairman: Dr. David S. Honeyman
Major Department: Educational Leadership


The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature

of the relationship between measures of organizational

climate and measures of job satisfaction as perceived by

community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was

done to ascertain if there were significant differences in

means for job satisfaction within the context of

organizational climate when controlling for gender,

ethnicity, classification of the community college, and

number of years of experience as a college president. The

organizational climate factors used in this study were

internal communication, organizational structure, political

climate, professional development opportunities, evaluation,

promotion, and regard for personal concerns. The job








satisfaction variables included participation in decision-

making, power, relationships with peers, relationships with

subordinates, relationships with supervisors, salary,

benefits, and professional effectiveness.

All community college presidents who are members of the

American Association of Community Colleges were invited to

participate in the research survey. A copy of the survey

and a postage-paid return envelope were sent to all

potential subjects. The original survey used in this

research was derived from literature related to job

satisfaction and organizational climate.

Through a close analysis of the survey responses, it is

evident that several of the organizational climate factors

were significantly related to job satisfaction for community

college presidents. Those factors were regard for personal

concerns, internal communication, organizational structure,

and professional development opportunities. Furthermore,

the most important job satisfaction variable for community

college presidents was their relationship with the board of

trustees or supervisor.

One conclusion was drawn from the study: If boards of

trustees want to enhance the job satisfaction of presidents,

there must be a regard for their personal concerns, the

lines of communication must be open, the organizational

structure of the college must be followed, and opportunities

for professional development must be afforded.

viii















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


Until the 1930s, there was little interest in the study

of job satisfaction. Job performance and maximizing worker

output were the major areas of study (Wanous, 1976).

Interest developed when Elton Mayo and other researchers

conducted several experiments at the Western Electric

Hawthorne plant near Chicago, Illinois. The experiment was

designed to determine the optimum level of illumination in a

shop for maximum production. After the Hawthorne Studies

were completed, it was found that there was no direct,

simple relationship between the illumination level and the

production output of the workers (Lunenburg & Ornstein,

1991).

After the researchers pondered the surprising results

from the first experiments, the investigators sought to

answer other questions. What is the attitude of employees

toward their work and toward the company? Do employees

actually become tired? Are pauses for rest desirable? One

major finding was the realization that human variability is

an important determinant of productivity (Lunenburg &

Ornstein, 1991). The researchers learned that patterns

established among the workers influenced worker behavior











more than the deliberate controls imposed on the physical

working condition. This discovery questioned the previously

held belief that human workers behaved like machines,

therefore, there was only one way to do a given task

(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991; Roethlisberger & Dickson,

1939).

The Hawthorne Studies are considered one of the major

research experiments that contributed to the study of

employee motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore,

Mayo's studies revealed that perception and job satisfaction

among employees are factors that relate to job performance

(Mayo, 1933). As a result of these studies, the basis for

the human relations movement was established.

Zytowski (1968) defined job satisfaction as being

"proportionate to the degree that the elements of the job

satisfy the particular needs which the person feels most

strongly" (p. 399). Another definition of job satisfaction

is a person's attitude or emotional response (either

positive or negative) toward his or her place of work (Beck,

1990; McCormick & Ilgen, 1980; Nkereuwem, 1990). In recent

years, much research has been done on job satisfaction, and

it is evident that the issue of job satisfaction is

extremely difficult to understand. Situations,

organizational change and culture, and individuals are all

critical elements that are related to one's understanding of

job satisfaction.










The idea of job satisfaction in accordance with

organizational climate theory also has been researched.

Organizational climate refers to the personality of an

organization. Climate is an accumulation of intangible

perceptions that individuals have of various aspects of the

work environment of an organization (Deas, 1994; Owen, 1991;

Steers & Porter, 1975). Organizational climate also can be

defined as the characteristics of the total environment

(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). In Educational

Administration: Concepts and Practices (1991), an

organizational climate comprises four dimensions as follow:

1. I- refers to the physical and material

factors in the organization.

2. Milieu is the social dimension in the

organization.

3. Social system to the organizational and

administrative structure of the organization.

4. Culture refers to the values, belief systems,

norms, and ways of thinking that are characteristic of the

people in the organization.

Terms often used to describe organizational climate

include (a) open, (b) warm, (c) easygoing, (d) informal, (e)

cold, (f) hostile, (g) rigid, or (h) closed (Lunenburg &

Ornstein, 1991).

Some research has been done on the relationship between

job satisfaction theory and organizational climate theory in











the context of education. Job satisfaction and

organizational climate theories differ in education from

those of business and industry. In education, the focus is

on teaching and learning and student outcomes while business

and industry emphasize production and profit. Increased

attention about how organizational climate and job

satisfaction relates to institutional effectiveness,

however, has developed in light of recent criticisms

involving quality and accountability in education (Report of

the Wingspread Group of Higher Education, 1993). Through a

close examination of the quality of education in the United

States now, it is evident that new and creative ways for

dealing with higher learning are needed. The organizational

climate at Palomar Community College was assessed by Barr

(1988). The college believed that a better understanding of

organizational climate would provide a basis for improving

productivity, motivation, and satisfaction on the workers'

part in the organization. Therefore, specific research

within the context of organizational climate in

postsecondary education is timely, needed, and appropriate

(Barr, 1988).

The community college continues to be the most

important higher education innovation of the 20th century

(Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, & Suppiger, 1994). The

mission of this segment of higher education is teaching and

learning. Community college leaders are making strides to











improve the quality of education for students and to enhance

job satisfaction not only for faculty and staff but also for

administration. By the year 2000, there will be a need at

the community college level for outstanding leadership that

promotes job satisfaction and encourages an open and warm

organizational climate (Vaughan, 1989). The most successful

community colleges of the 21st century will be those that

promote shared leadership, needs assessment, accountability,

teaching, involvement, continuous learning, and job

satisfaction; they will not need strict governance, control,

and centralized decision-making (Alfred & Carter, 1993;

Vaughan, 1986).

The success of any community college will depend to

some degree on the president. The college president is

responsible for seeing that the institution is managed

effectively and efficiently. The function of the president

is three-fold. He or she manages the institution, creates

the campus climate along with the board of trustees and

interprets and communicates the institution's mission

(Vaughan, 1989; Lee & VanHorn, 1983). The college president

must demonstrate through words and deeds that an educational

institution's reason for existence is the discovery,

examination, analysis, organization, and transfer of

knowledge (Vaughan, 1989).

Specifically, at any given community college, the

president is responsible for all aspects of the community











college program. He or she serves as the liaison between

the board of trustees and the administration, faculty,

staff, and students. He or she is responsible for the

development of the instructional program of the college.

Furthermore, his or her responsibility also includes budget

preparation, personnel administration, public relations,

legislative liaison, and overall supervision of the total

community college program (Florida Community College

Handbook, 1995).

The community college president is usually held in high

esteem. Faculty, administration, and students look to him

or her for guidance and direction. Furthermore, the board

of trustees depends on the president to execute all laws and

rules. Therefore, many difficult issues face the president

on a day-to- day basis, such as hiring and firing, tenure

and promotion, equity and accountability, and interpretation

of climate by others--just to name a few. Consequently, the

responsibilities of the president have intensified and

become more complex (Walker,1979; Vaughan, 1989). The

American Council on Education reported that nationally there

is an overwhelming turnover of top level college

administrators. Some researchers believed that it is due to

job dissatisfaction, stress, and burnout. Turnover among

chief administrators at colleges is costly and is related to

job satisfaction (Glick, 1992; Vaughan, 1986).











Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature

of the relationship between measures of organizational

climate and measures of job satisfaction as applied to

community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was

to ascertain if there were significant differences in means

for job satisfaction within the context of organizational

climate when controlling for gender, ethnicity,

classification of the community college, and number of years

of experience as a college president.

The research questions are as follows:

1. How do community college presidents perceive

organizational climate at their respective institutions,

using a set of seven identified factors for climate?

2. Using the same seven climate factors as an index,

how satisfied are community college presidents with the

organizational climate at their respective institutions?

3. How important is each of eight identified job

satisfaction variables to community college presidents in

the performance of their specific job responsibilities?

4. For each of eight job satisfaction variables, is

there a significant relationship between measures of job

satisfaction and a set of seven measures of satisfaction

with organizational climate, as reported by community

college presidents?











5. Is there a significant difference in the means of

eight job satisfaction variables for community college

presidents when compared by gender of the president, ethnic

origin of the president, classification of the community

college, and length of time served as a college

administrator?

Rationale

The relationship between job satisfaction and climate

applied to the industrial setting is well understood;

however, within the confines of education little is known

about this relationship. Community college presidents are

the chief administrators at a given institution. They are

responsible for the overall day-to-day operation of the

college. The president is the liaison between the board of

trustees and the college's administration, faculty, staff,

and students. The president's work affects the morale and

success of every staff person, and perhaps even the students

on campus. Learning more about the nature of the

relationship between climate and job satisfaction among

community college presidents may assist colleges in

understanding their perceptions of climate and enhance job

satisfaction for the college's chief administrator.











Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following

definitions are used:

Community college president is the chief administrator

at the institution. The president is responsible for the

daily operations of the college. This administrator serves

as the liaison between the board of trustees and the

college's administration, faculty, staff, and student body

(Vaughan, 1989; Vaughan, 1986).

Job satisfaction refers to a person's positive or

negative attitude or emotional response toward his or her

place of employment (Beck, 1990; McCormick & Ilgen, 1980).

Organizational climate refers to the perceptions of

participants of certain intangible aspects of the

environment or institution. It is the personality of an

organization (Deas, 1994; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

Significance of the Study

This study is significant for many reasons. First, the

expectation of individuals concerning their jobs is changing

drastically (Walker, 1979; Vaughan, 1989). Second, because

of the diversity and different needs and values of

individuals in the work force, it is important to ascertain

how they perceive job satisfaction and climate. Third, the

creation of a positive organizational climate is critical to

the success of an organization (Vaughan, 1989; Lee & Van

Horn, 1983). Fourth, because the community college











president is the chief administrator at a given institution,

his or her performance is critical to the success of every

individual and aspect of the institution. Fifth, the

"burnout" rate of community college presidents across the

country is at an all-time high (Vaughan, 1989). Finally,

little research has been conducted on how community college

presidents perceive organizational climate in their

respective institutions or how their perception may affect

their personal job satisfaction.

Because organizational climate plays a pivotal role in

determining job satisfaction for employees, the researcher

sought to increase the awareness of how climate affects job

satisfaction for community college presidents. Findings of

this study have advanced the body of knowledge by testing

the theoretical constructs of job satisfaction and

organizational climate as applied to community college

presidents, and by determining whether or not the model

previously developed applies to this sector of higher

education administration. The eight job satisfaction

variables were participation in decision-making, power,

relationship with peers, relationship with subordinates,

relationship with supervisor (board of trustees), salary,

benefits, and professional effectiveness. The seven

organizational climate factors were internal communication,

organizational structure, political climate professional









11

development opportunities, evaluation, promotion, and regard

for personal concerns.

Limitations

The following limitations are related to this study:

1. The study was limited to community college

presidents in the United States who report directly to a

board of trustees and who are members of the American

Association of Community Colleges (AACC).

2. The study focused only on organizational climate

and job satisfaction as perceived by community college

presidents.

















CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW


There was little interest in job satisfaction and

climate until the 1930s. Prior to this time, job

performance and maximizing worker output were the major

areas of concern and study (Wanous, 1976). Specifically,

interest developed when Elton Mayo and his associates

experimented at the Western Electric Hawthorne plant near

Chicago, Illinois. The Hawthorne Study, as it is called,

was one of the major research experiments that contributed

to the study of employee motivation and job satisfaction.

Furthermore, Mayo's studies revealed that perceptions and

job satisfaction among employees were factors that related

to job performance, and climate or social environment had a

significant influence on productivity and morale (Mayo,

1933). As a result of these studies, the basis for the

human relation movement was established. Moreover, the idea

of job satisfaction in accordance with organizational

climate theory has been researched since the 1960s. Several

researchers have confirmed that organizational climate does

affect job satisfaction in the work environment.











Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been defined by researchers in

various ways. Locke's (1976) definition of job satisfaction

was "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting

from the appraisal of one's job or job experience" (p.

1300). Zytowski (1968) defined job satisfaction as being

"proportionate to the degree that the elements of the job

satisfy the particular needs which the person feels most

strongly" (p. 399). Vroom (1982) defined it as "the

affective orientation of individuals toward work roles they

are presently occupying" (p. 99). There have been various

definitions for job satisfaction, and all of them have dealt

with how one perceived his or her job experience.

Elton Mayo and a group of his associates conducted

experiments at the Western Electric Hawthorne plant near

Chicago, Illinois. These experiments were designed to

determine the optimum level of illumination in a shop for

maximum production. After the study was completed, it was

found that there was no direct, simple relationship between

the illumination level and the production output of the

workers. Moreover, the researchers also ascertained that

human variability was an important determinant of

productivity (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). It was found that

norms established by workers influenced their behavior more

than deliberate controls imposed on the physical working











condition (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991; Roethlishberger &

Dickson, 1939).

The Hawthorne Studies were one of the major research

experiments that contributed to the study of employee

motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, Mayo's

studies revealed that perception and job satisfaction among

employees are factors that relate to job performance (Mayo,

1933). As a result of these studies, the basis for the

human relations movement was established.

Job Satisfaction Theories

Herzberq's Two-Factor Theory

Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959) developed a

concept about job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in The

Motivation to Work. This research was performed on more

than 200 male accountants and engineers in the state of

Pennsylvania (Herzberg et al, 1959). Herzberg and his

associates' hypothesis for the study was that factors

associated with job satisfaction are separate from factors

associated with job dissatisfaction.

Subjects in the experiment were asked to describe

instances during their employment that caused an increase

or decrease in their job satisfaction. Another question

asked of all participants was to give an example of when

they were extremely upset about their work place.

Through a close analysis of the data, Herzberg et al.

(1959) created their theory of job satisfaction, which was











called either the "Two-Factor Theory" or the "Motivation-

Hygiene Theory." The researchers found that there were two

sets of factors that determine job satisfaction (motivators)

and job dissatisfaction (hygienes). The motivators related

to the intrinsic aspect of the job, and the hygienes dealt

with the surrounding conditions of the job.

The six motivators for job satisfaction, as defined by

Herzberg, included the following:

1. Advancement dealt with the actual changes in the

status or position of an individual in an organization. It

also included the probability of or hope for advancement.

2. Achievement related to all events that lead toward

realization of the worker's personal objectives (successful

completion of a job, finding a solution to a problem, or

seeing the results of one's own work). The definition also

included the opposite--failure to achieve.

3. Recognition related to some act of praise, notice

(positive recognition) or blame (negative recognition)

toward the employee from the work environment (a peer,

professional colleague, supervisor, or the general public).

4. Work itself dealt with doing the actual job or

task as a source of good or bad feelings. It also referred

to the opportunity to complete an assigned unit or task.

5. Responsibility dealt with authority and included

those sequences of events in which the worker mentioned

satisfaction derived from being given responsibility for the










work or the work of others, or being given new

responsibility. Also included were those incidents in which

there was a loss of satisfaction from lack of

responsibility.

6. Possibility or growth referred to growth in

specific skill areas as well as growth in status which would

enable the individual to move onward and upward in a

company. This factor also encompassed the lack of

opportunity for growth (Herzberg, 1966, pp. 193-198).

The researchers also developed eight hygienes or

dissatisfiers. These eight hygienes as defined by Herzberg

(1966), included the following:

1. Salary related to all sequences of events in which

some type of compensation (wage or salary increase) plays a

role. Unfulfilled expectations to receive an expected

salary increase also were included in this category.

2. Working conditions dealt with the physical

conditions of work and the facilities available for

performing the work (adequate tools, space, lighting, or

ventilation).

3. Supervision-technical included those events in

which the competence or incompetence of the supervisor were

the critical factors. Statements concerning a supervisor's

willingness or unwillingness to delegate responsibility or

his or her willingness or unwillingness to instruct were

included.











4. Interpersonal relations dealt with actual

verbalization about the characteristics of the individual.

Three categories of interpersonal relations were specified -

those involving subordinates, those involving peers, and

those concerning supervisors.

5. Company policy and administration dealt with

factors in which some overall aspect of the company was

involved.

6. Status was the sequence of events in which the

respondent specifically mentioned that a change in status

(such as attaining a personal secretary) affected his or her

feelings about the job.

7. Personal life dealt with situations in which some

aspect of the job affected the individual's personal life in

such a manner that the respondent's feeling about his or her

job was affected (such as a family-opposed job transfer).

8. Job security described signs of job security, such

as continued employment, tenure, and financial safeguards

(Herzberg, 1966).

Herzberg et al. (1959) stated that it should be noted

that reversals in their theory are possible. Some of the

motivators could serve as hygiene elements, and some of the

hygienes could perhaps be motivators. After completing 12

experiments involving a random sample from 1,685 workers,

Herzberg (1968) ascertained that 81 percent of all factors

contributing to job satisfaction were motivators and that 69











percent of all factors contributing to job dissatisfaction

were hygiene elements.

Research has been done on the validity of the

Motivation-Hygiene Theory. In industrial psychology, it has

been the most replicated study of job satisfaction

(Grigaliuhas & Herzberg, 1971). Furthermore, Aebi (1973)

wrote that Herzberg's Theory has been tested more than 100

times.

Support for herzberg's two-factor theory

As previously mentioned, many researchers have tested

Herzberg's Theory, and they have found it to be beneficial.

Friedlander and Walton (1964) performed a study on 82

scientists and engineers. They found that employees'

reasons for remaining with an organization were not the

reciprocal reasons for their leaving an organization. It

was proven that reasons for staying on the job were truly

related to Herzberg's motivator factors, and the reasons for

leaving were closely parallel to the hygiene factors.

When the Two-Factor Theory was first tested on females

subjects, it proved to be workable (Herzberg, 1966). The

women tested were supervisors for government research.

Again, the motivators were determined to be job motivators

or job satisfiers. On the other hand, the hygiene factors

were mentioned as sources of dissatisfaction.

The theory also was applied to the educational

environment. Thomas (1977) reported evidence supporting the









19

theory in her study of community college administrators. As

already stated, the motivators were found to be significant

to job satisfaction. "The motivators include achievement,

work itself, responsibility, and recognition were mentioned

more often in positive than negative incidents. Conversely,

with the exception of salary, the hygiene factors, company

policy and administration, interpersonal relations, working

conditions, and supervision-technical were mentioned in

significantly more negative than positive incidents" (Kozel,

1979, p. 58).

Other studies done in support for the Herzberg Two-

Factor Theory were completed by Groseth (1978), Myers

(1964), and Schwartz, Jenusaitis, and Stark (1963).

Criticisms for herzberg's two-factor theory

Just as there was much support for the Motivator-

Hygiene Theory, there was also some criticism for the

theory. Aebi (1973) found more than 100 attempts to test

the significance of the study.

The three major criticisms that were evident in the

literature for the Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory are

as follows:

1. The researcher and his associates failed to address

overall job satisfaction (Ewen, Smith, Hulin, & Locke,

1966).

2. The results of the theory were bound by the methods

that Herzberg used (Soliman, 1970). Perhaps individuals









20

attributed satisfaction to their own achievements, and then

they could have even attributed their dissatisfaction to

factors within their work place instead of personal problems

(Thomas, 1977).

3. The random sample for the original experiment was

limited to only two occupations, engineers and accountants.

Some critics believed that a sample so small cannot be

generalized to the entire population. Pallaone, Hurley, and

Rickard (1971) stated, "The evidence supporting the two-

factor theory appears to have been derived from

investigations of workers in the old established

professions near the top of the socio-economic ladder" (p.

16).

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

The Hierarchy of Needs Theory developed by Abraham

Maslow (1954) was one of the most recognized theories that

dealt with job satisfaction. Maslow's theory is divided

into five levels of needs. These needs are as follows:

1. Physiological needs include hunger, thirst,

shelter, and sex (dependent on self).

2. Safety needs include protection from the elements

(dependent on self and others).

3. Feeling of belonging and love needs include love,

affection, and friends (dependent on self and other).

4. Esteem needs include self respect, positive self-

evaluation, and prestige (dependent on self and others).











5. Self-actualization means to become everything that

one is capable of becoming (measure up to our own criteria

of success).

Maslow believed that as the lower level needs were

meet, man would begin to move up the hierarchy. According

to Maslow (1954), man's ultimate goal was to become self-

actualized, which was becoming everything that one was

capable of becoming.

Consequently, there was little research to support

Maslow's beliefs. Because of his logical approach, his

theory has been accepted by many schools of thought.

Moreover, according to the literature, when the lower needs

are satisfied, the individual's job satisfaction is likely

to be greater.

Alderfer's E.R.G. Theory

Alderfer's Existence, relatedness, and growth (E.R.G.)

Theory is closely related to Maslow's theory. Clayton

Alderfer (1975) reduced Maslow's hierarchy from five

distinct parts to three. He concluded that all individuals

have three basic needs that they want satisfied. They are

(a) existence needs, (b) relatedness needs, and (c) growth

needs. Alderfer (1975) believed that needs are satisfied by

one's work. Alderfer's theory differs somewhat from

Maslow's in that he did not believe the levels were

hierarchical. He believed in interchangeability between

need levels.











Maslow's existence needs dealt with material

substances. Some examples given of existence needs were

food, water, pay, and shelter. Relatedness needs include

communication with one's self and others. Examples given of

relatedness needs were family, friends, and employers.

Growth needs were relevant to the environment and the

process through which the individual went to impress not

only himself or herself but also the environment. Just as

with Maslow's theory, little research has been conducted on

the Existence, Relatedness, and Growth Theory.

ExpectancV or V.I.E. Theory

Victor Vroom (1964) created the Expectancy Theory of

Job Satisfaction. Mitchell (1974) stated the premise of the

theory is as follows: "The strength of the tendency to act

in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectancy

that the act will be followed by a given consequence (or

outcome) and on the value or attractiveness of that

consequence (or outcome) to the actor."

(p. 1503). The theory involved four constructs: valence,

expectancy, instrumentality, and force. Valence is an

individual's perception of the value of the reward that

could be obtained by performing well. Instrumentality is

the extent to which an individual believed that one outcome

will lead to another outcome or reward. Instrumentality

varied from plus one to negative one (Lunenburg & Ornstein,

1991; Vroom, 1982). Expectancy represents an individual's









23

belief that his or her behavior will cause a certain outcome

or reward. Through a close analysis of the literature, it

can be concluded that Vroom's model asserted an employee's

satisfaction with his work results from the instrumentality

of the job for attaining other outcomes and the valence of

these outcomes (Thomas, 1977).


n






Vroom (1964) defined the expectancy theory as follows:

where:

V,= valence of outcome j,

Vk = valence outcome k,

n = number of outcomes,

Ik = perceived instrumentality of outcome

j for the attainment of outcome k (cited in

Mitchell, 1974, p. 1054).

Cornell Studies

This theory of Job Satisfaction was developed by Smith,

Kendall, and Hulin (1969). The researchers developed the

Job Satisfaction Index (J.S.I) which measured many aspects

of job satisfaction. The Cornell Studies concluded that

levels of satisfaction were associated with community

characteristics. Smith et al. (1969) listed 10 implications

of their strategy as follows:











1. An adequate model of satisfaction must take into

account interactive effects among variables.

2. Relationships between satisfaction and overt

behavior vary from situation to situation.

3. Relationships between satisfaction and behavior

cannot be reasonably expected unless the behavior can be

considered to be an appropriate means of expressing

satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

4. The manner in which questions are asked affects the

time perspective of the respondent, and therefore affects

the alternatives he or she considers.

5. Satisfaction is a product of other variables and

may or may not serve as a cause in itself.

6. A relationship may exist between satisfaction and

behavior since the same variables producing the satisfaction

might also produce the behavior, or changes in behavior may

act to change the situation and satisfaction.

7. The relationship between satisfaction and

performance will vary depending on the aspect of the job

being studied.

8. The importance of each aspect of the job situation

influences the individual's feeling of satisfaction.

Importance is considered to be a function of the discrepancy

between the existing situation and the alternatives

available.









25

9. Legitimacy, the group norms defining the legitimate

requirements for a job for a specified group, influences the

acceptance of a task and the attitude toward it.

10. It is, therefore, the interrelationship of objective

factors of the job, of individual capacities and experience,

of alternatives available in the company and the community,

and of the values of the individual that can be expected to

predict satisfaction and performance (cited in Kozel, 1979,

p. 47).

Equity Theory of Job Satisfaction

Many Equity theories have been formulated. However,

the Equity Theory of Adams (1965) is considered to be the

most substantial. This type of theory is closely related to

Vroom's Theory. The basis for the theory is that

individuals want an equitable reward for services rendered

on the job. It can be concluded from the study that

individuals want to be treated fairly in the work place. If

they are treated "equitably," they will be satisfied with

their jobs; if they are not treated equitably, then

dissatisfaction will result.

Today, when workers input personal sacrifice and effort

on the job, some of the expected outcomes are pay,

recognition, and status. When workers are part of the

decision-making processes, they are more likely to be

satisfied, which will cause them to make more sacrifices and

exercise more effort. Witt and Nye (1992) applied this









26

theory to different organizations. They found that equity

or fairness was a mark of job satisfaction. When it was not

perceived by employees, dissatisfaction was the result.

Organizational Climate

Organizational climate is defined as the personality of

an organization. Climate also is defined as an accumulation

of tangible perceptions that individuals have of various

aspects of the work environment or organization (Deas, 1994;

Owen, 1991; Steers & Porter, 1975; Chappell, 1995).

Organizational climate is defined as the characteristics of

the total environment (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

In Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices

(1991), an organizational climate is comprised of four

dimensions as follows:

1. Ecology refers to the physical and material

factors in the organization.

2. Milieu is the social dimension in the

organization.

3. Culture refers to the values, belief systems,

norms, and ways of thinking that are characteristic of the

people in the organization.

4. Social system refers to the organizational and

administrative structure of the organization.

Schneider and Snyder (1975) described climate as "a

characteristic of organizations that is reflected in the

descriptions employees make of the policies, practices, and










conditions which exist in the work environment" (p. 326).

Climate also has been described as the emotional atmosphere

of a particular organization. Recently, Deas (1994) defined

climate as "a collection of intangibles that support and

encourage all the players to work toward a common goal-

learning" (p. 44).

Terms often used to describe "organizational climate"

include (a) open, (b) warm, (c) easygoing, (d) informal, (e)

cold, (f) hostile, (g) rigid, or (h) closed (Lunenburg &

Ornstein, 1991).

According to Lunenburg and Orenstein (1991), "To

describe and assess the climate of a school requires (a) the

development of a clear concept of what the key factors are

in the interaction-influence system that determines climate,

(b) the creation of some method of collecting data that

describe these factors (usually a paper-and-pencil

questionnaire), and (c) a procedure by which the data may be

analyzed and, ultimately, displayed in a way that informs

us" (p. 186).

Organizational Climate Theories

The Organizational Climate Index

George C. Stern (1970) developed an approach to measure

or describe organizational climate. His basic rationale

resembled that of an earlier researcher named Lewin who

believed that individuals and groups in organizations must

be understood in the context of their interaction with the










environment (B=fP, E). This view is related to both person

and environment. Stern argued that efforts to assess the

climate of a given organization must measure both

characteristics of the individual and the environment or

surroundings (cited in Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

The basis for Stern's development of the Organizational

Climate Index (OCI) was best described in Educational

Administration: Concepts and Practices:


Stern, a psychologist, saw an analogy between human
personality and the personality
of the institution, and he drew on the much
earlier work of Henry A. Murry, who had
developed the concept of need-press as it
shaped human personality. Murry postulated
that personality is the product of dynamic
interplay between need, both internal and
external, and press, which is roughly equivalent
to the environmental pressures that lead
to adaptive behavior. Two questionnaires
instruments were devised to determine the
need-press factors Stern felt influenced the
development of climate in institutions of higher
education: the Activities Index (AI), which
assessed the need structure of individuals,
and the College Characteristics Index (CCI), which
probed the organizational press as experience by
persons in the organization. These two
questionnaires have been used on a number
of campuses, where they have helped researchers assess
organizational climate in higher education
settings. (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991)


Stern and Carl Steinhoff developed an adaptation of the

CCI which they called the "Organizational Climate Index"

(OCI) which has been used in schools and other

organizations. This instrument was first used in 1965 in

the public school system of Syracuse, New York. This survey









29
was presented to teachers, and they had to answer "true" or

"false" to a list of questions applicable to their schools.

Some examples of statements that appeared on the survey

are as follows:

1. Social events get a lot of enthusiasm and support.

2. People find others eager to help them get started.

3. People are expected to have a great deal of social

grace and polish.

4. People here speak up openly and freely.

5. Good work is really recognized around here.

(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

Analysis of the data received from various schools has

led to the formulation of six OCI Climate Index factors.

The factors are as follows:

1. Intellectual Climate. Schools with high scores on

this factor have environments that are perceived as being

conductive to scholarly interest in the humanities, arts,

and sciences. Staff and physical places are seen to

facilitate these interests, and the general work atmosphere

is characterized by intellectual activities and pursuits.

2. Achievement Standards. Environments with high

scores on this factor are perceived to stress high standards

of personal achievement. Tasks are successfully completed

and high levels of motivation and energy are maintained.

Recognition is given for work of good quality and quantity,

and the staff is expected to achieve at the highest levels.











3. Personal Dignity (Supportiveness). Organizational

climates scoring high on this factor respect the integrity

of the individual and provide a supportive environment that

would closely approximate the needs of more dependent

teachers. There is a sense of fair play and openness in the

working environment.

4. Organizational Effectiveness. Schools with high

scores on this factor have work environments that encourage

and facilitate the effective performance of tasks. Work

programs are planned and well organized, and people work

together effectively to meet organizational objectives.

5. Orderliness. High scores on this factor indicate a

press for organizational structure and procedural

orderliness. Neatness counts and there are pressures to

conform to a defined core of personal appearance and

institutional image. There are set procedures, and teachers

are expected to follow them.

6. Impulse Control. High scores on this factor imply

a great deal of constraint and organizational

restrictiveness in the work environment. There is little

opportunity for personal expression or for any form of

impulsive behavior.

A school's Developmental Press can be computed by the

sum of the scores for Factors one, two, and three minus the

score for Factor six. Schools with high scores on

Developmental Press are ones that stress intellectual and










interpersonal activities. Furthermore, the Control Press

for a given school is calculated by adding the scores

together for Factors four and five. Internal environments

that stress orderliness and structure are considered high in

Control Press (cited in Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

There have been many positive and negative concerns for

the OCI. One deterrent for the theory was the complexity

and length of the survey. The original survey included more

than 300 questions. It also has been concluded that the

data analysis and the interpretation procedures were

extremely complex (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). However,

the theory had two major strengths. It was based upon a

strong theoretic concept of climate that has been beneficial

to researchers and received well. The theory also had a long

history of meticulous research that yielded assessment

instruments that have been examined closely for validity and

reliability (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire

The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire

(OCDQ) was developed by Andrew W. Halpin and Don B. Croft

(1963). These two researchers introduced the notion of

organizational climate to education. Croft and Halpin

(1963) developed this questionnaire in order to measure

organizational climate in elementary schools. They sought

to elicit from teachers the critical factors that they

generally agreed were central to describing the climate of a











school. Although their research was done in elementary

schools, they set the basis for understanding climate in

postsecondary institutions.

Croft and Halpin (1963) identified two clusters of

factors. The first cluster consisted of four factors that

described the teachers' perceptions of the teachers as a

human group. Those factors included the following:

1. Intimacy is the degree of social cohesiveness among

teachers in the school.

2. Disengagement is the degree to which teachers are

involved and committed to achieving the goals of the school.

3. Esprit is the apparent morale of the group.

4. Hindrance is the extent to which teachers see

rules, paperwork, and "administrivia" as impeding their work

(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

The other cluster of climate factors included

perceptions of teachers concerning the principals. Those

factors were as follows:

5. Thrust is the dynamic behavior with which the

principal sets a hard-working example.

6. Consideration is the extent to which the principal

is seen as treating teachers with dignity and human concern.

7. Aloofness is the extent to which the principal is

described as maintaining social distance (for example, cold

and distant or warm and friendly).











8. Production emphasis is the extent to which the

principal tries to make teachers work harder (for example,

supervising closely, being directive, demanding results).

The researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of

64 questions. Each question elicited a perception on one of

the eight factors. The finding of the research stated:

"Descriptions of the teachers as a human social group tend

to be associated with the teacher's perception of the

principal in relatively consistent patterns" (Lunenberg &

Ornstein, 1991, p. 189).

Furthermore, Croft and Halpin (1963) identified and

described several types of organizational climates. They

are as follows:

1. Open Climate. In this type of climate, teachers

are proud to be a part of the school. They do not feel

burdened by busy-work, regulations, and administration. The

teachers see the principal's behavior as an easy, authentic

integration of the official role and his or her own

personality. The principal shows concern and compassion for

teachers and yet is able to lead, control, and direct them.

2. Autonomous Climate. An autonomous climate is one

that is self-governed. The faculty has total freedom. As a

result, teacher morale is high, and the faculty is

successful at accomplishing tasks. The principal in this

climate models the way by setting a good example for others

to follow.











3. Controlled Climate. The principal is extremely

domineering and allows little flexibility. The teachers in

this type of environment are expected to be told when and

what to do at all times. According to the research,

however, the morale remains high as in the autonomous and

open climate. Principals and teachers in this climate are

interested only in completing the tasks at hand.

Unfortunately, sensitivity for others is not a part of this

climate.

4. Paternal Climate. Principals in this setting are

ones who try to dominate the faculty and satisfy the

faculty's social needs. However, the principal's attempts

are unsuccessful. These principals are considered

unmotivated not sincere.

5. Closed Climate. In this setting, teachers tend not

to be highly engaged in their work. They tend not to work

well together, and their overall achievement is low. The

principal is perceived as having no direction or vision.

Teachers are not satisfied, morale is low, and turnover is

extremely high. These principals' emphasis is on following

the rules.

The OCDQ was developed for the elementary school

setting; however, a new version was created for high

schools. Many comments have been made regarding to this

instrument. According to Lunenburg and Ornstein (1991), "If

factor structure was developed, however, from a strictly










deductive process (rather than from an empirical study of

schools), and, indeed, little had been done since the

instrument was originally developed to validate it or modify

it as a result of experience" (p. 188).

Profile of a School Theory

In 1947, Lacerate directed an extensive study that

intended to identify the human factors that influenced the

ultimate effectiveness of organizations to achieve their

goals. Most of Lacerate's research was done in industrial

firms, but later it included schools and colleges.

By 1961, the researcher was able to describe important

relationships among (1) the management styles, (2) the

characteristics of the organization's interaction-influence

system, and (3) the effectiveness of the organization

(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). Lacerate wanted to measure

characteristics of the internal functioning of an

organization and to relate those measures of organizational

performance.

According to Lacerate, organizational performance is

determined by productivity, rate of absence and turnover,

loss through scrap and waste, and quality control. To

measure the internal functioning of the organization, the

researcher developed a questionnaire for employees to

complete that described six characteristics of the

organization. These characteristics included leadership

processes, motivational forces, communication processes,










decision-making processes, goal-setting processes, and

control processes (cited in Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

Lacerate developed four basic management systems. They

are described below:


System One is called explotive-authoritative;
it is based upon classical management
concept, a theory X view of motivation, and
a directive leadership style. System Two is
benevolent-authoritative. It emphasizes a
one-to-one relationship between subordinate
and leader in an environment in which the
subordinate is relatively isolated from
others in work-related matters. System
Three, called consultative, employs more
of a participative leadership style in which
the leader tends to consult with people
individually in the process of making
decisions (for example, Hersey's-Blanchard's
S2, Vroom's CI). System Four, the participative
(or group interactive)model of an organizational
system in all of the critical organizational
processes (for example, Hersey's-Blanchard's
S3, Vroom's GII). (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991)


In 1968, Lacerate and Gibson devised a questionnaire to

be utilized in colleges and schools called "Profiles of a

School" (POS). Specifically, the profile used for colleges

and universities was called the "Profile of a College or

University." By receiving data from a questionnaire given

to school officials and students, one could ascertain the

characteristics of an organization's interaction-influence

system.

One of the most potentially powerful outcomes of the

body of research, utilizing the POS as a measure of climate,

arose from Lacerate's own analysis of the shortcomings of










the organizational structure of American schools and its

impact on the interaction-influence system. Lacerate

believed that the interaction-influence networks of our

school all too often prove to be incapable of dealing

constructively even with the internal school problems,

situations, and conflicts. This is not to mention the

conflicts impinging from the larger community. Furthermore,

the present decision-making structure of the school requires

patterns of interaction that often aggravate conflict rather

than resolve it constructively and quickly (Lunenburg &

Ornstein, 1991).

The theory of Lacerate was empirically derived. He and

his associates gathered qualitative data from the real

world. Since this theory of organizational climate was

developed, numerous studies have been done to test its

reliability and validity. This theory has been given much

support. Lacerate's Profile of School Theory resembled to

the work of McGregor and Herzberg in terms of impact and

significance for both researchers and practitioners

(Lunenburg and Ornstein, 1991).

Person-Environment Fit Theory

The Person-Environment Fit Theory was developed by

Argyris (1957). He believed that conflict develops within

an organization when there is a misunderstanding between the

organization and the employee's needs. The researcher

suggested that hostility, competition, and job











dissatisfaction are the results of the previously stated

misunderstandings. Argyris (1957) argued that when the

individual and the organization's needs are incompatible,

incongruence resulted. As a result of this incongruence,

the characteristics of a cold climate such as frustration,

failure, and conflict were evident.

Argyris believed that individuals dealt with this

incongruence in many ways:

1. Resignation, absenteeism or withdrawal from the

job.

2. Hatred for the job.

3. Joining a union to feel some type of security.

4. Attempting to find another job in the organization.

5. Speaking negatively about the job to others.

(Bolman & Deal, 1991; Chappell, 1995; Ratcliff, 1989).

The opposite of incongruence is congruence or "fit."

There must be a fit between the worker and the organization.

Some researchers have found that when an employee is

congruent with the organization, he or she is productive,

happy, and satisfied with the environment (Dowey,

Hellriegel, & Slocum, 1975). Supporters of the Person-

Environment Theory believe in order for individuals to be

satisfied, the values of the employee and the purpose and

mission of the institution or organization must be in

accordance.









39

In order for any place of work to be satisfying for the

employee, according to the theory of Argyris, there must be

a fit between the employee and the organization. A good fit

was described in the literature as a congruence between the

needs, wants, and wishes of the employee and the

organization. When this is accomplished, although

difficult, job satisfaction is present. If there is a

misfit, stress, burn out, and job dissatisfaction will

result. Cohen and Brawer (1994) believed that finding

common ground between the organization and the employees was

the heart of effective management.

Factors under Investigation that Influence Job Satisfaction

Participation in Decision-Making

Participation in decision-making was defined as the

college's process for decision-making and opportunities for

involvement by the employee to participate in that process.

The decision-making process at any given institution is

extremely significant. The decision-making process is the

power of an organization (Fryer & Lovas, 1990). Four steps

are usually involved in reaching a decision: (1) defining

the problem, (2) identifying possible alternatives, (3)

predicting the consequences of each reasonable alternative,

and (4) choosing the alternative to be followed (Ornstein &

Lunenburg, 1991).










According to Ornstein-and-LTundebg (1991):


The use of participative decision making
has two major potential benefits: (1) arriving
at better decision and (2) enhancing the growth
and development of the organization's participants
(for example, greater sharing of goals, improved
motivation, improved communication better-developed
group-process skill). As a practical guide for
implementing participative processes in education
organization, three factors in particular should
be borne in mind: (1) the need for an explicit
decision-making process, (2) the nature of the problem
to be solved or the issue to be decided, and
(3) criteria for including people in the
process. (p. 277)


As aforementioned, employee participation in decision-

making is as important to an effective organization as oil

is to an automobile. Participation in decision-making is

associated with job satisfaction and productivity (Witt &

Myers, 1992; Fisher, 1984). Organizations that allow

employees to participate in decision-making will cause their

employees to be more satisfied (Lawler, 1986; Fryer & Lovas,

1990).

Participative decision-making has a number of

advantages. Some of these advantages are better decisions,

higher employee satisfaction, and better relations between

staff and management (Lindelow, 1989). Mutchler (1990)

believed that participative decision-making is shared power

that is multiplied. Radnofsky (1988) argued that

institutions will improve their effectiveness when

individuals become more involved in professional decision-

making.










Power

Power was defined as the amount or degree of

jurisdiction or discretion that the employee is able to

exercise while performing the tasks of that position. In

addition, Gollattschec and Harlacher (1994) defined power as

"the ability to command a favorable share of resources,

opportunities and rewards for followers" (p. 65).

According to The Leadershio Challenge (1987),

individuals in leadership positions have a healthy share of

power motivation because leaders must influence others to

perform. Moreover, the most effective leaders are those who

delegate power to strengthen others (Kounzes & Posner,

1987). Only leaders who feel powerful will delegate, reward

talent, and build a team composed of people powerful in

their own right. Good leaders will use the power that flows

to them in service to others. Effective leaders assign

employees important work to do on critical issues, provide

discretion and autonomy over their tasks and resources,

offer visibility to others and provide recognition for their

effort, and build relationships for others. Effective

leaders connect employees with powerful people and find them

sponsors and mentors (Kounzes & Posner, 1987; Covey, 1990).

Power is desirable by all, especially when it is

related to decision-making. As already stated, leaders must

give employees some power. Employees must be given

authority to make decisions and solve problems. When








employees are offered power or control, they are more

satisfied because they are trusted and seen as capable staff

members (Lawler, 1986; Vaughan, 1989). If presidents at

community colleges permit faculty to be part of the

decision-making procedures, job satisfaction will be

enhanced. The faculty member will feel that he or she has a

voice, and the president will not have to carry the entire

burden if an incorrect decision is made.

Relationships with Colleagues

Relationships with colleagues was defined as the

quality of the affiliation that an employee maintains with

his or her peers, subordinates, and supervisor. Regarding

this study, the researcher tested relationships with the

president and other top level administrators and presidents,

the president and faculty and staff, and the president and

the board of trustees. A positive relationship with

colleagues at an institution or organization results in job

satisfaction. "Pleasant, concerned and enthusiastic co-

workers establish an environment worth cultivating"

(Miloshell, 1990, p. 14).

The president of a community college must relate well

with not only other administrators but also with faculty and

student body. Administrator, faculty members, and students

are the body of a college (Fisher, 1984). "The degree to

which the president is respected and admired by the faculty

will be the extent to which he or she is able to inspire










trust and confidence, the extent to which he or she is

believable and can deliver" (Fisher, 1984, p. 101). Job

satisfaction is directly related to working and building

positive relationships with colleagues whether it be with

students, faculty, staff, administrators, or the board

(Fisher, 1984; Carbone, 1981).

Salary and Benefits

Salary and benefits was defined as the perceived equity

and adequacy of the salary and benefit package received by

the employee. Herzberg (1959) and his associates saw salary

as a hygiene or dissatisfaction factor. He and his

researchers defined salary as all sequences of events that

compensation is a part. Herzberg (1959) stated the

following about his hygiene factor salary: "It meant more

than money; it meant a job well done; it meant that the

individual was progressing in his work. Viewed within this

context salary as a factor belongs more in the group

that defines the job situation and is primarily a

dissatisfier" (p. 83).

One study on the issue of salary in an educational

setting stated that little significance or value is given to

salary when it comes to job satisfaction (Levy, 1989).

However, other researchers believed that it is a factor that

determines job satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

At some institution, researchers have said that the

issue of salary and benefits must be fair and equitable. In










many institutions of higher education, salary and benefits

are locked within the confines of state and federal

government. These are issues can and do cause job

dissatisfaction with not only the president but also

faculty, resulting in low morale and decreased teaching and

learning (Vaughan, 1986; Hoy & Miskel, 1982).

Professional Effectiveness

Professional effectiveness was defined as the perceived

overall effectiveness of the employee in his or her

position. Every person within an organization should have

the desire to be effective in the work place. Achievement

and growth, which are determining factors of effectiveness,

affect job satisfaction (Herzberg, 1959).

Most presidents want to be effective. The president

understands that it is his or her duty to develop a style

and define a span of control that will characterize an

effective leader (Carbone, 1981). An effective president

wants his or her institution to be the best, as far as

faculty and staff satisfaction, student retention and

recruitment, teaching and learning, and college success are

concerned. However, striving for professional effectiveness

can cause burn out. "Burn out is emotional exhaustion, a

feeling of being overextended and depleted because you've

given so much" (Davis, 1994, p. 50). Furthermore, experts

believed that burn out is directly related to job











dissatisfaction, absenteeism, tardiness, low productivity,

and job turnover (Davis, 1994; Bock & Mislevy, 1988).

Factors under Investigation that Influence
Organizational Climate


Internal Communication

Internal communication was defined as the college's

formal and informal communication processes and style.

Gronbeck (1992) stated that communication is the process of

sending and receiving messages to achieve understanding.

Without good communication, any organization is destined to

fail (Gronbeck, 1992; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

Communication is the "process that links the individual, the

group, and the organization" (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991, p.

263). "Communication is the glue that holds an organization

together and harmonizes its parts" (Hanson, 1985, p. 263).

Through a close analysis of the literature, it is evident

that an organization that lacks good internal communication

is one that will not be successful.

Furthermore, it is imperative that internal

communication is sent and received from all parties in an

organization. Communication within an organization must be

open because open communication allows individuals to be

honest and knowledgeable about the work environment. Open

communication can be heard by key decision-makers within an

organization. Specifically, the president should

communicate with the faculty and staff, and the faculty and











staff should be able to honestly communicate with the

president (Vaughan, 1986,). Deas (1994) believed that

communication is linked to climate.

Organizational Structure

Organizational structure was defined as the college's

administrative operation or its hierarchial lines of

authority and requirements for operating within that

hierarchy. The organizational structure varies from one

community college to another. When community colleges were

first established, they were structured on the basis of the

public school systems of that era (Deegan & Tillery, 1985).

Now, at the top of the organizational structures is the

board of trustees (Deegan & Tillery, 1985; Vaughan, 1986).

Furthermore, the structure of the community college is

divided into subunits or departments within the institution.

For example, at a given institution there is more than

likely to be a student services division, academic affairs

subunit, and a library science department with

administrators in charge of these areas. All of these areas

help define the organizational structure of the community

college.

Through a close analysis of the literature, it is

evident that hierarchical organizational structure is not

effective in education (Deegan & Tillery, 1985; Tuckman &

Johnson, 1987). Rieley (1992) developed a process of

organizational structure which was a circular design in










which every facet or part is connected to another. Deegan

and Tillery (1985) discussed a model for organizational

structure within education called "organizational dualism"

in which "multiple systems for decision- making was utilized

consisting of four groups of decision makers: faculty,

trustees and administrators, agencies of state and federal

government, and private-sector organizations" (p. 219).

Political Climate

Political climate was defined as the nature and

complexity of the college's politics or the degree to which

an employee must operate within a political framework in

order to accomplish his or her task. As stated earlier,

there are many types of climates ranging from cold and

hostile to warm and open. Climate is defined as the

personality of an organization. A concrete definition for

climate in education can best be described in Deas'

definition. Deas (1994) stated his definition as follows:

"A collection of intangibles that support and encourage all

the players to work toward a common goal--learning" (p. 44).

Some researchers believed that politics in education

was positive while others thought that politics was

negative. Mintzberg (1989) stated that it should be

accepted and understood within the confines of education.

However, Levy (1989) saw a political climate as being a

cause of job dissatisfaction. "There has been no universal

agreement on the role and importance of political climate;











some experts have stressed that political behavior was the

critical key to advancement and success in an organization,

while others have ignored its existence" (Chappell, 1995).

Professional Development Opportunities

Professional development opportunities was defined as

the opportunities for employees to pursue and participate in

activities to enhance job performance. Professional

development opportunities for members of an organization are

extremely significant. It allows individuals of

organizations to improve skills, to learn new trends and

innovations, and to enhance job satisfaction and morale

(Vaughan, 1986; Kounzes & Posner, 1987). Effective leaders

will make sure that individuals grow to their fullest

potential.

Hutton and Jobe (1985) conducted a research project on

community college faculty in Texas. It was found that

professional development opportunities were a source for job

satisfaction. The Total Quality Management (TQM) believed

in the importance of training staff development (Ratcliff,

1989). Herzberg (1959) discussed growth, which is related

to professional development, as a motivator for job

satisfaction.

The purpose of professional development opportunities

is to allow individuals to grow, learn, and advance.

Institutions, whether they are schools or business and

industry, must invest in their employees. Deas (1994)









49

argued professional development has a positive effect on the

climate within any organization. Within the confines of

education, professional development opportunities enhance

teaching and learning through needs assessment and

continuous training (Ratcliff, 1989).

Evaluation

Evaluation was defined as the college's procedure for

evaluating employees through positive feedback intended to

provide professional growth for the employee. Miller

(1988a) defined evaluation as "the process of determining

the merit or worth or value of something or the product of

that process" (p. 16). Evaluation is recognized by Bloom in

Taxonomy of Educational Obiectives: Cognitive Domain as the

highest level of cognition and is placed at the apex of a

pyramid of cognitive function. "Evaluation represents not

only an end process in dealing with cognitive behavior, but

also a major linking with the affective behaviors where

value, liking, and enjoying are the central processes

involved" (Miller, 1988a, p. 16). The two purposes of

evaluation are to improve performance and to assist in

making equitable and effective academic personnel decisions;

it also requires judgment as well as measurement (Gappa &

Leslie, 1993).

Over the years, evaluation procedures within higher

education have changed. The reasons for these changes are

as follows: The systematic use of faculty evaluation has









50

significantly increased; development programs are using more

than summative evaluation systems; broader data bases have

been used to make academic promotion and tenure decisions;

the quality of student rating forms for appraising classroom

teaching performance has substantially improved; court cases

have imposed the quality and fairness of academic personnel

decision; and the use of the research/scholarship criteria

in making academic promotion and tenure decisions has

increased (Miller, 1988a).

There are many evaluation models; they come in many

varieties and are useful in different contexts and

environments. Evaluation models also are designed to

address different questions and to begin at different

points. Some of the different models include Sciven's

Formative-Summative Model, CIPP Model, Tyler's Goal

Attainment Model, and Provus' Discrepancy Model (Kaffman &

Thomas, 1980). Moreover, the ultimate goal of all the

models is to support and assist in useful decision-making,

not to make the decision (Kaffman & Thomas, 1980).

Although evaluation is used for improving performance

and feedback for professional growth, it is extremely

significant that the evaluation be positive. If it is seen

as negative, the purpose of doing the evaluation will be

null and void. Effective leadership must explain that the

major purpose of evaluation is for improvement.

Specifically, community colleges presidents must build trust











with their employees to positively influence how the

evaluation process will be viewed (Bowman & Deal, 1991;

Miller, 1988b; Gappa & Leslie, 1993).

Promotion

Promotion was defined as the college's commitment to

internal promotion and advancement from within the

organization. Promotion is usually the result of positive

evaluations, hard work, and dedication. Promotion often

comes with more authority and money. Promotion is usually

seen as a job satisfier, and it has a positive effect on

climate (Vaughan, 1986; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

Herzberg's motivator growth can be directly related to this

factor.

Regard for Personal Concerns

Regard for personal concerns was defined as the

college's sensitivity to and regard for the personal

concerns and well-being of employees. Effective leaders

realize that the lack of sensitivity is worse than the lack

of respect. Effective leaders must be sensitive to needs

and desires of their employees. A regard for personal

concern is a key contributor to job satisfaction, and it

enhances climate (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).

Reddin (1968) identified four basic leadership styles.

The two styles dealt with regard to personal concern. These

styles were called "Executive" and "Developer." The

Executive Style gives a great deal of concern to both task











and people. A manager who uses this style is a good

motivator, sets high standards, recognizes individual

differences, and utilizes management. The Developer Style,

on the other hand, gives maximum concern to people and

minimum concern to the task. A manager who uses this style

has implicit trust in people and is mainly concerned with

developing them as individuals. Reddin (1968) stated that

both of these styles of leadership were highly effective

(cited in Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). Furthermore, Hersey

and Blanchard (1988) developed their theory of effective

leadership in relation to the factor regard for personal

concerns.

The American Community College

History of the Community College

"The American community college movement is the most

important innovation of the 20th century. It was born in

the American heartland before the turn of the century and

spread rapidly throughout the expanding West. As growing

populations demanded educational opportunity, two-year

colleges sprang up in all 50 states. A century later, there

is a community college within a short drive of most

Americans." (Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, & Suppiger,

1994). The mission of this segment of higher education has

always been teaching and learning. According to T. O'Banion

(1994) in the Community College Journal, this movement in











higher education has placed teaching and learning as the

core of its existence.

The beginnings of the community college in the United

States were humble. In the beginning, the survival of such

an institution was doubted by many educators. The founding

fathers of the first junior college movement were Harper,

Lange, and Koos. They, along with others and a body of

literature developed by Koos, founded and organized the

junior college movement in 1921 with the establishment of

the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC) (Deegan &

Tillery, 1985). This organization was the voice for the

junior college movement.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the community

college was called the "junior college," and it did not

differ greatly from the high school curriculum at that time.

However, according to Deegan and Tillery (1985), there were

three influences that assisted in the development of the

community college, transforming the community college into

an institution quite different from the early junior

college.

According to Deegan and Tillery (1985):


First was the rapid industrialization of
the United States and the mechanicalization
of its agriculture, both leading to increasing
demands for trained men and women. A second
influence was the democratization of the
public school education, which led to increasing
completion rates from high school Federal
policies encouraged the growth of postsecondary
education that was pragmatic, affordable, and










in proximity to the people. Finally, there
was the emergence of the American research
universities. (p.3)


The roots of the community college could be traced back

to Thomas Jefferson who wanted colleges placed within a

day's ride for all Virginians, and he wanted the doors of

public education open to all people. He also wished to see

a technical philosophy implemented in which craftsmen in

various fields of endeavor might receive evening instruction

(Vaughan, 1983). Present-day community colleges do resemble

some of the desires of Thomas Jefferson.

Classifications of Community Colleges

The community college of the 1990s serves as an

institution that supports and assumes responsibility for

many educational offerings in higher education. These

offerings range from developmental and continuing education

to vocational and transfer programs. No two community

colleges are the same. No list of factors or groupings per

se have been developed that relate to all two-year

institutions. However, according to Katsinas (unpublished),

there are 14 separate classifications of community colleges

across America. These generalizations and broad categories

are as follows:

1. Rural community colleges. Rural community colleges

are typically one-campus institutions with a board of

trustees. This type of institution offers both vocational

and transfer programs of study.











2. Suburban community colleges. These colleges

typically serve residents who live in the suburbs of large

cities. They attract fewer first-time-in-college students

than most other community colleges. These colleges typically

concentrate on the liberal arts/transfer curricula and

vocational offerings that focus primarily on technology.

3. Urban/inner city community colleges. These types

of colleges are located in the inner city. Their purpose is

to quickly train students for the work-place.

4. Metropolitan area district community colleges,

centralized and decentralized. These types of colleges are

groups of campuses within a specific geographic district and

are governed by a board of trustees.

5. Community colleges adjacent to residential

universities. These types of community colleges serve as

feeder schools to area universities. Students who attend

this type of community college take academic classes at both

the college and the area university.

6. Mixed community colleges. These types of colleges

have mixed characteristics of the previously discussed types

of community colleges.

7. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (H-SIs). There are

approximately 120 institutions of this nature. In order to

be this type of school, the total enrollment must be at

least 25% Hispanic.











8. Historically Black two-year colleges. These types

of community colleges serve mostly Afro-American students.

Fourteen of the 100 predominately Black institutions of

higher learning are two-year colleges.

9. Tribally-controlled community colleges. These

types of community colleges were designed to improve higher

education for Native Americans. There are presently 14 of

these two-year colleges.

10. Technical education only community colleges.

These types of colleges place emphasis on technical and

vocational education.

11. Transfer/general education only community

colleges. These colleges are usually private.

12. Private (nonprofit/sectarian and

nonprofit/nonsectarian) colleges. These are church related

institutions focusing on a liberal arts education.

13. Proprietary colleges. These schools are also

private. designed as postsecondary trade schools.

14. Two-year colleges at four-year institutions.

"This category of college is distinguished by its governance

system, created as a part of a larger university system

within the state. This difference permeates the

organizational structure as well as the mission of the

institution" (p. 63).










Community Colleges at the End of the 20th Century

The community college has revolutionized higher

education. At the end of their first century, two-year

colleges are the largest single entity in postsecondary

education (Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, & Suppiger,

1994). The degree offered by the two-year college has

become a symbol of achievement. The two-year institution

has opened many doors to students who have desired an

education but could not attend the university (Deegan &

Tillery, 1985). For racial minorities, women, and older

students, the community college has served as a beacon of

light and hope in this society. Harper, one of the founding

fathers of the community college, had a dream of creating a

college for the general public. At the close of this

century, it is evident that the community college is for the

people (Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, & Suppiger,

1994).

Job Satisfaction and Organizational Climate at the Community
College

Although the community college has well served urban

and rural areas, there are obstacles that must be overcome.

Nearing the year 2000, there is a need at the community

college level outstanding leadership that promotes job

satisfaction and encourages an open and warm organizational

climate. The most successful community colleges of the 21st

century will be those that promote shared leadership, needs

assessment, accountability, teaching, involvement,










continuous learning, and job satisfaction. The least

successful community colleges will adhere to strict

governance, control, and centralized decision making (Alfred

& Carter, 1993; Chappell, 1995; Vaughan, 1986). Community

college presidents must help create a climate at the

institution that encourages leadership, job satisfaction,

healthy relationships among peers, and shared decision-

making (Vroom, 1982; Vaughan, 1989).

Moreover, community college leaders must make strides

to improve the quality of education for students and to

enhance job satisfaction not only for faculty and staff but

also administration. The faculty at community colleges is

satisfied mostly by student achievement and administrators

who have regard for personal concerns (Stage, 1995). Job

satisfaction is extremely important: lack of satisfaction

equals little or no performance. According to Lombardi

(1992), the two main predictors of job satisfaction are

self-efficacy or sense of personal control over one's career

and intrinsic rewards. Studies of faculty and

administrators' job satisfaction have revealed that

intrinsic rewards of academic work have been most closely

associated with global satisfaction.

Vaughan (1986) found that the leadership style of the

president had an effect on job satisfaction for faculty.

Because the employee/employer relationship is extremely

significant, it can be assumed that just as the president's











style affects job satisfaction for faculty, the faculty's

morale and acceptance of the president at the community

college could have an effect of the chief administrator's

job satisfaction. The community college and its leadership

and faculty, therefore, must be willing to be flexible and

seek solutions to old and new problems without abandoning

those sacred tenets of its philosophy. Job satisfaction and

a warm, open climate thus might exist within this arena of

higher education.

The Role and Profile of the Community College President

The success of any community college will depend to

some degree on the president. The community college

president is the chief administrator at the institution. He

or she is responsible for the daily operations of the

college. This administrator serves as the liaison between

the board of trustees and the college's administration,

faculty, staff, and student body (Vaughan, 1989; Vaughan,

1986). A community college president is responsible for

seeing that the institution is managed effectively and

efficiently. A college president must demonstrate through

words and deeds that an educational institution's reason for

existence is the discovery, examination, analysis,

organization, and transfer of knowledge (Vaughan, 1989).

The chief administrator is responsible for the management of

the school, the creation of the climate along with the board

of trustees, and the interpretation of the institution's











mission (Vaughan, 1989; Lee & VanHorn, 1983). Community

college presidents help to chart the educational, social,

and economic life of thousands of students, faculty members,

and administrators across the nation (Vaughan, 1986).

Ratcliff (1989) stated:


The function of the chief executive officer
have been identified as raising money, balancing
the budget, participating in the establishment
of institutional goals, working with faculty
to create an environment that encourages
learning, and recruiting, and maintaining a
high quality of faculty. Furthermore, a
central responsibility of the president, which
relates to everything else he undertakes, is
the establishment of an institutional
environment conducive to learning. The
president does not establish such an
environment through the force of his own personality
so much as he makes possible its development
through the ways in which he works with his
staff officers and other constituencies of
the institution. (p. 87)


According to a 1980 issue of The Community College

Journal, the role of the president is multifaceted. When

various presidents were asked to describe their role, one

president said his role was manipulator. Another said that

his role was educational leader with the responsibility of

setting with the the board the "tone and pace" of the

institution. Another said his role was marketer or

interpreter for the college to its many constituents. One

community college president said he was a manager, which

means a leader, forerunner, director, and guardian. One

president stated he was a money manager and noted, "The










successful president understands pedagogy as well as

finances and that through managing the money the president

engages in creative planning" (Vaughan, 1986).

According to Vaughan (1986) in I'!- :mmr._ r.:. j.e

Presidency, community college presidents across the country

are responsible for the employment of more than 270,000

full-time faculty, librarians, counselors, and other

administrators. Most of these individuals have been in

their current position for five years or less. Seventy-one

percent of the fathers of community college presidents did

not finish high school. Only 29% finished

high school, but they had no college experience. By

studying these figures, it is evident that many community

college presidents today came from working-class homes.

Most the community college presidents are married with

children; however, they have little time to spend with their

families.

The majority of community college presidents across the

nation have doctoral degrees. In a survey conducted by

Vaughan (1986) on 591 college presidents, 44% had Doctor of

Education degrees, and 32% had Doctor of Philosophy degrees

in various fields of study. Surprisingly, 24% did not have

doctorates; 17% had Master of Arts degrees. Specifically,

101 presidents had a Master of Arts degrees. Three percent

had only a Bachelor of Arts degrees, and the remaining were











educational specialist degree holders and law degree

holders.

According to Vaughan (1986), the major job satisfiers

for community college presidents are as follows: (1) The

relationships with the college community and community at

large; (2) graduation rate holding a special fascination,

meaning as much to some presidents as it does to students;

(3) faculty, trustees, administrators, and students

successes; and (4) gaining satisfaction from what they can

see, touch, and experience firsthand.

The community college president is held in high esteem.

Faculty, administration, and students look to the president

for guidance and direction. Furthermore, the board depends

on the president to execute and enforce all laws and rules.

Many difficult issues face the community college president

on a day- to-day basis, such as hiring and firing, tenure

and promotion, equity and accountability--just to name a

few. Consequently, the responsibilities of the president

are intensifying and becoming more complex (Walker, 1979;

Vaughan, 1989).

The American Council on Education reported that

nationally there was an overwhelming turnover of top level

college administrators. Some researchers believed that this

turnover was due to job dissatisfaction, climate, stress,

and burn out (Glick, 1992; Vaughan, 1986). Also, turnover









63

among administrators at colleges is costly and is related to

job dissatisfaction (Glick, 1992; Vaughan, 1986).

Additional Factors that May Affect Job Satisfaction
and Climate for Community College Presidents

Because there are many factors that could affect job

satisfaction and climate for community college presidents,

the researcher examined a few other potential factors

discovered in the reading of the literature.

Gender and Ethnic Differences

It is a proven fact that men and women see situations

differently. This idea also could be seen as true in the

world of leadership. One of the major causes of job

dissatisfaction for women in higher education is the lack of

communication, stress, and relationships with other

colleagues (Hersi, 1993). These causes of job

dissatisfaction could result in an increase absenteeism

(Dear, 1995), a decrease in teaching and learning, and a

loss of morale and interest for the job (Lunenburg &

Ornstein, 1991). Another source for dissatisfaction for men

and women is members of the opposite sex occupying most of

the jobs (Cassidy & Warren, 1991). However, some

researchers have concluded that gender is not even an issue

when it comes to job satisfaction (Kirby, 1987; Carbone,

1981).

As far as leadership is concerned, "Women, blacks, and

ethnic minority presidents are important to the community

colleges not only for what they bring to the presidency as










individuals but also as symbols for others of similar

background who inspire to the presidency" (Vaughan, 1989, p.

65). Women constitute 7.6% of all community college

presidents; blacks constitute 3.9%, and Hispanics make up

only 2.1% (Vaughan, 1989). Vaughan (1989) also stated that

a "double standard" is applied to women and individuals of

color. In some instances, these persons are expected to do

more and are forgiven less for mistakes than is the case

with white male presidents.

According to the research, sixty-six percent of female

presidents viewed the presidency as asexual once they

assumed office. Sixty percent of the Hispanic presidents

saw the presidency as raciala" once they assumed office.

In contrast, 69% of Black presidents did not see the

presidency as being raciala" once they assumed office

(Vaughan, 1989).

Vaughan (1989) further stated:


Racial and ethnic minorities and women
face special challenges as they move into
the presidency. Governing boards, current
presidents, the college community, and
society in general remain somewhat insensitive
to these challenges. However, most boards
appear to want the presidency to be filled
by outstanding leaders, regardless of sex,
race, or ethnic background. (p. 70).



Classification of the Organization

It can be assumed that the larger the college, the

larger the demands on the president. Perhaps classification











of the community college will have some effect on job

satisfaction and climate for not only the president but also

faculty, students, and staff. There is no precise method

for classifying colleges; however, Katsinas (unpublished)

developed a system that distinguishes 14 classifications in

the community colleges of the United States. These

classification were defined and described in the "Community

College Background" section of this review of literature.

The fourteen classifications are rural community colleges,

suburban community colleges, urban/inner city community

colleges, metropolitan area district community colleges,

centralized and decentralized, community colleges adjacent

to residential universities, mixed community colleges,

Hispanic-serving institutions, historically Black two-year

colleges, Tribally-controlled community colleges,

transfer/general education only, technical education only,

private (nonprofit/sectarian and nonprofit/nonsectarian

colleges), proprietary colleges, and two-year colleges at

four-year institutions.

Years of Experience

The majority of presidents remain in office long enough

to leave a mark on the institution. Some researchers

believed the average length of time for an effective

president is seven years. Corbone (1981) found that out of

a survey of more than 1,200 presidents that 35% of the

sample served from five to 10 years, and just under 18% held











the office of president from 11 to 19 years. Eight percent

served as chief administrator for more than 30 years.

Vaughan (1989), however, also found that "because rapid

turnover in the office of president is considered

detrimental to institutional welfare, the demographic

characteristics of long-term presidents were given some

special analysis. Unfortunately, the analysis yielded

little that could be used as a predictor of durability or

satisfaction in office" (p. 11). One retired president of a

private junior college stated, "I do not think any president

should stay more than 10 years. Move to another campus if

you are young enough or take on a teaching job as part of

your contractual obligation. You've given your best in that

time, and there is little juice left in the lemon" (Vaughan,

1989, p. 10). One researcher believed, years of experience

is also related to burn out which comes from stress. Stress

is one of the leading cause of job dissatisfaction (Davis,

1994).

Summary

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature

of the relationship between measures of organizational

climate and measures of job satisfaction as applied to

community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was

done to ascertain if there were any significant differences

in means for job satisfaction within the context of

organizational climate when controlling for gender,










ethnicity, classification of community college, and number

of years experience as a college president. In this study,

job satisfaction refers to a person's positive or negative

attitude or emotional response toward his or her place of

employment (Beck, 1990; McCormick & Ilgen, 1980). Interest

in the study of job satisfaction was intensified after the

completion of the Hawthorne Studies done by Elton Mayo and

his associates in Chicago, Illinois. In this dissertation,

organizational climate refers to the perceptions of

participants of certain intangible aspects of the

environment or institution. It is the personality of an

organization (Deas, 1994; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). The

president is the chief administrator at a given institution.

He or she is responsible for the day-to-day operations of

the college.

Some researcher has been done on the relationship

between job satisfaction theory and organizational climate

theory in the context of education. Job satisfaction and

organizational climate theories differ in education from

that of business and industry. In education, the focus is

on teaching and learning and student outcomes while business

and industry emphasize production and profit. There is a

need at the community college level for outstanding

leadership that promotes job satisfaction and encourages an

open and warm climate. The most successful community

colleges of the 21st century will be those that promote









68

shared leadership, needs assessment, accountability,

teaching, involvement, continuous learning, and job

satisfaction. Findings of this study have advanced the body

of knowledge by testing the theoretical constructs of job

satisfaction and organizational climate as applied to

community college presidents.















CHAPTER 3
DESIGN OF STUDY


The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature

of the relationship between measures of organizational

climate and measures of job satisfaction as applied to

community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was

done to ascertain if there were significant differences in

means for the eight job satisfaction variables controlling

for gender, ethnicity, classification of the community

college by size, and number of years of experience as a

college president.

The research questions are as follows:

1. How do community college presidents perceive

organizational climate at their respective institutions

using a set of seven identified factors for climate?

2. Using the same seven climate factors as an index,

how satisfied are community college presidents with the

organizational climate of their respective institutions?

3. How important is each of eight identified job

satisfaction variables to community college presidents in

the performance of their specific job responsibility?

4. For each of eight job satisfaction variables, is

there a significant relationship between measures of











satisfaction and a set of seven measures of satisfaction

with organizational climate, as reported by community

college presidents?

5. Is there a significant difference in the means of

eight job satisfaction variables for community college

presidents when compared by gender of the president, ethnic

origin of the president, classification of the community

college, and length of time served as a college

administrator?

Methodology

To answer these stated questions, the researcher used a

survey which addressed job satisfaction and organizational

climate. The survey ascertained data relative to community

college presidents' perception of seven factors related to

organizational climate, their levels of satisfaction with

these factors, and significance of eight factors of job

satisfaction in fulfilling their duties as community college

presidents. To answer research questions one, two, and

three, information was collected on perception of climate,

satisfaction with climate, and importance of job

satisfaction. This information was analyzed to develop a

universal profile of community college presidents.

Composites were developed to understand how presidents

generally perceived organizational climate in community

colleges, how satisfied they were with the climate, and how

significant each of the eight job satisfaction variables was











in the performance of their jobs as presidents. Person

product moment correlation coefficients were used to answer

research questions four. This type of analysis was used to

examine the nature of the relationship between satisfaction

and organizational climate and the importance of specific

aspects of job satisfaction. Furthermore, the general

linear models procedure (ANOVA) was used to determine if any

significant differences were evident in the measure of job

satisfaction when controlling for gender of the presidents,

ethnicity of the presidents, classification of the community

college, and the number of years the administrator has

served.

The person product moment was used, moreover, to

analyze each of the job satisfaction factors individually

against the seven identified climate factors. The

researcher wanted to determine which climate factors had a

significant relationship with one or all of the job

satisfaction factors used in the study for community college

presidents. This research should verify or reject the idea

that previously tested theories about job satisfaction and

climate can or cannot be applied to community college

presidents.

The Population

All presidents who were members of the American

Association of Community Colleges were invited to

participate in the research survey. Furthermore, some











states had state systems for community colleges wherein one

person served as president for that entire state. In these

cases, the one person was sent a survey for that state

system. Community college presidents in the United States

number more than 1,000. Endorsement for the research

project was given by Dr. D. Pierce, president of the

American Association of Community Colleges (AACC).

Procedure for Data Collection

A letter of invitation was mailed to the presidents of

all institutions who were members of the American

Association of Community Colleges. A copy of the survey and

a self-addressed, paid envelope were sent to all potential

subjects. All presidents were asked to respond by the due

date written on the survey and the cover letter. A follow-

up letter also was sent three weeks after the original

survey was mailed.

Instrumentation

The survey instrument used to gather data was a replica

of the survey used in a University of Florida dissertation

that tested the same theoretical constructs on community

college chief instructional officers (Chappell, 1995)

Although the survey used in this research project targeted a

different population, the original survey was derived from

literature related to job satisfaction and organizational

climate.











According to Chappell (1995), the instrument was tested

for validity, reliability, and consistency. The original

survey instrument was reviewed by the Board of Directors of

the National Council of Instructional Administration (NCIA)

at their board meeting in December, 1994. To complete the

validation process, nine community college professionals

were asked to complete Part I of the survey on two different

occasions. Validity and reliability were verified by

analyzing the subjects' answers to each of the 21 questions

in Part I of the original survey. This was done to make

sure that a range of responses were present. Consistency

was confirmed by comparing the answers received from the

pretest and posttest given to the eight subjects who

completed the entire field test (Chappell, 1995).

A Person product moment correlation analysis affirmed

that a variety of responses could be obtained if the

instrument was used, that the questions were clearly stated,

and that suitable correlations between the first and second

set of responses were present. The correlation coefficients

for the field test were extremely high. They ranged from

0.2336 to 0.9492 (Chappell, 1995). Furthermore, the wording

of the instrument was reviewed by a panel of community

college presidents for face validity.

Moreover, the survey addressed a set of seven

organizational climate factors which were drawn from

educational research. These were used to see how they











related to eight job satisfaction variables. The seven

organizational climate factors and their definitions are as

follows:

1. Internal Communication. The college's formal and

informal communication processes and style.

2. Organizational Structure. The college's

administrative operation or its hierarchial lines of

authority and requirements for operating within that

hierarchy.

3. Political Climate. The nature and complexity of

the college's internal politics or the degree to which an

employee must operate within a political framework in order

to accomplish his or her task.

4. Professional Development Opportunities. The

opportunities for employees to pursue and participate in

activities to enhance job performance.

5. Evaluation. The college's procedure for evaluation

through positive feedback intended to provide professional

growth for the employee.

6. Promotion. The college's commitment to internal

promotion and advancement from within the organization.

7. Regard for Personal Concern. The college's

sensitivity to and regard for the personal concerns and

well-being of employees.

There were eight job satisfaction factors used in this

study which were drawn from educational research. They were










used to determine the relationship between them and the

previously defined organizational climate factors. The job

satisfaction factors are listed and defined as follows:

1. Participation in Decision-Making. The college's

process for decision-making and opportunities for

involvement by the employee to participate in that process.

2. Power. The amount or degree of jurisdiction or

discretion that the employee is able to exercise while

performing the tasks of his or her position.

3-5. Relationship with Colleagues. The quality of the

affiliation that an employee maintains with his or her

peers, subordinates, and supervisor (board of trustees).

6-7. Salary and Benefits. The perceived equity and

adequacy of the salary and benefit package received by the

employee.

8. Professional Effectiveness. The perceived overall

effectiveness of the employee in his or her position.

The survey instrument also included questions regarding

the president's overall satisfaction with his or her

position, and his or her overall satisfaction with the total

operation of the college. These questions were given to

validate the composite of categorical responses regarding

job satisfaction and organizational climate. Moreover, the

instrument asked for responses regarding gender and equity,

number of years of experiences and the classification of the

community college. This information was gathered to










ascertain if there were significant differences in the means

of the eight job satisfaction variables for community

college presidents across the country.

Statistical Analysis

A correlation coefficients analysis was used for the

statistical test to ascertain the relationship between the

job satisfaction and organizational climate factors as

reported by community college presidents. This analysis was

used to determine if any of the organizational climate

factors were significantly related to any of the job

satisfaction factors. Furthermore, the general linear

models procedure (ANOVA) was used to determined if there was

a significant difference in the means of eight job

satisfaction variables when controlling for gender,

ethnicity, number of years of experience, and community

college type as reported by the chief administrators.

Reporting Procedure

After all data were received and analyzed by the

researcher, a community college president profile was

developed. Moreover, the information received revealed

presidents' perception of organizational climate and their

levels of satisfaction with regard to their colleges'

organizational climate. The survey also determined how

significant each of the eight job satisfaction factors was,

and if there were any significant differences when

controlling for additional factors that could influence job











satisfaction and organizational climate. All of these data

are reported in Chapter 4 and in the appendices of this

dissertation in the form of graphs, charts, and written

text.

Summary

A vast amount of research has been done on the

theoretical basis of job satisfaction and organizational

climate. In addition, an enormous amount of research has

been done on the relationship of job satisfaction and

organizational climate in business and industry. However,

little has been done within the confines of higher

education, and no studies have been found using the

constructs of job satisfaction and organizational climate

relative to the perspective of a community college

president.

As a result, this study tested the theoretical

constructs of job satisfaction and organizational climate as

reported by community college presidents. The answers to

the questions regarding the relationship between

organizational climate and job satisfaction, as reported by

community college presidents, are reported and discussed in

the next chapter.















CHAPTER 4
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA


The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature

of the relationship between measures of organizational

climate and measures of job satisfaction as applied to

community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was

done to ascertain if there were significant differences in

means for job satisfaction within the context of

organizational climate when controlling for gender,

ethnicity, classification of the community college, and

number of years of experience as a college president.

Specifically, the research addressed five questions:

1. How do community college presidents perceive

organizational climate at their respective institutions,

using a set of seven identified factors for climate?

2. Using the same seven climate factors as an index,

how satisfied are community college presidents with the

organizational climate at their respective institutions?

3. How important is each of eight identified job

satisfaction variables to community college presidents in

the performance of their specific job responsibilities?

4. For each of eight job satisfaction variables, is

there a significant relationship between measures of job











satisfaction and a set of seven measures of satisfaction

with organizational climate, as reported by community

college presidents?

5. Is there a significant difference in the means of

eight job satisfaction variables for community college

presidents when compared by gender of the president, ethnic

origin of the president, classification of the community

college, and length of time served as a college

administrator?

Survey Responses

A total of 801 surveys were mailed to community college

presidents across the nation, who were members of the

American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). Please

note that some states had only one president in the state

who reported to the board of trustees for that state. In

those instances, only one survey was mailed to that state's

president. Two hundred and eighty-four surveys were

returned, thus giving a 35% rate of return. However, some

participants chose not to answer some of the questions.

This analysis included all responses that were recorded by

the participants. Moreover, all subjects were provided with

a postage paid envelope to maximize the rate of return and

insure anonymity. With such a low response rate, the reader

is warned about making generalizations to the population

based on the results.











Community College Presidents' Profile

Gender and Ethnicity

Tables 1 through 3 provide gender and ethnic

distributions for community college presidents. A total of

283 subjects answered the question regarding gender. Two




Table 1
Community College Presidents: Distribution by Gender


Gender n %


Male 242 85.5

Female 41 14.5


TOTAL 283 100.0






Table 2
Community College Presidents: Distribution by Ethnic
Origin


Ethnic Origin n %


Black/African American 9 3.2

Hispanic 14 5.0

White/Caucasian 251 89.6

Other 1 0.4

Asian American 2 0.7

Native American 3 1.1


TOTAL 280 100.0











Table 3
Community College Presidents: Distribution by Gender
and Ethnic Origin


Gender & Ethnic Origin n %


White Male 215 77.06

White Female 35 12.54

Black Female 0 0

Hispanic Male 10 3.58

Black Male 9 3.23

Asian American Male 2 0.72

Asian American Female 0 0

Hispanic Female 4 1.43

Native American Male 1 0.36

Native American Female 2 0.72

Other 1 0.36


TOTAL 279 100.0


hundred and forty-two (85.5%) community college presidents

were male. Forty-one (14.5%) respondents were females. As

far as ethnicity, 251 (89.6%) of community college

presidents were white/Caucasian. Blacks and Hispanics

represented 8.2% of the total, with 9 and 14 respondents

(3.2% and 5.0%), respectively. Asian American and Native

Americans represented 1.8% of the total, with 2 and 3

respondents (0.7% and 1.1%), respectively. One subject

recorded other which is 0.4% of the total population. Four

individuals did not respond to the question of ethnicity.










As noted in Table 3, the distribution by gender and ethnic

origin for community college presidents was given. Five

subjects did not respond to this item on the survey.

Furthermore, all gender/ethnic origins were represented

except Black and Asian American Females. Over 3/4 of the

respondents were white males.

Classification of Community Colleges

Fourteen different classifications of community

colleges were discussed in Chapter 2. However, for the

purpose of the survey only three of those classifications

were used since those broder classifications have not been

reviewed or adopted by AACC. The classifications used were

rural, suburban and urban community colleges. Table 4 shows

the distribution of community college presidents by

classification of the institution. One hundred and thirty-

four (50.8%) of the respondents classified their community

college as rural. Sixty-five (24.6%) subjects stated that

their college was a suburban institution, and 65 (24.6%)

subjects classified their institution an urban school.

Number of Years Served As Chief Administrator

Table 5 shows the distribution of Community College

Presidents according to the number of years served as the

Chief Administrator. Two hundred and eighty-three subjects

responded to this question. When looking at opposite ends

of the spectrum, 191 (67.5%) have more than 15 years as












Table 4
Community College Presidents: Distribution by
Classification of Community College


Classification n %


Rural 134 50.8

Suburban 65 24.6

Urban 65 24.6


TOTAL 264 100.0




Table 5
Community College Presidents: Distribution by Number
of Years Experience As A Chief Administrator


Years Experience n %


Less than 1 year 3 1.1

1-5 years 30 10.6

6-10 years 21 7.4

11-14 years 38 13.4

15 years or more 191 67.5


TOTAL 280 100.0


Chief Administrator, and three (1.1%) of the administrators

reported having served for less than one year.

Current Position Title

All subjects were asked to write in their current

position title. Table 6 shows the distribution of the

community college presidents by title of position. One of











Table 6
Community College Presidents: Distribution by Current
Position Title


Title n %


Chancellor 6 2.1

President 278 97.9


TOTAL 284 100.0


two titles were recorded by the respondents. All 284

subjects responded to the question. Two hundred and

seventy-eight (97.9%) were titled as President, and six

(2.1%) were called Chancellor.

Research Question 1

Research Question 1 stated how do community college

presidents perceive organizational climate at their

respective institutions, using a set of seven identified

factors for climate? In this study, climate was defined as

the conditions that affect job satisfaction and

productivity. The factors under investigation included (a)

internal communication, (b) organizational structure, (c)

political climate, (d) professional development

opportunities, (e) evaluation, (f) promotion, and (g) regard

for personal concerns.

The seven factors were coded as follows:

IC = Perception of Internal Communication

OS = Perception of Organizational Structure










PCL = Perception of Political Climate

PDO = Perception of Professional Developmental

Opportunities

EVAL = Perception of Evaluation

PROMO = Perception of Promotion

PRC = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns

Presidents surveyed were asked to rate their level or

degree to which the seven organizational factors were

present at their community college with five (5) indicating

the highest level of presence and one (1) indicating the

lowest level of presence. Therefore, the rating of five was

interpreted as the very highest level of presence or

existence of the organizational climate factor in question.

The rating of four was understood to mean a high level of

existence of the factor. The rating of three represented a

moderately high level of existence. The rating of two was

interpreted as a low level of existence of the

organizational climate factor, and the rating of one was

understood to mean that a very low existence or presence of

the factor in question was evident.

Tables 7, 8, and 9 give a composite of community

college presidents' perceptions of organizational climate at

their colleges. Through a close examination of Table 8, it

is evident that the three highest mean rated factors for

organizational climate were regard for personal concerns












Table 7

Community College Presidents' Perceptions of
Organizational Climate: Frequency Distributions

Factor Ratings Totals

5 4 3 2 1

IC
n 90 159 28 5 1 283
% 31.8 56.2 9.9 1.8 0.4 100

OC
n 39 118 88 36 2 283
% 13.8 11.7 31.1 12.7 0.7 100

PCL
n 57 70 69 56 30 282
% 20.2 24.8 24.5 19.9 10.6 100

PDO
n 117 98 48 18 2 283
% 41.3 34.6 17.0 6.4 0.7 100

EVAL
n 117 79 42 11 7 282
% 41.5 28.0 14.9 3.9 2.5 100

PROMO
n 65 144 66 9 0 284
% 22.9 50.7 23.2 3.2 0.0 100

RPC
n 149 120 15 0 0 284
% 52.5 42.3 5.3 0.0 0.0 100


*26 presidents responded there was no method of
evaluation.

IC = Perception of Internal Communication
OS = Perception of Organizational Structure
PCL = Perception of Political Climate
PDO = Perception of Professional Development
Opportunities
EVAL = Perception of Evaluation
PROMO = Perception of Promotion
RPC = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns













Table 8


Community College Presidents' Perceptions of

Organizational Climate Mean Distributions




Factor N Mean SD StdErr



IC 283 4.173 0.700 0.041

OS 283 3.551 0.907 0.053

PCL 282 3.241 1.276 0.075

PDO 283 4.095 0.946 0.056

EVAL 282 3.744 1.536 0.091

PROMO 284 3.933 0.765 0.045

RPC 284 4.471 0.596 0.035


IC = Perception of Internal Communication

OS = Perception of Organizational Structure

PCL = Perception of Political Climate

PDO = Perception of Professional Development

Opportunities

EVAL = Perception of Evaluation

PROMO = Perception of Promotion

RPC = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns











Table 9

Community College Presidents' Perceptions of Organizational Climate: Correlation Table

IC OS PCL PDO EVAL PROMO RPC


IC 1.0000 0.01668 -0.14625* 0.13544* 0.26888* 0.25224* 0.13370*

OS 0.01668 1.0000 0.22257* -0.00365 -0.01063 0.11209 0.04352

PCL -0.14625* 0.22257* 1.0000 -0.11573 -0.20793* -0.05337 -0.00619

PDO 0.13544* -0.00365 -0.11573 1.0000 0.29050* 0.09175 0.08316

EVAL 0.26888* -0.01063 -0.20793* 0.29050* 1.0000 0.14332* 0.08696

PROMO 0.25224* 0.11209 -0.05337 0.09175 0.14332* 1.0000 0.16222*

RPC 0.13370* 0.04352 -0.00619 0.08316 0.08696 0.16222* 1.0000


* = significant correlation, alpha level less or equal to 0.05.

IC = Perception of Internal Communication
OS = Perception of Organizational Structure
PCL = Perception of Political Climate
PDO = Perception of Professional Development Opportunities
EVAL = Perception of Evaluation
PROMO = Perception of Promotion
RPC = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns











(RPC), internal communications (IC), and professional

development opportunities (PDO). Of these three factors,

regard for personal concerns rated the highest with 269

(94.8%) respondents rating this factor with a four or five,

and 149 (52.5%) of the presidents rated this factor a five,

which was the highest possible rating. Therefore, it can be

concluded that community college presidents believe that

their workplaces have a personal concern for the well-being

and welfare of them and others.

Internal communication also received a high rating.

The mean score for this factor was 4.173. Of all

respondents, 249 (88%) rated this factor as very highly

present or highly present at their community colleges. As a

result, it can be stated that community college presidents

work in environments where the lines of communication are

open. Furthermore, professional development opportunities

was a factor that received a high rating by the respondents.

The mean score for this factor 4.095; of all respondents,

215 (75.9%) rated this factor either a four or five. Just

as with internal communication and regard for personal

concerns, presidents believed they work in institutions

where there was adequate opportunities for professional

development.

On the other hand, the factor perception of political

climate received the lowest rating of all organizational

factors; its mean score was 3.241. According to the











frequency distribution in Table 7, it is evident that the

responses to this question were relatively evenly

distributed. Of the respondents, 127 (45%) rated this

factor either 4 or 5, 69 (24.5%) rated it three, and 86

(30.5%) rated it either one or two. These results were

important. First, a high rating in perception of political

climate might not be the best. Does one want to work in an

environment that is highly political? Political climate was

defined as the nature and complexity of the college's

politics. Therefore, according to the results, 45% of the

respondents reported working in environments that had a

strong presence of political climate or the framework in

which to operate at their college was extremely completed.

On the other hand, 30.5% of the presidents responded either

with a one or two, thus they believed that the level and

complexity of internal politics was not high.

It is noteworthy to mention that although the mean

score (3.744) for the factor evaluation was moderately high,

26 (9.2%) of the presidents responded that there was not

formal or informal method of evaluation.

The pearson product moment correlation coefficients are

present in Table 9. If the p-value was less than .05, then

there was a significant correlation. Some correlations were

negative and significant, and others were positive and

significant. The significant correlations are denoted in

Table 9 with an asterisk (*). There was a











negative/significant correlation between perception of

internal communication (IC) and perception of political

climate (PCL). These data were interpreted to mean a high

response in internal communication corresponded with a low

response in political climate. Therefore, the more open the

lines of communication were at an institution, the less

political the climate was for the President.

Furthermore, internal communication had a

positive/significant correlation with the organizational

climate factors dealing with perception of professional

development opportunities, evaluation, promotion and regard

for personal concerns. The high responses in internal

communication corresponded with the high responses in

perceptions of professional development opportunities,

evaluation, promotion, and regard for personal concerns.

Therefore, the more open the lines of communication were at

an institution, the greater the professional development

opportunities, evaluation process, promotion, and regard for

personal concerns. There were also positive/significant

correlations between perception of organizational structure

and perception of political climate. These results suggested

when the chain of command was followed at in institution,

the less political the college climate was. There was a

positive/significant relationship between perception of

professional development opportunities and perception of

evaluation. These results suggested the more opportunities











there were for professional development, the better the

evaluation was for a community college president. There was

a positive/significant relationship between perception of

evaluation and perception of promotion. These results

suggested the better the evaluation was of a president, the

greater the chances were for a higher promotion of faculty

and other administrators. There was also a

positive/significant relationship between perception of

promotion and regard for personal concerns. These results

suggested the more promotions, the greater the regard for

personal concern. Furthermore, there was also a

negative/significant correlation between perception of

political climate and perception of evaluation. These

results suggested the more political the climate was, the

worst the evaluation was for the president.

Research Question 2

The second research question stated using the same

seven climate factors as an index, how satisfied are

community college presidents with the organizational climate

at their respective institutions? Through a close analysis

of the descriptive statistic recorded from the respondents,

a composite of how satisfied community college presidents

were with the organizational climate at their schools was

identified. The same coding was used in question two and

one; however, a numeral 2 was added to differentiate between




Full Text
39
In order for any place of work to be satisfying for the
employee, according to the theory of Argyris, there must be
a fit between the employee and the organization. A good fit
was described in the literature as a congruence between the
needs, wants, and wishes of the employee and the
organization. When this is accomplished, although
difficult, job satisfaction is present. If there is a
misfit, stress, burn out, and job dissatisfaction will
result. Cohen and Brawer (1994) believed that finding
common ground between the organization and the employees was
the heart of effective management.
Factors under Investigation that Influence Job Satisfaction
Participation in Decision-Making
Participation in decision-making was defined as the
college's process for decision-making and opportunities for
involvement by the employee to participate in that process.
The decision-making process at any given institution is
extremely significant. The decision-making process is the
power of an organization (Fryer & Lovas, 1990). Four steps
are usually involved in reaching a decision: (1) defining
the problem, (2) identifying possible alternatives, (3)
predicting the consequences of each reasonable alternative,
and (4) choosing the alternative to be followed (Ornstein &
Lunenburg, 1991).


15
called either the "Two-Factor Theory" or the "Motivation-
Hygiene Theory." The researchers found that there were two
sets of factors that determine job satisfaction (motivators)
and job dissatisfaction (hygienes). The motivators related
to the intrinsic aspect of the job, and the hygienes dealt
with the surrounding conditions of the job.
The six motivators for job satisfaction, as defined by
Herzberg, included the following:
1. Advancement dealt with the actual changes in the
status or position of an individual in an organization. It
also included the probability of or hope for advancement.
2. Achievement related to all events that lead toward
realization of the worker's personal objectives (successful
completion of a job, finding a solution to a problem, or
seeing the results of one's own work). The definition also
included the opposite--failure to achieve.
3. Recognition related to some act of praise, notice
(positive recognition) or blame (negative recognition)
toward the employee from the work environment (a peer,
professional colleague, supervisor, or the general public).
4. Work itself dealt with doing the actual job or
task as a source of good or bad feelings. It also referred
to the opportunity to complete an assigned unit or task.
5. Responsibility dealt with authority and included
those sequences of events in which the worker mentioned
satisfaction derived from being given responsibility for the


50
significantly increased; development programs are using more
than summative evaluation systems; broader data bases have
been used to make academic promotion and tenure decisions;
the quality of student rating forms for appraising classroom
teaching performance has substantially improved; court cases
have imposed the quality and fairness of academic personnel
decision; and the use of the research/scholarship criteria
in making academic promotion and tenure decisions has
increased (Miller, 1988a).
There are many evaluation models; they come in many
varieties and are useful in different contexts and
environments. Evaluation models also are designed to
address different questions and to begin at different
points. Some of the different models include Sciven's
Formative-Summative Model, CIPP Model, Tyler's Goal
Attainment Model, and Provus' Discrepancy Model (Kaffman &
Thomas, 1980). Moreover, the ultimate goal of all the
models is to support and assist in useful decision-making,
not to make the decision (Kaffman & Thomas, 1980) .
Although evaluation is used for improving performance
and feedback for professional growth, it is extremely
significant that the evaluation be positive. If it is seen
as negative, the purpose of doing the evaluation will be
null and void. Effective leadership must explain that the
major purpose of evaluation is for improvement.
Specifically, community colleges presidents must build trust


63
among administrators at colleges is costly and is related to
job dissatisfaction (Glide, 1992; Vaughan, 1986).
Additional Factors that May Affect Job Satisfaction
and Climate for Community College Presidents
Because there are many factors that could affect job
satisfaction and climate for community college presidents,
the researcher examined a few other potential factors
discovered in the reading of the literature.
Gender and Ethnic Differences
It is a proven fact that men and women see situations
differently. This idea also could be seen as true in the
world of leadership. One of the major causes of job
dissatisfaction for women in higher education is the lack of
communication, stress, and relationships with other
colleagues (Hersi, 1993). These causes of job
dissatisfaction could result in an increase absenteeism
(Dear, 1995) a decrease in teaching and learning, and a
loss of morale and interest for the job (Lunenburg &
Ornstein, 1991). Another source for dissatisfaction for men
and women is members of the opposite sex occupying most of
the jobs (Cassidy & Warren, 1991). However, some
researchers have concluded that gender is not even an issue
when it comes to job satisfaction (Kirby, 1987; Carbone,
1981).
As far as leadership is concerned, "Women, blacks, and
ethnic minority presidents are important to the community
colleges not only for what they bring to the presidency as


40
O CMS
According to--QrnsteinandLunenburg (1991) :
The use of participative decision making
has two major potential benefits: (1) arriving
at better decision and (2) enhancing the growth
and development of the organization's participants
(for example, greater sharing of goals, improved
motivation, improved communication better-developed
group-process skill). As a practical guide for
implementing participative processes in education
organization, three factors in particular should
be borne in mind: (1) the need for an explicit
decision-making process, (2) the nature of the problem
to be solved or the issue to be decided, and
(3) criteria for including people in the
process, (p. 277)
As aforementioned, employee participation in decision
making is as important to an effective organization as oil
is to an automobile. Participation in decision-making is
associated with job satisfaction and productivity (Witt &
Myers, 1992; Fisher, 1984). Organizations that allow
employees to participate in decision-making will cause their
employees to be more satisfied (Lawler, 1986; Fryer & Lovas,
1990).
Participative decision-making has a number of
advantages. Some of these advantages are better decisions,
higher employee satisfaction, and better relations between
staff and management (Lindelow, 1989) Mutchler (1990)
believed that participative decision-making is shared power
that is multiplied. Radnofsky (1988) argued that
institutions will improve their effectiveness when
individuals become more involved in professional decision
making .


170
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89
(RPC), internal communications (IC), and professional
development opportunities (PDO). Of these three factors,
regard for personal concerns rated the highest with 269
(94.8%) respondents rating this factor with a four or five,
and 149 (52.5%) of the presidents rated this factor a five,
which was the highest possible rating. Therefore, it can be
concluded that community college presidents believe that
their workplaces have a personal concern for the well-being
and welfare of them and others.
Internal communication also received a high rating.
The mean score for this factor was 4.173. Of all
respondents, 249 (88%) rated this factor as very highly
present or highly present at their community colleges. As a
result, it can be stated that community college presidents
work in environments where the lines of communication are
open. Furthermore, professional development opportunities
was a factor that received a high rating by the respondents.
The mean score for this factor 4.095; of all respondents,
215 (75.9%) rated this factor either a four or five. Just
as with internal communication and regard for personal
concerns, presidents believed they work in institutions
where there was adequate opportunities for professional
development.
On the other hand, the factor perception of political
climate received the lowest rating of all organizational
factors; its mean score was 3.241. According to the


121
community college, and the length of time served as
president. However, significant relationships were found
between the eight measures of job satisfaction, which were
participation in decision-making, power, relationship with
peers, relationship with subordinates, relationship with
supervisor, salary, benefits, and professional
effectiveness, and the seven factors of organizational
climate, which were satisfaction with internal
communication, organizational structure, political climate,
professional development opportunities, evaluation,
promotion, and regards for personal concern.
Moreover, there were some significant relationships
when correlating the variables of job satisfaction and the
factors of organizational climate. All significant
relationships had a p value of less than .05. Table 21
gives a summary of significant relationships found between
the organizational climate factors and the job satisfaction
variable.


95
Table 11
Communitv
Colleae Presidents' Satisfaction with
Organizational Climate
: Mean Distributions
Factor
N
Mean
SD
StdErr
IC2
284
3.866
0.871
0.051
0S2
283
3.713
0.894
0.053
PCL2
280
3.207
1.215
0.072
PD02
283
4.045
1.014
0.060
EVAL2
282
3.702
1.503
0.089
PROMO2
284
3.982
0.850
0.050
RPC2
283
4.420
0.696
0.041
IC2 = Satisfaction with Internal Communication
0S2 = Satisfaction with Organizational Structure
PCL2 = Satisfaction with Political Climate
PD02 = Satisfaction with Professional Development
Opportunities
EVAL2 = Satisfaction with Evaluation
PR0M02 = Satisfaction with Promotion
RPC2 = Satisfaction with Regard for Personal Concerns


164
B.Number of years you have served as a college administrator:
Less than 1 year 10 14 years
1-5 years 15 years or more
6-10 years
C.Ethnic group:
Asian American
Black/Afri can-American
Hispanic
White/Caucasian
Native American
Other: (please specify)_
D.Gender:
Female
Male
E.Marital status:
Single Married Divorced
F. Community college classifications:
1. Rural Community College
2. Urban Community College
3. Suburban Community College
G. The members of the board of trustees are:
Elected Appointed Other (Please Specify)
H. Board members' ethnicity (Please write in the number of board members of each ethnic group serving at your institution):
Asian American White/Caucasian
Black/African-American Native American
Hispanic Other (Please specify)
I Board Members' Gender (Please write in the number of board members of the genders listed below):
Male Female
J. Please use this space to make any comments or observations relating to the content of this survey:
THANK YOU!
Please return this survey in the envelope provided
by Thursday, August 22, 1996
Department of Educational Leadership
University of Florida
P.O. Box 117049, 253 Norman Hall
Gainesville, EL 32611-7049
Attn: G. L. Evans, Jr.


99
this factor, while the other 55% were either moderately
unsatisfied, or very unsatisfied with the political climate.
These data revealed that about half of all presidents were
satisfied with the political climate and about half were
moderately satisfied or unsatisfied with the political
climate at their institutions. In addition, be it known
that Presidents' perceptions of political climate also
received the lowest rating of all organizational climate
factors.
The pearson product moment correlation coefficients for
satisfaction with the organizational climate factors are
presented in Table 12. If the p-value was less than .05,
then there was a significant correlation. Correlations
would have been negative and significant, or positive and
significant. The negative or positive/significant
correlation are denoted in Table 12 with an asterisk!*).
However, in this correlation table, no negative significant
relationships were found.
Through an examination of Table 12, it was evident
there was a positive/significant relationship between
satisfaction with internal communication and satisfaction
with professional development opportunities, organization
structural, evaluation, promotion, and regard for personal
concerns. These results suggested statistically speaking,
the higher the response was for IC2, the higher the response
was for OS2, PD02, EVAL2, PR0M02, and RWP2. Therefore, when


CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature
of the relationship between measures of organizational
climate and measures of job satisfaction as applied to
community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was
done to ascertain if there were significant differences in
means for job satisfaction within the context of
organizational climate when controlling for gender,
ethnicity, classification of the community college, and
number of years of experience as a college president.
Specifically, the research addressed five questions:
1. How do community college presidents perceive
organizational climate at their respective institution,
using a set of seven identified factors for climate?
2. Using the same seven climate factors as an index,
how satisfied are community college presidents with the
organizational climate at their respective institutions?
3. How important is each of eight identified job
satisfaction variables to community college presidents in
the performance of their specific job responsibilities?
4. For each of eight job satisfaction variables, is
there a significant relationship between measures of job
124


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Until the 1930s, there was little interest in the study
of job satisfaction. Job performance and maximizing worker
output were the major areas of study (Wanous, 1976).
Interest developed when Elton Mayo and other researchers
conducted several experiments at the Western Electric
Hawthorne plant near Chicago, Illinois. The experiment was
designed to determine the optimum level of illumination in a
shop for maximum production. After the Hawthorne Studies
were completed, it was found that there was no direct,
simple relationship between the illumination level and the
production output of the workers (Lunenburg & Ornstein,
1991).
After the researchers pondered the surprising results
from the first experiments, the investigators sought to
answer other questions. What is the attitude of employees
toward their work and toward the company? Do employees
actually become tired? Are pauses for rest desirable? One
major finding was the realization that human variability is
an important determinant of productivity (Lunenburg &
Ornstein, 1991) The researchers learned that patterns
established among the workers influenced worker behavior
1


145
54
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Dependent Variable: Q17A Importance of Relation, with Peers
Sum of
Mean
Source
DF
Squares
Square
F Value
Pr > F
Model
11
3.57249133
0.32477194
0.52
0.8885
Error
244
152.16188367
0.62361428
Corrected Total
255
155.73437500
R-Square
C.V.
Root MSE
Q17A Mean
0.022940
18.27860
0.78969
4.32031
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type I SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.9502
4
0.44114945
0.11028736
0.18
ETHNIC
0.5514
4
1.89893328
0.47473332
0.76
GENDER
0.4184
1
0.40968229
0.40968229
0.66
COLCLASS
0.5180
2
0.82272630
0.41136315
0.66
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type III SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.9947
4
0.13228075
0.03307019
0.05
ETHNIC
0.4129
4
2.47294269
0.61823567
0.99
GENDER
0.4481
1
0.35996269
0.35996269
0.58
COLCLASS
2
0.82272630
0.41136315
0.66
0.5180


LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 Community College Presidents:
Distribution by Gender 80
2 Community College Presidents:
Distribution by Ethnic Origin 80
3 Community College Presidents: Distribution
by Gender and Ethnic Origin 81
4 Community College Presidents: Distribution
by classification of Community College 83
5 Community College Presidents: Distribution
by Number of Years of Experience as Chief
Administrator 83
6 Community College Presidents: Distribution
by Current Position Title 84
7 Community College Presidents' Perceptions
of Organizational Climate: Frequency
Distributions 86
8 Community College Presidents' Perceptions
of Organizational Climate: Mean
Distributions 87
9 Community College Presidents' Perceptions
of Organizational Climate:
Correlation Table 88
10 Community College Presidents' Satisfaction
with Organizational Climate: Frequency
Distributions 94
11 Community College Presidents' Satisfaction
with Organizational Climate: Mean
Distributions 95
v


75
used to determine the relationship between them and the
previously defined organizational climate factors. The job
satisfaction factors are listed and defined as follows:
1. Participation in Decision-Making. The college's
process for decision-making and opportunities for
involvement by the employee to participate in that process.
2. Power. The amount or degree of jurisdiction or
discretion that the employee is able to exercise while
performing the tasks of his or her position.
3-5. Relationship with Colleagues. The quality of the
affiliation that an employee maintains with his or her
peers, subordinates, and supervisor (board of trustees).
6-7. Salary and Benefits. The perceived equity and
adequacy of the salary and benefit package received by the
employee.
8. Professional Effectiveness. The perceived overall
effectiveness of the employee in his or her position.
The survey instrument also included questions regarding
the president's overall satisfaction with his or her
position, and his or her overall satisfaction with the total
operation of the college. These questions were given to
validate the composite of categorical responses regarding
job satisfaction and organizational climate. Moreover, the
instrument asked for responses regarding gender and equity,
number of years of experiences and the classification of the
community college. This information was gathered to


112
Table 18
Community
Colleae
Presidents' Overall Satisfaction with
Board of
Trustees
: Frecruencv Distribution and Mean
Distribution
Variable
Ratings
Totals
5
4
3
2
1
OSWBT
n
147
52.1
98
34.8
22
7.8
13
4.6
2
0.7
282
100
Mean Distribution
Variable
N
Mean
SD
StdErr
OSWBT
282
1.3297
0.6251
0.0372
OSWBT = Overall Satisfaction With
Board of Trustees
Table 19
Community
Colleae
Presidents' Percent'! ons
of
Sicrnificance of Board of Trustees
Frecruencv
Distribution and
Mean Distribution
Variable
Ratings
Totals
5
4
3
2
1
SBT
n
162
57.2
82
29.0
25
8.8
8
2.8
6
2.1
283
100
Mean Distribution
Variable
N
Mean
SD
StdErr
SBT
283
. 3639
0.9138
0.0543
SBT = Significance of Board of Trustees


158
44
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
Cumulative Cumulative
MARITAL2
Frequency
Percent
Frequency
Percent
Divorc
11
3.9
11
3.9
Marrie
260
91.9
271
95.8
Single
12
4.2
283
100.0
Frequency Missing = 1
Cumulative Cumulative
MEMTRU2
Frequency
Percent
Frequency
Percent
Appoint
142
51.4
142
51.4
Elected
133
48.2
275
99.6
Other
1
0.4
276
100.0
Frequency Missing = 8


70
satisfaction and a set of seven measures of satisfaction
with organizational climate, as reported by community
college presidents?
5. Is there a significant difference in the means of
eight job satisfaction variables for community college
presidents when compared by gender of the president, ethnic
origin of the president, classification of the community
college, and length of time served as a college
administrator?
Methodology
To answer these stated questions, the researcher used a
survey which addressed job satisfaction and organizational
climate. The survey ascertained data relative to community
college presidents' perception of seven factors related to
organizational climate, their levels of satisfaction with
these factors, and significance of eight factors of job
satisfaction in fulfilling their duties as community college
presidents. To answer research questions one, two, and
three, information was collected on perception of climate,
satisfaction with climate, and importance of job
satisfaction. This information was analyzed to develop a
universal profile of community college presidents.
Composites were developed to understand how presidents
generally perceived organizational climate in community
colleges, how satisfied they were with the climate, and how
significant each of the eight job satisfaction variables was


17
4. Interpersonal relations dealt with actual
verbalization about the characteristics of the individual.
Three categories of interpersonal relations were specified -
those involving subordinates, those involving peers, and
those concerning supervisors.
5. Company policy and administration dealt with
factors in which some overall aspect of the company was
involved.
6. Status was the sequence of events in which the
respondent specifically mentioned that a change in status
(such as attaining a personal secretary) affected his or her
feelings about the job.
7. Personal life dealt with situations in which some
aspect of the job affected the individual's personal life in
such a manner that the respondent's feeling about his or her
job was affected (such as a family-opposed job transfer).
8. Job security described signs of job security, such
as continued employment, tenure, and financial safeguards
(Herzberg, 1966) .
Herzberg et al. (1959) stated that it should be noted
that reversals in their theory are possible. Some of the
motivators could serve as hygiene elements, and some of the
hygienes could perhaps be motivators. After completing 12
experiments involving a random sample from 1,685 workers,
Herzberg (1968) ascertained that 81 percent of all factors
contributing to job satisfaction were motivators and that 69


87
Table 8
Community Colleae Presidents' Perceptions of
Oraanizational Climate Mean Distributions
Factor
N
Mean
SD
StdErr
IC
283
4.173
0.700
0.041
OS
283
3.551
0.907
0.053
PCL
282
3.241
1.276
0.075
PDO
283
4.095
0.946
0.056
EVAL
282
3.744
1.536
0.091
PROMO
284
3.933
0.765
0.045
RPC
284
4.471
0.596
0.035
IC = Perception of Internal Communication
OS = Perception of Organizational Structure
PCL = Perception of Political Climate
PDO = Perception of Professional Development
Opportunities
EVAL = Perception of Evaluation
PROMO = Perception of Promotion
RPC = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns


satisfaction variables included participation in decision
making, power, relationships with peers, relationships with
subordinates, relationships with supervisors, salary,
benefits, and professional effectiveness.
All community college presidents who are members of the
American Association of Community Colleges were invited to
participate in the research survey. A copy of the survey
and a postage-paid return envelope were sent to all
potential subjects. The original survey used in this
research was derived from literature related to job
satisfaction and organizational climate.
Through a close analysis of the survey responses, it is
evident that several of the organizational climate factors
were significantly related to job satisfaction for community
college presidents. Those factors were regard for personal
concerns, internal communication, organizational structure,
and professional development opportunities. Furthermore,
the most important job satisfaction variable for community
college presidents was their relationship with the board of
trustees or supervisor.
One conclusion was drawn from the study: If boards of
trustees want to enhance the job satisfaction of presidents,
there must be a regard for their personal concerns, the
lines of communication must be open, the organizational
structure of the college must be followed, and opportunities
for professional development must be afforded.
viii


48
some experts have stressed that political behavior was the
critical key to advancement and success in an organization,
while others have ignored its existence" (Chappell, 1995) .
Professional Development Opportunities
Professional development opportunities was defined as
the opportunities for employees to pursue and participate in
activities to enhance job performance. Professional
development opportunities for members of an organization are
extremely significant. It allows individuals of
organizations to improve skills, to learn new trends and
innovations, and to enhance job satisfaction and morale
(Vaughan, 1986; Kounzes & Posner, 1987). Effective leaders
will make sure that individuals grow to their fullest
potential.
Hutton and Jobe (1985) conducted a research project on
community college faculty in Texas. It was found that
professional development opportunities were a source for job
satisfaction. The Total Quality Management (TQM) believed
in the importance of training staff development (Ratcliff,
1989). Herzberg (1959) discussed growth, which is related
to professional development, as a motivator for job
satisfaction.
The purpose of professional development opportunities
is to allow individuals to grow, learn, and advance.
Institutions, whether they are schools or business and
industry, must invest in their employees. Deas (1994)


Research Question 3
The third research question stated how important is
102
each of eight identified job satisfaction variables to
community college presidents in the performance of their
specific job responsibilities? The composite for the
significance of the eight job satisfaction variables are
given in Tables 14 through 16.
The eight job satisfaction variables identified and
used in this study were (a) participation in decision
making, (b) power, (c) relationship with peers, (d)
relationship with subordinate, (e) relationship with
superior (the board), (f) salary, (g) benefits, and (h)
professional effectiveness. The codes used for these
variables are as follows:
DM = Importance of Participation in Decision-Making
POW = Importance of Power
RWP = Importance of Relationship With Peers
RWSub = Importance of Relationship With Subordinates
RWSup = Importance of Relationship With Supervisor
SAL = Importance of Salary
BENE = Importance of Benefits
PE = Importance of Professional Effectiveness
Each President was asked to rate each factor for job
satisfaction on a scale of one to five. Five was the
maximum response, and one was the minimum response rating.
A rating of five meant that the factor was very important.


10
president is the chief administrator at a given institution,
his or her performance is critical to the success of every
individual and aspect of the institution. Fifth, the
"burnout11 rate of community college presidents across the
country is at an all-time high (Vaughan, 1989). Finally,
little research has been conducted on how community college
presidents perceive organizational climate in their
respective institutions or how their perception may affect
their personal job satisfaction.
Because organizational climate plays a pivotal role in
determining job satisfaction for employees, the researcher
sought to increase the awareness of how climate affects job
satisfaction for community college presidents. Findings of
this study have advanced the body of knowledge by testing
the theoretical constructs of job satisfaction and
organizational climate as applied to community college
presidents, and by determining whether or not the model
previously developed applies to this sector of higher
education administration. The eight job satisfaction
variables were participation in decision-making, power,
relationship with peers, relationship with subordinates,
relationship with supervisor (board of trustees), salary,
benefits, and professional effectiveness. The seven
organizational climate factors were internal communication,
organizational structure, political climate professional


136
is not true. Presidents believe the more the board,
faculty, staff, and student body work within the hierarchial
lines of authority, the better the institution will be in
terms of their power, relationship with subordinates,
relationship with supervisors, salary, and benefits.
Professional Development Opportunities
The organizational climate factor, professional
development opportunities, was significantly related to four
job satisfaction variables: relationship with subordinates,
relationship with supervisor, salary, and professional
effectiveness. These data can be interpreted to mean the
more opportunities for professional development that
existed, the more satisfied the president was with his
relationship with his subordinates and supervisors, and the
more effective he or she was as a president. Hutton and
Jobe (1985) found, and this research study validated, that
professional development opportunities were a source of job
satisfaction. Boards of trustees must recognize that
presidents want opportunities to develop professionally.
One might think that his factor would not be significant
because of a president's position, but this study found that
presidents wanted to learn, participate, develop, and share
innovative practices. An emphasis on the implementation of
such a program would allow presidents of community colleges
to improve skills, learn new trends and innovations, and
enhance job satisfaction and morale (Vaughan, 1986; Kounzes


62
educational specialist degree holders and law degree
holders.
According to Vaughan (1986), the major job satisfiers
for community college presidents are as follows: (1) The
relationships with the college community and community at
large; (2) graduation rate holding a special fascination,
meaning as much to some presidents as it does to students;
(3) faculty, trustees, administrators, and students
successes; and (4) gaining satisfaction from what they can
see, touch, and experience firsthand.
The community college president is held in high esteem.
Faculty, administration, and students look to the president
for guidance and direction. Furthermore, the board depends
on the president to execute and enforce all laws and rules.
Many difficult issues face the community college president
on a day- to-day basis, such as hiring and firing, tenure
and promotion, equity and accountability--just to name a
few. Consequently, the responsibilities of the president
are intensifying and becoming more complex (Walker, 1979;
Vaughan, 1989).
The American Council on Education reported that
nationally there was an overwhelming turnover of top level
college administrators. Some researchers believed that this
turnover was due to job dissatisfaction, climate, stress,
and burn out (Glick, 1992; Vaughan, 1986). Also, turnover


150
59
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Class Level Information
Class
Levels
Values
YEARS
5
1
2 3
ETHNIC
5
1
2 3
GENDER
2
1
2
COLCLASS
3
1
2 3
Number of observations in data set = 284
NOTE: Due to missing values, only 258 observations can be used in
this
analysis.


1
153
62
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Dependent Variable: Q18B Importance of Benefits
Sum of
Mean
Source
DF
Squares
Square
F Value
Pr > F
Model
11
9.00897214
0.81899747
1.22
0.2713
Error
242
161.89260266
0.66897770
Corrected Total
253
170.90157480
R-Square
C.V.
Root MSE
Q18B Mean
0.052714
20.34763
0.81791
4.01969
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type I SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.1268
4
4.85263679
1.21315920
1.81
ETHNIC
0.3571
4
2.94398295
0.73599574
1.10
GENDER
0.3666
1
0.54731968
0.54731968
0.82
COLCLASS
0.6089
2
0.66503273
0.33251636
0.50
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type III SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.0954
4
5.34741316
1.33685329
2.00
ETHNIC
0.3580
4
2.93898267
0.73474567
1.10
GENDER
0.3617
1
0.55858238
0.55858238
0.83
COLCLASS
0.6089
2
0.66503273
0.33251636
0.50


72
States had state systems for community colleges wherein one
person served as president for that entire state. In these
cases, the one person was sent a survey for that state
system. Community college presidents in the United States
number more than 1,000. Endorsement for the research
project was given by Dr. D. Pierce, president of the
American Association of Community Colleges (AACC).
Procedure for Data Collection
A letter of invitation was mailed to the presidents of
all institutions who were members of the American
Association of Community Colleges. A copy of the survey and
a self-addressed, paid envelope were sent to all potential
subjects. All presidents were asked to respond by the due
date written on the survey and the cover letter. A follow
up letter also was sent three weeks after the original
survey was mailed.
Instrumentation
The survey instrument used to gather data was a replica
of the survey used in a University of Florida dissertation
that tested the same theoretical constructs on community
college chief instructional officers (Chappell, 1995) .
Although the survey used in this research project targeted a
different population, the original survey was derived from
literature related to job satisfaction and organizational
climate.


98
opportunities also was consistent with their perception of
professional development opportunities. As stated earlier,
91.2% of the respondents rated this factor with a four or
five as far as satisfaction was concerned, and 94.8% of the
respondents rated this factor four or five as far as
perception was concerned for professional development
opportunities. These data suggested that Presidents were
satisfied with their opportunities for professional
development.
Presidents also were satisfied with promotion as
evidenced by the mean score of 3.982. Of all respondents,
213 (75%) were either satisfied or very satisfied with
promotion at their colleges. Only 14 (4.9%) were either
unsatisfied or very unsatisfied with this factor.
Presidents' perception of promotion and satisfaction with
promotion were consistent. As stated above, 75% were either
satisfied or very satisfied with promotion and 4.9% were the
opposite, while for perception of promotion 73.6% were
either high or very high, and 3.2% were very low. These
data suggested that community college presidents on average
were satisfied with the college's commitment to internal
promotion or advancement from within the organization.
The lowest level of satisfaction reported by presidents
was with the factor political climates. According to Table
11, the mean score for this factor was 3.713. Table 9 shows
that 126 (45%) were either satisfied or very satisfied with


64
individuals but also as symbols for others of similar
background who inspire to the presidency" (Vaughan, 1989, p.
65). Women constitute 7.6% of all community college
presidents; blacks constitute 3.9%, and Hispanics make up
only 2.1% (Vaughan, 1989). Vaughan (1989) also stated that
a "double standard" is applied to women and individuals of
color. In some instances, these persons are expected to do
more and are forgiven less for mistakes than is the case
with white male presidents.
According to the research, sixty-six percent of female
presidents viewed the presidency as asexual once they
assumed office. Sixty percent of the Hispanic presidents
saw the presidency as "aracial" once they assumed office.
In contrast, 69% of Black presidents did not see the
presidency as being "aracial" once they assumed office
(Vaughan, 1989).
Vaughan (1989) further stated:
Racial and ethnic minorities and women
face special challenges as they move into
the presidency. Governing boards, current
presidents, the college community, and
society in general remain somewhat insensitive
to these challenges. However, most boards
appear to want the presidency to be filled
by outstanding leaders, regardless of sex,
race, or ethnic background, (p. 70).
Classification of the Organization
It can be assumed that the larger the college, the
larger the demands on the president. Perhaps classification


CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
There was little interest in job satisfaction and
climate until the 1930s. Prior to this time, job
performance and maximizing worker output were the major
areas of concern and study (Wanous, 1976). Specifically,
interest developed when Elton Mayo and his associates
experimented at the Western Electric Hawthorne plant near
Chicago, Illinois. The Hawthorne Study, as it is called,
was one of the major research experiments that contributed
to the study of employee motivation and job satisfaction.
Furthermore, Mayo's studies revealed that perceptions and
job satisfaction among employees were factors that related
to job performance, and climate or social environment had a
significant influence on productivity and morale (Mayo,
1933). As a result of these studies, the basis for the
human relation movement was established. Moreover, the idea
of job satisfaction in accordance with organizational
climate theory has been researched since the 1960s. Several
researchers have confirmed that organizational climate does
affect job satisfaction in the work environment.
12


18
percent of all factors contributing to job dissatisfaction
were hygiene elements.
Research has been done on the validity of the
Motivation-Hygiene Theory. In industrial psychology, it has
been the most replicated study of job satisfaction
(Grigaliuhas & Herzberg, 1971). Furthermore, Aebi (1973)
wrote that Herzberg's Theory has been tested more than 100
times.
Support for herzberg's two-factor theory
As previously mentioned, many researchers have tested
Herzberg's Theory, and they have found it to be beneficial.
Friedlander and Walton (1964) performed a study on 82
scientists and engineers. They found that employees'
reasons for remaining with an organization were not the
reciprocal reasons for their leaving an organization. It
was proven that reasons for staying on the job were truly
related to Herzberg's motivator factors, and the reasons for
leaving were closely parallel to the hygiene factors.
When the Two-Factor Theory was first tested on females
subjects, it proved to be workable (Herzberg, 1966). The
women tested were supervisors for government research.
Again, the motivators were determined to be job motivators
or job satisfiers. On the other hand, the hygiene factors
were mentioned as sources of dissatisfaction.
The theory also was applied to the educational
environment. Thomas (1977) reported evidence supporting the


94
Table 10
Communitv Colleae Presidents' Satisfaction with
Orcranizational Climate: Freauencv Distributions
Factor Ratings Totals
5
4
3
2
1
IC2
n
67
23.6
134
47.5
63
22.2
18
6.3
2
0.7
284
100
OC2
n
51
18.0
132
46.6
69
24.4
30
10.6
1
0.4
283
100
PCL2
n
44
15.7
82
29.3
69
24.6
58
20.7
27
9.6
280
100
PD02
n
119
42.0
87
30.7
52
18.4
21
7.4
4
1.4
283
100
EVAL2
n
113
40.1
78
27.7
35
12.4
25
8.9
2
0.7
282
100
PR0M02
n
82
28.9
131
46.1
57
20.1
12
4.2
2
0.7
284
100
RPC2
n
148
52.3
110
38.9
22
7.8
2
0.7
1
0.4
283
100
* = 19 presidents reported no method of evaluation.
IC2 = Satisfaction with Internal Communication
OS2 = Satisfaction with Organizational Structure
PCL2 = Satisfaction with Political Climate
PD02 = Satisfaction with Professional Development
Opportunities
EVAL2 = Satisfaction with Evaluation
PR0M02 = Satisfaction with Promotion
RPC2 = Satisfaction with Regard for Personal Concerns


131
was the process that links the individual, the group, and
the organization.
Significant relationships also existed between
organizational structure and five of the job satisfaction
variables. For the purpose of this study, organizational
structure was defined as the college's administrative
operation or its hierarchial lines of authority and
requirements for operating within the hierarchy. The
results of the analysis of the data suggested that the more
satisfied the community college president was with the
organizational structure at his or her institution, the more
satisfied he or she was with his or her level of authority
or power, relationship with faculty and staff, relationship
with board of trustees, salary, and benefits. These finding
did not support the research of Tuckman and Johnson (1987)
which concluded that hierarchical organizational structures
in education were not effective.
The last most significant relationship was between
professional development opportunities (PDO) and several job
satisfaction variables. For the purpose of this study,
professional development opportunities was defined as the
opportunity for all employees to pursue and participate in
activities to enhance job performance. There were
significant relationships between PDO and RWSub, RWSup,
SALA, and PE. These results suggested the greater the
college's encouragement for professional development


125
satisfaction and a set of seven measures of satisfaction
with organizational climate, as reported by community
college presidents?
5. Is there significant difference in the means of
eight job satisfaction variables for community college
presidents when compared by gender of the president, ethnic
origin of the president, classification of the community
college, and length of time served as a college
administrator?
Conclusions
The Community College President
For the purpose of this study, president was defined as
the chief executive officer of an institution; he or she
reported directly to a board of trustees. The average
community college president in the United States is a white
male; this finding supported the research of Vaughan (1989) .
However, every ethnic/gender combination is represented
except black female and Asian-American female. Most of
these chief executive officers have been in their positions
for 15 years or more. Furthermore, over one-half of the
community college presidents surveyed responded that their
community college could be classified as a rural institution
of higher learning.
Presidents' Perception of the Organizational Climate
Community college presidents reported a strong presence
at their colleges of all organizational climate factors,


61
successful president understands pedagogy as well as
finances and that through managing the money the president
engages in creative planning" (Vaughan, 1986) .
According to Vaughan (1986) in The Community College
Presidency, community college presidents across the country
are responsible for the employment of more than 270,000
full-time faculty, librarians, counselors, and other
administrators. Most of these individuals have been in
their current position for five years or less. Seventy-one
percent of the fathers of community college presidents did
not finish high school. Only 29% finished
high school, but they had no college experience. By
studying these figures, it is evident that many community
college presidents today came from working-class homes.
Most the community college presidents are married with
children; however, they have little time to spend with their
families.
The majority of community college presidents across the
nation have doctoral degrees. In a survey conducted by
Vaughan (1986) on 591 college presidents, 44% had Doctor of
Education degrees, and 32% had Doctor of Philosophy degrees
in various fields of study. Surprisingly, 24% did not have
doctorates; 17% had Master of Arts degrees. Specifically,
101 presidents had a Master of Arts degrees. Three percent
had only a Bachelor of Arts degrees, and the remaining were


92
there were for professional development, the better the
evaluation was for a community college president. There was
a positive/significant relationship between perception of
evaluation and perception of promotion. These results
suggested the better the evaluation was of a president, the
greater the chances were for a higher promotion of faculty
and other administrators. There was also a
positive/significant relationship between perception of
promotion and regard for personal concerns. These results
suggested the more promotions, the greater the regard for
personal concern. Furthermore, there was also a
negative/significant correlation between perception of
political climate and perception of evaluation. These
results suggested the more political the climate was, the
worst the evaluation was for the president.
Research Question 2
The second research question stated using the same
seven climate factors as an index, how satisfied are
community college presidents with the organizational climate
at their respective institutions? Through a close analysis
of the descriptive statistic recorded from the respondents,
a composite of how satisfied community college presidents
were with the organizational climate at their schools was
identified. The same coding was used in question two and
one; however, a numeral 2 was added to differentiate between


3
The idea of job satisfaction in accordance with
organizational climate theory also has been researched.
Organizational climate refers to the personality of an
organization. Climate is an accumulation of intangible
perceptions that individuals have of various aspects of the
work environment of an organization (Deas, 1994; Owen, 1991;
Steers & Porter, 1975). Organizational climate also can be
defined as the characteristics of the total environment
(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). In Educational
Administration: Concepts and Practices (1991), an
organizational climate comprises four dimensions as follow:
1. Ecology refers to the physical and material
factors in the organization.
2. Milieu is the social dimension in the
organization.
3. Social system to the organizational and
administrative structure of the organization.
4. Culture refers to the values, belief systems,
norms, and ways of thinking that are characteristic of the
people in the organization.
Terms often used to describe organizational climate
include (a) open, (b) warm, (c) easygoing, (d) informal, (e)
cold, (f) hostile, (g) rigid, or (h) closed (Lunenburg &
Ornstein, 1991).
Some research has been done on the relationship between
job satisfaction theory and organizational climate theory in


APPENDIX A
ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR QUESTION 5


59
style affects job satisfaction for faculty, the faculty's
morale and acceptance of the president at the community
college could have an effect of the chief administrator's
job satisfaction. The community college and its leadership
and faculty, therefore, must be willing to be flexible and
seek solutions to old and new problems without abandoning
those sacred tenets of its philosophy. Job satisfaction and
a warm, open climate thus might exist within this arena of
higher education.
The Role and Profile of the Community College President
The success of any community college will depend to
some degree on the president. The community college
president is the chief administrator at the institution. He
or she is responsible for the daily operations of the
college. This administrator serves as the liaison between
the board of trustees and the college's administration,
faculty, staff, and student body (Vaughan, 1989; Vaughan,
1986). A community college president is responsible for
seeing that the institution is managed effectively and
efficiently. A college president must demonstrate through
words and deeds that an educational institution's reason for
existence is the discovery, examination, analysis,
organization, and transfer of knowledge (Vaughan, 1989) .
The chief administrator is responsible for the management of
the school, the creation of the climate along with the board
of trustees, and the interpretation of the institution's


119
college administrator? The following codes were used for
the demographic variables:
G1 =
Males
G2 =
Females
El =
Afro-American
E2 =
Asian Americans
E3 =
Native Americans
E4 =
White
see
= Suburban. Community College
UCC
= Urban Community College
RCC
= Rural Community College
Y1 =
Served less than 1 year as a college president
Y2 =
Served 1 to five years
Y3 =
Served 6 to 10 years
Y4 =
Served 10 to 14 years
Y5 =
Served 15 years or more
Each of the job satisfaction variables was compared to
each of the demographic variables listed above to ascertain
if any significant differences were evident. A significant
relationship is defined as a p-value less than 0.05.
Through an analysis of the p-values listed under Type III
sums of squares for the eight job satisfaction variables,
there were no significant differences between the job
satisfaction variables, which were participation in
decision-making, power, relationship with peers,
relationship with subordinates, relationship with


76
ascertain if there were significant differences in the means
of the eight job satisfaction variables for community
college presidents across the country.
Statistical Analysis
A correlation coefficients analysis was used for the
statistical test to ascertain the relationship between the
job satisfaction and organizational climate factors as
reported by community college presidents. This analysis was
used to determine if any of the organizational climate
factors were significantly related to any of the job
satisfaction factors. Furthermore, the general linear
models procedure (ANOVA) was used to determined if there was
a significant difference in the means of eight job
satisfaction variables when controlling for gender,
ethnicity, number of years of experience, and community
college type as reported by the chief administrators.
Reporting Procedure
After all data were received and analyzed by the
researcher, a community college president profile was
developed. Moreover, the information received revealed
presidents' perception of organizational climate and their
levels of satisfaction with regard to their colleges'
organizational climate. The survey also determined how
significant each of the eight job satisfaction factors was,
and if there were any significant differences when
controlling for additional factors that could influence job


172
Report of the Wingspread Group on Higher Education, (1993) .
An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher
Education. Racine, WI: The Johnson Foundation.
Rieley, J. B. (1992). How to optimize organizational
effectiveness through leadership. (ERIC Document
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Roethlisberger, F.J., & Dickson, W.J. (1939). Management and
the worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schneider, B. & Snyder, R. A. (1975). Some relationships
between job satisfaction and organizational climate.
Journal of Applied Psychology. 60. 318-328.
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Thomas, S. C. (1977). An application of Herzberg's two
factor theory of job satisfaction to selected community
college administrative roles (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Florida, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts
International. 38. 3326A.


97
for personal concern (RPC2/mean score 4.420), professional
development opportunities (PD02/mean score 4.045), and
Promotion (PR0M2/mean score 3.982). Moreover, the lowest
level of satisfaction reported by respondents was
satisfaction with political climate (PCL2/mean score 3.207).
According to Table 10, a total of 258 (91.2%) of the
presidents were very satisfied or satisfied with regard for
personal concerns (RPC2) at their respective colleges. On
the other hand, only two (1.4%) said they were unsatisfied
or very unsatisfied with this factor. The factor
satisfaction with professional development opportunities
(PD02) indicated 206 (72.7%) of the respondents were either
satisfied or very satisfied with their institution in
regards to this factor. Furthermore, the data related to
satisfaction with promotion (PR0M02) indicated that 213
(75%) of the subjects were very satisfied or satisfied with
the factor as it relates to their community college.
It is noteworthy to mention that 91.2% of the
presidents were satisfied or very satisfied with regard to
personal concerns. These data were consistent with their
perception of regard for personal concerns. Of the
respondents, 94.8% had a strong or very strong perception of
regards for personal concerns. These data suggested that
Presidents were satisfied with their sensitivity to and
regard for the personal concerns of all employees.
Likewise, their satisfaction with professional development


85
PCL = Perception of Political Climate
PDO = Perception of Professional Developmental
Opportunities
EVAL = Perception of Evaluation
PROMO = Perception of Promotion
PRC = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns
Presidents surveyed were asked to rate their level or
degree to which the seven organizational factors were
present at their community college with five (5) indicating
the highest level of presence and one (1) indicating the
lowest level of presence. Therefore, the rating of five was
interpreted as the very highest level of presence or
existence of the organizational climate factor in question.
The rating of four was understood to mean a high level of
existence of the factor. The rating of three represented a
moderately high level of existence. The rating of two was
interpreted as a low level of existence of the
organizational climate factor, and the rating of one was
understood to mean that a very low existence or presence of
the factor in question was evident.
Tables 7, 8, and 9 give a composite of community
college presidents' perceptions of organizational climate at
their colleges. Through a close examination of Table 8, it
is evident that the three highest mean rated factors for
organizational climate were regard for personal concerns


135
the research of Deas (1994) and Vaughan (1986) who believed
that communication was linked to climate and job
satisfaction. The Board of Trustees should communicate
clearly and effectively with the college presidents.
Specifically, the president should communicate with the
faculty, staff, and board, and the faculty staff and board
should communicate with the president. According to Vaughan
(1986), one of the major job satisfiers for community
college presidents was an open and positive relationship
with the community college and the community at large. The
aforementioned research was validated because of this study
and the specific job satisfaction variables that were
significantly rated to organizational climate, namely
participation in decision-making, relationship with
subordinates and supervisors, salary, and benefits.
Organizational Structure
This organizational climate factor, organizational
structure, was significantly related to five of the job
satisfaction variables. If boards of trustees and other
college personnel want community college presidents to be
satisfied with their work environment, they must understand
and adhere to the college's hierarchical organizational
structure. These findings refuted the research of Tuckman
and Johnson (1987) who believed that hierarchical
organizational structures in education were not effective.
As evidenced by the responses of presidents, this assumption


Ill
moderately satisfied, and 15 (5.3%) said they were
unsatisfied or very unsatisfied with the performance of
their board of trustees. Furthermore, according to Table
19, 244 (86.2%) recorded a four or five for their perception
of the significance of the board of trustees. Therefore,
community college presidents' perception of and overall
satisfaction with the board of trustees was about the same.
Table 17
Communitv
Collecre
Presidents' Overall Satisfaction with
Position:
Freauencv Distribution
and Mean Distribution
Variable
Ratings
Totals
5
4
3
2
1
OSWP
n
116
127
16
4
0
263
%
44.1
48.3
6.1
1.5
0
100
Mean Distribution
Variable
N
Mean
SD
StdErr
OSWP
263
4.349
0 .
664
0.040
OSWP = Overall Satisfaction With Position


161
There is no evaluation.


APPENDIX B
ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR BOARDS OF TRUSTEES


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and
is fully adequate, in scope and quality, fi's a dissertation for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
David HdfeymaiV, Chair
Professor of ^Educational
Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and
is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
UlfrC-X-^.
Art Sandeen
Professor of Educational
Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and
is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
fw.ri
<2/
ta 1 e" Ca mpbe yL
Professor of Educational
Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion
it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and
is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
ciw&ft
Simon Johi^on
Professor of Curriculum
and Instruction


171
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7
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature
of the relationship between measures of organizational
climate and measures of job satisfaction as applied to
community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was
to ascertain if there were significant differences in means
for job satisfaction within the context of organizational
climate when controlling for gender, ethnicity,
classification of the community college, and number of years
of experience as a college president.
The research questions are as follows:
1. How do community college presidents perceive
organizational climate at their respective institutions,
using a set of seven identified factors for climate?
2. Using the same seven climate factors as an index,
how satisfied are community college presidents with the
organizational climate at their respective institutions?
3. How important is each of eight identified job
satisfaction variables to community college presidents in
the performance of their specific job responsibilities?
4. For each of eight job satisfaction variables, is
there a significant relationship between measures of job
satisfaction and a set of seven measures of satisfaction
with organizational climate, as reported by community
college presidents?


123
Table 21 Cont'd
Summarv of Sicrnificant Relationships Found Between
Oraanizational Climate Factors and Job Satisfaction
Variables
Job Satisfaction .
Variable
Organizational Climate
Factors
P
Values
Benefits
Internal
Communication
Organizational Structure
Regard for Personal
Concern
0.0036
0.0269
0.0151
Professional
Effectiveness
Political Climate
Professional Development
Opportunities
Evaluation
Regard for Personal
Concern
0.0043
0.0023
0.0022
0.0062


106
A rating of four meant that the factor was important. A
rating of three was interpreted as moderately important. A
rating of two meant the factor was unimportant, and a rating
of one meant the factor was extremely unimportant. The
ratings for the eight job satisfaction variables are
recorded in Table 14.
Through a close examination of the tables and given the
results for the eight job satisfaction variables, it is
evident that all variables were important, but the three
most important factors as evidenced by the mean score in
descending order were importance of relationships with
supervisor (mean 4.757), professional effectiveness (mean
4.544), and relationships with subordinates (mean 4.4468).
On the other hand, the factor that received the lowest mean
score was salary (mean 3.894).
According to the data, relationship with supervisor
(mean 4.757) was the most important factor. Of all
respondents, 275 (96.9%) presidents rated this factor with
either a four or five. No president rated this factor one
or two, and only nine rated it as moderately important.
These data were consistent with the research that presidents
strive or deem their supervisors, usually the board of
trustees, as significant. Therefore, these data suggested
that all presidents across the nation considered the
relationship between them and their board of trustees as
extremely important.


169
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Quarterly of Research and Practice. 9. 317-324.


LD
1780
1996
E12.I
3


49
The SAS System
September 18, 1996
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Class Level Information
Class
Levels
Values
YEARS
5
1
2 3
ETHNIC
5
1
2 3
GENDER
2
1
2
COLCLASS
3
1
2 3
Number of observations in data set =284
NOTE: Due to missing values, only 258 observations can be used in
this
analysis.
140


138
concerns was significantly related to seven out of eight job
satisfaction variables; organizational structure, five out
of eight; internal communication, five out of eight; and
professional development opportunities, four out of eight.
The results of these analyses indicated the need for Boards
to be sensitive to the needs and desires of their presidents
and all employees.
Perhaps, it would be advantageous to do further
research regarding job satisfaction and organizational
climate in other areas of education. These areas could be
secondary and elementary school administrators, community
college faculty members, boards of trustees, or specific
groups at the university level.


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AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
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47
which every facet or part is connected to another. Deegan
and Tillery (1985) discussed a model for organizational
structure within education called "organizational dualism"
in which "multiple systems for decision- making was utilized
consisting of four groups of decision makers: faculty,
trustees and administrators, agencies of state and federal
government, and private-sector organizations" (p. 219).
Political Climate
Political climate was defined as the nature and
complexity of the college's politics or the degree to which
an employee must operate within a political framework in
order to accomplish his or her task. As stated earlier,
there are many types of climates ranging from cold and
hostile to warm and open. Climate is defined as the
personality of an organization. A concrete definition for
climate in education can best be described in Deas'
definition. Deas (1994) stated his definition as follows:
"A collection of intangibles that support and encourage all
the players to work toward a common goal--learning" (p. 44).
Some researchers believed that politics in education
was positive while others thought that politics was
negative. Mintzberg (1989) stated that it should be
accepted and understood within the confines of education.
However, Levy (1989) saw a political climate as being a
cause of job dissatisfaction. "There has been no universal
agreement on the role and importance of political climate;


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of
the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
AND JOB SATISFACTION AS REPORTED BY
COMMUNITY COLLEGE PRESIDENTS
By
Gilbert Lee Evans, Jr.
December 1996
Chairman: Dr. David S. Honeyman
Major Department: Educational Leadership
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature
of the relationship between measures of organizational
climate and measures of job satisfaction as perceived by
community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was
done to ascertain if there were significant differences in
means for job satisfaction within the context of
organizational climate when controlling for gender,
ethnicity, classification of the community college, and
number of years of experience as a college president. The
organizational climate factors used in this study were
internal communication, organizational structure, political
climate, professional development opportunities, evaluation,
promotion, and regard for personal concerns. The job
Vll


53
higher education has placed teaching and learning as the
core of its existence.
The beginnings of the community college in the United
States were humble. In the beginning, the survival of such
an institution was doubted by many educators. The founding
fathers of the first junior college movement were Harper,
Lange, and Koos. They, along with others and a body of
literature developed by Koos, founded and organized the
junior college movement in 1921 with the establishment of
the American Association of Junior Colleges (AAJC) (Deegan &
Tillery, 1985). This organization was the voice for the
junior college movement.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the community
college was called the "junior college," and it did not
differ greatly from the high school curriculum at that time.
However, according to Deegan and Tillery (1985), there were
three influences that assisted in the development of the
community college, transforming the community college into
an institution quite different from the early junior
college.
According to Deegan and Tillery (1985) :
First was the rapid industrialization of
the United States and the mechanicalization
of its agriculture, both leading to increasing
demands for trained men and women. A second
influence was the democratization of the
public school education, which led to increasing
completion rates from high school .... Federal
policies encouraged the growth of postsecondary
education that was pragmatic, affordable, and


12
Community College Presidents' Satisfaction
with Organizational Climate:
Correlation Table 96
13 Community College Presidents' Overall
Satisfaction with College: Frequency and
and Mean Distributions 101
14 Importance of Job Satisfaction Variables
to Community College Presidents:
Frequency Distributions 103
15 Importance of Job Satisfaction Variables
to Community College Presidents:
Mean Distributions 104
16 Importance of Job Satisfaction Variables
to Community College Presidents:
Correlation Table 105
17 Community College Presidents' Overall
Satisfaction with Position: Frequency
and Mean Distributions Ill
18 Community College Presidents' Overall
Satisfaction with Board of Trustees:
Frequency and Mean Distributions 112
19 Community College Presidents' Perception
of Significance of Board of Trustees:
Frequency and Mean Distributions 112
20 The Relationship Between Measures of
Job Satisfaction and Measures of
Organizational Variables 114
21 Summary of Significant Relationships Found
Between Organizational Climate Factors
and Job Satisfaction Variables 122
vi


155
64
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Dependent Variable: Q19 Importance of Prof. Effect.
Source
Pr > F
DF
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Square
F Value
Model
0.7677
11
2.14892161
0.19535651
0.67
Error
245
71.58648695
0.29218974
Corrected Total
256
73.73540856
Q19 Mean
R-Square
C.V.
Root MSE
4.54475
0.029144
11.89386
0.54055
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type I SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.9396
4
0.23073788
0.05768447
0.20
ETHNIC
0.4700
4
1.04126729
0.26031682
0.89
GENDER
0.1018
1
0.78825392
0.78825392
2.70
COLCLASS
0.8593
2
0.08866253
0.04433126
0.15
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type III SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.8794
4
0.34777152
0.08694288
0.30
ETHNIC
0.5523
4
0.88810476
0.22202619
0.76
GENDER
0.1063
1
0.76780297
0.76780297
2.63
COLCLASS
2
0.08866253
0.04433126
0.15
0.8593


147
56
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Dependent Variable: Q17B Importance of Relation, with Sub.
Source
Pr > F
DF
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Square
F Value
Model
0.4203
11
4.41125413
0.40102310
1.03
Error
246
95.77479238
0.38932842
Corrected Total
257
100.18604651
Q17B Mean
R-Square
C.V.
Root MSE
4.46512
0.044031
13.97415
0.62396
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type I SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.4320
4
1.48975022
0.37243755
0.96
ETHNIC
0.2155
4
2.27121831
0.56780458
1.46
GENDER
0.4328
1
0.24033988
0.24033988
0.62
COLCLASS
0.5913
2
0.40994572
0.20497286
0.53
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type III SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.2269
4
2.21595443
0.55398861
1.42
ETHNIC
0.2028
4
2.33553545
0.58388386
1.50
GENDER
0.4562
1
0.21686068
0.21686068
0.56
COLCLASS
2
0.40994572
0.20497286
0.53
0.5913


4 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 78
Survey Responses 79
Community College Presidents' Profile 80
Research Question 1 84
Research Question 2 92
Research Question 3 102
Research Question 4 113
Research Question 5 118
Summary 120
5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 124
Conclusions 125
Recommendations 132
Summary 137
APPENDICES
A ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR QUESTION 5 139
B ANALYSIS OF DATA FOR BOARDS OF TRUSTEES .... 156
C SURVEY INSTRUMENT 159
D COVER LETTER 165
REFERENCES 167
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 174
iv


109
relationship with peers, relationship with subordinates,
relationship with supervisor, salary, and benefits were as
well. There was also a positive/significant relationship
between RWP and RWSub, RWSup, SAL, BENE, and PE. These data
suggested the better the president's relationship was with
his or her peers, the better the relationship was with his
or her subordinates and supervisor, and the better his or
her salary, benefits, and professional effectiveness were.
There was also a positive/significant relationship between
RWSub and RWSup, BENE, and PE. These data suggested the
more important the president's relationship was with his or
her subordinates, the more important relationship with
supervisor, benefits, and professional effectiveness were.
There was a positive significant relationship between RWSup
and SAL, BENE, and PE. These results suggested the better
the relationship was with the president's supervisor, the
better his or her salary, benefits, and professional
effectiveness was. There was also a positive/significant
relationship between SAL and BENE. These results suggested
the more important salary was for the president, the more
important benefits were as well. Finally, there was a
positive/significant relationship between BENE and PE.
These data suggested the more important benefits were to the
presidents, the more important professional effectiveness
was as well.


38
dissatisfaction are the results of the previously stated
misunderstandings. Argyris (1957) argued that when the
individual and the organization's needs are incompatible,
incongruence resulted. As a result of this incongruence,
the characteristics of a cold climate such as frustration,
failure, and conflict were evident.
Argyris believed that individuals dealt with this
incongruence in many ways:
1. Resignation, absenteeism or withdrawal from the
j ob.
2. Hatred for the job.
3. Joining a union to feel some type of security.
4. Attempting to find another job in the organization.
5. Speaking negatively about the job to others.
(Bolman & Deal, 1991; Chappell, 1995; Ratcliff, 1989).
The opposite of incongruence is congruence or "fit."
There must be a fit between the worker and the organization.
Some researchers have found that when an employee is
congruent with the organization, he or she is productive,
happy, and satisfied with the environment (Dowey,
Hellriegel, & Slocum, 1975). Supporters of the Person-
Environment Theory believe in order for individuals to be
satisfied, the values of the employee and the purpose and
mission of the institution or organization must be in
accordance.


154
63
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Class Level Information
Class Levels Values
YEARS
ETHNIC
GENDER
COLCLASS
5 1 2 3 4 5
5 1 2 3 4 5
2 12
3 12 3
Number of observations in data set = 284
NOTE: Due to missing values, only 257 observations can be used in
this
analysis.


91
negative/significant correlation between perception of
internal communication (IC) and perception of political
climate (PCL). These data were interpreted to mean a high
response in internal communication corresponded with a low
response in political climate. Therefore, the more open the
lines of communication were at an institution, the less
political the climate was for the President.
Furthermore, internal communication had a
positive/significant correlation with the organizational
climate factors dealing with perception of professional
development opportunities, evaluation, promotion and regard
for personal concerns. The high responses in internal
communication corresponded with the high responses in
perceptions of professional development opportunities,
evaluation, promotion, and regard for personal concerns.
Therefore, the more open the lines of communication were at
an institution, the greater the professional development
opportunities, evaluation process, promotion, and regard for
personal concerns. There were also positive/significant
correlations between perception of organizational structure
and perception of political climate. These results suggested
when the chain of command was followed at in institution,
the less political the college climate was. There was a
positive/significant relationship between perception of
professional development opportunities and perception of
evaluation. These results suggested the more opportunities


152
61
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Class Level Information
Class Levels Values
YEARS
ETHNIC
GENDER
COLCLASS
5 1 2 3 4 5
5 1 2 3 4 5
2 12
3 12 3
Number of observations in data set = 284
NOTE: Due to missing values, only 254 observations can be used in
this
analysis.


14
condition (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991; Roethlishberger &
Dickson, 1939) .
The Hawthorne Studies were one of the major research
experiments that contributed to the study of employee
motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, Mayo's
studies revealed that perception and job satisfaction among
employees are factors that relate to job performance (Mayo,
1933). As a result of these studies, the basis for the
human relations movement was established.
Job Satisfaction Theories
Herzbera's Two-Factor Theory
Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959) developed a
concept about job satisfaction and dissatisfaction in The
Motivation to Work. This research was performed on more
than 200 male accountants and engineers in the state of
Pennsylvania (Herzberg et al, 1959). Herzberg and his
associates' hypothesis for the study was that factors
associated with job satisfaction are separate from factors
associated with job dissatisfaction.
Subjects in the experiment were asked to describe
instances during their employment that caused an increase
or decrease in their job satisfaction. Another question
asked of all participants was to give an example of when
they were extremely upset about their work place.
Through a close analysis of the data, Herzberg et al.
(1959) created their theory of job satisfaction, which was


100
the lines of communication were open, the organizational
structure was better, more opportunities for professional
development occurred, evaluations and promotion were
present, and concerns for well-being and welfare of all
individuals were in existence. Furthermore, these results
suggested the more community college presidents were
satisfied with the organizational structure, the more they
were satisfied with the political climate, opportunities for
professional development, evaluation, promotion, and regard
for personal concerns.
There was a positive/significant relationship between
PCL2 and PD02 and EVAL2. These results suggested the more
satisfied the president was with the political the climate,
the more satisfied he or she was with professional
development opportunities and evaluations. There was a
positive/significant relationship between PD02 and EVAL2,
PR0M02, and RWP2. These results suggested the more
satisfied the president was with opportunities for
professional development, the more satisfied he or she was
with evaluation, promotion, and regard for personal
concerns. There was a positive/significant relationship
between EVAL2 and PR0M02 and RWP2. These data suggested if
the president was satisfied with the evaluation process, he
or she would give promotions and would care about the well
being of all employees. There was also a
positive/significant relationship between PR0M02 and RWP2.


82
As noted in Table 3, the distribution by gender and ethnic
origin for community college presidents was given. Five
subjects did not respond to this item on the survey.
Furthermore, all gender/ethnic origins were represented
except Black and Asian American Females. Over 3/4 of the
respondents were white males.
Classification of Community Colleges
Fourteen different classifications of community
colleges were discussed in Chapter 2. However, for the
purpose of the survey only three of those classifications
were used since those broder classifications have not been
reviewed or adopted by AACC. The classifications used were
rural, suburban and urban community colleges. Table 4 shows
the distribution of community college presidents by
classification of the institution. One hundred and thirty-
four (50.8%) of the respondents classified their community
college as rural. Sixty-five (24.6%) subjects stated that
their college was a suburban institution, and 65 (24.6%)
subjects classified their institution an urban school.
Number of Years Served As Chief Administrator
Table 5 shows the distribution of Community College
Presidents according to the number of years served as the
Chief Administrator. Two hundred and eighty-three subjects
responded to this question. When looking at opposite ends
of the spectrum, 191 (67.5%) have more than 15 years as


41
Power
Power was defined as the amount or degree of
jurisdiction or discretion that the employee is able to
exercise while performing the tasks of that position. In
addition, Gollattschec and Harlacher (1994) defined power as
"the ability to command a favorable share of resources,
opportunities and rewards for followers" (p. 65).
According to The Leadership Challenge (1987),
individuals in leadership positions have a healthy share of
power motivation because leaders must influence others to
perform. Moreover, the most effective leaders are those who
delegate power to strengthen others (Kounzes & Posner,
1987). Only leaders who feel powerful will delegate, reward
talent, and build a team composed of people powerful in
their own right. Good leaders will use the power that flows
to them in service to others. Effective leaders assign
employees important work to do on critical issues, provide
discretion and autonomy over their tasks and resources,
offer visibility to others and provide recognition for their
effort, and build relationships for others. Effective
leaders connect employees with powerful people and find them
sponsors and mentors (Kounzes & Posner, 1987; Covey, 1990).
Power is desirable by all, especially when it is
related to decision-making. As already stated, leaders must
give employees some power. Employees must be given
authority to make decisions and solve problems. When


25
9. Legitimacy, the group norms defining the legitimate
requirements for a job for a specified group, influences the
acceptance of a task and the attitude toward it.
10. It is, therefore, the interrelationship of objective
factors of the job, of individual capacities and experience,
of alternatives available in the company and the community,
and of the values of the individual that can be expected to
predict satisfaction and performance (cited in Kozel, 1979,
p. 47) .
Equity Theory of Job Satisfaction
Many Equity theories have been formulated. However,
the Equity Theory of Adams (1965) is considered to be the
most substantial. This type of theory is closely related to
Vroom's Theory. The basis for the theory is that
individuals want an equitable reward for services rendered
on the job. It can be concluded from the study that
individuals want to be treated fairly in the work place. If
they are treated "equitably," they will be satisfied with
their jobs; if they are not treated equitably, then
disatisfaction will result.
Today, when workers input personal sacrifice and effort
on the job, some of the expected outcomes are pay,
recognition, and status. When workers are part of the
decision-making processes, they are more likely to be
satisfied, which will cause them to make more sacrifices and
exercise more effort. Witt and Nye (1992) applied this


142
51
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Class Level Information
Class
YEARS
ETHNIC
GENDER
COLCLASS
Levels
5
5
2
3
Values
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5
1 2
12 3
Number of observations in data set = 284
NOTE: Due to missing values, only 254 observations can be used in
this
analysis.


13
Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction has been defined by researchers in
various ways. Locke's (1976) definition of job satisfaction
was "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting
from the appraisal of one's job or job experience" (p.
1300) Zytowski (1968) defined job satisfaction as being
"proportionate to the degree that the elements of the job
satisfy the particular needs which the person feels most
strongly" (p. 399). Vroom (1982) defined it as "the
affective orientation of individuals toward work roles they
are presently occupying" (p. 99). There have been various
definitions for job satisfaction, and all of them have dealt
with how one perceived his or her job experience.
Elton Mayo and a group of his associates conducted
experiments at the Western Electric Hawthorne plant near
Chicago, Illinois. These experiments were designed to
determine the optimum level of illumination in a shop for
maximum production. After the study was completed, it was
found that there was no direct, simple relationship between
the illumination level and the production output of the
workers. Moreover, the researchers also ascertained that
human variability was an important determinant of
productivity (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991) It was found that
norms established by workers influenced their behavior more
than deliberate controls imposed on the physical working


CHAPTER 4
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature
of the relationship between measures of organizational
climate and measures of job satisfaction as applied to
community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was
done to ascertain if there were significant differences in
means for job satisfaction within the context of
organizational climate when controlling for gender,
ethnicity, classification of the community college, and
number of years of experience as a college president.
Specifically, the research addressed five questions:
1. How do community college presidents perceive
organizational climate at their respective institutions,
using a set of seven identified factors for climate?
2. Using the same seven climate factors as an index,
how satisfied are community college presidents with the
organizational climate at their respective institutions?
3. How important is each of eight identified job
satisfaction variables to community college presidents in
the performance of their specific job responsibilities?
4. For each of eight job satisfaction variables, is
there a significant relationship between measures of job
78


90
frequency distribution in Table 7, it is evident that the
responses to this question were relatively evenly
distributed. Of the respondents, 127 (45%) rated this
factor either 4 or 5, 69 (24.5%) rated it three, and 86
(30.5%) rated it either one or two. These results were
important. First, a high rating in perception of political
climate might not be the best. Does one want to work in an
environment that is highly political? Political climate was
defined as the nature and complexity of the college's
politics. Therefore, according to the results, 45% of the
respondents reported working in environments that had a
strong presence of political climate or the framework in
which to operate at their college was extremely complexed.
On the other hand, 30.5% of the presidents responded either
with a one or two, thus they believed that the level and
complexity of internal politics was not high.
It is noteworthy to mention that although the mean
score (3.744) for the factor evaluation was moderately high,
26 (9.2%) of the presidents responded that there was not
formal or informal method of evaluation.
The pearson product moment correlation coefficients are
present in Table 9. If the p-value was less than .05, then
there was a significant correlation. Some correlations were
negative and significant, and others were positive and
significant. The significant correlations are denoted in
Table 9 with an asterisk (*). There was a


115
(PR0M02), and regard for personal concerns (RPC2). The
significant correlation coefficients are denoted with an
asterisk (*). It is noteworthy to mention that all
significant relationships were positive.
Decision Making
Through a close analysis of Table 18, it was evident
that a significant relationship existed between
participation in decision making (DM) and organizational
climate factor internal communication (IC2). These data
suggested that if lines of internal communication were open
at the community college, the president was satisfied with
other employees' participation in the decision-making
process at his or her institution of higher learning.
Power
Through a close analysis of the correlation
coefficients, it is evident that there was a significant
relationship between the job satisfaction variable power
(POW) and the organizational climate factors satisfaction
with organizational structure (0S2) and professional
development opportunities (PD02), as noted by the asterisks
(*). These data suggested that presidents were satisfied
with their power or influence if the administrative
operation or hierarchial lines of authority were fair and if
he or she had adequate opportunities to purse and
participate in professional development activities.


1
The SAS System
September 18, 1996
15:36 Wednesday,
Variable
N
Mean
MALRAT
283
67.0398748
FEMRAT
283
32.9601252
T0T1
282
1.2156903
TOT2
282
10.1637384
TOT3
282
4.0637505
TOT4
282
82.5678553
TOT5
282
1.7204752
TOT6
282
0.3233705
157


52
and people. A manager who uses this style is a good
motivator, sets high standards, recognizes individual
differences, and utilizes management. The Developer Style,
on the other hand, gives maximum concern to people and
minimum concern to the task. A manager who uses this style
has implicit trust in people and is mainly concerned with
developing them as individuals. Reddin (1968) stated that
both of these styles of leadership were highly effective
(cited in Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). Furthermore, Hersey
and Blanchard (1988) developed their theory of effective
leadership in relation to the factor regard for personal
concerns.
The American Community College
History of the Community College
"The American community college movement is the most
important innovation of the 20th century. It was born in
the American heartland before the turn of the century and
spread rapidly throughout the expanding West. As growing
populations demanded educational opportunity, two-year
colleges sprang up in all 50 states. A century later, there
is a community college within a short drive of most
Americans." (Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, & Suppiger,
1994). The mission of this segment of higher education has
always been teaching and learning. According to T. O'Banion
(1994) in the Community College Journal. this movement in


141
50
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Dependent Variable: Q15 Imp. of Participation in Dec.-making
Source
Pr > F
DF
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Square
F Value
Model
0.4700
11
3.99861834
0.36351076
0.97
Error
246
91.74169174
0.37293371
Corrected Total
257
95.74031008
Q15 Mean
R-Square
C.V.
Root MSE
4.44574
0.041765
13.73637
0.61068
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type I SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.7239
4
0.77004553
0.19251138
0.52
ETHNIC
0.1051
4
2.88749718
0.72187429
1.94
GENDER
0.7069
1
0.05285700
0.05285700
0.14
COLCLASS
0.6799
2
0.28821864
0.14410932
0.39
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type III SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.6902
4
0.83884029
0.20971007
0.56
ETHNIC
0.1010
4
2.92609809
0.73152452
1.96
GENDER
0.7360
1
0.04249811
0.04249811
0.11
COLCLASS
2
0.28821864
0.14410932
0.39
0.6799


80
Community College Presidents7 Profile
Gender and Ethnicity
Tables 1 through 3 provide gender and ethnic
distributions for community college presidents. A total of
283 subjects answered the question regarding gender. Two
Table 1
Community Colleae Presidents: Distribution bv Gender
Gender
n
%
Male
242
85.5
Female
41
14.5
TOTAL
283
100.0
Table 2
Community Colleae Presidents: Distribution bv Ethnic
Oricrin
Ethnic Origin
n
%
Black/African American
9
3.2
Hispanic
14
5.0
White/Caucasian
251
89.6
Other
1
0.4
Asian American
2
0.7
Native American
3
1.1
TOTAL
280
100.0


126
which were internal communication, organizational structure,
political climate, professional development opportunities,
evaluation, promotion, and regard for personal concerns.
However, as evidenced by their mean score, regard for
personal concern (RPC), internal communication (IC), and
professional development opportunities (PDO) received the
highest mean score ratings. These data indicated that
community college presidents believed they worked in
environments where they were sensitive to the personal
concerns of all employees, the lines of communication were
open, and their college offered many opportunities for one
to pursue and participate in professional development
activities.
Presidents' Satisfaction with the Organizational Climate
The three highest satisfaction ratings for the
organizational climate factors as evidenced by the mean
scores were regard for personal concerns (RPC), professional
development opportunities (PDO), and promotion (PROMO).
Over 90% of all community college presidents were satisfied
with their position as chief executive officer, and over 90%
were satisfied with the overall operation of their colleges.
Presidents' satisfaction with regard for personal
concerns was consistent with their perceptions. The overall
satisfaction and perception for regard for personal concern
recorded by community college presidents were both above
90%. In addition, as stated in chapter 4 (pg. 88), 91.2% of


74
related to eight job satisfaction variables. The seven
organizational climate factors and their definitions are as
follows:
1. Internal Communication. The college's formal and
informal communication processes and style.
2. Organizational Structure. The college's
administrative operation or its hierarchial lines of
authority and requirements for operating within that
hierarchy.
3. Political Climate. The nature and complexity of
the college's internal politics or the degree to which an
employee must operate within a political framework in order
to accomplish his or her task.
4 Professional Development Opportunities. The
opportunities for employees to pursue and participate in
activities to enhance job performance.
5. Evaluation. The college's procedure for evaluation
through positive feedback intended to provide professional
growth for the employee.
6. Promotion. The college's commitment to internal
promotion and advancement from within the organization.
7. Regard for Personal Concern. The college's
sensitivity to and regard for the personal concerns and
well-being of employees.
There were eight job satisfaction factors used in this
study which were drawn from educational research. They were


113
It is also noteworthy to mention that the demographics
of boards of trustees were interesting. According to the
finding, 67% of board members across the United States were
male, and 33% were female. Regarding ethnicity,
approximately 1.2% was Asian-American (T0T1), 10.2% was
Afro-American (TOT2), 4.1% was Hispanic (TOT3), 82.6% was
white (T0T4), 1.7% was Native-American (T0T5), and .32% was
other (see Appendix B).
Research Question 4
The fourth research question stated for each of eight
job satisfaction variables, is there a significant
relationship between measures of job satisfaction and a set
of seven measures of satisfaction with organizational
climate, as reported by community college presidents? As
previously stated, a significant relationship is one that
has a p-value less than 0.05. Table 20 gives the
correlation coefficients for the eight job satisfaction
variables, which were importance of participation in
decision making (DM), power (POW), relationship with peers
(RWP), relationship with subordinates (RWSub), relationship
with supervisor (RWSup), salary (SAL), benefits (BENE), and
professional effectiveness (PE); and the seven
organizational climate factors, which were satisfaction with
internal communication (IC2), organizational structure
(OS2), political climate (PC2), professional development
opportunities (PD02), evaluation (EVAL2), promotion


173
Tuckman, B. W. & Johnson C. F. (1987). Effective college
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Vaughan, G. (1983). Issues for community college leaders in
a new era. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publisher.
Vaughan, G. B. (1989). Leadership in Transition: The
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Vroom, F.H. (1982). Work and motivation. Malabar, FL: R.E.
Krieger Publishing Co. (Reprint: Originally published
New York: Wiley, 1964.)
Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: John
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y
Witt, A. Wattenbarger, J. L., Gollattscheck, J. F., &
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The first century. Washington, DC: The Community
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Witt, L. A. & Meyers, J. G. (1992). Perceived environmental
uncertainty and participation in decision-making in the
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Witt, L. A. & Nye, L. G. (1992) Gender and the relationship
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917 .
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theory and research. New York: Holt, Rinehart, &
Winston, Inc.


APPENDIX D
COVER LETTER


66
the office of president from 11 to 19 years. Eight percent
served as chief administrator for more than 30 years.
Vaughan (1989), however, also found that "because rapid
turnover in the office of president is considered
detrimental to institutional welfare, the demographic
characteristics of long-term presidents were given some
special analysis. Unfortunately, the analysis yielded
little that could be used as a predictor of durability or
satisfaction in office" (p. 11). One retired president of a
private junior college stated, "I do not think any president
should stay more than 10 years. Move to another campus if
you are young enough or take on a teaching job as part of
your contractual obligation. You've given your best in that
time, and there is little juice left in the lemon" (Vaughan,
1989, p. 10). One researcher believed, years of experience
is also related to burn out which comes from stress. Stress
is one of the leading cause of job dissatisfaction (Davis,
1994) .
Summary
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature
of the relationship between measures of organizational
climate and measures of job satisfaction as applied to
community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was
done to ascertain if there were any significant differences
in means for job satisfaction within the context of
organizational climate when controlling for gender,


127
the respondents rated professional development opportunities
with a high or very high level of satisfaction. These data
were also consistent with their perception rating; 94.8%
rated this factor four or five as far as perception was
concerned for professional development opportunities.
Furthermore, presidents' perception of promotion and
satisfaction with promotion were also consistent. Seventy-
five percent of the presidents were either satisfied or very
satisfied with promotion of faculty and staff, and 4.9% were
the opposite. As far as perception, 73.6% reported a high
or very high perception, and 3.2% reported a very low
perception.
According to the mean scores, the lowest level of
satisfaction was reported for the organizational factor
political climate. However, the data revealed that about
half of all presidents were satisfied with the political
climate and about half were moderately satisfied or
unsatisfied with the complexity of the college's politics.
One-half of all presidents believed that there was room for
improvement regarding this factor.
The finding about presidents' satisfaction with the
organizational climate and how it related to job
satisfaction supported the research discussed in the review
of literature by Lunenburg & Ornstein (1991), Witt & Nye
(1992), Argyris (1957), Mintzberg (1989), Levy (1989), Deas
(1994) Herzberg (1959), and Hutton and Jobe (1985) .


137
& Posner, 1987) Furthermore, if presidents are satisfied
with the overall operation of the college, the overall
organizational climate will be improved.
Summary
The primary purpose of this research study was to
ascertain the relationship between measures of
organizational climate and measures of job satisfaction as
reported by community college presidents. Furthermore, this
study was done to ascertain if there were significant
differences in means for job satisfaction within the context
of organizational climate when controlling for gender,
ethnicity, classification of the community college, and
number of years of experience. Eight job satisfaction
variables were used in the study: participation in decision
-making, power, relationship with peers, relationship with
subordinates, relationship with subordinates, salary,
benefits, and professional effectiveness. Furthermore,
seven organizational climate were examined in this study:
They were internal communication, organizational structure,
political climate, professional development opportunities,
evaluation, promotion, and regard for personal concerns.
Four organizational climate factors that were significantly
related to job satisfaction for community college presidents
were: regard for personal concern, organizational
structure, opportunities for professional development, and
internal communication. Moreover, regard for personal



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110
In addition, presidents were asked to report their
overall satisfaction with their position. The mean score
for overall satisfaction with position as reported by
community college chief executive officers was 4.39. Of the
284 surveys returned, 263 responded to this question. A
total of 243 (92.4%) reported they were either satisfied or
very satisfied with their position. Because of the very
high rating on all the job satisfaction variables, the seven
organizational climate factors, and the overall satisfaction
with college, Table 17 helped support the assumption that
there was a relationship between the organizational climate
factors and the job satisfaction variables for community
college presidents across the nation.
College President and the Board of Trustees
According to the results from community college
presidents, the most important job satisfaction variable was
importance of relationship with supervisor (board of
trustees), as evidenced by the mean score of 4.757. Of the
respondents, 142 (51.4%) presidents stated their board of
trustees was appointed, while 133 (48.2%) said their board
of trustees were elected (see Appendix B). Since the board
is the most important job satisfaction variable, it is
noteworthy to discuss some of the findings as they relate to
the president and the board. According to Table 18, 245
(86.9%) stated they were very satisfied or satisfied with
the board of trustees. Twenty-two (7.8%) said they were


24
1. An adequate model of satisfaction must take into
account interactive effects among variables.
2. Relationships between satisfaction and overt
behavior vary from situation to situation.
3. Relationships between satisfaction and behavior
cannot be reasonably expected unless the behavior can be
considered to be an appropriate means of expressing
satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
4. The manner in which questions are asked affects the
time perspective of the respondent, and therefore affects
the alternatives he or she considers.
5. Satisfaction is a product of other variables and
may or may not serve as a cause in itself.
6. A relationship may exist between satisfaction and
behavior since the same variables producing the satisfaction
might also produce the behavior, or changes in behavior may
act to change the situation and satisfaction.
7. The relationship between satisfaction and
performance will vary depending on the aspect of the job
being studied.
8. The importance of each aspect of the job situation
influences the individual's feeling of satisfaction.
Importance is considered to be a function of the discrepancy
between the existing situation and the alternatives
available.


104
Table 15
Importance of Job Satisfaction Variables to Community
College Presidents: Mean Distributions
Factor
N
Mean
SD
StdErr
DM
284
4.440
0.611
0.036
POW
280
3.903
1.098
0.065
RWP
282
4.326
0.773
0.046
RWSub
284
4.468
0.625
0.037
RWSup
284
4.757
0.498
0.029
SAL
284
3.894
0.842
0.049
BENE
280
3.992
0.829
0.049
PE
283
4.544
0.533
0.031
DM = Importance of Participation in Decision-Making
POW = Importance of Power
RWP = Importance of Relationship With Peers
RWSub = Importance of Relationship With Subordinates
RWSup = Importance of Relationship With Supervisor
SAL = Importance of Salary
BENE = Importance of Benefits
PE = Importance of Professional Effectiveness


19
theory in her study of community college administrators. As
already stated, the motivators were found to be significant
to job satisfaction. "The motivators include achievement,
work itself, responsibility, and recognition were mentioned
more often in positive than negative incidents. Conversely,
with the exception of salary, the hygiene factors, company
policy and administration, interpersonal relations, working
conditions, and supervision-technical were mentioned in
significantly more negative than positive incidents" (Kozel,
1979, p. 58).
Other studies done in support for the Herzberg Two-
Factor Theory were completed by Groseth (1978), Myers
(1964), and Schwartz, Jenusaitis, and Stark (1963).
Criticisms for herzberg's two-factor theory
Just as there was much support for the Motivator-
Hygiene Theory, there was also some criticism for the
theory. Aebi (1973) found more than 100 attempts to test
the significance of the study.
The three major criticisms that were evident in the
literature for the Herzberg's Motivator-Hygiene Theory are
as follows:
1. The researcher and his associates failed to address
overall job satisfaction (Ewen, Smith, Hulin, & Locke,
1966) .
2. The results of the theory were bound by the methods
that Herzberg used (Solimn, 1970). Perhaps individuals


42
employees are offered power or control, they are more
satisfied because they are trusted and seen as capable staff
members (Lawler, 1986; Vaughan, 1989). If presidents at
community colleges permit faculty to be part of the
decision-making procedures, job satisfaction will be
enhanced. The faculty member will feel that he or she has a
voice, and the president will not have to carry the entire
burden if an incorrect decision is made.
Relationships with Colleagues
Relationships with colleagues was defined as the
quality of the affiliation that an employee maintains with
his or her peers, subordinates, and supervisor. Regarding
this study, the researcher tested relationships with the
president and other top level administrators and presidents,
the president and faculty and staff, and the president and
the board of trustees. A positive relationship with
colleagues at an institution or organization results in job
satisfaction. "Pleasant, concerned and enthusiastic co
workers establish an environment worth cultivating"
(Miloshell, 1990, p. 14).
The president of a community college must relate well
with not only other administrators but also with faculty and
student body. Administrator, faculty members, and students
are the body of a college (Fisher, 1984) "The degree to
which the president is respected and admired by the faculty
will be the extent to which he or she is able to inspire


31
interpersonal activities. Furthermore, the Control Press
for a given school is calculated by adding the scores
together for Factors four and five. Internal environments
that stress orderliness and structure are considered high in
Control Press (cited in Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991) .
There have been many positive and negative concerns for
the OCI. One deterrent for the theory was the complexity
and length of the survey. The original survey included more
than 300 questions. It also has been concluded that the
data analysis and the interpretation procedures were
extremely complex (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). However,
the theory had two major strengths. It was based upon a
strong theoretic concept of climate that has been beneficial
to researchers and received well. The theory also had a long
history of meticulous research that yielded assessment
instruments that have been examined closely for validity and
reliability (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire
The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire
(OCDQ) was developed by Andrew W. Halpin and Don B. Croft
(1963) These two researchers introduced the notion of
organizational climate to education. Croft and Halpin
(1963) developed this questionnaire in order to measure
organizational climate in elementary schools. They sought
to elicit from teachers the critical factors that they
generally agreed were central to describing the climate of a


122
Table 21
Summary of Sicrnificant
Relationshios Found Between
Orcranizational Climate
Factors and Job Satisfaction
Variables
Job Satisfaction
Organizational Climate
P
Variable
Factors
Values
Participation in
Internal
Decision Making
Communication
0.0480
Power
Organizational Structure
Regard for Personal
Concern
0.0026
0.0358
Relationship with
Promotion
Peers
Regard for Personal
Concerns
0.0059
0.0048
Relationship with
Internal
Subordinates
Communication
0.0092
Organizational Structure
Professional Development
0.0352
Opportunities
0.0245
Promotion
Regard for Personal
0.0002
Concern
0.0001
Relationship with
Internal
Supervisor
Communication
0.0066
Organizational Structure
Professional Development
0.0044
Opportunities
0.0062
Promotion
Regard for Personal
0.0266
Concern
0.0394
Salary
Internal
Communication
0.0044
Organizational Structure
Professional Development
0.0003
Opportunities
0.0166
Promotion
Regard for Personal
0.0113
Concern
0.0056


APPENDIX C
SURVEY INSTRUMENT


130
These findings supported the research of Mayo (1933) and
Hutton and Jobe (1985).
The greater the college and president's demonstration
of RPC, the more satisfied the chief executive officer was
with power (POW), relationship with peers (RWP),
relationship with subordinates (RWSub), relationship with
supervisor (RWSup), salary (SAL), benefits ((BENE), and
professional effectiveness (PE). These findings supported
the research of Herzberg's (1959) Two-Factor Theory. One of
his hygiene factors, personal life, related to regard for
personal concerns.
Furthermore, internal communication was an important
climate factor. For the purpose of this study, internal
communication was defined as the college's formal or
informal communication processes and style. In addition,
how well does the college articulate its mission, purpose,
values, policies, and procedures? The research concluded
the more open the lines of communication were at a given
institution, the more satisfied the president was when it
came to participation in decision-making (DM), relationship
with subordinates (RWSub), relationship with supervisor
(RWSup), salary (SAL), and benefits (BENE). These findings
supported the research of (Gronbeck, 1992; Lunenburg &
Ornstein, 1991; Hanson, 1985). These researchers believed
(a) communication was the glue that held together any
organization and harmonized its parts, and (b) communication


143
52
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Dependent Variable: Q16 Importance of Power
Source
Pr > F
DF
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Square
F Value
Model
0.8707
11
7.48884595
0.68080418
0.55
Error
242
301.84973673
1.24731296
Corrected Total
253
309.33858268
Q16 Mean
R-Square
C.V.
Root MSE
3.89764
0.024209
28.65406
1.11683
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type I SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.9582
4
0.79892798
0.19973200
0.16
ETHNIC
0.3523
4
5.53890216
1.38472554
1.11
GENDER
0.9248
1
0.01114718
0.01114718
0.01
COLCLASS
0.6338
2
1.13986861
0.56993431
0.46
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type III SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.9444
4
0.93916983
0.23479246
0.19
ETHNIC
0.3502
4
5.56153886
1.39038471
1.11
GENDER
0.9613
1
0.00294848
0.00294848
0.00
COLCLASS
2
1.13986861
0.56993431
0.46
0.6338


54
in proximity to the people. Finally, there
was the emergence of the American research
universities, (p.3)
The roots of the community college could be traced back
to Thomas Jefferson who wanted colleges placed within a
day's ride for all Virginians, and he wanted the doors of
public education open to all people. He also wished to see
a technical philosophy implemented in which craftsmen in
various fields of endeavor might receive evening instruction
(Vaughan, 1983). Present-day community colleges do resemble
some of the desires of Thomas Jefferson.
Classifications of Community Colleges
The community college of the 1990s serves as an
institution that supports and assumes responsibility for
many educational offerings in higher education. These
offerings range from developmental and continuing education
to vocational and transfer programs. No two community
colleges are the same. No list of factors or groupings per
se have been developed that relate to all two-year
institutions. However, according to Katsinas (unpublished),
there are 14 separate classifications of community colleges
across America. These generalizations and broad categories
are as follows:
1. Rural community colleges. Rural community colleges
are typically one-campus institutions with a board of
trustees. This type of institution offers both vocational
and transfer programs of study.


22
Maslow's existence needs dealt with material
substances. Some examples given of existence needs were
food, water, pay, and shelter. Relatedness needs include
communication with one's self and others. Examples given of
relatedness needs were family, friends, and employers.
Growth needs were relevant to the environment and the
process through which the individual went to impress not
only himself or herself but also the environment. Just as
with Maslow's theory, little research has been conducted on
the Existence, Relatedness, and Growth Theory.
Expectancy or V.I.E. Theory
Victor Vroom (1964) created the Expectancy Theory of
Job Satisfaction. Mitchell (1974) stated the premise of the
theory is as follows: "The strength of the tendency to act
in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectancy
that the act will be followed by a given consequence (or
outcome) and on the value or attractiveness of that
consequence (or outcome) to the actor."
(p. 1503). The theory involved four constructs: valence,
expectancy, instrumentality, and force. Valence is an
individual's perception of the value of the reward that
could be obtained by performing well. Instrumentality is
the extent to which an individual believed that one outcome
will lead to another outcome or reward. Instrumentality
varied from plus one to negative one (Lunenburg & Ornstein,
1991; Vroom, 1982). Expectancy represents an individual's


Table 12
Community College Presidents' Satisfaction with Organizational Climate: Correlation
Table
IC2
0S2
PCL2
PD02
EVAL2
PROMO2
RPC2
IC2
1.0000
0.3338*
0.0699
0.1471*
0.2590*
0.5551*
0.3769*
0S2
0.3338*
1.0000
0.2677*
0.1370*
0.1649*
0.2136*
0.1851*
PCL2
0.0699
0.2677*
1.0000
0.1739*
0.1254*
0.0049
0.0928
PD02
0.1471*
0.1370*
0.1739*
1.0000
0.4193*
0.1655*
0.2119*
EVAL2
0.2590*
0.1649*
0.1254*
0.4193*
1.0000
0.3146*
0.1708*
PROMO2
0.3351*
0.2136
0.0049
0.1655*
0.3146*
1.0000
0.3801*
RPC2
0.3769*
0.1851*
0.0928
0.2119*
0.1708*
0.3801*
1.0000
* = significant correlation, Alpha level less than or equal to 0.05.
IC2 = Satisfaction with Internal Communication
OS2 = Satisfaction with Organizational Structure
PCL2 = Satisfaction with Political Climate
PD02 = Satisfaction with Professional Development Opportunities
EVAL2 = Satisfaction with Evaluation
PR0M02 = Satisfaction with Promotion
RPC2 = Satisfaction with Regard for Personal Concerns


51
with their employees to positively influence how the
evaluation process will be viewed (Bowman & Deal, 1991;
Miller, 1988b; Gappa & Leslie, 1993) .
Promotion
Promotion was defined as the college's commitment to
internal promotion and advancement from within the
organization. Promotion is usually the result of positive
evaluations, hard work, and dedication. Promotion often
comes with more authority and money. Promotion is usually
seen as a job satisfier, and it has a positive effect on
climate (Vaughan, 1986; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
Herzberg's motivator growth can be directly related to this
factor.
Regard for Personal Concerns
Regard for personal concerns was defined as the
college's sensitivity to and regard for the personal
concerns and well-being of employees. Effective leaders
realize that the lack of sensitivity is worse than the lack
of respect. Effective leaders must be sensitive to needs
and desires of their employees. A regard for personal
concern is a key contributor to job satisfaction, and it
enhances climate (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
Reddin (1968) identified four basic leadership styles.
The two styles dealt with regard to personal concern. These
styles were called "Executive" and "Developer." The
Executive Style gives a great deal of concern to both task


43
trust and confidence, the extent to which he or she is
believable and can deliver" (Fisher, 1984, p. 101). Job
satisfaction is directly related to working and building
positive relationships with colleagues whether it be with
students, faculty, staff, administrators, or the board
(Fisher, 1984; Carbone, 1981).
Salary and Benefits
Salary and benefits was defined as the perceived equity
and adequacy of the salary and benefit package received by
the employee. Herzberg (1959) and his associates saw salary
as a hygiene or dissatisfaction factor. He and his
researchers defined salary as all sequences of events that
compensation is a part. Herzberg (1959) stated the
following about his hygiene factor salary: "It meant more
than money; it meant a job well done; it meant that the
individual was progressing in his work. Viewed within this
context . salary as a factor belongs more in the group
that defines the job situation and is primarily a
dissatisfier" (p. 83).
One study on the issue of salary in an educational
setting stated that little significance or value is given to
salary when it comes to job satisfaction (Levy, 1989) .
However, other researchers believed that it is a factor that
determines job satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
At some institution, researchers have said that the
issue of salary and benefits must be fair and equitable. In


34
3. Controlled Climate. The principal is extremely
domineering and allows little flexibility. The teachers in
this type of environment are expected to be told when and
what to do at all times. According to the research,
however, the morale remains high as in the autonomous and
open climate. Principals and teachers in this climate are
interested only in completing the tasks at hand.
Unfortunately, sensitivity for others is not a part of this
climate.
4. Paternal Climate. Principals in this setting are
ones who try to dominate the faculty and satisfy the
faculty's social needs. However, the principal's attempts
are unsuccessful. These principals are considered
unmotivated not sincere.
5. Closed Climate. In this setting, teachers tend not
to be highly engaged in their work. They tend not to work
well together, and their overall achievement is low. The
principal is perceived as having no direction or vision.
Teachers are not satisfied, morale is low, and turnover is
extremely high. These principals' emphasis is on following
the rules.
The OCDQ was developed for the elementary school
setting; however, a new version was created for high
schools. Many comments have been made regarding to this
instrument. According to Lunenburg and Ornstein (1991), "If
factor structure was developed, however, from a strictly


TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES v
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Purpose 7
Rationale 8
Definition of Terms 9
Significance of Study 9
Limitation 11
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 12
Job Satisfaction 13
Job Satisfaction Theories 14
Organizational Climate 26
Organizational Climate Theories 27
Factors Under Investigation That Influence
Job Satisfaction 39
Factors Under Investigation That Influence
Organizational Climate 45
The American Community College 52
The Role and Profile of the Community
College President 59
Additional Factors that May Affect Job
Satisfaction and Climate for Community
College Presidents 63
Summary 66
3 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 69
Methodology 70
iii
Summary
77


29
was presented to teachers, and they had to answer "true" or
"false" to a list of questions applicable to their schools.
Some examples of statements that appeared on the survey
are as follows:
1. Social events get a lot of enthusiasm and support.
2. People find others eager to help them get started.
3. People are expected to have a great deal of social
grace and polish.
4. People here speak up openly and freely.
5. Good work is really recognized around here.
(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
Analysis of the data received from various schools has
led to the formulation of six OCI Climate Index factors.
The factors are as follows:
1. Intellectual Climate. Schools with high scores on
this factor have environments that are perceived as being
conductive to scholarly interest in the humanities, arts,
and sciences. Staff and physical places are seen to
facilitate these interests, and the general work atmosphere
is characterized by intellectual activities and pursuits.
2. Achievement Standards. Environments with high
scores on this factor are perceived to stress high standards
of personal achievement. Tasks are successfully completed
and high levels of motivation and energy are maintained.
Recognition is given for work of good quality and quantity,
and the staff is expected to achieve at the highest levels.


36
decision-making processes, goal-setting processes, and
control processes (cited in Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
Lacerate developed four basic management systems. They
are described below:
System One is called explotive-authoritative;
it is based upon classical management
concept, a theory X view of motivation, and
a directive leadership style. System Two is
benevolent-authoritative. It emphasizes a
one-to-one relationship between subordinate
and leader in an environment in which the
subordinate is relatively isolated from
others in work-related matters. System
Three, called consultative, employs more
of a participative leadership style in which
the leader tends to consult with people
individually in the process of making
decisions (for example, Hersey's-Blanchard's
52, Vroom's Cl). System Four, the participative
(or group interactive^ model of an organizational
system in all of the critical organizational
processes (for example, Hersey's-Blanchard's
53, Vroom's GII). (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991)
In 1968, Lacerate and Gibson devised a questionnaire to
be utilized in colleges and schools called "Profiles of a
School" (POS). Specifically, the profile used for colleges
and universities was called the "Profile of a College or
University." By receiving data from a questionnaire given
to school officials and students, one could ascertain the
characteristics of an organization's interaction-influence
system.
One of the most potentially powerful outcomes of the
body of research, utilizing the POS as a measure of climate,
arose from Lacerate's own analysis of the shortcomings of


35

deductive process (rather than from an empirical study of
schools), and, indeed, little had been done since the
instrument was originally developed to validate it or modify
it as a result of experience" (p. 188).
Profile of a School Theory
In 1947, Lacerate directed an extensive study that
intended to identify the human factors that influenced the
ultimate effectiveness of organizations to achieve their
goals. Most of Lacerate's research was done in industrial
firms, but later it included schools and colleges.
By 1961, the researcher was able to describe important
relationships among (1) the management styles, (2) the
characteristics of the organization's interaction-influence
system, and (3) the effectiveness of the organization
1 (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). Lacerate wanted to measure
characteristics of the internal functioning of an
organization and to relate those measures of organizational
performance.
According to Lacerate, organizational performance is
determined by productivity, rate of absence and turnover,
loss through scrap and waste, and quality control. To
measure the internal functioning of the organization, the
researcher developed a questionnaire for employees to
complete that described six characteristics of the
organization. These characteristics included leadership
processes, motivational forces, communication processes,


46
staff should be able to honestly communicate with the
president (Vaughan, 1986,). Deas (1994) believed that
communication is linked to climate.
Organizational Structure
Organizational structure was defined as the college's
administrative operation or its hierarchial lines of
authority and requirements for operating within that
hierarchy. The organizational structure varies from one
community college to another. When community colleges were
first established, they were structured on the basis of the
public school systems of that era (Deegan & Tillery, 1985).
Now, at the top of the organizational structures is the
board of trustees (Deegan & Tillery, 1985; Vaughan, 1986).
Furthermore, the structure of the community college is
divided into subunits or departments within the institution.
For example, at a given institution there is more than
likely to be a student services division, academic affairs
subunit, and a library science department with
administrators in charge of these areas. All of these areas
help define the organizational structure of the community
college.
Through a close analysis of the literature, it is
evident that hierarchical organizational structure is not
effective in education (Deegan & Tillery, 1985; Tuckman Sc
Johnson, 1987). Rieley (1992) developed a process of
organizational structure which was a circular design in


146
55
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Class Level Information
Class Levels Values
YEARS
ETHNIC
GENDER
COLCLASS
5 1 2 3 4 5
5 1 2 3 4 5
2 12
3 12 3
Number of observations in data set =284
NOTE: Due to missing values, only 258 observations can be used in
this
analysis.


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
AND JOB SATISFACTION AS REPORTED BY
COMMUNITY COLLEGE PRESIDENTS
By
GILBERT LEE EVANS, JR.
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1996


83
Table 4
Communitv Colleae Presidents: Distribution bv
Classification of Communitv Colleae
Classification
n
%
Rural
134
50.8
Suburban
65
24.6
Urban
65
24.6
TOTAL
264
100.0
Table 5
Communitv Colleae Presidents: Distribution bv Number
of Years Exoerience As A Chief Administrator
Years Experience
n
%
Less than 1 year
3
i.i
1-5 years
30
10.6
6-10 years
21
7.4
11-14 years
38
13.4
15 years or more
191
67.5
TOTAL
280
100.0
Chief Administrator, and three (1.1%) of the administrators
reported having served for less than one year.
Current Position Title
All subjects were asked to write in their current
position title. Table 6 shows the distribution of the
community college presidents by title of position. One of


81
Table 3
Communitv Colleae Presidents: Distribution bv Gender
and Ethnic Origin
Gender & Ethnic Origin
n
%
White Male
215
77.06
White Female
35
12.54
Black Female
0
0
Hispanic Male
10
3.58
Black Male
9
3.23
Asian American Male
2
0.72
Asian American Female
0
0
Hispanic Female
4
1.43
Native American Male
1
0.36
Native American Female
2
0.72
Other
1
0.36
TOTAL
279
100.0
hundred and forty-two (85.5%) community college presidents
were male. Forty-one (14.5%) respondents were females. As
far as ethnicity, 251 (89.6%) of community college
presidents were white/Caucasian. Blacks and Hispanics
represented 8.2% of the total, with 9 and 14 respondents
(3.2% and 5.0%), respectively. Asian American and Native
Americans represented 1.8% of the total, with 2 and 3
respondents (0.7% and 1.1%), respectively. One subject
recorded other which is 0.4% of the total population. Four
individuals did not respond to the question of ethnicity.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would first like to thank almighty God for allowing
me to complete this task. If it had not been for Him, I
would not have made it. To my major professor, Dr. David
Honeyman, thanks for always being there to assist. To my
church family, The House of God Church, thanks for your
prayers and support. To my mother and father, Gilbert, Sr
and Ernestine Evans, thanks for being the greatest parents
in the world. To my brothers, Maurice and Darryle, thanks
for being so understanding.


128
Presidents' Belief of Significance of
Job Satisfaction Variables
As evidenced by the frequency distribution ratings, all
eight job satisfaction variables used in this study were
significant to community college presidents in performing
their responsibilities as chief executive officer. These
findings supported the prior research in the review of
literature which stated all factors were important and
related to job satisfaction (Levy, 1989; Carbone, 1991;
Fisher, 1994; Vaughan, 1989; Fryer & Lovas, 1990). The
three most important factors as defined by the mean scores
were relationships with supervisor, professional
effectiveness, and relationship with subordinates. The
factor that received the lowest mean score was salary.
Therefore, it can be concluded that community college
presidents hold all eight job satisfaction variables as
important; however, of them all, presidents want to have
healthy relationships with the board of trustees, faculty,
staff, other administrators, and students. Furthermore,
since professional effectiveness was significant to
community college presidents, it can be assumed that they
all desire to be effective administrators who accomplish all
of the objectives of their position.
It is noteworthy to mention that presidents reported
that the most significant job satisfaction variable was
their relationship with their supervisor, the board of
trustees. As stated in the literature, the board sets


11
development opportunities, evaluation, promotion, and regard
for personal concerns.
Limitations
The following limitations are related to this study:
1. The study was limited to community college
presidents in the United States who report directly to a
board of trustees and who are members of the American
Association of Community Colleges (AACC).
2. The study focused only on organizational climate
and job satisfaction as perceived by community college
presidents.


93
perceptions of and satisfaction with. The coding was as
follows:
IC2 = Satisfaction with Internal Communication
0S2 = Satisfaction with Organizational Structure
PCL2 = Satisfaction with Political Climate
PD02 = Satisfaction with Professional Development
Opportunities
EVAL2 = Satisfaction with Evaluation
PR0M2 = Satisfaction with Promotion
RPC2 = Satisfaction with Regard for Personal Concerns
Presidents surveyed were asked to rate their level or
degree to which they were satisfied with the organizational
climate at their community college with five (5) indicating
the highest level of satisfaction with that particular
factor and one (1) indicating the lowest level of
satisfaction. Therefore, the rating of five was interpreted
as the very highest level of satisfaction with the climate
factor in question. The rating of four was understood to
mean a high level of satisfaction of the factor. The rating
of three represented a moderately high level of
satisfaction. The rating of two was interpreted as a low
level of satisfaction, and the rating one was understood to
mean that a very low level of satisfaction with the factor
in question was evident.
Tables 10 through 12 show the satisfaction rating for
the seven organizational factors. According to Table 11,
the three highest factors in descending order were regard


60
mission (Vaughan, 1989; Lee & VanHorn, 1983). Community
college presidents help to chart the educational, social,
and economic life of thousands of students, faculty members,
and administrators across the nation (Vaughan, 1986).
Ratcliff (1989) stated:
The function of the chief executive officer
have been identified as raising money, balancing
the budget, participating in the establishment
of institutional goals, working with faculty
to create an environment that encourages
learning, and recruiting, and maintaining a
high quality of faculty. Furthermore, a
central responsibility of the president, which
relates to everything else he undertakes, is
the establishment of an institutional
environment conducive to learning. The
president does not establish such an
environment through the force of his own personality
so much as he makes possible its development
through the ways in which he works with his
staff officers and other constituencies of
the institution, (p. 87)
According to a 1980 issue of The Community College
Journal. the role of the president is multifacated. When
various presidents were asked to describe their role, one
president said his role was manipulator. Another said that
his role was educational leader with the responsibility of
setting with the the board the "tone and pace" of the
institution. Another said his role was marketer or
interpreter for the college to its many constituents. One
community college president said he was a manager, which
means a leader, forerunner, director, and guardian. One
president stated he was a money manager and noted, "The


68
shared leadership, needs assessment, accountability,
teaching, involvement, continuous learning, and job
satisfaction. Findings of this study have advanced the body
of knowledge by testing the theoretical constructs of job
satisfaction and organizational climate as applied to
community college presidents.


56
8. Historically Black two-vear colleges. These types
of community colleges serve mostly Afro-American students.
Fourteen of the 100 predominately Black institutions of
higher learning are two-year colleges.
9. Triballv-controlled community colleges. These
types of community colleges were designed to improve higher
education for Native Americans. There are presently 14 of
these two-year colleges.
10. Technical education only community colleges.
These types of colleges place emphasis on technical and
vocational education.
11. Transfer/general education only community
colleges. These colleges are usually private.
12. Private (nonprofit/sectarian and
nonprofit/nonsectarian) colleges. These are church related
institutions focusing on a liberal arts education.
13. Proprietary colleges. These schools are also
private. designed as postsecondary trade schools.
14. Two-vear colleges at four-year institutions.
"This category of college is distinguished by its governance
system, created as a part of a larger university system
within the state. This difference permeates the
organizational structure as well as the mission of the
institution" (p. 63).


103
Table 14
Importance of Job Satisfaction Variables to Community
College Presidents: Frequency Distributions
Factor Ratings Totals
5
4
3
2
1
PDO
n
142
126
15
1
0
284
%
50.0
44.4
5.3
0.4
0
100
POW
n
97
105
45
20
13
280
34.6
37.5
16.1
7.1
4.6
100
RWP
n
134
115
26
5
2
282
%
47.5
40.8
9.2
1.8
0.7
100
RWSub
n
152
114
17
1
0
284
%
53.5
40.1
6.0
0.4
0
100
RWSup
n
224
51
9
0
0
284
78.9
18.0
3.2
0
0
100
SAL
n
63
148
57
12
4
284
%
22.2
52.1
20.1
4.2
1.4
100
BENE
n
75
146
43
14
2
280
26.8
52.1
15.4
5.0
0.7
100
PE
n
159
119
5
0
0
283
%
56.2
42.0
1.8
0
0
100
DM = Importance of Participation in Decision-Making
POW = Importance of Power
RWP = Importance of Relationship With Peers
RWSub = Importance of Relationship With Subordinates
RWSup = Importance of Relationship With Supervisor
SAL = Importance of Salary
BENE = Importance of Benefits
PE = Importance of Professional Effectiveness


16
work or the work of others, or being given new
responsibility. Also included were those incidents in which
there was a loss of satisfaction from lack of
responsibility.
6. Possibility or growth referred to growth in
specific skill areas as well as growth in status which would
enable the individual to move onward and upward in a
company. This factor also encompassed the lack of
opportunity for growth (Herzberg, 1966, pp. 193-198).
The researchers also developed eight hygienes or
dissatisfiers. These eight hygienes as defined by Herzberg
(1966), included the following:
1. Salary related to all sequences of events in which
some type of compensation (wage or salary increase) plays a
role. Unfulfilled expectations to receive an expected
salary increase also were included in this category.
2. Working conditions dealt with the physical
conditions of work and the facilities available for
performing the work (adequate tools, space, lighting, or
ventilation).
3. Supervision-technical included those events in
which the competence or incompetence of the supervisor were
the critical factors. Statements concerning a supervisor's
willingness or unwillingness to delegate responsibility or
his or her willingness or unwillingness to instruct were
included.


55
2. Suburban community colleges. These colleges
typically serve residents who live in the suburbs of large
cities. They attract fewer first-time-in-college students
than most other community colleges. These colleges typically
concentrate on the liberal arts/transfer curricula and
vocational offerings that focus primarily on technology.
3. Urban/inner city community colleges. These types
of colleges are located in the inner city. Their purpose is
to quickly train students for the work-place.
4. Metropolitan area district community colleges,
centralized and decentralized. These types of colleges are
groups of campuses within a specific geographic district and
are governed by a board of trustees.
5. Community colleges adjacent to residential
universities. These types of community colleges serve as
feeder schools to area universities. Students who attend
this type of community college take academic classes at both
the college and the area university.
6. Mixed community colleges. These types of colleges
have mixed characteristics of the previously discussed types
of community colleges.
7. Hispanic-Servinq Institutions (H-SIs). There are
approximately 120 institutions of this nature. In order to
be this type of school, the total enrollment must be at
least 25% Hispanic.


REFERENCES
Aebi, C. J. (1973). The applicability of Herzberg's
motivation-hygiene theory to college administrators as
tested by two different methodologies (Doctoral
dissertation, Ohio University, 1973). Dissertation
Abstracts International. 33. 4223A.
Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity of social exchanges. In L.
Berkowitz, (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Psychology
(pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press.
Alderfer, C. P. (1975). Learning from changing:
Organizational diagnosis and development. Beverly
Hills: Sage Publications.
Alfred, R. L., & Carter, P. (1993). Rethinking the business
of management. In R.L.Alfred,& P.Carter (Eds.),
Changing managerial imperatives (pp, 7-19). San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Argyris, C. (1957) Personality and organization: The
conflict between the system and the individual. New
York: Harper & Row.
Barr, R. (1988) The Spring 1988 Palomar College climate
survey: an analysis with comparisons to the fall 1986
survey (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 320
615) .
Beck, R. C. (1990). Motivation: Theories and principles (3rd
ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bock, Darrell R. & Mislevy, Robert J. (1988), Educational
Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 10(2), 89-105.
Bolman, L. G. & Deal, T. E. (1991). Reframing organizations:
Artistry, choices, and leadership. San Francisco:
Jossey- Bass Publishers.
Carbone, R. F. (1981). Presidential passages. Washington
D.C.: American Council on Education.
Cassidy, M. L. & Warrren, B. O. (1991). Status consistency
and work satisfaction among professional and managerial
women and men. Gender and Society. 5(2). 193-206.
167


144
53
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Class Level Information
Class
Levels
Values
YEARS
5
1
2 3
ETHNIC
5
1
2 3
GENDER
2
1
2
COLCLASS
3
1
2 3
Number of observations in data set = 284
NOTE: Due to missing values, only 256 observations can be used in
this
analysis.


84
Table 6
Communitv Collecre Presidents: Distribution bv Current
Position Title
Title
n
%
Chancellor
6
2.1
President
278
97.9
TOTAL
284
100.0
two titles were recorded by the respondents. All 284
subjects responded to the question. Two hundred and
seventy-eight (97.9%) were titled as President, and six
(2.1%) were called Chancellor.
Research Question 1
Research Question 1 stated how do community college
presidents perceive organizational climate at their
respective institutions, using a set of seven identified
factors for climate? In this study, climate was defined as
the conditions that affect job satisfaction and
productivity. The factors under investigation included (a)
internal communication, (b) organizational structure, (c)
political climate, (d) professional development
opportunities, (e) evaluation, (f) promotion, and (g) regard
for personal concerns.
The seven factors were coded as follows:
IC = Perception of Internal Communication
OS = Perception of Organizational Structure


168
Chappell, S. K. (1995). The Relationship Between
Organizational Climate And Job Satisfaction As Reported
By Community College Chief Instructional Officers
(Doctoral Dissertation, University of Florida, 1995).
Cohen, A. M., & Brawer, F. B. (1995). The challenging
environment: Context, concepts, and crises. In A. M.
Cohen & F. B. Brawer (Eds.), Managing community
colleges: A handbook for effective practice (pp. 2-
21). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Covey, S. R. (1990). Principle-centered leadership. New
York: Simon & Schuster.
Croft, D. B., & Halpin, A. W. (1963). The organizational
climate of schools. Chicago: University of Chicago,
Midwest Administration Center.
Davis, Susan (Dec, 1994). Burn out. American Health.48-52.
Dear, J. A. (1995). Work, stress, and health '95. Vital
Speeches of the Day, pp. 39-42.
Deas, E. (1994). Board and administration relationships
contributing to community college climate: A case
study. Community College Review,22(1). 44-52.
Deegan, W. L. & Tillery, D. (1985). Renewing the american
community college. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Publishers.
Downey, H. K., Hellriegel, D., Phelps, M. & Slocum, J. W.
(1975) Congruence between individual needs,
Organizational climate, job satisfaction and
performance. Academy of Management Journal. 18.149-155.
Ewen, R. B., Smith, P. C., Hulin, C., & Locke, E. (1966). An
empirical test of the Herzberg two-factor theory.
Journal of Applied Psychology.50. 544-550.
Fisher, J. L. (1984). Power of the presidency. New York:
Macmillan Publishing Company.
Friedlander, F. & Walton, E. (1964). Positive and negative
motivations toward work. Administrative Science
Quarterly. 9. 197-207.
Fryer, T. & Lovas, J. (1991). Leadership in governance:
creating conditions for successful decision-making in
community colleges. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


CHAPTER 3
DESIGN OF STUDY
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature
of the relationship between measures of organizational
climate and measures of job satisfaction as applied to
community college presidents. Furthermore, this study was
done to ascertain if there were significant differences in
means for the eight job satisfaction variables controlling
for gender, ethnicity, classification of the community
college by size, and number of years of experience as a
college president.
The research questions are as follows:
1. How do community college presidents perceive
organizational climate at their respective institutions
using a set of seven identified factors for climate?
2. Using the same seven climate factors as an index,
how satisfied are community college presidents with the
organizational climate of their respective institutions?
3. How important is each of eight identified job
satisfaction variables to community college presidents in
the performance of their specific job responsibility?
4. For each of eight job satisfaction variables, is
there a significant relationship between measures of
69


6
college program. He or she serves as the liaison between
the board of trustees and the administration, faculty,
staff, and students. He or she is responsible for the
development of the instructional program of the college.
Furthermore, his or her responsibility also includes budget
preparation, personnel administration, public relations,
legislative liaison, and overall supervision of the total
community college program (Florida Community College
Handbook. 1995).
The community college president is usually held in high
esteem. Faculty, administration, and students look to him
or her for guidance and direction. Furthermore, the board
of trustees depends on the president to execute all laws and
rules. Therefore, many difficult issues face the president
on a day-to- day basis, such as hiring and firing, tenure
and promotion, equity and accountability, and interpretation
of climate by others--just to name a few. Consequently, the
responsibilities of the president have intensified and
become more complex (Walker,1979; Vaughan, 1989). The
American Council on Education reported that nationally there
is an overwhelming turnover of top level college
administrators. Some researchers believed that it is due to
job dissatisfaction, stress, and burnout. Turnover among
chief administrators at colleges is costly and is related to
job satisfaction (Glick, 1992; Vaughan, 1986).


79
satisfaction and a set of seven measures of satisfaction
with organizational climate, as reported by community
college presidents?
5. Is there a significant difference in the means of
eight job satisfaction variables for community college
presidents when compared by gender of the president, ethnic
origin of the president, classification of the community
college, and length of time served as a college
administrator?
Survey Responses
A total of 801 surveys were mailed to community college
presidents across the nation, who were members of the
American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). Please
note that some states had only one president in the state
who reported to the board of trustees for that state. In
those instances, only one survey was mailed to that state's
president. Two hundred and eighty-four surveys were
returned, thus giving a 35% rate of return. However, some
participants chose not to answer some of the questions.
This analysis included all responses that were recorded by
the participants. Moreover, all subjects were provided with
a postage paid envelope to maximize the rate of return and
insure anonymity. With such a low response rate, the reader
is warned about making generalizations to the population
based on the results.


71
in the performance of their jobs as presidents. Person
product moment correlation coefficients were used to answer
research questions four. This type of analysis was used to
examine the nature of the relationship between satisfaction
and organizational climate and the importance of specific
aspects of job satisfaction. Furthermore, the general
linear models procedure (ANOVA) was used to determine if any
significant differences were evident in the measure of job
satisfaction when controlling for gender of the presidents,
ethnicity of the presidents, classification of the community
college, and the number of years the administrator has
served.
pis' -1
The person product moment was used, moreover, to
analyze each of the job satisfaction factors individually
against the seven identified climate factors. The
researcher wanted to determine which climate factors had a
significant relationship with one or all of the job
satisfaction factors used in the study for community college
presidents. This research should verify or reject the idea
that previously tested theories about job satisfaction and
climate can or cannot be applied to community college
presidents.
The Population
All presidents who were members of the American
Association of Community Colleges were invited to
participate in the research survey. Furthermore, some


32
school. Although their research was done in elementary
schools, they set the basis for understanding climate in
postsecondary institutions.
Croft and Halpin (1963) identified two clusters of
factors. The first cluster consisted of four factors that
described the teachers' perceptions of the teachers as a
human group. Those factors included the following:
1. Intimacy is the degree of social cohesiveness among
teachers in the school.
2. Disengagement is the degree to which teachers are
involved and committed to achieving the goals of the school.
3. Esorit is the apparent morale of the group.
4. Hindrance is the extent to which teachers see
rules, paperwork, and "administrivia" as impeding their work
(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
The other cluster of climate factors included
perceptions of teachers concerning the principals. Those
factors were as follows:
5. Thrust is the dynamic behavior with which the
principal sets a hard-working example.
6. Consideration is the extent to which the principal
is seen as treating teachers with dignity and human concern.
7. Aloofness is the extent to which the principal is
described as maintaining social distance (for example, cold
and distant or warm and friendly).


133
Boards of trustees must be aware of the lack of
diversity among community college presidents. They should
do all in their power to support talented and capable
minorities in academe and encourage them to pursue career
paths that lead to community college president. As higher
education prepares for the 21st century, academe must
understand the importance of diversity, and boards of
trustees recognize that top level administration must be as
diverse as the faculty, student body, and society. If
diversity is to be honored and valued, then the prediction
of Vaughan (1990) that the next generation of community
college presidents will likely be equally homogeneous must
not occur.
Organizational Climate Factors Related to Job Satisfaction
Colleges and boards of trustees who want to enhance job
satisfaction for the community college president must be
aware of several organizational factors that are
significantly related to job satisfaction. The
organizational climate factors regard for personal concerns,
internal communication, organizational structure, and
professional development opportunities had the most
consistently significant relationships with the job
satisfaction variables, which were participation in
decision-making, power, relationship with peers,
subordinates, and supervisor, salary, benefits, and
professional effectiveness. Boards of trustees who focus on


116
Relationship With Peers
When this variable was compared with the organizational
climate factors, there was a significant relationship
between RWP and satisfaction with promotion (PR0M02) and
regard for personal concerns (RPC2). These data suggested
that a president's satisfaction with his or her peers or
other top administrators at the college was related to the
college's commitment to internal promotion and its regard
for personal concerns.
Relationship With Subordinates
The correlation Table 20 showed that there was a
significant relationship between RWSub and the following
organizational climate factors: satisfaction with internal
communication (IC2), organizational structure (0S2),
professional development opportunities (PD02), promotion
(PROMO), and regards for personal concerns (RPC). These
data indicated that a president's relationship with his or
her subordinates was related to the college's internal
communication, administrative operation, professional
development opportunities, advancement from within
organization, and its concern for all employees.
Relationship With Supervisor
There was a significant relationship between this job
satisfaction variable and the following organizational
climate factors: satisfaction with internal communication
(IC2), organizational structure (OS2), professional


Table 16
Importance of Job Satisfaction Variables to Community College Presidents:
Correlation Table
DM
APC
RWP
RWSub
RWSup
SAL
BENE
PE
DM
1.0000
-0.0332
0.2369*
0.29404
0.1201*
0.0493
0.1342*
0.1734*
POW
-0.0332
1.0000
0.1736*
0.1338*
0.2398*
0.1235*
0.1261*
0.0194
RWP
0.2369
0.1736
1.0000
0.4939*
0.2719*
0.1186*
0.1889*
0.1721*
RWSub
0.2904
0.1338
0.4939
1.0000
0.3777*
0.1076
0.1178*
0.2191*
RWSup
0.1201
0.2398
0.2719
0.3777
1.0000
0.2249*
0.2703*
0.2007*
SAL
0.0493
0.1235
0.1186
0.1076
0.2249
1.0000
0.7549*
0.1050
BENE
0.1342
0.1261
0.1889
0.1178
0.2703
0.7549
1.0000
0.1406*
PE
0.1734
0.0194
0.1721
0.2191
0.2007
0.1050
0.1406
1.0000
* = significant correlation, Alpha level less than or equal to 0.05.
DM = Importance of Participation in Decision-Making
POW = Importance of Power
RWP = Importance of Relationship With Peers
RWSub = Importance of Relationship With Subordinates
RWSup = Importance of Relationship With Supervisor
SAL = Importance of Salary
BENE = Importance of Benefits
PE = Importance of Professional Effectiveness


162
6. Promotion the college's commitment to internal promotion and advancement from within the organization (Ex.: career ladders,
internship opportunities, etc.)
Internal promotions encouraged 5 4 3 2 1 Internal promotions not encouraged
& supported & supported
7. Regard for personal concerns the President's sensitivity to and regard for the personal concerns of all employees (Ex.: college is
supportive and flexible during times of personal emergencies).
Highly sensitivity or concerned 5 4 3 2 1 Low sensitivity or concerned
Section B. Please rate your level of satisfaction with each of the college qualities listed below, with five (5) indicating the highest level
of satisfaction and one (1) indicating the lowest level of satisfaction.
8. Internal communication the college's formal and informal communication processes and style (Ex.: articulation of mission, purpose,
values, policies, and procedures).
Open communication 5 4 3 2 1 Closed Communication
9. Organizational structure the college's organizational structure and administrative operation (Ex.: the hierarchical lines of authority
and requirements for operating within that hierarchy).
Highly structures 5 4 3 2 1 Loosely structured
10. Political climate the nature and complexity of the college's politics (Ex.: the degree to which the President must operate within a
political framework in order to accomplish his or her job).
Highly political 5 4 3 2 1 Not highly political
11. Professional development opportunities the opportunity for the President to pursue and participate in professional development
activities (Ex.: encouragement to learn, develop, and/or share innovative practices).
Participation highly encouraged 5 4 3 2 1 Participation not encouraged
12. Evaluation the college's procedures for evaluating the President (Ex.: fair and supportive procedures that focus on improvement rather
than fault-finding).
Supportive evaluation procedures 5 4 3 2 1 Non-supportive procedures
or
There is no evaluation.
13. Promotion the college's commitment to internal promotion and advancement from within the organization (Ex.: career ladders,
internship opportunities, etc.)
Internal promotions encouraged 5 4 3 2 1 Internal promotions not encouraged
& supported & supported
14. Regard for personal concerns the President's sensitivity to and regard for the personal concerns of all employees (Ex.: college is
supportive and flexible during times of personal emergencies).
Highly sensitivity or concerned 5 4 3 2 1 Low sensitivity or concerned
Section C. Please rate how important each of the following factors is to you in your position as President, with five (5) indicating
highest level of importance and one (1) indicating the lowest level of importance.
15. Participation in decision making the college's process for decision making and opportunities for involvement by instructors and
others (Ex.: level of input requested for administrative decisions that involve instructional affairs).
Most important 5 4 3 2 1 Least important
16. Power the degree of power held by the President within the organization (Ex.: decisions made by President are subject to reversal by
Board).
Most important
5 4 3 2 1
Least important


134
these most important areas are likely to enhance job
satisfaction for the community college president.
Furthermore, if the president is happy and satisfied with
his or her position and organization, the employees will
more than likely be satisfied as well (Fisher, 1984;
Carbone, 1981).
Regard for Personal Concerns
Regard for personal concerns was significantly related
to seven of the eight job satisfaction variables. These
finding were in agreement with the research of Lunenburg &
Ornstein, (1991) and Ratcliff (1989) who believed that
concern for individuals was a key contributor to job
satisfaction, and that it enhanced climate. According to
Reddin (1986), boards of trustees must use the developer
style of management in that they give maximum concern for
individuals within their organization. Boards of trustees
must be concerned about the welfare and well being of the
president because he or she helps to chart the educational,
social, and economic life of thousands of students, faculty
members, and administrators across the nation (Vaughan,
1986).
Internal Communication
Internal communication was significantly related to
five of the job satisfaction variables. "Communication is
the glue that holds an organization together and harmonizes
its parts" (Hanson, 1985, p. 263). These findings supported


117
development opportunities (PD02), promotion (PR0M02), and
regard for personal concerns (RPC2). These findings
suggested that internal communication, administrative
operation, opportunities to learn, developed and shared
innovative practices, opportunities for advancement, and
regard for personal concerns were factors in determining how
satisfied a community college president was with his board
of trustees.
Salary
There was a significant relationship between salary
(SAL) and internal communication (IC2), organizational
structure (0S2), professional development opportunities
(PD02), promotion (PR0M02), and regard for personal concerns
(RPC2). These data suggested that presidents were satisfied
with salary when internal communication, organizational
structure, professional development opportunities,
promotion, and regard for personal concerns were strong at
their respective colleges.
Benefits
Table 20 shows the relationship between the job
satisfaction variable benefits (BENE) and the organizational
climate factors. There was a significant relationship
between benefits (BENE) and internal communication (IC2),
organizational structure (OS2), and regard for personal
concerns (RPC2). These data suggested that if the internal
communication, organizational structure, and the regard for


23
belief that his or her behavior will cause a certain outcome
or reward. Through a close analysis of the literature, it
can be concluded that Vroom's model asserted an employee's
satisfaction with his work results from the instrumentality
of the job for attaining other outcomes and the valence of
these outcomes (Thomas, 1977).
n
Vroom (1964) defined the expectancy theory as follows:
where:
V.¡= valence of outcome j ,
Vk = valence outcome k,
n = number of outcomes,
Ijk = perceived instrumentality of outcome
j for the attainment of outcome k (cited in
Mitchell, 1974, p. 1054).
Cornell Studies
This theory of Job Satisfaction was developed by Smith,
Kendall, and Hulin (1969). The researchers developed the
Job Satisfaction Index (J.S.I) which measured many aspects
of job satisfaction. The Cornell Studies concluded that
levels of satisfaction were associated with community
characteristics. Smith et al. (1969) listed 10 implications
of their strategy as follows:


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Gilbert Evans, Jr., was born in Crescent City, Florida.
He received a Bachelor's degree in English and a Master's
degree in Educational Administration from Florida State
University. Mr. Evans is a tenured professor of English at
St. Johns River Community College in Palatka, Florida.
Gilbert is the pastor of the House of God Church in
Palatka, Florida. He received the "Outstanding Student
Award" in 1995 from the Department of Educational Leadership
at the University of Florida. Gilbert is also a member of
Kawanis International, Florida Association of Community
Colleges, Phi Delta Kappa, and Florida Developmental
Education Association. He serves as the curriculum
chairperson for the House of God Academy and Bible
College in Nashville, Tennessee.
174


107
The next most important was professional effectiveness.
Of all presidents who responded, 278 (98.2%) rated this
factor as either important or very important. As one
probably would assume, no president rated this factor as
unimportant. However, only five responded that it was
moderately significant. These data suggested that on
average all community college presidents wanted to be
effective leaders. This result was also consistent with the
literature discussed in chapter two.
The third most significant factor of importance was
relationship with subordinates. According to Table 15, the
mean for this factor was 4.468. Of the respondents, 266
(93.6%) of all presidents rated this factor with either a
four or five. Only one rated it as unimportant, and 6% of
the chief administrators rated it moderately important.
These data suggested that the majority of community college
presidents hold their relationship with their
administrators, faculty, and staff as important.
The one factor that was least significant in relation
to all other factors was salary (mean 3.894). Of the
respondents, 211 (96.9%) reported it as important or very
important; 57 (20.1%) reported it was moderately important,
and 16 (5.6%) stated it was either not important or
extremely unimportant. Although this factor was the least
important in relationship to the other seven, salary was
significant to community college presidents. It was


58
continuous learning, and job satisfaction. The least
successful community colleges will adhere to strict
governance, control, and centralized decision making (Alfred
& Carter, 1993; Chappell, 1995; Vaughan, 1986). Community
college presidents must help create a climate at the
institution that encourages leadership, job satisfaction,
healthy relationships among peers, and shared decision
making (Vroom, 1982; Vaughan, 1989).
Moreover, community college leaders must make strides
to improve the quality of education for students and to
enhance job satisfaction not only for faculty and staff but
also administration. The faculty at community colleges is
satisfied mostly by student achievement and administrators
who have regard for personal concerns (Stage, 1995) Job
satisfaction is extremely important: lack of satisfaction
equals little or no performance. According to Lombardi
(1992), the two main predictors of job satisfaction are
self-efficacy or sense of personal control over one's career
and intrinsic rewards. Studies of faculty and
administrators' job satisfaction have revealed that
intrinsic rewards of academic work have been most closely
associated with global satisfaction.
Vaughan (1986) found that the leadership style of the
president had an effect on job satisfaction for faculty.
Because the employee/employer relationship is extremely
significant, it can be assumed that just as the president's


120
supervisor, salary, benefits, and professional
effectiveness, and the demographic variables, which were
years of experience, ethnicity, gender, and college
classification (see Appendix A). Such a situation could be
the result of community college presidents really not
differing when controlling for years of experience,
ethnicity, gender, and college classification.
Summary
Eight hundred and one surveys were mailed to community
college presidents across the nation who were members of the
American Association of Community Colleges. A total of 284
surveys were returned, rendering a 35% rate of return. The
results of the data gave a profile of community college
presidents, their perception of the organizational climate
with seven organizational climate factors as in index, and
their satisfaction with the organizational climate.
Furthermore, the results indicated how important eight
different job satisfaction variables were to them in regards
to their job performance. In addition, significant
relationships were found between the seven organizational
climate factors and the eight job satisfaction variables, as
they relate to community college presidents. Moreover, the
data revealed that there were no significant differences in
the means of the eight job satisfaction variables for
community college presidents when controlling by gender of
presidents, ethnic origin of presidents, classification of


20
attributed satisfaction to their own achievements, and then
they could have even attributed their dissatisfaction to
factors within their work place instead of personal problems
(Thomas, 1977).
3. The random sample for the original experiment was
limited to only two occupations, engineers and accountants.
Some critics believed that a sample so small cannot be
generalized to the entire population. Pallaone, Hurley, and
Rickard (1971) stated, "The evidence supporting the two-
factor theory appears to have been derived from
investigations of workers ... in the old established
professions near the top of the socio-economic ladder" (p.
16) .
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
The Hierarchy of Needs Theory developed by Abraham
Maslow (1954) was one of the most recognized theories that
dealt with job satisfaction. Maslow's theory is divided
into five levels of needs. These needs are as follows:
1. Physiological needs include hunger, thirst,
shelter, and sex (dependent on self).
2. Safety needs include protection from the elements
(dependent on self and others).
3. Feeling of belonging and love needs include love,
affection, and friends (dependent on self and other).
4. Esteem needs include self respect, positive self-
evaluation, and prestige (dependent on self and others).


9
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study, the following
definitions are used:
Community college president is the chief administrator
at the institution. The president is responsible for the
daily operations of the college. This administrator serves
as the liaison between the board of trustees and the
college's administration, faculty, staff, and student body
(Vaughan, 1989; Vaughan, 1986).
Job satisfaction refers to a person's positive or
negative attitude or emotional response toward his or her
place of employment (Beck, 1990; McCormick & Ilgen, 1980).
Organizational climate refers to the perceptions of
participants of certain intangible aspects of the
environment or institution. It is the personality of an
organization (Deas, 1994; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
Significance of the Study
This study is significant for many reasons. First, the
expectation of individuals concerning their jobs is changing
drastically (Walker, 1979; Vaughan, 1989). Second, because
of the diversity and different needs and values of
individuals in the work force, it is important to ascertain
how they perceive job satisfaction and climate. Third, the
creation of a positive organizational climate is critical to
the success of an organization (Vaughan, 1989; Lee & Van
Horn, 1983). Fourth, because the community college


Table 9
Communitv
Colleae Presidents' PerceDtions of Oraanizational Climate: Correlation Table
IC
OS
PCL
PDO
EVAL
PROMO
RPC
IC
1.0000
0.01668
-0.14625*
0.13544*
0.26888*
0.25224*
0.13370*
OS
0.01668
1.0000
0.22257*
-0.00365
-0.01063
0.11209
0.04352
PCL
-0.14625*
0.22257*
1.0000
-0.11573
-0.20793*
-0.05337
-0.00619
PDO
0.13544*
-0.00365
-0.11573
1.0000
0.29050*
0.09175
0.08316
EVAL
0.26888*
-0.01063
-0.20793*
0.29050*
1.0000
0.14332*
0.08696
PROMO
0.25224*
0.11209
-0.05337
0.09175
0.14332*
1.0000
0.16222*
RPC
0.13370*
0.04352
-0.00619
0.08316
0.08696
0.16222*
1.0000
* = significant correlation, alpha level less or equal to 0.05.
IC = Perception of Internal Communication
OS = Perception of Organizational Structure
PCL = Perception of Political Climate
PDO = Perception of Professional Development Opportunities
EVAL = Perception of Evaluation
PROMO = Perception of Promotion
RPC = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns
CO
CO


Organizational Climate Questionnaire
for Community College Presidents
Purpose and Rationale: The purpose of this questionnaire is to gather perceptions about community college climate from Presidents across
the United States. President is defined as the chief executive officer, one who reports directly to a board of trustees. Climate is defined as
the conditions that affect job satisfaction and productivity. "Climate" to an organization is what "personality" is to an individual.
Design of the Survey: This survey consists of two parts.
Part 1 includes a set of questions related to your specific community college and your position. Part I, Section A asks for your perceptions
of general college characteristics. Section B asks for responses concerning how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with the same characteristics.
Section C is an inquiry into your specific job as the College President. Sections D and E ask for your overall ratings of your position and
of your college.
Part II includes questions pertaining to demographic information.
Please read all questions carefully. All responses will be treated confidentially.
Please return your completed survey by August 22, 1996 to:
Department of Educational Leadership
University of Florida
P.O. Box 117049
258 Norman Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611-7049
Attn.: G. L. Evans, Jr.
A self-addressed envelope is provided for your convenience. Thank you for your time and thoughtful participation in this project.
Part I: Organizational and Position Ratings
Instructions: Considering your own experiences at this college, please circle the number of the rating that best represents your
opinion or perception. Verbal descriptions of the extremes on the continuum have been provided to assist you in choosing your
answers.
Section A. Please rate the level or degree to which the following qualities are present at your community college, with five (5)
indicating the highest level of presence and one (1) indicating the lowest level of presence.
1. Internal communication the college's formal and informal communication processes and style (Ex.: articulation of mission, purpose,
values, policies, and procedures).
Open communication 5 4 3 2 1 Closed Communication
2. Organizational structure the college's organizational structure and administrative operation (Ex.: the hierarchical lines of authority
and requirements for operating within that hierarchy).
Highly structured 5 4 3 2 1 Loosely structured
3. Political climate the nature and complexity of the college's politics (Ex.: the degree to which the President must operate within a
political framework in order to accomplish his or her job).
Highly political 5 4 3 2 1 Not highly political
4. Professional development opportunities the opportunity for the President to pursue and participate in professional development
activities (Ex.: encouragement to learn, develop, and/or share innovative practices).
Participation highly encouraged 5 4 3 2 1 Participation not encouraged
5. Evaluation the college's procedures for evaluating the President (Ex.: fair and supportive procedures that focus on improvement rather
than fault-finding).
Supportive evaluation procedures 5 4 3 2 1 Non-supportive procedures
or
160


163
Relationships with colleagues the quality of the President's relationships with peers, subordinates, and supervisor (Ex.: atmosphere of
mutual collegial respect exists).
a. With peers:
Most important
b. With subordinates:
5 4
3 2 1
Least important
Most important
c. With supervisor (Board):
5 4
3 2 1
Least important
Most important
5 4
3 2 1
Least important
18.Salary and benefits the salary and benefits of the President (Ex.: salary and benefits package are equitable and comparable with
colleagues in similar situations).
a. Salary:
Most important
5 4 3 2 1
Least important
b. Benefits:
Most important
5 4 3 2 1
Least important
19.Professional effectiveness the perceived overall effectiveness of the President in his or her position (Ex.: "Am I successful in
accomplishing the objectives of my position?").
Most important 5 4 3 2 1 Least important
Section D.
20. Please circle the level of your overall satisfaction with your position, with five (5) indicating the highest level of satisfaction and
one (1) indicating the lowest level of satisfaction.
Most satisfied 5 4 3 2 1 Least satisfied
Section E.
21. Please circle the level of your overall satisfaction with your college, with five (5) indicating the highest level of satisfaction and
one (1) indicating the lowest level of satisfaction.
Most satisfied 5 4 3 2 1 Least satisfied
22. Please circle the level of your overall satisfaction with your relationship with the board of trustees, with five (5) indicating the highest
level of satisfaction and one (1) indicating the lowest level of satisfaction.
Most satisfied 5 4 3 2 1 Least satisfied
23. Given the significance of the board of trustees as they relate to climate, please circle the level of your overall satisfaction with their
willingness to cooperate and be open-minded to your ideas and suggestions, with five (5) indicating the highest level of satisfaction
and one (1) indicating the lowest level of satisfaction.
Most satisfied 5 4 3 2 1 Least satisfied
Part II: Demographic Information
Instructions: Please provide the following demographic information by using a check mark or filling in the blank.
A. Your current position title:


49
argued professional development has a positive effect on the
climate within any organization. Within the confines of
education, professional development opportunities enhance
teaching and learning through needs assessment and
continuous training (Ratcliff, 1989).
Evaluation
Evaluation was defined as the college's procedure for
evaluating employees through positive feedback intended to
provide professional growth for the employee. Miller
(1988a) defined evaluation as "the process of determining
the merit or worth or value of something or the product of
that process" (p. 16). Evaluation is recognized by Bloom in
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain as the
highest level of cognition and is placed at the apex of a
pyramid of cognitive function. "Evaluation represents not
only an end process in dealing with cognitive behavior, but
also a major linking with the affective behaviors where
value, liking, and enjoying are the central processes
involved" (Miller, 1988a, p. 16). The two purposes of
evaluation are to improve performance and to assist in
making equitable and effective academic personnel decisions;
it also requires judgment as well as measurement (Gappa &
Leslie, 1993) .
Over the years, evaluation procedures within higher
education have changed. The reasons for these changes are
as follows: The systematic use of faculty evaluation has


27
conditions which exist in the work environment" (p. 326).
Climate also has been described as the emotional atmosphere
of a particular organization. Recently, Deas (1994) defined
climate as "a collection of intangibles that support and
encourage all the players to work toward a common goal
learning" (p. 44).
Terms often used to describe "organizational climate"
include (a) open, (b) warm, (c) easygoing, (d) informal, (e)
cold, (f) hostile, (g) rigid, or (h) closed (Lunenburg &
Ornstein, 1991).
According to Lunenburg and Orenstein (1991), "To
describe and assess the climate of a school requires (a) the
development of a clear concept of what the key factors are
in the interaction-influence system that determines climate,
(b) the creation of some method of collecting data that
describe these factors (usually a paper-and-pencil
questionnaire), and (c) a procedure by which the data may be
analyzed and, ultimately, displayed in a way that informs
us" (p. 186).
Organizational Climate Theories
The Organizational Climate Index
George C. Stern (1970) developed an approach to measure
or describe organizational climate. His basic rationale
resembled that of an earlier researcher named Lewin who
believed that individuals and groups in organizations must
be understood in the context of their interaction with the


65
of the community college will have some effect on job
satisfaction and climate for not only the president but also
faculty, students, and staff. There is no precise method
for classifying colleges; however, Katsinas (unpublished)
developed a system that distinguishes 14 classifications in
the community colleges of the United States. These
classification were defined and described in the "Community
College Background" section of this review of literature.
The fourteen classifications are rural community colleges,
suburban community colleges, urban/inner city community
colleges, metropolitan area district community colleges,
centralized and decentralized, community colleges adjacent
to residential universities, mixed community colleges,
Hispanic-serving institutions, historically Black two-year
colleges, Tribally-controlled community colleges,
transfer/general education only, technical education only,
private (nonprofit/sectarian and nonprofit/nonsectarian
colleges), proprietary colleges, and two-year colleges at
four-year institutions.
Years of Experience
The majority of presidents remain in office long enough
to leave a mark on the institution. Some researchers
believed the average length of time for an effective
president is seven years. Corbone (1981) found that out of
a survey of more than 1,200 presidents that 35% of the
sample served from five to 10 years, and just under 18% held


86
Table 7
Communitv Colleae Presidents' PerceDtions of
Organizational Climate: Freauencv Distributions
Factor Ratings Totals
5
4
3
2
1
IC
n
90
31.8
159
56.2
28
9.9
5
1.8
1
0.4
283
100
OC
n
39
13.8
118
11.7
88
31.1
36
12.7
2
0.7
283
100
PCL
n
57
20.2
70
24.8
69
24.5
56
19.9
30
10.6
282
100
PDO
n
117
41.3
98
34.6
48
17.0
18
6.4
2
0.7
283
100
EVAL
n
117
41.5
79
28.0
42
14.9
11
3.9
7
2.5
282
100
PROMO
n
65
22.9
144
50.7
66
23.2
9
3.2
0
0.0
284
100
RPC
n
149
52.5
120
42.3
15
5.3
0
0.0
0
0.0
284
100
*26 presidents responded there was no method of
evaluation.
IC = Perception of Internal Communication
OS = Perception of Organizational Structure
PCL = Perception of Political Climate
PDO = Perception of Professional Development
Opportunities
EVAL = Perception of Evaluation
PROMO = Perception of Promotion
RPC = Perception of Regard for Personal Concerns


21
5. Self-actualization means to become everything that
one is capable of becoming (measure up to our own criteria
of success).
Maslow believed that as the lower level needs were
meet, man would begin to move up the hierarchy. According
to Maslow (1954), man's ultimate goal was to become self-
actualized, which was becoming everything that one was
capable of becoming.
Consequently, there was little research to support
Maslow's beliefs. Because of his logical approach, his
theory has been accepted by many schools of thought.
Moreover, according to the literature, when the lower needs
are satisfied, the individual's job satisfaction is likely
to be greater.
Alderfer's E.R.G. Theory
Alderfer's Existence, relatedness, and growth (E.R.G.)
Theory is closely related to Maslow's theory. Clayton
Alderfer (1975) reduced Maslow's hierarchy from five
distinct parts to three. He concluded that all individuals
have three basic needs that they want satisfied. They are
(a) existence needs, (b) relatedness needs, and (c) growth
needs. Alderfer (1975) believed that needs are satisfied by
one's work. Alderfer's theory differs somewhat from
Maslow's in that he did not believe the levels were
hierarchical. He believed in interchangeability between
need levels.


149
58
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Dependent Variable: Q17C Importance of Relation, with Super.
Source
Pr > F
DF
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Square
F Value
Model
0.8489
11
1.54003584
0.14000326
0.57
Error
246
59.96771610
0.24377120
Corrected Total
257
61.50775194
Q17C Mean
R-Square
C.V.
Root MSE
4.77132
0.025038
10.34792
0.49373
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type I SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.9505
4
0.17187892
0.04296973
0.18
ETHNIC
0.3941
4
1.00098879
0.25024720
1.03
GENDER
0.2221
1
0.36526832
0.36526832
1.50
COLCLASS
0.9961
2
0.00189981
0.00094990
0.00
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type III SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.8543
4
0.32659179
0.08164795
0.33
ETHNIC
0.3096
4
1.17410910
0.29352727
1.20
GENDER
0.2242
1
0.36191211
0.36191211
1.48
COLCLASS
2
0.00189981
0.00094990
0.00
0.9961


2
more than the deliberate controls imposed on the physical
working condition. This discovery questioned the previously
held belief that human workers behaved like machines,
therefore, there was only one way to do a given task
(Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991; Roethlisberger & Dickson,
1939).
The Hawthorne Studies are considered one of the major
research experiments that contributed to the study of
employee motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore,
Mayo's studies revealed that perception and job satisfaction
among employees are factors that relate to job performance
(Mayo, 1933). As a result of these studies, the basis for
the human relations movement was established.
Zytowski (1968) defined job satisfaction as being
"proportionate to the degree that the elements of the job
satisfy the particular needs which the person feels most
strongly" (p. 399). Another definition of job satisfaction
is a person's attitude or emotional response (either
positive or negative) toward his or her place of work (Beck,
1990; McCormick & Ilgen, 1980; Nkereuwem, 1990) In recent
years, much research has been done on job satisfaction, and
it is evident that the issue of job satisfaction is
extremely difficult to understand. Situations,
organizational change and culture, and individuals are all
critical elements that are related to one's understanding of
job satisfaction.


28
environment (B=fP, E). This view is related to both person
and environment. Stern argued that efforts to assess the
climate of a given organization must measure both
characteristics of the individual and the environment or
surroundings (cited in Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
The basis for Stern's development of the Organizational
Climate Index (OCI) was best described in Educational
Administration: Concepts and Practices:
Stern, a psychologist, saw an analogy between human
personality and the personality
of the institution, and he drew on the much
earlier work of Henry A. Murry, who had
developed the concept of need-press as it
shaped human personality. Murry postulated
that personality is the product of dynamic
interplay between need, both internal and
external, and press, which is roughly equivalent
to the environmental pressures that lead
to adaptive behavior. Two questionnaires
instruments were devised to determine the
need-press factors Stern felt influenced the
development of climate in institutions of higher
education: the Activities Index (AI), which
assessed the need structure of individuals,
and the College Characteristics Index (CCI), which
probed the organizational press as experience by
persons in the organization. These two
questionnaires have been used on a number
of campuses, where they have helped researchers assess
organizational climate in higher education
settings. (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991)
Stern and Carl Steinhoff developed an adaptation of the
CCI which they called the "Organizational Climate Index"
(OCI) which has been used in schools and other
organizations. This instrument was first used in 1965 in
the public school system of Syracuse, New York. This survey


8
5. Is there a significant difference in the means of
eight job satisfaction variables for community college
presidents when compared by gender of the president, ethnic
origin of the president, classification of the community
college, and length of time served as a college
administrator?
Rationale
The relationship between job satisfaction and climate
applied to the industrial setting is well understood;
however, within the confines of education little is known
about this relationship. Community college presidents are
the chief administrators at a given institution. They are
responsible for the overall day-to-day operation of the
college. The president is the liaison between the board of
trustees and the college's administration, faculty, staff,
and students. The president's work affects the morale and
success of every staff person, and perhaps even the students
on campus. Learning more about the nature of the
relationship between climate and job satisfaction among
community college presidents may assist colleges in
understanding their perceptions of climate and enhance job
satisfaction for the college's chief administrator.


57
Community Colleges at the End of the 20th Century
The community college has revolutionized higher
education. At the end of their first century, two-year
colleges are the largest single entity in postsecondary
education (Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, & Suppiger,
1994). The degree offered by the two-year college has
become a symbol of achievement. The two-year institution
has opened many doors to students who have desired an
education but could not attend the university (Deegan &
Tillery, 1985). For racial minorities, women, and older
students, the community college has served as a beacon of
light and hope in this society. Harper, one of the founding
fathers of the community college, had a dream of creating a
college for the general public. At the close of this
century, it is evident that the community college is for the
people (Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, & Suppiger,
1994) .
Job Satisfaction and Organizational Climate at the Community
College
Although the community college has well served urban
and rural areas, there are obstacles that must be overcome.
Nearing the year 2000, there is a need at the community
college level outstanding leadership that promotes job
satisfaction and encourages an open and warm organizational
climate. The most successful community colleges of the 21st
century will be those that promote shared leadership, needs
assessment, accountability, teaching, involvement,


30
3. Personal Dignity (Supportiveness). Organizational
climates scoring high on this factor respect the integrity
of the individual and provide a supportive environment that
would closely approximate the needs of more dependent
teachers. There is a sense of fair play and openness in the
working environment.
4. Organizational Effectiveness. Schools with high
scores on this factor have work environments that encourage
and facilitate the effective performance of tasks. Work
programs are planned and well organized, and people work
together effectively to meet organizational objectives.
5. Orderliness. High scores on this factor indicate a
press for organizational structure and procedural
orderliness. Neatness counts and there are pressures to
conform to a defined core of personal appearance and
institutional image. There are set procedures, and teachers
are expected to follow them.
6. Impulse Control. High scores on this factor imply
a great deal of constraint and organizational
restrictiveness in the work environment. There is little
opportunity for personal expression or for any form of
impulsive behavior.
A school's Developmental Press can be computed by the
sum of the scores for Factors one, two, and three minus the
score for Factor six. Schools with high scores on
Developmental Press are ones that stress intellectual and


37
the organizational structure of American schools and its
impact on the interaction-influence system. Lacerate
believed that the interaction-influence networks of our
school all too often prove to be incapable of dealing
constructively even with the internal school problems,
situations, and conflicts. This is not to mention the
conflicts impinging from the larger community. Furthermore,
the present decision-making structure of the school requires
patterns of interaction that often aggravate conflict rather
than resolve it constructively and quickly (Lunenburg &
Ornstein, 1991).
The theory of Lacerate was empirically derived. He and
his associates gathered qualitative data from the real
world. Since this theory of organizational climate was
developed, numerous studies have been done to test its
reliability and validity. This theory has been given much
support. Lacerate's Profile of School Theory resembled to
the work of McGregor and Herzberg in terms of impact and
significance for both researchers and practitioners
(Lunenburg and Ornstein, 1991).
Person-Environment Fit Theory
The Person-Environment Fit Theory was developed by
Argyris (1957). He believed that conflict develops within
an organization when there is a misunderstanding between the
organization and the employee's needs. The researcher
suggested that hostility, competition, and job


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the College of Education and to the Graduate School and was
accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December 1996

Dean, College of Education'"
Dean, Graduate School


73
According to Chappell (1995), the instrument was tested
for validity, reliability, and consistency. The original
survey instrument was reviewed by the Board of Directors of
the National Council of Instructional Administration (NCIA)
at their board meeting in December, 1994. To complete the
validation process, nine community college professionals
were asked to complete Part I of the survey on two different
occasions. Validity and reliability were verified by
analyzing the subjects' answers to each of the 21 questions
in Part I of the original survey. This was done to make
sure that a range of responses were present. Consistency
was confirmed by comparing the answers received from the
pretest and posttest given to the eight subjects who
completed the entire field test (Chappell, 1995).
A Person product moment correlation analysis affirmed
that a variety of responses could be obtained if the
instrument was used, that the questions were clearly stated,
and that suitable correlations between the first and second
set of responses were present. The correlation coefficients
for the field test were extremely high. They ranged from
0.2336 to 0.9492 (Chappell, 1995). Furthermore, the wording
of the instrument was reviewed by a panel of community
college presidents for face validity.
Moreover, the survey addressed a set of seven
organizational climate factors which were drawn from
educational research. These were used to see how they


77
satisfaction and organizational climate. All of these data
are reported in Chapter 4 and in the appendices of this
dissertation in the form of graphs, charts, and written
text.
Summary
A vast amount of research has been done on the
theoretical basis of job satisfaction and organizational
climate. In addition, an enormous amount of research has
been done on the relationship of job satisfaction and
organizational climate in business and industry. However,
little has been done within the confines of higher
education, and no studies have been found using the
constructs of job satisfaction and organizational climate
relative to the perspective of a community college
president.
As a result, this study tested the theoretical
constructs of job satisfaction and organizational climate as
reported by community college presidents. The answers to
the questions regarding the relationship between
organizational climate and job satisfaction, as reported by
community college presidents, are reported and discussed in
the next chapter.


5
improve the quality of education for students and to enhance
job satisfaction not only for faculty and staff but also for
administration. By the year 2000, there will be a need at
the community college level for outstanding leadership that
promotes job satisfaction and encourages an open and warm
organizational climate (Vaughan, 1989). The most successful
community colleges of the 21st century will be those that
promote shared leadership, needs assessment, accountability,
teaching, involvement, continuous learning, and job
satisfaction; they will not need strict governance, control,
and centralized decision-making (Alfred & Carter, 1993;
Vaughan, 1986) .
The success of any community college will depend to
some degree on the president. The college president is
responsible for seeing that the institution is managed
effectively and efficiently. The function of the president
is three-fold. He or she manages the institution, creates
the campus climate along with the board of trustees and
interprets and communicates the institution's mission
(Vaughan, 1989; Lee & VanHorn, 1983). The college president
must demonstrate through words and deeds that an educational
institution's reason for existence is the discovery,
examination, analysis, organization, and transfer of
knowledge (Vaughan, 1989).
Specifically, at any given community college, the
president is responsible for all aspects of the community


August 1, 1996
Dear Colleague:
On behalf of the Institute of Higher Education at the University
of Florida, we invite you to participate in a study on
organizational climate and job satisfaction as reported by
community college presidents. Your participation has been
encouraged by Dr. David Pierce and the American Association of
Community Colleges (AACC). We expect the results of this
research to provide direction for enhancing job satisfaction and
improving climate at this most pivotal level of leadership.
We would appreciate you assistance by completing the enclosed
questionnaire and returning it to us no later than August 22,
1996. A self addressed envelope is included for your
convenience.
All survey responses will be recorded anonymously. If you would
like to receive a copy of the survey results, please submit a
request to our office under separate cover.
Thank you in advance for you support of this research project.
We will be cooperating with the AACC to disseminate the findings
as soon as the project is complete.
Cordially,
Dale F. Campbell
Professor and Director
Gilbert Evans, Jr.
Investigator
166


44
many institutions of higher education, salary and benefits
are locked within the confines of state and federal
government. These are issues can and do cause job
dissatisfaction with not only the president but also
faculty, resulting in low morale and decreased teaching and
learning (Vaughan, 1986; Hoy & Miskel, 1982).
Professional Effectiveness
Professional effectiveness was defined as the perceived
overall effectiveness of the employee in his or her
position. Every person within an organization should have
the desire to be effective in the work place. Achievement
and growth, which are determining factors of effectiveness,
affect job satisfaction (Herzberg, 1959) .
Most presidents want to be effective. The president
understands that it is his or her duty to develop a style
and define a span of control that will characterize an
effective leader (Carbone, 1981). An effective president
wants his or her institution to be the best, as far as
faculty and staff satisfaction, student retention and
recruitment, teaching and learning, and college success are
concerned. However, striving for professional effectiveness
can cause burn out. "Burn out is emotional exhaustion, a
feeling of being overextended and depleted because you've
given so much" (Davis, 1994, p. 50). Furthermore, experts
believed that burn out is directly related to job


45
dissatisfaction, absenteeism, tardiness, low productivity,
and job turnover (Davis, 1994; Bock & Mislevy, 1988) .
Factors under Investigation that Influence
Organizational Climate
Internal Communication
Internal communication was defined as the college's
formal and informal communication processes and style.
Gronbeck (1992) stated that communication is the process of
sending and receiving messages to achieve understanding.
Without good communication, any organization is destined to
fail (Gronbeck, 1992; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
Communication is the "process that links the individual, the
group, and the organization" (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991, p.
263). "Communication is the glue that holds an organization
together and harmonizes its parts" (Hanson, 1985, p. 263).
Through a close analysis of the literature, it is evident
that an organization that lacks good internal communication
is one that will not be successful.
Furthermore, it is imperative that internal
communication is sent and received from all parties in an
organization. Communication within an organization must be
open because open communication allows individuals to be
honest and knowledgeable about the work environment. Open
communication can be heard by key decision-makers within an
organization. Specifically, the president should
communicate with the faculty and staff, and the faculty and


33
8. Production emphasis is the extent to which the
principal tries to make teachers work harder (for example,
supervising closely, being directive, demanding results).
The researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of
64 questions. Each question elicited a perception on one of
the eight factors. The finding of the research stated:
"Descriptions of the teachers as a human social group tend
to be associated with the teacher's perception of the
principal in relatively consistent patterns" (Lunenberg &
Ornstein, 1991, p. 189).
Furthermore, Croft and Halpin (1963) identified and
described several types of organizational climates. They
are as follows:
1. Open Climate. In this type of climate, teachers
are proud to be a part of the school. They do not feel
burdened by busy-work, regulations, and administration. The
teachers see the principal's behavior as an easy, authentic
integration of the official role and his or her own
personality. The principal shows concern and compassion for
teachers and yet is able to lead, control, and direct them.
2. Autonomous Climate. An autonomous climate is one
that is self-governed. The faculty has total freedom. As a
result, teacher morale is high, and the faculty is
successful at accomplishing tasks. The principal in this
climate models the way by setting a good example for others
to follow.


129
policy, and it is the responsible of the president to
enforce the policy (Vaughan, 1989). Of all presidents,
86.9% were either satisfied or very satisfied with their
supervisor, and 13.1% were either moderately or unsatisfied
with their board of trustees. Although presidents were
somewhat satisfied with their supervisors, there is room for
improvement for the board as far as the presidents were
concerned. A good, healthy relationship with the board of
trustees was the number one satisfier for community college
presidents across the United States. These findings
supported the research of Vaughan (1989) who stated one of
the three main satisfiers for community college presidents
was a positive relationship with their entire college.
The Relationship between Measures of Organizational Climate
and Measures of Job Satisfaction
Table 21 in Chapter 4 (pg. 115) gave a summary of the
significant relationships found between the organizational
climate factors and the job satisfaction variables. The
organizational climate factors regard for personal concerns
(RPC) internal communication (IC), organizational structure
(OS), and professional development opportunities (PDO) had
the most consistently significant relationships with the job
satisfaction variables for community college presidents.
Regard for personal concerns had a significant relationship
with seven job satisfaction variables, IC had a significant
relationship with five, OS had a significant relationship
with five, and PDO had a significant relationship with four.


26
theory to different organizations. They found that equity
or fairness was a mark of job satisfaction. When it was not
perceived by employees, dissatisfaction was the result.
Organizational Climate
Organizational climate is defined as the personality of
an organization. Climate also is defined as an accumulation
of tangible perceptions that individuals have of various
aspects of the work environment or organization (Deas, 1994;
Owen, 1991; Steers & Porter, 1975; Chappell, 1995).
Organizational climate is defined as the characteristics of
the total environment (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991).
In Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices
(1991), an organizational climate is comprised of four
dimensions as follows:
1. Ecology refers to the physical and material
factors in the organization.
2. Milieu is the social dimension in the
organization.
3. Culture refers to the values, belief systems,
norms, and ways of thinking that are characteristic of the
people in the organization.
4. Social system refers to the organizational and
administrative structure of the organization.
Schneider and Snyder (1975) described climate as "a
characteristic of organizations that is reflected in the
descriptions employees make of the policies, practices, and


101
These data suggested the more satisfied the president was
with promotion, the greater the regard for personal
concerns.
In addition, presidents were asked to rate their
overall satisfaction with their colleges. According to
Table 13, mean score for overall satisfaction with college
was 4.2163. Two hundred and eighty-two of the 284
presidents responded to the question. Of the respondents,
257 (91.2%) were satisfied or very satisfied with their
colleges; only three were dissatisfied with their colleges.
These data suggested that the majority of community college
presidents across the nation were satisfied overall with
their college.
Table 13
Communitv
Colleae Presidents
Overall Satisfaction
with
Colleae:
Freauencv Distribution Mean Distribution
Factor
Ratings
Totals
5
4
3
2
1
oswc
n
89
168
22
3
0
%
31.6
59.6
7.8
1.1
0
100
Mean Distribution
Factor
N
Mean
SD
StdErr
OSWC
282
4.2163 0
.6251
0
0372
OSWC = Overall Satisfaction With College


151
60
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Dependent Variable: Q18A Importance of Salary
Source
Pr > F
DF
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Square
F Value
Model
0.3842
11
8.15028213
0.74093474
1.07
Error
246
169.97374888
0.69095020
Corrected Total
257
178.12403101
Q18A Mean
R-Square
C.V.
Root MSE
3.91473
0.045756
21.23351
0.83123
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type I SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.0883
4
5.65958656
1.41489664
2.05
ETHNIC
0.9324
4
0.58226763
0.14556691
0.21
GENDER
0.3541
1
0.59567759
0.59567759
0.86
COLCLASS
0.3882
2
1.31275034
0.65637517
0.95
Source
Pr > F
DF
Type III SS
Mean Square
F
Value
YEARS
0.1383
4
4.85419959
1.21354990
1.76
ETHNIC
0.9369
4
0.55925575
0.13981394
0.20
GENDER
0.3793
1
0.53606854
0.53606854
0.78
COLCLASS
2
1.31275034
0.65637517
0.95
0.3882


132
opportunities, the greater the level of satisfaction with
relationship with subordinates, supervisor, salary, and
personal effectiveness for the president. These findings
concurred with the research of Hutton and Jobe (1985) who
found that professional development opportunities were a
source of job satisfaction for all employees at an
institution. These findings also supported the research of
Ratcliff (1989) which articulated the importance of training
and staff development. In addition, these results related
to Herzberg's (1959) discussion on growth, as related to
professional development, a motivator for job satisfaction.
Recommendations
Diversity
Through a close examination of the literature and this
research study instrument, it was evident that community
college presidents lack ethnic diversity. As evidenced by
the findings in the study, the majority of community college
presidents across the nation were white. Specifically,
89.6% of the chief executive officers were of this ethnic
group. Seventy-seven percent of all presidents were white
males. Twelve percent were white females. Very few
Hispanics, Native-Americans, and blacks held the position as
community college president. Furthermore, there were no
black female presidents nor were there any Asian-American
female presidents.


118
personal concerns were strong at the college, then the
president would be happy with his or her benefits.
Presidents who report satisfaction with benefits (BENE) also
report satisfaction with internal communication (IC2),
organizational structure (0S2), and regard for personal
concerns (RPC2).
Professional Effectiveness
When reviewing the relationship between professional
effectiveness (PE) and the seven organizational relationship
factors, there was a significant relationship between
professional effectiveness (PE) and satisfaction with
political climate (PC2), professional development
opportunities (PD02), evaluations (EVAL2), and regard for
personal concerns (RPC2). These data indicated that a
community college president was effective when the climate
was not too political, opportunities of professional
development were available, evaluations were fair and
equitable, and a regard for personal concerns was exercised
at the college.
Research Question 5
Research question five stated is there a significant
difference in the means of eight job satisfaction variables
for community college presidents when compared by gender of
president ethnic origin of the president, classification of
the community college, and length of time served as a


67
ethnicity, classification of community college, and number
of years experience as a college president. In this study,
job satisfaction refers to a person's positive or negative
attitude or emotional response toward his or her place of
employment (Beck, 1990; McCormick & Ilgen, 1980). Interest
in the study of job satisfaction was intensified after the
completion of the Hawthorne Studies done by Elton Mayo and
his associates in Chicago, Illinois. In this dissertation,
organizational climate refers to the perceptions of
participants of certain intangible aspects of the
environment or institution. It is the personality of an
organization (Deas, 1994; Lunenburg & Ornstein, 1991). The
president is the chief administrator at a given institution.
He or she is responsible for the day-to-day operations of
the college.
Some researcher has been done on the relationship
between job satisfaction theory and organizational climate
theory in the context of education. Job satisfaction and
organizational climate theories differ in education from
that of business and industry. In education, the focus is
on teaching and learning and student outcomes while business
and industry emphasize production and profit. There is a
need at the community college level for outstanding
leadership that promotes job satisfaction and encourages an
open and warm climate. The most successful community
colleges of the 21st century will be those that promote


148
57
September 18, 1996
The SAS System
15:36 Wednesday,
General Linear Models Procedure
Class Level Information
Class Levels Values
YEARS
ETHNIC
GENDER
COLCLASS
5 1 2 3 4 5
5 1 2 3 4 5
2 12
3 12 3
Number of observations in data set = 284
NOTE: Due to missing values, only 258 observations can be used in
this
analysis.


108
noteworthy that over 70% of the response rating for each
factor received either a four or five; therefore, it was
assumed that all of the factors were important to
presidents.
The pearson product moment correlation coefficients for
question three are reported in Table 16. As previously
stated, a relationship is considered significant if the p-
value is less than .05. Furthermore, there can be negative
or positive significant relationships. However, in this
correlation table, all relationships that were significant
were positive.
There was a significant relationship between importance
of participation in decision-making and importance of
relationship with peers, subordinates, supervisors,
benefits, and personal effectiveness. These data can be
interpreted as the higher the responses were for
participation in decision-making, the higher the responses
were for relationship with peers, subordinates, supervisor,
salary, benefits, and professional effectiveness. In
addition, the more important participation in decision
making was for presidents, the more important relationship
with peers, supervisor, subordinates, salary, benefits, and
professional effectiveness were as well. There was a
positive/significant relationships between POW and RWP,
RWSub, RWSup, SAL, and BENE. These results suggested the
more important power was for presidents, the more important


4
the context of education. Job satisfaction and
organizational climate theories differ in education from
those of business and industry. In education, the focus is
on teaching and learning and student outcomes while business
and industry emphasize production and profit. Increased
attention about how organizational climate and job
satisfaction relates to institutional effectiveness,
however, has developed in light of recent criticisms
involving quality and accountability in education (Report of
the Wingspread Group of Higher Education, 1993). Through a
close examination of the quality of education in the United
States now, it is evident that new and creative ways for
dealing with higher learning are needed. The organizational
climate at Palomar Community College was assessed by Barr
(1988) The college believed that a better understanding of
organizational climate would provide a basis for improving
productivity, motivation, and satisfaction on the workers'
part in the organization. Therefore, specific research
within the context of organizational climate in
postsecondary education is timely, needed, and appropriate
(Barr, 1988) .
J
The community college continues to be the most
important higher education innovation of the 20th century
(Witt, Wattenbarger, Gollattscheck, & Suppiger, 1994) The
mission of this segment of higher education is teaching and
learning. Community college leaders are making strides to


Table 20
The Relationship Between Measures of Job Satisfaction and Measures of Organizational
Climate: Correlation Table
DM
POW
RWP
RWSub
RWSup
SAL
BENE
PE
IC2
0.1174*
0.0540
0.1058
0.1542*
0.1608*
0.1684*
0.1732*
0.1041
OS2
0.0549
0.1798*
0.0783
0.1252*
0.1688*
0.2132*
0.1324*
0.0963
PCL2
0.0753
0.0650
0.0095
0.0050
0.0064
0.0690
0.0436
0.1704*
PD02
0.0585
0.1257*
0.0929
0.1336*
0.1623*
0.1425
0.0901
0.1804*
EVAL2
0.1040
0.0192
0.0616
0.0768
0.1537
0.0981
0.0706
0.1823*
PR0M02
0.0827
0.0668
0.1637*
0.2213*
0.1315*
0.1502*
0.1059
0.0914
RPC2
0.1152
0.0600
0.1676*
0.2967
0.1225*
0.1643*
0.1453*
0.1627*
* = Significant correlation, Alpha level less than or equal to 0.05.
DM = Importance of Participation in Decision-Making
POW = Importance of Power
RWP = Importance of Relationship With Peers
RWSub = Importance of Relationship With Subordinates
RWSup = Importance of Relationship With Supervisor
SAL = Importance of Salary
BENE = Importance of Benefits
PE = Importance of Professional Effectiveness
IC2 = Satisfaction with Internal Communication
0S2 = Satisfaction with Organizational Structure
PCL2 = Satisfaction with Political Climate
PD02 = Satisfaction with Professional Development Opportunities
EVAL2 = Satisfaction with Evaluation
PR0M02 = Satisfaction with Promotion
RPC2 = Satisfaction with Regard for Personal Concerns