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Project PART interns' plans and decisions for students who are hard to teach and manage

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Project PART interns' plans and decisions for students who are hard to teach and manage
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Corbett, Nancy Long, 1954-
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1996.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 184-192).
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Typescript.
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Vita.
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by Nancy Long Corbett.

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PROJECT PART INTERNS' PLANS AND DECISIONS FOR STUDENTS
WHO ARE HARD TO TEACH AND MANAGE












By

NANCY LONG CORBETT


















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1996













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to a number of people who shared the

graduate school and dissertation experiences with me.

Without these people, the process would have been even more

arduous, and I would have shared far fewer laughs.

First, I would like to thank the members of my

committee. My chairperson, Dr. Cecil Mercer, is a very

special teacher. With patience, kindness, and lots of humor,

he demanded the best of me and taught me to demand the best

of myself. His pragmatic approach to research and

instruction taught me to pursue my interests without getting

bogged down in paradigmatic dogma. I have appreciated his

classes, critiques of my work, and his respect for the

teaching profession. I could not have hoped for a better

mentor. Dr. Karen Kilgore has been a source of inspiration

for me. Words cannot express the gratitude I feel for her

guidance through a sometimes grueling dissertation process.

She enthusiastically supported my study and provided hours of

valuable discussion and feedback. I would not have completed

the dissertation without her unflagging support and

confidence that I could get the job done. Drs. Mary Brownell

and Cynthia Griffin served as role models of exemplary

professionalism throughout my program. They epitomize the








kind of teacher educator and researcher I aspire to be. Dr.

Stuart Schwartz challenged me to acquire a thorough

understanding of the complex facets of the field of special

education. I thank him for Trends. I learned so much in

spite of hating every minute of it. Dr. Ed Turner has been

supportive throughout my years of graduate study at the

University of Florida. I appreciate his kindness and

sincerity.

To the PART interns who allowed me to spend so much time

in their classrooms, I am deeply grateful. During the

constant activity and demands of busy days, they were all

willing to share their thoughts and concerns. I learned so

much from each of them and have great pride and respect for

the efforts they made to teach all children well. In

addition, my sincere appreciation goes to the interns'

cooperating teachers who allowed me to spend time in their

classrooms and provided rich insight about the interns'

practices. Their interest in and support of these interns is

admirable.

Thanks also go to my fellow doctoral students who have

toiled along beside me through the rigors of the doctoral

program. Thanks go especially to Drs. David Allsopp,

Elizabeth Gibbs, Mary Eisele, LuAnn Jordan, and Holly Lane.

I am eternally grateful for the hours we spent thinking,

talking, and laughing together. They embody the spirit of

collegiality.









Finally, and most important, the love, support, and

encouragement of my family have made this endeavor meaningful

and worthwhile. My parents, Marge and Pete Long, have always

expressed confidence in me and let me know that what I am

doing is important.

My husband, Wes, has been my confidant, cheerleader, and

encourager. These have been intense and demanding years, but

Wes has been supportive throughout. His love and patience

have given me the strength and confidence to pursue goals

that I once thought unattainable.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................ ............ ii

LIST OF TABLES ......................................... viii

LIST OF FIGURES ........................................ ix

ABSTRACT ................... ............................ x

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION.................................... 1

Student Diversity and Teacher Preparation........ 1
The Regular Education Initiative................ 3
Description of Project PART ..................... 5
Statement of the Problem ........................ 6
Rationale for the Study.......................... 8
Design of the Study.............................. 9
Definition of Terms ............................. 10
Possible Uses of the Results..................... 11
Limitations..................................... 12

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.................... 14

Criteria for Selection of Relevant Literature... 15
A Theoretical Framework for Teaching Planning
and Interactive Decision Making............... 15
Schema Theory................................. 17
Reflection-in-Action........................... 19
Instructional Tasks Related to Planning and
Decision Making................................ 21
Preactive Planning............................. 26
Interactive Decision Making................... 26
Postactive Planning. .......................... 27
The Plans and Interactive Decisions of Novice
Teachers...................................... 27
Methods of Inquiry............................. 27
Concerns of Novice Teachers................... 29
Novice Teachers' Planning ..................... 31
The Planning of More and Less Experienced
Teachers................. ... ................ 38
Critique of the Literature on Planning......... 42










The Interactive Decisions of Novice Teachers.... 43
Novice Teachers' Interactive Decisions......... 44
The Decisions of More and Less Experienced
Teachers.................................... 51
Summary and Critique.......................... 56
Planning and Interactive Decision Making for
Students with Special Needs................... 58
Planning and Instructional Accommodations for
Students in Mainstream Classrooms........... 64
The Constraints of Planning Accommodations
for Students................................. 67
Professional Knowledge as a Constraint on
Instructional Accommodations................ 71
Summary and Critique ........................... 72

III METHODOLOGY..................................... 75

Procedures...................................... 76
Overview ...................................... 76
Participant Selection......................... 78
Gaining Access ................................ 80
Site Selection................................ 82
Description of the Sites....................... 82
Research Procedures ............................. 90
Overview...................................... 90
Data Collection........... ...................... 91
Participant Observation....................... 92
Participant Interviewing ...................... 94
Stimulated Recall ............................. 96
Documents..................................... 97
Data Analysis ................................. 98
Methodological Issues .. ................. ..... 101
Analytic Interpretation ........ ........... 101
Researcher Qualifications and Biases........... 102

IV THE CONSTRUCTION OF A PEDAGOGY TO ACCOMMODATE
STUDENT DIFFERENCES: INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES................................... 105

Everyone Can Do This: Masking Plans and
Decisions to Include all Students............ 110
Phase One: Maximize Student Participation... 112
Phase Two: Monitor Student Progress......... 117
Phase Three: Individualized Instruction..... 123
Summary....................................... .. 129










V THE CONSTRUCTION OF A PEDAGOGY TO ACCOMMODATE
STUDENT DIFFERENCES: MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES .. 131

Phase One: Get the Management Down ............. 133
Phase Two: Maintain Student Attention.......... 138
Phase Three: Individualized Behavioral
Accommodations ................................ 146
Summary............................................ 152
The More We Know, The Better We Teach:
Influences of Course Work on Planning and
Decision Making................................ 152
The Influence of Methods Courses.............. 155
The Influence of a Course in Classroom
Management..... ............................. 157
Good Teaching is Good Teaching................. 157

VI CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS..................... 160

Relationship of Findings to Previous Studies.... 163
Use of Findings to Research Community............ 168
Use of Findings to Practitioners................ 171

APPENDICES

A INTERN PERMISSION FORM .......................... 175

B LETTER TO COOPERATING TEACHERS................... 176

C PARENTAL CONSENT FORMS......................... 177

D INTERVIEW I.......................... ............ 178

E INTERVIEW II............. ..................... 180

F INTERVIEW III............. .................... 181

G INTERVIEW IV ............ ...... ............... 182

H INTERVIEW V ............... ......... ........... 183

REFERENCES...................... ............ ......... 184

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................... 193














LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

2.1 Teaching Tasks .................................. 22

2.2 Review of Studies on Teacher Planning,
1984-1994.... ............................... ... 32

2.3 Review of Studies of Interactive Decision
Making ........................................... 45

2.4 Review of Studies of Planning for Students with
Disabilities ..................................... 59

2.5 Adaptation Evaluation Instrument................. 68

3.1 Summary of Data Collection Procedures............ 78

3.2 Classroom Settings ............................... 85

5.1 Teaching Tasks that Facilitate Instructional
and Behavioral Accommodations.................... 153














LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Paae

4.1 PART interns' plans and decisions for students
who are hard-to-teach........................... 109

5.1 PART interns' plans and decisions for students
who are hard-to-manage........................... 132














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

PROJECT PART INTERNS' PLANS AND DECISIONS FOR STUDENTS
WHO ARE HARD TO TEACH AND MANAGE

By

Nancy Long Corbett

December, 1996

Chairperson: Dr. Cecil D. Mercer
Major Department: Special Education

The purpose of this study was to investigate in detail

the planning and decision making of six Project PART interns.

Project PART is a dual-certification program in special and

elementary education designed to prepare teachers to meet the

needs of hard-to-teach and hard-to-manage students. A

cognitive analysis of teacher planning and decision making

provided a meaningful framework to depict the ways teachers

organize and integrate knowledge. The study focused on two

guiding questions:

1. How do Project PART interns plan for hard-to-teach

and hard-to-manage students?

2. What instructional decisions do PART interns make

for these students?

Qualitative research methods were used to collect and

analyze data. Observations were conducted in each of the six








PART interns' classrooms during 10 weeks of their internships

for a total of 250 hours. These observations focused on the

interns' pedagogical practices and interactive decisions for

students who are hard to teach and manage. Formal and

informal interviews were conducted with the interns and their

cooperating teachers. Videotapes of instructional activities

were reviewed with the interns as they described their

interactive thoughts and decisions during a stimulated recall

interview. In addition, the interns' lesson plans were

examined.

Data analysis was an ongoing process which proceeded

through several phases. The analysis revealed that the PART

interns engaged in a cyclical process of planning and

decision making composed of three phases:

1. The PART interns developed large group lessons,

clarified instructional routines and expectations to

maximize student participation.

2. The PART interns monitored student progress during

an activity to determine the need to alter or modify

instructional or managerial strategies.

3. The PART interns made individualized instructional

and managerial accommodations to increase opportunities

to learn for all students.

The accommodations made by the interns had to be equitable

for all students, and the accommodations could not thwart the

interns' efforts to cover required curriculum.








The study highlighted the complexity of teaching to meet

the needs of all students. The results suggested that

beginning teachers who have engaged in course work in

elementary and special education have acquired the

pedagogical content knowledge to make a variety of

instructional and behavioral accommodations for individual

pupils.














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

As we move toward the 21st century, a major concern of

general educators is the reorganization and improvement of

services that support an increasingly diverse student

population (Sailor, 1991). A parallel movement in special

education is the call for educating students with mild

disabilities, such as learning disabilities and behavior

disorders, in general education classrooms and the reduction

of self-contained and resource rooms or "pull-out" programs.

To meet the challenge of educating children in a society with

changing demographics and to provide appropriate services to

students with mild disabilities in general classrooms,

members of the school community must become stakeholders in a

broad integrated effort to support curricular, instructional,

and organizational practices that foster success for all

students. A group of stakeholders who play a pivotal role in

the reorganization effort are teacher educators who have the

responsibility to examine the preservice preparation of

teachers and develop programs that provide classroom teachers

with the skills to work with students with diverse needs.

Student Diversity and Teacher Preparation

Teachers today face the challenge of meeting the

educational needs of students who are more diverse than









children who attended school a decade or two ago. Growing

numbers of students come from single-parent or no-parent

homes, from families living in poverty, from families unable

to help their children meet the demands of school, and from

communities with high rates of crime and drug addiction (New

Faces at School, 1991a). Students with this demographic

profile, without family or community support, often fail in

school (Webb & Parkay, 1989). Failure of these students is

likely to result in increased demand for compensatory,

remedial, and special education services that are already

overburdened with high demand for limited resources.

Classroom teachers must be prepared to accommodate the

diversity of this student population to avoid worsening a

situation that is already difficult. Yet, teachers report

that they are poorly prepared to teach at-risk students of

any kind. In a study of Florida teachers, Kottkamp and his

colleagues found that most teachers preferred to teach nice

kids from average homes who are respectful and hard working

rather than underprivileged students or pupils with

disabilities (Kottkammp, Provennzo, & Cohen, 1986). A reason

for this preference is that general education teachers

believe they are unprepared to meet the needs of a diverse

student population and lack the skills necessary to

accommodate at-risk students. In fact, they have been taught

to refer students to special education to be dealt with by

special educators (Pugach, 1988).









Children at risk for school failure constitute the

fastest growing sector of the school-age population. Their

burgeoning numbers have altered contemporary education,

especially in urban areas (New Faces at School, 1991b).

Meeting the needs of at-risk children in general education

classrooms is one challenge facing the education community.

The special education movement to integrate students with

disabilities in general classrooms is another issue that is

forcing educators to address the educational and

developmental needs of hard-to-teach and hard-to-reach

students.

The Reaular Education Initiative

The Regular Education Initiative (REI), a movement to

include students with disabilities in general education

classrooms, has generated a great deal of discussion among

special education scholars, and they have made compelling

arguments for inclusion (Gartner & Lipsky, 1987; Reynolds,

Wang, & Walberg, 1987; Wang, Reynolds, & Walberg, 1986,

1988). Proponents of the REI assert general education

classrooms offer rich learning opportunities for students

with disabilities (Stainback & Stainback, 1992). Although

the full effect of this movement has not been realized, it is

possible that the number of students with disabilities

included in mainstream classes will increase. Currently, the

Department of Education reports that 69% of students

receiving special education services spend more than 40% of









their time in mainstream classes. Furthermore, the

percentage of students who are served in general education

classrooms increased by 35% from 1976-77 to 1992-93 (Office

of Special Education, 1994).

The current demographic trends and the movement to

include students with disabilities in general education

classes compel educators to accommodate an ever-widening

diversity of students in their classrooms. Educational

reformers of the 1980s emphasized the need for teachers to

extend their pedagogical knowledge to meet the needs of

diverse students by (a) acquiring an adequate range of

instructional approaches based upon research and best

practice, (b) understanding children's learning needs and

remediating learning problems, and (c) making appropriate

decisions about when to seek outside help (Holmes Group,

1986, p. 39). If these goals are achieved, teachers would

benefit all students by (a) reducing the number of referrals

to special education, (b) accommodating students with

disabilities who are mainstreamed into classroom programs,

and (c) alleviating the difficulties that at-risk students

experience in school, thereby decreasing the likelihood of

their need for compensatory, remedial, or special education

services. The mandate to prepare teachers to accommodate

student diversity and achieve the goals set forth in reform

initiatives is clear.






5


Description of Proiect PART

The Departments of Special Education and Instruction and

Curriculum at the University of Florida collaborated to

create a program designed to prepare teachers to provide

effective and supportive programs for students who are

ethnically and culturally diverse as well as those with mild

disabilities. The program prepares teachers who meet state

requirements for certification in Elementary Education and

Specific Learning Disabilities. Project PART (Prevention and

Accommodation through Reflective Teaching) is a six-semester

course of study leading to the Bachelor of Arts and Master of

Education degrees in Elementary Education and recommendation

for initial teacher certification in Elementary Education and

Specific Learning Disabilities.

The curriculum of Project PART emphasizes three

thematic components: prevention, accommodation, and

reflective teaching. The Project PART curriculum includes

educational foundations, an academic specialization, the

elementary education core, the special education core, and

practicum/internship experiences. The thematic emphases of

the program are developed throughout the program and

particularly in the elementary education core, the special

education core, and the practicum/internship experiences.

The elementary education core provides essential knowledge

about elementary subject area teaching methods; learning

approaches that include cooperative learning, whole language,









and inquiry-based instruction; reflective teaching; multi-

cultural education; and student evaluation and assessment.

The special education core covers introductions to inclusive

education, introductions to individuals with disabilities and

communication disorders, direct observation skills, student

evaluation and assessment, precision teaching and data-based

decision making, behavior management, career-vocational

education, and consultation/teaming. The students

participate in two practice in which they spend 11 hours a

week for 12 weeks in field placements and one 10-week full-

time internship. One practicum involves a placement in a

special education resource room, and the full-time internship

is completed in classrooms with teachers who have

demonstrated a commitment to meeting the needs of diverse

learners.

The first cohort of Project PART students completed

their internship in the Fall of 1994. Because students in

Project PART received instruction in special and regular

education courses, it is important to know how they

synthesized and applied what they learned. Therefore, the

following question is important to ask: How do Project Part

interns plan and make interactive decisions for students who

are hard to teach and hard to manage?

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study was to describe the planning

and interactive decision making of PART interns for students









they consider to be hard to teach and hard to manage. Little

information exists to illuminate the kinds of decisions

teachers make for these students. What has been reported

(Baker & Zigmond, 1990; McIntosh, Vaughn, Schumm, Hager, &

Lee, 1994; Vaughn & Schumm, 1994) suggests that general

educators are not planning instructional accommodations that

increase opportunities for students with special needs to

succeed.

Two general questions guided the data collection for

this study: (a) How do Project PART interns plan for hard-to-

teach/hard-to-manage students, and (b) what instructional

decisions do PART interns make for these students? A subset

of questions was developed to guide data collection and

analysis:

1. How do PART interns develop proactive plans for

hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage students? What is included in

these plans?

2. What kinds of interactive decisions do Project PART

interns make for hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage students?

3. What are the postactive decisions PART interns make

for hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage students?

4. What are the similarities among the PART interns

in their planning and interactive decision making for

hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage students? What are the

differences?









Rationale for the Study

Teachers' thought processes consist of the thinking,

planning, and decision making that influence teacher

behavior. Phillip Jackson (1968) described teacher decision

making as a complex process that involves proactive,

interactive, and postactive decisions, occurring before,

during, and after teaching. Researchers interested in

teachers' decision making applied theories of cognitive

psychology to reveal the cognitive activities of the

profession. Surely, what teachers do is driven by what they

think. In order to understand how and why teaching looks and

works as it does, it is crucial to examine the relationships

between thought and action.

Investigators of teacher thinking discovered that

teachers plan in various ways, and these plans have

discernible effects on the classroom. Teachers make frequent

decisions while teaching, and they possess theories and

beliefs that influence their plans and decisions (Clark &

Peterson, 1986). Teachers also possess a body of

professional knowledge that influences how they interpret

classroom events and solve problems (Berliner, 1986). This

professional knowledge impacts the kinds of decisions

teachers make regarding students.

Although researchers have provided a rich description of

teachers' decision making about general classroom activities

and procedures, little is known about the kinds of decisions









teachers make regarding individual students, specifically

students who experience difficulty in the general education

setting (Blanton, Blanton, & Cross, 1994; Vaughn & Schumm,

1994). It is not clear what kinds of knowledge teachers

possess about these students or what types of strategies they

employ to meet their educational needs.

Researchers have conducted few studies on the kinds of

adaptations general classroom teachers make for special

learners. Results from existing studies lead one to suspect

that teachers make few instructional adaptations (Baker &

Zigmond, 1990). Teachers may not attempt to make

accommodations for students because they feel they are not

adequately prepared to meet the needs of diverse learners.

Project PART students entered a program to acquire

skills and strategies to work with pupils who are hard to

teach and reach. Examination of the planning and decision

making of these beginning teachers can help practitioners and

teacher educators understand the practices these teachers

initiate. To understand their planning and instructional

decisions, in-depth research procedures should be employed.

Design of the Study

Qualitative methods of research were used to gather data

and analyze information. Data were collected on six interns

during the 1994-1995 academic year. The study consisted of

intensive observations of Project PART interns during their

10-week internship. The interns were formally interviewed









concerning the types of students in their classes, the kinds

of plans they develop for students, the influences on

planning, strategies for working with hard-to-teach, hard-to-

manage students, and barriers and facilitators to working

with these students. Detailed observations occurred that

focused primarily on lessons implemented as part of an

integrated unit that included inclusive teaching practices.

Two lessons from the unit were videotaped and played back as

the intern watched and described interactive decisions.

Additional interviews were conducted with the interns'

cooperating teachers. Plan books and unit plans were also

collected and analyzed. The researcher obtained permission

from the University of Florida Institutional Review Board to

conduct the study.

Definition of Terms

The purpose of this study was to describe the planning

and interactive decision making of Project PART interns for

students who are hard to teach and hard to manage. The

following terms are defined so that the analysis and findings

of the study are understood: Preactive planning, interactive

decision making, and postactive planning. Chapter II

contains a detailed description of the terms and tasks

relevant to each of the domains.

Preactive planning. Preactive planning refers to the

time spent in preparation of instructional activities and the

tasks in which teachers engage. Some of these tasks include









familiarization with content to be taught, selection of

appropriate materials, and consideration of classroom

physical space and instructional groupings (Reynolds, 1992).

Interactive decision making. Interactive decisions are

made by the teacher during instruction. Communication of

directions and expectations, adjustment of plans, provision

of practice activities, and evaluation of student progress

are essential elements of interactive decision making

(Reynolds, 1992).

Postactive planning. Postactive planning focuses on

teachers' reflections about the success of the lesson and

assessment of student learning. Postactive planning is

often subsumed under teacher planning in that these

reflections done after a lesson often result in plans for

subsequent lessons (Clark & Peterson, 1986).

Possible Uses of the Results

The study may have methodological significance to

practitioners and researchers. Qualitative research has been

used to examine teacher planning (Borko & Livingston, 1989;

Bullough, 1987; Sardo-Brown, 1988; Yinger, 1977), and

recently researchers have employed qualitative methods to

investigate practices for students with special needs (Vaughn

& Schumm, 1994). Qualitative measures may be beneficial in

the analysis of the complex nature of the classroom as

teachers work with an increasingly diverse student

population.









This study is a contribution to the increasing body of

knowledge concerning the planning of teachers for students

with special needs. Planning for individual students by

novice teachers was the focus of this study, Most other

studies have examined the planning and decision making of

teachers as they focused upon the entire class. The results

of this study will contribute to the awareness of novice

teacher planning for students who are hard to teach and hard

to reach.

The results of this study may provide teacher educators

with some insight into the role of planning and interactive

decision making for individual students. Teacher educators

may find information from this study useful in developing a

framework for planning that helps preservice teachers learn

to embed planning for students with special needs into the

general plan for the whole class.

In addition, the findings of this study may continue to

illuminate the types of adaptations teachers do make for

individual students so that discussions in preservice and

inservice settings focus on conditions under which an

adaptation may or may not work and possible ways to overcome

barriers to their implementation.

Limitations

The extensive observations needed to conduct a

qualitative study limited the number of students who can

participate. Although the study provided insight into the






13


practices of interns working with hard-to-teach and hard-to-

manage students, specific findings cannot be generalized to

other novice teachers.

Chapter II presents a review of literature relevant to

this study. Methodology used in implementation of the study

is described in Chapter III. Results and implications of the

study constitute the remaining chapters.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This study focused on the planning and interactive

decision making of beginning teachers. In this study,

beginning teachers are also referred to as novices. Novice

teachers include preservice teachers in practicums and full-

time internships and first to third year teachers (Berliner,

1988). Research in the area of teachers' thought processes

provided background for the questions in the present study.

This chapter is divided into five major sections.

First, criteria are described for selection and inclusion of

studies. Second, a description of schema theory is presented

to establish a theoretical framework for the study. Third,

proactive, interactive, and postactive instructional tasks

are presented to exemplify the nature of teachers' decision

making. Fourth, empirical studies of novice teachers'

planning and interactive decisions are described, compared,

and contrasted with the plans and decisions of experienced

teachers to establish a developmental perspective for the

study. Finally, research on general educators' planning and

interactive decisions for students with disabilities is

presented to further support the need for the current

study.









Criteria for Selection of Relevant Literature

Studies considered for the literature review had certain

characteristics. Research questions addressed (a) how

teachers plan, (b) factors that influence teachers' plans,

(c) the planning and/or interactive decisions of experienced

and inexperienced teachers, (d) factors that influence

teachers' interactive decisions, and (e) teachers' planning

and interactive decision making for students with

disabilities. Participants in studies were novice teachers

unless the researchers examined expert/novice differences in

which experienced teachers were considered experts.

Studies were empirical, published, and included

descriptions of participants, methods of inquiry and

analyses, and findings that allow for replication.

Studies were considered for inclusion in the literature

review if they met all criteria and were conducted between

1984 and 1994. The findings of research relevant to this

study that were published prior to 1984 are briefly

summarized in this literature review. Clark and Peterson

(1986) provided a detailed analysis of the literature on

teachers' thought processes from 1970 to 1984 in the Handbook

of Research on Teaching.

A Theoretical Framework for Teacher Planning and
Interactive Decision Making

Researchers' investigations in teacher planning and

decision making grew out of the interest in teachers'

thinking. Teacher thinking is examined from a cognitive









psychological perspective and rests on two basic assumptions

(Shavelson & Stern, 1981):

1. Teachers are professionals who make reasonable

judgments and decisions in a complex setting, and they

operate rationally within the limits of their information-

processing abilities.

2. Teachers' behavior is guided by their thoughts,

judgments, and decisions.

To understand teachers' thoughts and decisions about

instruction, it is necessary to study their instructional

planning and decision making while teaching. Researchers of

novice teachers' thought processes often compare their

planning and interactive decision making to that of more

experienced teachers (Borko & Livingston, 1989; Carter,

Sabers, Cushing, Pinnegar, & Berliner, 1987; Leinhardt &

Greeno, 1986). This line of research is fruitful in

specifying the developmental nature of instructional planning

and interactive decision making and can be informative to

teacher educators (Calderhead, 1983). Cognitive analysis of

the development of teacher planning and interactive decision

making provides a meaningful framework to depict the way

teachers integrate and organize knowledge and experiences

over the years. Central to a cognitive analysis of teaching

is the concept of "schema."









Schema Theory

A schema is a mental structure that organizes large

amounts of information into a meaningful system. Richard

Anderson (1984), a researcher of schema theory, offered this

interpretation of schema:

A schema can be conceived as consisting of a set of
expectations. Comprehension occurs when these
expectations are fulfilled by the specific
information that a scene, message, or happening
delivers to the senses. Information that neatly
satisfies expectations can be encoded into memory
so as to "instantiate" the "slots" in the schema.
Information that does not fit expectations may not be
encoded, or it may be distorted so that the fit is
better. Gaps in available information may be completed
by inference in order to maintain consistency with
expectations. Later, the same expectations that guided
the encoding of information can be brought into play to
guide retrieval and reconstruction. Without a schema to
which an event can be associated, learning is slow and
uncertain. (p. 5)

Teachers' professional knowledge about instruction is

organized into a set of interrelated schemata. Shavelson

(1986) described three types of schemata that seem to

characterize teacher thinking and help explain novice/expert

differences. These schemata are scripts, scenes, and

propositional structures.

Scripts. According to Borko and her colleagues (1990),

a script is a mental structure that organizes and summarizes

information about familiar, everyday experiences.

Experienced teachers have global, mental scripts for

correcting homework, presenting new information, leading

class discussions, and providing guided practice. They also

formulate routines that consist of more specific sets of









teacher behavior, such as handing out materials and

organizing students for small group instruction. Researchers

(Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986) proposed that experienced teachers

have a greater number of mental scripts for teaching

activities and routines than do novices. The scripts of

experienced teachers are generally more flexible and

adaptable to a greater number of situations. It appears that

experienced teachers possess a larger repertoire of scripts

to recall in various teaching situations and as a result,

become more efficient decision makers (Borko, Livingston, &

Shavelson, 1990).

Scenes. Scenes are structures that depict teachers'

knowledge of people and objects in common classroom event.

Well formulated scene schemata enable teachers to store a

large amount of information about the relationships among

people and objects in recurring classroom activities and

rapidly visualize common activity structures (Borko et al.,

1990). Experienced teachers have scene schemata for

classroom activities, and they are able to attend selectively

to instructionally relevant information. Scene schemata are

spatial and include how the class should be organized for

instructional activities such as whole group, small group, or

independent seatwork (Borko & Livingston, 1989).

Propositional structures. Propositional structures

represent teachers' factual knowledge about elements of

teaching such as the students in their classrooms, subject









matter, and instructional strategies. Experienced teachers'

propositional structures of students probably include mental

depictions of student characteristics such as ability,

behavior, and motivation (Borko et al., 1990). Experienced

teachers have more elaborate propositional structures than do

novices due to the information about students that has been

collected and stored over the years. These teachers blend

their knowledge of students with content and pedagogy into an

understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues

are organized and adapted to the diverse interests of

learners for instruction (Shulman, 1986). Developing

propositional structures related to the development of

pedagogical content knowledge are major components of

learning to teach.

Reflection-in-Action

As teachers develop a plan for a lesson, they draw upon

relevant schemata to select specific instructional content,

strategies, and materials appropriate to the students and

instructional format. While teaching, if the practitioner

realizes that a group of students do not understand the

content in the form it is presented, the "planned lesson" is

often adapted with minor changes (Clark & Yinger, 1979;

Joyce, 1978-1979; Peterson & Clark, 1978) or sometimes

abandoned (Morine-Dershimer, 1979). The teacher is then

required to improvise while teaching, abandon the activity,

or identify the unresolved components of the problem lesson









and reteach at a later date. Effective teaching is a complex

task in which teachers are called upon to solve problems that

cannot always be resolved through the predetermined

application of standardized techniques (Yinger, 1986). When

teaching, the practitioner begins with an outline of an

instructional activity. Details are filled in during the

class session as the teacher responds to what the students

know and can do. Preparation for instruction requires the

creation of general guidelines for lessons that are designed

to be responsive to the unpredictability of classroom events

(Yinger, 1987).

Schon (1983) used the term "professional" to refer to

practitioners who design practical courses of action to serve

the needs of a particular individual or group. Professionals

are faced with dilemmas of practice that cannot always be

resolved. Instead, professionals seek out ways to cope with

these dilemmas. The professional teacher transforms stored

teaching schemata to respond to dilemmas by identifying

problems, designing instructional activities and adaptations,

and evaluating the activities (Yinger, 1977, 1980). Schon

(1983) suggested that in order to understand how

professionals cope with the dilemmas of practice, we need to

understand their "reflection-in-action" or thoughts during

interactive instruction. Researchers suggested that novice

teachers encounter difficulty when they deviate from the

written lesson plan in an attempt to respond to









instructionally dilemmas. This is accounted for by the

assumption that novices' cognitive schemata are less

elaborate, interconnected, and accessible than experts'

(Borko & Livingston, 1989).

Instructional Tasks Related to Planning and
Decision Making

Planning and interactive decision making are primary

professional activities for teachers. The curriculum is

transformed and adapted through teachers' planning as they

make additions, substitutions, and deletions in the content

and make decisions about pace, sequence, and points of

emphasis. To describe the activities related to planning and

interactive decision making, Reynolds (1992) organized

instructional tasks into proactive, interactive, and

postactive domains that are relevant across subject matter,

grade levels, and the teaching/learning model employed.

Although these conceptual tasks are presented in a sequential

framework, Reynolds stressed that proactive, interactive, and

postactive tasks are not bounded by time; they may occur

simultaneously or sequentially. In the following section,

each teaching task is described. Table 2.1 provides a review

of the teaching tasks described by Reynolds (1992) along with

examples of instructional strategies that have been used

successfully to increase the task engagement and achievement

of difficult-to-teach students (Brophy & Good, 1986).









Table 2.1

Teaching Tasks


Domains


Preactive Tasks
Comprehend content and
materials







Adapt content, plans,
and materials








Prepare plans, materials
physical space


Examples
The teacher is familiar
with subject matter that
enables the construction
of lessons that help
students relate
information to what they
already know (Porter &
Brophy, 1988).

The teacher considers
materials, students'
prior knowledge of
subject matter and prior
academic performance, and
tailors instructional
activities to students
(Fogarty, Wang, & Creek,
1983).

The teacher has materials and
ready and available for
students and the physical
arrangement includes
areas for individuals and
groups and allows visual
contact with students
everywhere in the
classroom (Conoley, 1988).
Instructional groupings
are arranged that
maximize academic
learning time and
accomplish the goals of
instruction (Anderson,
1986). Groups may
be homogeneous skill
groupings, cooperative
groups, and peer mediated
instructional pairs.









Table 2.1--continued.


Domains


Preactive Tasks--continued

Critique content, and
materials







Interactive Tasks

Implement and adjust
plans during instruction


The teacher uses materials
that engage students'
interests, judges adequacy for
students, and determines
instructional arrangements and
procedures (Osborn, Jones, &
Stein, 1985; Schram, Feiman-
Nemser, & Ball, 1989).

Examples

Directions and expectations
are clearly communicated;
students are provided
specific feedback and
reinforcement (Porter &
Brophy, 1988).
The teacher provides
instruction that connects
concepts, uses analogies
and metaphors, and
engages students in
meaningful discussion
(Stein, Baxter, &
Leinhardt, 1990).
Explanations are given in
clear small steps and
enable students to relate
the new to the familiar
and the abstract to the
concrete (Rieth &
Evertson, 1988). The
teacher models problem
solving processes and
helps students develop
self-monitoring
strategies; questions are
asked to check student
understanding (Porter &
Brophy, 1988).









Table 2.1--continued.


Domains


Interactive Tasks--continued


Organize and monitor
students, time, and
materials during
instruction




















Evaluate student
learning


The teacher guides
students through initial
practice activities
before requiring
independent work and
adjusts the amount of
guided practice to the
ability of the students
(Rosenshine, 1986).
Students are questioned
at a pace related to
level of questioning and
questions are kept at a
level of difficulty where
most students experience
a high degree of success
(Rosenshine, 1986).
As a teacher proceeds
through a lesson, main
ideas and key concepts
are periodically
summarized (Brophy &
Good, 1986).

The teacher monitors
students to make
instructional decisions
and provide feedback to
students. When
monitoring, the teacher
is clear about
expectations and holds
students accountable for
their work. Extensive
interactions are
initiated with students,
it is made clear how and
when students can receive
help; students are
encouraged to complete
work accurately (Rieth &
Evertson, 1988).










Table 2.1--continued.


Domains


Postactive Tasks


Reflect on one's own
actions and students'
responses in order to
improve teaching









Continue professional
development






Interact with colleagues


The teacher may mentally
replay a lesson or
interaction with a
student, keep a journal
of thoughts, or ask
colleagues to observe
lessons and provide
feedback. Multiple
sources of data to assess
student learning are
collected (Taylor &
Valentine, 1985).

The teacher participates
in professional
development
organizations, reads
journals, or takes
advanced education
courses.

The teacher may
collaborate with others
to develop instructional
activities and
disseminate teaching
practices.


Examples









Preactive Planning

Preactive planning includes the activities that relate

to preparing a lesson or set of learning experiences.

Teacher planning occurs over various lengths of time, ranging

from daily, weekly, and unit planning to semester and yearly

planning (Clark & Yinger, 1979; Yinger, 1977). Preplanning

serves multiple purposes that include writing objectives,

procedures, and evaluation plans. Teachers' written plans

consist largely of outlines and listings of topics. The

detailed comprehensive plans of teachers exist as lesson

images that serve to guide behavior during instruction

(Morine-Dershimer, 1977, 1979).

Teachers may plan to adapt the curriculum to develop

meaningful activities, to allocate instructional time for

individuals and groups of students, and to present and review

content. The functions of teacher planning are directly

related to instructional variables that include time on task,

lesson structuring, and opportunity to learn (Reynolds,

1992). Preplanning also involves developing background

knowledge and thinking about procedures to enhance the lesson

(Vaughn & Schumm, 1994).

Interactive Decision Making

Interactive decision making occurs while teaching.

Monitoring the progress of a lesson and making adaptations in

response to students are the primary decisions made during

interactive teaching (Colker, 1982; Conners, 1978; Marland,









1978; McNair, 1978-1979; Marx & Peterson, 1981; Vaughn &

Schumm, 1994). Teachers engaged in interactive teaching make

rapid judgments and differentiate important from unimportant

information (Reynolds, 1992). Managing and maintaining a

positive learning environment, establishing rules and

routines, implementing instructional activities, and

responding to students are critical aspects of interactive

teaching.

Postactive Planning

Postactive planning focuses on teachers' thinking about

the success of the plan, activities, and assessments that

directly relate to the follow-up or extension of the plan.

Postactive planning and decision making is often influenced

by student responses to the lesson. Multiple sources of data

are used to assess student progress. These may include

standardized tests, observations of students, work samples,

games, checklists, and questionnaires (Reynolds, 1992).

The Plans and Interactive Decisions of Novice Teachers

Methods of Inauiry

The study of teachers' thought processes presents

researchers with technical and methodological challenges.

This research depends heavily on various forms of self-

reports about cognitive processes. The use of self-reports

as data has generated concerns about how to gather and

interpret valid and reliable sources. Ericcson and Simon

(1980) suggested that self-reports are most valid and









reliable when a person is reporting on the contents of short-

term memory or the incidences to which the person is

currently attending.

The authors of the studies presented in this chapter

usually employed combinations of methods of inquiry: think

alouds, stimulated recall, journal keeping, and concept

mapping. These techniques were often supplemented by

interviews, observations and narrative descriptions of the

task, and the observable behavior of the participants in the

study. A description of these methods follows.

Thinking aloud. The think aloud method requires a

teacher to verbalize thoughts while engaged in a task such as

planning a lesson (e.g., Westerman, 1992). The verbaliza-

tions are audiotaped or videotaped and later transcribed

producing written documents. The protocols are coded and

analyzed to produce descriptions of teacher thinking.

Stimulated recall. Stimulated recall consists of

replaying a videotape or audiotape of a lesson to allow the

teacher to recall and report the thoughts and decisions made

during the teaching event. The teacher's comments about

thoughts and concerns are recorded and transcribed and the

content is analyzed. Housner and Griffey (1985) used

stimulated recall to determine the environmental cues

teachers responded to during instruction.

Journal keeping. Journals are a source of data used to

study teacher planning. Teachers are typically asked to keep









a written record of their plans for instruction and comment

in writing on their reasons for developing the plans and

their reflections on and evaluation of their plans following

the instructional event. The data from journals are analyzed

and descriptions of planning models and factors that

influence planing are reported (e.g., Kagan & Tippins, 1992).

Concept maps. A concept map is a graphic representation

of concepts related to a particular topic. To construct a

map, participants generate terms associated with a topic

thereby revealing the vocabulary they have acquired about the

topic. Quantitative analysis of concept maps provide a

general comparison of organization and content including the

number of main categories and subordinate elements. Concept

maps are often supplemented with interviews and observations

of lessons to compare map content with actual instructional

activities. Beyerbach (1988) and Morine-Dershimer (1989)

used concept mapping to explore novice teacher planning.

Concerns of Novice Teachers

Because of the complex nature of learning to teach,

several researchers have examined beginning teaching from a

developmental perspective (Berliner, 1988; Bullough, 1987;

Kagan, 1992; Lidstone & Hollingsworth, 1992). Teacher

development is characterized as a pathway to expertise (i.e.,

the novice to expert paradigm). Beginning teachers move from

stages of fantasy to mastery as they develop schemata that

help them acquire knowledge of pupils and develop procedural









routines that integrate management and instruction (Kagan,

1992). To understand novice teachers' planning and decision

making, it is critical to understand their development. The

development of beginning teachers focuses on their concerns

which include management, the subject matter, and student

learning (Bullough, 1987; Galluzzo & Minix, 1992, Lidstone &

Hollingsworth, 1992).

Berliner (1988) described the novice as a preservice to

third-year teacher who is identifying the elements of tasks

that need to be performed (e.g., developing a lesson plan,

asking higher and lower order questions, and evaluating

student learning) and learning a set of context-free rules

that guide behavior. Context-free rules might include

praising correct responses and ignoring inappropriate

behavior. For the novice, classroom teaching performance is

rational, is relatively inflexible, and requires purposeful

concentration.

Generally, the novice seems to attend to learning a few

concepts and skills at a time. Once these concepts are

internalized, attention is focused on learning other concepts

and pedagogical practices (Lidstone & Hollingsworth, 1992).

Novice teachers appear to be most concerned with practices

related to three areas: (a) management/organization, (b)

subject/pedagogy, and (c) student learning (Kagan, 1992;

Lidstone & Hollingsworth, 1992). Concerns related to

management/organization are behavior management, planning,









instructional pacing, and providing directions.

Subject/pedagogy concerns include the subject matter that is

chosen for instruction and the decision about how to teach

it. The third area of concern, student learning from

academic tasks, requires the teacher to comprehend the

cognitive processes students employ to complete a task.

According to Lidstone and Hollingsworth (1992), student

learning from academic tasks requires the teacher to

integrate management, subject knowledge, and student

learning. Skilled teachers know that management problems

usually do not occur in isolation from the lesson being

taught. If the subject matter is too easy or too difficult,

or if the task does not require active engagement on the part

of the learner, behavior problems can develop.

Management, pedagogy, and student learning emerged as key

elements of planning in the following studies.

Novice Teachers' Planning

Eight studies were reviewed in the section on planning.

Table 2.2 provides a summary of each study with a description

of the participants, method of inquiry, purpose, and relevant

findings. This section is divided into two subsections: (a)

the planning of novice teachers and (b) the differences in

planning for more and less experienced teachers.

Beyerbach (1988) and Morine-Dershimer (1989) used

concept mapping to explore and explain the growth of student

teachers' knowledge in relation to planning. According to









Table 2.2

Review of Studies on Teacher Planning. 1984-1994


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


27 undergraduate
students enrolled
in three sequential
education courses


Concept Mapping


Coding and Analysis: Content of concept maps were analyzed
to determine the interrelationship of vocabulary and linked
to the literature on experienced teachers' thinking about
planning.

Purpose: To examine student teachers' conceptual development
over a course.

Findings: Students' technical vocabulary became more similar
reflecting course content and greater hierarchical
organization as they progressed through courses.


Four pairs of
seniors and
master's level
students in a
teaching strategies
course


Concept Mapping,
videotaped lessons,
and written
reflections


Coding and Analysis: Content of concept maps were compared
to lessons and plans to identify what was taught and what was
seen as relevant to the topic.

Purpose: To measure change in conceptions of teacher
planning and of subject matter content taught in a peer
teaching unit.

Findings: Novices began to see the relationship between
planning and instruction. Final maps contained more items
suggesting consideration of more variables related to
planning.


Beyerbach
(1988)


Morine-
Dershimer
(1989)









Table 2.2--continued.


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


One middle school
teacher during
her first year
of teaching


Ethonographic
study


Coding and Analysis: Interviews, observations, and lesson
plans were transcribed and coded to identify emerging themes.

Purpose: To describe the planning of a first year teacher.

Findings: The first year teacher passed through three
developmental stages of planning; fantasy, survival, and
mastery.


John (1991) Three secondary
interns for one
year


Interviews,
stimulated recall,
observations, and
process traced
verbalizations


Coding and Analysis: Constant comparative analysis was used
to identify common themes, theories, and concepts clustered
around labels that emerged from the subjects' comments.

Purpose: To identify and describe the concerns of novices
while planning.

Findings: Interns' were most concerned with the classroom
context when planning. Pupil abilities, the curriculum and
management all influenced planning. Planning is a coordinated
set of ideas and actions that a person uses to solve
problems.


Bullough
(1987)









Table 2.2--continued.


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Byra &
Sherman (1993)


Six more
experienced and six
less experienced
preservice physical
education teachers


Coding and Analysis: Transcripts of think-alouds were coded
in two categories, information requests and decisions.

Purpose: To describe the planning of more and less
experienced preservice physical education teachers.

Firiding-r: More experienced preservice teachers made more
information requests when planning and made more decisions
and planned in greater detail than inexperienced preservice
teachers.


Housner & Experienced and
Griffey (1985) inexperienced
physical education
teachers


Think aloud


Coding and Analysis: A planning decision system was
developed to classify all planning decisions. Teachers'
planning thoughts were transcribed and categories emerged.

Purpose: To describe the planning of experienced and
inexperienced physical education teachers.

Findings: Experienced teachers made more requests for
information, especially about the background of students and
were better able to anticipate possible situations that could
arise when teaching.


Think Aloud









Table 2.2--continued.


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Three student
teachers (novices),
two secondary, one
elementary and
their cooperating
teachers


Observations,
interviews, and
field notes


Coding and Analysis: Categories identified that relate to
lesson agenda, goals and objectives, content, activities,
planning processes and influences on planning.

Purpose: To describe the planning and decisions of
experienced and novice mathematics teachers.

Findings: Novice teachers' cognitive schema (knowledge
structures) are less elaborate and interrelated than
experienced teachers. Novices experienced difficulty
improvising during instruction or providing on-the-spot
explanations.


Kagan &
Tippins (1992)


Five elementary
and 12 secondary
teachers of
English History


Interns used a
traditional,
objectives
first planning
format and kept
a journal of
how well the
format worked


Coding and Analysis: Notes were recorded on each journal in
one of four categories; initial format, types of
modifications, reasons for modifications, and ultimate
format.

Purpose: To describe the difference between elementary and
secondary teachers' planning formats.

Findings: The majority of secondary interns used plans as a
memory aid while teaching. Elementary interns used plans to
organize thoughts and materials, but did not consult the
plans while teaching.


Borko &
Livingston
(1989)









the concept maps completed at the beginning and end of

instructional strategies courses in both of these studies,

the novice teachers' thoughts related to planning were

categorized into three constructs: (a) pedagogy, such as

choice of instructional strategies, objectives, and forms of

technological assistance, (b) student learning with an

emphasis on assessment, and (c) management and organizational

terms related to discipline, rules, time, and organization of

materials and supplies. Authors of each of these studies

described substantive growth from pre- to postmaps during the

courses studied. More variables related to teacher planning

were included on final maps. Attention focused on decisions

that need to be made during planning and instruction such as

skills to be taught, points of emphasis, and choice of

instructional methods that contribute to classroom

management. The novices in these studies began to see the

relationship between planning and instruction and understand

the interrelationship of planning tasks. This finding is

similar to Lidstone and Hollingsworth's (1992) assumption

that management and student learning are interrelated.

Bullough (1987) also recognized the developmental stages

experienced by a novice in a case study of one middle school

teacher during her first two years of teaching. Through

observations, interviews, and analysis of lesson plans, the

researcher sought to discover the planning process of a

beginning teacher.









Kerrie, the subject of Bullough's study, spent most of

her first year of teaching focused on controlling student

behavior. Management issues had to be resolved before Kerrie

could focus more fully on student learning. Bullough used

the professional development model identified by Ryan (1986)

to describe Kerrie's first years of teaching: fantasy,

survival, and mastery. The fantasy stage of planning is

characterized as "planning by the seat of your pants"

(Bullough, 1987, p. 237). Dependence upon other teachers'

advice, guessing about the length of time an activity takes,

and imagining student interactions reigns. The survival

stage occurs when the teacher is driven by the need to manage

students but does not necessarily have a plan to do so.

Establishing order is the main goal. The transition into

mastery comes when the teacher relates practices to student

characteristics and needs. Planning becomes more

anticipatory, efficient, and appropriate to student interests

and abilities. Student learning is the goal for each lesson

as opposed to control.

The concern with classroom control was a major theme in

Peter John's (1991) study of the influences on novice teacher

planning. Examination of interviews and written lesson plans

revealed three influences on planning: (a) management of the

classes, (b) the curriculum, and (c) the students. These

novices felt that student attention and cooperation had to be

gained before learning could take place. "You can't do









anything unless you hold the attention of the kids and get

basic discipline" (p. 362). There is also the indication

that these novices began to see the connection between

management and instruction. "I am at the stage where there

is a major control problem with many of my classes because

the wacky ideas I tried were a disaster" (p. 363). The

novices' concern for individual student needs is also

apparent. "All the classes in the school are mixed ability

and it's very difficult to plan for all the kids" (p. 363).

Although novices see that there are students with various

ability levels in classrooms, planning to meet the needs of

diverse learners seems to be a difficult task for the

beginning teacher. The limited capacity of novices to meet

the needs of individuals continues to emerge as a key

difference between more and less experienced teachers.

The Planning of More and Less Experienced Teachers

Housner and Griffey (1985) and Byra and Sherman (1993)

compared the planning of more and less experienced teachers

to identify components of effective planning. Housner and

Griffey (1985) set out to describe the planning of

experienced and inexperienced physical education teachers as

they planned two lessons in physical education. Audiotapes

of planning sessions were analyzed to determine planning

decisions related to selection of tasks and activities and

instructional strategies.







39

The experienced and inexperienced teachers in this study

suggested a variety of activities to teach specified

objectives and procedures to teach them. There were two

major differences between experienced and inexperienced

teachers: (a) Experienced teachers were more concerned with

managing activities during instruction and providing students

with information that facilitate the acquisition of new

skills, and (b) experienced teachers generated more

adaptations for students with high ability or limited skills.

Byra and Sherman (1993) had similar findings in a study

of more and less experienced preservice teachers as they

planned, taught, and reviewed two lessons in lacrosse. While

planning, the students were asked to think aloud and

verbalize their thoughts. The think-alouds were recorded and

transcribed. Information requests and decisions were

identified from the planning protocols. Information requests

were defined as statements or questions made to elicit

information about the lesson, while planning decisions were

defined as statements made to show that a specific course of

action for the lesson had been chosen.

While planning, the teachers requested information about

learners, facilities, equipment, teaching processes, and

teaching content. Statements that indicated a specific

course of action were categorized as either content-related

or process-related decisions, put in simpler terms, what to

teach and how to teach.









The researchers' analyses of the results indicated that

experienced preservice teachers made more information

requests than less experienced preservice teachers,

especially in the area of student information. The more

experienced teachers made significantly more requests for

information related to student ability and mainstreaming.

Experienced preservice teachers made more decisions and

planned in greater detail in areas related to task

procedures, instructional strategies, and management.

Borko and Livingston (1989) investigated the differences

in planning and instruction of mathematics lessons between

novice and experienced teachers. Authors' analyses of the

data revealed that planning by novice teachers focused

primarily on the development of strategies for presenting

content to students and was more time consuming and less

efficient than that of experts. Novices experienced

difficulty when attempting to link concepts and had little

awareness of the concepts that were most difficult for

students. They were also weary of instructional options that

deviated from traditional instructional formats even though

these options might be beneficial. One novice reported,

"Earlier I felt really frustrated, like I should be doing

other things. I should be doing more cooperative learning

techniques. Now I'm trying to do mastery teaching well"

(p. 487). It was difficult for the novices to improvise

responses to student difficulty during instruction and they









reported reluctance to deviate from the lesson as planned.

Results from the studies of Housner and Griffey (1985), Byra

and Sherman (1993), and Borko and Livingston (1989) led

researchers to conclude that experience enables teachers to

develop further schematas, recognize patterns, and link

concepts across instructional activities.

Similar to findings in other studies (McCutcheon, 1980;

Morine-Dershimer, 1979), Borko and Livingston (1989) and

Borko, Livingston, and Shavelson (1990) reported that much

teacher planning occurred mentally and was not written down.

This was true for experts and novices. The novice teachers

in Borko's study reported thinking through the lesson in

great detail and rehearsing how to present explanations. The

written plan served as a procedural guide to move the lesson

along.

Kagan and Tippins (1992) reported similar findings in

their study of elementary and secondary novices.

Kagan and Tippins found that elementary interns used written

plans to organize thoughts and materials but never consulted

the plans while teaching, preferring to respond to pupils

spontaneously. As the semester progressed, their plans grew

less detailed and generally served as a supplement to

prepared teachers' guides. The elementary novices felt that

detailed plans hindered attempts to interrelate lessons

across subjects. These novices modified lessons suggested in

teaching guides to focus on a few interrelated skills during









instruction. Lesson formats varied according to the grade

level being taught. For example, the novice in the fourth

grade tried to develop her plans according to an information-

giving style of instruction while novices in lower grade

levels developed plans that were less teacher directed and

included information such as lists of materials to be used at

learning centers.

Critique of the Literature on Planning

The data presented illustrate the planning practices of

beginning teachers. Novice teachers develop written lesson

plans as a procedural guideline, although mental planning

occurs that is much more detailed. As novices plan they are

concerned with management of students and routines, and at

times student learning becomes secondary. Planning

appropriate lessons for the whole class is a demanding task,

and there is little attention paid to instructional

adaptations for individual students. These novices are

organizing and elaborating knowledge structures to build

teaching schemata to consider the learner and the subject

matter.

Examination of the number of participants as indicated

in Table 2.2 reveals an obvious limitation to each of the

studies. The small number of participants limits

generalizability and replication is necessary to verify

findings. The case study methodology was employed in these

studies. Multiple sources of data are required to support









the interpretations made by the authors. Bullough (1987),

John (1991), Borko and Livingston (1989), and Kagan and

Tippins (1992) conducted interviews and observations and

examined lesson plans of the novices. Kagan and Tippins

(1992) also examined journals kept over the course of the

student teaching internship. Beyerbach (1988) and Morine-

Dershimer (1989) used concept maps and interviews to

determine growth over a series of education courses. Byra

and Sherman (1993) and Housner and Griffey (1985) relied on

the protocols from the think alouds to examine teacher

planning.

The examination of teacher planning provides insight

into the complexities of teaching and leads us to inquire how

these plans are implemented, altered, or abandoned during

interactive teaching. A review of the literature on

teachers' interactive thoughts and decisions follows.

The Interactive Decisions of Novice Teachers

During an instructional activity, competent teachers

present or facilitate a lesson and monitor student engagement

and concept acquisition. Teachers are viewed as clinical

diagnosticians who diagnose individual needs of students and

make instructional decisions that are adaptive to those needs

(Fogarty, Wang, & Creek, 1983). This complex task requires

teachers to recall prior knowledge about students, and

subject matter to make decisions for a number of students.

Attainment of instructional goals cannot always be









preplanned, and teachers must attend to student performance

during the instructional process. The focus of novice

teacher attention is the subject of the following studies.

Six studies were located between 1985 and 1994 that

investigated teachers' interactive decisions. A summary of

the studies is presented in Table 2.3 including descriptions

of participant characteristics, method of inquiry, data

analysis, and principal findings. Elements of the studies

that are considered relevant are discussed in detail. The

studies reviewed in this section are divided into two

subsections: (a) research on novice teachers' interactive

decisions and (b) research comparing experienced and novice

teachers' interactive decisions.

Novice Teachers' Interactive Decisions

Shefelbine and Hollingsworth (1987) studied the

instructional decisions of 14 elementary education students

during a reading practicum. The interns were observed while

teaching a reading group for 30-minute sessions over a three-

week period. The researchers kept a running record of

detailed notes of reading group events to identify what kinds

of decisions were troublesome for beginning teachers. Seven

categories of decision making required during a reading

lesson were identified: (a) appropriate diagnosis, (b)

flexible planning, (c) lesson balance, (d) appropriate text

placement, (e) type of reading practice, (f) word recognition









Table 2.3

Review of Studies of Interactive Decision Makina


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Shefelbine & 14 undergraduate
Hollingsworth elementary
(1987) education students


Running record of
reading events
during a 30-minute
lesson


Coding and Analysis: Data were coded in seven decision-
making categories that constitute thoughtful reading
instruction. They are (a) appropriate diagnosis, (b)
flexible planning, (c) lesson balance, (d) appropriate text
placement, (e) type of reading practice, (f) word recognition
practice, and (g) developing background knowledge.

Purpose: To describe teachers' interactive decisions during
a reading practicum

Findings: Diagnosis, planning, and word recognition were
more complex instructional concerns and more difficult for
all interns to master.


14 student
teachers;
7 elementary,
7 secondary


Stimulated recall


Coding and Analysis: Responses were placed in five
categories: pupils, content, procedures, materials, and time.

Purpose: To describe the interactive decisions of elementary
and secondary novices.

Findings: Pupil learning was of greatest concern to
secondary and elementary novices. Secondary students did not
mention objectives as a concern but were more concerned with
pupil attitude and pupil behavior. Novice teachers appear to
be acquiring a schemata for interactive decision making.


Galluzzo &
Minix (1992)









Table 2.3--continued.


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Leinhardt &
Greeno (1986)


Eight elementary
teachers, four
beginning teachers
in fourth grade
classrooms


Videotaped lessons,
observations, and
field notes.


Coding and Analysis: Data were coded into ten activity
structures; presentation, shared presentation, drill, game
drill, homework, guided practice, monitored practice,
tutoring, test, and transitions. Medians and ranges were
calculated. Observation protocols were analyzed.

Purpose: To describe the instructional actions of expert and
novice teachers.

Findings: Expert teachers develop clearly defined routines
that move from teacher centered presentations to independent
student practice. Routines free the teacher to monitor the
progress of the lesson and assess student understanding.


Carter et al.
(1986)


18 experienced
teachers, 15
novices, and
postulants of
science and
mathematics


Simulated teaching
task; subjects
were interviewed
and wrote
a lesson
plan for the
simulated class


Coding and Data Analysis: Repeated analysis of protocols
were conducted to identify patterns between and across
groups.

Purpose: To explore ways in which experts, novices, and
postulants plan and organize for classroom instruction.

Findings: Novice teachers differ from experts in the depth
of analysis of student information.







47


Table 2.3--continued.


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Westerman five expert and Planning interviews
(1992) five novice Stimulated recall
elementary interviews, delayed
teachers self-reports.

Coding and Analysis: Patterns of similarities and
differences between experts and novices were analyzed for
patterns and themes across subjects.

Purpose: To examine expert/novice decisions before, during
and after teaching and suggest a model of decision making.

Findings: Expert teachers' goals are based upon
understanding of the learning task when planning. During
teaching these goals are shaped by what is happening in the
classroom. Novice teachers have difficulty tailoring lesson
plans to accommodate student learning and know few strategies
or alternatives.









instruction, and (g) developing background knowledge. Each

intern's overall performance was assessed and interns'

performances were then evaluated for implementation of

suggestions following a coaching session. A scoring

procedure was used to identify the interns as high performers

or low performers who needed to improve. High performers

made decisions that related to more of the decision-making

areas than low performers.

Shefelbine and Hollingsworth (1987) found that decisions

about diagnosis, planning, and word recognition instruction

were more complex instructional concerns than developing

background knowledge or placing students in appropriate texts

and more difficult for all interns to master. The authors

asserted that these areas may be more complex because there

are multiple solutions to be considered before arriving at a

decision. Lower-performing interns had difficulty in all

seven areas. Diagnosis and teaching word recognition skills

required the novices to make adaptations to the planned

lesson and few of the interns were able to modify their

original plans while teaching. Management concerns prevented

lower performers from attending to other decision-making

areas. Attention was centered around getting and maintaining

attention, planning activities that minimize disruptions, and

reinforcing desired behaviors.

Novices' concern with management was a clear theme in

the literature on planning. Management concerns also arise









during instruction as indicated by Shefelbine and

Hollingsworth (1987). The following study by Galluzzo and

Minix (1992) reflected novice teachers' concerns with

management and pupil learning. Predictably, discipline, and

management issues arose in each of the studies reviewed.

Fourteen student teachers, seven elementary and seven

secondary, participated in this semester-long study (Galluzzo

& Minix, 1992). The stimulated recall method was used to

assess the thoughts of the student teachers. The student

teachers viewed a videotape of a lesson and described

decisions at intervals designated by the researcher and other

times when their thoughts were stimulated by the video.

Data analysis consisted of placing the responses of the

student teachers into five categories used in previous

research (McNair, 1978-1979). The categories of concern were

pupils, content, procedures, materials, and time. Embedded

within each of these categories were more specific

descriptors such as concern about pupils' learning, attitude,

or behavior; concern about content tasks, facts and ideas, or

objectives; concerns about procedural modifications or

scheduling, and time related concerns related to pacing or

time restrictions.

Elementary and secondary student teachers both mentioned

pupil learning as their greatest concern. These student

teachers were most concerned that their pupils were learning

content. The notable difference between the two groups was









that the secondary student teachers did not mention

objectives as a concern but were much more concerned with

pupil attitude and pupil behavior.

Byra and Sherman (1993) examined the interactive

decisions of more and less experienced novice teachers and

revealed findings similar to Galluzzo and Minix (1992).

Pupil learning was a concern for both groups of students in

this study, yet an interesting difference stood out. The

less experienced novices reported a decision to alter the

course of an activity while teaching if students exhibited

off-task behaviors. However, the more experienced novices

tended to implement a new course of action if the learners

seemed to experience difficulty acquiring concepts or

attaining skills (see Table 2.2). The experienced teachers

in Housner and Griffey's study (1985) also mentioned student

performance as the primary cue to alter instruction while the

low performers in Shefelbine and Hollingsworth's (1987) study

were practically overwhelmed by the need to prevent

disruptions and keep students on task. However, the fact

that the novices in the studies of Byra and Sherman (1993)

and Galluzzo and Minix (1992) mentioned a subset of the

concerns of experienced teachers (i.e., pupil learning)

reinforces the observations of Borko and her colleagues

(Borko, Lalik, & Tomchin, 1987) that novice teachers are

acquiring the schemata of procedural knowledge for decision

making that experienced teachers possess.









The Decisions of More and Less Experienced Teachers

In a seminal study of expert/novice differences in

decision making, Leinhardt and Greeno (1986) observed

elementary expert and novice teachers as they conducted

lessons in math. For Leinhardt and Greeno, skill in teaching

rests on two fundamental systems of knowledge, lesson

structure and subject matter. Knowledge of lesson structure

is required to construct and conduct a lesson. This

knowledge is supported and partially controlled by knowledge

of the subject matter. Subject matter knowledge is assessed

and used during the course of a lesson.

The expert teachers in this study constructed their

lessons around a core of activities that moved from total

teacher control to independent student work. Lessons started

with a brief presentation or review of information that often

involved student discussion and then moved to shared solving

of problems. Interactive seatwork followed, and on occasion

this led to independent seatwork. This format became a

predictable routine for the students.

For the novices, there was no predictable lesson

routine. Each portion of a lesson was different, and there

was little connection between the lesson that occurred prior

to one or proceeding another. The absence of a routine

seemed due mainly to a lack of experience and was exacerbated

by the lack of repetition of a lesson format on the part of

the novices.









The lesson schema of the experts seemed to be organized

very efficiently so that each lesson included unique content

and a clear goal. Throughout the lesson, the expert is using

information about the student to assess the progress of the

lesson and the progress of the subject matter coverage.

Establishment of a routine allowed the expert to focus on the

important features of the material to be covered and student

progress. The failure of the novices to establish a

consistent routine could also interfere with their ability to

relate content across lessons. Linking content is a key

novice/expert difference in the following study.

Delores Westerman (1992) examined the planning and

interactive decisions of five expert and five novice

elementary teachers using audiotaped planning interviews,

videotapes of lessons, stimulated recall interviews, post-

teaching interviews, delayed self-reports, and relevant

documents. Researchers analyzed and refined categories to

identify additional categories across interview protocols.

Tables were constructed comparing frequencies of incidences

of categories for experts and novices. At each stage of

analysis, interrater reliability provided verification of

categories and emerging hypotheses.

Notable differences between experts and novices involved

integration of knowledge, student behavior, and interaction

among the three stages of decision making proactivee,

interactive, and postactive). Integration of knowledge









refers to the way teachers fit individual lessons into the

total curriculum and allows them to place new learning in the

context of prior knowledge and allows students to see where

the present lesson fits with what they already know. Novice

teachers did not have enough knowledge about the curriculum

or student characteristics to allow them to perform an

adequate analysis of the lessons they planned. They rarely

mentioned integrating the present lesson with prior

knowledge. Westerman (1992) stated,

The novice teachers, on the other hand, often started
their lessons without recalling students' prior
knowledge about the topic of the lesson: "Today we're
going to talk about consonant blends." As their lessons
progressed, novices did little to relate present
learning to past or future learning. Furthermore, the
novices did not summarize information or set the stage
for new learning at transition points in the lesson as
the experts did. One novice stopped the videotape and
said, "I made a decision that they had talked enough so
I just gave them the assignment." The failure of the
novice teachers to relate subject content information
can have an important effect on student learning,
particularly for those students who are unable to
independently provide a framework for new knowledge.
(p. 297)

Borko and Livingston (1989) also found that the novices

in their study rarely linked related concepts, either within

a lesson or across the curriculum. Explanations, planned or

unplanned, lacked a connection to previous lessons.

Methodological information for this study is located in Table

2.3.

According to Westerman (1992), novice teachers moved

more quickly to punish children for inappropriate behavior

because they had fewer management techniques to draw upon.









The novices were reluctant to deviate from their lesson plans

because of a sense of urgency to complete the lesson and

concern that student behavior would become disruptive.

Expert teachers were able to consider more types of

information to consider classroom situations and arrive at

goals for instruction.

For the novice teachers, proactive, interactive, and

postactive decision making were not dynamic and interrelated.

The novices' planning was based mostly on the curriculum

objectives. During teaching, the novices stuck closely to

their lesson plans in order to move the lesson to completion.

Postactive evaluations seemed to focus on two criteria:

whether the novice had achieved the prescribed objectives)

and whether or not the students behaved. Westerman noted,

"Rather than adapting their lesson plans when cues from

students warranted it, the novices seemed determined to carry

out their plans, sometimes in spite of anything that happened

in their lessons" (p. 299).

Borko and Livingston (1989) analyzed the postlesson

reflections of novices in their study and found similar

concerns. Student participation and active involvement in

the lesson were most often mentioned as the signs of a

successful lesson.

Carter and her colleagues (Carter, Sabers, Cushing,

Pinnegar, & Berliner, 1987) examined expert and novice

mathematics and science teachers along with a group of









teachers who were experts with a desire to teach but had no

formal training (postulants). All of the participants were

given extensive information about an imaginary class they

were asked to take over. They were then questioned about

their plans for instruction and their recall about students.

Analysis of responses produced propositions representing

qualitative differences between expert, novice and postulant

teachers. Novice teachers were found to use information

about students in the following ways:

1. Novices assess student learning by asking what

material was covered and then reviewing content as opposed to

soliciting information from the students.

2. Novices attend in great detail to student

information (e.g., number of students in class, ethnicity,

and exceptional student information) but do not appear to

assign differential value to the various pieces of

information given them. They were not sure how to use the

information provided.

3. Novices used information about tests and homework to

determine grades and whether or not students turned in

homework. They did not use homework or tests to make

instructional decisions.

The major difference between expert and novice use of

student information was the level of interpretation of that

information. Expert teachers tended to select the most

relevant information and constructed an image of what a group









of students was like and how to assess and provide

instruction. Novices were less able to sort through salient

information and develop detailed images about individual

students or make inferences about the nature of previous

instructional activities. Experience and pedagogical

knowledge helps teachers develop a framework for interpreting

information about students and instructional activities. The

translation of this information into organized instructional

routines frees the teacher to focus on the important features

of the material to be presented and how students are

progressing (Lienhardt & Greeno, 1986). Expert teachers

bring a rich schemata to the interpretation of classroom

events so that they can make decisions effectively and

efficiently. These skills are not easily demonstrated by

novices.

Summary and Critique

Results of the studies by Byra and Sherman (1993),

Carter et al. (1987), and Westerman (1992) provide insight

into the development of teachers' decision making. More

experienced teachers have more information to analyze,

integrate, and draw upon as they plan and make instructional

decisions. Expert teachers are influenced by underlying

causes, whereas novices pay more attention to surface

features (Peterson & Comeaux, 1987). Reflection on

underlying causes prompts teachers to interrelate planning









and instruction and improvise more in planning and

interactive teaching.

Researchers investigating teachers' interactive

decisions have taken on the complex task of identifying and

analyzing the spontaneous decisions of teachers.

Investigators' interest has focused on the interactive

decisions of more and less experienced teachers and

identifying the schemata needed to teach competently (Clark &

Peterson, 1986). As teachers' decision making is more

clearly analyzed and described, practitioners become more

informed about the complexities of teaching and become more

aware of the thought processes related to effective teaching.

A problem with the research on teachers' interactive

decisions is one associated with the technique for capturing

these decisions, stimulated recall. Clark and Peterson

(1986) noted that techniques relying on self-report

constitute technical and methodological problems. It is

often difficult to surmise whether teachers are reporting

actual interactive decisions or postobservation reflections.

Stimulated recall does, however, provide a valuable source of

information on the ways teachers explain and justify their

practices (Keith, 1988). Carter and her colleagues (1986)

and Westerman (1992) attempted to resolve this problem by

combining the technique with extensive observations and

informal interviews to validate the findings obtained through

stimulated recall. Byra and Sherman (1993), Galluzzo and









Minix (1992), and Housner and Griffey (1985) conducted

stimulated recall interviews without supplemental

observations or informal interviews. The proposed study

employs the multi-method technique of observation, stimulated

recall, and postobservation interviews with the novices. The

methodology is described in greater detail in Chapter III.

Planning and Interactive Decision Making for Students
with Special Needs

While researchers have continued to compile information

on teachers' planning and interactive decision making in

general education, little research has been conducted on

teacher planning and decision making for students with

special needs. In Clark and Peterson's (1986) literature

review, only one study concerned students with special needs

(Semmel, 1977). With changing demographics and the move

towards inclusion of students with disabilities into general

education settings, researchers have become interested in

teachers' planning and decision making for students'

considered to be hard to teach and hard to manage. Nine

studies are reviewed in this section. Table 2.4 presents a

summary the results of these studies.

Advocates for the inclusion of students with special

needs in the general classroom (Gartner & Lipsky, 1987;

Stainback & Stainback, 1992) assume that general classrooms

provide an enriched environment for student learning.

Inclusive classrooms provide the opportunity for children to

learn from each other and develop the attitude and values to









Table 2.4

Review of Studies of Planning for Students with Disabilities



Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Baker & 12 regular Observations,
Zigmond (1990) education classrooms Interviews, and
two at each grade questionnaires
level, k-5

Coding and Analysis: Observation protocols were developed
and responses were transferred to a matrix to identify common
responses; observations were coded and summarized to describe
the routines in reading and math classes; behavioral
observations were coded for student and teacher behaviors.

Purpose: To understand the practices in traditional regular
education classrooms and the inservice training, resources,
and support personnel required for full-time mainstreaming.

Findings: Undifferentiated instruction occurred for the most
part of the day. Teachers were interested in maintaining the
routine with uniform expectations for all students.


Zigmond & 13 elementary Classroom behavior
Baker (1990) students with observations, school
learning adjustment data, and
disabilities achievement data
(California
Achievement Test and
Curriculum Based
measures on reading)

Coding and Analysis: Student learning opportunities were
coded in four contexts: type of materials used, grouping
arrangements for the current activity, monitoring by adults
and student response. Achievement data were compared for
students after one year in self-contained classroom then one
year in a full time mainstream setting.

Purpose: To report the progress of students after one year
in full time mainstream classrooms.

Findings: Students in the mainstream made no significant
progress in reading or math when test scores were compared to
those achieved while in the self-contained setting.










Table 2.4--continued.


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Schumm, Vaughn,
Haager,
McDowell,
Rothlein, &
Saumell (1995)


12 teachers,
elementary
through high
school


Interviews,
classroom
observations,
survey


Coding and Analysis: Data were analyzed for each teacher and
descriptive information was recorded for each teacher.

Purpose: To examine the preplanning, interactive planning
and postplanning activities of teachers in elementary and
secondary content area classes.

Findings: Teachers at all levels were most concerned with
the performance of the class as a whole rather than
individual students.


McIntosh,
Vaughn,
Schumm, Haager,
& Lee (1993)


60 general
educators,
grades K-12


Observations
using
Classroom
Climate Scale
(Likert scale)


Coding and Analysis: Classroom Climate Scale (CCS) was used
to record behavior of the mainstreamed learning disabled
students in the class and the other members of the class.
Nonparametric tests were conducted to test differences
between ratings on learning disabled students and general
education students.

Purpose: To examine how general education teachers'
behaviors toward mainstreamed students with learning
disabilities compared with their behavior toward students
without disabilities.

Findings: Few teacher behaviors and classroom practices are
different for the two groups of students.









Table 2.4--continued.


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Schumm &
Vaughn (1991)


25 elementary
teachers, 23
middle school
teachers, high
school teachers;
teachers; all
general educators


Teachers rated the
adaptability and
feasibility
45 of 30 items on
the Adaptation
Evaluation Instrument


Coding and Analysis: Interviews were audio taped and later
transcribed. Data were reduced using the constant comparison
procedure.

Purpose: To assess teachers' willingness to make adaptations
for special learners in their classroom.

Findings: All adaptations were considered more desirable than
feasible. Adaptations that require changes in planning,
curriculum and evaluation procedures of the classroom were
considered least desirable. There were few differences
between grade groupings.


20 elementary
teachers, 20
middle school
teachers, and
teachers; all
general educators.
teachers included
in qualitative study


Teachers responded
to 30 items on TBAP
survey; 12 teachers
were observed and
interviewed using
stimulated recall


Coding and Analysis: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
conducted on survey responses to determine whether
statistical significance occurred among groups.
Qualitative data were coded and analyzed for patterns.

Purpose: To investigate general educators' beliefs, skills,
and practices in planning for mainstreamed students with
learning disabilities.

Findings: Teachers reported use of practices that could be
implemented during interactive teaching, requiring minimal
changes. Teachers at all levels provide few instructional
adaptations although elementary teachers make more
accommodations than secondary teachers.


Schumm,
Vaughn
Gordon &
Rothlein
(1994)










Table 2.4--continued.


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Vaughn & Three general Observations,
Schumm (1994) education middle interviews,
school teachers stimulated recall,
written lesson
plans

Coding and Analysis: Each data source was examined for each
teacher and then compared across all three teachers.

Purpose: To examine in-depth the preplanning, interactive
planning, and postplanning for students with learning
disabilities mainstreamed in general education classrooms.

Findings: Content coverage, classroom/student management,
and interest/motivation of the individual student guide the
planning of the teacher. Teachers talked little about
knowledge acquisition or planning for students with learning
disabilities.


Jenkins & 12 elementary Teachers were asked
Leicester teachers to rate confidence
(1992) in designing
effective interventions
and implement it.

Coding and Analysis: Items were rated on a 5-point scale and
changes in confidence ratings from pre- to postmeasures were
calculated. Nonparametric tests were conducted to determine
if interventions were evenly distributed across three
intervention categories; what was taught, how or how much was
taught, or attentional or motivational conditions.

Purpose: To determine how a group of elementary teachers
design specialized instruction for students with reading
problems.

Findings: Four of the twelve teachers expressed little
confidence in designing suitable adaptations and experienced
difficulty in implementing interventions they selected.









Table 2.4--continued.


Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry


Blanton, 20 general Teachers were
Blanton, & education asked to
Cross (1994) teachers; 20 respond to a
special education reading lesson
resource teachers they viewed on
videotape

Coding and Analysis: Two dependent measures were used to
obtain reports of teachers' observations of the student; a
rating scale on 34 items derived from the literature on
instructional effectiveness, and an open ended probe
requesting the teacher to identify the strengths of the
student being observed.

Purpose: To describe how general and special education
teachers think and make instructional decisions about special
needs students.

Findings: General and special education teachers may possess
different professional knowledge structures from which they
interpret classroom events, identify and solve instructional
problems, and collaborate with each other.









support the inclusion of all citizens in society. If they

are willing to do so, general educators can make various

adaptations so that students with special needs can be

successful (Stainback & Stainback, 1992).

However, little is known about the types of adaptations

general educators make for special learners. Fuchs, Fuchs,

and Bishop (1992) described two types of adaptations, routine

and specialized. A routine adaptation is a variation in

materials, grouping arrangements, and goals which teachers

establish at the beginning of the school year. Reading

groups based on ability levels are an example of a routine

adaptation. Specialized adaptations are those that address

the specific learning difficulties of individual students.

Researchers have conducted a number of studies to examine the

planning and adaptations general educators make for students

with special needs (Baker & Zigmond, 1990; Blanton, Blanton,

& Cross, 1994; Jenkins & Leicester, 1992; McIntosh, Vaughn,

Schumm, Haager, & Lee, 1994; Schumm & Vaughn, 1991; Schumm,

Vaughn, Gordon, Rothlein, 1994; Schumm, Vaughn, Haager,

McDowell, & Saumell, 1995; Vaughn & Schuumm, 1994; Zigmond &

Baker, 1990). Their findings are beginning to appear in the

professional literature.

Planning and Instructional Accommodations for Students in
Mainstream Classrooms

In response to calls for alternative, elementary-level,

service delivery models for students with learning

disabilities, Zigmond and Baker (1990) developed a model,









Mainstream Experiences for the Learning Disabled (MELD) to

accommodate students with learning disabilities in the

mainstream. According to the MELD model, all students with

learning disabilities are returned full time to regular

education, following a year of planning appropriate

placements and supplemental support systems. In a series of

studies, Zigmond and Baker observed mainstream classrooms and

students to determine whether the regular classrooms were

equipped to accommodate students with learning disabilities

and assess the progress of these students.

Results of the MELD studies (Baker & Zigmond, 1990;

Zigmond & Baker, 1990) suggest the following:

1. Teachers made little effort to differentiate

assignments for individuals.

2. Lessons were taught to the whole class; there was no

grouping or adjustment of pacing of instruction.

3. A significant period of class time was spent in

activities that were not directly related to instruction such

as sharpening pencils, putting materials away, and lining up.

4. Teachers did not deviate from the sequence of

lessons as they were presented in teachers' manuals.

5. Mainstreamed students did not make discernible

progress on academic skills according to standardized

achievement measures.

Schumm et al. (1995) also examined general education

classrooms to describe teacher planning and accommodations









for students with disabilities. Schumm et al. used a case

study approach to describe preplanning, interactive planning,

and postplanning for students with learning disabilities. A

description of the participants and methods of inquiry is

presented in Table 2.4. Schumm's findings in this study and

one conducted previously (McIntosh, Vaughn, Schumm, Haager, &

Lee, 1994) replicated Baker and Zigmond's (1990) in several

ways: (a) the students with learning disabilities were

expected to cover the same content as all other students; (b)

content was generally introduced through whole-group

instruction; and (c) review and reteaching depended on the

majority of students' performance.

Schumm et al. (1995) observed that teachers planned for

diversity in their classrooms by structuring grouping

patterns that encouraged involvement of all students.

Support systems for students with learning disabilities were

provided through peer tutoring, cooperative learning groups,

or individualized assistance. Length of assignments was

sometimes reduced for students who had difficulty finishing

tasks, and tests were sometimes scored differently. The

teachers were very concerned about peer acceptance, and

activities were planned to encourage all students to

communicate, express themselves, and recognize individual

strengths. The teachers in this study were identified as

being effective in working with students with learning

disabilities. Although these teachers expressed a belief and









desire to work with students with disabilities in their

classrooms, they also identified the barriers to providing

instruction to diverse students (e.g., large class size,

district-mandated objectives, limited budget, limited

knowledge of appropriate accommodations). While many

teachers report that making adaptations for diverse students

is desirable, they may not be feasible given the reality of

classroom conditions.

The Constraints of Planning Accommodations for Students

In a related study, Schumm and Vaughn (1991) devised a

rating system (Adaptation Evaluation Instrument) to ascertain

the desirability and feasibility of implementing 30

adaptations for mainstreamed students. Elementary, middle,

and high school teachers rated the feasibility and

desirability of implementing an adaptation such as providing

alternative materials, using small groups for instruction,

and providing reinforcement to students. Table 2.5 presents

a complete listing of adaptations. Most adaptations were

considered desirable to teachers at all grade levels, and all

adaptations were considered more desirable than feasible.

The most desirable adaptations were to provide reinforcement,

and encouragement, establish a personal relationship with the

student, and involve the student in whole class activities.

Adaptation of long-range plans, adjustment of the physical

arrangements of the room, and adaptation of regular materials

were least desirable while adapting materials, providing









Table 2.5

Adaptation Evaluation Instrument



Respect MS* as individuals with differences
Establish routine appropriate for MS
Adapt classroom management strategies
Provide reinforcement and encouragement
Establish personal relationship with MS
Help MS find ways to deal with feelings
Communicate with MS
Communicate with special education teacher
Communicate with parents of MS
Establish expectations for MS
Adapt long-range plans
Adapt daily plans
Plan assignments to allow MS success
Teach learning strategies
Adjust physical arrangements of room
Adapt regular materials
Use alternative materials
Use computers
Monitor understanding of directions
Monitor understanding of concepts
Provide individualized instruction
Pair with classmate
Use small group activities
Involve MS in whole class activities
Provide extra time
Adapt pacing of instruction
Keep records to monitor progress
Provide ongoing feedback
Adapt evaluations
Adapt scoring/grading criteria


*MS--Mainstreamed Student









individualized instruction, and communicating with the

student were considered the least feasible adaptations.

These findings suggest that general education teachers are

less likely to consider adaptations that require specific

planning for individual students or adjustments in the

curriculum. Perhaps it is because they do not have the

knowledge or skills to make such adaptations, or they

consider these adaptations too time consuming to be

worthwhile. Jenkins and Leicester (1992) found in a study of

12 elementary teachers that 5 encountered problems and were

unable to implement reading interventions for students with

learning disabilities. During interviews, 4 of these

teachers expressed doubts about their ability to develop

effective specialized instruction for these students. If

teacher education programs prepare novices to consider and

employ instructional adaptations, they may see the importance

of accommodating student needs in a variety of ways and

develop strategies that require less time to implement.

Schumm, Vaughn, and their cohorts (Schumm, Vaughn,

Gordon, & Rothlein, 1994) examined the beliefs, skills, and

practices of general education teachers in regard to adapting

practices for students with special needs. Interviews,

observations, teaching episodes and a beliefs and attitudes

instrument were used to gather data from elementary, middle,

and high school teachers. Statistical analysis of the survey

revealed one difference across groups in their beliefs.









Middle and high school teachers indicated greater reluctance

to adjust grading criteria than elementary school teachers.

The qualitative data were analyzed to find evidence of

teachers' practices. Elementary teachers focused on the

individual needs of students with learning difficulties with

flexible grouping, attention to timing and pacing

instruction, and monitoring student understanding. These

teachers did not spend much time on long-range, short-range,

or individualized planning for students with special needs.

Although teachers expressed beliefs in these practices,

instances of specific plans for a particular child were

observed infrequently. The planning for students with

special needs was embedded within the planning for the class

as a whole.

Vaughn and Schumm (1994) gathered case study data over a

school year to examine intensively the planning of three

middle school teachers for students with learning

disabilities. The investigators conducted observations of

lessons, interviewed the participants using stimulated recall

and semi-structured techniques, and examined written lesson

plans. Data were analyzed to determine the planning

practices of each teacher and then compared to determine

similarities and differences among them.

The results of the data analysis revealed three guiding

principles that frames the planning of these teachers:

content coverage versus knowledge acquisition, classroom









management and student interest, and planning for students as

a whole. Teachers noticeably did not talk about knowledge

acquisition nor did they plan and adapt instruction to meet

the needs of diverse learners. Teachers felt compelled to

cover certain objectives and move through the curricula.

For the most part, these teachers selected activities based

on the likelihood that students would respond positively to

them and stay on task. There seemed to be a strong belief

that all the students should be treated the same; there was

virtually no differential planning for specific individuals

in the class.

Professional Knowledge as a Constraint on Instructional
Accommodations

Vaughn and Schumm (1994) found that the teachers were

sometimes limited in making instructional accommodations due

to a lack of knowledge about how to proceed. In one

instance, a teacher was aware that particular students did

not understand the concepts being presented in a lesson. The

teacher was not clear what should be done so she moved on to

the next lesson. Similarly, Jenkins and Leicester (1992)

reported that interviews about modifying instruction with

three elementary teachers reveal a lack of confidence about

what to do. These teachers commented, "If I knew what to do,

I'd already be doing it" (p. 561). Blanton, Blanton, and

Cross (1994) also found knowledge to be a constraint on

instructional accommodations as they explored general and









special education teachers' instructional decisions for

pupils with special needs.

Blanton and her colleagues found that special education

teachers generated a greater number and variety of responses

than general educators in descriptions of curricular and

instructional strategies that would enable a student with

disabilities to be successful in a general classroom.

Special educators mentioned specific instructional strategies

to accommodate individuals such as "organize learning,"

"provide clear steps," "teach concepts," "develop schema,"

while the general educators were less specific (e.g.,

"provide alternative activities"). This seems to indicate

that special education teachers have more elaborated schemata

for instructional accommodations when teaching students with

special needs. Coursework and clinical experiences involving

children with learning problems may help general educators

broaden their knowledge base and use this knowledge

conditionally when teaching students experiencing difficulty.

Summary and Critiaue

Authors of these studies conducted interviews, used

rating instruments, and structured observations to collect

data. The studies conducted by Jenkins and Leicester (1992)

and Blanton, Blanton, and Cross (1994) included 60 and 40

participants, respectively. The others are limited by the

relatively small number of participants in each. Jenkins and

Leicester (1992) limited their study to one school site.









Although more research is needed in this area, the

researchers of these studies do not find much evidence of

differential planning for students with special needs in

general classrooms (Baker & Zigmond, 1990; McIntosh et al,

1994; Vaughn & Schumm, 1994). Two possible reasons for this

are emerging:

1. Some general education teachers lack the confidence

that they possess the knowledge for planning and implementing

instructional accommodations for students with special needs

(Jenkins & Leicester, 1992)

2. Some general education teachers find many

instructional modifications infeasible to implement (Schumm &

Vaughn, 1994).

At the end of their article on middle school teachers'

planning, Vaughn and Schumm (1994) concluded,

We simply cannot expect that general educators will be
prepared to meet the special learning needs of students
with disabilities. This paper reveals several dilemmas
that need to be considered as we establish collaborative
partnerships that prepare teachers to meet the diverse
learning needs of students. (p. 160)

Because of the small number of studies on differential

planning by teachers of students with special needs, Vaughn

and Schumm called for more in-depth research, such as the

case study approach, to record what teachers think and do.

Therefore, it is timely and appropriate to conduct an in-

depth study of teachers' planning and decision making with

teachers who have chosen to participate in a collaborative

program designed to prepare them to make instructional






74

accommodations for students who are hard to teach and reach.

The research on beginning teachers suggests that novices do

not make instructional adaptations because they are focused

on managing classroom behavior and planning to meet the needs

of the "whole group" as opposed to individuals. It is

imperative to examine the planning and decision making of a

group of novices who have participated in a program

emphasizing instructional and behavioral accommodations.

That is the purpose of the present study.















CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study was to identify and describe

the planning and interactive decisions made by PROTEACH

interns enrolled in a general education certification program

with a specialization in learning disabilities. The study

aimed to examine and describe how interns, instructed

specifically about hard-to-teach and hard-to-manage students,

planned for and made instructional decisions about these

students. This study was developed to describe the choices

novice teachers made in planning and analyze their decisions

and judgments about students. To understand the choices of

novice teachers, their thought processes should be studied

before, during, and after teaching (Clark & Peterson, 1986).

To reveal "how" these interns made plans and decisions for

students, the researcher spent time in the setting where the

event occurred, observing the participants and talking to the

them about their perspectives. Therefore, a qualitative

investigation was the appropriate methodological approach for

this study. Participant observations and in-depth

interviewing, core components of qualitative research, were

conducted to capture the perspectives of these novice

teachers (Bogden & Biklen, 1982).









This chapter includes a description of the methods and

procedures employed to study PART interns' plans and

interactive decisions about hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage

students. The following sections include an overview of the

study, a description of the procedures for selecting

participants, methods for gaining access to the classroom

settings, descriptions of the participants' schools and

classrooms, and procedures for data collection. In the final

section, research procedures and methodological issues are

reviewed.

Procedures

Overview

Eighteen students enrolled in Project PART (Prevention

and Accommodation through Reflective Teaching) at the

University of Florida for the 1993-1994 academic year. This

project was designed to prepare elementary teachers to

accommodate diverse student populations, including students

with disabilities. Prior to the internship, Project PART

students completed four semesters of course work in

elementary and special education and two semesters of pre-

internship field experiences, including a placement in a

special education resource room. This study took place

during the 10-week full-time internship in Fall and Spring

semesters, 1994-1995.









Eleven PART students completed their internships during

the 1994-1995 academic school year. Of the 11 PART interns,

6 of the students chose to participate in the study.

Each intern was observed for 10 weeks for approximately

4 hours each week; informal interviews were conducted after

these observations, and they lasted from 20 to 45 minutes.

Each of the interns participated in three formal interviews

that lasted approximately 1 hour. They were videotaped twice

while teaching. Following the videotaping, they watched the

tape and spent about 1 hour describing their decisions. The

interns' cooperating teachers were interviewed for 1 hour at

the end of the internship. The researcher spent

approximately 300 hours in total data collection. A summary

of the time spent in total data collection is presented in

Table 3.1.

The researcher worked as a field advisor and seminar co-

leader to the Project PART students during Fall and Spring

semesters, 1993-1994. The researcher also taught a course in

Classroom Management to five of the PART students. During

this time, the researcher established collegial relationships

with the students. The researcher enjoyed telling "teacher

stories," and students often dropped by her office to

commiserate about shared experiences in their school

placements or just chat about what was going on in their

lives. The preexisting relationship between the researcher

and the PART students made it easier to gather "trustworthy









data" (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982) during the study and eased

entry into the research setting.


Table 3.1

Summary of Data Collection Procedures



Classroom observations and informal
follow-up interviews 250 hours

Structured interviews with interns 20 hours

Videotaped lessons followed by
Stimulated Recall Interview 24 hours

Structured interviews with
Cooperating Teachers 6 hours

Total Data Collection: 300 hours





Participant Selection

At the time of this study, Project PART staff were

conducting interviews as part of the ongoing data collection

procedure to evaluate the project. The PART students had

participated in interviews and submitted videotaped lessons

from the beginning of the project. Because the students were

required to participate in the project's evaluative study, it

seemed appropriate to solicit volunteers to participate in

data collection beyond what was originally required for the

project. For this study, the researcher openly requested

permission to observe, videotape, and interview the Project

PART interns and their cooperating teachers. Official









approval by the University's Institutional Review Board of

Human Subjects was granted to observe, interview, and record

interns, pupils, and cooperating teachers under the "Project

PART" grant.

The researcher and intern supervisor described the

general intent of the study during a seminar meeting with the

interns. A letter was also given to each of the interns that

stated,

I'm very interested to learn how you develop plans and
make instructional decisions for students during the
internship. More specifically, I want to know how you
plan for and make instructional and behavioral decisions
for the pupils in the class that you consider to be hard
to teach and/or hard to manage. With you and your
cooperating teacher's permission, I will observe you
while teaching, videotape two lessons, conduct
interviews following the lessons and examine your lesson
plans.

By presenting the goals of the study in rather general

terms, the researcher attempted to avoid influencing the

outcomes of the study. The length of time spent in the

classroom also minimized the possibility that this initial

discussion would have an impact on study findings.

After an overview of the study was shared with the interns,

the researcher and the interns' supervisor assured the

interns that the observations conducted by the researcher

were not evaluative and would not effect their "grade" for

the internship. The researcher explicitly stated that she

would not make suggestions for changes or modifications in

lesson plans or teaching strategies. Her interest was in the

plans and decisions made by the interns and their reasons for









them. They were also informed that they could drop out of

the study at any time if they felt it necessary to do so.

A total of six Project PART participants, all white

females, agreed to participate in the study. During the Fall

semester of 1994, four PART students completed their

internships, and two more PART students completed their

internships during Spring semester, 1995. Mary, Martha,

Marcy, and Lacy (all names are pseudonyms) participated in

the study during Fall semester, and Laura and Lana were

participants during Spring semester.

Gaining Access

Following the initial meeting, the researcher met

individually with each participant to schedule dates for the

first observation and interview. The researcher explained

that she would be as unobtrusive as possible when conducting

observations, and she would schedule interviews at their

convenience. All participants in the study signed letters

permitting the researcher to audiotape interviews and

videotape lessons for the study. (See Appendix A for a copy

of permission form.)

Prior to the first observation, the researcher met with

and gave a letter to each participating intern's cooperating

teacher that described the intent of the study and indicated

that the researcher would like to talk to them about the

intern's planning, instructional, and managerial practices.

(See Appendix B for a copy of the letter.) The right to









anonymity and confidentiality in presentations and

publications of the study was assured to all participants.

The researcher also met with or talked by phone with the

principals at each participant's school to discuss the

purpose of the study and the nature of data collection.

Arrangements were made to obtain parental permission to

videotape children who might appear on camera during lessons

taught by the interns. (See Appendix C for a copy of parental

permission form.)

To summarize, the researcher solicited permission from

agencies and individuals considered to be key players in the

study. Through verbal and written communication the

investigator answered the following questions suggested by

Bogdan and Biklen (1982) as a guide to gaining access to

qualitative fieldwork.

1. "What are you actually going to do?"
2. "Will you be disruptive?"
3. "What are you going to do with your findings?"
4. "Why us?"
5. "What will we get out of this?" (pp. 123-124)

Qualitative research is guided by ethical principles to

help investigative observers make decisions regarding the use

and confidentiality of data shared by participants. These

principles were adhered to by this researcher to respect the

participants and maintain the integrity of the study:

1. Consider the informants first.
2. Safeguard informants' rights, interests, and
sensitivities.
3. Communicate research objectives.
4. Protect the privacy of the informants.









5. Don't exploit informants.
6. Make reports available to informants.
(Spradley, 1980, pp. 21-25)

Site Selection

Project PART was implemented in public schools in two

counties in the southeastern United States with populations

of less than 200,000. Initially, Project PART staff worked

with county administrators to select participating schools

for the project. Project PART faculty attended elementary

principal meetings in the district to disseminate information

and discuss the objectives of Project PART. After these

meetings, individual sessions were organized for principals

who were interested in having schools participate in the

project. Eight of 23 principals expressed interest in

working with the project. Sessions were then held at each of

the eight schools to discuss the objectives of the grant with

the faculty and decide whether or not to participate. After

these discussions, five schools agreed to accept Project PART

students. Two schools were ready to accept preinterns in the

Spring semester of 1993. A third school accepted PART

preinterns in the Fall semester of 1993. Two more schools

accepted preinterns and interns for Fall semester, 1994, and

Spring semester, 1995. Of these five schools, three schools

included PART interns who were participants in this study.

Description of the Sites

The study was conducted in three public elementary

schools situated in the two school districts where Project









PART staff had established professional ties. Mary, Martha,

Marcy, Lacy, and Laura completed preinternship placements at

two of the schools so they were familiar with the teachers

and the culture of the schools they selected. Lana made

arrangements to complete her internship at the school in the

second district, a more rural location. This school was

closer to her home which eased the demands of commuting and,

according to Lana, the site more closely resembled the type

of school in which she wanted to work. For the internship,

Marcy and Lacy selected first-grade sites; Martha and Laura

picked second grade; and Mary and Lana chose third-grade

classrooms. A description of each school, identified as

School I, School II, and School III, and each interns'

classroom follows. Mary, Martha, Lacy, and Laura interned at

School I; Marcy was at School II; and Lana was at School III.

School I was a K-12 developmental research school

associated with the College of Education of a large

southeastern university. The school had been in existence

for more than 60 years and had a mission to research and

disseminate innovative teaching practices. Parents came from

various counties to place their children's' names on a

waiting list for admission. To maintain a population

representative of the state, admission to the school was

based upon the demographic variables of race, ethnicity, and

income.









The elementary school had an enrollment of approximately

350 students. The population was 66% Caucasian, 24% African

American, 7% Hispanic, and 3% Asian. Of the total elementary

school population, 23% of the students received a free or

reduced-price lunch. There were two classrooms per grade

level, kindergarten through fifth grade. The following full-

time support teachers were on the faculty: guidance

counselor, Title I teacher, drop-out prevention teacher,

gifted teacher, and a media specialist. The art, music, and

P.E. teachers had 100% teaching assignments to the K-12

program and served the elementary program for a portion of

the time. A speech pathologist was employed 50% time and

served approximately 40 students. In the past this school

had not received funding for other special education

programs. However, during the 1994-1995 school year, the

decision was made to apply for special education funding for

students with learning disabilities and identification of

children eligible for these services began.

Lacy chose a first-grade classroom for her internship.

She was eager to learn more about beginning reading

instruction, and her cooperating teacher had a reputation for

providing her students with a solid background in reading.

Lacy's cooperating teacher, a white female, worked with

several interns during her 22 years of teaching and was

pleased to have an intern who was interested in working with

children with special needs. There were 28 students in









Lacy's classroom. These students came from a variety of

ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. Some students in

Lacy's classroom received supplementary services in Chapter

I, Gifted and Speech and Language. A complete description of

the students in Lacy's class is provided in Table 3.2.


Table 3.2

Classroom Settings



First Grade in suburban elementary school; 25 students;
4 Chapter I, 1 Emotionally Handicapped; range of SES;
ethnically diverse.

Second Grade in suburban elementary school; 28 students;
6 Chapter I; 2 Language Impaired; 3 Learning Disabled; range
of SES; ethnically diverse.

Second Grade in suburban elementary school; 28 students;
6 Chapter I; 2 Language Impaired; 1 Learning Disabled; range
of SES.

Third Grade in suburban elementary school; 30 students;
8 Chapter I; 3 Language Impaired; 3 Learning Disabled; range
of SES; ethnically diverse

Third Grade in rural elementary school; 25 students; 4
Chapter I; 1 Learning Disabled; middle to low SES;
predominantly White and African American.




Martha completed her internship in a second-grade

classroom. She had visited several classrooms prior to her

internship and selected this class because she felt it was

highly innovative. Martha's cooperating teacher, a white

female, taught for about 12 years and had also previously

worked with several interns. The cooperating teacher









appreciated Martha's enthusiasm and creativity. These were

characteristics Martha also admired about her cooperating

teacher. There were 28 students in Martha's class. These

children came from a variety of backgrounds and some received

additional services from Chapter I, Gifted, and Speech and

Language.

Laura completed her internship during Spring semester,

1995, in the same second-grade classroom as Martha. She was

eager to work in a classroom with "so many things happening,"

and she appreciated the artistic and creative talents of the

cooperating teacher. A description of the students in Martha

and Laura's classroom is provided in Table 3.2.

Mary also completed her internship at School I in a

third-grade class. Several children in Mary's class were

considered to be hard to teach and manage, and an additional

aid was hired to provide managerial and academic assistance

to the students. Mary's cooperating teacher was a white

female with 18 years teaching experience. Because of a

lengthy illness, Mary's cooperating teacher was absent during

most of Mary's internship, and Mary felt she was unable to

form the kind of relationship with her cooperating teacher

that she would have liked. Mary had 30 students in this

class. Students received supplemental services from Chapter

I, Gifted, and Speech and Language. A description of the

students in Mary's class is included in Table 3.2.









School II was located in the same county as School I.

The 20-year-old school was built to accommodate the middle

class suburban expansion of the western sector of the city in

which it was located. In recent years, the growing number of

rental units and the increasingly transient population caused

some school employees to consider the school population

becoming more lower-middle class. The school was in the

process of major renovations to modernize facilities and

increase space to eliminate the need for the portable

classroom units set up to house burgeoning numbers of

students.

The 690-member student body was 68% Caucasian, 23%

African American, and 9% Asian or Hispanic. Of these

students, 37% received a free or reduced-price lunch. There

were three prekindergarten classrooms and five classes per

grade level from kindergarten through fifth grade. The

following full-time support teachers were on the faculty:

guidance counselor, curriculum resource teacher, art teacher,

music teacher, P.E. teacher, media specialist, two Title I

teachers, and four special educators. Two of the special

educators taught in self-contained settings for students with

varying exceptionalities while the remaining special

educators worked with students identified as specific

learning disabled and emotionally handicapped in a part-time

pull-out program. The special education teachers provided









services to 189 students. A speech pathologist was also

employed 80% time.

Marcy completed her internship in a first-grade class.

Her cooperating teacher had taught for 14 years and had

worked with interns in the past. Marcy felt she and her

cooperating teacher complemented one another in their

approaches to instruction. They balanced out the cooperating

teacher's traditional skills instruction with Marcy's

creative, investigative activities. Marcy had 25 students in

her classroom. Some students received services from Chapter

I and ESE in a pull-out model. Table 3.2 includes a

description of the students in Marcy's classroom.

School III was in a rural county adjacent to the

district in which the other schools were located. Dairy

farms were scattered throughout the county, and the parents

of many children were employed in positions related to

farming and agriculture. The elementary school was situated

next to the middle and high schools. All students converged

on the high school for lunch, the home of the sole cafeteria.

The school was a hub for community activities, and teachers

characterized most parents as supportive partners in their

children's' education.

The elementary school had a student population of 700;

87% of the students were Caucasian, 11% African American, and

2% Hispanic or Native American. Among these students, 61%

received a free or reduced-priced lunch. The school employed




Full Text
31
instructional pacing, and providing directions.
Subject/pedagogy concerns include the subject matter that is
chosen for instruction and the decision about how to teach
it. The third area of concern, student learning from
academic tasks, requires the teacher to comprehend the
cognitive processes students employ to complete a task.
According to Lidstone and Hollingsworth (1992) student
learning from academic tasks requires the teacher to
integrate management, subject knowledge, and student
learning. Skilled teachers know that management problems
usually do not occur in isolation from the lesson being
taught. If the subject matter is too easy or too difficult,
or if the task does not require active engagement on the part
of the learner, behavior problems can develop.
Management, pedagogy, and student learning emerged as key
elements of planning in the following studies.
Novice Teachers' Planning
Eight studies were reviewed in the section on planning.
Table 2.2 provides a summary of each study with a description
of the participants, method of inquiry, purpose, and relevant
findings. This section is divided into two subsections: (a)
the planning of novice teachers and (b) the differences in
planning for more and less experienced teachers.
Beyerbach (1988) and Morine-Dershimer (1989) used
concept mapping to explore and explain the growth of student
teachers' knowledge in relation to planning. According to


161
students who are ethnically and culturally diverse, as well
as those with mild disabilities. As these PART participants
entered their internships, it was important to know how they
planned and made decisions for students who are hard to teach
and hard to manage.
In order to explore the PART interns' thought processes
for students who are hard to teach and reach, the researcher
observed in the six interns' classrooms for a total of 250
hours during 10 weeks of their internships. In addition,
interviews were conducted with the interns and their
cooperating teachers. The researcher also videotaped the
interns teaching two lessons and viewed the video with the
interns while they reconstructed their thoughts and decisions
during the lesson. The data collected represented the
interns' planning and implementation of academic and
managerial accommodations for students with special needs.
These concrete phenomena served as indicators of the interns'
thought processes regarding students with special needs.
The collected data were analyzed using procedures
described by Miles and Huberman (1984). First, data were
organized into patterns or categories of similar events.
Categories which were useful in revealing these interns'
planning and decision making included Kinds of Statements
PART Interns Make about Hard to Teach and Hard to Manage
Students, Things PART Interns do to Adapt Plans and
Materials, Kinds of Strategies PART Interns Use to Implement
Plans, Kinds of Strategies PART Interns Use to Adjust Plans


CHAPTER V
THE CONSTRUCTION OF A PEDAGOGY TO ACCOMMODATE STUDENT
DIFFERENCES: MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Many beginning teachers experience difficulty with
classroom management because they have not acquired the
pedagogical skills that help them identify and resolve
organizational and behavioral problems (Bullough, 1987; John,
1991; Reynolds, 1995) More experienced teachers tend to
have a repertoire of managerial strategies to prevent
disruptions and maximize academic time, and they learn
effective interventions to resolve problems that occur in the
classroom (Reynolds, 1995). These PART interns demonstrated
an array of prevention (preactive) and intervention
(interactive) management strategies to facilitate children's
class participation similar to that of more experienced
teachers. The decision-making cycle represented in Figure
5.1 depicts the three phases of managerial decision making by
the PART interns. They developed consistent instructional
routines and clarified behavioral expectations as preventive
measures. The PART interns also used strategic seating,
verbal cues and visual signals, contracts, self-monitoring
and self-evaluation reports, task sheets, and behavior
modification systems as behavioral interventions. However,
they were confronted with the same dilemmas while making
management decisions that they faced while making academic
131


114
scents of the rain forest and emits an outdoor, damp
odor. Martha goes around the room and interviews the
children with questions like, "What do you see in the
rain forest," "What do you hear in the rain forest,"
"What kinds of things do you feel in the rain forest.
After 20 minutes, the tour winds down and Martha lines
up the children at the back door. They are given their
passports to fly back to the United States (the other
second grade class) where they will write a "travelogue"
about what they saw, heard and smelled while in the rain
forest. "Breathe in, breathe out, "says Martha, "We
made it!" "High five your neighbor." (FN 9-19)
Martha developed lessons like the one described to provide
meaningful background information to her students and
encourage active participation. Martha commented,
If this lesson was presented in any other context,
there'd be no meaning. Presented this way, [the
students] can only be successful. If any children see
themselves as different or not as able, then this lesson
helps them say, "I am able, I am capable, I'm not
anything less." Today, I didn't have hard-to-teach or
hard-to-manage kids because no one said, "I can't do
this, so I won't do this." Thats the first obstacle
for hard-to-teach kids. (FN 9-19)
When the students in Marthas class went to the other
second-grade class to write their travelogues, they worked in
small groups of five to six students at learning stations.
Martha described small group instruction as another way to
increase student participation. "Some kids will take more
risks in front of 4 others as opposed to 28 others. I can
also interact with every child at a station."
Martha's cooperating teacher recognized her
determination to include every child in a lesson:
She sees everything that is going on. Some interns only
see what is right in front of them, but she sees what is
going on in the periphery. She thinks about how to pull
in the two or three kids who aren't participating which
is a question I still wrestle with. If I have a class
of 28 and 26 are listening intently with two off in the


179
9. What are the barriers and facilitators to providing
instruction to these students? How are these barriers
and facilitators different from/similar to the barriers
and facilitators to providing instruction for all other
students?


83
PART staff had established professional ties. Mary, Martha,
Marcy, Lacy, and Laura completed preinternship placements at
two of the schools so they were familiar with the teachers
and the culture of the schools they selected. Lana made
arrangements to complete her internship at the school in the
second district, a more rural location. This school was
closer to her home which eased the demands of commuting and,
according to Lana, the site more closely resembled the type
of school in which she wanted to work. For the internship,
Marcy and Lacy selected first-grade sites; Martha and Laura
picked second grade; and Mary and Lana chose third-grade
classrooms. A description of each school, identified as
School I, School II, and School III, and each interns'
classroom follows. Mary, Martha, Lacy, and Laura interned at
School I; Marcy was at School II; and Lana was at School III.
School I was a K-12 developmental research school
associated with the College of Education of a large
southeastern university. The school had been in existence
for more than 60 years and had a mission to research and
disseminate innovative teaching practices. Parents came from
various counties to place their children's' names on a
waiting list for admission. To maintain a population
representative of the state, admission to the school was
based upon the demographic variables of race, ethnicity, and
income.


152
Summary
The classroom management procedures used by these PART
interns were an equally important component of the cyclical
decision-making process to meet the needs of all students in
their classes. These interns established consistent
classroom routines and clarified expectations to enable all
students to have equal access to instruction. For these PART
interns, a clearly defined system for behavior management was
the foundation of an instructional environment that
facilitated student learning. If particular students were
unsuccessful with the established management procedures, the
interns considered the equity of individual accommodations
and determined a course of action. For these interns, an
appropriate course of action did not compromise the needs of
other students in their class.
The instructional and managerial strategies described in
Chapters 4 and 5 are indicators of these PART interns ability
to accommodate for student differences. Table 5.1 offers a
summary of the teaching tasks that facilitate instruction
(Reynolds, 1992) and examples of the PART interns pedagogical
practices within each domain.
The More We Know. The Better We Teach: Influences of
Course Work on Planning and Decision Making
The PART interns said they learned a variety of
strategies to accommodate student differences and they were
eclectic in the choice of strategies they used. They
attributed their ability to accommodate for student


144
question, "What is a quilt?" She showed a classroom
quilt sewn by a kindergarten class and explained that
the children would draw a quilt square depicting an
important event in their lives so they could learn more
about the people in their classroom community. The
children became excited about this prospect and began to
talk with one another about what they would draw.
Martha rang a bell to redirect the students' attention
so that she could finish giving directions. Martha
said, "I've got a problem. How do I solve it? What
happens if I make a mistake on my quilt square?"
Students in a group raised their hands and responded,
"Draw on the back or use a pencil first, so you can
erase. Martha saw a group of children talking as the
other group answered her question and she asked them to
repeat what was stated to redirect their attention:
"This table, what did Don's table say? You're talking,
not listening." After Martha finished giving
directions, the children worked on their quilt drawings
until it was time for P.E. Martha began to play 'Simon
Says' as she snapped her fingers to regain the
children's attention and transition to another activity.
"Simon says, put your art in the basket; we'll have time
to finish tomorrow.
Some of the interns framed the dilemma of content
coverage as a time problem: there simply was not enough of
it. There did not seem to be enough time to cover all the
material one was expected to at a certain grade level.
Martha dealt with the issue by transforming a
noninstructional transition period into a teaching
opportunity. Martha had been teaching the students
punctuation rules and in Martha's words, "They were not
getting it." She felt she did not have time to continue to
reteach the same rules during regular instructional periods
and, therefore, came up with the idea of "Toucan Train" to
review rules of punctuation and capitalization during
transitions. As several of the students left the classroom
for enrichment or visits to the local nursing home, Martha


25
Table 2.1--continued
Domains
Postactive Tasks
Examoles
Reflect on one's own
actions and students'
responses in order to
improve teaching
The teacher may mentally
replay a lesson or
interaction with a
student, keep a journal
of thoughts, or ask
colleagues to observe
lessons and provide
feedback. Multiple
sources of data to assess
student learning are
collected (Taylor &
Valentine, 1985) .
Continue professional
development
The teacher participates
in professional
development
organizations, reads
journals, or takes
advanced education
courses.
Interact with colleagues
The teacher may
collaborate with others
to develop instructional
activities and
disseminate teaching
practices.


73
Although more research is needed in this area, the
researchers of these studies do not find much evidence of
differential planning for students with special needs in
general classrooms (Baker & Zigmond, 1990; McIntosh et al,
1994; Vaughn & Schumm, 1994). Two possible reasons for this
are emerging:
1. Some general education teachers lack the confidence
that they possess the knowledge for planning and implementing
instructional accommodations for students with special needs
(Jenkins & Leicester, 1992)
2. Some general education teachers find many
instructional modifications infeasible to implement (Schumm &
Vaughn, 1994).
At the end of their article on middle school teachers'
planning, Vaughn and Schumm (1994) concluded,
We simply cannot expect that general educators will be
prepared to meet the special learning needs of students
with disabilities. This paper reveals several dilemmas
that need to be considered as we establish collaborative
partnerships that prepare teachers to meet the diverse
learning needs of students, (p. 160)
Because of the small number of studies on differential
planning by teachers of students with special needs, Vaughn
and Schumm called for more in-depth research, such as the
case study approach, to record what teachers think and do.
Therefore, it is timely and appropriate to conduct an in-
depth study of teachers' planning and decision making with
teachers who have chosen to participate in a collaborative
program designed to prepare them to make instructional


84
The elementary school had an enrollment of approximately
350 students. The population was 66% Caucasian, 24% African
American, 7% Hispanic, and 3% Asian. Of the total elementary
school population, 23% of the students received a free or
reduced-price lunch. There were two classrooms per grade
level, kindergarten through fifth grade. The following full
time support teachers were on the faculty: guidance
counselor, Title I teacher, drop-out prevention teacher,
gifted teacher, and a media specialist. The art, music, and
P.E. teachers had 100% teaching assignments to the K-12
program and served the elementary program for a portion of
the time. A speech pathologist was employed 50% time and
served approximately 40 students. In the past this school
had not received funding for other special education
programs. However, during the 1994-1995 school year, the
decision was made to apply for special education funding for
students with learning disabilities and identification of
children eligible for these services began.
Lacy chose a first-grade classroom for her internship.
She was eager to learn more about beginning reading
instruction, and her cooperating teacher had a reputation for
providing her students with a solid background in reading.
Lacy's cooperating teacher, a white female, worked with
several interns during her 22 years of teaching and was
pleased to have an intern who was interested in working with
children with special needs. There were 28 students in


145
formed a "train" with the remaining students stated a written
language rule and waited for the students to repeat this
verse:
I'm going to take my train somewhere. I'm the leader of
this train. I am a toucan train and I know the choo
choo game and it goes something like this: At the
beginning of a sentence you will always find a capital
letter. At the end of a sentence you will find a
period, question mark, or exclamation point. (0.10-3)
Martha repeated the technique calling on the students to
fill in the blanks with the appropriate rule and
choosing students to be the leader of the toucan train.
By the time the "toucan train" reached its destination,
the students were back at the front of the room, ready
for a group lesson.
Martha was able to maintain student attention during a
transition, review writing skills, and segue to another
activity. Martha was able to make additional time for
instruction that some children in her class needed.
Mary used a technique similar to "Simon Says" to gain
her third graders' attention and make a transition to another
lesson:
The children were copying words from the board to
practice their cursive. Mary had scheduled another
lesson to begin and needed to end the cursive practice
session. Mary said in a moderate voice, "If you can see
me, put your hand like this, please." Mary held her
hand up to indicate a halt signal. Nothing else was
said as the children began to look up and mimicked her
hand signal. Mary redirected the children's attention
to another section of the chalk board to review spelling
words. (0. 10-3)
Mary found the use of hand signals an effective management
technique. Like Martha, Mary recognized the need to have a
repertoire of management strategies. In her third-grade
class, she used strategies she had learned in course work and
found some more effective than others:


APPENDIX G
INTERVIEW IV
Cooperating Teacher Interview
1. Did you plan with the intern? Please describe the type
of planning you did jointly.
2. Did you see evidence of the intern making plans and
instructional decisions that were appropriate to the
interests and developmental level of the students in the
class? Can you provide examples? (Probe to find out if
the intern planned lessons that allowed students to make
their own adjustment; e.g., choices of reading
materials, seating, working with partners or alone.)
3. Did you see evidence of the intern planning to prevent
academic difficulties for a particular student(s)? Can
you provide examples? Were these plans different from
the plans for the other students in the class?
4. Did you see evidence of the intern planning to prevent
behavior problems for a particular student(s)? Can you
provide examples? Were these plans different from the
plans for the other students in the class?
5. Did you see evidence of the intern planning to prevent
disruptions and avoid confusion? Can you provide
examples ?
6. Did you see the intern modifying instruction while
teaching? Can you provide examples?
7. Did you talk with the intern following a lesson to
evaluate the lesson? (Would you do the same thing
again? What would you do different?)
8. Have you seen the intern take information from prior
experiences (discussions, previous lessons) and apply it
to a new situation? Is this a realistic expectation for
an intern?
9. What really stands out to you about this intern?
182


141
experiencing the problem to change their cloud to gray. If
there was a second problem, the cloud was changed to black,
and the children went to time-out on a couch in the back of
the room for a specified period set on a timer. If there was
a third problem, the cloud was changed to orange, and the
children returned to the time-out couch for an unspecified
period of time. A fourth behavior problem resulted in a
lightning bolt and a parent conference. The children met
with the behavior resource teacher if there were more
problems.
Marcy included two other components in this system. She
used a charting system to monitor the kinds of behavior
problems exhibited by the children and recorded frequency
counts of the number of times a child changed a cloud. Marcy
also used extrinsic reinforcement with a classroom store.
The children earned play money each day they did not change a
cloud. The children saved their money until the end of the
week when they could shop at the store. The store was a book
display shelf located at the side of the classroom which
could be turned around. On one side hung a variety of
trinkets that could be purchased by the students. Marcy
described the Cloud System as effective, instructive, fair,
and unobtrusive. Marcy commented on the effects of the cloud
system:
As soon as the first child had to move a cloud, I saw
how much it mattered that he had to move it. I noticed
that some other students mentally checked their
behavior. It started off and there were at least 20
changes in a day. Now we may have four by the end of


65
Mainstream Experiences for the Learning Disabled (MELD) to
accommodate students with learning disabilities in the
mainstream. According to the MELD model, all students with
learning disabilities are returned full time to regular
education, following a year of planning appropriate
placements and supplemental support systems. In a series of
studies, Zigmond and Baker observed mainstream classrooms and
students to determine whether the regular classrooms were
equipped to accommodate students with learning disabilities
and assess the progress of these students.
Results of the MELD studies (Baker & Zigmond, 1990;
Zigmond & Baker, 1990) suggest the following:
1. Teachers made little effort to differentiate
assignments for individuals.
2. Lessons were taught to the whole class; there was no
grouping or adjustment of pacing of instruction.
3. A significant period of class time was spent in
activities that were not directly related to instruction such
as sharpening pencils, putting materials away, and lining up.
4. Teachers did not deviate from the sequence of
lessons as they were presented in teachers' manuals.
5. Mainstreamed students did not make discernible
progress on academic skills according to standardized
achievement measures.
Schumm et al. (1995) also examined general education
classrooms to describe teacher planning and accommodations


112
instructional activities to enhance the level of
participation of all students. These interns purposefully-
selected instructional approaches that provided students with
equitable opportunities to learn. The PART interns
acknowledged the pedagogical implications of student
differences by adapting instruction to include all students
and arranged instructional groupings to maximize academic
learning time.
Phase One: Maximize Student Participation
Many teachers report (Jenkins & Leicester, 1992; Schumm
& Vaughn, 1991) that it is impractical to provide
individualized instruction for hard-to-teach students in the
context of the regular class. This was a source of conflict
for the PART interns and their cooperating teachers as well.
Lacy's cooperating teacher clearly articulated this conflict:
"The hardest thing to do is plan individualized instruction
for kids with learning problems and provide that help when
you've got a whole class to teach." To manage this dilemma,
the PART interns planned whole group lessons that enhanced
the participation of each student and enabled every student
to make a contribution to the class. This was achieved
through a variety of instructional approaches that included
cooperative learning, guided discovery multisensory lessons,
small group instruction at learning stations, and peer-
mediated instruction.


CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
The purpose of this study was to uncover the planning
and decision making of six Project PART interns for students
who are hard to teach and hard to manage. Researchers who
have investigated teachers' thought processes have tended to
focus on teachers' planning and decision making for an entire
class. Due to changing demographics and the move to provide
appropriate services to students with mild disabilities in
general education classrooms, classrooms are growing
increasingly diverse. Given the diversity in today's
classrooms, researchers have begun to examine teachers'
thought processes related to students with special needs.
The results of this research have not been favorable (Baker &
Zigmond, 1990; McIntosh, Vaughn, Schumm, Hager, & Lee, 1993;
Schumm & Vaughn, 1994). Teachers often express a lack of
skill and will to provide instructional and behavioral
accommodations for students who need them.
Project PART interns recognized the diversity they would
encounter in their classrooms and chose to participate in a
collaborative program developed by members of the Departments
of Special Education and Curriculum and Instruction at the
University of Florida. This program was designed to prepare
teachers to provide effective and supportive programs for
160


50
that the secondary student teachers did not mention
objectives as a concern but were much more concerned with
pupil attitude and pupil behavior.
Byra and Sherman (1993) examined the interactive
decisions of more and less experienced novice teachers and
revealed findings similar to Galluzzo and Minix (1992).
Pupil learning was a concern for both groups of students in
this study, yet an interesting difference stood out. The
less experienced novices reported a decision to alter the
course of an activity while teaching if students exhibited
off-task behaviors. However, the more experienced novices
tended to implement a new course of action if the learners
seemed to experience difficulty acquiring concepts or
attaining skills (see Table 2.2). The experienced teachers
in Housner and Griffey's study (1985) also mentioned student
performance as the primary cue to alter instruction while the
low performers in Shefelbine and Hollingsworths (1987) study
were practically overwhelmed by the need to prevent
disruptions and keep students on task. However, the fact
that the novices in the studies of Byra and Sherman (1993)
and Galluzzo and Minix (1992) mentioned a subset of the
concerns of experienced teachers (i.e., pupil learning)
reinforces the observations of Borko and her colleagues
(Borko, Lalik, & Tomchin, 1987) that novice teachers are
acquiring the schemata of procedural knowledge for decision
making that experienced teachers possess.


The Interactive Decisions of Novice Teachers.... 43
Novice Teachers' Interactive Decisions 44
The Decisions of More and Less Experienced
Teachers 51
Summary and Critique 56
Planning and Interactive Decision Making for
Students with Special Needs 58
Planning and Instructional Accommodations for
Students in Mainstream Classrooms 64
The Constraints of Planning Accommodations
for Students 67
Professional Knowledge as a Constraint on
Instructional Accommodations 71
Summary and Critique 72
III METHODOLOGY 75
Procedures 76
Overview 76
Participant Selection 78
Gaining Access 80
Site Selection 82
Description of the Sites 82
Research Procedures 90
Overview 90
Data Collection 91
Participant Observation 92
Participant Interviewing 94
Stimulated Recall 96
Documents 97
Data Analysis 98
Methodological Issues 101
Analytic Interpretation 101
Researcher Qualifications and Biases 102
IV THE CONSTRUCTION OF A PEDAGOGY TO ACCOMMODATE
STUDENT DIFFERENCES: INSTRUCTIONAL
STRATEGIES 105
Everyone Can Do This: Masking Plans and
Decisions to Include all Students 110
Phase One: Maximize Student Participation... 112
Phase Two: Monitor Student Progress 117
Phase Three: Individualized Instruction 123
Summary 129
vi


138
type of writing utensil the children should use. The children
have a red folder in their desk with FUN FOLDER written on
the front. Inside the folder are activities related to the
instructional units. The children can work on these
activities independently when they finish an assignment
early. These activities are not evaluated.
Marcy's cooperating teacher regarded the use of the fun
folder as an inventive management tool:
"The fun folder is excellent. That prevents a lot of
behavior problems. When the faster students complete
their work, they use the fun folder. It is something
they can do that's not mandatory to finish. Nothing is
graded in the fun folder. It's great management. Until
she got here, it's the first I've seen." (CTI.4)
For these interns clear expectations and instructional
routines increased the likelihood that all students would be
active participants in an activity. The link between
management and instruction was evident for the PART interns.
Well-planned lessons included clear procedures to engage
children in purposeful activity and achieve instructional
goals. Well-planned lessons maximized student participation
and, when accompanied with a system for behavior management,
reduced the probability of discipline problems.
Phase Two: Maintain Student Attention
Each of the interns followed or established a behavior
management system that was articulated to the class. For the
PART interns, behavior management strategies were
prerequisite to effective instruction. Behavior management
practices ranged from time-out to assertive discipline to
behavior modification. Regardless of the type of management


66
for students with disabilities. Schumm et al. used a case
study approach to describe preplanning, interactive planning,
and postplanning for students with learning disabilities. A
description of the participants and methods of inquiry is
presented in Table 2.4. Schumm's findings in this study and
one conducted previously (McIntosh, Vaughn, Schumm, Haager, &
Lee, 1994) replicated Baker and Zigmond's (1990) in several
ways: (a) the students with learning disabilities were
expected to cover the same content as all other students; (b)
content was generally introduced through whole-group
instruction; and (c) review and reteaching depended on the
majority of students' performance.
Schumm et al. (1995) observed that teachers planned for
diversity in their classrooms by structuring grouping
patterns that encouraged involvement of all students.
Support systems for students with learning disabilities were
provided through peer tutoring, cooperative learning groups,
or individualized assistance. Length of assignments was
sometimes reduced for students who had difficulty finishing
tasks, and tests were sometimes scored differently. The
teachers were very concerned about peer acceptance, and
activities were planned to encourage all students to
communicate, express themselves, and recognize individual
strengths. The teachers in this study were identified as
being effective in working with students with learning
disabilities. Although these teachers expressed a belief and


139
system practiced, each intern shared a common goal for its
use: maintain student attention.
Martha adapted the "Target" procedure from a social
skills curriculum used by her cooperating teacher. When the
children in Martha's class were cooperative participants,
they were "On Target." Martha would often reinforce
appropriate behavior with statements such as "thank you for
raising your hand and being on target." If students were
given a warning but continued a disruptive action (e.g.,
talking, walking around room, rocking in chair), Martha would
send them to "Inner Circle." The inner circle was a chair at
one of the center tables where students were removed from the
group, but they were still included as participants in an
activity. Continuous inappropriate behavior resulted in
Martha's decision to send students to "Outer Circle" which
meant no further participation in classroom activities
because they were out of the room in the cooperating
teacher's office or in the classroom next door. Martha
viewed classroom management as the key to effective
instruction: "You can't possibly have any room for teaching
until the management is taken care of." The use of "Target
procedures helped Martha cope with issues of fairness to the
rest of the class. Children in "Inner Circle" were expected
to continue to participate in class activities and complete
assignments. Martha did not have to compromise other
children's' time to reteach concepts to those who had missed
out because of misbehavior.


CHAPTER IV
THE CONSTRUCTION OF A PEDAGOGY TO ACCOMMODATE STUDENT
DIFFERENCES: INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
The goal of this study was to reveal the planning and
instructional decisions made by Project PART interns for
students who were hard to teach and hard to manage. In this
study, the researcher focused on six interns' pedagogical
decisions prior to, during, and following instructional
activities. More specifically, interviews and observations
were focused on the interns' planning considerations,
implementation and adjustment of plans during instruction,
and their reflections on their actions and the students'
responses to an instructional activity. These kinds of
concrete phenomena provided indicators of these interns'
decision making for hard-to-teach and hard-to-manage
students.
The collected data were analyzed into pattern codes or
categories according to similarities among recorded events
(Miles & Huberman, 1984) The following categories proved to
be particularly helpful in uncovering planning and
instructional decisions: Kinds of Statements PART Interns
Make About Hard-to-Teach and Hard-to-Manage Students, Things
PART Interns Do to Prepare Plans, Things PART Interns Do to
Adapt Plans and Materials, Kinds of Strategies PART Interns
Use to Implement Plans, Kinds of Strategies PART Interns Use
105


133
decisions: moving the lesson forward and considering the
equity of a modification. The preventive measures and
interventions described in the following section helped the
PART interns cope with these two dilemmas.
Phase One: Get the Management Down
Classroom management was a predominant concern for the
PART interns. Martha succinctly described the significance of
effective classroom management: "You have to get the
management first; you can't teach effectively until you have
the management down." For these interns "getting the
management down" meant clarifying expectations and
establishing consistent instructional routines.
In each of the interns' classrooms it was common to see
a set of class rules posted and the daily schedule listed.
Each intern reviewed the day' s activities in the morning so
the children would know what was to be accomplished. Martha
regarded clear expectations as a preventive management tool:
"To prevent chaos, I try to always ask if there are any
questions about what you are supposed to do. I also have
kids repeat back to me what to do to see if they have it in
their heads the same way I have it in mine."
Martha also had students practice routines such as
walking in lines, making transitions to centers, or working
with partners. Martha referred to this as "half-time, half
time, full-time": "You have the children model the right way
to do things, the wrong way to do things, and then the whole
class models the right way. I used that with any kind of


LD
1780
199(5
tW
iiiils


APPENDIX B
LETTER TO COOPERATING TEACHERS
September 23, 1994
Dear
As you know by now, these Project PART interns are quite
a unique group. I've found them to be so interesting that
I'd like to know just what makes them tick. Actually, I want
to study their planning and instructional practices for my
dissertation. More specifically, I want to know how they
plan instruction and make instructional/behavioral
accommodations for the hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage children
in their classes.
You have already allowed me to spend time in your
classes and I am very grateful. I would like to continue to
observe and videotape lessons taught by the interns. I would
also like to talk more with you regarding your perceptions of
the interns' instructional/managerial practices. I know that
another person in the classroom can be distracting at times.
I will try to maintain a low profile while in your rooms and
act as a participant observer. Thank you for allowing the
interns and me to be a part of your classroom.
Sincerely,
Nancy Long Corbett
Field Advisor
Project PART
176


51
The Decisions of More and Less Experienced Teachers
In a seminal study of expert/novice differences in
decision making, Leinhardt and Greeno (1986) observed
elementary expert and novice teachers as they conducted
lessons in math. For Leinhardt and Greeno, skill in teaching
rests on two fundamental systems of knowledge, lesson
structure and subject matter. Knowledge of lesson structure
is required to construct and conduct a lesson. This
knowledge is supported and partially controlled by knowledge
of the subject matter. Subject matter knowledge is assessed
and used during the course of a lesson.
The expert teachers in this study constructed their
lessons around a core of activities that moved from total
teacher control to independent student work. Lessons started
with a brief presentation or review of information that often
involved student discussion and then moved to shared solving
of problems. Interactive seatwork followed, and on occasion
this led to independent seatwork. This format became a
predictable routine for the students.
For the novices, there was no predictable lesson
routine. Each portion of a lesson was different, and there
was little connection between the lesson that occurred prior
to one or proceeding another. The absence of a routine
seemed due mainly to a lack of experience and was exacerbated
by the lack of repetition of a lesson format on the part of
the novices.


15
Criteria for Selection of Relevant Literature
Studies considered for the literature review had certain
characteristics. Research questions addressed (a) how
teachers plan, (b) factors that influence teachers' plans,
(c) the planning and/or interactive decisions of experienced
and inexperienced teachers, (d) factors that influence
teachers' interactive decisions, and (e) teachers' planning
and interactive decision making for students with
disabilities. Participants in studies were novice teachers
unless the researchers examined expert/novice differences in
which experienced teachers were considered experts.
Studies were empirical, published, and included
descriptions of participants, methods of inquiry and
analyses, and findings that allow for replication.
Studies were considered for inclusion in the literature
review if they met all criteria and were conducted between
1984 and 1994. The findings of research relevant to this
study that were published prior to 1984 are briefly
summarized in this literature review. Clark and Peterson
(1986) provided a detailed analysis of the literature on
teachers' thought processes from 1970 to 1984 in the Handbook
of Research on Teaching.
A Theoretical Framework for Teacher Planning and
Interactive Decision Making
Researchers' investigations in teacher planning and
decision making grew out of the interest in teachers'
thinking. Teacher thinking is examined from a cognitive


Establish
instructional
Figure 5.1. PART interns' plans and decisions for students who are hard to
manage.
132


140
Lana followed her cooperating teacher's behavior
management procedures because she thought that system was
effective. "She told me I could try something different, but
I didn't need to. The cooperating teacher made the children
aware of her expectations and they know what to do." If a
student did not follow one of the established rules, Lana
issued a warning. If this was disregarded, the student's
name was written on the board. If the student received two
checks beside his name for other inappropriate behaviors, he
went to "time-out" to write a description of what happened.
The student remained in "time-out" (a desk away from other
students) for a week. If the student's name did not appear
on the board for a week, he was allowed to move back to his
regular seat. Students whose names were not "written on the
board" earned stickers that could be traded for prizes.
Marcy devised an elaborate behavior modification system,
"The Cloud Chart, prior to her internship and decided it was
appropriate to implement with her first graders:
Some students were prelabeled by teachers and parents as
hard to manage. Some of them came to visit the
classroom during preplanning and they were all over the
place, their hands around other kids necks. After the
first week of flipping clouds, these children are not
what I consider to be hard to manage. (FII.l)
Marcy's cloud system consisted of several components. A
poster board with each child's name and a set of cut-out
clouds were located on cabinets at the side of the room. At
the beginning of each day all clouds were blue. If a
behavior problem occurred, Marcy asked the children


189
Munby, H. (1982). The place of teachers' beliefs in
research on teacher thinking and decision making, and an
alternative methodology. Instructional Science, 11. 201-225.
New faces at school: How changing demographics reshape
American education. (1991a). Education of the Handicapped,
17(16), 1-4.
New faces at school: How changing demographics reshape
American education. (1991b). Education of the Handicapped,
17(18), 1-6.
Office of Special Education Programs. (1994). 16th
Annual Report to Congress. Washington, DC: Author.
Osborn, J.H., Jones, B.F., & Stein, M. (1985). The
case for improving textbooks. Educational Leadership. 42(7).
9-16.
Paine, L. (1989). Orientation towards diversity: What
do prospective teachers bring? (Research Rep. No. 89-9).
East Lansing; Michigan State University, National Center for
Research on Teacher Education.
Peterson, P.L., & Clark, C.M. (1978). Teachers' reports
of their cognitive processes during teaching. American
Educational Research Journal. 15. 555-565.
Peterson, P.L., & Comeaux, M.A. (1987). Teachers'
schemata for classroom events: The mental scaffolding of
teachers' thinking during classroom instruction. Teaching
and Teacher Education. 3. 319-331.
Peterson, P.L., Marx, R.W., & Clark, C.M. (1978).
Teacher planning, teacher behavior, student achievement.
American Educational Research Journal. 15. 417-432.
Porter, A.C., & Brophy, J. (1988). Synthesis of
research on good teaching: Insights from the work of the
Institute of Research on Teaching. Educational
Leadership.45(8). 74-85.
Pugach, M.C. (1988). Special education as a constraint
on teacher education reform. Journal of Teacher Education.
39. 52-57.
Reynolds, A. (1992). What is competent teaching? A
review of the literature. Review of Educational Research.
62. 1-35.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to accepted standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to accepted standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Edward C. Turner
Associate Professor of
Instruction and Curriculum
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December, 1996
Dean, Collecr'of Education
Dean, Graduate School


43
the interpretations made by the authors. Bullough (1987),
John (1991), Borko and Livingston (1989), and Kagan and
Tippins (1992) conducted interviews and observations and
examined lesson plans of the novices. Kagan and Tippins
(1992) also examined journals kept over the course of the
student teaching internship. Beyerbach (1988) and Morine-
Dershimer (1989) used concept maps and interviews to
determine growth over a series of education courses. Byra
and Sherman (1993) and Housner and Griffey (1985) relied on
the protocols from the think alouds to examine teacher
planning.
The examination of teacher planning provides insight
into the complexities of teaching and leads us to inquire how
these plans are implemented, altered, or abandoned during
interactive teaching. A review of the literature on
teachers' interactive thoughts and decisions follows.
The Interactive Decisions of Novice Teachers
During an instructional activity, competent teachers
present or facilitate a lesson and monitor student engagement
and concept acquisition. Teachers are viewed as clinical
diagnosticians who diagnose individual needs of students and
make instructional decisions that are adaptive to those needs
(Fogarty, Wang, & Creek, 1983). This complex task requires
teachers to recall prior knowledge about students, and
subject matter to make decisions for a number of students.
Attainment of instructional goals cannot always be


48
instruction, and (g) developing background knowledge. Each
intern's overall performance was assessed and interns'
performances were then evaluated for implementation of
suggestions following a coaching session. A scoring
procedure was used to identify the interns as high performers
or low performers who needed to improve. High performers
made decisions that related to more of the decision-making
areas than low performers.
Shefelbine and Hollingsworth (1987) found that decisions
about diagnosis, planning, and word recognition instruction
were more complex instructional concerns than developing
background knowledge or placing students in appropriate texts
and more difficult for all interns to master. The authors
asserted that these areas may be more complex because there
are multiple solutions to be considered before arriving at a
decision. Lower-performing interns had difficulty in all
seven areas. Diagnosis and teaching word recognition skills
required the novices to make adaptations to the planned
lesson and few of the interns were able to modify their
original plans while teaching. Management concerns prevented
lower performers from attending to other decision-making
areas. Attention was centered around getting and maintaining
attention, planning activities that minimize disruptions, and
reinforcing desired behaviors.
Novices' concern with management was a clear theme in
the literature on planning. Management concerns also arise


24
Table 2.l--continued
Domains
Interactive Taskscontinued
Organize and monitor
students, time, and
materials during
instruction
The teacher guides
students through initial
practice activities
before requiring
independent work and
adjusts the amount of
guided practice to the
ability of the students
(Rosenshine, 1986).
Students are questioned
at a pace related to
level of questioning and
questions are kept at a
level of difficulty where
most students experience
a high degree of success
(Rosenshine, 1986) .
As a teacher proceeds
through a lesson, main
ideas and key concepts
are periodically
summarized (Brophy &
Good, 1986).
Evaluate student
learning
The teacher monitors
students to make
instructional decisions
and provide feedback to
students. When
monitoring, the teacher
is clear about
expectations and holds
students accountable for
their work. Extensive
interactions are
initiated with students,
it is made clear how and
when students can receive
help; students are
encouraged to complete
work accurately (Rieth &
Evertson, 1988).


149
leadership before, now he's begun to demonstrate
positive leadership.
As a result of this accommodation, Mary felt Evan became more
responsible for his behavior. Helping students identify ways
to solve problems was a management concern for many of the
PART interns. Martha incorporated a self-monitoring check
sheet with some of the students in her second-grade class to
help them think about how to access appropriate supplies and
make requests for assistance.
During instructional activities, some students
continuously approached Martha to complain about other
students, ask questions, or ask for supplies. She found it
difficult to maintain the flow of a lesson and adapted "High
Five" from a counseling curriculum. High Five was a check
sheet the children used to remind themselves of five things
they needed to consider before they approached the teacher.
The check sheets were in a basket on a shelf near the center
of the classroom. Before they went to the teacher for help,
they had to answer "yes" to the following statements:
I know what I need.
I know who to ask.
I have waited for an appropriate time to ask.
I have asked in a friendly wav.
I have ignored,
moved awav.
warned.
Martha described "High Five" as a concrete tool that helped
the children think about doing things at the appropriate
time. Martha's cooperating teacher agreed and saw her


3
Children at risk for school failure constitute the
fastest growing sector of the school-age population. Their
burgeoning numbers have altered contemporary education,
especially in urban areas (New Faces at School, 1991b).
Meeting the needs of at-risk children in general education
classrooms is one challenge facing the education community.
The special education movement to integrate students with
disabilities in general classrooms is another issue that is
forcing educators to address the educational and
developmental needs of hard-to-teach and hard-to-reach
students.
The Regular Education Initiative
The Regular Education Initiative (REI), a movement to
include students with disabilities in general education
classrooms, has generated a great deal of discussion among
special education scholars, and they have made compelling
arguments for inclusion (Gartner & Lipsky, 1987; Reynolds,
Wang, & Walberg, 1987; Wang, Reynolds, & Walberg, 1986,
1988). Proponents of the REI assert general education
classrooms offer rich learning opportunities for students
with disabilities (Stainback & Stainback, 1992). Although
the full effect of this movement has not been realized, it is
possible that the number of students with disabilities
included in mainstream classes will increase. Currently, the
Department of Education reports that 69% of students
receiving special education services spend more than 40% of


170
time and attention to specific individuals. Although the
data provide informal observations of student success as a
result of an accommodation, specific assessment data would
have provided the researcher with explicit documentation of
student progress. Future studies should include formal
assessments related to student learning.
Another question suggested by the study concerns the
PART interns' first years of teaching. In this study, the
interns worked with supportive cooperating teachers, and they
were encouraged to engage in diverse practices by their field
advisors. They met weekly to discuss issues in their
classrooms and brainstormed ideas for interventions. It is
imperative to know the kinds of practices these interns
relinquish or maintain as they work in contexts that may not
be as supportive as those they encountered during their
teacher preparation program.
Finally, this study illuminates the plans and decisions
made by PART interns who completed internships in the primary
grades. Previous studies indicated that upper elementary and
secondary teachers' plans, concerns, and instructional
practices are sometimes different from that of primary
teachers (Galluzzo & Minix, 1992; Kagan & Tippins, 1992;
Schumm & Vaughn, 1991; Vaughn & Schumm, 1994). Studies
conducted at the upper elementary and secondary levels can
provide insight into the practices and concerns of teachers
trying to meet the needs of older individuals as we continue
to examine and sort out the complexities of teaching.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This study focused on the planning and interactive
decision making of beginning teachers. In this study,
beginning teachers are also referred to as novices. Novice
teachers include preservice teachers in practicums and full
time internships and first to third year teachers (Berliner,
1988). Research in the area of teachers' thought processes
provided background for the questions in the present study.
This chapter is divided into five major sections.
First, criteria are described for selection and inclusion of
studies. Second, a description of schema theory is presented
to establish a theoretical framework for the study. Third,
preactive, interactive, and postactive instructional tasks
are presented to exemplify the nature of teachers' decision
making. Fourth, empirical studies of novice teachers'
planning and interactive decisions are described, compared,
and contrasted with the plans and decisions of experienced
teachers to establish a developmental perspective for the
study. Finally, research on general educators' planning and
interactive decisions for students with disabilities is
presented to further support the need for the current
study.
14


185
Borko, H,, Livingston,C., & Shavelson, R.J. (1990).
Teachers' thinking about instruction. Remedial and Special
education 11(6). 40-49.
Brophy, J., & Good, T.L. (1986). Teacher behavior and
student achievement. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of
Research on Teaching (3rd ed., pp. 328-375). New York:
Macmillan.
Buchmann, M., & Floden, R.E. (1990). Program coherence
in teacher education: A view from the United States (Issue
Paper 90-6). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research
on Teacher Education.
Bullough, R. (1987). Planning and the first year of
teaching. Journal of Education for Teaching. 13. 231-250.
Byra, M., & Sherman, M.A. (1993). Preactive and
interactive decision-making tendencies of less and more
experienced preservice teachers. Research Quarterly for
Exercise and Snort. 64. 46-55.
Calderhead, J. (1981). A psychological approach to
research on teachers'classroom decision making. British
Educational Research Journal. 7. 51-57.
Calderhead, J. (1983, April). Research into teachers'
and student teachers'cognitions: Exploring the nature of
classroom practice. Paper presented at the annual meeting of
the American Educational Research Association, Montreal,
Canada.
Carter, K., Sabers, K., Cushing, K., Pinnegar, S., &
Berliner, D.C. (1987). Processing and using information
about students: A study of expert, novice and postulant
teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education. 3. 147-157.
Clark, C.M., & Peterson, P.L. (1986). Teachers' thought
processes. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on
teaching (3rd ed., pp. 255-296). New York: Macmillan.
Clark, C.M., & Yinger, R.J. (1979). Three studies of
teacher planning (Research Series No.55). East Lansing:
Michigan State University, Institute for Research on
Teaching.
Colker, L. (1982). Teachers' interactive thoughts about
pupil cognition (Doctoral dissertation, University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts
International. 43 (09). A2882.


108
For the PART interns, planning and decision making for
children who are hard to teach and manage evolved into the
cyclical process that is depicted in Figure 4.1. According
to the PART interns, learning opportunities for all children
were enhanced when their instructional decision making
proceeded through three interrelated phases:
Phase One: The interns developed preactive plans for
large group lessons that included instructional
approaches to maximize student participation. They
developed consistent instructional routines and
clarified behavioral expectations as preventive
management strategies.
Phase Two: The interns monitored student progress
during and after an activity to determine the need to
alter or modify instruction or a management strategy for
individual students.
Phase Three: The interns made accommodations to
individualize instruction to enable students to
participate in the regular curriculum at their ability
level. They implemented behavioral interventions for
particular students to increase participation and
minimize distractions.
Consideration of each component of the decision making cycle
for hard-to-teach and hard-to-manage children helped these
PART interns cope with the instructional and managerial
dilemmas they encountered. In Chapter 4 the researcher
reveals how the PART interns planned and made instructional


86
appreciated Martha's enthusiasm and creativity. These were
characteristics Martha also admired about her cooperating
teacher. There were 28 students in Martha's class. These
children came from a variety of backgrounds and some received
additional services from Chapter I, Gifted, and Speech and
Language.
Laura completed her internship during Spring semester,
1995, in the same second-grade classroom as Martha. She was
eager to work in a classroom with "so many things happening,"
and she appreciated the artistic and creative talents of the
cooperating teacher. A description of the students in Martha
and Laura's classroom is provided in Table 3.2.
Mary also completed her internship at School I in a
third-grade class. Several children in Mary's class were
considered to be hard to teach and manage, and an additional
aid was hired to provide managerial and academic assistance
to the students. Mary's cooperating teacher was a white
female with 18 years teaching experience. Because of a
lengthy illness, Mary's cooperating teacher was absent during
most of Mary's internship, and Mary felt she was unable to
form the kind of relationship with her cooperating teacher
that she would have liked. Mary had 30 students in this
class. Students received supplemental services from Chapter
I, Gifted, and Speech and Language. A description of the
students in Mary's class is included in Table 3.2.


89
the following full-time support staff: guidance counselor,
media specialist, music teacher, P.E. teacher, two Title I
teachers, and seven special education teachers. Among those
special education teachers, two taught prekindergarten
special needs classes; two taught classes for children with
varying exceptionalities; one taught a class for students who
were emotionally handicapped; and one taught a class for
students with trainable mental handicaps. A speech
pathologist provided services for students with speech and
language impairments. A teacher for the students who were
gifted worked with the elementary students 20% of the time
and spent the rest of the day with middle and high schoolers.
A total of 139 students were provided services by special
education teachers.
Lana completed her internship in a third-grade
classroom. Lana's cooperating teacher, a white female,
received her teaching credentials after raising her family.
Her only school placement was the one she was currently
working, and she had been there for about 14 years. Lana
enjoyed the prospect of interning in this classroom. The
class was orderly and expectations were clear. There were 25
students in Lana's class. As indicated in Table 3.2, some of
the children received pull-out services from Chapter I and
ESE.


Plan to
Figure 4.1. PART interns plans and decisions for students who are hard to
teach.
109


148
could provide individualized assistance when needed. Max, a
student of great concern to Laura, often sat near her to
complete assignments:
Max will need the most help. Some days he's really on
and some days he's off. He doesn't seem to have the
building blocks to complete activities. If I'm not
right there beside him he won't do [the work].
Laura's cooperating teacher regarded Laura's use of
preferential seating as a way to prevent behavior problems
and provide academic assistance:
In small groups she became adept at giving appropriate
choices such as, "You can go sit over there and work by
yourself or work with a partner." Some of the things
she did with Max and some of the low readers are
strategies I'11 use with these kids. Seat them next to
the teacher's assistant so she can answer questions.
As stated, Mary used preferential seating as an
accommodation for a few students in her class. She also
found individual behavior contracting effective with some
other students. Mary described a self-monitoring procedure
she used with Evan:
Evan uses inappropriate language and talks back to the
aides in the class. He can be manipulative and hurts
other children verbally. What worried me was that other
kids thought he was cool and began to act like him. We
went into the office and talked about it. I talked to
him more like an adult and he responded better. I told
him I thought he could be responsible to keep track of
his contract. I have a behavior contract with him. He
identified areas where he thought he had the most
problems. He checks his own behavior on a check sheet.
He checks "No" if he doesn't know how to handle a
problem and needs help or he checks "yes" if he knows
how to solve a problem. His parents are involved and
want to know what's going on. If he requests help or
resolves a problem his parents reward him at home. They
went out for a pizza and are going to a baseball game
together. I would have given him a reward like free
time if his parents had not responded. He had negative


76
This chapter includes a description of the methods and
procedures employed to study PART interns' plans and
interactive decisions about hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage
students. The following sections include an overview of the
study, a description of the procedures for selecting
participants, methods for gaining access to the classroom
settings, descriptions of the participants' schools and
classrooms, and procedures for data collection. In the final
section, research procedures and methodological issues are
reviewed.
Procedures
Overview
Eighteen students enrolled in Project PART (Prevention
and Accommodation through Reflective Teaching) at the
University of Florida for the 1993-1994 academic year. This
project was designed to prepare elementary teachers to
accommodate diverse student populations, including students
with disabilities. Prior to the internship, Project PART
students completed four semesters of course work in
elementary and special education and two semesters of pre
internship field experiences, including a placement in a
special education resource room. This study took place
during the 10-week full-time internship in Fall and Spring
semesters, 1994-1995.


98
free from researcher effect. Sources of documentary evidence
include letters, copies of curriculum guides, notes from
faculty meetings, and units of study designed by teachers.
The PART interns developed integrated units of study that
were examined for the kinds of information contained in their
written plans and compared to the implementation of the
lessons and interviews on planning.
Data Analysis
Data analysis consists of examining, categorizing,
tabulating, or separating the research evidence in meaningful
units (Jorgensen, 1989; LeCompte & Priesle, 1993; Miles &
Huberman, 1984). The purpose of this process is to
reconstruct these data in a comprehensible manner.
Qualitative researchers analyze data throughout a study
rather than waiting until the end of data collection
(LeCompte & Preissle, 1993; Spradley, 1980; Yin, 1994).
Analysis is linked with choices of theoretical frameworks and
data collection methods. Initial impressions and perceptions
are analyzed while in the field, and research questions may
be reframed. This researcher entered the field with a
descriptive question in mind: "How do PART interns plan and
make instructional decisions for hard-to-teach/hard-to manage
students?" This question served as a guide to help the
researcher systematically examine the PART interns' thoughts
and interactive decisions and develop a descriptive framework
for organizing the study (Yin, 1994).


93
planning of 12 elementary teachers. In this study,
observations focused on the activities engaged in by Project
PART interns as they taught an integrated unit. Observations
were scheduled twice a week for each intern during their 10-
week internship and lasted 2 to 3 hours.
Gold (1958) described a continuum of roles of
participant observers: (a) a complete observer, (b) a
participant-as-observer who is more observer than
participant, (c) an observer-as-participant who is more
participant than observer, and (d) a complete participant.
The researcher in this study assumed the role of participant-
as-observer. The majority of observations were passive;
there was little interaction with students or teachers during
the observation. The PART interns usually described the
researcher as "one of my teachers" when she visited
classrooms. Occasionally the children commented, "Your
teacher's here," when the researcher entered the room for an
observation then went about their daily routine. If
teachers, aides, or students approached the researcher, she
interacted with them. For example, during an observation in
Lacy's class, a student approached the researcher and asked
her to look at a book with him. Because it was a book
sharing time, it seemed the natural thing to do and seemed
less disruptive than avoiding contact. Field notes indicated
contact with individuals so that they could be considered in
analysis.


PART interns' classrooms during 10 weeks of their internships
for a total of 250 hours. These observations focused on the
interns pedagogical practices and interactive decisions for
students who are hard to teach and manage. Formal and
informal interviews were conducted with the interns and their
cooperating teachers. Videotapes of instructional activities
were reviewed with the interns as they described their
interactive thoughts and decisions during a stimulated recall
interview. In addition, the interns' lesson plans were
examined.
Data analysis was an ongoing process which proceeded
through several phases. The analysis revealed that the PART
interns engaged in a cyclical process of planning and
decision making composed of three phases:
1. The PART interns developed large group lessons,
clarified instructional routines and expectations to
maximize student participation.
2. The PART interns monitored student progress during
an activity to determine the need to alter or modify
instructional or managerial strategies.
3. The PART interns made individualized instructional
and managerial accommodations to increase opportunities
to learn for all students.
The accommodations made by the interns had to be equitable
for all students, and the accommodations could not thwart the
interns' efforts to cover required curriculum.
xi


9
teachers make regarding individual students, specifically
students who experience difficulty in the general education
setting (Blanton, Blanton, & Cross, 1994; Vaughn & Schumm,
1994) It is not clear what kinds of knowledge teachers
possess about these students or what types of strategies they
employ to meet their educational needs.
Researchers have conducted few studies on the kinds of
adaptations general classroom teachers make for special
learners. Results from existing studies lead one to suspect
that teachers make few instructional adaptations (Baker &
Zigmond, 1990). Teachers may not attempt to make
accommodations for students because they feel they are not
adequately prepared to meet the needs of diverse learners.
Project PART students entered a program to acquire
skills and strategies to work with pupils who are hard to
teach and reach. Examination of the planning and decision
making of these beginning teachers can help practitioners and
teacher educators understand the practices these teachers
initiate. To understand their planning and instructional
decisions, in-depth research procedures should be employed.
Design of the Study
Qualitative methods of research were used to gather data
and analyze information. Data were collected on six interns
during the 1994-1995 academic year. The study consisted of
intensive observations of Project PART interns during their
10-week internship. The interns were formally interviewed


45
Table 2.3
Review of Studies of Interactive Decision Making
Author(s) Participants
Method of Inquiry
Shefelbine &
Hollingsworth
(1987)
14 undergraduate
elementary
education students
Running record of
reading events
during a 30-minute
lesson
Coding and Analysis: Data were coded in seven decision
making categories that constitute thoughtful reading
instruction. They are (a) appropriate diagnosis, (b)
flexible planning, (c) lesson balance, (d) appropriate text
placement, (e) type of reading practice, (f) word recognition
practice, and (g) developing background knowledge.
Purpose: To describe teachers' interactive decisions during
a reading practicum
Findings: Diagnosis, planning, and word recognition were
more complex instructional concerns and more difficult for
all interns to master.
Galluzzo & 14 student Stimulated recall
Minix (1992) teachers;
7 elementary,
7 secondary
Coding and Analysis: Responses were placed in five
categories: pupils, content, procedures, materials, and time.
Purpose: To describe the interactive decisions of elementary
and secondary novices.
Findings: Pupil learning was of greatest concern to
secondary and elementary novices. Secondary students did not
mention objectives as a concern but were more concerned with
pupil attitude and pupil behavior. Novice teachers appear to
be acquiring a schemata for interactive decision making.


81
anonymity and confidentiality in presentations and
publications of the study was assured to all participants.
The researcher also met with or talked by phone with the
principals at each participant's school to discuss the
purpose of the study and the nature of data collection.
Arrangements were made to obtain parental permission to
videotape children who might appear on camera during lessons
taught by the interns. (See Appendix C for a copy of parental
permission form.)
To summarize, the researcher solicited permission from
agencies and individuals considered to be key players in the
study. Through verbal and written communication the
investigator answered the following questions suggested by
Bogdan and Biklen (1982) as a guide to gaining access to
qualitative fieldwork.
1. "What are you actually going to do?"
2. "Will you be disruptive?"
3. "What are you going to do with your findings?"
4. "Why us?"
5. "What will we get out of this?" (pp. 123-124)
Qualitative research is guided by ethical principles to
help investigative observers make decisions regarding the use
and confidentiality of data shared by participants. These
principles were adhered to by this researcher to respect the
participants and maintain the integrity of the study:
1. Consider the informants first.
2. Safeguard informants' rights, interests, and
sensitivities.
3. Communicate research obj ectives.
4. Protect the privacy of the informants.


80
them. They were also informed that they could drop out of
the study at any time if they felt it necessary to do so.
A total of six Project PART participants, all white
females, agreed to participate in the study. During the Fall
semester of 1994, four PART students completed their
internships, and two more PART students completed their
internships during Spring semester, 1995. Mary, Martha,
Marcy, and Lacy (all names are pseudonyms) participated in
the study during Fall semester, and Laura and Lana were
participants during Spring semester.
Gaining Access
Following the initial meeting, the researcher met
individually with each participant to schedule dates for the
first observation and interview. The researcher explained
that she would be as unobtrusive as possible when conducting
observations, and she would schedule interviews at their
convenience. All participants in the study signed letters
permitting the researcher to audiotape interviews and
videotape lessons for the study. (See Appendix A for a copy
of permission form.)
Prior to the first observation, the researcher met with
and gave a letter to each participating intern's cooperating
teacher that described the intent of the study and indicated
that the researcher would like to talk to them about the
intern's planning, instructional, and managerial practices.
(See Appendix B for a copy of the letter.) The right to


18
teacher behavior, such as handing out materials and
organizing students for small group instruction. Researchers
(Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986) proposed that experienced teachers
have a greater number of mental scripts for teaching
activities and routines than do novices. The scripts of
experienced teachers are generally more flexible and
adaptable to a greater number of situations. It appears that
experienced teachers possess a larger repertoire of scripts
to recall in various teaching situations and as a result,
become more efficient decision makers (Borko, Livingston, &
Shavelson, 1990).
Scenes. Scenes are structures that depict teachers'
knowledge of people and objects in common classroom event.
Well formulated scene schemata enable teachers to store a
large amount of information about the relationships among
people and objects in recurring classroom activities and
rapidly visualize common activity structures (Borko et al.,
1990). Experienced teachers have scene schemata for
classroom activities, and they are able to attend selectively
to instructionally relevant information. Scene schemata are
spatial and include how the class should be organized for
instructional activities such as whole group, small group, or
independent seatwork (Borko & Livingston, 1989).
Propositional structures. Propositional structures
represent teachers' factual knowledge about elements of
teaching such as the students in their classrooms, subject


124
materials and modified instruction to accommodate particular
students. This was accomplished in a variety of ways. The
use of differentiated reading materials, integration of
manipulatives into lessons, modification of worksheets and
assignments, and flexible skill groupings were all used to
tailor instruction to meet the needs of individuals in their
classes.
While teaching a unit on ecosystems to her third
graders, Mary had cooperative groups choose an ecosystem to
study (e.g., desert, rain forest) and develop questions they
wanted to answer while conducting research. Mary selected
three books, with similar information, written at various
grade levels to address the array of reading abilities in her
class. She wanted all children to be able to answer their
questions. Mary commented,
I looked at the latest reading scores available on these
kids and found they ranged from below first grade to
eighth. I knew we could come up with a way to find
suitable reading materials without ability grouping. I
used discovery groups with modifications I made for at
risk groups. I formed ad hoc skill groups for those who
needed it and met with these students more often because
they needed the basics. (FI.I.4)
As a part of reading instruction, Mary would often meet
with children in small groups to hear them read and ask them
to summarize passages, clarify unfamiliar vocabulary, and
predict outcomes. Before the children would read aloud, she
gave them time to read silently. Mary explained her reason
for doing this:
If the children can read silently then orally, there are
less nerves and the kids whose mouths don't work as fast


156
Everyone can benefit from strategies. A special ed
strategy can be a regular ed strategy if it works. A
special education book might offer specific strategies
that I can use with a gifted student. (Mary, FI III.5)
Elementary education methods classes helped me with
planning because we had to develop units. I learned to
develop objectives and goals first instead of developing
the unit and trying to fit in goals. With the special
education courses, I learned to think about all the
students and how to make every student successful.
(Marcy, FI III.3)
The acquisition of a knowledge base in special education
provided the interns with information about the kinds of
difficulties children may experience and interventions to
ameliorate those difficulties. This knowledge base helped
the interns "give kids reasons" (Schon, 1983) for the
difficulties they experienced instead of labeling children as
lazy or inattentive. Giving kids reasons for their academic
and behavioral problems enabled the PART interns to think
about the needs of individual students and prompted some of
them to endorse alternative instruction as equitable
instruction:
I guess a lot of teachers don't understand learning
disabilities and make a scene. Once you understand it
more, you know kids behavior is not always their fault.
Like if someone hasn't learned to read yet, you are more
patient and you know why. (Laura, FI.III.3)
[With special education course work] I got the idea of
individualizing. You don't have to teach the same
lesson to everyone and not all kids learn the same way.
(Lacy, FI.III.3)
I like the saying, kids with a label are more like kids
without labels. Kids may have a strength in one area
and a weakness in another. Without the special ed
background I might have thought they just weren't trying
and I might not have tried anything different. (Martha,
FI.III.3)


22
Table 2.1
Teaching Tasks
Domains
Preactive Tasks
Comprehend content and
materials
Adapt content, plans,
and materials
Prepare plans, materials
physical space
Examples
The teacher is familiar
with subject matter that
enables the construction
of lessons that help
students relate
information to what they
already know (Porter &
Brophy, 1988).
The teacher considers
materials, students'
prior knowledge of
subject matter and prior
academic performance, and
tailors instructional
activities to students
(Fogarty, Wang, & Creek,
1983) .
The teacher has materials and
ready and available for
students and the physical
arrangement includes
areas for individuals and
groups and allows visual
contact with students
everywhere in the
classroom (Conoley, 1988) .
Instructional groupings
are arranged that
maximize academic
learning time and
accomplish the goals of
instruction (Anderson,
1986). Groups may
be homogeneous skill
groupings, cooperative
groups, and peer mediated
instructional pairs.


PROJECT PART INTERNS' PLANS AND DECISIONS FOR STUDENTS
WHO ARE HARD TO TEACH AND MANAGE
By
NANCY LONG CORBETT
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1996


2
children who attended school a decade or two ago. Growing
numbers of students come from single-parent or no-parent
homes, from families living in poverty, from families unable
to help their children meet the demands of school, and from
communities with high rates of crime and drug addiction (New
Faces at School, 1991a). Students with this demographic
profile, without family or community support, often fail in
school (Webb & Parkay, 1989) Failure of these students is
likely to result in increased demand for compensatory,
remedial, and special education services that are already
overburdened with high demand for limited resources.
Classroom teachers must be prepared to accommodate the
diversity of this student population to avoid worsening a
situation that is already difficult. Yet, teachers report
that they are poorly prepared to teach at-risk students of
any kind. In a study of Florida teachers, Kottkamp and his
colleagues found that most teachers preferred to teach nice
kids from average homes who are respectful and hard working
rather than underprivileged students or pupils with
disabilities (Kottkamrap, Provennzo, & Cohen, 1986) A reason
for this preference is that general education teachers
believe they are unprepared to meet the needs of a diverse
student population and lack the skills necessary to
accommodate at-risk students. In fact, they have been taught
to refer students to special education to be dealt with by
special educators (Pugach, 1988) .


142
the day. Usually no clouds move before lunch.
Instructionally, using the money with this is a big
thing. Counting on, making change, and shopping at the
store are all skills. A lot of this is taking
responsibility, and I think that is a skill. I don't
think it is humiliating, it's in the back of the room
and it doesn't interrupt the whole class. It's not like
the teacher writing your name on the board. Getting the
reward at the end of the week means they will earn
another penny and think about how much [money] they
have. (FI.II.2)
I would not fade the use of the clouds because it's
important to be consistent. For some kids, getting
something from the store is important. For others, the
behavior is important because they don' t want to move
the cloud. For others, they will just behave. (SRI.II)
Marcy's cooperating teacher corroborated Marcy's effective
use of this management process:
Her classroom management is phenomenal. I've never seen
a policy work like this one. They know if they get
money they can go to the store, and they love it. The
other four first grades are using this except they use
crayons instead of clouds. I will use it [the Cloud
Chart]next year and the store. (CTI.4)
Marcy felt the structure of her behavior management
program was highly appropriate for a student with a behavior
disorder. She felt he could be successful in the classroom
for longer periods of the day. Marcy felt stymied in her
efforts to accommodate a student because of the school
system's decision that it was not equitable for a student
with a serious behavior problem to spend more time in a
regular education classroom:
There is an emotionally handicapped student who is not
here for academic subjects. He wasn't in the class the
rest of the day and I wanted to have a chance to work
with him. He transferred here four weeks into the
school year. He was having problems at this other
school and was moved. All the teachers heard his
history and were concerned about what to do with him. He
was prone to be violent and destructive of property.
Academically he did well, but behaviorally he was a big


94
Because the researcher's role in the field was one of
participant-as-observer, she was usually able to record
extensive notes during observations. When this was not
possible, notes were recorded immediately following an
observation. Personal comments and speculations were
recorded during and following observations to reveal any
beliefs, attitudes, or prejudices that might influence the
data (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). Direct quotes, paraphrases,
and personal comments were distinguished from each other in
the field notes to maintain accuracy in reporting the data.
Participant Interviewing
An important source of information for qualitative
research is the interview (Bogden & Biklen, 1982; Spradley,
1980; Yin, 1994). As a problem and issue for study become
more focused, the participant observer finds it appropriate
to use interview techniques (Jorgensen, 1989). Morine-
Dershimer (1977, 1979) interviewed teachers following
observations to clarify how they developed written plans. In
this study, the researcher conducted two types of interviews,
informal and formal, to clarify the interns' planning and
decision making.
Informal interviews are more like conversations (Bogden
& Biklen, 1982; Jorgensen, 1989). They differ in that they
take on a question and answer format. The interviewer has a
set of issues to be discussed that do not have to be asked
the same way of each participant. Informal interviews were


102
generate "thick descriptive data" that permitted comparisons
across settings (Bogden & Biklen, 1982). Persistent
observations for two semesters also allowed the researcher to
develop a clear representation of the internship for these
students and helped her identify atypical experiences.
3. The researcher made a conscious attempt to examine
and criticize the underlying assumptions that influenced
questions asked and interpretations of the findings. Because
the investigator is a research instrument, it is important to
note experiences, fears, mistakes, breakthroughs, and
problems in field work (Spradley, 1980). During
observations, the researcher recorded reflections, emergent
themes, and questions in the margins of field notes.
Following an observation or interview, these notes were
expanded to enhance perceptions of events.
Qualitative researchers suggest that a description of
researcher qualifications and biases enhances the validity of
a study's findings (Kirk & Miller, 1986). The qualifications
and biases of this researcher are described in the following
section.
Researcher Qualifications and Biases
To place an observation in an appropriate context, it is
important to know about the idiosyncrasies of the observer
(Kirk & Miller, 1986). As the key instrument in the
qualitative research process, it is the researcher's


101
Methodological Issues
Analytic Interpretation
The process of analysis in qualitative research involves
analytic interpretation. The researcher must draw inferences
from what people say and do to understand what people know
(Spradley, 1980). This process of making interpretations to
analyze novice teacher decision making must be weighed
against a system of checks and balances as a safeguard
against researcher bias, misinterpretation, and researcher
influence. A number of steps were taken to reduce these
effects and enhance the dependability and trustworthiness of
the findings (Jorgensen, 1984). These steps are described or
reviewed next.
1. Multiple sources of data were collected to enhance
reliability and validity of the findings. Concepts were
formulated and checked through multiple procedures and forms
of evidence such as direct observations, formal and informal
interviews, stimulated recall interviews, and examination of
documents.
2. Observations and interviews were conducted with two
cohorts of interns over two semesters. During the second
semester of the investigation, the researcher was able to
compare emerging findings from the first semester and confirm
or deny the representativeness of the findings (Miles &
Huberman, 1984). By spending two semesters in classroom
observations and interviews, the researcher was able to


85
Lacy's classroom. These students came from a variety of
ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. Some students in
Lacy's classroom received supplementary services in Chapter
I, Gifted and Speech and Language. A complete description of
the students in Lacy's class is provided in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2
Classroom Settings
First Grade in suburban elementary school; 25 students;
4 Chapter I, 1 Emotionally Handicapped; range of SES;
ethnically diverse.
Second Grade in suburban elementary school; 28 students;
6 Chapter I; 2 Language Impaired; 3 Learning Disabled; range
of SES; ethnically diverse.
Second Grade in suburban elementary school; 28 students;
6 Chapter I; 2 Language Impaired; 1 Learning Disabled; range
of SES.
Third Grade in suburban elementary school; 30 students;
8 Chapter I; 3 Language Impaired; 3 Learning Disabled; range
of SES; ethnically diverse
Third Grade in rural elementary school; 25 students; 4
Chapter I; 1 Learning Disabled; middle to low SES;
predominantly White and African American.
Martha completed her internship in a second-grade
classroom. She had visited several classrooms prior to her
internship and selected this class because she felt it was
highly innovative. Martha's cooperating teacher, a white
female, taught for about 12 years and had also previously
worked with several interns. The cooperating teacher


Rationale for the Study
Teachers' thought processes consist of the thinking,
8
planning, and decision making that influence teacher
behavior. Phillip Jackson (1968) described teacher decision
making as a complex process that involves preactive,
interactive, and postactive decisions, occurring before,
during, and after teaching. Researchers interested in
teachers' decision making applied theories of cognitive
psychology to reveal the cognitive activities of the
profession. Surely, what teachers do is driven by what they
think. In order to understand how and why teaching looks and
works as it does, it is crucial to examine the relationships
between thought and action.
Investigators of teacher thinking discovered that
teachers plan in various ways, and these plans have
discernible effects on the classroom. Teachers make frequent
decisions while teaching, and they possess theories and
beliefs that influence their plans and decisions (Clark &
Peterson, 1986). Teachers also possess a body of
professional knowledge that influences how they interpret
classroom events and solve problems (Berliner, 1986). This
professional knowledge impacts the kinds of decisions
teachers make regarding students.
Although researchers have provided a rich description of
teachers' decision making about general classroom activities
and procedures, little is known about the kinds of decisions


92
with cooperating teachers, observation of Project PART
interns followed by informal interviews, stimulated recall
interviews with the interns, and examination of documents
(i.e., lesson plans, student work samples), are the sources
of evidence used to corroborate the findings of this study.
The multiple data sources are essentially multiple measures
of the same phenomenon and address the potential problem of
construct validity (Yin, 1994). According to LeCompte and
Preissle (1993), "triangulation prevents the investigator
from accepting too readily the validity of initial
impressions; it enhances the scope, density, and clarity of
constructs developed during the course of the investigation"
(p. 48). Triangulation also assists in correcting biases
that occur when there is only one observer of the phenomenon
under investigation. In the following sections, the data
techniques used in the study are presented.
Participant Observation
Qualitative researchers rely on observations as a method
to acquire knowledge about the group they are studying.
Through participant observation it is possible to describe
what, when, and why things happen from the perspective of the
participant (Bogden & Biklen, 1982; Jorgensen, 1989; Yin,
1994) The written account of what the researcher
experiences is in the form of field notes collected during
the course of the study (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982) McCutcheon
(1980) recorded extensive field notes while observing the


117
Mary used peer tutoring to increase reading
participation in her class. Children paired up twice a week
to read expository and narrative text and answer questions.
Mary's rationale for peer tutoring was to make the students
aware that each of them had something to contribute and that
cooperation increases their opportunities to learn: "When
they read with a partner, they can quickly read 2 to 3 pages.
When they read as a group, it' s a struggle to get through a
sentence." Mary described her pairings as "middle and high
readers" or "middle and low readers." She did this because
she observed that pairing high and low readers often resulted
in frustration for both students. For Mary, peer tutoring
was an effective strategy maximizing participation and
covering material in an efficient manner.
The PART interns planned instructional groupings to
enhance academic learning time and accomplish the goals of
instruction. The PART interns also demonstrated the ability
to identify students who experienced difficulty accomplishing
classwide goals within these instructional groupings and made
instructional accommodations to meet the needs of
individuals. Monitoring student progress was the critical
task that led these PART interns1 to adapt a lesson activity
for the children who were hard to teach.
Phase Two: Monitor Student Progress
Assessment of student knowledge begins as teachers plan
lessons and consider their students' prior knowledge of the
subject matter and prior academic performance (Fogarty, Wang,


153
Table 5.1
Teaching Tasks that Facilitate Instructional and Behavioral
Accommodations
Preactive Tasks
Teacher considers materials,
students' prior knowledge of
subject matter and tailors
instructional activities to
students. (Fogarty, Wang, &
Creek, 1983)
Instructional groupings are
arranged that maximize
academic learning time and
accomplish goals of
instruction. (Anderson,
1986)
Interactive Tasks
Directions and expectations
are clearly communicated.
(Porter & Brophy, 1988)
Explanations given in clear,
small steps and enable
students to relate the new
to the familiar and the
concrete to the abstract
(Rieth & Evertson, 1988)
Examples
Range of reading material
selected to accompany
instructional unit.
KWL to access prior knowledge.
Students selected topics of
interest for unit of study.
Written assignments were
adapted to accommodate
differential reading levels.
Flexible groups of
students included:
large groups
peer-mediated instructional
pairs
heterogeneous cooperative
groups
homogeneous skill groups
Examples
Use of advanced organizers
included:
posted schedules
multisensory presentation of
instructions
posted rules accompanied by
class meetings
Routines and transitions are
rehearsed: "half-time/half-
time/full time.
Behavior management "system"
articulated to class.
Concrete to abstract math
experiences using
manipulatives prior to
writing algorithms


168
4. The study provided detailed illustrations of the
thoughts and actions of beginning teachers related to
students who are hard to teach and reach.
5. The study highlighted variables and raised questions
which may help to focus further research in the areas of
beginning teacher education and collaborative programs of
teacher education.
Use of Findings to Research Community
The present study may be of use to researchers of
teacher planning and decision making in at least two ways.
First, the detailed descriptions and fine-grained analyses
illuminated a number of variables which could be the object
of further investigation. Second, the findings suggest
questions to be addressed in future investigations.
As is often the case in qualitative research, data
analysis reveals a number of variables which have bearing on
the questions of interest. In this study Project PART
interns' plans and decisions for hard-to-teach and hard-to-
manage students were embedded in a cyclical thinking process
that included several factors. The first stage of this
process was to plan lessons to enhance learning for all
students, establish routines, and clarify expectations. The
second stage involved monitoring students' progress as they
participated in instructional activities and behavioral
routines. The third stage of the cycle was the point at
which these interns made accommodations for individual
students. Previous studies have examined some components of


155
differences to their course work in elementary and special
education. The researcher describes the influence of course
work on the PART interns in this section.
Many teachers, beginning and experienced, express little
confidence in their ability to provide appropriate
accommodations for children who are hard to teach and reach
(Jenkins, & Leicester, 1992; Schumm, Vaughn, Gordon &
Rothlein, 1994; Vaughn & Schumm, 1994). The PART interns
frequently discussed the value of course work that prepared
them to meet the needs of all children in their classes. In
presentations, seminar meetings, and interviews, the interns
described the benefits of the acquisition of a knowledge base
in general and special education;
We crossed the imaginary line between special education
and elementary education. We've learned we can use
strategies from general education and special education
to benefit all our students. We are more informed, more
knowledgeable, and therefore better teachers. (PPVT.12-
13-94).
The Influence of Methods Courses
The interns attributed their ability to develop
integrated units and articulate the aims and goals of lesson
plans to elementary education course work. Their special
education course work helped them acquire specific
instructional strategies to accommodate academic diversity
and apply them in regular education classrooms:
In elementary education I got background information
about what I would be teaching and the format of a
lesson plan. In special education I learned strategies.
I was greatly influenced by the special education
courses. Through those courses, I learned that any kid
can have difficulty learning at some point in time.


47
Table 2.3continued.
Author(s)
Participants
Method of Inquiry
Westerman
(1992)
five expert and
five novice
elementary
teachers
Planning interviews
Stimulated recall
interviews, delayed
self-reports.
Coding and Analysis: Patterns of similarities and
differences between experts and novices were analyzed for
patterns and themes across subjects.
Purpose: To examine expert/novice decisions before, during
and after teaching and suggest a model of decision making.
Findings: Expert teachers' goals are based upon
understanding of the learning task when planning. During
teaching these goals are shaped by what is happening in the
classroom. Novice teachers have difficulty tailoring lesson
plans to accommodate student learning and know few strategies
or alternatives.


194
During her doctoral program, Nancy was active in the
Special Education Association of Graduate Students, serving
as their representative to the Graduate Student Council. She
is a member of the American Educational Research Association,
several divisions of the Council for Exceptional Children,
and Kappa Delta Pi Honor Society.
In the future, Nancy plans to continue her research in
the area of collaborative teacher education programs and
instructional interventions in general education classrooms.
Her other areas of research interest include alternative
programs for special education teacher certification,
metacognitive strategy instruction, and classroom management.
She also plans to teach at the university level.


119
Student: "Some live for a month, and some live for more
than a year."
Lacy repeats back student1s response as she records it
on chart paper.
Student: "Butterflies can lay 200 eggs on a leaf."
Student: "They taste with their feet."
Student: "They smell with their antennae."
This discussion continues until children have exhausted
their responses.
Lacv: "We've learned 21 new facts about butterflies."
Student: "We've learned a lot!" (SRV I)
Lacy then went back through her chart and reviewed the
questions the children generated that they wanted to answer
such as "Where do butterflies lay their eggs?"; "How long do
they live?"; and "How do they find the right leaf?" She also
reviewed the first chart compiled by the children listing
what they already knew about butterflies including examples
such as "They have wings"; "Monarch butterflies are
poisonous"; and "When a butterfly lays its eggs, it dies."
The children's responses on the KWL chart were used by
Lacy and her cooperating teacher to determine whether
children learned the content. In a follow-up interview,
Lacy's cooperating teacher commented, "She made the insect
unit so motivating and interesting for the kids. They
learned quite a lot. They learned 21 facts about
butterflies, and she answered all their questions, so she had
a lot of good content." (FI.CT.)
Marcy also used the KWL to introduce and assess
acquisition of content knowledge with units on the
environment and pumpkins to her first graders. She stated,
"I used the KWL to get a sense of what they learned. At


158
teachers and concluded that whether a teacher is a generalist
or specialist, good teaching is good teaching:
The more time I spent in special and regular education
classes, I realized that good teaching is good teaching.
Most of the philosophies of regular ed and the
strategies of special ed are the same, the difference
may be how directly you go about setting something up.
(Mary. FI III.5)
The view that good teaching is good teaching was reflected in
the interns application of strategies learned in special
education courses to all students. This increased the
likelihood of accommodating students who were hard to teach:
In the LD methods course, I learned to move from the
concrete to the abstract when teaching math and that
really worked with all the kids. (Lacy, FI III.3)
I learned about KWL in special education, but I used it
with all the kids in every unit I taught. (Marcy, FI
III.3)
The interns also expressed the opinion that they had an
advantage over their counterparts in traditional regular and
special education preparatory programs because of their
exposure to course work in a dual certification program:
When we talk among ourselves [the PART interns] we
realize the importance of special ed courses because
that's where we learned strategies. Like in math, you
color code the plus and minus signs for kids who dont
cue in. When other regular elementary majors ask us
about things, its a revelation to them. (Mary, FI 1.5)
I will know how to deal with hard-to-teach kids; my
PROTEACH peers won't. If children with learning
disabilities are in my class they will have a distinct
advantage. I know the way they process is not the same
as the way other kids process. You have to have lots of
tricks up your sleeve to work with them because
something is not connecting. (Lacy, FI III.6)
When we took the special ed methods course in Learning
Disabilities we had to write a unit. The special ed
students didn't know how to develop a unit and we had


147
reinforced the appropriate behavior with statements similar
to the following: "Desert group, you're doing a great job
staying in your seats and working quietly," and "Ocean table
gets two points for working together." At the end of each
day, the children who had acquired a set number of punch
points received an edible treat. Mary used the punch system
until the end of her internship and moved from tangible to
social rewards for the students. She thought the punch
system was appropriate for this class:
These kids needed a reward system. They know the time
out drill, but it doesn't mean they put it into action.
The group reward works. I'm pleased to say we used a
menu of rewards. I've moved from food to time outside,
to lunch with a teacher. If they were mine to continue
with, I'd move to projects.
Mary regarded the punch system as a useful strategy that
helped the class "come together as a group." However, she
did find it necessary to make behavioral accommodations for
individuals who had difficulty completing assignments when
sitting with their groups. For example, Mary moved three
students' desks to the front of the room, and while they were
not isolated from the class, they had a separate work space.
Mary commented,
These students sit away from the group so they can
concentrate. Look at Jeff. He's on task; he
participates here. I don't like to separate desks, but
it seems to work for these kids.
Preferential seating was a technique used by most of the
PART interns to gain student attention and redirect
disruptive behavior. Laura used preferential seating to keep
students who were hard to teach and manage near her so she


36
the concept maps completed at the beginning and end of
instructional strategies courses in both of these studies,
the novice teachers thoughts related to planning were
categorized into three constructs: (a) pedagogy, such as
choice of instructional strategies, objectives, and forms of
technological assistance, (b) student learning with an
emphasis on assessment, and (c) management and organizational
terms related to discipline, rules, time, and organization of
materials and supplies. Authors of each of these studies
described substantive growth from pre- to postmaps during the
courses studied. More variables related to teacher planning
were included on final maps. Attention focused on decisions
that need to be made during planning and instruction such as
skills to be taught, points of emphasis, and choice of
instructional methods that contribute to classroom
management. The novices in these studies began to see the
relationship between planning and instruction and understand
the interrelationship of planning tasks. This finding is
similar to Lidstone and Hollingsworth's (1992) assumption
that management and student learning are interrelated.
Bullough (1987) also recognized the developmental stages
experienced by a novice in a case study of one middle school
teacher during her first two years of teaching. Through
observations, interviews, and analysis of lesson plans, the
researcher sought to discover the planning process of a
beginning teacher.


11
familiarization with content to be taught, selection of
appropriate materials, and consideration of classroom
physical space and instructional groupings (Reynolds, 1992).
Interactive decision making. Interactive decisions are
made by the teacher during instruction. Communication of
directions and expectations, adjustment of plans, provision
of practice activities, and evaluation of student progress
are essential elements of interactive decision making
(Reynolds, 1992).
Postactive planning. Postactive planning focuses on
teachers' reflections about the success of the lesson and
assessment of student learning. Postactive planning is
often subsumed under teacher planning in that these
reflections done after a lesson often result in plans for
subsequent lessons (Clark & Peterson, 1986) .
Possible Uses of the Results
The study may have methodological significance to
practitioners and researchers. Qualitative research has been
used to examine teacher planning (Borko & Livingston, 1989;
Bullough, 1987; Sardo-Brown, 1988; Yinger, 1977), and
recently researchers have employed qualitative methods to
investigate practices for students with special needs (Vaughn
& Schumm, 1994). Qualitative measures may be beneficial in
the analysis of the complex nature of the classroom as
teachers work with an increasingly diverse student
population.


56
of students was like and how to assess and provide
instruction. Novices were less able to sort through salient
information and develop detailed images about individual
students or make inferences about the nature of previous
instructional activities. Experience and pedagogical
knowledge helps teachers develop a framework for interpreting
information about students and instructional activities. The
translation of this information into organized instructional
routines frees the teacher to focus on the important features
of the material to be presented and how students are
progressing (Lienhardt & Greeno, 1986). Expert teachers
bring a rich schemata to the interpretation of classroom
events so that they can make decisions effectively and
efficiently. These skills are not easily demonstrated by
novices.
Summary and Critique
Results of the studies by Byra and Sherman (1993),
Carter et al. (1987), and Westerman (1992) provide insight
into the development of teachers' decision making. More
experienced teachers have more information to analyze,
integrate, and draw upon as they plan and make instructional
decisions. Expert teachers are influenced by underlying
causes, whereas novices pay more attention to surface
features (Peterson & Comeaux, 1987). Reflection on
underlying causes prompts teachers to interrelate planning


113
Marcy often placed her first graders in cooperative
groups to conduct experiments related to her units. She
explained her reasons for doing this:
I always think about my highest and lowest child.
Whatever I do has to be interesting enough for my
highest child and basic enough for the lowest child.
(FI 1.2)
With cooperative groups, there was a job for every
child, noise checker, helper, speaker, the smiler
(mediator) who keeps a positive attitude. I used job
names that every child could understand and
know what they needed to do. When I assign jobs I try to
be fair. No writing for a nonwriter. A very shy person
won't be the first person I ask to stand up front and
talk to the group. When I form groups, I want to have
mixed ability groups and make sure there1s a leader in
each group. I want them to learn to work together in
groups. (SRI.l)
Martha's introductory lesson on rain forests provided
another example of enhancing student participation. Martha
introduced the concept of rain forests to second graders
through a multisensory guided discovery lesson. An excerpt
from the researcher's field notes illustrated this example:
This morning Martha greets the children outside the
classroom dressed in camouflage fatigues. She will be
their tour guide through the rain forest. The children
line backpacks and lunch boxes against the outer wall of
the classroom and gather around Martha to hear a "jungle
story". When the story is completed, Martha, now with a
microphone in her hand, prepares the class to enter
their classroom that has been transformed to resemble a
rain forest. "Line up by numbers with your group. Stay
with your group. This can be a very scary place." She
opens the door to the classroom and as the children
enter she is viewing the rain forest floor through a
pair of field glasses. The room is almost dark and
children are given flashlights to explore the rain
forest. The floor of the classroom has been covered
with a plastic tarpaulin and strewn with leaves. A
"tree" grows from floor to ceiling with birds, bugs and
other inhabitants of the rain forest clinging to the
branches. An audio tape transmits sounds of the rain
forest while the air conditioner has been sprayed with


90
The research procedures are described in the following
sections. Participant observations, participant interviews,
stimulated recall, and data analysis are discussed.
Research Procedures
Overview
Strauss and Corbin (1990) described qualitative research
as "any kind of research that produces findings not arrived
at by means of statistical procedures or other means of
quantification" (p. 17). Although some data can be
quantified (e.g., census data), the analysis of the data is
qualitative. A qualitative approach to research can be used
to study organizations, groups, and individuals in an attempt
to understand peoples' experiences in a given context
(Strauss & Corbin, 1990) In educational settings,
qualitative researchers provide data about the contexts,
activities, and beliefs of the participants; it is an
approach to studying the problems and processes in education
(LeCompte & Preissle, 1993).
In qualitative research, the initial research questions
are broad and become more focused during the research
process. The qualitative research process is cyclical,
involving ongoing data collection and analysis (Bogdan &
Biklen, 1982). Specifically, the research cycle requires the
researcher to (a) participate in extensive observations and
interviews in a setting where the phenomena occurs, (b) focus
observations around particular questions of interest, keeping


77
Eleven PART students completed their internships during
the 1994-1995 academic school year. Of the 11 PART interns,
6 of the students chose to participate in the study.
Each intern was observed for 10 weeks for approximately
4 hours each week; informal interviews were conducted after
these observations, and they lasted from 20 to 45 minutes.
Each of the interns participated in three formal interviews
that lasted approximately 1 hour. They were videotaped twice
while teaching. Following the videotaping, they watched the
tape and spent about 1 hour describing their decisions. The
interns1 cooperating teachers were interviewed for 1 hour at
the end of the internship. The researcher spent
approximately 300 hours in total data collection. A summary
of the time spent in total data collection is presented in
Table 3.1.
The researcher worked as a field advisor and seminar co
leader to the Project PART students during Fall and Spring
semesters, 1993-1994. The researcher also taught a course in
Classroom Management to five of the PART students. During
this time, the researcher established collegial relationships
with the students. The researcher enjoyed telling "teacher
stories," and students often dropped by her office to
commiserate about shared experiences in their school
placements or just chat about what was going on in their
lives. The preexisting relationship between the researcher
and the PART students made it easier to gather "trustworthy


13
practices of interns working with hard-to-teach and hard-to-
manage students, specific findings cannot be generalized to
other novice teachers.
Chapter II presents a review of literature relevant to
this study. Methodology used in implementation of the study
is described in Chapter III. Results and implications of the
study constitute the remaining chapters.


163
alter or modify instruction or a management strategy for
individual students.
Phase Three: The interns often made accommodations to
individualize instruction to enable students to
participate in the regular curriculum at their ability
level. They implemented behavioral interventions for
particular students to increase participation and
minimize distractions.
The kinds of strategies the PART interns used to make
individual academic or behavioral accommodations varied
according to the feasibility of an accommodation. These
accommodations had to meet two criteria: (a) The
accommodation had to be equitable for all students, and (b)
the accommodation could not prevent the interns1 from
covering the required curriculum. On many occasions, it was
feasible to reteach, modify an assignment, provide
differentiated reading materials, form flexible skill groups,
rearrange seating, use individualized behavior checklists, or
provide extrinsic reinforcement. When it was not feasible to
accommodate a student, it was because the intern perceived
there would be a negative impact on the remainder of the
class.
Relationship of Findings to Previous Studies
Researchers in teacher thinking have attempted to
describe the demands and complexities of the profession.
Teachers thoughts and decisions have been captured through
various methods of inquiry including observations.


37
Kerrie, the subject of Bullough's study, spent most of
her first year of teaching focused on controlling student
behavior. Management issues had to be resolved before Kerrie
could focus more fully on student learning. Bullough used
the professional development model identified by Ryan (1986)
to describe Kerrie1s first years of teaching: fantasy,
survival, and mastery. The fantasy stage of planning is
characterized as "planning by the seat of your pants"
(Bullough, 1987, p. 237). Dependence upon other teachers'
advice, guessing about the length of time an activity takes,
and imagining student interactions reigns. The survival
stage occurs when the teacher is driven by the need to manage
students but does not necessarily have a plan to do so.
Establishing order is the main goal. The transition into
mastery comes when the teacher relates practices to student
characteristics and needs. Planning becomes more
anticipatory, efficient, and appropriate to student interests
and abilities. Student learning is the goal for each lesson
as opposed to control.
The concern with classroom control was a major theme in
Peter John's (1991) study of the influences on novice teacher
planning. Examination of interviews and written lesson plans
revealed three influences on planning: (a) management of the
classes, (b) the curriculum, and (c) the students. These
novices felt that student attention and cooperation had to be
gained before learning could take place. "You can't do


46
Table 2.3--continued.
Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry
Leinhardt & Eight elementary Videotaped lessons,
Greeno (1986) teachers, four observations, and
beginning teachers field notes,
in fourth grade
classrooms
Coding and Analysis: Data were coded into ten activity
structures; presentation, shared presentation, drill, game
drill, homework, guided practice, monitored practice,
tutoring, test, and transitions. Medians and ranges were
calculated. Observation protocols were analyzed.
Purpose: To describe the instructional actions of expert and
novice teachers.
Findings: Expert teachers develop clearly defined routines
that move from teacher centered presentations to independent
student practice. Routines free the teacher to monitor the
progress of the lesson and assess student understanding.
Carter et al. 18 experienced
(1986) teachers, 15
novices, and
postulants of
science and
mathematics
Simulated teaching
task; subjects
were interviewed
and wrote
a lesson
plan for the
simulated class
Coding and Data Analysis: Repeated analysis of protocols
were conducted to identify patterns between and across
groups.
Purpose: To explore ways in which experts, novices, and
postulants plan and organize for classroom instruction.
Findings: Novice teachers differ from experts in the depth
of analysis of student information.


62
Table 2.4continued.
Author(s)
Participants
Method of Inquiry
Vaughn & Three general
Schumm (1994) education middle
school teachers
Observations,
interviews,
stimulated recall
written lesson
plans
Coding and Analysis: Each data source was examined for each
teacher and then compared across all three teachers.
Purpose: To examine in-depth the preplanning, interactive
planning, and postplanning for students with learning
disabilities mainstreamed in general education classrooms.
Findings: Content coverage, classroom/student management,
and interest/motivation of the individual student guide the
planning of the teacher. Teachers talked little about
knowledge acquisition or planning for students with learning
disabilities.
Jenkins & 12 elementary Teachers were asked
Leicester teachers to rate confidence
(1992) in designing
effective interventions
and implement it.
Coding and Analysis: Items were rated on a 5-point scale and
changes in confidence ratings from pre- to postmeasures were
calculated. Nonparametric tests were conducted to determine
if interventions were evenly distributed across three
intervention categories; what was taught, how or how much was
taught, or attentional or motivational conditions.
Purpose: To determine how a group of elementary teachers
design specialized instruction for students with reading
problems.
Findings: Four of the twelve teachers expressed little
confidence in designing suitable adaptations and experienced
difficulty in implementing interventions they selected.


19
matter, and instructional strategies. Experienced teachers'
propositional structures of students probably include mental
depictions of student characteristics such as ability,
behavior, and motivation (Borko et al., 1990). Experienced
teachers have more elaborate propositional structures than do
novices due to the information about students that has been
collected and stored over the years. These teachers blend
their knowledge of students with content and pedagogy into an
understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues
are organized and adapted to the diverse interests of
learners for instruction (Shulman, 1986) Developing
propositional structures related to the development of
pedagogical content knowledge are major components of
learning to teach.
Reflection-in-Action
As teachers develop a plan for a lesson, they draw upon
relevant schemata to select specific instructional content,
strategies, and materials appropriate to the students and
instructional format. While teaching, if the practitioner
realizes that a group of students do not understand the
content in the form it is presented, the "planned lesson" is
often adapted with minor changes (Clark & Yinger, 1979;
Joyce, 1978-1979; Peterson & Clark, 1978) or sometimes
abandoned (Morine-Dershimer, 1979). The teacher is then
required to improvise while teaching, abandon the activity,
or identify the unresolved components of the problem lesson


136
Student: Help them sound it out.
Marv: Right. How do we teach this? How do we break up
words into parts?
Student: Syllables?
Marv: Right. Nice strategy. What else?
Student: Read the other words around it, go back to the
word to see if you can figure it out.
Marv: That's using the context. What else? What can
we do if we don't know a word.
Student: Use the glossary.
Marv: Right. Look in the back of the book at the
glossary to find a word.
Mary gave explicit directions to students about her
expectations for transitions to another lesson. She led a
brief review to help students recall ways to solve
cooperation problems in groups and reiterated reading
strategies for decoding and comprehending unfamiliar words.
Mary wanted to help her students work together to resolve
their own dilemmas, behaviorally and academically. For these
interns "getting the management down" resulted in more
successful lessons. The children in their classes knew what
to do and how to go about accomplishing a task when
expectations were clear.
The instructional routine in each of these interns1
classrooms was similar. The children entered the classroom
in the morning, put away belongings, prepared supplies for
daily activities, and gathered at their desks or on the floor
for a story or sharing time and a synopsis of the day's
schedule. After this group time, the day's instructional
activities began. In the first- and second-grade classrooms
the children rotated through centers for math, language arts,
science, and social studies while in the third-grade


127
I took the worksheet and reduced the number of questions
and reworded some of them to make the language more
basic. I made sure the most critical information was
still covered on the first page. I enlarged the type so
that they also had two pages and looked like the same
amount of work. (FN 3-15)
As Laura modified the student assignment, she was able to
focus on students learning the curriculum, not just covering
the curriculum. She also expressed the desire to avoid
singling out students as more or less able:
When I was handing out the worksheets, I didn't want the
kids to think I was deciding who was dumb. My biggest
thing is to make sure things [the work] are not
overwhelming. With this assignment, the people who have
a tough time finishing written work, finished at the
same time. I'd rather them do something well then get
stuck and do nothing--teach less, but teach it well. (FN
3-15)
Laura discussed issues of equity during her internship
and expressed concern over the amount of time she felt she
needed to spend with students who are hard to teach. "At
centers, I spend 80% of my time with kids who need more
help." To cope with this concern, Laura organized flexible
skill groups that came together during "Club Time." She
explained,
My cooperating teacher and I talked about the need to do
some supplementary, explicit skills instruction for kids
who weren't reading or spelling very well. We organized
kids into clubs. They gave their clubs names. Each of
the clubs work on different skills at different levels
so you aren't holding anyone back or pushing someone
else too hard. The upper level groups can integrate a
lot of things; the other skills groups do things at
their level [and] it's more broken down. We work on
things like word attack, comprehension, and spelling
patterns. I'm locating activities and keeping them on
note cards, like fill and toss for vocabulary and sketch
and spell for the lower kids. It's really positive.
The kids like it. (FI.I.2)


169
the cycle such as embedded planning (Schumm, Vaughn, Gordon,
& Rothlein, 1994), establishment of instructional routines
(Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986), and instructional/managerial
adaptations in general education classrooms (Baker & Zigmond,
1990; Jenkins & Leicester, 1992; Schumm & Vaughn, 1991;
Schumm et al., 1995, Vaughn & Schumm, 1994; Zigmond & Baker,
1990). Findings of this study indicate that these factors
were key elements in the planning and decision-making process
for a group of beginning teachers who had participated in
elementary and special education course work. Researchers
must continue to explore whether beginning teachers from
traditional elementary education programs follow a similar
process and further explicate the similarities and
differences. The planning and decision-making cycle provides
a heuristic that may assist researchers examining components
of competent beginning teaching (Reynolds, 1992; Reynolds,
1995) and may contribute to that area of study.
A number of questions are suggested by the present
study. These questions relate to the pedagogical practices
of the PART interns. A persistent question for the
researcher throughout the investigation concerned the
learning outcomes for students. The researcher did not
collect pre- or posttest data on student achievement during
the study. As a result, there were questions about the kinds
of progress individuals made after accommodations were
initiated and questions about group progress when a beginning
teacher diverts attention from the whole class and devotes



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/' ‘W: LLLLOV


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
4.1 PART interns' plans and decisions for students
who are hard-to-teach 109
5.1 PART interns' plans and decisions for students
who are hard-to-manage 132
ix


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
ABSTRACT X
CHAPTERS
I INTRODUCTION 1
Student Diversity and Teacher Preparation 1
The Regular Education Initiative 3
Description of Project PART 5
Statement of the Problem 6
Rationale for the Study 8
Design of the Study 9
Definition of Terms 10
Possible Uses of the Results 11
Limitations 12
II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 14
Criteria for Selection of Relevant Literature... 15
A Theoretical Framework for Teaching Planning
and Interactive Decision Making 15
Schema Theory 17
Reflection-in-Action 19
Instructional Tasks Related to Planning and
Decision Making 21
Preactive Planning 26
Interactive Decision Making 26
Postactive Planning 27
The Plans and Interactive Decisions of Novice
Teachers 27
Methods of Inquiry 27
Concerns of Novice Teachers 29
Novice Teachers' Planning 31
The Planning of More and Less Experienced
Teachers 38
Critique of the Literature on Planning 42
v


87
School II was located in the same county as School I.
The 20-year-old school was built to accommodate the middle
class suburban expansion of the western sector of the city in
which it was located. In recent years, the growing number of
rental units and the increasingly transient population caused
some school employees to consider the school population
becoming more lower-middle class. The school was in the
process of major renovations to modernize facilities and
increase space to eliminate the need for the portable
classroom units set up to house burgeoning numbers of
students.
The 690-member student body was 68% Caucasian, 23%
African American, and 9% Asian or Hispanic. Of these
students, 37% received a free or reduced-price lunch. There
were three prekindergarten classrooms and five classes per
grade level from kindergarten through fifth grade. The
following full-time support teachers were on the faculty:
guidance counselor, curriculum resource teacher, art teacher,
music teacher, P.E. teacher, media specialist, two Title I
teachers, and four special educators. Two of the special
educators taught in self-contained settings for students with
varying exceptionalities while the remaining special
educators worked with students identified as specific
learning disabled and emotionally handicapped in a part-time
pull-out program. The special education teachers provided


116
Martha also recruited parents and other students to help
in the classroom. Martha referred to this assistance as
"partnerships." These partnerships played out in a number of
ways. Martha's cooperating teacher recognized Martha's
ability to draw upon other people's assistance:
We have a ninth-grade student aide named Jay who is in
the classroom at a very awkward time, like 8:15, and he
stays until 9:00. This is usually time for
announcements, circle time, sharing, those kinds of
things. Yet, Martha took the time to harness some of
the boys who needed extra help in math, or it might have
been they were fine in math but they needed a male role
model to show that it's ok to work on math. She
enlisted Jay not just as clerical support but as one who
actually provided one-on-one for a small contingent of
boys who might need that model. She has been very
effective at harnessing Jay's energies and directing
him, as well as using parent volunteers very
effectively. Ive been very impressed with her ability
to plug holes. When an adult comes in the room, Martha
would say, "Would you mind working over here with this
group, this is what I need you to do. If you have any
questions, I am right here." In almost military
precision, she gets them in there, pops them in and
plugs holes with them. She organizes them and has them
handling things. I've heard from the parents how
effective they feel she is and how much they appreciate
the amount of time and attention she spends on all the
children. And she has been able to communicate to the
parents that we couldn't do the kinds of things we do if
we didn't have them in the classroom.
Martha also enlisted the help of peer tutors to assist
individuals who had been absent and missed content that
needed to be learned before moving to other concepts.
Martha's cooperating teacher provided this example:
She sets up examples of peer tutoring. If a student is
out sick and comes back to his center the next day, she
can easily plug in a hole with another child. She'd
say, "Would you mind explaining what you did yesterday
in this center to so-and-so." She makes up for deficits
in terms of children who are out for a week at a time.
(FI.CT)


154
Table 5.l--continued
Interactive Tasks (cont'd.)
Teacher adjusts the amount
of guided practice to the
ability of the students.
(Rosenshine, 1986)
Students are quested at
a pace related to level of
questioning and questions are
kept at a level of difficulty
where most students
experience a high degree of
success. (Rosenshine,
1986)
The teacher monitors
students to make
instructional decisions and
provide feedback to
students. (Rieth &
Evertson, 1988)
Postactive Tasks
Teachers reflect on actions
and students' responses in
order to improve teaching.
(Reynolds, 1992)
Teacher guided practice in
Language Arts skill groups.
Reduced assignments for
specific students.
Interns review concepts by
asking differentiated levels
of questions to ensure
success for all students.
Manipulatives are
reintroduced for students
experiencing problems in
math.
Alphabet strips given to
children who do not know
letters.
Seating is rearranged to
enhance participation.
Examples
Interns made decisions to
individualize instruction
when students were
unsuccessful. Preactive
planning decisions were made
to reteach, rearrange
instructional groupings,
modify assignments, provide
differentiated materials, and
initiate behavior modification
strategies with checklists and
rewards.


171
Use of Findings to Practitioners
Although the findings of this study cannot be
generalized to other settings, the detailed analysis of these
interns thought processes characterizes the complex nature
of beginning teaching. The study has implications for
teacher educators, especially those interested in refining
collaborative models of teacher education.
The PART interns in this study participated in a
collaborative teacher education program in which they took
classes in elementary and special education with students
majoring in one of those tracks. No new courses were
designed specifically for the PART students nor were any
courses taught collaboratively by faculty members in
elementary and special education. While the goals of Project
PART were to teach students effective instructional
strategies and encourage reflection about the needs of
individual students, the project was not designed around a
theme with a particular philosophy, curriculum, or
pedagogical model (Feiman-Nemser, 1990). The PART faculty
questioned the lack of thematic integrity in the program and
wondered how these students would make sense of the sometimes
dissonant viewpoints presented in their classes. As it
turned out, the PART students were pragmatic in their
appraisal of the theoretical and philosophical orientations
to which they were exposed. What was of great importance to
the PART students was to learn strategies that would help
them work effectively with all the students in their classes.


129
progress, and provided individual accommodations for students
at times when she felt other students learning would not be
compromised. Lacy also identified the critical agent in the
process of accommodating student differences as the teacher:
Teachers who want to make it work know in the back of
their minds to have the child's work set up when he
comes back from a resource class, pair up kids with
other kids, or they can say, "Oh no, they're back."
. . The teacher is the biggest facilitator. If you
view these kids as a pain, it's not going to work. You
have to be willing to make modifications; I think there
are too many teachers who aren't. (FI.1.8)
Lacy recognized the teacher's potential to impact children's
learning and found ways to differentiate for student
differences in spite of the cumbersome nature of the task.
Summary
For these PART interns, meeting the needs of hard-to-
teach children was a cyclical process. These interns
developed preactive plans with instructional groupings
designed to increase the involvement of all students in the
class. As the interns taught lessons and identified students
who did not grasp concepts or could not complete assignments
because of the demands of the task, they implemented more
individualized approaches to instruction. The decision to
individualize instruction for a particular student occurred
during a lesson when the intern might rephrase a question,
provide an alternative explanation, provide manipulatives,
lend assistance to complete a task, or reduce the length of
an assignment. Following a lesson, the interns reflected
upon particular students who had experienced difficulty and


49
during instruction as indicated by Shefelbine and
Hollingsworth (1987). The following study by Galluzzo and
Minix (1992) reflected novice teachers' concerns with
management and pupil learning. Predictably, discipline, and
management issues arose in each of the studies reviewed.
Fourteen student teachers, seven elementary and seven
secondary, participated in this semester-long study (Galluzzo
& Minix, 1992). The stimulated recall method was used to
assess the thoughts of the student teachers. The student
teachers viewed a videotape of a lesson and described
decisions at intervals designated by the researcher and other
times when their thoughts were stimulated by the video.
Data analysis consisted of placing the responses of the
student teachers into five categories used in previous
research (McNair, 1978-1979). The categories of concern were
pupils, content, procedures, materials, and time. Embedded
within each of these categories were more specific
descriptors such as concern about pupils' learning, attitude,
or behavior; concern about content tasks, facts and ideas, or
objectives; concerns about procedural modifications or
scheduling, and time related concerns related to pacing or
time restrictions.
Elementary and secondary student teachers both mentioned
pupil learning as their greatest concern. These student
teachers were most concerned that their pupils were learning
content. The notable difference between the two groups was


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
As we move toward the 21st century, a major concern of
general educators is the reorganization and improvement of
services that support an increasingly diverse student
population (Sailor, 1991). A parallel movement in special
education is the call for educating students with mild
disabilities, such as learning disabilities and behavior
disorders, in general education classrooms and the reduction
of self-contained and resource rooms or "pull-out programs.
To meet the challenge of educating children in a society with
changing demographics and to provide appropriate services to
students with mild disabilities in general classrooms,
members of the school community must become stakeholders in a
broad integrated effort to support curricular, instructional,
and organizational practices that foster success for all
students. A group of stakeholders who play a pivotal role in
the reorganization effort are teacher educators who have the
responsibility to examine the preservice preparation of
teachers and develop programs that provide classroom teachers
with the skills to work with students with diverse needs.
Student Diversity and Teacher Preparation
Teachers today face the challenge of meeting the
educational needs of students who are more diverse than
1


44
preplanned, and teachers must attend to student performance
during the instructional process. The focus of novice
teacher attention is the subject of the following studies.
Six studies were located between 1985 and 1994 that
investigated teachers' interactive decisions. A summary of
the studies is presented in Table 2.3 including descriptions
of participant characteristics, method of inquiry, data
analysis, and principal findings. Elements of the studies
that are considered relevant are discussed in detail. The
studies reviewed in this section are divided into two
subsections: (a) research on novice teachers' interactive
decisions and (b) research comparing experienced and novice
teachers' interactive decisions.
Novice Teachers' Interactive Decisions
Shefelbine and Hollingsworth (1987) studied the
instructional decisions of 14 elementary education students
during a reading practicum. The interns were observed while
teaching a reading group for 30-minute sessions over a three-
week period. The researchers kept a running record of
detailed notes of reading group events to identify what kinds
of decisions were troublesome for beginning teachers. Seven
categories of decision making required during a reading
lesson were identified: (a) appropriate diagnosis, (b)
flexible planning, (c) lesson balance, (d) appropriate text
placement, (e) type of reading practice, (f) word recognition


95
used in this study to clarify teachers' perspectives on what
occurred during a lesson. Conversation was initiated when
the intern was free from responsibilities with students.
Some informal interviews were initiated with a query from the
researcher about the lesson observed such as, "I'm really
interested in the worksheet you modified for Max. Would you
tell me more about it?" At other times, the intern initiated
the interview with comments about a lesson or problems they
were experiencing with a particular student. Notes of these
informal interviews were recorded and expanded in the field
notes.
The formal interview usually occurs at an appointed time
at the request of the researcher (Spradley, 1980). Formal
interviews usually begin with descriptive questions, such as
"Tell me about the students in your class," or "How did you
go about planning the unit?" This type of question may
reveal common language that becomes a category for analysis.
Three formal interviews were conducted with each of the
interns and one with the cooperating teacher. In these
interviews, a structured set of questions was developed with
the assistance of the PART project director, a qualitative
researcher in the Department of Instruction and Curriculum,
and asked of each participant. The answers to questions
could be formulated in an open-ended manner that allowed the
respondents to provide their own meaning (Jorgensen, 1989).
The formal interviews were a systematic approach to


130
then prepared a lesson to accommodate that student with
differentiated reading materials, modified worksheets, or
direct instruction to reteach a skill or concept that might
include the use of manipulatives.
Invariably, these PART interns were faced with dilemmas
endemic to the teaching profession (Schumm, Vaughn, Gordon, &
Rothlein, 1994; Vaughn & Schumm, 1994). Issues of equity and
the need to cover a grade-level curriculum perplexed them all
and, at times, left them feeling there was a "trade-off"
between the needs of individuals and the demands of a
curriculum. These interns managed these dilemmas by
collaborating with parents and other professionals, arranging
flexible groupings of students, establishing peer tutoring
dyads, clarifying short-term goals, and modifying written
assignments.


106
to Adjust Plans During Instruction, Kinds of Strategies PART
Interns Use to Organize and Monitor Students1 Interactions
During Instruction, Kinds of Statements PART Interns Make
About Their Instructional Decisions, Kinds of Statements PART
Interns Make About Students' Responses, and Kinds of
Statements Cooperating Teachers Make About PART Interns
Instructional Decisions. Propositions were constructed by
integrating data from different domains (Miles & Huberman,
1984). More specifically, data which indicated a particular
instructional adaptation were drawn from across categories
which represented preactive and interactive instructional
adaptations. Propositions were also constructed to represent
the instructional decisions of the cohort of interns to
verify the existence of a patterned approach to instruction.
As the intern's planning processes and instructional
decisions are described, data from the propositions is
provided to support and illustrate their planning and
instructional decisions. The illustrations selected are
representative of a larger source of examples and are not the
sole indicators of a particular pedagogical decision.
In this study, data regarding the plans and decisions of
the PART interns were synthesized to provide a composite
analysis of their pedagogical practices. The results of the
data analysis revealed that the PART interns differed from
novice teachers, as they are portrayed in the literature, in
two notable ways: (a) They planned and adapted instructional
activities to accommodate student differences, and (b) they


63
Table 2.4--continued.
Author(s)
Participants
Method of Inquiry
Blanton,
Blanton, &
Cross (1994)
20 general
education
teachers; 2 0
special education
resource teachers
Teachers were
asked to
respond to a
reading lesson
they viewed on
videotape
Coding and Analysis: Two dependent measures were used to
obtain reports of teachers' observations of the student; a
rating scale on 34 items derived from the literature on
instructional effectiveness, and an open ended probe
requesting the teacher to identify the strengths of the
student being observed.
Purpose: To describe how general and special education
teachers think and make instructional decisions about special
needs students.
Findings: General and special education teachers may possess
different professional knowledge structures from which they
interpret classroom events, identify and solve instructional
problems, and collaborate with each other.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
PROJECT PART INTERNS' PLANS AND DECISIONS FOR STUDENTS
WHO ARE HARD TO TEACH AND MANAGE
By
Nancy Long Corbett
December, 1996
Chairperson: Dr. Cecil D. Mercer
Major Department: Special Education
The purpose of this study was to investigate in detail
the planning and decision making of six Project PART interns.
Project PART is a dual-certification program in special and
elementary education designed to prepare teachers to meet the
needs of hard-to-teach and hard-to-manage students. A
cognitive analysis of teacher planning and decision making
provided a meaningful framework to depict the ways teachers
organize and integrate knowledge. The study focused on two
guiding questions:
1. How do Project PART interns plan for hard-to-teach
and hard-to-manage students?
2. What instructional decisions do PART interns make
for these students?
Qualitative research methods were used to collect and
analyze data. Observations were conducted in each of the six
x


42
instruction. Lesson formats varied according to the grade
level being taught. For example, the novice in the fourth
grade tried to develop her plans according to an information
giving style of instruction while novices in lower grade
levels developed plans that were less teacher directed and
included information such as lists of materials to be used at
learning centers.
Critique of the Literature on Planning
The data presented illustrate the planning practices of
beginning teachers. Novice teachers develop written lesson
plans as a procedural guideline, although mental planning
occurs that is much more detailed. As novices plan they are
concerned with management of students and routines, and at
times student learning becomes secondary. Planning
appropriate lessons for the whole class is a demanding task,
and there is little attention paid to instructional
adaptations for individual students. These novices are
organizing and elaborating knowledge structures to build
teaching schemata to consider the learner and the subject
matter.
Examination of the number of participants as indicated
in Table 2.2 reveals an obvious limitation to each of the
studies. The small number of participants limits
generalizability and replication is necessary to verify
findings. The case study methodology was employed in these
studies. Multiple sources of data are required to support


10
concerning the types of students in their classes, the kinds
of plans they develop for students, the influences on
planning, strategies for working with hard-to-teach, hard-to-
manage students, and barriers and facilitators to working
with these students. Detailed observations occurred that
focused primarily on lessons implemented as part of an
integrated unit that included inclusive teaching practices.
Two lessons from the unit were videotaped and played back as
the intern watched and described interactive decisions.
Additional interviews were conducted with the interns1
cooperating teachers. Plan books and unit plans were also
collected and analyzed. The researcher obtained permission
from the University of Florida Institutional Review Board to
conduct the study.
Definition of Terms
The purpose of this study was to describe the planning
and interactive decision making of Project PART interns for
students who are hard to teach and hard to manage. The
following terms are defined so that the analysis and findings
of the study are understood: Preactive planning, interactive
decision making, and postactive planning. Chapter II
contains a detailed description of the terms and tasks
relevant to each of the domains.
Preactive planning. Preactive planning refers to the
time spent in preparation of instructional activities and the
tasks in which teachers engage. Some of these tasks include


165
to adequately accommodate students with special needs (Baker
& Zigmond, 1990; Blanton, Blanton, Sc Cross, 1994; Jenkins Sc
Leicester, 1992; Vaughn Sc Schumm, 1994) .
The present study adds depth and breadth to the body of
research on teacher thinking. Much of its contribution may
be attributed to the participants. The PART interns were
beginning teachers who had participated in a collaborative
teacher education program in regular and special education.
Unlike previous studies which focused on beginning teachers
from traditional elementary education programs, this study
focused on novices from a collaborative program. This study
also yielded detailed descriptions of the kinds of decisions
beginning teachers made specifically for students who are
hard to teach and manage. Until this time, researchers had
examined the planning and decision making of experienced
teachers for these students. The rich and varied kinds of
data collected provided evidence that these beginning
teachers planned large group lessons to enhance opportunities
for all students to learn, monitored students' performance,
and then adapted instruction for individual students. The
PART interns' instructional aims were conscientious attempts
to include all students. In previous studies, researchers
found beginning teachers were aware of individual needs, but
they were preoccupied with lesson presentation, content
coverage, and keeping students on task (John, 1991; Leinhardt
& Greeno, 1989; Shelfinebine & Hollingsworth, 1987;
Westerman, 1992).


26
Preactive Planning
Preactive planning includes the activities that relate
to preparing a lesson or set of learning experiences.
Teacher planning occurs over various lengths of time, ranging
from daily, weekly, and unit planning to semester and yearly
planning (Clark & Yinger, 1979; Yinger, 1977). Preplanning
serves multiple purposes that include writing objectives,
procedures, and evaluation plans. Teachers' written plans
consist largely of outlines and listings of topics. The
detailed comprehensive plans of teachers exist as lesson
images that serve to guide behavior during instruction
(Morine-Dershimer, 1977, 1979).
Teachers may plan to adapt the curriculum to develop
meaningful activities, to allocate instructional time for
individuals and groups of students, and to present and review
content. The functions of teacher planning are directly
related to instructional variables that include time on task,
lesson structuring, and opportunity to learn (Reynolds,
1992). Preplanning also involves developing background
knowledge and thinking about procedures to enhance the lesson
(Vaughn & Schumm, 1994).
Interactive Decision Making
Interactive decision making occurs while teaching.
Monitoring the progress of a lesson and making adaptations in
response to students are the primary decisions made during
interactive teaching (Colker, 1982; Conners, 1978; Marland,


82
5. Don't exploit informants.
6. Make reports available to informants.
(Spradley, 1980, pp. 21-25)
Site Selection
Project PART was implemented in public schools in two
counties in the southeastern United States with populations
of less than 200,000. Initially, Project PART staff worked
with county administrators to select participating schools
for the project. Project PART faculty attended elementary
principal meetings in the district to disseminate information
and discuss the objectives of Project PART. After these
meetings, individual sessions were organized for principals
who were interested in having schools participate in the
project. Eight of 23 principals expressed interest in
working with the project. Sessions were then held at each of
the eight schools to discuss the objectives of the grant with
the faculty and decide whether or not to participate. After
these discussions, five schools agreed to accept Project PART
students. Two schools were ready to accept preinterns in the
Spring semester of 1993. A third school accepted PART
preinterns in the Fall semester of 1993. Two more schools
accepted preinterns and interns for Fall semester, 1994, and
Spring semester, 1995. Of these five schools, three schools
included PART interns who were participants in this study.
Description of the Sites
The study was conducted in three public elementary
schools situated in the two school districts where Project


91
notes about ideas being generated, and then (c) organize the
data into manageable units, (d) search for patterns and
discover what is important and what is to be learned and
decide what will be told to others (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982) .
The purpose of this study was to describe novice
teachers' plans and interactive decisions made for students,
particularly those students considered to be hard to teach
and/or hard to manage. To understand novice teachers
planning and decision making, one must examine these
teachers thought processes through observation and self-
report (Clark & Peterson, 1986). Participant interviews,
participant observations, stimulated recall of videotaped
lessons, and examination of documents were the methods of
data collection used in this study to capture and corroborate
novice teachers1 thoughts about planning and interactive
decisions.
Data Collection
The use of multiple sources of evidence helps the
qualitative researcher establish the construct validity and
reliability of a case study. The advantage of using multiple
data sources is the development of "converging lines of
inquiry" (Yin, 1994), a process of triangulation.
Triangulation supports a finding by showing that multiple
sources of evidence agree with it (Miles & Huberman, 1984) .
Information gained from each of these sources, structured
interviews with Project PART interns, structured interviews


167
realities for all educational practitioners, beginning and
experienced (Schumm & Vaughn, 1991; Schumm et al., 1995;
Vaughn & Schumm, 1994; Westerman, 1992). Curriculum mandates
and equity for students in overcrowded classrooms are two of
several issues that often become barriers to facilitating the
needs of individuals in today's classrooms (Schumm et al.,
1995). Ongoing observations and multiple interviews revealed
that the PART interns closely resembled many other teachers
as they voiced concerns about the amount of time needed
during and after school to develop and implement an
appropriate course of action to suit the needs of an
individual. A primary consideration for these interns was to
implement accommodations that did not jeopardize learning
opportunities for the other students in the class.
To summarize, the present study revealed the following
findings about the PART interns' plans and decisions for
students who are hard to teach and hard to manage:
1. The studied participants planned whole group lessons
to enhance learning for all students.
2. These interns monitored student progress then
implemented instructional and behavioral accommodations to
increase learning opportunities for individual students.
3. These interns identified dilemmas of teaching that
impact their efforts to meet all students' needs in a
classroom: the needs of one versus the needs of many and the
demands of the curriculum versus the needs of a particular
student.


12
This study is a contribution to the increasing body of
knowledge concerning the planning of teachers for students
with special needs. Planning for individual students by
novice teachers was the focus of this study, Most other
studies have examined the planning and decision making of
teachers as they focused upon the entire class. The results
of this study will contribute to the awareness of novice
teacher planning for students who are hard to teach and hard
to reach.
The results of this study may provide teacher educators
with some insight into the role of planning and interactive
decision making for individual students. Teacher educators
may find information from this study useful in developing a
framework for planning that helps preservice teachers learn
to embed planning for students with special needs into the
general plan for the whole class.
In addition, the findings of this study may continue to
illuminate the types of adaptations teachers do make for
individual students so that discussions in preservice and
inservice settings focus on conditions under which an
adaptation may or may not work and possible ways to overcome
barriers to their implementation.
Limitations
The extensive observations needed to conduct a
qualitative study limited the number of students who can
participate. Although the study provided insight into the


Ill
developing an integrated unit on rain forests for her second
graders:
I gathered everything I could find that had to do with
the rain forest. The next thing I did was organize them
into what materials were related to language arts, math,
or a subject area. Next I decided if it was appropriate
for a second grader. Was it a skill or concept that a
second grader needed to learn? Then I thought about my
reasons for teaching this unit and what I wanted the
children to gain from it. The major concepts I wanted
the children to learn were plants and animals of the
rain forest, countries that have rain forests, and the
pros and cons of saving the rain forest. I pulled
together all the materials that I could use to teach
those concepts and divided them into subject areas. I
would say to myself, "Do I need more science, math or
language arts"? I wanted to teach the very basics of
the rain forest first, so the kids would get the big
picture and then scoot up and look at a particular part
of it. I had all this stuff spread out on the floor,
work sheets, posters, lessons, so I said to myself, "I
know I want to start with layers of the rain forest,"
and I'd pick out a worksheet on animal habitats. I kept
organizing material that way until I had all the lessons
ready to teach the unit. (FI II.1)
These interns based the selection of instructional
content on three criteria: the interests of the students,
developmental appropriateness, and curriculum requirements.
For example, prior to planning her unit, Mary examined
curriculum objectives, derived a list of subject topics, and
gave the students in her third-grade class the opportunity to
vote for their preferred unit of study. Lana and Lacy
developed units on the solar system and insects because they
were topics studied at their grade levels and they thought
these units would interest the students.
After the interns comprehended the content and organized
material into lessons, their plans included a dimension not
often recognized by other beginning teachers. They planned


135
importance of clearly articulated expectations and extended
this point to events that occurred throughout the school day:
The biggest thing about making an activity successful is
talking about it before it happens. I would think about
what I wanted to prevent. I talked about transitions
before we made them. We talked about how to be
cooperative partners before we worked in groups. (SR I)
An excerpt from the researcher's fieldnotes provides an
illustrative example of the way Mary conducted a discussion
to help her third graders recall cooperative strategies to
enhance group work:
Marv: Pencils are off desks. Math books are off desks.
Everything is off desks. This is how your desk should
look whenever we begin a new lesson.
Today half of you will be reading in pairs about their
ecosystem, and the other half will be working in groups
on your papier mache animals. How are you going to work
cooperatively?
Student: We should be quiet.
Marv: You'll probably need to do some talking, but you
can talk quietly. What if you disagree?
Student: Try to work it out.
Marv: How?
Student: Vote.
Marv: Right. We vote as a group, as a class.
Half of the class goes outside to work on animal
projects; the other half moves to the front of the class
and sits on the floor. Mary begins to count to "ten."
The students join in as they quiet down to talk about
reading in pairs.
Marv: Today you will again read in pairs on your
ecosystem. You'll read silently, then aloud, and ask
questions. The last time we worked in pairs, some of
you said you didn't like this and I asked what did you
not like about working in pairs. The things you told me
were, "It gets loud," and "My partner doesn't work
cooperatively." You need to expect some talk. What
should it be about?
Student: Our ecosystem.
Mary: Right. Expect some noise and try to talk more
quietly, in our 3 inch voices. What kind of things
should you do in a pair to help each other?
Student: Help figure out words.
Mary: How do you help figure out words?


143
problem. The feeling was he couldn't work with anyone
else and needed to work alone. This was the time for
grand misbehavior. Transitions were a problem. He had
to complete something before he could move on or there
would be an outburst. The reason I didn' t have a chance
to work with him was because the school made a decision
to have him in special ed. classes. We didn't have him
for anything academic or social. It bothered me.
Basically, he had a tutor to go over his work with him.
What he needed were behavioral and social interventions
and that was something the special ed. classroom
couldn't offer him. He couldn't practice interacting
with peers. I think the structure of the classroom was
organized enough so that he could fit in there. He
expressed interest in being in the room. I asked the
cooperating teacher if we could bring him back to the
class after specials and come back for math which was a
pretty structured time and slowly integrate him. She
didn't want to do that. I really do believe he can be
integrated but the system wasn't willing to do that. I
don't think the supports were being used to do that.
(FI.III.2)
Marcy believed the combination of the "Cloud Chart" and
orderly instructional routines provided an optimal
environment for a student with serious behavior problems.
Marcy did not have the opportunity to find out if she was
right because she felt the school system made a choice to put
the needs of the class before the needs of an individual.
Embedded in the interns management "system were a
variety of techniques designed to gain, maintain, and
redirect student attention. Martha commented on the need to
have a repertoire of attention getters: "You have to use
every management/behavior modification strategy stored in
your mind and some that aren't." Martha used a number of
"attention getters" to maintain the flow of large group
lessons and facilitate transitions:
During a lesson on community quilts, Martha maintained
attention by repeating student responses to the


V
THE CONSTRUCTION OF A PEDAGOGY TO ACCOMMODATE
STUDENT DIFFERENCES: MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES . 131
Phase One: Get the Management Down 133
Phase Two: Maintain Student Attention 138
Phase Three: Individualized Behavioral
Accommodations 146
Summary 152
The More We Know, The Better We Teach:
Influences of Course Work on Planning and
Decision Making 152
The Influence of Methods Courses 155
The Influence of a Course in Classroom
Management 157
Good Teaching is Good Teaching 157
VI CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 160
Relationship of Findings to Previous Studies.... 163
Use of Findings to Research Community 168
Use of Findings to Practitioners 171
APPENDICES
A INTERN PERMISSION FORM 175
B LETTER TO COOPERATING TEACHERS 176
C PARENTAL CONSENT FORMS 177
D INTERVIEW 1 178
E INTERVIEW II 180
F INTERVIEW III 181
G INTERVIEW IV 182
H INTERVIEW V 183
REFERENCES 184
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 193
vii


APPENDIX D
INTERVIEW I
Description of Students
Influences on Planning and Decision Making
1. Tell me about the students in your class. How many are
there? Are there any students you have concerns about?
Why?
2. Describe an instructional/behavioral preventive measure
you have made for a particular student. How are your
plans/actions for this student different from the
plans/actions of other students? How are they the same?
If this plan is unsuccessful, what will you do next?
3. Describe an instructional/behavioral modification you
have made for a particular student. How are your
plans/actions for this student different from the
plans/actions of other students? How are they the same?
If this plan of action is not successful, what will you
do next?
4. What are your long-term goals for this student? How are
they different from the long-term goals for other
student? How are they the same?
5. What is your plan for assessing the progress of this
student? How is this different from/similar to the ways
you assess the other students?
6. Describe any courses you have taken that provided useful
information for planning instruction/behavioral
activities.
7. What else do you need to know to plan appropriately for
hard-to-teach/manage students? (What is it that you
need to know more about?) How is this different
from/similar to information you still need to acquire
about planning for all other students?
8. What sources of support have been influential in
planning for these students? Are these sources the same
or different from the influences for other students
in the class?
178


kind of teacher educator and researcher I aspire to be. Dr.
Stuart Schwartz challenged me to acquire a thorough
understanding of the complex facets of the field of special
education. I thank him for Trends. I learned so much in
spite of hating every minute of it. Dr. Ed Turner has been
supportive throughout my years of graduate study at the
University of Florida. I appreciate his kindness and
sincerity.
To the PART interns who allowed me to spend so much time
in their classrooms, I am deeply grateful. During the
constant activity and demands of busy days, they were all
willing to share their thoughts and concerns. I learned so
much from each of them and have great pride and respect for
the efforts they made to teach all children well. In
addition, my sincere appreciation goes to the interns'
cooperating teachers who allowed me to spend time in their
classrooms and provided rich insight about the interns
practices. Their interest in and support of these interns is
admirable.
Thanks also go to my fellow doctoral students who have
toiled along beside me through the rigors of the doctoral
program. Thanks go especially to Drs. David Allsopp,
Elizabeth Gibbs, Mary Eisele, LuAnn Jordan, and Holly Lane.
I am eternally grateful for the hours we spent thinking,
talking, and laughing together. They embody the spirit of
collegiality.


110
decisions for students who are hard to teach and how they
coped with the dilemmas of content coverage and fairness to
other students in the class. In Chapter 5 the researcher
explores the PART interns' plans and decisions for students
who are hard to manage in the presence of the same two
dilemmas. A summary of the instructional and behavioral
strategies used by the PART interns to accommodate students
is provided in Table 5.1. Chapter 5 concludes with a
section on the influence of course work on the PART interns'
pedagogical decisions.
Everyone Can Do Thi s:
Making Plans and Decisions to Include all Students
One of the most common things teachers do to plan a unit
or lesson is comprehend the content to be taught (McCutcheon,
1980), and then plan for the presentation of the content
(Borko & Livingston, 1989; Housner & Griffey, 1985) This
was a primary task for the PART interns as well. A typical
planning routine for these interns was to identify the
content to be taught within an instructional unit (i.e., rain
forests, ecosystems, insects, the solar system), examine the
materials available, and then organize the materials into
topical categories across subject areas. After they
comprehended the content to be presented, the interns
identified key concepts and objectives to be taught then
organized them into daily lessons. Martha provided an
example of this planning process as she talked about


30
routines that integrate management and instruction (Kagan,
1992). To understand novice teachers' planning and decision
making, it is critical to understand their development. The
development of beginning teachers focuses on their concerns
which include management, the subject matter, and student
learning (Bullough, 1987; Galluzzo & Minix, 1992, Lidstone &
Hollingsworth, 1992).
Berliner (1988) described the novice as a preservice to
third-year teacher who is identifying the elements of tasks
that need to be performed (e.g., developing a lesson plan,
asking higher and lower order questions, and evaluating
student learning) and learning a set of context-free rules
that guide behavior. Context-free rules might include
praising correct responses and ignoring inappropriate
behavior. For the novice, classroom teaching performance is
rational, is relatively inflexible, and requires purposeful
concentration.
Generally, the novice seems to attend to learning a few
concepts and skills at a time. Once these concepts are
internalized, attention is focused on learning other concepts
and pedagogical practices (Lidstone & Hollingsworth, 1992).
Novice teachers appear to be most concerned with practices
related to three areas: (a) management/organization, (b)
subject/pedagogy, and (c) student learning (Kagan, 1992;
Lidstone & Hollingsworth, 1992). Concerns related to
management/organization are behavior management, planning,


as their minds can sort out the words. When we just
orally read, errors increase three-fold. (FN 10-3)
125
Mary used this repeated reading approach to increase oral
reading fluency and the level of active participation of all
the students in her class.
The use of manipulatives to teach math concepts is a
common instructional tool in many primary classrooms. It was
no different in the classrooms of the PART interns. These
interns also had manipulatives accessible during lessons to
reteach a concept to particular students with the realization
that some students still needed a concrete representation to
comprehend a particular number concept. This was a way to
accommodate the academic diversity in their classes.
Excerpts from observations and interviews in Marcy's, Lacy's,
and Lana's classrooms illustrate this practice. According to
Marcy,
Math is the most frustrating area because the abilities
are so different. I always start with a concrete
presentation. I don't stop until the lowest kid can
respond. When teaching addition, I use the overhead
with blocks [concrete] then dots [representational] and
then ask them to use dots on their paper. I start off
every lesson like that. I go around the room and ask
children for their answers. I know I get a correct
response from every child. I might ask some of the
students who understand a concept to come to the board
and explain their thinking. I don't want the high
student to be so bored they are twiddling their thumbs
while the lower students are lost. (FI 1.2)
Lana described this example of a modification when she
introduced multiplication:
The first day we had manipulatives and the next day they
had a worksheet. Some of the students were having
difficulty getting the concept down, so I let them use
the manipulatives (pieces of paper and beans) to


60
Table 2.4continued.
Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry
Schumm, Vaughn,
Haager,
McDowell,
Rothlein, &
Saumell (1995)
12 teachers,
elementary
through high
school
Interviews,
classroom
observations,
survey
Coding and Analysis: Data were analyzed for each teacher and
descriptive information was recorded for each teacher.
Purpose: To examine the preplanning, interactive planning
and postplanning activities of teachers in elementary and
secondary content area classes.
Findings: Teachers at all levels were most concerned with
the performance of the class as a whole rather than
individual students.
McIntosh, 60 general
Vaughn, educators,
Schumm, Haager, grades K-12
& Lee (1993)
Observations
using
Classroom
Climate Scale
(Likert scale)
Coding and Analysis: Classroom Climate Scale (CCS) was used
to record behavior of the mainstreamed learning disabled
students in the class and the other members of the class.
Nonparametric tests were conducted to test differences
between ratings on learning disabled students and general
education students.
Purpose: To examine how general education teachers'
behaviors toward mainstreamed students with learning
disabilities compared with their behavior toward students
without disabilities.
Findings: Few teacher behaviors and classroom practices are
different for the two groups of students.


118
& Creek, 1983). This allows teachers to develop
instructional activities that help students relate new
information to what they already know. During instruction
teachers monitor student understanding as they ask questions,
provide guided practice, and offer feedback (Rosenshine,
1986) The PART interns monitored student progress as they
considered the children's prior knowledge of a subject,
observed practice activities, and examined the goals of an
instructional activity.
To begin an instructional unit, each of the PART interns
wanted to assess the children's prior knowledge of a subject
and get a sense of what the children wanted to learn. The
use of a KWL chart was often used to gather this information
with a class. The KWL strategy developed by Ogle (1986)
consists of three basic steps as students are asked to access
"What I Know", determine "What I Want to Learn," and recall
"What I did Learn."
Lacy used this technique to engage her first-grade class
in an interactive discussion on "butterflies," one of the
insects studied by the children in their thematic unit.
Excerpts from a videotape taken in Lacy's class provide an
example of the information Lacy solicited from her first
graders during group sharing time as they reviewed what they
learned about butterflies and moths:
Lacy: "Tell me something you learned about butterflies.
There are so many hands raised, you have so much to
share."


162
during Instruction, Kinds of Strategies PART Interns Use to
Organize and Monitor Students' Interactions during
Instruction, Kinds of Statements PART Interns Make about
Their Instructional Decisions, Kinds of Statements PART
Interns Make about Students' Responses, and Kinds of
Statements Cooperating Teachers Make about PART Interns'
Instructional and Managerial Decisions. Data were drawn from
these categories to construct propositions representing the
interns' plans and decisions for hard-to-teach and hard-to-
manage students. A cyclical process of planning and decision
making for hard-to-teach and hard-to-manage students was
identified. These interns' developed plans, monitored
student progress, and provided accommodations to accomplish
instructional goals and meet the needs of the students in
their classes.
The studied interns proceeded through three interrelated
phases of planning and decision making:
Phase One: The interns developed preactive plans for
large group lessons that included instructional
approaches to maximize student participation. In order
to maximize student participation, they also developed
consistent instructional routines and clarified
behavioral expectations as management strategies to
prevent disruptions.
Phase Two: The interns monitored student progress
during and after an activity to determine the need to


128
Club Time was a way for Laura to work with kids with
similar needs and avoid the stigmatization often associated
with ability groups. In these groups, Laura was able to work
with children on a particular skill or concept for a more
concentrated period of time.
Lacy also experienced the dilemma of the need to "get on
with the curriculum." Lacy proceeded through the decision
making cycle and provided individual accommodations for
students, but she was stymied with the need to provide
intensive, individualized support to a few students and the
need to provide new challenges to the rest of the class:
At the writing center in her first-grade class, Lacy
found herself making accommodations for students who did
not write as well as others. She gave all the children
an alphabet strip to they had models of letters. She
probed children with questions to help them generate
ideas for writing. Lacy helped children sound out
spellings for words. As she monitored children's'
progress, she noted that one child in particular had a
story in his head, but it was just too laborious for him
to get it on paper. She felt that the child was getting
frustrated because he compared himself to others and
knew he was struggling. She suggested to her
cooperating teacher that he record his stories and the
teachers transcribe them into his journal. The
cooperating teacher agreed that this was an appropriate
accommodation.
For Lacy, however, this kind of intensive support came at a
cost to the other students in the class:
In teaching, you have to get on with your curriculum.
You can't cut other kids experiences short because of a
few kids. I feel like it's sad but it's true. (FI.I.8)
Despite Lacy's concerns over the equity of intensive
interventions for some students, she still planned lessons
that enhanced student participation, monitored student


121
and come up with a legend about it. Max kept saying, "I
can't do this. I don't understand." I questioned him
about a legend. He still couldn't write it. I offer to
write for him. What I find out is he has a legend in
his head, with dialogue, good grammar, flow (a
beginning, middle, end). He just had a problem getting
it from his head to his paper. (FI II.4)
Martha's cooperating teacher described the way she monitored
students and adapted instruction as a reflective process:
She reflects on what she does and goes back and makes
modifications. She walks around the room, talking with
children, it's almost the post test that is not on
paper, it is in your head. She asks questions like, Why
are you doing this, and why did you put this on your
paper, and where are you going with this idea? (CTI)
As the interns monitored students and made instructional
accommodations, they clarified the goal of the activity.
Mary and Martha realized that both of their students had the
knowledge to complete assignments but both had difficulty
transmitting their knowledge on paper. As Mary and Martha
clarified the instructional goal, they were able to make a
reasonable accommodation by adapting the way these students
communicated the information "in their heads." Laura also
used dictation to assist a student after she clarified the
activity goal:
When we were writing panda facts in our journals, I let
Max dictate. I realized the objective was not for him
to write but for him to identify the facts, and he was
able to meet the objective. He was successful with the
panda group. After he dictated, he read it back. He
was very proud. As his confidence builds, I want him to
take over the writing. (FI II.4)
Laura's cooperating teacher recognized her ability to
identify the goal of a lesson and make modifications:
She found ways to simplify the lesson without dummying
down the lesson. She tried to hone in on what it was she


79
approval by the University's Institutional Review Board of
Human Subjects was granted to observe, interview, and record
interns, pupils, and cooperating teachers under the "Project
PART" grant.
The researcher and intern supervisor described the
general intent of the study during a seminar meeting with the
interns. A letter was also given to each of the interns that
stated,
I'm very interested to learn how you develop plans and
make instructional decisions for students during the
internship. More specifically, I want to know how you
plan for and make instructional and behavioral decisions
for the pupils in the class that you consider to be hard
to teach and/or hard to manage. With you and your
cooperating teacher's permission, I will observe you
while teaching, videotape two lessons, conduct
interviews following the lessons and examine your lesson
plans.
By presenting the goals of the study in rather general
terms, the researcher attempted to avoid influencing the
outcomes of the study. The length of time spent in the
classroom also minimized the possibility that this initial
discussion would have an impact on study findings.
After an overview of the study was shared with the interns,
the researcher and the interns supervisor assured the
interns that the observations conducted by the researcher
were not evaluative and would not effect their "grade" for
the internship. The researcher explicitly stated that she
would not make suggestions for changes or modifications in
lesson plans or teaching strategies. Her interest was in the
plans and decisions made by the interns and their reasons for


69
individualized instruction, and communicating with the
student were considered the least feasible adaptations.
These findings suggest that general education teachers are
less likely to consider adaptations that require specific
planning for individual students or adjustments in the
curriculum. Perhaps it is because they do not have the
knowledge or skills to make such adaptations, or they
consider these adaptations too time consuming to be
worthwhile. Jenkins and Leicester (1992) found in a study of
12 elementary teachers that 5 encountered problems and were
unable to implement reading interventions for students with
learning disabilities. During interviews, 4 of these
teachers expressed doubts about their ability to develop
effective specialized instruction for these students. If
teacher education programs prepare novices to consider and
employ instructional adaptations, they may see the importance
of accommodating student needs in a variety of ways and
develop strategies that require less time to implement.
Schumm, Vaughn, and their cohorts (Schumm, Vaughn,
Gordon, & Rothlein, 1994) examined the beliefs, skills, and
practices of general education teachers in regard to adapting
practices for students with special needs. Interviews,
observations, teaching episodes and a beliefs and attitudes
instrument were used to gather data from elementary, middle,
and high school teachers. Statistical analysis of the survey
revealed one difference across groups in their beliefs.


16
psychological perspective and rests on two basic assumptions
(Shavelson & Stern, 1981) :
1. Teachers are professionals who make reasonable
judgments and decisions in a complex setting, and they
operate rationally within the limits of their information
processing abilities.
2. Teachers' behavior is guided by their thoughts,
judgments, and decisions.
To understand teachers' thoughts and decisions about
instruction, it is necessary to study their instructional
planning and decision making while teaching. Researchers of
novice teachers' thought processes often compare their
planning and interactive decision making to that of more
experienced teachers (Borko & Livingston, 1989; Carter,
Sabers, Cushing, Pinnegar, & Berliner, 1987; Leinhardt &
Greeno, 1986). This line of research is fruitful in
specifying the developmental nature of instructional planning
and interactive decision making and can be informative to
teacher educators (Calderhead, 1983). Cognitive analysis of
the development of teacher planning and interactive decision
making provides a meaningful framework to depict the way
teachers integrate and organize knowledge and experiences
over the years. Central to a cognitive analysis of teaching
is the concept of "schema."


29
a written record of their plans for instruction and comment
in writing on their reasons for developing the plans and
their reflections on and evaluation of their plans following
the instructional event. The data from journals are analyzed
and descriptions of planning models and factors that
influence planing are reported (e.g., Kagan & Tippins, 1992).
Concept maos. A concept map is a graphic representation
of concepts related to a particular topic. To construct a
map, participants generate terms associated with a topic
thereby revealing the vocabulary they have acquired about the
topic. Quantitative analysis of concept maps provide a
general comparison of organization and content including the
number of main categories and subordinate elements. Concept
maps are often supplemented with interviews and observations
of lessons to compare map content with actual instructional
activities. Beyerbach (1988) and Morine-Dershimer (1989)
used concept mapping to explore novice teacher planning.
Concerns of Novice Teachers
Because of the complex nature of learning to teach,
several researchers have examined beginning teaching from a
developmental perspective (Berliner, 1988; Bullough, 1987;
Kagan, 1992; Lidstone & Hollingsworth, 1992). Teacher
development is characterized as a pathway to expertise (i.e.,
the novice to expert paradigm). Beginning teachers move from
stages of fantasy to mastery as they develop schemata that
help them acquire knowledge of pupils and develop procedural


7
they consider to be hard to teach and hard to manage. Little
information exists to illuminate the kinds of decisions
teachers make for these students. What has been reported
(Baker & Zigmond, 1990; McIntosh, Vaughn, Schumm, Hager, &
Lee, 1994; Vaughn & Schumm, 1994) suggests that general
educators are not planning instructional accommodations that
increase opportunities for students with special needs to
succeed.
Two general questions guided the data collection for
this study: (a) How do Project PART interns plan for hard-to-
teach/hard-to-manage students, and (b) what instructional
decisions do PART interns make for these students? A subset
of questions was developed to guide data collection and
analysis:
1. How do PART interns develop preactive plans for
hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage students? What is included in
these plans?
2. What kinds of interactive decisions do Project PART
interns make for hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage students?
3. What are the postactive decisions PART interns make
for hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage students?
4. What are the similarities among the PART interns
in their planning and interactive decision making for
hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage students? What are the
differences?


146
I found that things like proximity control didn^t work.
I needed six things; one would work with one child but
not another. I began picking up on things that did work
like the hand signals. (11.10-12)
Throughout the course of Mary's internship, she
identified and implemented management strategies she found
effective for her students. She observed children's
struggles to manage their behavior during the day and made
decisions to alter or individualize a behavior management
plan. Like all the PART interns in this study, Mary
sometimes found it necessary to make managerial adaptations
for the whole class and specific individuals. These
adaptations most often consisted of extrinsic motivators to
increase meaningful participation in classroom activities.
Phase Three: Individualized Behavioral Accommodations
Mary began her internship using the time-out procedures
initiated by her cooperating teacher. After the first few
weeks of the internship, Mary expressed frustration with
several children's continuous inappropriate behavior and
incorporated the "Punch System" into the management routine
for the entire class. The Punch System was used during large
group lessons or activities when the children worked in
cooperative groups. The children's desks were arranged in
groups of five or six, and there was a square of paper
attached to a desk facing the front of the class. During a
lesson or activity, Mary periodically circulated around the
room and used a hole punch to award punch points to groups
who followed classroom rules. As she gave punch points, Mary


120
first I thought it was hokey, but they noticed they answered
a question they had been asking and got very excited." (FI
II.2). Marcy saw the KWL as a tool to appraise student
knowledge and a way to engage students in the learning
process.
In order to make an appropriate accommodation, the
interns had to monitor individual student progress while the
students worked on an assignment or activity. On several
occasions the researcher observed the interns seated beside a
child posing questions, listening to responses, or taking
dictation. The researcher recorded these observations in
Mary's room:
A group of children are working on presentations to
share the answers to their research questions on
ecosystems. Each child is writing a news report to
share their findings with the class. Joey hesitates to
begin writing and puts his head down on his desk. Mary
goes to him and suggests that he dictate his report to
her so they can get something on paper to discuss with
the other members of the group. Joey begins to dictate
his presentation to Mary.
After the activity period, Mary stated, "As I assess, I find
that some children know information but can't put it down on
paper. I use dictation to get at [what they know]
Martha expressed a similar rationale as she described an
interaction with Max, a bright boy with a learning disability
in reading and written language:
[As the children work] I walk around the room and
conduct a visual assessment. During my visual
assessment, I could see who was having some difficulty
or not getting a concept. I would ponder a lot about
what I wanted them to be able to do and how I would help
them get there. Like with Max. We talked about legends.
I asked them to choose an animal from the rain forest


20
and reteach at a later date. Effective teaching is a complex
task in which teachers are called upon to solve problems that
cannot always be resolved through the predetermined
application of standardized techniques (Yinger, 1986). When
teaching, the practitioner begins with an outline of an
instructional activity. Details are filled in during the
class session as the teacher responds to what the students
know and can do. Preparation for instruction requires the
creation of general guidelines for lessons that are designed
to be responsive to the unpredictability of classroom events
(Yinger, 1987).
Schon (1983) used the term "professional" to refer to
practitioners who design practical courses of action to serve
the needs of a particular individual or group. Professionals
are faced with dilemmas of practice that cannot always be
resolved. Instead, professionals seek out ways to cope with
these dilemmas. The professional teacher transforms stored
teaching schemata to respond to dilemmas by identifying
problems, designing instructional activities and adaptations,
and evaluating the activities (Yinger, 1977, 1980). Schon
(1983) suggested that in order to understand how
professionals cope with the dilemmas of practice, we need to
understand their "reflection-in-action" or thoughts during
interactive instruction. Researchers suggested that novice
teachers encounter difficulty when they deviate from the
written lesson plan in an attempt to respond to


115
back doing something else, at least I had 26. Martha
would want to know what to do to get the other two
involved. She wasn't going to be satisfied with just
26. (CTI)
Martha also enhanced student participation by recruiting
the less attentive students as assistants during small group
instruction:
It was center time and seven students came to the
science center to discuss the vivariums (plants and
insects encapsulated in a plastic beverage container)
they had previously constructed. Max, a student with a
learning disability, is assigned the task of passing out
pencils and strips of paper. He does so quietly and
efficiently. As Martha reviews concepts related to the
vivarium, she selects one to put in front of the
children so they could focus on the actual product while
they answered her questions. The vivarium she selects
is Max's. Martha and the children discuss the importance
of light to support the living things in the vivarium.
A child asks if a different color plastic would still
allow light to enter the bottle. Max leaves his seat
and goes to the window ledge to pick up a vivarium in a
green bottle so they can make a comparison. Martha does
not intercede. The discussion continues and children
complete a sequencing activity on the water cycle.
(SRII)
At the end of the school day while viewing a videotape of the
lesson, Martha commented on Max's participation and her
decisions:
Max passed out pencils and supplies because it was
something he could do to experience success. He knows
if he stays involved he might get another job. . .1
held up Max's vivarium because I knew if anyone was
going to drift it would be him. I thought this would
keep his interest. . When Max got up to do his thing
(examine the green container), I let that go because it
was related to what we were doing and drew in Nicholas
(a gifted student). (SRII)
Martha increased student participation by recruiting Max's
assistance and drawing upon his curiosity to engage another
student's interest and attention.


126
organize sets. Four or five asked if they could use the
beans again and that seemed to help. (FI II.4)
At the math center, Lacy was guiding her first graders
through an addition activity using colored cubes. The
children counted out five cubes and then wrote the number "5"
on their pad. Lacy noticed that Megan did not write the
number "5" correctly. The next day, during math center time,
Lacy pulled out a number 5 cut from sandpaper and encouraged
Megan to trace over the sandpaper 5 with her finger. Lacy
explained that she thought a tactile representation would
help Megan learn the correct way to write 5 so she would not
confuse it with another number. Lacy's cooperating teacher
recognized this strategy as a modification:
There were kids at the math center who were still having
problems with the formation of their numbers and the
backwards numbers, so one day I saw her pull out a sheet
of sandpaper numbers, and they would go over them and
then write the numbers again. (CT 1.6)
The PART interns also modified assignments to
accommodate particular students. Mary would reduce the
length of a math assignment for some students to increase
their feelings of success. Mary justified the decision with
this comment:
I thought about whether it was appropriate to have
different expectations for some kids. It absolutely is.
I reduced the number of math problems to be completed by
Sally and James because that is where they have
difficulty. I had to think about their self-esteem and
how to balance expectations for kids. (FN 10-24)
Laura decided to modify a worksheet for some students in
her second grade after she noticed them struggling to finish
assignments on time due to reading difficulties.


150
adaptations of a prescribed curriculum as a way to meet the
needs of the children in her class:
The High Five thing you saw today was an adaptation of a
lesson that was modified to be a more concrete example
for our children. Rather than us just talking about it,
modeling, role playing, and paying lip service for the
rest of the year, it is actually a model that is in
place that will continue to stay there.
Martha took a very active role in goal setting and
establishing class rules and she has adapted a lot of
materials to meet our specific classroom needs and our
specific children's needs. (CT. FI)
While several PART interns successfully implemented
behavioral accommodations for a number of students, there
were times when an intern recognized the need to make an
accommodation but did not do so. Lana described her
reluctance to make accommodations for a student named Bobby.
Bobby rarely completed assignments. To Lana, this was a
behavioral problem because Bobby was usually talking or
walking around the room instead of completing an assignment.
Lana tried time-out, talks with Bobby, and scheduled a
meeting with his mother, but she did not attend. Lana
commented,
I don't know what to do. Maybe he would benefit from an
incentive program to encourage him to finish. He might
like a token or time to do something. I'm not sure how
the other children would react, and I'm reluctant to
try. Some children might get jealous. . Right now
I'm more focused on getting through the unit. (FI.I.3)
Getting through the unit and behavior management strategies
that were not the same for all students were very real
concerns for Lana. She was preoccupied with the need to
acquire "six grades in each of the subject areas for all the
students in her class, and she felt unable to make a more


APPENDIX H
INTERVIEW V
Stimulated Recall
Guiding Questions
Questions asked prior to teaching the lesson to be
videotaped:
1. Is this lesson related to anything else you are doing?
2. Where do you start when you plan a lesson?
3. How do you use your plans during actual teaching?
Guidelines for stimulated recall of videotape following the
lesson.
While viewing the videotape with the researcher, the intern
was asked to stop the videotape when her recall of thoughts
during the lesson was stimulated by the videotape. The
intern was asked the following questions:
1. What were you thinking at this point?
2. Was there anything the students were doing that made you
stop and think?
3. What did you decide to do?
4. Was there anything else you thought of doing at that
point but decided against?
5.What was it?
Postactive decisions asked following the stimulated recall.
1. Would you rate this lesson as successful? Why?
2. Did you gain information from this lesson that will be
useful in planning future lessons?
183


64
support the inclusion of all citizens in society. If they
are willing to do so, general educators can make various
adaptations so that students with special needs can be
successful (Stainback & Stainback, 1992).
However, little is known about the types of adaptations
general educators make for special learners. Fuchs, Fuchs,
and Bishop (1992) described two types of adaptations, routine
and specialized. A routine adaptation is a variation in
materials, grouping arrangements, and goals which teachers
establish at the beginning of the school year. Reading
groups based on ability levels are an example of a routine
adaptation. Specialized adaptations are those that address
the specific learning difficulties of individual students.
Researchers have conducted a number of studies to examine the
planning and adaptations general educators make for students
with special needs (Baker & Zigmond, 1990; Blanton, Blanton,
& Cross, 1994; Jenkins & Leicester, 1992; McIntosh, Vaughn,
Schumm, Haager, & Lee, 1994; Schumm & Vaughn, 1991; Schumm,
Vaughn, Gordon, Rothlein, 1994; Schumm, Vaughn, Haager,
McDowell, & Saumell, 1995; Vaughn & Schuumm, 1994; Zigmond &
Baker, 1990). Their findings are beginning to appear in the
professional literature.
Planning and Instructional Accommodations for Students in
Mainstream Classrooms
In response to calls for alternative, elementary-level,
service delivery models for students with learning
disabilities, Zigmond and Baker (1990) developed a model,


40
The researchers' analyses of the results indicated that
experienced preservice teachers made more information
requests than less experienced preservice teachers,
especially in the area of student information. The more
experienced teachers made significantly more requests for
information related to student ability and mainstreaming.
Experienced preservice teachers made more decisions and
planned in greater detail in areas related to task
procedures, instructional strategies, and management.
Borko and Livingston (1989) investigated the differences
in planning and instruction of mathematics lessons between
novice and experienced teachers. Authors' analyses of the
data revealed that planning by novice teachers focused
primarily on the development of strategies for presenting
content to students and was more time consuming and less
efficient than that of experts. Novices experienced
difficulty when attempting to link concepts and had little
awareness of the concepts that were most difficult for
students. They were also weary of instructional options that
deviated from traditional instructional formats even though
these options might be beneficial. One novice reported,
"Earlier I felt really frustrated, like I should be doing
other things. I should be doing more cooperative learning
techniques. . Now I'm trying to do mastery teaching well"
(p. 487) It was difficult for the novices to improvise
responses to student difficulty during instruction and they


38
anything unless you hold the attention of the kids and get
basic discipline" (p. 362) There is also the indication
that these novices began to see the connection between
management and instruction. "I am at the stage where there
is a major control problem with many of my classes because
the wacky ideas I tried were a disaster" (p. 363) The
novices' concern for individual student needs is also
apparent. "All the classes in the school are mixed ability
and it's very difficult to plan for all the kids" (p. 363).
Although novices see that there are students with various
ability levels in classrooms, planning to meet the needs of
diverse learners seems to be a difficult task for the
beginning teacher. The limited capacity of novices to meet
the needs of individuals continues to emerge as a key
difference between more and less experienced teachers.
The Planning of More and Less Experienced Teachers
Housner and Griffey (1985) and Byra and Sherman (1993)
compared the planning of more and less experienced teachers
to identify components of effective planning. Housner and
Griffey (1985) set out to describe the planning of
experienced and inexperienced physical education teachers as
they planned two lessons in physical education. Audiotapes
of planning sessions were analyzed to determine planning
decisions related to selection of tasks and activities and
instructional strategies.


172
This is not a call to reject thematic models of teacher
education but rather advocacy for programs in which beginning
teachers are engaged in open dialogue about a variety of
pedagogical points of view and are supported to make
reasonable judgments and decisions about appropriate courses
of action in a particular teaching situation. Teaching is
complex and uncertain. There are no neat solutions to the
situations these beginning teachers will encounter. Teacher
educators must strive to develop models of teacher education
that do not leave novices floundering in a sea of disparate
and disconnected ideas and practices. However, programs
cannot be designed so coherently that novices become
indoctrinated into narrow views of teaching and learning. As
Buchmann and Floden (1990) wrote, "A program that is too
coherent fits students with blinders, deceives them, and
encourages complacency. In teaching, the comforts of settled
opinion are neither realistic nor functional" (p. 8).
Additionally, it is useful for teacher educators to
examine the nature and content of the course work in which
the PART interns participated, especially classroom
management. As noted, the PART interns were successful
classroom managers and acknowledged the value of taking a
semester-long course in classroom management designed and
taught by special education faculty. The elementary program
at the University of Florida, like many other elementary
programs, does not include a course in classroom management.
Issues related to management and student behavior are


100
decision making of the interns (Miles & Huberman, 1984). As
these patterns became clear, it was possible to compare them
with findings in the literature regarding novice teachers'
decision making to develop a set of propositions that
reflected the findings and conclusions of this study (Miles &
Huberman, 1984) .
These analytic procedures helped shape the data
analysis, reduce the scope of the data, and determine their
meaning. Analysis made it possible to identify differences
within and between the interns and make a comparison to the
literature on novice teacher decision making. Spradley
(1980) suggested that researchers begin a study with
descriptive observations or interviews. This investigator
began the study with a descriptive observation in each
intern's classroom and then conducted a "grand-tour"
interview (Jorgensen, 1989) to develop a perspective of the
interns perceptions about their classroom's organization and
the students, especially those considered to be hard to
teach/hard to manage. After initial analysis was completed,
data collection was narrowed as the focus of the study was
clarified. As the analysis and data collection proceeded,
selective observations were made and interviews focused on
specific questions of concern.


28
reliable when a person is reporting on the contents of short
term memory or the incidences to which the person is
currently attending.
The authors of the studies presented in this chapter
usually employed combinations of methods of inquiry: think
alouds, stimulated recall, journal keeping, and concept
mapping. These techniques were often supplemented by
interviews, observations and narrative descriptions of the
task, and the observable behavior of the participants in the
study. A description of these methods follows.
Thinking aloud. The think aloud method requires a
teacher to verbalize thoughts while engaged in a task such as
planning a lesson (e.g., Westerman, 1992). The verbaliza
tions are audiotaped or videotaped and later transcribed
producing written documents. The protocols are coded and
analyzed to produce descriptions of teacher thinking.
Stimulated recall. Stimulated recall consists of
replaying a videotape or audiotape of a lesson to allow the
teacher to recall and report the thoughts and decisions made
during the teaching event. The teacher's comments about
thoughts and concerns are recorded and transcribed and the
content is analyzed. Housner and Griffey (1985) used
stimulated recall to determine the environmental cues
teachers responded to during instruction.
Journal keeping. Journals are a source of data used to
study teacher planning. Teachers are typically asked to keep


APPENDIX C
PARENTAL CONSENT FORMS
February 17, 1995
Dear Parents,
In a continuous effort to provide quality teacher
training for our students, the Departments of Special
Education and Elementary Education are developing video tapes
of exemplar student teachers. These tapes are designed to
illustrate effective teaching strategies as demonstrated by
student teachers in their classrooms. These tapes will be
used at the University of Florida to provide direct examples
to teacher trainees in their course work and to teachers in
the field for inservice training. Although the focus of the
tapes is on teacher behaviors, pupils in the class will be
unavoidably shown on the tapes. For this reason, we are
asking your consent to film your child as he or she interacts
with the teachers. These tapes are not intended to evaluate
your child in any way.
The videotaping will be done under our supervision and
with the cooperation of your child's teacher. The disruption
to normal classroom instruction will be minimal. Classroom
activities will progress as scheduled. We will primarily
record natural teacher/pupil interactions. If you have any
questions about any aspect of this program, please call or
write us at the Department of Instruction and Curriculum, 258
Norman Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-2053; telephone number
(904) 392-0701 extension 286.
Sincerely,
Karen Kilgore Nancy L. Corbett
Project PART Coordinator Field Advisor
177


23
Table 2.l--continued
Domains
Preactive Taskscontinued
Critique content, and
materials
The teacher uses materials
that engage students'
interests, judges adequacy for
students, and determines
instructional arrangements and
procedures (Osborn, Jones, &
Stein, 1985; Schram, Feiman-
Nemser, & Ball, 1989).
Interactive Tasks
Examoles
Implement and adjust
plans during instruction
Directions and expectations
are clearly communicated;
students are provided
specific feedback and
reinforcement (Porter &
Brophy, 1988).
The teacher provides
instruction that connects
concepts, uses analogies
and metaphors, and
engages students in
meaningful discussion
(Stein, Baxter, &
Leinhardt, 1990).
Explanations are given in
clear small steps and
enable students to relate
the new to the familiar
and the abstract to the
concrete (Rieth &
Evertson, 1988). The
teacher models problem
solving processes and
helps students develop
self-monitoring
strategies; questions are
asked to check student
understanding (Porter &
Brophy, 1988).


188
LeCompte, M.D., & Preissle, J., (1993). Ethnography and
qualitative design in educational research. San Diego, CA:
Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
Leinhardt, G., & Greeno, J.G. (1986). The cognitive
skill of teaching. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78,
75-95.
Lidstone, M.L., & Hollingsworth, S. (1992). A
longitudinal study of cognitive change in beginning teachers:
Two patterns of learning to teach. Teacher Education
Quarterly. 19. 39-57.
Marland, P.W. (1978). A study of teachers' interactive
thoughts (Doctoral disertation, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Canada, 1977). American Doctoral Dissertations.
X1978.
McCutcheon, G. (1980). How do elementary teachers plan?
The nature of planning and influences on it. Elementary
School Journal. 81. 4-23.
McIntosh, R-, Vaughn, S., Schumm, J.S., Haager, D. &
Lee, L. (1994). Observations of students with learning
disabilities in general education classrooms. Exceptional
Children. 60. 249-261.
McNair, K. (1978-1979). Capturing inflight decisions.
Educational Research Quarterly, 3(4). 26-42.
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M., (1984). Qualitative data
analysis: A sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, NJ:
Sage Publications.
Morine-Dershimer, G. (1977, April). What's in a plan?
Stated and unstated plans for lessons. Paper presented at
the annual meeting of the American Educational Research
Association, New York.
Morine-Dershimer, G. (1979). Teacher planning and
classroom reality; The south Bay study. Part 4 (Research
Series No.60). East Lansing: Michigan State University,
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Morine-Dershimer, G. (1989). Preservice teachers'
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Education.40. 46-53.


27
1978; McNair, 1978-1979; Marx & Peterson, 1981; Vaughn &
Schumm, 1994). Teachers engaged in interactive teaching make
rapid judgments and differentiate important from unimportant
information (Reynolds, 1992). Managing and maintaining a
positive learning environment, establishing rules and
routines, implementing instructional activities, and
responding to students are critical aspects of interactive
teaching.
Postactive Planning
Postactive planning focuses on teachers' thinking about
the success of the plan, activities, and assessments that
directly relate to the follow-up or extension of the plan.
Postactive planning and decision making is often influenced
by student responses to the lesson. Multiple sources of data
are used to assess student progress. These may include
standardized tests, observations of students, work samples,
games, checklists, and questionnaires (Reynolds, 1992).
The Plans and Interactive Decisions of Novice Teachers
Methods of Inquiry
The study of teachers' thought processes presents
researchers with technical and methodological challenges.
This research depends heavily on various forms of self-
reports about cognitive processes. The use of self-reports
as data has generated concerns about how to gather and
interpret valid and reliable sources. Ericcson and Simon
(1980) suggested that self-reports are most valid and


78
data" (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982) during the study and eased
entry into the research setting.
Table 3.1
Summary of Data Collection Procedures
Classroom observations and informal
follow-up interviews
250 hours
Structured interviews with interns
20
hours
Videotaped lessons followed by
Stimulated Recall Interview
24
hours
Structured interviews with
Cooperating Teachers
6
hours
Total Data Collection:
300
hours
Participant Selection
At the time of this study, Project PART staff were
conducting interviews as part of the ongoing data collection
procedure to evaluate the project. The PART students had
participated in interviews and submitted videotaped lessons
from the beginning of the project. Because the students were
required to participate in the projects evaluative study, it
seemed appropriate to solicit volunteers to participate in
data collection beyond what was originally required for the
project. For this study, the researcher openly requested
permission to observe, videotape, and interview the Project
PART interns and their cooperating teachers. Official


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184


52
The lesson schema of the experts seemed to be organized
very efficiently so that each lesson included unique content
and a clear goal. Throughout the lesson, the expert is using
information about the student to assess the progress of the
lesson and the progress of the subj ect matter coverage.
Establishment of a routine allowed the expert to focus on the
important features of the material to be covered and student
progress. The failure of the novices to establish a
consistent routine could also interfere with their ability to
relate content across lessons. Linking content is a key
novice/expert difference in the following study.
Delores Westerman (1992) examined the planning and
interactive decisions of five expert and five novice
elementary teachers using audiotaped planning interviews,
videotapes of lessons, stimulated recall interviews, post
teaching interviews, delayed self-reports, and relevant
documents. Researchers analyzed and refined categories to
identify additional categories across interview protocols.
Tables were constructed comparing frequencies of incidences
of categories for experts and novices. At each stage of
analysis, interrater reliability provided verification of
categories and emerging hypotheses.
Notable differences between experts and novices involved
integration of knowledge, student behavior, and interaction
among the three stages of decision making (preactive,
interactive, and postactive). Integration of knowledge


123
could research that area and find out what to do. If
there were someone better trained here who could work
with me, she [Sherry] would have more positive benefits.
(FI.I.3)
With the help of the elementary school principal, a
school psychologist and educational specialist came to the
classroom to observe Sherry and make suggestions for
educational accommodations. Although Mary continued to feel
Sherry was not making the kind of progress she hoped for, she
noticed that Sherry was more responsive in class:
The school psychologist and educational specialist have
helped make a difference. I moved her seat to face the
front. I touch her shoulder and say her name as a
prompt. The one-on-one help has been successful. I did
reduce her assignments in math so that she could
complete them. (FI.II.4)
Mary was also concerned about the amount of the teacher
aide's time spent in one-to-one assistance with Sherry.
However, Mary clarified a short-term goal for Sherry:
completion of assignments. She also continued to seek out
what motivated Sherry:
She would do beautiful drawings. She was motivated to
write. She wrote four or five sentences on a cat who
had no teeth. She wanted to know how to spell words.
She wanted to get it down. I noticed when we went to
the museum, she was right there, tuned in. Maybe she's
an experiential learner. (FI.III.2)
Phase Three: Individualized Instruction
Many beginning teachers are aware of the academic
diversity in their classrooms, but they are unable to adapt
materials and instruction for individual students (Reynolds,
1995). These PART interns not only recognized the need to
adjust instruction for individuals, they also developed


151
intensive accommodation for Bobby. For Lana, it was
inappropriate to make an accommodation that might be viewed
by other children as unfair.
Lana's desire to cover the content and move the
curriculum forward were considered strengths to Lana's
cooperating teacher. Lana's cooperating teacher often made
positive comments about Lana's teaching aptitude and
described her as an outstanding intern:
She did very good lessons and presentations. That is
one of her strong areas. She covered everything and the
children were interested. She went out of her way to do
things and make it interesting for them. (CTI.5)
I think her planning and willingness to go the extra
mile were strengths. From the lesson she presented, you
can tell she's very well organized. She has her
material ready. I think she's been outstanding. I see
a progression. She's more comfortable dealing with the
children in terms of discipline. I think she will make
a good teacher. (CTI.9)
Like Lana, the other PART interns received favorable
evaluations from their cooperating teachers. The cooperating
teachers often commented on the interns' grasp of classroom
management. Their management skills often set them apart
from other interns:
She has an incredible repertoire of behavior control, I
don't know if that is the word, signals, that she
indicates a change in routine, or the need to be quiet.
The clapping, the lights, walking around with a silly
little frog puppet whispering in her ear. And only the
frog puppet can talk, and only she can hear the frog.
The children will get really quiet just to find out what
the frog is telling her. It amazes me because they will
sit there and say, "Well it's only a puppet." Then they
will ask, "What did it say." She's got an entire
repertoire of things that she can pull from to change
behavior, modify behavior in some way. She has just an
incredible amount of strategies to get children's
attention and to reinforce concepts. I haven't seen
that in an intern, not that strongly. (Martha's CT. FI)


67
desire to work with students with disabilities in their
classrooms, they also identified the barriers to providing
instruction to diverse students (e.g., large class size,
district-mandated objectives, limited budget, limited
knowledge of appropriate accommodations). While many
teachers report that making adaptations for diverse students
is desirable, they may not be feasible given the reality of
classroom conditions.
The Constraints of Planning Accommodations for Students
In a related study, Schumm and Vaughn (1991) devised a
rating system (Adaptation Evaluation Instrument) to ascertain
the desirability and feasibility of implementing 30
adaptations for mainstreamed students. Elementary, middle,
and high school teachers rated the feasibility and
desirability of implementing an adaptation such as providing
alternative materials, using small groups for instruction,
and providing reinforcement to students. Table 2.5 presents
a complete listing of adaptations. Most adaptations were
considered desirable to teachers at all grade levels, and all
adaptations were considered more desirable than feasible.
The most desirable adaptations were to provide reinforcement,
and encouragement, establish a personal relationship with the
student, and involve the student in whole class activities.
Adaptation of long-range plans, adjustment of the physical
arrangements of the room, and adaptation of regular materials
were least desirable while adapting materials, providing


5
Description of Project PART
The Departments of Special Education and Instruction and
Curriculum at the University of Florida collaborated to
create a program designed to prepare teachers to provide
effective and supportive programs for students who are
ethnically and culturally diverse as well as those with mild
disabilities. The program prepares teachers who meet state
requirements for certification in Elementary Education and
Specific Learning Disabilities. Project PART (Prevention and
Accommodation through Reflective Teaching) is a six-semester
course of study leading to the Bachelor of Arts and Master of
Education degrees in Elementary Education and recommendation
for initial teacher certification in Elementary Education and
Specific Learning Disabilities.
The curriculum of Project PART emphasizes three
thematic components: prevention, accommodation, and
reflective teaching. The Project PART curriculum includes
educational foundations, an academic specialization, the
elementary education core, the special education core, and
practicum/internship experiences. The thematic emphases of
the program are developed throughout the program and
particularly in the elementary education core, the special
education core, and the practicum/internship experiences.
The elementary education core provides essential knowledge
about elementary subject area teaching methods; learning
approaches that include cooperative learning, whole language,


4
their time in mainstream classes. Furthermore, the
percentage of students who are served in general education
classrooms increased by 35% from 1976-77 to 1992-93 (Office
of Special Education, 1994) .
The current demographic trends and the movement to
include students with disabilities in general education
classes compel educators to accommodate an ever-widening
diversity of students in their classrooms. Educational
reformers of the 1980s emphasized the need for teachers to
extend their pedagogical knowledge to meet the needs of
diverse students by (a) acquiring an adequate range of
instructional approaches based upon research and best
practice, (b) understanding children's learning needs and
remediating learning problems, and (c) making appropriate
decisions about when to seek outside help (Holmes Group,
1986, p. 39). If these goals are achieved, teachers would
benefit all students by (a) reducing the number of referrals
to special education, (b) accommodating students with
disabilities who are mainstreamed into classroom programs,
and (c) alleviating the difficulties that at-risk students
experience in school, thereby decreasing the likelihood of
their need for compensatory, remedial, or special education
services. The mandate to prepare teachers to accommodate
student diversity and achieve the goals set forth in reform
initiatives is clear.


191
Semmel, D.S. (1977, April). The effects of training on
teacher decision making. Paper presented at the annual
meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New
York City. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 138558)
Shavelson, R.J. (1986, April). Interactive decision
making: Some thoughts on teacher cognition. Invited
address, I Congresso Internacional, "Pensamientos do los
Profesores y Toma de Decisiones," Seville, Spain.
Shavelson, R.J., & Stern, P. (1981). Research on
teachers' pedagogical thoughts, judgements, decisions, and
behavior. Review of Educational Research, 51, 455-498.
Shefelbine, J.L., & Hollingsworth, S. (1987). The
instructional decisions of preservice teachers during a
reading practicum. Journal of Teacher Education, 1, 36-42.
Shulman, L.S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge
growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.
Spradley, J.P. (1980). Participant observation. Fort
Worth: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
Stainback, S., & Stainback, W. (1992). Curriculum
considerations in inclusive classrooms. Baltimore: Brookes
Publishing.
Strauss, A.L., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of
qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and
techniques. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Taylor, A., & Valentine, B. (1985). Effective schools.
What research says about Series 1 data-search reports,
Washington, DC: National Education Association. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No. ED 274 073)
Vaughn, S., & Schumm, J.S. (1994). Middle school
teachers' planning for students with learning disabilities.
Remedial and Special Education, 15, 152-161.
Wang, M.C., Reynolds, M.C., & Walberg, H. J., (1986).
Rethinking special education, Educational Leadership. 44.
26-31.
Wang, M.C., Reynolds, M.C., & Walberg, H.J., (1988).
Integrating the children of the second system. Phi Delta
Kappan. 70. 248-51.


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe
the planning and interactive decisions made by PROTEACH
interns enrolled in a general education certification program
with a specialization in learning disabilities. The study
aimed to examine and describe how interns, instructed
specifically about hard-to-teach and hard-to-manage students,
planned for and made instructional decisions about these
students. This study was developed to describe the choices
novice teachers made in planning and analyze their decisions
and judgments about students. To understand the choices of
novice teachers, their thought processes should be studied
before, during, and after teaching (Clark & Peterson, 1986).
To reveal "how" these interns made plans and decisions for
students, the researcher spent time in the setting where the
event occurred, observing the participants and talking to the
them about their perspectives. Therefore, a qualitative
investigation was the appropriate methodological approach for
this study. Participant observations and in-depth
interviewing, core components of qualitative research, were
conducted to capture the perspectives of these novice
teachers (Bogden & Biklen, 1982).
75


41
reported reluctance to deviate from the lesson as planned.
Results from the studies of Housner and Griffey (1985), Byra
and Sherman (1993), and Borko and Livingston (1989) led
researchers to conclude that experience enables teachers to
develop further schematas, recognize patterns, and link
concepts across instructional activities.
Similar to findings in other studies (McCutcheon, 1980;
Morine-Dershimer, 1979), Borko and Livingston (1989) and
Borko, Livingston, and Shavelson (1990) reported that much
teacher planning occurred mentally and was not written down.
This was true for experts and novices. The novice teachers
in Borko's study reported thinking through the lesson in
great detail and rehearsing how to present explanations. The
written plan served as a procedural guide to move the lesson
along.
Kagan and Tippins (1992) reported similar findings in
their study of elementary and secondary novices.
Kagan and Tippins found that elementary interns used written
plans to organize thoughts and materials but never consulted
the plans while teaching, preferring to respond to pupils
spontaneously. As the semester progressed, their plans grew
less detailed and generally served as a supplement to
prepared teachers' guides. The elementary novices felt that
detailed plans hindered attempts to interrelate lessons
across subjects. These novices modified lessons suggested in
teaching guides to focus on a few interrelated skills during


187
making between experienced and inexperienced teachers.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 56, 45-53.
Jackson, P.W. (1968) Life in classrooms. New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Jenkins, J.R., & Leicester, N. (1992). Specialized
instruction within general education: A case study of one
elementary school. Exceptional Children, 58, 555-563.
John, P.D. (1991). Course, curricular, and classroom
influences on the development of student teachers1 lesson
planning perspectives. Teaching and Teacher Education, 7,
359-372.
Jorgensen, D.L. (1989). Participant observation: A
methodology for human studies Newbury Park, NJ: Sage
Publications.
Joyce, B.R. (1978-1979). Toward a theory of information
processing in teaching. Educational Research Quarterly, 3,
66-77.
Kagan, D.M. (1992). Professional growth among
preservice and beginning teachers. Review of Educational
Research. 62(2). 129-169.
Kagan, D.M., & Tippins, D.J. (1992). The evolution of
functional lesson plans among twelve elementary and secondary
student teachers. The Elementary School Journal.92. 477-489.
Katz, L.G., & Rath, J. (1992). Six dilemmas in teacher
education. Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5), 376-385.
Keith, M.J. (1988, November). Stimulated recall and
teachers' thought processes: A critical review of the
methodology and an alternative perspective. Paper presented
at the annual meeting of the mid-south Educational Research
Association, Louisville, KY.
Kirk, J., & Miller, M.L. (1986). Reliability and
validity in qualitative research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage
Publications
Kottkamp, R.B., Provennzo, E.F., & Cohen, M. M. (1986).
Stability and change in a profession: Two decades of teacher
attitudes. Phi Delta Kannan. 67. 559-567.


88
services to 189 students. A speech pathologist was also
employed 80% time.
Marcy completed her internship in a first-grade class.
Her cooperating teacher had taught for 14 years and had
worked with interns in the past. Marcy felt she and her
cooperating teacher complemented one another in their
approaches to instruction. They balanced out the cooperating
teacher's traditional skills instruction with Marcy's
creative, investigative activities. Marcy had 25 students in
her classroom. Some students received services from Chapter
I and ESE in a pull-out model. Table 3.2 includes a
description of the students in Marcy's classroom.
School III was in a rural county adjacent to the
district in which the other schools were located. Dairy
farms were scattered throughout the county, and the parents
of many children were employed in positions related to
farming and agriculture. The elementary school was situated
next to the middle and high schools. All students converged
on the high school for lunch, the home of the sole cafeteria.
The school was a hub for community activities, and teachers
characterized most parents as supportive partners in their
children's' education.
The elementary school had a student population of 700;
87% of the students were Caucasian, 11% African American, and
2% Hispanic or Native American. Among these students, 61%
received a free or reduced-priced lunch. The school employed


107
combined theories and strategies learned through special and
elementary education course work that enabled them to
establish effective managerial practices within their
classrooms. These interns were able to see the pedagogical
implications of student differences and began to adapt
materials and instruction for individual students.
Additionally, the issue of classroom management was
demystified for these interns because they were able to
transform information they learned into a repertoire of
meaningful strategies that they used to meet the needs of the
children in their classes.
However, the PART interns did grapple with two dilemmas
that influenced the way they provided academic and behavioral
accommodations for hard-to-teach and hard-to-manage students.
Katz and Raths (1992) used the term "dilemma" to describe "a
situation in which a perfect solution is not available" (p.
376). The PART interns' dilemmas were (a) internal and
external pressure to move through the curriculum and (b)
concern about balancing the needs of an individual with the
needs of the rest of the class. These interns recognized the
difficulty of making academic and behavioral accommodations
for particular students while trying to cover content in a
timely manner. Some expressed conflicts about adapting
instructional and behavioral strategies for individuals
without feeling other students were shortchanged. The
interns did not resolve these dilemmas rather they coped with
them in a variety of ways.


74
accommodations for students who are hard to teach and reach.
The research on beginning teachers suggests that novices do
not make instructional adaptations because they are focused
on managing classroom behavior and planning to meet the needs
of the "whole group" as opposed to individuals. It is
imperative to examine the planning and decision making of a
group of novices who have participated in a program
emphasizing instructional and behavioral accommodations.
That is the purpose of the present study.


186
Conners, R.D. (1978). An analysis of teacher thought
processes, beliefs, and principles during instruction
(Doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmondon,
Alberta, 1978). American Doctoral Dissertations, X1979.
Conoley, J.C. (1988). Positive classroom ecology.
Bios. pp. 2-7.
Cuban, L. (1992). Managing dilemmas while building
professional communities. Educational Researcher, 2(1), 4-
11.
Ericeson, K.A., & Simon, H.A. (1980). Verbal reports as
data. Psychological Review. 87. 215-251.
Feden, P.D., & Clabaugh, G.K. (1986). The "new breed"
educator: A rationale and program for combining elementary
and special education teacher preparation. Teacher Education
and Special Education. 10. 58-64.
Feiman-Nemser, S. (1990). Teacher preparation:
Structural and conceptual alternatives. In W.R. Houston
(Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 212-
233). New York: Macmillan.
Fogarty, J.L., Wang, M.C., & Creek, R. (1983). A
descriptive study of experienced and novice teachers'
interactive instructional thoughts and actions. Journal of
Teacher Education. 41(2). 32-43.
Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D., & Bishop, N. (1992).
Instructional adaptation for students at risk for academic
failure. Journal of Educational Research. 86. 70-84.
Galluzzo, G.L., & Mininx, N.A. (1992). Student teacher
thinking: A comparative study of elementary and secondary
teachers. Teacher Educator,28(1). 24-35.
Gartner, A., & Lipsky, D.K. (1987). Beyond special
education: Toward a quality system for all students.
Harvard Educational Review. 57, 367-395.
Gold, R.L. (1958). Roles in sociological field
observations. Social Forces.36. 217-223.
Holmes Group. (1986) Tomorrow's teachers: A report
of the Holmes Group. East Lansing, MI: Author.
Housner, L.D., & Griffey, D.C. (1985). Teacher
cognition: Differences in planning and interactive decision


57
and instruction and improvise more in planning and
interactive teaching.
Researchers investigating teachers' interactive
decisions have taken on the complex task of identifying and
analyzing the spontaneous decisions of teachers.
Investigators' interest has focused on the interactive
decisions of more and less experienced teachers and
identifying the schemata needed to teach competently (Clark &
Peterson, 1986). As teachers' decision making is more
clearly analyzed and described, practitioners become more
informed about the complexities of teaching and become more
aware of the thought processes related to effective teaching.
A problem with the research on teachers' interactive
decisions is one associated with the technique for capturing
these decisions, stimulated recall. Clark and Peterson
(1986) noted that techniques relying on self-report
constitute technical and methodological problems. It is
often difficult to surmise whether teachers are reporting
actual interactive decisions or postobservation reflections.
Stimulated recall does, however, provide a valuable source of
information on the ways teachers explain and justify their
practices (Keith, 1988). Carter and her colleagues (1986)
and Westerman (1992) attempted to resolve this problem by
combining the technique with extensive observations and
informal interviews to validate the findings obtained through
stimulated recall. Byra and Sherman (1993), Galluzzo and


53
refers to the way teachers fit individual lessons into the
total curriculum and allows them to place new learning in the
context of prior knowledge and allows students to see where
the present lesson fits with what they already know. Novice
teachers did not have enough knowledge about the curriculum
or student characteristics to allow them to perform an
adequate analysis of the lessons they planned. They rarely
mentioned integrating the present lesson with prior
knowledge. Westerman (1992) stated,
The novice teachers, on the other hand, often started
their lessons without recalling students' prior
knowledge about the topic of the lesson: "Today we're
going to talk about consonant blends." As their lessons
progressed, novices did little to relate present
learning to past or future learning. Furthermore, the
novices did not summarize information or set the stage
for new learning at transition points in the lesson as
the experts did. One novice stopped the videotape and
said, "I made a decision that they had talked enough so
I just gave them the assignment." The failure of the
novice teachers to relate subject content information
can have an important effect on student learning,
particularly for those students who are unable to
independently provide a framework for new knowledge.
(p. 297)
Borko and Livingston (1989) also found that the novices
in their study rarely linked related concepts, either within
a lesson or across the curriculum. Explanations, planned or
unplanned, lacked a connection to previous lessons.
Methodological information for this study is located in Table
2.3.
According to Westerman (1992), novice teachers moved
more quickly to punish children for inappropriate behavior
because they had fewer management techniques to draw upon.


134
transition and social skills." Martha's cooperating teacher
supported the way she had students practice because she had a
rationale for her decisions. The cooperating teacher
described an incident when Martha was able to share this
rationale with some of her second graders' parents:
She had one really scary experience at the beginning of
the year. She had them out practicing how to walk in a
line, and as I came out of the classroom one afternoon, I
was surrounded by some parents who wanted to know if I
envisioned their children spending a half an hour out of
their busy day practicing walking in a line. I asked
them to talk to Martha. I said, "I will tell you that we
found that sometimes we have to practice things that we
take for granted and probably that half hour of
practicing will save us several hours of school time that
is wasted going over the rules, waiting for people to
behave appropriately and go somewhere in line." I said,
"If you have been paying close attention, you would have
noticed that it was two separate groups of children
[practicing walking in lines]. She brought half of them
out and worked for 15 minutes, took them back and traded
them for the other half of the group that was getting
some Spanish instruction, so it was really only 15
minutes. The two parents who had viewed this operation
from the front circle nailed her on the way out the door,
but she was able to justify what she had done, and why
she had done it, and she would continue to do it that way
if the need to continue presented itself. I think these
parents wanted to make sure we weren't doing anything for
hours of their children's time and what we ended up with
were converts and classroom volunteers. They saw that
Martha had logical reasons for what she did, it wasn't
that she was arbitrarily figuring that walking up and
down the sidewalk in a line was a cool way to spend a
half an hour. (CTI)
Marcy expressed a similar opinion about clarifying
expectations and saw this as a distinct advantage for
children who are hard to teach: "I can prevent problems by
stating clear expectations for everybody. For kids with
behavior problems, if it's not clear [what to do], lessons
get chaotic." Mary concurred with Marcy's views on the


157
These [special education]classes helped me see other
strategies and validated there is another way to do
things with some kids and communicate to the class that
this is not unfair treatment. The classes helped in
terms of recognizing problems instead of looking at the
surface. A writing problem may be a processing problem
and we learned how to work with the processing problem.
(Marcy, FI.III.3)
The Influence of a Course in Classroom Management
The PART interns often described the influence of a
special education course they completed in classroom
management. The management course provided them with
resources that became managerial options:
The management course with all the strategies offered
was really influential. The idea of a token economy and
how to do it. I learned how to give rewards in a
positive way and that was very beneficial. Proximity
control, signal interference, positive reinforcement,
were all useful. I felt like I had all these things at
my fingertips without trying to experiment in the
classroom. I can't think of any other class that holds a
candle to that one. (Marcy, FI.III.3)
Classroom management was the most important course I
took. I think I would be lost if I did not have that
course. If I didn't have those strategies in my mind, I
couldn't get any teaching done. (Martha, FI.I.5)
Everything I did came from special ed. [I used the
ideas from] classroom management more than anything else
like the behavior contracts, stopping and talking about
what you were doing, proximity, time out with plans.
Not that I want to pass out candy all the time, but some
kids do need to be more extrinsically motivated than
others. (Mary, FI.III.3)
Good Teaching is Good Teaching
The PART interns took a pragmatic stance toward the
integration of their special and regular education courses.
They sought out strategies that would make them better


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am grateful to a number of people who shared the
graduate school and dissertation experiences with me.
Without these people, the process would have been even more
arduous, and I would have shared far fewer laughs.
First, I would like to thank the members of my
committee. My chairperson, Dr. Cecil Mercer, is a very
special teacher. With patience, kindness, and lots of humor,
he demanded the best of me and taught me to demand the best
of myself. His pragmatic approach to research and
instruction taught me to pursue my interests without getting
bogged down in paradigmatic dogma. I have appreciated his
classes, critiques of my work, and his respect for the
teaching profession. I could not have hoped for a better
mentor. Dr. Karen Kilgore has been a source of inspiration
for me. Words cannot express the gratitude I feel for her
guidance through a sometimes grueling dissertation process.
She enthusiastically supported my study and provided hours of
valuable discussion and feedback. I would not have completed
the dissertation without her unflagging support and
confidence that I could get the job done. Drs. Mary Brownell
and Cynthia Griffin served as role models of exemplary
professionalism throughout my program. They epitomize the
ii


55
teachers who were experts with a desire to teach but had no
formal training (postulants). All of the participants were
given extensive information about an imaginary class they
were asked to take over. They were then questioned about
their plans for instruction and their recall about students.
Analysis of responses produced propositions representing
qualitative differences between expert, novice and postulant
teachers. Novice teachers were found to use information
about students in the following ways:
1. Novices assess student learning by asking what
material was covered and then reviewing content as opposed to
soliciting information from the students.
2. Novices attend in great detail to student
information (e.g., number of students in class, ethnicity,
and exceptional student information) but do not appear to
assign differential value to the various pieces of
information given them. They were not sure how to use the
information provided.
3. Novices used information about tests and homework to
determine grades and whether or not students turned in
homework. They did not use homework or tests to make
instructional decisions.
The major difference between expert and novice use of
student information was the level of interpretation of that
information. Expert teachers tended to select the most
relevant information and constructed an image of what a group


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Nancy Long Corbett was born in Hampton, Virginia, on
November 21, 1954. The second of three children, Nancy
graduated from Kempsville High School in Virginia Beach in
1973. Nancy received a B.A. in elementary education from
Virginia Tech in 1977. She received a M.Ed. in reading from
the University of Florida in 1983.
During the period from 1978-1982, Nancy taught reading
in a Chapter I program in Norfolk, Virginia, and taught in
the third grade at the International School in Bangkok,
Thailand. Her teaching experience included work with
students from a variety of ethnic and cultural backgrounds.
Since 1983, Nancy has worked At P.K. Yonge Developmental
Research School where she has taught third grade, classes in
drop-out prevention, and most recently special education in a
collaborative setting. Most of her teaching experience has
been at the elementary level, but she has taught students of
high school age and adults as well.
While completing her doctoral studies at the University
of Florida, Nancy served as a graduate teaching assistant and
field advisor in the Department of Special Education. She
also served as an instructor at the Multidisciplinary
Diagnostic and Training Program, a joint project with the
Departments of Pediatric Neurology and Special Education.
193


APPENDIX A
INTERN PERMISSION FORM
University of Florida
Department of Special Education
Department of Instruction and Curriculum
Project PART:
Prevention and Accommodation Through Reflective
Teaching
The purposes of this project are (a) to develop a teacher
education program to prepare elementary teachers to create
and maintain supportive and productive classrooms for diverse
student populations, including students with disabilities,
and (b) to work collaboratively with school personnel to
develop alternatives to traditional models of educating hard-
to-teach and hard-to-manage students.
I understand that I will be interviewed privately for
approximately 45 minutes and if I consent the interview will
be audiotaped. I can refuse to answer any question I do not
choose to answer and I can withdraw my consent and
participation in this interview at any time. My anonymity
will be protected as required by law and I will not be
identified by name. The tape recording of my interview will
be erased at the end of the project. Only members of the
University of Florida/Project PART staff will have access to
the transcript of my interview.
I have read and I understand the procedures described above.
I agree to participate in this project and I have received a
copy of this description.
Signed:
Person Interviewed
Date
Researcher
Date
175


59
Table 2.4
Review of
Studies of Plannina
for Students with Disabilities
Author(s)
Participants
Method of Inquiry
Baker & 12 regular Observations,
Zigmond (1990) education classrooms Interviews, and
two at each grade questionnaires
level, k-5
Coding and Analysis: Observation protocols were developed
and responses were transferred to a matrix to identify common
responses; observations were coded and summarized to describe
the routines in reading and math classes; behavioral
observations were coded for student and teacher behaviors.
Purpose: To understand the practices in traditional regular
education classrooms and the inservice training, resources,
and support personnel required for full-time mainstreaming.
Findings: Undifferentiated instruction occurred for the most
part of the day. Teachers were interested in maintaining the
routine with uniform expectations for all students.
Zigmond &
Baker (1990)
13 elementary
students with
learning
disabilities
Classroom behavior
observations, school
adjustment data, and
achievement data
(California
Achievement Test and
Curriculum Based
measures on reading)
Coding and Analysis: Student learning opportunities were
coded in four contexts: type of materials used, grouping
arrangements for the current activity, monitoring by adults
and student response. Achievement data were compared for
students after one year in self-contained classroom then one
year in a full time mainstream setting.
Purpose: To report the progress of students after one year
in full time mainstream classrooms.
Findings: Students in the mainstream made no significant
progress in reading or math when test scores were compared to
those achieved while in the self-contained setting.


39
The experienced and inexperienced teachers in this study
suggested a variety of activities to teach specified
objectives and procedures to teach them. There were two
major differences between experienced and inexperienced
teachers: (a) Experienced teachers were more concerned with
managing activities during instruction and providing students
with information that facilitate the acquisition of new
skills, and (b) experienced teachers generated more
adaptations for students with high ability or limited skills.
Byra and Sherman (1993) had similar findings in a study
of more and less experienced preservice teachers as they
planned, taught, and reviewed two lessons in lacrosse. While
planning, the students were asked to think aloud and
verbalize their thoughts. The think-alouds were recorded and
transcribed. Information requests and decisions were
identified from the planning protocols. Information requests
were defined as statements or questions made to elicit
information about the lesson, while planning decisions were
defined as statements made to show that a specific course of
action for the lesson had been chosen.
While planning, the teachers requested information about
learners, facilities, equipment, teaching processes, and
teaching content. Statements that indicated a specific
course of action were categorized as either content-related
or process-related decisions, put in simpler terms, what to
teach and how to teach.


APPENDIX E
INTERVIEW II
Planning
I'd like to talk to you about the unit you taught during the
internship.
1. What was the first step you took in planning the unit?
Can you describe the procedure you followed to develop
the unit? Why did you choose this particular topic as
the subject of your unit?
2. Give an example of a lesson taught in the unit that you
think went really well. How do you know it went well?
Did you make specific plans for a particular student as
you developed the unit?
3. Give an example of a lesson in the unit that didn't go
as you had hoped. What were you hoping it would be
like? What do you think went wrong? Did you try to
alter the lesson while you were teaching? Did you make
specific accommodations for a particular student during
a lesson(s) of the unit?
As you answer these questions, think of any lessons you have
taught during the internship (including the unit).
4. Describe a lesson when you identified a student (a)
experiencing academic difficulty. What did you do? Did
the student experience success? How do you know? Have
you made further accommodations for the student?
5. Describe a situation-when you identified a student (a)
experiencing behavioral difficulty. What did you do?
Why did you choose this strategy? Was it successful?
How do you know?
180


99
Data were analyzed in this study to identify patterns of
decision making among the Project PART interns. During the
early stages of observation, categories were identified and
used to code the transcripts.
Codes are categories. They usually derive from research
questions, hypotheses, key concepts, or important
themes. They are retrieval and organizing devices that
allow the analyst to spot quickly, pull out, then
cluster all the segments relating to the particular
question, hypothesis, concept, or theme. Clustering
sets the stage for analysis. (Miles & Huberman, 1984,
P 56)
Field notes should be coded while the researcher is still in
the process of data collection to reveal potential sources of
bias and set the stage for the next phase of data collection
(Miles & Huberman, 1984). Data coding continued throughout
this study and allowed the researcher to identify patterns
across categories. Categories that began to emerge in this
study included the following: kinds of statements PART
interns make about hard-to-teach and hard-to-manage students,
things PART interns do to prepare plans, kinds of strategies
PART interns use to adjust plans during instruction, and
kinds of strategies PART interns use to organize and monitor
students interactions during instruction.
The next stage of data analysis consisted of a search
for emergent themes or patterns across the coded data as
observations became more focused. This researcher compared
the decision-making processes across the PART interns and
identified patterns. These patterns 'were used to develop a
"cognitive map," or evolving schema to help Understand the


70
Middle and high school teachers indicated greater reluctance
to adjust grading criteria than elementary school teachers.
The qualitative data were analyzed to find evidence of
teachers' practices. Elementary teachers focused on the
individual needs of students with learning difficulties with
flexible grouping, attention to timing and pacing
instruction, and monitoring student understanding. These
teachers did not spend much time on long-range, short-range,
or individualized planning for students with special needs.
Although teachers expressed beliefs in these practices,
instances of specific plans for a particular child were
observed infrequently. The planning for students with
special needs was embedded within the planning for the class
as a whole.
Vaughn and Schumm (1994) gathered case study data over a
school year to examine intensively the planning of three
middle school teachers for students with learning
disabilities. The investigators conducted observations of
lessons, interviewed the participants using stimulated recall
and semi-structured techniques, and examined written lesson
plans. Data were analyzed to determine the planning
practices of each teacher and then compared to determine
similarities and differences among them.
The results of the data analysis revealed three guiding
principles that frames the planning of these teachers:
content coverage versus knowledge acquisition, classroom


190
Reynolds, A. (1995) The knowledge base for beginning
teachers: Education professionals' expectations versus
research findings on learning to teach. The Elementary
School Journal. 95. 199-221.
Reynolds, M.C., Wang, M.C., & Walberg, H.J. (1987). The
necessary restructuring of special and general education.
Exceptional Children.53. 391-398.
Rieth, H., & Evertson, C. (1988). Variables related to
the effective instruction of difficult-to-teach children.
Focus on Exceptional Children. 20(5). 1-8.
Rosenshine, B. (1986). Synthesis of research on
explicit teaching. Educational Leadership. 47(7). 60-69.
Ryan, K. (1986). The induction of new teachers.
Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
Sailor, W. (1991). Special education in the
restructured school. Remedial and Special Education. 12. 8-
22.
Schon, D.A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How
professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.
Schramm, P., Feiman-Nemser, S., & Ball, D.L. (1989).
Think about teaching subtraction with regrouping: A
beginning and experienced teachers' responses to textbooks
(Research Rep. No. 89-5). East Lansing, MI: National Center
for Research on Teacher Education.
Schumm, J.S., & Vaughn, S. (1991). Making adaptations
for mainstreamed students: General classroom teachers'
perspectives. Remedial and Special Education. 12(4). 18-25.
Schumm, J.S., Vaughn, S., Gordon, J., & Rothlein, L.
(1994). General education teachers' beliefs, skills, and
practices in planning for mainstreamed students with learning
disabilities. Teacher Education and Special Education. 17.
22-37.
Schumm, J.S., Vaughn, S., Haager, D., McDowell, L.R., &
Saumell, L. (1995) General education teacher planning:
What can students with learning disabilities expect?
Exceptional Children. 61. 335-352.


68
Table 2.5
Adaptation Evaluation Instrument
Respect MS* as individuals with differences
Establish routine appropriate for MS
Adapt classroom management strategies
Provide reinforcement and encouragement
Establish personal relationship with MS
Help MS find ways to deal with feelings
Communicate with MS
Communicate with special education teacher
Communicate with parents of MS
Establish expectations for MS
Adapt long-range plans
Adapt daily plans
Plan assignments to allow MS success
Teach learning strategies
Adjust physical arrangements of room
Adapt regular materials
Use alternative materials
Use computers
Monitor understanding of directions
Monitor understanding of concepts
Provide individualized instruction
Pair with classmate
Use small group activities
Involve MS in whole class activities
Provide extra time
Adapt pacing of instruction
Keep records to monitor progress
Provide ongoing feedback
Adapt evaluations
Adapt scoring/grading criteria
*MSMainstreamed Student


LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
2.1 Teaching Tasks 22
2.2 Review of Studies on Teacher Planning,
1984-1994 32
2.3 Review of Studies of Interactive Decision
Making 45
2.4 Review of Studies of Planning for Students with
Disabilities 59
2.5 Adaptation Evaluation Instrument 68
3.1 Summary of Data Collection Procedures 78
3.2 Classroom Settings 85
5.1 Teaching Tasks that Facilitate Instructional
and Behavioral Accommodations 153
viii


Finally, and most important, the love, support, and
encouragement of my family have made this endeavor meaningful
and worthwhile. My parents, Marge and Pete Long, have always
expressed confidence in me and let me know that what I am
doing is important.
My husband, Wes, has been my confidant, cheerleader, and
encourager. These have been intense and demanding years, but
Wes has been supportive throughout. His love and patience
have given me the strength and confidence to pursue goals
that I once thought unattainable.
IV


35
Table 2.2--continued.
Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry
Borko &
Livingston
(1989)
Three student Observations,
teachers (novices), interviews, and
two secondary, one field notes
elementary and
their cooperating
teachers
Coding and Analysis: Categories identified that relate to
lesson agenda, goals and objectives, content, activities,
planning processes and influences on planning.
Purpose: To describe the planning and decisions of
experienced and novice mathematics teachers.
Findings: Novice teachers cognitive schema (knowledge
structures) are less elaborate and interrelated than
experienced teachers. Novices experienced difficulty
improvising during instruction or providing on-the-spot
explanations.
Kagan & Five elementary
Tippins (1992) and 12 secondary
teachers of
English History
Interns used a
traditional,
objectives
first planning
format and kept
a journal of
how well the
format worked
Coding and Analysis: Notes were recorded on each journal in
one of four categories; initial format, types of
modifications, reasons for modifications, and ultimate
format.
Purpose: To describe the difference between elementary and
secondary teachers' planning formats.
Findings: The majority of secondary interns used plans as a
memory aid while teaching. Elementary interns used plans to
organize thoughts and materials, but did not consult the
plans while teaching.


61
Table 2.4continued.
Author(s) Participants
Method of Inquiry
Schuiran & 25 elementary
Vaughn (1991) teachers, 23
middle school
teachers, high
school teachers;
teachers; all
general educators
Teachers rated the
adaptability and
feasibility
45 of 30 items on
the Adaptation
Evaluation Instrument
Coding and Analysis: Interviews were audio taped and later
transcribed. Data were reduced using the constant comparison
procedure.
Purpose: To assess teachers' willingness to make adaptations
for special learners in their classroom.
Findings: All adaptations were considered more desirable than
feasible. Adaptations that require changes in planning,
curriculum and evaluation procedures of the classroom were
considered least desirable. There were few differences
between grade groupings.
Schumm,
Vaughn
Gordon &
Rothlein
(1994)
20 elementary
teachers, 2 0
middle school
teachers, and
teachers; all
general educators.
teachers included
in qualitative study
Teachers responded
to 30 items on TBAP
survey; 12 teachers
were observed and
interviewed using
stimulated recall
Coding and Analysis: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
conducted on survey responses to determine whether
statistical significance occurred among groups.
Qualitative data were coded and analyzed for patterns.
Purpose: To investigate general educators' beliefs, skills,
and practices in planning for mainstreamed students with
learning disabilities.
Findings: Teachers reported use of practices that could be
implemented during interactive teaching, requiring minimal
changes. Teachers at all levels provide few instructional
adaptations although elementary teachers make more
accommodations than secondary teachers.


54
The novices were reluctant to deviate from their lesson plans
because of a sense of urgency to complete the lesson and
concern that student behavior would become disruptive.
Expert teachers were able to consider more types of
information to consider classroom situations and arrive at
goals for instruction.
For the novice teachers, preactive, interactive, and
postactive decision making were not dynamic and interrelated.
The novices' planning was based mostly on the curriculum
objectives. During teaching, the novices stuck closely to
their lesson plans in order to move the lesson to completion.
Postactive evaluations seemed to focus on two criteria:
whether the novice had achieved the prescribed objective (s)
and whether or not the students behaved. Westerman noted,
"Rather than adapting their lesson plans when cues from
students warranted it, the novices seemed determined to carry
out their plans, sometimes in spite of anything that happened
in their lessons" (p. 299).
Borko and Livingston (1989) analyzed the postlesson
reflections of novices in their study and found similar
concerns. Student participation and active involvement in
the lesson were most often mentioned as the signs of a
successful lesson.
Carter and her colleagues (Carter, Sabers, Cushing,
Pinnegar, & Berliner, 1987) examined expert and novice
mathematics and science teachers along with a group of


137
classrooms the children moved through subjects at designated
periods. This routine was usually established by the
cooperating teacher, but the interns validated its importance
because they maintained the routine and combined techniques
of their own to facilitate transitions and enhance children's
engagement in an activity.
Marcy implemented several strategies in her first-grade
class to minimize time spent in transitions and increase
instructional opportunities. For Marcy, these strategies
were part of an efficient management system that enabled her
to "get learning across" to the students. The researcher
recorded field notes that depicted the morning routine in
Marcy's class:
The children gather on the floor for a story related to
their unit on the environment. Marcy asks questions the
children can respond to in their journals when they get
to the writing center. The children line up and march
to their assigned center. Marcy works with six children
at the writing center, while the cooperating teacher
meets with six children at the reading center. Two
other groups of children work at an independent art
center or on computers. Some children talk quietly at
the independent centers. After 20 minutes at a center,
Marcy announces a "two minute reminder for children at
the art center to begin clean up. Marcy looks at her
watch and at the end of the two minutes says, "1,2,3,
Rotate." The children line up and march to their next
center. This routine continues until the children have
rotated through each center.
After center time, the children begin whole group math
instruction. There is a direct instruction lesson on
addition then the children work on an independent assignment.
Marcy goes to a clothesline strung across the room and pins
on a sign with the words "FUN FOLDER" She also pins up a
large cut-out of a crayon, pencil or marker to indicate the


58
Minix (1992), and Housner and Griffey (1985) conducted
stimulated recall interviews without supplemental
observations or informal interviews. The proposed study
employs the multi-method technique of observation, stimulated
recall, and postobservation interviews with the novices. The
methodology is described in greater detail in Chapter III.
Planning and.InLgractive Decision Making for Students
with Special Needs
While researchers have continued to compile information
on teachers' planning and interactive decision making in
general education, little research has been conducted on
teacher planning and decision making for students with
special needs. In Clark and Peterson's (1986) literature
review, only one study concerned students with special needs
(Semmel, 1977). With changing demographics and the move
towards inclusion of students with disabilities into general
education settings, researchers have become interested in
teachers' planning and decision making for students'
considered to be hard to teach and hard to manage. Nine
studies are reviewed in this section. Table 2.4 presents a
summary the results of these studies.
Advocates for the inclusion of students with special
needs in the general classroom (Gartner & Lipsky, 1987;
Stainback & Stainback, 1992) assume that general classrooms
provide an enriched environment for student learning.
Inclusive classrooms provide the opportunity for children to
learn from each other and develop the attitude and values to


174
concrete choices among competing values for vulnerable others
who lack the teacher's knowledge and skills, who are
dependent upon the teacher for access to both, and who will
be changed by what the teacher teaches, how it is taught, and
who that teacher is" (p. 9). As beginning teachers realize
there are dilemmas endemic to the profession, they may begin
to consider better ways to manage them.


166
Similar to findings in other studies, classroom
management was a concern to these interns (Bullough, 1987;
John, 1991). For the PART interns, classroom management was
broadly defined to include strategies to further the aims of
instruction. Classroom management meant developing classroom
routines, clarifying expectations, and monitoring student
behavior. These students described the value of learning
explicit strategies for classroom management and acknowledged
that they acquired a set of reliable tools from which they
could make informed, reflective choices instead of
experimenting with shot-gun approaches that may not be
successful. Their approaches to classroom management were
similar to that of more experienced teachers who are
cognizant of the link between management and instruction and
have a repertoire of approaches to operationalize (Leinhardt
& Greeno, 1986; Westerman, 1992).
From a theoretical perspective, these PART interns have
instantiated a schema to accommodate for student differences.
They have acquired propositional structures, or a knowledge
base, about teaching children with special needs. These
interns have attended to the specific learning difficulties
of individuals as they incorporated specialized adaptations
(Fuchs, Fuchs & Bishop, 1992) into their pedagogical
repertoire.
The PART interns in this study attempted instructional
and behavioral accommodations for students in their classes
as they dealt with dilemmas of teaching that are glaring


71
management and student interest, and planning for students as
a whole. Teachers noticeably did not talk about knowledge
acquisition nor did they plan and adapt instruction to meet
the needs of diverse learners. Teachers felt compelled to
cover certain objectives and move through the curricula.
For the most part, these teachers selected activities based
on the likelihood that students would respond positively to
them and stay on task. There seemed to be a strong belief
that all the students should be treated the same; there was
virtually no differential planning for specific individuals
in the class.
Professional Knowledge as a Constraint on Instructional
Accommodatinas
Vaughn and Schumm (1994) found that the teachers were
sometimes limited in making instructional accommodations due
to a lack of knowledge about how to proceed. In one
instance, a teacher was aware that particular students did
not understand the concepts being presented in a lesson. The
teacher was not clear what should be done so she moved on to
the next lesson. Similarly, Jenkins and Leicester (1992)
reported that interviews about modifying instruction with
three elementary teachers reveal a lack of confidence about
what to do. These teachers commented, "If I knew what to do,
I'd already be doing it" (p. 561). Blanton, Blanton, and
Cross (1994) also found knowledge to be a constraint on
instructional accommodations as they explored general and


17
Schema Theory
A schema is a mental structure that organizes large
amounts of information into a meaningful system. Richard
Anderson (1984), a researcher of schema theory, offered this
interpretation of schema:
A schema can be conceived as consisting of a set of
expectations. Comprehension occurs when these
expectations are fulfilled by the specific
information that a scene, message, or happening
delivers to the senses. Information that neatly
satisfies expectations can be encoded into memory
so as to "instantiate" the "slots" in the schema.
Information that does not fit expectations may not be
encoded, or it may be distorted so that the fit is
better. Gaps in available information may be completed
by inference in order to maintain consistency with
expectations. Later, the same expectations that guided
the encoding of information can be brought into play to
guide retrieval and reconstruction. Without a schema to
which an event can be associated, learning is slow and
uncertain, (p. 5)
Teachers' professional knowledge about instruction is
organized into a set of interrelated schemata. Shavelson
(1986) described three types of schemata that seem to
characterize teacher thinking and help explain novice/expert
differences. These schemata are scripts, scenes, and
propositional structures.
Scripts. According to Borko and her colleagues (1990),
a script is a mental structure that organizes and summarizes
information about familiar, everyday experiences.
Experienced teachers have global, mental scripts for
correcting homework, presenting new information, leading
class discussions, and providing guided practice. They also
formulate routines that consist of more specific sets of


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to accepted standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Cecil C. Mercer, Chairperson
Professor of Special Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to accepted standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
y 1 ^(olchcL(!Js
Mary T. ]¡
townell
Assistant"
Professor of
Special
Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to accepted standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to accepted standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Karen Kilgore
Assistant Scholar of Special
Education


33
Table 2.2continued.
Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry
Bullough One middle school Ethonographic
(1987) teacher during study
her first year
of teaching
Coding and Analysis: Interviews, observations, and lesson
plans were transcribed and coded to identify emerging themes.
Purpose: To describe the planning of a first year teacher.
Findings: The first year teacher passed through three
developmental stages of planning; fantasy, survival, and
mastery.
John (1991) Three secondary Interviews,
interns for one stimulated recall,
year observations, and
process traced
verbalizations
Coding and Analysis: Constant comparative analysis was used
to identify common themes, theories, and concepts clustered
around labels that emerged from the subj ects' comments.
Purpose: To identify and describe the concerns of novices
while planning.
Findings: Interns' were most concerned with the classroom
context when planning. Pupil abilities, the curriculum and
management all influenced planning. Planning is a coordinated
set of ideas and actions that a person uses to solve
problems.


72
special education teachers' instructional decisions for
pupils with special needs.
Blanton and her colleagues found that special education
teachers generated a greater number and variety of responses
than general educators in descriptions of curricular and
instructional strategies that would enable a student with
disabilities to be successful in a general classroom.
Special educators mentioned specific instructional strategies
to accommodate individuals such as "organize learning,*
"provide clear steps," "teach concepts," "develop schema,"
while the general educators were less specific (e.g.,
"provide alternative activities"). This seems to indicate
that special education teachers have more elaborated schemata
for instructional accommodations when teaching students with
special needs. Coursework and clinical experiences involving
children with learning problems may help general educators
broaden their knowledge base and use this knowledge
conditionally when teaching students experiencing difficulty.
Summary and Critique
Authors of these studies conducted interviews, used
rating instruments, and structured observations to collect
data. The studies conducted by Jenkins and Leicester (1992)
and Blanton, Blanton, and Cross (1994) included 60 and 40
participants, respectively. The others are limited by the
relatively small number of participants in each. Jenkins and
Leicester (1992) limited their study to one school site.


The study highlighted the complexity of teaching to meet
the needs of all students. The results suggested that
beginning teachers who have engaged in course work in
elementary and special education have acquired the
pedagogical content knowledge to make a variety of
instructional and behavioral accommodations for individual
pupils.
Xll


159
done so many. They were very behind us in that respect.
We had so many classes that had units and they didn't.
They were doing precision teaching probes and meeting
IEP goals. (Lacy, FI III. 6)
These PART interns recognized the need to prepare
themselves for the diverse students who will enter their
classrooms. They often expressed confidence in their
acquisition of a knowledge base to meet the needs of hard-to-
teach and hard-to-reach students. Through their course work
in elementary education the interns acquired a schemata for
pedagogical principles. Their course work in special
education helped them elaborate upon their pedagogical
schemata and integrate strategies to accommodate for student
differences. These PART interns believe they will be better
teachers because they have acquired a knowledge base from
elementary and special education.


34
Table 2.2continued.
Author(s) Participants
Method of Inquiry
Byra & Six more Think Aloud
Sherman (1993) experienced and six
less experienced
preservice physical
education teachers
Coding and Analysis: Transcripts of think-alouds were coded
in two categories, information requests and decisions.
Purpose: To describe the planning of more and less
experienced preservice physical education teachers.
Findings: More experienced preservice teachers made more
information requests when planning and made more decisions
and planned in greater detail than inexperienced preservice
teachers.
Housner & Experienced and Think aloud
Griffey (1985) inexperienced
physical education
teachers
Coding and Analysis: A planning decision system was
developed to classify all planning decisions. Teachers'
planning thoughts were transcribed and categories emerged.
Purpose: To describe the planning of experienced and
inexperienced physical education teachers.
Findings: Experienced teachers made more requests for
information, especially about the background of students and
were better able to anticipate possible situations that could
arise when teaching.


164
interviews, and stimulated recall. This research has
revealed that teachers consider many factors when planning
and making instructional decisions. The students, their
interests and abilities, the setting, and the curriculum to
be taught are some of the factors teachers take into account
as they plan and teach.
Researchers in teacher thinking have also investigated
the differences between beginning and experienced teachers.
Novices are preoccupied with controlling behavior, developing
lessons for the whole class, and moving the lesson to
completion (Bullough, 1987; John, 1991; Westerman, 1992). It
is difficult for the beginning teacher to divert attention
away from the class to focus on a particular student.
Therefore, the needs of an individual may be recognized by
the novice teacher but are often unaddressed.
Experienced teachers establish routines and clarify
goals so they can focus on student progress during a lesson
(Leinhardt & Greeno, 1986). Experienced teachers are aware
that management problems do not occur in isolation from the
lesson being taught; therefore, they articulate clear
expectations to enhance student participation (Westerman,
1992). With an instructional routine in place, experienced
teachers can focus on student learning during a lesson, and
they are more able to make adjustments and provide individual
adaptations. While experienced teachers are more able to
adapt instruction than novices, researchers question whether
practicing teachers have the knowledge, time, and flexibility


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21
instructionally dilemmas. This is accounted for by the
assumption that novices' cognitive schemata are less
elaborate, interconnected, and accessible than experts'
(Borko & Livingston, 1989).
Instructional Tasks Related to Planning and
Decision Making
Planning and interactive decision making are primary
professional activities for teachers. The curriculum is
transformed and adapted through teachers' planning as they
make additions, substitutions, and deletions in the content
and make decisions about pace, sequence, and points of
emphasis. To describe the activities related to planning and
interactive decision making, Reynolds (1992) organized
instructional tasks into preactive, interactive, and
postactive domains that are relevant across subject matter,
grade levels, and the teaching/learning model employed.
Although these conceptual tasks are presented in a sequential
framework, Reynolds stressed that preactive, interactive, and
postactive tasks are not bounded by time; they may occur
simultaneously or sequentially. In the following section,
each teaching task is described. Table 2.1 provides a review
of the teaching tasks described by Reynolds (1992) along with
examples of instructional strategies that have been used
successfully to increase the task engagement and achievement
of difficult-to-teach students (Brophy & Good, 1986).


32
Table 2.2
Review of Studies on Teacher Planning, 1984-1994
Author(s) Participants Method of Inquiry
Beyerbach 27 undergraduate Concept Mapping
(1988) students enrolled
in three sequential
education courses
Coding and Analysis: Content of concept maps were analyzed
to determine the interrelationship of vocabulary and linked
to the literature on experienced teachers' thinking about
planning.
Purpose: To examine student teachers' conceptual development
over a course.
Findings: Students' technical vocabulary became more similar
reflecting course content and greater hierarchical
organization as they progressed through courses.
Morine-
Dershimer
(1989)
Four pairs of
seniors and
master's level
students in a
teaching strategies
course
Concept Mapping,
videotaped lessons,
and written
reflections
Coding and Analysis: Content of concept maps were compared
to lessons and plans to identify what was taught and what was
seen as relevant to the topic.
Purpose: To measure change in conceptions of teacher
planning and of subject matter content taught in a peer
teaching unit.
Findings: Novices began to see the relationship between
planning and instruction. Final maps contained more items
suggesting consideration of more variables related to
planning.


173
sometimes addressed in methods courses and seminars related
to field experiences. Because the teacher education
literature so clearly describes beginning teachers' concerns
with classroom management, it seems crucial that teacher
education programs specifically address this topic. The
experience of the PART students suggests that exposure to
this content played a significant role in their development
as practitioners.
Finally, teacher educators must consider ways to
explicitly address the dilemmas of practice these novices
will face as they enter the profession. The dilemmas the
PART interns experienced are genuine conflicts pervasive
among teachers at all levels (Cuban, 1992). The desire to
meet the needs of individuals is often overshadowed by the
need to move the curriculum forward for the rest of the
class. There is no one right answer to that conflict nor a
myriad of others teachers face. Teacher educators must help
novice teachers identify potentially conflicting situations
and consider compromises instead of inaction. Compromises
are not necessarily solutions but perhaps the best and most
ethical choice one can make (Cuban, 1992). Teacher educators
are obligated to assist beginning teachers to be advocates
for the needs of their students rather than abdicate
responsibility in the wake of seemingly intractable
situations. Teacher educators begin to do so by maintaining
honest and open dialogue about the situations novices will
encounter. Cuban (1992) wrote, "Teaching requires making


192
Webb, R., & Parkay, F. (1989). Children can: The James
Comer school improvement model. Gainesville, FL: Research
and Development Center on School Improvement.
Westerman, D.A. (1992). Expert and novice teacher
decision making. Journal of Teacher Education, 42. 292-305.
Yin, R.K. (1994). Case study research: Design and
methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Yinger, R.J. (1977). A study of teacher planning:
Description and theory development using ethnographic and
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(Housner & Griffey, 1985)? In a more unstructured interview,
the teachers view the entire video and stop the tape when
they want to talk about what they see (Calderhead, 1981).
In this study, each intern was videotaped teaching two
lessons from the unit they developed. At the end of the same
school day, the researcher and intern viewed the video in its
entirety (lessons lasted between 45 minutes and 1 hour), and
the intern was instructed to stop the tape each time she
remembered making a decision and explain her thinking that
went into the decision. The researcher had a set of general
interview questions available as a guide (see Appendix H for
Stimulated Recall Interview) but conducted the interview in
an informal manner to avoid structuring the intern's thinking
and possibly biasing the content of the interviews (Munby,
1982). Following the stimulated recall of the videotape, the
researcher asked questions to elicit postactive evaluation
(Was this lesson successful? Why? Did you learn anything
during the teaching of this lesson that will be useful in
planning future lessons?). This was done so that the interns
could describe their thinking as a result of seeing the
videotape and differentiate interactive and postactive
thoughts. The stimulated recall interviews were transcribed
for analysis.
Documents
In qualitative research, documents are used as
corroborating evidence (Yin, 1994) and provide data that are


96
collecting a uniform set of data that could be analyzed
across participants. Interview data were also compared to
observations, stimulated recall protocols, and lesson plans
to ensure dependable and trustworthy findings (Jorgensen,
1989; Spradley, 1980). All formal interviews were scheduled
prior to the interview date and held in person. These
interviews were audiotaped and later transcribed or
transcribed on a portable computer during the interview.
(See Appendices D, E, F, and G for formal interviews.)
Stimulated Recall
Stimulated recall is a term applied to an interview
technique designed to access teachers' thoughts during
teaching. The method usually involves audiotape or videotape
recordings of classroom activities in situ. Following the
lesson, teachers view or listen to the recordings and
describe or "recall" their thought processes during the class
(Keith, 1988). Stimulated recall has been used in various
forms to study the interactive thoughts of novice and
experienced teachers (Galluzzo & Minnix, 1992; Housner &
Griffey, 1985; Westerman, 1992).
In some stimulated recall interviews the teachers are
shown preselected fragments of the tape and asked specific
questions such as the following: (a) What were you thinking
at this point; (b) what did you notice that made you stop and
think; (c) what did you decide to do; (d) was there anything
else you thought of doing at that point; and (e) what was it


122
really wanted to measure. It could be a child can do a
task but can't read. He may demonstrate he can do the
task in a different way. She [Laura] changed lessons to
make them more accessible to children. She facilitated
the writing process, like taking dictation or reading
directions to children so they could respond orally.
With Max she wrote down his responses and got the higher
order thinking because he had a scribe to help him.
(CTI)
As Mary monitored the lack of progress of one of her
students named Sherry, she recognized the futility of trying
to make accommodations without more formal assessment data.
Mary was confounded by a need to know more about Sherry and
felt internal pressure to move her through the third-grade
curriculum.
Sherry was the student that was of greatest concern to
Mary. Sherry talked very little at school and, according to
Mary, worked even less. Mary believed that she knew much
more than she let on and felt frustrated by her lack of
follow-through to complete assignments. Mary said Sherry
might finish one assignment every 2 days. Because of
Sherry's slow completion rate, Mary felt unable to evaluate
her appropriately and thought she needed one-on-one support.
The classroom aide often worked with Sherry to help her
complete assignments. Mary expressed frustration that there
was neither formal evaluation information nor an expert at
the school that could help Mary access information to better
plan to meet Sherry's needs:
I would feel better if there were some type of
evaluation. If I knew she had a processing difficulty,
I would know what strategies to choose to use with her.
Right now, I'm pulling ideas that I think are right.
For example if she had an auditory processing problem, I


104
children in general education classrooms and general
education teachers' belief that they are unprepared to meet
the needs of these children (Pugach, 1988). Personal
experience with increasing student diversity led the author
to pursue course work in special education to learn
strategies to teach students with special needs. With the
realization that what was gained in special education course
work (classroom management techniques, cognitive strategy
interventions, and data-based assessment skills) was relevant
and useful for many students in general education, the author
became interested in dual course work for education majors so
that all teachers could be empowered to work with diverse
student populations. In addition, the author has worked as a
field advisor with Project PART and met with teachers to
describe and discuss strategies for meeting the needs of
hard-to-teach/hard-to-reach students.
To help the reader judge the validity of the analysis
contained in the final report, the researcher included the
following elements: (a) provision of sufficient evidence to
convince the reader that the investigator "knows" the subject
thoroughly leading the reader to conclude that a particular
interpretation is valid; (b) presentation of alternative
perspectives by sharing all the participants view points; and
(c) inclusion of vignettes, quotes, general descriptions, and
interpretative commentary to engage the readers interest in
the study (Yin, 1994).


APPENDIX F
INTERVIEW III
Student Interview
1. Is there a child you thought you were able to help
(reach) during the internship? Describe the child and
the issue(s) that were of concern to you. Why did this
child concern you? What did you do? What were the
barriers to planning and making instructional decisions
for this child?
2. Is there a child you were unable to help (reach)?
Describe the child and the issue(s) that were of concern
to you. Why did this child concern you? Why do you
think you were unable to reach this student? (Probe for
barriers to planning and making instructional decisions
for this child.)
3. What strategies, concepts, or ideas from special ed
course work were particularly helpful to you in making
plans and instructional decisions for your students?
4. What strategies, concepts, or ideas from regular ed
course work were particularly helpful to you in making
plans and instructional decisions for your students?
5. How were you able to integrate regular and special
education strategies and concepts in planning and
providing instruction for students during the
internship?
6. During the internship, as you were developing plans and
teaching, did you experience confusion or conflicts in
how to proceed? How did they play out in the
internship?
181


6
and inquiry-based instruction; reflective teaching; multi
cultural education; and student evaluation and assessment.
The special education core covers introductions to inclusive
education, introductions to individuals with disabilities and
communication disorders, direct observation skills, student
evaluation and assessment, precision teaching and data-based
decision making, behavior management, career-vocational
education, and consultation/teaming. The students
participate in two practica in which they spend 11 hours a
week for 12 weeks in field placements and one 10-week full
time internship. One practicum involves a placement in a
special education resource room, and the full-time internship
is completed in classrooms with teachers who have
demonstrated a commitment to meeting the needs of diverse
learners.
The first cohort of Project PART students completed
their internship in the Fall of 1994. Because students in
Project PART received instruction in special and regular
education courses, it is important to know how they
synthesized and applied what they learned. Therefore, the
following question is important to ask: How do Project Part
interns plan and make interactive decisions for students who
are hard to teach and hard to manage?
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this study was to describe the planning
and interactive decision making of PART interns for students


103
responsibility to reveal her qualifications and any potential
sources of bias.
1. The researcher is a certified teacher with 8 years
experience in general education and 5 years experience in a
resource room.
2. The researcher has earned an M.Ed. Reading.
3. The researcher has completed course work toward a
Ph.D. in special education. Areas of special interest
include inclusive education, collaborative models of teacher
education, and intervention strategies in reading and
language arts.
4. The researcher has participated in two qualitative
studies focused on teacher education. A report of each study
was written, and one was presented at the 1994 national
meeting of the American Educational Research Association
(AERA).
5. The researcher has gained additional observational
experience through the supervision of university practicum
students for 2 years. In addition, she has served as
cooperating teacher to five interns and numerous practicum
students in her general education classroom.
The goal of this study was to understand how Project
PART interns plan lessons and make interactive decisions for
hard-to-teach/hard-to-manage students. Interest in this
question grew from personal experiences, interests in teacher
education, and concern over the increasing diversity of