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The effects of human sexuality instruction on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others

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Title:
The effects of human sexuality instruction on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others
Creator:
Nagy, Franklin Joseph, 1941-
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English
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xvii, 210 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Androgyny ( jstor )
Covariance ( jstor )
Guilt ( jstor )
Human sexual behavior ( jstor )
Prostitution ( jstor )
Psychological attitudes ( jstor )
Psychology ( jstor )
Sex education ( jstor )
Standard deviation ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Sex (Psychology) ( lcsh )
Sex instruction ( lcsh )
Sexual ethics ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 203-209.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Franklin Joseph Nagy.

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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY INSTRUCTION ON SEXUAL GUILT,
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY, AND ATr'ITUDES TOWARD
THE SEXUAL BEHAVIORS OF OTHERS








By

FRANKLIN JOSEPH NAGY











A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY









UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1977

























This dissertation is deservedly dedicated to Dr. Tom

Skovholt, mentor, counselor, and fellow researcher, who for

the past two years has helped me continuously with all aspects

of my graduate work. Tom has given unselfishly of his most

valuable time and energy whenever I have called upon him. On

so many occasions when I was discouraged, Tom was there pro-

viding the lift I needed. Hle is a true friend.













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


1 wish to express my appreciation to the following:

Dr. E. L. Tolbert, Chairman of my Doctoral Committee, for

his continuous help and encouragement.

Dr. Franz Epting and Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, my other committee

members, for their valuable ideas and ongoing support.

Dr. Jim Pitts for his continuous friendship throughout my

graduate program.

The other faculty in the Counselor Education Department

who have given their time to help me, especially Dr. Larry

Loesch, Dr. Robert Stripling, Dr. Rod McDavis, and Dr. Harold

Riker.

My fellow students and friends for their help and support,

Marilyn Jackson, Becky Swiggett, Terry DiNuzzo, Nancy Downing,

and Barbara Rucker.

Arden Goettling for her highly effective editing and typing

of this dissertation.

Paul Nelson, Kathy Sheley, Dr. Jaquie ResniAk, Therese May,

Blair Turner, and Dan Hobby for allowing me to recruit volunteer

subjects from their classes.














TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............. .......... ............

LIST OF TABLES .......... .......... ..........

ABSTRACT ....

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION .................... .. ..........

Statement of the Problem...................

Rationale ..................................

Need for the Study .........................

Purpose of the Study.......................

Research Questions ..........................

Definition of Terms ........................

Organization of the Study ..................

II REVIEW OF TIlE LITERATURE .....................

Introduction ................................

Sexual Guilt ................................

Psychological Androgyny ....................

Effects of Sex Education on Attitudes
toward Sexual Behaviors ....................

III METHODS AND PROCEDURES .......................

Overv iew ........................... ........

Hypotheses ............... ........ ..........

Research Design .............................

Participants ..............................


Page

iii

vii

xiv



1

1

1

9

10

10

11

12

13

13

13

17


22

34

34

35

36

36










CHAPTER Page

III (continued)

Instrumentation........................... 36

Data Collection Procedures................ 42

Treatment ................................. 45

Analysis of the Data...................... 46

Methodological Assumptions ................ 47

Limitations of the Study.................. 48

IV RESULTS .......... ............................ ........ 49

Introduction ................................ 49

Results ................................... 49

V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
FURTHER RESEARC ............................... 175

Summary ............ ............. ......... 175

Discussion ........................ ........ 179

Recommendations for Further Research ...... 181

APPENDICES

A INSTRUCTOR AGREEMENT FORM ................ ........ 182

B MOSHER FORCED-CHOICE GUILT INVENTORY-SEX GUILT
SUBSCALE .................. ......................... 183

C BEM SEX-ROLE INVENTORY............................. 190

D THE EXPERIMENTER'S ADAPTATION OF THE ATTITLOE
MEASURE OF SEXUAL BEHAVIORS ..................... 191

E TOPIC CHECKLIST FORM ............................... 194

F INSTRUCTOR I -- COURSE OUTLINE.................... 195

G INSTRUCTOR II -- COURSE OUTLINE ................. 197

H INSTRUCTOR III -- COURSE OUTLINE ................. 199

I INSTRUCTOR IV -- COURSE OUTLINE .................. 200










APPENDICES (continued) Page

J LECTURE SIRIES -- BES 252 ........................ 202

REFERENCES ............... ................. ... ....... 203

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETC ............... ............. ... .... 210














LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Sexual Guilt: Two-way Analysis of Covariance... 52

2 Sexual Guilt: Means and Standard Deviations.... 53

3 Sexual Guilt: One-way Analysis of Covariance... 54

4 -Psychological Androgyny: Two-way Analysis of
Covariance ....................................... 56

5 Psychological Androgyny: Means and Standard
Deviat ions ..................... ................ 57

6 Psychological Androgyny: One-way Analysis of
Covariance ....................................... 58

7 Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance...................... 64

8 Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ....................... .. 65

9 Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance...................... 66

10 Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 67

11 Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 68

12 Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Jimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 69

13 Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension:Two-way Analysis of Covariance....... 70

14 Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 71

15 Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 72

16 Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension: Two
way Anal ysis of Covari alince ................. .. .... 73

vii










Table Page

17 Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 74

18 Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 75

19 Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ........... 76

20 Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations............ 77

21 Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 78

22 Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 79

23 Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 80

24 Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 81

25 Attitude, Concept C--Good-bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 82

26 Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 83

27 Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 84

28 Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance .......... 85

29 Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ........... 86

30 Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance.......... 87

31 Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ..... 88

32 Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations ...... 89

33 Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ..... 90










Table Page

34 Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance ...................... 91

35 Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension; Means
and Standard Deviations ....................... .. 92

36 Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance...................... 93

37 Attitude, Concept I--Valuable Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 94

38 Attitude, Concept D--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations............ 95

39 Attitude, Concept D--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 96

40 Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 97

41 Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 98

42 Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 99

43 Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 100

44 Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 101

45 Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 102

46 Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sipn: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 103

47 Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations............ 104

48 Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 105

49 Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance...... 106

50 Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 107










Table Page

51 Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance...... 108

52 Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 109

53 Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 110

54 Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 111

55 Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 112

56 Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations............ 113

57 Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 114

58 Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 115

59 Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations ....... 116

60 Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance....... 117

61 Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance....................... 118

62 Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations......................... 119

63 Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance....................... 120

64 Attitude, Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 121

65 Attitude, Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations.............. 122

66 Attitude, Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 123

67 Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance...... 124










Table Page

68 Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations .. 125

69 Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance....... 126

70 Attitude, Concept I1--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance.................... 127

71 Attitude, Concept il--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 128

72 Attitude, Concept H--Good-Bad Pimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance.................... 129

73 Attitude, Concept II--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analyis of Covariance ............ 130

74 Attitude, Concept H--Valuable-Worth less Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 131

75 Attitude, Concept H--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 132

70i Attitude, Concept II--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 133

77 Attitude, Concept li--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 134

78 Attitude, Concept H --Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 135

79 Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 136

80 Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ........................ 137

81 Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance ..................... 138

82 Attitude, Concept I--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 139

83 Attitude, Concept I --Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Dleviations ............ 140

84 Attitude, Concept 1--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-wav Analysis of Covariance ........... 141









Table Page

85 Attitude, Concept I--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance...... 142

80 Attitude, Concept I--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 143

87 Attitude, Concept 1--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance...... 144

88 Attitude, Concept .J--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance..................... 145

89 Attitude, Concept J--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ......................... 146

90 Attitude, Concept J--Cood-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance....................... 147

91 Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 148

92 Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 149

93 Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 150

94 Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 151

95 Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 152

90 Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 153

97 Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance...................... .. 154

98 Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Dleviations ........................ 155

99 Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance ..................... 156

100 Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance........... 157

101 Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 158










Table e Page

102 Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 159

103 Attitude, Concept K--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance ...... 160

104 Attitude, Concept K--Inderstandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 161

105 Attitude, Concept K--llnderstardable-Mysterious
Dimension:One-way Analysis of Covariance....... 162

106 Attitude, Concept ,--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance....................... 163

107 Attitude, Concept ,--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations ......................... 164

108 Attitude, Concept L--Good-Bad Dimension: One-
way Analysis of Covariance. ..................... 165

109 Attitude, Concept I--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance .......... 166

110 Attitude, Concept L--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: Means and Standard Deviations ............ 167

111 Attitude, Concept I--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance........... 168

112 Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance....... 169

113 Attitude, Concept L --Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations....... 170

114 Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance...... 171

115 Attitudes, Concepts A through L: Two-way
Analysis of Covariance......................... 172

116 Attitudes, Concepts A through L: Means and
Standard Deviations............. ............. 173

117 Attitudes, Concepts A through L: One-way
Analysis of Covariance......................... 174









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

TIll EFFECTS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY INSTRUCTION ON SEXUAL GUILT,
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY, AND ATTITUDES TOWARD
THE SEXUAL BEHAVIORS OF OTHERS

By

Franklin Joseph Nagy

August, 1977

Chairman: Dr. E. L. Tolbert
Major Department: Counselor Education


This study was designed to determine the effects of

instruction in human sexuality on undergraduate college students.

S..... in sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes

toward the sexual behaviors of others were evaluated. Subjects

for the study consisted of students enrolled in a ten-week

human sexuality course offered during spring 1977 at the Univer-

sity of Florida.

Three instruments were used to measure posttreatment dif-

ferences. These were the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-

Sex Guilt Subscale, the Bem Sex-Role Inventory, and the Attitude

Measure of Sexual Behaviors experimenter's adaptation. All

three instruments were administered during the f.rst and last

week of the quarter.

A total of 137 volunteer subjects completed the pre- and

postcomponents. The experimental group, the human sexuality

course participants, consisted of 70 subjects and the control

group, students enrolled in courses other than human sexuality,

contained 07 subjects.









Statistical analyses of the data were computed by using

a two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis of co-

variance. These analyses were performed on subjects by sex as

well as by the total experimental and control groups.

The results are as follows:

1. There were no significant differences between the

experimental and control subjects on sexual guilt after the

treatment.

2., There was a main effects significant difference on sex

guilt after the treatment between males and females with the

females exhibiting greater change. However, this greater change

was believed to be artifactual because of the use of two ver-

sions of the sex guilt instrument.

Additional comparisons for sex guilt revealed no signifi-

cant differences between the experimental males and control

males or between the experimental females and control females.

3. There were no main effects significant differences

between the experimental and control subjects on psychological

androgyny after the treatment.

4. There was no main effects significant difference

between males and females for psychological andiagyny after the

treatment.

Additional comparisons for psychological androgyny revealed

no significant differences for experimental males and control

males or for experimental females and control females.

5. For attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others,

there was a main effects significant difference between the









experimental and control subjects for three concepts after the

treatment. These concepts were a woman who masturbates (all

three bipolar dimensions), an engaged person who has premarital

intercourse (valuable-worthless dimension), and a person who

reads "hard-core pornography" (good-bad and understandable-

mysterious dimensions). Scores for all three concepts changed

in the liberal direction.

On an additional test for the combined set of 12 concepts,

a main effects significant difference was revealed in the

liberal direction after the treatment.

b. There was a main effects significant difference for

sex for two concepts of the attitude measure. These were a

homosexual (valuable-worthless dimension) and someone who

engages in oral and/or anal intercourse (good-bad dimension).

In both concepts females showed greater change than males.

These changes occurred in the liberal direction.

Additional comparisons for attitudes revealed significant

differences between experimental and control subjects by sex.

A comparison of experimental males and control males showed a

significant difference for the concept a woman who masturbates

(good-had dimension) ; a comparison of experimei tal females and

control females revealed a significant difference for two con-

cepts. These were a woman who masturbates (valuable-worthless

and understandable-mysterious dimensions) and a person who reads

"hard-core pornography" (understandable-mysterious dimension).

Ci, for these additional comparisons were in the liberal

direction.










It was concluded that this treatment is valuable. Impli-

cations for further research are also discussed.


xvii














CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION



Statement of the Problem


Psychological education is a preventive educational approach

that integrates academic learning and personal learning (Mosher

I Sprinthall, 1971; Skovholt, in press). As such, it offers an

important way to demystify our profession while providing mental

health services. According to Ivey and Alshuler (1973), we need

to pass on our knowledge as rapidly and coherently as possible.

Human sexuality courses represent one type of course

offered in psychological education. This study will examine

the impact of a human sexuality course on the sexual attitudes

of college students. Recently there has been a great increase

in the number of human sexuality courses offered in colleges and

universities. However, there is little known about their impact

on the attitudes and behavior of the participating students

(Zuckerman, Tushup, & Finner, 1970).



Rat ionale


According to Elizabeth Taylor Vance (19b3), a wide variety

of mental health problems exist in our society which cannot be

overcome by the individual therapy of clinicians. Therefore,

the clinician needs to modify his role in the dire tion of










greater involvement in the developmental, environmental, and

social context of the individual. A prevention approach needs

to be employed.

Preventive efforts in mental health have been separated

into three areas: primary prevention, secondary prevention,

and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention is the step taken

to prevent the occurrence of a problem; secondary prevention is

the early treatment of the problem; and tertiary prevention is

the attempt to minimize the long-term effects of the problem.

Primary prevention is believed by most authorities to be the

most effective type of preventive approach in mental health

(Bloom, 1971; Brownbridge Van Fleet, 1969; Hollister, 1966;

Joint Commission on Mental Health, 1961; Joint Commission on

the Mental Health of Children, 19701).

Psychological education is one form of primary prevention.

As such, it is designed to promote the goals of both personal

learning and psychological competence (Skovholt, in press).

The integration of academic learning and personal experience

serves as the primary vehicle for achieving these goals

(Cottingham, 1973). More guidance specialists and psychologists

are now entering the curriculum in order to teacL the behavioral

sciences in a preventive educational mode.

Some psychological educators concerned about prevention

have begun to look at higher education as one area of focus.

Skovholt (in press), in discussing central concerns in psycho-

logical education, has questioned the usual academic perspective

in higher education. lie believes that there is an ambivalence








3
among the traditional disciplines concerning personal growth as

an outcome of college classes. The usual academic perspective

is to consider the behavioral sciences as a body of knowledge

to be mastered. The students' goal is to learn the content.

For example, academic psychologists continue to teach students

that psychology is an academic discipline to be critiqued and

understood like any other discipline. Psychology, they say, is

not intended to provide answers for the personal concerns of

students. Academic psychologists talk about this unfulfilled

expectation of students and the dilemma teachers face in telling

students the true value of psychology. This message must be

continually told to psychology students since they often enroll

in psychology courses because of a belief in the utility of

the discipline to "help me understand myself and others better"

(Lunneborg, 1974, cite: ;0 Skovholt, in press, p. 13).

The human sexual. "urse is one psychological course in

higher education that enables students to integrate learning

about sexuality with personal experiences and to become more

psychologically competent and healthy in this area.

The value of sex education has gained greater acceptance

in recent years. According to Masters and Johnso,, (1970),

sexual maladjustment which has been caused by sexual conflicts

derived from ignorance can be prevented through early effective

sex education.

Human sexuality is an area in which considerably greater

study is needed, hut it is also an area in which there is much

research. "In the last decade systematic and direc" research










has provided a detailed habi for understanding the complex

processes involved" (Gordon & Johnson, 1976, p. 9.). Many have

contributed to this research, yet certain professionals stand

out. Masters and Johnson (19b6) led the way in sex research.

Investigations and programs for direct physical and social

treatment procedures for a variety of sexual dysfunctions followed

this early research (Kaplan, 1974, 197.;; Masters & Johnson, 1970).

With newly acquired research-based information we can

enlighten students and help them integrate this learning with

personal experiences. Still, there remain frontiers to conquer.

How will we know if we have succeeded in our instruction? How

will we know if students have integrated their academic learning

about sex with their personal sexual experiences? How will we

know if our psychological education efforts have been successful?

Clearly, pre- and postcourse evaluations need to be made

if we are to know the effectiveness of a human sexuality course.

These evaluations provide much valuable information. From them

we can learn whether or not the course had any impact on stu-

dents, the degree to which a course had an impact, the kinds of

changes which occurred, if any, and the kinds of changes which

have not occurred. Evaluations can provide evid nce of the

kinds of changes which take place as a result of particular

instructional activities. With this knowledge, our curriculum

can be improved so that effective human sexuality instruction

will be possible.

Sex researchers have emphasized the importance of sexual

attitudes in relation to human sexual behavior (Fr-tz, 1975;










Fromme, 1955; Kaplan, 1974; McCary, 1967). According to Kron-

hausen and Kronhausen (1965), attitudes come from the cultural

values of society. Cultures which approve of women's orgasms

produce women who have orgasms. Cultures which do not approve

produce women who are incapable of orgasms.

In addition, it seems that in the area of sexuality, atti-

tudes appear to be more predictive of behavior than in the

past (lcCary, 1973). Christensen and Johnson (1971) agree.

Their study showed that in 1958, 411 of the females and 65% of

the males with premarital sexual experience held permissive

sexual attitudes as compared to 78% of the females and 82% of

the males in 1968.

The significance of measuring attitudes in a human sexuality

course has been acknowledged. "Our sexual behavior is related

to our sexual attitudes. These attitudes in turn are a direct

result of the sex education that we have received or not received

and the misinformation that we carry into our sexual relation-

ships" (McCary, 1971, p. 179).

It is necessary to study changes in sexual attitudes as a

result of participation in a human sexuality class. Through iden-

tification of particular attitudes which change r do not change,

we can begin to isolate attitudes for more detailed study. It

will be possible to correlate specific sexual attitudes with

specific human sexuality courses. This identification and corre-

lation process would effect a systematic approach to teaching
sexual attitudes in a human sexuality course.

Several considerations are important in relation to those

attitudes which seem valuable to measure. I'irst, it is









appropriate to measure attitude changes toward self. According

to Davidow (1976), only minimum research has been reported which

reflects the impact of sex education on attitudes of one's own

sexuality. Two constructs which may be measured in this regard

are sexual guilt and psychological androgyny. Katchadourian

(1972) described the status of guilt in our society.

It seems that the current generation of young people
is living in a transitional period, in which there
is an overlap between two phenomena. One is the
belief that guilt feelings associated with sex are
a heritage from past generations and are acquired
in childhood; the other is the new morality, intel-
lectual acceptance of the premise that sex in the
proper context is good and should not be associated
with feelings of guilt. (p. 469)

The negative consequences of guilt have been described

(Goldstein, 1976; McCary, 1973). Kaplan (1974) showed how

children are affected by guilt.

The youngster learns from infancy that it is wonder-
ful to walk, to talk, to paint, that he is a good
boy when he eats his meals or takes his nap, but
that his sexual impulses are not acceptable. He is
taught to deny his sexuality, to disassociate this
aspect of himself, that it is dangerous, nasty,
hostile, dirty, disgusting and immoral to give expres-
sion to his sexual urges. Especially if his home is
a "religious" one the youngster usually learns that
sex is sinful, shocking, ugly, dangerous, and taboo.
Babies of both genders tend to touch their
genitals and express joy when their genitals are
stimulated in the course of diapering and b-.thing,
and both little girls and boys stimulate their penis
or clitoris as soon as they acquire the necessary
motor coordination. At the same time, sexual expres-
sion is, in our society, systematically followed by
disapproval and punishment and denial. The little
boy's hand is repeatedly removed from his penis,
often with strong emotion, and the little girl meets
shock and censure if she tries to peek at or (God
forbid!) touch her father's genitals in the bathroom.
These repeated negative contingencies to early sexual
expression result not only in appropriate control
of the sexual impulses but also in destructive, con-
flict, guilt, and alienation, Each time the ioy has









the normal impulses to.masturbate, to peck at his
parents, to fantasize making love to his sister, to
get rid of his father so he can be alone with his
mother, or the girl desires to look at a little boy's
penis, masturbate or exhibit her little body, he or
she also feels a jolt of anxiety and/or shame and
guilt .Youngsters who are discovered in sexual
activities are subjected to harsh punishments and
humiliations and often are made to feel that they
have committed the unpardonable sin. They are made
to feel guilty and to repress and hide even from
themselves their sexual impulses for many years.
(p. 147)

The long-range effects of guilt are serious. "When the

Kinsey reports were published they merely confirmed what edu-

cators had long known--guilt feelings aroused by inadequate

sex knowledge interfere with happy living, school work, friend-

ships, and future mental adjustments" (McCary, 1973, p. 15).

The second construct related to sexual attitudes and self,

psychological androgyny, measures traditional sex role beliefs,

i.e., that men and women each have their own set of character-

istics and these are at opposite poles. Because of the differing

views in measuring androgyny, this study will be confined to

psychological androgyny as measured by Sandra Bemr (1974). The

traditional concepts of masculinity and feminity have obscured

two other possibilities.

First, that many individuals might be "androgynous,"
that is, they might be both masculine and feminine,
both assertive and yielding, both instrumental and
expressive--depending on the situational appropri-
ateness of these various behaviors; and conversely,
that strongly sex-typed individuals might be seriously
limited in the range of behaviors available to them as
they move from situation to situation. (Bemrn, 1974,
p. 155)

In addition to Bemr, others have discussed androgyny (Bazin

i Freeman, 1974; Block, 1973; Spence Helmreich, & Stapp, 1975).










The importance of androgyny is described by Bern (1976). She

said,

The point of course is that the two domains of mas-
culinity and feminity are both fundamental. In a
modern complex society like ours an adult clearly
has to be able to look out for himself and to get
things done. But an adult also has to be able to
relate to human beings as people, to be sensitive
to their needs and to be concerned about their
welfare, as well as to be able to depend on them
for emotional support. Limiting a person's ability
to respond in one or the other of these two compli-
mentary domains thus seems tragically and unneces-
sarily destructive of human potential. (p. 250)

Because of the importance of psychological androgyny, it

is a valuable concept to examine in a human sexuality course.

It seems logical that since a course in human sexuality brings

in perspectives of the opposite sex, it will affect individuals

on a personal level. If we can determine that the psychological

androgyny of a person can change as a result of participation

in a human sexuality course, then we can begin to explore

reasons for these changes. Ultimately, we will be able to

alter sex-type stereotypic beliefs, and in so doing move toward

androgyny; this will promote psychological health and prevent

psychological problems (Bernm, 1974).

The third area which will be measured is attitudes toward

the sexual behaviors of others. The value of assessing sexual

attitudes has been discussed previously (Fretz, 1975; Fretz &

Johnson, 1971; Fromme, 1955; Kaplan, 1974; Katchadourian, 1972;

McCary, 1973). Through more assessments we will be able to pin-

point certain attitudes which can be changed by sex education.

In turn, by isolating those attitudes which can change, we can

provide instruction relative to those attitudes antI improve the

quality of sex education for college students.










The benefits of effective sexual attitude instruction in

a human sexuality course will have far reaching positive results.

Changed sexual attitudes may help prevent a variety of sexual

problems and sexual crimes.



Need for the Study


Sexual guilt and psychological androgyny have been shown

to be both relevant and important. Therefore, each of these

constructs is valuable to study.

Most studies on sexual guilt have correlated guilt with a

variety of attitudes and behaviors (D'Augelli i6 Cross, 1975;

Mosher, 1965; Mosher A Cross, 1971). Only one study measured

pre- and postguilt changes in a human sexuality course for

college students (Bernard, 1973). Clearly, more studies are

needed if we are to know whether sexual guilt can be changed

as a result of participation in a human sexuality course.

A number of psychological androgyny studies have been

completed (Bem, 1975; Bem A Lenney, in press; Bem, Martyna, &

Watson, 1975; Gonzalez, 1975; Murray, 1976; Spence, Helmreich,

A Stapp, 1975; Wakefield, Sasck, Friedman, & Bowden, 1976;

Zeldow, 1976). However, no study has been completed to deter-

mine whether psychological androgyny changes as a result of

participation in a human sexuality course. Therefore, a study

is necessary to determine whether change can occur.

"The need for a study of attitude change as a function of

a comprehensive sex education course within a university setting

is clear" (Bernard & Schwartz, 1975, p. 2). An exploration of










the third focus of this study, attitudes toward the sexual

behaviors of others, reveals that only a limited number of

studies have been done with college students. More research

is needed if we are to clearly know whether attitudes can be

changed through participation in a sex education course.



Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of

an instructional experience in human sexuality on sexual guilt,

psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual behav-

iors of others. This instruction was offered through BES 252--

Human Sexuality, an elective course of the Department of Behav-

ioral Studies, University of Florida, given in Spring Quarter,

1977.



Research Questions


The research questions which will be explored for sexual

guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual

behaviors of others are as follows:

1. Do students who participate in a human sexuality course

experience a reduction in feelings of guilt about sexual matters?

2. Will a course in human sexuality affect the status of

psychological androgyny for the students who participate?

3. Does a course in human sexuality affect students'

attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others?









Definition of Terms


Attitude an attitude for the purpose of this study is

defined as those responses assessed by the Attitude Measure of

Sexual Behaviors (Fretz, 1975).

Human sexuality learned social conduct which includes

all the learned patterns of.helieving, perceiving, behaving,

evaluating, and feeling (in relation to others and to one's

self) that involve actual or symbolically conceived stimulation

of primary and secondary sexual organs and zones (Gordon &

Johnson, 1976).

Liberal capable of a high degree of acceptance of alter-

native styles of behavior.

P ,1. .1 ,i,.1 ... having a high degree of both

male and female characteristics, i.e., being both assertive and

yielding; both instrumental and expressive, depending on the

situational appropriateness of these various behaviors (Bern,

1974).

Psychological education education intervention designed

specifically to promote personal learning and psychological

competence. The integration of academic learning and personal

experience serves as the primary vehicle for achieving these

goals (Cottingham, 1973).

Sexual behavior the totality of normal and abnormal,

conscious and unconscious, overt and covert sensations, thoughts,

feelings, and actions related to sexual organs and other eroto-

genic zones, including masturbation, heterosexual and homosexual

relations, sexual deviations, goals, and techniquesi(Wolman,

1973).









Sex guilt generalized expectancy for self-mediated

punishment for violating or for anticipating violating standards

of proper sexual conduct (Mosher, 1966).

Sex role behavior patterns expected from an individual

by their social group believed to be typical of their sex

(Wolman, 1973).

Sex typing the designation in a culture of certain

behaviors as feminine or masculine and the training of children

to adhere, to these roles (Wolman, 1973).



Organization of the Study


The remainder of this study is organized into four addi-

tional chapters plus appendices. Chapter II includes a review

of the literature of attitudes toward sexual behaviors, sexual

guilt, and psychological androgyny, along with studies relating

to human sexuality classes. Chapter III contains the methods

and procedures for the study, hypotheses, design, description

of evaluative measures, and treatment. The results of the study

are presented in Chapter IV. Chapter V includes a summary of

the study, a discussion of the results, and recommendations

for further research.














CHAPTER [I

REVIEW OF THE LITEI RATURE



I ntroduct ion


Today sex education remains a controversial area. Both

champions and critics of sex education are contending for the

majority view. The highly inflamed debates continue with only

a minimum of data to support either side. A review of the

literature indicates that few studies have examined the changes

produced by sex education. Furthermore, a problem exists in

that experimental data which have been gathered are often based

on a course which is difficult to replicate. Most of the

reports of experimental studies do not show the curriculum

components.

Chapter II consists of a discussion of the available

research on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, as measured

by Bem (1974), and the effects of sex education on attitudes

toward sexual behaviors. The research on sexual guilt and

psychological androgyny is limited; whereas, for sexual attitudes

the research is extensive.



Sexual Guilt


A distinction can he made between two motives for
the inhibition of morally unacceptable behavior.
One motive is fear of external punishment for
transgressing societal standards. A second motive
is guilt, which has developed as a result of a

I









past reinforcement history which favored the inter-
nalization of moral standards. The guilt-motivated
person assumes the task of inhibiting behaviors
which he defines as morally unacceptable to avoid
experiencing intense feelings of guilt. (Mosher,
19 5 p. 161)

The person who is sexually guilty inhibits behaviors which

relate to thoughts, feelings, and behaviors about sex. Specifi-

cally, "sexual guilt is a generalized 'xpectancy for self-

mediated punishment for violating or for anticipating violating

standards of proper sexual conduct" (Mosher 6 Cross, 1971, p. 27).

Research has examined the relationship between sexual guilt and

(a) sexual behaviors, (h) eroticism, (c) sex experience, and

(d) time.

Two studies of special interest have looked at guilt and

sexual behavior. In a study of 80 male college students using

the Mosher Incomplete Sentences Test, Mosher (1965) found that

high sex-guilt subjects were relatively insensitive to situational

cues concerning the likelihood of external punishment. On the

other hand, low sex-guilt subjects were found to be significantly

more influenced by such cues. This interaction between fear and

guilt in inhibiting unacceptable behavior was predicted from

social learning theory.

D'Augelli and Cross (1975) assessed 119 unmarried college

women with regard to sex guilt. High sex guilt was found to

inhibit sexual expression.

Some studies have used erotic stimuli in order to assess

sexual guilt. Mosher (1973) studied the psychological reactions

of 191 single male and 183 single female undergraduates to

erotic stimuli. The instrument used was the Moshe i Forced-Choice










Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale, Male Form (Mosher, 1966)

and Female Form (Mosher, 1968). The students viewed two films

portraying face-to-face intercourse and oral-genital sex between

the same couple. The films were rated as more pornographic,

disgusting, and offensive by female subjects (as compared to

males), by high sex-guilt subjects las compared to low sex-

guilt subjects), and by less sexually experienced subjects (as

compared to more sexually experienced subjects).

Love, Sloan, and Schmidt (1976) divided 35 male under-

graduates into three groups on the basis of their scores on

the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory (Mosher, 1961, 1966,

1908). The amount of time subjects spent viewing and rating

photographic slides of varying erotic content was recorded. The

viewing time of the low sex-guilt subjects increased as the photo-

graphic content increased. No significant increase in viewing

time occurred for high sex-guilt subjects.

Other studies have compared sexual guilt with low sexual

experience. Studying orgasm frequency, Leiman and Epstein

(1901) found that individuals with more sex guilt reported a

lower frequency of orgasms per week.

Mosher and Cross (1971) related a measure o. sex guilt to

(a) the reporting of previous sexual experiences, (b) feelings

following sexual activity, (c) reasons for nonparticipation,

and (d) premarital and postmarital sexual standards. Among the

60 male and 70 female college student participants, sex guilt

was found to be negatively correlated with the level of intimacy

of premarital sexual experience. The guilty subje ts had less
I







16

permissive premarital standards. Moral beliefs were the reason

given by guilty females for their lack of participation in

intercourse or more intimate forms of petting. The reasons

given for nonparticipation by guilty males included moral

beliefs, respect for the girl, and fear of pregnancy or disease.

In another study of 100 females, Kutner (1971) found that

sex guilt was negatively correlated with all the sexual phases

associated with the use of birth control pills. He found that

the greater the guilt, the less the sexual desire, responsive-

ness, orgasm frequency, passion, and orgasm ease.

Schwarz (1975), in a study of 286 male and female college

students, found that low levels of sexual experience were asso-

ciated with a "traditional moralistic" sexual-moral philosophy

and with high levels of sex guilt.

Sometimes guilt changes as a function of time and increased

sexual activity. According to Christensen and Carpenter (1962),

as a relationship between a boy and a girl moves from acquaint-

anceship to going steady to engagement, sexual behavior becomes

more intimate, and guilt over sexual endearments decreases for

both sexes. Also, as the sexual values of our society change,

sexual guilt changes. There has been a distinct drop in recent

years in the guilt feelings experienced by both males and females

as a result of premarital intercourse (McCary, 19731). Still,

the prevalence of sexual guilt among college students is aptly

stated by Albert Ellis (1971): "The fact is, therefore, that

literally millions of Americans, including untold numbers of

college students, are still exceptionally guilty about sex in

general" (p. 227).








17

Only one study has looked at the sexual guilt of college

students with respect to changes from sex education. Bernard

(1973) used Mosher's Forced-Choice G;uilt Inventory in evalu-

ating sex guilt over the time span of a human sexuality course.

Sex guilt, hostile guilt, and moral conscience were measured

to determine the effects of sex education on the participants'

attitudes toward their own sexual behavior. A significant

reduction on the sex-guilt variable was reported.






Ihe focus of this component of the study is psychological

androgyny as measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (Bern, 1974).

According to Bem (1974), psychological androgyny is a condition

or state in which a person has a high degree of both masculine

and feminine characteristics, i.e., being "both assertive and

yielding; both instrumental and expressive, depending on the

situational appropriateness of these behaviors" (p. 155).

Bem's concepts of masculinity and femininity are two independent

dimensions, in contrast to treating them as the opposite ends

of a single dimension. This measurement of masculinity and

femininity is different from other masculinity-femininity

measures. Most personality inventories have items that are

arranged or worded in a way which emphasizes differences between

males and females. Also, the traditional inventories do not

allow for a person to he classified as both masculine and femi-

nine. Bem's method is significant and important because no pre-

vious measurement technqiin e has allowed for this classification.








18

Scoring of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) has been an

area of controversy. Initially a t ratio was used as the

measure of psychological androgyny. According to Bern (1974),

the t ratio is the difference between means, F-M (the andrpgyny

difference score), divided by a term reflecting the variances

of the two sets of ratings. However, more recently the scoring

has been revised. Strahan (1975) suggested that the t ratio is

inappropriate to measure psychological androgyny for statistical

reasons.' Thus, Strahan suggested that an individual's androg-

yny is measured solely by his Femininity (F) mean score minus

his Masculinity (M! mean score. The smaller the difference

between F-M, the greater the degree of androgyny. Wakefield

ct al. (1976) employed this scoring method of androgyny. There-

fore, low scores indicate androgynous individuals and high

scores (either positive or negative) indicate sex-typed

individuals.

Much of the research on psychological androgyny has at-

tempted to demonstrate its relationship with behavioral corre-

lates and other personality traits. Four studies have shown

the BSRT to be highly predictive, two have been disconfirming,

and two others are inconclusive. In addition, o._e unique study

(Murray, 1976) correlated the BSRI with the educational levels

of women.

The first supportive study was done by Bem, Martyna, and

Watson (1975). The subjects were "listeners" in a "talker-

listener" situation. Facial expressions of the subjects were

secretly recorded. Results showed that feminine and androgynous
I







19

men did not differ significantly from one another, and all were

significantly more expressive than masculine men who were the

least expressive of any group. Feminine women were the most

expressive listeners of all.

Another supportive study of behavioral correlates (Bem,

1975) explored the relationship between sex-role identity and

examples of independence. To test independence four male and

four female subjects rated the level of humor in cartoons.

Also, they listened to tape recordings of individuals giving

false impressions of the cartoons. The subjects, however,

were unaware that the recorded responses were contrived. This

procedure was used to determine whether the subjects would

adhere to their impressions of the cartoons or conform to the

contrived responses. Results showed that the masculine and

androgynous subjects did not differ significantly from one

another, and both were significantly more independent than the

feminine subjects. This was true for both males and females.

One very recent supportive study (Bem ti Lenney, in press),

looked at the relationship between cross-sex activities and

discomfort. Subjects chose activities (each having a monetary

value) from 30 pairs of items presented to them 60 items).

Of these items, 20 were masculine, 20 feminine, and 20 neutral.

To determine discomfort, they rated enjoyment for each activity

after it was acted out. Results showed that sex-typed subjects

were significantly more stereotyped in their choices than

androgynous subjects, who did not differ significantly from

one another. In other words, the masculine man and the feminine








20

woman were significantly more likely to select their own sex's

activities even though such choices cost them money and even

through the researchers tried to make it as easy as they could

for the subject to select cross-sex activities. Results for

the discomfort component showed that sex-typed subjects felt

significantly more discomfort than androgynous subjects, who,

again, did not differ significantly from one another. That is,

it was the masculine men and the feminine women who experienced

the most 'discomfort and who felt the worst about themselves

after performing the cross-sex activities. The authors con-

cluded that only the androgynous subjects felt comfortable

participating in cross-sex behaviors.

A final supportive study by Wakefield et al. (1976), using

59 male and 56 female undergraduates, analyzed Bem's measure of

Masculinity (M), Femininity (F), and androgyny by the principal-

component's method with scores from the M-F scales of the

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the California

Psychological Inventory, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory.

The results from these M-F scales supported Bem's statements

about androgyny being an integration of masculine and feminine

characteristics.

The two disconfirming studies were carried out by Zeldow

(1976) and Gonzalez (1975). Zeldow (1976) studied 50 male and

50 female undergraduates using the BSRI and the Spence and

Helmreich Attitudes Toward Women Scale. The results showed

that only feminine males differed from all of the other

subjects. These feminine males exhibited traditional







21

conservative attitudes toward the rights and roles of women in

contemporary society.

Conzalez (1975) studied 47 nursery school mothers and pre-

dicted that androgyny would he inversely related to dogmatism.

She explored whether a significant association existed between

sex-role attitudes as measured by the BSRI and dogmatism as

measured by the ..1.. 1, i-.. ,r ,,i ilc. The results showed no

significant correlation between these two scales. It was con-

cluded the the BSRI was not a valid predictor for dogmatism.

Bemn, Martyna, and Watson (1975) and Bern (1975) conducted

studies which were inconclusive in their support of the BSRI.

Bern, Martyna, and Watson (1975) carried out a study in which

genuinely interpersonal situations were created which would

elicit the subjects' nurturant sympathies. The subjects were

given an opportunity to interact with an infant. Results

showed that feminine and androgynous males were significantly

more expressive toward the baby than the masculine males.

However, no significant differences occurred among the women.

The feminine women were not particularly nurturant nor did they

display any particular deficiency in the expressive domain.

Bem (1975) explored the relationship between sex-role

identity and examples of nurturance. This study involved inter-

action activities with a kitten. Results showed that the

feminine and androgynous men did not differ significantly from

one another, and both were significantly more responsive to the

kitten than the masculine men. Also, the androgynous women,

like the androgynous men, were responsive to the kitten. The
I








22

feminine women were significantly less responsive, and masculine

women fell ambiguously in between.

In a unique study, Murray (1976) obtained ratings on the

BSRI from 281 women from diverse backgrounds and found that most

women desired to be more androgynous than they felt they actu-

ally were. She also found that the higher the educational

level the more likely that women would be androgynous. In part

two of the same study, Murray used the Measurement of Attitudes

Toward Stereotypic Behavior to examine women's perceptions of

the "psychological health" of various sex-related tasks. Par-

ticipants were asked to rate the "psychological health" of

individuals pictured in 45 different photographs. These photo-

graphs pictured three female stimulus persons, neutral, feminine,

and masculine in appearance, each of whom engaged in five mas-

culine, five feminine, and five neutral behaviors. For real

self, those women who were androgynous produced the highest

psychological health ratings. It was concluded that androgyny,

rather than femininity, was a psychologically healthy goal.



Effects of Sex Education on .Attitudes Toward Sexual Behaviors


A review of the literature for attitudes measured as a

result of sex education shows numerous studies completed. Of

the outcomes reported, nearly all show a change in the liberal

direction. Some studies have examined specific attitudes rather

than a wide range of attitudes. Other studies have examined a

comprehensive set of attitudes. Two studies have used the

Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors to assess attitudes.








23
Two studies looked at high school students and young adults

in order to determine if attitude change occurs as a result of

sex education. Hoch 11971) attempted to determine the effects

of a nonjudgmental sex education unit conducted as a part of a

high school biology course. One hundred stuJents were involved

in the study: fifty in the control group and fifty in the experi-

mental group. Changes between pre- and posttests led to the

following conclusions: (a) students did not become more per-

missive in their attitudes involving sexual behavior as a

result of sex education; (b) students became more conscious of

the problems facing the world in the areas of population control,

family planning, birth control, and abortion and tended to be

more liberal in their thinking in regard to these topics; and

(c) students tended to be less hostile and more accepting of

sexual deviates as a result of sex education.

In a much more comprehensive study, Diprizio (1974) pro-

vided a sex education program for 97 public school and 64

parochial school junior high students and for 36 public school

and 19 parochial school parents. Pre- and posttesting with a

general attitude questionnaire and a form of the Osgood Semantic

Differential indicated that there was a significant liberal

change in the attitudes of students and parents.

Four studies reported in the research were based on programs

for medical trainees. The results of these studies generally

showed pre- and postchanges in the liberal direction.

In one study, a three-day human sexuality course was offered

to 186 medical, nursing, and graduate psychology students by










Minms, Brown, and Lubow (1976). The program's purpose was to

supply accurate information, encourage participants to question,

explore, and assess their own sexual attitudes and to help

participants develop a more tolerant attitude toward the sexual

beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of others. A significant

liberal difference in attitudes occurred between mean scores of

the pre- and posttests for all subjects. When examined sepa-

rately, nursing and medical students showed significant liberal

changes (p< .001) in attitudes for all scales except the hetero-

sexual scale (p .01). The psychology students showed literal

changes (p < .01 ) in two scales, autoeroticism and sexual myths.

In another study involving medical trainees, Meins, Yea-

worth, and llorstein (1974) provided a human sexuality program

for five days. lhe subjects of the study were 70 medical

students and 37 nursing students. One of the purposes of the

course was to decrease anxiety related to sex. An attitude

instrument was administered to the participants before and

after the course. Results showed that participants' attitudes

toward sex became more liberal after the course.

Alzate (1974) used a prQ- and posttest evaluation of a

human sexuality course required of 38 sixth-seme.,ter medical

students. The results of the study showed that the instruction

produced a liberalization of sexual attitudes.

All of the studies evaluating medical trainees showed

positive results except one (Woods I Mandetta, 1975). In this

study tlie researchers administered a 163-item questionnaire to

11 female nursing students and 12 male under radua es who








25

participated in a sex education course. No correlation existed

between liberalization of attitudes toward sexuality and com-

pletion of the course.

Certain studies in the related literature assessed sexual

changes among educational personnel. These studies included

teachers, administrators, and other school staff.

Flatter (1975) analyzed the effects of a series of six-

day human sexuality workshops on the degree of sexual liberalism

of 341 educators. The workshops included both cognitive and

affective areas of human sexuality. The major conclusion drawn

from the study was that participation in a human sexuality work-

shop affects attitude change in the direction of increased

sexual liberalism.

Karas and Gale (1972) provided a course in sex education

to 29 elementary school teachers in Danbury, Connecticut. A

pre- and postattitude instrument was administered to the

teachers as well as to the control group. The findings revealed

a more liberal attitude toward sex among the participants than

among the nonparticipants.

In another study, Poinsett (1970) examined the effects of

an experiential workshop, "Promoting Positive Social-Sexual

Functioning in Handicapped Children." Pre- and postdata and

delayed postdata were collected on attitudes. From dis-

positional data three groups were established. Group A

focused on self and was inner-directed. Group B focused on

communicating and was other-directed. Group C focused on

receiving specific sexual information and how to deal with










the concerns of handicapped students. The results for all

three groups showed statistically significant increases in

tolerance toward autoeroticism and knowledge of sexual myths.

Group A developed a statistically significant more liberalized

attitude toward premarital and extramarital relations as com-

pared to Groups B and C. From 80% to 85% of the participants

reported changes in their personal lives and professional

intents and performances regarding sex education for the

handicapped. The experiential workshop proved to be an

effective means of increasing tolerance in sexual attitudes

as well as promoting more interest in involvement in sex educa-

tion fui the handicapped.

Ten studies, identified by this researcher, have used

college students as subjects. In order to evaluate the effec-

tiveness of a marriage course, Olsen and Gravatt (1968) studied

97 university students. Results showed a positive change

toward the sexual behavior of others on an attitude scale con-

taining 48 items. However, the course content was unclear and

the attitudes measured were nebulous.

Bernard (1973) conducted a comprehensive outcome study on

a sex education course given at the University of Rochester.

Twenty-four lectures were given by various specialists, and

weekly discussion groups were held. Topics covered included

psychosexual development, human sexual response, pregnancy,

birth, abortion, and contraception. Discussion groups were

open-ended in format and arranged from didactic exercises which

focused on lecture material to personal discussion, concerning










participants' experience and feelings in the area of human

sexuality. There were 275 course participants who served as

experimental subjects. Two control groups, consisting of 93

and 48 subjects, were also included in the study. Results

showed that course participants became significantly more

accepting than both groups of controls in the areas of mas-

turbation and homosexuality. However, the first control group

became more accepting than both other groups on the question

of extramarital sex.

In a comparative study, McMain (1974) examined the effects

of three different sex education programs on counselor trainees'

attitudes about sexual myths, autoeroticism, heterosexual

relations, and abortion. Fourteen female and twelve male

graduate students were assigned to one of three experimental

sex education groups or a control group. Group El was given

a program consisting of filmed material of erotic art and human

sexual behavior. Group 12 was given a program consisting of

timed discussion periods on erotic art and human sexual

behavior. Group 13 was given a program consisting of filmed

material of erotic art and human sexual behavior preceding

timed discussion periods. Group C was a no-treatment control

group. Pre- and posttesting with the Sex Knowledge and Attitude

Test indicated that no significant changes had occurred. How-

ever, mean change scores in parts of the data suggested support

for (a) discussion and h() film and discussion in sex education

programs to effect change in counselor trainees' attitudes

about sex.









A study tRubin, 1970; Rubin & Adams, 1972) involving a

wide geographical area assessed 303 female and 95 male college

students using the Reiss' Premarital Sexual Permissiveness

Scale. The subjects came from numerous colleges in New York,

New Jersey, Connecticut, and Missouri. There was no consistent

curriculum among the courses since the studies were conducted

in such a wide geographic I area. No change in attitude as a

result of human sexuality education was found.

In a short-term college course of four weeks, Maxwell

(1972) evaluated 65 participants. Results showed that 50% of

the subjects reported that their feelings or attitudes had

become more liberalized as a result of course participation.

Five studies of college students are particularly rele-

vant for this literature review. Three of these studies com-

pared male and female subjects by means of pre- and postdata

analysis.

Rees and 2immerman (1974) studied 128 male and 102 female

college students to determine attitude change. There were nine

attitudinal questions which concerned masturbation, sexual

intercourse, oral-genital sex, mutual masturbation, anal

intercourse, intercourse during pregnancy and menstruation,

foreplay, homosexuality, and prostitution. No statistical tests

were conducted, but examination of the data showed that there

were changes in attitudes in the liberal direction. Findings

were as follows: 31% of the females became more accepting of

anal intercourse, 34% of the females became more accepting of

masturbation, and 30% of the females became more accepting of








29

homosexuality. For the males, 24% became more accepting of anal

intercourse, and 22% became more tolerant of homosexuality.

In one of the most comprehensive studies discovered by

this researcher, Vennewit: (1975) attempted to determine the

effects of a college human sexuality course upon attitudes toward

the sexual behaviors of nonsignificant others. The study also

sought to investigate the relationship between knowledge gain

and attitude change. Some of the course curriculum elements

included' in the Vennewitz study were movies, lectures, question

and answer sessions, and small group discussions. There were

both written and reading assignments. Although a description

of course activities was provided, specific information relating

to topics covered during the course was not included. The

experimental group of 107 students and the control group of

89 students completed pre- and posttests with an instrument

developed by the author and with the Premarital Sexual Permis-

siveness Scale developed by Reiss. Some of the major conclusions

were that (a) experimental males and females became significantly

more liberal on attitudes toward sexual behaviors of nonsignifi-

cant others than control males and females; (b) significant

liberalization in attitudes toward behavior of n. significant

others was observed in experimental males and females for some

topics, e.g., homosexual relations, mutual masturbation, and

oral-genital contacts, but not for others, e.g., premarital

intercourse and cohabitation; and (c) experimental females

more often than experimental males exhibited significant changes

in attitudes toward a variety of sexual behaviors involving

nonsignificant others.









In the other significant study which looked at male and

female comparisons, Zuckerman et al. (1976) compared attitudes

with behaviors. Participating in the study were 555 students

enrolled in personality, psychology, and human sexuality

courses. Instruction consisted of large class lectures,

explicit movies and slides, and small discussion groups where-

in students related the lectures to personal attitudes, feelings,

and experiences. Guest panelists and speakers presented

certain topics such as dysfunction and homosexuality. Males

had more permissive attitudes and experience with a greater

number of partners than females. Attitudes and experience were

more highly related in females, and students taking the sex

course were more permissive and experienced than students in

the control course. The course changed attitudes in both

sexes, but it changed behavior only in males.

In addition to the studies comparing males and females,

two other studies are especially relevant to this literature

review (Davidow, 1976; Skovholt Nagy, 8 lipting, 1976). Both

of these studies used the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors

to assess the impact of the course.

This attitude measurement consists of 12 questions, i.e.,

"A homosexual" followed by seven attitude bipolar dimensions.

The bipolar dimensions have a 7-point evaluative dimension,

i.e., .. had." hach bipolar dimension was

scored with a 7 to the positive end and a 1 to the negative end.

In one study using this measurement, Davidow (1976) examined

the effectiveness of a sex education course taught at Boston








31
University. Twenty-two people were enrolled in the course which

consisted of lectures, films, outside speakers, and small group

discussion. The small group leaders were included in the final

sample. Topics included sexual attitudes and environment, sexu-

ality and sexual terms psychosexual development, cultural roles,

lifestyles, sexual dysfunction, massage, lifespan, "touching"

within different cultures, masturbatory practice between males

and females, gay issues, women's issues, autoeroticism, lesbian-

ism, sexuality and the handicapped, sexual researchers, and

communication. Results of the study showed significant changes

in attitudes toward sexual behaviors for two concepts: "a woman

who masturbates" and "an engaged person who has premarital inter-

course." Overall changes in attitudes were to the positive side

of the semantic differential scale for the evaluative factor,

the active side of the dynamic factor, and the understandable

side of the understanding factor.

In the other study using the Attitude Measure of Sexual

Behaviors, Skovholt et al. (1976) assessed male change. The

experimental subjects, 13 male undergraduate students at the

University of Florida, were enrolled in a human sexuality

course taught by the first author. Biological issues were

de-emphasized with behavioral science theories and research

emphasized. The control group consisted of 16 students enrolled

in a course in creative and critical thinking in the Behavioral

Studies Department in the fall of 1976. Three of the seven

attitude bipolar dimensions were chosen. These three dimen-

sions of good-had, valuable-worthless, and understardable-







32

mysterious were suggested by Fretz (1974) as the bipolar dimen-

sions that are most useful when assessing treatment effects.

Results showed that 10 of the 36 post treatment dimension compari-

sons were significantly different between the control and experi-

mental groups. In all of the differences the experimental group

received the more liberal scores.

In conclusion, a number of studied: have evaluated the

effect of sex education on attitudes. Most of these studies

have shown that sex education does change attitudes usually in

the liberal direction. Of the studies discovered by this

researcher, 10 have examined the attitudes of college students

and 2 of these have used the Fretz scale.



Summary


A review of the literature confirms that the research which

is relevant to this study is limited. The research which has

been done on sex guilt has shown that guilt is correlated with

the inhibition of sexual expression; with a lower degree of

interest in, and greater disgust with, eroticism; with conser-

vative premarital standards; 'and with a low degree of exposure

to sexual activity or instruction. Only one pertinent study

which showed change has been done for sexual guilt. This was

measured by the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory.

The review of psychological androgyny, as measured by the

Bem Sex-Role Inventoiry, revealed that no prior pre- and post-

evaluai ions of sex education have been completed. The results

of the studies which have been reported on psycho logical








33

androgyny are varied. Four studies have indicated that the Bern

Sex-Role Inventory is highly predictive, two have been discon-

firming, and two others are inconclusive.

Only two studies have looked at pre- and postsex-education

change for the third area, attitudes toward the sexual behaviors

of others, as measured by the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors.

The available research on attitudes measured as a result of sex

education indicated that most courses have a liberalizing effect.

Common elements to the human sexuality courses which showed posi-

tive change are lectures, small group discussion, audio-visuals,

and guest panels or speakers. In some cases, researchers men-

tioned all of the topics included in the course, while in others,

only a few topics were stated.














CHAPTER' R III

METIIODS AND PROC() DUlRIES



Overvi ew


Since effective instruction in a human sexuality course may

have far reaching results, research on factors affecting sexual

attitudes is valuable and necessary. Sexual attitudes which

have the potential for change as a result of sex instruction

need to he explored and identified. A review of the litera-

ture in this area shows that the number of experimental studies

which have been conducted is scarce. Undoubtedly, there is a

need for more research on sexual attitude change as a result

of sex education.

This study has investigated the impact of a human sexu-

ality course on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and

attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others. The study

has attempted to provide answers to the following research

questions:

1. Does a course in human sexuality affect a students'

feelings of guilt about sexual matters?

2. Does a course in human sexuality affect the status of

psychological androgyny in the students?

3. Does a course in human sexuality affect students'

attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others?








35

The method used for this study involved the comparison of

two groups of students attending the University of Florida.

These groups consisted of experimental subjects and control

subjects. The experimental group, students enrolled in a human

sexuality course, have been compared with a control group of

students who were enrolled in another course in the same depart-

ment. The comparison has been based on measures of sexual guilt,

psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward sexual behaviors.

Data collected from these measures were analyzed for statisti-

cally significant differences between the experimental and

control groups. Subsequently, null hypotheses which have been

formulated for the study have been evaluated. These null

hypotheses are shown in the following section.



Hypotheses


The null hypotheses shown below were developed from the

research questions previously stated.

1. There will be no group differences in sexual guilt
as a result of participation in the human sexuality
course.

2. There will be no sex differences in sexual guilt
as a result of participation in the human. sexuality
course.

3. There will be no group differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.

4. There will be no sex differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.










5. There will be no group differences in attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others as a result
of participation in the human sexuality course.

6. There will be no sex differences in attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others as a result
of participation in the human sexuality course.



Research Design


The experimental design of this study was a nonrandomized

pretest-posttest control group design (Campbell 8l Stanley, 1971).

This design is represented as follows:



Pretest Treatment Posttest

Experimental Group T X T2

Control Croup T2 T2


T1 represents the measure before treatment.
'\)l represents the measure after treatment.
X represents the experimental treatment.



Participants


The subjects for the study were first and second year

undergraduates at the University of Florida, a la ge state co-

educational institution. Since admission as a freshman to the

University is highly competitive, it is assumed that these stu-

dents have higher than average intellectual abilities as measured

by high school grades and college admission test scores. Students

who attend the University of Florida represent a wide range of







37

social and economic backgrounds. They come from all sections

of the United States as well as many foreign countries ,

Subjects in the experimental group consisted of students

enrolled in BES 2S2--lluman Sexuality, an elective course offered

through the Department of Behavioral Studies. There were four

sections of Human Sexuality in the experimental group (N=70).

These four sections were taught by four instructors. Three of

the instructors for the course are part-time instructors with

the Department of Behavioral Studies and are doctoral students

in the Department of Counseling Psychology. The fourth instruc-

tor is an affiliate instructor with the Department of Behavioral

Studies. This instructor has a Ph.D. in Counselor Education

and works full time as a counselor in the Psychological and

Vocational Counseling Center at the University of Florida. A

description of the course content for the experimental group is

contained in the Treatment section of this chapter.

The control group was comprised of four sections of students

not taking the Human Sexuality course (N=07). Students were

drawn from two classes in Cybernetics and two classes in Power

and Violence, also offered through the Department of Behavioral

Studies. The four sections of these control cla. ses were taught

by two different instructors with each instructor teaching two

classes. The instructors of both the experimental and control

classes gave prior consent to allow this researcher to administer

the questionnaire in their classes (see Appendix A). Motiva-

tion for students to volunteer to complete the questionnaires

was provided. The researcher (a) explained the nature of the








38

study and its value and (b) informed students that they could

learn of the results of their own questionnaire by contacting

the researcher whose telephone number was provided. The

questionnaire which was administered consisted of three instru-

ments which are described in the following section.



Ins trumentat ion


Ihe following instruments were administered to the experi-

mental and control group participants: (a) Mosher Forced-Choice

Guilt Inventory-Sex Cuilt Subscale (see Appendix B), (b) Bemn

Sex-Rol. inventory (see Appendix C), and (cl the experimenter's

adaptation of the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors (see

Appendix D).

The Mosher Forced-(hoi ce Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale,

Male Form, was developed by Mosher in 1906 and the Female Form

in 1968. Initially sentences were constructed and students were

asked to complete the sentences. Their completions formed the

basis for the responses to each item in the inventory. Examples

of the items are as follows:

As a child, sex play .
A. was a taboo and I was deathly afra.J of it.
B. was common without guilt feelings.

When I have sexual desires .
A. they are quite strong.
B. I attempt to repress them.

The male component has 28 items and scores for this compon-

ent can range from -45 to +37. The corrected split-half reli-

ability is .97. Tlihe female component has 39 items and scores

for it can range from -hl to +04. Corrected split-'half reliability

is .95.









As the name of the inventory implies, each item is a

forced choice since the subject is asked to select either the

A or B response. The subject chooses the most appropriate

response.

Construct validity for the Sex Guilt Si.hscale is supported

by data from numerous investigations (Calbraith, 1969; Gal-

braith, Ilahn, I Lieberman, 19b8; Galbra ith t Moshcr, 1968;

Lamb, 1968; Mosher, 1901, 1965, 1971; Mosher F Cross, 1971;

Mosher C Greenberg, 19(9). The development and previous use

of the instrument appear to make it quite suitable for the

subjects in this study.

The Boem Sex-Role Inventory, developed by Bom (1974), is

used to classify individuals as masculine, feminine, or

androgynous. This 60-item instrument is based on personality

characteristics classified as masculine, feminine, or neutral.

Examples of these items are: masculine--"acts as a leader,"

"aggressive"; feminine--"affectionate," "cheerful"; neutral--

"happy," "helpful." There are 20 masculine items, 20 feminine

items, and 20 neutral items. The items are distributed through-

out the inventory rather than grouped by type.

The subject is asked to rate each item on a scale from 1

("Never or almost never true") to 7 ("Always or almost always

true"). From these ratings a score is established and the

subject is identified as masculine, feminine, or androgynous.

The Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRII was first established

in 1973. Bem administered the instrument to 444 male and 279

female students at Stanford University and to 117 rale and 77

female paid volunteers at Foothill Junior College.








40

To estimate internal consistency, Masculinity, Femininity,

and Social Desirability (based on the neutral items) scores

were calculated. The results showed all three scores to be

highly reliable in both samples. These results were as follows:

Stanford University (Masculinity r=.80; Femininity r=.80;

Social Desirability r=.75) and Foothill Junior College (Mas-

culinity r=.80; Femininity r=.82; Social Desirability r=.70).

Scores are independent because of low intercorrelations.

For'test-retest reliability, the BSR[ was administered to

28 males and females from the Stanford normative sample.

Product moment correlations showed all scores to he highly

reliable (i.e., Masculinity r=.90; Femininity r=.90; Androgyny

r=.93; Social Desirability r=.89).

The BSRT was correlated with other instruments to estab-

lish concurrent validity. Results showed that the BSRI does

correlate moderately with the Masculinity-Femininity Scales

of the California Psychological Inventory. These results are

as follows:

BSRI Masculinity -- CPI Males -.42; CPT Females -.25
BSRI Femininity --- CPI Males .27; CPl Females .25
BSRI Androgyny ---- CPI Males .50; CPI Females .30

The Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors wa. made available

by Fretz in 197(0, The attitude measure consists of 84 semantic

differential items. These items consist ol 12 concepts, each

with a 7-point atittude scale. These concepts are (a) a homo-

sexual, (b) an unmarried woman who takes birth control pills,

(c) a woman who masturbates, (d) a child who writes "obscene"

words on a wall, (e) an engaged person who has prijearital








41

intercourse, (f) a teenager who asks his parents about orgasm,

(g) a teenage girl who allows a younger brother in the bathroom

when she is in there, (hi) a person who reads hard core pornog-

raphy like Sisters of the Wh ip, pay_ lot Nights, etc., (i) a man

wh o "molests" a child, ( j someone who engages in oral and/or

anal intercourse, (k) an l-year-old boy who holds hands with

another boy his age, and (1) an unwed mother. According to

Fretz (1975) these concepts were chosen in an attempt to represent

the full'spectrum of behaviors identified as sexual in out society.

The attitude scales are hipolar dimensions chosen from existing

literature.

Fretz developed the Attitude Measure hy reducing an initial

150-item semantic differential. This was done by administering

the instrument to 80 teachers in sex education workshops, 68

teachers in the same school system, and 128 freshmen and

sophomore students. A series of factor analyses were conducted

to determine which concepts and dimensions were representative

of the factor structure of teachers, and students' responses.

Examples from the Fretz are as follows:

An unwed mother
good had
valuab le worthless
unde rstandabh Ie mysterious

A child who writes "obscene" words on a wall
good 1bad
valuable worthless
underst andab le mysterious

The student is asked to assess concepts in terms of each

of three dimensions: "good-had," "valuable-worthless," and

"understndahle-mysterious." Tlie student places Ia X in the










space along the continuum which most closely represents his

attitude for that dimension.

In one study the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors was

administered to 97 freshmen and sophomores (Fretz, 1975). Test-

retest reliability over a one-week period for college-age

subjects ranged from .52 to .78 for the bipolar dimensions.

For the purpose of establishing external validity, the

measure has been administered to various groups including

nurses, policemen, parents, teachers, and various others.

Except for the police group there were very few statistically

significant intergroup differences. In pre- and postdesigns

with participants in sex education workshops, lectures, and

courses, the instrument has provided evidence of results showing

differences in sexual attitudes.

This study has employed three of the seven bipolar dimen-

sions of the Fretz instrument. These three bipolar dimensions

of good bad, valuable-worthless, and understandable-mysterious

were suggested by Fretz (1974) as the most useful dimensions

when assessing treatment effects. Based on previous research

the instrument appeared to be. appropriate for use with the

groups in this study.



Data Collection Procedures


This study was conducted during the ten-week Spring Quarter,

1977, at the University of Florida. The data was collected from

students enrolled in the Department of Behavioral Studies. Ar-

rangements for collecting these data were made with' instructors








43

who agreed to allow the researcher to visit their classes and

utilize twenty minutes of class time during the first and last

class sessions of the quarter.

During the first week of the Spring Quarter at the first

class session the researcher visited the four classes designated

as the experimental group to administer the protest questionnaire.

The instruments in the questionnaire were stapled together in

the following order: Bemrn Sex-Role Inventory, Mosher Forced-

Choice G ilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Suhscale, and the Attitude

Measure of Sexual Behaviors.

When the researcher arrived the instructor announced to

the class that the researcher was visiting the class for the

purpose of collecting data for his dissertation study and was

seeking volunteers. The researcher explained that the ques-

tionnaire had three parts and would require 15 to 20 minutes of

class time during this first and last week of the quarter. The

instructor pointed out to the students that taking this ques-

tionnaire was optional. It was made clear to the students that

they could choose not to take the questionnaire with no penalty

in their course grade. Motivation for taking the questionnaire

was discussed as stated previously in the Participant section

of this chapter. Next, the instructor asked for a show of

hands from those students who chose to participate. The

researcher then distributed the questionnaire to those students.

Directions for taking the questionnaire were given, and a

brief explanation for completing each of the three instruments

was made. Then tile students were asked if they hac' any questions

about the direct ions.







44

The researcher then told the students that they could begin

to answer the questions and to bring their questionnaires to

the front of the room when finished. After all the questionnaires

were turned in, the researcher thanked the participants and left

the classroom with the data which had been collected. These

data were known as the protest data.

Also, during the first week of classes, the researcher

went to those classes designated to be the control group. As

with the.experimental group, a preplanned day and time was

arranged with the instructor. The same procedure that was used

for the collecting of pretest data in the experimental group was

used for the control group. The questionnaire of any student

participating in any activity or course relating to sexual

growth or development was discarded from the data. At this

point, all of the pretest data for both the experimental and

control groups had been collected.

During the tenth week of the quarter this researcher

collected the posttest data. To accomplish this task the

researcher returned to the experimental and control classes for

a second time. This was done on the last day of the tenth week

at a time which had been preplanned with each instructor. The

questionnaire was administered to those students who completed

the pretest. As in the pretest administration, the directions

for completing thie questionnaire were explained to the partici-

pants. When all of the participants had finished with the post-

test-questionnaire assessment, the posttest data had been

collected. These data were identified by student number and

only the researcher has had access to such data.










From the second class session of the first week through

the next to last class session of the tenth week, the treatment

was in effect for the experimental group. During this time

the subjects participated in the human sexuality courses. A

description of the projected course activities, as they can best

be identified, is provided in the Treatment section of this

chapter which follows.



Treatment


The treatment was provided to the experimental group

as previously described in the Participant section of this

chapter. This treatment consisted of participation in human

sexuality class instruction during the Spring Quarter, 1977.

FIach class met for a total of forty hours: thirty hours of

discussion in classrooms and ten hours of lecture for the

combined classes in a large lecture hall.

The methods and activities which were used by the instruc-

tors included lectures, small group discussions, audio-visual

presentations, lectures by guest speakers, debates, readings

from texts and articles, written reports, quizzes, and tests.

These methods and activities are based on informal discussion

with instructors and syllabi distributed to students.

Standardization for each Human Sexuality section was

attempted through an instructor topic intention process. In

the first stag- of this process participating Human Sexuality

instructors were requested to identify certain topics to he









included in their course curriculum plan. After topics were

submitted, a comprehensive list was compiled and distributed

to instructors (see Appendix E). In the second stage of the

process instructors were asked to indicate by a check (,1) mark

those topics they would include. From these checked items a

list of topics common to all instructors was developed to

demonstrate the degree to which the Human Sexuality sections

would be standardized. The common topics are listed below.

1.- Male Sexual System
2. Female Sexual System
3. Contraception
4. Sexual Behavior
5. Sexual Intercourse
6. Techniques in Sexual Arousal
7. Sexual Attitudes
8. Sexual Disorders
9. Sex Roles
10. Orgasm
11. Sex in Later Years

The specific amount of curriculum presented varied according

to each instructor. However, a review of the individual

curriculums revealed a large core of activities and approaches

shared by all the instructors.



Analysis of the Data


After the data were collected, the experimental and con-

trol groups were compared on posttest scores from the three

instruments employed in the study. An analysis of covariance

statistic was used to assess significant posttest group differ-

ences with the pretest data as the covariate. Luck and McLean

(1975) suggest an analysis of covariance as the best statistic

for a pre- and posttreatment study.









The following specific statistical tests were made:

1. A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis

of covariance were performed on the data from the Mosher-Forced

Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale to determine group

differences as a result of participation in the human sexuality

course.

2. A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis

of covariance were performed on the data from the Bern Sex-Role

Inventory to determine group differences as a result of partici-

pation in the human sexuality course.

3. A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis

of covariance were performed on the data from the experiementer's

adaptation of the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors to deter-

mine group differences as a result of participation in the

human sexuality course.



Methodological Assumptions


The following assumptions about the methodology utilized

were made:

1. The human sexuality'course was considered to have

positively changed attitudes toward sexual behaviors if the

mean difference between the compared groups is significant at

the .05 level.

2. The human sexuality course was considered to have

positively changed sex guilt if the mean difference between

the compared groups is significant at the .05 level.









3. The human sexuality course was considered to have

positively changed androgyny if the mean difference between

the compared groups is significant at the .05 level.



Limitations of the Study


One limitation of the.studi was the fact that some

subjects withdrew from the course following the administration

of the pretest. Therefore, there were some students who com-

pleted the pretest but did not complete the posttest.

A second limitation was the difference in teaching styles

among those instructors who taught the Human Sexuality sections.

An attempt was made to standardize the topics which were presented;

however, it was not possible to control for the differences in

instructors' personalities, the types of activities utilized in

the class, and the specific curriculum material presented.

A third limitation was that results cannot necessarily be

generalized to other human sexuality courses on other campuses.

However, by providing information about methodology used, the

participants, the course standardization attempted through use

of topic agreement, and other data, other researchers will be

able to conduct similar studies.













CHAPTER IV

RESULTS



Introduction


This research study investigated the impact of a college

level human sexuality course using three variables as criteria.

These were sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes

toward the sexual behaviors of others. Three instruments were

administered to a treatment group which participated in an

academic course in human sexuality and to a control group which

did not participate in the human sexuality course. The treat-

ment group was comprised of four sections of the human sexuality

course and the control group was comprised of four sections of

other courses in the same department. The following instruments

were used:

1. Mosher Forced Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale

2. Benm Sex-Role Inventory

3. Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors experimenter's
adaptation



Results


All of the data were analyzed through the computer facilities

of the Northeast Regional Data Center of the Florida State Uni-

versity System. The experimental design used for the study was

a pretest-posttest nonrandomized design. Six hypot'heses were









established as the evaluation criteria for the experimental

study. The methods used to assess these six hypotheses were

the two-way Igroup x sex) and one-way (group) analysis of co-

variance test statistics. In each test case an analysis was

conducted on the posttreatment score with the prescore serving

as a covariate.

Initially a total of 197 subjects volunteered to partici-

pate in the study. Predata were collected from 105 experimental

subjects and 92 control subjects. On the 105 pre-experimental

group, 70 completed the posttest. On the 92 precontrol subjects,

67 completed the posttest. In total, of the 197 students who

volunteered initially, 137 completed the posttest. These 137

students comprised the study sample. An analysis of the data

collected has shown the following results which are presented

by variables.


Sexual Guilt

The Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Sub-

scale, Male Form (Mosher, 1966) and Female Form (Mosher, 1968)

were used to assess the change in sexual guilt of students.

The Male Form consists of 28' items and has a possible range of

scores of -45 (low guilt) to +37 (high guilt); the Female Form

consists of 39 items and has a range of -61 (low guilt) to +64

(high guilt).

Hypothesis 1

There will be no group differences in sexual guilt as
a result of participation in the human sexuality course.










The null hypothesis is accepted. Table 1 shows the

results of a two-way analysis of covariance comparison between

the experimental and control groups. For sexual guilt there

was no significant difference in the posttreatment comparison

between the experimental and control groups. This finding

suggests that a human sexuality course does not change a

person's sexual guilt.

Hypothesis 2

ThOre will be no sex differences in sexual guilt as
a result of participation in the human sexuality
course.

The null hypothesis is rejected. The two-way analysis of

covariance main effects sex comparison shows a significant dif-

ference at the .001 level between males and females (Table 1)

with females exhibiting greater change toward the direction of

less guilt. This main effects sex difference may be artifactual

because there are two versions of the sex guilt instrument (see

Appendix B). Of these two versions, the females show greater

differences in mean scores (Table 2). This may he due to the

different questions asked in each version of the instrument.

A one-way analysis of covariance comparison of the post-

treatment scores for thie experimental and contrWl males shows

no significant difference between these two groups. Also a

comparison of posttreatment groups for experimental and control

females shows no significant difference. These data are shown

in Table 3.


Psychological Androgyny

Posttreatment comparisons in psychological androgyny were

measured by the Hem Sex-Role Inventory (Rem, 19741). The subjects






















Table 1

Sexual Guilt: Two-way Analysis


of Covariance


d(I Sq:,re


31. 06

3668.57


1 0.13

132 109.71


S ou c.


o1 I p i


S401 ). *


31. 06

3668.57


0. 13

14482.13


F lati oa



0. 28

33.44***


0.00


L' l ; l' J l ,!




















Table 2

Sexual Guilt: Means and Stand ird Deviations


Gr up


,Exper'imn 'tal

Conit r'>

t i l


Ly .r i i t.l 1

Ci-ontrol

Tot l


Pre -
N mean


26. 51

22. 19

24.51


33.97

41.17

37.68


Pos -
SD mean SD


9.06

19.87

15.11


26.66

15.34

21.73


-26.89

-23 13

-25. 10


-42.73

-46.57

-44.71


10. 50

19.39

15.28


20.57

12.35

16.83


-30.03 19.66 -34.30 17.81

-32.10 19.95 -35.33 19.89




















Table 3

Sexual Guilt: One-way Analysis



Sura of
Source Squares df



iroiu> 4.91 1

lies i, 00o675.73 06



,,I o,!p 4. 14 1

k-.R idju:i; 7532. 15 05


t-i -r post c .;: ri s .on.


of Covariance



Mean
Square F Ratioa


4 .91

101.15



4. 14

115.88


0.05





0.04










rated themselves on each of 60 items from 1 to 7, with a 7

being the highest. Of these items, 20 are traditionally mascu-

line, 20 feminine, and 20 neutral. The masculine mean is sub-

tracted from the feminine mean providing a score. The nearer

the score is to zero, the more androgynous the subject.

Hypothesis 3

There will be no group differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.

The null hypothsis is accepted. An examination of the

main effects in the two-way analysis of covariance test revealed

no significant difference for main effects between the experi-

mental and control groups (Table 4). This finding shows that

in general human sexuality instruction does not effect psycho-

logical androgyny status.

Hypothesis 4

'There will be no sex differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.

The null hypothesis is accepted. An examination of the

two-way analysis of covariance test for psychological androgyny

revealed no main effects sex. difference. These data are shown

in Table 4 and the means and standard deviation' are shown in

'Fable 5.

In a one-way analysis of covariance test, a comparison of

posttreatment scores for experimental and control males and for

experimental females and control females revealed no significant

difference (Table 6). The means and standard deviations for

these data are shown in Table 5.

























Psychological








S.li oup




G r,.. ,> S 1
(sii e ,


Table 4

Androgyny: Two-way Analysis of Covariance




Suc, of M an a
Squ r-- .1 Sq. re F i atio


0. 00

0. 29


0. 32

34. 09


0.00

0.29


0.00

1.12


1.20


1 o. 32

132 0.26




















Table 5

Psychological Androgyny: Means




Pre -
'oup \ mean


Mali's
E .erii n r, t

C,-1 t ro I

Total




Coin rI I

lota!

To t a 1
I \pe r iw t

('Con trol


1 01

0.80

0. i94


0.66

0.09

0.08


and Standard Deviations


Post
Sp mei:


0.62

0. 62

0. 62


0.49

0.54

0. 51


0.85 0.59

0.77 0.58


1.07

0.87"

0.98


0. 05

0.77

0.71


SD


0. 61

0.71

0.66


Gr


0.87 0.67

0.82 0.64




















Tab 1 e

Psychological Androgyny: One


Source



Group

Rj^ idu: 1



Gt oup

Re:,idual


Analysis of Covariance


Sum of


S. 18

19. 83



0 10

14 .49)


1 0 .18

66 0.30


0 16

0 .22


aFor ios t coI:p i s orl.


F Ratioa




0 .60


0.74









Attitudes Toward the Sexual Behaviors of Others

Twelve concepts reflecting a broad spectrum of sexual

behaviors of others were evaluated by the subjects of this study.

These evaluations, part of the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behav-

iors (Fretz, 1974), are based on the attitude of the subject toward

these sexual behaviors. For each concept the subject rated his/

her attitude toward the concept by placing a check mark on a

bipolar dimension. The present experimenter revised the Attitude

Measureof Sexual Behaviors in accordance with Fretz' suggestion

(1974) that three dimensions were particularly useful as change

indicators. These three bipolar dimensions, good-bad, valuable-

worthless, and understandable-mysterious were used. A score of

from I to 7 was assigned to each position on the bipolar dimension,

with 7 assigned to the positive side (good, valuable, understand-

able) and 1 to the negative side (had, worthless, mysterious).

Hypothesis s 5

There will be no group differences in attitudes toward
the sexual behaviors of others as a result of partici-
pation in the human sexuality course.

The null hypothesis is rejected. For Hypothesis 5, a two-

way analysis of covariance was conducted for the experimental

and control groups. An examination of the main effects for group

difference revealed that nine concepts showed no significant

change. The two-way data for these concepts are shown in Tables

7, 10, 13, 1o, 19, 22, 34, 37, 40, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64, 67, 79, 82,

85, 89, 91, 94, 97, 100, 103, 106, 109, and 112. Means and

standard deviations for these concepts are shown in Tables 8, 11,

14, 17, 20, 23, 35, 38, 41, 53, 56, 59, 62, 05, 08,1 80, 83, 86,

89, 92, 95, 98, 101 104, 107, 110, and 113.








00

Three concepts did show a main effects significant differ-

ence in the liberal direction for the group comparison. In these

comparisons the experimental group showed higher mean scores than

the control group. The concepts were as follows:

Concept C: A woman who masturbates

Concept lI: An engaged person who has premarital intercourse

Concept I1: A person who reads "hard-core pornography" like
Sisters of the Whip, Gay Ilot Nights, etc.

For Concept C: A woman who masturbates, all three bipolar

dimensions revealed a significant difference at the .01 level

(see Tables 25, 28, and 31). The means and standard deviations

for this comparison are shown in Tables 27, 29, and 32.

Only one bipolar dimension, valuable-worthless, revealed

a significant difference at the .05 level for Concept E: An

engaged person who has premarital intercourse. The data for this

concept is shown in Table 40. Table 47 shows the means and

standard deviations for this comparison.

The pornography concept, fl, contained two bipolar dimensions

with a significant difference at the .05 level. These were

good-bad (see Table 70) and understandable-mysterious (see

Table 76). The means and standard deviations for these com-

parisons are shown in Tables 71 and 77 respectively.

An additional test for significance was conducted on the

combined set of concepts (A through L). A significant differ-

ence at the .05 level was revealed in the liberal direction for

this test. The results of this two-way analysis of covariance

data are shown in Table 1 IS, and tlhe means and standard

deviations are shown in Table 116.










These findings are partially consistent with a previous

attitude study (Davidow, 1976) which also used the Attitude

Measure of Sexual Behaviors. Davidow's study revealed changes

in the concepts of a woman who masturbates and an engaged person

who has premarital intercourse as did the present study. However,

the present study also revealed a significant change in the

pornography concept as well.

Hypothesis 6

There will be no sex differences in attitudes toward
the sexual behaviors of others as a result of partici-
pation in the human sexuality course.

The null hypothesis is rejected. A two-way analysis of covari

ance revealed a sign if icant difference (.05 level) for main effects

for sex for two concepts. Each concept had one bipolar dimension

with a significant difference. These concepts and dimensions

were Concept A: A homosexual--valuable-worthless dimension and

Concept J: Someone who engages in oral and/or anal intercourse--

good-bad dimension. These two-way results are shown in Tables

10 and 88, and the means and standard deviations are shown in

Tables 11 and 89 respectively. The other dimensions of these two

concepts and the remaining ten concepts of the attitude measure

revealed no significant difference for the main effects sex com-

parison. These results are shown in Table 7, 13, 16, 19, 22,

25, 28, 31, 34, 37, 40, 43, 46, 49, 52, 55, 58, ti61, 64, 67, 70,

73, 76, 79, 82, 85, 91, 94, 97, 100, 103, 106, 10)9, and 112.

The means and standard deviations for these data are shown in

Tables 8, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, 35, 38, 41, 44, 47, 50, 53,

56, 59, 02, 65, 68, 71, 74, 77, 80, 83, 10 92, Or, 98, 101,









104, 107, 110, and 113. Those concepts in which a significant

difference occurred (Concept A and Concept J) revealed that

females showed greater change than males.

A one-way analysis of covariance comparison of the experi-

mental and control subjects by sex for the attitudes toward the

sexual behaviors of others revealed no significant difference in

posttreatment comparison for all three Uimensions of 10 concepts.

These results are shown in Tables 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 36, 39,

42, 45, 48, 51, 54, 57, 60, 63, 66, 09, 81, 84, 87, 90, 93, 96,

99, 102, 105, 108, 111, and 114. 'The means and standard deviations

are shown in Tables 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 35, 38, 41, 44, 47,

50, 53, 56, 59, 62, 65, 68, 80, 83, 86, 89, 92, 95, 98, 101, 104,

107, 110, and 113.

Those concepts in which a significant difference occurred

in the one-way analysis of covariance were Concept C: A woman who

masturbates and Concept H: A person who reads "hard-core pornog-

raphy," like Sisters of the Whip, Gay Hot Nights, etc.

Male data for Hypothesis 6 revealed a significant differ-

once for one concept, a woman who masturbates. In contrast to

females, however, the significant difference occurred for only

the good-bad dimension. The good-bad dimension rc ealed a sig-

nificant difference at the .05 level as shown in Table 27. It

is interesting to note that this concept did not show change in

a previous male study (Shovholt et al., 1970) whereas other con-

cepts did show change. The means and standard deviations for

this comparison are shown in Table 26.

On the other hand, for females there was a difference for

two concepts. Flor the woman who musturlbates, two of the







63

bipolar dimensions showed significant change, valuable-worthless

and understandable-mysterious. In both cases the significant dif-

ferences occurred at the .05 level of confidence. The one-way

comparisons are shown in Tables 30 and 33, and the means and

standard deviations are shown in Tables 29 and 32.

The other concept showing a significant difference was a

person who reads "hard-core pornography,' like Sisters of the

Whip, Gay Hot Nights, etc. For the pornography concept there

was a significant difference for females for one bipolar dimen-

sion, understandable-mysterious. This difference occurred at

the .05 significance level. See Table 78 for this data and

Table 77 for the means and standard deviations. No significant

difference was revealed for this concept for males for the one-

way comparison (Table 78) and for the means and standard

deviations (Table 77).

The pornography concept revealed no changes for two dimen-

sions, good-bad and valuable-worthless, in the one-way analysis

of covariance for males or females. The one-way data is shown

in Tables 72 and 75. Means and standard deviations for these

data are shown in Tables 71 and 74.

On the combined set of concepts (A through 1), no signifi-

cant difference was revealed in the one-way comparison of

experimental males and control males or for experimental females

and control females (Table 117). Table 116 shows the means and

standard deviations for these data.





















-Table 7

Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


Mellan
(If Si un r


1 2.16

1 2.47


1 0.65


F Ration


1.76

2.02


0.53


1.23


Sum of
S quia r .


Sex
rtl api. Soc


2.16

2.47


0.65


161.73



















Table 8

Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Group

Mal es
Experimental

Cont r 1ol

Total

Fem;i ] s
Exper mental

Control

Total

lotal
Experimental

Control


N


37

32

.69


Pre-


mean


2.87

2.94

2.90


3.12

3.71

3.43


Post-
SD mean SD


1.44

1.44

1.43


1.29

1.41

1.38


2.99 1.37

3.33 1.46


2.81

3.25

3.01


3.39

3.91

3.66


1.49

1.69

1.59


1.14

1.48

1.35


3.09 1.36

3.60 1.61


















Table 9

Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Coxariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Males

Group 2.46 1 0.246 2.24

Residual 72.72 66 1.10



Group 0.70 1 0.70 0.55

Residual 83.13 65 1.28

aFor post comparison.





















*Table 10

Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance



Surn of Mean
e Squares df Square F Ratio


Main effects
Group

So-

Interact ion
Group Sex

Residual


Na0or pos
*.05s


0.31

5.28


0.06

188.82


co;mp r Lson .


1 0.31

1 5.28


1 0.06

P2 1.43


Sourc


0.22

3.69*


0.04



















Table 11

Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Group

Ma l es
Exper iment a 1

Control

Tot a I

I 'ia [l, s
Ixperimental

Control

Total


Total
Experimental

Control


Pre-
N mean


3.05

3.25

3.15


3.55

4.51

4. 04


Post
SD mean


1.49

1.59

1.53


1.03

1.48

1.37


3.29 1.31

3.91 1.65


3.16

3.41

3.28


3.88

4.46

4.18


SD


1.42

1.68

1.54


1.11

1.40

1.29


3.50 1.33

3.91 1.62


















Table 12

Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Males

Group 0.28 1 0.28 0.17

Residual 104.28 66 1.58

Fcm'les

Group 0.27 1 0.27 0.21

Residual 83.29 65 1.28


aFor post comparison.





















Table 13

Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


Source

Main Fffects
G group

Sex

Interaction
Group Sex

Res i dal I


Sum of
Squares


0.82

3.68


0.90

296.06


Mean
df Square


1 0.82

1 3.68


1 0.90

132 2.24


F Ratioa


0.37

1.64


0.40


aFor post (comparison.


















Table 14

Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Group

Males
Experiment!

Control

Total

F'emia l es
Experiment;i

Control

Total

Total
Experiment al

Control


Pre -
N mei n


3.60

4.06

3.81


4.18

5.03

4.62


Post-
SD mean SD


1.71

1.56

1.79


1.79

1.71

1.79


70 3.87 1.76


3.60

4.16

4.39


4.39

4.83

4.62


3.97 1.76


67 4.57 1.70 4.51 1.76


1.64

1.71

1.82


1.82

1.77

1.79


















Table 15

Attitude, Concept A--Undprstandable-Mysterious Dimension;
One-way Analysis of Covariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Ma I es

Group 2.41 1 2.41 1.00

Residuad 159.56 66 2.41

Fema les

Group 0.18 1 0.18 0.09

Residual 130.67 65 2.01

aFor post comparison.





















Table 16

Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


S ut of
Source Squares

M1ain 1 Effect-
troup 0.49

Sex 0.23

Interaction
Group Sex 0.01

Residual 167.66

For po'sL t'o:ilpt 'J sot l .


Mean
df Square


0.94

0.23


1 0.01

132 1.27


F Ratioa


0.38

0.18


0.01



















Table 17

Attitude, Concep.t B--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard De nations


Pre-
N man0


Group

Ma es
Exyper' i'ntai. t ,'



e .- t1 "I 1
Control



SL Li. IC
1 \pcr i ihULLt ;i I

Control

Total
Tot tl
Ixper imcntol 1

Cont ro1l


5. 9 2

5.53

5.74


5.82

5.60

5.71


Po t
SII mean.


1 .21

1.50

1 .30


1.40

1.50

1.45


5. 87 1.30

5.57 1.49


5.89

5.81

5.87


5.941

5.941

5.94


1.32

1.43

1.37


5.91 1.25

5.90 1.34



















Table 18

Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Coxariance



Sum of M-ea
Squares df Squiare



0. 27 1 o. 27

74.84 66b 13



0. 20 1 11. 20

92.73 65 1.43


Source


iu s il a 1 i




es idual


F Ratioa



I. 24


ator po.t ,,oi.pari oi.






















hable 19

Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


SuLI of
SCq L1:1 1'r"


SouCi c


IMain H' I L Ft.
Clo iup


j il r t ilI' i u i
Group d ex:
!i a dd:


M S ian
dlF Squar c



1 0.10

1 1.08


1 35


132 1 .26


Sex


0. 10


166.23


0. 08

0.86


1 .07


ii')l r p,-) t C'. : p' l I' I, .


F atioa





















Attitude, Concept B-
Means and


Table 20

-Valuable-
Standard


Worthless Dimension:
Devi at ions


Group

Ma e s
Experim n'tal

Control

Totl .


xpcer im:elnt il

Control

Total

Total
E::pe ri wntevn tLal

CoIt rol


Pre-
N meal


5.89

5.56

5.74


5.58

5.71

5.65


5.74 1.20

5.64 1.47


Post
SD mean


6.00)

6.00

6.00


5.88

5.69

5.78


5.94 1.21

5.84 1.31


SD


1.78

1.34

1.15


1.27

1.45

1.36








78









Table 21

Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Males

Group 0.31 1 0.31 0.30

Residual 68.93 66 1.04

Fema es

Group 1.13 1 1.13 0.76

Residual 97.10 65 1.49

aFor post coliparis'on.





















Table 22

Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


Source

Ma in Effects
Group

Sex

Inlt raC on
(;roIup S .x

Re;;idul, I


aFor post


Sum of
Squares


1.11

1.32


0.00

118.85


co ip;n I iJ son .


Mean
df Squarc F Ratio


1 1.11

1 1.32


1

132


1.23

1.47


0.00


0.00

0.90



















Table 23

Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Pre-
N mean


Group


Males
Expcr ieh L 1

ConLrol

'lotal




Coi t rI lI






Cont rol


6. 32

6.97

6.16


6.36

6.34

6.35

0.16


Post
SD mean


1.00

1.60

1. 31


1.11

1.03

1.05

1 .33


6.38

6.09

6.25


6.58

6. 40

6.47

6.25


SD


0.92

1.15

1.04


0.71

1. 14

0.83

1.15








81










'able 24

Attitude, Concept B--Ulnderstandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Coxariance



Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Ratioa

Males

Croup 0.55 1 0.55 0.59

Ros L !ui1 61 .64 66 0.93

Y'( .Ci l f^

lroup 0.50 1 o0.50 0.57

Resi dual 56.95 65 0.88


St'Ol r o t col-;p: .! s ,' .






















Table 25

Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance


Mean
df S> r


1 9.15

1 )0.64


1 0.77

132 1.41


F Ratio


6.48**


0.45


0.55


Source


; [ro ii


(;i u p .S.





**. 01


Sum oC



9. 15

0. 04


0.77

186.51


-:I, p! r 1 '. t, .



















Table 26

Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations


Pre-
111 mean


5.32

5.47

5.39


4.64

4.49

4. 5(


Group




CI1 a 1



experimental

C n ti I o

Total
Total
To t a !
.\xp r imi'*nta 1

Control l


Post
SD mean


1 .49

1 .69

1. 57


1.82

1.93

1.86


5.00 1.08

4.96 1.87


5.60

5.00

5.32


5.241

4. 80

5.02


SD


1.40

1.63

1.53


1.35

1.51

1 .44


5.43 1.38

4.90 1.56




Full Text
179
Discussion
This study attempted to assess the psychological effects
of a course in human sexuality on the attitudes of participants.
In most comparisons no changes were found; however, there were
a few significant changes in the liberal direction.
An examination of the. results for psychological androgyny
showed no changes. Although the course gave students an oppor
tunity to discuss views on masculinity and femininity and develop
new views about maleness and femaleness, no sex role identity
changes as measured by the Bern Sex-Role Inventory was evident.
One explanation for this outcome may be that a ten-week period
does not provide enough time to allow for change in sex role
identity.
The outcome for the evaluation of sexual guilt revealed no
changes in the posttreatment comparisons for the experimental
and control groups, and the main effects change for sex was
interpreted to be artifactual due to the two versions of the
sex guilt instrument. As with sex role identity, a ten-week
program may be of too short a duration to allow for significant
sex guilt change. Another consideration which may explain this
result is that many subjects began the course with very low
guilt scores, therefore, limiting their potential for lessening
their degree of guilt. Since the finding of this study reveals
that sex guilt does not appear to change from human sexuality
course participation, it may be necessary to look at other ways
to change sexual guilt, i.e., individual counseling, more inten
sive sex therapy, a human sexuality course lasting' longer than
ten weeks.


103
Table 46
Attitude,
Concept C --Valuable Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Sq ua re
F Ratio1
Main Lir
c- C l
Gro up
4.58
1
4.58
3.85*
Sex
2.07
1
2.07
1.74
Interact
ion
Group
Sex
0.04
1
0.04
0.04
Rbsi dual
157.12
132
1 .19
ai;or post coiiipai ¡soft.
*.05


34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept 0--Valuable Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept D--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept D--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimen-
sipn: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations,
i x


132
Table 75
Attitude, Concept II--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Cotariance
Source
Slim of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio0
Males
Group
0.05
1
0.05
0.03
Res i (iua 1
111.94
66
1.70
Fei.u l e s
Group
0.39
i
0.39
0.30
Re s .i d u .! 1
83.98
65
1 29
fll;or post comparison.


160
Table 103
Attitude, Concept K--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sunt of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratioa
Main
G roup
1 93
1
1.93
0.90
So x
0.56
1
0.56
0.26
In t evict i oi
Ci-cup Sv
0.2 5
1
0.25
0.12
kes¡dual
282.84
132
2.14
al'fr post comparison.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Introduction
Today sex education remains a controversial area. Both
champions and critics of sex education are contending for the
majority view. The highly inflamed debates continue with only
a minimum of data to support either side. A review of the
literature indicates that few studies have examined the changes
produced by sex education. Furthermore, a problem exists in
that experimental data which have been gathered are often based
on a course which is difficult to replicate. Most of the
reports of experimental studies do not show the curriculum
components.
Chapter II consists of a discussion of the available
research on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, as measured
by Bern (19741, and the effects of sex education on attitudes
toward sexual behaviors. The research on sexual guilt and
psychological androgyny is limited; whereas, for sexual attitudes
the research is extensive.
Sexual Guilt
A distinction can be made between two motives for
the inhibition of morally unacceptable behavior.
One motive is fear of external punishment for
transgressing societal standards. A second moi'ive
is guilt, which has developed as a result of a
13


198
Week
6 Birth Control; Intercourse
Readings: 0B0, 210-214, 48-60
HS, 127-140, 142-167, 95-111, 114-124
Handout: 58-65, 277-290
Exam 3, May 5
7 Birth Control, Adulthood
Readings: OBO, 216-238
HS, 200-214
MB, K-33-41
Handout: 58-65, 291-230
8 Adulthood; VD; Sexual Behavior
Readings: MB, K25-27, M25, C41-54
SS 19-35
OBO, 167-180, 135-138
HS, 216-217, 209-220, 224, 229, 231-247
Exam 4, May 19
9 Pregnancy
Readings: MB, M9-23, J14-20
HS, 170-177
OBO, 230-247, 251-252, 256-266, 297-312,
317-326
10 Aging
Readings: MB, D35-38, Ll-23, M24
SS, 186-208, 220-224, 230-236
OBO, 327-336, 130-135
HS, 106-108, 98-101
Final Exam, June 9


48
3. The human sexuality course was considered to have
positively changed androgyny if the mean difference between
the compared groups is significant at the .05 level.
Limitations of the Study
One limitation of the-study was tjie fact that some
subjects withdrew from the course following the administration
of the pretest. Therefore, there were some students who com
pleted the pretest but did not complete the posttest.
A second limitation was the difference in teaching styles
among those instructors who taught the Human Sexuality sections.
An attempt was made to standardize the topics which were presented;
however, it was not possible to control for the differences in
instructors' personalities, the types of activities utilized in
the class, and the specific curriculum material presented.
A third limitation was that results cannot necessarily be
generalized to other human sexuality courses on other campuses.
However, by providing information about methodology used, the
participants, the course standardization attempted through use
of topic agreement, and other data, other researchers will be
able to conduct similar studies.


104
Table 47
Attitude,
Concept E--yaluable-Worthless Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Post-
mean
SD
Males
Experimen to1
37
5.62
1.38
5.84
1.21
Control
32
5.63
1.54
5.44
1.41
To tal
69
5.6 2
1.45
5.65
1.32
Experimental
33
5.49
1.56
5.49
1.33
Control
35
5.57
1.36
5.20
1.37
To tal
68
5.53
1.45
5.34
1.35
Tota 1
Experimental
70
5.56
1.46
5.67
1 .27
Cent rol
67
5.60
1.44
5.31
1. 38


Tab
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
9 8
99
100
101
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
Attitude, Concept I--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept I--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept I--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept J--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance....1
Attitude, Concept J--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept J--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
xi i


87
Table ' O
Attitude,
Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Anaiysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squa res
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
2.84
1
2.84
2.23
Residual
84.27
66
1.28
females
Group
6.81
i
6.81
5.68*
Res¡dual
77.93
65
1. 20
8 For post comparison.
*.05


168
Table 111
Attitude, Concept L--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratioa
Ma i es
Group
0.00
1
0.00
0.00
Residua]
T' ^
132.53
66
2.01
Group
1.11
i
1.11
0.72
Residual
100.55
65
1.55
aFor post comparison.


155
fable 98
Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Pos t -
mean
SD
Mal es
Experimenta1
37
3.97
1 .40
4.32
1.42
Centre 1
32
3.97
1.82
4.19
k, 64
Total
'69
3.97
1.60
4.26
1.51
Ferna 1o s
Experimental
33
4.15
1.35
4.52
1.60
Cent rol
35
4.89
1.41
4.57
1.42
To t a 1
68
4 .53
1.42
4.54
1 50
Total
Experimenta 1
70
4.06
1.37
4.41
1 50
Conti o!
67
4.45
1.67
4.39
1.53


17
Only one study has looked at the sexual guilt of college
students with respect to changes from sex education. Bernard
(1973) used Mosher's Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory in evalu
ating sex guilt over the time span of a human sexuality course.
Sex guilt, hostile guilt, and moral conscience were measured
to determine the effects of sex education on the participants'
attitudes toward their own sexual behavior. A significant
reduction on the sex-guilt variable was reported.
Psychological Androgyny
The focus of this component of the study is psychological
androgyny as measured by the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (Bern, 1974).
According to Bern (1974), psychological androgyny is a condition
or state in which a person has a high degree of both masculine
and feminine characteristics, i.e., being "both assertive and
yielding; both instrumental and expressive, depending on the
situational appropriateness of these behaviors" (p. 155).
Bern's concepts of masculinity and femininity are two independent
dimensions, in contrast to treating them as the opposite ends
of a single dimension. This measurement of masculinity and
femininity is different from other masculinity-femininity
measures. Most personality inventories have items that are
arranged or worded in a way which emphasizes differences between
males and females. Also, the traditional inventories do not
allow for a person to be classified as both masculine and femi
nine. Bern's method is significant and important because no pre
vious measurement technqiue has allowed for this classification.


144
Table 87
Attitude, Concept I--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratioa
Males
Group
2.65
1
2.65
1.13
Residual
155.00
66
2.35
Fema 1 e -
Group
0.58
1
0.58
0.31
Residual
121.49
65
1.87
aFor post comparison.


37
social and economic backgrounds. They come from all sections
of the United States as well as many foreign countries.
Subjects in the experimental group consisted of students
enrolled in BUS 252--Human Sexuality, an elective course offered
through the Department of Behavioral Studies. There were four
sections of Human Sexuality in the experimental group (N=70j.
These four sections were taught by fouf instructors. Three of
the instructors for the course are part-time instructors with
the Department of Behavioral Studies and are doctoral students
in the Department of Counseling Psychology. The fourth instruc
tor is an affiliate instructor with the Department of Behavioral
Studies. This instructor has a Ph.D. in Counselor Education
and works full time as a counselor in the Psychological and
Vocational Counseling Center at the University of Florida. A
description of the course content for the experimental group is
contained in the Treatment section of this chapter.
The control group was comprised of four sections of students
not taking the Human Sexuality course (N=67). Students were
drawn from two classes in Cybernetics and two classes in Power
and Violence, also offered through the Department of Behavioral
Studies. The four sections of these control classes were taught
by two different instructors with each instructor teaching two
classes. The instructors of both the experimental and control
classes gave prior consent to allow this researcher to administer
the questionnaire in their classes (see Appendix A). Motiva
tion for students to volunteer to complete the questionnaires
was provided. The researcher (a) explained the nature of the


71
Table 14
Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Post-
mean
SD
Males
Experimental
37
3.60
1.71
3.60
1.64
Control
32
4.06
1.56
4.16
1.71
Total
69
3.81
1.79
4.39
1.82
Peni a1es
Experimcnta 1
33
4.18
1.79
4.39
1.82
Control
35
5.03
1.71
4.83
1.77
Total
68
4.62
1.79
4.62
1.79
Total
Experimental
70
3.87
1.76
3.97
1.76
Control
67
4.57
1.70
4.51
1.76


97
Table 40
Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Squs re
!' Ratio1
Main 1.1 T els
Croup
1 .31
1
1.31
0.56
Sc\
2.32
1
2.32
0.98
1atoniction
Croup Sex
0.82
1
0.82
0.35
Residua 1
312.12
132
2.37
'for post comp;:visoil.


93
Table 36
Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Co\ariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Ha 1 e s
Group
3.48
1
3.48
2.73
Residua 1
84.25
66
1.2 8
Fen'.?, l.e s
Group
0.39
1
0.39
0.33
Residual
76.09
6 5
1.17
3for post comparison.


207
Mosher, D. L. The development and validation of a sentence
completion measure of guilt (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio
State University, 1961). Dissertation Abstracts, 1962,
22, 2468-2469. (University Microfilms No. 61-5110)
Mosher, D. L. Interaction of fear and guilt in inhibiting
unacceptable behavior. Journal of Consulting Psychology,
1965, 29, 161-167.
Mosher, D. L. The development and multitrait-multimethod
matrix analysis of three measures of three aspects of
guilt. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1966, 3C(, 25-29.
Mosher, D. L. Measurement of guilt in females by self-report
inventories. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
1968, 32, 690-697)
Mosher, D. L. Sex callousness toward women. Technical reports
of the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. Vol. 8.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.
Mosher, D. L. Sex differences, sex experience, sex guilt, and
explicitly sexual films. Journal of Social Issues, 1973,
29, 95-112.
Mosher, D. L., § Cross, H. J. Sex guilt and premarital sexual
experiences of college students. Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology 19 71, 3 27-3Z.
Mosher, D. L., ) Greenberg, I. Females' affective responses
to reading erotic literature. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 1969 .33 472-477.
Mosher, D. [,. § Sprinthall, N. A. Deliberate psychological
education. The Counseling Psychologist, 1971, £(4), 3-74.
Murray, B. Androgyny and sex role stereotypes: Women's real
and ideal self perceptions and perceptions of psychological
health in others (Doctoral dissertation, California School
of Professional Psychology, 1976). Dissertation Abstracts
International 1976 37 1444B. (University ificrofi 1ms
No. 76-19,645)
Olsen, D. 11., § Gravatt, A. E. Attitude change in a functional
marriage course. The Family Coordinator, 1968, 17,
99-104.
Poinsett, S. B. The impact of a workshop on human sexuality
for the handicapped on school personnel (Doctoral dis
sertation, University of Michigan, 1976). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1976, 37, 1499A-1500A. (Univer
sity Microfilms No. 76-19,218)


121
Table 64
Attitude,
Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of Mean
Squares cl C Square
Main effects
Group
0.36
1
0.36
Sc >:
0.79
1
0.79
iterad ion
Group Sex
0.26
1
0.26
:s idea 1
212.32
132
1.61
3I;Cm post 1
aovpnrison.
Ratio3
0.22
0.49
0.16


176
for the experimental group it was 334 and for the control group
it was 274.
A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis of
covariance were used to analyze the data. Significant differences
were acknowledged at the p<.05 level of confidence. Post
treatment comparisons were made for the experimental and control
subjects, the experimental males and control males, and the
experimental females and control females for all three measure
ments. '
Six null hypotheses were formulated for testing the constructs.
These hypotheses and the results of the experimental tests on
each are as follows:
1. There will he no group differences in sexual guilt
as a result of participation in the human sexuality
course.
This null hypothesis was accepted.
2. There will be no sex differences in sexual guilt
as a result of participation in the human sexuality
course.
This null hypothesis was rejected.
3. There will be no group differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.
This null hypothesis was accepted.
4. There will be no sex differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.
This null hypothesis was accepted.
5. There will be no group differences in attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others as a result
of participation in the human sexuality course.
This null hypothesis was rejected.


177
6. There will be no sex differences in attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others as a result
of participation in the human sexuality course.
This null hypothesis was rejected.
The results are as follows:
1. There were no significant differences between the
experimental and control subjects on sexual guilt after the
treatment.
2. There was a main effects significant difference on sex
guilt after the treatment between males and females with the
females exhibiting greater change. However, this greater change
was believed to be artifactual because of the use of two versions
of the sex guilt instrument.
Additional comparisons for sex guilt revealed no signifi
cant differences between the experimental males and control males
or between the experimental females and control females.
3. There were no main effects significant differences
between the experimental and control subjects on psychological
androgyny after the treatment.
4. There was no main effects significant difference between
males and females for psychological androgyny after the treatment.
Additional comparisons for psychological an Irogyny revealed
no significant differences for experimental males and control
males or for experimental females and control females.
5. For attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others,
there was a main effects significant difference between the
experimental and control subjects for three concepts after the
treatment. These concepts were a woman who masturbates (all


208
Rees, B., § Zimmerman, S. The effects of formal sex education
on the sexual behaviors and attitudes of college students.
The Journal of the American College Health Association,
1974, 22," 370-J7T:
Rubin, A. M. Sex attitudes of female sex educators (Doctoral
dissertation, Columbia University, 1970). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1972 32^ 4139A. ^University
Microfilms No. 72-418TT
Rubin, A. M. 1, Adams, J. R. Sex attitudes of sex educators.
The Family Coordinator,.1972, 21, 177-182.
Schwarz, D. A. The relationships among sexual behavior, sex
reasoning, and sex guilt in late adolescence (Doctoral
dissertation, Columbia University, 1975). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1976, 36, 6400B. Xiversity
Microfilms No. 76-12,782)
Skovholt, T. M. Issues in psychological education. Personnel
and Guidance Journal, in press.
Skovholt, T. M., Nagy, F., 5 Epting, F. Teaching human sexu
ality to college males. Paper presented at the Annual
Convention of the American Psychological Association,
Washington, D.C., September 1976.
Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R., § Stapp, J. Ratings of self and
peers on sex role attributes and their relation to self
esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1975, 32,
29-39. ' '
Sprinthall, N. A. Fantasy and reality in research: How to
move beyond the unproductive paradox. Counselor Education
and Supervision, 1975, 1_4, 310-332.
Strahan, R. F. Remarks on Bern's measurement of psychological
androgyny: Alternative methods and a supplementary
analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
1975 £3, 568- 571.
Vance, E. T. Social disability. American Psychologist, 1963,
2j(, 498-511.
Vennewitz, P. J. A study to determine the effects of a college
human sexuality course upon student sex knowledge and
attitudes toward selected sexual topics (Doctoral dis
sertation, Oregon State University, 1975). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1975, 36, 618A. (University
Microfilms No. 75-18,824)


105
Table 48
Attitude, Concept E--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum
Squa
of
res
elf
Mean
Square
F Ratio
Ma les
Group
2.
.77
1
2,
.77
2.4 0
Residual
76.
,42
66
1.
.16
l'ema les
Croup
1 .
85
i
1.
.85
1.49
Residua 1
80.
70
65
1.
, 24
aFor post comparison.


114
Table 57
Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Cov.nriance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Squa re
F Ratio3
Ma 1 es
Group
1.29
1
1 29
1.20
Residual
70.88
66
1 .07
Fem i os
Group
1.75
i
1. 75
1.16
Residual
98.20
65
1. 51
lor post comparison.


Table 32
Attitude, Concept C--binders tandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Pr- Post-
Group
N
mean
SO
mean
w
1 a
Ma les
Lxpo r inuiu l a 1
37
5.84
1.41
6.08
1.32
Control
32
5.81
1.64
5.47
1.65
Tot a 1
¡59
5.83
1.50
5.80
1.50
i 1 0 S
P.xper i men! a 1
33
5.49
1.56
6.09
1.01
Control
35
5.71
1.56
5.69
1.35
Total
68
5.60
1.56
5.88
1.20
Tot a 1
experiment a 1
70
5.67
1 48
6.09
1.18
Control
67
5.76
1.59
5.58
1.49


172
Table 115
Attitudes, Concepts A through L:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Souic e
Sum of
Squaios
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Main 1'ffects
C roup
l.n
1
1.11
4.36*
Sc.v
0.08
1
0.08
0.31
Interaction
Group Sex
0.10
1
0. 10
0.38
Res¡dual
33.57
132
0.25
afor post ccnparison,
*. Os


164
Table 107
Attitude, Concept L--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Croup
N
Pre-
mean
SI)
Post-
mean
SD
Males
Experimental
37
3.46
1 30
3.84
1 .48
Cont rol
32
3.44
1 .54
4.19
1.47
Tot a 1
'69
3.45
1.41
4.00
1.48
Ici'ta 3 v s
Experimental
33
3.5 5
1.23
4.00
1.68
Cunt: rol
35
4.14
1.40
4.29
1.55
Total
68
3.85
1 .34
4.15
1.61
T o t a l
Eaper ir.ien tal
70
3.50
1 .26
3.91
1.57
Control
67
3.81
1 50
4.24
1 50


156
Table 99
Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Variance
Source
Sum o f
Stjua res
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
0.31
1
0.31
0.20
Res ¡dual
100.32
66
1 52
Feiii.t i c s
Group
3.20
i
3.20
2.29
Residual
91.04
66
1.40
aFor post comparison.


130
Table 73
Attitude,
Concept II--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
S c j u j i e s
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Main F.ffocis
Croup
i to
to

1
0.33
0.22
Sex
1. 72
1
1.72
1. 15
into taction
Croup Sex
0.09
1
0.09
0.06
Res idua1
196.82
132
1.49
aFov post coiaparisoh.


Table 44
Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Fre- Post-
Croup
N
mean
SO
mean
SO
Males
Ex per i'nen t a ]
37
5.68
1.38
5.78
1.25
Control
32
5.66
1.56
5.47
1.48
Total
69
5.67
1.45
5.64
1.36
Fema1es
lixper ¡mental
33
5.24
1.71
5.36
1.50
c
o
U'
35
5.23
1.42
5.00
1.46
Tot a j
68
5.24
1.56
5.18
1.48
Total
F.xper i monta J
70
5.47
1.55
5.59
1.38
Control
67
5.43
1.49
5.22
1.48


25
participated in a sex education course. No correlation existed
between liberalization of attitudes toward sexuality and com
pletion of the course.
Certain studies in the related literature assessed sexual
changes among educational personnel. These studies included
teachers, administrators, and other school staff.
Flatter f 1975) analyzed the effects of a series of six-
day human sexuality workshops on the degree of sexual liberalism
of 341 educators. The workshops included both cognitive and
affective areas of human sexuality. The major conclusion drawn
from the study was that participation in a human sexuality work
shop affects attitude change in the direction of increased
sexual liberalism.
Karas and Gale (1972) provided a course in sex education
to 29 elementary school teachers in Danbury, Connecticut. A
pre- and postattitude instrument was administered to the
teachers as well as to the control group. The findings revealed
a more liberal attitude toward sex among the participants than
among the nonparticipants.
In another study, Poinsett (1976) examined the effects of
an experiential workshop, "Promoting Positive Social-Sexual
Functioning in Handicapped Children." Pre- and postdata and
delayed postdata were collected on attitudes. From dis
positional data three groups were established. Group A
focused on self and was inner-directed. Group B focused on
communicating and was other-directed. Group C focused on
receiving specific sexual information and how to deal with


72
Table 15
Attitude, Concept A--Undgrstandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio
Males
Group
2.41
1
2.41
1.00
Residual
159.56
66
2.41
Females
Group
0-18
1
0.18
0.09
Residual
130.67
65
2.01
aFor post comparison.


122
Table 65
Attitude, Concept G--¡/aluable-Worthless Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre-
mean
SI)
Post
inea n
sn
Males
Experimental
37
4. 05
1.58
4.29
1 75
Control
32
4.63
1. 54
4.38
1.36
Total
69
4.32
1 58
4.33
1.57
Ferna 1e
Experiment a 1
33
4.64
1.45
4.64
1.08
Cent rol
35
4.29
1. 79
4.46
1.56
Tot a 1
68
4.46
1 .63
4.54
1 34
Total
Experi menta 1
70
4.33
1.54
4.46
1.47
Contro 1
67
4.49
1.67
4.42
1.49


APPENDIX A
INSTRUCTOR AGREEMENT FORM
I agree to allow Frank Nagy to administer a pre- and post
questionnaire to my class during Spring Quarter, 1977, for the
purpose of collecting data for his dissertation.
(Instructor)
(Date)
182


193
K. An 11-year-old boy who holds hands with another boy his age
31. good
32. valuable worthless
33. understandable mysterious
L. An unwed mother
34. good bac*
35. valuable worthless
36. understandable mysterious


88
Table 31
Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
in n:c
Sum of
Squaio5
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
ir, Iffi-cts
Group
10.26
1
10.26
6.98**
C
1 35
1
1.35
1 te IV t 1 OH
Gro.o. Sc x
0.10
1
0.10
0.07
194.02
132
1.47
;i ¡'i ; por. -oir.pa i i soil.
**.01


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INGEST IEID EIB9BQ67Q_NDT8ME INGEST_TIME 2013-01-23T15:17:25Z PACKAGE AA00012935_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES


166
Table 109
.1
Attitude,
Concept L--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Son rco
Sum of
Sepia rc s
df
Mea n
Square
f Ratio'
Main effects
Ci ou|
0,50
1
0.50
0.29
Sex
0.30
1
0.30
0.17
Interaction
Group Sex
0.81
1
0.61
0.46
Residua J
233.25
132
1.77
'Tor past con,pari soil.


136
Table 79
Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Sum of Mean
Sou rce
Squares
df
Square
F Ra t i oc
Main l.ffec't.s
Group
0.02
1
0.02
0.03
r.'x
0. 02
1
0.02
0.04
i iite rad i on
Gi oi.p Sc:c
2. 04
1
2.04
3.34
Kosidual
80.75
132
0.61
al:i>r post comparison.


77
Table 20
Attitude,
Concept 11-
Means and
-Valuable-
Standard
-Worthless
Deviations
Dimension:
Group
N
Pre -
mean
sn
Post -
mean
SD
Males
Exporimental
37
5.89
1.20
6.01)
1.78
Control
32
5.56
1.52
6.00
1.34
Total
69
5. 74
1.36
6.00
1.15
Ferna jcs
lixper.iiacntal
33
5.58
1.20
5.88
1.27
Contro 1
35
5.71
1.45
5.69
1.45
Total
68
5.65
1. 32
5.78
1.36
Total
Experimental
70
5.74
1.20
5.94
1.21
Cont rol
67
5.64
1.47
5.84
1.31


32
mysterious were suggested by Fretz (1974) as the bipolar dimen
sions that are most useful when assessing treatment effects.
Results showed that 11) of the 36 posttreatment dimension compari
sons were significantly different between the control and experi
mental groups. In all of the differences the experimental group
received the more liberal scores.
In conclusion, a number of studies have evaluated the
effect of sex education on attitudes. Most of these studies
have shown that sex education does change attitudes usually in
the liberal direction. Of the studies discovered by this
researcher, 1 have examined the attitudes of college students
and 2 of these have used the Fretz scale.
Summary
A review of the literature confirms that the research which
is relevant to this study is limited. The research which has
been done on sex guilt has shown that guilt is correlated with
the inhibition of sexual expression; with a lower degree of
interest in, and greater disgust with, eroticism; with conser
vative premarital standards; and with a low degree of exposure
to sexual activity or instruction. Only one pertinent study
which showed change has been done for sexual guilt. This was
measured by the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory.
The review of psychological androgyny, as measured by the
Bern Sex-Role Inventory, revealed that no prior pre- and post
evaluations of sex education have been completed. The results
of tile studies which have been reported on psycho lo'gi cal


4
has provided a detailed basi. for understanding the complex
processes involved" (Gordon § Johnson, 1976, p. 9). Many have
contributed to this research, yet certain professionals stand
out. Masters and Johnson (1966) led the way in sex research.
Investigations and programs for direct physical and social
treatment procedures for a variety of sexual dysfunctions followed
this early research (Kaplan, 1974, 1971; Masters § Johnson, 1970).
With newly acquired research-based information we can
enlighten students and help them integrate this learning with
personal experiences. Still, there remain frontiers to conquer.
How will we know if we have succeeded in our instruction? How
will we know if students have integrated their academic learning
about sex with their personal sexual experiences? How will we
know if our psychological education efforts have been successful?
Clearly, pre- and postcourse evaluations need to be made
if we are to know the effectiveness of a human sexuality course.
These evaluations provide much valuable information. From them
we can learn whether or not the course had any impact on stu
dents, the degree to which a course had an impact, the kinds of
changes which occurred, if any, and the kinds of changes which
have not occurred. Evaluations can provide evidence of the
kinds of changes which take place as a result of particular
instructional activities. With this knowledge, our curriculum
can be improved so that effective human sexuality instruction
will be possible.
Sex researchers have emphasized the importance of sexual
attitudes in relation to human sexual behavior (Fretz, 1975;


181
Recommendations for Further Research
1. Conduct this study on other college and university
campuses to determine whether similar findings occur.
2. Replicate this study using other sexual guilt and
attitude measures.
3. Perform a follow -up study to ¡determine whether or not
attitude changes which occur as a result of course participa
tion do remain consistent over time. This study could be con
ducted six months or one year subsequent to the initial study.
4. Perform a comparative study for sexual guilt to examine
any differential effects which occur relative to the conserva
tive or liberal nature of students.
5. Conduct a similar study on campuses where a long-term
human sexuality course is offered. This would be especially
relevant for psychological androgyny and sexual guilt which may
require more time before a significant effect can occur.


102
Table 45
Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Sepia re
F Ratio3
Males
Group
2.16
1
2.16
1.43
Residual
97.95
66
1 51
Fema1es
Group
1.58
i
1 .58
1.36
Residual
76.68
65
1. 16
aFor post comparison.


83
Table 2 6
Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre-
mean
SD
Pos t -
mean
SD
Males
Experimental
37
5.32
1 49
5.60
1.40
Cent, rol
32
5.47
1.69
5.00
1.63
Total
-69
5.39
1.57
5.32
1.53
FcffUi les
Expertment a L
33
4.64
1.82
5.24
1.35
Contro1
35
4.49
1.93
4.8 0
1.51
Total
68
4. 56
1.86
5.02
1.44
To t a 1
F.xpev i mental
70
5.00
1.68
5.43
1.38
Coni rol
67
4.96
1.87
4.90
1. 56


112
Table 55
Attitude, Concept F-- Valuab le-Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Sum uf ¡'¡can
ource
Sen res
cir
Sunci re
F
Patio'
/: i i> 1-f for t ?
G lull';
3.23
i
3.23
2.52
Sex
0.12
i
0.12
0.09
a 1 c.i act i cm
Group Sex
0.00
i
0.00
0.00
tsidual
169.38
132
1 28
flFo post cu;sen .


139
T-able 82
Attitude,
Concept I --Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sill!] 0 ('
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Main Iiffects
Group
0.80
i
0.80
0.65
Sox
0.13
i
0.13
0.11
Interact Lon
Group Sex
0.84
i
0.84
0.69
Residual
161.99
132
1.23
ai;0r post CO;
lipa r;> soft,


170
Table 113
Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Post -
mean
SD
Males
Experimental
3 7
4.97
1 .48
5.14
1 .49
Control
32
5.44
1 .46
4.97
1 .84
T o t a 1
'*69
5.19
1.48
5.06
1.65
Fema1es
Experimenta 1
33
5.60
1 54
5 26
1.69
Con! rol
35
5.60
1 .54
5.26
1.69
Total
68
5.43
1.54
5.19
1.66
Total
Experimental
70
5.10
1 .51
5.13
1.56
Control
67
5 .52
1 .49
5.12
1.75


196
Week
5/17
5/24
5/31
of
Sex and the Law
Readings: Gordon i¡ Johnson, 27-32 60, 61
Our Bodies, Ourselves., Ch. 7.9
Interpersonal Relationships
Readings: Gordon 5 Johnson, #10, 11, 26, 37-40, 44-50,
62, 64
Our Bodies, Ourselves, Ch. 4
Sex and Aging
Readings: Gordon ii Johnson, #51-53
Our Bodies, Ourselves, Ch. 17
6/8
Test II, 10:30-11:30 AM


205
Galbraith, G. G. The Mosher Sex Guilt Scale and the Thorne
Sex Inventory: Intercorrelations. Journal of Clinical
Psychology, 1969, 25, 292-294.
Galbraith, G. G., Hahn, K., § Lieberman, H. Personality corre
lates of free-associative sex responses to double-entendre
words. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1968,
32, 193-T9TT
Galbraith, G. G., § Mosher, D. L. Associative sexual responses
in relation to sexual arousal, guilt, and external approval
contingencies. Journal-of Personality and Social Psychology,
1968, 10, 142-147.
Goldstein, B. Human sexuality. New York: McGraw-Hill Book
Co., 1976.
Gonzalez, T. A study of the relationship of the Bern Sex-Role
Inventory and the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale for mothers of
pre-school children (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio. University,
19 7 5). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1976 36 ,
5229B. (University Microfilms No. 75-8856)
Gordon, C., f) Johnson, G. Sexuality in human life. In C. Gordon
8 G. Johnson (Eds.), Readings in human sexuality. New York:
Harper and Row, 1976.
Hoch, L. L. Attitude change as a result of sex education.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1971, 8, 363-367.
Hollister, W. Issues for school mental health. North Carolina
Journal of Mental Health, 1966, 2^, 42.
Huck, S. W., § McLean, R. A. Using a repeated measure ANOVA
to analyze the data from a pretest-posttest design: A
potentially confusing task. Psychological Bulletin, 1975,
82, 511-518.
Ivey, A. E., § Alschuler, A. S. An introduction to the field.
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 1973, 51, 591-597.
Joint Commission on Mental Health. Action for mental health.
New York: Basic Books, 1961.
Joint Commission on the Mental Health of Children. Crisis in
child mental health: Challenge for the seventiesO
Hagerstown, Md. : Harp"er and Row, T970~!
Kaplan, H. S. The new sex therapy. New York: Bruner/Mazel,
1974.
Kaplan, H. S. The illustrated manual of sex therapy. New York:
Quadrangle/TEe New York Times Book Co. 197 5 .


150
Table 93
Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Ma les
Group
0.58
i
0.58
0.55
Residual
. 69.42
66
1.05
Females
Group
1 75
1
1.75
1.16
Residual
97.48
65
1.50
3 For post
compsri s-on.


s
Fromrae, 1955 ; Kaplan, 1974 ; McCary, 19671 According to Kron-
hausen and Kronhausen (1965), attitudes come from the cultural
values of society. Cultures which approve of women's orgasms
produce women who have orgasms. Cultures which do not approve
produce women who are incapable of orgasms.
In addition, it seems that in the area of sexuality, atti
tudes appear to be more predictive of behavior than in the
past (McCary, 1973). Christensen and Johnson (1971) agree.
Their study showed that in 1958, 41% of the females and 65% of
the males with premarital sexual experience held permissive
sexual attitudes as compared to 78% of the females and 82% of
the males in 1968.
The significance of measuring attitudes in a human sexuality
course has been acknowledged. "Our sexual behavior is related
to our sexual attitudes. These attitudes in turn are a direct
result of the sex education that we have received or not received
and the misinformation that we carry into our sexual relation
ships" (McCary, 1971, p. 179).
It is necessary to study changes in sexual attitudes as a
result of participation in a human sexuality class. Through iden
tification of particular attitudes which change ir do not change,
we can begin to isolate attitudes for more detailed study. It
will be possible to correlate specific sexual attitudes with
specific human sexuality courses. This identification and corre
lation process would effect a systematic approach to teaching
sexual attitudes in a human sexuality course.
Several considerations are important in relat'on to those
attitudes which seem valuable to measure. First, it is


76
Table 19
Attitude,
Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squaes
Main effects
Group
0.10
Sex
1.08
Interact!on
Group Sex
1.35
Res iJua1
166.23
a for post
co mp a J'7 soii.
df
Mean
Square
F Ratioa
i
0.10
0.08
i
1.08
0.86
i
1.35
1.07
132
1.26


APPENDIX J
LECTURE SERIES. -- BES 252
Date
April 5
April 12
April 19
April 21
May 3
May 10
May 1 7
May 2 4
May 31
Spring 1977
Sexuality Through the Ages Harry Grater
Becoming a film about prepared childbirth
Men's Lines award winning film by and about man
An Appreciation of Individuality slide show on
women's sex roles, and Included Out, a humorous film
on the same topic
Discussion and slides on VD Joe Clezcowski
Communication in Sexual Relationships Carolyn Tucker,
and short movie, A Quickie
"Alcestus on the Poetry Circuit" poem by Erica Jong -
K. Sheley with discussion
Contraception Therese May, and Taking Our Bodies
Back film on health care by the Boston Women's
Collective
Sexuality and Aging Jaquie Resnick
202


90
Table 33
Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covkriance
Source
Sum of
Squares
dt
Mean
Square
F Ratio8
Males
Group
6.26
i
6.26
3.16
Res idual
130.93
66
1 98
t 1 e s
Group
4.36
1
4.36
4.59*
Rasidual
61.79
65
0.9 5
For post comparison
.05


23
Two studies looked at high school students and young adults
in order to determine if attitude change occurs as a result of
sex education. Hoch (1971) attempted to determine the effects
of a nonjudgmental sex education unit conducted as a part of a
high school biology course. One hundred students were involved
in the study: fifty in the control group and fifty in the experi
mental group. Changes between pre- and posttests led to the
following conclusions: (a) students did not become more per
missive i-n their attitudes involving sexual behavior as a
result of sex education; (b) students became more conscious of
the problems facing the world in the areas of population control,
family planning, birth control, and abortion and tended to be
more liberal in their thinking in regard to these topics; and
(c) students tended to be less hostile and more accepting of
sexual deviates as a result of sex education.
In a much more comprehensive study, Diprizio (1974) pro
vided a sex education program for 97 public school and 64
parochial school junior high students and for 36 public school
and 19 parochial school parents. Pre- and posttesting with a
general attitude questionnaire and a form of the Osgood Semantic
Differential indicated that there was a significant liberal
change in the attitudes of students and parents.
Four studies reported in the research were based on programs
for medical trainees. The results of these studies generally
showed pre- and postchanges in the liberal direction.
In one study, a threeday human sexuality course was offered
to 186 medical, nursing, and graduate psychology students by


188
23. When I have sexual desires . .
A. I know it's only human, but I feel terrible.
B. I usually express them.
24. If I had sex relations, I would feel . .
A. guilty, sinful, and bad.
B. happy if 1 loved the boy and he loved me.
25. Masturbation . .
A. is stupid.
B. is a common thing in childhood.
26. Unusual sex practices . .
A. are the business of those who carry them out and no
one else's.
B. are dangerous to one's health and mental condition.
27. Petting . .
A. is justified with love.
B. is not a good practice until after marriage.
28. When I have sexual desires . .
A. I try to go to sleep and forget them.
B. I become easily aroused.
29. If I had sex relations, I would feel . .
A. cheap and unfit for marriage.
B. warm and very good.
30. Sex relations before marriage . .
A. ruin many a happy couple.
B. might help the couple to understand each other and
themselves.
31. Masturbation . .
A. is a normal outlet for sexual desires.
B. is wrong and a sin.
32. Petting . .
A. depends on whom I'm with.
B. is against my better judgment but hard o resist for
some.
33. Masturbation . .
A. is all right.
B. is a form of self-destruction.
34. Unusual sex practices . .
A. are all right if both partners agree.
B. are awful and unthinkable.
35. If I committed a homosexual act . .
A. I would want to be punished.
B. I would be discreet.


12
Sex guilt generalized expectancy for self-mediated
punishment for violating or for anticipating violating standards
of proper sexual conduct (Mosher, 1966).
Sex role behavior patterns expected from an individual
by their social group believed to be typical of their sex
(Wolman, 1973).
Sex typing the designation in a culture of certain
behaviors as feminine or masculine and the training of children
to adhere- to these roles (Wolman, 1973).
Organization of the Study
The remainder of this study is organized into four addi
tional chapters plus appendices. Chapter II includes a review
of the literature of attitudes toward sexual behaviors, sexual
guilt, and psychological androgyny, along with studies relating
to human sexuality classes. Chapter III contains the methods
and procedures for the study, hypotheses, design, description
of evaluative measures, and treatment. The results of the study
are presented in Chapter IV. Chapter V includes a summary of
the study, a discussion of the results, and recommendations
for further research.


174
Table 117
Attitudes, Concepts A through L:
One-Way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Ma es
Sura o f
Squares
Mean
df Square
C roup
0.28
i
0.28
1.09
Re: ] dua l
lb.76
66
0.25
Croup
0.96
1
0.96
3.70
!\C.s i dual
16.76
65
0.26
al'or post
i oiiipa r i son .
1^


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
/
James H. Pitts1
Assistant Professor of Behavioral
( St adies
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Department of Counselor Education in the College of Education
and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial ful
fillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
August 1977
Dean, Graduate School


APPENDIX H
INSTRUCTOR III -- COURSE OUTLINE
Texts :
Four books are required. Readings will be assigned each week.
1. Our Bodies Ourselves (revised edition)
Boston Women's Health Book Cooperative 1976
2. Sexual Signatures
Money and Tucker
3. Analysis of Human Sexual Response
Brecher and Brecher
4. Readings in Human Sexuality: Contemporary Perspectives
Gordon and Johnson
Course Outline:
This course is designed to explore some of the social, psycho
logical, physiological, and cultural aspects of human sexuality.
It is important only as it relates to your life. Therefore,
every effort will be made to make the course a relevant experience.
The course requirements include class attendance and completion
of the readings. Four exams (multiple choice, fill ins, etc.)
will be given in the course of the quarter. The structure of
the course will be primarily organized around class discussions
rather than lecture. Be prepared to participate. If you are
not and would prefer a lecture course, then drop this section
and sign up for another. The responsibility for learning will
be on your shoulders. This course will, hopefully, be a
creative exercise.
199


9
The benefits of effective sexual attitude instruction in
a human sexuality course will have far reaching positive results.
Changed sexual attitudes may help prevent a variety of sexual
problems and sexual crimes.
Need for the Study
Sexual guilt and psychological androgyny have been shown
to be both relevant and important. Therefore, each of these
constructs is valuable to study.
Most studies on sexual guilt have correlated guilt with a
variety of attitudes and behaviors (D'Augelli § Cross, 1975;
Mosher, 1965; Mosher 5 Cross, 19711. Only one study measured
pre- and postguilt changes in a human sexuality course for
college students (Bernard, 1973). Clearly, more studies are
needed if we are to know whether sexual guilt can be changed
as a result of participation in a human sexuality course.
A number of psychological androgyny studies have been
completed (Bern, 1975; Bern S Lenney, in press; Bern, Martyna, §
Watson, 1975; Gonzalez, 1975; Murray, 1976; Spence, Helmreich,
§ Stapp, 1975; Wakefield, Sasck, Friedman, h Bowden, 1976;
Zeldow, 1976). However, no study has been completed to deter
mine whether psychological androgyny changes as a result of
participation in a human sexuality course. Therefore, a study
is necessary to determine whether change can occur.
"The need for a study of attitude change as a function of
a comprehensive sex education course within a university setting
is clear" (Bernard fi Schwartz, 1975 p. 2). An exploration of


17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept -B--Valuab le-Worth 1 ess Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-lVorthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept C--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
i
m'¡-
Elias L. Tolbert, Chairman
Associate Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Paul" W. Fitzgerald
Professor of Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Franz R. Epting
Associate Professor of Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Thomas Skovholt
Assistant Professor of Behavioral
Studies and Psychology


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I wish to express my appreciation to the following:
Dr. E. L. Tolbert, Chairman of my Doctoral Committee, for
his continuous help and encouragement.
Dr. Franz Epting and Dr. Paul Fitzgerald, my other committee
meinberSi for their valuable ideas and ongoing support.
Dr. Jim Pitts for his continuous friendship throughout my
graduate program.
The other faculty in the Counselor Education Department
who have given their time to help me, especially Dr. Larry
Loesch, Dr. Robert Stripling, Dr. Rod McDavis, and Dr. Harold
Riker.
My fellow students and friends for their help and support,
Marilyn Jackson, Becky Swiggett, Terry DiNuzzo, Nancy Downing,
and Barbara Rucker.
Arden Goettling for her highly effective editing and typing
of this dissertation.
Paul Nelson, Kathy Sheley, Dr. Jaquie Resnick, Therese May,
Blair Turner, and Dan Hobby for allowing me to recruit volunteer
subjects from their classes.


15
Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale, Male Form (Mosher, 19661
and Female Form (Mosher, 1968). The students viewed two films
portraying face-to-face intercourse and oral-genital sex between
the same couple. The films were rated as more pornographic,
disgusting, and offensive by female subjects (as compared to
males), by high sex-guilt subjects (as compared to low sex-
guilt. subjects), and by less sexually experienced subjects (as
compared to more sexually experienced subjects).
hove, Sloan, and Schmidt (1976) divided 35 male under
graduates into three groups on the basis of their scores on
the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory (Mosher, 1961 1966 ,
1968). The amount of time subjects spent viewing and rating
photographic slides of varying erotic content was recorded. The
viewing time of the low sex-guilt subjects increased as the photo
graphic content increased. No significant increase in viewing
time occurred for high sex-guilt subjects.
Other studies have compared sexual guilt with low sexual
experience. Studying orgasm frequency, Leiman and Epstein
(1961) found that individuals with more sex guilt reported a
lower frequency of orgasms per week.
Mosher and Cross (1971) related a measure o.. sex guilt to
(a) the reporting of previous sexual experiences, (b) feelings
following sexual activity, (c) reasons for nonparticipation,
and (d) premarital and postmarital sexual standards. Among the
60 male and 76 female college student participants, sex guilt
was found to be negatively correlated with the level of intimacy
of premarital sexual experience. The guilty subjects had less


43
who agreed to allow the researcher to visit their classes and
utilize twenty minutes of class time during the first and last
class sessions of the quarter.
During the first week of the Spring Quarter at the first
class session the researcher visited the four classes designated
as the experimental group to administer the pretest questionnaire.
The instruments in the questionnaire were stapled together in
the following order: Bern Sex-Role Inventory, Mosher Forced-
Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale, and the Attitude
Measure of Sexual Behaviors.
When the researcher arrived the instructor announced to
the class that the researcher was visiting the class for the
purpose of collecting data for his dissertation study and was
seeking volunteers. The researcher explained that the ques
tionnaire had three parts and would require 15 to 20 minutes of
class time during this first and last week of the quarter. The
instructor pointed out to the students that taking this ques
tionnaire was optional. It was made clear to the students that
they could choose not to take the questionnaire with no penalty
in their course grade. Motivation for taking the questionnaire
was discussed as stated previously in the Participant section
of this chapter. Next, the instructor asked for a show of
hands from those students who chose to participate. The
researcher then distributed the questionnaire to those students.
Directions for taking the questionnaire were given, and a
brief explanation for completing each of the three instruments
was made. Then the students were asked if they had any questions
about the directions.


60
Three concepts did show a main effects significant differ
ence in the liberal direction for the group comparison. In these
comparisons the experimental group showed higher mean scores than
the control group. The concepts were as follows:
Concept C: A woman who masturbates
Concept E: An engaged person who has premarital intercourse
Concept II: A person who reads "hard-core pornography" like
Sisters of the Whip, Gay Hot Nights, etc.
For Concept C: A woman who masturbates, all three bipolar
dimensions revealed a significant difference at the .01 level
(see Tables 25, 28, and 31). The means and standard deviations
for this comparison are shown in Tables 27, 29, and 32.
Only one bipolar dimension, valuable-worthless, revealed
a significant difference at the .05 level for Concept E: An
engaged person who has premarital intercourse. The data for this
concept is shown in Table 46. Table 47 shows the means and
standard deviations for this comparison.
The pornography concept, H, contained two bipolar dimensions
with a significant difference at the .05 level. These were
good-bad (see Table 70) and understandable-mysterious (see
Table 76). The means and standard deviations for these com
parisons are shown in Tables 71 and 77 respectively.
An additional test for significance was conducted on the
combined set of concepts (A through L). A significant differ
ence at the .05 level was revealed in the liberal direction for
this test. The results of this two-way analysis of covariance
data are shown in Table 115, and the means and standard
deviations are shown in Table 116.


21
conservative attitudes toward the rights and roles of women in
contemporary society.
Gonzalez (1975) studied 47 nursery school mothers and pre
dicted that androgyny would he inversely related to dogmatism.
She explored whether a significant association existed between
sex-role attitudes as measured by the BSRI and dogmatism as
measured by the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale. The results showed no
significant correlation between these two scales. It was con
cluded the the BSRI was not a valid predictor for dogmatism.
Bern, Martyna, and Watson (1975) and Bern (1975) conducted
studies which were inconclusive in their support of the BSRI.
Bern, Martyna, and Watson (1975) carried out a study in which
genuinely interpersonal situations were created which would
elicit the subjects' nurturant sympathies. The subjects were
given an opportunity to interact with an infant. Results
showed that feminine and androgynous males were significantly
more expressive toward the baby than the masculine males.
However, no significant differences occurred among the women.
The feminine women were not particularly nurturant nor did they
display any particular deficiency in the expressive domain.
Bern (1975) explored the relationship between sex-role
identity and examples of nurturance. This study involved inter
action activities with a kitten. Results showed that the
feminine and androgynous men did not differ significantly from
one another, and both were significantly more responsive to the
kitten than the masculine men. Also, the androgynous women,
like the androgynous men, were responsive to the kitten. The
J


146
Table 89
Attitude, Concept J--Good-Bad Dimension
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Pos t -
mean
SU
Males
Experimental
37
5.05
1.47
4.97
1.44
Coat rol
32
4.88
1 .62
4.66
1.43
To t a 1
69
4.97
1 53
4.83
1.43
Ttunics
Exper i me. ata 1
33
4.61
1.68
5.09
1.31
Cont rol
35
5.03
1.5 2
5.14
1. 56
Total
68
4.82
1.60
5.12
1.43
Total
Expo r.¡ meara 1
70
4.84
1.58
5.03
1.37
Cent rol
67
1.96
1.56
4.91
1 .51


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Statement of the Problem
Psychological education is a preventive educational approach
that integrates academic learning and personal learning (Mosher
§ Sprinthall, 1971; Skovholt, in press). As such, it offers an
important way to demystify our profession while providing mental
health services. According to Ivey and Alshuler (1973), we need
to pass on our knowledge as rapidly and coherently as possible-
Human sexuality courses represent one type of course
offered in psychological education. This study will examine
the impact of a human sexuality course on the sexual attitudes
of college students. Recently there has been a great increase
in the number of human sexuality courses offered in colleges and
universities. However, there is little known about their impact
on the attitudes and behavior of the participating students
(Zuckerman, Tushup, § Finner, 1976).
Rationale
According to Elizabeth Taylor Vance (1963), a wide variety
of mental health problems exist in our society which cannot be
overcome by the individual therapy of clinicians. Therefore,
the clinician needs to modify his role in the direction of
1


82
Table 25
Attitude, Concept C--Good-Bad Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum or
Squaros
df
Me a n
Square
F Ratio3
Mi in Lff
Group
o >: i s
9.15
1
9.15
6.48**
Sox
0.64
1
0.64
0.45
1 nt o i a Cl
Group
i on
Sex
0.77
1
0.77
0.55
ResiJua1
186.51
132
1.41
ai'o post comparison.
**. 01


70
Table 13
Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension;
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Main Effects
Group
0.82
1
0.82
0.37
Sex
3.68
1
3.68
1.64
Interact ion
Group Sex
0.90
1
0.90
0.40
Residual
296.06
132
2.24
al'or post comparison.


120
Table 63
Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Coviriance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
0.68
i
0.68
0.41
Residua]
111.40
66
1.69
Females
Group
0.4 5
1
0.45
0.28
Resj dual
105.28
65
1.62
aFor post comparison.


Table 53
Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
m e an
SD
Post -
mean
SD
Mal es
Experimenta 1
37
5.76
1.34
5.78
1.40
Control
32
6.16
1.08
5.69
1.12
Total
159
5.94
1.24
5.74
1.27
Females
Experimental
33
6.24
1.03
6.09
1.27
Contro1
35
6.09
1.15
5.89
1.47
Total
68
6.16
1.09
5.99
1. 37
Total
Experimenta 1
70
5.99
1.22
5.93
1.33
Control
67
6.12
1.11
5.79
1.31


209
Wakefield, J. A., Sasck, J., Friedman, A. F., 5 Bowden, J. D.
Androgyny and other measures of masculinity-femininity.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1976, 44,
Tbb^llQ.
Wolman, B. B. (Ed.). Dictionary of behavioral science. New
York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1973.
Woods, N. F., § Mandetta, A. Changes in students' knowledge
and attitudes following a course in human sexuality:
Report of a pilot study. Nursing Research, 1975, 24, 10-
15.
Zeldow, P. B. Psychological androgyny and attitudes toward
feminism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
1976, 44, 150.
Zuckerman, M. Tushup, R. f, Finner, S. Sexual attitudes and
experience: Attitudes and personality correlates and
changes produced by a course in sexuality. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1976 4j4, 7-19.


45
From the second class session of the first week through
the next to last class session of the tenth week, the treatment
was in effect for the experimental group. During this time
the subjects participated in the human sexuality courses. A
description of the projected course activities, as they can best
be identified, is provided in the Treatment section of this
chapter which follows.
Treatment
The treatment was provided to the experimental group
as previously described in the Participant section of this
chapter. This treatment consisted of participation in human
sexuality class instruction during the Spring Quarter, 1977.
Bach class met for a total of forty hours: thirty hours of
discussion in classrooms and ten hours of lecture for the
combined classes in a large lecture hall.
The methods and activities which were used by the instruc
tors included lectures, small group discussions, audio-visual
presentations, lectures by guest speakers, debates, readings
from texts and articles, written reports, quizzes, and tests.
These methods and activities are based on informal discussion
with instructors and syllabi distributed to students.
Standardization for each Human Sexuality section was
attempted through an instructor topic intention process. In
the first stage of this process participating Human Sexuality
instructors were requested to identify certain topics to be


24
Mims, Brown, and Lubow (1976). The program's purpose was to
supply accurate information, encourage participants to question,
explore, and assess their own sexual attitudes, and to help
participants develop a more tolerant attitude toward the sexual
beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of others. A significant
liberal difference in attitudes occurred between mean scores of
the pre- and posttests for all subjects. When examined sepa
rately, nursing and medical students showed significant liberal
changes (p < .001) in attitudes for all scales except the hetero
sexual scale (p .01). The psychology students showed literal
changes (p< .01) in two scales, autoeroticism and sexual myths.
In another study involving medical trainees, Meins, Yea-
worth, and Horstein (1974) provided a human sexuality program
for five days. The subjects of the study were 70 medical
students and 37 nursing students. One of the purposes of the
course was to decrease anxiety related to sex. An attitude
instrument was administered to the participants before and
after the course. Results showed that participants' attitudes
toward sex became more liberal after the course.
Alzate (1974) used a pre- and posttest evaluation of a
human sexuality course required of 38 sixth-seme.,ter medical
students. The results of the study showed that the instruction
produced a liberalization of sexual attitudes.
All of the studies evaluating medical trainees showed
positive results except one (Woods § Mandetta, 1975). In this
study the researchers administered a 163-item questionnaire to
11 female nursing students and 12 male undergraduates who


162
Table IOS
Attitude, Concept K--UndQrstandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Coviriance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Ma les
Group
0.42
1
0.42
0.20
Residua 1
139.73
66
2. 12
F o in 3.1 e s
Group
1 60
i
1.60
0.73
Residual.
142.94
65
2 20
?For post comparison.


81
Table 24
Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio'1
Males
Croup
0.55
1
0.55
0.59
Residual
61.64
66
0.93
Fema1 os
Group
0.50
1
0.50
0.57
Residual
56.95
65
0.88
aFor post comparison.


135
Table 78
Attitude, Concept H--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
1.21
1
1.21
0.63
Residual
126.81
66
1.92
Fema le s
Group
12.49
i
12.49
5.27*
Residual
154.09
65
2.37
aFor post comparison.
*.0 5


99
Table 42
Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio
Males
Group
1.77
1
1 .77
0.77
Residua]
151.79
66
2.30
Rena]os
Group
0. 1
1
0.01
0.00
lies i dua 1
158.09
65
2.43
a l or post compa r is-cn .


APPENDIX D
THE EXPERIMENTERS ADAPTATION OF THE ATTITUDE MEASURE
OF SEXUAL BEHAVIORS
The object of this questionnaire is to find out how you
describe different types of persons. There are 12 types.
Below each type are three pairs of words. Each pair of words
forms a scale. You are to make an X along the scale to indi
cate what you associate with that type of person. If you feel
that the'person at the top is highly related with one end of
the scale, you would place an X as follows:
fair X:_:_:_:_:_: unfair or
fair : :_:_:X unfair
If the person seems only slightly related to one side, as
opposed to the other, you would make an X as follows:
fair _:X:_:_:_:__:_ unfair o£
fair X:_ unfair
If you feel both sides equally related you would make an X in
the middle space:
fair _:_:_:X:_:_:_ unfair
If you feel that the pair of adjectives does not apply, or if
you are undecided, place an X in the middle space.
A. A homosexual
1. good bad
2. valuable worthless
3. understandable mysterious
B. An unmarried woman who takes birth control pills
4.
good : : :
: : : bad
5.
valuable : : :
: : : worthless
6.
understandable : : :
: : : mysterious
191


131
Table 74
Attitude,
Concept
Means
H-
and
-Valuable-
Standard
-Worthless
Deviations
Dimension
Pre -
Pos t -
Group
N
mean
SD
mean
SD
Ha 1 c s
Experimenta)
37
3.65
1. 48
4.11
1.41
Conti ol
32
3.53
1.88
4.00
1.61
Total
"69
3. 59
1.67
4.06
1.49
l'el.i j c
Hxper i ;:ion t a 1
33
3.30
1. 59
3.76
1.44
Contul
35
3.34
1 .45
3.63
1.40
Total
68
3.32
1 .51
3.69
1.41
Tol a i
Experimental
70
3.49
1.53
3.94
1.42
Con 11ul
67
3.43
1.66
3.81
1.50


Ill
Table S4
Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
1.39
1
1 39
1 .07
Residual
85.75
66
1. 30
Fem:> 1 e s
Group
0.12
1
0.12
0.10
Residual
76.09
65
1.17
aPor post comparison.


153
Table 96
Attitude, Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covkriance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratioa
Males
Group
0.35
1
0.35
0.19
Residual
123.21
66
1.87
Feaales
Group
0.10
1
0.10
0.07
Residual
96.92
65
1.49
aFor po:
;l comparison.


67
Table 10
Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimension;
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Stun of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Main Effects
Group
0.31
i
0.31
0.22
Cc-a
5.28
i
5.28
3.69*
1nteraction
Group Sox
0.06
i
0.06
0.04
Residual
188.82
132
1.43
aFor post conipt
t.rison.
*.05


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
52
53
54
56
57
58
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
LIST OF TABLES
Sexual Guilt: Two-way Analysis of Covariance...
Sexual Guilt: Means and Standard Deviations....
Sexual Guilt: One-way Analysis of Covariance...
Psychological Androgyny: Two-way Analysis of
Covariance
Psychological Androgyny: Means and Standard
Deviations
Psychological Androgyny: One-way Analysis of
Covariance
Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept A--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension: Two
way Analysis of Covariance '.....
vii


UMmiTY OF FLOR,D<
3 262 8'J8P


169
.Table 112
Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source:
Slim of
Squaies
df
Mean
Sqc.a re
F llatioa
Main !.¡fi:clr,
Group
1.55
1
1. 55
0.69
Sc A
0.03
1
0.03
0.01
J nt cracl ion
Group Sex
1.07
1
1. 07
0.47
Fieri dual
298.55
132
2.26
aI;or post comparison.


58
Table 6
Psychological
Androgyny:
One-way
A.ialysis of
Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean *
Square
F Ratio3
Mules
Croup
0 18
1
0 18
0 .60
Residua 1
19.83
66
0.30
1'ema! e s
Group
0 lb
1
0.16
0.74
Residua]
14.49
6 5
0.22
3 For post comparison.


86
Table 29
Attitude,
Concept
Means
C-
and
-yaluable-
Standard
Worthless
Deviations
Dimension
Group
N
Pre-
mcan
sn
Pcs t -
mean
SD
Males
f.xper i menta.
¡ 37
5.24
1.30
5.57
1. 50
Control
32
5.28
1.42
5.19
1.45
Total
'69
5.26
1. 35
5.39
1.48
Hel'Ui 1 0 n
c
o
1 33
4.70
1.38
5.42
1.20
Cent rol
35
5.00
1 72
4.94
1.47
To! a l
68
4.85
1.56
5.18
1.36
Total
Exper¡menta
1 70
4.99
1 36
5.5 0
1.36
Control
67
5.13
1. 58
5.06
1.46


55
rated themselves on each of 60 items from 1 to 7, with a 7
being the highest. Of these items, 20 are traditionally mascu
line, 20 feminine, and 20 neutral. The masculine mean is sub
tracted from the feminine mean providing a score. The nearer
the score is to zero, the more androgynous the subject.
Hypothesis 3
There will be no group differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.
The null hypothsis is accepted. Anexamination of the
main effects in the two-way analysis of covariance test revealed
no significant difference for main effects between the experi
mental and control groups (Table 4). This finding shows that
in general human sexuality instruction does not effect psycho
logical androgyny status.
Hypothesis 4
There will be no sex differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course. .
The null hypothesis is accepted. An examination of the
two-way analysis of covariance test for psychological androgyny
revealed no main effects sex. difference. These data are shown
in Table 4 and the means and standard deviation: are shown in
Table 5.
In a one-way analysis of covariance test, a comparison of
posttreatment scores for experimental and control males and for
experimental females and control females revealed no significant
difference (Table 6). The means and standard deviations for
these data are shown in Table 5.


22
feminine women were significantly less responsive, and masculine
women fell ambiguously in between.
In a unique study, Murray (1976) obtained ratings on the
BSRI from 281 women from diverse backgrounds and found that most
women desired to be more androgynous than they felt they actu
ally were. She also found that the higher the educational
level the more likely that women would be androgynous. In part
two of the same study, Murray used the Measurement of Attitudes
Toward Stereotypic Behavior to examine women's perceptions of
the "psychological health" of various sex-related tasks. Par
ticipants were asked to rate the "psychological health" of
individuals pictured in 45 different photographs. These photo
graphs pictured three female stimulus persons, neutral, feminine,
and masculine in appearance, each of whom engaged in five mas
culine, five feminine, and five neutral behaviors. For real
self, those women who were androgynous produced the highest
psychological health ratings. It was concluded that androgyny,
rather than femininity, was a psychologically healthy goal.
Effects of Sex Education on .Attitudes Toward Sexual Behaviors
A review of the literature for attitudes measured as a
result of sex education shows pumerous studies completed. Of
the outcomes reported, nearly all show a change in the liberal
direction. Some studies have examined specific attitudes rather
than a wide range of attitudes. Other studies have examined a
comprehensive set of attitudes. Two studies have used the
Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors to assess attitudes.


51
The null hypothesis is accepted. Table 1 shows the
results of a two-way analysis of covariance comparison between
the experimental and control groups. For sexual guilt there
was no significant difference in the posttreatment comparison
between the experimental and control groups. This finding
suggests that a human sexuality course does not change a
person's sexual guilt.
Hypothesis 2
There will be no sex differences in sexual guilt as
a result of participation in the human sexuality
course.
The null hypothesis is rejected. The two-way analysis of
covariance main effects sex comparison shows a significant dif
ference at the .001 level between males and females (Table 1)
with females exhibiting greater change toward the direction of
less guilt. This main effects sex difference may be artifactual
because there are two versions of the sex guilt instrument (see
Appendix B). Of these two versions, the females show greater
differences in mean scores (Table 2). This may be due to the
different questions asked in each version of the instrument.
A one-way analysis of covariance comparison of the post
treatment scores for the experimental and control males shows
no significant difference between these two groups. Also a
comparison of posttreatment groups for experimental and control
females shows no significant difference. These data are shown
in Table 3.
Psychological Androgyny
Pos11reatment comparisons in psychological au'drogyny were
measured by the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (Bern, 1974). The subjects


56
Table 4
Psychological
Androgyny:
Two-way
Analysis of
Covariance
Source
Sun: of
Squares
A
Mea n
Square
F Ratio3
iic! in r.f fee li
ft roup
0.00
i
0.00
0.00
Sex
0.29
i
0.29
1.12
! n t v i n: t i o:i
Group Sox*
0.32
i
0.32
1.20
Res j dun 1
34.69
132
0.26
"For post ur
pari soft.


35
The method used for this study involved the comparison of
two groups of students attending the University of Florida.
These groups consisted of experimental subjects and control
subjects. The experimental group, students enrolled in a human
sexuality course, have been compared with a control group of
students who were enrolled in another course in the same depart
ment. The comparison has been based on measures of sexual guilt,
psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward sexual behaviors.
Data collected from these measures were analyzed for statisti
cally significant differences between the experimental and
control groups. Subsequently, null hypotheses which have been
formulated for the study have been evaluated. These null
hypotheses are shown in the following section.
Hypotheses
The
research
null hypotheses shown below were
questions previously stated.
developed
from the
1. There will be no group differences in sexual guilt
as a result of participation in the human sexuality
course.
2. There will be no sex differences in sexual guilt
as a result of participation in the huma., sexuality
course.
3. There will be no group differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.
4. There will be no sex differences in psychological
androgyny as a result of participation in the human
sexuality course.


59
Attitudes Toward the Sexual Behaviors of Others
Twelve concepts reflecting a broad spectrum of sexual
behaviors of others were evaluated by the subjects of this study.
These evaluations, part of the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behav
iors (Fretz, 1974), are based on the attitude of the subject toward
these sexual behaviors. For each concept the subject rated his/
her attitude toward the concept by placing a check mark on a
bipolar dimension. The present experimenter revised the Attitude
Measure.of Sexual Behaviors in accordance with Fretz' suggestion
(1974) that three dimensions were particularly useful as change
indicators. These three bipolar dimensions, good-bad, valuable-
worthless, and understandable-mysterious were used. A score of
from 1 to 7 was assigned to each position on the bipolar dimension,
with 7 assigned to the positive side (good, valuable, understand
able) and 1 to the negative side (bad, worthless, mysterious).
Hypothesis 5
There will be no group differences in attitudes toward
the sexual behaviors of others as a result of partici
pation in the human sexuality course.
The null hypothesis is rejected. For Hypothesis 5, a two-
way analysis of covariance was conducted for the experimental
and control groups. An examination of the main ffects for group
difference revealed that nine concepts showed no significant
change. The two-way data for these concepts are shown in Tables
7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 34, 37, 40, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64, 67, 79, 82,
85, 89, 91, 94, 97, 100, 103, 106, 109, and 112. Means and
standard deviations for these concepts are shown in Tables 8, 11,
14 1 7 20, 23, 35, 38 41 53, 56, 59 62 65 68 ,' 80 83, 86 ,
89, 92, 95, 98, 101, 104, 107, 110, and 113.


84
Table 27
Attitude, Concept C--Good-B:.d Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum o f
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
7.89
1
7.89
5.43*
Residual
95.94
66
1.45
Females
Group
2.38
1
2.38
1.74
Residual
88.84
65
1.37
aFor post comparison.
*.0 5


52
Table 1
Sexual
Guilt: Two-way
Analysis
of Covariance
Source
Sura of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Main Effect a
G four)
31.06
1
31.06
0.28
S i.: X
3668.57
1
3668.57
33.44***
1 lit'.' raer.i on
Group Sex
0.13
1
0.13
0.00
Res ichu: 1
14482.13
132
109.71
al:oi' )'u:;t compar i sof:.
***.001


54
Table 3
Sexual
Guilt: One-way
Analysis
of Covariance
Sum of
Mean
Source
Squares
df
Square
F Ratio3
Ma i o s
Group
4.91
1
4.91
0.05
Res idua 1
6675.73
66
101.15
Group
4.14
i
4.14
0.04
Residua I
7532.1 5
65
115.88
at'or post comparison.


Table 51
Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum o f
Squares
df
Mean
Square F Ratioa
Males
Group
Re s i d ua 1
Females
Group
Residual
2.68 1 2.68
58.50 66 0.89
0.52 1 0.52
45.08 65 0.69
3.03
0.75
al'ur post comparison.


127
Table 70
Attitude, Concept H--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Sqcaics
df
Mean
Squnre
F Ratio'
Main Ft
Croui
'f eet s
5.68
1
5.68
4.43*
0 X
1 22
1
1 22
0.95
Inte rac
Grouj
i i on
) Sex
0.00
1
0.00
0.00
Re si du.
rj
169.08
132
1. 28
al;0' post i.oiipa r j soil.
*.0 5


50
established as the evaluation criteria for the experimental
study. The methods used to assess these six hypotheses were
the two-way (group x sex) and one-way (group) analysis of co-
variance test statistics. In each test case an analysis was
conducted on the posttreatment score with the prescore serving
as a covariate.
Initially a total of 197 subjects volunteered to partici
pate in the study. Predata were collected from 105 experimental
subjects and 92 control subjects. On the 105 pre-experimental
group, 70 completed the posttest. On the 92 precontrol subjects,
67 completed the posttest. In total, of the 197 students who
volunteered initially, 137 completed the posttest. These 137
students comprised the study sample. An analysis of the data
collected has shown the following results which are presented
by variables.
Sexual Guilt
The Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Sub
scale Male Form (Mosher, 1966) and Female Form (Mosher, 1968)
were used to assess the change in sexual guilt of students.
The Male Form consists of 28' items and has a possible range of
scores of -45 (low guilt) to +37 (high guilt); the Female Form
consists of 39 items and has a range of -61 (low guilt) to +64
(high guilt).
Hypothesis 1
There will be no group differences in sexual guilt as
a result of participation in the human sexuality course'.



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PAGE 230

80PL7< 2) )/25'  n-3


19
men did not differ significantly from one another, and all were
significantly more expressive than masculine men who were the
least expressive of any group. Feminine women were the most
expressive listeners of all.
Another supportive study of behavioral correlates (Bern,
1975) explored the relationship between sex-role identity and
examples of independence. To test independence four male and
four female subjects rated the level of humor in cartoons.
Also, they listened to tape recordings of individuals giving
false impressions of the cartoons. The subjects, however,
were unaware that the recorded responses were contrived. This
procedure was used to determine whether the subjects would
adhere to their impressions of the cartoons or conform to the
contrived responses. Results showed that the masculine and
androgynous subjects did not differ significantly from one
another, and both were significantly more independent than the
feminine subjects. This was true for both males and females.
One very recent supportive study (Bern § Lenney, in press),
looked at the relationship between cross-sex activities and
discomfort. Subjects chose activities (each having a monetary
value) from 30 pairs of items presented to them 60 items).
Of these items, 20 were masculine, 20 feminine, and 20 neutral.
To determine discomfort, they rated enjoyment for each activity
after it was acted out. Results showed that sex-typed subjects
were significantly more stereotyped in their choices than
androgynous subjects, who did not differ significantly from
one another. In other words, the masculine man and the feminine


148
Table 91
Attitude,
Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sun of
Sqn:i res
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio'
Main effects
Group
3.11
1
3.11
2.40
(.x
U L ..
2.10
1
2.10
1.62
Into :ic t j on
Croup; Sex
0.4 7
1
0.47
0.36
Residual
171.10
132
1 30
aFor post co;;¡juvis.


APPENDIX E
TOPIC CHECKLIST FORM
I plan to include the following topics in the human sexu
ality course to be taught Spring Quarter, 1977. (Check
appropriate items.)
(4) Male Sexual System
(4) Female Sexual System
(4) Contraception
(4) Sexual Behavior
(4) Sexual Intercourse
(4) Techniques in Sex Arousal
(4) Orgasm
(3) Sexual Deviations
(4) Sexual Attitudes
(4) Sexual Disorders
(32 Sex Myths and Fallacies
(1) Erotic Art, Literature,
Film
(2) Sex and the Law
(3) Sex and Morality
(4) Sex Roles
(4) Sex in Later Years
(Instruc or)
H'ate)
*The number in parentheses shows the number of instructors
planning to include that topic in their human sexuality
course.
194


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vii
ABSTRACT xiv
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 1
Rationale 1
Need for the Study 9
Purpose of the Study 10
Research Questions 10
Definition of Terms 11
Organization of the Study 12
II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.. 13
Introduction 13
Sexual Guilt 13
Psychological Androgyny 17
Effects of Sex Education on Attitudes
toward Sexual Behaviors 22
III METHODS AND PROCEDURES 34
Overview 34
Hypotheses 35
Research Design 36
Participants 36
iv


133
Table 76
Attitude,
Concept H--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum o:
Squa res
Mean
df Square
F Ratio3
Main I:T
f c c : s
Group
11.20
1 11.20
5.22*
Sex
3.84
1 3.84
1.79
Inter:"
Cr oup
t i o n
Sex 3.06
1 3.06
1.43
Residua
1 283.14
132 2.15
alu r
post coitiparisoft.
*.05


107
Table 50
Attitude. Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Pos L -
mean
SD
Males
Experimental
37
6.19
1.15
6.32
0.94
Control
32
6.22
1.41
5.94
1.08
T o t a 1
'69
6.20
1.27
6.15
1.02
Femaies
Experimental
33
6.30
1.33
6.52
0.76
Control
35
6.54
0.92
6.43
1.07
Tot a 1
68
6.43
1.14
6.47
0.92
Total
Experimental
70
6.24
1. 23
6.41
0.86
Control
68
6. 39
1 80
6.19
1.09


S3
Table 2
Sexual
Guilt:
Means and
Standard
Deviations
Group
N
Pre
e an
SD
Pos t-
niean
SD
Males
Experimental
37
-26.51
9.06
-26.89
10.50
Corit. rol
32
-22.19
19.87
-23.03
19.39
Total
Ti9
-24.51
15.11
-25.10
15.28
FcKales
Li x per .i ment a 1
33
-33.97
26.66
-42.73
20.57
Control
35
-41.17
15.34
-46.57
12.35
Tot a 1
68
-37.68
21.73
-44.71
16.83
Total
experimental
70
-30.03
19.66
-34.36
17.81
Cont rol
67
-32.10
19.95
-35.33
19.89


149
Table 92
Attitude, Concept J--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Croup
N
Pre-
mean
SD
Pos t -
mean
SD
Males
Experimental
37
4.92
1 44
5.03
1.42
Control
32
4.88
1.52
4.81
1.51
Total
69
4.90
1. 47
4.93
1.46
rent;'! 1 e s
Experimental
33
4.52
1.50
5.15
1.25
Coat rol
35
5.31
1.53
5.20
1.55
Total
70
4. 73
1.47
5.09
1.34
To t a 1
67
5.10
1.53
5.02
1.53
Experimental
Coat rol


79
Table 22
Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratioa
Main Effects
Group
l.n
1
1.11
1.23
Sex
1.32
1
1.32
1.47
Interaction
Group Sex
0.00
1
0.00
0.00
Residua 1
118.85
132
0.90
aFor post comparison.


18
Scoring of the Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSKI) has been an
area of controversy. Initially a _t ratio was used as the
measure of psychological androgyny. According to Bern (1974),
the t ratio is the difference between means, F-M (the andrpgyny
difference score), divided by a term reflecting the variances
of the two sets of ratings. However, more recently the scoring
has been revised. Strahan (1975) suggested that the t ratio is
inappropriate to measure psychological androgyny for statistical
reasons.' Thus, Strahan suggested that an individual's androg
yny is measured solely by his Femininity (F) mean score minus
his Masculinity (M) mean score. The smaller the difference
between F-M, the greater the degree of androgyny. Wakefield
et al. (1976) employed this scoring method of androgyny. There
fore, low scores indicate androgynous individuals and high
scores (either positive or negative) indicate sex-typed
individuals.
Much of the research on psychological androgyny has at
tempted to demonstrate its relationship with behavioral corre
lates and other personality traits. Four studies have shown
the BSRI to be highly predictive, two have been disconfirming,
and two others are inconclusive. In addition, o..e unique study
(Murray, 1976) correlated the BSRI with the educational levels
of women.
The first supportive study was done by Bern, Martyna, and
Watson (1975). The subjects were "listeners" in a "talker-
listener" situation. Facial expressions of the subjects were
secretly recorded. Results showed that feminine and androgynous


85
Table 28
Attitude, Concept C--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Main effects
Group
9.61
1
9.61
7.69**
Sex
0. 10
1
0.10
0.08
iiiteruc i.i on
Group Sex
0.57
1
0.57
0.46
Residual
164.89
132
1 .25
al:ov post compar iron.
**.01


Table 59
Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SO
Post.
mean
SD
Males
hxperimentn!
37
5. 89
1.45
6.08
1.26
Con t rol
32
6. 38
1.21
6.06
1. 11
Total
'69
6.12
1.36
6.07
1.18
ieiiui 1 Iixpei ir.icn t al
33
6.49
0.91
6.55
0.87
Coat to 1
35
6.54
0.78
6.2 0
1.37
Total
68
6.52
0.84
6.37
1.16
Tot a J
F.xper j merit ;i 1
70
6.17
1. 25
6.30
1.11
Control
67
6.46
1.01
6.13
1. 24


31
University. Twenty-two people were enrolled in the course which
consisted of lectures, films, outside speakers, and small group
discussion. The small group leaders were included in the final
sample. Topics included sexual attitudes and environment, sexu
ality and sexual terms, psychosexual development, cultural roles,
lifestyles, sexual dysfunction, massage, lifespan, "touching"
within different cultures, masturbatory practice between males
and females, gay issues, women's issues, autoeroticism, lesbian
ism, sexuality and the handicapped, sexual researchers, and
communication. Results of the study showed significant changes
in attitudes toward sexual behaviors for two concepts: "a woman
who masturbates" and "an engaged person who lias premarital inter
course." Overall changes in attitudes were to the positive side
of the semantic differential scale for the evaluative factor,
the active side of the dynamic factor, and the understandable
side of the understanding factor.
In the other study using the Attitude Measure of Sexual
Behaviors, Skovholt et al. (1976) assessed male change. The
experimental subjects, 13 male undergraduate students at the
University of Florida, were enrolled in a human sexuality
course taught by the first author. Biological issues were
de-emphasized with behavioral science theories and research
emphasized. The control group consisted of 16 students enrolled
in a course in creative and critical thinking in the Behavioral
Studies Department in the fall of 1976. Three of the seven
attitude bipolar dimensions were chosen. These three dimen
sions of good-bad, valuable-worthless, and understandable-


125
Table 68
Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and
Standard
Devi:
ations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Pos t -
mean
SD
Males
Expo r imeii t a 1
37
4.35
1.93
4.32
2.02
Cent rol
32
4.34
1.86
4.41
1.60
Total
69
4.34
1.89
4.36
1.82
remaivs
Expcrimerit a 1
33
4.46
1.90
4.75
1.61
Control
35
4.23
1.82
4.37
1.61
To l a 1
68
4.43
1. 86
4.54
1. 53
Tota 1
Experimenta 1
70
4.49
1.91
4.51
1.77
Control
67
4.28
1.82
4.39
1.60


180
Of the three major evaluation components, attitudes toward
the sexual behaviors of others revealed the most changes. Of
these changes, all were in the liberal direction. These atti
tude changes were found to be very similar to those in a previous
study (Davidow, 19761 which also used the Fretz scale. Addi
tionally, Skovholt et al. (1976) also found changes in attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others using this scale. This
shows that our college instructors appear to be teaching "in a
liberal 'direction."
Whether the findings of the study are predictive of a
healthy outlook for our society is open to debate. Is a change
in the liberal direction indicative of long-range positive
effects on mental health? Some would challenge this position.
Many parents resist liberal changes believing that they foster
permissiveness among our youth and lead to prostitution, early
unhappy marriages, family problems, use of drugs, and many other
types of societal problems.
It is this experimenter's belief that there is a contem
porary movement toward a view of sexual acceptance which advocates
sex as a natural function and aims to remove the negative feelings
surrounding sexual activity. This movement is a positive force
in our society in this experimenter's opinion. Through sex edu
cation we will continue to foster this positive force and improve
the psychological health of our citizenry. Sex education is an
effective preventive approach although significant attitude
change may not always be possible through participation in a
ten-week human sexuality course.


44
The researcher then told the students that they could begin
to answer the questions and to bring their questionnaires to
the front of the room when finished. After all the questionnaires
were turned in, the researcher thanked the participants and left
the classroom with the data which had been collected. These
data were known as the pretest data.
Also, during the first week of classes, the researcher
went to those classes designated to be the control group. As
with the.experimental group, a preplanned day and time was
arranged with the instructor. The same procedure that was used
for the collecting of pretest data in the experimental group was
used for the control group. The questionnaire of any student
participating in any activity or course relating to sexual
growth or development was discarded from the data. At this
point, all of the pretest data for both the experimental and
control groups had been collected.
During the tenth week of the quarter this researcher
collected the posttest data. To accomplish this task the
researcher returned to the experimental and control classes for
a second time. This was done on the last day of the tenth week
at a time which had been preplanned with each in:tructor. The
questionnaire was administered to those students who completed
the pretest. As in the pretest administration, the directions
for completing the questionnaire were explained to the partici
pants. When all of the participants had finished with the post
test-questionnaire assessment, the posttest data had been
collected. These data were identified by student number and
only the researcher has had access to such data.


36
5. There will be no group differences in attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others as a result
of participation in the human sexuality course.
6. There will be no sex differences in attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others as a result
of participation in the human sexuality course.
Research Design
The experimental design of this study was a nonrandomized
pretest-posttest control group design (Campbell § Stanley, 1971).
This design is represented as follows:
Pretest Treatment Posttest
Experimental Group T^ X
Control Group T2
Tj represents the measure before treatment.
T2 represents the measure after treatment.
X represents the experimental treatment.
Participants
The subjects for the study were first and second year
undergraduates at the University of Florida, a la:ge state co
educational institution. Since admission as a freshman to the
University is highly competitive, it is assumed that these stu
dents have higher than average intellectual abilities as measured
by high school grades and college admission test scores. Students
who attend the University of Florida represent a wide range of


62
104, 107, 110, and 113. Those concepts in which a significant
difference occurred (Concept A and Concept J) revealed that
females showed greater change than males.
A one-way analysis of covariance comparison of the experi
mental and control subjects by sex for the attitudes toward the
sexual behaviors of others revealed no significant difference in
posttreatment comparison for all three dimensions of 10 concepts.
These results are shown in Tables 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 36, 39,
42,
45,
JS.
oo
51, 54, 57, 60,
63, 66, 69, 81, 84,
87, 90, 93, 96,
99,
102,
, 105
, 108, 111, and
114. The means and
standard deviations
are
shown in
Tables 8, 11,
14, 17, 20, 23, 35,
38, 41, 44, 47,
50,
53,
56,
59, 62, 65, 68,
80, 83, 86, 89, 92,
95, 98, 101, 104,
107, 110, and 113.
Those concepts in which a significant difference occurred
in the one-way analysis of covariance were Concept C: A woman who
masturbates and Concept H: A person who reads "hard-core pornog
raphy," like Sisters of the Whip, Gay Hot Nights, etc.
Male data for Hypothesis 6 revealed a significant differ
ence for one concept, a woman who masturbates. In contrast to
females, however, the significant difference occurred for only
the good-bad dimension. The good-bad dimension rc ealed a sig
nificant difference at the .05 level as shown in Table 27. It
is interesting to note that this concept did not show change in
a previous male study (Shovholt et al., 1976) whereas other con
cepts did show change. The means and standard deviations for
this comparison are shown in Table 26.
On the other hand, for females there was a difference for
two concepts. For the woman who masturbates, two of the


94
Table 37
Attitude ,
Concept D--Valuable-Worthless Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sun o f
Squnres
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio2
M.'i i ii Fffoots
Group
0.76
1
0.76
0.5 5
S o x
0.01
1
0.01
0.00
J.aternci ¡ on
Group Sex
0.12
1
0.12
0.09
les i clin 1
180.49
132
1.37
ror post comparison.


124
Table 67
Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Sqti:: res
df
Mean
Square
T Ratio'
Main l-ffc-cts
Ci voujl
0.01
1
0.01
0.01
So:
0.64
1
0.64
0.38
1 n t eraction
Cfoup Sex
0.36
1
0.36
0.21
Rea i dJM 1
220.54
132
1.67
Poi po: t ccrao: : ; of


74
Table 17
Attitude, Concep.t B--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre-
mean
SD
Post-
mean
SD
Males
Experiment a 1
37
5.92
1.21
5.89
1.20
Control
32
5.53
1.50
5.84
1.25
Total
"69
5.74
1.36
5.87
1.21
Pema 1ej
Experiment a 1
33
5.82
1.40
5.94
1.32
Cont ro 1
35
5.60
1.50
5.94
1.43
Total
68
5.71
1.45
5.94
1.37
Total
Experimenta 1
70
5.8 7
1.30
5.91
1.25
Control
67
5.57
1.49
5.90
1.34


experimental and control subjects for three concepts after the
treatment. These concepts were a woman who masturbates (all
three bipolar dimensions), an engaged person who has premarital
intercourse (valuable-worthless dimension), and a person who
reads "hard-core pornography" (good-had and understandable-
mysterious dimensions) Scores for all three concepts changed
in the liberal direction.
On
an add
itional te
st for the c
ombined s
et of
12 concepts
a main e
ffects
significa
nt differenc
e was revealed
in the
liberal
direct
ion after
the treatmen
t.
6.
There
was a mai
n effects si
gnifleant
difference for
sex for
two concepts of
the attitude
measure.
The
se were a
homosexu
al (va
luable-wor
thless dimen
sion) and
some
one who
engages
in ora
1 and/or a
nal intercou
rse (good
-bad
dimension).
In both
concep
ts females
showed grea
ter chang
e tha
n males.
These ch
anges
occurred i
n the libera
1 directi
on.
Add
itiona
1 comparis
ons for atti
tudes revealed
significant
differen
ces he
tween expe
rimental and
control
sub j e
cts by sex.
A comparison of experimental males and control males showed a
significant difference for the concept a woman who masturbates
(good-bad dimension) ; a comparison of experimental females and
control females revealed a significant difference for two con
cepts. These were a woman who masturbates (valuable-worthless
and understandable-mysterious dimensions) and a person who reads
"hard-core pornography" (understandable-mysterious dimension).
Changes for these additional comparisons were in the liberal
direction.
xvi


61
These findings are partially consistent with a previous
attitude study (Davidow, 1976) which also used the Attitude
Measure of Sexual Behaviors. Davidow's study revealed changes
in the concepts of a woman who masturbates and an engaged person
who has premarital intercourse as did the present study. However,
the present study also revealed a significant change in the
pornography concept as well.
Hypothesis 6
There will be no sex differences in attitudes toward
the sexual behaviors of others as a result of partici
pation in the human sexuality course.
The null hypothesis is rejected. A two-way analysis of covari
ance revealed a significant difference (.05 level) for main effects
for sex for two concepts. Each concept had one bipolar dimension
with a significant difference. These concepts and dimensions
were Concept A: A homosexual--valuable-worthless dimension and
Concept J: Someone who engages in oral and/or anal intercourse--
good-bad dimension. These two-way results are shown in Tables
10 and 88, and the means and standard deviations are shown in
Tables 11 and 89 respectively. The other dimensions of these two
concepts and the remaining ten concepts of the attitude measure
revealed no significant difference for the main effects sex com
parison. These results are shown in Table 7, 13, 16, 19, 22,
25,
28,
31,
34,
37,
40,
43,
46 ,
49 52 55 58,
, 61,
64,
67, 70
73,
76,
79,
82,
85 ,
91 ,
94,
97,
100, 103, 106,
109,
and
112.
The means and standard deviations for these data are shown in
Tables 8, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 29, 32, 35, 38, 41, 44, 47, 50, 53,
56 59, 62 65 68, 71 74 77 80 83, 86, 92 !)F 98, 101,


41
intercourse, (f) a teenager who asks his parents about orgasm,
(g) a teenage girl who allows a younger brother in the bathroom
when she is in there, (h) a person who reads hard core pornog
raphy like Sisters of the Whip, Gay Hot Nights, etc., (i) a man
who "molests" a child, (j) someone who engages in oral and/or
anal intercourse, (k) an 11-year-old boy who holds hands with
another boy his age, and (1) an unwed mother. According to
Fretz (1975) these concepts were chosen in an attempt to represent
the full'spectrum of behaviors identified as sexual in out society.
The attitude scales are bipolar dimensions chosen from existing
literature.
Fretz developed the Attitude Measure by reducing an initial
150-item semantic differential. This was done by administering
the instrument to 86 teachers in sex education workshops, 68
teachers in the same school system, and 128 freshmen and
sophomore students. A series of factor analyses were conducted
to determine which concepts and dimensions were representative
of the factor structure of teachers, and students' responses.
Examples from the Fretz are as follows:
An unwed mother
good _______ bad
valuable _______ worthless
understandable _ _ mysterious
A child who writes "obscene" words on a wall
good _______ bad
valuable _______ worthless
understandable mysterious
The student is asked to assess concepts in terms of each
of three dimensions; "good-bad," "valuable-worthless," and
"understandable-mysterious." The student places ar X in the


THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY INSTRUCTION ON SEXUAL GUILT,
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY, AND ATTITUDES TOWARD
THE SEXUAL BEHAVIORS OF OTHERS
By
FRANKLIN JOSEPH NAGY
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


The importance of androgyny is described by Bern (1976). She
said ,
The point of course is that the two domains of mas
culinity and feminity are both fundamental. In a
modern complex society like ours an adult clearly
has to be able to look out for himself and to get
things done. But an adult also has to be able to
relate to human beings as people, to be sensitive
to their needs and to be concerned about their
welfare, as well as to be able to depend on them
for emotional support. Limiting a person's ability
to respond in one or the other of these two compli
mentary domains thus seems tragically and unneces
sarily destructive of human potential. (p. 250)
Because of the importance of psychological androgyny, it
is a valuable concept to examine in a human sexuality course.
It seems logical that since a course in human sexuality brings
in perspectives of the opposite sex, it will affect individuals
on a personal level. If we can determine that the psychological
androgyny of a person can change as a result of participation
in a human sexuality course, then we can begin to explore
reasons for these changes. Ultimately, we will be able to
alter sex-type stereotypic beliefs, and in so doing move toward
androgyny; this will promote psychological health and prevent
psychological problems (Bern, 1974).
The third area which will be measured is attitudes toward
the sexual behaviors of others. The value of assessing sexual
attitudes has been discussed previously (Fretz, 1975; Fretz §
Johnson, 1971; Fromme, 1955; Kaplan, 1974; Katchadourian, 1972;
McCary, 1973). Through more assessments we will be able to pin
point certain attitudes which can be changed by sex education.
In turn, by isolating those attitudes which can change, we can
provide instruction relative to those attitudes anil improve the
quality of sex education for college students.


REFERENCES
Alzate, H. A course in human sexuality in a Colombian medical
school. Journal of Medical Education, 1974 4_9, 438-443.
Bazin, N. T., f¡ Greeman, A: The androgynous vision. Women's
Studies, 1974, 42, 185-215.
Bern, S. L. The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal
of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1974, £2, 155-162.
Bern, S. L. Sex role adaptability: One consequence of psycho
logical androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 1975, 31~ 634-643.
Bern, S. L. Probing the promise of androgyny. In A. G. Kaplan §
J. P. Bean (Eds. ), Beyond sex role stereotypes: Readings toward
a psychology of androgyny. Boston: Little,Brown and Co., 1976.
Bern, S. L., § Lenny, E. Sex typing and the avoidance of cross-sex
behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, in
press.
Bern, S. L., Martyna, W., § Watson, C. Sex typing and androgyny:
Further explorations of the expressive domain. Under
editorial review, 1975.
Bernard, H. S. Evaluation of the impact of a sex education
program (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Rochester,
1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1973, 34,
2377A. (University Microfilms No. 73-25,791)
Bernard, H. S., § Schwartz, A. J. Impact of a human sexuality
program on sex-related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and
guilt of college undergraduates. Paper presented at the
Annual Meeting of the American College Health Association,
New York, April 1975.
Block, J. H. Conceptions of sex role: Some cross cultural and
longitudinal perspectives. American Psychologist, 1973, 28,
512-526.
Bloom, B. L. Strategies for the prevention of mental disorders.
In G. Rosenblum (Ed.), Issues in community psychology and pre
ventive mental health. New York: Behavioral Publications, 1971.
Brownbridge, R., 8 Van Fleet, P. (Eds.). Investment in prevention:
The prevention of learning and behavior problems in young
children. San Francisco: Pace I. D. Center, 1969^
203


33
androgyny are varied. Four studies have indicated that the Bern
Sex-Role Inventory is highly predictive, two have been discon-
firming, and two others are inconclusive.
Only two studies have looked at pre- and postsex-education
change for the third area, attitudes toward the sexual behaviors
of others, as measured by the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors.
The available research on attitudes measured as a result of sex
education indicated that most courses have a liberalizing effect.
Common elements to the human sexuality courses which showed posi
tive change are lectures, small group discussion, audio-visuals,
and guest panels or speakers. In some cases, researchers men
tioned all of the topics included in the course, while in others,
only a few topics were stated.


Table 41
Attitude, Concept D--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Pos t -
mean
SD
Nial es
Experimenta!
3 7
5.00
1.47
4.73
1.61
Control
32
5.34
1.64
4. 56
1.72
Tota 1
'69
5.16
1.56
4.6 5
1.65
Pernal es
Exper i moni al
33
5. 30
1. 53
5.00
1.75
Control
35
5.06
1. 57
4 83
1.89
Total
68
5.18
1. 55
4.91
1.81
Tota 1
Experimental
70
5.14
1. 51
4.86
1.67
Control
67
5.19
1.60
4.70
1.80


151
Table 94
Attitude Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum o .
Sriusi; s
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Main effects
Group
0.41
1
0.41
0.25
Sor.
3.02
1
3.02
1.81
Interj cti oh
Group Sey
0.04
1
0.04
0.02
Residual
220.13
132
1.67
ap .1 vorpar i soil.


192
C. A woman who masturbates
7. good
8. valuable
9. understandable
bad
worthless
mysterious
D. A child who writes "obscene" words on a wall
10. good
11. valuable
12. understandable
bad
worthless
mysterious
E. An engaged person who has premarital intercourse
13. good
14. valuable
15. understandable
bad
worthless
mysterious
F. A teenager who asks his parents about orgasm
16. good
17. valuable
18. understandable
bad
worthless
mysterious
G.
A teenage girl who allows a younger brother in the bathroom
when she is in there
19. good
20. valuable
21. understandable
bad
worthless
mysterious
1). A person who reads "hard-core pornography" like Sisters of
the Whip, Gay Hot Nights, etc.
22. good
23. valuable
24. understandable
bad
worthless
mysterious
I. A man who "molests" a child
25. good
26. valuable
27. understandable
bad
worthless
mysterious
J. Someone who engages in oral and/or anal intercourse
28. good
29. valuable
30. understandable
bad
worthless
mysterious


CHAPTER
Page
III (continued)
Instrumentation 36
Data Collection Procedures 42
Treatment 45
Analysis of the Data 46
Methodological Assumptions. 47
Limitations of the Study 48
IV RESULTS.. 49
Introduction 49
Results 49
VSUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
FURTHER RESEARCH 175
Summary 175
Discussion 179
Recommendations for Further Research 181
APPENDICES
A INSTRUCTOR AGREEMENT FORM 182
B MOSHER FORCED-CHOICE GUILT INVENTORY-SEX GUILT
SUBSCALE 183
C BEM SEX-ROLE INVENTORY. 190
D THE EXPERIMENTER'S ADAPTATION OF THE ATTITUDE
MEASURE OF SEXUAL BEHAVIORS 191
E TOPIC CHECKLIST FORM 194
F INSTRUCTOR I -- COURSE OUTLINE 195
G INSTRUCTOR II -- COURSE OUTLINE.. 197
H INSTRUCTOR III -- COURSE OUTLINE 199
I INSTRUCTOR IV -- COURSE OUTLINE 200
v


7
the normal impulses to masturbate, to peek at his
parents, to fantasize making love to his sister, to
get rid of his father so he can be alone with his
mother, or the girl desires to look at a little boy's
penis, masturbate or exhibit her little body, he or
she also feels a jolt of anxiety and/or shame and
guilt. . Youngsters who are discovered in sexual
activities are subjected to harsh punishments and
humiliations and often are made to feel that they
have committed the unpardonable sin. They are made
to feel guilty and to repress and hide even from
themselves their sexual impulses for many years.
(p. 147}
The long-range effects of guilt are serious. "When the
Kinsey reports were published they merely confirmed what edu
cators had long known--guilt feelings aroused by inadequate
sex knowledge interfere with happy living, school work, friend
ships, and future mental adjustments" (McCary, 1973, p. 15).
The second construct related to sexual attitudes and self,
psychological androgyny, measures traditional sex role beliefs,
i.e., that men and women each have their own set of character
istics and these are at opposite poles. Because of the differing
views in measuring androgyny, this study will be confined to
psychological androgyny as measured by Sandra Bern (1974) The
traditional concepts of masculinity and feminity have obscured
two other possibilities.
First, that many individuals might be "androgynous,"
that is, they might be both masculine and feminine,
both assertive and yielding, both instrumental and
expressive--depending on the situational appropri
ateness of these various behaviors; and conversely,
that strongly sex-typed individuals might be seriously
limited in the range of behaviors available to them as
they move from situation to situation. (Bern, 1974,
p. 155)
In addition to Bern, others have discussed androgyny (Bazin
Freeman, 1974; Block, 1973; Spence, Helmreich, § Stapp, 1975).


APPENDIX B
MOSHER FORCED-CHOICE GUILT INVENTORY SEX GUILT SUBSCALE
Male Form
This questionnaire consists of pairs of statements given
by college men in response to the "Mosher Incomplete Sentences
Test. Read the stem and pair of statements and decide which
you most agree with or which is most characteristic of you.
Your choice, in each instance, should be in terms of what you
believe, how you feel, or how you would react, and not in
terms of how you think you should believe, feel, or respond.
Do not omit an item even though it is very difficult for you
to decide. Circle A or B for each item. Use only the first
20 answer spaces (for Questionnaire #2) on the answer sheet.
1. If in the future I committed adultery . .
A. I won't feel bad about it.
B. it would be sinful.
2. "Dirty" jokes in mixed company . .
A. are common in our town.
B. should be avoided.
3. As a child, sex play . .
A. never entered my mind.
B. is quite wide spread.
4. Sex relations before marriage . .
A. ruin many a happy couple.
B. are good in my opinion.
5. If in the future I committed adultery . .
A. I wouldn't tell anyone.
B. I would probably feel bad about it.
6. When I have sexual desires . .
A. I usually try to curb them.
B. I generally satisfy them.
7. Unusual sex practices . .
A. might be interesting.
B. don't interest me.
8. Prostitution . .
A. is a must.
B. breeds only evil.
183


184
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
As a child, sex play . .
A. is not good for mental and emotional well being.
B. is natural and innocent.
As a child, sex play . .
A. was a big taboo and I was deathly afraid of it.
B. was common without guilt feelings.
"Dirty" jokes in mixed company . .
A. are not proper.
B. are exciting and amusing.
Unusual sex practices . .
A. are awful and unthinkable.
B. are not so unusual to me.
When I have sex dreams . .
A. I cannot remember them in the morning.
B. I wake up happy.
"Dirty" jokes in mixed company . .
A. are lots of fun.
B. are coarse to say the least.
Petting . .
A. is something that should be controlled.
B. is a form of education.
Unusual sex practices . .
A. are O.K. as long as they're heterosexual.
B. usually aren't pleasurable because you have preconceived
feelings about their being wrong.
Sex relations before marriage . .
A. are practiced too much to be wrong.
B. in my opinion, should not be practiced.
As a child, sex play . .
A. is dangerous.
B. is not harmful but does create sexual pleasure.
As a child, sex play . .
A. was indulged in.
B. is immature and ridiculous.
When I have sexual desires . .
A. they are quite strong.
B. I attempt to repress them.
Sex relations before marriage . .
A. help people to adjust.
B. should not be recommended.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Franklin Joseph Nagy was born in Torrington, Connecticut,
on May 24, 1941, the son of Frank Andrew and Anna Dutil Nagy.
He graduated from Torrington High School, in Torrington,
Connecticut, in 1959. In June, 1964, he received a Bachelor
of Arts degree with a major in Social Science/Economics from
New England College.
In September, 1965, he began teaching school in Waterbury,
Connecticut, where he remained for two years. The following
year he taught in Torrington. During this time he attended
Central Connecticut State College during the summers and
evenings and earned his Master of Science degree with a major
in Social Science in August, 1968. From September, 1968, to
July, 1974, he continued to teach and work in a variety of
education projects for youth with school adjustment problems.
He returned to graduate school in September, 1974, to work on
his Doctor of Philosophy degree at the University of Florida.
210


29
homosexuality. For the males, 24$ became more accepting of anal
intercourse, and 22$ became more tolerant of homosexuality.
In one of the most comprehensive studies discovered by
this researcher, Vennewitz (1975) attempted to determine the
effects of a college human sexuality course upon attitudes toward
the sexual behaviors of nonsignificant others. The study also
sought to investigate the relationship between knowledge gain
and attitude change. Some of the course curriculum elements
included'in the Vennewitz study were movies, lectures, question
and answer sessions, and small group discussions. There were
both written and reading assignments. Although a description
of course activities was provided, specific information relating
to topics covered during the course was not included. The
experimental group of 167 students and the control group of
89 students completed pre- and posttests with an instrument
developed by the author and with the Premarital Sexual Permis
siveness Scale developed by Reiss. Some of the major conclusions
were that (a) experimental males and females became significantly
more liberal on attitudes toward sexual behaviors of nonsignifi
cant others than control males and females; (b) significant
liberalization in attitudes toward behavior of nonsignificant
others was observed in experimental males and females for some
topics, e.g., homosexual relations, mutual masturbation, and
oral-genital contacts, but not for others, e.g., premarital
intercourse and cohabitation; and (c) experimental females
more often than experimental males exhibited significant changes
in attitudes toward a variety of sexual behaviors -nvolving
nonsignificant others.


28
A study (Rubin, 1970; Rubin § Adams, 1972) involving a
wide geographical area assessed 303 female and 95 male college
students using the Reiss' Premarital Sexual Permissiveness
Scale. The subjects came from numerous colleges in New York,
New Jersey, Connecticut, and Missouri. There was no consistent
curriculum among the courses since the studies were conducted
in such a wide geographical area. No change in attitude as a
result of human sexuality education was found.
In a short-term college course of four weeks, Maxwell
(1972) evaluated 65 participants. Results showed that 50% of
the subjects reported that their feelings or attitudes had
become more liberalized as a result of course participation.
Five studies of college students are particularly rele
vant for this literature review. Three of these studies com
pared male and female subjects by means of pre- and postdata
analysis.
Rees and Zimmerman (1974) studied 128 male and 102 female
college students to determine attitude change. There were nine
attitudinal questions which concerned masturbation, sexual
intercourse, oral-genital sex, mutual masturbation, anal
intercourse, intercourse during pregnancy and menstruation,
foreplay, homosexuality, and prostitution. No statistical tests
were conducted, but examination of the data showed that there
were changes in attitudes in the liberal direction. Findings
were as follows: 31% of the females became more accepting of
anal intercourse, 34% of the females became more accepting of
masturbation, and 30% of the females became more accepting of


APPENDICES (continued) Page
J LECTURE SERIES -- BES 252 202
REFERENCES 20 3
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 210
vi


27
participants' experience and feelings in the area of human
sexuality. There were 275 course participants who served as
experimental subjects. Two control groups, consisting of 93
and 48 subjects, were also included in the study. Results
showed that course participants became significantly more
accepting than both groups of controls in the areas of mas
turbation and homosexuality. However, the first control group
became more accepting than both other groups on the question
of extramarital sex.
In a comparative study, McMain (1974) examined the effects
of three different sex education programs on counselor trainees'
attitudes about sexual myths, autoeroticism, heterosexual
relations, and abortion. Fourteen female and twelve male
graduate students were assigned to one of three experimental
sex education groups or a control group. Group El was given
a program consisting of filmed material of erotic art and human
sexual behavior. Group F.2 was given a program consisting of
timed discussion periods on erotic art and human sexual
behavior. Group E3 was given a program consisting of filmed
material of erotic art and human sexual behavior preceding
timed discussion periods. Group C was a no-treaunent control
group. Pre- and posttesting with the Sex Knowledge and Attitude
Test indicated that no significant changes had occurred. How
ever, mean change scores in parts of the data suggested support
for (a) discussion and fb) film and discussion in sex education
programs to effect change in counselor trainees' attitudes
about sex.


73
Table 16
Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum o f
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Main llffects
Croup
0.49
1
0.94
0.38
Sex
0.23
1
0.23
0.18
Interaction
Group Sex
0.01
1
0.01
0.01
Residual
167.66
132
1.27
?For post comparison.


Statistical analyses of the data were computed by using
a two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis of co-
variance. These analyses were performed on subjects by sex as
well as by the total experimental and control groups.
The results are as follows:
1. There were no significant differences between the
experimental and control subjects on sexual guilt after the
treatment.
2.- There was a main effects significant difference on sex
guilt after the treatment between males and females with the
females exhibiting greater change. However, this greater change
was believed to be artifactual because of the use of two ver
sions of the sex guilt instrument.
Additional comparisons for sex guilt revealed no signifi
cant differences between the experimental males and control
males or between the experimental females and control females.
3. There were no main effects significant differences
between the experimental and control subjects on psychological
androgyny after the treatment.
4. There was no main effects significant difference
between males and females for psychological andiogyny after the
t reatment.
Additional comparisons for psychological androgyny revealed
no significant differences for experimental males and control
males or for experimental females and control females.
5. For attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others,
there was a main effects significant difference between the
xv


three bipolar dimensions), an engaged person who has premarital
intercourse (valuable-worthless dimension) and a person who
reads "hard-core pornography" like Sisters of the Whip, Gay
Hot Nights, etc. (good-bad and understandable-worthless dimen
sions). Scores for all three concepts changed in the liberal
direction.
On an additional test for the combined set of 12 concepts,
a main effects significant difference was revealed in the
liberal'direction after the treatment.
6. There was a main effects significant difference for
sex for two concepts of the attitude measure. These were a
homosexual (valuable-worthless dimension) and someone who
engages in oral and/or anal intercourse (good-bad dimension).
In both concepts females showed greater change than males with
the change occurring in the liberal direction.
Additional comparisons for attitudes revealed significant
differences between experimental and control subjects by sex.
A comparison of experimental males and control males showed a
significant difference for the concept a woman who masturbates
(good-bad dimension). A comparison of experimental females
and control females revealed a significant difference for two
concepts. These were a woman who masturbates (valuable-
worthless and understandable-mysterious dimension) and a person
who reads "hard-core pornography" like Sisters of the Whip, Gay
Hot Nights, etc. (understandable-mysterious dimension). Changes
for these additional comparisons were in the liberal direction.


142
Table 85
Attitude,
Concept I --Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Sum of Mean
Source
Squa re
df
Square
F Ratio'
Main Hfl'octs
Croup
5.02
1
3.02
1.43
Sex
0.70
1
0.7 0
0.33
Interact ion
Group Sex
0. 34
1
0.34
0.16
Residual
277.82
132
2.11
al:ov post comp a i son.


75
Table 18
Attitude, Concept B--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum o f
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Ma les
Group
0.27
1
0.27
0.24
Residuai
74.84
66
1.13
Females
Group
0.20
i
0. 20
0.14
Residual
92.73
65
1.43
aFor post comparison.


140
Table 83
Attitude,
Concept I-
Means and
-yaluable-
Standard
Worthless
Deviations
Dimension
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Post -
mean
SD
Na les
F.xpe r 1 men t a ]
37
1 54
1.22
1.68
1.38
Control
32
1.47
1 27
1.66
0.94
To 1 a 1
69
1.51
1.2 3
1.67
1. 18
reinales
i:\pcr iment al
33
1.61
1.20
1 79
1.32
Control
35
1. 54
0.85
1.46
0.94
Total
68
1 57
1.03
1.62
1.13
Total
.Experimental
70
1.57
1. 20
1. 73
1.34
Control
67
1 51
1.06
1 55
0.93


57
Table 5
Psychological Androgyny: Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SO
Post -
mean
SD
Males
Experimenta 1
37
1.01
0.62
1.07
0.61
Cont rol
32
0.86
0.62
0.87
0.71
Total
69
0.94
0.62
0.98
0.66
Peina ios
Experimental
33
0.66
0.49
0.65
0.67
Cont rol
35
0.69
0.54
0.77
0.57
Total
68
0.68
0.51
0.71
0.62
To t a 1
F.xpe rimen tn 1
70
0.85
0.59
0.87
0.67
Control
67
0.77
0.58
0.82
0.64


167
Table 110
Attitude, Concept I.--.Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Post -
mean
SD
Males
Experimental
37
3.73
1.12
4.22
1.51
C o n t: i' o 1
32
4.38
1.31
4.50
1.50
Total
"69
4.03
1.25
4.35
1. 50
r t ill cl 1 t 5
Experimental
33
3.79
1.29
4.00
1.46
Cont ml
35
4.63
1.80
4.69
1.47
Total
68
4.22
1.62
4 35
1.49
Total
Experimental
70
3.76
1.20
4.11
1.48
Cont rol
67
4.51
1.58
4.60
1.48


68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
Page
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept H--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept H--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept H--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept H--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analyis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept H--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept H--Valuable-Worth]ess Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept H--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept H--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept H--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept 1--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept I--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept I--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
xi


129
Table 72
Attitude, Concept H--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of tovariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
d£
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
2.95
1
2.95
2.43
Residua 1
80.26
66
1.22
Females
Group
2.66
i
2.66
1.96
Residu a1
88.50
65
1.36
aFor post comparison.


117
Table 60
Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Coviriance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Met l'd s
Group
0.12
1
0.12
0.09
Residual
92.36
66
1 40
Fema 1 e s
Group
2.47
1
2.47
2.32
Residual
69.27
66
1.07
;lFor post comparison.


91
Table 34
Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
S!;i O'f
Sc; ua res
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio'
Mil in rf-f. CIS
Group
0.6(1
1
0.60
0.49
Sex
3.64
1
3.64
2.98
1 n t oral' 1 i on
Group So:
3.03
1
3.03
3.48
Res;dual
161.21
132
1. 22
al'or post compari son.


20
woman were significantly more likely to select their own sex's
activities even though such choices cost them money and even
through the researchers tried to make it as easy as they could
for the subject to select cross-sex activities. Results for
the discomfort component showed that sex-typed subjects felt
significantly more discomfort than androgynous subjects, who,
again, did not differ significantly from one another. That is,
it was the masculine men and the feminine women who experienced
the most 'discomfort and who felt the worst about themselves
after performing the cross-sex activities. The authors con
cluded that only the androgynous subjects felt comfortable
participating in cross-sex behaviors.
A final supportive study by Wakefield et al. (1976), using
59 male and 56 female undergraduates, analyzed Bern's measure of
Masculinity (M), Femininity (F), and androgyny by the principal-
component's method with scores from the M-F scales of the
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the California
Psychological Inventory, and the Omnibus Personality Inventory.
The results from these M-F scales supported Bern's statements
about androgyny being an integration of masculine and feminine
characteristics.
The two disconfirming studies were carried out by Zeldow
(1976) and Gonzalez (1975). Zeldow (1976) studied 50 male and
50 female undergraduates using the BSRI and the Spence and
Helmreich Attitudes Toward Women Scale. The results showed
that only feminine males differed from all of the other
subjects.
These feminine males exhibited tradition ll


92
Table 35
Attitude, Concept D--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
iN
Pre -
mean
SD
Post -
mean
SD
Males
Expeiimental
37
3.32
1 .29
2.84
1.41
Coni rol
32
2.94
1.32
3.06
1.32
Tot' 1
"69
3.15
1 31
2.94
1.36
Females
Expel- i ment a 1
33
3.15
1.28
3. 36
1.11
Control
35
3.37
1.14
3.31
1. 30
Tota 1
68
3.27
1.21
3. 34
1.21
Total
Experimental
70
3.24
1. 28
3.09
1.29
Control
67
3.16
1 .24
3.19
1.31


119
Table 62
Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Croup
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Pos t -
mean
SD
Malos
Mxperimcnta1
37
3.89
1.71
3.92
1.79
Cont rol
32
4.19
1.67
4.31
1.60
Total
"69
4.03
1 .69
4.10
1.70
Fema1 is
Experimenta l
33
4.21
1.67
4. 30
1.33
Control
35
3.89
1 86
4.34
1.51
Tot a 1
68
4.04
1 77
4.32
1.42
Tot al
Experimcntal
70
4.04
1.69
4.10
1.59
Contvo1
67
4.03
1.77
4.33
1.54


95
Table 38
Att i tu de,
Concept D-
Means and
- Valuable -
Standard
-Worthless
Deviations
Dimensi on
Pre-
Post-
Group
N
mea n
SD
mean
SD
Males
Exper i merit a 1
37
3. 54
1.41
3.49
1.73
Control
32
3.03
1.43
3.41
1.32
Tota 1
6 9
3. 30
1.43
3.4 5
1.54
l e in a los
Experi menta L
33
3.94
1 35
3.76
1.09
Control
35
4.06
1.39
3.91
1.38
letal
68
4.00
1.36
3.84
1.24
Tota 1
Experimenta 1
70
3. 73
1. 38
3.61
1.46
Cont rol
67
3.57
1.49
3.67
1.36


It was concluded that this treatment is valuable. Impli
cations for further research are also discussed.
xvii


39
As the name of the inventory implies, each item is a
forced choice since the subject is asked to select either the
A or B response. The subject chooses the most appropriate
response.
Construct validity for the Sex Guilt Subscale is supported
by data from numerous investigations (Galbraith, 1969; Gal
braith, Hahn, 8 Lieberman, 1968; Galbraith 8 Mosher, 1968;
Lamb, 1968; Mosher, 1961, 1965, 1971; Mosher 8 Cross, 1971;
Mosher 8'Greenberg, 1969). The development and previous use
of the instrument appear to make it quite suitable for the
subjects in this study.
The Bern Sex-Role Inventory, developed by Bern (1974), is
used to classify individuals as masculine, feminine, or
androgynous. This 60-item instrument is based on personality
characteristics classified as masculine, feminine, or neutral.
Examples of these items are: masculine--"acts as a leader,"
"aggressive"; feminine--"affectionate," "cheerful"; neutral--
"happy," "helpful." There are 20 masculine items, 20 feminine
items, and 20 neutral items. The items are distributed through
out the inventory rather than grouped by type.
The subject is asked to rate each item on a scale from 1
("Never or almost never true") to 7 ("Always or almost always
true"). From these ratings a score is established and the
subject is identified as masculine, feminine, or androgynous.
The Bern Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) was first established
in 1973. Bern administered the instrument to 444 male and 279
female students at Stanford University and to 117 rale and 77
female paid volunteers at Foothill Junior College.


6
appropriate to measure attitude changes toward self. According
to Davidow (1976), only minimum research has been reported which
reflects the impact of sex education on attitudes of one's own
sexuality. Two constructs which may be measured in this regard
are sexual guilt and psychological androgyny. Katchadourian
(1972) described the status of guilt in our society.
It seems that the current generation of young people
is living in a transitional period, in which there
is an overlap between two phenomena. One is the
belief that guilt feelings associated with sex are
a heritage from past generations and are acquired
in childhood; the other is the new morality, intel
lectual acceptance of the premise that sex in the
proper context is good and should not be associated
with feelings of guilt. (p. 469)
The negative consequences of guilt have been described
(Goldstein, 1976; McCary, 1973). Kaplan (1974) showed how
children are affected by guilt.
The youngster learns from infancy that it is wonder
ful to walk, to talk, to paint, that he is a good
boy when he eats his meals or takes his nap, but
that his sexual impulses are not acceptable. He is
taught to deny his sexuality, to disassociate this
aspect of himself, that it is dangerous, nasty,
hostile, dirty, disgusting and immoral to give expres
sion to his sexual urges. Especially if his home is
a "religious" one the youngster usually learns that
sex is sinful, shocking, ugly, dangerous, and taboo.
. . Babies of both genders tend to touch their
genitals and express joy when their genitals are
stimulated in the course of diapering and bthing,
and both little girls and boys stimulate their penis
or clitoris as soon as they acquire the necessary
motor coordination. At the same time, sexual expres
sion is, in our society, systematically followed by
disapproval and punishment and denial. The little
boy's hand is repeatedly removed from his penis,
often with strong emotion, and the little girl meets
shock and censure if she tries to peek at or (God
forbid!) touch her father's genitals in the bathroom.
These repeated negative contingencies to early sexual
expression result not only in appropriate control
of the sexual impulses but also in destructive con
flict, guilt, and alienation. Each time the t>oy has


2
greater involvement in the developmental, environmental, and
social context of the individual. A prevention approach needs
to be employed.
Preventive efforts in mental health have been separated
into three areas: primary prevention, secondary prevention,
and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention is the step taken
to prevent the occurrence of a problem; secondary prevention is
the early treatment of the problem; and tertiary prevention is
the attefnpt to minimize the long-term effects of the problem.
Primary prevention is believed by most authorities to be the
most effective type of preventive approach in mental health
(Bloom, 1971; Brownbridge § Van Fleet, 1969; Hollister, 1966;
Joint Commission on Mental Health, 1961; Joint Commission on
the Mental Health of Children, 1970).
Psychological education is one form of primary prevention.
As such, it is designed to promote the goals of both personal
learning and psychological competence (Skovholt, in press).
The integration of academic learning and personal experience
serves as the primary vehicle for achieving these goals
(Cottingham, 1973). More guidance specialists and psychologists
are now entering the curriculum in order to teach the behavioral
sciences in a preventive educational mode.
Some psychological educators concerned about prevention
have begun to look at higher education as one area of focus.
Skovholt (in press), in discussing central concerns in psycho
logical education, has questioned the usual academic perspective
in higher education. He believes that there is an ambivalence


11
Definition of Terms
Attitude an attitude for the purpose of this study is
defined as those responses assessed by the Attitude Measure of
Sexual Behaviors (Fretz, 1975).
Human sexuality learned social conduct which includes
all the learned patterns of.believing, perceiving, behaving,
evaluating, and feeling (in relation to others and to one's
self) that involve actual or symbolically conceived stimulation
of primary and secondary sexual organs and zones (Gordon §
Johnson, 1976).
Liberal capable of a high degree of acceptance of alter
native styles of behavior.
Psychological androgyny having a high degree of both
male and female characteristics, i.e., being both assertive and
yielding; both instrumental and expressive, depending on the
situational appropriateness of these various behaviors (Bern,
1974).
Psychological education education intervention designed
specifically to promote personal learning and psychological
competence. The integration of academic learning and personal
experience serves as the primary vehicle for achieving these
goals (Cottingham, 1973).
Sexual behavior the totality of normal and abnormal,
conscious and unconscious, overt and covert sensations, thoughts,
feelings, and actions related to sexual organs and other eroto
genic zones, including masturbation, heterosexual and homosexual
relations, sexual deviations, goals, and techniquesi(Wolman,
1973).


ns
Xahle 58
Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Sou ree
Sum o f
Squares
df
Mean
Square
[' Ratio
Mu iii meets
Group
2.22
1
2.22
1 73
Sc x
1.29
I
1 29
1.00
Into tac i c u
Grot.,- Sex
0.37
1
0.37
0.29
Re sid u a 1
169.79
132
1 29
M en post coiiipnri sci.,


78
Table 21
Attitude, Concept B--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
0.31
1
0.31
0.30
Residual
68.93
66
1.04
Females
Group
1.13
1
1. 13
0.76
Residual
97.10
65
1.49
aFor post comparison.


63
bipolar dimensions showed significant change, valuable-worthless
and understandable-mysterious. In both cases the significant dif
ferences occurred at the .05 level of confidence. The one-way
comparisons are shown in Tables 30 and 33, and the means and
standard deviations are shown in Tables 29 and 32.
The other concept showing a significant difference was a
person who reads "hard-core pornography;1" like Sisters of the
Whip, Gay Hot Nights, etc. For the pornography concept there
was a significant difference for females for one bipolar dimen
sion, understandable-mysterious. This difference occurred at
the .05 significance level. See Table 78 for this data and
Table 77 for the means and standard deviations. No significant
difference was revealed for this concept for males for the one
way comparison (Table 78) and for the means and standard
deviations (Table 77).
The pornography concept revealed no changes for two dimen
sions, good-bad and valuable-worthless, in the one-way analysis
of covariance for males or females. The one-way data is shown
in Tables 72 and 75. Means and standard deviations for these
data are shown in Tables 71 and 74.
On the combined set of concepts (A through 1), no signifi
cant difference was revealed in the one-way comparison of
experimental males and control males or for experimental females
and control females (Table 117). Table 116 shows the means and
standard deviations for these data.
i


96
Table 39
Attitude, Concept D--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covlriance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Squa re
F Ratio3
Males
Group
1.34
1
1.34
0.95
Re si dual
92.46
66
1.40
Fuma los
Group
0.20
i
0.20
0.16
Residual
82.05
65
1. 26
a!'or post comparison.


68
Table 11
Attitude,
Concept A-
Means and
-Valuable-
Standard
-Worthless
Deviations
Dimension:
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Post-
mean
SD
Males
Experimenta 1
37
3.05
1.49
3.16
1.42
Control
32
3.25
1.59
3.41
1.68
Tota t
'69
3.15
1.53
3.28
1.54
Ferna les
Experimental
33
3.55
1.03
3.88
1.11
Con t rol
35
4.51
1.48
4.46
1.40
Total
68
4.04
1.37
4.18
1.29
Total
Experimental
70
3.29
1.31
3.50
1.33
Control
67
3.91
1.65
3.91
1.62


106
Table 49
Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Sum o;
Source .
Square
Main hficcts
Group
2.70
Sc A
2.40
inte rue 1ion
Clroiiji Sox
0.46
Ro.; i dual
103.85
df :
Moan
Squa re
V Ratio1
1
2.70
3.43
l
2.40
3.05
1
0.46
0.58
132
0.79
I-
pos t coup J I i soil.


147
Table 90
Attitude, Concept J--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covhriance
Source
Sum of
Squa res
df
Mean
Squa re
F Ratio3
Males
Group
0.66
1
0.66
0.66
Residual
66. 79
66
1.01
Fe¡:¡:' 1 o s
G roup
0.4 3
i
0.43
0.30
Residual
94.18
65
1.45
aFor post -or.par.i son.


40
To estimate internal consistency, Masculinity, Femininity,
and Social Desirability (based on the neutral items) scores
were calculated. The results showed all three scores to be
highly reliable in both samples. These results were as follows:
Stanford University (Masculinity r=.86; Femininity r=.80 ;
Social Desirability r =.75) and Foothill Junior College (Mas
culinity r=.86; Femininity r=.82; Social Desirability r=.70).
Scores are independent because of low intercorrelations.
For'test-retest reliability, the BSRI was administered to
28 males and females from the Stanford normative sample.
Product moment correlations showed all scores to be highly
reliable (i.e., Masculinity r=.90; Femininity r=.90; Androgyny
r=.93; Social Desirability r=.89).
The BSRI was correlated with other instruments to estab
lish concurrent validity. Results showed that the BSRI does
correlate moderately with the Masculinity-Femininity Scales
of the California Psychological Inventory. These results are
as follows:
BSRI Masculinity -- CPI Males -.42; CPI Females -.25
BSRI Femininity CPI Males .27; CPI Females .25
BSRI Androgyny CPI Males .50; CPI Females .30
The Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors wa: made available
by Fretz in 1970. The attitude measure consists of 84 semantic
differential items. These items consist of 12 concepts, each
with a 7-point attitude scale. These concepts are (a) a homo
sexual, (b) an unmarried woman who takes birth control pills,
(c) a woman who masturbates, (d) a child who writes "obscene"
words on a wall, (e) an engaged person who has premarital


154
Table 97
Attitude, Concept K--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
(if
Mean
Square
F Ratio'
Main effects
Group
2.51
1
2.31
1 .58
l'. r. 1-.
0.06
1
0.06
0.04
1 n tonict i on
('roup So:
0.57
1
0.57
0.39
Residual
192.56
132
1 46
M ot post comparisort.


APPENDIX F
INSTRUCTOR 1 -- COURSE OUTLINE
Required Texts:
Readings in Human Sexuality: Contemporary Perspectives
Gordon 5 Johnson, 1976-77 Edition
Our Bodies, Ourselves
Boston Women's Health Collective, Revised Edition
An Analysis of Human Sexual Response
Ruth 5 Edward Brecher, 1966
Week of
3/29 Introduction; Culture and Values
Readings: Gordon 5 Johnson, #7, 8, 9, 17, 42, 43
4/5 Psychosexual Development and Gender Roles
Readings; Gordon 8 Johnson, #13-16, 18-23, 41
4/12 Puberty
Guest Speaker, Dr. Tom Skovholt on "Masculinity"
Readings: Gordon § Johnson, #2, 6
Our Bodies, Ourselves, Ch. 2
4/19 Human Sexual Response
Readings: Brecher, Part I
Gordon 8 Johnson, #3, 4, 5, 24, 25, Section V
Our Bodies, Ourselves, Ch. 3
4/26 Midterm, 4/26
Pregnancy and Childbirth, 4/28
Readings: Our Bodies, Ourselves, Ch. 12-15
5/3 Birth Control and Abortion
Guest Speaker, Lori Hildebrand on "Methods of Birth
Control (5/3)
Readings: Our Bodies, Ourselves, Ch. 10, 11
Gordon 8 Johnson, #63
5/10 Homosexuality
Guest Panel: Members of the Gay Community Service
Center (5/12)
Readings: Our Bodies, Ourselves, Ch. 5
Gordon 8 Johnson, 33-36
195


3
among the traditional disciplines concerning personal growth as
an outcome of college classes. The usual academic perspective
is to consider the behavioral sciences as a body of knowledge
to be mastered. The students' goal is to learn the content.
For example, academic psychologists continue to teach students
that psychology is an academic discipline to be critiqued and
understood like any other discipline. Psychology, they say, is
not intended to provide answers for the personal concerns of
students. Academic psychologists talk about this unfulfilled
expectation of students and the dilemma teachers face in telling
students the true value of psychology. This message must be
continually told to psychology students since they often enroll
in psychology courses because of a belief in the utility of
the discipline to "help me understand myself and others better"
(Lunneborg, 1974, cited in Skovholt, in press, p. 13).
The human sexuali: urse is one psychological course in
higher education that enables students to integrate learning
about sexuality with personal experiences and to become more
psychologically competent and healthy in this area.
The value of sex education has gained greater acceptance
in recent years. According to Masters and Johnso.i (1970),
sexual maladjustment which has been caused by sexual conflicts
derived from ignorance can be prevented through early effective
sex education.
Human sexuality is an area in which considerably greater
study is needed, but it is also an area in which there is much
In the last decade systematic and direc'j research
research.


137
Table 80
Attitude, Concept I--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre
nse an
SD
Post
inean
SD
Males
experimental
37
1.49
1.12
1.30
0.74
Coni rol
32
1. 38
1.13
1.50
0.80
Total
69
1.44
1.12
1 39
0.77
Feiiui i t* s
Experimeutal
33
1.52
1.20
1.52
1.00
Cent rol
35
1. 20
0.99
1.35
0.82
To t a 1
68
1. 35
0.99
1.35
0.82
Total
Cxpe rimental
7 0
1. 50
1.15
1.40
0.88
Control
67
1.28
0. 93
1.34
0.71


152
Table 95
Attitude Concept J--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Pos ti
me an
SD
Males
Experimental
37
5.46
1 .52
5.51
1.43
Coat rol
32
4.88
2.06
5.13
1.68
Total
'69
5.19
1. 80
5.33
1.55
Feiiui les
E xp e i' i men t al
33
5.12
1.97
5.64
1.37
Cont rol
35
5.29
1.84
5.6 3
1.54
Tota 1
68
5.21
1.89
5.63
1.45
Total
Experimental
70
5.30
1 74
5.57
1.39
Control
67
5.09
1.94
5.39
1.61


APPENDIX G
INSTRUCTOR II -- COURSE OUTLINE
Required Texts:
Our Bodies, Ourselves (OBO)
Boston Women's Collective
Sexual Signatures (SS)
Money § Tucker
Human Sexuality (HS)
Goldstein
Man's Body (MB)
Heidenstan, David, Ed.
Week
Male § Female Anatomy § Physiology; Prenatal Influence
Birth
Readings: OBO; pp. 24-31, 278-282, 252-256, 267-296
HS; pp. 5-46, 1-4, 62-74
MB; pp. Jl-3, J7-13, Ml-2, Al-4, A8-11
SS; pp. 3-18, 36-62, 63-85
Handout; On Being A Boy
3 Exam 1, April 12
Childhood, April 14
Readings: SS; 86-152
OBO, 38-48
MB, M3-4, J4-6
Handout; 161-178, 216-219
4 Puberty
Readings: OBO, 32-37, 97-130, 181-186
MB, A18, M5-8, Fl-19, M21, CI7-24
SS, 153-185
HS, 79-92, 46-59
Exam 2, April 21
1, 2.
5 1/2
following
week
5 Birth Control; Intercourse
Readings: HS, 178-197
OBO, 186-209
MB, Kl-25, K32
Handouts: 50-57. 321-330
A Modest Proposal
197


APPENDIX I
INSTRUCTOR IV -- COURSE OUTLINE
Texts:
Readings in Human Sexuality: Contemporary Perspectives (G§J)
Gordon and Johnson
Our Bodies, Ourselves (OBOS)
Boston Women's Collective
The Forty-nine Percent Majority (491)
David and BrannorT
Masters and Johnson Explained (M§J)
Lehrman
Week I
March 31 Lecture: Anatomy and Physiology of Human Sexuality
Readings: Gf)J pp. 9-23
OBOS pp. 24-37
Mf,J pp. 116-172
Week II Masters and Johnson-Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction
April 5 Lecture (Harry Grater)
Readings: M§J pp. 26-67; 227-239
GSJ pp. 24-30
April 7 Lecture and discussion
Week III A Cross-Cultural View of Human Sexuality
April 12 Lecture
Readings: G§J pp. 34-51; 65-80; 95-98; 217-222
April 14 Lecture and discussion
Week IV Birth Control and Venereal Disease
April 19 TEST I
April 21 Lecture and discussion
Readings: OBOS pp. 38-78; 167-214
Week V Contemporary Sexual Expression
April 26 Lecture
Readings: G§J pp. 85-94; 99-;;7; 175-202; 223-231
April 28 Lecture and discussion
Readings: GSJ pp. 118-157


126
Table 69
Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
0.13
1
0.13
0.07
Residual
120.79
66
1.83
Foma los
Group
0.38
i
0.38
0.26
Res idual
96.91
65
1.49
aTor post comparison.


109
Table 52
Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio'
Main [ fleets
Group
1.72
1
1 .72
1.37
. 52
1
0.52
0.42
1 siterac t i on
Croup Si.-x
0.45
1
0.45
0.36
Re:' i dia 1
165.85
132
1. 26
J'j ci
pos t comp; v i son .


138
Table 81
Attitude, Concept l--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Gr oup
0.7 5
1
0.7 5
1 .25
Residual
_ 39.47
66
0.60
Ponales
Group
0.93
i
0.93
1.51
Residual
39.91
65
0.61
aTor post comparison.


123
Table 66
Attitude, Concept G--yaluable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covbriance
Source
Sum o f
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
1.22
1
1 .22
0.76
Residual
106.14
66
1.61
Feme les
Group
0.06
i
0.06
0.04
Residun 1
99.91
65
1.54
aFor post comparison.


163
Table 106
Attitude, Concept L--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratioa
Main E'ecl s
Croup
1.44
1
1 .44
0.68
Sex
0.01
1
0.01
0.01
Interaction
Group Sex
0.80
1
0.80
0.38
Re si dual
278.00
132
2.11
aFoc post compa,iioh.


42
space along the continuum which most closely represents his
attitude for that dimension.
In one study the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors was
administered to 97 freshmen and sophomores (Fretz, 1975). Test-
retest reliability over a one-week period for college-age
subjects ranged from .52 to .78 for the bipolar dimensions.
For the purpose of establishing external validity, the
measure has been administered to various groups including
nurses, policemen, parents, teachers, and various others.
Except for the police group there were very few statistically
significant intergroup differences. In pre- and postdesigns
with participants in sex education workshops, lectures, and
courses, the instrument has provided evidence of results showing
differences in sexual attitudes.
This study has employed three of the seven bipolar dimen
sions of the Fretz instrument. These three bipolar dimensions
of good-bad, valuable-worthless, and understandable-mysterious
were suggested by Fretz (1974) as the most useful dimensions
when assessing treatment effects. Based on previous research
the instrument appeared to be appropriate for use with the
groups in this study.
Data Collection Procedures
This study was conducted during the ten-week Spring Quarter,
1977, at the University of Florida. The data was collected from
students enrolled in the Department of Behavioral Studies. Ar
rangements for collecting these data were made with1 instructors


47
The following specific statistical tests were made:
1. A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis
of covariance were performed on the data from the Mosher-Forced
Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale to determine group
differences as a result of participation in the human sexuality
course.
2. A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis
of covariance were performed on the data from the Bern Sex-Role
Inventory to determine group differences as a result of partici
pation in the human sexuality course.
3. A two-way (group x sex) and a one-way (group) analysis
of covariance were performed on the data from the experiementer's
adaptation of the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors to deter
mine group differences as a result of participation in the
human sexuality course.
Methodological Assumptions
The following assumptions about the methodology utilized
were made:
1. The human sexuality'course was considered to have
positively changed attitudes toward sexual behaviors if the
mean difference between the compared groups is significant at
the .05 level.
2. The human sexuality course was considered to have
positively changed sex guilt if the mean difference between
the compared groups is significant at the .05 level.


145
Table 88
Attitude, Concept J--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Sum of
Source
Squa res
Main i-ffcct?
Group
1. 41
Sox
5. 13
1 nto i ar 1. ion
Croup Sex
0.00
Residual
163.22
'lor post
*.05
compssi son.
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio"
1
1.41
1 14
1
5.13
4.15*
1
0.00
0.00
132
1.24


CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Summary
Using four experimental and four control groups, this
researcher investigated the effect of human sexuality instruc
tion on course participants for sexual guilt, psychological
androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others.
An attempt was also made to determine whether the course had
any differential effect on males and females. This investigation
was conducted during the Spring Quarter, 1977, at the University
of Florida.
Three instruments were used to evaluate change. These
were as follows:
1. The Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Sub
scale
2. The Bern Sex-Role Inventory
3. The Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors experimenter's
adaptation
These instruments were first administered to the subjects
the week of March 28 to April 1. The posttest was given ten weeks
later, May 30 to June 3.
Seventy experimental subjects and sixty-seven control sub
jects completed the pre- and postcomponents of the three instru
ments. Overall, the attrition rate for all subjects was 30%,


69
Table 12
Attitude, Concept A--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
0.28
1
0.28
0.17
Residual
104.28
66
1.58
Feme les
Group
0.27
1
0.27
0.21
Residual
83.29
65
1.28
aFor post comparison.


165
Table 108
Attitude, Concep.t L--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
2.15
1
2.15
1.01
lies i dual
140.85
66
2.13
Group
0.14
i
0.14
0.07
Residual
125.13
65
1.93
al:or post comparison.


66
Table 9
Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Cotariance
Source
Sum o f
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
2.46
1
0.246
2.24
Residual
72.72
66
1.10
Females
Group
0.70
1
0. 70
0.55
Resj dual
83.13
65
1.28
aFor post comparison.


161
Table 104
Attitude, Concept K--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Post -
mean
SD
Males
Experimental
37
4.46
1.68
4.84
1.63
Control
32
4.53
2.05
4.72
1.84
Tot a 1
-69
4.49
1 84
4.78
1.71
Eema 1 .*s
lixpe r i merit a 1
35
4.61
1. 89
5.12
1.76
Contro l
35
5.26
1 .69
5.11
1.76
lot a i
68
4.94
1 .80
5.12
1.68
Total
Experimental
70
4.53
1.77
4.97
1.69
Control
67
4.91
1.89
4.93
1.73


46
included in their course curriculum plan. After topics were
submitted, a comprehensive list was compiled and distributed
to instructors (see Appendix E). In the second stage of the
process instructors were asked to indicate by a check (^) mark
those topics they would include. From these checked items a
list of topics common to all instructors was developed to
demonstrate the degree to which the Human Sexuality sections
would be standardized. The common topics are listed below.
1. Male Sexual System
2. Female Sexual System
3. Contraception
4. Sexual Behavior
5. Sexual Intercourse
6. Techniques in Sexual Arousal
7. Sexual Attitudes
8. Sexual Disorders
9. Sex Roles
10. Orgasm
11. Sex in Later Years
The specific amount of curriculum presented varied according
to each instructor. However, a review of the individual
curriculums revealed a large core of activities and approaches
shared by all the instructors.
Analysis of the Data
After the data were collected, the experimental and con
trol groups were compared on posttest scores from the three
instruments employed in the study. An analysis of covariance
statistic was used to assess significant posttest group differ
ences with the pretest data as the covariate. Huck and McLean
(1975) suggest an analysis of covariance as
for a pre- and posttreatment study.
the best statistic


22.
185
Masturbation . .
A. is a habit that should be controlled.
B. is very common.
23. If T committed a homosexual act . .
A. it would be my business.
B. it would show weakness in me.
24. Prostitution . .
A. is a sign of moral decay in society.
B. is acceptable and needed by some people.
25. Sex relations before marriage . .
A. are O.K. if both partners are in agreement.
B. are dangerous.
26. Masturbation . .
A. is all right.
B. should not be practiced.
27. Sex . .
A. is a beautiful gift of God not to be cheapened.
B. is good and enjoyable.
28. Prostitution . .
A. should not be legalized.
B. cannot really afford enjoyment.


159
Table 102
Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthies5 Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covpriance
Source
Sum of
Squares
df
Moan
Square
F Ratio"1
Males
Group
1. 20
i
1.20
0.82
Resi dual
Females
95.91
66
1.45
Group
2. 26
i
2.26
1. 29
Residual
113.70
65
1.75
aFor po
s¡ comparison.


30
In the other significant study which looked at male and
female comparisons, Zuckerman et al. (1976) compared attitudes
with behaviors. Participating in the study were 555 students
enrolled in personality, psychology, and human sexuality
courses. Instruction consisted of large class lectures,
explicit movies and slides, and small discussion groups where
in students related the lectures to personal attitudes, feelings,
and experiences. Guest panelists and speakers presented
certain topics such as dysfunction and homosexuality. Males
had more permissive attitudes and experience with a greater
number of partners than females. Attitudes and experience were
more highly related in females, and students taking the sex
course were more permissive and experienced than students in
the control course. The course changed attitudes in both
sexes, but it changed behavior only in males.
In addition to the studies comparing males and females,
two other studies are especially relevant to this literature
review (Davidow, 1976; Skovholt Nagy, § Epting, 1976). Both
of these studies used the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors
to assess the impact of the course.
This attitude measurement consists of 12 questions, i.e.,
"A homosexual" followed by seven attitude bipolar dimensions.
The bipolar dimensions have a 7-point evaluative dimension,
i.e., "good __ bad." Each bipolar dimension was
scored with a 7 to the positive end and a 1 to the negative end.
In one study using this measurement, Davidow (1976) examined
the effectiveness of a sex education course taught at Boston


14
past reinforcement history which favored the inter
nalization of moral standards. The gui11-motivated
person assumes the task of inhibiting behaviors
which he defines as morally unacceptable to avoid
experiencing intense feelings of guilt. (Mosher,
1965, p. 161)
The person who is sexually guilty inhibits behaviors which
relate to thoughts, feelings, and behaviors about sex. Specifi
cally, "sexual guilt is a generalized expectancy for self-
mediated punishment for violating or for anticipating violating
standards of proper sexual conduct" (Mosher § Cross, 1971, p. 27).
Research has examined the relationship between sexual guilt and
(a) sexual behaviors, (b) eroticism, (c) sex experience, and
(d) time.
Two studies of special interest have looked at guilt and
sexual behavior. In a study of 80 male college students using
the Mosher Incomplete Sentences Test, Mosher (1965) found that
high sex-guilt subjects were relatively insensitive to situational
cues concerning the likelihood of external punishment. On the
other hand, low sex-guilt subjects were found to be significantly
more influenced by such cues. This interaction between fear and
guilt in inhibiting unacceptable behavior was predicted from
social learning theory.
D'Augelli and Cross (1975) assessed 119 unmarried college
women with regard to sex guilt. High sex guilt was found to
inhibit sexual expression.
Some studies have used erotic stimuli in order to assess
sexual guilt. Mosher (1973) studied the psychological reactions
of 194 single male and 183 single female undergraduates to
erotic stimuli. The instrument used was the Mosher Forced-Choice


38
study and its value and (b) informed students that they could
learn of the results of their own questionnaire by contacting
the researcher whose telephone number was provided. The
questionnaire which was administered consisted of three instru
ments which are described in the following section.
Inst rumentation
The following instruments were administered to the experi
mental and control group participants: (a) Mosher Forced-Choice
Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale (see Appendix B) (b) Beni
Sex-Role Inventory (see Appendix C), and (c) the experimenter's
adaptation of the Attitude Measure of Sexual Behaviors (see
Appendix D).
The Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale,
Male Form, was developed by Mosher in 1966 and the Female Form
in 1968. Initially sentences were constructed and students were
asked to complete the sentences. Their completions formed the
basis for the responses to each item in the inventory. Examples
of the items are as follows:
As a child, sex play . .
A. was a taboo and I was deathly afra.d of it.
B. was common without guilt feelings.
When I have sexual desires . .
A. they are quite strong.
B. I attempt to repress them.
The male component has 28 items and scores for this compon
ent can range from -45 to +37. The corrected split-half reli
ability is .97. The female component has 39 items and scores
for it can range from -61 to +64. Corrected split-half reliability
is .95.


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
Introduction
This research study investigated the impact of a college
level human sexuality course using three variables as criteria.
These were sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others. Three instruments were
administered to a treatment group which participated in an
academic course in human sexuality and to a control group which
did not participate in the human sexuality course. The treat
ment group was comprised of four sections of the human sexuality
course and the control group was comprised of four sections of
other courses in the same department. The following instruments
were used:
1. Mosher Forced Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Subscale
2. Bern Sex-Role Inventory
3. Attitude Measure of 'Sexual Behaviors experimenter's
adaptation
Results
All of the data were analyzed through the computer facilities
of the Northeast Regional Data Center of the Florida State Uni
versity System. The experimental design used for the study was
a pretest-posttest nonrandomized design. Six hypot'heses were
49


Table 101
Attitude,
Concept K-
Means and
-Valuable
Standard
-Worthless
Deviations
Dimension
Group
N
Pre-
mean
SD
Pos i: -
mean
SD
Hales
Experi mental
37
4.05 '
1.45
4.54
1.52
Cont rol
32
4.06
1.72
4 .28
1.42
To t a 1
69
4.06
1.57
4.40
1.47
Fc-ma 1 o >
F.xper i me n l a 1
33
4.27
1 .42
4 52
1.46
Control
35
5.02
1.59
4.63
1.59
'lot a 1
68
4.77
1.58
4.57
1.52
Tell: 1
Evper j ment a 1
70
4.16
1.43
4.5 3
1.48
Cont rol
67
4.67
1.74
4.46
1.51


80
Table 23
Attitude, Concept B--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Pre- Post-
Group
N
mean
SD
mean
SD
Males
Kxper ¡.menta 1
37
6.32
1.00
6.38
0.92
Control
32
6.97
1.60
6.09
1. 15
Tota 1
69
6.16
1.31
6.25
1.04
Fe in.-1 le
Experimental
33
6.36
1.11
6.58
0.71
Control
35
6.34
1.03
6.40
1.14
1 o t a 1
68
6.35
1.05
6.47
0.83
Total
67
6. 16
1 33
6.25
1.15
Expe rimenta1
Cont rol


65
Table 8
Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre
mean
SD
Post
mean
SD
Males
Experimental
37
2.87
1.44
2.81
1.49
Control
32
2.94
1.44
3.25
1.69
Total
69
2.90
1.43
3.01
1.59
Feniri les
Experimental
33
3.12
1.29
3.39
1.14
Control
35
3.71
1.41
3.91
1.48
Tot al
68
3.43
1.38
3.66
1.35
Total
Experimental
70
2.99
1.37
3.09
1.36
Control
67
3.33
1.46
3.6t)
1.61
i


Tab
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
Page
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
1 72
173
174
Attitude, Concept K--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept K--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept K--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept K--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimens ion:One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept L--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept L--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations 1
Attitude, Concept L--Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept L--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept L--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept L--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitudes, Concepts A through L: Two-way
Analysis of Covariance
Attitudes, Concepts A through L: Means and
Standard Deviations
Attitudes, Concepts A through L: One-way
Analysis of Covariance
xi i i


26
the concerns of handicapped students. The results for all
three groups showed statistically significant increases in
tolerance toward autoeroticism and knowledge of sexual myths.
Group A developed a statistically significant more liberalized
attitude toward premarital and extramarital relations as com
pared to Groups B and C. From 801 to 851 of the participants
reported changes in their personal lives and professional
intents and performances regarding sex education for the
handicapped. The experiential workshop proved to be an
effective means of increasing tolerance in sexual attitudes
as well as promoting more interest in involvement in sex educa
tion for the handicapped.
Ten studies, identified by this researcher, have used
college students as subjects. In order to evaluate the effec
tiveness of a marriage course, Olsen and Gravatt (1968) studied
97 university students. Results showed a positive change
toward the sexual behavior of others on an attitude scale con
taining 48 items. However, the course content was unclear and
the attitudes measured were nebulous.
Bernard (1973) conducted a comprehensive outcome study on
a sex education course given at the University of Rochester.
Twenty-four lectures were given by various specialists, and
weekly discussion groups were held. Topics covered included
psychosexual development, human sexual response, pregnancy,
birth, abortion, and contraception. Discussion groups were
open-ended in format and arranged from didactic exercises which
focused on lecture material to personal discussion^ concerning


143
Table 86
Attitude, Concept I --Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre
e an
SD
Post
inean
SD
Males
Hxper i merit a 1
37
2.30
1. 85
2.54
2.04
Control
32
2.38
2.15
2.19
1.58
Total
"69
2.33
1.98
2.38
1.83
Feiiia i e s
'experiment n 1
33
2.30
1. 79
2.30
1.76
Coniiol
35
2.11
1.78
2.00
1.75
Total
68
2. 21
1.78
2.15
1.75
To; .i i
F.xpc r imentnl
70
2.30
1.81
2.43
1.90
Con tro1
67
2.24
1.96
2.09
1.66


134
Table 77
Attitude, Concept H--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
5D
Post
inear.
SD
Males
ixper i men 11
37
4. 19
1.63
4.62
1.46
Co fit rol
32
4.31
1.93
4.41
1.66
To tal
"69
4.25
1.76
4.52
1.55
rem! les
Hyperimen1 al
33
4.00
1.62
4.49
1 .75
Cent rol
35
3.80
1.86
3.51
1.87
Total
68
3.90
1.74
3. 99
1.87
To t a 1
Hxperjmental
70
4.10
1.62
4.56
1. 59
Control
67
4.05
1 89
3.94
1.82


CHAPTER III
METHODS AND PROCEDURES
Overview
Since effective instruction in a human sexuality course may
have far reaching results, research on factors affecting sexual
attitudes is valuable and necessary. Sexual attitudes which
have the potential for change as a result of sex instruction
need to be explored and identified. A review of the litera
ture in this area shows that the number of experimental studies
which have been conducted is scarce. Undoubtedly, there is a
need for more research on sexual attitude change as a result
of sex education.
This study has investigated the impact of a human sexu
ality course on sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and
attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others. The study
has attempted to provide answers to the following research
quest ions:
1. Does a course in human sexuality affect a students'
feelings of guilt about sexual matters?
2. Does a course in human sexuality affect the status of
psychological androgyny in the students?
3. Does a course in human sexuality affect students'
attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others?
34


204
Campbell, D. S., § Stanley, J. C. Experimental and quasi-experi
mental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966.
Christensen, H. T. fj Carpenter, G. R. Timing patterns in the
development of sexual intimacy: An attitudinal report on three
modern western societies. Marriage and Family Living, 1962,
24, 616-627.
Christensen, H. T., 6 Johnson, K. P. Marriage and the family.
New York: Ronald Press, 1971.
Cottingham, H. F. Psychological education, the guidance function,
and the school counselor. The School Counselor, 1973, 20,
340-345.
D'Augelli, J. F., § Cross, H. J. Relationship of sex guilt and
moral reasoning to premarital sex in college women and in
couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1975,
43, 40-47.
Davidow, T. D. The effect of a course in human sexuality on
participants' knowledge, attitude, and behavior (Doctoral
dissertation, Boston University, 1976). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1976, 37, 1398A-1399A1 [Univer
sity Microfilms No. 76-21,224)
Diprizio, C. S. The effects of a program of sex education on
the attitudes of junior high school students and their
parents (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University,
1974). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1975 35,
5081B. ^University Microfilms No. 75-7902)
Ellis, A. Sex without guilt. In D. L. Grummon § A. M. Barclay
(Eds.), Sexuality: A search for perspective. New York:
D. Van Nostrand Co., 1971.
Flatter, J. C. The influence of human sexuality workshops on
educators' degree of sexual liberalism: An exploratory study
(Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, 1975). Dis-
sertation Abstracts International, 1975 36^, 2626A-2627A4
(University Microfilms No. 75-25,282)
Fretz, B. R. An attitude measure of sexual behavior. Paper
presented at the meeting of the American Psychological
Association, New Orleans, September 1974.
Fretz, B. R. Assessing attitudes toward sexual behaviors. The
Counseling Psychologist, 1975 5^, 100-106.
Fretz, B. R., ¡j Johnson, W. R. Influence of intensive workshops
on teachers' sex information and attitudes toward sex educa
tion, Research Quarterly of the American Health, Physical
Education, and Recreation Association, 1971 47~, 156-163.
Fromme, A. Sex and marriage. New York: Barnes 8 Noble, 1955.


Tab
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
Page
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
Attitude, Concept E--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept F--Good-Bad pimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept F--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: One-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Conce.pt G--Good-Bad Dimension: Two-
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension: Means
and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept G-.-Good-Bad Dimension: One
way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Attitude, Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: Means and Standard Deviations
Attitude, Concept G--Valuable-Worthless Dimen
sion: One-way Analysis of Covariance...
Attitude, Concept G--Understandable-Mysterious
Dimension: Two-way Analysis of Covariance
x


206
Karas, S., § Gale, E. Effectiveness of a sex education program
on teacher's sex knowledge and attitude. Comparative Group
Studies, 1972, 3, 213-215.
Katchadourian, H. A. Fundamentals of human sexuality. New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1972.
Kronhausen, P., § Kronhausen, E. The sexually responsive woman.
New York: Ballantine, 1965.
Kutner, S. J. Sex guilt and the sexual behavior sequence.
Journal of Sex Research-, 1971, 1_, 07-115.
Lamb, C. Personality correlates of human enjoyment following
motivational arousal. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 1968, £, 2 37-241.
Leiman, A. H. f, Epstein, S. Thematic sexual responses as related
to sexual drive and guilt. Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, 1961, 6J5, 1 69-175 .
Love, R. E., Sloan, L. R., 5 Schmidt, M. J. Viewing pornography
and sex guilt: The priggish, the prudent, and the profligate.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1976, 4_4, 624-629
Masters, W.
Little,
H. §
1966.
Johnson,
V. E.
Human
sexual
response.
Boston:
Masters, W.
Little,
H. 5
1970.
Johnson,
V. E.
Human
sexual
inadequacy.
Boston
Maxwell, S. Experimental program on human sexuality: Vanderbilt
University, Nashville, Tennessee. Journal of the National
Association of Women's Deans and Counselors, 1972 35 (3),
118-122.
McCary, J. L. Human sexuality. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1967.
McCary, J. L. Attitudes, behavior, and sex education. In D. L.
Grummon fj A. M. Barclay (Eds.), Sexuality: A search for per
spective. New York: Van NostraniT, 1971.
McCary, J. L. Human sexuality (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand, 1973
McMain, R. K. Sex education program effects on counselor trainees'
sex attitudes (Doctoral dissertation, University of New Mexico,
1974). Dissertation Abstracts International, 1975 36^, 1445B.
(University Microfilms No. 75-18,654)
Meins, F., Yeaworth, R., 5 Horstein, S. Effectiveness of an
interdisciplinary course in human sexuality. Nursing Research,
1974, 3, 248-253. 1
Mims, F. H., Brown, L., § Lubow, R. Human sexuality course evalu
ation. Nursing Research, 1976, 2_5, 187-191.


157
Table 100
Attitude,
, Concept
K--Valuable-
Worthless
; Dimension;
Two way
Analysis
of
Covarianc
:e
Sun
o r
Mi.;
a n
Sour
C 0;
Squa
res
d!
Sqii;
j re F
Ra
rio"'
Mil i !i
l-ffccts
Civ
oi;]
3.
59
1
3.
5 9
2.
26
Sc
i.
36
1
1 .
36
0.
86
1 n t e
l'.ict ion
0.
15
1
0.
15
0.
09
.Gr
oup Sex
Ices i
dual
209 .
66
132
1 .
59
cl
Sor post, c
;o¡ i-'.ari sc
Pi .


10.
187
Petting . .
A. is an expression of affection which is satisfying.
B. I am sorry to say is becoming an accepted practice.
11. Unusual sex practices . .
A. are not so unusual.
A. don't interest me.
12. "Dirty" jokes in mixed company . .
A. disgust me.
B. do not bother me as long as they are just in fun.
13. If I had sex relations, I would feel . .
A. very dirty.
B. happy and satisfied.
14. Sex . .
A. is good and enjoyable.
B. should be saved for wedlock and childbearing.
15. When I have sexual desires . .
A. I enjoy it like all healthy human beings.
B. I fight them for I must have complete control of my
body.
16. Prostitution . .
A. makes me sick when I think about it.
B. needs to be understood.
17. Unusual sex practices . .
A. might be interesting.
B. are disgusting and revolting.
18. Sex relations before marriage . .
A. are disgusting and unnecessary.
B. are O.K. if both partners are in agreement.
19. Masturbation . .
A. is sickening.
B. is understandable in many cases.
20. If in the future I committed adultery . .
A. I would resolve not to commit the mistake again.
B. I would hope there would be no consequences.
21. Unusual sex practices.
A. are all in how you look at it.
B. are unwise and lead only to trouble.
22. Petting . .
A. is just asking for trouble.
B. can lead to bigger and better things.


This
Skovholt,
the past
of my gra
valuable
so many o
viding th
dissertation is deservedly dedicated
mentor, counselor, and fellow resear
two years has helped me continuously
duate work. Tom has given unselfishl
t ime
and
energy
whenever I have
calle
ccas
ions
when I
was discouraged
, Tom
e li
ft I
needed,
He is a true
friend
to Dr. Tom
cher
, who
for
wi
th
all
aspects
y
of
his
most
d
up<
on hi
m. On
wa
s
there
pro-


128
Table 71
Attitude, Concept H--Good-Bad Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre-
mean
SD
Post -
mean
SD
Males
Expe ri ment a 1
37
3.62
1 36
4.19
1.27
Control
32
3.69
1. 71
3.81
1. 55
Total
"69
3.6 5
1. 52
4.01
1.41
I'emaio s
Experiment a 1
33
3.24
1.44
3.7 9
1.41
Cont re 1
35
3.43
1.38
3.49
1.31
Total
68
3.34
1.40
3.36
1.36
Tota 1
Experimental
70
3.44
1.40
4.00
1.34
Control
67
3.55
1 54
3.64
1.43


173
Table 116
Attitudes, Concepts A through L:
Means and Standard Deviations
Pre- Post-
Croup
N
mean
SD
mean
SD
Males
Kxper i ment a 1
37
4.45
0.67
4.59
0.73
Coat rol
32
4 50
0.91
4.50
0.78
To tu 1
69
4.47
0.78
4.55
0.75
rii'Ui lo
experiment a 1
33
4.47
0.74
4.71
0.72
Control
35
4.66
0.84
4.62
0.85
Total
68
4.57
0.79
4.66
0.78
To t a 1
experimental
70
4.46
0.70
4.65
0.72
Con t rol
67
4.59
0.87
4.56
0.81


Week VI
May 3
May 5
Week VII
May 10
May 12
Week VIII
May 17
May 19
Week IX
May 24
May 26
Week X
May 31
June 2
Sex Roles and Socialization
Lecture
Readings: G§J pp. 31-33; 52-64; 271-274
OBOS pp. 17-23
Lecture and discussion (Nancy Downing Androgyny)
Readings: 49% pp. 223-330
Homosexuality
Lecture
Readings: OBOS pp. 81-97
Gf¡ J pp. 158-174
TEST II
Pregnancy and Childbirth; Sex and Aging
Lecture
Readings: OBOS pp. 216-326
Lecture and discussion
Readings: OBOS pp. 327-336
GfjJ pp. 246- 257
Sex and Marriage: Where Are We Going?
Lecture
Readings: G{¡ J pp. 232-245 ; 258- 270
Lecture and discussion
Readings: G§J pp. 279-316
M§J pp. 174-179; 240-259
Lecture and review
Debate


] 71
Table 114
Attitude, Concept L--Understandable-Mysterious Dimension:
One-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum o f
Squares
df
Me in '
Square
F Ratio
Males
Group
1 99
i
1.99
0.80
Re s i d u : 1
163.97
66
2.48
i'er.in 1 us
Group
0.09
i
0.09
0.04
Resi dual
131.70
65
2.03
aloi post comparison.


118
table 61
Attitude, Concept G--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Source
Sum of
S'.(tu) ros
df
Mean
Square
F Ratioa
Main Pffec
Group
t s
1.72
1
1 .72
1.01
OCX
1.41
1
1 41
0.83
I n t era cl i o
Group S
i i
ox 0.01
1
0.01
0.01
Residual
224.26
132
1.70
For post comparison.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN SEXUALITY INSTRUCTION ON SEXUAL GUILT,
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY, AND ATTITUDES TOWARD
THE SEXUAL BEHAVIORS OF OTHERS
By
Franklin Joseph Nagy
August, 1977
Chairman: Dr. E. L. Tolbert
Major Department: Counselor Education
This study was designed to determine the effects of
instruction in human sexuality on undergraduate college students.
Changes in sexual guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes
toward the sexual behaviors of others were evaluated. Subjects
for the study consisted of students enrolled in a ten-week
human sexuality course offered during spring 1977 at the Univer
sity of Florida.
Three instruments were used to measure posttreatment dif
ferences. These were the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-
Sex Guilt Subscale, the Bern Sex-Role Inventory, and the Attitude
Measure of Sexual Behaviors experimenter's adaptation. All
three instruments were administered during the first and last
week of the quarter.
A total of 137 volunteer subjects completed the pre- and
postcomponents. The experimental group, the human sexuality
course participants, consisted of 70 subjects and the control
group, students enrolled in courses other than human sexuality,
contained 67 subjects.
xi v


16
permissive premarital standards. Moral beliefs were the reason
given by guilty females for their lack of participation in
intercourse or more intimate forms of petting. The reasons
given for nonparticipation by guilty males included moral
beliefs, respect for the girl, and fear of pregnancy or disease.
In another study of 100 females, Kutner (1971) found that
sex guilt was negatively correlated with all the sexual phases
associated with the use of birth control pills. He found that
the greater the guilt, the less the sexual desire, responsive
ness, orgasm frequency, passion, and orgasm ease.
Schwarz (197S), in a study of 286 male and female college
students, found that low levels of sexual experience were asso
ciated with a "traditional moralistic sexual-moral philosophy
and with high levels of sex guilt.
Sometimes guilt changes as a function of time and increased
sexual activity. According to Christensen and Carpenter (1962),
as a relationship between a boy and a girl moves from acquaint
anceship to going steady to engagement, sexual behavior becomes
more intimate, and guilt over sexual endearments decreases for
both sexes. Also, as the sexual values of our society change,
sexual guilt changes. There has been a distinct drop in recent
years in the guilt feelings experienced by both males and females
as a result of premarital intercourse (McCary, 1973). Still,
the prevalence of sexual guilt among college students is aptly
stated by Albert Ellis (1971): "The fact is, therefore, that
literally millions of Americans, including untold numbers of
college students, are still exceptionally guilty about sex in
general" fp. 227).


64
Table 7
Attitude, Concept A--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
5¡mu of Mean
Source
Squares
df
Square
Main Effects
Group
2.16
1
2.16
Sex
2.47
1
2.47
Interact i on
Group Sex
0.65
1
0.65
Residual
161.73
132
1.23
aT'or post
comparison.
1. 76
2.02
0.53
ll-n


141
Table 84
Attitude, Concept I--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
One-way Analysis of CoVariance
Source
Sum o f
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio3
Males
Group
0.00
1
0.00
0.00
Residual
90.79
66
1.38
Fentii 1 es
Group
1.53
1
1.53
1.46
Res iduc1
68.24
65
1.05
aFor post, comparison.


100
Table 43
Attitude, Concept E--Good-Bad Dimension:
Two-way Analysis of Covariance
Souite
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F Ratio*
Main i !'
Ci roup
Ions
3.72
1
3.72
2.81
St,
1.42
1
1.42
1 08
i u to i-;* ci
Gi oup
[ LOP
r ,,
V.! C A
0.02
1
0.02
0.02
Resido;:
174.79
132
1.32
aFor
post


189
36. When I have sexual desires . .
A. I attempt to repress them.
B. I sometimes think of past experiences.
37. If I had sex relations, I would feel . .
A. all right, I think.
B. I was being used not loved.
38. Sex relations before marriage . .
A. are not good for anyone.
B. with the person I hope to marry is O.K.
39. "Dirty" jokes in mixed company . .
A. should be avoided.
B. are acceptable up to a point.


10
the third focus of this study, attitudes toward the sexual
behaviors of others, reveals that only a limited number of
studies have been done with college students. More research
is needed if we are to clearly know whether attitudes can be
changed through participation in a sex education course.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of
an instructional experience in human sexuality on sexual guilt,
psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual behav
iors of others. This instruction was offered through BES 2 5 2
Human Sexuality, an elective course of the Department of Behav
ioral Studies, University of Florida, given in Spring Quarter,
1977.
Research Questions
The research questions which will be explored for sexual
guilt, psychological androgyny, and attitudes toward the sexual
behaviors of others are as follows:
1. Do students who participate in a human sexuality course
experience a reduction in feelings of guilt about sexual matters?
2. Will a course in human sexuality affect the status of
psychological androgyny for the students who participate?
3. Does a course in human sexuality affect students'
attitudes toward the sexual behaviors of others?


18b
MOSHER FORCED-CHOICE GUILT INVENTORY-SEX GUILT SUBSCALE
Female Form
This questionnaire consists of pairs of statements given
by college women in response to the "Mosher Incomplete Sentences
Test." Read the stem and pair of statements and decide which
you most agree with or which is most characteristic of you.
Your choice, in each instance, should be in terms of what you
believe, how you feel, or how you woul 1 react, and not in terms
of how you think you should believe, feel, or respond. Do not
omit an item even though it is very difficult for you to decide.
.e A
or B for each
item
If
in the future I
committed adultery . .
A.
I hope I would
be
punished
very deeply.
B.
I hope I enjoy
it.
"Di
rty" jokes in m
ixed
company
A.
do not bother
me.
B.
are something
that
make me
very uncomfortable
Mas
turbation . .
A.
helps one feel
eas
ed and relaxed.
B.
is wrong and w
ill
ruin you.
Sex
relations befo
re marriage ,
A. should be permitted.
B. are wrong and immoral.
5. If in the future I committed adultery . .
A. I would be unworthy of my husband.
B. I would have a good reason.
6. If I committed a homosexual act . .
A. it would be my business.
B. it would show weakness in me.
7. When I was a child, sex . .
A. was not talked about and was a feared word.
B. was fun to think about.
8. When I have sexual dreams . .
A. I sometimes wake up feeling excited.
B. I try to forget them.
9. "Dirty" jokes in mixed company . .
A. can be funny depending on the company.
B. are in bad taste.


113
Table 56
Attitude, Concept F--Valuable-Worthless Dimension:
Means and Standard Deviations
Group
N
Pre -
mean
SD
Pos t -
mean
SD
Males
Experimenta 1
37
5.87
1.18
5.9 5
1.25
Control
32
6.34
0.90
5.88
0.98
Total
69
6.09
1.08
5.91
1.12
Fciiid J e s
Experimental
33
6.03
1.36
6.10
1.18
Control
35
6.14
1.12
5.83
1.54
Total
68
6.09
1.23
5.96
1.38
Tot al
Experimental
70
5.94
1. 26
6.01
1.21
Cont rol
67
6.24
1. 02
5.85
1.29


APPENDIX C
BEM SEX ROLE INVENTORY
Shown below are personality characteristics to describe
yourself. That is, we would like you +o indicate, on a scale
from 1 to 7, how true of you these various characteristics are.
l=Never or almost never true.
2=Usually not true.
3=Sometimes but infrequently true.
4=0ccasionally true.
5=0ften true.
6=Usually true.
7=Always or almost always true.
1.
Self-reliant
31.
Makes decisions easily
2.
Yielding
32.
Compassionate
3.
Helpful
33.
Sincere
4.
Defends own beliefs
34.
Self-sufficient
5.
Cheerful
35.
Eager to soothe hurt
6.
Moody
feelings
7.
Independent
36.
Conceited
8.
Shy
37.
Dominant
9.
Conscientious
38.
Soft-spoken
10.
Athletic
39.
Likable
11 .
Affectionate
40.
Masculine
12.
Theatrical
41.
Warm
13.
Assertive
42.
Solemn
14.
Flatterable
43.
Willing to take a stand
IS.
Happy
44.
Tender
16.
Strong personality
45.
Friendly
17.
Loyal
46.
Aggressive
18.
Unpredictable
47.
Gullible
19.
Forceful
48.
Ineff cient
20.
Feminine
49.
Acts as a leader
21.
Reliable
50.
Childlike
22.
Analytical
51.
Adaptable
23.
Sympathetic
52.
Individualistic
24.
Jealous
53.
Does not use harsh
'25.
Has leadership abilities
language
26.
Sensitive to the needs of
54.
Unsystematic
others
55.
Competitive
27.
Truthful
56.
Loves children
28.
Willing to take risks
57.
Tactful
29.
Understanding
58.
Ambitious
30.
Secretive
59.
" 60.
Gent 1e
Convent Tonal
190