Citation
Job satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic head coaches

Material Information

Title:
Job satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic head coaches
Creator:
Hambleton, Susan Leigh, 1951-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 165 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Coaching ( jstor )
College athletics ( jstor )
Employment discrimination ( jstor )
Gender roles ( jstor )
Job satisfaction ( jstor )
Men ( jstor )
Occupations ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Women ( jstor )
Work environments ( jstor )
Coaches (Athletics) ( lcsh )
Job satisfaction ( lcsh )
Sports for women -- Coaching ( lcsh )
Women -- Psychology ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1989.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 152-163).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Susan Leigh Hambleton.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
21663404 ( OCLC )
ocm21663404
0020380111 ( ALEPH )

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Full Text







JOB SATISFACTION
AMONG FEMALE INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETIC HEAD COACHES











By



SUSAN LEIGH HAMBLETON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERISTY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1989

































Copyright 1989

by

Susan Leigh Hambleton


































In Memory Of My Brother



Fred Hambleton














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


There are a number of people I would like to acknowledge

for extending their support, encouragement, and understanding

as I worked toward the completion of my doctoral studies.

First, I would like to thank the members of my doctoral

committee, Dr. Janet Larsen, Dr. Paula Welch, and Dr. Phyllis

Meek. Their support and guidance were of utmost importance

to me. I am especially grateful to them for responding in

kind when I interrupted their busy schedules to ask for

assistance or guidance. Even though each committee member

played a significant role, I would especially like to thank

Dr. Meek for the encouragement and compassion she never

failed to provide when I needed it the most. She is a

teacher, mentor, and friend. I hope one day I will be able

to motivate others to achieve their dreams with the same

warmth and kindness she consistently offered to me.

Words can never convey the gratitude I feel toward Dr.

Larry Loesch, chairman of my doctoral committee. His

outstanding professional expertise, coupled with his warm

sense of humor and ability to instill confidence in his

students, enabled me to accomplish more than I previously

thought possible. I am indebted to him for providing me with

the foundation I needed to accomplish my goals.

I would also like to thank my parents, Fred and June

Hambleton, not only for their support and patience throughout











this experience, but also for instilling in me the ever-so-

important values of hard work and determination.

I am deeply grateful to Sharon Knight, Rhendy

Hutchcraft, Cathy Saenz, and Jackie Herndon for providing me

with the unconditional support, encouragement, and assistance

I needed along the way. In addition, I would like to thank

Mary Horn for her guidance and unyielding belief in me and

for helping me overcome what were perhaps my most difficult

obstacles; those that were generated from deep within myself.

I would also like to thank Mrs. Pearl Clark, Mrs. Betty

and Trish Garibaldi, and Darius and Cindy Cauthen, members of

my "extended" family, for their nurturance and ever-present

concern for my general well-being.

Special thanks are also extended to Karen Agne for her

help in executing the data analyses procedures. Her patience

will always be remembered.

Finally, my sincerest appreciation and thanks are

extended to my closest friend and confidante, Michele

Garibaldi. Her unwavering confidence in my abilities, teamed

with her optimistic attitude toward challenge, provided me

with much of the strength and courage I required to pursue my

dreams and aspirations.











TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................ iv

LIST OF TABLES ........................................... viii

ABSTRACT ....................................................x

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION .............................................. 1
Theoretical Framework.............................. 8
Statement of the Problem......................... 11
Need For the Study. ............................... 12
Purpose of the Study. ............................. 15
Rationale for the Approach to the Study.......... 15
Research Questions. ............................... 18
Definitions of Terms ............................. 19
Overview of the Remainder of the Study ...........25

II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE ........................ 26
Further Delineation of Problem.................... 26
Support for Theoretical Framework ................ 49
Support for the Need for the Study ............... 80
Support for Measurement Techniques ............... 83
Summary of Literature Review...................... 88

III METHODOLOGY ............................................ 91
Population........................................ 91
Sampling Procedures............................... 96
Resultant Sample. ................................. 97
Assessment Instruments. ........................... 99
Data Analysis.................................... 103
Methodological Limitations ...................... 104

IV RESULTS ................................................ 108

V DISCUSSION .............................................. 124
Generalizability Limitations..................... 125
Evaluation of Results ........................... 130
Implications and Recommendations ................ 135
Summary of Results .............................. 140












APPENDICES

A INTRODUCTORY LETTER............................... 142

B DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY............................... 143

C MINNESOTA SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE............. 144

D STRAIN QUESTIONNAIRE .............................. 151


REFERENCES ................................................ 152

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ....................................... 164


vii











LIST OF TABLES


a ACX.j page


1 Mean Scores For Age, Years As Coach, Years As
Head Coach, Annual Income, Behavioral
Strain, Physical Strain,Cognitive Strain,
Total Strain, Games Won, Games Lost, And
General Job Satisfaction............................. 108

2 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Type Of Sport Coached............................. 109

3 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Marital Status (Single/Married) ...................110

4 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Marital Status (Divorced/Significant Other)....... 111

5 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Educational Degree ................................ 112

6 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
For Division (I) ..................................... 113

7 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
For Division (II) .................................... 114

8 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
For Division (III) ................................... 115

9 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Matrix
For Age, Years As Coach, Years As Head Coach, Annual
Income, Behavioral Strain, Physical Strain,
Cognitive Strain, Total Strain, Games Won,
Games Lost, And General Job Satisfaction.............116

10 Multiple Regression Analysis Of Female
Intercollegiate Athletic Coaches' General
Job Satisfaction Score By Age, Years
As Coach, Years As Head Coach, Annual
Income, Level Of Behavioral Strain, Level Of
Physical Strain, Level Of Cognitive Strain,
Level Of Total Strain, Number Of Games Won,
And Number Of Games Lost............................. 118


viii










11 Summary Of Four Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Income ............................................... 119


12 Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Behavioral Strain.................................... 120


13 Summary of Two Regression Ananyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Physical Strain...................................... 120


14 Summary Of Three Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Cognitive Strain..................................... 120


15 Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor; Total
Strain ............................................... 121

16 Analysis Of Variance Of Female Intercollegiate Athletic
Coaches' General Job Satisfaction Score By Marital
Status, Type Of Sport Coached, Level Of Sport Coached,
And Degree........................................... 122










Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy

JOB SATISFACTION
AMONG FEMALE INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETIC HEAD COACHES

By

Susan Leigh Hambleton

August 1989

Chairman: Larry C. Loesch
Major Department: Counselor Education


Investigated in this study was the nature of job

satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic head

coaches. Based on Dawis and Lofquist's theory of work

adjustment and previous research, age, years in coaching,

years as a head coach, success in work role, type of sport

coached, annual income, marital status, collegiate division

level of athletic program, and strain were identified as

possible sources of variation in the coaches' job

satisfaction. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

(MSQ) was used to assess overall job satisfaction as well

as 20 components of it. The Strain Questionnaire (SQ) was

used to assess total strain and its physical, behavioral,

and cognitive components.

A demographic questionnaire, MSQ, and SQ were sent to

300 female intercollegiate athletic head coaches at

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member

institutions. Complete response data were received from

135 coaches (40%). The sample was found to adequately











represent NCAA female head coaches in terms of age, years

as a coach, years as a head coach, type of sport coached,

and collegiate division level of athletic program.

A multiple regression analysis was used to investigate

the relationship between overall job satisfaction and age,

income, tenures, success, and strain components. Only

annual income made a statistically significant contribution

to the variance in job satisfaction. In subsequent

analyses, income was found to be significantly related to

the advancement, authority, compensation, and social status

components of job satisfaction. Also, physical,

behavioral, cognitive, and total strain were related to the

activity, creativity, and variety job satisfaction

components. In general, however, these component

relationships were only moderate. In addition, neither

overall job satisfaction nor any of its components was

found to vary on the bases of these coaches' marital

status, type of sport coached, or collegiate level of

coaching.

The situational and psychological factors investigated

accounted for far less variation in female intercollegiate

athletic head coaches' job satisfaction than has been

hypothesized; only annual income was a good predictor of

it. Other factors, such as those inherent in work

environments, need to be studied to gain greater

understanding of job satisfaction among these coaches.















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


During the last twenty years, there have been many

controversies about the nature of intercollegiate athletics.

For example, mandatory drug testing, recruitment violations,

and minimum academic standards for athletes have been major

issues. Among these is a subject which has spawned much

controversy and discussion: the appropriate roles of women in

sports. The controversies about appropriate roles for women

in sports parallel those for women in society, and have the

same bases, such as changing societal norms and values, the

(so-called) women's movement, and state and federal

legislation.

Collegiate sports for women date to the nineteenth

century, but it was not until about the 1970s that women

began to engage in "high level" intercollegiate athletics.

More important, however, is the fact that it has only been in

the past decade and a half that females have actively

participated within the established, male-dominated

intercollegiate athletic structure, and in much the same

manner as male athletes. Several factors prevented female

athletes from participating in intercollegiate sports prior

to the early 1970s, not the least of which was the














disproportionately greater cultural emphasis awarded to high-

level competition for males than for females.

Prior to the 1970s, women were excluded from most

rigorous sports as well as the associated intercollegiate

athletic teams primarily on the basis of traditional sex-role

stereotypes that existed for males and females in the

American culture. The qualities deemed necessary for

successful athletic achievements were synonymous with traits

and characteristics applied to the traditional masculine

stereotype, i.e., competitiveness, aggressiveness, and

determination. Consequently, men dominated the playing

fields, courts, and pools; won more scholarships and awards;

and obtained greater public attention and acclaim for

athletic achievements. In contrast, females aspiring to

participate in sport did so without adequate facilities,

funding, or reward and were relegated to roles considered

appropriate for their sex, such as cheerleaders for male

football and basketball teams (Fox, 1985).

In addition to the stereotypical sex-role constraints

placed upon women in athletics, women's sports prior to the

1970s were governed by a philosophy of "protectionism" that

served as a barrier to the successful integration of women in

intercollegiate athletics (Chu, 1985). Women physical

educators who coached women in sports considered it one of

their primary responsibilities to "protect" female athletes














from the negative connotations associated with men's sports

programs, (i.e., violence, aggressiveness, and injury).

Accordingly, segregated sports programs for men and women

seemed justified, and female athletes were restricted to low

level competition often referred to as "play days." Under

the guise of protectionism, competition, in its most positive

sense, was suppressed rather than encouraged for women,

further alienating and isolating women from the realm of

intercollegiate athletic competition.

During the late 1960s and early 1970s, parallel to the

tremendous increase in enrollment of women in higher

education, there was a dramatic rise in the number of

athletically talented females capable of participating in

competitive intercollegiate athletics. Thus, the demand for

higher levels of competition became more pronounced and a

more competitive philosophy for women's sports began to

evolve.

The transition from "protectionism" to "competitiveness"

first reached prominence with the establishment of the

Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (CIAW) in

1965 and the subsequent establishment of the Association for

Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) in 1971. The

purpose of the CIAW was to sanction women's intercollegiate

athletic events and to establish, conduct, and promote

mechanisms leading to national intercollegiate athletic














championships (Chu, 1985). The change from the CIAW to AIAW

(i.e., from a commission to an association) was initiated

primarily to establish a stronger financial base for women's

sports programs, thus enhancing the opportunities for

athletic competition. Women's growing interest in

competitive intercollegiate athletics was evident in the

rapid growth of AIAW membership. For example, the AIAW

charter membership rose from 278 colleges and universities in

1971-72 to 973 in 1979-80 (Chu, 1985).

Despite increasing opportunities and more competitive

athletic environments for women and the increasing cultural

acceptance of women as skilled athletes, women's

intercollegiate sports programs during the early 1970s were

still plagued with obvious, blatant discriminatory practices,

not unlike those forced upon women in other areas of higher

education. In an effort to eradicate discrimination based on

social conditions and stereotyped characterization of the

sexes in American institutions of higher education, Title IX

to the Education Amendments Act was passed in 1972.

Although initially applied to educational opportunity

aspects of higher education, Title IX came to be interpreted

such that athletic opportunities for women were supposed to

be equal to those for male athletes. Following its passage,

there was a surge in the number of intercollegiate athletic

opportunities and benefits for women, (e.g., athletic







5





scholarships, sport offerings, and playing schedules).

Consequently, concomitant with the passage of Title IX,

women's participation in college athletics greatly expanded.

Ironically, Title IX had both positive and negative

impacts on women's intercollegiate sports programs. On the

positive side, participation opportunities for women

increased dramatically. For example, in 1972, only 2.5

intercollegiate sports per college were offered for women but

by 1986, the average had increased to 7.31 (Acosta &

Carpenter, 1988). Accompanying increased participation

opportunities was massive growth in the numbers of female

athlete participants. In 1972, the year Title IX was

enacted, 16,000 females competed in intercollegiate sports.

In 1986, the figure had risen sharply to 150,000 (DeFrantz,

1987).

Another positive impact directly related to the passage

of Title IX and the advancement of women's sports programs

was a dramatic increase in budget allotments for female

athletics. In 1971, before Title IX, women's intercollegiate

sports averaged only 1% of the budget of the men's sports.

By 1978, the largest women's sports programs had increased

their budgets to 15-18% of the men's. On the average,

however, most women's sport's programs had increased their

budgets from 1% to 10% of the men's by 1978 ("Comes the

Revolution," 1978). The NCAA Division I colleges and














universities exemplify the extent of the budgetary gains for

women's programs. In 1971, the average annual budget for

women was approximately $10,000. By 1980 the budgets had

increased to $300,000 (White & White, 1982). With budgetary

improvements, athletic scholarships became increasingly

available to women. In 1982, 814 colleges and universities

offered women athletic scholarships in contrast to the 60

offered to them in 1974 (Myers, 1983).

Title IX also had far-reaching negative effects on the

design, autonomy, and governance of women's intercollegiate

athletics (Chu, 1985). For example, subsequent to the

passage of Title IX, the National Collegiate Athletic

Association (NCAA) challenged the applicability of Title IX

to athletics. According to Chu (1985), some member

institutions of the NCAA feared financial strain and

inability to support separate intercollegiate athletic

programs for men and women without taking money away from

existing men's programs.

In an effort to ease anticipated financial strain from

having parallel athletic programs, men's and women's athletic

departments were merged in the vast majority of universities.

Such mergers did save money, but in more than 80% of the

cases where women had administered women's athletic programs,

the merger resulted in a male assuming the administrative

role for both programs (Chu, 1985). There is general














agreement in the literature that in 1972, approximately 90%

of women's intercollegiate athletic programs were under the

supervision of a female athletic director. By 1986, the

figure had dropped to 15%, with 32% of all intercollegiate

programs having no women involved at any level of

administration (Acosta & Carpenter, 1986).

The strong influence of the NCAA also precipitated

losses of AIAW membership, commercial sponsorship of awards

programs, television exposure revenues, and general income.

Subsequently, the devaluing of the AIAW fostered increased

confusion and distrust among the men and women. Thus in

1983, the AIAW disbanded, and the NCAA assumed uncontested

control of the majority of intercollegiate sports programs.

Currently, the intercollegiate athletic structure in the

United States is dominated by male leadership. Leadership

positions such as those of athletic director or head coach

are much more frequently occupied by men than by women.

Moreover, within the past decade, there have been substantial

reductions in the number of women in leadership positions.

Two factors appear to have contributed to the reduction in

the number of female head coaches. First, many female

coaches "voluntarily" left coaching. Second, many female

coaches were replaced by male coaches (Hart, Hasbrook, &

Mathes, 1986).













There are several possible explanations for the high

rate of turnover among female intercollegiate coaches. One

is the perpetuation of sex-role stereotypes in college

athletics. Another is the increasing acceptability of men

coaching women's sports teams as opposed to women coaching

men's teams (Abbott & Smith, 1984). A third possible

explanation is that women coaches are experiencing high

degrees of job dissatisfaction, and therefore are voluntarily

withdrawing (i.e., quitting their coaching jobs). It is this

latter possibility with which this study is concerned.



Theoretical Framework

Job satisfaction has been viewed from a wide range of

perspectives. Hoppock (1935) defined job satisfaction as

"any combination of physiological and environmental

circumstances that causes a person to truthfully say 'I am

satisfied with my job'"(p.47). According to Super (1942),

job satisfaction depends upon the individual's opportunity to

find adequate outlets for abilities, interests, personality

traits, and values. The most common definitions of job

satisfaction all allude to the existence of the individual's

needs (in varying forms), and (generally) view job

satisfaction as resulting from a good fit between the

individual's needs and the job's characteristics and/or

environment (Hopkins, 1983).













In contrast, Locke (1976) rejected the concept of needs

as a central component of job satisfaction. He defined job

satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state

resulting from the subjective appraisal of one's job or job

experiences. Locke (1976) distinguished models using the

notion of expectancy from models having as their bases the

notions of needs and/or values (Sell & Shepley, 1979).

However, authorities agree that regardless of whether the

concept of needs and/or values or perceptions is employed,

the common underlying premise of the various perspectives is

that there is something within individuals that conditions

their reactions to (i.e., satisfaction with) their jobs.

Commensurate with this view is the theory of Work

Adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). Dawis and Lofquist

(1984) asserted that job satisfaction is the result of direct

correspondence (i.e., mutual responsiveness) between an

individual's work personality and the work environment.

Individuals bring certain needs and abilities to the work

environment and the work environment in turn provides certain

rewards, such as wages, prestige, and enjoyable interpersonal

relationships, to the individual. Similarly, the

individual's skills and abilities enable her/him to respond

to the requirements of the work environment. Thus, the

rewards of the work environment are viewed as the "response"

to the requirements of the individual. When personal and














environmental requirements are mutually fulfilled, the

individual and the work environment are correspondent (Dawis

& Lofquist, 1984).

Achieving and maintaining correspondence is a continuous

and dynamic process that Dawis and Lofquist (1984) termed

work adjustment. In other words, work adjustment is the on-

going interaction between the individual and the work

environment. It is reflected in the individual's

satisfaction and satisfactoriness. Satisfactoriness is an

external indicator of effective correspondence; it is derived

from sources other than the individual worker's self

appraisal of the fulfillment of the requirements of the work

environment. If the individual fulfills the requirements of

the environment, the individual is regarded as a satisfactory

worker (i.e., has satisfactoriness). Satisfaction is an

internal indicator of correspondence; it represents the

individual worker's self appraisal of the extent to which the

work environment fulfills her/his needs. According to Dawis

and Lofquist (1984), if the work environment fulfills the

needs of the individual, she/he is defined as a satisfied

worker.

Work adjustment, as the achievement of at least

minimally effective correspondence, enables an individual to

remain in the work environment. In turn, remaining in the

work environment allows the individual to achieve better













correspondence and to stabilize the correspondent

relationship. The stability of the correspondence between

the individual and the work environment is manifested as

tenure in the job. As correspondence increases, the

probability of tenure and the projected length of tenure also

increase. Conversely, a decrease in correspondence

diminishes the probability of remaining on the job and

therefore the length of tenure.

According to Dawis and Lofquist (1969), tenure is the

basic indicator of work adjustment and therefore of job

satisfaction. Tenure is a function of correspondence between

the individual and the environment. If a correspondent

relationship with the environment is established, the

individual seeks to maintain it. If not, the individual

attempts to establish correspondence or, failing this, to

leave the work environment. Therefore, the probability that

an individual will voluntarily withdraw from the work

environment is inversely related to the individual's level of

job satisfaction (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).




Statement of Problem

Widespread job dissatisfaction among female

intercollegiate athletic coaches can be inferred from the

high (job) turnover rate among them. However, little is














actually known about their levels of job satisfaction. More

specifically, their job satisfaction has not been

investigated empirically. In particular, variations in their

job satisfaction in regard to their ages, years in coaching,

years as head coach, level of collegiate athletic program,

type of sport coached, annual income, marital status, success

in work role, and physical, behavioral, cognitive, and total

strain are unknown.



Need For Study

Job satisfaction research has been conducted in a

variety of settings, yet relatively few empirical studies

have examined job satisfaction among female intercollegiate

coaches. Moreover, there is a dearth of data available

relating work adjustment to job satisfaction among female

intercollegiate coaches. Dawis and Lofquist (1984), in the

context of their theory of work adjustment, purported that

the individual and the work environment have specific

expectations and need requirements of each other which, when

met, result in correspondence and subsequent increased job

tenure. The greater the degree of correspondence

experienced, the greater the opportunity for success and job

satisfaction. In counterpoint, lower degrees of

correspondence between the individual and the work

environment decrease potential for job satisfaction and














increase the probability of eventual job turnover. In this

context, the information derived from this study would

augment existing research relative to the theory of work

adjustment. For example, knowledge of the levels of job

satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic coaches

would enable determination of whether the theory of work

adjustment is applicable to them. Further, even more

specific information relative to the applicability of the

theory can be gained from investigation of some of the female

intercollegiate coaches' characteristics.

Understandably (in view of their high rate of turnover),

there is need to provide suitable counseling and/or

consulting services to female intercollegiate athletic

coaches. Knowledge gained from research regarding the

relationship between work adjustment and job satisfaction

therefore should enhance the efforts of counselors and

consultants who have cause to work with female coaches or

prospective coaches. Moreover, the results of this study may

provide the basis for counselor educators and others in the

helping professions to examine further the psychodynamics of

female coaches. Correspondingly, results of this study also

may have implications for career counseling, academic

advising, and planning for effective education and training

programs for prospective female intercollegiate coaches.

Thus, if the nature of female coaches' satisfaction was














known, counseling and consulting services could be better

suited to meet their needs.

Research regarding the relationship between work

adjustment and job satisfaction also has implications for the

environments (i.e., employment setting) in which female

coaches work. Attrition not only represents a waste of human

resources, with attendant psychological implications for

individuals, but also has potential to have costly impacts on

organizations. Athletic programs are disrupted and

financially burdened while new coaches are being recruited

and oriented to their new positions. If more data about work

adjustment and job satisfaction were available, personnel

practices for recruiting, hiring, training, and placement of

female coaches could be significantly improved, thus leading

to overall increases in levels of job satisfaction and

decreased turnover. Additionally, the findings from this

study could provide collegiate athletic administrators with

bases for development of both corrective and preventive

strategies designed to promote job satisfaction among female

coaches.

The current trend of high attrition among female coaches

in intercollegiate athletics could have devastating effects

on the intercollegiate structure and women's sports in

general. Abbott and Smith (1984) claimed that

intercollegiate athletics may be moving toward a sex-














segregated structure. Lopiano (1987) also speculated that

there will be few, if any, women coaching female college

athletes by the year 2000, thus reducing the probability that

female athletes will have female role models. A lack of

positive female role models could have negative repercussions

on the career choices and attitudes of young students

(Lopiano, 1987). Therefore, knowledge of job satisfaction

among female intercollegiate athletic coaches holds

implications not only for the coaches, but also for female

athletes in general.




Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to determine the nature of

job satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic

coaches. Variations in job satisfaction among female

intercollegiate athletic coaches will be investigated in

regard to factors including age, years in coaching, years as

a head coach, type of sport coached, division level of

collegiate athletic program, annual income, marital status,

success in work role, and physical, behavioral, cognitive,

and total strain.



Rationale for Approach to the Study

According to Acosta and Carpenter (1988), female

intercollegiate coaches inexplicably have been withdrawing














from their coaching positions at an increasing rate since

1972. The high turnover rate among the female coaches is not

a new phenomenon; however, in general, researchers have

neglected to investigate this problem empirically. High job

turnover among female athletic coaches would, theoretically

at least, seem to be related to their job satisfaction. But

again, there is scant empirical information about their job

satisfaction. Therefore, this study is being conducted.

A descriptive research approach will be used in this

study. More specifically, a sample of female intercollegiate

coaches across the country will be surveyed to investigate

the nature of their satisfaction with their work. The survey

method employed will be a mailed questionnaire.

Mailed questionnaire survey methodology has been

criticized as having inherent disadvantages when compared

with other survey research methodologies (e.g., interviews,

observations, or field experiments). Generally, the most

serious drawbacks of mailed questionnaire survey research are

potential lack of response and inability to validate

responses given (Bailey, 1982; Fowler, 1984; Franklin &

Osborne, 1971; Kerlinger, 1973). According to Bailey (1982),

additional drawbacks of mailed questionnaire survey research

methods include (a) lack of substantive control over the

environment in which responses are provided, (b) lack of

flexibility in responding, (c) difficulty in interpreting














non-responding to specific items, (d) lack of opportunity for

response clarification, (e) non-responding, and (f)

potentiality for sampling bias.

Conversely, mailed questionnaire survey research

methodology has numerous distinct advantages over alternative

research methods. For example, mailed questionnaires are a

means of efficiently gathering large quantities of

information from a large population. More importantly, the

acquired information can provide a remarkably accurate

portrait of the population surveyed (Kerlinger, 1973).

Other advantages of mailed questionnaires are related to

expediency and cost efficiency. Mailed questionnaires are

generally less expensive than alternative research methods

and can be sent to all potential respondents simultaneously,

thus resulting in a considerable savings of time (Babbie,

1973; Bailey, 1982).

According to Bailey (1982), additional advantages of

mailed questionnaires include (a) responses can be provided

at the convenience of the respondents, (b) respondents can be

assured of anonymity, (c) items used are standardized across

respondents, (d) there is no potential for interviewer bias

in recording responses, and (e) access is available to

respondents from whom data could not be gathered by other

means.














In general, the advantages of mailed questionnaire

survey research outweigh the disadvantages. The widespread

use of this methodology in research in the counseling

professions attests to this contention. Thus, mailed

questionnaire survey research is an acceptable approach in

general. In particular, it is an approach well-suited to the

purposes of this study.


Research Ouestions

Evident in the professional literature is that job

satisfaction varies as a function of many factors, including

those related to the individual, the work setting, and the

interactions between them. For persons in many job roles

these relationships have been explored and clarified.

However, such is not the case for female intercollegiate

athletic coaches; indeed, extremely little is known about

their job satisfaction or the factors associated with

variations in it. Therefore, the major research questions to

be addressed in this study are:

1. What is the relationship between general job
satisfaction score and age, years employed as a coach, years
employed as a head coach, annual income, perceived level of
physical, behavioral, cognitive and total strain, and success
in work role?

2. What is the relationship between scores on each of
the 20 items on the job satisfaction scale and age, years
employed as a coach, years employed as a head coach, annual
income, perceived level of physical, behavioral, cognitive,
and total strain, and success in work role?













3. What are the differences in job satisfaction on the
bases of marital status, level of sport coached, degree, and
type of sport coached, and their interactions?

4. What are the differences in scores on each of the 20
items on the job satisfaction scale on the bases of marital
status, level of sport coached, degree, and type of sport
coached, and their interactions?


Definitions of Terms

The following definitions are used throughout this

study.

Adjustment denotes continuous and dynamic process by

which an individual seeks to achieve and maintain

correspondence with an environment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women

(AIAW) is the governing organization of women's

intercollegiate sports (1971-1981) which sanctioned women's

intercollegiate athletic events and established, conducted,

and promoted competitive national championships.

Attrition refers to a gradual, natural reduction in

membership or personnel, for reasons such as retirement,

resignation, or death.

Correspondence is a function wherein the individual

fulfills the requirements of a work environment and the work

environment in turn fulfills the requirements of the

individual. As a basic assumption of work adjustment,

correspondence between an individual and her/his work

environment implies a harmonious relationship between













individual and environment, suitability of the individual to

the environment and of the environment for the individual,

and a reciprocal and complementary relationship between the

individual and the work environment. Correspondence in this

context is a relationship in which the individual and the

environment are corresponsive (i.e., mutually responsive)

(Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Head coach is a woman who oversees the training of

athletes and athletic teams. The head coach is responsible

for all administrative and supervisory duties related to her

particular sport (i.e., budget, recruitment, hiring of

personnel, or scheduling of team competition).

Interests denote preferences for activities as expressed

by the individual on a structured, standardized psychometric

instrument designed to sample a broad domain of activities

(Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, affective

condition resulting from a person's appraisal of the way in

which the experienced job situation meets personal needs,

values, and expectations (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). A

person's attitude toward the job which represents a complex

assemblage of cognitions (i.e., beliefs or knowledge),

emotions (i.e., feelings, sentiments, or evaluations), and

behavioral tendencies. According to the theory of work

adjustment, job satisfaction is the result of the














individual's appraisal of the extent to which the work

environment fulfills the individual's needs. For the purpose

of this study job satisfaction is operationally defined as

scores on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ).

The MSQ is designed to assess satisfaction with twenty

separate aspects (i.e., work reinforcers) of the work

environment that relate to twenty psychological needs. The

twenty needs are ability utilization, achievement, activity,

advancement, authority, company policies and practices,

compensation, coworkers, creativity, independence, moral

values, recognition, responsibility, security, social

service, social status, supervision-human relation,

supervision-technical, variety, and working conditions.

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is the

governing organization of men's and women's intercollegiate

athletic programs. It sanctions intercollegiate athletic

events and establishes, conducts, and promotes competitive

national championships.

Needs are defined as implied psychological or

physiological deficiencies. A need is an internal condition

that spurs the individual to activity and to behave in

specific ways (Abramson, 1980). Need deficiency causes a

state of disequilibrium or psychic tension, directing the

individual into a satisfying or out of an unsatisfying

situation (Lundin, 1974). Needs are defined as an













individual's requirement for a reinforcer at a given level of

strength, i.e., an individual's preference for stimulus

conditions experienced to have been reinforcing (Dawis &

Lofquist, 1984).

Personality structure is comprised of the status

characteristics of the work personality. An individual's set

of abilities, set of values, and the relationships among and

between their abilities and values (Dawis and Lofquist,

1984). The interaction of an individual's response

capabilities (i.e., skills and abilities) and preferences for

stimulus conditions (i.e.,needs and values).

Personality style denotes the process characteristics of

the work personality. It is the manner in which an

individual interacts with the environment. It encompasses

description of the individual on the dimensions of celerity

(i.e.,quickness in responding), pace (i.e.,level of

activity), rhythm (i.e.,pattern of activity), and endurance

(i.e.,length of responding) (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Reinforcers act as a stimulus, such as a reward, which

in operant conditioning strengthens a desired response.

According to work adjustment theory, reinforcers are stimulus

conditions observed to be associated consistently with an

increased rate of responses over the base rate. Reinforcers

are stimuli associated with the maintenance of responses, and













increase the likelihood of future response (Dawis & Lofquist,

1984).

Satisfaction is an indicator of the degree of success an

individual has achieved in maintaining correspondence between

her/himself and the work environment. Derived from the work

environment and fulfilling the worker's requirements,

satisfaction is an internal indicator of correspondence. It

represents the individual worker's self-appraisal of the

extent to which the work environment fulfills her/his

requirements (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Satisfactoriness is an indicator of the degree of

success an individual has achieved in maintaining

correspondence between her/himself and the work environment.

Derived from sources other than the individual worker's self-

appraisal of her/his fulfillment of requirements of the work

environment, satisfactoriness is an external indicator of

correspondence. It represents the work environment's

appraisal of the extent to which its requirements are

fulfilled by the individual worker (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Tenure is defined by concepts related to remaining on

and being retained on the job and length of stay in the

environment. For the purposes of this study, tenure is a

function of the correspondence between the individual and her

work environment. Tenure is the basic indicator of

correspondence.













Title IX is an addition to the Education Amendments Act

of 1972 which prohibits sex discrimination in admissions to

educational institutions (excluding admissions to private and

single-sex institutions), curricular and extracurricular

programs, student services and benefits such as counseling,

health care, and financial aid, and job access and promotion

within educational agencies and institutions (Fox, 1985).

Turnover denotes the number of workers hired by a given

establishment to replace those who have left. It also is the

ratio of the number of workers hired to the number of

employed workers.

Work adjustment denotes the continuous and dynamic

process by which an individual seeks to achieve and maintain

correspondence with her/his work environment (Dawis &

Lofquist, 1984).

Work adjustment indicators are a set of factors

including individual satisfaction, an individual's

satisfactoriness, and tenure (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Work personality is depicted by the principal

characteristics of the individual in relation to work

adjustment. It is comprised of the work personality

structure and work personality style. It is characterized by

abilities, values, and style dimensions relevant to the

understanding of work behavior (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).













Work environment structure is a description of the work

environment in terms of skill requirements and need

reinforcers. It also includes ability requirement patterns

and reinforcer clusters as reference dimensions for skill

requirements and need reinforcers (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

Work environment style is a description of the work

environment in terms of its celerity, pace, rhythm, and

endurance (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).


Overview of Remaining Chapters

A more extensive review of the current literature is

presented in Chapter II. The methodology of the study,

including sampling, procedures, instrumentation, and

statistical methods are covered in Chapter III. Resultant

data, their analyses, and other results are presented in

Chapter IV and the discussion, implications, and conclusions

of all the results are presented in Chapter V.













CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE


Further Delineation of Problem

Currently there are more than 40,000 people employed in

college and university coaching and athletic administration

in the United States (Abbott & Smith, 1984). However, fewer

than 10% of these people are women (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988;

Hart, Hasbrook, & Mathes, 1986; Parkhouse & Williams, 1986).

More significantly, there has been a steady decline in the

number of female intercollegiate athletic coaches and

administrators of women's sports during the past fifteen

years. Unfortunately, the percentage of women employed in

these professions is likely to become even smaller in the

future.

Acosta and Carpenter (1988), in their eleven-year

longitudinal study in which data were collected from all four

year college and university members of the NCAA, clearly

depicted the status of women as well as the extent of male

predominance in women's intercollegiate athletic programs.

Suggested in their findings was a distinct pattern, emergent

over the past fifteen years, wherein female coaches and

administrators were phased out of women's sports programs

while men fulfilled the positions they left vacant. For

example, in 22 of the 24 most popular women's sports surveyed

by Acosta and Carpenter (1988), a significant decline in the

number of female coaches and a concomitant increase in the














number of male coaches was found. A parallel trend existed

for women in athletic administration. For example, in 1972,

women held over 90% of the administrative positions in

women's collegiate sports programs, but in 1988 they headed

only 16% of those programs (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988).

In an effort to find an explanation for the decline in

the number of women occupying leadership positions in

collegiate sport, Parkhouse and Williams (1986) examined

differential effects of gender on the evaluation of coaching

ability. They concluded that gender bias played a key role

in the decreasing number of women in athletic leadership

positions. They found general gender bias (favoring males)

in the evaluation of basketball coaching ability as well as

preference by athletes (both male and female) for being

coached by a male (Parkhouse & Williams, 1986). Parkhouse

and Williams (1986) concluded that gender operates as a

diffuse status characteristic; females are generally

considered less competent, resulting in lower status for

females in coaching roles compared to their male

counterparts. Thus, general devaluation of females provides

partial explanation for the increasing dropout rate of female

coaches. Pertinent here is the logical inference that if

athletes do indeed respond to their coaches in this manner,

female coaches would experience less job satisfaction and













more burnout due to less support or reinforcement from their

athletes (Parkhouse & Williams, 1986).

In accordance with the "burnout" theory, Caccese and

Mayerber (1984) examined gender differences in perceived

burnout of college coaches. They found that female head

college coaches reported significantly higher levels of

burnout than did male coaches on two subscales (i.e.,

personal accomplishment and emotional exhaustion) of the

Maslach Burnout Inventory (Caccese and Mayerber, 1984). They

offered several possible explanations for the significantly

higher levels of burnout among the women. The first was

related to the fact that women coaches, generally, are

younger than the men and have been coaching for a fewer

number of years. Therefore, they are presumably less

experienced and have had less opportunity to learn how to

cope with the stresses inherent in coaching. These women may

be too idealistic; expecting or demanding too much of

themselves (Caccese & Mayerber, 1984).

A second explanation for higher levels of burnout among

female coaches was that female coaches feel more stress

because prominence of major female athletic teams is a

relatively recent phenomenon. Consequently, females may be

attempting to "prove" (their) women's teams are deserving of

respect and they can perform well (Caccese & Mayerber, 1984).













A third explanation related to personal accomplishment

was based on the assumption that female sports are not as

highly acclaimed as are male sports. Thus, there is

considerably less recognition and attention given to female

coaches and they are not rewarded as well for their successes

as are male coaches (Caccese & Mayerber, 1984).

Another area that has been examined as a possible

explanation for the dramatic decline in the number of women

coaches is related to sex discrimination and the impact of

discriminant practices on female coaching careers. Mathes

(1982) reported a set of factors which potentially explained

why female interscholastic coaches exited the coaching

profession. These factors, believed to have influenced the

coaches' decisions to leave the field, included less

perceived opportunity than males to (a) coach high status

sports; (b) become head coaches or athletic directors; and

(c) obtain coaching positions. Also indicated in the

findings of the study was that former female coaches believed

inequities in pay, transportation, facilities, support

services, and practice times were important considerations in

their decisions to leave such roles (Mathes, 1982). These

factors are all components of job satisfaction.

The current status of female intercollegiate athletic

coaches is related, in part, to several cultural and

structural factors associated with male-dominated professions













which negatively impact upon women. At the root of these

cultural and structural factors are the societal sex-role

stereotypes applied to men and women in the work force.

Male dominated professions are governed by male

"traditional" sex-role stereotypes. The "model" professional

is expected to be firm, aggressive, competitive and just, and

not at all feminine (i.e., emotional, dependent, or

yielding). Hence, women do not fit the mold of the "model"

professional. The acceptance of the validity and

perpetuation of this description of the model professional

lies in the prevalence of myths regarding the nature of

women's job commitment and their competence.

Persistent myths concerning the sincerity of commitment

on the part of female workers continue to influence

managers/administrators' perceptions of them and to have

detrimental effects on their chances for advancement.

Crowley et al. (1973) tested several commonly held beliefs

regarding women workers on a large, nationwide sample. They

found no support for the prevailing notion that women work

only for "pin money" (O'Leary, 1977). Unfortunately, with

perpetuation of this myth, men continue to be regarded as

better candidates for promotion on the basis of economic

need.

Another belief that negatively impacts upon women in

professions is that they are overly concerned with













socioemotional aspects of their jobs. Crowley et al. (1973)

found that women, like the males sampled in their study,

regard the concern and competence of their supervisor as more

important to their job than is the opportunity to make

friends. However, male administrators and managers still

fear that women allow emotional factors to supersede

objective judgment.

Crowley et al. (1973) also found no factual basis for

several prevalent assumptions regarding the motivations and

aspirations of female workers. Included among these

assumptions are: (a) women would not work if economic reasons

did not force them into the labor market; (b) women are more

content than men with an intellectually undemanding job; (c)

women are less concerned than men that their work be self-

actualizing; and (d) women are less concerned with "getting

ahead". Empirical data exist to contradict each of these

beliefs (O'Leary, 1977). Thus, the findings of Crowley et

al. (1973) lend support to the contention that the

aspirations and motivations of workers of each sex are more

similar than societal stereotypes would indicate.

Unfortunately, however, women are still plagued by false

beliefs which adversely affect their opportunities for

advancement (O'Leary, 1977).

In the American society, women are generally considered

less competent than men and continue to fare more poorly than














men in organizational reward decisions (Freidman & Phillips,

1988). Therefore, in order for highly competent females to

gain recognition for their accomplishments, they must be

regarded as demonstrably exceptional (i.e., out of role and

within a context requiring unusual drive and dedication) and

their worth supported by "glowing" evaluations from

authoritative sources ( O'Leary, 1977). For women in

professions, this belief results in exceptional pressure to

perform, thus adding to the already existing stress and

anxiety associated with professional occupations.

In view of prevailing sex role stereotypes, one of the

foremost cultural factors associated with male-dominated

professions is what Kaufman (1984) described as the

"invidious process of sex-typing" (p.357). According to

Epstein (1970b), sex typing occurs when a majority of those

in a profession are of one sex. Hence, a "normative

expectation" develops which determines how things "should"

be, based on perceptions of personality and behavioral

characteristics associated with that sex (Kaufman, 1984).

When an occupation becomes sex- typed, the sex of the members

of the minority becomes occupationally salient. Those who do

not fit the model of the practitioner or their profession are

viewed as "deviant", and treated accordingly (Patterson &

Engleberg, 1978).














High ranking occupations in all societies are typically

male-dominated (Goode, 1964). Therefore, high-status

professions and prestige specialities in society are

generally identified with the instrumental, rigorous, "hard-

nosed" qualities generally identified as masculine, as

opposed to the "softer," more expressive, nurturing modes of

behaviors generally identified as feminine. "Since the

characteristics associated with the most valued professions

are also those associated with men, women fail to meet one of

the most important professional criteria: they are not men."

(Kaufman, 1984, p.357).

The typing of certain occupations as male or female has

consequences for entry to them as well as performance within

them by persons who possess characteristics of the "wrong

sex". Women in male-dominated professions are forced to be

self-conscious, burdened by feelings that they are constantly

being watched. They must always be cognizant of the

impression they are making, striving to counteract

misperceptions and inaccurate assumptions about her by them.

In essence, in Kaufman's view (1984), women were not as

highly valued in professional realms as were men.

In attempting to substantiate the notion that females

are not as valued as men in professions, O'Leary (1977)

reported that Feldman-Summers and Kiesler (1974) were unable

to find any occupation in which women were expected to














outperform males, even in "traditionally feminine"

occupations such as elementary school teaching and nursing.

In a more recent study, Rosen and Jerdee (1978) also found

that male managers and administrators held uniformly more

negative perceptions of women than men for the following

attributes: aptitudes, knowledge, skills, interest and

motivation, temperament, and work habits and attitudes.

Several researchers also have reported that men and women are

often treated differently in their professional roles. For

example, women earn less than men for comparable work in

almost every occupation and within almost all professional

specialties (Mincer & Polachek, 1974, 1978; Sandell &

Shapiro 1978; Zincone & Close, 1978); women possessing

identical qualifications and skills as men are not as

successful in obtaining professional jobs (Dipboye, Fromkin &

Wibac, 1975; Fidell, 1970; Shaw, 1972; Zikmund, Hitt, &

Pickens, 1978; Firth, 1982); and men are promoted more often,

given more career development opportunities, trusted more in

handling personnel problems, and granted leaves of absence

for child-care duties less often than women (Rosen & Jerdee,

1973).

Another major cultural factor which may negatively

impact upon women in professions is related to the

traditional sex-role expectations for women. In accordance

with traditional female roles, familial and domestic













activities are largely the responsibility of the wife/mother

(and therefore not of the husband/father). The full-time

employed wife/mother bears the largest burden for managing

the home and children. In fact, her share of domestic

activities is reported to be three times greater than that of

her full-time employed husband (Pleck, 1982). Women,

therefore, find themselves competing in their chosen

professions with men who often have supporting partners

(i.e.,wives) who manage, maintain, and enhance their lives as

professionals by fulfilling the domestic responsibilities and

duties of which, theoretically, they should have fifty-

percent responsibility (Bedeian, Burke & Moffett, 1988; Fox &

Hesse-Biber, 1984; Kaufman, 1984).

It is not known for certain what impact multiple roles

have on women. The preponderance of literature supports the

notion that roles drain energy; hence the more roles a woman

occupies the less energy she will have, the more conflict she

will experience, all of which will affect her well-being

(Coser, 1974; Goode, 1960; Slater, 1963). Conversely, more

recent studies indicate that multiple roles have a positive

impact upon women. Thoits (1983) reported that there is a

positive association between the number of roles a woman

occupies and her psychological well-being. Overall, there

seems to be a positive relationship between multiple roles

and well-being for women (Gove & Zeiss, 1987; Thoits, 1983).














Professional women also are confronted with sex-related

problems within the professions which are rarely encountered

by their male counterparts. For example, in order to manage

their careers and personal lives, women often must dispense

with "optional" work related activities, such as attending

meetings, conferences, and extraneous collegial relations,

all of which serve to enhance career development. In

addition, the work pace and commitment required of the

individual in a professional occupation has been described as

relentlessly demanding and more in correspondence with male

than female sex roles. Consequently, women are often

excluded from certain work activities by their multiple role

demands. They therefore are limited in terms of their access

to and opportunities within professional structures (Fox &

Hesse-Biber, 1984). In contrast, familial roles for men

(e.g., husband and father) rarely hinder their occupational

involvements and commitments, but instead often correspond

with their occupational spheres (i.e., the man's advancing

career "best serves" the family) (Epstein, 1980). Overall

then, traditional sex-roles and expectations for women

compete with, rather than complement their professional

roles. Consequently, traditional sex-role demands for women

(e.g., wifehood and motherhood) serve to inhibit the single-

mindedness, continuous participation, and commitment required

for professional success (Campbell, 1988; Fox & Hesse-Biber,














1984; Kaufman, 1984). Relatedly, Koberg and Chusmir (1987)

found that for females, the higher their rank in a job, the

higher their level of sex-role conflict. Conversely, the

reverse was found to be true for males.

In response to traditional sex-role expectations for

females, women may be forced to withdraw from employment to

fulfill familial roles (e.g., childbearing and childcare).

Consequently, it has been reported that careers of

professional women are more discontinuous than their male

counterparts (Ferber & Kordick, 1978). The discontinuity in

their careers often results in obsolescence of skills, as

well as loss of positions, participation in career

activities, and personnel contacts (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984).

Serving as an additional impediment in the professional

women's career is the virilocal (i.e., residence determined

by males) nature of the family structure. Generally, there

is greater pressure on the wives to accommodate their

spouses' transfers or relocations than vice versa (Theodore,

1971). Thus the occupation patterns associated with male

dominance in professions impede women's career developments.

Women who pursue professional careers often choose those

which are least likely to require work duties incompatible

with the stereotypical role expectations (Patterson &

Engelberg, 1978). For example, in the field of medicine,

women are overrepresented in anesthesiology, pathology,














psychiatry, physical medicine, preventive medicine, and

public health. They are substantially underrepresented in

the most of the prestigious specialities (e.g.,

cardiovascular, gastroenterology, general surgery, and

occupational medicine). Researchers have found that women's

specialty choices may be the result of a subtle

discrimination that encourages them to enter certain

specialties, while discouraging them from others (Patterson &

Engelberg, 1978).

Women and men in the medical field also generally differ

in their choices of type of practice (e.g., salary or

private). Women are most likely to choose salaried

positions, while men have a greater tendency to choose

private practice. Marriage and family play a key role in

women' and mens' decisions about type of practice. An early

marriage or engagement among male physicians is associated

with a tendency to select private practice. In contrast, for

women, marriage or engagement is associated with a tendency

to take a salaried position. Similarly, marriage and family

have no noticeable effects on the career development of male

physicians, but have the effect of interrupting or lessening

the practices of women (Koberg, 1987; Patterson & Engelberg,

1978).

The situation for women in law is similar to that of

women in medicine. Female lawyers predominantly practice in














trusts and estates and domestic relations, areas which are

traditionally female domains. Overall, women lawyers are

engaged either in low prestige specialties or in specialties

where firms can put them in "back rooms" to insure the fact

that they do not have direct contact with clients who may

find it "unacceptable" to work with women (Patterson &

Engelberg, 1978).

Like the field of medicine, women in law face barriers

which impede the progress of their careers. For example, few

women are represented in middle-sized law firms. Women

generally elect private practice where they generally work

alone, or they join very large firms which will tolerate

"deviant" practitioners and where they may remain anonymous

(Patterson & Engelberg, 1978).

In addition to the aforementioned cultural factors which

influence women's professional development, also to be

considered are the numerous structural factors with which

they are confronted. Foremost among these factors is the

"male culture," which exists ostentatiously in male dominant

professions. It is this male culture, or "old boys club"

network, that Acosta and Carpenter (1986, 1988) cited as the

primary (perceived) cause of the decline in the number of

female coaches in intercollegiate athletics. Male and female

coaches were surveyed by them as to what those coaches

perceived as the primary causes of the decreasing number of













women in the coaching profession. Both groups indicated that

the success of the "old boys club" network acted as a

fundamental barrier to women.

Professions share many characteristics of communities.

They tend toward homogeneity and are characterized by shared

norms and attitudes. Interaction in professions is

characterized by a high degree of informality, much of it

within an exclusive, club-like context (Epstein, 1971).

Implied is a certain degree of cohesiveness based upon a

solidarity that evolves from gender. Those who bear certain

overt characteristics (e.g., being black, Jewish, or female)

are at an immediate disadvantage in such situations (Hughes,

1973). Similar to fraternal societies, the exclusive or

dominant group depends upon "common background, continual

association and affinity of interest" for its continuance

(Epstein, 1970a). Traditionally, women and other low-status

groups have been excluded from such fraternal associations

(Kaufman, 1984).

The "old boys club" network operates primarily (but not

exclusively) on an informal level within professional

structures. Men in professional structures have,

figuratively grown up together; they have played, learned,

and worked together. Consequently, they share a "common

understanding" about rules and styles of competing,

bartering, and succeeding that exist within occupational













structures (Harragan, 1977; Schaef, 1981). Men therefore

often share a comraderie that serves to facilitate their

communications, which in turn facilitates support and

acceptance among them (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984).

Unfortunately, existing male milieus act as occupational

barriers for women. Traditional sex-role expectations for

females generally prohibit them from participating in male

settings and traditions. As a result, women often find it

exceptionally difficult to permeate the "male network". They

are in fact faced with considerable resistance from males

because their participation would likely weaken the intimacy

and solidarity associated with the "male world" (Epstein,

1971).

The exclusion of females from men's informal circles of

communication and interaction has several critical

consequences for women's professional careers (Fox & Hesse-

Biber, 1984). Among them is deprivation from the informal

learning associated with mentoring or sponsorship. Much

professional socialization is contingent on education and

training gained through informal interaction between a senior

person and an entry-level professional. Entry into these

upper echelon professions is commonly gained through what

Epstein (1971) referred to as the "protege system." The

protege system operates to train personnel for certain

specialties and to assure continuity of leadership. Because














the sponsor is apt to be a male, a female's advancement may

be inhibited for several reasons. Among them is the fact

that a man cannot easily identify a woman as someone who

might be his successor. He is inclined to prefer another man

in the belief that a man has more commitment to the

profession than a woman. A second factor that inhibits a

female's advancement is her other role-partners (e.g.,

husband, father, or child) who may be jealous and suspicious

of her loyalty to the sponsor and her dependence on him.

Likewise, the sponsor's wife may also resent the intimacy and

time spent between the sponsor and his female protege, and

object to it (Epstein, 1971).

Another factor related to a woman's restricted

advancement in professions stems from the lack of support

from the collegial group. A group will not favor an

unsuitable member who is likely to weaken its intimacy and

solidarity. As a result, group members may exert pressure on

the sponsor to pick the protege with whom they will be most

comfortable (Epstein, 1971). A male sponsor typically selects

a protege he feels will ease the transition to retirement;

give him a sense of continuity in his work; and give some

assurance that his protege will build on his work. Men often

consider it unwise to depend on women in such situations

(Epstein, 1971). A male sponsor may feel a woman is

financially less dependent on a career position than a man













might be, and therefore not be as committed. Furthermore,

because of her presumably highly contingent commitment and

drive he would only reluctantly introduce her or recommend

her to colleagues (Epstein, 1971).

Loy and Sage (1978) reported that upward mobility within

"intercollegiate coaching circles" is largely a function of

sponsored mobility (i.e., entry-level coaches ask for the

sponsorship of mentors, those who are experienced coaches or

administrators, in seeking their own coaching positions at

major universities) (Loy & Sage, 1978). Thus, the exclusion

of women from informal interactions (among men) undoubtedly

limits their opportunities to seek and obtain mentorships

associated with advancement in the coaching profession.

Exclusion from informal communications and interactions

(e.g., luncheons or after work social gatherings) also

prohibits female coaches from gaining pertinent information

(e.g., alternative job prospects, changes in administrative

structures, or forthcoming promotions) which could enhance

their coaching careers. Also, in their informal-exchanges

men relate the experiences they have had with their superiors

and colleagues and identify those who are, or are not,

helpful and trustworthy (Reskin, 1978). As a result of

women's limited access to these networks they must rely

(generally) on formal methods of communication such as

publications, announcements, and official memorandums.














Typically, these methods do not provide the aforementioned

informal information nor do they provide information far

enough in advance to put women in advantageous or competitive

positions (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984).

Exclusion from male networks not only puts females in a

marginal professional position, but also serves to put them

in what Hughes (1973) described as an "invisible" position.

For example, when important professional decisions, such as

selection for promotion, tenure, or departmental privileges,

are under consideration, women are often overlooked (Hughes,

1973).

The overriding consequence of existing male networks is

that women are excluded from the "power centers" of their

professions (Kaufman, 1984). The informal structure within

intercollegiate athletics can be described as a "male

universe" where men have overwhelmingly control of governing

and administrative positions (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988).

Therefore, by virtue of their large numbers and superordinate

positions, as well as by their informal networks, men have

distinct advantages over women within intercollegiate

coaching. As a result, women have limited access to key

resources and opportunities within intercollegiate athletic

structures.

Women coaches, as "outsiders" on both formal and

informal bases, often find themselves in precarious and self-













defeating positions within intercollegiate athletics.

Because of male dominance, they often feel awkward, self-

conscious, and at distinct disadvantage within the

professional structure. They also may feel reluctant to

initiate contact, communication, and interaction with those

in power (i.e., men). In turn, their "alienation" from male

coaches further excludes them and emphasizes their "marginal"

positions in intercollegiate athletics (Epstein, 1971;

Reskin, 1978).

The collegial or protege system also is important in

assessment of performance of professionals. According to

Epstein (1971), adequacy of performance may be simple to

judge at lower levels of a profession, but the fine

distinctions between good and superior performance require

subtle judgments. Members of professions affirm that only

peers can adequately judge performance at these levels; they

know the standards, they know the characteristics of the

potential promote, and they can maintain control.

Continuance of professions depends on intense socialization

of members, much of it by immersion in the norms of the

respective professional culture even before entry and later

by sensitivity to his peers. These controls depend on a

strong network cemented by bonds of common background,

continual association, and affinity of interests (Epstein,













1971). Unfortunately, female intercollegiate coaches rarely

gain access to these controls.

With so few women in leadership positions, they tend to

fall into traps of "tokenism" (Kanter, 1976). They are on

"display" and under strong pressure to perform. At the same

time, they are socially isolated, poorly accepted, and

subject to male perceptions of favoritism and the resultant

unfair treatment (DeFleur,*1985).

It has been found in studies of the dynamics of tokenism

that both males who are in the minority in female-dominated

fields and females in male-dominated occupations experience

greater emphasis on their sex-related characteristics than on

their occupational skills, thus negatively affecting their

self-esteem (Macke, 1981). Furthermore, individuals in

occupations which have highly skewed sex ratios experience

greater pressure to perform and more stress in interpersonal

relationships than do those in the gender dominant group

(DeFleur, 1985).

Kanter (1976) and others also have documented that

administrative and leadership positions in professions have

been male-dominated historically. Consequently, there are

numerous male-oriented beliefs and attitudes concerning the

traits deemed necessary for successful leadership. The

traits most often cited are rationality, analytic ability,

and logical thought. It has been assumed often that females













do not have, nor could develop, these traits, thus they would

make poor administrators or leaders within organizations.

The purported validity of these assumptions has been refuted

in subsequent research and the attitudes toward women's

leadership abilities have begun to change (Maccoby & Jacklin,

1974).

In many occupations (e.g., law enforcement, military, or

building construction), however, males continue to oppose the

entry of women for reasons which have been described as

ideological and/or symbolic vestments of male-oriented

groups, their values, or their cultural views (DeFleur,

1985). Themes of gender differentiation and exclusivity are

central to the work ethos of these occupations. Individuals

in these occupations posit their arguments on physiological

and psychological differences between the sexes which

necessitate different social roles (DeFleur, 1985). Thorne

and Henley (1975), illustrated this point with their study of

the mining occupation. Miners insist that the nature of

their work and its uniqueness (i.e., spending long periods of

time physically and socially isolated in the mines)

necessitates interdependence and closeness. Miners believe

bonds which develop insure safety and survival, and can only

develop between males.

Women are sometimes denigrated in some male-dominated

occupations through negativistic humor, unflattering













epithets, or ridicule (Collinson, 1988; DeFleur, 1985). For

example, Arkin and Dobrofsky (1977) examined military

training activities and noted that such devices denigrate the

role of women in military activities and also tend to

reinforce their roles as sexual objects. Classical

stereotypes promoted in training sessions include warning

soldiers against contacts with "bad women" (i.e., destructive

weapons named after women). Practices such as this obviously

reinforce attitudes and beliefs which affect sex integration

in the military (DeFleur, 1985). Thus occupational ideology

and the sex typing of specific role activities, sex-linked

jokes, and epithets are often used as part of segregation.

All form an occupational ethos that stresses themes of male

exclusivity and gender differentiation (DeFleur, 1985).

Most studies of women in male-dominated professions have

relied on gender-related factors in order to explain women's

depressed status. In contrast, Kanter (1977) concluded that

women's attitudes toward and position in professions is a

function of their location in the organization's hierarchical

structure rather than a consequence of their primary sex-role

socialization. If women have lower job aspirations, less

involvement with work, and exhibit greater concern with

congenial work environments and peer relations, the reason

may be that they find themselves in jobs with limited or

blocked mobility. Furthermore, men who find themselves in













comparable situations exhibit similar work-related attitudes

(Fagenson, 1988; Kanter, 1977). Kanter also claimed that

women were unable to mobilize resources within organizations

and therefore were likely to behave in an authoritarian

manner or to be insecure about their futures.

Both male and female individuals in low-mobility or

restricted mobility situations tend to limit their

aspirations, their efforts to find satisfactions outside of

work, and dreams of "escape". Instead they create sociable

peer groups and establish interpersonal relationships which

take precedence over work. Because women are more apt to

occupy low-mobility or restricted mobility positions,

especially in professions, they obviously exhibit these

behaviors more often than men. Unfortunately, the result has

been even more stereotypical generalization of "women's

organizational behavior" (e.g., fewer aspirations, less

commitment, and more concern for interpersonal relationships)

(Kanter, 1976, 1977).



Support For Theoretical Framework

For over fifty years, job satisfaction has been the

focus of repeated study and remains one of the most commonly

studied topics relative to the world of work. As early as

1935, Hoppock identified thirty-two prior job satisfaction

studies and according to Locke, more than 3,000 studies of














job satisfaction had been conducted by 1976. The number

today is certainly substantially larger. Given the dramatic

influence of the nature of employment on individual workers,

the voluminous research related to the level and determinants

of job satisfaction is not surprising. It is surprising,

however, to note that despite the fact that numerous

perspectives on job satisfaction have emerged from these

studies, researchers have yet to be able to agree on a

specific definition of job satisfaction (Locke, 1969).

Hoppock (1935, p. 47) defined job satisfaction as "any

combination of physiological, psychological, and

environmental circumstances that causes a person truthfully

to say, 'I am satisfied with my job'." Davis (1967) reported

job satisfaction as the fit between individual and job and

therefore job satisfaction is the result of a "fit between

job characteristics and the wants of employees. It expresses

the amount of congruence between one's expectancies of the

job and the rewards that the job provides" (p. 74). Job

satisfaction, according to Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969),

is defined as "feelings or affective responses to facets of

the situation" (p.69). Lawler and Wanous (1972) integrated

operational definitions, theoretically based on needs

fulfillment, equity, or work values to define jobs

satisfaction. Porter and Steers (1979) defined job

satisfaction as the "sum total of an individual's met














expectations on the job" (p. 167). Locke (1969) defined job

satisfaction as the "pleasurable emotional state resulting

from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating

the achievement of one's values" (p. 316). Despite the

variations, most definitions imply that (a) job satisfaction

is contingent on fulfillment of individuals' needs and (b)

satisfaction is the outcome of a mutually satisfying

relationship between a person's needs and the work

environment.

Job satisfaction also has been explained from several

theoretical perspectives. The first of these is Maslow's need

hierarchy theory in which job satisfaction is contingent on

the fulfillment of individual needs. Maslow's model is based

on two fundamental premises. The first, is that individuals

are motivated by a desire to fulfill specific personal needs

(e.g., physiological, safety, social, esteem or self-

actualization). The second is that these needs are universal

among all individuals and that they are arranged in

sequential hierarchical order. Thus once lower order needs

are satisfied (i.e., physiological, safety, and social

needs), the individual ascends the hierarchy one level at a

time and attempts to satisfy next higher order needs (i.e.,

esteem and self-actualization) (Porter & Steers, 1979). The

major assumption in Maslow's needs theory, is that lower-

order needs must be satisfied before attempts are made at













satisfying higher order needs. When needs are left

unsatisfied, it creates a tension within people which

motivates them to reduce the tension and restore equilibrium.

Once a need becomes satisfied, however, it loses it's potency

as a motivating force until it again becomes manifest.

A second theoretical perspective one that also builds on

Maslow's needs hierarchy theory is Herzberg, Mausner, and

Snyderman's (1959) two factor theory of job satisfaction.

According to Herzberg et al. (1959), individual's tend to

describe satisfying work experiences in terms of factors that

are intrinsic to the content of the job itself. These factors

or motivators, which closely resemble Maslow's higher order

needs, include variables such as achievement, recognition,

the work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth. In

contrast, dissatisfaction with work results from non-job-

related (so called "hygiene") factors which are closely

related to Maslow's lower order needs. These factors include

variables such as company policies, salary, co-worker

relations, and supervisory style. Herzberg claimed that

eliminating the causes of dissatisfaction through hygiene

factors would not result in a state of satisfaction, but

instead, would result in a neutral state. Satisfaction

occurs only through motivators (Porter & Steers, 1979).

A third theoretical perspective is the

expectancy/valence theory. In contrast with the need














hierarchy and two factor theories, which attempt to specify

correlates of motivated behavior and job satisfaction, this

theory attempts to identify relationships among variables in

a dynamic state as they affect individual behavior. In

essence, the primary focus of the expectancy valence theory

is on the relationship among inputs rather than the inputs

themselves (Porter & Steers, 1979). Motivational force to

perform and remain in a job is a function of the

expectancies, or beliefs, that individuals have concerning

future outcomes in proportion to the value they place on the

outcomes.

Vroom (1964) defined expectancy as an "action-outcome

association." It is the extent to which an individual

believes that a certain action will result in a particular

outcome. A second major component of this theory is valence,

which is defined as the value or preference an individual

places on a particular outcome. Individuals assign valences

to job outcomes, such as higher pay, promotion, peer

approval, and recognition, in relation to perceived

importance of satisfying those needs (Porter & Steers, 1979).

Workers also ascribe a valence to the expectancy or their

perception of the likelihood of an outcome (Wellstood, 1984).

A fourth theoretical perspective is discrepancy theory.

Discrepancy theory involves comparison of what people

actually receive with what they expect to receive from their













jobs. Porter and Lawler (1968), in accordance with

discrepancy theory, defined job satisfaction as the extent to

which rewards actually received meet or exceed perceived

equitable level of reward. As the difference between the two

decreases, job satisfaction increases. Conversely, failure

to receive perceived equitable level of rewards creates

feelings of job dissatisfaction. According to discrepancy

theory, job satisfaction involves more than knowing the

actual reward level; it is also important to know what the

person expected to receive from the job to determine the

individual's level of job satisfaction (Chung, 1977).

A fifth theoretical perspective of job satisfaction is

equity/inequity theory. This theory is a further development

of the concept of discrepancy to include social comparison in

reward systems. The basics of this theory correspond to

discrepancy theory, with the exception that Adams (1965)

emphasized the importance of other people's Input-Output

ratios in determining a person's Input-Output ratio. Inputs

are defined as skills, personal traits, and experiences and

Outputs are defined as salary, promotions and praise.

Individuals determine their ratio of Inputs to Outputs and

compare it to their co-workers. In order for the individual

to feel satisfied, the ratio must be perceived as compatible.

If, however, individuals perceive their Input-Output ratios













to be larger or smaller than others, they will be

dissatisfied (Wellstood, 1984).

Two more recent theoretical perspectives include

attribution theory and locus of control theory. According to

attribution theory, an individual's perceived behavior is

determined by internal forces such as personality attributes

(e.g., ability, effort, or fatigue) and external forces

(e.g., environmental attributes). According to Luthans

(1981), people behave differently based on whether they

perceive internal and external attributes.

Locus of control explains an individual's work behavior

in terms of perceived internal or external controlled

outcomes. An individual's perceived locus of control has an

impact on degree of job satisfaction. For example, an

internally controlled individual is generally more satisfied

with work than an externally controlled individual (Mitchell,

Smyser, & Weed, 1975).

According to Dawis and Lofquist (1984), work is an

interaction between an individual and the work environment

where each has specific needs and requirements of the other.

For example, within the work environment the individual is

expected to perform certain tasks and complete specific

assignments. Correspondingly, the individual expects to be

compensated for her/his work performance and provided with

satisfying conditions of work such as safety, comfort, peer













support, competent supervision, and achievement

opportunities. Provided the work environment and individual

are able to satisfy each others requirements and needs, their

interaction and relationship will be maintained. In

contrast, when their mutual requirements are not met, the

individual or work environment will move to change or

terminate the relationship.

The process whereby the individual and work environment

strive to meet each others requirements and needs is called

"work adjustment" (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). The degree to

which the requirements of each or both are met is described

as level of "correspondence." According to Dawis and

Lofquist (1984), a basic motive of human vocational behavior

is to achieve and maintain high correspondence, i.e., to

engage in effective, satisfying work adjustment.

The primary indicators of work adjustment are job

satisfaction and job satisfactoriness. Job satisfaction is

the degree to which the work environment meets the

individual's needs. Dawis and Lofquist (1984) identified

twenty individual needs relevant to job satisfaction: ability

utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority,

company policies and practices, compensation, co-workers,

creativity, independence, moral values, recognition,

responsibility, security, social service, social status,

supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety,













and working conditions. Job dissatisfaction occurs when the

individual perceives that the work environment does not meet

most or all of these needs.

Satisfactoriness is the degree to which the work

environment is satisfied with the individual's skills and

performance. Both satisfaction and satisfactoriness are

required in order for an individual to remain voluntarily or

be retained in a job. Thus, tenure is the outcome of work

adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). More specifically,

tenure is the outcome of high correspondence (i.e., job

satisfaction) and satisfactoriness between the individual and

work environment.

Also according to the theory of work adjustment, an

individual has principle characteristics which collectively

represent her/his work personality (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

A person's work personality is comprised of two primary sets

of characteristics: status characteristics (i.e., personality

structure) and process characteristics (i.e., personality

manifestation style). Personality structure is defined as an

individual's vocational skills and needs, while personality

style refers to an individual's characteristic ways of

interacting with the vocational environment. Needs and

values of personality structure are measured on the reference

dimensions of abilities and values, respectively.

Personality style is measured on the reference dimensions of:














celerity (i.e., speed with which an individual interacts with

the work environment), pace (i.e., level of activity

exhibited by individual when interacting with the work

environment), rhythm (i.e.,pattern of pace in interaction

with the work environment), and endurance (i.e., the duration

of interaction with work environment) (Dawis & Lofquist,

1984).

Dawis and Lofquist (1984) provided a description of the

work environment which parallels their description of work

personality. The work environment structure is comprised of

skill requirements (i.e., performance expectations) and needs

reinforcers (i.e., stimulus conditions in which their

presence or absence accounts for satisfaction of an

individual's needs). Work environment is measured in terms

of the reference dimensions of ability requirements and

reinforcer factors, which correspond to skill requirements

and needs reinforcers.

Correspondence describes not only the mutual

responsiveness between individual and work environment, but

also the "degree of fit" between work personality structure

and work environment structure. Worthy of note is that

individuals with comparable work personality structures may

differ in the amount of correspondence required from

comparable work environments in order for the respective

individuals to desire to remain in them. Tolerance of lack














of correspondence is described as worker flexibility. If

there is need to increase the individual's degree of

correspondence with the work environment, the individual will

elect to either change the environment or alter the way in

which the work personality structure is expressed in the work

environment. If the individual responds by acting on the

environment, the mode of adjustment is called active. If the

individual responds by changing her/his expression or

manifestation of work personality structure to increase

correspondence, the mode of adjustment is called reactive.

Relatedly, the mode of adjustment which describes the length

of time an individual will tolerate lack of correspondence

with the work environment before leaving is called

perseverance (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

The application of the theory of work adjustment has

utilitarian value for understanding levels of job

satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic coaches.

In addition to augmenting existing research relative to the

the theory of work adjustment, the findings derived from this

study could (a) provide more specific theoretical guidance

for counselors and consultants who have cause to work with

female coaches or prospective coaches, (b) augment existing

research pertaining to women in other male dominated

professions and/or individuals working in high pressure/high

stress environments, and (c) help to establish how Dawis and














Lofquist's theory of work adjustment can be applied to career

and personal counseling with prospective coaches in

intercollegiate athletics, with individuals already in the

field who are dissatisfied with their jobs, and with

individuals in similar occupational situations (e.g., women

in male-dominated fields, individuals in other university

related occupations, or individuals in high stress

occupations).

Ideally, prospective collegiate coaches, both male and

female, would profit from knowing requisite characteristics

relevant for a (satisfying) career in intercollegiate

athletics. That is, such knowledge could be used by

prospective or current coaches in their career decision-

making processes. According to Dawis and Lofquist (1984),

acquisition of such knowledge would increase the likelihood

of correspondence between the individual and work

environment, thus increasing both level of job satisfaction

and length of tenure.

Unfortunately, in the development of their theory of

work adjustment, Dawis and Lofquist did not give particular

attention to particular human characteristics related to

level of work adjustment. For example, they did not address

factors such as age, educational level, length of tenure,

gender, perceived levels of strain (stress) or, related to

perceived levels of strain, the individual's level of success













(accomplishment) in their work role. Fortunately, however,

other authors have addressed these factors, and their

relationships to job satisfaction can be discussed within the

context of work adjustment.

Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and Capwell (1957) reported

a U-shaped relationship between age and satisfaction. More

specifically, job satisfaction levels are high in young

workers. Over time however, their levels of satisfaction

wane, but rise again with increasing age. Substantial support

exists for the U-shaped relationship. In seventeen of

twenty-three studies conducted before 1960 on the

relationship between age and job satisfaction, the U-shaped

curve emerged (Ivancevich & Donnelly, 1968). Hoppock (1960)

reported similar findings in a study in which he compared job

satisfaction levels of male workers in 1932 and again in

1959. He found that nearly three quarters of the total

sample reported increased levels of satisfaction over the

time period. Weaver (1980), in a related study which

compared job satisfaction levels of workers between 1972 and

1978, also reported that job satisfaction increased with age.

Hulin and Smith (1965) rejected the U-shaped model as a

result of their findings which suggested a monotonic

relationship between age and job satisfaction. They found

that job satisfaction rose steadily until approximately five

years before expected time for retirement. They explained













that at this stage of the individual's career opportunities

for growth and promotion often begin to decline. Saleh and

Otis (1964) reported findings similar to those of Hulin and

Smith. In their study of managerial level employees, they

also found that satisfaction increased with age until the

pre-retirement period, at which time it began to decline.

Their explanation for the decline was related to "general

adjustment" to life's unavoidable circumstances. Individuals

often experience a decline in physical health as well as

decreased opportunities for self-actualization and

psychological growth between the ages of 60 and 65.

Consequently, according to Saleh and Otis, the result is a

general decline in life adjustment, which in turn contributes

to a significant decline in job satisfaction. Saleh and

Otis's findings are supported by Form and Geshwender (1962).

They concluded that other variables relating to increased

satisfaction are a general function of adult socialization

and are interrelated through the variable of age. Thus, as

workers age, they begin to accept their positions in life and

adjust their goals, including occupational goals and

aspirations, accordingly.

In contrast with theories that purport that job

satisfaction increases with age, Aronowitz (1973) reported

that greater dissatisfaction was expressed by younger workers

in the 1970's. This dissatisfaction, however, was attributed














to an historical shift among an entire generation rather than

a phenomenon related specifically to age or stages of the

life cycle.

Other researchers who have examined the relationship

between age and job satisfaction have concluded that gender

also plays a significant role in the determination of job

satisfaction. For example, Hunt and Saul (1975) found a

significant relationship between age and job satisfaction but

only in male workers. In contrast, Shott, Albright, and

Glennon (1963) found a significant relationship for women but

not for men. And finally, Glenn, Taylor, and Weaver (1977)

reported a significant relationship between age and job

satisfaction for both sexes.

Studies in which the relationship between educational

level and job satisfaction were examined have had

contradictory results. For example, Weaver (1980), Quinn and

Mandilovitch (1980), and Herzberg et al. (1957) reported that

job satisfaction was positively related to level of

education. In contrast, however, Klein and Maher (1966) and

Vollmer and Kinney (1955) found a negative correlation

between job satisfaction and level of education. From these

latter findings it was suggested that employees with higher

levels of education expected more from their jobs and thus

became even more dissatisfied when their job failed to meet

those expectations.














Srivasta et al.(1977) indicated from their review of the

literature that there was a relationship between level of

education and job satisfaction, but the direction of the

relationship depended upon unspecified variables. According

to these researchers, it is feasible that an "overqualified"

or educated individual would feel trapped and unproductive in

an undemanding and thus, unsatisfying job. Relatedly, it

also seemed reasonable to assume that higher educational

levels may be related to feelings of well-being and

satisfaction. In this vein, higher educated individuals

would be more likely to occupy intrinsically and

extrinsically rewarding positions in organizations (Srivasta

et al., 1977).

It may be inferred that individuals' levels of education

may significantly impact their levels of work adjustment.

Although there is disagreement as to the direction of the

relationship between the two variables, there is relative

certainty that either too much or too little education for a

particular job results in dissatisfaction. In terms of work

adjustment, an individual who is either under or

overqualified for her/his position will likely find that many

personal needs are unmet (e.g., ability utilization,

advancement, compensation, recognition, security, creativity,

working conditions) resulting in low work adjustment.













Studies in which the relationship between length of

employment (i.e., tenure) and job satisfaction was examined

yielded more consistent findings. Srivastva et al., (1977)

reviewed eleven studies which related tenure to job

satisfaction in a variety of U.S. and Indian populations.

Five of these studies were based on populations of educators

(superintendents and teachers); other populations studied

included blue-collar workers, clerical workers, management

consultants, and nurses. They found that Indian populations

consistently reported a positive relationship between length

of employment and job satisfaction. For the educators,

however, length of employment was not related to job

satisfaction. They attributed these contradictory findings

to the possibility that moderating variables may be

operating. For example, the results may be due to the nature

of the job, span of employment or populations studied; length

of employment may be more closely related to age and job

satisfaction; or length of employment, if short, may in fact

be due to short-term disillusionment more closely related to

age than to educational level (Srivastva et al., 1977).

Porter and Steers (1979) also considered age to be closely

related to tenure, thus many corresponding results emerged.

Knowles (1964) claimed that an employees length of service or

length of service in a previous occupation were highly

accurate predictors of the likelihood that the individual













would remain on her/his present job. Similarly, Shott et

al.(1963) studied clerical workers and found that employees

who had long tenure with their present employers also had

worked at least ten months with their previous employers.

The researchers of Fleishman and Berniger (1960) and Robinson

(1972) supported the findings of Shott et al. (1963).

Hulin and Smith (1965) reported a close relationship

between tenure and job satisfaction. Similar to the

relationship between age and job satisfaction, they concluded

it was monotonic in nature. They also concluded that it may

be incorrect to assume that tenure alone is related to job

satisfaction because age, not tenure, may be a stronger

predictor of job satisfaction levels. Therefore, in order

to determine the effects of tenure on job satisfaction, the

relationship between age and job satisfaction must be taken

into consideration. Hulin and Smith also argued that the

same line of reasoning applies to salary and job level.

Rachman and Kemp (1964) found that the "happiest"

employees in their study- were those who had been with the

company for over twenty years. Similarly, Form and

Geschwender (1962) found that workers with ten or more years

were significantly more satisfied than co-workers with less

tenure. Alderfer (1967), in a study which examined the job

satisfaction levels of blue collar and low-level management

personnel, found that as seniority increased so did worker













satisfaction with pay and opportunities to use skills and

abilities.

Monie (1967) discovered a U-shaped relationship between

job satisfaction and tenure. Those workers with tenure of

less than one year reported high levels of satisfaction.

After one year however, Monie reported that a sudden decrease

in satisfaction occurred followed by a sharp increase after

the second year. Thereafter, the pattern of satisfaction

plateaued. Form and Geshwender (1962) supported these

findings from their study of manual laborers. They reported

that employees found an "occupational niche" early in their

work life and that their job satisfaction stabilized soon

thereafter.

Two basic inferences pertaining to work adjustment can

be drawn from the relationship between length of employment

and job satisfaction. The most obvious is that individuals

with extended tenure are most likely to experience high

levels of work adjustment. In addition work adjustment may

be at it's lowest level after the first one or two years of

employment in a particular job. It appears that during this

time period individuals are in the process of evaluating

their positions and attempting to determine the extent to

which their jobs will satisfy their individual needs.

Therefore, work adjustment may be a critical factor at this

time.













According to Forgionne and Peeters (1982) suggested in

the preponderance of research related to gender and job

satisfaction is that there is no significant relationship

between them. In independent studies, however, Shapiro and

Stern (1975) and Weaver (1974a; 1974b) found that more

professional men than women were satisfied with their jobs.

Hulin and Smith (1965) confirmed this finding in studies of

non-professional workers, as did Bartol and Wortman (1975)

who found that male managers were more satisfied in their

positions than women. As a point of interest, males who

worked in predominantly female or gender proportionate jobs

reportedly experienced lower levels job satisfaction (Moore,

1985).

Miller (1980) reported that job satisfaction for both

women and men was determined by intrinsic job characteristics

(i.e., autonomy, complexity, and variety). However,

suggested in her data was that men place a higher value on

job autonomy than women, while women place higher value on

job complexity than men. For women, job satisfaction often

depended upon how complex and interesting the job was.

Miller accounted for these differences by stating that women

may so rarely have access to jobs with autonomy that they do

not rank it among the most important characteristics of their

jobs.













In studies pertaining only to women, researchers have

reported that women in traditionally male occupations

experienced relatively high levels of job satisfaction (Meyer

& Lee, 1978; Moore, 1985; O'Farrell, 1980;Schreiber, 1979).

O'Farell and Harlen (1982) also found that women working in

traditionally male, blue-collar occupations were

significantly more satisfied with their work than their

female counterparts who held traditionally female, white-

collar occupations, while employed by the same corporation.

It has been suggested that women in nontraditional

occupations consider pay and work content factors related to

their positions as more satisfying than for women in

traditional occupations (Schreiber, 1979). Moore (1985)

reported that women in predominantly male occupations

perceived economic factors, utilization of skills, and

flexibility of hours as primary factors affecting their

levels of job satisfaction. Support of co-workers, which has

been cited as a primary factor related to women's job

satisfaction, was not, in this case, a salient factor. In

contrast, Neil and Snizek (1987) found that women placed

greater value on working relations; whereas men emphasized

salary, job status, and prestige in the community.

Two studies in which women in nontraditional and

traditional jobs within the same organizations were compared

had results where there were greater levels of job













satisfaction among "nontraditionals". The researchers also

reported, however, that women in the "nontraditional"

category experienced a great deal more stress resulting from

the pressure on them to "perform", isolation, and co-workers

hostility than their counterparts. (O'Farrell & Harlen, 1980;

Schreiber, 1979). O'Farrell and Harlen (1980) and Walshok

(1979) suggested that the higher levels of job satisfaction

for women in nontraditional occupations stemmed, in part,

from comparisons made by the women. When these women

compared their own jobs with the traditional jobs previously

or potentially available to them, the nontraditional job was

perceived as more satisfying than the traditional "women's

work". According to McIlwee (1982), the prestige and sense

of accomplishment assigned to nontraditional occupations

wanes over time, resulting in lower levels of satisfaction,

different sources of satisfaction, dissatisfaction, or some

combination. More specifically, McIlwee (1982) identified a

pattern in the perceived levels of job satisfaction among

women in nontraditional occupations. Upon entry into

nontraditional blue-collar jobs, women receive comparatively

greater rewards and experience greater levels of job

satisfaction than women in traditional occupations. Beyond

that, however, McIlwee reported that satisfaction levels

declined over time as the nontraditional aspects of the job

diminished in importance, with both satisfaction and













dissatisfaction revolving increasingly around the intrinsic

and extrinsic characteristics of the work. Moore (1985)

reported that women and men in male-dominant or sex

proportionate labor sectors perceived their jobs as providing

greater income, freedom, job involvement, challenge, and

ability utilization.

Several researchers identified a variety of difficulties

that women experienced when they entered male-dominated

occupations. These difficulties were most often manifested in

personal work dissatisfactions and occupational turnover.

The difficulties were ascribed to a variety of factors

including the roles women were expected to perform in

nontraditional fields, characteristics of work organizations,

and personal characteristics of the women (i.e., motivation,

values and attitudes, and expectations) (Patterson &

Engelberg, 1978; Schreiber, 197.9). Macke (1981) found that

both women in male-dominated fields and men in female-

dominated fields reported greater emphasis on their sex-

related characteristics than their occupational skills.

Sprangler et al. (1978) reported similar findings for female

students in law schools. Female students experienced greater

pressure to perform and more stress in interpersonal

relationships than male students. These students claimed

they felt "socially isolated and stereotyped as feminine"

(DeFleur, 1985, p.209).













Women who occupied positions in predominantly female

sectors of the labor market were found to have relatively

high levels of job satisfaction (Moore, 1985). Walshok and

Walshok (1978) explained the high levels of job satisfaction

from a traditional perspective. Generally, these women were

not especially concerned with traditional rewards of high pay

and upward mobility because any form of paid labor

represented an improvement over domestic (unpaid) labor.

Gold (1971) reported that women preferred jobs which offered

flexibility with respect to their traditional

responsibilities (i.e., caring for the home and family) and

were less concerned with economic rewards, autonomy, and

prestige. In a more recent study, Moore (1985) found that the

job satisfaction levels of women in predominantly female

occupations were affected by a wide range of intrinsic

challenges, socioemotional factors, and problems related to

income, as well as flexibility of hours and availability of

benefits tied to domestic responsibilities. Moore (1985)

also found that job satisfaction for both women and men in

all labor sectors was contingent on perceived income problems

and flexibility of working hours. Moore went on to note,

however, that these factors were most evident for women in

male-dominated or sex proportionate occupations.

In general, studies pertaining specifically to women and

job satisfaction can be categorized as either traditional or













structural in nature. According to traditional thought,

women and men, as a consequence of their sex-role

socializations, have different values and needs related to

work and jobs. Suggested in several studies was that women,

overall, require different rewards from work than men. These

differences may account for differences in levels of job

satisfaction (O'Leary, 1977). According to Gold (1971),

males placed greater emphasis on economic rewards, management

of others, recognition, and prestige. Women, however, most

often cited support from co-workers, job content, and

socioemotional factors as important determinants of job

satisfaction (Andrisani, 1978). Correspondingly, several

researchers have found that women perceive their

relationships with co-workers as a primary source of job

satisfaction (Blauner, 1964; Davis, 1967; Herzberg et al.,

1957). Others have found that women place no greater value

on social relationships than do men, and that both value

other aspects of the job more highly (O'Farrell & Harlen,

1982).

Hulin and Smith (1964) found that female workers were,

in general, less satisfied than male workers. Their

explanation for differences in levels of satisfaction between

the two groups, unlike the previously cited studies, focused

on structural factors (and not sex-role socialization

factors). For example, they concluded it was not gender per













se that was the critical factor. Instead, it was the entire

scope of factors including pay, job level, promotional

opportunities within the company, and societal norms that

determined levels of job satisfaction. Relatedly, Ivancivich

and Donnelly (1968) linked differing levels of job

satisfaction to differential treatment of women and men with

identical credentials within the organization.

Researchers have argued that organizational position,

occupational characteristics, and social control patterns in

the work structure are crucial determinants of job

satisfaction. Reportedly, women often place greater emphasis

on social relationships, but it is believed that this is

related to characteristics of their jobs and not their sex-

role socialization. More specifically, it is due to the fact

that women in general are restricted in job opportunities

because of the patriarchical pattern of control to which they

are subjected to in whatever jobs they hold (Acker & Van

Houten, 1974; Feldberg & Glenn, 1979; Kanter, 1977; Laws,

1979).

McIlwee (1982) claimed that the occupational stucture in

the United States contains considerable inequality in the

opportunities for work satisfaction and as the labor process

of advanced capitalism forces the structure to become even

more automated and divided, work at most levels will become

increasingly more dissatisfying especially for women.













According to Andrisani (1978), levels of job satisfaction

among working women decreased because they were less willing

to accept lower status in the labor market. Increasingly,

women began to reevaluate the inequality and discrimination

faced in the labor force. Consequently, their levels of

dissatisfaction rose with their perception of inequity in the

labor force.

Segmented labor market theories hold that occupations

are structured, defined, and rewarded differently for women

than for men, as well as for other minority group members,

across the labor force (Bonacich, 1972; Doeringer & Piore,

1971). Opportunities for entry into the labor force,

training on the job, opportunity to utilize skills, and

access to full-time positions with high economic rewards are

not available to women in the same proportion as they are to

men (Treiman & Hartman, 1981). Also, women in predominantly

male occupations, have high turnover rates, are offered more

part-time positions, and have greater rates of movement

within and out of the labor market (Blau & Jusenius, 1976).

Women workers, in general, occupy lower level occupations

where their opportunities for advancement and challenge are

limited (Blau, 1977). Suggested in these studies is that

women's lower levels of job satisfaction may be related to

the fact they they are afforded so few opportunities for

advancement (Moore, 1985).













Not surprisingly, based on structural explanations of

job dissatisfaction, men in predominantly female occupations

also are reported to have significantly lower levels of job

satisfaction. According to Moore (1985), the work

environment (i.e., lower pay, fewer promotional

opportunities, and limited opportunity for challenges) had a

significant effect in lowering job satisfaction scores among

men in such situations.

Kanter (1976) concluded that women's attitudes toward

work, and subsequently their levels of job satisfaction, are

more a function of their position within the organizational

structure than a consequence of their primary socialization

into family roles. Kanter's argument was that if women had

lower job aspirations, were less involved with their work,

and placed greater value than men on a congenial work

environment and peer relations, the cause could be traced

back to the fact that they generally hold positions with

limited or blocked mobility. Arguably, if men found

themselves in parallel situations, they would exhibit similar

work related attitudes (Kanter, 1976). From the related

literature can be found considerable support for Kanter's

premise and analyses of the relationship among working

conditions, gender, and job satisfaction (e.g., Grandjean &

Bernarl, 1979; Grandjean & Taylor, 1980; McIlwee, 1982,

Schreiber, 1979, South et al., 1982).













Jurik and Helemba (1984) examined gender, working

conditions, and job satisfaction in the field of corrections.

This study was unique in that it examined women and men in

comparable positions within the same organization. They

found that the attitudes of women were primarily a function

of their position within the organization and their immediate

working conditions. However, both female and male

respondents who perceived that there was little or no job

variety, limited opportunity to increase their knowledge in

the area of corrections, or fully utilize their abilities and

skills, were not satisfied with their jobs.

Based on the findings of the previous studies of

differences in job satisfaction on the basis of gender, it

can be inferred that gender is a significant factor in level

of work adjustment, particularly so for women in male-

dominated professions. Regardless of whether issues related

to gender and job satisfaction are viewed from a traditional

or structural standpoint, there is a general concensus.that,

overall, women experience their jobs in different manners

than men. More specifically, women are more apt to

experience role conflict, differential treatment, and

discrimination, all of which negatively impacts their levels

of work adjustment and job satisfaction. Moreover,

opportunities for women to meet their individual needs (i.e.,

achievement, advancement, company policies and practices,













compensation, co-workers, independence, recognition,

security, social status, or working conditions) are greatly

reduced, thereby decreasing the likelihood of correspondence

which results in lower levels of work adjustment.

A logical conclusion based on research related to job

satisfaction and turnover would be that personal success and

accomplishment in the work role are also significant factors

in predicting work adjustment and job satisfaction. More

specifically, women in male dominant professions, who

perceive themselves as successful in their work role, might

correspondingly experience higher levels of job security,

achievement, ability utilization, recognition, and

advancement, all of which increase the overall level of job

satisfaction. In contrast, it is also conceivable that

personal perceptions of failure in a work role would diminish

a worker's self-esteem and sense of achievement, which would

negatively impact their levels of job satisfaction. Thus,

individual perceptions of success would generate general

feelings of self-worth and productivity, resulting in higher

levels of job satisfaction.

It has long been known that factors such as little

participation in decision making, sexual discrimination and

resultant inequities, ambiguity about job security, poor

working conditions, and poor use of skills and abilities are

correlated with stress which is often manifested as job













related tension and job dissatisfaction (Argyris, 1964;

Fagenson, 1988; Likert, 1961; Quinn, Seashore, Kahn,

Mangione, Campbell, Slaines & Mccullough, 1971). It has also

long been known that work stress affects the family domain

and primary relationships. However, more recently, Jenner

(1988) reported that the opposite also hold true; chronic

relationship stress and familial conflicts impact upon work

stress.

The cumulative effect of negative stressors has been

identified as a state of "distress" or strain. Stressors in

the workplace stem from job demands, organizational

structure, information flow, job roles, informal

relationships, perceived opportunity for career development,

and external commitments. The consequences of stress are

shown to have individual physical, psychological, and

behavioral effects that effort organizational functioning

(Byers, 1987). According to Lefebvre and Sandford (1985)

psychological strain is a syndrome of physical, behavioral,

and -cognitive symptoms that are elicited, to varying degrees,

by environmental demands upon the individual (Lefebvre &

Sandford, 1985). In the case of women in male dominant

professions, it is conceivable that factors such as

discrimination, inequity in pay and benefits, poor working

conditions, and a sense of failure, would result in varying













degrees of strain and ultimately in low levels of work

adjustment.



Support For Need For the Study

Job satisfaction is contingent on accurate assessment of

an individual's perceptions of her/his needs and the

likelihood that the job will meet (satisfactorily) those

needs. Use of the results of this study will, in part,

enhance counselors' abilities to facilitate accurate self and

work environment assessments by prospective and current

female coaches, thereby enabling counselors to provide more

effective services for those persons.

Despite the fact that choosing a career is one of the

most important decisions individuals make during their

lifetimes, unfortunately many people choose their careers

without evaluating the likelihood that their jobs will

satisfy their needs. Examination of the results of this

study will afford counselors, as well as current and

prospective, female intercollegiate athletic coaches better

and more accurate appraisal of the extents to which coaching

work environments are able to fulfill female coaches'

specific needs.

The results of this study of work adjustment among

female intercollegiate athletic coaches also can be applied

to women in other male-dominant professions. Presumably,













women who choose nontraditional occupations present needs and

values similar to women who pursue careers in coaching. Thus

the results of this study have implications for women in

nontraditional careers. Relatedly, the results of this study

have implications for other individuals who pursue careers in

occupations in which exceptional stress is encountered in

attempts to perform successfully. More specifically, women

in nontraditional professional occupations having high

pressure to succeed are confronted with situations unlike

those experienced by women (and men) in more traditional,

less stressful occupations. Thus the greater understanding

of the theory of work adjustment provided by the results of

this study can be a framework for career counselors and

consultants to use in their efforts to explore the nature and

extent of the problems women in male-dominated professions

are experiencing.

There also are implications from the results of this

study for college and university personnel in general.

Although intercollegiate athletic programs are typically

auxiliary operations in colleges and universities, the

governing structures of intercollegiate athletic programs

typically parallel the governing structures of various units

(e.g., departments) within colleges and universities. More

specifically, parallels can be drawn between the rank and

authority of athletic directors and deans and the roles and














responsibilities of head coaches and department heads.

Similarly, many of the achievement norms for coaches can be

applied to professors. A parallel has also been drawn

between being associated with a major or minor sport and a

major or minor department (Loy & Sage, 1978). In this

regard, the findings of this study could be used in reference

to university personnel outside the field of athletics.

Using such information, career counselors and consultants

would be better prepared to counsel university personnel in

general with occupational and career problems.

The applicability of the theory of work adjustment is

not limited to career counseling; it is also relevant to the

area of personal counseling. As mentioned previously, women

entering the coaching profession are entering a male-

dominated, nontraditional occupation. In this vein are

inherent problems, unique to the women. Identification of

their levels of job satisfaction, in general, encompasses

assessment of the degree to which their needs and values are

met and, therefore by inference, subsequent impact of job

dissatisfaction on other areas of their lives. For example,

frustration with their jobs may carry over to their personal

lives. They may experience marital or relationship problems,

substance abuse and dependency problems, low self- esteem,

and/or may manifest psychosomatic complaints related to

prolonged stress. Greater understanding of the nature of













their work adjustment and/or needs for homeostatic conditions

therefore would facilitate counselors' or consultants'

efforts to examine antecedent conditions (i.e., need

deprivation). Once identified, appropriate counseling

strategies and techniques could be implemented and counseling

processes expedited to alleviate some of their problems and

concerns.



Support For Measurement Techniques

One of the most frequently used and recently developed

measures of job satisfaction is the Minnesota Satisfaction

Questionnaire (MSQ) (Weiss, Dawis, Lofquist & England, 1967).

The MSQ is comprised of 100 items from which twenty subscales

are generated; the subscales correspond to the twenty needs

described in a previous section. A respondent rates each

item on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from Not Satisfied

(the aspect is much poorer than expected) to Extremely

Satisfied (the aspect is much better than expected).

Provided in the Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction

Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967) are

normative data for twenty-five vocational groups. The

validity of the MSQ was assessed by Dunhan, Smith, and

Blackburn (1977) who found that the MSQ, when compared to

three other measures of job satisfaction (i.e., Job

Descriptive Index [JDI], Faces Scale [FACES], and Index of













Organizational Reactions [IOR]) ranked highest and second

highest in convergent and discriminant validities,

respectively. Convergent validity was based on the degree to

which the scales (on all measures) indicated similar scores

among the respondents. In contrast, discriminative validity

was established by the degree to which each respondent's

scale pattern was similar on each instrument, but different

from other individuals taking the test. Indicated in the

results of these comparisons was that the MSQ had the highest

convergent validity (.71 to .61) and median discriminative

(.70). Demonstrated in further analyses was that when the

MSQ was compared to the other measures of job satisfaction,

it was least affected by differences in the respondents'

gender and type of job (Dunhan et al., 1977).

MSQ test-retest correlation coefficients were calculated

for a one week period for seventy-five night school students.

Stability correlations ranged from .66 (co-workers scale) to

.91 (working conditions scale). Test-retest correlation

coefficients also were calculated over a one-year period for

115 employed persons. Stability correlations for this period

ranged from .35 (independence scale) to .71 (ability

utilization scale). Canonical correlation analyses of the

data derived from the two test-retest intervals yielded a .97

coefficient for the one-week interval and .89 for the one-

year interval (Weiss et al., 1967)). Weiss et al. (1967)













also calculated Hoyt reliability coefficients for each of the

twenty subscales and reported scores ranging from .59

(variety) to .97 (ability utilization).

Rather than elaborate on the validity data of the MSQ,

Weiss et al. (1967) advised readers to consult other

publications which reported on the MSQ construct and

concurrent validity. However, Dawis and Lofquist (1984)

later reported that the MSQ is designed to measure dimensions

of job satisfaction that parallel dimensions of needs

measured by the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ), and

therefore, MSQ construct validity is derived from the MIQ.

Dawis and Lofquist (1984) also reported that research on MSQ

provided validity data indicative that the MSQ is appropriate

for both research and practice. Moreover, several

researchers (e.g., Dunhan et al., 1977; Guion, 1978; Weiss,

1967) concluded that the MSQ has relatively high validity and

reliability measures when compared to other respected job

satisfaction instruments.

A recently developed measure of strain is the Strain

Questionnaire (SQ) (Lefebvre & Sandford, 1985). The SQ is

comprised of 48 items from which three subscales of physical,

behavioral, and cognitives signs of strain are generated. A

respondent is asked to rate each item of a 5-point Likert

scale according to how often she/he experienced or felt each













of the items listed. The scales range from Never to

Constantly.

Normative data for the SQ was obtained on 285 males and

127 females (N=412) who had a mean age of thirty-three (range

17-58 years). The group consisted of 38 elementary and

secondary education teachers, 45 insurance agents enrolled in

a stress management course, 110 navel engineers, 119 graduate

level business students, and 100 undergraduate students.

The inter-rater reliability of the SQ ranged from .88 to

1.00. SQ test-retest correlation coefficients were reported

as .75 (physical), .77 (behavioral), .73 (cognitive), and .79

(total SQ). Split-half reliability correlation coefficients

were reported as .62 (behavioral), .86 (cognitive), .87

(physical) and .88 (total SQ).

Although the researchers report that studies are still

necessary to further validate various aspects of the SQ, it

appears to be a valid and reliable measure of strain in both

cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Lefebvre &

Sandford, 1984, 1985).

Because the MSQ and SQ are considered valid and reliable

measurements of job satisfaction and strain, for a variety of

professionals, they are also considered appropriate and

suitable measurement techniques for female intercollegiate

athletic coaches. Many of the inherent problems related to

the administration of questionnaires, in general, are













alleviated by several personal factors associated with the

nature of the individuals who typically comprise the

intercollegiate coaching population.

The first of these factors is related to the level of

education of collegiate coaches. More specifically, these

individuals, in order to become intercollegiate coaches,

must have attained (at minimum) a baccalaureate degree.

Therefore, female intercollegiate coaches have a relatively

high reading level and have completed numerous written tests

and surveys during the course of their college careers.

Presumably, intercollegiate coaches are familiar with

completing written questionnaires and surveys similar to the

MSQ and SQ. Thus, it can be assumed that female

intercollegiate coaches would not be likely to experience

difficulty in understanding the nature of the questions of

the surveys and would be sufficiently experienced to complete

a lengthy survey such as the MSQ and the SQ.

A second factor which enhances the suitability and

appropriateness of the MSQ and SQ to female intercollegiate

coaches is related to the autonomy associated with coaching

positions. Intercollegiate coaches, in general, have control

over their daily routines and schedules. Thus, they would be

in a position to allow themselves sufficient time to complete

both the MSQ and SQ. In view of these factors, the MSQ and

SQ are both considered to be suitable and appropriate













instruments for the measurement of job satisfaction among

female intercollegiate athletic coaches.



Summary of Literature Review

In this review of the literature it was suggested that

job satisfaction is related to factors such as age, income,

tenure, educational level, stress, marital status and

multiple roles, and gender. It is not known however, what

role, if any, these factors play in determining the job

satisfaction levels among female intercollegiate athletic

coaches.

Indicated in this review of the literature related to

job satisfaction is the need for further research in the area

of job satisfaction among women in male dominant professions,

and more specifically, among female intercollegiate athletic

coaches. Numerous cultural and structural factors associated

with male dominated professions have been identified as

having a negative impact upon women attempting to pursue

careers in such fields. For example, women in these

professions are apt to experience sex-role conflict,

differential treatment, and discrimination.

Among the cultural factors, researchers have examined

extensively, problems associated with sex-role socialization,

stereotypes and expectations and have found that females, by

virtue of their gender, are more apt than their male













counterparts to experience high levels of stress derived from

sex-role conflicts that augment the inherent pressures

associated with achieving success in any professional

occupation.

Suggested in studies which have addressed structural

factors associated with male dominated professions is that

females, again by virtue of their gender, are often

confronted with seemingly insurmountable obstacles as they

attempt to pursue a successful professional career. Cited as

one of the most prominent obstacles which prevails within

male dominated professions is the "male universe" or "good

old boy's network." These male networks prevent women from

feeling secure or confident in their roles as professionals

which, in turn, adversely affect their opportunities for

advancement and their abilities to establish a sense of

belonging. Furthermore, indicated in studies of the impact

of male dominance upon individuals within a profession is

that minorities (i.e., females), in general, are paid less

and hold lower status positions within the professions.

Despite the preponderance of information related to

women in male dominated occupations and factors associated

with job satisfaction, few data exist concerning female

intercollegiate athletic coaches. Further, there is a dearth

of data which pertains to overall job satisfaction levels

among female intercollegiate athletic coaches. A systematic




Full Text
48
epithets, or ridicule (Collinson, 1988; DeFleur, 1985). For
example, Arkin and Dobrofsky (1977) examined military
training activities and noted that such devices denigrate the
role of women in military activities and also tend to
reinforce their roles as sexual objects. Classical
stereotypes promoted in training sessions include warning
soldiers against contacts with "bad women" (i.e., destructive
weapons named after women). Practices such as this obviously
reinforce attitudes and beliefs which affect sex integration
in the military (DeFleur, 1985). Thus occupational ideology
and the sex typing of specific role activities, sex-linked
jokes, and epithets are often used as part of segregation.
All form an occupational ethos that stresses themes of male
exclusivity and gender differentiation (DeFleur, 1985).
Most studies of women in male-dominated professions have
relied on gender-related factors in order to explain women's
depressed status. In contrast, Kanter (1977) concluded that
women's attitudes toward and position in professions is a
function of their location in the organization's hierarchical
structure rather than a consequence of their primary sex-role
socialization. If women have lower job aspirations, less
involvement with work, and exhibit greater concern with
congenial work environments and peer relations, the reason
may be that they find themselves in jobs with limited or
blocked mobility. Furthermore, men who find themselves in


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
JOB SATISFACTION
AMONG FEMALE INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETIC HEAD COACHES
By
Susan Leigh Hambleton
August 1989
Chairman: Larry C. Loesch
Major Department: Counselor Education
Investigated in this study was the nature of job
satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic head
coaches. Based on Dawis and Lofquist's theory of work
adjustment and previous research, age, years in coaching,
years as a head coach, success in work role, type of sport
coached, annual income, marital status, collegiate division
level of athletic program, and strain were identified as
possible sources of variation in the coaches' job
satisfaction. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
(MSQ) was used to assess overall job satisfaction as well
as 20 components of it. The Strain Questionnaire (SQ) was
used to assess total strain and its physical, behavioral,
and cognitive components.
A demographic questionnaire, MSQ, and SQ were sent to
300 female intercollegiate athletic head coaches at
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member
institutions. Complete response data were received from
135 coaches (40%). The sample was found to adequately
x


128
to complete the survey. Fortunately, this was not the case.
The final return rate was 40% and, although it was lower than
the predicted return rate (60%), it is much higher than the
return rate generally expected (i.e., 20%) for survey
research (Bailey, 1982) .
A second potential methodological limitation was related
to history. It was believed that the coaches' perceived
levels of job satisfaction might be greatly influenced by
extraneous factors not directly associated with job
satisfaction (e.g., their win/loss record at the time they
completed the surveys). The findings of the study, however,
override this concern. There were no significant
relationships between win/loss records (i.e., success) and
job satisfaction.
A third possible methodological limitation was related
to the fact that the response categories of the written
questionnaires were structured and did not allow the
respondents to include additional comments. This limitation
was alleviated by including a section identified as
"additional comments" on the demographic portion of the
survey. Several respondents included personal comments which
would suggest that those coaches who wished to include
additional comments did so, thus diminishing the possibility
that the structure of the questionnaire would negatively
impact the results of the study.


165
Susan began working in her current position as a Health
Educator for the University of Florida Student Health Service
in 1984. In this position, she has led numerous health and
counseling-related workshops and seminars on nutrition,
stress management, eating disorders, women in management,
substance abuse, and wellness.


28
more burnout due to less support or reinforcement from their
athletes (Parkhouse & Williams, 1986).
In accordance with the "burnout" theory, Caccese and
Mayerber (1984) examined gender differences in perceived
burnout of college coaches. They found that female head
college coaches reported significantly higher levels of
burnout than did male coaches on two subscales (i.e.,
personal accomplishment and emotional exhaustion) of the
Maslach Burnout Inventory (Caccese and Mayerber, 1984). They
offered several possible explanations for the significantly
higher levels of burnout among the women. The first was
related to the fact that women coaches, generally, are
younger than the men and have been coaching for a fewer
number of years. Therefore, they are presumably less
experienced and have had less opportunity to learn how to
cope with the stresses inherent in coaching. These women may
be too idealistic; expecting or demanding too much of
themselves (Caccese & Mayerber, 1984).
A second explanation for higher levels of burnout among
female coaches was that female coaches feel more stress
because prominence of major female athletic teams is a
relatively recent phenomenon. Consequently, females may be
attempting to "prove" (their) women's teams are deserving of
respect and they can perform well (Caccese & Mayerber, 1984).


149
Ask yourself: How satisfied am I with this aspect of my job?
Very Serf, means I am very satisfied with this aspect of my job.
Sat. means I am satisfied with this aspect of my job.
N means I can't decide whether I am satisfied or not with this aspect of my job.
Dissert, means I am dissatisfied with this aspect of my job.
Very Dissat. means I am very dissatisfied with this aspect of my job.
On my present job, this is how 1 feel about . .
V*rr
Diuot.
OilMt.
N
Sot.
Vry
Sat.
51. The way my ¡ob provides for steady employment.

n

C
52. How my pay compares with that for similar jobs in other companies.


c
53. The pleasantness of the working conditions.



c
G
54. The way promotions are given out on this job.




55. The way my boss delegates work to others.





56. The friendliness of my co-workers.



c
a
57. The chance to be responsible for the work of others.




a
58. The recognition 1 get for the work 1 do.




a
59. Being able to do something worthwhile.





60. Being able to stay busy.



c
a
61. The chance to do things for other people.



n
L_l

62. The chance to develop new and better ways to do the job.



G
G
63. The chance to do things that don't harm other people.



r¡
uJ

64. The chance to work independently of others.





65. The chance to do something different every day.




I
66. The chance to tell people what to do.



G
a
67. The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities.



G
a
68. The chance to be important in the eyes of others.



a
G
69. The way company policies are put into practice.



a
a
70. The way my boss takes care of the complaints of his/her employees.



a
H
71. How steady my job is.




G
72. My pay and the amount of work 1 do.



a
u
73. The physical working conditions of the job.



a
a
74. The chances for advancement on this job.



a
a
75. The way my boss provides help on hard problems.



G
G
Vwr
Diuot.
Vory
N Sot. Sol.
Diuot.


27
number of male coaches was found. A parallel trend existed
for women in athletic administration. For example, in 1972,
women held over 90% of the administrative positions in
women's collegiate sports programs, but in 1988 they headed
only 16% of those programs (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988) .
In an effort to find an explanation for the decline in
the number of women occupying leadership positions in
collegiate sport, Parkhouse and Williams (1986) examined
differential effects of gender on the evaluation of coaching
ability. They concluded that gender bias played a key role
in the decreasing number of women in athletic leadership
positions. They found general gender bias (favoring males)
in the evaluation of basketball coaching ability as well as
preference by athletes (both male and female) for being
coached by a male (Parkhouse & Williams, 1986). Parkhouse
and Williams (1986) concluded that gender operates as a
diffuse status characteristic; females are generally
considered less competent, resulting in lower status for
females in coaching roles compared to their male
counterparts. Thus, general devaluation of females provides
partial explanation for the increasing dropout rate of female
coaches. Pertinent here is the logical inference that if
athletes do indeed respond to their coaches in this manner,
female coaches would experience less job satisfaction and


7
agreement in the literature that in 1972, approximately 90%
of women's intercollegiate athletic programs were under the
supervision of a female athletic director. By 1986, the
figure had dropped to 15%, with 32% of all intercollegiate
programs having no women involved at any level of
administration (Acosta & Carpenter, 1986).
The strong influence of the NCAA also precipitated
losses of AIAW membership, commercial sponsorship of awards
programs, television exposure revenues, and general income.
Subsequently, the devaluing of the AIAW fostered increased
confusion and distrust among the men and women. Thus in
1983, the AIAW disbanded, and the NCAA assumed uncontested
control of the majority of intercollegiate sports programs.
Currently, the intercollegiate athletic structure in the
United States is dominated by male leadership. Leadership
positions such as those of athletic director or head coach
are much more frequently occupied by men than by women.
Moreover, within the past decade, there have been substantial
reductions in the number of women in leadership positions.
Two factors appear to have contributed to the reduction in
the number of female head coaches. First, many female
coaches "voluntarily" left coaching. Second, many female
coaches were replaced by male coaches (Hart, Hasbrook, &
Mathes, 1986).


79
related tension and job dissatisfaction (Argyris, 1964;
Fagenson, 1988; Likert, 1961; Quinn, Seashore, Kahn,
Mangione, Campbell, Slaines & Mccullough, 1971). It has also
long been known that work stress affects the family domain
and primary relationships. However, more recently, Jenner
(1988) reported that the opposite also hold true; chronic
relationship stress and familial conflicts impact upon work
stress.
The cumulative effect of negative stressors has been
identified as a state of "distress" or strain. Stressors in
the workplace stem from job demands, organizational
structure, information flow, job roles, informal
relationships, perceived opportunity for career development,
and external commitments. The consequences of stress are
shown to have individual physical, psychological, and
behavioral effects that effort organizational functioning
(Byers, 1987). According to Lefebvre and Sandford (1985)
psychological strain is a syndrome of physical, behavioral,
and -cognitive symptoms that are elicited, to varying degrees,
by environmental demands upon the individual (Lefebvre &
Sandford, 1985). In the case of women in male dominant
professions, it is conceivable that factors such as
discrimination, inequity in pay and benefits, poor working
conditions, and a sense of failure, would result in varying


125
In order to learn more about job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches, the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the Strain Questionnaire
(SQ) were mailed to 300 female intercollegiate athletic
coaches employed at NCAA Division I, II, and III level
colleges and universities across the country. The findings
of this study are based on the responses of a final sample of
135 coaches from various parts of the country.
Generalizability Limitations
It could be argued that the generalizability of the
study is limited by the fact that the resultant sample was
comprised of only 135 (4%) of the general population (2,780)
of female intercollegiate athletic coaches in this country.
However, the risk of misrepresentation was reduced by the
random sampling procedure used to procure the resultant
sample.
A second possible limitation of the generalizabilty of
this study is related to the distribution of respondents from
the Division I, II, and III colleges and universities.
Because the division level of college or university was one
of the independent variables measured in the study, it was
considered important that the respondents closely represent
the distribution of the general population of female coaches
in all three divisions in order to obtain accurate results.


103
Data Analyses
The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) General Linear
Model (GLM) procedure was used for all the analyses in this
study. The MSQ yields 21 different scores: 20 subscale
scores and a total job satisfaction score. In order to
determine an answer to the first research question addressed
in this study, each of these scores were used as a criterion
variable and the variables (a) age, (b) years employed as a
coach, (c) years employed as a head coach, (d) annual income,
(e) perceived levels of strain (stress), and (f) success
(i.e.,win/loss record) (g) marital status, (h) level of sport
coached, (i) type of sport coached and (j) physical, (k)
behavioral, (1)cognitive, and (m) total strain were used as
predictor variables in an analysis of variance procedure.
Inherent in the SAS-GLM procedures are (sub)analyses
which allow determination of responses to the additional
research questions. For example, the multiple regression
analysis procedure included computation of the (Pearson)
correlations between the criterion variable and age, years
employed as a coach, years employed as a head coach, annual
income, and success, respectively. Similarly, significant
differences in the criterion variables on the bases of
marital status, level of sport coached, and type of sport
coached, respectively, were determined. In order to order to
control for Type I error among the components of job


REFERENCES
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Acker, J., & Van Houten, D. R. (1974, June). Differential
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163.
Acosta, R. V., & Carpenter, L. J. (1984). Women in
athleticsA status report. Unpublished study.
Acosta, R. V., & Carpenter, L. J. (1986). Women in
intercollegiate sportA longitudinal study-nine year update
(1977-1986). Unpublished study.
Acosta, R. V., & Carpenter, L. J. (1988). Women in
intercollegiate sporTA longitudinal study-eleven year
update (1977-1988). Unpublished study.
Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L.
Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology
(pp 267-297). New York: Academic Press.
Alderfer, C. P. (1967). Convergent and discriminant
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520.
Andrisani, P. J. (1978). Job satisfaction among working
women. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1,
588-607.
Argyris, C. (1973) Personality and organization theory
revisited. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1£, 141-167.
Arkin, W., & Dobrovsky L. (1977). Gender roles and the
military. Paper presented at Pacific Sociological
Association, Sacramento, California.
Aronowitz, S. (1973). False promises. New York: McGraw-
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Babbie, E. R. (1973). Survey research methods. San
Fransisco: Wadsworth.
152


17
non-responding to specific items, (d) lack of opportunity for
response clarification, (e) non-responding, and (f)
potentiality for sampling bias.
Conversely, mailed questionnaire survey research
methodology has numerous distinct advantages over alternative
research methods. For example, mailed questionnaires are a
means of efficiently gathering large quantities of
information from a large population. More importantly, the
acquired information can provide a remarkably accurate
portrait of the population surveyed (Kerlinger, 1973).
Other advantages of mailed questionnaires are related to
expediency and cost efficiency. Mailed questionnaires are
generally less expensive than alternative research methods
and can be sent to all potential respondents simultaneously,
thus resulting in a considerable savings of time (Babbie,
1973; Bailey, 1982).
According to Bailey (1982), additional advantages of
mailed questionnaires include (a) responses can be provided
at the convenience of the respondents, (b) respondents can be
assured of anonymity, (c) items used are standardized across
respondents, (d) there is no potential for interviewer bias
in recording responses, and (e) access is available to
respondents from whom data could not be gathered by other
means.


85
also calculated Hoyt reliability coefficients for each of the
twenty subscales and reported scores ranging from .59
(variety) to .97 (ability utilization).
Rather than elaborate on the validity data of the MSQ,
Weiss et al. (1967) advised readers to consult other
publications which reported on the MSQ construct and
concurrent validity. However, Dawis and Lofquist (1984)
later reported that the MSQ is designed to measure dimensions
of job satisfaction that parallel dimensions of needs
measured by the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ), and
therefore, MSQ construct validity is derived from the MIQ.
Dawis and Lofquist (1984) also reported that research on MSQ
provided validity data indicative that the MSQ is appropriate
for both research and practice. Moreover, several
researchers (e.g., Dunhan et al., 1977; Guin, 1978; Weiss,
1967) concluded that the MSQ has relatively high validity and
reliability measures when compared to other respected job
satisfaction instruments.
A recently developed measure of strain is the Strain
Questionnaire (SQ) (Lefebvre & Sandford, 1985). The SQ is
comprised of 48 items from which three subscales of physical,
behavioral, and cognitives signs of strain are generated. A
respondent is asked to rate each item of a 5-point Likert
scale according to how often she/he experienced or felt each


JOB SATISFACTION
AMONG FEMALE INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETIC HEAD COACHES
By
SUSAN LEIGH HAMBLETON
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERISTY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1989

Copyright 1989
by
Susan Leigh Hambleton

In Memory Of My Brother
Fred Hambleton

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
There are a number of people I would like to acknowledge
for extending their support, encouragement, and understanding
as I worked toward the completion of my doctoral studies.
First, I would like to thank the members of my doctoral
committee, Dr. Janet Larsen, Dr. Paula Welch, and Dr. Phyllis
Meek. Their support and guidance were of utmost importance
to me. I am especially grateful to them for responding in
kind when I interrupted their busy schedules to ask for
assistance or guidance. Even though each committee member
played a significant role, I would especially like to thank
Dr. Meek for the encouragement and compassion she never
failed to provide when I needed it the most. She is a
teacher, mentor, and friend. I hope one day I will be able
to motivate others to achieve their dreams with the same
warmth and kindness she consistently offered to me.
Words can never convey the gratitude I feel toward Dr.
Larry Loesch, chairman of my doctoral committee. His
outstanding professional expertise, coupled with his warm
sense of humor and ability to instill confidence in his
students, enabled me to accomplish more than I previously
thought possible. I am indebted to him for providing me with
the foundation I needed to accomplish my goals.
I would also like to thank my parents, Fred and June
Hambleton, not only for their support and patience throughout
IV

this experience, but also for instilling in me the ever-so-
important values of hard work and determination.
I am deeply grateful to Sharon Knight, Rhendy
Hutchcraft, Cathy Saenz, and Jackie Herndon for providing me
with the unconditional support, encouragement, and assistance
I needed along the way. In addition, I would like to thank
Mary Horn for her guidance and unyielding belief in me and
for helping me overcome what were perhaps my most difficult
obstacles; those that were generated from deep within myself.
I would also like to thank Mrs. Pearl Clark, Mrs. Betty
and Trish Garibaldi, and Darius and Cindy Cauthen, members of
my "extended" family, for their nurturance and ever-present
concern for my general well-being.
Special thanks are also extended to Karen Agne for her
help in executing the data analyses procedures. Her patience
will always be remembered.
Finally, my sincerest appreciation and thanks are
extended to my closest friend and confidante, Michele
Garibaldi. Her unwavering confidence in my abilities, teamed
with her optimistic attitude toward challenge, provided me
with much of the strength and courage I required to pursue my
dreams and aspirations.
v

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES viii
ABSTRACT x
CHAPTERS
I INTRODUCTION 1
Theoretical Framework 8
Statement of the Problem 11
Need For the Study 12
Purpose of the Study 15
Rationale for the Approach to the Study 15
Research Questions 18
Definitions of Terms 19
Overview of the Remainder of the Study 25
II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 2 6
Further Delineation of Problem 26
Support for Theoretical Framework 4 9
Support for the Need for the Study 80
Support for Measurement Techniques 83
Summary of Literature Review 88
III METHODOLOGY 91
Population 91
Sampling Procedures 96
Resultant Sample 97
Assessment Instruments 99
Data Analysis 103
Methodological Limitations 104
IV RESULTS 108
V DISCUSSION 124
Generalizability Limitations 125
Evaluation of Results 130
Implications and Recommendations 135
Summary of Results 140
vi

APPENDICES
A INTRODUCTORY LETTER 142
B DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY 143
C MINNESOTA SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE 144
D STRAIN QUESTIONNAIRE 151
REFERENCES 152
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 164
vii

LIST OF TABLES
Table page
1 Mean Scores For Age, Years As Coach, Years As
Head Coach, Annual Income, Behavioral
Strain, Physical Strain,Cognitive Strain,
Total Strain, Games Won, Games Lost, And
General Job Satisfaction 108
2 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Type Of Sport Coached 109
3 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Marital Status (Single/Married) 110
4 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Marital Status (Divorced/Significant Other) Ill
5 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Educational Degree 112
6 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
For Division (I) 113
7 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
For Division (II) 114
8 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
For Division (III) 115
9 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Matrix
For Age, Years As Coach, Years As Head Coach, Annual
Income, Behavioral Strain, Physical Strain,
Cognitive Strain, Total Strain, Games Won,
Games Lost, And General Job Satisfaction 116
10 Multiple Regression Analysis Of Female
Intercollegiate Athletic Coaches' General
Job Satisfaction Score By Age, Years
As Coach, Years As Head Coach, Annual
Income, Level Of Behavioral Strain, Level Of
Physical Strain, Level Of Cognitive Strain,
Level Of Total Strain, Number Of Games Won,
And Number Of Games Lost 118
viii

11Summary Of Four Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Income 119
12Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Behavioral Strain 120
13Summary of Two Regression Ananyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Physical Strain 120
14Summary Of Three Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Cognitive Strain 120
15 Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor; Total
Strain 121
16 Analysis Of Variance Of Female Intercollegiate Athletic
Coaches' General Job Satisfaction Score By Marital
Status, Type Of Sport Coached, Level Of Sport Coached,
And Degree 122
ix

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
JOB SATISFACTION
AMONG FEMALE INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETIC HEAD COACHES
By
Susan Leigh Hambleton
August 1989
Chairman: Larry C. Loesch
Major Department: Counselor Education
Investigated in this study was the nature of job
satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic head
coaches. Based on Dawis and Lofquist's theory of work
adjustment and previous research, age, years in coaching,
years as a head coach, success in work role, type of sport
coached, annual income, marital status, collegiate division
level of athletic program, and strain were identified as
possible sources of variation in the coaches' job
satisfaction. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
(MSQ) was used to assess overall job satisfaction as well
as 20 components of it. The Strain Questionnaire (SQ) was
used to assess total strain and its physical, behavioral,
and cognitive components.
A demographic questionnaire, MSQ, and SQ were sent to
300 female intercollegiate athletic head coaches at
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member
institutions. Complete response data were received from
135 coaches (40%). The sample was found to adequately
x

represent NCAA female head coaches in terms of age, years
as a coach, years as a head coach, type of sport coached,
and collegiate division level of athletic program.
A multiple regression analysis was used to investigate
the relationship between overall job satisfaction and age,
income, tenures, success, and strain components. Only
annual income made a statistically significant contribution
to the variance in job satisfaction. In subsequent
analyses, income was found to be significantly related to
the advancement, authority, compensation, and social status
components of job satisfaction. Also, physical,
behavioral, cognitive, and total strain were related to the
activity, creativity, and variety job satisfaction
components. In general, however, these component
relationships were only moderate. In addition, neither
overall job satisfaction nor any of its components was
found to vary on the bases of these coaches' marital
status, type of sport coached, or collegiate level of
coaching.
The situational and psychological factors investigated
accounted for far less variation in female intercollegiate
athletic head coaches' job satisfaction than has been
hypothesized; only annual income was a good predictor of
it. Other factors, such as those inherent in work
environments, need to be studied to gain greater
understanding of job satisfaction among these coaches.
xi

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
During the last twenty years, there have been many
controversies about the nature of intercollegiate athletics.
For example, mandatory drug testing, recruitment violations,
and minimum academic standards for athletes have been major
issues. Among these is a subject which has spawned much
controversy and discussion: the appropriate roles of women in
sports. The controversies about appropriate roles for women
in sports parallel those for women in society, and have the
same bases, such as changing societal norms and values, the
(so-called) women's movement, and state and federal
legislation.
Collegiate sports for women date to the nineteenth
century, but it was not until about the 1970s that women
began to engage in "high level" intercollegiate athletics.
More important, however, is the fact that it has only been in
the past decade and a half that females have actively
participated within the established, male-dominated
intercollegiate athletic structure, and in much the same
manner as male athletes. Several factors prevented female
athletes from participating in intercollegiate sports prior
to the early 1970s, not the least of which was the
1

2
disproportionately greater cultural emphasis awarded to high-
level competition for males than for females.
Prior to the 1970s, women were excluded from most
rigorous sports as well as the associated intercollegiate
athletic teams primarily on the basis of traditional sex-role
stereotypes that existed for males and females in the
American culture. The qualities deemed necessary for
successful athletic achievements were synonymous with traits
and characteristics applied to the traditional masculine
stereotype, i.e., competitiveness, aggressiveness, and
determination. Consequently, men dominated the playing
fields, courts, and pools; won more scholarships and awards;
and obtained greater public attention and acclaim for
athletic achievements. In contrast, females aspiring to
participate in sport did so without adequate facilities,
funding, or reward and were relegated to roles considered
appropriate for their sex, such as cheerleaders for male
football and basketball teams (Fox, 1985) .
In addition to the stereotypical sex-role constraints
placed upon women in athletics, women's sports prior to the
1970s were governed by a philosophy of "protectionism" that
served as a barrier to the successful integration of women in
intercollegiate athletics (Chu, 1985). Women physical
educators who coached women in sports considered it one of
their primary responsibilities to "protect" female athletes

3
from the negative connotations associated with men's sports
programs, (i.e., violence, aggressiveness, and injury).
Accordingly, segregated sports programs for men and women
seemed justified, and female athletes were restricted to low
level competition often referred to as "play days." Under
the guise of protectionism, competition, in its most positive
sense, was suppressed rather than encouraged for women,
further alienating and isolating women from the realm of
intercollegiate athletic competition.
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, parallel to the
tremendous increase in enrollment of women in higher
education, there was a dramatic rise in the number of
athletically talented females capable of participating in
competitive intercollegiate athletics. Thus, the demand for
higher levels of competition became more pronounced and a
more competitive philosophy for women's sports began to
evolve.
The transition from "protectionism" to "competitiveness"
first reached prominence with the establishment of the
Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (CIAW) in
1965 and the subsequent establishment of the Association for
Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) in 1971. The
purpose of the CIAW was to sanction women's intercollegiate
athletic events and to establish, conduct, and promote
mechanisms leading to national intercollegiate athletic

4
championships (Chu, 1985). The change from the CIAW to AIAW
(i.e., from a commission to an association) was initiated
primarily to establish a stronger financial base for women's
sports programs, thus enhancing the opportunities for
athletic competition. Women's growing interest in
competitive intercollegiate athletics was evident in the
rapid growth of AIAW membership. For example, the AIAW
charter membership rose from 278 colleges and universities in
1971-72 to 973 in 1979-80 (Chu, 1985).
Despite increasing opportunities and more competitive
athletic environments for women and the increasing cultural
acceptance of women as skilled athletes, women's
intercollegiate sports programs during the early 1970s were
still plagued with obvious, blatant discriminatory practices,
not unlike those forced upon women in other areas of higher
education. In an effort to eradicate discrimination based on
social conditions and stereotyped characterization of the
sexes in American institutions of higher education, Title IX
to the Education Amendments Act was passed in 1972.
Although initially applied to educational opportunity
aspects of higher education, Title IX came to be interpreted
such that athletic opportunities for women were supposed to
be equal to those for male athletes. Following its passage,
there was a surge in the number of intercollegiate athletic
opportunities and benefits for women, (e.g., athletic

5
scholarships, sport offerings, and playing schedules).
Consequently, concomitant with the passage of Title IX,
women's participation in college athletics greatly expanded.
Ironically, Title IX had both positive and negative
impacts on women's intercollegiate sports programs. On the
positive side, participation opportunities for women
increased dramatically. For example, in 1972, only 2.5
intercollegiate sports per college were offered for women but
by 1986, the average had increased to 7.31 (Acosta &
Carpenter, 1988). Accompanying increased participation
opportunities was massive growth in the numbers of female
athlete participants. In 1972, the year Title IX was
enacted, 16,000 females competed in intercollegiate sports.
In 1986, the figure had risen sharply to 150,000 (DeFrantz,
1987) .
Another positive impact directly related to the passage
of Title IX and the advancement of women's sports programs
was a dramatic increase in budget allotments for female
athletics. In 1971, before Title IX, women's intercollegiate
sports averaged only 1% of the budget of the men's sports.
By 1978, the largest women's sports programs had increased
their budgets to 15-18% of the men's. On the average,
however, most women's sport's programs had increased their
budgets from 1% to 10% of the men's by 1978 ("Comes the
Revolution," 1978). The NCAA Division I colleges and

6
universities exemplify the extent of the budgetary gains for
women's programs. In 1971, the average annual budget for
women was approximately $10,000. By 1980 the budgets had
increased to $300,000 (White & White, 1982). With budgetary
improvements, athletic scholarships became increasingly
available to women. In 1982, 814 colleges and universities
offered women athletic scholarships in contrast to the 60
offered to them in 1974 (Myers, 1983) .
Title IX also had far-reaching negative effects on the
design, autonomy, and governance of women's intercollegiate
athletics (Chu, 1985) . For example, subsequent to the
passage of Title IX, the National Collegiate Athletic
Association (NCAA) challenged the applicability of Title IX
to athletics. According to Chu (1985), some member
institutions of the NCAA feared financial strain and
inability to support separate intercollegiate athletic
programs for men and women without taking money away from
existing men's programs.
In an effort to ease anticipated financial strain from
having parallel athletic programs, men's and women's athletic
departments were merged in the vast majority of universities.
Such mergers did save money, but in more than 80% of the
cases where women had administered women's athletic programs,
the merger resulted in a male assuming the administrative
role for both programs (Chu, 1985). There is general

7
agreement in the literature that in 1972, approximately 90%
of women's intercollegiate athletic programs were under the
supervision of a female athletic director. By 1986, the
figure had dropped to 15%, with 32% of all intercollegiate
programs having no women involved at any level of
administration (Acosta & Carpenter, 1986).
The strong influence of the NCAA also precipitated
losses of AIAW membership, commercial sponsorship of awards
programs, television exposure revenues, and general income.
Subsequently, the devaluing of the AIAW fostered increased
confusion and distrust among the men and women. Thus in
1983, the AIAW disbanded, and the NCAA assumed uncontested
control of the majority of intercollegiate sports programs.
Currently, the intercollegiate athletic structure in the
United States is dominated by male leadership. Leadership
positions such as those of athletic director or head coach
are much more frequently occupied by men than by women.
Moreover, within the past decade, there have been substantial
reductions in the number of women in leadership positions.
Two factors appear to have contributed to the reduction in
the number of female head coaches. First, many female
coaches "voluntarily" left coaching. Second, many female
coaches were replaced by male coaches (Hart, Hasbrook, &
Mathes, 1986).

8
There are several possible explanations for the high
rate of turnover among female intercollegiate coaches. One
is the perpetuation of sex-role stereotypes in college
athletics. Another is the increasing acceptability of men
coaching women's sports teams as opposed to women coaching
men's teams (Abbott & Smith, 1984). A third possible
explanation is that women coaches are experiencing high
degrees of job dissatisfaction, and therefore are voluntarily
withdrawing (i.e., quitting their coaching jobs). It is this
latter possibility with which this study is concerned.
Theoretical Framework
Job satisfaction has been viewed from a wide range of
perspectives. Hoppock (1935) defined job satisfaction as
"any combination of physiological and environmental
circumstances that causes a person to truthfully say 'I am
satisfied with my job'" (p.47). According to Super (1942),
job satisfaction depends upon the individual's opportunity to
find adequate outlets for abilities, interests, personality
traits, and values. The most common definitions of job
satisfaction all allude to the existence of the individual's
needs (in varying forms), and (generally) view job
satisfaction as resulting from a good fit between the
individual's needs and the job's characteristics and/or
environment (Hopkins, 1983) .

9
In contrast, Locke (1976) rejected the concept of needs
as a central component of job satisfaction. He defined job
satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state
resulting from the subjective appraisal of one's job or job
experiences. Locke (1976) distinguished models using the
notion of expectancy from models having as their bases the
notions of needs and/or values (Sell & Shepley, 1979).
However, authorities agree that regardless of whether the
concept of needs and/or values or perceptions is employed,
the common underlying premise of the various perspectives is
that there is something within individuals that conditions
their reactions to (i.e., satisfaction with) their jobs.
Commensurate with this view is the theory of Work
Adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). Dawis and Lofquist
(1984) asserted that job satisfaction is the result of direct
correspondence (i.e., mutual responsiveness) between an
individual's work personality and the work environment.
Individuals bring certain needs and abilities to the work
environment and the work environment in turn provides certain
rewards, such as wages, prestige, and enjoyable interpersonal
relationships, to the individual. Similarly, the
individual's skills and abilities enable her/him to respond
to the requirements of the work environment. Thus, the
rewards of the work environment are viewed as the "response"
to the requirements of the individual. When personal and

10
environmental requirements are mutually fulfilled, the
individual and the work environment are correspondent (Dawis
& Lofquist, 1984) .
Achieving and maintaining correspondence is a continuous
and dynamic process that Dawis and Lofquist (1984) termed
work adjustment. In other words, work adjustment is the on¬
going interaction between the individual and the work
environment. It is reflected in the individual's
satisfaction and satisfactoriness. Satisfactoriness is an
external indicator of effective correspondence; it is derived
from sources other than the individual worker's self
appraisal of the fulfillment of the requirements of the work
environment. If the individual fulfills the requirements of
the environment, the individual is regarded as a satisfactory
worker (i.e., has satisfactoriness). Satisfaction is an
internal indicator of correspondence; it represents the
individual worker's self appraisal of the extent to which the
work environment fulfills her/his needs. According to Dawis
and Lofquist (1984), if the work environment fulfills the
needs of the individual, she/he is defined as a satisfied
worker.
Work adjustment, as the achievement of at least
minimally effective correspondence, enables an individual to
remain in the work environment. In turn, remaining in the
work environment allows the individual to achieve better

11
correspondence and to stabilize the correspondent
relationship. The stability of the correspondence between
the individual and the work environment is manifested as
tenure in the job. As correspondence increases, the
probability of tenure and the projected length of tenure also
increase. Conversely, a decrease in correspondence
diminishes the probability of remaining on the job and
therefore the length of tenure.
According to Dawis and Lofquist (1969), tenure is the
basic indicator of work adjustment and therefore of job
satisfaction. Tenure is a function of correspondence between
the individual and the environment. If a correspondent
relationship with the environment is established, the
individual seeks to maintain it. If not, the individual
attempts to establish correspondence or, failing this, to
leave the work environment. Therefore, the probability that
an individual will voluntarily withdraw from the work
environment is inversely related to the individual's level of
job satisfaction (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984) .
Statement of Problem
Widespread job dissatisfaction among female
intercollegiate athletic coaches can be inferred from the
high (job) turnover rate among them. However, little is

12
actually known about their levels of job satisfaction. More
specifically, their job satisfaction has not been
investigated empirically. In particular, variations in their
job satisfaction in regard to their ages, years in coaching,
years as head coach, level of collegiate athletic program,
type of sport coached, annual income, marital status, success
in work role, and physical, behavioral, cognitive, and total
strain are unknown.
Need For Study
Job satisfaction research has been conducted in a
variety of settings, yet relatively few empirical studies
have examined job satisfaction among female intercollegiate
coaches. Moreover, there is a dearth of data available
relating work adjustment to job satisfaction among female
intercollegiate coaches. Dawis and Lofquist (1984), in the
context of their theory of work adjustment, purported that
the individual and the work environment have specific
expectations and need requirements of each other which, when
met, result in correspondence and subsequent increased job
tenure. The greater the degree of correspondence
experienced, the greater the opportunity for success and job
satisfaction. In counterpoint, lower degrees of
correspondence between the individual and the work
environment decrease potential for job satisfaction and

13
increase the probability of eventual job turnover. In this
context, the information derived from this study would
augment existing research relative to the theory of work
adjustment. For example, knowledge of the levels of job
satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic coaches
would enable determination of whether the theory of work
adjustment is applicable to them. Further, even more
specific information relative to the applicability of the
theory can be gained from investigation of some of the female
intercollegiate coaches' characteristics.
Understandably (in view of their high rate of turnover),
there is need to provide suitable counseling and/or
consulting services to female intercollegiate athletic
coaches. Knowledge gained from research regarding the
relationship between work adjustment and job satisfaction
therefore should enhance the efforts of counselors and
consultants who have cause to work with female coaches or
prospective coaches. Moreover, the results of this study may
provide the basis for counselor educators and others in the
helping professions to examine further the psychodynamics of
female coaches. Correspondingly, results of this study also
may have implications for career counseling, academic
advising, and planning for effective education and training
programs for prospective female intercollegiate coaches.
Thus, if the nature of female coaches' satisfaction was

14
known, counseling and consulting services could be better
suited to meet their needs.
Research regarding the relationship between work
adjustment and job satisfaction also has implications for the
environments (i.e., employment setting) in which female
coaches work. Attrition not only represents a waste of human
resources, with attendant psychological implications for
individuals, but also has potential to have costly impacts on
organizations. Athletic programs are disrupted and
financially burdened while new coaches are being recruited
and oriented to their new positions. If more data about work
adjustment and job satisfaction were available, personnel
practices for recruiting, hiring, training, and placement of
female coaches could be significantly improved, thus leading
to overall increases in levels of job satisfaction and
decreased turnover. Additionally, the findings from this
study could provide collegiate athletic administrators with
bases for development of both corrective and preventive
strategies designed to promote job satisfaction among female
coaches.
The current trend of high attrition among female coaches
in intercollegiate athletics could have devastating effects
on the intercollegiate structure and women's sports in
general. Abbott and Smith (1984) claimed that
intercollegiate athletics may be moving toward a sex-

15
segregated structure. Lopiano (1987) also speculated that
there will be few, if any, women coaching female college
athletes by the year 2000, thus reducing the probability that
female athletes will have female role models. A lack of
positive female role models could have negative repercussions
on the career choices and attitudes of young students
(Lopiano, 1987). Therefore, knowledge of job satisfaction
among female intercollegiate athletic coaches holds
implications not only for the coaches, but also for female
athletes in general.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the nature of
job satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic
coaches. Variations in job satisfaction among female
intercollegiate athletic coaches will be investigated in
regard to factors including age, years in coaching, years as
a head coach, type of sport coached, division level of
collegiate athletic program, annual income, marital status,
success in work role, and physical, behavioral, cognitive,
and total strain.
Rationale for Approach. t..o..the..Study
According to Acosta and Carpenter (1988), female
intercollegiate coaches inexplicably have been withdrawing

16
from their coaching positions at an increasing rate since
1972. The high turnover rate among the female coaches is not
a new phenomenon; however, in general, researchers have
neglected to investigate this problem empirically. High job
turnover among female athletic coaches would, theoretically
at least, seem to be related to their job satisfaction. But
again, there is scant empirical information about their job
satisfaction. Therefore, this study is being conducted.
A descriptive research approach will be used in this
study. More specifically, a sample of female intercollegiate
coaches across the country will be surveyed to investigate
the nature of their satisfaction with their work. The survey
method employed will be a mailed questionnaire.
Mailed questionnaire survey methodology has been
criticized as having inherent disadvantages when compared
with other survey research methodologies (e.g., interviews,
observations, or field experiments). Generally, the most
serious drawbacks of mailed questionnaire survey research are
potential lack of response and inability to validate
responses given (Bailey, 1982; Fowler, 1984; Franklin &
Osborne, 1971; Kerlinger, 1973). According to Bailey (1982),
additional drawbacks of mailed questionnaire survey research
methods include (a) lack of substantive control over the
environment in which responses are provided, (b) lack of
flexibility in responding, (c) difficulty in interpreting

17
non-responding to specific items, (d) lack of opportunity for
response clarification, (e) non-responding, and (f)
potentiality for sampling bias.
Conversely, mailed questionnaire survey research
methodology has numerous distinct advantages over alternative
research methods. For example, mailed questionnaires are a
means of efficiently gathering large quantities of
information from a large population. More importantly, the
acquired information can provide a remarkably accurate
portrait of the population surveyed (Kerlinger, 1973).
Other advantages of mailed questionnaires are related to
expediency and cost efficiency. Mailed questionnaires are
generally less expensive than alternative research methods
and can be sent to all potential respondents simultaneously,
thus resulting in a considerable savings of time (Babbie,
1973; Bailey, 1982).
According to Bailey (1982), additional advantages of
mailed questionnaires include (a) responses can be provided
at the convenience of the respondents, (b) respondents can be
assured of anonymity, (c) items used are standardized across
respondents, (d) there is no potential for interviewer bias
in recording responses, and (e) access is available to
respondents from whom data could not be gathered by other
means.

18
In general, the advantages of mailed questionnaire
survey research outweigh the disadvantages. The widespread
use of this methodology in research in the counseling
professions attests to this contention. Thus, mailed
questionnaire survey research is an acceptable approach in
general. In particular, it is an approach well-suited to the
purposes of this study.
Research Questions
Evident in the professional literature is that job
satisfaction varies as a function of many factors, including
those related to the individual, the work setting, and the
interactions between them. For persons in many job roles
these relationships have been explored and clarified.
However, such is not the case for female intercollegiate
athletic coaches; indeed, extremely little is known about
their job satisfaction or the factors associated with
variations in it. Therefore, the major research questions to
be addressed in this study are:
1. What is the relationship between general job
satisfaction score and age, years employed as a coach, years
employed as a head coach, annual income, perceived level of
physical, behavioral, cognitive and total strain, and success
in work role?
2. What is the relationship between scores on each of
the 20 items on the job satisfaction scale and age, years
employed as a coach, years employed as a head coach, annual
income, perceived level of physical, behavioral, cognitive,
and total strain, and success in work role?

19
3. What are the differences in job satisfaction on the
bases of marital status, level of sport coached, degree, and
type of sport coached, and their interactions?
4. What are the differences in scores on each of the 20
items on the job satisfaction scale on the bases of marital
status, level of sport coached, degree, and type of sport
coached, and their interactions?
Definitions of Terms
The following definitions are used throughout this
study.
Adjustment denotes continuous and dynamic process by
which an individual seeks to achieve and maintain
correspondence with an environment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women
(AIAW) is the governing organization of women's
intercollegiate sports (1971-1981) which sanctioned women's
intercollegiate athletic events and established, conducted,
and promoted competitive national championships.
Attrition refers to a gradual, natural reduction in
membership or personnel, for reasons such as retirement,
resignation, or death.
Correspondence is a function wherein the individual
fulfills the requirements of a work environment and the work
environment in turn fulfills the requirements of the
individual. As a basic assumption of work adjustment,
correspondence between an individual and her/his work
environment implies a harmonious relationship between

20
individual and environment, suitability of the individual to
the environment and of the environment for the individual,
and a reciprocal and complementary relationship between the
individual and the work environment. Correspondence in this
context is a relationship in which the individual and the
environment are corresponsive (i.e., mutually responsive)
(Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Head coach is a woman who oversees the training of
athletes and athletic teams. The head coach is responsible
for all administrative and supervisory duties related to her
particular sport (i.e., budget, recruitment, hiring of
personnel, or scheduling of team competition).
Interests denote preferences for activities as expressed
by the individual on a structured, standardized psychometric
instrument designed to sample a broad domain of activities
(Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, affective
condition resulting from a person's appraisal of the way in
which the experienced job situation meets personal needs,
values, and expectations (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). A
person's attitude toward the job which represents a complex
assemblage of cognitions (i.e., beliefs or knowledge),
emotions (i.e., feelings, sentiments, or evaluations), and
behavioral tendencies. According to the theory of work
adjustment, job satisfaction is the result of the

21
individual's appraisal of the extent to which the work
environment fulfills the individual's needs. For the purpose
of this study job satisfaction is operationally defined as
scores on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ).
The MSQ is designed to assess satisfaction with twenty
separate aspects (i.e., work reinforcers) of the work
environment that relate to twenty psychological needs. The
twenty needs are ability utilization, achievement, activity,
advancement, authority, company policies and practices,
compensation, coworkers, creativity, independence, moral
values, recognition, responsibility, security, social
service, social status, supervision-human relation,
supervision-technical, variety, and working conditions.
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is the
governing organization of men's and women's intercollegiate
athletic programs. It sanctions intercollegiate athletic
events and establishes, conducts, and promotes competitive
national championships.
Needs are defined as implied psychological or
physiological deficiencies. A need is an internal condition
that spurs the individual to activity and to behave in
specific ways (Abramson, 1980). Need deficiency causes a
state of disequilibrium or psychic tension, directing the
individual into a satisfying or out of an unsatisfying
situation (Lundin, 1974). Needs are defined as an

22
individual's requirement for a reinforcer at a given level of
strength, i.e., an individual's preference for stimulus
conditions experienced to have been reinforcing (Dawis &
Lofquist, 1984) .
Personality structure is comprised of the status
characteristics of the work personality. An individual's set
of abilities, set of values, and the relationships among and
between their abilities and values (Dawis and Lofquist,
1984). The interaction of an individual's response
capabilities (i.e., skills and abilities) and preferences for
stimulus conditions (i.e.,needs and values).
Personality style denotes the process characteristics of
the work personality. It is the manner in which an
individual interacts with the environment. It encompasses
description of the individual on the dimensions of celerity
(i.e.,quickness in responding), pace (i.e.,level of
activity), rhythm (i.e.,pattern of activity), and endurance
(i.e.,length of responding) (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Reinforcers act as a stimulus, such as a reward, which
in operant conditioning strengthens a desired response.
According to work adjustment theory, reinforcers are stimulus
conditions observed to be associated consistently with an
increased rate of responses over the base rate. Reinforcers
are stimuli associated with the maintenance of responses, and

23
increase the likelihood of future response (Dawis & Lofquist,
1984) .
Satisfaction is an indicator of the degree of success an
individual has achieved in maintaining correspondence between
her/himself and the work environment. Derived from the work
environment and fulfilling the worker's requirements,
satisfaction is an internal indicator of correspondence. It
represents the individual worker's self-appraisal of the
extent to which the work environment fulfills her/his
requirements (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Satisfactoriness is an indicator of the degree of
success an individual has achieved in maintaining
correspondence between her/himself and the work environment.
Derived from sources other than the individual worker's self¬
appraisal of her/his fulfillment of requirements of the work
environment, satisfactoriness is an external indicator of
correspondence. It represents the work environment's
appraisal of the extent to which its requirements are
fulfilled by the individual worker (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Tenure is defined by concepts related to remaining on
and being retained on the job and length of stay in the
environment. For the purposes of this study, tenure is a
function of the correspondence between the individual and her
work environment. Tenure is the basic indicator of
correspondence.

24
Title IX is an addition to the Education Amendments Act
of 1972 which prohibits sex discrimination in admissions to
educational institutions (excluding admissions to private and
single-sex institutions), curricular and extracurricular
programs, student services and benefits such as counseling,
health care, and financial aid, and job access and promotion
within educational agencies and institutions (Fox, 1985).
Turnover denotes the number of workers hired by a given
establishment to replace those who have left. It also is the
ratio of the number of workers hired to the number of
employed workers.
Work adjustment denotes the continuous and dynamic
process by which an individual seeks to achieve and maintain
correspondence with her/his work environment (Dawis &
Lofquist, 1984).
Work adjustment indicators are a set of factors
including individual satisfaction, an individual's
satisfactoriness, and tenure (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Work personality is depicted by the principal
characteristics of the individual in relation to work
adjustment. It is comprised of the work personality
structure and work personality style. It is characterized by
abilities, values, and style dimensions relevant to the
understanding of work behavior (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).

25
Work environment structure is a description of the work
environment in terms of skill requirements and need
reinforcers. It also includes ability requirement patterns
and reinforcer clusters as reference dimensions for skill
requirements and need reinforcers (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Work environment style is a description of the work
environment in terms of its celerity, pace, rhythm, and
endurance (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Overview of Remaining Chapters
A more extensive review of the current literature is
presented in Chapter II. The methodology of the study,
including sampling, procedures, instrumentation, and
statistical methods are covered in Chapter III. Resultant
data, their analyses, and other results are presented in
Chapter IV and the discussion, implications, and conclusions
of all the results are presented in Chapter V.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
Further Delineation of Problem
Currently there are more than 40,000 people employed in
college and university coaching and athletic administration
in the United States (Abbott & Smith, 1984). However, fewer
than 10% of these people are women (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988;
Hart, Hasbrook, & Mathes, 1986; Parkhouse & Williams, 1986).
More significantly, there has been a steady decline in the
number of female intercollegiate athletic coaches and
administrators of women's sports during the past fifteen
years. Unfortunately, the percentage of women employed in
these professions is likely to become even smaller in the
future.
Acosta and Carpenter (1988), in their eleven-year
longitudinal study in which data were collected from all four
year college and university members of the NCAA, clearly
depicted the status of women as well as the extent of male
predominance in women's intercollegiate athletic programs.
Suggested in their findings was a distinct pattern, emergent
over the past fifteen years, wherein female coaches and
administrators were phased out of women's sports programs
while men fulfilled the positions they left vacant. For
example, in 22 of the 24 most popular women's sports surveyed
by Acosta and Carpenter (1988), a significant decline in the
number of female coaches and a concomitant increase in the
26

27
number of male coaches was found. A parallel trend existed
for women in athletic administration. For example, in 1972,
women held over 90% of the administrative positions in
women's collegiate sports programs, but in 1988 they headed
only 16% of those programs (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988) .
In an effort to find an explanation for the decline in
the number of women occupying leadership positions in
collegiate sport, Parkhouse and Williams (1986) examined
differential effects of gender on the evaluation of coaching
ability. They concluded that gender bias played a key role
in the decreasing number of women in athletic leadership
positions. They found general gender bias (favoring males)
in the evaluation of basketball coaching ability as well as
preference by athletes (both male and female) for being
coached by a male (Parkhouse & Williams, 1986). Parkhouse
and Williams (1986) concluded that gender operates as a
diffuse status characteristic; females are generally
considered less competent, resulting in lower status for
females in coaching roles compared to their male
counterparts. Thus, general devaluation of females provides
partial explanation for the increasing dropout rate of female
coaches. Pertinent here is the logical inference that if
athletes do indeed respond to their coaches in this manner,
female coaches would experience less job satisfaction and

28
more burnout due to less support or reinforcement from their
athletes (Parkhouse & Williams, 1986).
In accordance with the "burnout" theory, Caccese and
Mayerber (1984) examined gender differences in perceived
burnout of college coaches. They found that female head
college coaches reported significantly higher levels of
burnout than did male coaches on two subscales (i.e.,
personal accomplishment and emotional exhaustion) of the
Maslach Burnout Inventory (Caccese and Mayerber, 1984). They
offered several possible explanations for the significantly
higher levels of burnout among the women. The first was
related to the fact that women coaches, generally, are
younger than the men and have been coaching for a fewer
number of years. Therefore, they are presumably less
experienced and have had less opportunity to learn how to
cope with the stresses inherent in coaching. These women may
be too idealistic; expecting or demanding too much of
themselves (Caccese & Mayerber, 1984).
A second explanation for higher levels of burnout among
female coaches was that female coaches feel more stress
because prominence of major female athletic teams is a
relatively recent phenomenon. Consequently, females may be
attempting to "prove" (their) women's teams are deserving of
respect and they can perform well (Caccese & Mayerber, 1984).

29
A third explanation related to personal accomplishment
was based on the assumption that female sports are not as
highly acclaimed as are male sports. Thus, there is
considerably less recognition and attention given to female
coaches and they are not rewarded as well for their successes
as are male coaches (Caccese & Mayerber, 1984).
Another area that has been examined as a possible
explanation for the dramatic decline in the number of women
coaches is related to sex discrimination and the impact of
discriminant practices on female coaching careers. Mathes
(1982) reported a set of factors which potentially explained
why female interscholastic coaches exited the coaching
profession. These factors, believed to have influenced the
coaches' decisions to leave the field, included less
perceived opportunity than males to (a) coach high status
sports; (b) become head coaches or athletic directors; and
(c) obtain coaching positions. Also indicated in the
findings of the study was that former female coaches believed
inequities in pay, transportation, facilities, support
services, and practice times were important considerations in
their decisions to leave such roles (Mathes, 1982) . These
factors are all components of job satisfaction.
The current status of female intercollegiate athletic
coaches is related, in part, to several cultural and
structural factors associated with male-dominated professions

30
which negatively impact upon women. At the root of these
cultural and structural factors are the societal sex-role
stereotypes applied to men and women in the work force.
Male dominated professions are governed by male
"traditional" sex-role stereotypes. The "model" professional
is expected to be firm, aggressive, competitive and just, and
not at all feminine (i.e., emotional, dependent, or
yielding). Hence, women do not fit the mold of the "model"
professional. The acceptance of the validity and
perpetuation of this description of the model professional
lies in the prevalence of myths regarding the nature of
women's job commitment and their competence.
Persistent myths concerning the sincerity of commitment
on the part of female workers continue to influence
managers/administrators' perceptions of them and to have
detrimental effects on their chances for advancement.
Crowley et al. (1973) tested several commonly held beliefs
regarding women workers on a large, nationwide sample. They
found no support for the prevailing notion that women work
only for "pin money" (O'Leary, 1977). Unfortunately, with
perpetuation of this myth, men continue to be regarded as
better candidates for promotion on the basis of economic
need.
Another belief that negatively impacts upon women in
professions is that they are overly concerned with

31
socioemotional aspects of their jobs. Crowley et al. (1973)
found that women, like the males sampled in their study,
regard the concern and competence of their supervisor as more
important to their job than is the opportunity to make
friends. However, male administrators and managers still
fear that women allow emotional factors to supersede
objective judgment.
Crowley et al. (1973) also found no factual basis for
several prevalent assumptions regarding the motivations and
aspirations of female workers. Included among these
assumptions are: (a) women would not work if economic reasons
did not force them into the labor market; (b) women are more
content than men with an intellectually undemanding job; (c)
women are less concerned than men that their work be self-
actualizing; and (d) women are less concerned with "getting
ahead". Empirical data exist to contradict each of these
beliefs (O'Leary, 1977). Thus, the findings of Crowley et
al. (1973) lend support to the contention that the
aspirations and motivations of workers of each sex are more
similar than societal stereotypes would indicate.
Unfortunately, however, women are still plagued by false
beliefs which adversely affect their opportunities for
advancement (O'Leary, 1977).
In the American society, women are generally considered
less competent than men and continue to fare more poorly than

32
men in organizational reward decisions (Freidman & Phillips,
1988). Therefore, in order for highly competent females to
gain recognition for their accomplishments, they must be
regarded as demonstrably exceptional (i.e., out of role and
within a context requiring unusual drive and dedication) and
their worth supported by "glowing" evaluations from
authoritative sources ( O'Leary, 1977). For women in
professions, this belief results in exceptional pressure to
perform, thus adding to the already existing stress and
anxiety associated with professional occupations.
In view of prevailing sex role stereotypes, one of the
foremost cultural factors associated with male-dominated
professions is what Kaufman (1984) described as the
"invidious process of sex-typing" (p.357). According to
Epstein (1970b), sex typing occurs when a majority of those
in a profession are of one sex. Hence, a "normative
expectation" develops which determines how things "should"
be, based on perceptions of personality and behavioral
characteristics associated with that sex (Kaufman, 1984).
When an occupation becomes sex- typed, the sex of the members
of the minority becomes occupationally salient. Those who do
not fit the model of the practitioner or their profession are
viewed as "deviant", and treated accordingly (Patterson &
Engleberg, 1978).

33
High ranking occupations in all societies are typically
male-dominated (Goode, 1964). Therefore, high-status
professions and prestige specialities in society are
generally identified with the instrumental, rigorous, "hard-
nosed" qualities generally identified as masculine, as
opposed to the "softer," more expressive, nurturing modes of
behaviors generally identified as feminine. "Since the
characteristics associated with the most valued professions
are also those associated with men, women fail to meet one of
the most important professional criteria: they are not men."
(Kaufman, 1984, p.357).
The typing of certain occupations as male or female has
consequences for entry to them as well as performance within
them by persons who possess characteristics of the "wrong
sex". Women in male-dominated professions are forced to be
self-conscious, burdened by feelings that they are constantly
being watched. They must always be cognizant of the
impression they are making, striving to counteract
misperceptions and inaccurate assumptions about her by them.
In essence, in Kaufman's view (1984), women were not as
highly valued in professional realms as were men.
In attempting to substantiate the notion that females
are not as valued as men in professions, O'Leary (1977)
reported that Feldman-Summers and Kiesler (1974) were unable
to find any occupation in which women were expected to

34
outperform males, even in "traditionally feminine"
occupations such as elementary school teaching and nursing.
In a more recent study, Rosen and Jerdee (1978) also found
that male managers and administrators held uniformly more
negative perceptions of women than men for the following
attributes: aptitudes, knowledge, skills, interest and
motivation, temperament, and work habits and attitudes.
Several researchers also have reported that men and women are
often treated differently in their professional roles. For
example, women earn less than men for comparable work in
almost every occupation and within almost all professional
specialties (Mincer & Polachek, 1974, 1978; Sandell &
Shapiro 1978; Zincone & Close, 1978); women possessing
identical qualifications and skills as men are not as
successful in obtaining professional jobs (Dipboye, Fromkin &
Wibac, 1975; Fidell, 1970; Shaw, 1972; Zikmund, Hitt, &
Pickens, 1978; Firth, 1982); and men are promoted more often,
given more career development opportunities, trusted more in
handling personnel problems, and granted leaves of absence
for child-care duties less often than women (Rosen & Jerdee,
1973).
Another major cultural factor which may negatively
impact upon women in professions is related to the
traditional sex-role expectations for women. In accordance
with traditional female roles, familial and domestic

35
activities are largely the responsibility of the wife/mother
(and therefore not of the husband/father). The full-time
employed wife/mother bears the largest burden for managing
the home and children. In fact, her share of domestic
activities is reported to be three times greater than that of
her full-time employed husband (Pleck, 1982) . Women,
therefore, find themselves competing in their chosen
professions with men who often have supporting partners
(i.e.,wives) who manage, maintain, and enhance their lives as
professionals by fulfilling the domestic responsibilities and
duties of which, theoretically, they should have fifty-
percent responsibility (Bedeian, Burke & Moffett, 1988; Fox &
Hesse-Biber, 1984; Kaufman, 1984).
It is not known for certain what impact multiple roles
have on women. The preponderance of literature supports the
notion that roles drain energy; hence the more roles a woman
occupies the less energy she will have, the more conflict she
will experience, all of which will affect her well-being
(Coser, 1974; Goode, 1960; Slater, 1963). Conversely, more
recent studies indicate that multiple roles have a positive
impact upon women. Thoits (1983) reported that there is a
positive association between the number of roles a woman
occupies and her psychological well-being. Overall, there
seems to be a positive relationship between multiple roles
and well-being for women (Gove & Zeiss, 1987; Thoits, 1983).

36
Professional women also are confronted with sex-related
problems within the professions which are rarely encountered
by their male counterparts. For example, in order to manage
their careers and personal lives, women often must dispense
with "optional" work related activities, such as attending
meetings, conferences, and extraneous collegial relations,
all of which serve to enhance career development. In
addition, the work pace and commitment required of the
individual in a professional occupation has been described as
relentlessly demanding and more in correspondence with male
than female sex roles. Consequently, women are often
excluded from certain work activities by their multiple role
demands. They therefore are limited in terms of their access
to and opportunities within professional structures (Fox &
Hesse-Biber, 1984). In contrast, familial roles for men
(e.g., husband and father) rarely hinder their occupational
involvements and commitments, but instead often correspond
with their occupational spheres (i.e., the man's advancing
career "best serves" the family) (Epstein, 1980). Overall
then, traditional sex-roles and expectations for women
compete with, rather than complement their professional
roles. Consequently, traditional sex-role demands for women
(e.g., wifehood and motherhood) serve to inhibit the single-
mindedness, continuous participation, and commitment required
for professional success (Campbell, 1988; Fox & Hesse-Biber,

37
1984; Kaufman, 1984). Relatedly, Koberg and Chusmir (1987)
found that for females, the higher their rank in a job, the
higher their level of sex-role conflict. Conversely, the
reverse was found to be true for males.
In response to traditional sex-role expectations for
females, women may be forced to withdraw from employment to
fulfill familial roles (e.g., childbearing and childcare).
Consequently, it has been reported that careers of
professional women are more discontinuous than their male
counterparts (Ferber & Kordick, 1978). The discontinuity in
their careers often results in obsolescence of skills, as
well as loss of positions, participation in career
activities, and personnel contacts (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984).
Serving as an additional impediment in the professional
women's career is the virilocal (i.e., residence determined
by males) nature of the family structure. Generally, there
is greater pressure on the wives to accommodate their
spouses' transfers or relocations than vice versa (Theodore,
1971). Thus the occupation patterns associated with male
dominance in professions impede women's career developments.
Women who pursue professional careers often choose those
which are least likely to require work duties incompatible
with the stereotypical role expectations (Patterson &
Engelberg, 1978). For example, in the field of medicine,
women are overrepresented in anesthesiology, pathology,

38
psychiatry, physical medicine, preventive medicine, and
public health. They are substantially underrepresented in
the most of the prestigious specialities (e.g.,
cardiovascular, gastroenterology, general surgery, and
occupational medicine). Researchers have found that women's
specialty choices may be the result of a subtle
discrimination that encourages them to enter certain
specialties, while discouraging them from others (Patterson &
Engelberg, 1978).
Women and men in the medical field also generally differ
in their choices of type of practice (e.g., salary or
private). Women are most likely to choose salaried
positions, while men have a greater tendency to choose
private practice. Marriage and family play a key role in
womens' and mens' decisions about type of practice. An early
marriage or engagement among male physicians is associated
with a tendency to select private practice. In contrast, for
women, marriage or engagement is associated with a tendency
to take a salaried position. Similarly, marriage and family
have no noticeable effects on the career development of male
physicians, but have the effect of interrupting or lessening
the practices of women (Koberg, 1987; Patterson & Engelberg,
1978) .
The situation for women in law is similar to that of
women in medicine. Female lawyers predominantly practice in

39
trusts and estates and domestic relations, areas which are
traditionally female domains. Overall, women lawyers are
engaged either in low prestige specialties or in specialties
where firms can put them in "back rooms" to insure the fact
that they do not have direct contact with clients who may
find it "unacceptable" to work with women (Patterson &
Engelberg, 1978).
Like the field of medicine, women in law face barriers
which impede the progress of their careers. For example, few
women are represented in middle-sized law firms. Women
generally elect private practice where they generally work
alone, or they join very large firms which will tolerate
"deviant" practitioners and where they may remain anonymous
(Patterson & Engelberg, 1978) .
In addition to the aforementioned cultural factors which
influence women's professional development, also to be
considered are the numerous structural factors with which
they are confronted. Foremost among these factors is the
"male culture," which exists ostentatiously in male dominant
professions. It is this male culture, or "old boys club"
network, that Acosta and Carpenter (1986, 1988) cited as the
primary (perceived) cause of the decline in the number of
female coaches in intercollegiate athletics. Male and female
coaches were surveyed by them as to what those coaches
perceived as the primary causes of the decreasing number of

40
women in the coaching profession. Both groups indicated that
the success of the "old boys club" network acted as a
fundamental barrier to women.
Professions share many characteristics of communities.
They tend toward homogeneity and are characterized by shared
norms and attitudes. Interaction in professions is
characterized by a high degree of informality, much of it
within an exclusive, club-like context (Epstein, 1971).
Implied is a certain degree of cohesiveness based upon a
solidarity that evolves from gender. Those who bear certain
overt characteristics (e.g., being black, Jewish, or female)
are at an immediate disadvantage in such situations (Hughes,
1973). Similar to fraternal societies, the exclusive or
dominant group depends upon "common background, continual
association and affinity of interest" for its continuance
(Epstein, 1970a). Traditionally, women and other low-status
groups have been excluded from such fraternal associations
(Kaufman, 1984).
The "old boys club" network operates primarily (but not
exclusively) on an informal level within professional
structures. Men in professional structures have,
figuratively grown up together; they have played, learned,
and worked together. Consequently, they share a "common
understanding" about rules and styles of competing,
bartering, and succeeding that exist within occupational

41
structures (Harragan, 1977; Schaef, 1981). Men therefore
often share a comraderie that serves to facilitate their
communications, which in turn facilitates support and
acceptance among them (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984) .
Unfortunately, existing male milieus act as occupational
barriers for women. Traditional sex-role expectations for
females generally prohibit them from participating in male
settings and traditions. As a result, women often find it
exceptionally difficult to permeate the "male network". They
are in fact faced with considerable resistance from males
because their participation would likely weaken the intimacy
and solidarity associated with the "male world" (Epstein,
1971).
The exclusion of females from men's informal circles of
communication and interaction has several critical
consequences for women's professional careers (Fox & Hesse-
Biber, 1984). Among them is deprivation from the informal
learning associated with mentoring or sponsorship. Much
professional socialization is contingent on education and
training gained through informal interaction between a senior
person and an entry-level professional. Entry into these
upper echelon professions is commonly gained through what
Epstein (1971) referred to as the "protege system." The
protege system operates to train personnel for certain
specialties and to assure continuity of leadership. Because

42
the sponsor is apt to be a male, a female's advancement may
be inhibited for several reasons. Among them is the fact
that a man cannot easily identify a woman as someone who
might be his successor. He is inclined to prefer another man
in the belief that a man has more commitment to the
profession than a woman. A second factor that inhibits a
female's advancement is her other role-partners (e.g.,
husband, father, or child) who may be jealous and suspicious
of her loyalty to the sponsor and her dependence on him.
Likewise, the sponsor's wife may also resent the intimacy and
time spent between the sponsor and his female protege, and
object to it (Epstein, 1971).
Another factor related to a woman's restricted
advancement in professions stems from the lack of support
from the collegial group. A group will not favor an
unsuitable member who is likely to weaken its intimacy and
solidarity. As a result, group members may exert pressure on
the sponsor to pick the protege with whom they will be most
comfortable (Epstein, 1971) . A male sponsor typically selects
a protege he feels will ease the transition to retirement;
give him a sense of continuity in his work; and give some
assurance that his protege will build on his work. Men often
consider it unwise to depend on women in such situations
(Epstein, 1971). A male sponsor may feel a woman is
financially less dependent on a career position than a man

43
might be, and therefore not be as committed. Furthermore,
because of her presumably highly contingent commitment and
drive he would only reluctantly introduce her or recommend
her to colleagues (Epstein, 1971) .
Loy and Sage (1978) reported that upward mobility within
"intercollegiate coaching circles" is largely a function of
sponsored mobility (i.e., entry-level coaches ask for the
sponsorship of mentors, those who are experienced coaches or
administrators, in seeking their own coaching positions at
major universities) (Loy & Sage, 1978) . Thus, the exclusion
of women from informal interactions (among men) undoubtedly
limits their opportunities to seek and obtain mentorships
associated with advancement in the coaching profession.
Exclusion from informal communications and interactions
(e.g., luncheons or after work social gatherings) also
prohibits female coaches from gaining pertinent information
(e.g., alternative job prospects, changes in administrative
structures, or forthcoming promotions) which could enhance
their coaching careers. Also, in their informal exchanges
men relate the experiences they have had with their superiors
and colleagues and identify those who are, or are not,
helpful and trustworthy (Reskin, 1978). As a result of
women's limited access to these networks they must rely
(generally) on formal methods of communication such as
publications, announcements, and official memorandums.

44
Typically, these methods do not provide the aforementioned
informal information nor do they provide information far
enough in advance to put women in advantageous or competitive
positions (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984) .
Exclusion from male networks not only puts females in a
marginal professional position, but also serves to put them
in what Hughes (1973) described as an "invisible" position.
For example, when important professional decisions, such as
selection for promotion, tenure, or departmental privileges,
are under consideration, women are often overlooked (Hughes,
1973) .
The overriding consequence of existing male networks is
that women are excluded from the "power centers" of their
professions (Kaufman, 1984) . The informal structure within
intercollegiate athletics can be described as a "male
universe" where men have overwhelmingly control of governing
and administrative positions (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988) .
Therefore, by virtue of their large numbers and superordinate
positions, as well as by their informal networks, men have
distinct advantages over women within intercollegiate
coaching. As a result, women have limited access to key
resources and opportunities within intercollegiate athletic
structures.
Women coaches, as "outsiders" on both formal and
informal bases, often find themselves in precarious and self-

45
defeating positions within intercollegiate athletics.
Because of male dominance, they often feel awkward, self-
conscious, and at distinct disadvantage within the
professional structure. They also may feel reluctant to
initiate contact, communication, and interaction with those
in power (i.e., men). In turn, their "alienation" from male
coaches further excludes them and emphasizes their "marginal"
positions in intercollegiate athletics (Epstein, 1971;
Reskin, 1978).
The collegial or protege system also is important in
assessment of performance of professionals. According to
Epstein (1971), adequacy of performance may be simple to
judge at lower levels of a profession, but the fine
distinctions between good and superior performance require
subtle judgments. Members of professions affirm that only
peers can adequately judge performance at these levels; they
know the standards, they know the characteristics of the
potential promotee, and they can maintain control.
Continuance of professions depends on intense socialization
of members, much of it by immersion in the norms of the
respective professional culture even before entry and later
by sensitivity to his peers. These controls depend on a
strong network cemented by bonds of common background,
continual association, and affinity of interests (Epstein,

46
1971). Unfortunately, female intercollegiate coaches rarely
gain access to these controls.
With so few women in leadership positions, they tend to
fall into traps of "tokenism" (Kanter, 1976). They are on
"display" and under strong pressure to perform. At the same
time, they are socially isolated, poorly accepted, and
subject to male perceptions of favoritism and the resultant
unfair treatment (DeFleur,• 1985) .
It has been found in studies of the dynamics of tokenism
that both males who are in the minority in female-dominated
fields and females in male-dominated occupations experience
greater emphasis on their sex-related characteristics than on
their occupational skills, thus negatively affecting their
self-esteem (Macke, 1981). Furthermore, individuals in
occupations which have highly skewed sex ratios experience
greater pressure to perform and more stress in interpersonal
relationships than do those in the gender dominant group
(DeFleur, 1985) .
Kanter (1976) and others also have documented that
administrative and leadership positions in professions have
been male-dominated historically. Consequently, there are
numerous male-oriented beliefs and attitudes concerning the
traits deemed necessary for successful leadership. The
traits most often cited are rationality, analytic ability,
and logical thought. It has been assumed often that females

47
do not have, nor could develop, these traits, thus they would
make poor administrators or leaders within organizations.
The purported validity of these assumptions has been refuted
in subsequent research and the attitudes toward women's
leadership abilities have begun to change (Maccoby & Jacklin,
1974) .
In many occupations (e.g., law enforcement, military, or
building construction), however, males continue to oppose the
entry of women for reasons which have been described as
ideological and/or symbolic vestments of male-oriented
groups, their values, or their cultural views (DeFleur,
1985). Themes of gender differentiation and exclusivity are
central to the work ethos of these occupations. Individuals
in these occupations posit their arguments on physiological
and psychological differences between the sexes which
necessitate different social roles (DeFleur, 1985). Thorne
and Henley (1975), illustrated this point with their study of
the mining occupation. Miners insist that the nature of
their work and its uniqueness (i.e., spending long periods of
time physically and socially isolated in the mines)
necessitates interdependence and closeness. Miners believe
bonds which develop insure safety and survival, and can only
develop between males.
Women are sometimes denigrated in some male-dominated
occupations through negativistic humor, unflattering

48
epithets, or ridicule (Collinson, 1988; DeFleur, 1985). For
example, Arkin and Dobrofsky (1977) examined military
training activities and noted that such devices denigrate the
role of women in military activities and also tend to
reinforce their roles as sexual objects. Classical
stereotypes promoted in training sessions include warning
soldiers against contacts with "bad women" (i.e., destructive
weapons named after women). Practices such as this obviously
reinforce attitudes and beliefs which affect sex integration
in the military (DeFleur, 1985). Thus occupational ideology
and the sex typing of specific role activities, sex-linked
jokes, and epithets are often used as part of segregation.
All form an occupational ethos that stresses themes of male
exclusivity and gender differentiation (DeFleur, 1985).
Most studies of women in male-dominated professions have
relied on gender-related factors in order to explain women's
depressed status. In contrast, Kanter (1977) concluded that
women's attitudes toward and position in professions is a
function of their location in the organization's hierarchical
structure rather than a consequence of their primary sex-role
socialization. If women have lower job aspirations, less
involvement with work, and exhibit greater concern with
congenial work environments and peer relations, the reason
may be that they find themselves in jobs with limited or
blocked mobility. Furthermore, men who find themselves in

49
comparable situations exhibit similar work-related attitudes
(Fagenson, 1988; Kanter, 1977). Kanter also claimed that
women were unable to mobilize resources within organizations
and therefore were likely to behave in an authoritarian
manner or to be insecure about their futures.
Both male and female individuals in low-mobility or
restricted mobility situations tend to limit their
aspirations, their efforts to find satisfactions outside of
work, and dreams of "escape". Instead they create sociable
peer groups and establish interpersonal relationships which
take precedence over work. Because women are more apt to
occupy low-mobility or restricted mobility positions,
especially in professions, they obviously exhibit these
behaviors more often than men. Unfortunately, the result has
been even more stereotypical generalization of "women's
organizational behavior" (e.g., fewer aspirations, less
commitment, and more concern for interpersonal relationships)
(Kanter, 1976, 1977).
Support For Theoretical Framework
For over fifty years, job satisfaction has been the
focus of repeated study and remains one of the most commonly
studied topics relative to the world of work. As early as
1935, Hoppock identified thirty-two prior job satisfaction
studies and according to Locke, more than 3,000 studies of

50
job satisfaction had been conducted by 1976. The number
today is certainly substantially larger. Given the dramatic
influence of the nature of employment on individual workers,
the voluminous research related to the level and determinants
of job satisfaction is not surprising. It is surprising,
however, to note that despite the fact that numerous
perspectives on job satisfaction have emerged from these
studies, researchers have yet to be able to agree on a
specific definition of job satisfaction (Locke, 1969).
Hoppock (1935, p. 47) defined job satisfaction as "any
combination of physiological, psychological, and
environmental circumstances that causes a person truthfully
to say, 'I am satisfied with my job'." Davis (1967) reported
job satisfaction as the fit between individual and job and
therefore job satisfaction is the result of a "fit between
job characteristics and the wants of employees. It expresses
the amount of congruence between one's expectancies of the
job and the rewards that the job provides" (p. 74). Job
satisfaction, according to Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969),
is defined as "feelings or affective responses to facets of
the situation" (p.69). Lawler and Wanous (1972) integrated
operational definitions, theoretically based on needs
fulfillment, equity, or work values to define jobs
satisfaction. Porter and Steers (1979) defined job
satisfaction as the "sum total of an individual's met

51
expectations on the job" (p. 167). Locke (1969) defined job
satisfaction as the "pleasurable emotional state resulting
from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating
the achievement of one's values" (p. 316). Despite the
variations, most definitions imply that (a) job satisfaction
is contingent on fulfillment of individuals' needs and (b)
satisfaction is the outcome of a mutually satisfying
relationship between a person's needs and the work
environment.
Job satisfaction also has been explained from several
theoretical perspectives. The first of these is Maslow's need
hierarchy theory in which job satisfaction is contingent on
the fulfillment of individual needs. Maslow's model is based
on two fundamental premises. The first, is that individuals
are motivated by a desire to fulfill specific personal needs
(e.g., physiological, safety, social, esteem or self-
actualization) . The second is that these needs are universal
among all individuals and that they are arranged in
sequential hierarchical order. Thus once lower order needs
are satisfied (i.e., physiological, safety, and social
needs), the individual ascends the hierarchy one level at a
time and attempts to satisfy next higher order needs (i.e.,
esteem and self-actualization) (Porter & Steers, 1979). The
major assumption in Maslow's needs theory, is that lower-
order needs must be satisfied before attempts are made at

52
satisfying higher order needs. When needs are left
unsatisfied, it creates a tension within people which
motivates them to reduce the tension and restore equilibrium.
Once a need becomes satisfied, however, it loses it's potency
as a motivating force until it again becomes manifest.
A second theoretical perspective one that also builds on
Maslow's needs hierarchy theory is Herzberg, Mausner, and
Snyderman's (1959) two factor theory of job satisfaction.
According to Herzberg et al. (1959), individual's tend to
describe satisfying work experiences in terms of factors that
are intrinsic to the content of the job itself. These factors
or motivators, which closely resemble Maslow's higher order
needs, include variables such as achievement, recognition,
the work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth. In
contrast, dissatisfaction with work results from non-job-
related (so called "hygiene") factors which are closely
related to Maslow's lower order needs. These factors include
variables such as company policies, salary, co-worker
relations, and supervisory style. Herzberg claimed that
eliminating the causes of dissatisfaction through hygiene
factors would not result in a state of satisfaction, but
instead, would result in a neutral state. Satisfaction
occurs only through motivators (Porter & Steers, 1979).
A third theoretical perspective is the
expectancy/valence theory. In contrast with the need

53
hierarchy and two factor theories, which attempt to specify
correlates of motivated behavior and job satisfaction, this
theory attempts to identify relationships among variables in
a dynamic state as they affect individual behavior. In
essence, the primary focus of the expectancy valence theory
is on the relationship among inputs rather than the inputs
themselves (Porter & Steers, 1979). Motivational force to
perform and remain in a job is a function of the
expectancies, or beliefs, that individuals have concerning
future outcomes in proportion to the value they place on the
outcomes.
Vroom (1964) defined expectancy as an "action-outcome
association." It is the extent to which an individual
believes that a certain action will result in a particular
outcome. A second major component of this theory is valence,
which is defined as the value or preference an individual
places on a particular outcome. Individuals assign valences
to job outcomes, such as higher pay, promotion, peer
approval, and recognition, in relation to perceived
importance of satisfying those needs (Porter & Steers, 1979).
Workers also ascribe a valence to the expectancy or their
perception of the likelihood of an outcome (Wellstood, 1984).
A fourth theoretical perspective is discrepancy theory.
Discrepancy theory involves comparison of what people
actually receive with what they expect to receive from their

54
jobs. Porter and Lawler (1968), in accordance with
discrepancy theory, defined job satisfaction as the extent to
which rewards actually received meet or exceed perceived
equitable level of reward. As the difference between the two
decreases, job satisfaction increases. Conversely, failure
to receive perceived equitable level of rewards creates
feelings of job dissatisfaction. According to discrepancy
theory, job satisfaction involves more than knowing the
actual reward level; it is also important to know what the
person expected to receive from the job to determine the
individual's level of job satisfaction (Chung, 1977).
A fifth theoretical perspective of job satisfaction is
equity/inequity theory. This theory is a further development
of the concept of discrepancy to include social comparison in
reward systems. The basics of this theory correspond to
discrepancy theory, with the exception that Adams (1965)
emphasized the importance of other people's Input-Output
ratios in determining a person's Input-Output ratio. Inputs
are defined as skills, personal traits, and experiences and
Outputs are defined as salary, promotions and praise.
Individuals determine their ratio of Inputs to Outputs and
compare it to their co-workers. In order for the individual
to feel satisfied, the ratio must be perceived as compatible.
If, however, individuals perceive their Input-Output ratios

55
to be larger or smaller than others, they will be
dissatisfied (Wellstood, 1984).
Two more recent theoretical perspectives include
attribution theory and locus of control theory. According to
attribution theory, an individual's perceived behavior is
determined by internal forces such as personality attributes
(e.g., ability, effort, or fatigue) and external forces
(e.g., environmental attributes). According to Luthans
(1981), people behave differently based on whether they
perceive internal and external attributes.
Locus of control explains an individual's work behavior
in terms of perceived internal or external controlled
outcomes. An individual's perceived locus of control has an
impact on degree of job satisfaction. For example, an
internally controlled individual is generally more satisfied
with work than an externally controlled individual (Mitchell,
Smyser, & Weed, 1975).
According to Dawis and Lofquist (1984), work is an
interaction between an individual and the work environment
where each has specific needs and requirements of the other.
For example, within the work environment the individual is
expected to perform certain tasks and complete specific
assignments. Correspondingly, the individual expects to be
compensated for her/his work performance and provided with
satisfying conditions of work such as safety, comfort, peer

56
support, competent supervision, and achievement
opportunities. Provided the work environment and individual
are able to satisfy each others requirements and needs, their
interaction and relationship will be maintained. In
contrast, when their mutual requirements are not met, the
individual or work environment will move to change or
terminate the relationship.
The process whereby the individual and work environment
strive to meet each others requirements and needs is called
"work adjustment" (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). The degree to
which the requirements of each or both are met is described
as level of "correspondence." According to Dawis and
Lofquist (1984), a basic motive of human vocational behavior
is to achieve and maintain high correspondence, i.e., to
engage in effective, satisfying work adjustment.
The primary indicators of work adjustment are job
satisfaction and job satisfactoriness. Job satisfaction is
the degree to which the work environment meets the
individual's needs. Dawis and Lofquist (1984) identified
twenty individual needs relevant to job satisfaction: ability
utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority,
company policies and practices, compensation, co-workers,
creativity, independence, moral values, recognition,
responsibility, security, social service, social status,
supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety,

57
and working conditions. Job dissatisfaction occurs when the
individual perceives that the work environment does not meet
most or all of these needs.
Satisfactoriness is the degree to which the work
environment is satisfied with the individual's skills and
performance. Both satisfaction and satisfactoriness are
required in order for an individual to remain voluntarily or
be retained in a job. Thus, tenure is the outcome of work
adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). More specifically,
tenure is the outcome of high correspondence (i.e., job
satisfaction) and satisfactoriness between the individual and
work environment.
Also according to the theory of work adjustment, an
individual has principle characteristics which collectively
represent her/his work personality (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
A person's work personality is comprised of two primary sets
of characteristics: status characteristics (i.e., personality
structure) and process characteristics (i.e., personality
manifestation style). Personality structure is defined as an
individual's vocational skills and needs, while personality
style refers to an individual's characteristic ways of
interacting with the vocational environment. Needs and
values of personality structure are measured on the reference
dimensions of abilities and values, respectively.
Personality style is measured on the reference dimensions of:

58
celerity (i.e., speed with which an individual interacts with
the work environment), pace (i.e., level of activity
exhibited by individual when interacting with the work
environment), rhythm (i.e.,pattern of pace in interaction
with the work environment), and endurance (i.e., the duration
of interaction with work environment) (Dawis & Lofquist,
1984) .
Dawis and Lofquist (1984) provided a description of the
work environment which parallels their description of work
personality. The work environment structure is comprised of
skill requirements (i.e., performance expectations) and needs
reinforcers (i.e., stimulus conditions in which their
presence or absence accounts for satisfaction of an
individual's needs). Work environment is measured in terms
of the reference dimensions of ability requirements and
reinforcer factors, which correspond to skill requirements
and needs reinforcers.
Correspondence describes not only the mutual
responsiveness between individual and work environment, but
also the "degree of fit" between work personality structure
and work environment structure. Worthy of note is that
individuals with comparable work personality structures may
differ in the amount of correspondence required from
comparable work environments in order for the respective
individuals to desire to remain in them. Tolerance of lack

59
of correspondence is described as worker flexibility. If
there is need to increase the individual's degree of
correspondence with the work environment, the individual will
elect to either change the environment or alter the way in
which the work personality structure is expressed in the work
environment. If the individual responds by acting on the
environment, the mode of adjustment is called active. If the
individual responds by changing her/his expression or
manifestation of work personality structure to increase
correspondence, the mode of adjustment is called reactive.
Relatedly, the mode of adjustment which describes the length
of time an individual will tolerate lack of correspondence
with the work environment before leaving is called
perseverance (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
The application of the theory of work adjustment has
utilitarian value for understanding levels of job
satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
In addition to augmenting existing research relative to the
the theory of work adjustment, the findings derived from this
study could (a) provide more specific theoretical guidance
for counselors and consultants who have cause to work with
female coaches or prospective coaches, (b) augment existing
research pertaining to women in other male dominated
professions and/or individuals working in high pressure/high
stress environments, and (c) help to establish how Dawis and

60
Lofquist's theory of work adjustment can be applied to career
and personal counseling with prospective coaches in
intercollegiate athletics, with individuals already in the
field who are dissatisfied with their jobs, and with
individuals in similar occupational situations (e.g., women
in male-dominated fields, individuals in other university
related occupations, or individuals in high stress
occupations).
Ideally, prospective collegiate coaches, both male and
female, would profit from knowing requisite characteristics
relevant for a (satisfying) career in intercollegiate
athletics. That is, such knowledge could be used by
prospective or current coaches in their career decision¬
making processes. According to Dawis and Lofquist (1984),
acquisition of such knowledge would increase the likelihood
of correspondence between the individual and work
environment, thus increasing both level of job satisfaction
and length of tenure.
Unfortunately, in the development of their theory of
work adjustment, Dawis and Lofquist did not give particular
attention to particular human characteristics related to
level of work adjustment. For example, they did not address
factors such as age, educational level, length of tenure,
gender, perceived levels of strain (stress) or, related to
perceived levels of strain, the individual's level of success

61
(accomplishment) in their work role. Fortunately, however,
other authors have addressed these factors, and their
relationships to job satisfaction can be discussed within the
context of work adjustment.
Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and Capwell (1957) reported
a U-shaped relationship between age and satisfaction. More
specifically, job satisfaction levels are high in young
workers. Over time however, their levels of satisfaction
wane, but rise again with increasing age. Substantial support
exists for the U-shaped relationship. In seventeen of
twenty-three studies conducted before 1960 on the
relationship between age and job satisfaction, the U-shaped
curve emerged (Ivancevich & Donnelly, 1968). Hoppock (1960)
reported similar findings in a study in which he compared job
satisfaction levels of male workers in 1932 and again in
1959. He found that nearly three quarters of the total
sample reported increased levels of satisfaction over the
time period. Weaver (1980), in a related study which
compared job satisfaction levels of workers between 1972 and
1978, also reported that job satisfaction increased with age.
Hulin and Smith (1965) rejected the U-shaped model as a
result of their findings which suggested a monotonic
relationship between age and job satisfaction. They found
that job satisfaction rose steadily until approximately five
years before expected time for retirement. They explained

62
that at this stage of the individual's career opportunities
for growth and promotion often begin to decline. Saleh and
Otis (1964) reported findings similar to those of Hulin and
Smith. In their study of managerial level employees, they
also found that satisfaction increased with age until the
pre-retirement period, at which time it began to decline.
Their explanation for the decline was related to "general
adjustment" to life's unavoidable circumstances. Individuals
often experience a decline in physical health as well as
decreased opportunities for self-actualization and
psychological growth between the ages of 60 and 65.
Consequently, according to Saleh and Otis, the result is a
general decline in life adjustment, which in turn contributes
to a significant decline in job satisfaction. Saleh and
Otis's findings are supported by Form and Geshwender (1962).
They concluded that other variables relating to increased
satisfaction are a general function of adult socialization
and are interrelated through the variable of age. Thus, as
workers age, they begin to accept their positions in life and
adjust their goals, including occupational goals and
aspirations, accordingly.
In contrast with theories that purport that job
satisfaction increases with age, Aronowitz (1973) reported
that greater dissatisfaction was expressed by younger workers
in the 1970's. This dissatisfaction, however, was attributed

63
to an historical shift among an entire generation rather than
a phenomenon related specifically to age or stages of the
life cycle.
Other researchers who have examined the relationship
between age and job satisfaction have concluded that gender
also plays a significant role in the determination of job
satisfaction. For example, Hunt and Saul (1975) found a
significant relationship between age and job satisfaction but
only in male workers. In contrast, Shott, Albright, and
Glennon (1963) found a significant relationship for women but
not for men. And finally, Glenn, Taylor, and Weaver (1977)
reported a significant relationship between age and job
satisfaction for both sexes.
Studies in which the relationship between educational
level and job satisfaction were examined have had
contradictory results. For example, Weaver (1980), Quinn and
Mandilovitch (1980), and Herzberg et al. (1957) reported that
job satisfaction was positively related to level of
education. In contrast, however, Klein and Maher (1966) and
Vollmer and Kinney (1955) found a negative correlation
between job satisfaction and level of education. From these
latter findings it was suggested that employees with higher
levels of education expected more from their jobs and thus
became even more dissatisfied when their job failed to meet
those expectations.

64
Srivasta et al.(1977) indicated from their review of the
literature that there was a relationship between level of
education and job satisfaction, but the direction of the
relationship depended upon unspecified variables. According
to these researchers, it is feasible that an "overqualified"
or educated individual would feel trapped and unproductive in
an undemanding and thus, unsatisfying job. Relatedly, it
also seemed reasonable to assume that higher educational
levels may be related to feelings of well-being and
satisfaction. In this vein, higher educated individuals
would be more likely to occupy intrinsically and
extrinsically rewarding positions in organizations (Srivasta
et al., 1977) .
It may be inferred that individuals' levels of education
may significantly impact their levels of work adjustment.
Although there is disagreement as to the direction of the
relationship between the two variables, there is relative
certainty that either too much or too little education for a
particular job results in dissatisfaction. In terms of work
adjustment, an individual who is either under or
overqualified for her/his position will likely find that many
personal needs are unmet (e.g., ability utilization,
advancement, compensation, recognition, security, creativity,
working conditions) resulting in low work adjustment.

65
Studies in which the relationship between length of
employment (i.e., tenure) and job satisfaction was examined
yielded more consistent findings. Srivastva et al., (1977)
reviewed eleven studies which related tenure to job
satisfaction in a variety of U.S. and Indian populations.
Five of these studies were based on populations of educators
(superintendents and teachers); other populations studied
included blue-collar workers, clerical workers, management
consultants, and nurses. They found that Indian populations
consistently reported a positive relationship between length
of employment and job satisfaction. For the educators,
however, length of employment was not related to job
satisfaction. They attributed these contradictory findings
to the possibility that moderating variables may be
operating. For example, the results may be due to the nature
of the job, span of employment or populations studied; length
of employment may be more closely related to age and job
satisfaction; or length of employment, if short, may in fact
be due to short-term disillusionment more closely related to
age than to educational level (Srivastva et al., 1977) .
Porter and Steers (1979) also considered age to be closely
related to tenure, thus many corresponding results emerged.
Knowles (1964) claimed that an employees length of service or
length of service in a previous occupation were highly
accurate predictors of the likelihood that the individual

66
would remain on her/his present job. Similarly, Shott et
al.(1963) studied clerical workers and found that employees
who had long tenure with their present employers also had
worked at least ten months with their previous employers.
The researchers of Fleishman and Berniger (1960) and Robinson
(1972) supported the findings of Shott et al. (1963).
Hulin and Smith (1965) reported a close relationship
between tenure and job satisfaction. Similar to the
relationship between age and job satisfaction, they concluded
it was monotonic in nature. They also concluded that it may
be incorrect to assume that tenure alone is related to job
satisfaction because age, not tenure, may be a stronger
predictor of job satisfaction levels. Therefore, in order
to determine the effects of tenure on job satisfaction, the
relationship between age and job satisfaction must be taken
into consideration. Hulin and Smith also argued that the
same line of reasoning applies to salary and job level.
Rachman and Kemp (1964) found that the "happiest"
employees in their study- were those who had been with the
company for over twenty years. Similarly, Form and
Geschwender (1962) found that workers with ten or more years
were significantly more satisfied than co-workers with less
tenure. Alderfer (1967), in a study which examined the job
satisfaction levels of blue collar and low-level management
personnel, found that as seniority increased so did worker

67
satisfaction with pay and opportunities to use skills and
abilities.
Monie (1967) discovered a U-shaped relationship between
job satisfaction and tenure. Those workers with tenure of
less than one year reported high levels of satisfaction.
After one year however, Monie reported that a sudden decrease
in satisfaction occurred followed by a sharp increase after
the second year. Thereafter, the pattern of satisfaction
plateaued. Form and Geshwender (1962) supported these
findings from their study of manual laborers. They reported
that employees found an "occupational niche" early in their
work life and that their job satisfaction stabilized soon
thereafter.
Two basic inferences pertaining to work adjustment can
be drawn from the relationship between length of employment
and job satisfaction. The most obvious is that individuals
with extended tenure are most likely to experience high
levels of work adjustment. In addition work adjustment may
be at it's lowest level after the first one or two years of
employment in a particular job. It appears that during this
time period individuals are in the process of evaluating
their positions and attempting to determine the extent to
which their jobs will satisfy their individual needs.
Therefore, work adjustment may be a critical factor at this
time.

68
According to Forgionne and Peeters (1982) suggested in
the preponderance of research related to gender and job
satisfaction is that there is no significant relationship
between them. In independent studies, however, Shapiro and
Stern (1975) and Weaver (1974a; 1974b) found that more
professional men than women were satisfied with their jobs.
Hulin and Smith (1965) confirmed this finding in studies of
non-professional workers, as did Bartol and Wortman (1975)
who found that male managers were more satisfied in their
positions than women. As a point of interest, males who
worked in predominantly female or gender proportionate jobs
reportedly experienced lower levels job satisfaction (Moore,
1985) .
Miller (1980) reported that job satisfaction for both
women and men was determined by intrinsic job characteristics
(i.e., autonomy, complexity, and variety). However,
suggested in her data was that men place a higher value on
job autonomy than women, while women place higher value on
job complexity than men. For women, job satisfaction often
depended upon how complex and interesting the job was.
Miller accounted for these differences by stating that women
may so rarely have access to jobs with autonomy that they do
not rank it among the most important characteristics of their
jobs.

69
In studies pertaining only to women, researchers have
reported that women in traditionally male occupations
experienced relatively high levels of job satisfaction (Meyer
& Lee, 1978; Moore, 1985; O'Farrell, 1980;Schreiber, 1979).
O'Farell and Harlen (1982) also found that women working in
traditionally male, blue-collar occupations were
significantly more satisfied with their work than their
female counterparts who held traditionally female, white-
collar occupations, while employed by the same corporation.
It has been suggested that women in nontraditional
occupations consider pay and work content factors related to
their positions as more satisfying than for women in
traditional occupations (Schreiber, 1979). Moore (1985)
reported that women in predominantly male occupations
perceived economic factors, utilization of skills, and
flexibility of hours as primary factors affecting their
levels of job satisfaction. Support of co-workers, which has
been cited as a primary factor related to women's job
satisfaction, was not, in this case, a salient factor. In
contrast, Neil and Snizek (1987) found that women placed
greater value on working relations; whereas men emphasized
salary, job status, and prestige in the community.
Two studies in which women in nontraditional and
traditional jobs within the same organizations were compared
had results where there were greater levels of job

70
satisfaction among "nontraditionals". The researchers also
reported, however, that women in the "nontraditional"
category experienced a great deal more stress resulting from
the pressure on them to "perform", isolation, and co-workers
hostility than their counterparts. (O'Farrell & Harlen, 1980;
Schreiber, 1979). O'Farrell and Harlen (1980) and Walshok
(1979) suggested that the higher levels of job satisfaction
for women in nontraditional occupations stemmed, in part,
from comparisons made by the women. When these women
compared their own jobs with the traditional jobs previously
or potentially available to them, the nontraditional job was
perceived as more satisfying than the traditional "women's
work". According to Mcllwee (1982), the prestige and sense
of accomplishment assigned to nontraditional occupations
wanes over time, resulting in lower levels of satisfaction,
different sources of satisfaction, dissatisfaction, or some
combination. More specifically, Mcllwee (1982) identified a
pattern in the perceived levels of job satisfaction among
women in nontraditional occupations. Upon entry into
nontraditional blue-collar jobs, women receive comparatively
greater rewards and experience greater levels of job
satisfaction than women in traditional occupations. Beyond
that, however, Mcllwee reported that satisfaction levels
declined over time as the nontraditional aspects of the job
diminished in importance, with both satisfaction and

71
dissatisfaction revolving increasingly around the intrinsic
and extrinsic characteristics of the work. Moore (1985)
reported that women and men in male-dominant or sex
proportionate labor sectors perceived their jobs as providing
greater income, freedom, job involvement, challenge, and
ability utilization.
Several researchers identified a variety of difficulties
that women experienced when they entered male-dominated
occupations. These difficulties were most often manifested in
personal work dissatisfactions and occupational turnover.
The difficulties were ascribed to a variety of factors
including the roles women were expected to perform in
nontraditional fields, characteristics of work organizations,
and personal characteristics of the women (i.e., motivation,
values and attitudes, and expectations) (Patterson &
Engelberg, 1978; Schreiber, 1979). Macke (1981) found that
both women in male-dominated fields and men in female-
dominated fields reported greater emphasis on their sex-
related characteristics than their occupational skills.
Sprangler et al. (1978) reported similar findings for female
students in law schools. Female students experienced greater
pressure to perform and more stress in interpersonal
relationships than male students. These students claimed
they felt "socially isolated and stereotyped as feminine"
(DeFleur, 1985, p.209).

72
Women who occupied positions in predominantly female
sectors of the labor market were found to have relatively
high levels of job satisfaction (Moore, 1985) . Walshok and
Walshok (1978) explained the high levels of job satisfaction
from a traditional perspective. Generally, these women were
not especially concerned with traditional rewards of high pay
and upward mobility because any form of paid labor
represented an improvement over domestic (unpaid) labor.
Gold (1971) reported that women preferred jobs which offered
flexibility with respect to their traditional
responsibilities (i.e., caring for the home and family) and
were less concerned with economic rewards, autonomy, and
prestige. In a more recent study, Moore (1985) found that the
job satisfaction levels of women in predominantly female
occupations were affected by a wide range of intrinsic
challenges, socioemotional factors, and problems related to
income, as well as flexibility of hours and availability of
benefits tied to domestic responsibilities. Moore (1985)
also found that job satisfaction for both women and men in
all labor sectors was contingent on perceived income problems
and flexibility of working hours. Moore went on to note,
however, that these factors were most evident for women in
male-dominated or sex proportionate occupations.
In general, studies pertaining specifically to women and
job satisfaction can be categorized as either traditional or

73
structural in nature. According to traditional thought,
women and men, as a consequence of their sex-role
socializations, have different values and needs related to
work and jobs. Suggested in several studies was that women,
overall, require different rewards from work than men. These
differences may account for differences in levels of job
satisfaction (O'Leary, 1977). According to Gold (1971),
males placed greater emphasis on economic rewards, management
of others, recognition, and prestige. Women, however, most
often cited support from co-workers, job content, and
socioemotional factors as important determinants of job
satisfaction (Andrisani, 1978). Correspondingly, several
researchers have found that women perceive their
relationships with co-workers as a primary source of job
satisfaction (Blauner, 1964; Davis, 1967; Herzberg et al.,
1957). Others have found that women place no greater value
on social relationships than do men, and that both value
other aspects of the job more highly (O'Farrell & Harlen,
1982) .
Hulin and Smith (1964) found that female workers were,
in general, less satisfied than male workers. Their
explanation for differences in levels of satisfaction between
the two groups, unlike the previously cited studies, focused
on structural factors (and not sex-role socialization
factors). For example, they concluded it was not gender per

74
se that was the critical factor. Instead, it was the entire
scope of factors including pay, job level, promotional
opportunities within the company, and societal norms that
determined levels of job satisfaction. Relatedly, Ivancivich
and Donnelly (1968) linked differing levels of job
satisfaction to differential treatment of women and men with
identical credentials within the organization.
Researchers have argued that organizational position,
occupational characteristics, and social control patterns in
the work structure are crucial determinants of job
satisfaction. Reportedly, women often place greater emphasis
on social relationships, but it is believed that this is
related to characteristics of their jobs and not their sex-
role socialization. More specifically, it is due to the fact
that women in general are restricted in job opportunities
because of the patriarchical pattern of control to which they
are subjected to in whatever jobs they hold (Acker & Van
Houten, 1974; Feldberg & Glenn, 1979; Kanter, 1977; Laws,
1979) .
Mcllwee (1982) claimed that the occupational stucture in
the United States contains considerable inequality in the
opportunities for work satisfaction and as the labor process
of advanced capitalism forces the structure to become even
more automated and divided, work at most levels will become
increasingly more dissatisfying especially for women.

75
According to Andrisani (1978), levels of job satisfaction
among working women decreased because they were less willing
to accept lower status in the labor market. Increasingly,
women began to reevaluate the inequality and discrimination
faced in the labor force. Consequently, their levels of
dissatisfaction rose with their perception of inequity in the
labor force.
Segmented labor market theories hold that occupations
are structured, defined, and rewarded differently for women
than for men, as well as for other minority group members,
across the labor force (Bonacich, 1972; Doeringer & Piore,
1971). Opportunities for entry into the labor force,
training on the job, opportunity to utilize skills, and
access to full-time positions with high economic rewards are
not available to women in the same proportion as they are to
men (Treiman & Hartman, 1981). Also, women in predominantly
male occupations, have high turnover rates, are offered more
part-time positions, and have greater rates of movement
within and out of the labor market (Blau & Jusenius, 1976) .
Women workers, in general, occupy lower level occupations
where their opportunities for advancement and challenge are
limited (Blau, 1977). Suggested in these studies is that
women's lower levels of job satisfaction may be related to
the fact they they are afforded so few opportunities for
advancement (Moore, 1985).

76
Not surprisingly, based on structural explanations of
job dissatisfaction, men in predominantly female occupations
also are reported to have significantly lower levels of job
satisfaction. According to Moore (1985), the work
environment (i.e., lower pay, fewer promotional
opportunities, and limited opportunity for challenges) had a
significant effect in lowering job satisfaction scores among
men in such situations.
Ranter (1976) concluded that women's attitudes toward
work, and subsequently their levels of job satisfaction, are
more a function of their position within the organizational
structure than a consequence of their primary socialization
into family roles. Ranter's argument was that if women had
lower job aspirations, were less involved with their work,
and placed greater value than men on a congenial work
environment and peer relations, the cause could be traced
back to the fact that they generally hold positions with
limited or blocked mobility. Arguably, if men found
themselves in parallel situations, they would exhibit similar
work related attitudes (Ranter, 1976). From the related
literature can be found considerable support for Ranter's
premise and analyses of the relationship among working
conditions, gender, and job satisfaction (e.g., Grandjean &
Bernarl, 1979; Grandjean & Taylor, 1980; Mcllwee, 1982,
Schreiber, 1979, South et al., 1982).

77
Jurik and Helemba (1984) examined gender, working
conditions, and job satisfaction in the field of corrections.
This study was unique in that it examined women and men in
comparable positions within the same organization. They
found that the attitudes of women were primarily a function
of their position within the organization and their immediate
working conditions. However, both female and male
respondents who perceived that there was little or no job
variety, limited opportunity to increase their knowledge in
the area of corrections, or fully utilize their abilities and
skills, were not satisfied with their jobs.
Based on the findings of the previous studies of
differences in job satisfaction on the basis of gender, it
can be inferred that gender is a significant factor in level
of work adjustment, particularly so for women in male-
dominated professions. Regardless of whether issues related
to gender and job satisfaction are viewed from a traditional
or structural standpoint, there is a general concensus that,
overall, women experience their jobs in different manners
than men. More specifically, women are more apt to
experience role conflict, differential treatment, and
discrimination, all of which negatively impacts their levels
of work adjustment and job satisfaction. Moreover,
opportunities for women to meet their individual needs (i.e.,
achievement, advancement, company policies and practices,

78
compensation, co-workers, independence, recognition,
security, social status, or working conditions) are greatly
reduced, thereby decreasing the likelihood of correspondence
which results in lower levels of work adjustment.
A logical conclusion based on research related to job
satisfaction and turnover would be that personal success and
accomplishment in the work role are also significant factors
in predicting work adjustment and job satisfaction. More
specifically, women in male dominant professions, who
perceive themselves as successful in their work role, might
correspondingly experience higher levels of job security,
achievement, ability utilization, recognition, and
advancement, all of which increase the overall level of job
satisfaction. In contrast, it is also conceivable that
personal perceptions of failure in a work role would diminish
a worker's self-esteem and sense of achievement, which would
negatively impact their levels of job satisfaction. Thus,
individual perceptions of success would generate general
feelings of self-worth and productivity, resulting in higher
levels of job satisfaction.
It has long been known that factors such as little
participation in decision making, sexual discrimination and
resultant inequities, ambiguity about job security, poor
working conditions, and poor use of skills and abilities are
correlated with stress which is often manifested as job

79
related tension and job dissatisfaction (Argyris, 1964;
Fagenson, 1988; Likert, 1961; Quinn, Seashore, Kahn,
Mangione, Campbell, Slaines & Mccullough, 1971). It has also
long been known that work stress affects the family domain
and primary relationships. However, more recently, Jenner
(1988) reported that the opposite also hold true; chronic
relationship stress and familial conflicts impact upon work
stress.
The cumulative effect of negative stressors has been
identified as a state of "distress" or strain. Stressors in
the workplace stem from job demands, organizational
structure, information flow, job roles, informal
relationships, perceived opportunity for career development,
and external commitments. The consequences of stress are
shown to have individual physical, psychological, and
behavioral effects that effort organizational functioning
(Byers, 1987). According to Lefebvre and Sandford (1985)
psychological strain is a syndrome of physical, behavioral,
and -cognitive symptoms that are elicited, to varying degrees,
by environmental demands upon the individual (Lefebvre &
Sandford, 1985). In the case of women in male dominant
professions, it is conceivable that factors such as
discrimination, inequity in pay and benefits, poor working
conditions, and a sense of failure, would result in varying

80
degrees of strain and ultimately in low levels of work
adjustment.
Support For Need For the Study
Job satisfaction is contingent on accurate assessment of
an individual's perceptions of her/his needs and the
likelihood that the job will meet (satisfactorily) those
needs. Use of the results of this study will, in part,
enhance counselors' abilities to facilitate accurate self and
work environment assessments by prospective and current
female coaches, thereby enabling counselors to provide more
effective services for those persons.
Despite the fact that choosing a career is one of the
most important decisions individuals make during their
lifetimes, unfortunately many people choose their careers
without evaluating the likelihood that their jobs will
satisfy their needs. Examination of the results of this
study will afford counselors, as well as current and
prospective, female intercollegiate athletic coaches better
and more accurate appraisal of the extents to which coaching
work environments are able to fulfill female coaches'
specific needs.
The results of this study of work adjustment among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches also can be applied
to women in other male-dominant professions. Presumably,

81
women who choose nontraditional occupations present needs and
values similar to women who pursue careers in coaching. Thus
the results of this study have implications for women in
nontraditional careers. Relatedly, the results of this study
have implications for other individuals who pursue careers in
occupations in which exceptional stress is encountered in
attempts to perform successfully. More specifically, women
in nontraditional professional occupations having high
pressure to succeed are confronted with situations unlike
those experienced by women (and men) in more traditional,
less stressful occupations. Thus the greater understanding
of the theory of work adjustment provided by the results of
this study can be a framework for career counselors and
consultants to use in their efforts to explore the nature and
extent of the problems women in male-dominated professions
are experiencing.
There also are implications from the results of this
study for college and university personnel in general.
Although intercollegiate athletic programs are typically
auxiliary operations in colleges and universities, the
governing structures of intercollegiate athletic programs
typically parallel the governing structures of various units
(e.g., departments) within colleges and universities. More
specifically, parallels can be drawn between the rank and
authority of athletic directors and deans and the roles and

82
responsibilities of head coaches and department heads.
Similarly, many of the achievement norms for coaches can be
applied to professors. A parallel has also been drawn
between being associated with a major or minor sport and a
major or minor department (Loy & Sage, 1978). In this
regard, the. findings of this study could be used in reference
to university personnel outside the field of athletics.
Using such information, career counselors and consultants
would be better prepared to counsel university personnel in
general with occupational and career problems.
The applicability of the theory of work adjustment is
not limited to career counseling; it is also relevant to the
area of personal counseling. As mentioned previously, women
entering the coaching profession are entering a male-
dominated, nontraditional occupation. In this vein are
inherent problems, unique to the women. Identification of
their levels of job satisfaction, in general, encompasses
assessment of the degree to which their needs and values are
met and, therefore by inference, subsequent impact of job
dissatisfaction on other areas of their lives. For example,
frustration with their jobs may carry over to their personal
lives. They may experience marital or relationship problems,
substance abuse and dependency problems, low self- esteem,
and/or may manifest psychosomatic complaints related to
prolonged stress. Greater understanding of the nature of

83
their work adjustment and/or needs for homeostatic conditions
therefore would facilitate counselors' or consultants'
efforts to examine antecedent conditions (i.e., need
deprivation). Once identified, appropriate counseling
strategies and techniques could be implemented and counseling
processes expedited to alleviate some of their problems and
concerns.
Support For Measurement Techniques
One of the most frequently used and recently developed
measures of job satisfaction is the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ) (Weiss, Dawis, Lofquist & England, 1967).
The MSQ is comprised of 100 items from which twenty subscales
are generated; the subscales correspond to the twenty needs
described in a previous section. A respondent rates each
item on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from Not Satisfied
(the aspect is much poorer than expected) to Extremely
Satisfied (the aspect is much better than expected).
Provided in the Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967) are
normative data for twenty-five vocational groups. The
validity of the MSQ was assessed by Dunhan, Smith, and
Blackburn (1977) who found that the MSQ, when compared to
three other measures of job satisfaction (i.e., Job
Descriptive Index [JDI],
Faces Scale [FACES], and Index of

84
Organizational Reactions [IOR]) ranked highest and second
highest in convergent and discriminant validities,
respectively. Convergent validity was based on the degree to
which the scales (on all measures) indicated similar scores
among the respondents. In contrast, discriminative validity
was established by the degree to which each respondent's
scale pattern was similar on each instrument, but different
from other individuals taking the test. Indicated in the
results of these comparisons was that the MSQ had the highest
convergent validity (.71 to .61) and median discriminative
(.70). Demonstrated in further analyses was that when the
MSQ was compared to the other measures of job satisfaction,
it was least affected by differences in the respondents'
gender and type of job (Dunhan et al., 1977) .
MSQ test-retest correlation coefficients were calculated
for a one week period for seventy-five night school students.
Stability correlations ranged from .66 (co-workers scale) to
.91 (working conditions scale). Test-retest correlation
coefficients also were calculated over a one-year period for
115 employed persons. Stability correlations for this period
ranged from .35 (independence scale) to .71 (ability
utilization scale). Canonical correlation analyses of the
data derived from the two test-retest intervals yielded a .97
coefficient for the one-week interval and .89 for the one-
year interval (Weiss et al., 1967)). Weiss et al. (1967)

85
also calculated Hoyt reliability coefficients for each of the
twenty subscales and reported scores ranging from .59
(variety) to .97 (ability utilization).
Rather than elaborate on the validity data of the MSQ,
Weiss et al. (1967) advised readers to consult other
publications which reported on the MSQ construct and
concurrent validity. However, Dawis and Lofquist (1984)
later reported that the MSQ is designed to measure dimensions
of job satisfaction that parallel dimensions of needs
measured by the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ), and
therefore, MSQ construct validity is derived from the MIQ.
Dawis and Lofquist (1984) also reported that research on MSQ
provided validity data indicative that the MSQ is appropriate
for both research and practice. Moreover, several
researchers (e.g., Dunhan et al., 1977; Guión, 1978; Weiss,
1967) concluded that the MSQ has relatively high validity and
reliability measures when compared to other respected job
satisfaction instruments.
A recently developed measure of strain is the Strain
Questionnaire (SQ) (Lefebvre & Sandford, 1985). The SQ is
comprised of 48 items from which three subscales of physical,
behavioral, and cognitives signs of strain are generated. A
respondent is asked to rate each item of a 5-point Likert
scale according to how often she/he experienced or felt each

86
of the items listed. The scales range from Never to
Constantly.
Normative data for the SQ was obtained on 285 males and
127 females (N=412) who had a mean age of thirty-three (range
17-58 years). The group consisted of 38 elementary and
secondary education teachers, 45 insurance agents enrolled in
a stress management course, 110 navel engineers, 119 graduate
level business students, and 100 undergraduate students.
The inter-rater reliability of the SQ ranged from .88 to
1.00. SQ test-retest correlation coefficients were reported
as .75 (physical), .77 (behavioral), .73 (cognitive), and .79
(total SQ). Split-half reliability correlation coefficients
were reported as .62 (behavioral), .86 (cognitive), .87
(physical) and .88 (total SQ).
Although the researchers report that studies are still
necessary to further validate various aspects of the SQ, it
appears to be a valid and reliable measure of strain in both
cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Lefebvre &
Sandford, 1984, 1985) .
Because the MSQ and SQ are considered valid and reliable
measurements of job satisfaction and strain, for a variety of
professionals, they are also considered appropriate and
suitable measurement techniques for female intercollegiate
athletic coaches. Many of the inherent problems related to
the administration of questionnaires, in general, are

87
alleviated by several personal factors associated with the
nature of the individuals who typically comprise the
intercollegiate coaching population.
The first of these factors is related to the level of
education of collegiate coaches. More specifically, these
individuals, in order to become intercollegiate coaches,
must have attained (at minimum) a baccalaureate degree.
Therefore, female intercollegiate coaches have a relatively
high reading level and have completed numerous written tests
and surveys during the course of their college careers.
Presumably, intercollegiate coaches are familiar with
completing written questionnaires and surveys similar to the
MSQ and SQ. Thus, it can be assumed that female
intercollegiate coaches would not be likely to experience
difficulty in understanding the nature of the questions of
the surveys and would be sufficiently experienced to complete
a lengthy survey such as the MSQ and the SQ.
A second factor which enhances the suitability and
appropriateness of the MSQ and SQ to female intercollegiate
coaches is related to the autonomy associated with coaching
positions. Intercollegiate coaches, in general, have control
over their daily routines and schedules. Thus, they would be
in a position to allow themselves sufficient time to complete
both the MSQ and SQ. In view of these factors, the MSQ and
SQ are both considered to be suitable and appropriate

88
instruments for the measurement of job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
Summary of Literature Review
In this review of the literature it was suggested that
job satisfaction is related to factors such as age, income,
tenure, educational level, stress, marital status and
multiple roles, and gender. It is not known however, what
role, if any, these factors play in determining the job
satisfaction levels among female intercollegiate athletic
coaches.
Indicated in this review of the literature related to
job satisfaction is the need for further research in the area
of job satisfaction among women in male dominant professions,
and more specifically, among female intercollegiate athletic
coaches. Numerous cultural and structural factors associated
with male dominated professions have been identified as
having a negative impact upon women attempting to pursue
careers in such fields. For example, women in these
professions are apt to experience sex-role conflict,
differential treatment, and discrimination.
Among the cultural factors, researchers have examined
extensively, problems associated with sex-role socialization,
stereotypes and expectations and have found that females, by
virtue of their gender, are more apt than their male

89
counterparts to experience high levels of stress derived from
sex-role conflicts that augment the inherent pressures
associated with achieving success in any professional
occupation.
Suggested in studies which have addressed structural
factors associated with male dominated professions is that
females, again by virtue of their gender, are often
confronted with seemingly insurmountable obstacles as they
attempt to pursue a successful professional career. Cited as
one of the most prominent obstacles which prevails within
male dominated professions is the "male universe" or "good
old boy's network." These male networks prevent women from
feeling secure or confident in their roles as professionals
which, in turn, adversely affect their opportunities for
advancement and their abilities to establish a sense of
belonging. Furthermore, indicated in studies of the impact
of male dominance upon individuals within a profession is
that minorities (i.e., females), in general, are paid less
and hold lower status positions within the professions.
Despite the preponderance of information related to
women in male dominated occupations and factors associated
with job satisfaction, few data exist concerning female
intercollegiate athletic coaches. Further, there is a dearth
of data which pertains to overall job satisfaction levels
among female intercollegiate athletic coaches. A systematic

90
inquiry into the current status of job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches needs to be conducted
in order to determine the actual impact of these cultural and
structural factors on this specific group of individuals and
the relationship between factors such as age, educational
level, tenure, stress, marital status and multiple roles, and
job satisfaction.. Such inquiry would provide counselors,
consultants, administrators, and educators with significant
information about the nature of job satisfaction among female
intercollegiate athletic coaches.

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
The purpose of this study was to investigate variations
in job satisfaction in relation to selected factors which
included age, marital status, annual income, years in the
coaching profession, years as a head coach, type of sport
coached, level (division) of collegiate athletic program and
perceived levels of strain (stress) job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches. The Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) was administered in order to
asses subjects' levels of job satisfaction along with the
Strain Questionnaire (SQ) which assesed the subjects' levels
of strain. Data also were gathered from the MSQ for the
following psychological variables: ability utilization,
achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company
policies and practices, compensation, co-workers, creativity,
independence, moral values, recognition, responsibility,
security, social service, social status, supervision-human
relations, supervision technical, variety, and working
conditions.
Population
The population for this study was female intercollegiate
athletic (head) coaches for women's sports programs in NCAA
Division I, II, or III level athletic departments. According
91

92
to Acosta and Carpenter (1988), this population is comprised
of approximately 2,780 females.
A review of the related literature, in concert with
numerous consultations with researchers who have either
previously examined or are currently in the process of
examining the status of women in intercollegiate coaching,
revealed a scarcity of empirical data which described
specifically the demographic characteristics of female
intercollegiate coaches. Therefore, the preponderance of
population data for this study was derived primarily from a
longitudinal study (1977-1988) on the status of women in
intercollegiate coaching conducted by Acosta and Carpenter
(1988) .
Acosta and Carpenter (1988) found that women in NCAA
Division I, II, and III level colleges and universities
maintained their coaching positions for an average of 6.3,
6.8, and 11.7 years, respectively. They also determined that
the average age of the female coaches in Division I, II, and
III level colleges and universities was 38.2, 36.7, and 34.2
years, respectively. Acosta and Carpenter (1988) also
indicated that 23.8%, 61.3% and 78.6% of the females in
Division I, II, and III level colleges and universities,
respectively, occupied two or more roles (e.g., coaching and
teaching or administration and coaching).

93
Acosta and Carpenter (1988) also found that although
female coaches were represented among all NCAA Division I,
II, and III women's collegiate sports, there was an unequal
distribution among sports programs offered. More
specifically, among the ten most popular women's college
sports programs offered in NCAA Division I, II, or III level
institutions in this country, the percentages of women
occupying coaching positions ranged from 21.8% (cross
country) to 97.1% (field hockey). From these data it can be
inferred that although female coaches occupy coaching
positions among all women's sports, their representation
among women's sports programs is variable.
Although no specific demographic data were found for the
educational levels of female intercollegiate coaches, it is a
logical inference that collegiate coaches have earned at
least baccalaureate degrees. Furthermore, many have earned
master's degrees. This assumption is based on two factors:
(a) collegiate coaching is considered a profession, and by
definition one of the basic criteria of a profession is its
base of knowledge which is acquired during long and intensive
training (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984), and (b) in many cases,
intercollegiate coaches are assigned faculty or staff
positions within college or university systems, which
characteristically require post-graduate degrees.

94
In consideration of these factors, it can be inferred
that female coaches, similar to most women who work in
nontraditional or male-dominated professions, are apt to be
more assertive and competitive than women employed in what
are considered traditional occupations. They also have
relatively high needs for achievement, autonomy, and
responsibility.
In a similar vein, it has been reported that similar
characteristics exist between individuals employed in
athletic and business occupations (Knoppers, 1987) . Knoppers
claimed that characteristics such as hard work and self-
discipline, which are purportedly developed through sport
participation, are often the same characteristics considered
assets in order to achieve success in the business world.
Furthermore, the business-like nature of "commercialized"
athletics has forced many coaches to adopt traits and
characteristics befitting corporate managers (Knoppers,
1987) .
Unfortunately, the preponderance of research relative to
collegiate athletics has been concentrated on male coaches
and athletes. Due to the limited number of studies that
address female coaches, a situation has been created whereby
researchers often resort to applying the psychological
characteristics associated with female athletes to female
coaches. The rationale for this approach is based on the

95
premise that female coaches, with a few exceptions, were once
collegiate athletic participants. Accordingly, the
psychological characteristics which may be considered
applicable to female coaches are high need for achievement,
autonomy, and dominance (Fisher, 197 6) . Taking this
application a step further, researchers also have examined
the psychological characteristics of individual (player)
versus team sport (players) coaches. Individual competitors
(e.g., gymnasts, swimmers, divers, rider, fencers, canoeists,
and tracksters) were reported to be dominant, aggressive,
venturesome, self-sufficient, and experimental. In contrast,
team sport participants were reported to be tough-minded and
shrewd-worldly wise. When both groups were combined as a
single sample without regard to individual or team sport
distinctions, the most significant psychological descriptors
were cool-reserved, bright, emotionally stable, self-
opinionated, venturesome, and tough-minded (Fisher, 1976).
Based on the premise that female intercollegiate coaches
display characteristics similar to female collegiate athletes
and that individual sport participants differ from team sport
participants, it is reasonable to infer that female coaches
of individual sports have distinct psychological
characteristics from female coaches of team sports.
Currently, there are approximately 670 Division I, II,
and III level colleges and universities in the NCAA and

96
approximately 5,757 coaching positions for women's sports
teams. As noted previously, however, women occupy only
approximately 48.3% of these positions. Furthermore, their
representation among the various sports teams is highly
imbalanced. More specifically, female coaches are
represented among women's sports teams in the following
manner: basketball, 58.5%; volleyball, 71%; tennis, 52.2%;
softball, 67.2.%; cross country, 19.5%; track, 21.6%;
swimming and diving, 25.3%; field hockey, 96.2%; golf, 41.3%;
and soccer, 23%) (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988). In contrast,
the distribution of female coaches among Division I, II, and
III level institutions is relatively equal (i.e., Division I,
45.5%; Division II, 46.8% and Division III, 57.2%) (Acosta &
Carpenter, 1986).
Sampling Procedures
Through a systematic sampling procedure, 300 female
coaches were identified from the 1988-1989 National Directory
of College Athletics (Women's Edition) . The directory
contained an alphabetized listing of colleges and
universities affiliated with NCAA Division I, II, and III
level athletic programs across the country; the types of
women's sports offered by each institution; and the names of
the head coaches responsible for each women's sport offered
by the institution.

97
Prior to selecting the sample for the study, the
directory was reviewed. The names which obviously belonged
to male coaches, along with names that could belong to either
male or female coaches (e.g., Pat, Terry, or Lynn) were
discarded from the population from which the sample was
drawn. Once this procedure was completed, the name of every
thirteenth female coach listed in the directory who was
associated with a NCAA Division I, II, or III level
institution was selected (i.e., 1st name, 14th name, 27th
name, etc.). This process continued until a sample of 300
female coaches was identified. Because there was no evidence
of biased ordering in the list, it was expected that a random
sample of female intercollegiate coaches would be drawn and
that the sample would be representative of the larger
population of female intercollegiate coaches nationwide. It
also was anticipated that the women's sports offered by the
largest percentage of schools would have the greatest
representation in the sample.
Resultant Sample
Acosta and Carpenter (1988) reported percentages of
schools offering each women's sport along with percentages of
sports which are coached by females. Based on their
findings, a representative sample of the female
intercollegiate coaches similar to the following was

98
expected: volleyball, 17%; basketball, 16%; tennis and
softball, 14%; field hockey, 8%; cross country and lacrosse
5%; swimming and diving, 4%; golf, 3%; gymnastics and soccer,
2%; and archery, badminton, bowling, fencing, ice hockey,
riding, riflery, sailing, skiing, squash, and synchronized
swimming, 1% or less. In terms of team or individual sports,
it was expected that the representative samples would be 60%
and 40%, respectively. In several studies involving survey
methodology female intercollegiate athletic coaches have
shown themselves to be willing participants; indeed in some
studies (Acosta & Carpenter, 1984, 1986, 1988) response rates
have been above 60%. Therefore, a 60% response rate was
anticipated for this study. In turn, this implied 180
respondents (60%) distributed across women's sports as
follows: volleyball (31 [17%]); basketball (29 [16%]); tennis
and softball (25 each [14%]); field hockey, (14 [8%]); cross
country (9 [5%]); swimming and diving (7 [4%]); gymnastics
and soccer (4 each [2%]); and archery, badminton, bowling,
fencing, ice hockey, riding, riflery, sailing, skiing,
squash, and synchronized swimming (2 or fewer respondents
[<1%]). When compiled as either team or individual sports,
the distribution of coaches was expected to be 105 (60%) and
75 (40%), respectively.
Once the sample was identified, the researcher mailed
each potential participant the following: (a) an introductory

99
letter explaining the purpose and nature of the study
(Appendix A), (b) the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
(Appendix B), (c) the Strain Questionnaire (Appendix C) and a
demographic survey (Appendix D) .
The resultant sample was slightly higher than expected
in volleyball, basketball, softball, field hockey, track and
cross country, golf, and swimming and diving and lower in
tennis.. More specifically, the representation of sports
surveyed was as follows: volleyball (19%), basketball (29%),
tennis (8%), softball (18%), field hockey (14%), track and
cross country (8%), and golf (4%). Gymnastics and soccer
(2%) were represented exactly as expected. In terms of team
and individual sport representation, the percentages were 72%
and 28%, respectively.
Assessment Instruments
The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) measures
job satisfaction with various aspects of the work
environment. Respondents were asked to respond to 100
questions which assess satisfaction with 20 separate aspects
of the work environment and pertain to psychological needs.
Five Likert-type response categories were presented for each
item (i.e., very dissatisfied; dissatisfied; neither
[dissatisfied or satisfied]; satisfied; and very satisfied).

100
Each subject's responses to the items were recorded directly
onto the questionnaire.
The MSQ is comprised of the following twenty sub-scales:
ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement,
authority, company policies and practices, compensation, co¬
workers, creativity, independence, moral values, recognition,
responsibility, security, social service, social status,
supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety,
and working conditions. According to the MSQ Manual, each
scale consists of five items. The items are presented in
blocks of twenty, with items representing a given scale
appearing at twenty-item intervals.
The MSQ is self-administered. Directions for completing
it appear on the first page of the questionnaire and
instructions for proper item rating appear at the top of each
page.
There is no time limit for completing the MSQ.
According to the MSQ Manual, the average respondent can
complete the survey in approximately fifteen to twenty
minutes. In addition, the questionnaire has equivalent to a
fifth-grade reading level, meets accepted standards for
reliability, and is reported to be valid (Weiss, Dawis,
Lofquist, & England, 1967) .
The Strain Questionnaire (SQ) measures the physical,
behavioral, and cognitive symptoms that are elicited by the

101
environmental demands upon the individual. It is comprised
of four scales which are identified as physical, behavioral,
cognitive, and total strain. The SQ contains 28 physical
("backaches" to "premenstrual tension or missed cycles"), 12
behavioral ("spent more time alone" or "accident proneness"),
and 8 cognitive ("believe the world is against you" or "think
things can't get any worse") indices of strain. Each score
is calculated by summing the individual symptom ratings
within the scale. The total strain score is comprised of the
total physical, behavioral, and cognitive scores. The SQ is
self-administered and has no time limit (Lefebvre & Sandford,
1985) .
In most research studies, marital status is depicted as
either married, divorced, widowed, or single. However, these
categories may be insufficient due to the large number of
single people who are in living arrangements with an
"unrelated" partner. This factor was considered relevant to
this study for two reasons: (a) many young adult
professionals choose not to marry, but instead elect to live
with a "significant other" in a committed, non-marital
relationship, and (b) one of the factors important in the
assessment of degree of stress individuals experience in
professions is the level of support and assistance they
receive from the "significant others" in their lives. Thus,
the exclusion of non-marital partners could possibly have

102
effected the results of this study. Therefore, "living with
significant other" was included as the fifth marital status
response choice.
Although the salaries of university and college
personnel (generally) are published and available to the
public, they remain an area often considered personal and
private. Therefore, it was conceivable that the respondents
would be reluctant to report this information. Given these
circumstances, the questionnaire requested that the
respondents report their annual income to the nearest
multiple of $5,000. In an effort to insure an accurate
representation of the salary ranges of female intercollegiate
coaches, the respondents were asked to include along with
their institutional salary estimated income derived from
related extracurricular activities (e.g., transportation
provisions, off-season sports clinics, and speaking
engagements) in their reported annual income.
Individual's perceptions of success (accomplishment) or
failure in their work role is often highly subjective in
nature and thus could effect the results of the study. As a
means of eliminating subjectivity in their responses,
respondents were asked to report their win/loss record for
the past three years.

103
Data Analyses
The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) General Linear
Model (GLM) procedure was used for all the analyses in this
study. The MSQ yields 21 different scores: 20 subscale
scores and a total job satisfaction score. In order to
determine an answer to the first research question addressed
in this study, each of these scores were used as a criterion
variable and the variables (a) age, (b) years employed as a
coach, (c) years employed as a head coach, (d) annual income,
(e) perceived levels of strain (stress), and (f) success
(i.e.,win/loss record) (g) marital status, (h) level of sport
coached, (i) type of sport coached and (j) physical, (k)
behavioral, (1)cognitive, and (m) total strain were used as
predictor variables in an analysis of variance procedure.
Inherent in the SAS-GLM procedures are (sub)analyses
which allow determination of responses to the additional
research questions. For example, the multiple regression
analysis procedure included computation of the (Pearson)
correlations between the criterion variable and age, years
employed as a coach, years employed as a head coach, annual
income, and success, respectively. Similarly, significant
differences in the criterion variables on the bases of
marital status, level of sport coached, and type of sport
coached, respectively, were determined. In order to order to
control for Type I error among the components of job

104
satisfaction in the ANOVA analysis procedure, the Bonferroni
procedure was applied. By applying the Bonferroni procedure,
each contrast was tested using a per comparison alpha level.
The .01 level of statistical significance was used for
all analyses conducted for this study.
Methodological Limitations
There are several inherent methodological and
generalizability limitations associated with survey research.
Those pertinent to this study are addressed in this section.
One methodological limitation is related to the possible
lack of response on the part of the selected participants.
Unlike most professionals, intercollegiate athletic coaches
spend a minimal amount of time in an office setting,
especially during the peak of their competitive season.
During that period, the majority of their time is spent in
practice or on the playing field, or traveling to and from
other colleges and universities for season matches. In order
to limit the impact of this limitation, the questionnaires
were sent to the participants at the onset of the spring
semester (i.e., February) because the preponderance of the
women's sports had either completed or had not yet officially
begun their competitive season. This was intended to
increase the probability of coaches taking time from their
off season responsibilities to complete the survey.

105
In a similar vein, a second methodological limitation
which may affect the coaches' responses to the job
satisfaction questionnaire is related to history. It is
conceivable in a profession such as coaching that perceived
levels of job satisfaction may be greatly influenced by
extraneous factors not directly related to factors associated
with job satisfaction. For example, if the subjects receive
the job satisfaction questionnaire at a time when their teams
are winning they would be more apt to report higher levels of
job satisfaction than would be expected when their teams are
losing. Again, as in the previous limitation, it was
expected that the impact of this limitation would be
diminished by the fact that the majority of the women's
sports were not actively involved in their respective
competitive seasons.
A third methodological limitation of survey research is
related to the fact that response categories of written
questionnaires are structured and do not allow respondents to
include additional comments. Although the format of the
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire is structured and does
not provide space for additional comments, it does limit the
extent of the impact of this limitation by offering Likert-
type response categories, which served to increase possible
variation in responses over, for example, dichotomous
response categories.

106
Methodological limitations also exist which are related
to testing. Characteristically, mailed surveys are not
typically well-received by recipients. For example, subjects
may feel that the survey is too personal or that anonymity is
not guaranteed. Ironically, the nature of the respondents
may serve to limit the impact of this methodological
limitation while concomitantly creating another potential
limitation. More specifically, it is assumed that the
problem of attrition is a great concern to the majority of
female intercollegiate athletic coaches since they are
directly affected by it. Therefore, they are apt to have a
personal vested interest in the outcome of the study which
may in turn serve to override any initial reluctance to
participate in the study. As stated previously, however,
their personal concerns with the problem of attrition may
also cause a reaction to the instrument, thus creating
another methodological limitation to the study. More
specifically, because of their concern with the problem of
attrition, the subjects may overreact to the opportunity to
express satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their jobs. Thus
they may frequently select the extreme categories (i.e., very
dissatisfied or very satisfied). Again, the extent of this
limitation was diminished by fact that the MSQ used a Likert-
type measurement, and provided considerable variation in the
response categories. Given this factor, the respondents may

107
not have felt compelled to respond to the extreme categories
in order to rightfully express themselves, unless such
responses are deemed appropriate.
Finally, it should be noted that, as is commonly the
case with survey research, an inherent limitation was related
to sample size. This limitation, however, was attributable
to financial limitations of the study and therefore it's
impact unavoidable.

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
This study addressed four research questions to
investigate job satisfaction among female intercollegiate
athletic head coaches. The results, which were based on job
satisfaction and strain surveys administered to Division I,
II, and III level female intercollegiate athletic coaches
across the country, are presented in this chapter. Each
research question is addressed separately to facilitate
understanding of the results. Response means and standard
deviations by categories are provided in Tables 1 through 8.
A Pearson product moment correlation coefficient matrix is
provided in Table 9.
Table 1
Means Scores For Age, Years As Coach, Years As h Head Coach,
Annual Income, Behavioral Strain, Physical Strain, Cognitive
Strain, Total Strain, Games Won, Games Lost, and General Job
Satisfaction.
Variable
N
Mean
SD
Age
Yrs as Coach
Yrs.as H.Coach
Annual Income
Behavioral Str
Physical Str
Cognitive Str
Total Str
Games Won
Games Lost
Gen Job.Sat.
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
34.66
10.20
8.54
27.07
17.80
40.76
10.79
69.36
37.30
27.13
72.32
7.35
6.50
6.73
3.85
4.73
10.14
3.79
15.69
44.16
23.83
10.63
108

109
Table 2
Sport Coached.
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
N=41
N=94
(Individual)
(Team)
Ability Utilization
21.00
4.30
20.20
4.67
Achievement
21.26
3.09
20.80
3.20
Activities
21.00
3.22
20.81
3.74
Advancement
15.00
5.28
14.55
4.71
Authority
18.10
3.53
18.28
3.32
Company Policies and
Practices
12.93
4.79
14.35
4.86
Compensation
11.98
5.66
12.90
4.13
Creativity
21.44
3.18
21.21
3.37
Independence
21.49
3.50
20.05
2.97
Moral Values
21.41
3.18
21.47
2.94
Recognition
15.59
5.36
16.29
5.21
Responsibility
20.34
3.09
20.29
3.09
Security
16.63
5.52
16.44
4.86
Social Service
21.90
2.27
21.72
2.82
Social Status
17.90
3.62
17.20
4.53
Supervision-
Human Relations
14.93
5.65
15.55
5.91
Supervision-
Technical
15.37
5.03
15.60
5.20
Variety
20.15
3.86
19.98
3.60
Working Conditions
18.22
4.84
17.87
4.66
General Job Sat.
72.58
9.84
72.20
11.01
Physical Strain
40.78
8.97
40.76
10.66
Behavioral Strain
18.10
4.16
17.67
4.98
Cognitive Strain
10.56
3.99
10.89
3.71
Total Strain
69.44
13.53
69.33
16.62
Age
37.41
9.04
33.46
6.14
Years Coaching
12.49
7.58
9.20
5.74
Years/Head Coach
10.80
8.04
7.55
5.85
Income
26.49
11.03
27.32
14.96
Games Won
31.90
70.62
39.66
25.43
Games Lost
13.00
14.56
33.29
24.51

110
Table 3
Status.
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
N=69
N=4 9
(single)
(married)
Ability Utilization
20.62
4.70
20.06
4.55
Achievement
21.28
3.20
20.47
3.34
Activities
21.20
3.37
20.02
4.05
Advancement
14.84
5.53
14.35
4.36
Authority
18.20
3.60
18.18
3.37
Company Policies and
Practices
14.42
5.38
13.73
4.12
Compensation
13.04
5.62
12.12
5.64
Co-Workers
18.07
4.25
17.61
4.20
Creativity
21.49
3.03
21.00
3.23
Independence
20.72
3.04
19.20
3.26
Moral Values
21.77
2.47
20.84
3.65
Recognition
16.38
5.69
15.86
4.70
Responsibility
20.38
3.18
20.20
2.93
Security
17.16
4.76
15.86
5.37
Social Service
21.99
2.45
21.51
3.06
Social Status
18.07
4.20
17.31
3.45
Supervision-
Human Relations
15.55
5.95
15.06
5.15
Supervision-
Technical
15.58
5.07
15.61
4.74
Variety
20.13
4.17
19.57
3.33
Working Conditions
18.42
4.51
17.04
5.20
General Job Sat.
72.91
12.01
71.39
9.37
Physical Strain
39.04
9.96
42.35
10.04
Behavioral Strain
17.23
4.02
18.47
5.34
Cognitive Strain
10.38
3.45
11.24
4.20
Total Strain
66.67
15.48
72.06
15.43
Age
34.75
7.71
34.76
7.68
Years Coaching
9.71
6.66
11.02
6.79
Years/Head Coach
8.32
6.71
9.27
7.32
Income
28.52
15.56
24.94
12.17
Games Won
43.48
55.07
27.41
23.07
Games Lost
27.70
20.77
24.90
25.81

Ill
Table 4
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores By Marital
Status.
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
N=3
N=14
(divorced)
(significant other)
Ability Utilization
16.33
7.23
21.64
2.84
Achievement
21.67
2.89
20.79
2.97
Activities
22.67
5.52
21.71
2.47
Advancement
16.00
1.73
14.86
3.63
Authority
18.33
2.52
18.42
2.53
Company Policies and
Practices
10.33
5.51
12.86
4.40
Compensation
11.00
3.00
12.65
5.79
Co-Workers
18.00
2.00
18.57
4.57
Creativity
18.33
7.37
21.86
3.80
Independence
21.33
3.51
20.71
2.43
Moral Values
21.00
4.00
22.14
2.66
Recognition
14.33
7.23
15.71
4.79
Responsibility
18.00
5.29
20.64
2.68
Security
15.00
7.81
15.79
4.89
Social Service
21.61
2.89
21.71
2.30
Social Status
Supervision-
19.67
4.51
16.71
3.93
Human Relations
13.00
7.54
16.00
7.42
Supervision-
Technical
13.00
7.00
15.50
6.65
Variety
20.33
2.08
21.07
2.02
Working Conditions
19.00
4.00
18.86
3.72
General Job Sat.
70.67
9.29
73.00
8.21
Physical Strain
56.33
13.05
40.36
7.86
Behavioral Strain
24.67
10.41
16.79
3.11
Cognitive Strain
10.67
3.78
11.29
4.05
Total Strain
91.67
22.94
68.43
11.94
Age
39.00
4.36
32.93
4 . 18
Years Coaching
14.67
6.11
8.79
4.17
Years/Head Coach
12.00
6.09
6.35
4.29
Income
33.33
2.88
26.00
11.13
Games Won
30.33
34.59
43.00
38.41
Games Lost
29.00
26.21
31.71
31.45

112
Table 5
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores By
Educational Degree.
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
N=68
N=67
(undergraduate)
(graduate)
Ability Utilization
20.84
4.50
20.01
4.61
Achievement
21.46
3.27
20.42
3.10
Activities
21.22
3.21
20.49
3.90
Advancement
14.66
4.98
14.72
4.80
Authority
18.43
3.36
18.01
3.40
Company Policies and
Practices
14.21
5.34
13.63
4.35
Compensation
13.15
5.55
12.09
5.59
Co-Workers
18.66
4.33
17.24
3.98
Creativity
21.62
3.37
20.94
3.21
Independence
20.46
3.18
19.91
3.08
Moral Values
21.60
3.00
21.30
3.02
Recognition
16.01
5.83
16.13
4.62
Responsibility
20.69
3.07
19.91
3.05
Security
16.29
5.33
16.70
4.78
Social Service
22.18
2.59
21.37
2.70
Social Status
17.75
4.28
17.63
3.54
Supervision-
Human Relations
15.29
6.17
15.43
5.48
Supervision-
Technical
15.41
5.48
15.64
4.79
Variety
20.40
3.50
19.66
3.82
Working Conditions
18.04
4.39
17.9
5.03
General Job Sat.
73.57
10.02
71.04
11.15
Physical Strain
41.50
9.96
40.01
10.35
Behavioral Strain
18.18
4.82
17.42
4.66
Cognitive Strain
10.88
3.99
10.70
3.60
Total Strain
70.57
15.36
68.13
16.05
Age
35.21
8.00
34.10
6.-64
Years Coaching
10.57
7.00
9.82
5.99
Years/Head Coach
9.09
7.39
7.99
6.00
Income
27.24
14.36
26.90
13.41
Games Won
39.54
33.80
35.03
52.82
Games Lost
26.06
21.77
28.21
25.87

113
Table 6
1X1.
Mean
N=4 6
SD
Ability Utilization
20.83
4.59
Achievement
21.17
3.05
Activities
20.85
3.16
Advancement
14.09
5.31
Authority
18.15
3.78
Company Policies and
Practices
14.67
5.73
Compensation
12.07
5.89
Co-Workers
18.33
4.10
Creativity
21.65
2.92
Independence
20.06
3.30
Moral Values
21.57
3.46
Recognition
16.61
5.20
Responsibility
20.50
2.87
Security
15.96
5.37
Social Service
21.83
2.93
Social Status
18.17
4.18
Supervision-
Human Relations
16.76
5.78
Supervision-
Technical
16.50
5.29
Variety
20.15
3.50
Working Conditions
16.80
5.80
General Job Sat.
72.54
12.78
Physical Strain
40.46
9.87
Behavioral Strain
18.22
5.01
Cognitive Strain
10.52
2.96
Total Strain
69.20
14.90
Age
34.26
6.88
Years Coaching
10.33
6.48
Years/Head Coach
7.91
6.39
Income
28.98
16.91
Games Won
43.85
62.30
Games Lost
31.02
25.09

114
Table 7
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores For Division
(II) •
Mean
N=24
SD
Ability Utilization
21.13
4.70
Achievement
21.92
3.28
Activities
20.79
5.90
Advancement
14.00
3.71
Authority
19.00
2.50
Company Policies and
Practices
13.46
4.64
Compensation
11.42
6.31
Co-Workers
18.54
4.02
Creativity
21.58
3.97
Independence
20.88
3.11
Moral Values
22.00
2.98
Recognition
15.63
5.19
Responsibility
20.67
3.43
Security
14.25
5.38
Social Service
22.50
2.50
Social Status
17.92
3.46
Supervision-
Human Relations
13.58
5.59
Supervision-
Technical
14.21
5.12
Variety
21.13
3.66
Working Conditions
19.00
3.31
General Job Sat.
72.25
8.39
Physical Strain
43.92
10.89
Behavioral Strain
18.25
5.74
Cognitive Strain
11.58
4.97
Total Strain
73.79
17.13
Age
33.00
4.88
Years Coaching
9.04
4.40
Years/Head Coach
7.25
4.52
Income
25.00
18.15
Games Won
41.30
35.70
Games Lost
28.20
18.18

115
Table 8
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores For Division
(III) â– 
Mean
SD
N=65
Ability Utilization
19.90
4.49
Achievement
20.42
3.25
Activities
20.89
2.70
Advancement
15.37
4.90
Company Policies and
Practices
13.55
4.28
Compensation
13.46
4.98
Co-Workers
17.48
4.35
Creativity
20.91
3.30
Independence
20.02
3.03
Moral Value
21.17
2.66
Recognition
15.86
5.35
Responsibility
20.03
3.10
Security
17.71
4.38
Social Service
21.49
2.49
Social Status
17.26
3.89
Supervision-
Human Relations
15.03
5.79
Supervision-
Technical
15.32
4.96
Variety
19.54
3.75
Working Conditions
18.43
4.13
General Job Sat.
72.18
9.83
Physical Strain
39.82
9.98
Behavioral Strain
17.34
4.13
Cognitive Strain
10.69
3.84
Total Strain
67.85
15.64
Age
35.55
8.32
Years Coaching
10.54
7.17
Years/Head Coach
9.46
7.55
Income
26.48
8.81
Games Won
31.20
28.67
Games Lost
23.97
24.61

116
Table 9
rearson rroaucu momenr correrá
Aae.Years as Coach.Years as
Ltion
Head
coerri
Coach.
cient Matrix ro
Annual Income.
r
Behavioral Strain. Physical Strain,
Coanitive
Strain. Total
Strain, Games Won, Games
Lost,
and
General Job
_Satisfaction.
Aae Yrc Yrhc Inc
Beh
Phv
Coa
Tstr
Gwon
Glos
Gis
Aae .78 .76 .48
.09
.19
.10
.07
.18
.06
, 1 3
Yrc .89 .48
. 11
.16
.03
.03
.18
.01
,19
Yrhc .42
.11
.16
.04
.01
.21
.04
.16
Inc
.10
.03
.08
.07
.24
.05
.30
Beh
.56
.46
.77
.04
.16
,32
Phv
.47
. 93
.07
.17
.31
Coa
.69
.01
.29
,42
Tstr
.06
.23
.40
Gwon
.33
.01
Glos
^20.
Research Question 1
What is the relationship between job satisfaction
and age, years employed as a coach, years employed as a
physical, cognitive, and total strain, and success in
work role?
In order to respond to the first question, a multiple
regression analysis using the Statistical Analysis System
(SAS) General Linear Model (GLM) procedure was computed to
determine significant relationships among these factors. The

117
data from this analysis are shown in Table 10. It can be
seen that only one of the the ten variables made a
significant (p<.01), unique contribution to the variance in
job satisfaction. Income accounted for approximately 30%
(R2=.295) of the variance in job satisfaction. It can be
concluded that the coaches' annual incomes are significantly
related to their overall levels of job satisfaction, while
age, years as a coach, years as a head coach, perceived
behavioral, physical, cognitive, and total strain, and
success in work role do not contribute unique variance to
overall level of job satisfaction beyond whatever effects
they have that are correlated to annual income.
Research Question 2
What is the relationship between scores on each of
the 20 items on the job satisfaction scale and age,
years employed as a coach, years employed as a head
coach, annual income, perceived level of behavioral,
physical, cognitive , and total strain, and perceived
success in work role?
As shown in Table 11, annual income was significantly (p<.01)
related to the advancement, authority, compensation, and
social status components of job satisfaction. The respective
percentages of variance accounted for by income were
advancement 7%; authority 5%; compensation 19%; and social

118
status, 4%. Because annual income was significantly related
to only four of twenty components assessed, it can be
concluded that annual income is not related to most
individual components of job satisfaction.
Table 10
Multiple Regression Analysis of Female Intercollegiate
Athletic Coaches' General Job Satisfaction Score By Age.
Income.
Level
Of
V-*--*- t A VVi-V
Behavioral,
Physical.
Cognitive,
And Total
Strain,
Number Of
Games Won,
and. Number Of Games
Lost.
Source
R2
L>F
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Square
F Value
Pr>F
Model
.30
10
4474.56
447.46
5.20
.0001
Error
124
10676.74
86.10
Corrected
Total
134
1515.0
Source
DF
Tvoe III SS MS
F
P>F
Age
1
18.86
18.86
0.22
.6406
Yrs Emp
Coach
1
18.83
18.83
0.22
.6408
Yrs Emp
Head
Coach
1
7.04
7.04
0.08
.7754
Games Won
1
23.15
23.15
0.27
. 6050
Games Lost
1
29.15
29.15
0.34
.5617
Annual
Income
1
818.06
818.06
9.50
.0025**
Behav.
Str
1
206.66
206.66
2.40
.1239
Cognit.
Str
1
188.63
188.63
2.19
. 1414
Physical Str
1
209.68
209.68
2.44
. 1212
Total Str
1
212.80
212.80
2.47
.1185
**p< .01

119
Table 11
Summary Of Four.Regression Analyses For Items Qn Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor. Income.
E2 F for Modal F for Income Pr>F
Advancement
.26
4 .44
10.29
.0017**
Authority
. 15
2.25
7.63
.0066**
Compensat
.34
6.40
32.15
.0001**
Social Stat
.21
3.23
7.20
.0083**
**p<.01
As shown in Tables 12 through 15, of the four
measurements of strain, behavioral, physical, cognitive, and
total strain were significantly related to activity,
creativity, and variety components of job satisfaction at the
.01 level of significance. Collectively, the percentages of
variance accounted for by these three indices of strain were
activity 21%, creativity 16%, and variety 20%. Because only
9 of 80 relationships were statistically significant, it can
be concluded that strain is not related to the components of
job satisfaction.
No other predictors of the models (age, years as a
coach, years as a head coach, and success in work role) were
related to any of the 20 components of job satisfaction.

120
Table 12
Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor, Behavioral
Strain
R2 F For Model F for Beh Str Pr>F
Activity .15 2.19 10.75 .0014**
Variety .17 2.54 8.28 .0047**
**p< .01
Table 13
Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor. Physical
Strain.
R2 F for Model F for Phy Str Pr>F
Activity .15 2.19 10.89 .0013**
Variety .17 2.54 8.01 .0054**
**p< .01
Table 14
Summary Qf Three Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor, Cognitive
Strain.
R2
F for Model
F for Coa Str
Pr>F
Activity
.15
2.19
10.46
.0016**
Creativity
. 17
2.50
6.09
.0016**
Variety
. 17
2.54
7.73
.0063**
**p< .01

121
Table 15
Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor, Total
Strain.
R2 F for Model F for Income Pr>F
Activity .15 2.19 10.85 .0013**
Variety .17 2.54 8.11 .0052**
**p< .01
Research Question 3
What are the differences in job satisfaction on the
bases of marital status, level of sport coached, degree,
and type of sport coached?
In order to answer the third question, the SAS-GLM procedure
was used to determine significant differences or interactions
among the factors on the bases of marital status, type of
sport coached, level of sport coached, or coaches' degree in
regard to job satisfaction. As shown in Table 16, there were
no significant differences in job satisfaction on the bases
of these factors nor were there significant interaction
effects. Therefore, female intercollegiate athletic coaches'
job satisfaction does not vary as a function of these
factors.

122
Table 16
Analysis Qf Variance of Female Intercollegiate Athletic
Coaches' General Job Satisfaction Score By Marital Status.
Type Qf Sport Coached, Level Of Sport Coached, and Degree.
Sum of Mean
SOUPCC B2 DF Squares Square F Value Pr>F
Model .14
21
2116.59
100.79
.87
.0001
Error
113
13034.71
115.35
Corrected
Total
134
15151.30
Source DF Type III SS MS F Pr>F
MS
3
117.29
39.10
0.34
.7972
Type
1
4.25
4.25
0.04
.8482
Div
2
58.74
29.37
0.25
.7756
Deg
1
33.48
33.48
0.29
.5911
MS*Type
2
2.07
1.03
0.01
.9911
MS*Div
4
789.72
197.43
1.71
.1523
Type*Div
2
463.30
231.65
2.01
.1390
Type*Deg
1
99.29
99.29
0.86
.3555
Div*Deg
2
224.09
112.04
0.97
.3817
Research Question 4
What are the differences in scores on each of the
20 items on the job satisfaction scale on the bases of
marital status, level of sport coached, degree, and type
of sport coached?
In order to respond to this research question, the SAS-GLM
procedure was used to determine significant differences, or
significant interactions among, the 20 components of job
satisfaction assessed by the MSQ on the bases of marital
status, level of sport coached, type of sport coached, or

123
coaches' academic degree. It was found that there were no
significant differences nor any signficant interactions for
any of the analyses at the .01 level of significance.

CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION
During the past several years a dramatic transformation
in the structure of women's intercollegiate athletic programs
has taken place. With the social movement toward equal
opportunity and accompanying heightened sensitivity with
regard to sexual discrimination, there has been an overall
increase in the number of females attending colleges and
universities in this country and, concommitantly, an increase
in the number of females participating in college sports
programs. In contrast, however, there has been a dramatic
decline in the number of women occupying coaching positions
in female intercollegiate athletics and an equally dramatic
rise in the number of men assuming coaching positions in
female athletics. Until now researchers for the most part
have presented only descriptive findings which reflect the
severity of the situation and, in some cases, have provided
speculative explanations for the decline derived primarily
from coaches' personal perceptions of causes (e.g., the "male
network" system, poor working conditions, inequality,
discrimination, high levels of stress, or poor administrative
practices). However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence
to either support or refute the perceived causes for the
decline. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate
potential sources of variation in job satisfaction, or lack
of it, among female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
124

125
In order to learn more about job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches, the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the Strain Questionnaire
(SQ) were mailed to 300 female intercollegiate athletic
coaches employed at NCAA Division I, II, and III level
colleges and universities across the country. The findings
of this study are based on the responses of a final sample of
135 coaches from various parts of the country.
Generalizability Limitations
It could be argued that the generalizability of the
study is limited by the fact that the resultant sample was
comprised of only 135 (4%) of the general population (2,780)
of female intercollegiate athletic coaches in this country.
However, the risk of misrepresentation was reduced by the
random sampling procedure used to procure the resultant
sample.
A second possible limitation of the generalizabilty of
this study is related to the distribution of respondents from
the Division I, II, and III colleges and universities.
Because the division level of college or university was one
of the independent variables measured in the study, it was
considered important that the respondents closely represent
the distribution of the general population of female coaches
in all three divisions in order to obtain accurate results.

126
Unfortunately, the respondents were not as closely matched to
the general population of female coaches on the basis of
division level as they were to the various types of sports.
Given these factors, the resultant sample represents the
population of female coaches in the various types of sports,
but does not as well represent the three division levels of
sports programs.
Acosta and Carpenter (1988) reported that the average
ages of female intercollegiate athletic coaches among
Division I, II, and III colleges and universities were 38.2,
36.7, and 34.2 years, respectively. The mean ages of the
respondents in this study were slightly lower in Division I
and II and slightly higher in Division III. Overall,
however, age differences the groups representing the three
divisions were not considered large enough to limit the
generalizability of the results of this study.
Similarly, the average number of years that the
respondents had held their coaching positions closely
resembled the average number of years the general population
of female intercollegiate athletic coaches had held their
positions. Acosta and Carpenter (1988) reported that the
females coaches in Division I, II, and III level colleges and
universities had been employed as coaches for averages of
6.3, 6.8, and 11.7 years, respectively. Herein, the
respondents had held their coaching positions for averages of

127
9.10, 8.4, and 10.8 years, respectively. The average number
of years these women held their head coaching positions more
closely resembles the figures presented by Acosta and
Carpenter (1988). Because it is not known whether Acosta and
Carpenter (1988) were reporting the number of years the women
held coaching positions or the number of years they held
their head coaching positions, it cannot be determined
definitively whether the resultant sample is representative
of the general population with regard to tenure. However,
there does not appear to substantive difference between the
tenure averages to limit the generalizability of the results
of the study.
Due to the limited amount of available demographic data
about female intercollegiate athletic coaches, it is not
possible to determine whether the resultant sample is
representative of the general population of female
intercollegiate athletic coaches with regard to marital
status, academic degree, and annual income.
Several inherent methodological limitations associated
with survey research were presented in a previous section.
The first of these limitations was related to the possible
lack of response on the part of the potential participants.
It was believed that the participants, because of the nature
of their profession, would possibly not have ample time to
respond and/or, want to take time away from their schedules

128
to complete the survey. Fortunately, this was not the case.
The final return rate was 40% and, although it was lower than
the predicted return rate (60%), it is much higher than the
return rate generally expected (i.e., 20%) for survey
research (Bailey, 1982) .
A second potential methodological limitation was related
to history. It was believed that the coaches' perceived
levels of job satisfaction might be greatly influenced by
extraneous factors not directly associated with job
satisfaction (e.g., their win/loss record at the time they
completed the surveys). The findings of the study, however,
override this concern. There were no significant
relationships between win/loss records (i.e., success) and
job satisfaction.
A third possible methodological limitation was related
to the fact that the response categories of the written
questionnaires were structured and did not allow the
respondents to include additional comments. This limitation
was alleviated by including a section identified as
"additional comments" on the demographic portion of the
survey. Several respondents included personal comments which
would suggest that those coaches who wished to include
additional comments did so, thus diminishing the possibility
that the structure of the questionnaire would negatively
impact the results of the study.

129
Another methodological limitation was related to
testing. It was suggested that the subjects might feel the
questionnaires were too personal or that anonymity would not
be guaranteed and that these factors might effect the outcome
of the study. This methodological limitation can only be
addressed from the standpoint of the returned surveys. All
but a few of the questionnaires were completed fully, and
none of the respondents included comments that would suggest
that they were reticent about completing them.
A final methodological limitation was related to the
participants' personal interest in the problem of attrition.
More specifically, because of possible concern with the
problem of attrition, the potential existed that subjects
might overreact to the opportunity to express their
satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their jobs. Thus, they
might have tended to over select extreme categories (i.e.,
very satisfied or very dissatisfied). It does not appear
that this concern was actualized. The mean job satisfaction
score was 72.31 with a standard deviation of 10.63,
indicating moderate satisfaction and no apparent extreme
response pattern or bias.

130
Evaluation of Results
The results of this study do not appear to support
research which has suggested that women in traditionally male
occupations experienced relatively high levels of job
satisfaction (Meyer & Lee, 1978; O'Farrell & Harlen, 1982;
Schreiber, 1979). The mean job satisfaction score was 72.31
with a standard deviation of 10.63, indicating only moderate
satisfaction. Unfortunately, the Manual for the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire does not provide normative data
for women in nontraditional or male dominated occupations.
However, if female coaches are compared with women in
traditional occupations, they do not appear to be
significantly more satisfied and, in some instances, were
less satisfied. For example, the mean job satisfaction
scores for secretaries, stenographers and typists, teachers,
and supervisor nurses, were 77.6, 71.9, 82.. 1, and 75.4,
respectively. Based on the moderate level of general job
satisfaction among female coaches and their comparable levels
of satisfaction with women in traditional occupations, the
findings of this study do not support the notion that women
in nontraditional occupations are highly satisfied.
Substantial support exists for the presumed relationship
between job satisfaction and age (e.g.,Hoppock, 1960; Weaver,
1980). More specifically, it has been reported that job
satisfaction levels rise with increasing age. It can be

131
argued that the respondents in this study are in fact not
young, particularly when compared to the average individual
entering the labor force. In this case, the respondents
would, theoretically, be at the point in their careers where
their satisfaction would be expected to be increasing. The
findings of this study do not support the hypothesis that job
satisfaction increases with age, nor do they support previous
research findings of greater dissatisfaction among younger
workers (Aronowitz, 1973) or a significant relationship
between age and job satisfaction for women (Shott, Albright,
& Glennon, 1963). Here, age was not significantly related to
job satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic
coaches.
Researchers have consistently reported a strong
relationship between tenure and job satisfaction (Alderfer,
1967; Form & Geshwender, 1962; Hulin & Smith, 1965; Monie,
1967; Rachman & Kemp, 1964). Moreover, Form and Geshwender
(1962) reported that workers with ten or more years tenure
were significantly more satisfied than co-workers with less
tenure. The results of this study do not support these
previous findings. The respondents in this study had worked
in the coaching field for an average of 10.2 years. Among
them, job satisfaction was not related to tenure.
There is evidence to suggest that satisfaction among
women in male-dominated professions is inversely related to

132
perceived income problems (Moore, 1985) . The results of this
study offer limited support for this premise. There were
significant relationships between annual income and general
job satisfaction and with five of the twenty components of
job satisfaction (i.e., advancement, authority, compensation,
security, and social status) . The results also tend to
contradict the notion that males place greater emphasis on
economic rewards, while women most often cite support from
co-workers, job content, and socioemotional factors as the
most important determinants of job satisfaction (Andrisani,
1978; Blauner, 1964; Davis, 1967; Herzberg, et al., 1957;
Neil, & Cnizek, 1987) . Suggested in the results of this
study is that women (i.e., female coaches) do not place
inordinant value on social relationships; they value other
aspects of jobs as well (O'Farrell & Harlen, 1982).
Cassesse and Mayerber (1984) reported that female
coaches experienced high levels of strain which manifested
itself as "burnout" and job dissatisfaction. This would
suggest a significant negative relationship between strain
and job satisfaction. Although the results of this study
yielded significant relationships between the four indices of
strain (i.e., physical, behavioral, cognitive, and total
strain) and various components of job satisfaction (e.g.,
ability utilization, activity, creativity, social status, and
variety), these factors accounted for only a small amount of

133
the total variance in general job satisfaction. Therefore,
although strain was related to some components of job
satisfaction, it was not related to overall job satisfaction.
Until recently, the general concensus among researchers
who have examined the impact of role conflict and multiple
roles upon working women was that working women with
additional familial responsibilities were apt to experience
job dissatisfaction.(Coser, 1974; Goode, 1960; Slater,
1963). More recent findings, however, suggest a positive
association between the number of roles a woman occupies and
her psychological well-being and levels of satisfaction
(Crosby, 1984, Gove & Zeiss, 1987; Thoits, 1983; Verbrugge,
1982). The results of this study do not support either of
these positions. Married and divorced women occupying
multiple roles (e.g., wife, mother, and professional)
comprised 39% of the resultant sample, yet there were no
significant differences in level of job satisfaction on the
basis of marital status ( a reflection of life roles).
Therefore, it can be concluded that multiple roles or role
conflict are not differential determinants of job
satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
There is considerable disagreement as to the direction
of the relationship between levels of education and job
satisfaction. For example, Weaver (1980), Quinn and
Mandilovitch (1980), and Herzberg, et al. (1957) reported

134
that job satisfaction was positively related to level of
education. In contrast, however, Klein and Maher (1966) and
Vollmer and Kinney (1955) found a negative correlation
between job satisfaction and level of education. Srivastva,
et al. (1977) indicated that there was a relationship between
level of education and job satisfaction, but the direction of
the relationship depended upon unspecified variables. The
results of this study do not support either of these
positions because there were no significant relationships
between academic degree level and general job satisfaction or
the components of job satisfaction. The findings here may be
due to very little variance in the educational levels among
the coaches surveyed. All of the respondents had obtained
at least a baccalaureate degree, and 50% of them had obtained
graduate level degrees.
In general, the variables investigated in this study,
with the exception of income, were not the bases for
differences in job satisfaction among female intercollegiate
athletic coaches. Neither the other continuous variables
(i.e., age, tenure, level of strain, and success) nor the
categorical variables (i.e., marital status, level of degree,
collegiate division level, and type of sport coached)
examined yielded empirical data upon which to explain
variations in female athletic coaches' job satisfaction.

135
Implications and Recommendations
There are several implications associated with the
findings of this study relative to the theory of work
adjustment, the need for follow-up research, and roles of
counselors in relation to female intercollegiate athletic
head coaches.
According to Dawis and Lofquist (1984), tenure is a
function of both satisfaction and satisfactoriness.
Satisfaction represents the individual worker's self¬
appraisal of the extent to which the work environment
fulfills her/his needs. On the other hand, satisfactoriness
is derived from sources other than the individual worker's
self-appraisal of fulfillment of the requirements of the work
environment (e.g., supervisor perceptions). Thus a high job
turnover rate among female intercollegiate athletic head
coaches would theoretically be related to both job
satisfaction and/or satisfactoriness. Evident from the data
derived in this study is that female coaches are generally
satisfied with their jobs. Therefore, further examination of
their levels of satisfactoriness is clearly warranted to
investigate it as a possible factor in job satisfaction, and
subsequently whether the theory of work adjustment is fully
applicable to female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
The variables investigated in this study generally were
not found to be bases for job satisfaction variation among

136
female intercollegiate athletic head coaches. Therefore,
examination of other variables potentially influential in
their job satisfaction should be undertaken. For example, it
has been noted that female coaches experience high levels of
stress associated with the demands and pressures of their
jobs, which for many results in "burnout" and job
dissatisfaction (Cassesse & Mayerber, 1984). The results of
this study did not support this premise; perhaps the female
coaches surveyed were especially "stress-resistant" or
possessed certain psychological traits and characteristics
that allowed them to manage more effectively and positively
stressors and pressures associated with collegiate coaching.
Therefore, the relationships between job satisfaction and
psychodynamic characteristics of female intercollegiate
athletic coaches need to be defined more clearly through
future research.
In a similar vein, it is also possible that the female
coaches' successes as former athletes may be related to their
levels of job satisfaction. Coaches who were highly
successful athletes are likely to have aquired many of the
desired characteristics associated with coaching (e.g., self-
confidence, self-assuredness, competitive nature, or sense of
achievement). Therefore, relationships between job
satisfaction and success as a former athlete also should be
examined through further research.

137
It has been argued that former female coaches never
acquired the necessary knowledge, skills, or values to
fulfill successfully their coaching roles (Hart, Hasbrook, &
Mathes, 1986). Although this study found no significant
differences in job satisfaction on the basis of level of
degree, the nature of academic preparation per se or the
extent of the training related to coaching the female coaches
received prior to entering the coaching field (i.e.,
assistant coaching positions, coaching internships, business
or management training) were not examined. Investigation of
the relationship between job satisfaction and related
training and academic preparation is needed to allow further
comment on this argument.
Another area in which follow-up research is indicated is
related to mentoring and role modeling. It is conceivable
that former coaches were not exposed to reference groups of
female coaches who could serve as role models nor to peer
groups of future coaches. Consequently, they may have been
prevented from aquiring necessary values, ideals, and support
systems which would have better prepared them for their roles
as head coaches. Therefore, further investigation of the
possible relationship between role modeling and mentoring and
job satisfaction among female intercollegiate coaches is
warranted.

138
Much has been written about the high rate of attrition
among female intercollegiate athletic coaches, and for the
most part the focus has been on factors causing them to
voluntarily withdraw from their positions. Suggested in the
findings of this study is that perhaps the dramatic decline
in the number of female coaches is attributable to factors
other than job dissatisfaction. For example, discriminatory
hiring practices favoring males, at least in part, may
account for the reduction in the number of female coaches and
the concommitant increase in the number of males assuming
head coaching positions in women's sports programs. However,
currently there is no empirical evidence to support this
(speculative) contention. Therefore, factors other than job
satisfaction should be investigated in regard to attrition.
For example, academic and job related requirements for head
coaching positions should be more closely examined to
determine whether sex-bias exists. It is conceivable that
female coaches, because of their limited opportunity to
acquire job-related experiences (e.g., assistant coaching,
athletic training, and athletic management positions), are at
a distinct disadvantage when applying for head coaching
positions, especially when males, in general, are afforded
numerous opportunities to gain job-related experience during
their college years. In addition, further examination into
the conditions for termination as head coach might also prove

139
beneficial. This might best be accomplished by interviewing
former female coaches. Their responses may provide some
insight as to whether sex-bias and discriminatory practices
exist in intercollegiate athletics.
The knowledge gained from this study serves to enhance
efforts of counselors and consultants who have cause to work
with female intercollegiate athletic coaches. Perhaps most
important is the fact that counselors until now have known
very little about the job satisfaction characteristics of
female coaches. Based on the results of this study, it seems
evident that female coaches are not experiencing high levels
of job dissatisfaction, and therefore are not in need of
assistance in this area.
In addition, counselors and consultants providing
individual and group counseling services to female athletic
coaches can benefit from knowing that there are not
significant differences among female coaches on the bases of
marital status, educational level, type of sport coached, or
level of collegiate division. Counseling services therefore
should not be differentiated on these bases. For example,
relatively heterogenous groups of female coaches could be
served effectively in group interventions.
Counselors and consultants also should take into
consideration the fact that strain does impact upon a few
components of job satisfaction, although the variances were

140
not great enough to be considered significantly related to
general job satisfaction. Counselors and consultants may
better serve female intercollegiate athletic coaches by
investigating whether strain impacts upon job satisfaction
for the particular female coaches served.
Summary of Results
The female coaches in this study appear to be
(moderately) satisfied with their jobs on the bases of age,
income, educational level, tenure, marital status, type of
sport coached, division of collegiate sport, success in the
work role, and strain. Noteworthy is the fact that only
income was significantly related to job satisfaction in
general and there were only minor variances in components of
job satisfaction on the basis of income (i.e., advancement,
authority, compensation, and social status). In addition,
behavioral, physical, cognitive, and total strain accounted
for minor variances in activity, creativity, and variety.
Indicated in the results of this study is the need for
further examination of job satisfaction and attrition. By
concentrating on alternative variables relative to job
satisfaction and satisfactoriness, it is possible that a
better understanding of the problem of attrition will evolve.
Perhaps it would be beneficial to use specific instruments
which would address alternative variables and be geared more

141
toward the coaching profession. This is based on the
personal commments provided by the coaches in this study.
Some respondents indicated that they had concerns and
complaints relative to their jobs, but that the MSQ didn't
specifically address them (e.g., travel away from home and
family, extended working hours, male-female conflicts, or
sexual discrimination with regard to facilities and
equipment) It is also possible, again based on personal
comments provided by the coaches surveyed, that the SQ did
not address the specific stressors relative to their personal
situations. It might also be beneficial to replicate this
study, at a .05 level of significance .It is conceivable
that in an effort to reduce the likelihood of a Type I error,
the a.01 level of significance used in this study was
possibly too conservative, thus ruling out other possible
significant relationships.
Without further investigation, resolution of the problem
of attrition is not likely to occur. Hence, continuance of
the current trend of high turnover among female
intercollegiate athletic coaches will inevitably result in a
sex-segregated athletic structure which will seriously impact
not only the profession, but thousands of female athlete
participants as well.

APPENDIX A
INTRODUCTORY LETTER
March 1, 1989
Dear Coach,
I am a doctoral student in the Counselor Education
Department of the University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida. I am conducting a study of job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
There has been a dramatic decline in the number of
female intercollegiate coaches in women's sports during the
past ten years. Although inferences can drawn from this
trend about their job satisfaction, no empirical basis for
such inferences exists, and it is possible that some of these
inferences are inappropriate. The purpose of this study,
therefore, is to assess levels of job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate coaches.
I realize that you have a very demanding and time
consuming work schedule. However, your participation is
critical to the outcomes of the study. You are one of a
small sample selected by a scientific sampling procedure to
represent the larger population of all female intercollegiate
coaches. Therefore, you are actually answering for many
other coaches who are not able to participate.
Participation in the study involves the completion of
the enclosed questionnaires and returning your responses to
me in the self-addressed, stamped envelope provided by April
1, 1989. ALL RESPONSES WILL BE STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL.
IN NO WAY WILL YOU BE SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIED IN THE
FINDINGS OF THIS IMPORTANT STUDY.
As much as I would like to provide you with a reward for
taking part in this study, I am afraid the most I can offer
at this time is my deepest gratitude and a copy of the
results of the study to those of you who are interested. If
you have any questions or comments, please feel free to
contact me.
Thank you very much for your cooperation.
Sincerely,
Susan L. Hambleton, Ed.S.
1215 Norman Hall
Counselor Education Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
(904) 378-3093
142

APPENDIX B
DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY
Please write your responses directly on this form.
1. Primary Sport Coached (current)
2. Level of Sport Coached (Division I, II, or III)
3. Age
4. Race
5. What is your marital status?
single married divorced widowed
living with "significant other"
6. Undergraduate/Graduate Academic Major
7. What is your Annual Income? (include institutional
salary plus estimated income derived from related
extracurricular benefits [e.g., transportation provisions,
off-season sports clinics,
speaking engagements, etc.] to the nearest $5,000.00)
8. Years Employed as a Coach
9. Years Employed as a Head Coach
10. How many games have you won during the past three (3)
years?
11. How many games have you lost during the past three (3)
years?
12.What is the most dissatisfying aspect of your
job ?
13.Is there anything that you would like to add?(Please use
back of this form)
143

APPENDIX C
MINNESOTA SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE
minnesofa satisfaction questionnaire
Vocational Psychology Research
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
Copyright 1977
144

145
minnesota satisfaction questionnaire
The purpose of this questionnaire is to give you a chance to tell how you fool about your present job,
what things you are satisfied with and what things you are not satisfied with.
On the basis of your answers and those of people like you, we hope to get a better understanding of the
things people like and dislike about their jobs.
On the following pages you will find statements about your present job.
• Read each statement carefully.
* Decide how satisfied you feel about the aspect of your job described by the statement.
Keeping the statement in mind:
— if you feel that your job gives you more than you expected, check the box under "Very Sat."
(Very Satisfied);
— if you feel that your job gives you what you expected, check the box under "Sat." (Satisfied);
— if you cannot make up your mind whether or not the job gives you what you expected, check
the box under "N" (Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied);
— If you feel that your job gives you less than you expected, check the box under "Dissat."
(Dissatisfied);
— if you feel that your job gives you much less than you expected, check the box under "Very
Dissat." (Very Dissatisfied).
* Remember: Keep the statement in mind when deciding how satisfied you feel about that aspect of
your job.
* Do this for all statements. Please answer every item.
Be frank and hones''. Give a true picture of your feelings about your present job.

146
Confidential
Your answers to the questions and ail other information you qive us will be held in strictest confidence.
Name —Today's Date 19.
Print
1. Check one: Hj Male Female
2. When were you born? 19
3. Circle the number of years of schooling you completed:
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Grade School High School College Graduate or
Professional School
4. What is your present job called?
5. What do you do on your present job? _
6.
How long have, you been on your present job?
years
months
7. What would you call your occupation# your usual line of work?
8. How long have you been in this line of work?.
years
¿months

147
Ask yourself: How satisfied am I with this aspect of my job?
Very Sat. means I am very satisfied with this aspect of my job.
Sat. means I am satisfied with this aspect of my job.
N means I can't decide whether I am satisfied or not with this aspect of my job.
Dissat. means I am dissatisfied with this aspect of my job.
Very Dissat. means I am very dissatisfied with this aspect of my /ob.
On my present job, this is how 1 feel about . . .
Vtry
Ohio».
Dniat.
N
Sat.
V#ry
Sot.
1. The chance to be of service to others.
—• —»
.
—
—
2. The chance to try out some of my own ideas.
— 4
3. Being able to do the job without feeling it is morally wrong.
,
.
—
i ¡
— -mé
—
4. The chance to work by myseif.
_
I
—:
- —
5. The variety in my work.
H
! I
: !
i
6. The chance to have other workers look to me for direction.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
i !
7. The chance to do the kind of work that 1 do best.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
; I
8. The social position in the community that goes with the job.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
g
.
9. The policies and practices toward employees of this company.
â–¡
Q
â–¡
p¡
â–¡
•
10. The way my supervisor and 1 understand each other.
â–¡
:—i
J
â–¡
4
11. My job security. •
â–¡
i i
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
12. The amount of pay for the work 1 do.
j
LJ
1 j
13. The working conditions (heating, lighting, ventilation, etc.) on this job.
i
- i
L_
i
14. The opportunities for advancement on this job.
¡
•
J
r* j
L J
15. The technical "know-how" of my supervisor.
â–¡
n
r-'
i
â–¡
¿_¡
16. The spirit of cooperation among my co-workers.
• .
I]
â–¡
â–¡
r~i
L—i
17. The chance to be responsible for planning my work.
— ^
G
" 1
LJ
18. The way 1 am noticed when 1 do a good job.
G
I—:
â–¡
U
.. i
19. Being able to see the results of the work 1 do.
n
LJ
â–¡
â–¡
r-»
L-j
G
20. The chance to be active much of the time.
G"*
LJ
i i
G
â–¡
— t
21. The chance to be of service to people.
â–¡
â–¡
! j
â–¡
â–¡
22. The chance to do new and original things on my own.
â–¡
c
1
i ;
â–¡
23. Being able to do things that don't go against my religious beliefs.
â–¡
â–¡
_]
!—i
•"”1
24. The chance to work alone on the job.
â–¡
â–¡
r-i
i 1
â–¡
â–¡
25. The chance to do different things from time to time.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
¡ !
V#rp
Oiuot.
Oiuot.
N
Sot.
V#ry
Sot.

148
Ask yourself: How satisfied am / with this aspect of my ¡ob?
Very Sat. means I am very satisfied with this aspect of my job.
Serf, means I am satisfied with this aspect of my job.
N means I can t decide whether I am satisfied or not with this aspect of my job.
Dissert• means I am dissatisfied with this aspect of my job.
Very Dissat. means / am very dissatisfied with this aspect of my job.
On my present job, this is how 1 feei about . . .
Very
Diiiot.
Oisiai.
N
Sot.
Very
Sat.
26. The chance to tell other workers how to do things.
â–¡
.
! i
*
â–¡
27. The chance to do work thaf is well suited to my abilities.
â–¡
!_J
i |
-
__
28. The chance to be "somebody" in the community.
â–¡
—¡
â–¡
i_J
—
29. Company policies and the way in which they are administered.
â–¡
—
i 1
[j
1
30. The way my boss handles his/her employees.
â–¡
â–¡
LJ
â–¡
31. The way my job provides for a secure future.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
32. The chance to make as much money as my friends.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
33. The physical surroundings where 1 work.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
34. The chances of getting ahead on this job.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
35. The competence of my supervisor in making decisions.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
36. The chance to develop close friendships with my co-workers.
r—•
u
L-l
i—"!
LJ
r—j
• :
37. The chance to make decisions on my own.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
LJ
â–¡
38. The way 1 get full credit for the work 1 do.
r—|
LJ
1
â–¡
â–¡
39. Being able to take pride in a job well done.
â–¡
n
â–¡
1 i
40. Being able to do something much of the time.
â–¡
L-J
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
41. The chance to help people.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
42. The chance to try something different.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
43. Being able to do things that don't go against my conscience.
r-i
* ^
i
I—t
—1
44. The chance to be alone on the job.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
! j
45. The routine in my work.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
46. The chance to supervise other people.
â–¡
—
1
;
47. The chance to make use of my best abilities.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
-J
48. The chance to "rub elbows" with important people.
â–¡
â–¡
Q
49. The way employees are informed about company policies.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
50. The way my boss backs up his/her employees (with top management).
â–¡
D
i
â–¡
Very
Oiuot.
Diuot.
N
Sot.
Very
Sat.

149
Ask yourself: How satisfied am I with this aspect of my job?
Very Sat. means I am very satisfied with this aspect of my job.
Sat. means I am satisfied with this aspect of my job.
N means I can't decide whether I am satisfied or not with this aspect of my job.
Dissert, means I am dissatisfied with this aspect of my job.
Very Dissert, means I am very dissatisfied with this aspect of my job.
On my present job, this is how 1 feel about . . .
V*rr
Diuot.
OilMt.
N
Sot.
Vtry
Sat.
51. The way my ¡ob provides for steady employment.
â–¡
n
â–¡
C
52. How my pay compares with that for similar jobs in other companies.
â–¡
â–¡
c
53. The pleasantness of the working conditions.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
c
G
54. The way promotions are given out on this job.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
—
55. The way my boss delegates work to others.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
56. The friendliness of my co-workers.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
c
â–¡
57. The chance to be responsible for the work of others.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
a
58. The recognition 1 get for the work 1 do.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
a
59. Being able to do something worthwhile.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
60. Being able to stay busy.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
C
a
61. The chance to do things for other people.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
H
L_l
—
62. The chance to develop new and better ways to do the job.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
G
G
63. The chance to do things that don't harm other people.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
r-“¡
uJ
â–¡
64. The chance to work independently of others.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
G
—J
65. The chance to do something different every day.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
“I
66. The chance to tell people what to do.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
G
â–¡
67. The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities.
â–¡
â–  â–¡
â–¡
G
G
68. The chance to be important in the eyes of others.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
a
G
69. The way company policies are put into practice.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
a
a
70. The way my boss takes care of the complaints of his/her employees.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
a
H
71. How steady my job is.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
G
72. My pay and the amount of work 1 do.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
a
â–¡
73. The physical working conditions of the job.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
a
a
74. The chances for advancement on this job.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
a
â–¡
75. The way my boss provides help on hard problems.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
G
G
Vwv
Diuot.
Vory
N Sot. Sol.
Diuot.

150
Ask yoursolf: How satisfiod am I with this aspoct of my job?
Vary Sat. moans I am vory satisfiod with this aspoct of my job.
Sat. moans I am satisfiod with this aspoct of my job.
N moans I can't docido whothor I am satisfiod or not with this aspoct of my job.
Dlssat. moans I am dissatisfiod with this aspoct of my job.
Vary Dlssat. moans I am vory dissatisfiod with this aspoct of my job.
On my prosaist job, this Is how I fool about . . .
76. The way my co-workers are easy to make friends with.
77. The freedom to use my own judgment.
78. The way they usually tell me when I do my job well.
79. The chance to do my best at all times.
80. The chance to be "on the go" all the time.
81. The chance ta be of some small service to other people.
82. The chance ta try my own methods of doing the job.
83. The chance to do the job without feeling I am cheating anyone.
84. The chance to work away from others.
83. The chance ta do many different things on the job.
86. The chance to tell others what to do.
87. The chance to make use of my abilities and skills.
88. The chance to have a definite place in the community.
89. The way the company treats its employees.
90. The personal relationship between my boss and his/her employees.
91. The way layoffs and transfers are avoided in my job.
92. How my pay compares with that of other workers.
93. The working conditions.
94. My chances for advancement.
93. The way my boss trains his/her employees.
96. The way my co-workers get along with each other.
97. The responsibility of my job.
98. The praise I get for doing a good job.
99. The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job.
100. Being able to keep busy all the time.
v.f»
Dina».
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
Vary
Dina».
Oiuat.
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
N
Z
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
â–¡
N

APPENDIX D
STRAIN QUESTIONNAIRE
•luu r«M 01* dallwine (Iff « circle the letter that mi cloaely cirrtioMf ta im edttn in tu» Mir
»ce« you Nava U04^' arc ad ar delt each ad the ItaM llated.
4 • Mt at ail I • I ar 1 dare C a 1 ar 4 day* 1 ■ I or t dart I • Everyday
1. hackacXaa
lie
0
4
20.
aoant aere tlm alone
A •
C
9
i
2. Macla oaranu
4 i e
0
1
30.
Irrltaolllty
A 1
C
9
i
I. ruanau ar tdnftfne In My
4 1 c
0
1
31.
(mulalve Meeior
A •
e
9
i
4. haavinaaa In aran ar la«a
4 1 c
0
1
32.
aMlIy a tart lad
A I
c
9
i
5. numi -In My parti
4 i e
9
1
33.
atutterintzother apaach
4. canaa Maclaa
4 s e
0
I
dyedluanalee
A 1
c
9
i
7. pain in nacl
4 1 c
0
1
34.
InaaMla
A •
e
9
i
1. naojaaa ar treat atoanen
4 s e
0
â– 
33.
fnaolllty ta ait acltl
A 1
e
9
i
0. diarrhea ar IndfcMtdon
9
1
3*.
•■•atne
A 1
e
9
c
10. ti«nt itMacn
4 i e
9
(
37.
uaa ad recreational druea
A 1
e
9
e
11. laaa af ar'aaceeaive aooctite
4 1 c
9
1
34.
uae ad preacription druea
A |
e
9
i
12. pain In heart ar ooaac
4 1 c
9
1
30.
uaa ad atconei
A 1
c
9
i
12. martnaaa ad preach
4 s e
9
1
40.
accident pronanea a
A 1
c
9
t
14. daintnaaa. dlcxlnaaa
4 i e
9
1
41.
Pal laya the uorid ia
13. reciñe heart
4 s e
9
1
•eeinat you
A •
e
9
c
14. lipnt haadaohaaa
4 4 c
9
(
42.
dMline out ad control
A 1
c
9
e
N
7
•
1
3
4 i e
0
1
43.
urpa te cry or nri
IS. hat ar celd toalla
4 4 c
9
(
•nay and hide
A 1
c
9
t
10. Ium in threat
4 1 c
9
1
44.
decline ad irreality
A 1
c
9
a
29. arnait ad threat and Much
4 s c
9
1
43.
decline that you are no eood
A f
c
9
a
21. taech ar’ndine
4 s e
9
f
4*.
InMillty ta concentrate
A I
c
9
f
22. tramline ar narvoue ttea
4 « e
9
1
47.
ni «maree
A 1
c
9
(
23. Mating
4 s e
9
(
44.
thint tninea can't eat
24. atoeety harM
4 4 c
9
1
any «aria
A 1
c
0
E
23. Itenlnp
4 1 c
9
1
24. cold ar aam hanaa
4 s c
0
1
27. >requant naad te urinate
4 4 C
0
1
28. pre-nanatrual tana tan ar
aiaaad eyataa
4 4 e
9
1
Caorf'*ri«0 1943 ar t. Cra>« itraovre.
151

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153
Bailey, K. D. (1982). Methods of social research. New
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Susan Leigh Hambleton was born on September 12, 1951, in
Detroit, Michigan. She is the daughter of Fred and June
Hambleton and the sister of Judy and the late Fred Hambleton.
Susan received her Bachelor of Science degree in
sociology and psychology from Central Michigan University,
Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, in 1973. Ms. Hambleton was employed
by the State of Michigan as an Assistant County Juvenile
Officer from 1973 to 1980. During this time she provided
both individual and family counseling to adolescent offenders
and their families. In 1980 she moved to Ocala, Florida,
where she taught secondary education for the Marion County
School District for one year.
In 1981, Susan moved to Gainesville, Florida, where she
began her graduate studies at the University of Florida. In
1983 she completed her Specialist in Education degree. While
working toward her Ed.S., she held a variety of counseling
positions with the University of Florida Athletic Department,
Student Health Service, and Santa Fe Community Community
College She also served as a teaching assistant for the
Counselor Education Department and briefly supervised a grant
program which was designed to provide vocational and career
counseling to incarcerated adult females at the Alachua
County Department of Corrections in Gainesville, Florida.
164

165
Susan began working in her current position as a Health
Educator for the University of Florida Student Health Service
in 1984. In this position, she has led numerous health and
counseling-related workshops and seminars on nutrition,
stress management, eating disorders, women in management,
substance abuse, and wellness.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
Loesch, Chairman
Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
o v can J
Jan^.t Larsen
Processor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Phyllis Meek
Associate Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Paula Welch
Professor of
Exercise and Sport Sciences

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1989
Cí'tí-ctfí S'-> -—
Dean, College of Education^—-''
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 6777



138
Much has been written about the high rate of attrition
among female intercollegiate athletic coaches, and for the
most part the focus has been on factors causing them to
voluntarily withdraw from their positions. Suggested in the
findings of this study is that perhaps the dramatic decline
in the number of female coaches is attributable to factors
other than job dissatisfaction. For example, discriminatory
hiring practices favoring males, at least in part, may
account for the reduction in the number of female coaches and
the concommitant increase in the number of males assuming
head coaching positions in women's sports programs. However,
currently there is no empirical evidence to support this
(speculative) contention. Therefore, factors other than job
satisfaction should be investigated in regard to attrition.
For example, academic and job related requirements for head
coaching positions should be more closely examined to
determine whether sex-bias exists. It is conceivable that
female coaches, because of their limited opportunity to
acquire job-related experiences (e.g., assistant coaching,
athletic training, and athletic management positions), are at
a distinct disadvantage when applying for head coaching
positions, especially when males, in general, are afforded
numerous opportunities to gain job-related experience during
their college years. In addition, further examination into
the conditions for termination as head coach might also prove


CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION
During the past several years a dramatic transformation
in the structure of women's intercollegiate athletic programs
has taken place. With the social movement toward equal
opportunity and accompanying heightened sensitivity with
regard to sexual discrimination, there has been an overall
increase in the number of females attending colleges and
universities in this country and, concommitantly, an increase
in the number of females participating in college sports
programs. In contrast, however, there has been a dramatic
decline in the number of women occupying coaching positions
in female intercollegiate athletics and an equally dramatic
rise in the number of men assuming coaching positions in
female athletics. Until now researchers for the most part
have presented only descriptive findings which reflect the
severity of the situation and, in some cases, have provided
speculative explanations for the decline derived primarily
from coaches' personal perceptions of causes (e.g., the "male
network" system, poor working conditions, inequality,
discrimination, high levels of stress, or poor administrative
practices). However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence
to either support or refute the perceived causes for the
decline. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate
potential sources of variation in job satisfaction, or lack
of it, among female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
124


40
women in the coaching profession. Both groups indicated that
the success of the "old boys club" network acted as a
fundamental barrier to women.
Professions share many characteristics of communities.
They tend toward homogeneity and are characterized by shared
norms and attitudes. Interaction in professions is
characterized by a high degree of informality, much of it
within an exclusive, club-like context (Epstein, 1971).
Implied is a certain degree of cohesiveness based upon a
solidarity that evolves from gender. Those who bear certain
overt characteristics (e.g., being black, Jewish, or female)
are at an immediate disadvantage in such situations (Hughes,
1973). Similar to fraternal societies, the exclusive or
dominant group depends upon "common background, continual
association and affinity of interest" for its continuance
(Epstein, 1970a). Traditionally, women and other low-status
groups have been excluded from such fraternal associations
(Kaufman, 1984).
The "old boys club" network operates primarily (but not
exclusively) on an informal level within professional
structures. Men in professional structures have,
figuratively grown up together; they have played, learned,
and worked together. Consequently, they share a "common
understanding" about rules and styles of competing,
bartering, and succeeding that exist within occupational


42
the sponsor is apt to be a male, a female's advancement may
be inhibited for several reasons. Among them is the fact
that a man cannot easily identify a woman as someone who
might be his successor. He is inclined to prefer another man
in the belief that a man has more commitment to the
profession than a woman. A second factor that inhibits a
female's advancement is her other role-partners (e.g.,
husband, father, or child) who may be jealous and suspicious
of her loyalty to the sponsor and her dependence on him.
Likewise, the sponsor's wife may also resent the intimacy and
time spent between the sponsor and his female protege, and
object to it (Epstein, 1971).
Another factor related to a woman's restricted
advancement in professions stems from the lack of support
from the collegial group. A group will not favor an
unsuitable member who is likely to weaken its intimacy and
solidarity. As a result, group members may exert pressure on
the sponsor to pick the protege with whom they will be most
comfortable (Epstein, 1971) A male sponsor typically selects
a protege he feels will ease the transition to retirement;
give him a sense of continuity in his work; and give some
assurance that his protege will build on his work. Men often
consider it unwise to depend on women in such situations
(Epstein, 1971). A male sponsor may feel a woman is
financially less dependent on a career position than a man


73
structural in nature. According to traditional thought,
women and men, as a consequence of their sex-role
socializations, have different values and needs related to
work and jobs. Suggested in several studies was that women,
overall, require different rewards from work than men. These
differences may account for differences in levels of job
satisfaction (O'Leary, 1977). According to Gold (1971),
males placed greater emphasis on economic rewards, management
of others, recognition, and prestige. Women, however, most
often cited support from co-workers, job content, and
socioemotional factors as important determinants of job
satisfaction (Andrisani, 1978). Correspondingly, several
researchers have found that women perceive their
relationships with co-workers as a primary source of job
satisfaction (Blauner, 1964; Davis, 1967; Herzberg et al.,
1957). Others have found that women place no greater value
on social relationships than do men, and that both value
other aspects of the job more highly (O'Farrell & Harlen,
1982) .
Hulin and Smith (1964) found that female workers were,
in general, less satisfied than male workers. Their
explanation for differences in levels of satisfaction between
the two groups, unlike the previously cited studies, focused
on structural factors (and not sex-role socialization
factors). For example, they concluded it was not gender per


95
premise that female coaches, with a few exceptions, were once
collegiate athletic participants. Accordingly, the
psychological characteristics which may be considered
applicable to female coaches are high need for achievement,
autonomy, and dominance (Fisher, 197 6) Taking this
application a step further, researchers also have examined
the psychological characteristics of individual (player)
versus team sport (players) coaches. Individual competitors
(e.g., gymnasts, swimmers, divers, rider, fencers, canoeists,
and tracksters) were reported to be dominant, aggressive,
venturesome, self-sufficient, and experimental. In contrast,
team sport participants were reported to be tough-minded and
shrewd-worldly wise. When both groups were combined as a
single sample without regard to individual or team sport
distinctions, the most significant psychological descriptors
were cool-reserved, bright, emotionally stable, self-
opinionated, venturesome, and tough-minded (Fisher, 1976).
Based on the premise that female intercollegiate coaches
display characteristics similar to female collegiate athletes
and that individual sport participants differ from team sport
participants, it is reasonable to infer that female coaches
of individual sports have distinct psychological
characteristics from female coaches of team sports.
Currently, there are approximately 670 Division I, II,
and III level colleges and universities in the NCAA and


75
According to Andrisani (1978), levels of job satisfaction
among working women decreased because they were less willing
to accept lower status in the labor market. Increasingly,
women began to reevaluate the inequality and discrimination
faced in the labor force. Consequently, their levels of
dissatisfaction rose with their perception of inequity in the
labor force.
Segmented labor market theories hold that occupations
are structured, defined, and rewarded differently for women
than for men, as well as for other minority group members,
across the labor force (Bonacich, 1972; Doeringer & Piore,
1971). Opportunities for entry into the labor force,
training on the job, opportunity to utilize skills, and
access to full-time positions with high economic rewards are
not available to women in the same proportion as they are to
men (Treiman & Hartman, 1981). Also, women in predominantly
male occupations, have high turnover rates, are offered more
part-time positions, and have greater rates of movement
within and out of the labor market (Blau & Jusenius, 1976) .
Women workers, in general, occupy lower level occupations
where their opportunities for advancement and challenge are
limited (Blau, 1977). Suggested in these studies is that
women's lower levels of job satisfaction may be related to
the fact they they are afforded so few opportunities for
advancement (Moore, 1985).


18
In general, the advantages of mailed questionnaire
survey research outweigh the disadvantages. The widespread
use of this methodology in research in the counseling
professions attests to this contention. Thus, mailed
questionnaire survey research is an acceptable approach in
general. In particular, it is an approach well-suited to the
purposes of this study.
Research Questions
Evident in the professional literature is that job
satisfaction varies as a function of many factors, including
those related to the individual, the work setting, and the
interactions between them. For persons in many job roles
these relationships have been explored and clarified.
However, such is not the case for female intercollegiate
athletic coaches; indeed, extremely little is known about
their job satisfaction or the factors associated with
variations in it. Therefore, the major research questions to
be addressed in this study are:
1. What is the relationship between general job
satisfaction score and age, years employed as a coach, years
employed as a head coach, annual income, perceived level of
physical, behavioral, cognitive and total strain, and success
in work role?
2. What is the relationship between scores on each of
the 20 items on the job satisfaction scale and age, years
employed as a coach, years employed as a head coach, annual
income, perceived level of physical, behavioral, cognitive,
and total strain, and success in work role?


65
Studies in which the relationship between length of
employment (i.e., tenure) and job satisfaction was examined
yielded more consistent findings. Srivastva et al., (1977)
reviewed eleven studies which related tenure to job
satisfaction in a variety of U.S. and Indian populations.
Five of these studies were based on populations of educators
(superintendents and teachers); other populations studied
included blue-collar workers, clerical workers, management
consultants, and nurses. They found that Indian populations
consistently reported a positive relationship between length
of employment and job satisfaction. For the educators,
however, length of employment was not related to job
satisfaction. They attributed these contradictory findings
to the possibility that moderating variables may be
operating. For example, the results may be due to the nature
of the job, span of employment or populations studied; length
of employment may be more closely related to age and job
satisfaction; or length of employment, if short, may in fact
be due to short-term disillusionment more closely related to
age than to educational level (Srivastva et al., 1977).
Porter and Steers (1979) also considered age to be closely
related to tenure, thus many corresponding results emerged.
Knowles (1964) claimed that an employees length of service or
length of service in a previous occupation were highly
accurate predictors of the likelihood that the individual


139
beneficial. This might best be accomplished by interviewing
former female coaches. Their responses may provide some
insight as to whether sex-bias and discriminatory practices
exist in intercollegiate athletics.
The knowledge gained from this study serves to enhance
efforts of counselors and consultants who have cause to work
with female intercollegiate athletic coaches. Perhaps most
important is the fact that counselors until now have known
very little about the job satisfaction characteristics of
female coaches. Based on the results of this study, it seems
evident that female coaches are not experiencing high levels
of job dissatisfaction, and therefore are not in need of
assistance in this area.
In addition, counselors and consultants providing
individual and group counseling services to female athletic
coaches can benefit from knowing that there are not
significant differences among female coaches on the bases of
marital status, educational level, type of sport coached, or
level of collegiate division. Counseling services therefore
should not be differentiated on these bases. For example,
relatively heterogenous groups of female coaches could be
served effectively in group interventions.
Counselors and consultants also should take into
consideration the fact that strain does impact upon a few
components of job satisfaction, although the variances were


43
might be, and therefore not be as committed. Furthermore,
because of her presumably highly contingent commitment and
drive he would only reluctantly introduce her or recommend
her to colleagues (Epstein, 1971) .
Loy and Sage (1978) reported that upward mobility within
"intercollegiate coaching circles" is largely a function of
sponsored mobility (i.e., entry-level coaches ask for the
sponsorship of mentors, those who are experienced coaches or
administrators, in seeking their own coaching positions at
major universities) (Loy & Sage, 1978) Thus, the exclusion
of women from informal interactions (among men) undoubtedly
limits their opportunities to seek and obtain mentorships
associated with advancement in the coaching profession.
Exclusion from informal communications and interactions
(e.g., luncheons or after work social gatherings) also
prohibits female coaches from gaining pertinent information
(e.g., alternative job prospects, changes in administrative
structures, or forthcoming promotions) which could enhance
their coaching careers. Also, in their informal exchanges
men relate the experiences they have had with their superiors
and colleagues and identify those who are, or are not,
helpful and trustworthy (Reskin, 1978). As a result of
women's limited access to these networks they must rely
(generally) on formal methods of communication such as
publications, announcements, and official memorandums.


159
Luthans, F. (1981). Organizational behavior. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Maccoby, E., & Jacklin, C. (1974). Psychology of sex
differences. Stanford, CA.: Stanford University Press.
Macke, A. (1981). Token men and women. Sociology of Work
and Occupations 8. 25-38.
Mathes, S. A. (1982, April). Women coaches: Endangered
species? Paper presented at the meeting of the American
Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and
Dance National Convention, Houston, Texas.
Mclllwee, J. S. (1982). Work satisfaction among women in
nontraditional occupations. Work and Occupations, i, 337-
66.
Meyer, H., & Lee, M. (1978) Women in traditionally male
jobs: The experiences of ten public utility companies. R
and D Monograph 65. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office.
Miller, J. (1980). Individual and occupational determinants
of job satisfaction. Sociology of Work and Occupations. 2,
337-366.
Mincer, J., & Polachek, S. (1974, March-April). Family
investments in human capital: Earnings of women. Journal of
Political Economy, 22, 76-108.
Mincer, J., & Polachek, S. (1978). The theory of human
capital and the earnings of women: Women's earnings re
examined. Journal of Human Resources, 12, 118-34.
Mitchell, T. R., Smyser, C. M., & Weed, S. E. (1975) Locus
of control-supervision and work satisfaction. Academy of
Management Journal. 12, (3) 623-631.
Monie, P. M. (1967, March). Job satisfaction of female
employees in the clothing industry: Case study no. 3.
Personnel Practice Bulletin. 22, 16-26.
Moore, H. A. (1985). Job satisfaction and women's spheres
of work. Sex Roles, 12, (11/12) .
Myers, G. A. (1983, 11). A girl's guide to getting an
athletic scholarship. Ms.-, pp. 129-130.
Neil, C. C., & Snizek, W. E. (1987, July). Work values, job
characteristics, and gender. Sociological Perspectives, 22,
245-265.


156
Franklin, B. J., & Osborne, H. W. (1971). Research
methods: Methods and insights. Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.
Freedman, S. M., & Phillips, J. S. (1988, June). The
changing nature of research on women at work. Journal of
Management. 14. 231-265.
Glenn, N. D., Taylor, P. A., & Weaver, C. N. (1977). Age
and job satisfaction among males and females: a
multivariate, multisurvey study. Journal of Applied
Psychology 62, 189-193.
Gold, D. B. (1971) Women and volunteerism. In Varnick and
Moran (Eds.), Woman in a sexist society (pp. 384-400). New
York: Mentor Books.
Goode, W. J. (1960) A theory of strain. American
sociological review, 2, 483-496.
Gove, W. R., & Zeiss, C. (1987). Multiple roles and
happiness.In F. Grosby (Ed.), Spouse, parent, worker: On
gender and multiple roles. New Haven: Yale University
Press.
Grandjean, B. D., & Bernal, H. H. (1979). Sex and
centralization in a semiprofession. Sociology of Work and
Occupations £, 84-102.
Grandjean, B. D., & Taylor, P. A. (1980) Job
satisfaction among female clerical workers: 'status panic'
or the opportunity structure of office work? Sociology of
Work and Occupations 7, 33-53.
Guin, R. M. (1978). Review of the minnesota satisfaction
questionnaire. In O. K. Buros (Ed.), The eighth mental
measurements yearbook (pp. 1679-1680). Highland Park, NJ:
Gryphon.
Harragan, B. L. (1977). Games mother never taught you:
Corporate gamesmanship for women. New York: Rawson
Associates Publishers, Inc.
Hart, B. A., Hasbrook, C. A., & Mathes, S. A. (1986). An
examination of the reduction in the number of female
intercollegiate coaches. Research Quarterly for Exercise
and Sport 1, 68-77.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The
motivation to work. New York: Wiley.


147
Ask yourself: How satisfied am I with this aspect of my job?
Very Sat. means I am very satisfied with this aspect of my job.
Safe means I am satisfied with this aspect of my job.
N means I can't decide whether I am satisfied or not with this aspect of my job.
Dissert, means I am dissatisfied with this aspect of my job.
Very Dissat. means I am very dissatisfied with this aspect of my /ob.
On my present job, this is how 1 feel about . .
Vtry
Dittot.
Data*.
N
Sat.
V*ry
Sat.
1. The chance to be of service to others.

f
1 j


2. The chance to try out some of my own ideas.
j
3. Being able to do the job without feeling it is morally wrong.
,
.

1 ¡
-wd

4. The chance to work by myseif.
_
I
:
-
5. The variety in my work.
n
! I
1 1
i
. The chance to have other workers look to me for direction.



i
i 1
7. The chance to do the kind of work that 1 do best.




; |
8. The social position in the community that goes with the job.



G
.
9. The policies and practices toward employees of this company.

Q

r-j


10. The way my supervisor and 1 understand each other.

:i
J

. 4
11. My job security.

i j



12. The amount of pay for the work 1 do.
|
LJ
1 j
W 4
13. The working conditions (heating, lighting, ventilation, etc.) on this job.
L,
i
i
14. The opportunities for advancement on this job.
¡

J
r
L j
15. The technical "know-how" of my supervisor.

n
r>
i

16. The spirit of cooperation among my co-workers.
.
I]


rn
17. The chance to be responsible for planning my work.
^
1
G
i
LJ
18. The way 1 am noticed when 1 do a good job.

I:

U
.. i
19. Being able to see the results of the work 1 do.
n
LJ


j_i
G
20. The chance to be active much of the time.
P-*
LJ
i i
G

t
21. The chance to be of service to people.


! j


22. The chance to do new and original things on my own.

c
1
pi
i ;

23. Being able to do things that don't go against my religious beliefs.


_]
!i
"1
24. The chance to work alone on the job.


r1
L-J


25. The chance to do different things from time to time.




i !
V#rp
Oiuot.
Oiuot.
N
Sot.
V#ry
Sot.


118
status, 4%. Because annual income was significantly related
to only four of twenty components assessed, it can be
concluded that annual income is not related to most
individual components of job satisfaction.
Table 10
Multiple Regression Analysis of Female Intercollegiate
Athletic Coaches' General Job Satisfaction Score By Age.
Income.
Level
Of
V-*--*- t A VVi-V
Behavioral,
Physical.
Cognitive,
And Total
Strain,
Number Of
Games Won,
and. Number Of Games
Lost.
Source
R2
L>F
Sum of
Squares
Mean
Square
F Value
Pr>F
Model
.30
10
4474.56
447.46
5.20
.0001
Error
124
10676.74
86.10
Corrected
Total
134
1515.0
Source
DF
Tvoe III SS MS
F
P>F
Age
1
18.86
18.86
0.22
. 6406
Yrs Emp
Coach
1
18.83
18.83
0.22
.6408
Yrs Emp
Head
Coach
1
7.04
7.04
0.08
.7754
Games Won
1
23.15
23.15
0.27
. 6050
Games Lost
1
29.15
29.15
0.34
.5617
Annual
Income
1
818.06
818.06
9.50
.0025**
Behav.
Str
1
206.66
206.66
2.40
.1239
Cognit.
Str
1
188.63
188.63
2.19
. 1414
Physical Str
1
209.68
209.68
2.44
. 1212
Total Str
1
212.80
212.80
2.47
.1185
**p< .01


72
Women who occupied positions in predominantly female
sectors of the labor market were found to have relatively
high levels of job satisfaction (Moore, 1985) Walshok and
Walshok (1978) explained the high levels of job satisfaction
from a traditional perspective. Generally, these women were
not especially concerned with traditional rewards of high pay
and upward mobility because any form of paid labor
represented an improvement over domestic (unpaid) labor.
Gold (1971) reported that women preferred jobs which offered
flexibility with respect to their traditional
responsibilities (i.e., caring for the home and family) and
were less concerned with economic rewards, autonomy, and
prestige. In a more recent study, Moore (1985) found that the
job satisfaction levels of women in predominantly female
occupations were affected by a wide range of intrinsic
challenges, socioemotional factors, and problems related to
income, as well as flexibility of hours and availability of
benefits tied to domestic responsibilities. Moore (1985)
also found that job satisfaction for both women and men in
all labor sectors was contingent on perceived income problems
and flexibility of working hours. Moore went on to note,
however, that these factors were most evident for women in
male-dominated or sex proportionate occupations.
In general, studies pertaining specifically to women and
job satisfaction can be categorized as either traditional or


50
job satisfaction had been conducted by 1976. The number
today is certainly substantially larger. Given the dramatic
influence of the nature of employment on individual workers,
the voluminous research related to the level and determinants
of job satisfaction is not surprising. It is surprising,
however, to note that despite the fact that numerous
perspectives on job satisfaction have emerged from these
studies, researchers have yet to be able to agree on a
specific definition of job satisfaction (Locke, 1969).
Hoppock (1935, p. 47) defined job satisfaction as "any
combination of physiological, psychological, and
environmental circumstances that causes a person truthfully
to say, 'I am satisfied with my job'." Davis (1967) reported
job satisfaction as the fit between individual and job and
therefore job satisfaction is the result of a "fit between
job characteristics and the wants of employees. It expresses
the amount of congruence between one's expectancies of the
job and the rewards that the job provides" (p. 74). Job
satisfaction, according to Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969),
is defined as "feelings or affective responses to facets of
the situation" (p.69). Lawler and Wanous (1972) integrated
operational definitions, theoretically based on needs
fulfillment, equity, or work values to define jobs
satisfaction. Porter and Steers (1979) defined job
satisfaction as the "sum total of an individual's met


88
instruments for the measurement of job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
Summary of Literature Review
In this review of the literature it was suggested that
job satisfaction is related to factors such as age, income,
tenure, educational level, stress, marital status and
multiple roles, and gender. It is not known however, what
role, if any, these factors play in determining the job
satisfaction levels among female intercollegiate athletic
coaches.
Indicated in this review of the literature related to
job satisfaction is the need for further research in the area
of job satisfaction among women in male dominant professions,
and more specifically, among female intercollegiate athletic
coaches. Numerous cultural and structural factors associated
with male dominated professions have been identified as
having a negative impact upon women attempting to pursue
careers in such fields. For example, women in these
professions are apt to experience sex-role conflict,
differential treatment, and discrimination.
Among the cultural factors, researchers have examined
extensively, problems associated with sex-role socialization,
stereotypes and expectations and have found that females, by
virtue of their gender, are more apt than their male


APPENDIX D
STRAIN QUESTIONNAIRE
luu rM 01* fallwins lift std elretf the letter that mt closely cirrtjomai ta im often in tu gait
eee you have unrlmM or felt tacit of uta lita lifted.
* tat at all I I ar 2 daya C J tr l daya 1 I or 1 dan I tverydey
1. Pachachas
4 i e
0
i
20.
toant aere tina alana
A
C
9
i
2. suaste serenata
* i e
0
i
30.
Irritad! llry
A B
C
9
i
I. fucnau ar tfn|lfit| In My
* i e
0
i
31.
(Mullir henarior
A
e
9
i
4. heaviness In ama ar laa
a i e
0
i
32.
acalla startlad
A I
c
9
i
5. numi -in My parta
a i e
9
i
33.
Ifutterint/etner speech
. tanaa astasias
a i e
0
i
dyaftuanclee
A I
c
9
i
7. pain In naca
A 1 c
0
i
34.
Inaaaatla
A
e
9
i
1. aua aa ar vaaat ataadt
a s e
0
i
33.
Inaofllty to ait still
A 1
e
9
i
0. dlamtaa ar Indigestion
9
i
36.
acing
A 1
e
9
c
10. tlnt staiacn
a i e
9
s
37.
uae at recreational drusa
A 1
e
9
i
11. laaa af ar aaceeaive aeoetita
A I c
9
i
30.
usa at prescription drupa
A |
e
9
i
12. pain In heart ar tract
A 1 c
9
i
30.
uaa af alcana!
A 1
c
9
i
1]. inertness a* Praaat
a s e
9

40.
accident prananan
A 1
c
9
t
14. faintness. dltxinaat
a i e
9
i
41.
Pal lera the uorid it
13. racing heart
A 1 c
9
i
peinat yeu
A
c
9
c
16. lignt haadaanaaa
A I c
9
t
42.
leal ins out af control
A 1
c
9
e
17. headaches
a i e
0
i
43.
urge ta cry or rut
IS. hat ar eald toalla
a s e
9
i
estay and hide
A 1
c
9
t
10. lire in threat
A 1 c
9
i
44.
feelinp of unreality
A 1
c
9
a
29. arnait at threat and nauth
A I c
9
i
43.
feel Ins that you are no good
A f
c
9
a
21. teeth grinding
a i e
9
t
44.
Ineaillty ta concentrate
A I
c
9
f
22. tramllng ar narvoue tic]
A 1 C
9

47.
ni?itneree
A 1
c
9
(
23. street ing
a i e
9
i
40.
China tninsa ctn'i jet
24. titeara hande
A 1 c
9
i
sty earn
A 1
c
0
I
23. Itenlnp
A 1 C
9
i
26. eald ar ara rarea
A 1 C
0
i
27. f resuene need ta urinate
A 1 C
0
i
28. pre-aanaeruat tami an ar
at lead eye tea
a s e
9
i
CJOyniatO 1983 By . Crus i.etes*re.
151


136
female intercollegiate athletic head coaches. Therefore,
examination of other variables potentially influential in
their job satisfaction should be undertaken. For example, it
has been noted that female coaches experience high levels of
stress associated with the demands and pressures of their
jobs, which for many results in "burnout" and job
dissatisfaction (Cassesse & Mayerber, 1984). The results of
this study did not support this premise; perhaps the female
coaches surveyed were especially "stress-resistant" or
possessed certain psychological traits and characteristics
that allowed them to manage more effectively and positively
stressors and pressures associated with collegiate coaching.
Therefore, the relationships between job satisfaction and
psychodynamic characteristics of female intercollegiate
athletic coaches need to be defined more clearly through
future research.
In a similar vein, it is also possible that the female
coaches' successes as former athletes may be related to their
levels of job satisfaction. Coaches who were highly
successful athletes are likely to have aquired many of the
desired characteristics associated with coaching (e.g., self-
confidence, self-assuredness, competitive nature, or sense of
achievement). Therefore, relationships between job
satisfaction and success as a former athlete also should be
examined through further research.


129
Another methodological limitation was related to
testing. It was suggested that the subjects might feel the
questionnaires were too personal or that anonymity would not
be guaranteed and that these factors might effect the outcome
of the study. This methodological limitation can only be
addressed from the standpoint of the returned surveys. All
but a few of the questionnaires were completed fully, and
none of the respondents included comments that would suggest
that they were reticent about completing them.
A final methodological limitation was related to the
participants' personal interest in the problem of attrition.
More specifically, because of possible concern with the
problem of attrition, the potential existed that subjects
might overreact to the opportunity to express their
satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their jobs. Thus, they
might have tended to over select extreme categories (i.e.,
very satisfied or very dissatisfied). It does not appear
that this concern was actualized. The mean job satisfaction
score was 72.31 with a standard deviation of 10.63,
indicating moderate satisfaction and no apparent extreme
response pattern or bias.


104
satisfaction in the ANOVA analysis procedure, the Bonferroni
procedure was applied. By applying the Bonferroni procedure,
each contrast was tested using a per comparison alpha level.
The .01 level of statistical significance was used for
all analyses conducted for this study.
Methodological Limitations
There are several inherent methodological and
generalizability limitations associated with survey research.
Those pertinent to this study are addressed in this section.
One methodological limitation is related to the possible
lack of response on the part of the selected participants.
Unlike most professionals, intercollegiate athletic coaches
spend a minimal amount of time in an office setting,
especially during the peak of their competitive season.
During that period, the majority of their time is spent in
practice or on the playing field, or traveling to and from
other colleges and universities for season matches. In order
to limit the impact of this limitation, the questionnaires
were sent to the participants at the onset of the spring
semester (i.e., February) because the preponderance of the
women's sports had either completed or had not yet officially
begun their competitive season. This was intended to
increase the probability of coaches taking time from their
off season responsibilities to complete the survey.


4
championships (Chu, 1985). The change from the CIAW to AIAW
(i.e., from a commission to an association) was initiated
primarily to establish a stronger financial base for women's
sports programs, thus enhancing the opportunities for
athletic competition. Women's growing interest in
competitive intercollegiate athletics was evident in the
rapid growth of AIAW membership. For example, the AIAW
charter membership rose from 278 colleges and universities in
1971-72 to 973 in 1979-80 (Chu, 1985).
Despite increasing opportunities and more competitive
athletic environments for women and the increasing cultural
acceptance of women as skilled athletes, women's
intercollegiate sports programs during the early 1970s were
still plagued with obvious, blatant discriminatory practices,
not unlike those forced upon women in other areas of higher
education. In an effort to eradicate discrimination based on
social conditions and stereotyped characterization of the
sexes in American institutions of higher education, Title IX
to the Education Amendments Act was passed in 1972.
Although initially applied to educational opportunity
aspects of higher education, Title IX came to be interpreted
such that athletic opportunities for women were supposed to
be equal to those for male athletes. Following its passage,
there was a surge in the number of intercollegiate athletic
opportunities and benefits for women, (e.g., athletic


JOB SATISFACTION
AMONG FEMALE INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETIC HEAD COACHES
By
SUSAN LEIGH HAMBLETON
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERISTY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1989


115
Table 8
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores For Division
inn.
Mean
SD
N=65
Ability Utilization
19.90
4.49
Achievement
20.42
3.25
Activities
20.89
2.70
Advancement
15.37
4.90
Company Policies and
Practices
13.55
4.28
Compensation
13.46
4.98
Co-Workers
17.48
4.35
Creativity
20.91
3.30
Independence
20.02
3.03
Moral Value
21.17
2.66
Recognition
15.86
5.35
Responsibility
20.03
3.10
Security
17.71
4.38
Social Service
21.49
2.49
Social Status
17.26
3.89
Supervision-
Human Relations
15.03
5.79
Supervision-
Technical
15.32
4.96
Variety
19.54
3.75
Working Conditions
18.43
4.13
General Job Sat.
72.18
9.83
Physical Strain
39.82
9.98
Behavioral Strain
17.34
4.13
Cognitive Strain
10.69
3.84
Total Strain
67.85
15.64
Age
35.55
8.32
Years Coaching
10.54
7.17
Years/Head Coach
9.46
7.55
Income
26.48
8.81
Games Won
31.20
28.67
Games Lost
23.97
24.61


Ill
Table 4
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores By Marital
Status.
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
N=3
N=14
(divorced)
(significant other)
Ability Utilization
16.33
7.23
21.64
2.84
Achievement
21.67
2.89
20.79
2.97
Activities
22.67
5.52
21.71
2.47
Advancement
16.00
1.73
14.86
3.63
Authority
18.33
2.52
18.42
2.53
Company Policies and
Practices
10.33
5.51
12.86
4.40
Compensation
11.00
3.00
12.65
5.79
Co-Workers
18.00
2.00
18.57
4.57
Creativity
18.33
7.37
21.86
3.80
Independence
21.33
3.51
20.71
2.43
Moral Values
21.00
4.00
22.14
2.66
Recognition
14.33
7.23
15.71
4.79
Responsibility
18.00
5.29
20.64
2.68
Security
15.00
7.81
15.79
4.89
Social Service
21.61
2.89
21.71
2.30
Social Status
Supervision-
19.67
4.51
16.71
3.93
Human Relations
13.00
7.54
16.00
7.42
Supervision-
Technical
13.00
7.00
15.50
6.65
Variety
20.33
2.08
21.07
2.02
Working Conditions
19.00
4.00
18.86
3.72
General Job Sat.
70.67
9.29
73.00
8.21
Physical Strain
56.33
13.05
40.36
7.86
Behavioral Strain
24.67
10.41
16.79
3.11
Cognitive Strain
10.67
3.78
11.29
4.05
Total Strain
91.67
22.94
68.43
11.94
Age
39.00
4.36
32.93
4 18
Years Coaching
14.67
6.11
8.79
4.17
Years/Head Coach
12.00
6.09
6.35
4.29
Income
33.33
2.88
26.00
11.13
Games Won
30.33
34.59
43.00
38.41
Games Lost
29.00
26.21
31.71
31.45


121
Table 15
Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor. Total
Strain.
R2 F for Model F for Income Pr>F
Activity .15 2.19 10.85 .0013**
Variety .17 2.54 8.11 .0052**
**p< .01
Research Question 3
What are the differences in job satisfaction on the
bases of marital status, level of sport coached, degree,
and type of sport coached?
In order to answer the third question, the SAS-GLM procedure
was used to determine significant differences or interactions
among the factors on the bases of marital status, type of
sport coached, level of sport coached, or coaches' degree in
regard to job satisfaction. As shown in Table 16, there were
no significant differences in job satisfaction on the bases
of these factors nor were there significant interaction
effects. Therefore, female intercollegiate athletic coaches'
job satisfaction does not vary as a function of these
factors.


120
Table 12
Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor, Behavioral
Strain
R2 F For Model F for Beh Str Pr>F
Activity .15 2.19 10.75 .0014**
Variety .17 2.54 8.28 .0047**
**p< .01
Table 13
Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor. Physical
Strain.
R2 F for Model F for Phy Str Pr>F
Activity .15 2.19 10.89 .0013**
Variety .17 2.54 8.01 .0054**
**p< .01
Table 14
Summary Qf Three Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor, Cognitive
Strain.
R2
F for Model
F for Coa Str
Pr>F
Activity
.15
2.19
10.46
.0016**
Creativity
. 17
2.50
6.09
.0016**
Variety
. 17
2.54
7.73
.0063**
**p< .01


82
responsibilities of head coaches and department heads.
Similarly, many of the achievement norms for coaches can be
applied to professors. A parallel has also been drawn
between being associated with a major or minor sport and a
major or minor department (Loy & Sage, 1978) In this
regard, the. findings of this study could be used in reference
to university personnel outside the field of athletics.
Using such information, career counselors and consultants
would be better prepared to counsel university personnel in
general with occupational and career problems.
The applicability of the theory of work adjustment is
not limited to career counseling; it is also relevant to the
area of personal counseling. As mentioned previously, women
entering the coaching profession are entering a male-
dominated, nontraditional occupation. In this vein are
inherent problems, unique to the women. Identification of
their levels of job satisfaction, in general, encompasses
assessment of the degree to which their needs and values are
met and, therefore by inference, subsequent impact of job
dissatisfaction on other areas of their lives. For example,
frustration with their jobs may carry over to their personal
lives. They may experience marital or relationship problems,
substance abuse and dependency problems, low self- esteem,
and/or may manifest psychosomatic complaints related to
prolonged stress. Greater understanding of the nature of


Copyright 1989
by
Susan Leigh Hambleton


60
Lofquist's theory of work adjustment can be applied to career
and personal counseling with prospective coaches in
intercollegiate athletics, with individuals already in the
field who are dissatisfied with their jobs, and with
individuals in similar occupational situations (e.g., women
in male-dominated fields, individuals in other university
related occupations, or individuals in high stress
occupations).
Ideally, prospective collegiate coaches, both male and
female, would profit from knowing requisite characteristics
relevant for a (satisfying) career in intercollegiate
athletics. That is, such knowledge could be used by
prospective or current coaches in their career decision
making processes. According to Dawis and Lofquist (1984),
acquisition of such knowledge would increase the likelihood
of correspondence between the individual and work
environment, thus increasing both level of job satisfaction
and length of tenure.
Unfortunately, in the development of their theory of
work adjustment, Dawis and Lofquist did not give particular
attention to particular human characteristics related to
level of work adjustment. For example, they did not address
factors such as age, educational level, length of tenure,
gender, perceived levels of strain (stress) or, related to
perceived levels of strain, the individual's level of success


100
Each subject's responses to the items were recorded directly
onto the questionnaire.
The MSQ is comprised of the following twenty sub-scales:
ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement,
authority, company policies and practices, compensation, co
workers, creativity, independence, moral values, recognition,
responsibility, security, social service, social status,
supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety,
and working conditions. According to the MSQ Manual, each
scale consists of five items. The items are presented in
blocks of twenty, with items representing a given scale
appearing at twenty-item intervals.
The MSQ is self-administered. Directions for completing
it appear on the first page of the questionnaire and
instructions for proper item rating appear at the top of each
page.
There is no time limit for completing the MSQ.
According to the MSQ Manual, the average respondent can
complete the survey in approximately fifteen to twenty
minutes. In addition, the questionnaire has equivalent to a
fifth-grade reading level, meets accepted standards for
reliability, and is reported to be valid (Weiss, Dawis,
Lofquist, & England, 1967) .
The Strain Questionnaire (SQ) measures the physical,
behavioral, and cognitive symptoms that are elicited by the


134
that job satisfaction was positively related to level of
education. In contrast, however, Klein and Maher (1966) and
Vollmer and Kinney (1955) found a negative correlation
between job satisfaction and level of education. Srivastva,
et al. (1977) indicated that there was a relationship between
level of education and job satisfaction, but the direction of
the relationship depended upon unspecified variables. The
results of this study do not support either of these
positions because there were no significant relationships
between academic degree level and general job satisfaction or
the components of job satisfaction. The findings here may be
due to very little variance in the educational levels among
the coaches surveyed. All of the respondents had obtained
at least a baccalaureate degree, and 50% of them had obtained
graduate level degrees.
In general, the variables investigated in this study,
with the exception of income, were not the bases for
differences in job satisfaction among female intercollegiate
athletic coaches. Neither the other continuous variables
(i.e., age, tenure, level of strain, and success) nor the
categorical variables (i.e., marital status, level of degree,
collegiate division level, and type of sport coached)
examined yielded empirical data upon which to explain
variations in female athletic coaches' job satisfaction.


153
Bailey, K. D. (1982). Methods of social research. New
York: The Free Press., Macmillan.
Bartol, K., & Wortman, M. (1975). Male versus female
leaders: effects on perceived leader behavior and
satisfaction in a hospital. Personnel Psychology, 28r 533-
547.
Bederian, A. G. (1988, September). Outcomes of work-family
conflict among married male and female professionals.
Journal of Management, 11, 475-491.
Blau, F. (1977). Equal pay in the office. Lexington, MA:
Heath.
Blau, F., & Jusenius C. (1976). Economists' approaches to
sex segregation in the labor market: an appraisal. In
Blaxall & Reagan (Eds.), Women and the work place: The
implications of occupational segregation (pp. 181-199).
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Blauner, R. (1964). Alienation and freedom. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Bonacich, E. (1972). A theory of ethnic antagonism: The
split labor market. American Sociological Review. 37, 547-
559.
Byers, S. K. (1987, Summer). Organizational stress:
Implications for health promotion managers. American
Journal of Health Promotion, 2, 21-27.
Caccese, T. M., & Mayerberg, C. K., (1984). Gender
differences in perceived burnout of college coaches.
Journal of Sport Psychology. £, 279-288.
Campbell, K. E. (1988, May). Gender differences in job-
related networks. Work and Occupations. 1, 179-200.
Chu, D. (1985) Sport and higher education. Illinois: Human
Kinetics Publishers.
Chung, K. H., (1977). Motivational theories and practices.
Columbus, OH: Grid.
Collinson, D. L. (1988) Engineering humor: Masculinity,
joking and conflict in shop-floor relations. Organization
Studies. 1, 181-199.
Comes the revolution. (1978, June).
Time.pp. 54-59.


98
expected: volleyball, 17%; basketball, 16%; tennis and
softball, 14%; field hockey, 8%; cross country and lacrosse
5%; swimming and diving, 4%; golf, 3%; gymnastics and soccer,
2%; and archery, badminton, bowling, fencing, ice hockey,
riding, riflery, sailing, skiing, squash, and synchronized
swimming, 1% or less. In terms of team or individual sports,
it was expected that the representative samples would be 60%
and 40%, respectively. In several studies involving survey
methodology female intercollegiate athletic coaches have
shown themselves to be willing participants; indeed in some
studies (Acosta & Carpenter, 1984, 1986, 1988) response rates
have been above 60%. Therefore, a 60% response rate was
anticipated for this study. In turn, this implied 180
respondents (60%) distributed across women's sports as
follows: volleyball (31 [17%]); basketball (29 [16%]); tennis
and softball (25 each [14%]); field hockey, (14 [8%]); cross
country (9 [5%]); swimming and diving (7 [4%]); gymnastics
and soccer (4 each [2%]); and archery, badminton, bowling,
fencing, ice hockey, riding, riflery, sailing, skiing,
squash, and synchronized swimming (2 or fewer respondents
[<1%]). When compiled as either team or individual sports,
the distribution of coaches was expected to be 105 (60%) and
75 (40%), respectively.
Once the sample was identified, the researcher mailed
each potential participant the following: (a) an introductory


APPENDIX C
MINNESOTA SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE
minnesofa satisfaction questionnaire
Vocational Psychology Research
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
Copyright 1977
144


32
men in organizational reward decisions (Freidman & Phillips,
1988). Therefore, in order for highly competent females to
gain recognition for their accomplishments, they must be
regarded as demonstrably exceptional (i.e., out of role and
within a context requiring unusual drive and dedication) and
their worth supported by "glowing" evaluations from
authoritative sources ( O'Leary, 1977). For women in
professions, this belief results in exceptional pressure to
perform, thus adding to the already existing stress and
anxiety associated with professional occupations.
In view of prevailing sex role stereotypes, one of the
foremost cultural factors associated with male-dominated
professions is what Kaufman (1984) described as the
"invidious process of sex-typing" (p.357). According to
Epstein (1970b), sex typing occurs when a majority of those
in a profession are of one sex. Hence, a "normative
expectation" develops which determines how things "should"
be, based on perceptions of personality and behavioral
characteristics associated with that sex (Kaufman, 1984).
When an occupation becomes sex- typed, the sex of the members
of the minority becomes occupationally salient. Those who do
not fit the model of the practitioner or their profession are
viewed as "deviant", and treated accordingly (Patterson &
Engleberg, 1978).


83
their work adjustment and/or needs for homeostatic conditions
therefore would facilitate counselors' or consultants'
efforts to examine antecedent conditions (i.e., need
deprivation). Once identified, appropriate counseling
strategies and techniques could be implemented and counseling
processes expedited to alleviate some of their problems and
concerns.
Support For Measurement Techniques
One of the most frequently used and recently developed
measures of job satisfaction is the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (MSQ) (Weiss, Dawis, Lofquist & England, 1967).
The MSQ is comprised of 100 items from which twenty subscales
are generated; the subscales correspond to the twenty needs
described in a previous section. A respondent rates each
item on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from Not Satisfied
(the aspect is much poorer than expected) to Extremely
Satisfied (the aspect is much better than expected).
Provided in the Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967) are
normative data for twenty-five vocational groups. The
validity of the MSQ was assessed by Dunhan, Smith, and
Blackburn (1977) who found that the MSQ, when compared to
three other measures of job satisfaction (i.e., Job
Descriptive Index [JDI],
Faces Scale [FACES], and Index of


11Summary Of Four Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Income 119
12Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Behavioral Strain 120
13Summary of Two Regression Ananyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Physical Strain 120
14Summary Of Three Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor;
Cognitive Strain 120
15 Summary Of Two Regression Analyses For Items On Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor; Total
Strain 121
16 Analysis Of Variance Of Female Intercollegiate Athletic
Coaches' General Job Satisfaction Score By Marital
Status, Type Of Sport Coached, Level Of Sport Coached,
And Degree 122
ix


71
dissatisfaction revolving increasingly around the intrinsic
and extrinsic characteristics of the work. Moore (1985)
reported that women and men in male-dominant or sex
proportionate labor sectors perceived their jobs as providing
greater income, freedom, job involvement, challenge, and
ability utilization.
Several researchers identified a variety of difficulties
that women experienced when they entered male-dominated
occupations. These difficulties were most often manifested in
personal work dissatisfactions and occupational turnover.
The difficulties were ascribed to a variety of factors
including the roles women were expected to perform in
nontraditional fields, characteristics of work organizations,
and personal characteristics of the women (i.e., motivation,
values and attitudes, and expectations) (Patterson &
Engelberg, 1978; Schreiber, 1979). Macke (1981) found that
both women in male-dominated fields and men in female-
dominated fields reported greater emphasis on their sex-
related characteristics than their occupational skills.
Sprangler et al. (1978) reported similar findings for female
students in law schools. Female students experienced greater
pressure to perform and more stress in interpersonal
relationships than male students. These students claimed
they felt "socially isolated and stereotyped as feminine"
(DeFleur, 1985, p.209).


In Memory Of My Brother
Fred Hambleton


51
expectations on the job" (p. 167). Locke (1969) defined job
satisfaction as the "pleasurable emotional state resulting
from the appraisal of one's job as achieving or facilitating
the achievement of one's values" (p. 316). Despite the
variations, most definitions imply that (a) job satisfaction
is contingent on fulfillment of individuals' needs and (b)
satisfaction is the outcome of a mutually satisfying
relationship between a person's needs and the work
environment.
Job satisfaction also has been explained from several
theoretical perspectives. The first of these is Maslow's need
hierarchy theory in which job satisfaction is contingent on
the fulfillment of individual needs. Maslow's model is based
on two fundamental premises. The first, is that individuals
are motivated by a desire to fulfill specific personal needs
(e.g., physiological, safety, social, esteem or self-
actualization) The second is that these needs are universal
among all individuals and that they are arranged in
sequential hierarchical order. Thus once lower order needs
are satisfied (i.e., physiological, safety, and social
needs), the individual ascends the hierarchy one level at a
time and attempts to satisfy next higher order needs (i.e.,
esteem and self-actualization) (Porter & Steers, 1979). The
major assumption in Maslow's needs theory, is that lower-
order needs must be satisfied before attempts are made at


89
counterparts to experience high levels of stress derived from
sex-role conflicts that augment the inherent pressures
associated with achieving success in any professional
occupation.
Suggested in studies which have addressed structural
factors associated with male dominated professions is that
females, again by virtue of their gender, are often
confronted with seemingly insurmountable obstacles as they
attempt to pursue a successful professional career. Cited as
one of the most prominent obstacles which prevails within
male dominated professions is the "male universe" or "good
old boy's network." These male networks prevent women from
feeling secure or confident in their roles as professionals
which, in turn, adversely affect their opportunities for
advancement and their abilities to establish a sense of
belonging. Furthermore, indicated in studies of the impact
of male dominance upon individuals within a profession is
that minorities (i.e., females), in general, are paid less
and hold lower status positions within the professions.
Despite the preponderance of information related to
women in male dominated occupations and factors associated
with job satisfaction, few data exist concerning female
intercollegiate athletic coaches. Further, there is a dearth
of data which pertains to overall job satisfaction levels
among female intercollegiate athletic coaches. A systematic


APPENDIX A
INTRODUCTORY LETTER
March 1, 1989
Dear Coach,
I am a doctoral student in the Counselor Education
Department of the University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida. I am conducting a study of job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
There has been a dramatic decline in the number of
female intercollegiate coaches in women's sports during the
past ten years. Although inferences can drawn from this
trend about their job satisfaction, no empirical basis for
such inferences exists, and it is possible that some of these
inferences are inappropriate. The purpose of this study,
therefore, is to assess levels of job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate coaches.
I realize that you have a very demanding and time
consuming work schedule. However, your participation is
critical to the outcomes of the study. You are one of a
small sample selected by a scientific sampling procedure to
represent the larger population of all female intercollegiate
coaches. Therefore, you are actually answering for many
other coaches who are not able to participate.
Participation in the study involves the completion of
the enclosed questionnaires and returning your responses to
me in the self-addressed, stamped envelope provided by April
1, 1989. ALL RESPONSES WILL BE STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL.
IN NO WAY WILL YOU BE SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIED IN THE
FINDINGS OF THIS IMPORTANT STUDY.
As much as I would like to provide you with a reward for
taking part in this study, I am afraid the most I can offer
at this time is my deepest gratitude and a copy of the
results of the study to those of you who are interested. If
you have any questions or comments, please feel free to
contact me.
Thank you very much for your cooperation.
Sincerely,
Susan L. Hambleton, Ed.S.
1215 Norman Hall
Counselor Education Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
(904) 378-3093
142


107
not have felt compelled to respond to the extreme categories
in order to rightfully express themselves, unless such
responses are deemed appropriate.
Finally, it should be noted that, as is commonly the
case with survey research, an inherent limitation was related
to sample size. This limitation, however, was attributable
to financial limitations of the study and therefore it's
impact unavoidable.


this experience, but also for instilling in me the ever-so-
important values of hard work and determination.
I am deeply grateful to Sharon Knight, Rhendy
Hutchcraft, Cathy Saenz, and Jackie Herndon for providing me
with the unconditional support, encouragement, and assistance
I needed along the way. In addition, I would like to thank
Mary Horn for her guidance and unyielding belief in me and
for helping me overcome what were perhaps my most difficult
obstacles; those that were generated from deep within myself.
I would also like to thank Mrs. Pearl Clark, Mrs. Betty
and Trish Garibaldi, and Darius and Cindy Cauthen, members of
my "extended" family, for their nurturance and ever-present
concern for my general well-being.
Special thanks are also extended to Karen Agne for her
help in executing the data analyses procedures. Her patience
will always be remembered.
Finally, my sincerest appreciation and thanks are
extended to my closest friend and confidante, Michele
Garibaldi. Her unwavering confidence in my abilities, teamed
with her optimistic attitude toward challenge, provided me
with much of the strength and courage I required to pursue my
dreams and aspirations.
v


158
Kaufman, D. E. (1984) Professional women: How real are the
recent gains. In J. Freeman (Ed.), Women: A feminist
perspective (pp.353-369). Palo Alto,CA: Mayfield Publishing
Co.
Kerlinger, F. N. (1973). Foundations of behavioral
research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Klein, S. M., & Maher, J. R. (1966) Education level and
satisfaction with pay. Personnel Psychology 1_, 195-208.
Knoppers, A. (1987) Gender and the coaching profession.
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Knowles, M. C. (1964). Personnel and job factors affecting
labour turnover. Bersonnel Practice Bulletin, Z, 25-37.
Koberg, C. S., & Chusmir, L. H. (1987). Impact of sex role
conflict on job related attitudes. Journal of Human
Behavior and Learning, A, 50-59.
Lawler, E. E., Ill, & J.P. Wanous (1972). Measurement and
meaning of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology.
2., 95-105.
Laws, J. L. (1979). Work aspirations of women: false leads
and new starts. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and
Society, 2, 33-49.
Likert, R. (1961). New patterns of management. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Locke, E. A., (1976). The nature and consequences of job
satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.) Handbook of
industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297-1349).
Chicago: Rand-McNally.
Locke, E. A., (1969). What is job satisfaction?
Organizational Behavior and Human Performance A, 309-366.
Lopiano, D. A. (1987, February, 10). Participation is up,
role models missing. USA Today, p. 10a.
Loy, J. W., & Sage, G. S. (1978). Athletic personnel in
the academic marketplace: A study of the interorganizational
mobility patterns of college coaches. Sociology of Work and
Occupations 5, 446-469.
Lundin, R. W. (1974) Personality: A behavioral analysis.
New York: Macmillan.


5
scholarships, sport offerings, and playing schedules).
Consequently, concomitant with the passage of Title IX,
women's participation in college athletics greatly expanded.
Ironically, Title IX had both positive and negative
impacts on women's intercollegiate sports programs. On the
positive side, participation opportunities for women
increased dramatically. For example, in 1972, only 2.5
intercollegiate sports per college were offered for women but
by 1986, the average had increased to 7.31 (Acosta &
Carpenter, 1988). Accompanying increased participation
opportunities was massive growth in the numbers of female
athlete participants. In 1972, the year Title IX was
enacted, 16,000 females competed in intercollegiate sports.
In 1986, the figure had risen sharply to 150,000 (DeFrantz,
1987) .
Another positive impact directly related to the passage
of Title IX and the advancement of women's sports programs
was a dramatic increase in budget allotments for female
athletics. In 1971, before Title IX, women's intercollegiate
sports averaged only 1% of the budget of the men's sports.
By 1978, the largest women's sports programs had increased
their budgets to 15-18% of the men's. On the average,
however, most women's sport's programs had increased their
budgets from 1% to 10% of the men's by 1978 ("Comes the
Revolution," 1978). The NCAA Division I colleges and


APPENDICES
A INTRODUCTORY LETTER 142
B DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY 143
C MINNESOTA SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE 144
D STRAIN QUESTIONNAIRE 151
REFERENCES 152
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 164
vii


68
According to Forgionne and Peeters (1982) suggested in
the preponderance of research related to gender and job
satisfaction is that there is no significant relationship
between them. In independent studies, however, Shapiro and
Stern (1975) and Weaver (1974a; 1974b) found that more
professional men than women were satisfied with their jobs.
Hulin and Smith (1965) confirmed this finding in studies of
non-professional workers, as did Bartol and Wortman (1975)
who found that male managers were more satisfied in their
positions than women. As a point of interest, males who
worked in predominantly female or gender proportionate jobs
reportedly experienced lower levels job satisfaction (Moore,
1985) .
Miller (1980) reported that job satisfaction for both
women and men was determined by intrinsic job characteristics
(i.e., autonomy, complexity, and variety). However,
suggested in her data was that men place a higher value on
job autonomy than women, while women place higher value on
job complexity than men. For women, job satisfaction often
depended upon how complex and interesting the job was.
Miller accounted for these differences by stating that women
may so rarely have access to jobs with autonomy that they do
not rank it among the most important characteristics of their
jobs.


63
to an historical shift among an entire generation rather than
a phenomenon related specifically to age or stages of the
life cycle.
Other researchers who have examined the relationship
between age and job satisfaction have concluded that gender
also plays a significant role in the determination of job
satisfaction. For example, Hunt and Saul (1975) found a
significant relationship between age and job satisfaction but
only in male workers. In contrast, Shott, Albright, and
Glennon (1963) found a significant relationship for women but
not for men. And finally, Glenn, Taylor, and Weaver (1977)
reported a significant relationship between age and job
satisfaction for both sexes.
Studies in which the relationship between educational
level and job satisfaction were examined have had
contradictory results. For example, Weaver (1980), Quinn and
Mandilovitch (1980), and Herzberg et al. (1957) reported that
job satisfaction was positively related to level of
education. In contrast, however, Klein and Maher (1966) and
Vollmer and Kinney (1955) found a negative correlation
between job satisfaction and level of education. From these
latter findings it was suggested that employees with higher
levels of education expected more from their jobs and thus
became even more dissatisfied when their job failed to meet
those expectations.


126
Unfortunately, the respondents were not as closely matched to
the general population of female coaches on the basis of
division level as they were to the various types of sports.
Given these factors, the resultant sample represents the
population of female coaches in the various types of sports,
but does not as well represent the three division levels of
sports programs.
Acosta and Carpenter (1988) reported that the average
ages of female intercollegiate athletic coaches among
Division I, II, and III colleges and universities were 38.2,
36.7, and 34.2 years, respectively. The mean ages of the
respondents in this study were slightly lower in Division I
and II and slightly higher in Division III. Overall,
however, age differences the groups representing the three
divisions were not considered large enough to limit the
generalizability of the results of this study.
Similarly, the average number of years that the
respondents had held their coaching positions closely
resembled the average number of years the general population
of female intercollegiate athletic coaches had held their
positions. Acosta and Carpenter (1988) reported that the
females coaches in Division I, II, and III level colleges and
universities had been employed as coaches for averages of
6.3, 6.8, and 11.7 years, respectively. Herein, the
respondents had held their coaching positions for averages of


46
1971). Unfortunately, female intercollegiate coaches rarely
gain access to these controls.
With so few women in leadership positions, they tend to
fall into traps of "tokenism" (Kanter, 1976). They are on
"display" and under strong pressure to perform. At the same
time, they are socially isolated, poorly accepted, and
subject to male perceptions of favoritism and the resultant
unfair treatment (DeFleur, 1985) .
It has been found in studies of the dynamics of tokenism
that both males who are in the minority in female-dominated
fields and females in male-dominated occupations experience
greater emphasis on their sex-related characteristics than on
their occupational skills, thus negatively affecting their
self-esteem (Macke, 1981). Furthermore, individuals in
occupations which have highly skewed sex ratios experience
greater pressure to perform and more stress in interpersonal
relationships than do those in the gender dominant group
(DeFleur, 1985) .
Kanter (1976) and others also have documented that
administrative and leadership positions in professions have
been male-dominated historically. Consequently, there are
numerous male-oriented beliefs and attitudes concerning the
traits deemed necessary for successful leadership. The
traits most often cited are rationality, analytic ability,
and logical thought. It has been assumed often that females


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES viii
ABSTRACT x
CHAPTERS
I INTRODUCTION 1
Theoretical Framework 8
Statement of the Problem 11
Need For the Study 12
Purpose of the Study 15
Rationale for the Approach to the Study 15
Research Questions 18
Definitions of Terms 19
Overview of the Remainder of the Study 25
II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE 2 6
Further Delineation of Problem 26
Support for Theoretical Framework 4 9
Support for the Need for the Study 80
Support for Measurement Techniques 83
Summary of Literature Review 88
III METHODOLOGY 91
Population 91
Sampling Procedures 96
Resultant Sample 97
Assessment Instruments 99
Data Analysis 103
Methodological Limitations 104
IV RESULTS 108
V DISCUSSION 124
Generalizability Limitations 125
Evaluation of Results 130
Implications and Recommendations 135
Summary of Results 140
vi


113
Table 6
III.
Mean
N=4 6
SD
Ability Utilization
20.83
4.59
Achievement
21.17
3.05
Activities
20.85
3.16
Advancement
14.09
5.31
Authority
18.15
3.78
Company Policies and
Practices
14.67
5.73
Compensation
12.07
5.89
Co-Workers
18.33
4.10
Creativity
21.65
2.92
Independence
20.06
3.30
Moral Values
21.57
3.46
Recognition
16.61
5.20
Responsibility
20.50
2.87
Security
15.96
5.37
Social Service
21.83
2.93
Social Status
18.17
4.18
Supervision-
Human Relations
16.76
5.78
Supervision-
Technical
16.50
5.29
Variety
20.15
3.50
Working Conditions
16.80
5.80
General Job Sat.
72.54
12.78
Physical Strain
40.46
9.87
Behavioral Strain
18.22
5.01
Cognitive Strain
10.52
2.96
Total Strain
69.20
14.90
Age
34.26
6.88
Years Coaching
10.33
6.48
Years/Head Coach
7.91
6.39
Income
28.98
16.91
Games Won
43.85
62.30
Games Lost
31.02
25.09


105
In a similar vein, a second methodological limitation
which may affect the coaches' responses to the job
satisfaction questionnaire is related to history. It is
conceivable in a profession such as coaching that perceived
levels of job satisfaction may be greatly influenced by
extraneous factors not directly related to factors associated
with job satisfaction. For example, if the subjects receive
the job satisfaction questionnaire at a time when their teams
are winning they would be more apt to report higher levels of
job satisfaction than would be expected when their teams are
losing. Again, as in the previous limitation, it was
expected that the impact of this limitation would be
diminished by the fact that the majority of the women's
sports were not actively involved in their respective
competitive seasons.
A third methodological limitation of survey research is
related to the fact that response categories of written
questionnaires are structured and do not allow respondents to
include additional comments. Although the format of the
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire is structured and does
not provide space for additional comments, it does limit the
extent of the impact of this limitation by offering Likert-
type response categories, which served to increase possible
variation in responses over, for example, dichotomous
response categories.


145
minnesota satisfaction questionnaire
The purpose of this questionnaire is to give you a chance to tell how you fool about your present job,
what things you are satisfied with and what things you are not satisfied with.
On the basis of your answers and those of people like you, we hope to get a better understanding of the
things people like and dislike about their jobs.
On the following pages you will find statements about your present job.
Read each statement carefully.
* Decide how satisfied you feel about the aspect of your job described by the statement.
Keeping the statement in mind:
if you feel that your ¡ob gives you more than you expected, check the box under "Very Sat."
(Very Satisfied);
if you feel that your ¡ob gives you what you expected, check the box under "Sat." (Satisfied);
if you cannot make up your mind whether or not the job gives you what you expected, check
the box under "N" (Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied);
If you feel that your job gives you less than you expected, check the box under "Dissat."
(Dissatisfied);
if you feel that your job gives you much less than you expected, check the box under "Very
Dissat." (Very Dissatisfied).
* Remember: Keep the statement in mind when deciding how satisfied you feel about that aspect of
your job.
* Do this for all statements. Please answer every item.
Be frank and hones''. Give a true picture of your feelings about your present job.


22
individual's requirement for a reinforcer at a given level of
strength, i.e., an individual's preference for stimulus
conditions experienced to have been reinforcing (Dawis &
Lofquist, 1984) .
Personality structure is comprised of the status
characteristics of the work personality. An individual's set
of abilities, set of values, and the relationships among and
between their abilities and values (Dawis and Lofquist,
1984). The interaction of an individual's response
capabilities (i.e., skills and abilities) and preferences for
stimulus conditions (i.e.,needs and values).
Personality style denotes the process characteristics of
the work personality. It is the manner in which an
individual interacts with the environment. It encompasses
description of the individual on the dimensions of celerity
(i.e.,quickness in responding), pace (i.e.,level of
activity), rhythm (i.e.,pattern of activity), and endurance
(i.e.,length of responding) (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Reinforcers act as a stimulus, such as a reward, which
in operant conditioning strengthens a desired response.
According to work adjustment theory, reinforcers are stimulus
conditions observed to be associated consistently with an
increased rate of responses over the base rate. Reinforcers
are stimuli associated with the maintenance of responses, and


81
women who choose nontraditional occupations present needs and
values similar to women who pursue careers in coaching. Thus
the results of this study have implications for women in
nontraditional careers. Relatedly, the results of this study
have implications for other individuals who pursue careers in
occupations in which exceptional stress is encountered in
attempts to perform successfully. More specifically, women
in nontraditional professional occupations having high
pressure to succeed are confronted with situations unlike
those experienced by women (and men) in more traditional,
less stressful occupations. Thus the greater understanding
of the theory of work adjustment provided by the results of
this study can be a framework for career counselors and
consultants to use in their efforts to explore the nature and
extent of the problems women in male-dominated professions
are experiencing.
There also are implications from the results of this
study for college and university personnel in general.
Although intercollegiate athletic programs are typically
auxiliary operations in colleges and universities, the
governing structures of intercollegiate athletic programs
typically parallel the governing structures of various units
(e.g., departments) within colleges and universities. More
specifically, parallels can be drawn between the rank and
authority of athletic directors and deans and the roles and


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
Loesch, Chairman
Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
jarsen J
sor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Phyllis Meek
Associate Professor of
Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Paula Welch
Professor of
Exercise and Sport Sciences


130
Evaluation of Results
The results of this study do not appear to support
research which has suggested that women in traditionally male
occupations experienced relatively high levels of job
satisfaction (Meyer & Lee, 1978; O'Farrell & Harlen, 1982;
Schreiber, 1979). The mean job satisfaction score was 72.31
with a standard deviation of 10.63, indicating only moderate
satisfaction. Unfortunately, the Manual for the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire does not provide normative data
for women in nontraditional or male dominated occupations.
However, if female coaches are compared with women in
traditional occupations, they do not appear to be
significantly more satisfied and, in some instances, were
less satisfied. For example, the mean job satisfaction
scores for secretaries, stenographers and typists, teachers,
and supervisor nurses, were 77.6, 71.9, 82.. 1, and 75.4,
respectively. Based on the moderate level of general job
satisfaction among female coaches and their comparable levels
of satisfaction with women in traditional occupations, the
findings of this study do not support the notion that women
in nontraditional occupations are highly satisfied.
Substantial support exists for the presumed relationship
between job satisfaction and age (e.g.,Hoppock, 1960; Weaver,
1980). More specifically, it has been reported that job
satisfaction levels rise with increasing age. It can be


24
Title IX is an addition to the Education Amendments Act
of 1972 which prohibits sex discrimination in admissions to
educational institutions (excluding admissions to private and
single-sex institutions), curricular and extracurricular
programs, student services and benefits such as counseling,
health care, and financial aid, and job access and promotion
within educational agencies and institutions (Fox, 1985).
Turnover denotes the number of workers hired by a given
establishment to replace those who have left. It also is the
ratio of the number of workers hired to the number of
employed workers.
Work adjustment denotes the continuous and dynamic
process by which an individual seeks to achieve and maintain
correspondence with her/his work environment (Dawis &
Lofquist, 1984).
Work adjustment indicators are a set of factors
including individual satisfaction, an individual's
satisfactoriness, and tenure (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Work personality is depicted by the principal
characteristics of the individual in relation to work
adjustment. It is comprised of the work personality
structure and work personality style. It is characterized by
abilities, values, and style dimensions relevant to the
understanding of work behavior (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).


155
Epstein, C. (1980). The new women and the old
establishment. Sociology of Work and Occupations. 2(3),
291-316.
Fagenson, E. A. (1988, June). The power of a mentor:
Proteges' and nonproteges' perceptions of their own power in
organizations. Group & Organization Studies. 13 r 182-194.
Feldberg, R., & Glenn, E. (1979). Male and female: Job
versus gender models in the sociology of work. Social
Problems, 26. 524-538.
Feldman-Summers, S., & Kiesler, S. B. (1974). Those who
are number two try harder: The effects of sex on
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137
It has been argued that former female coaches never
acquired the necessary knowledge, skills, or values to
fulfill successfully their coaching roles (Hart, Hasbrook, &
Mathes, 1986). Although this study found no significant
differences in job satisfaction on the basis of level of
degree, the nature of academic preparation per se or the
extent of the training related to coaching the female coaches
received prior to entering the coaching field (i.e.,
assistant coaching positions, coaching internships, business
or management training) were not examined. Investigation of
the relationship between job satisfaction and related
training and academic preparation is needed to allow further
comment on this argument.
Another area in which follow-up research is indicated is
related to mentoring and role modeling. It is conceivable
that former coaches were not exposed to reference groups of
female coaches who could serve as role models nor to peer
groups of future coaches. Consequently, they may have been
prevented from aquiring necessary values, ideals, and support
systems which would have better prepared them for their roles
as head coaches. Therefore, further investigation of the
possible relationship between role modeling and mentoring and
job satisfaction among female intercollegiate coaches is
warranted.


93
Acosta and Carpenter (1988) also found that although
female coaches were represented among all NCAA Division I,
II, and III women's collegiate sports, there was an unequal
distribution among sports programs offered. More
specifically, among the ten most popular women's college
sports programs offered in NCAA Division I, II, or III level
institutions in this country, the percentages of women
occupying coaching positions ranged from 21.8% (cross
country) to 97.1% (field hockey). From these data it can be
inferred that although female coaches occupy coaching
positions among all women's sports, their representation
among women's sports programs is variable.
Although no specific demographic data were found for the
educational levels of female intercollegiate coaches, it is a
logical inference that collegiate coaches have earned at
least baccalaureate degrees. Furthermore, many have earned
master's degrees. This assumption is based on two factors:
(a) collegiate coaching is considered a profession, and by
definition one of the basic criteria of a profession is its
base of knowledge which is acquired during long and intensive
training (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984), and (b) in many cases,
intercollegiate coaches are assigned faculty or staff
positions within college or university systems, which
characteristically require post-graduate degrees.


160
O'Farrel, B., & Harlen, S. L. (1982). Craftworkers and
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Labor E.T.A.
O'Leary, V. (1977) Toward an understanding of women.
Monterey: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
Parkhouse, B. L., & Williams, J. M. (1986). Differential
effects of sex and status on evaluation of coaching ability.
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2
disproportionately greater cultural emphasis awarded to high-
level competition for males than for females.
Prior to the 1970s, women were excluded from most
rigorous sports as well as the associated intercollegiate
athletic teams primarily on the basis of traditional sex-role
stereotypes that existed for males and females in the
American culture. The qualities deemed necessary for
successful athletic achievements were synonymous with traits
and characteristics applied to the traditional masculine
stereotype, i.e., competitiveness, aggressiveness, and
determination. Consequently, men dominated the playing
fields, courts, and pools; won more scholarships and awards;
and obtained greater public attention and acclaim for
athletic achievements. In contrast, females aspiring to
participate in sport did so without adequate facilities,
funding, or reward and were relegated to roles considered
appropriate for their sex, such as cheerleaders for male
football and basketball teams (Fox, 1985) .
In addition to the stereotypical sex-role constraints
placed upon women in athletics, women's sports prior to the
1970s were governed by a philosophy of "protectionism" that
served as a barrier to the successful integration of women in
intercollegiate athletics (Chu, 1985). Women physical
educators who coached women in sports considered it one of
their primary responsibilities to "protect" female athletes


13
increase the probability of eventual job turnover. In this
context, the information derived from this study would
augment existing research relative to the theory of work
adjustment. For example, knowledge of the levels of job
satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic coaches
would enable determination of whether the theory of work
adjustment is applicable to them. Further, even more
specific information relative to the applicability of the
theory can be gained from investigation of some of the female
intercollegiate coaches' characteristics.
Understandably (in view of their high rate of turnover),
there is need to provide suitable counseling and/or
consulting services to female intercollegiate athletic
coaches. Knowledge gained from research regarding the
relationship between work adjustment and job satisfaction
therefore should enhance the efforts of counselors and
consultants who have cause to work with female coaches or
prospective coaches. Moreover, the results of this study may
provide the basis for counselor educators and others in the
helping professions to examine further the psychodynamics of
female coaches. Correspondingly, results of this study also
may have implications for career counseling, academic
advising, and planning for effective education and training
programs for prospective female intercollegiate coaches.
Thus, if the nature of female coaches' satisfaction was


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
During the last twenty years, there have been many
controversies about the nature of intercollegiate athletics.
For example, mandatory drug testing, recruitment violations,
and minimum academic standards for athletes have been major
issues. Among these is a subject which has spawned much
controversy and discussion: the appropriate roles of women in
sports. The controversies about appropriate roles for women
in sports parallel those for women in society, and have the
same bases, such as changing societal norms and values, the
(so-called) women's movement, and state and federal
legislation.
Collegiate sports for women date to the nineteenth
century, but it was not until about the 1970s that women
began to engage in "high level" intercollegiate athletics.
More important, however, is the fact that it has only been in
the past decade and a half that females have actively
participated within the established, male-dominated
intercollegiate athletic structure, and in much the same
manner as male athletes. Several factors prevented female
athletes from participating in intercollegiate sports prior
to the early 1970s, not the least of which was the
1


34
outperform males, even in "traditionally feminine"
occupations such as elementary school teaching and nursing.
In a more recent study, Rosen and Jerdee (1978) also found
that male managers and administrators held uniformly more
negative perceptions of women than men for the following
attributes: aptitudes, knowledge, skills, interest and
motivation, temperament, and work habits and attitudes.
Several researchers also have reported that men and women are
often treated differently in their professional roles. For
example, women earn less than men for comparable work in
almost every occupation and within almost all professional
specialties (Mincer & Polachek, 1974, 1978; Sandell &
Shapiro 1978; Zincone & Close, 1978); women possessing
identical qualifications and skills as men are not as
successful in obtaining professional jobs (Dipboye, Fromkin &
Wibac, 1975; Fidell, 1970; Shaw, 1972; Zikmund, Hitt, &
Pickens, 1978; Firth, 1982); and men are promoted more often,
given more career development opportunities, trusted more in
handling personnel problems, and granted leaves of absence
for child-care duties less often than women (Rosen & Jerdee,
1973).
Another major cultural factor which may negatively
impact upon women in professions is related to the
traditional sex-role expectations for women. In accordance
with traditional female roles, familial and domestic


45
defeating positions within intercollegiate athletics.
Because of male dominance, they often feel awkward, self-
conscious, and at distinct disadvantage within the
professional structure. They also may feel reluctant to
initiate contact, communication, and interaction with those
in power (i.e., men). In turn, their "alienation" from male
coaches further excludes them and emphasizes their "marginal"
positions in intercollegiate athletics (Epstein, 1971;
Reskin, 1978).
The collegial or protege system also is important in
assessment of performance of professionals. According to
Epstein (1971), adequacy of performance may be simple to
judge at lower levels of a profession, but the fine
distinctions between good and superior performance require
subtle judgments. Members of professions affirm that only
peers can adequately judge performance at these levels; they
know the standards, they know the characteristics of the
potential promotee, and they can maintain control.
Continuance of professions depends on intense socialization
of members, much of it by immersion in the norms of the
respective professional culture even before entry and later
by sensitivity to his peers. These controls depend on a
strong network cemented by bonds of common background,
continual association, and affinity of interests (Epstein,


9
In contrast, Locke (1976) rejected the concept of needs
as a central component of job satisfaction. He defined job
satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state
resulting from the subjective appraisal of one's job or job
experiences. Locke (1976) distinguished models using the
notion of expectancy from models having as their bases the
notions of needs and/or values (Sell & Shepley, 1979).
However, authorities agree that regardless of whether the
concept of needs and/or values or perceptions is employed,
the common underlying premise of the various perspectives is
that there is something within individuals that conditions
their reactions to (i.e., satisfaction with) their jobs.
Commensurate with this view is the theory of Work
Adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). Dawis and Lofquist
(1984) asserted that job satisfaction is the result of direct
correspondence (i.e., mutual responsiveness) between an
individual's work personality and the work environment.
Individuals bring certain needs and abilities to the work
environment and the work environment in turn provides certain
rewards, such as wages, prestige, and enjoyable interpersonal
relationships, to the individual. Similarly, the
individual's skills and abilities enable her/him to respond
to the requirements of the work environment. Thus, the
rewards of the work environment are viewed as the "response"
to the requirements of the individual. When personal and


112
Table 5
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores By
Educational Degree.
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
N=68
N=67
(undergraduate)
(graduate)
Ability Utilization
20.84
4.50
20.01
4.61
Achievement
21.46
3.27
20.42
3.10
Activities
21.22
3.21
20.49
3.90
Advancement
14.66
4.98
14.72
4.80
Authority
18.43
3.36
18.01
3.40
Company Policies and
Practices
14.21
5.34
13.63
4.35
Compensation
13.15
5.55
12.09
5.59
Co-Workers
18.66
4.33
17.24
3.98
Creativity
21.62
3.37
20.94
3.21
Independence
20.46
3.18
19.91
3.08
Moral Values
21.60
3.00
21.30
3.02
Recognition
16.01
5.83
16.13
4.62
Responsibility
20.69
3.07
19.91
3.05
Security
16.29
5.33
16.70
4.78
Social Service
22.18
2.59
21.37
2.70
Social Status
17.75
4.28
17.63
3.54
Supervision-
Human Relations
15.29
6.17
15.43
5.48
Supervision-
Technical
15.41
5.48
15.64
4.79
Variety
20.40
3.50
19.66
3.82
Working Conditions
18.04
4.39
17.9
5.03
General Job Sat.
73.57
10.02
71.04
11.15
Physical Strain
41.50
9.96
40.01
10.35
Behavioral Strain
18.18
4.82
17.42
4.66
Cognitive Strain
10.88
3.99
10.70
3.60
Total Strain
70.57
15.36
68.13
16.05
Age
35.21
8.00
34.10
6.-64
Years Coaching
10.57
7.00
9.82
5.99
Years/Head Coach
9.09
7.39
7.99
6.00
Income
27.24
14.36
26.90
13.41
Games Won
39.54
33.80
35.03
52.82
Games Lost
26.06
21.77
28.21
25.87


LIST OF TABLES
Table page
1 Mean Scores For Age, Years As Coach, Years As
Head Coach, Annual Income, Behavioral
Strain, Physical Strain,Cognitive Strain,
Total Strain, Games Won, Games Lost, And
General Job Satisfaction 108
2 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Type Of Sport Coached 109
3 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Marital Status (Single/Married) 110
4 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Marital Status (Divorced/Significant Other) Ill
5 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
By Educational Degree 112
6 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
For Division (I) 113
7 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
For Division (II) 114
8 Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores
For Division (III) 115
9 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Matrix
For Age, Years As Coach, Years As Head Coach, Annual
Income, Behavioral Strain, Physical Strain,
Cognitive Strain, Total Strain, Games Won,
Games Lost, And General Job Satisfaction 116
10 Multiple Regression Analysis Of Female
Intercollegiate Athletic Coaches' General
Job Satisfaction Score By Age, Years
As Coach, Years As Head Coach, Annual
Income, Level Of Behavioral Strain, Level Of
Physical Strain, Level Of Cognitive Strain,
Level Of Total Strain, Number Of Games Won,
And Number Of Games Lost 118
viii


20
individual and environment, suitability of the individual to
the environment and of the environment for the individual,
and a reciprocal and complementary relationship between the
individual and the work environment. Correspondence in this
context is a relationship in which the individual and the
environment are corresponsive (i.e., mutually responsive)
(Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Head coach is a woman who oversees the training of
athletes and athletic teams. The head coach is responsible
for all administrative and supervisory duties related to her
particular sport (i.e., budget, recruitment, hiring of
personnel, or scheduling of team competition).
Interests denote preferences for activities as expressed
by the individual on a structured, standardized psychometric
instrument designed to sample a broad domain of activities
(Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Job satisfaction is defined as a pleasurable, affective
condition resulting from a person's appraisal of the way in
which the experienced job situation meets personal needs,
values, and expectations (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). A
person's attitude toward the job which represents a complex
assemblage of cognitions (i.e., beliefs or knowledge),
emotions (i.e., feelings, sentiments, or evaluations), and
behavioral tendencies. According to the theory of work
adjustment, job satisfaction is the result of the


135
Implications and Recommendations
There are several implications associated with the
findings of this study relative to the theory of work
adjustment, the need for follow-up research, and roles of
counselors in relation to female intercollegiate athletic
head coaches.
According to Dawis and Lofquist (1984), tenure is a
function of both satisfaction and satisfactoriness.
Satisfaction represents the individual worker's self
appraisal of the extent to which the work environment
fulfills her/his needs. On the other hand, satisfactoriness
is derived from sources other than the individual worker's
self-appraisal of fulfillment of the requirements of the work
environment (e.g., supervisor perceptions). Thus a high job
turnover rate among female intercollegiate athletic head
coaches would theoretically be related to both job
satisfaction and/or satisfactoriness. Evident from the data
derived in this study is that female coaches are generally
satisfied with their jobs. Therefore, further examination of
their levels of satisfactoriness is clearly warranted to
investigate it as a possible factor in job satisfaction, and
subsequently whether the theory of work adjustment is fully
applicable to female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
The variables investigated in this study generally were
not found to be bases for job satisfaction variation among


67
satisfaction with pay and opportunities to use skills and
abilities.
Monie (1967) discovered a U-shaped relationship between
job satisfaction and tenure. Those workers with tenure of
less than one year reported high levels of satisfaction.
After one year however, Monie reported that a sudden decrease
in satisfaction occurred followed by a sharp increase after
the second year. Thereafter, the pattern of satisfaction
plateaued. Form and Geshwender (1962) supported these
findings from their study of manual laborers. They reported
that employees found an "occupational niche" early in their
work life and that their job satisfaction stabilized soon
thereafter.
Two basic inferences pertaining to work adjustment can
be drawn from the relationship between length of employment
and job satisfaction. The most obvious is that individuals
with extended tenure are most likely to experience high
levels of work adjustment. In addition work adjustment may
be at it's lowest level after the first one or two years of
employment in a particular job. It appears that during this
time period individuals are in the process of evaluating
their positions and attempting to determine the extent to
which their jobs will satisfy their individual needs.
Therefore, work adjustment may be a critical factor at this
time.


49
comparable situations exhibit similar work-related attitudes
(Fagenson, 1988; Kanter, 1977). Kanter also claimed that
women were unable to mobilize resources within organizations
and therefore were likely to behave in an authoritarian
manner or to be insecure about their futures.
Both male and female individuals in low-mobility or
restricted mobility situations tend to limit their
aspirations, their efforts to find satisfactions outside of
work, and dreams of "escape". Instead they create sociable
peer groups and establish interpersonal relationships which
take precedence over work. Because women are more apt to
occupy low-mobility or restricted mobility positions,
especially in professions, they obviously exhibit these
behaviors more often than men. Unfortunately, the result has
been even more stereotypical generalization of "women's
organizational behavior" (e.g., fewer aspirations, less
commitment, and more concern for interpersonal relationships)
(Kanter, 1976, 1977).
Support For Theoretical Framework
For over fifty years, job satisfaction has been the
focus of repeated study and remains one of the most commonly
studied topics relative to the world of work. As early as
1935, Hoppock identified thirty-two prior job satisfaction
studies and according to Locke, more than 3,000 studies of


119
Table 11
Summary Of Four.Regression Analyses For Items Qn Job
Satisfaction Scale For The Significant Predictor. Income.
E2 F for Modal F for Income Pr>F
Advancement
.26
4 .44
10.29
.0017**
Authority
. 15
2.25
7.63
. 0066**
Compensat
.34
6.40
32.15
.0001**
Social Stat
.21
3.23
7.20
.0083**
**p<.01
As shown in Tables 12 through 15, of the four
measurements of strain, behavioral, physical, cognitive, and
total strain were significantly related to activity,
creativity, and variety components of job satisfaction at the
.01 level of significance. Collectively, the percentages of
variance accounted for by these three indices of strain were
activity 21%, creativity 16%, and variety 20%. Because only
9 of 80 relationships were statistically significant, it can
be concluded that strain is not related to the components of
job satisfaction.
No other predictors of the models (age, years as a
coach, years as a head coach, and success in work role) were
related to any of the 20 components of job satisfaction.


150
Ask yoursolf: How satisfied am I with this aspoct of my job?
Vary Sat. moans I am vary satisfod with this aspoct of my job.
Sat. moans I am satisfod with this aspoct of my job.
N moans I can't docido whothor I am satisfod or not with this aspoct of my job.
Dlssat. moans I am dissatisfiod with this aspoct of my job.
Vary Dlssat. moans I am vary dissatisfiod with this aspoct of my job.
On my prosont job, this Is how I fool about . .
76. The way my co-workers ara easy to make friend with.
77. The freedom to use my own judgment.
78. The way they usually tell me when I do my job well.
79. The chance to do my best at all times.
80. The chance to be "on the go" all the time.
81. The chance to be of soma small service to other people.
82. The chance to try my own methods of doing the job.
83. The chance to do the job without feeling I am cheating anyone.
84. The chance to work away from others.
85. The chance to do many different things on the job.
86. The chance to tell others what to do.
87. The chance to make use of my abilities and skills.
88. The chance to have a definite place in the community.
89. The way the company treats its employees.
90. The personal relationship between my boss and his/her employees.
91. The way layoffs and transfers are avoided in my job.
92. How my pay compares with that of other workers.
93. The working conditions.
94. My chances for advancement.
95. The way my boss trains his/her employees.
96. The way my co-workers get along with each other.
97. The responsibility of my job.
98. The praise I get for doing a good job.
99. The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job.
100. Being able to keep busy all the time.
v.f
Dina.










Vary
Dina.
Orno.






N
Z












N


54
jobs. Porter and Lawler (1968), in accordance with
discrepancy theory, defined job satisfaction as the extent to
which rewards actually received meet or exceed perceived
equitable level of reward. As the difference between the two
decreases, job satisfaction increases. Conversely, failure
to receive perceived equitable level of rewards creates
feelings of job dissatisfaction. According to discrepancy
theory, job satisfaction involves more than knowing the
actual reward level; it is also important to know what the
person expected to receive from the job to determine the
individual's level of job satisfaction (Chung, 1977).
A fifth theoretical perspective of job satisfaction is
equity/inequity theory. This theory is a further development
of the concept of discrepancy to include social comparison in
reward systems. The basics of this theory correspond to
discrepancy theory, with the exception that Adams (1965)
emphasized the importance of other people's Input-Output
ratios in determining a person's Input-Output ratio. Inputs
are defined as skills, personal traits, and experiences and
Outputs are defined as salary, promotions and praise.
Individuals determine their ratio of Inputs to Outputs and
compare it to their co-workers. In order for the individual
to feel satisfied, the ratio must be perceived as compatible.
If, however, individuals perceive their Input-Output ratios


35
activities are largely the responsibility of the wife/mother
(and therefore not of the husband/father). The full-time
employed wife/mother bears the largest burden for managing
the home and children. In fact, her share of domestic
activities is reported to be three times greater than that of
her full-time employed husband (Pleck, 1982) Women,
therefore, find themselves competing in their chosen
professions with men who often have supporting partners
(i.e.,wives) who manage, maintain, and enhance their lives as
professionals by fulfilling the domestic responsibilities and
duties of which, theoretically, they should have fifty-
percent responsibility (Bedeian, Burke & Moffett, 1988; Fox &
Hesse-Biber, 1984; Kaufman, 1984).
It is not known for certain what impact multiple roles
have on women. The preponderance of literature supports the
notion that roles drain energy; hence the more roles a woman
occupies the less energy she will have, the more conflict she
will experience, all of which will affect her well-being
(Coser, 1974; Goode, 1960; Slater, 1963). Conversely, more
recent studies indicate that multiple roles have a positive
impact upon women. Thoits (1983) reported that there is a
positive association between the number of roles a woman
occupies and her psychological well-being. Overall, there
seems to be a positive relationship between multiple roles
and well-being for women (Gove & Zeiss, 1987; Thoits, 1983).


154
Coser, W. (1974). Greedy institutions. New York: Free
Press.
Crowley, J. E., Levitin, T. E., & Quinn, R. P. (1973,
March). Seven half truths about women. Psychology Today,
pp. 94-96.
Davis, K. (1967). Human relations at work. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. H. (1969). Adjustment to work.
New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. H. (1984). A psychological
theory of work adjustment. Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press.
DeFleur, L. B., (1985). Organizational and ideological
barriers to sex integration in military groups. Work and
Occupations. 12, 206-228.
DeFrantz, A. L. (1987, February, 10). Just emerging from
the dark ages. USA Today, p. 10a.
Dipboye, R. L., Fromkin, H. L., & Wibac, K. (1975).
Relative importance of applicant's sex, attractiveness, and
scholastic standing in evaluation of job applicant resumes.
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Doeringer, P. B., & Piore, M., (1971). International labor
markets and manpower analysis. Lexington, MA: Heath.
Dunhan, R. B., Smith, F. J., & Blackburn, F. S. (1977).
Validation of the index of organizational reactions with the
JDI, the MSQ, and FACES scales. Academy of Management
Journal. 2, 420-432.
Epstein, C. (1970a). Encountering the male establishment:
Sex-status limits on women's careers in the professions.
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Epstein, C. (1970b). Woman's place: Options and limits in
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Epstein, C. (1971). Encountering the male establishment:
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A. Theodore (Ed.), The professional woman (pp.52-73).
Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.


21
individual's appraisal of the extent to which the work
environment fulfills the individual's needs. For the purpose
of this study job satisfaction is operationally defined as
scores on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ).
The MSQ is designed to assess satisfaction with twenty
separate aspects (i.e., work reinforcers) of the work
environment that relate to twenty psychological needs. The
twenty needs are ability utilization, achievement, activity,
advancement, authority, company policies and practices,
compensation, coworkers, creativity, independence, moral
values, recognition, responsibility, security, social
service, social status, supervision-human relation,
supervision-technical, variety, and working conditions.
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is the
governing organization of men's and women's intercollegiate
athletic programs. It sanctions intercollegiate athletic
events and establishes, conducts, and promotes competitive
national championships.
Needs are defined as implied psychological or
physiological deficiencies. A need is an internal condition
that spurs the individual to activity and to behave in
specific ways (Abramson, 1980). Need deficiency causes a
state of disequilibrium or psychic tension, directing the
individual into a satisfying or out of an unsatisfying
situation (Lundin, 1974). Needs are defined as an


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Susan Leigh Hambleton was born on September 12, 1951, in
Detroit, Michigan. She is the daughter of Fred and June
Hambleton and the sister of Judy and the late Fred Hambleton.
Susan received her Bachelor of Science degree in
sociology and psychology from Central Michigan University,
Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, in 1973. Ms. Hambleton was employed
by the State of Michigan as an Assistant County Juvenile
Officer from 1973 to 1980. During this time she provided
both individual and family counseling to adolescent offenders
and their families. In 1980 she moved to Ocala, Florida,
where she taught secondary education for the Marion County
School District for one year.
In 1981, Susan moved to Gainesville, Florida, where she
began her graduate studies at the University of Florida. In
1983 she completed her Specialist in Education degree. While
working toward her Ed.S., she held a variety of counseling
positions with the University of Florida Athletic Department,
Student Health Service, and Santa Fe Community Community
College She also served as a teaching assistant for the
Counselor Education Department and briefly supervised a grant
program which was designed to provide vocational and career
counseling to incarcerated adult females at the Alachua
County Department of Corrections in Gainesville, Florida.
164


161
Rosen, B., & Jerdee, T. (1973) The influence of sex-role
stereotypes on evaluations of male and female supervisory
behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57 (1), 185-218.
Rosen, B., & Jerdee, T. (1978). Perceived sex differences
in managerially relevant characteristics. Sex Roles, A (6),
837-843.
Saleh, S. D., & Otis, J. L. (1964). An expiatory study of
job satisfaciton attitudes among supervisors in the utility
industry. Unpublished master's thesis, New York State
School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell
University, New York.
Sandell, S. H., & Shapiro, D. (1978) The theory of human
capital and the earnings of women: A reexamination of the
evidence. Journal of Human Resources, 12, 103-17.
Schaef, A. W. (1981). Women's reality. San Fransisco:
Harper and Row Publishers.
Schreiber, C. (1979). Changing places. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Press.
Sell, R. G., & Shipley, P., (Eds.). (1979). Satisfactions
in work design: Ergonomics and other approaches. London:
Taylor and Francis Ltd.
Shapiro, J., & Stern, L. (1975). Job satisfaction: Male and
female, professional and nonprofessional workers. Personnel
Psychology, 2A, 388-389.
Shaw, E. A. (1972). Differential impact of negative
stereotyping in employee selection. Personnel Psychology.
22, 332-38.
Shott, G. L., Albright, L. E., & Glennon, J. R. (1963).
Predicting turnover in an automated office situation.
Personnel Psychology. 16. 213-219.
Slater, P. (1963). On social regression. American
Sociological Review. 22, 339-364.
Smith, P., Kendall, L., & Hulin, C. (1969). The
measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement. Chicago:
Rand McNally.
South, S. J., Bourjean, C. M., Corder, J., & Markham, W. T.
(1982). Sex and power in the federal bureaucracy: A
comparitive analysis of male and female supervisors. Work
and Occupations. 2, 233-254.


55
to be larger or smaller than others, they will be
dissatisfied (Wellstood, 1984).
Two more recent theoretical perspectives include
attribution theory and locus of control theory. According to
attribution theory, an individual's perceived behavior is
determined by internal forces such as personality attributes
(e.g., ability, effort, or fatigue) and external forces
(e.g., environmental attributes). According to Luthans
(1981), people behave differently based on whether they
perceive internal and external attributes.
Locus of control explains an individual's work behavior
in terms of perceived internal or external controlled
outcomes. An individual's perceived locus of control has an
impact on degree of job satisfaction. For example, an
internally controlled individual is generally more satisfied
with work than an externally controlled individual (Mitchell,
Smyser, & Weed, 1975).
According to Dawis and Lofquist (1984), work is an
interaction between an individual and the work environment
where each has specific needs and requirements of the other.
For example, within the work environment the individual is
expected to perform certain tasks and complete specific
assignments. Correspondingly, the individual expects to be
compensated for her/his work performance and provided with
satisfying conditions of work such as safety, comfort, peer


8
There are several possible explanations for the high
rate of turnover among female intercollegiate coaches. One
is the perpetuation of sex-role stereotypes in college
athletics. Another is the increasing acceptability of men
coaching women's sports teams as opposed to women coaching
men's teams (Abbott & Smith, 1984). A third possible
explanation is that women coaches are experiencing high
degrees of job dissatisfaction, and therefore are voluntarily
withdrawing (i.e., quitting their coaching jobs). It is this
latter possibility with which this study is concerned.
Theoretical Framework
Job satisfaction has been viewed from a wide range of
perspectives. Hoppock (1935) defined job satisfaction as
"any combination of physiological and environmental
circumstances that causes a person to truthfully say 'I am
satisfied with my job'" (p.47). According to Super (1942),
job satisfaction depends upon the individual's opportunity to
find adequate outlets for abilities, interests, personality
traits, and values. The most common definitions of job
satisfaction all allude to the existence of the individual's
needs (in varying forms), and (generally) view job
satisfaction as resulting from a good fit between the
individual's needs and the job's characteristics and/or
environment (Hopkins, 1983) .


APPENDIX B
DEMOGRAPHIC SURVEY
Please write your responses directly on this form.
1. Primary Sport Coached (current)
2. Level of Sport Coached (Division I, II, or III)
3. Age
4. Race
5. What is your marital status?
single married divorced widowed
living with "significant other"
6. Undergraduate/Graduate Academic Major
7. What is your Annual Income? (include institutional
salary plus estimated income derived from related
extracurricular benefits [e.g., transportation provisions,
off-season sports clinics,
speaking engagements, etc.] to the nearest $5,000.00)
8. Years Employed as a Coach
9. Years Employed as a Head Coach
10. How many games have you won during the past three (3)
years?
11. How many games have you lost during the past three (3)
years?
12.What is the most dissatisfying aspect of your
job ?
13.Is there anything that you would like to add?(Please use
back of this form)
143


15
segregated structure. Lopiano (1987) also speculated that
there will be few, if any, women coaching female college
athletes by the year 2000, thus reducing the probability that
female athletes will have female role models. A lack of
positive female role models could have negative repercussions
on the career choices and attitudes of young students
(Lopiano, 1987) Therefore, knowledge of job satisfaction
among female intercollegiate athletic coaches holds
implications not only for the coaches, but also for female
athletes in general.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the nature of
job satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic
coaches. Variations in job satisfaction among female
intercollegiate athletic coaches will be investigated in
regard to factors including age, years in coaching, years as
a head coach, type of sport coached, division level of
collegiate athletic program, annual income, marital status,
success in work role, and physical, behavioral, cognitive,
and total strain.
Rationale for Approach. t..o..the....Study
According to Acosta and Carpenter (1988), female
intercollegiate coaches inexplicably have been withdrawing


39
trusts and estates and domestic relations, areas which are
traditionally female domains. Overall, women lawyers are
engaged either in low prestige specialties or in specialties
where firms can put them in "back rooms" to insure the fact
that they do not have direct contact with clients who may
find it "unacceptable" to work with women (Patterson &
Engelberg, 1978).
Like the field of medicine, women in law face barriers
which impede the progress of their careers. For example, few
women are represented in middle-sized law firms. Women
generally elect private practice where they generally work
alone, or they join very large firms which will tolerate
"deviant" practitioners and where they may remain anonymous
(Patterson & Engelberg, 1978) .
In addition to the aforementioned cultural factors which
influence women's professional development, also to be
considered are the numerous structural factors with which
they are confronted. Foremost among these factors is the
"male culture," which exists ostentatiously in male dominant
professions. It is this male culture, or "old boys club"
network, that Acosta and Carpenter (1986, 1988) cited as the
primary (perceived) cause of the decline in the number of
female coaches in intercollegiate athletics. Male and female
coaches were surveyed by them as to what those coaches
perceived as the primary causes of the decreasing number of


102
effected the results of this study. Therefore, "living with
significant other" was included as the fifth marital status
response choice.
Although the salaries of university and college
personnel (generally) are published and available to the
public, they remain an area often considered personal and
private. Therefore, it was conceivable that the respondents
would be reluctant to report this information. Given these
circumstances, the questionnaire requested that the
respondents report their annual income to the nearest
multiple of $5,000. In an effort to insure an accurate
representation of the salary ranges of female intercollegiate
coaches, the respondents were asked to include along with
their institutional salary estimated income derived from
related extracurricular activities (e.g., transportation
provisions, off-season sports clinics, and speaking
engagements) in their reported annual income.
Individual's perceptions of success (accomplishment) or
failure in their work role is often highly subjective in
nature and thus could effect the results of the study. As a
means of eliminating subjectivity in their responses,
respondents were asked to report their win/loss record for
the past three years.


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
The purpose of this study was to investigate variations
in job satisfaction in relation to selected factors which
included age, marital status, annual income, years in the
coaching profession, years as a head coach, type of sport
coached, level (division) of collegiate athletic program and
perceived levels of strain (stress) job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches. The Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) was administered in order to
asses subjects' levels of job satisfaction along with the
Strain Questionnaire (SQ) which assesed the subjects' levels
of strain. Data also were gathered from the MSQ for the
following psychological variables: ability utilization,
achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company
policies and practices, compensation, co-workers, creativity,
independence, moral values, recognition, responsibility,
security, social service, social status, supervision-human
relations, supervision technical, variety, and working
conditions.
Population
The population for this study was female intercollegiate
athletic (head) coaches for women's sports programs in NCAA
Division I, II, or III level athletic departments. According
91


84
Organizational Reactions [IOR]) ranked highest and second
highest in convergent and discriminant validities,
respectively. Convergent validity was based on the degree to
which the scales (on all measures) indicated similar scores
among the respondents. In contrast, discriminative validity
was established by the degree to which each respondent's
scale pattern was similar on each instrument, but different
from other individuals taking the test. Indicated in the
results of these comparisons was that the MSQ had the highest
convergent validity (.71 to .61) and median discriminative
(.70). Demonstrated in further analyses was that when the
MSQ was compared to the other measures of job satisfaction,
it was least affected by differences in the respondents'
gender and type of job (Dunhan et al., 1977) .
MSQ test-retest correlation coefficients were calculated
for a one week period for seventy-five night school students.
Stability correlations ranged from .66 (co-workers scale) to
.91 (working conditions scale). Test-retest correlation
coefficients also were calculated over a one-year period for
115 employed persons. Stability correlations for this period
ranged from .35 (independence scale) to .71 (ability
utilization scale). Canonical correlation analyses of the
data derived from the two test-retest intervals yielded a .97
coefficient for the one-week interval and .89 for the one-
year interval (Weiss et al., 1967)). Weiss et al. (1967)


29
A third explanation related to personal accomplishment
was based on the assumption that female sports are not as
highly acclaimed as are male sports. Thus, there is
considerably less recognition and attention given to female
coaches and they are not rewarded as well for their successes
as are male coaches (Caccese & Mayerber, 1984).
Another area that has been examined as a possible
explanation for the dramatic decline in the number of women
coaches is related to sex discrimination and the impact of
discriminant practices on female coaching careers. Mathes
(1982) reported a set of factors which potentially explained
why female interscholastic coaches exited the coaching
profession. These factors, believed to have influenced the
coaches' decisions to leave the field, included less
perceived opportunity than males to (a) coach high status
sports; (b) become head coaches or athletic directors; and
(c) obtain coaching positions. Also indicated in the
findings of the study was that former female coaches believed
inequities in pay, transportation, facilities, support
services, and practice times were important considerations in
their decisions to leave such roles (Mathes, 1982) These
factors are all components of job satisfaction.
The current status of female intercollegiate athletic
coaches is related, in part, to several cultural and
structural factors associated with male-dominated professions


57
and working conditions. Job dissatisfaction occurs when the
individual perceives that the work environment does not meet
most or all of these needs.
Satisfactoriness is the degree to which the work
environment is satisfied with the individual's skills and
performance. Both satisfaction and satisfactoriness are
required in order for an individual to remain voluntarily or
be retained in a job. Thus, tenure is the outcome of work
adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). More specifically,
tenure is the outcome of high correspondence (i.e., job
satisfaction) and satisfactoriness between the individual and
work environment.
Also according to the theory of work adjustment, an
individual has principle characteristics which collectively
represent her/his work personality (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
A person's work personality is comprised of two primary sets
of characteristics: status characteristics (i.e., personality
structure) and process characteristics (i.e., personality
manifestation style). Personality structure is defined as an
individual's vocational skills and needs, while personality
style refers to an individual's characteristic ways of
interacting with the vocational environment. Needs and
values of personality structure are measured on the reference
dimensions of abilities and values, respectively.
Personality style is measured on the reference dimensions of:


37
1984; Kaufman, 1984). Relatedly, Koberg and Chusmir (1987)
found that for females, the higher their rank in a job, the
higher their level of sex-role conflict. Conversely, the
reverse was found to be true for males.
In response to traditional sex-role expectations for
females, women may be forced to withdraw from employment to
fulfill familial roles (e.g., childbearing and childcare).
Consequently, it has been reported that careers of
professional women are more discontinuous than their male
counterparts (Ferber & Kordick, 1978). The discontinuity in
their careers often results in obsolescence of skills, as
well as loss of positions, participation in career
activities, and personnel contacts (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984).
Serving as an additional impediment in the professional
women's career is the virilocal (i.e., residence determined
by males) nature of the family structure. Generally, there
is greater pressure on the wives to accommodate their
spouses' transfers or relocations than vice versa (Theodore,
1971). Thus the occupation patterns associated with male
dominance in professions impede women's career developments.
Women who pursue professional careers often choose those
which are least likely to require work duties incompatible
with the stereotypical role expectations (Patterson &
Engelberg, 1978) For example, in the field of medicine,
women are overrepresented in anesthesiology, pathology,


141
toward the coaching profession. This is based on the
personal commments provided by the coaches in this study.
Some respondents indicated that they had concerns and
complaints relative to their jobs, but that the MSQ didn't
specifically address them (e.g., travel away from home and
family, extended working hours, male-female conflicts, or
sexual discrimination with regard to facilities and
equipment) It is also possible, again based on personal
comments provided by the coaches surveyed, that the SQ did
not address the specific stressors relative to their personal
situations. It might also be beneficial to replicate this
study, at a .05 level of significance .It is conceivable
that in an effort to reduce the likelihood of a Type I error,
the a.01 level of significance used in this study was
possibly too conservative, thus ruling out other possible
significant relationships.
Without further investigation, resolution of the problem
of attrition is not likely to occur. Hence, continuance of
the current trend of high turnover among female
intercollegiate athletic coaches will inevitably result in a
sex-segregated athletic structure which will seriously impact
not only the profession, but thousands of female athlete
participants as well.


represent NCAA female head coaches in terms of age, years
as a coach, years as a head coach, type of sport coached,
and collegiate division level of athletic program.
A multiple regression analysis was used to investigate
the relationship between overall job satisfaction and age,
income, tenures, success, and strain components. Only
annual income made a statistically significant contribution
to the variance in job satisfaction. In subsequent
analyses, income was found to be significantly related to
the advancement, authority, compensation, and social status
components of job satisfaction. Also, physical,
behavioral, cognitive, and total strain were related to the
activity, creativity, and variety job satisfaction
components. In general, however, these component
relationships were only moderate. In addition, neither
overall job satisfaction nor any of its components was
found to vary on the bases of these coaches' marital
status, type of sport coached, or collegiate level of
coaching.
The situational and psychological factors investigated
accounted for far less variation in female intercollegiate
athletic head coaches' job satisfaction than has been
hypothesized; only annual income was a good predictor of
it. Other factors, such as those inherent in work
environments, need to be studied to gain greater
understanding of job satisfaction among these coaches.
xi


97
Prior to selecting the sample for the study, the
directory was reviewed. The names which obviously belonged
to male coaches, along with names that could belong to either
male or female coaches (e.g., Pat, Terry, or Lynn) were
discarded from the population from which the sample was
drawn. Once this procedure was completed, the name of every
thirteenth female coach listed in the directory who was
associated with a NCAA Division I, II, or III level
institution was selected (i.e., 1st name, 14th name, 27th
name, etc.). This process continued until a sample of 300
female coaches was identified. Because there was no evidence
of biased ordering in the list, it was expected that a random
sample of female intercollegiate coaches would be drawn and
that the sample would be representative of the larger
population of female intercollegiate coaches nationwide. It
also was anticipated that the women's sports offered by the
largest percentage of schools would have the greatest
representation in the sample.
Resultant Sample
Acosta and Carpenter (1988) reported percentages of
schools offering each women's sport along with percentages of
sports which are coached by females. Based on their
findings, a representative sample of the female
intercollegiate coaches similar to the following was


110
Table 3
Status.
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
N=69
N=4 9
(single)
(married)
Ability Utilization
20.62
4.70
20.06
4.55
Achievement
21.28
3.20
20.47
3.34
Activities
21.20
3.37
20.02
4.05
Advancement
14.84
5.53
14.35
4.36
Authority
18.20
3.60
18.18
3.37
Company Policies and
Practices
14.42
5.38
13.73
4.12
Compensation
13.04
5.62
12.12
5.64
Co-Workers
18.07
4.25
17.61
4.20
Creativity
21.49
3.03
21.00
3.23
Independence
20.72
3.04
19.20
3.26
Moral Values
21.77
2.47
20.84
3.65
Recognition
16.38
5.69
15.86
4.70
Responsibility
20.38
3.18
20.20
2.93
Security
17.16
4.76
15.86
5.37
Social Service
21.99
2.45
21.51
3.06
Social Status
18.07
4.20
17.31
3.45
Supervision-
Human Relations
15.55
5.95
15.06
5.15
Supervision-
Technical
15.58
5.07
15.61
4.74
Variety
20.13
4.17
19.57
3.33
Working Conditions
18.42
4.51
17.04
5.20
General Job Sat.
72.91
12.01
71.39
9.37
Physical Strain
39.04
9.96
42.35
10.04
Behavioral Strain
17.23
4.02
18.47
5.34
Cognitive Strain
10.38
3.45
11.24
4.20
Total Strain
66.67
15.48
72.06
15.43
Age
34.75
7.71
34.76
7.68
Years Coaching
9.71
6.66
11.02
6.79
Years/Head Coach
8.32
6.71
9.27
7.32
Income
28.52
15.56
24.94
12.17
Games Won
43.48
55.07
27.41
23.07
Games Lost
27.70
20.77
24.90
25.81


132
perceived income problems (Moore, 1985) The results of this
study offer limited support for this premise. There were
significant relationships between annual income and general
job satisfaction and with five of the twenty components of
job satisfaction (i.e., advancement, authority, compensation,
security, and social status) The results also tend to
contradict the notion that males place greater emphasis on
economic rewards, while women most often cite support from
co-workers, job content, and socioemotional factors as the
most important determinants of job satisfaction (Andrisani,
1978; Blauner, 1964; Davis, 1967; Herzberg, et al., 1957;
Neil, & Cnizek, 1987) Suggested in the results of this
study is that women (i.e., female coaches) do not place
inordinant value on social relationships; they value other
aspects of jobs as well (O'Farrell & Harlen, 1982).
Cassesse and Mayerber (1984) reported that female
coaches experienced high levels of strain which manifested
itself as "burnout" and job dissatisfaction. This would
suggest a significant negative relationship between strain
and job satisfaction. Although the results of this study
yielded significant relationships between the four indices of
strain (i.e., physical, behavioral, cognitive, and total
strain) and various components of job satisfaction (e.g.,
ability utilization, activity, creativity, social status, and
variety), these factors accounted for only a small amount of


74
se that was the critical factor. Instead, it was the entire
scope of factors including pay, job level, promotional
opportunities within the company, and societal norms that
determined levels of job satisfaction. Relatedly, Ivancivich
and Donnelly (1968) linked differing levels of job
satisfaction to differential treatment of women and men with
identical credentials within the organization.
Researchers have argued that organizational position,
occupational characteristics, and social control patterns in
the work structure are crucial determinants of job
satisfaction. Reportedly, women often place greater emphasis
on social relationships, but it is believed that this is
related to characteristics of their jobs and not their sex-
role socialization. More specifically, it is due to the fact
that women in general are restricted in job opportunities
because of the patriarchical pattern of control to which they
are subjected to in whatever jobs they hold (Acker & Van
Houten, 1974; Feldberg & Glenn, 1979; Kanter, 1977; Laws,
1979) .
Mcllwee (1982) claimed that the occupational stucture in
the United States contains considerable inequality in the
opportunities for work satisfaction and as the labor process
of advanced capitalism forces the structure to become even
more automated and divided, work at most levels will become
increasingly more dissatisfying especially for women.


59
of correspondence is described as worker flexibility. If
there is need to increase the individual's degree of
correspondence with the work environment, the individual will
elect to either change the environment or alter the way in
which the work personality structure is expressed in the work
environment. If the individual responds by acting on the
environment, the mode of adjustment is called active. If the
individual responds by changing her/his expression or
manifestation of work personality structure to increase
correspondence, the mode of adjustment is called reactive.
Relatedly, the mode of adjustment which describes the length
of time an individual will tolerate lack of correspondence
with the work environment before leaving is called
perseverance (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
The application of the theory of work adjustment has
utilitarian value for understanding levels of job
satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
In addition to augmenting existing research relative to the
the theory of work adjustment, the findings derived from this
study could (a) provide more specific theoretical guidance
for counselors and consultants who have cause to work with
female coaches or prospective coaches, (b) augment existing
research pertaining to women in other male dominated
professions and/or individuals working in high pressure/high
stress environments, and (c) help to establish how Dawis and


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
This study addressed four research questions to
investigate job satisfaction among female intercollegiate
athletic head coaches. The results, which were based on job
satisfaction and strain surveys administered to Division I,
II, and III level female intercollegiate athletic coaches
across the country, are presented in this chapter. Each
research question is addressed separately to facilitate
understanding of the results. Response means and standard
deviations by categories are provided in Tables 1 through 8.
A Pearson product moment correlation coefficient matrix is
provided in Table 9.
Table 1
Means Scores For Age, Years As Coach, Years As h Head Coach,
Annual Income, Behavioral Strain, Physical Strain, Cognitive
Strain, Total Strain, Games Won, Games Lost, and General Job
Satisfaction.
Variable
N
Mean
SD
Age
Yrs as Coach
Yrs.as H.Coach
Annual Income
Behavioral Str
Physical Str
Cognitive Str
Total Str
Games Won
Games Lost
Gen Job.Sat.
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
135
34.66
10.20
8.54
27.07
17.80
40.76
10.79
69.36
37.30
27.13
72.32
7.35
6.50
6.73
3.85
4.73
10.14
3.79
15.69
44.16
23.83
10.63
108


3
from the negative connotations associated with men's sports
programs, (i.e., violence, aggressiveness, and injury).
Accordingly, segregated sports programs for men and women
seemed justified, and female athletes were restricted to low
level competition often referred to as "play days." Under
the guise of protectionism, competition, in its most positive
sense, was suppressed rather than encouraged for women,
further alienating and isolating women from the realm of
intercollegiate athletic competition.
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, parallel to the
tremendous increase in enrollment of women in higher
education, there was a dramatic rise in the number of
athletically talented females capable of participating in
competitive intercollegiate athletics. Thus, the demand for
higher levels of competition became more pronounced and a
more competitive philosophy for women's sports began to
evolve.
The transition from "protectionism" to "competitiveness"
first reached prominence with the establishment of the
Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (CIAW) in
1965 and the subsequent establishment of the Association for
Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) in 1971. The
purpose of the CIAW was to sanction women's intercollegiate
athletic events and to establish, conduct, and promote
mechanisms leading to national intercollegiate athletic


66
would remain on her/his present job. Similarly, Shott et
al.(1963) studied clerical workers and found that employees
who had long tenure with their present employers also had
worked at least ten months with their previous employers.
The researchers of Fleishman and Berniger (1960) and Robinson
(1972) supported the findings of Shott et al. (1963).
Hulin and Smith (1965) reported a close relationship
between tenure and job satisfaction. Similar to the
relationship between age and job satisfaction, they concluded
it was monotonic in nature. They also concluded that it may
be incorrect to assume that tenure alone is related to job
satisfaction because age, not tenure, may be a stronger
predictor of job satisfaction levels. Therefore, in order
to determine the effects of tenure on job satisfaction, the
relationship between age and job satisfaction must be taken
into consideration. Hulin and Smith also argued that the
same line of reasoning applies to salary and job level.
Rachman and Kemp (1964) found that the "happiest"
employees in their study- were those who had been with the
company for over twenty years. Similarly, Form and
Geschwender (1962) found that workers with ten or more years
were significantly more satisfied than co-workers with less
tenure. Alderfer (1967), in a study which examined the job
satisfaction levels of blue collar and low-level management
personnel, found that as seniority increased so did worker


64
Srivasta et al.(1977) indicated from their review of the
literature that there was a relationship between level of
education and job satisfaction, but the direction of the
relationship depended upon unspecified variables. According
to these researchers, it is feasible that an "overqualified"
or educated individual would feel trapped and unproductive in
an undemanding and thus, unsatisfying job. Relatedly, it
also seemed reasonable to assume that higher educational
levels may be related to feelings of well-being and
satisfaction. In this vein, higher educated individuals
would be more likely to occupy intrinsically and
extrinsically rewarding positions in organizations (Srivasta
et al., 1977) .
It may be inferred that individuals' levels of education
may significantly impact their levels of work adjustment.
Although there is disagreement as to the direction of the
relationship between the two variables, there is relative
certainty that either too much or too little education for a
particular job results in dissatisfaction. In terms of work
adjustment, an individual who is either under or
overqualified for her/his position will likely find that many
personal needs are unmet (e.g., ability utilization,
advancement, compensation, recognition, security, creativity,
working conditions) resulting in low work adjustment.


47
do not have, nor could develop, these traits, thus they would
make poor administrators or leaders within organizations.
The purported validity of these assumptions has been refuted
in subsequent research and the attitudes toward women's
leadership abilities have begun to change (Maccoby & Jacklin,
1974) .
In many occupations (e.g., law enforcement, military, or
building construction), however, males continue to oppose the
entry of women for reasons which have been described as
ideological and/or symbolic vestments of male-oriented
groups, their values, or their cultural views (DeFleur,
1985). Themes of gender differentiation and exclusivity are
central to the work ethos of these occupations. Individuals
in these occupations posit their arguments on physiological
and psychological differences between the sexes which
necessitate different social roles (DeFleur, 1985). Thorne
and Henley (1975), illustrated this point with their study of
the mining occupation. Miners insist that the nature of
their work and its uniqueness (i.e., spending long periods of
time physically and socially isolated in the mines)
necessitates interdependence and closeness. Miners believe
bonds which develop insure safety and survival, and can only
develop between males.
Women are sometimes denigrated in some male-dominated
occupations through negativistic humor, unflattering


61
(accomplishment) in their work role. Fortunately, however,
other authors have addressed these factors, and their
relationships to job satisfaction can be discussed within the
context of work adjustment.
Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and Capwell (1957) reported
a U-shaped relationship between age and satisfaction. More
specifically, job satisfaction levels are high in young
workers. Over time however, their levels of satisfaction
wane, but rise again with increasing age. Substantial support
exists for the U-shaped relationship. In seventeen of
twenty-three studies conducted before 1960 on the
relationship between age and job satisfaction, the U-shaped
curve emerged (Ivancevich & Donnelly, 1968). Hoppock (1960)
reported similar findings in a study in which he compared job
satisfaction levels of male workers in 1932 and again in
1959. He found that nearly three quarters of the total
sample reported increased levels of satisfaction over the
time period. Weaver (1980), in a related study which
compared job satisfaction levels of workers between 1972 and
1978, also reported that job satisfaction increased with age.
Hulin and Smith (1965) rejected the U-shaped model as a
result of their findings which suggested a monotonic
relationship between age and job satisfaction. They found
that job satisfaction rose steadily until approximately five
years before expected time for retirement. They explained


101
environmental demands upon the individual. It is comprised
of four scales which are identified as physical, behavioral,
cognitive, and total strain. The SQ contains 28 physical
("backaches" to "premenstrual tension or missed cycles"), 12
behavioral ("spent more time alone" or "accident proneness"),
and 8 cognitive ("believe the world is against you" or "think
things can't get any worse") indices of strain. Each score
is calculated by summing the individual symptom ratings
within the scale. The total strain score is comprised of the
total physical, behavioral, and cognitive scores. The SQ is
self-administered and has no time limit (Lefebvre & Sandford,
1985) .
In most research studies, marital status is depicted as
either married, divorced, widowed, or single. However, these
categories may be insufficient due to the large number of
single people who are in living arrangements with an
"unrelated" partner. This factor was considered relevant to
this study for two reasons: (a) many young adult
professionals choose not to marry, but instead elect to live
with a "significant other" in a committed, non-marital
relationship, and (b) one of the factors important in the
assessment of degree of stress individuals experience in
professions is the level of support and assistance they
receive from the "significant others" in their lives. Thus,
the exclusion of non-marital partners could possibly have


133
the total variance in general job satisfaction. Therefore,
although strain was related to some components of job
satisfaction, it was not related to overall job satisfaction.
Until recently, the general concensus among researchers
who have examined the impact of role conflict and multiple
roles upon working women was that working women with
additional familial responsibilities were apt to experience
job dissatisfaction.(Coser, 1974; Goode, 1960; Slater,
1963). More recent findings, however, suggest a positive
association between the number of roles a woman occupies and
her psychological well-being and levels of satisfaction
(Crosby, 1984, Gove & Zeiss, 1987; Thoits, 1983; Verbrugge,
1982). The results of this study do not support either of
these positions. Married and divorced women occupying
multiple roles (e.g., wife, mother, and professional)
comprised 39% of the resultant sample, yet there were no
significant differences in level of job satisfaction on the
basis of marital status ( a reflection of life roles).
Therefore, it can be concluded that multiple roles or role
conflict are not differential determinants of job
satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic coaches.
There is considerable disagreement as to the direction
of the relationship between levels of education and job
satisfaction. For example, Weaver (1980), Quinn and
Mandilovitch (1980), and Herzberg, et al. (1957) reported


148
Ask yourself: How satisfied am I with this aspect of my ¡ob?
Very Sat. means I am very satisfied with this aspect of my job.
Sat. means I am satisfied with this aspect of my ¡ob.
N means i can t decide whether I am satisfied or not with this aspect of my job.
Dissert, means I am dissatisfied with this aspect of my job.
Very Dlssat. means I am very dissatisfied with this aspect of my ¡ob.
On my present job, this is how 1 feel about . .
Very
Diiiot.
Oiitaf.
N
Sot.
Very
Sat.
26. The chance to tell other workers how to do things.

,
! i
*

27. The chance to do work thaf is well suited to my abilities.

i |
-
__
28. The chance to be "somebody" in the community.

¡

i_J

29. Company policies and the way in which they are administered.


i 1
[j
1
30. The way my boss handles his/her employees.

n

LJ

31. The way my job provides for a secure future.





32. The chance to make as much money as my friends.




33. The physical surroundings where 1 work.

D



34. The chances of getting ahead on this job.





35. The competence of my supervisor in making decisions.





36. The chance to develop close friendships with my co-workers.
r
u
L-l
i"!
LJ
|¡
:
37. The chance to make decisions on my own.



LJ

38. The way 1 get full credit for the work 1 do.
n
LJ
i


39. Being able to take pride in a job well done.

n

1 i
40. Being able to do something much of the time.

L-J



41. The chance to help people.





42. The chance to try something different.




43. Being able to do things that don't go against my conscience.

* ^
i
It
1
44. The chance to be alone on the job.



n
L-j
! j
45. The routine in my work.



* *
46. The chance to supervise other people.


I
;
47. The chance to make use of my best abilities.




48. The chance to "rub elbows" with important people.


49. The way employees are informed about company policies.




50. The way my boss backs up his/her employees (with top management).

D
ri

Very
Oiuot.
Oiuot.
N
Sot.
Very
Sat.


Table 2
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores By Type Of
Sport Coached.
Ability Utilization
Achievement
Activities
Advancement
Authority
Company Policies and
Practices
Compensation
Creativity
Independence
Moral Values
Recognition
Responsibility
Security
Social Service
Social Status
Supervision-
Human Relations
Supervision-
Technical
Variety
Working Conditions
General Job Sat.
Physical Strain
Behavioral Strain
Cognitive Strain
Total Strain
Age
Years Coaching
Years/Head Coach
Income
Games Won
Games Lost
Mean SD
N=41
(Individual)
21.00
4.30
21.26
3.09
21.00
3.22
15.00
5.28
18.10
3.53
12.93
4.79
11.98
5.66
21.44
3.18
21.49
3.50
21.41
3.18
15.59
5.36
20.34
3.09
16.63
5.52
21.90
2.27
17.90
3.62
14.93
5.65
15.37
5.03
20.15
3.86
18.22
4.84
72.58
9.84
40.78
8.97
18.10
4.16
10.56
3.99
69.44
13.53
37.41
9.04
12.49
7.58
10.80
8.04
26.49
11.03
31.90
70.62
13.00
14.56
Mean
SD
N=94
(Team)
20.20
4.67
20.80
3.20
20.81
3.74
14.55
4.71
18.28
3.32
14.35
4.86
12.90
4.13
21.21
3.37
20.05
2.97
21.47
2.94
16.29
5.21
20.29
3.09
16.44
4.86
21.72
2.82
17.20
4.53
15.55
5.91
15.60
5.20
19.98
3.60
17.87
4.66
72.20
11.01
40.76
10.66
17.67
4.98
10.89
3.71
69.33
16.62
33.46
6.14
9.20
5.74
7.55
5.85
27.32
14.96
39.66
25.43
33.29
24.51


146
Confidential
Your answen to the questions and ail other information you give us will be held in strictest confidence.
Name Today's Date 19.
Hint
!. Check one: Hj Male Female
2. When were you born? 19
3. Circle the number of years of schooling you completed:
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Grade School High School College Graduate or
Professional School
4. What is your present job called?
5. What do you do on your present job? _
6.
How long have, you been on your present job?
years
months
7. What would you call your occupation, your usual line of work?
8. How long have you been in this line of work?.
years
months


116
Table 9
rearson rroauci: momenr correr
Aae.Years as Coach.Years as
Ltion
Head
coerri
Coach.
cient Matrix ro
Annual Income.
r
Behavioral Strain. Physical Strain,
Cognitive
Strain. Total
Strain, Games Won, Games
Lost,
and
General Job
_Satisfaction.
Age Yrc Yrhc Inc
Beh
Phv
Cog
Tstr
Gwon
Glos
Gis
Age .78 .76 .48
.09
.19
.10
.07
.18
.06
, 1 f?
Yrc .89 .48
. 11
.16
.03
.03
.18
.01
,19
Yrhc .42
.11
.16
.04
.01
.21
.04
.16
Inc
.10
.03
.08
.07
.24
.05
.30
Beh
.56
.46
.77
.04
.16
,32
Phv
.47
. 93
.07
.17
.31
Cog
.69
.01
.29
,42
Tstr
.06
.23
.40
Gwon
.33
.01
Glos
^20.
Research Question 1
What is the relationship between job satisfaction
and age, years employed as a coach, years employed as a
physical, cognitive, and total strain, and success in
work role?
In order to respond to the first question, a multiple
regression analysis using the Statistical Analysis System
(SAS) General Linear Model (GLM) procedure was computed to
determine significant relationships among these factors. The


62
that at this stage of the individual's career opportunities
for growth and promotion often begin to decline. Saleh and
Otis (1964) reported findings similar to those of Hulin and
Smith. In their study of managerial level employees, they
also found that satisfaction increased with age until the
pre-retirement period, at which time it began to decline.
Their explanation for the decline was related to "general
adjustment" to life's unavoidable circumstances. Individuals
often experience a decline in physical health as well as
decreased opportunities for self-actualization and
psychological growth between the ages of 60 and 65.
Consequently, according to Saleh and Otis, the result is a
general decline in life adjustment, which in turn contributes
to a significant decline in job satisfaction. Saleh and
Otis's findings are supported by Form and Geshwender (1962).
They concluded that other variables relating to increased
satisfaction are a general function of adult socialization
and are interrelated through the variable of age. Thus, as
workers age, they begin to accept their positions in life and
adjust their goals, including occupational goals and
aspirations, accordingly.
In contrast with theories that purport that job
satisfaction increases with age, Aronowitz (1973) reported
that greater dissatisfaction was expressed by younger workers
in the 1970's. This dissatisfaction, however, was attributed


80
degrees of strain and ultimately in low levels of work
adjustment.
Support For Need For the Study
Job satisfaction is contingent on accurate assessment of
an individual's perceptions of her/his needs and the
likelihood that the job will meet (satisfactorily) those
needs. Use of the results of this study will, in part,
enhance counselors' abilities to facilitate accurate self and
work environment assessments by prospective and current
female coaches, thereby enabling counselors to provide more
effective services for those persons.
Despite the fact that choosing a career is one of the
most important decisions individuals make during their
lifetimes, unfortunately many people choose their careers
without evaluating the likelihood that their jobs will
satisfy their needs. Examination of the results of this
study will afford counselors, as well as current and
prospective, female intercollegiate athletic coaches better
and more accurate appraisal of the extents to which coaching
work environments are able to fulfill female coaches'
specific needs.
The results of this study of work adjustment among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches also can be applied
to women in other male-dominant professions. Presumably,


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 6777


25
Work environment structure is a description of the work
environment in terms of skill requirements and need
reinforcers. It also includes ability requirement patterns
and reinforcer clusters as reference dimensions for skill
requirements and need reinforcers (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Work environment style is a description of the work
environment in terms of its celerity, pace, rhythm, and
endurance (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Overview of Remaining Chapters
A more extensive review of the current literature is
presented in Chapter II. The methodology of the study,
including sampling, procedures, instrumentation, and
statistical methods are covered in Chapter III. Resultant
data, their analyses, and other results are presented in
Chapter IV and the discussion, implications, and conclusions
of all the results are presented in Chapter V.


12
actually known about their levels of job satisfaction. More
specifically, their job satisfaction has not been
investigated empirically. In particular, variations in their
job satisfaction in regard to their ages, years in coaching,
years as head coach, level of collegiate athletic program,
type of sport coached, annual income, marital status, success
in work role, and physical, behavioral, cognitive, and total
strain are unknown.
Need For Study
Job satisfaction research has been conducted in a
variety of settings, yet relatively few empirical studies
have examined job satisfaction among female intercollegiate
coaches. Moreover, there is a dearth of data available
relating work adjustment to job satisfaction among female
intercollegiate coaches. Dawis and Lofquist (1984), in the
context of their theory of work adjustment, purported that
the individual and the work environment have specific
expectations and need requirements of each other which, when
met, result in correspondence and subsequent increased job
tenure. The greater the degree of correspondence
experienced, the greater the opportunity for success and job
satisfaction. In counterpoint, lower degrees of
correspondence between the individual and the work
environment decrease potential for job satisfaction and


52
satisfying higher order needs. When needs are left
unsatisfied, it creates a tension within people which
motivates them to reduce the tension and restore equilibrium.
Once a need becomes satisfied, however, it loses it's potency
as a motivating force until it again becomes manifest.
A second theoretical perspective one that also builds on
Maslow's needs hierarchy theory is Herzberg, Mausner, and
Snyderman's (1959) two factor theory of job satisfaction.
According to Herzberg et al. (1959), individual's tend to
describe satisfying work experiences in terms of factors that
are intrinsic to the content of the job itself. These factors
or motivators, which closely resemble Maslow's higher order
needs, include variables such as achievement, recognition,
the work itself, responsibility, advancement and growth. In
contrast, dissatisfaction with work results from non-job-
related (so called "hygiene") factors which are closely
related to Maslow's lower order needs. These factors include
variables such as company policies, salary, co-worker
relations, and supervisory style. Herzberg claimed that
eliminating the causes of dissatisfaction through hygiene
factors would not result in a state of satisfaction, but
instead, would result in a neutral state. Satisfaction
occurs only through motivators (Porter & Steers, 1979).
A third theoretical perspective is the
expectancy/valence theory. In contrast with the need


69
In studies pertaining only to women, researchers have
reported that women in traditionally male occupations
experienced relatively high levels of job satisfaction (Meyer
& Lee, 1978; Moore, 1985; O'Farrell, 1980;Schreiber, 1979).
O'Farell and Harlen (1982) also found that women working in
traditionally male, blue-collar occupations were
significantly more satisfied with their work than their
female counterparts who held traditionally female, white-
collar occupations, while employed by the same corporation.
It has been suggested that women in nontraditional
occupations consider pay and work content factors related to
their positions as more satisfying than for women in
traditional occupations (Schreiber, 1979). Moore (1985)
reported that women in predominantly male occupations
perceived economic factors, utilization of skills, and
flexibility of hours as primary factors affecting their
levels of job satisfaction. Support of co-workers, which has
been cited as a primary factor related to women's job
satisfaction, was not, in this case, a salient factor. In
contrast, Neil and Snizek (1987) found that women placed
greater value on working relations; whereas men emphasized
salary, job status, and prestige in the community.
Two studies in which women in nontraditional and
traditional jobs within the same organizations were compared
had results where there were greater levels of job


77
Jurik and Helemba (1984) examined gender, working
conditions, and job satisfaction in the field of corrections.
This study was unique in that it examined women and men in
comparable positions within the same organization. They
found that the attitudes of women were primarily a function
of their position within the organization and their immediate
working conditions. However, both female and male
respondents who perceived that there was little or no job
variety, limited opportunity to increase their knowledge in
the area of corrections, or fully utilize their abilities and
skills, were not satisfied with their jobs.
Based on the findings of the previous studies of
differences in job satisfaction on the basis of gender, it
can be inferred that gender is a significant factor in level
of work adjustment, particularly so for women in male-
dominated professions. Regardless of whether issues related
to gender and job satisfaction are viewed from a traditional
or structural standpoint, there is a general concensus that,
overall, women experience their jobs in different manners
than men. More specifically, women are more apt to
experience role conflict, differential treatment, and
discrimination, all of which negatively impacts their levels
of work adjustment and job satisfaction. Moreover,
opportunities for women to meet their individual needs (i.e.,
achievement, advancement, company policies and practices,


140
not great enough to be considered significantly related to
general job satisfaction. Counselors and consultants may
better serve female intercollegiate athletic coaches by
investigating whether strain impacts upon job satisfaction
for the particular female coaches served.
Summary of Results
The female coaches in this study appear to be
(moderately) satisfied with their jobs on the bases of age,
income, educational level, tenure, marital status, type of
sport coached, division of collegiate sport, success in the
work role, and strain. Noteworthy is the fact that only
income was significantly related to job satisfaction in
general and there were only minor variances in components of
job satisfaction on the basis of income (i.e., advancement,
authority, compensation, and social status). In addition,
behavioral, physical, cognitive, and total strain accounted
for minor variances in activity, creativity, and variety.
Indicated in the results of this study is the need for
further examination of job satisfaction and attrition. By
concentrating on alternative variables relative to job
satisfaction and satisfactoriness, it is possible that a
better understanding of the problem of attrition will evolve.
Perhaps it would be beneficial to use specific instruments
which would address alternative variables and be geared more


123
coaches' academic degree. It was found that there were no
significant differences nor any signficant interactions for
any of the analyses at the .01 level of significance.


53
hierarchy and two factor theories, which attempt to specify
correlates of motivated behavior and job satisfaction, this
theory attempts to identify relationships among variables in
a dynamic state as they affect individual behavior. In
essence, the primary focus of the expectancy valence theory
is on the relationship among inputs rather than the inputs
themselves (Porter & Steers, 1979). Motivational force to
perform and remain in a job is a function of the
expectancies, or beliefs, that individuals have concerning
future outcomes in proportion to the value they place on the
outcomes.
Vroom (1964) defined expectancy as an "action-outcome
association." It is the extent to which an individual
believes that a certain action will result in a particular
outcome. A second major component of this theory is valence,
which is defined as the value or preference an individual
places on a particular outcome. Individuals assign valences
to job outcomes, such as higher pay, promotion, peer
approval, and recognition, in relation to perceived
importance of satisfying those needs (Porter & Steers, 1979).
Workers also ascribe a valence to the expectancy or their
perception of the likelihood of an outcome (Wellstood, 1984).
A fourth theoretical perspective is discrepancy theory.
Discrepancy theory involves comparison of what people
actually receive with what they expect to receive from their


122
Table 16
Analysis Qf Variance of Female Intercollegiate Athletic
Coaches' General Job Satisfaction Score By Marital Status.
Type Qf Sport Coached, Level Of Sport Coached, and Degree.
Sum of Mean
SOUPCC B2 DF Squares Square F Value Pr>F
Model .14
21
2116.59
100.79
.87
.0001
Error
113
13034.71
115.35
Corrected
Total
134
15151.30
Source DF Type III SS MS F Pr>F
MS
3
117.29
39.10
0.34
.7972
Type
1
4.25
4.25
0.04
.8482
Div
2
58.74
29.37
0.25
.7756
Deg
1
33.48
33.48
0.29
.5911
MS*Type
2
2.07
1.03
0.01
.9911
MS*Div
4
789.72
197.43
1.71
. 1523
Type*Div
2
463.30
231.65
2.01
.1390
Type*Deg
1
99.29
99.29
0.86
.3555
Div*Deg
2
224.09
112.04
0.97
.3817
Research Question 4
What are the differences in scores on each of the
20 items on the job satisfaction scale on the bases of
marital status, level of sport coached, degree, and type
of sport coached?
In order to respond to this research question, the SAS-GLM
procedure was used to determine significant differences, or
significant interactions among, the 20 components of job
satisfaction assessed by the MSQ on the bases of marital
status, level of sport coached, type of sport coached, or


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
There are a number of people I would like to acknowledge
for extending their support, encouragement, and understanding
as I worked toward the completion of my doctoral studies.
First, I would like to thank the members of my doctoral
committee, Dr. Janet Larsen, Dr. Paula Welch, and Dr. Phyllis
Meek. Their support and guidance were of utmost importance
to me. I am especially grateful to them for responding in
kind when I interrupted their busy schedules to ask for
assistance or guidance. Even though each committee member
played a significant role, I would especially like to thank
Dr. Meek for the encouragement and compassion she never
failed to provide when I needed it the most. She is a
teacher, mentor, and friend. I hope one day I will be able
to motivate others to achieve their dreams with the same
warmth and kindness she consistently offered to me.
Words can never convey the gratitude I feel toward Dr.
Larry Loesch, chairman of my doctoral committee. His
outstanding professional expertise, coupled with his warm
sense of humor and ability to instill confidence in his
students, enabled me to accomplish more than I previously
thought possible. I am indebted to him for providing me with
the foundation I needed to accomplish my goals.
I would also like to thank my parents, Fred and June
Hambleton, not only for their support and patience throughout
IV


96
approximately 5,757 coaching positions for women's sports
teams. As noted previously, however, women occupy only
approximately 48.3% of these positions. Furthermore, their
representation among the various sports teams is highly
imbalanced. More specifically, female coaches are
represented among women's sports teams in the following
manner: basketball, 58.5%; volleyball, 71%; tennis, 52.2%;
softball, 67.2.%; cross country, 19.5%; track, 21.6%;
swimming and diving, 25.3%; field hockey, 96.2%; golf, 41.3%;
and soccer, 23%) (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988). In contrast,
the distribution of female coaches among Division I, II, and
III level institutions is relatively equal (i.e., Division I,
45.5%; Division II, 46.8% and Division III, 57.2%) (Acosta &
Carpenter, 1986).
Sampling Procedures
Through a systematic sampling procedure, 300 female
coaches were identified from the 1988-1989 National Directory
of College Athletics (Women's Edition) The directory
contained an alphabetized listing of colleges and
universities affiliated with NCAA Division I, II, and III
level athletic programs across the country; the types of
women's sports offered by each institution; and the names of
the head coaches responsible for each women's sport offered
by the institution.


78
compensation, co-workers, independence, recognition,
security, social status, or working conditions) are greatly
reduced, thereby decreasing the likelihood of correspondence
which results in lower levels of work adjustment.
A logical conclusion based on research related to job
satisfaction and turnover would be that personal success and
accomplishment in the work role are also significant factors
in predicting work adjustment and job satisfaction. More
specifically, women in male dominant professions, who
perceive themselves as successful in their work role, might
correspondingly experience higher levels of job security,
achievement, ability utilization, recognition, and
advancement, all of which increase the overall level of job
satisfaction. In contrast, it is also conceivable that
personal perceptions of failure in a work role would diminish
a worker's self-esteem and sense of achievement, which would
negatively impact their levels of job satisfaction. Thus,
individual perceptions of success would generate general
feelings of self-worth and productivity, resulting in higher
levels of job satisfaction.
It has long been known that factors such as little
participation in decision making, sexual discrimination and
resultant inequities, ambiguity about job security, poor
working conditions, and poor use of skills and abilities are
correlated with stress which is often manifested as job


131
argued that the respondents in this study are in fact not
young, particularly when compared to the average individual
entering the labor force. In this case, the respondents
would, theoretically, be at the point in their careers where
their satisfaction would be expected to be increasing. The
findings of this study do not support the hypothesis that job
satisfaction increases with age, nor do they support previous
research findings of greater dissatisfaction among younger
workers (Aronowitz, 1973) or a significant relationship
between age and job satisfaction for women (Shott, Albright,
& Glennon, 1963). Here, age was not significantly related to
job satisfaction among female intercollegiate athletic
coaches.
Researchers have consistently reported a strong
relationship between tenure and job satisfaction (Alderfer,
1967; Form & Geshwender, 1962; Hulin & Smith, 1965; Monie,
1967; Rachman & Kemp, 1964). Moreover, Form and Geshwender
(1962) reported that workers with ten or more years tenure
were significantly more satisfied than co-workers with less
tenure. The results of this study do not support these
previous findings. The respondents in this study had worked
in the coaching field for an average of 10.2 years. Among
them, job satisfaction was not related to tenure.
There is evidence to suggest that satisfaction among
women in male-dominated professions is inversely related to


86
of the items listed. The scales range from Never to
Constantly.
Normative data for the SQ was obtained on 285 males and
127 females (N=412) who had a mean age of thirty-three (range
17-58 years). The group consisted of 38 elementary and
secondary education teachers, 45 insurance agents enrolled in
a stress management course, 110 navel engineers, 119 graduate
level business students, and 100 undergraduate students.
The inter-rater reliability of the SQ ranged from .88 to
1.00. SQ test-retest correlation coefficients were reported
as .75 (physical), .77 (behavioral), .73 (cognitive), and .79
(total SQ). Split-half reliability correlation coefficients
were reported as .62 (behavioral), .86 (cognitive), .87
(physical) and .88 (total SQ).
Although the researchers report that studies are still
necessary to further validate various aspects of the SQ, it
appears to be a valid and reliable measure of strain in both
cross-sectional and longitudinal studies (Lefebvre &
Sandford, 1984, 1985) .
Because the MSQ and SQ are considered valid and reliable
measurements of job satisfaction and strain, for a variety of
professionals, they are also considered appropriate and
suitable measurement techniques for female intercollegiate
athletic coaches. Many of the inherent problems related to
the administration of questionnaires, in general, are


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106
Methodological limitations also exist which are related
to testing. Characteristically, mailed surveys are not
typically well-received by recipients. For example, subjects
may feel that the survey is too personal or that anonymity is
not guaranteed. Ironically, the nature of the respondents
may serve to limit the impact of this methodological
limitation while concomitantly creating another potential
limitation. More specifically, it is assumed that the
problem of attrition is a great concern to the majority of
female intercollegiate athletic coaches since they are
directly affected by it. Therefore, they are apt to have a
personal vested interest in the outcome of the study which
may in turn serve to override any initial reluctance to
participate in the study. As stated previously, however,
their personal concerns with the problem of attrition may
also cause a reaction to the instrument, thus creating
another methodological limitation to the study. More
specifically, because of their concern with the problem of
attrition, the subjects may overreact to the opportunity to
express satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their jobs. Thus
they may frequently select the extreme categories (i.e., very
dissatisfied or very satisfied). Again, the extent of this
limitation was diminished by fact that the MSQ used a Likert-
type measurement, and provided considerable variation in the
response categories. Given this factor, the respondents may


11
correspondence and to stabilize the correspondent
relationship. The stability of the correspondence between
the individual and the work environment is manifested as
tenure in the job. As correspondence increases, the
probability of tenure and the projected length of tenure also
increase. Conversely, a decrease in correspondence
diminishes the probability of remaining on the job and
therefore the length of tenure.
According to Dawis and Lofquist (1969), tenure is the
basic indicator of work adjustment and therefore of job
satisfaction. Tenure is a function of correspondence between
the individual and the environment. If a correspondent
relationship with the environment is established, the
individual seeks to maintain it. If not, the individual
attempts to establish correspondence or, failing this, to
leave the work environment. Therefore, the probability that
an individual will voluntarily withdraw from the work
environment is inversely related to the individual's level of
job satisfaction (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984) .
Statement of Problem
Widespread job dissatisfaction among female
intercollegiate athletic coaches can be inferred from the
high (job) turnover rate among them. However, little is


16
from their coaching positions at an increasing rate since
1972. The high turnover rate among the female coaches is not
a new phenomenon; however, in general, researchers have
neglected to investigate this problem empirically. High job
turnover among female athletic coaches would, theoretically
at least, seem to be related to their job satisfaction. But
again, there is scant empirical information about their job
satisfaction. Therefore, this study is being conducted.
A descriptive research approach will be used in this
study. More specifically, a sample of female intercollegiate
coaches across the country will be surveyed to investigate
the nature of their satisfaction with their work. The survey
method employed will be a mailed questionnaire.
Mailed questionnaire survey methodology has been
criticized as having inherent disadvantages when compared
with other survey research methodologies (e.g., interviews,
observations, or field experiments). Generally, the most
serious drawbacks of mailed questionnaire survey research are
potential lack of response and inability to validate
responses given (Bailey, 1982; Fowler, 1984; Franklin &
Osborne, 1971; Kerlinger, 1973). According to Bailey (1982),
additional drawbacks of mailed questionnaire survey research
methods include (a) lack of substantive control over the
environment in which responses are provided, (b) lack of
flexibility in responding, (c) difficulty in interpreting


10
environmental requirements are mutually fulfilled, the
individual and the work environment are correspondent (Dawis
& Lofquist, 1984) .
Achieving and maintaining correspondence is a continuous
and dynamic process that Dawis and Lofquist (1984) termed
work adjustment. In other words, work adjustment is the on
going interaction between the individual and the work
environment. It is reflected in the individual's
satisfaction and satisfactoriness. Satisfactoriness is an
external indicator of effective correspondence; it is derived
from sources other than the individual worker's self
appraisal of the fulfillment of the requirements of the work
environment. If the individual fulfills the requirements of
the environment, the individual is regarded as a satisfactory
worker (i.e., has satisfactoriness). Satisfaction is an
internal indicator of correspondence; it represents the
individual worker's self appraisal of the extent to which the
work environment fulfills her/his needs. According to Dawis
and Lofquist (1984), if the work environment fulfills the
needs of the individual, she/he is defined as a satisfied
worker.
Work adjustment, as the achievement of at least
minimally effective correspondence, enables an individual to
remain in the work environment. In turn, remaining in the
work environment allows the individual to achieve better


162
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94
In consideration of these factors, it can be inferred
that female coaches, similar to most women who work in
nontraditional or male-dominated professions, are apt to be
more assertive and competitive than women employed in what
are considered traditional occupations. They also have
relatively high needs for achievement, autonomy, and
responsibility.
In a similar vein, it has been reported that similar
characteristics exist between individuals employed in
athletic and business occupations (Knoppers, 1987) Knoppers
claimed that characteristics such as hard work and self-
discipline, which are purportedly developed through sport
participation, are often the same characteristics considered
assets in order to achieve success in the business world.
Furthermore, the business-like nature of "commercialized"
athletics has forced many coaches to adopt traits and
characteristics befitting corporate managers (Knoppers,
1987) .
Unfortunately, the preponderance of research relative to
collegiate athletics has been concentrated on male coaches
and athletes. Due to the limited number of studies that
address female coaches, a situation has been created whereby
researchers often resort to applying the psychological
characteristics associated with female athletes to female
coaches. The rationale for this approach is based on the


44
Typically, these methods do not provide the aforementioned
informal information nor do they provide information far
enough in advance to put women in advantageous or competitive
positions (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984) .
Exclusion from male networks not only puts females in a
marginal professional position, but also serves to put them
in what Hughes (1973) described as an "invisible" position.
For example, when important professional decisions, such as
selection for promotion, tenure, or departmental privileges,
are under consideration, women are often overlooked (Hughes,
1973) .
The overriding consequence of existing male networks is
that women are excluded from the "power centers" of their
professions (Kaufman, 1984) The informal structure within
intercollegiate athletics can be described as a "male
universe" where men have overwhelmingly control of governing
and administrative positions (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988) .
Therefore, by virtue of their large numbers and superordinate
positions, as well as by their informal networks, men have
distinct advantages over women within intercollegiate
coaching. As a result, women have limited access to key
resources and opportunities within intercollegiate athletic
structures.
Women coaches, as "outsiders" on both formal and
informal bases, often find themselves in precarious and self-


36
Professional women also are confronted with sex-related
problems within the professions which are rarely encountered
by their male counterparts. For example, in order to manage
their careers and personal lives, women often must dispense
with "optional" work related activities, such as attending
meetings, conferences, and extraneous collegial relations,
all of which serve to enhance career development. In
addition, the work pace and commitment required of the
individual in a professional occupation has been described as
relentlessly demanding and more in correspondence with male
than female sex roles. Consequently, women are often
excluded from certain work activities by their multiple role
demands. They therefore are limited in terms of their access
to and opportunities within professional structures (Fox &
Hesse-Biber, 1984). In contrast, familial roles for men
(e.g., husband and father) rarely hinder their occupational
involvements and commitments, but instead often correspond
with their occupational spheres (i.e., the man's advancing
career "best serves" the family) (Epstein, 1980). Overall
then, traditional sex-roles and expectations for women
compete with, rather than complement their professional
roles. Consequently, traditional sex-role demands for women
(e.g., wifehood and motherhood) serve to inhibit the single-
mindedness, continuous participation, and commitment required
for professional success (Campbell, 1988; Fox & Hesse-Biber,


127
9.10, 8.4, and 10.8 years, respectively. The average number
of years these women held their head coaching positions more
closely resembles the figures presented by Acosta and
Carpenter (1988). Because it is not known whether Acosta and
Carpenter (1988) were reporting the number of years the women
held coaching positions or the number of years they held
their head coaching positions, it cannot be determined
definitively whether the resultant sample is representative
of the general population with regard to tenure. However,
there does not appear to substantive difference between the
tenure averages to limit the generalizability of the results
of the study.
Due to the limited amount of available demographic data
about female intercollegiate athletic coaches, it is not
possible to determine whether the resultant sample is
representative of the general population of female
intercollegiate athletic coaches with regard to marital
status, academic degree, and annual income.
Several inherent methodological limitations associated
with survey research were presented in a previous section.
The first of these limitations was related to the possible
lack of response on the part of the potential participants.
It was believed that the participants, because of the nature
of their profession, would possibly not have ample time to
respond and/or, want to take time away from their schedules


87
alleviated by several personal factors associated with the
nature of the individuals who typically comprise the
intercollegiate coaching population.
The first of these factors is related to the level of
education of collegiate coaches. More specifically, these
individuals, in order to become intercollegiate coaches,
must have attained (at minimum) a baccalaureate degree.
Therefore, female intercollegiate coaches have a relatively
high reading level and have completed numerous written tests
and surveys during the course of their college careers.
Presumably, intercollegiate coaches are familiar with
completing written questionnaires and surveys similar to the
MSQ and SQ. Thus, it can be assumed that female
intercollegiate coaches would not be likely to experience
difficulty in understanding the nature of the questions of
the surveys and would be sufficiently experienced to complete
a lengthy survey such as the MSQ and the SQ.
A second factor which enhances the suitability and
appropriateness of the MSQ and SQ to female intercollegiate
coaches is related to the autonomy associated with coaching
positions. Intercollegiate coaches, in general, have control
over their daily routines and schedules. Thus, they would be
in a position to allow themselves sufficient time to complete
both the MSQ and SQ. In view of these factors, the MSQ and
SQ are both considered to be suitable and appropriate


114
Table 7
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Mean Scores For Division
(II)
Mean
N=24
SD
Ability Utilization
21.13
4.70
Achievement
21.92
3.28
Activities
20.79
5.90
Advancement
14.00
3.71
Authority
19.00
2.50
Company Policies and
Practices
13.46
4.64
Compensation
11.42
6.31
Co-Workers
18.54
4.02
Creativity
21.58
3.97
Independence
20.88
3.11
Moral Values
22.00
2.98
Recognition
15.63
5.19
Responsibility
20.67
3.43
Security
14.25
5.38
Social Service
22.50
2.50
Social Status
17.92
3.46
Supervision-
Human Relations
13.58
5.59
Supervision-
Technical
14.21
5.12
Variety
21.13
3.66
Working Conditions
19.00
3.31
General Job Sat.
72.25
8.39
Physical Strain
43.92
10.89
Behavioral Strain
18.25
5.74
Cognitive Strain
11.58
4.97
Total Strain
73.79
17.13
Age
33.00
4.88
Years Coaching
9.04
4.40
Years/Head Coach
7.25
4.52
Income
25.00
18.15
Games Won
41.30
35.70
Games Lost
28.20
18.18


38
psychiatry, physical medicine, preventive medicine, and
public health. They are substantially underrepresented in
the most of the prestigious specialities (e.g.,
cardiovascular, gastroenterology, general surgery, and
occupational medicine). Researchers have found that women's
specialty choices may be the result of a subtle
discrimination that encourages them to enter certain
specialties, while discouraging them from others (Patterson &
Engelberg, 1978).
Women and men in the medical field also generally differ
in their choices of type of practice (e.g., salary or
private). Women are most likely to choose salaried
positions, while men have a greater tendency to choose
private practice. Marriage and family play a key role in
womens' and mens' decisions about type of practice. An early
marriage or engagement among male physicians is associated
with a tendency to select private practice. In contrast, for
women, marriage or engagement is associated with a tendency
to take a salaried position. Similarly, marriage and family
have no noticeable effects on the career development of male
physicians, but have the effect of interrupting or lessening
the practices of women (Koberg, 1987; Patterson & Engelberg,
1978) .
The situation for women in law is similar to that of
women in medicine. Female lawyers predominantly practice in


31
socioemotional aspects of their jobs. Crowley et al. (1973)
found that women, like the males sampled in their study,
regard the concern and competence of their supervisor as more
important to their job than is the opportunity to make
friends. However, male administrators and managers still
fear that women allow emotional factors to supersede
objective judgment.
Crowley et al. (1973) also found no factual basis for
several prevalent assumptions regarding the motivations and
aspirations of female workers. Included among these
assumptions are: (a) women would not work if economic reasons
did not force them into the labor market; (b) women are more
content than men with an intellectually undemanding job; (c)
women are less concerned than men that their work be self-
actualizing; and (d) women are less concerned with "getting
ahead". Empirical data exist to contradict each of these
beliefs (O'Leary, 1977). Thus, the findings of Crowley et
al. (1973) lend support to the contention that the
aspirations and motivations of workers of each sex are more
similar than societal stereotypes would indicate.
Unfortunately, however, women are still plagued by false
beliefs which adversely affect their opportunities for
advancement (O'Leary, 1977).
In the American society, women are generally considered
less competent than men and continue to fare more poorly than


19
3. What are the differences in job satisfaction on the
bases of marital status, level of sport coached, degree, and
type of sport coached, and their interactions?
4. What are the differences in scores on each of the 20
items on the job satisfaction scale on the bases of marital
status, level of sport coached, degree, and type of sport
coached, and their interactions?
Definitions of Terms
The following definitions are used throughout this
study.
Adjustment denotes continuous and dynamic process by
which an individual seeks to achieve and maintain
correspondence with an environment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women
(AIAW) is the governing organization of women's
intercollegiate sports (1971-1981) which sanctioned women's
intercollegiate athletic events and established, conducted,
and promoted competitive national championships.
Attrition refers to a gradual, natural reduction in
membership or personnel, for reasons such as retirement,
resignation, or death.
Correspondence is a function wherein the individual
fulfills the requirements of a work environment and the work
environment in turn fulfills the requirements of the
individual. As a basic assumption of work adjustment,
correspondence between an individual and her/his work
environment implies a harmonious relationship between


90
inquiry into the current status of job satisfaction among
female intercollegiate athletic coaches needs to be conducted
in order to determine the actual impact of these cultural and
structural factors on this specific group of individuals and
the relationship between factors such as age, educational
level, tenure, stress, marital status and multiple roles, and
job satisfaction.. Such inquiry would provide counselors,
consultants, administrators, and educators with significant
information about the nature of job satisfaction among female
intercollegiate athletic coaches.


6
universities exemplify the extent of the budgetary gains for
women's programs. In 1971, the average annual budget for
women was approximately $10,000. By 1980 the budgets had
increased to $300,000 (White & White, 1982). With budgetary
improvements, athletic scholarships became increasingly
available to women. In 1982, 814 colleges and universities
offered women athletic scholarships in contrast to the 60
offered to them in 1974 (Myers, 1983) .
Title IX also had far-reaching negative effects on the
design, autonomy, and governance of women's intercollegiate
athletics (Chu, 1985) For example, subsequent to the
passage of Title IX, the National Collegiate Athletic
Association (NCAA) challenged the applicability of Title IX
to athletics. According to Chu (1985), some member
institutions of the NCAA feared financial strain and
inability to support separate intercollegiate athletic
programs for men and women without taking money away from
existing men's programs.
In an effort to ease anticipated financial strain from
having parallel athletic programs, men's and women's athletic
departments were merged in the vast majority of universities.
Such mergers did save money, but in more than 80% of the
cases where women had administered women's athletic programs,
the merger resulted in a male assuming the administrative
role for both programs (Chu, 1985). There is general


58
celerity (i.e., speed with which an individual interacts with
the work environment), pace (i.e., level of activity
exhibited by individual when interacting with the work
environment), rhythm (i.e.,pattern of pace in interaction
with the work environment), and endurance (i.e., the duration
of interaction with work environment) (Dawis & Lofquist,
1984) .
Dawis and Lofquist (1984) provided a description of the
work environment which parallels their description of work
personality. The work environment structure is comprised of
skill requirements (i.e., performance expectations) and needs
reinforcers (i.e., stimulus conditions in which their
presence or absence accounts for satisfaction of an
individual's needs). Work environment is measured in terms
of the reference dimensions of ability requirements and
reinforcer factors, which correspond to skill requirements
and needs reinforcers.
Correspondence describes not only the mutual
responsiveness between individual and work environment, but
also the "degree of fit" between work personality structure
and work environment structure. Worthy of note is that
individuals with comparable work personality structures may
differ in the amount of correspondence required from
comparable work environments in order for the respective
individuals to desire to remain in them. Tolerance of lack


163
Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., Lofquist, L. H., England, G. W.
(1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire. (Minnesota Studies in Vocational
Rehabilitation xxii). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota,
Industrial Relations Center.
Wellstood, S. A. (1985). Work behavior types, job
satisfaction, and attrition in medical technology (Docotoral
dissertation, University of Florida, 1984). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 4, 07B
White, J., & White, K. (1982, Winter). "Ladies, there are
no 600 hitters!". Athletic Administration, 15-18.
Zikmund, W. G., Hitt, M. A., & Pickens, B. A. (1978) .
Influence of sex and scholastic performance on reactions to
job applicant resumes. Journal of Applied Psychology, £2 (2)
252-54.
Zincone, L. H., Jr., & Close, F. A. (1978, October). Sex
discrimination in a paramedical profession. Industrial and
Labor Relations Review. 2, 74-85.


92
to Acosta and Carpenter (1988), this population is comprised
of approximately 2,780 females.
A review of the related literature, in concert with
numerous consultations with researchers who have either
previously examined or are currently in the process of
examining the status of women in intercollegiate coaching,
revealed a scarcity of empirical data which described
specifically the demographic characteristics of female
intercollegiate coaches. Therefore, the preponderance of
population data for this study was derived primarily from a
longitudinal study (1977-1988) on the status of women in
intercollegiate coaching conducted by Acosta and Carpenter
(1988) .
Acosta and Carpenter (1988) found that women in NCAA
Division I, II, and III level colleges and universities
maintained their coaching positions for an average of 6.3,
6.8, and 11.7 years, respectively. They also determined that
the average age of the female coaches in Division I, II, and
III level colleges and universities was 38.2, 36.7, and 34.2
years, respectively. Acosta and Carpenter (1988) also
indicated that 23.8%, 61.3% and 78.6% of the females in
Division I, II, and III level colleges and universities,
respectively, occupied two or more roles (e.g., coaching and
teaching or administration and coaching).


30
which negatively impact upon women. At the root of these
cultural and structural factors are the societal sex-role
stereotypes applied to men and women in the work force.
Male dominated professions are governed by male
"traditional" sex-role stereotypes. The "model" professional
is expected to be firm, aggressive, competitive and just, and
not at all feminine (i.e., emotional, dependent, or
yielding). Hence, women do not fit the mold of the "model"
professional. The acceptance of the validity and
perpetuation of this description of the model professional
lies in the prevalence of myths regarding the nature of
women's job commitment and their competence.
Persistent myths concerning the sincerity of commitment
on the part of female workers continue to influence
managers/administrators' perceptions of them and to have
detrimental effects on their chances for advancement.
Crowley et al. (1973) tested several commonly held beliefs
regarding women workers on a large, nationwide sample. They
found no support for the prevailing notion that women work
only for "pin money" (O'Leary, 1977). Unfortunately, with
perpetuation of this myth, men continue to be regarded as
better candidates for promotion on the basis of economic
need.
Another belief that negatively impacts upon women in
professions is that they are overly concerned with


33
High ranking occupations in all societies are typically
male-dominated (Goode, 1964). Therefore, high-status
professions and prestige specialities in society are
generally identified with the instrumental, rigorous, "hard-
nosed" qualities generally identified as masculine, as
opposed to the "softer," more expressive, nurturing modes of
behaviors generally identified as feminine. "Since the
characteristics associated with the most valued professions
are also those associated with men, women fail to meet one of
the most important professional criteria: they are not men."
(Kaufman, 1984, p.357).
The typing of certain occupations as male or female has
consequences for entry to them as well as performance within
them by persons who possess characteristics of the "wrong
sex". Women in male-dominated professions are forced to be
self-conscious, burdened by feelings that they are constantly
being watched. They must always be cognizant of the
impression they are making, striving to counteract
misperceptions and inaccurate assumptions about her by them.
In essence, in Kaufman's view (1984), women were not as
highly valued in professional realms as were men.
In attempting to substantiate the notion that females
are not as valued as men in professions, O'Leary (1977)
reported that Feldman-Summers and Kiesler (1974) were unable
to find any occupation in which women were expected to


23
increase the likelihood of future response (Dawis & Lofquist,
1984) .
Satisfaction is an indicator of the degree of success an
individual has achieved in maintaining correspondence between
her/himself and the work environment. Derived from the work
environment and fulfilling the worker's requirements,
satisfaction is an internal indicator of correspondence. It
represents the individual worker's self-appraisal of the
extent to which the work environment fulfills her/his
requirements (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Satisfactoriness is an indicator of the degree of
success an individual has achieved in maintaining
correspondence between her/himself and the work environment.
Derived from sources other than the individual worker's self
appraisal of her/his fulfillment of requirements of the work
environment, satisfactoriness is an external indicator of
correspondence. It represents the work environment's
appraisal of the extent to which its requirements are
fulfilled by the individual worker (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984).
Tenure is defined by concepts related to remaining on
and being retained on the job and length of stay in the
environment. For the purposes of this study, tenure is a
function of the correspondence between the individual and her
work environment. Tenure is the basic indicator of
correspondence.


41
structures (Harragan, 1977; Schaef, 1981). Men therefore
often share a comraderie that serves to facilitate their
communications, which in turn facilitates support and
acceptance among them (Fox & Hesse-Biber, 1984) .
Unfortunately, existing male milieus act as occupational
barriers for women. Traditional sex-role expectations for
females generally prohibit them from participating in male
settings and traditions. As a result, women often find it
exceptionally difficult to permeate the "male network". They
are in fact faced with considerable resistance from males
because their participation would likely weaken the intimacy
and solidarity associated with the "male world" (Epstein,
1971).
The exclusion of females from men's informal circles of
communication and interaction has several critical
consequences for women's professional careers (Fox & Hesse-
Biber, 1984). Among them is deprivation from the informal
learning associated with mentoring or sponsorship. Much
professional socialization is contingent on education and
training gained through informal interaction between a senior
person and an entry-level professional. Entry into these
upper echelon professions is commonly gained through what
Epstein (1971) referred to as the "protege system." The
protege system operates to train personnel for certain
specialties and to assure continuity of leadership. Because


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Education and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August, 1989
Dean, College of Education^-''
Dean, Graduate School


14
known, counseling and consulting services could be better
suited to meet their needs.
Research regarding the relationship between work
adjustment and job satisfaction also has implications for the
environments (i.e., employment setting) in which female
coaches work. Attrition not only represents a waste of human
resources, with attendant psychological implications for
individuals, but also has potential to have costly impacts on
organizations. Athletic programs are disrupted and
financially burdened while new coaches are being recruited
and oriented to their new positions. If more data about work
adjustment and job satisfaction were available, personnel
practices for recruiting, hiring, training, and placement of
female coaches could be significantly improved, thus leading
to overall increases in levels of job satisfaction and
decreased turnover. Additionally, the findings from this
study could provide collegiate athletic administrators with
bases for development of both corrective and preventive
strategies designed to promote job satisfaction among female
coaches.
The current trend of high attrition among female coaches
in intercollegiate athletics could have devastating effects
on the intercollegiate structure and women's sports in
general. Abbott and Smith (1984) claimed that
intercollegiate athletics may be moving toward a sex-


117
data from this analysis are shown in Table 10. It can be
seen that only one of the the ten variables made a
significant (p<.01), unique contribution to the variance in
job satisfaction. Income accounted for approximately 30%
(R2=.295) of the variance in job satisfaction. It can be
concluded that the coaches' annual incomes are significantly
related to their overall levels of job satisfaction, while
age, years as a coach, years as a head coach, perceived
behavioral, physical, cognitive, and total strain, and
success in work role do not contribute unique variance to
overall level of job satisfaction beyond whatever effects
they have that are correlated to annual income.
Research Question 2
What is the relationship between scores on each of
the 20 items on the job satisfaction scale and age,
years employed as a coach, years employed as a head
coach, annual income, perceived level of behavioral,
physical, cognitive and total strain, and perceived
success in work role?
As shown in Table 11, annual income was significantly (p<.01)
related to the advancement, authority, compensation, and
social status components of job satisfaction. The respective
percentages of variance accounted for by income were
advancement 7%; authority 5%; compensation 19%; and social


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
Further Delineation of Problem
Currently there are more than 40,000 people employed in
college and university coaching and athletic administration
in the United States (Abbott & Smith, 1984). However, fewer
than 10% of these people are women (Acosta & Carpenter, 1988;
Hart, Hasbrook, & Mathes, 1986; Parkhouse & Williams, 1986).
More significantly, there has been a steady decline in the
number of female intercollegiate athletic coaches and
administrators of women's sports during the past fifteen
years. Unfortunately, the percentage of women employed in
these professions is likely to become even smaller in the
future.
Acosta and Carpenter (1988), in their eleven-year
longitudinal study in which data were collected from all four
year college and university members of the NCAA, clearly
depicted the status of women as well as the extent of male
predominance in women's intercollegiate athletic programs.
Suggested in their findings was a distinct pattern, emergent
over the past fifteen years, wherein female coaches and
administrators were phased out of women's sports programs
while men fulfilled the positions they left vacant. For
example, in 22 of the 24 most popular women's sports surveyed
by Acosta and Carpenter (1988), a significant decline in the
number of female coaches and a concomitant increase in the
26


99
letter explaining the purpose and nature of the study
(Appendix A), (b) the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire
(Appendix B), (c) the Strain Questionnaire (Appendix C) and a
demographic survey (Appendix D) .
The resultant sample was slightly higher than expected
in volleyball, basketball, softball, field hockey, track and
cross country, golf, and swimming and diving and lower in
tennis.. More specifically, the representation of sports
surveyed was as follows: volleyball (19%), basketball (29%),
tennis (8%), softball (18%), field hockey (14%), track and
cross country (8%), and golf (4%). Gymnastics and soccer
(2%) were represented exactly as expected. In terms of team
and individual sport representation, the percentages were 72%
and 28%, respectively.
Assessment Instruments
The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) measures
job satisfaction with various aspects of the work
environment. Respondents were asked to respond to 100
questions which assess satisfaction with 20 separate aspects
of the work environment and pertain to psychological needs.
Five Likert-type response categories were presented for each
item (i.e., very dissatisfied; dissatisfied; neither
[dissatisfied or satisfied]; satisfied; and very satisfied).


76
Not surprisingly, based on structural explanations of
job dissatisfaction, men in predominantly female occupations
also are reported to have significantly lower levels of job
satisfaction. According to Moore (1985), the work
environment (i.e., lower pay, fewer promotional
opportunities, and limited opportunity for challenges) had a
significant effect in lowering job satisfaction scores among
men in such situations.
Ranter (1976) concluded that women's attitudes toward
work, and subsequently their levels of job satisfaction, are
more a function of their position within the organizational
structure than a consequence of their primary socialization
into family roles. Ranter's argument was that if women had
lower job aspirations, were less involved with their work,
and placed greater value than men on a congenial work
environment and peer relations, the cause could be traced
back to the fact that they generally hold positions with
limited or blocked mobility. Arguably, if men found
themselves in parallel situations, they would exhibit similar
work related attitudes (Ranter, 1976). From the related
literature can be found considerable support for Ranter's
premise and analyses of the relationship among working
conditions, gender, and job satisfaction (e.g., Grandjean &
Bernarl, 1979; Grandjean & Taylor, 1980; Mcllwee, 1982,
Schreiber, 1979, South et al., 1982).


56
support, competent supervision, and achievement
opportunities. Provided the work environment and individual
are able to satisfy each others requirements and needs, their
interaction and relationship will be maintained. In
contrast, when their mutual requirements are not met, the
individual or work environment will move to change or
terminate the relationship.
The process whereby the individual and work environment
strive to meet each others requirements and needs is called
"work adjustment" (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984). The degree to
which the requirements of each or both are met is described
as level of "correspondence." According to Dawis and
Lofquist (1984), a basic motive of human vocational behavior
is to achieve and maintain high correspondence, i.e., to
engage in effective, satisfying work adjustment.
The primary indicators of work adjustment are job
satisfaction and job satisfactoriness. Job satisfaction is
the degree to which the work environment meets the
individual's needs. Dawis and Lofquist (1984) identified
twenty individual needs relevant to job satisfaction: ability
utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority,
company policies and practices, compensation, co-workers,
creativity, independence, moral values, recognition,
responsibility, security, social service, social status,
supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety,


157
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Peterson, R., & Capwell, D.
(1957). Job attitudes: review of research and opinion.
Pittsburgh: Psychological Services of Pittsburgh.
Hopkins, A. H. (1983). Work and job satisfaction in the
public sector. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld.
Hoppock, R., (1935). Job satisfaction. New York: National
Occupational Conference, Harper.
Hoppock, R. (1960). A 27-year follow-up on job satisfaction
of employed adults. Personnel and Guidance Journal,
489-492.
Hughes, H. (1973). The status of women in sociology. 1968-
1972. Paper presented at the meeting for the American
Sociological Society, Washington, D.C.
Hulin, C., & Smith, P. (1964). Sex differences in job
satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology. A3, 209-216.
Hulin, C., & Smith, P. (1965). A linear model of job
satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4£, 88-92.
Hunt, J. W., & Saul, P. N. (1975). The relationship of age,
tenure and job satisfaction in males and females. Academy of
Management. Fall, 690-702.
Ivancevich, J. M., & Donnelly, J. H. (1968). Job
satisfaction research: A management guide for practitioners.
Personnel Journal 47, 172-177.
Jenner, R. (1988, June). The experience of work stress as a
function of stress in a primary relationship. Psychological
Reports, £2, 711-717.
Jurik, N. C., & Halemba, G. J. (1984). Gender, working
conditions and the job satisfaction of women in a non-
traditional occupation: Female correctional officers in
men's prisons. The Sociological Quarterly 25, 551-566.
Kanter, R. M. (1976). The policy issues: Presentation VI.
In Blaxan & Reagan, (Eds.) Women and the workplace (pp.
282-291). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kanter, R. M. (1977). Some effects of proportions on group
life: Skewed sex ratios and responses to token women.
American Journal of Sociology, 2, 965-990.


70
satisfaction among "nontraditionals". The researchers also
reported, however, that women in the "nontraditional"
category experienced a great deal more stress resulting from
the pressure on them to "perform", isolation, and co-workers
hostility than their counterparts. (O'Farrell & Harlen, 1980;
Schreiber, 1979). O'Farrell and Harlen (1980) and Walshok
(1979) suggested that the higher levels of job satisfaction
for women in nontraditional occupations stemmed, in part,
from comparisons made by the women. When these women
compared their own jobs with the traditional jobs previously
or potentially available to them, the nontraditional job was
perceived as more satisfying than the traditional "women's
work". According to Mcllwee (1982), the prestige and sense
of accomplishment assigned to nontraditional occupations
wanes over time, resulting in lower levels of satisfaction,
different sources of satisfaction, dissatisfaction, or some
combination. More specifically, Mcllwee (1982) identified a
pattern in the perceived levels of job satisfaction among
women in nontraditional occupations. Upon entry into
nontraditional blue-collar jobs, women receive comparatively
greater rewards and experience greater levels of job
satisfaction than women in traditional occupations. Beyond
that, however, Mcllwee reported that satisfaction levels
declined over time as the nontraditional aspects of the job
diminished in importance, with both satisfaction and