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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Home and Garden Bulletin No. 63
Types of sprayers and dusters------------------- 3
Household sprayers--------------- -- 4
Aerosol bomb ---------------------------- 5
Compressed-air sprayers-------------------- 5
Knapsack sprayers---------------------- 6
Bucket, barrel, and slide pumps -----------
Wheelbarrow sprayers--------------------- 8
Garden-hose sprayers_--------------------- 8
Traction sprayers------------------------- 9
Package-type dusters ---------------------- 9
Plunger dusters--------------------------- 9
Crank dusters----------_----------------- 9
Knapsack dusters ------------------------ 10
Wheelbarrow and traction dusters ----------- 10
Care and maintenance of equipment ------------ 11
Precautions --------------------------------- 12
Washington, D.C. Issued September 196'
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 Price 10 cents
D L...J Ir c- --C
By FRANK IRONS, Agricultural Engineering Research Division,
Agricultural Research Service
Hand-operated sprayers and dusters
are effective weapons for use with
pesticides to control insects, weeds,
and plant diseases in the home, in the
yard and garden, and on the farm.
In the home. this equipment is im-
portant in protecting the family from
insects that carry diseases, contam-
inate and destroy food, damage and
destroy clothes, and cause personal
In the yard and garden, sprayers
and dusters are essential in protecting
flowers, ornamental shrubbery, trees,
vegetable., and fruit crops from in-
sects and diseases. When used with
weed-killing chemicals, this equip-
ment simplifies the chore of eliminat-
ing unsightly weeds from the lawn.
On the farm, hand-operated, mobile
sprayers and dusters are useful for
many spraying or dusting jobs where
the use of larger and more expensive
equipment may not be justified. They
can also be used for spot treatment of
pastures and field and forage crops to
supplement larger power-operated
Other farm uses include: Control-
ling pests on poultry, cattle, and hogs;
cleaning and disinfecting poultry and
livestock buildings: applying white-
wash and shingle stain; fighting small
fires; applying rust inhibitors, deter-
gents and other grease solvents; and
eradicating weeds and brush.
TYPES OF SPRAYERS AND
There is a type and size of sprayer
or duster for every application of
pesticide (insecticide. fiugicidc. or
herbicide). Some units serve multiple
purposes; others are designed for
specific purposes. The choice of a
sprayer or duster depends on the size
of the job, the type of application de-
sired, and the type of pesticide you
Sprayers are designed for applying
three types of pesticide sprays-space
sprays, residual (or surface) sprays,
and dual-purpose sprays. Read the
container label to make certain you
apply the pesticide correctly.
To apply a space spray, use a
sprayer with a nozzle that produces
fine droplets, which remain floating
in the air. Direct the spray upward to
fill the room or enclosure with a float-
ing fog or mist.
To apply a residual (or surface)
spray, use a nozzle or nozzle adjust-
ment that produces a coarse-droplet
spray. Such a spray does not float off
into the air. Wet the surface to the
point of runoff.
To apply a dual-purpose spray, use
a nozzle or nozzle adjustment that
produces a medium-fine spray.
Two popular types of household
units are available-intermittent and
Intermittent-type household sprayer.
Pesticides are commonly available
for formulating liquid sprays as solu-
tions. emulsions, or wettable-powder
suspensions for control of insects,
plant diseases. or weeds. Pesticides
are also available as dust mixtures for
insect and plant-disease control.
For more specific information about
pesticides, consult your county agent
or write to the U.S. Department of
Agriculture for bulletins about the
particular pests or diseases you wish
continuous pressure sprayers. Both
types are used to apply sediment-free
spray material for controlling flies.
mosquitoes. roaches, moths, and other
household pests. They are economical
to buy and to operate.
Intermittent sprayers discharge the
spray material only with each forward
stroke of the pump. The nozzle of an
intermittent sprayer delivers an atom-
ized, or fine-droplet, spray and is not
Continuous sprayers develop and
maintain a constant pressure, and de-
liver a continuous spray discharge of
uniform pattern while the pump is
being operated. This feature produces
a more even coverage and a faster
spraying job. Most continuous spray-
ers have interchangeable nozzles or
adjustable nozzles: they can deliver a
mnedium-fine spray, a fine-droplet
space spray. or a coar.se-droplet spray.
The choice of nozzle or nozzle adjust-
ment depends on the pest control
problem and on the type of pesticide
you wish to apply.
Household .-praw ers are available in
sizes ranging from a few ounces to 3
quarts. Tanks are made of gla--. tin-
plate, galvanized or stainless steel,
brass. or copper.
It is not advisable to use household
sprayers for applying spray materials
that contain suspended .olid.-, because
the nozzle opening is usually small
and will clog.
An aerosol bomb is a small self-
contained unit generally used for
space treatment in the control of flies,
mosquitoes, and other insects found
around the home. This type of sprayer
consists of a pressure can with a dis-
charge valve and nozzle at the top,
and a tube extending from the valve
to the bottom of the can. A propel-
lant material is formulated with the
spray and placed in the can at the
time it is assembled. The propellant
provides the pressure and energy to
discharge and atomize the spray.
Residual spray may be applied in
some instances to limited areas with
an aerosol bomb, but this method of
application is not economical com-
pared with manually operated spray-
ers. Always store aerosol bombs in a
cool place and never throw used ones
into an incinerator.
Compressed-air sprayers are simple
in design and operation and are rela-
tively inexpensive to buy and main-
tain. They are commonly used for
applying insect and plant-disease
sprays around the home and farm
building.. on flowers, shrubs, fruits.
and vegetables. They are also useful
for spot and small-area spraying to
supplement larger spraying units.
Other uses include the -praying of
weeds, livestock, and poultry houses.
The essential parts of a compressed-
air sprayer are: The tank, air pump,
discharge tube (from the bottom of
the tank to the hose), spray hose, ex-
tension spray tube, spray-control
valve, and nozzle. Small .-prayers are
equipped with a carrying handle.
large ones with a shoulder strap. The
tank is fitted with a pressure-type
filler cap. A funnel-type top is pro-
vided on some models to make filling
easier. Some models have an open-top
de-ign with a larger opening: they are
easily filled or drained and can be
readily and thoroughly cleaned.
Tanks are usually made of galva-
nized steel, but some models are
available in stainless steel, copper, or
brass for longer service life. The tanks
are 11/2 to 5 gallons in size.
For best results in spraying, fill the
Compressed-air sprayer adapted for apply-
ing weed-control spray to lawns.
tank not more than three-fou
of spray material. This leave
space at the top for building
pressure with the pump. The
operating pressure ranges fr(
50 pounds and is maintain
casional pumping. If wellable-powder
material is used, mix it well in a sep-
arate container and strain it into the
tank. Shake the tank occasionally to
keep the spray material mixed and to
prevent settling. Use caution in open-
ing the sprayer while there is any air
pressure remaining in the tank.
Sprayers are equipped with various
types of nozzles to provide different
spray patterns such as hollow cone.
solid cone, flat fan, or solid stream.
Some models have an adjustable noz-
zle to provide a range of droplet sizes
from fine, cone-shaped fog for close
spraying, to coarser, long-range spray
or solid stream.
Knapsack sprayers, as indicated by
rts ful the name, are carried on the back by
es an air
means of shoulder straps. Some mod-
g up air els have built-in spray pump, of pis-
ton or diaphragm type. which the
)m 30 to
operator pumps continuously to main-
d by oc-
Stain the necessary pressure. The pump
handle on some models may be at-
STRAPS tached at either side to permit right-
hand or left-hand pumping as desired
by the operator. A pressure chamber
is provided to eliminate pulsations and
give a uniform pressure. Other models
IAMBER are equipped with a double-acting
TATOR slide-type pump. Spray pre-,ires
range from 80 to 180 pouliii-.
TANK Agitation of spray material in the
tank is provided by a mechanical
--PUMP agitator in some models and by hy-
draulic or jet agitation in others.
Tanks are generally made of galva-
P1 nized steel, but some models are
available in copper or stainless steel.
Tank sizes range from 4 to 6 gallons.
Applying herbicide with a knapsack
Bucket, Barrel, and Slide Pumps
Sprayers using these types of pumps
are efficient, inexpensive, and suit-
able for occasional spraying needs
where high pressure and portability
are necessary but where more expen-
sive equipment is not justified. The
spray container for each type must be
furnished by the user. Bucket and
slide pumps develop pressures of 150
to 175 pounds. They are adapted for
residual -pra ing of shrubbery, vege-
tables, flowers, and small fruit trees;
for spraying live.lock; for whitewash-
ing and disinfecting. They may also
be used as emergency fire-fighting
equipment. Barrel pumps are suitable
for spraying shade trees and small
orchards, and for other jobs requ hiring
high pressure and greater pump
The bucket pump is a simplee
plunger type equipped with an air
chamber for continuous pressure and
discharge. A footrest bracket attached
to the pump supports and holds it in
position for spraying. Pressure of
about 250 pounds can be developed.
The barrel pump is generally a
heavily constructed plunger type,
equipped with paddle or dasher agi-
tator. It is designed to be attached to
a barrel or tank. Pressure of about
250 pounds can be developed.
The slide pump contains a telescop-
ing plunger-type unit that is also an
integral part of the discharge system.
It provides a pressure of about 180
Bucket pump sprayer. Barrel pump sprayer.
INLET % Fr Lv&"r.
STRAINER PUMP CYLINDER
Slide pump sprayer.
Wheelbarrow sprayers-largest of
the mobile, hand-operated pressure
units-have capacity for spraying
trees, gardens, truck crops, green-
houses, and farm buildings, and for
other spray jobs where power sprayers
might ordinarily be used but are not
The sprayer consists of a tank with
a capacity of 12 to 18 gallons, a
wheel-mounted frame, a hand pump
similar to that on a barrel sprayer, an
agitator, and a pressure gage. The dis-
charge system consists of the hose,
extension tube, shut-off valve, and
nozzle. The sprayer is available with
various optional parts such as steel or
rubber-tired wheel, pressure tank,
and narrow frame for special jobs.
The garden-hose sprayer is de-
signed to connect to a garden hose
and utilize the household water sup-
ply and water pressure for application
of pesticides. It consists of a jar for
holding concentrated spray material,
a spray gun attached to the lid, and a
suction hose from the gun to the bot-
tom of the jar. A shut-off valve is
provided at the gun. The gun meters
out the spray concentrate from the
jar by suction through jets and mixes
it with the water flowing from the
Spraying fruit trees with a wheelbarrow
garden hose through the gun. This
makes a dilute spray, which is de-
livered from the nozzle.
A 1-quart jar of concentrated spray
will make 5 to 6 gallons of dilute
This type of sprayer is very useful,
but is limited to the area that can be
reached with the garden hose.
The traction sprayer is a mounted,
row-crop sprayer. Power to drive the
pump is supplied from the wheels
carrying the machine. It is usually
drawn by a horse or mule and is em-
ployed principally in the cotton and
tobacco areas where these animals are
Some pesticide dusts are being
packaged in containers that serve as
hand applicators and are discarded
when emptied. These include shake
types. flick types, plastic squeeze
types, and plunger carton types. They
are intended for rather limited use
and may be very convenient for small
jobs but generally are not capable of
as uniform coverage as other duster
Plunger dusters are commonly used
for applying dust materials to rela-
tively small areas or for spot treat-
ment. They vary in size and capacity
and are especially useful for such
jobs as dusting vegetables and orna-
mental plants in the home garden and
for controlling chiggers, ants, poultry
pests, cattle grubs, and other pests.
The plunger duster is very simple
in design. It consists of a hand-oper-
ated air pump similar to that of the
household sprayer, a dust container,
and the discharge assembly. Nozzles
on most types may be adjusted to dis-
charge the dust at various angles.
Crank dusters are used extensively
in some areas for small-acreage treat-
ment of cotton, tobacco, and truck
crops. They are also used sometimes
to finish up dusting operation
ing the use of larger machine
The crank duster consist
blower (which is driven b
crank connected to high-spec
a dust hopper with agitator i
ing dust to the blower, the
livery tubes, and nozzles.
combinations of nozzles and t
supplied for covering one
Dusting rcgetab/e crops with a crank
rows. An adjustable feed control is
provided to regulate the feed rate.
The duster is carried in front of the
operator with shoulder-strap harness.
Capacity of the dust hopper is ap-
proximately 5 to 25 pounds.
NOZZLES The knapsack duster is designed
for carrying on the back with shoul-
BN-8487-x der straps. A bellows generates the air
blast, which draws dust from the dust
s follow- chamber and discharges it through
the nozzle outlet with each stroke of
ts of a the handle. This produces an inter-
)y hand mitent action particularly suitable
d gears), for spot treatment of individually
For feed- spaced plants. The hopper capacity is
dust-de- approximately 10 to 25 pounds.
ubes are Wheelbarrow and Traction
or two Dusters
This equipment is used for dusting
Sro-) crops ;Iuch as cotton, tobacco.
and vegetables. It can be propelled
by hand or drawn by an animal. The
duster unit i, simiilar to the crank
Tables of Small Quantities
The following tables may be useful
in preparing small quantities of ma-
Wheelbarrow-type traction duster.
duster but is generally heavier and
has a larger capacity. It is mounted
on a wheelbarrow-type frame having
one or two wheels. Flexible tubing
with various arrangements of individ-
ual tubes, Y-shaped double discharge
tubes. and nozzles may be attached
for treating one or two rows. One or
more nozzles per row may be used;
the number depends on the crop,
growth stage, and coverage required.
Special high-clearance two-wheeled
carts are used in some areas to carry
larger traction dusters. These ma-
chines may be equipped with dis-
charge equipment for treating two to
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
Manufacturers of sprayers and dust-
ers usually provide information on
the care and maintenance of each
type of equipment. Follow these rec-
ommendations for lubrication, oper-
ation, and maintenance.
Drain sprayer tanks after each use
and flush with clean water. Where
possible, disassemble and clean thor-
oughly all parts of the sprayer, espe-
8 fluid ounces
= 1 tablespoonful
-1 fluid ounce
= 1 pint (pt.)
= 1 quart (qt.)
= 1 gallon (gal.)
= 1 tablespoonful
1 ounce = approximately 2 tablespoon-
fuls dry weight.
cially nozzles and screens. Apply oil
to parts that might rust. Before reas-
sembling the nozzle, fill the tank
partly full with water and force it
through the open nozzle to clean out
the discharge line.
Household sprayers require little
care or maintenance. If the pump
loses compression. pull the pump
handle out as far as possible and put
a few drops of oil in the air hole at
the end of the pump cylinder.
Dusters should be emptied and
cleaned after using to prevent caking
and clogging and eventual corrosion.
Store equipment in a dry place.
Pesticides used improperly can
be injurious to man and animals.
Use them only when needed and
handle them with care. Follow the
directions and heed all precautions
on the labels.
Some States have special restric-
tions on the use of certain pesti-
cides. Before applying pesticides,
check State and local regulations.
Keep pesticides in closed, well-
labeled containers in a dry place.
Store them where they will not
contaminate food or feed, and
where children and animals can-
not reach them. Promptly dispose
of empty pesticide containers; do
not use for any other purpose.
When handling a pesticide, wear
clean, dry clothing.
Avoid repeated or prolonged con-
tact of pesticide with your skin.
Wear protective clothing and
equipment if specified on the con-
tainer label. Avoid prolonged inhal-
ation of pesticide dusts or mists.
Avoid spilling a pesticide con-
centrate on your skin, and keep it
out of your eyes, nose, and mouth.
If you get a concentrate on your
skin, wash it off immediately with
soap and water. If you spill a con-
centrate on your clothing, remove
the clothing immediately and wash
the skin thoroughly. Launder the
clothing before wearing it again.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08856 1393
After handling a pesticide, do
not eat, drink, or smoke until you
have washed your hands and face.
Wash any exposed skin immediately
after applying a pesticide.
Avoid drift of pesticide to nearby
wildlife habitats, bee yards, crops,
or livestock. Do not apply pesti-
cides under conditions favoring
drift from the area to be treated.
Many pesticides are highly toxic
to fish and aquatic animals. Keep
pesticides out of all water sources
such as ponds, streams, and wells.
Do not clean spraying equipment
or dump excess spray material near
Do not apply pesticides to plants
during hours when honey bees and
other pollinating insects are visit-
Have empty pesticide containers
buried at a sanitary land-fill dump.
or crush and bury them at least 18
inches deep in a level, isolated
place where they will not contami-
nate water supplies. If you have
trash-collection service, thoroughly
wrap small containers in several
layers of newspaper and place them
in the trash can.
It is difficult to remove all traces
of herbicides from equipment.
For this reason, do not use the
same equipment for applying her-
bicides that you use for insecticides
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1967 OF-269-684
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