Roses for the home


Material Information

Roses for the home
Series Title:
Home and garden bulletin ;
Physical Description:
24 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Emsweller, S. L ( Samuel Leonard ), b. 1898
Brierley, Philip, 1899-
Smith, Floyd F ( Floyd Franklin ), 1900-
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Rev. Aug. 1963.


Subjects / Keywords:
Roses   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by S.L. Emsweller and Philip Brierley, and Floyd F. Smith.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004953185
oclc - 659732154
System ID:

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* U.S. DEPA RrMNT E F P C, F"i 'l-: ULTU ,:

Kinds of roses _______-_ __ _________ 3
Bush roses________ _____________ 3
Climbing roses________________ 6
B uying plants . . 7
13Plning Isits --------- ---------------------------_-_ 8
Plantimn sites 8
Planting times. ___-__-___.. -------____-__ ____ __ 8
Spacing plants ____-- ____-__-____--__-__-______--_____- 8
Soil i' paration------- --------- 9
Handling plants ___. __--____- ___-_---- __-.-. ____- 9
Setting the plants_ __-________-_______ 10
Cultivating and mulching .._____________________________ 10
W watering .. ..______-- -____----- __- ____--____- ___ 11
Fertill .in1i .-__.. __ __--------------- -_--------- ----- 11
Disbudding --- ----------------- 12
Cutting flowers .._ ______. _. ______. __________- 12
Preparii n roses for show_ -_- ---_---_ --_.__--_------- -___ 13
Pruning 13
P ---------------------------------------------
Bush roses__________ -- __----- _----- __---- ___ 14
Climbing roses -_____________._-.- __._-_-_-_- _- ___ 15
W inter protection _-__-_--_ _-- _-___-_-_-_- ___-_-_- _____ 15
Bush roses__________-- .--- -____----- -. -__--___ 15
Tree roses______________ .-____-_- -____-- ----------___ 15
Clinmbing roses________ __________ 16
Propagation ..I __ 16
Diseases and insects ____________-_.- --- ____ ___--- --. 16
CoImbination sprays and dusts -______._._--_______ 17
D diseases --_____- _- _____-- _.. _... __._ 17
Tnsec. ts ... _...._ _._-____ ..... ._._._ __.. .---__ --- 19

S ton, ).(C. Revised August 1963

Io r y tI of I)oc innis, I '.. Governliiet 'PinIing )ilicc
\Vasiingt on, 1).(., 204(12 Price 15 cents

for the

i~1 1IIbl1

Bv S. _. )i II: t

i ~ t (~isiit

"I csii~i :I

l s ar e 00 mo'st i )po- houl h se ome ki otf 1i1 r,, a re
lar of all I d i llwersl.i can very .1 ble and i v Ii
he gro0 ii eVri y piart of iihe c oulltry i 111w'N t ah t Hcw
a11I ar a daped to 1 an (I decative inI laced ]I lmullNd-l arie:

\aietics of ro s are available ftr
planting onr la 1s arid l Iorders, for
I, in g oun arl Irs ald trtl lisIs or as
- .. ;i('n tree os-' I ail fr use as befl Il s ar s ,nl iII i .n 1 ain
d Il ,l as he adg1es, and as a source( _(gls ,- a, ld c l ( Ii ",,li
(1f cut Iloxwers. igitized. bvthe IdteCrntA i r hal s of t ll-
ew varieties, de elo id bY i ,,I wl fundn: fr m -1 Il o
} Uri W itiy o If ITll, icr I, iGe:rge A' S rffatibrs Lib r e 'e wif uppt ~[f LYRiSIa I (.Sion iF,, un. i on

rhese new varietiel are available ii a
Wide Irane of coIlrs awid forms.
For success itn vroi garden

B Buy i-orou Iplanl s I r.'ii a l. i.
table Ircal tiurser v. retail store, or
mail- order nursery
SSelecti a platii site that recei ve
at least 6 hours of sunshiIne daily.
o Se plants iln wcll-pi i ,red beds

Cit flo ers from the plant with-
out 1 I ,_ ; I, the ri ari -- parts of
the plant.
Prime the ilanits ever\ vlar.
SSpray of dust i _ulari tr pil- It
insect or disease damag. 1
1 Pr otetl thie lantsl frol wiliter
inIjur N

rose- prlodu ce log laes and mul Im
1p1ovied with some kiid of support

Bush Roses
IThe bush r-1 aie groupeil into
t e according to, hei flow x ,.
hait winter hardi ess, and other
trait s. The tIel- of sh rses ar
lhvbrid tea. l.rib, l.,I ,ra dil ora.

m1111 nature.

Hybrid Teas
Hvl rid teas a1t1 the Jo-,- I.. month-
Iv or eve r-bltomig rses. They are
more widly lrxiown thn all otlier types
1f roses co m lined. i' '. tle wordc
" irosei' i-s u eId. it _. ~~~ s est
a 1 1b id l ta vari et


/ "

T' 5o *

X:: h
- a .. .r.. A- ,n .,

i ,ii t 6x,

Floriiunda rose, "Girl Scout.'

at re Iybrid tea rose bushes are
2 to 0 fe '- I: the height depending
The flowers vary from
silxcxI? w hici have but one row of
tal, t ,les ith matn rows. In
" I !, ii [I.t arc poile( a0l lonug.
JAI t1 foI are borne aIv to a

stem or in clusters of three to five.
Hybrid tea varieties are available in a
wide range of colors, including pure
w' ". and many shades of ~el. yellow,
pink, and orange. All varieties are
good for '- although some have
short stems.
\Most hybrid teas have some fra-
grance. This characteristic, however,
is variable. \N hen fr ',r.., r: is pres-
ent it is us .i,, most intense in the
early tno. ,-, before the fragrant oil
has ev orated from the base of the

lost hybrid teas are winter hardy
in areas where the winter temperatures
i o not ( en go Ibelow zero, but vari-
eties ,'er in cold resistance. In sec-
tions where winters are severe. practi-
cally all varieties need some protection.


i ~ribiuda roses bear their flowers
in clusters, and the individual blooms
of many of hem closely resemble hy-
brid _teas. They are increase', in
popularity, espec. i. for bed plantings
where large numbers of flowers are
wanted. Floribundaas will tolerate more
r. I. than any other type of rose with
the possible exception of some of the
shrub i. '-.


Grandiflora roses resemble hybrid
teas in type of bloom--;igl, on lon,'
stems-and in hardiness. Though the
flowers are somewhat smaller than those
of hybrid teas. grandifloras bloom more
abundantly. The flowers are good for


Flowers of polyantha roses are
smaller than those of the i-, ,,difloras

and are Iorne ii in ratllir large clu'cr
h (I clusters ar si ilar in forn i anIl
in size of ilividuai l fo111s to l mian\
of the climbing rse, to which the toll-
anthas are closely related. 'Ilie poly
anthas are hard) al mayti!\ e g row mn
in many areas where' h)ybri tleas are
difficult to gr, w. Their chief use is il
bed plan tings or in borders will i pren-
nials. IThe are exellelnt for inma

Hybrid Perpetuals

Hybrid perpetuals are the June roses
of grandmother's garden. Their
flowers are large. Generally they lack
the refinement of h hybrid teas: an excep-
tion is the white-flowered variety Frau
Karl Druschki, which many consider
the finest while rose in existence.
Prior to the development of modern
hybrid 'teas. hybrid perpetual roses
were verx popular. As their name in-
dicates. they are consider d as ever-
bloo,,II; typos, although most of them
do not bhear c ontinuiouslv through the
group ing season as do hybrid teas.
They usuiall develop la rge vi-g orous
bu-shes if given -A' d cu ltural care and
proper npruniin:. They are 1xer 111 ha
and sand lol w w inlr teI 10mperatrs with-
oult protection.

Shrub Rose-

Shrul roses are ac1tuall a mniscel-
launous g:r>oup, Of wild species, hblrids.
and var i th al lare, .- d -se.

sti4r 1ers (i ,t. equal i size or
om(1 1 1 oh o k o lier Ii of x r sf

t yp a 'hat i i

tli fall. 'I144 ha\ c l i niw-hx1l4 I1 i4-
x'd ~1l4 o r 4 scr 4 f I 414 1

cities aiind spcuis l ti;u wer p popula
in ( lniiinil 1e4 4. Th u h } he
(1 e\\ rs (1 4 1- 1;tl i ,lii I r4o1 IIi ot
as a(ractie as tlos newer vari-
eties, they uisuall ar Imch more
fr -_-1 I ,t. Thes ro14-es are all verx
hanly, require little care. an1 furnish
an abllludatne of flou\e ill Jie.
Am) ong the varieties occ asionall
found in gardens are:

Rosa rentifolia (cab age
rose) _________________
Moss roses ----_---__--_-
Cardinal dce ich-iieuip .__
Rosr, n11 nl di _-__ _.-..

Y ork and I.ancasti r___- -

l.ilhl pink
Purplish red
SI i' Id N ilbilc and
Pink and v hite
and v; rie:eald

Tree, or Standard, Roses

Tree, or standard. roses are dis-
tinive I 1 b14cause of tlle firml of the
plant rather thali the Itpe of flower.
TbeI are Imalde bl, I- 'fi ai of the
bush-t4 e roses o upright trunks.

Tree roses are usd:l in formr al p' "
or are used to accent a particular pgat
of t I f I I sc 1ti r lic re wi -

ters ar1e severe lie a iil :la l 'fo 1 ai
protc tion.
I miniature R- les


'," iure r1
leaves and flo>we

som'e varieties [

ao1i1\ for 4 'o"7:e

4 14 1 4

Miniature rose, 'Opal Jewel."

d. -
, ,, '

I1' ;

AN-- 19x'*
Climliing floribunda rose, "( I; l ,. Circus."

Climbing Roses

Climl: roses include all varieties
tliat pri uIc long canes and require
se srt of support to hold the plants
ui i I molnd. Tlhey are often
trainedii on (cs or trellises, and sonime
1ar uii-u il )tl, s','t)ort to (cover

plaie. Cl/imitg rses are rather

hardy. They are becoming more pop-
ular with the development of finer
Climbing roses, like bush roses, are
grouped into several types. There is
much overlapping among types, and
some varieties could qualify under sev-
eral. \ ost rose catalog list the follow-
ing types: Ramblers, large-flowered
climbers, ever-blooiiin,. climbers,
climbing hybrid teas, climbing poly-
anthas, climbing floribundas, and trail-
ing roses.

Rambler roses are very rapid grow-
ers. They sometimes develop canes as
long as 20 feet in one season. The
flowers are small-less than 2 inches
across-and are borne in dense clus-
ters. The plants flower only once dur-
ing a season and on wood that was
produced the preceding year. The
foliage is glossy and the plants are very
hardy, but, unfortunately, many va-
rieties are very susceptible to mildew.
They are l, I;* replaced by other
climbing types that bear 1.i, ,-r flowers
1I!._.' a long growing season and are
less subject to mildew.

Large-Flowered Climbers
Large-flowered climbers grow slowly
in; .,i larison with ramblers. They are
often trained on posts or some other
type of support, and may require
rather heavy annual pruning to keep
them in bounds. These roses are well
,il ,tted to small gardens w here they
may be trained .-. lii:-t a wall. fence, or
small trellis. When the plants are
grownl iell the flower rs are rather large
and are useful for culling. Many va-
rieties do not bloom as freely when the
caues are trained Xerticatll as they do
when cancs are trained horizontally.

Everbloom., "'mbters

an ab1 11441 ( aN 111 1 41
Iler. Af t,l I hii ri la 4i hca), lI
t1 1 i I jII t 1 I f 1X f
Ih w {rs uIil all. i a... if vui' .lilt

apa M inav I t)ar I iv.

Pl ant ri.'( 1 r at14 iX llro\ i-\ i
t [tpe of a rx o raitI 1'1l \d'

as conttiniiiuo/ h asv h I ras/ ., aii alr
more inter hIlan.

T diny B

1ot p 4 mil4 1i_. o
pro(!- o u'e

lixp as oi.t e )14 I o<
tand 14iX 4 1 a ] 4 4r

Climbing Hybrid Teas
Climbingtivhi 1 ea11 ro
sI ports ot f ]4 sh arietir.

I 414 )1

When a hush hyb'i(] tea prodes a
( 110 11 t1e
the nea txpt of pIlant is uiuall given
tle salmei in as the ilu irielt froi
1whiel it origin atc for i pi
1C i1billg Cri, n
The t li1.* ,1 hr rid teas.
in ,' ead. Al lowt ioum as contini-
ously as their bus It4 parents. I{The
tflo\ers, foliage. and other c a1ractlcr .
however arc ruaall .'.ial. The
c1imb1ig hi xbrid 1teas are ju1 as su
ceptible to winter inj ry ziz t6lie bs

Climbing Polyanthas and
T hese tl)es like thie limbing hylrid
teas. orx ,..I aS iorts a di i ced li _
f roxm i})l 4 anila 4 ri u as. The
flowers (of 1ese sports afre gicr' ,
identical will t01e ]bus1 for s 1 from
which they 1or1inated,. and thy al o
are fairly ,ontinuous in 1h min.t
They are hardier than tle imbiiI: -
hN1brid teas. 1 it not ha)Ird enloiIh to
withstand s re winter climates ult-
less I' I lv ted.

seri'( a ind
sources[ of pi
departmeiiL ;
clInit iAii

t4 (
I (b n
I I ir

fro I4ro

sour c{'es if their stock li s Iein kept
do(1m-ant and has lern preleted fro1w

higl- aiit p lai ts n al-order
nurseries a id nur4ser dtlarc1) ii i of
mail-order hmues ..epa]c mail-
order 1oralizxatin 14,1i4 ( 1 l e d (ucata-
1U liV'- 1 the plant t I1 X 1 11)\ Sell.

Thel ki II !,u arant ee their 1,p lati to
grow and lowm if give1 n Ilrmal c are.
For T elp in de i in ii of (te
Iani\ xretiet s oof foe to a o. 4 0 1.ata-

)log t' h seveal o Lt}l "A.l rseie
houses., The varieties lis{{edt in t},ese

gre rowers and ou are Jtikil to be
satisfied xwith any of them.
-\iembers of local garden clubs .i
rose societies are sources f p Ii
information ..' the var tie s
that do 4well in your localitv.

',c 4ili

444 Hid

A,4 r
:. :.


Roses _,.i best where they have sunshine all day, but will grow satisfactorily where they have
at least 6 hours of sunshine daily.

Planting Sites

Roses .r'.., best where they have
full sunshine all day. They will grow
satisfactorily, however, if they have at
least 6 hours of sun a day.
If you must plant roses where they
are shaded part of the day and have
a choice as to morning sun or after-
noon sun, plant them where they have
moi ir sun. If plants are shaded in
the morning, their leaves remain wet
with dew a few hours lo.. '-i than if
they were in morning sun. moisturee on
the leaves is favorable for the develop-
ment of several leaf diseases.

Pont ng Times

}h e .o1per nime to plant p. ,-1r4 I
rss ids on the severity of winter
Im attres n the rea, as follows:
*" If witter tr .'. -es do not go
bIlw 1(0 plit atl an time the bushes
at ei dorma nt.

If winter temperatures do not go
below 10, plant in fall or spring.
If winter temperatures regularly
go below 10- plant in spring only.
Some nurseries and garden centers
sell roses that are planted in containers.
These container-grown roses can be
transplanted at any time.

Spacing Plants

Space hybrid teas, grandifloras,
polyanthas. and floribundas about 2 feet
apart in areas where winter tempera-
tures are very cold ( -100 or below),
about 21 feet apart where winter tem-
peratures are moderate (10 to 100),
and at least 3 feet apart where winter
temperatures are mild (above 100).
In all areas. space hybrid perpetuals 3
to 5 feet iprit and climbers from 8 to
10 feet apart.



Soil Preparation

If you are plantillg a few roe-<: i
individual planting lles for Ithel.
1.Ik the holes 12 inches dtl p .1 at
least 18 inches in diam .ter. If vou
are planting a la, i number o[ rov4 s i
a continuous ait .1I pIre are beds 1)
-pI ,lii the soil to a d ) ph of alout
12 inches. )ig la tin'e h s in th,
prepared beds.
Any 4,Jid ariden soil w ill produce
-'"d.1 rose. f oU catn .gr o 'oI
grass, shrubs ad oi their plalt -, 1our
soil probatbll needs no psl ial prei itra-
tion for roses. If "our soil is vert'
heavy, or if it is light and 1 ; i.
fertility. or if the builder of our house
has used subsoil from th e basement ex-
cavation to level our lot. \oiu can im-
prove your soil by addl' or 2 ii
Use peat im oss, lea fmol. or manure
for organic matter. \ I'.st gard ners
piefer to use m tre c I eha drafted
cow man ure is availaIble fro ii gar deri-
supply stores. If you use nmanure,i add
about one-half pound of superIphs-
phliato to each bushel.
Spread a laxer of of o.- ,iic: matter 2
to 4 inches deep over the spaded bed.
\ ork the o .i:in master into the soil
to spade depth.
If you are (1: planting holes ii
1 rll11l red s oil. mix soil from the
holes Nwith organic matter. I'se one
part of ipeat or I i,.,iold to four parts
of soil or one part of manure Lo six
parts of soil. 1Mix thoroughly.
After planting holes are d,,_ either
in beds or hunpr i"ed so il. loosen the

soil in the tIo tom of the hole and work
in about hal a s f a Ial of ell-rotted

lad w it. it

are re', ",ed<. P r i {i.' ro l l' c i l i: t/i 'j.

I r l. a lic Ill }

zlhe dell' l as I't fom1 lilC 1 ]',o l.
x l a -it 11A m k, thi!
r t -l 1,li) I I '

as ldeliverea uL, k h lt (A

i\ a I 1'd atl d tiir
can I odo t A N

ili i J t i iio ii i i rii1 eit i
liie i u tli tlev aar c m teI y rha ,
Iisl- e tl tien t ots 1, r drin s a I tihen
art- dr-. sak t hem in water btor an1

bou xr h tax h. e

/11 JI tl 1 1r II a r i N\ I) fit
The pilan'ts aie planiled as soon
as t ev aore re Iie e l. If vou na eit
plant tien inmmedia tel, l oisten the

making material ad c rpabck th b e
!pl nls. t t .v can le kIc L t ihi h av
safeh for 2 or 3 days.
If you must hold the pleats for more
than 2 or iii daxs bIeore platig, h ein
them in" place them ii a Irein h aId
cover the ioots with mlii-! sol. If tIe
ane.e are dri cIx er lic ti itih soil also.
,'\ aeii vo are rx ixIX [xo s-t out[ t{l]
plants. examine t[lir rooxts. Cut oii
all deiad or iinmured &rowth. xemone
broke or dead xane and if
sar- cut the cains back to about 12
itches in lehigth. Nurseries usually xut
the to.- baik to aloit 12 inches inefore
shippiing tlie plants. If the top- have
been cut back. dox tit cut them further:
flowering usuatmi is delayed if canes are
'ui blak to less titan 10 inches.

682-927 0-63-

Pro( t th roots from 1_ at all
'ljuI 4 Sctlin iito sun or
: l oe .: i to to the
i ti roots iln a bucket of
w r oa the ots ith a thin
C d a k Iherm ( overd with
c urlap i soie other i : ttection

.-ng the Plants

ae: a s~, cone-: l i... dI pile of
oil 1 i in i t'ie center of each planting hole.
nli' of the cone and

i II Y

" I j

1rt li~ in l\iu- ic~

lnr i~ ikeut iciia

i-i ic- ll i il i

1i-e thai li)^ st tile I ut
c ~~ ti ic i c~ ii2 j

I \VOrk

ablout tie roots
.ct w, ll.} the soil.

Whe ln t~e rots are cove re atdd water
to h.I, settle thle soil atout lie roots.
Then fill the hole.
Mound he 8to 10) inches high
around the canes of I _us- and climbingl
roses and to 4 inches high around
thle canes of nIiniiiature roses. Remove
the soil mound when frost daner is

\fter scttin trc,1 roses. drive a
-tul I pole ilito tlle i il :be1 ide thle up-
rI gh Iu k aieid tic 1he triik to tit
pole. Thim, i ree1 1 s tle trunk Imtt
\ II i II *il i .ie i Ii l lo_ I i**

o o ..1i, 1.. I d in the
c tr li I' hole, aids in spread-
i the o uniormly in the hole and in
ad in;i the 1 depth of the bush.
lie is t on thle cone, the bud
union 1. ) Ihould ie slig ihtl ldow ground

Cultivating and Mulching

Ci: ate roses carefully: their roots
nmav grow close to the surface and may
be injured b deep cultivation. The
main purpose of cultivation is to re-
move weeds. This can be done by
hand pulling the weeds or cutting them
at the soil surface.
Use a nmulch to aid in controlling
weeds, oniservl ing moisture, and add-
ing fertility Peat. ground corncobs,
groun11d tobacco stems, buckwheat and
colttoseed 111 l. spent Imushroom
mianlre(. and \ ell-rotIted strawy manure
all are effective as inulching materials.
SApp I) I I(idles about a month be-
fore I, 1 roses b ,loo0. Remove all weeds

nelo 2'ronF
tur? are(? w
u1ion at t
beIlw it
f 1fil

il(~ ?I
- "i.,

so all roots are in conta

and rake the soil nli' htl eiforc apply-
ing mulches. Then ,rad tie mulch-
in I at, rial licv}l aro d i p i lnts tl

mul ch settles a\ d l, 1c',i tlli l i

Roses Ined 1- animmntsti at r.
Even where rainfall is plelntiful. o1ca-
sional water;,i.-- iare fic' ial.
Soak the soil thon, ,1 Iv to a dclpl
of 8 to 10) inches. Direct a s I-al!. slow-
movinllg stream of \rater froln a garden
hose around tts has.s d" the plants. \
heavy stream usually\ is wastefl'l: 11most
of the water runs off and fails to I" -
trate the soil more tlian a few inches.


dium to slightly acid ( pH 5.5 to 6.5).
To de1Itermilt- e I ethr the a i it 1 f
SoaI e soi is it in th.e 1's'It ,i _e fo1r
roses ha t it tc ste d o. r te t i oi i lf.
1 our Stall a ricu 11tura ixnp411', 1 1rit i t

tions for changing thl e ,i a -iditv if
li11l4 -i\ xli'8 1 c- l i44 11 4 \ t4 .44 1 11

t rl i h o' t o ii i i are i e 41 i
a pl o' r w1 i4te ill o y ci a l 1e ait l.'-
t ral, ?i ri 1m(\ -it 1i1 a

So nil ii .

:c dt i t I il eii testm'2 ki s sol i 1\ 1

of abor 4 pounds r uare feet
I thA il is. 4 er 4 I | vI j s, r I vc

m, l 1. 1) d ole trea til p 1i l
A\+r }iditr olI ttlio s ,ii can+ eham-fo+++ '
qiuikI ,: tien-rf + c ,li'ok tho1 pl I al

1 alloth r a l ato ( o JI4 1 t o sulfur
is needed.
The fetilizer e lemenll s l ,ost 4lik'1 v to
be14 I ,i(n1t ill g tarde4 n soil irc1 -itr 4o' n.

telse elements1 Ilse a com1plct1lht I rttt I izclr

App1v complete fertilizers at a rate.
of allout 3 pounds per 100 square f1eet
or o01C heapi,,g talhbls,, for each
plantt. Spread the fertilizer evenly
around the p+lad nts+ scrath 1) it into the
,(oil surface. then water.
Apply the fertilizer when new sz.pring
grIXIlh is wvelt 1'stabllish d aid all
ia' 4_,,( of s 1verc 11 ce4 zing is past. A
s.-e+'o wd ,1,!ir.atioh can }'e made later
ill the s"aso if 1 the pl1s show evi-
d4 nce of m4111 1 ral defiihni s- e llow-

i1 of" leaves "



f c i ek o I !ii

1'4ves turn1ti1' _- .'isl4 _. '1, fro lack

"i 'iIs f.from lack of -' tlass lu
I' i "1 ) 4 fertili s it c l I
a) es 1t a 1u 4 1 s 1 1 ,r liti !1i1
ied l in 11 e 14.11 1 1 e W hen

s imuaI frci 111 '4444 411 4eia 414ard-4.

1nino tewo beor eti .
4.I+e s pils a1re ( ieie) in pal4iUm.
+ialcum deficiency' causes ++ ibe margin:+:
of+ ibe rose hIc; *i I }}' + i l-.y ntu+.
{be eiilire I..+!cat ( .S andl (+ + r o o T-

'Ihen the-se 1ons .,picar, rul a
soil lsti. If the pi value is bic(I 5,
add lime to uid :'. the calcium

acal. S W Iw r i
s1 t s1 is are \ell ie ir
a l : i me eto dirctions ,fl the chue tr--

iron IXa\ 1he tdefici'nit. Tii fiaciencl

of a oice of thle material t 2 i.
o1: water, or with iron c'hel mixed
a'c,. .1;,.- to directions onr the }. _e.
Also run a test for pH. If lie phI is
above 7, add sulfur to lower it.


For large exhibition or silt-.e-ste
roses, disbud the plants wlhe the buds
are very small. Remove all but the
terminal bud on each stem. Ti r-
terminal bud then develops into a
much larger flower.
The flower clushe-s, of pot,! anthas and
other roses )barig manyi flowers per
stem also will be improved bv disbud-
ding. Ileve soe (o1lo of the buds from
each 1st em-the more 1Auls Vou remove.
the larger the rieiiaiting flowers will
de( clop.

Cutting Flowers

(utlltion ri, e flow ers s s in itself an
iilm tail t 'tulltural opeIrationi lm-
pIop)1 c4 ruling cI a K in jure the (plait alnd

I se :-harl tols to) cut flowers.
Break ig mr h, isling ofl lowers injures
I 11I' is sl if l d I l 111

it -l] iii d ij ll i ('U 11 t ir 's
ami III t x-1 i 1 4 l o d


/ j

\i iwn cuttini Ilcwers, allow at least two leaves
to r'inui!n )lw'\een the cut and the main

blm4 If ear l flow 1ers are not cut,
the plants usually develop into large
Ibushs 1 ifa: o me flowers may be
cut ihen.
If N u dlo ult flo ers during the first
season4 cut i hem0 \ith! very short stems
onl. RI-emoal of foliage with long-
stemilled fliers rolbs the plant of its
food- i1anufac'turing capacity and cuts
(d4wn on its ii, 'th and subsequent
flower N field.
Sven ii in th e plants are well estab-
liihed it is 111i\ise to cut stems anll,
ltigei r i hat ac111 i11 needed. At least
tw() leaves sh( uld remain lhtween the
cult and the main stem.
I Iblrid lea rses usually have three
leaflets at tlie top of the rose stemn, and
hel(w that a s ray f five leaflet s. If
thlie sii is Nweak. make the cut just

above the topmot spray of five leaf-
lets. If the stemn i- s on -s thick as
a pencil--the cut m1ay Ix made above

If oi do nil cut the Iloxers r emove
a highler three-leaflet 1 l"imY

them wl hen their i etal fall, t1t i (mn
with sharp hearts ,r kni c junl avi
the toIlp osI 'lal. A \ ith rd ini i Iiial
flower i a c1u1-i' sh(mId 1e' rnim ,) d

rooiil to 1e lop1. After all lower4 of
a cluster have x itlirc d. cuI t Ol I te il-
tire stem jusl al.ove t te op le af.
Roses that are cut just lfore) the
petals start to unfold \ill continue to
open norlalll and w ill remain in :ood
condition longer than if they are cut
after they are full open. Roses will
keep best if the\ are cut in late after-

Preparing Roses For Show

Preparation of roses for exhibition
starts xhen the buds first 1. -_;1 to
formI. Allow the er wer bud to
develop. but pinch out all side Iower
buds as soon as xou call detect them.
Tlhe center h ud then develops into a
much lai r' lloxer than it would if
the side buds were allowed, d to remain.
Just before the slw. tI(t tlhe lloo II
xith a loni stem. It should be in tight
bud at time of cutting.
Immediately immen'rse the stem of i tlhe
rose lin cld wati. Clean all v (stige of
spray f1rom the leas, then store the
blomln in a refriGerathr at i() to delay
its o)eniingi,. Riove it ifrom( the re-
frigerator in time to allow it to open
bet\\een on e-half and three-fiurth.s at
the time of the sh ow.
TransI l,,rti te bloom t to th( show
carefully so as not o u mase the, flower


(Il lox ers' t lhial stat to xilt pre-
111 \alur(cI can be r(1\iv d a11id th1 ir lse-

fuless xtixxh fi4d11 II st v ral lays.
tleake a slaidz lirintt ( 'tx an ]il(i )r t S from

ah(l rexas ie the I i 44 pilax lieii i s t eilcnl
iH \(c ll s ho wa N fo ; le \ ll es. 1

xx dill 4 t r ri(xe 141114 \rxxv e r litea stove
for a few minules is sall tisa lor,. !i .
j)liige h s tems quickly il) cold wa-
te(r. Tlhie ( l' o w{ ate, r dai\es off an. air
ibblehs that may have f \lormed in the
(stem and permits the col(d ater to rise-
and revive the fho)wr. I bis treatIment
will not revive old flowers that have
re ached the full extent (of their useful-
iess. nor flowers that have been wilted
for several hours.

or the leaves. \t the sho set the
stem straight in a xase of proper size
to hold te lowl er upright. Attach to
thi( stem a label ()r tag c( onlf i the
variety namile.

Prun in 9
Prune roses- annually to1 i inprox e
their appearance, to re movxe dead xtx ood,
and to control th[e quantity and quality
of owners produced bv tle plaInts. If
r ose are not p1 lruIned lith so on ti 1
into a b rambl e patch at d tlhe flowers
are small and of p)or quality Some-
timtis uinidesi 1red s-hoI ts ('co e from the
ulderstLo k. These should be removed
as soon a:s they appear. or they are
liab le to dolmintate the plant.
Rose prunil is; not difficult. I-se
shari tooIls \ filie-t c thd a- is use-
fu! for culttlin dead a s. All other

( 1

c` ~~I ~

Left, rose bush before pruning. Right, same bush after pruning; all dead wood and weak
growth have been removed and canes have been cut to a uniform height.

pruning can be performed with prun-
ing shears.
Do not leave bare stubs when prun-
A! .e all cuts to a cane, to the
point on the crown from w which the
pruin member originated, or to a
strong outward-facing bud.

i.:'4.; Roses

e )but:

no }ive h(t i

sh roses in early ,ing, just
IhI starts. First remove the
be careful to cut an inch
the dark-colo .1 areas. If
ae left re ove e e entire

; wek gr th and
*;>ni ~ .' al ea ,rw, n

Finally, shape the plant by cutting
the strong canes to a uniform height.
In mild climates strong plants can be
p uned to a height of 24 to 30 inches.
In some areas the winters are so
severe that much of the top of the plant
is killed. Under these conditions it is
not possible to do much toward hoping
the plants. Just cut out the dead wood,
saving all the live wood you can.
Tree roses require heavy pruning in
s spring and some pruning during the
x, wing season to keep the tops from
becoi i, Ii_ too large for the stems. Af-
ter removing the dead wood. cut back
ihc live canes to a length of 8 to
inches and l i.,. lite overall structure
of Ih '
O~ (of the shrub roses srloud )e
It halve bl med




a rule, these plants are 1 h1 .I
so pruning is nliedId imaiii In
out and remnov e ldil ,., ,I
not' require s1 aiii g,: ii al otx ii -
stances -41ru os:- ae ti s attatv
when tlhe areti aille d o d toi evel, tiii r
natural shape.

Climbrin Roses

Pruiie hlardyixi ml e rs1' jist tI ter
thev haxe flowered. i lhisi prti ii slim
ulates new cane giii tx h ad dii i l l
menit of tew atx ( a ls 1 oin w hx i tl i in Il

fWhii ra1ers aIr. taiiidl to a Itrl-

lis or st i 1t so i igh tbat onex sason' s

_ lwth I n' I l ot exotr it ii oft sime
o f the older s tsi,4 Shorten strong
vigorous i cal es. I ,. }? I pr i ,' will
sti ulat e l at l als Io diL(ii 'nil,,ii i Coli-
tilule to ti eln at amit ci e .taiil covexi
the trellis.

weak blaiches. P'ime sparingl re-
nioval of too muc] wiioodi it this timie
\il redel' proidIii on )f o el (owers.
M[aMNV o>f the larad-flowered chim}-
ers-e s 1 c c i a 1 v the, 1,1 r/o
t\ptes-do isl prowiducte a, much groJth
each year Ias th l an I ilixr -limi bers. or
this reasn uni i us o lss
c I( e

Winter Protection

Roses l ust beli pritcted (ot i nix
-'ainst l ow wxinte lteinpel Latnes but
also i_- ii -t llti xtM tizilg tiempe aturesz.C
Occasionally rose xarietics that ire
harnd ii the r'\oih wh re winIto i< I
peratures ar st arere injur
duluri' the 'witlr in a1eas it ther south
where the It pe x it fuctuatxe c- -
side rablv.

SI 'xi lxi~iii.

SI iii l I

{n.- i |h |) ;i f
I re xli .- i i i, H

iex iv i++ r,. I ci i i r i
iio] lel i ern

sarv Pil xxv ix iii x
nure ii'.' ll i + >list c
if" inl 1 ++'*e ., llii+ic

ii )1 k ii

I x :} > ( + \, tii 1
and -oil-} qpring, a,-
se-+vee frost ha-st pats+.
( il A I d Ii uiljl t
off v si ts t- ati

tio xTOW x i iwal l

ii ;i

lxic" 111

' rc :ii v lx "oesi'

ri+ +[ i a x-t: + in
ort -{+lrawv nma -
i xliies. xxoli
i x I a i e x tb vc

. Remo,:(ve tthe

) li id xtile t-i
i i i x' I iii i tI
\ x niii I -ar

Tree Roses

In ti a xxxeas w x ii p the l ldo

of the

b' -- i.

0a lIe
M'/t }


riti. afl I Itie soil thawIs a(nd
ofx s-eere flros is reIove
c er arid set tlie
4'4 41i t 41 rIn I --


> i<;,. Roses
Climbin:i r oses need protection in
areas here e te tllperature regularly
I drops below er. Lay the caries on
the grotud, o d lthcl down) with wire
pins or ~1ot: hed stakes, and cover them
with se eral i li le of soil. nRemove
the soil in i., i.,er of severe
frost is past.


lost i varieties of roses can be propa-
gated fromi. ti,;,. taken during the
sutmmUer or 111 fall.
Take summer cuttings after the
flowers haie fallen. Make 6- to g-inch
cuttings fromi the steins. Remove all
leave es ept c 0 l ne or two at the top.
Then plant the c i.,ll; with half their
length Islowv the ground. Water them.
tllcn i\vcirt a fruiil jar over them. Re-
mi\ t) fr it jar lhe follo\ ing spring.
'ITak l fall 1*iings after the wood has
ripee d llc (it t -le terns into 8)- or
-ilc _' r ill lax es,. a 1ndl
11plant tIe c4itt g i 4 a w p otet
s*lii4' plac1 \\ fl 4 on ieO I m b11d albovc

f.~ c
( '4\ r


vi .


t- e


1 N--.l l;7 5
Mos-t common11 ii diseases and insect pests of
roses can be centrollet d bvy weekly appli-
cations of a combination spray or combi-
nation dust.

Sill stra and cover with

le tempe rature goes to 10('
I\ zero. prjote4c tree roses by
[ic t ith soil Do this
i a' ix under the roots
l cf t i pliia ts u lil the plants
t oeer on the ground with-
i al rut con tections x ith

te entire plant with several

the i-i.und. When freezing wejth,'r
approaches, cover the cuttings with a
mulch of litter several inches deep to
keep the p_'iund from freezing.

Diseases and Insects
\Many different diseases and insects
attack roses. These pests vary in type
and severity from area to area. You
can control most of them effectively-
no matter where you live-if you fol-
low these ,-'iieral recommendations:
0 Buy plants that are free of diseases
and insects.


iia 4Iiii.~



; 'i

0 Keep vour ros)e gaeIn ele :, I of
weeds, fallen roste: la oves;, arid tiseas~l
or 1insct-infesleid 1 a es.
) Apply a rolbinalioi n isul c:ticide-
nitiilide-fungiiide( spray) or dust on ce
a week.

Combination Sprays and Dusts

Several sprays aid dusts are ava1il-
able in which ink ec:ticide.t mtiiicd(,l an(d
flirir: are already mixed. Irepare
andt apply these materials acc:rdliirg to
label directions.
To prepare Nyour owni combinatitonl
spray, mix an inisectilcide. a mititeidtle
and a fungicide for con(rol of (ldis-
eases) with water. The amounts to
mix with 1 gallon of water are sho wn
below. (lution: I se only the recotm-
mended materials: other niaterials may
n1ot mix properly.

I I l f i) i |) v I ii : 1 I I

tiI ( )1 a1 ail l t i-i .

Bl,,rk Spot
i itrcu ar I k s it. fi r ijucitv ur-

tie leaves. f I t 11G
ant fall I)r1imaluri-l. vr\ i lv at-
iacke( plants may hie alm omlehtel
def, liatedl by J I) itjI-su, i r. Ih 1 nt
is weakened, becomes ulbj Jtc to -wiit r
injury din .i. I wand stn can i rs.


Malatlion.-6 teaspoons of 25-
percent weltable powder or 1 teaspoon
of 57-percent emulsifiable concentrate.


Kelthane.-3 teaspoons of 18.5-per-
cent wettable powder or I teaspoon of
l.5.-percent emulsifiable concentrate;

Tetradifon.-2 teaspoons of 25-per-
cent wettable powder.


Phaltan.-:l _, teaspoons of 5-pcr-
ceut wxettahle powder: or-
Ilr I. 1 1 .--4 teaspoons of 70-p ercent
w ettable powder.
When ,Iiil; .'d x eklx iombination
spraxs or dusts sho- i adequately on-
trol most rose pests. Alternate c<,nlrol
m assures are discussed in the d srip
tions :i- : itndi iual p st th t fa ll I i I -
flul'- of 11- 1 ,d itdua 13 t f,l tha\t _

*k If Mlaclk .sor i l r:chl: ck d, tiht
If /'l av l:- i) O it- lcav .-.

S"\"1 ,^:
> ._," q .."

>. i. I water, which

urs oe lhe infeln akes place.
S ,:ie |i. in '* eliminates

eas overits :as I. :n s ra)ying or
S ih: leaes are half grown.
'Uav oir d t once a Ieek ,I, .II'
S Ir other rainy .i (ds.
e, zineb anc I are ef-
.'o ior lack spot control. Dust-
~i : a:ncd co .... rays also are
active. Do not use ccptier if the
t( 'ure is beloNw 605 nor sulfur
ie Ifn the t ,erature is above -

Powd,:. ME Alldew

\V. ,e ; ~,del l masses of .res :-1
pear on ivoun leaes, shoots and huds.
S'i." shoots ilay e s- ollc- or dis-
to)rted. Foliage mnay be stunted. Un-
opened b~u Ia covered with
, ,'iy lasses spores.
disease is spread v mind. It
overxinters on f.I. i leaves and ii in-
fected bud scales ;. flower stems.

mia of the la ves.

IFor control tdurl dofrnant season,
I,. ..l : I 1d lime sulfur diluted 1 to
15 with water. Dur' _, growing season.
I, y 1'. .',, Karathane, Acti-dione
P',1 or c<.. er oleate. Do not 'i_ ly
kariatiane or cc:i er oleate w hen the
t I i .1 e is above 85.

Yellow or orange I-l.l- I., appear on
leaves. P; ..i may be defoliated. Dis-
ease may also attack young stems.
Rust overwinters in fallen leaves. It is
spread by wind. For control, .,iply
zicbll, manlb, ferham, or sulfur.
Rust is favored by cool. humid sum-
mers and mild winters. It is trouble-
some primarily along the Pacific Coast.

Cankers occur commonly in plants
that have been weakened b lack spot,
Sli:ter i njury, or poor nutrition. They
first app ar as small reddish spots on
lie stem. They enlarge and eventually
encircle tie ste ii, causing the cane to
d c

F or control, keep bushes free of black
Ssiot, provide them nvith proper winter
protection. and use care when pruning.
Wh en pruning, make clean cuts near a
bud. Prune out all cankered canes.
Disinfect pl .'"'*. tools with alcohol af-
ter use on a cankered shoot.

Crown Gall
Galls begin as small swNellings. usu-
ally at -round level but sometimes on
the upper part of the stern or on the
roots. They slowly increase in size.
Infected plants become stunted and may
Control is a matter of prevention;
ibuy plants free of crown gall and plant
Then in soil that bas ibee free of crow n-
_- l-infecl cd plants for at I .-1 2 years.

M 01 ;
Typical crown galls on rose. Infected p lant
cannot be cur'ed.

If cronii gall appears, remove the in-
fected plants and burn them.

Virus Diseases
Rose viruses are spread b1 prop.i. -a-
tioln of infece d ,lants. Tlw iseasest
(do lot seem Itn e Spread vl in erts or
bv handling.
Viruses iause siall anula11, color-
less spots oni the f liagie. oak-
leaf. anid watermark patterns aio lmai
occurI Infected pllantt ma\ h e oi lr-
wise unalfTlcted or tihe max Ie sliolltti

The only cntrll for v iiei is p'e-
ventioni : u lant liU l aI e fri f th

Sympt om In- 1sects


Ross ar ar attacked In a
her f insec- The- i ol
are th(l Japanst I4 e eti rol e

la ga IinM-
A f I 01 )1 I I

leaf buele. it e, rae hi aloppi flower

V iruis-inflctl ( ro. '-. Donot i iant
w it ,l i l :i l,)h iij< .l -. I

thrips. rose u aphid, r()se scale(, rste
mJI I laf-c'lut 'r hex s two-s|)olt,'I

pdla nts andl (lower- fI'oll iiel/ attar i k'-r

by tttIe ) N6r)
bilo wih l I il a


lo Ie 1w lias I in Jv ily aid i

h nt, [tl tis et al ix ., wi i eoili )()l rv-x
I iwn w e cov ersl t I artas of mo -

applicati 4f 5-pere, e 111 dus J.I]
ht (vier i t}lxfested a o ra uo i a ha ei
to cover the flowerIs x it it -c hee- lol

''A""' -



a I *01

Japanese beetles feeding on a rosebud.

cages or bags to protect them from

Rose Chafer
Yellowish-brown beetles, known as
rose chafers, are often abundant in the
North dl,,,,.- June and early July,
especially in areas of light, sandy soil.
They are about 1,-inch long and have
long spiny legs. I 1 appear suddenly
on rose i. '.i 1 where they feed. They
may destroy the entire flower. For
control use combination spray or 5-
percent DD 'T dust.

Rose Leaf 8 ..i..le
Leaf leaf e
T. rose leaf he(
ic-greeen beetle tha
andl on the foowers

lis[, iiumcrFu`s in

tle is a small metal-.
t feeds in the buds
of roses, often rid-
les. The insects are
st -:1 "ban gartlens
For control,

;<; ;; i }'(rS or (O Jst

Insecticides are poisonous. Store
them in closed, well-labeled containers
in a dry place where they cannot con-
taminate foodstuff, and where children
or pets cannot reach them. Heed all
precautions on the container label.
Use insecticides only when needed
and handle them *with care. Avoid
repeated or prolonged contact with
skin or inhalation of spray mists; after
using insecticides, wash hands and face
before eating or smoking.
DDT, Kelthane, malathion, and tet-
radifon can be used safely without spe-
cial protective clothing or devices,
provided they are in water-spray form.
Most concentrates, however, require
special precautions. When handling or
mixing concentrates, avoid spilling
them on the skin and keep them out of
the eyes, nose, and mouth. If any is
spilled, wash it off the skin and change
any contaminated clothing immedi-

Rose Leafhopper
The rose leafhopper, a tiny greenish-
yellow jumping insect, is frequently
found on the underside of rose leaves.
It sucks out the contents of the leaf cells
causi a stippling of the leaves that
resembles injury by spider mites. For
control. use combination spray or ap-
ply 5-percent DDT dust to the under
side of the foliage.

Rose 3 J

ol sa s on the leaves of roses.
i]ury is ruco .' by the
;skfic(:etized .ct omn the leaves, "or
C:oiilro. urs: a conhrination gay or

_ ~ C

*, .. .


*. :* .

; ;, 2 ':~b: ,
*" i '.' *,i'i: ,'

'" ":""i :. '?. "
...::f;-.^ a :: -^ ".

i..,-.j t :: : ;-

* k:'.' :^ ^ : :.,::
.', **

'i llcl rai

' ids
5. r;.n I. f

ii x I l it:i.
ciiii 'cs or;~
ti x 'i t IK |

x >lix / .
R .. ilt? -.c~l

!, 11111
ii i i i x r ,

dust Ni, h 5-p n, ).) .- Trc n tilt
ipWst 1w a|)tlik' tr, t : aih insectO
apiiiar uddenly 1and d1, 1liei diiia e


For su 11v rat w k et ach iuniiiiii tie
petals of ,i Cn iI uses. -i.,'ciall \ M1 hiitL
'arietiL i) lat ,ecocne I Th i i-
jur1 is caused bv the 1cr lihrijs a Id

related specis that enti e Ow ( ing

I2 J'' .1 i

fail. pruncx o dl' I i

S, tii lli r'ii ttI l i i t II

*aex ;ir.- xl
i i- l a r
i lii l c d i.

aix i .-Irn

> 1ai )1111

Rose Mid':''-

1tlie rse n id > i -i il l i0 a xri

flower. I e l in I e dl
ise si cak It seen if ael ix
is shaken ov er a sheet ofi

Sh I a ipe

I { Ix PIl. I

th a> i

f*: *li t, -Ii > I xrri xi

i Ii-
i' tii


lix 1

l't i- ti



Aphidti f:cdingi on rosebuds.

1fron the e es destroy the tender tissue.
thle lips and deforming the buds.
Cut and burn the iftested tips to de-
str~o the nI I before they complete
ilheir rowth and drop to the ground.
To prevent new inf'estations, spray
weekly with combination spray or (lust
ilh foliage with 5-percent DDT. Re-
a;i ds aplilicationts every 5 to 7 daNs

Leaf-C"' r -"

I.c*f- ullcr If ce u tl circular pi ces
roiin rs a- lld o-lier 4 pc lants andl

Rose cane severely infested with rose scale.

store them as food for their young in
burrows dug in the pith of rose stems,
broken branches, or in plant crevices.
The tunneled stems usually die back for
several inches.
No spray is known to be effective
against these bees, which are valuable
as pollinators of alfalfa and other
plants. A carpet tack pushed into the
end of the cut stem at pruning time will
prevent the bees from entering and
tunneling the steins. Tree-wound paint
also can be al lied to the ends of the
cut stems.


:;. ...* *.
".:. a-
.*'" '}- ~ ,i
,r., ;:,
o ,-" ...;}.

t.." & '"

,11 -522

Typical damage caused by the rose midge.

Spider Mites
The two-spotted spider mite and re-
lated species suck the juices from rose
leaves, which soon become stippled. As
the injury progresses the leaves turn
brown, curl, and drop off. When the
mites are abundant they spin a web
over the leaf surface. Infested plants
are unthrifty.
These spider mites usually are
ii I- ~ d with two brown spots, al-
though some are dark red. They are
almost too, small to 1e seen with out a
Ill i- ifvin' -lass. IThe item's o\ver-
winter as adults on leaves uf livirr
1- -- or perennial ar den plants. They
become abundant inl hit. dry weather.
Xhen TDDT is used to control other
pests it destroys insect enemiesi of

spider mites and the mites tend to be-
come more numerous. To control
spider mites. clean up trash and living
N eeds in early spring and make fre-
quent applications of a iiticide such
as Kelthane or tetradifon. or apply
combination spray.

Rose Stem Borers
The stems of garden roses are orca-
sibnall\ infested 4it one ef several
kids of borers. These T l ms usually
die back. and thoe inlfe sted it the
stem girdler develop a marked swelling
at the poil i of iinj r 1
(:t and burn if.stled stems. Ap-
ply con bitj aior -pra\ or .. cent
D) DT dust at e ekl\ inteIrals during
June and( July whlen the ault bI t es
a:e present.

' '^R .^g'"\-V -


limit HIll H 11 1111 111 1111111lll flU i ll
3 1262 08856 1310

ea :ies of w~i insects
lay th ir ...- in seins of roses :,ml.
their larvae cause large or
Oe species m-kes' a gall re-
se-mli firous moss, on the stem.
IAnoie c causes a la'_ wartlike j.1i1
near ti e d ', .These I "
ma ill rown galls,
wich are caused j l bacte'a'.- How-
ever, insect i are. cut open!. nu-
Serous larvae-or th le c:lls in which
they op--will be visible.
i insecticide known will control the
iisects that produce these galls. The
est available control is to .'une the
infested stems to remove the galls and
un thet p* )tll to destroy the
a rvae in the .... *ore Lhey emerge.


Circular pieces cut out of rose !, ll- by
leaf-cutter bees.


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