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Volume 3 WASHINGTON, SEPTEMBER 1947 1 Number 27
DEBBYT STOccEIEDS PIN\E AS
SU~PERINTENDENT OF COAST
Rear Adm. James Pine, Superinte~nd-
ent of thie Coast Guard Academy since
September 1940, has been retired from
active duty, and has been succeeded as
Superintendent by Rear Adm. W~ilfrid
N. ]Derby. Rear Admiral Pine held the
rank, of captain on his appointment as
Superintendent, and was advanced to
the rank of rear admiral in 1942, at
which time a total of six Coast Guard
ofliters were promoted to this rank.
Ren r Admiral Pine was born in Cin-
cinlnati, Ohio, on October 19, 1885. He
received his early education in New
York and. NewFc Jersey public schools and
attended Overlook Military Academy.
Enrolling at Stevens Institute of Tech-
nology in 1905, hie left this institution
the following year to enter the Coast
Guard. Appointed a cadet in the Coast
Guard on May 11, 1906, he received a
commission as an ensign on December
Hlis first assignment was on the cutter
Mohark;. Detached from this ship in
1900, he served on the cutter Tuiscarora,
IMilwaukee, Wis., until December of
that year when he was transferred to
the Pa~l~ico, at New ]Bern, N. C. F~rom
1910 to 1913 he was attached to the
Thetis, stationed at Honolulu, T. H.,
and then served on the Seminole, Wil-
mington, N. C., until 1914.
H~is next assignmlent was that of Su-
pervisor of LAnehorages at Chicago, Ill.
Terminating this assignment in Deceo-
ber 19141, he was attached to the Itasca,
at Norfolk, Va. In 1915, he served on
the cutter Onondaga, also stationed at:
Norfolk, and then became an instructor
at the Coast Guard Academy, where he
remained until 1918.
During the First WCorld W77ar he was in
command of the U. S. S. M~ay/, a con-
verted yacht on the Brittany Patrol,
and, following the Armistice, served as
executive officer on thie Ul. S. S. Zee-
laniali, a transport engaged in return-
inog troops from F'rance.
From 1919 to 1920), he was attached to
the cutter Ac~ushnzet, WFCoods Hlole, Mass.
During this assignment he was detached
temporarily for duty at the Academy in
connection with a course of instruction
for warrant officers. In December 1920,
he became commanding officer of the
cutter MIanhattanL, at New York, N. Y.,
and prior to leaving this ship in 1921,
also served temporarily on the Kankra-
kcee, on the Ohio River. Returning to
the Academy for his next assignment,
he served as executive officer for the
next 3 years.
In 1924, he wpas assigned to the Navy
YIlard, New York, N~r. Y., for duty in con-
nection with reconditioning and equip-
ping two destroyers. One of these
ships, the Fanning, was placed under his
command when it was commissioned.
During the antismuggling campaign,
undertaken by the Coast Guard as a
result of prohibition, he served for
approximately 5 years with the~ De-
stroyer Force. Leaving the Fanning in
1March, 19r26, he served on the staff of the
Ordnance Officer, Destroyer Force, until
July of that year when he reported for
duty on the staff of the Commander of
the Force. In November 1927, he took
command of the destroyer Wainw2~right,
at Boston, Mass., and in April of the
I Published with the approval of the Director of the Budget.
Distribution (SD)L No. 30) :
AL: a, e, d (5L ea) ; e, f, h, m (3 ea) ; remainder (1. ea)
B :e (14 ea) : e, f, g, h, I (5 ea) ;j J 3 ea) ; k (2 ea) ; remainder (1 ea)
c: al~k(1 ea)
D: all (1 ea)
COAST GUARD BULLETIN
ne.xt year was us~-ignlll.t the additional
duties of commanding Division Three of
In Ic:TOI. he reported for duty to tte
Chief Inspector, H-ull Constr~uction, at
docki co~nil anr l ny and the! follow i up month
t'ook commandn of the cutter Itascr,
stationed at Honolulu, T. H-. In April
3,:;2. he was assigned to duty at Coast
GuardZ Headquarlll ters, where he became
ordnance officer. From 10I::-I to 1:I:1l, he
ser~vedl as exuecutive officer of the Acad-
m.Folllnwillr a short pe~riod~ of temn-
porar'y duty in the Niew York Division,
hie was placed in commandlt of the cutter
Bibb in August ]!CI::. In September of
the nlext year he r'eturned to Headqualr-
ters for duty as a, member of the Per-
luanrent Board. He became Superin-
tendlent of the Coast Guard Academny in
Rear Adml. Wlilfredl N. Derby was born
in Newar1k, N. J., on 4 Decembter 18891.
H-e received his early education at Trin-
ity School, N~ewn York City~, and Stevens
School in Hobokent, N. J., :amll then
attendled~ Webb Academy in Nuewp York.
Appointed a cadet in the U. S. Coast
Guard in 1!III, he- received a commission
as anl ensign in 1911.
H-is first ass~ioninentll was on the Xez-
em~, from which he was detached in
April 1911, for duty on the cutter Tus-
cur ,orar. Leaving the Tuls~carlora 8
months later, he was assigned to the
cutter Anldroscoggin until 1912 when he
reported aboa~rd the Tahkoma for duty on
the Bering Sea? Patrol. F'romll 1912 until
101.1, he served on the Thetis in Honlo-
lulu waters and then was attachledl to
the cutter Pamnlico until 19~16. H-e next
was ass;igned'l to the cutter Itasca and
the Coast Guard Academy, New London,
C:onn. During the war he served at the
Academy as an instructor of cadets and
in immediate charge of training enlisted
Following a short period of duty on
the Ilanh~attan2 in March 1920, he was
attached to the Eulry.~ During the lat-
ter ass.ignment'll he was designated a
U. S. Deputy Mar;shll~l for the T~hird
Division of Alaska, and in connection
with I10 t le.< on the Bering Sea Patrol for
1920c. In 1922, he reported for duty on
the? cutter Moirlrel. from which he was
detached in the following year for serv-
ice on the cutter MCanning. In 1924 he
became Coast Guard liaison officer at
the Naval Training Station, Hampton
12,road, Va., and served in this capacity
until the autumn of that year when he
was assigned to duty on the staff of the
Coast Guard Ame;rlrmy. While at the
Aefutlrn1y he took part in cadet practice
cr'uises on the Alemcander Humr~iltonr dur-
ing the summer of 1!`,'.- and 1926,P and
the Mr~ojlve during the summer of 192.
From 1927 to 1930, h~e was in com-
mandc of the destroyer CGassin. During
the summler of 1928 as commander of
Division 1 of the Destroyer F'orce in
additional to his reanl~l(I1T rd i, and later
tha~t year~ became commander of Divi-
sion 4 of thle Force. In June 1930 be
wa~s placed in command of D~ivision 3 of
the lurl~.:e and the Cassin was assigned
In November 1930 he reported for
du~ty to the Coast Guard Depot, Curtis
BayT, Md., and in 1934 was detached
fr'Om Ilhis ;IssiCll('nt to become com-
nl~linnilne~ offcer of the Cllrlrpur. Trans-
ferred to cormmand of the cutter Itasca
in 19335, he was on this shtip during the
MarcI~h 1:,::, expedition which took pos-
session of the Baker, H-owlandl, and
Jurvis Islands for the United Staltes.
Detac~hed from the Itawca at Hono-
Julu, T'. IL,, in 19)35 he was a~ssignedl to
Const Guar~d Headquallrlll~ters, for duty as
op~eraltions olfth-er' in the Office of the
Chtief of Operations. During this tour
of I1Il.\ he was dl'duna~terll.. in 1937, as
chlief of Staff to the Commander of the
Internlational Yacht Race P~atrol Forc~e,
and as Commander of the Second Divi-
sion of the patrol. In June 1941 he be-
Came~l (.lllmul s ining (tti.~-'lr of thle U. S. S.
Watke~field7 but returned to Coast Guard
H-eadtquarters' 2 months Ilater for duty
aIs (hielf of the Maritimle Service and
Chiefl of MerIChanllt Ship Control.
During$ the spring of 19412 he served
on the staff of the Commander in Chief
of the Un~itedt States Fleet, and then was
attached to Coast Guard H~eadquarters
until June of that year when he reported
to Boston, Mass., as District Coast
Guarld O~ffic~er for the F'irst Naval Dis-
143 CADETS ARE APPOINTED TO
ACADE1YIYT AS RESULT OF
As a result of the competitive exami-
nations held throughout the country,
for cadetships at the Coast Guard Acad-
emy, 143 young men have been ap-
pointed and have already reported for
duty. The total number of candidates
taking the examination was 699, of
which 432 psd.The Academy's
adaptablility board recommended to the
Superintendent, and he so recommended
to the Cominandantllt that only the first
":3I candidates be co~nsideredtc for ap-
pointment. All 230 were ordered to re-
port for physical examination, and the
appointments madel from thae list of
those who passed.
The cadets who have just entered the
COAST GUARD BULLETIN
Fra;nc~is Engens.II( Halizard~, GloverISvIille
Robertl E~. Henr1y (L'(;I- 2-.7) YT3/C, U~ S.
(conist Guarld Air Sta;tion, Miam~ui, Fla.
Davl\it Fra;nki Howard,tl Pubrs Ve~rdes
Josephl Panul Il'ntkct, H-ightl1stownr~ N. J.
Arthulr HeInry~ Ive:1crlTlon, Brooklyn N. Y.
Franllci s Wa;-lter~1 .luenhantris, Hydre Parilk,
Richla rd Le~onrd; Jal Tcoh.s, T,\vLawrncet,
P~etetr Normlan Johnlson,, East Woyi~nou~th,
Byron Wn~~;verI JOr~dOn, WilliamlSVille,
('oanst Guar Yo .';rd, ICurtis Ba.y, Mdl.
Ge~orff e Johnr Ku~shuba, T.-, 1:11. Pai.
rThomtas Ab~lllon -** Keenaln, Bradford,
Do~tn~ld Richal~rd Kelley, Decr~by, Vt.
('harlels Tngls..ll K~ennyt~, Gro'ton1, Connl.
Cleme~nt He~nr1y KrnWollaiston,
Dna~lld Dolmer~1 Kiefer, Wausat~u, W~is.
Burton WV. KnisIl~ey (".II; -~-1.5) ETM'~2,/e,
U. S. Coast Guardc Training Station,
Richard~t Eney'T, Balltimore, Mdl.
Lamb~ert John Em--..cl. Littleton, Colo.
Raylmcondl Pe~ter Litts, Baldlwin, Long
JToselph Louzonl, Jr., L~ong Island City,
Mich~Iae-l Joseph .11-ushb~ln, Cinicinnatti,
Philipt Michae~l 31:ndlessI Pierre, S. Dak.
Richardc Fra1nk Mallm, Los Angeles,
Johln Richanrdi Manner<.I. Frenchttown,
Aflfred P. Manntling, Jr'. (2'73-013) ETM'3-
'/c (olost G-unedc Opera:ting: Base,
WTilliam Jlohn Martens, FIr-portr~t N. Y.
Ch\r~les Edgar' Mar'tin~, Kiearney, Neibr.
Hocber~t John 31I~icklee Newv London,
Fi~1~ericki T`. Mliner, E. Longmeadowr,
Jamers R,,bert Mitche~ll, Garwoodl, N. J.
P' iip BZ. Moher~ig. Wanksi~ g:1in. Ill.
Daniel Louis Munir. Jr., Turtle Creek,
Donald Robert Murphy, Oak Parkz, Ill.
Rlichardl Ei. Nasllenu (255-i-014) ET1`12'c,
UJ. S. Coast Guardl Training Station,
Donald Arthur Nielsen, Santa Ana,
John Sidney Nusum, St. Petersburg, ]Fla.
.\(-:nlemy1!, and( wVLho) ColStitulte theg clSS
of 1!PT,, ha~ve~ humanI ;1 4-yeanr courllse ~f
instruction, andl if surccelssful inl thel finl ~l
examiinaionsi 11l. thef-Y will bet L'r..Inh-0' tle
O)f theo cendects jus~t: oppointced, 11 had t
aIn enllistedl status inr fthe (lonist Guard t ;~
the time of' hlkingi thie examinations:
Jalmcs Nu. Alexanderr l III, Kenmore,~ue N. Y.
Johln Harvey~J Ashl, C'1larksburg,, W. V\.
Ear~l Alexa~nd~er Bakelfr, Akron,~, Olio.
Jatmes Brow~7I1n Bartonl III, Atlantafi. G~.
IXtaymiond Ch r'l~l'es BuLSst't,t BlnoomfielX,
Henlry Her1bert. Bell, Old1 Greenwl~i~
Johnl]. RtiChafrd Blackl, Modcfordl, Maiss.
W\illiamll Samulel BlIC~k, Bradfor()ld, Pl.
WVilfredl Blctkley, Jr., QunineS. J1:--.
Rober~t ('. Branlhaml (253--10l)1) ETM':.-,
FakRalphael B~uesseler, Hillma~n,
Richard~c Or'rin B2un1ce, Br~ooki Hlill, Va.
Kenneth Lowel Carlsont, Lakewod,
Lloydt Hower Carm'llen, Bond.116 Brook, li
Kien-nethl Anth~ony Canss, Wa;Iterbur~y,
W-Tilliamn Taylor ('ewr, Middltonl, Colna.
Wilson Dig~by Cline, M~iami, 'la.
Eugene HuImblt- Collornr, P~laintield, N`. .T.
Willialm Fra~ncis Cormie~r, P`I~l:1-.-.:c R~. I.
Donald Preston Courtsutl, Branlford, ,
Richa~rd Osborn Creedlon, Phriladlelphia,
Joseph Berlnard Deveiktis, Gardt~ner,
Bruee WVarren De~wing, WTor~cester. 31 I
RobLert Hlolden D~oughertS, Jer~ome. Pa.
Johnl F~eder~ici El'l~i-, North WTilbrahnmn
Russell Harlloldl Fierrier, Jr., North HEills,
Johln Howanrd FouI1Irnier, Polandc, Ohio*
John Alexande~r Gogol. Cl~i.age.l Ill.
Tedl La;ne Gannaway. Silver FMr ills. Ml.
Thomafs G. Getz (L'r;:0-.s:0) I:1`l 3/(.
RIll'~ B-2"4 U. S. Coast Guard Trafin-
ing Station, Groton, Conn.
Robert Brown Grant, Springfield, MaSlls.
Richardi Allen Green, Collingswoo~d,
Richardl Lloyd Green, Van Wert, Ohio.
Grahlam Hall, Beverly, 1Mass.
William Rz~ycnion Hall, W;inlock, Wash.
Melvin Warrd Harllockr, Sheridan, WTyo.
Richal r~d Oliver Haughey, Brooklyn,
COAST GUARD BULLEIN
Richard Joseph Klnapp, Passaic, N. J.
Allen C rawrf'ordl Roberts, Mmhs
George Edward Mdaloney, Du B~ois, Pa.
Robert Arthur MVossJ, Alameda, Calif.
Thomas Francis St. D~enis, Syracuse,
Lucian Anthony Ferguson, Leaven-
Norman Stewart Morrill, w~illimantic,
Sebastian. J. Pias (273--158) 8 2/c, U. S.
Coast Guard Training Station, Gro-
Charles Edward Jurgelew~ics, Middle-
Frank Ed wa rd tl Evers, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Robert E. ZLee, Jr., Scotia, N. Y.
Geo~rge 1Earl leightono, West Springfield,
Kermit ]Ronald Meade, Pvt. (644222)
UCSMZC, Washington, D. C.
Robert Hlugh Furey, Jr., WOinslow, Wash.
Michael D. Drake, Dow Field, M~ainet.
Nicholas Bodnar, Pfe. 614825 USMIC,
Hedron-Mag 14-E~ng., MCAAS, Oak
Grove, New Bern, N. C.
Peter Browning, 1668 G~reen Road,
Cleveland 21, Ohio.
William Walter McFarland, 105 South
Clay Street, Millersburg, Ohio.
Geolrgr Arthur Murphy, 7936 S. E. 27th.
St., Portland, Oreg.
Walter Richard Peppers, 2526 116th
Street, Toledo 11, Ohio.
NEWI L~AW PROVIDES FOR, COM~-
MOISSIONINTG OF MAR~BINE
Public Law No. 219 "to integrate cer-
tazin personnel of the former Bureau of
MarIine Inspection and Navigation and
the Bureau of Customs into the Regular
Coast Guard, to establish the permanent
commissioned -personnel strength of the
Coast Guard, and for other purposes"
went into effect on 23 July 1947, when it
was signed by the Presidenlt.
The law provides for a total number
of 2,250 commissioned officers (exclud-
ing chief warrant officers), distributed
by rank in the same percentages pre-
scribed for the Navy, but eliminating the
rank of commodore.
Rear admirals of the upper half will
constitute half the officers of that rank,
not counting the Assistant Commnandant
and Engineer in Chief in tlhe computa-
Permanent commissioned officers are
to be appointed from the following cate-
(1) Graduates of the Coast Guard
Roy E~rvin O'Brien, Jr., Staten Island,
George R. O'Connor, Jr., Pevt. 11110079,
Prep. Det. end Co., 180f2 Spee, Reg.
USMA, Stewart Fied, ewburgh.
Reino Oscar Oksa, Sloansville, N. Y.
Charles William Otto, Milwaukee, WSis.
John Edw~ard Peterson, Denbo, Pa.
Alan Gale Pheasant, WCSinthrop, Mass.
John Stephen Phillips, WEethersfield,
Ro Fr T. Platt (26E1-643) McMR/M 3/e,
USCGC Triton, New Orleans, La.
Gorland Gerard Pohle, Jr., Huntington,
Robert Charles Powell, Ocean City,
Doyle L~ynn Purvis, Aztec, N. Mex.
Lewis Edwin Rhiver, Ardmore, Pa.
Edward Paul Rhodes, Belmont, N. II.
Kenneth Dean Robertson, Fort Wayne,
George John Rtoy, Jr., T'oms River, N. J.
Carlelon ]E. Russell (264-089) AerM
3/c, New Orleans, La.
Robert Russell, San Gabriel, Calif.
F~rederick Paul Schubert, New Bruns-
wick, N. J.
Edward Robert Schwab, E~rie, Pa.
Richard Gerald Shank. St. Louis, Mo.
Gilbert Parker Sherburnze, Woburn,
Paul Weldon Smith. Londonville, N. Y.
John Luther Steinmetz, Jr., Long Beach,
Gene William Stevermer, Easton, Minn.
Eugene Allen Stroup, Rochester, N. Y.
Basil Hlerman Tannel, III, Milwaukee,
Milton Bareroft Trageser, South
Orange, N. J.
K~arl Beresford Von K~lock, Metrose,
Riclhard Marvel Thomas, Riverside,
Jack Ralph Waltmann, St. Louis, Mo.
Robert Campbell Wiard, New London,
Marion L. Weiss (269-519), 81/c,
Owren Peter Wiese, Garretson, S. Dak.
Henry W7iilks, JTr., West Richfield, Ohio.
SwcPain LeRoy Wilson, Havertown, Pa.
Robert william witter, D~ubuque, Io~wa.
Jamnes Randolph Wolcott III, Red
Bank, N. J.
Paul D~avis Yates, Washington, D. C.
Hugh Corbett WFCyatt, Baraboo, Wis.
Edward Franklin Yost, Jr., Yeadon, Pa.
Paul Alexander Yost, Jr., Louisville, K~y.
Louis Locke Zumstein, Port Orang~e, Fla.
George Peter Adamnson, Bronx, N. Y.
George Thomas Doyle, Paris, Ky.
John Leslie Everton, Norfolk, Va.
Leonlard Clayton Geer, Rutherford, N. J.
Richard Edwin Greer, Teaneck, N. J.
COAST GUARD BULLETIN
H~ureau otf (soIesI1II of thle Treatsury' De-
partmenlt, who wctre transferlred to the
Coast Gualrd by Excutive Ordler !III**3
and thle nonrunI ulll~iianI Plan Nulmber 3.
Permlan~ent: warrat'nt a llil -.-r., ma y be? al-
painted ficrom tl'lngl.;..my chief wiri;rant
anrd temnporaryv walrrantt othecers of the
Coast Gua~rd and1( fromll the (.tegoi' es~j~
of chief warraniit ullnIvr-.
Per1sons selec~tedt for app~oinrtment us.
permantent (nmanIli-i..nall, chief warra:nt
OFr WTvRrlan cAielPs frocm al I a "II I)PTSOHl-
nel of thle former' Burea;u of Ala rin~e In-
sp~ection antd Navigationl or thle 2:ur'eau
of Customs shll;l niot be requliredt to
undtergo further prn~lf'lwinn~l~l phySion'l
or mlental examinationn as a pr~erequisite
to original commnission~ing, uIl~l'Onill Hient
or enliistmlent andi physical sta\ndarlds for
such pe~rsonneel shall not be gr~eater than
those applicable generally to eiviliatn
emp~loyees under civil service laws and
regulations. All service of such per-
sonnel as a civilian emp~loy~e of the
United States shall be included in com-
putinlg leath~1 of service for purposes of
retirement. Once appointed in the
vereulatr Coast Guardl they aire nlot en-
titled to civil-service retiirementi but
may claim a return of their total con-
tributio~ns to the, civil-ser~vice retirement
fund. with interest. They~\ become eli-
gible upon suchr ;p nIn t men li'lt. 1owevler,
to retire~ment benefits provided by Inw
for members' of the regular Coast Guard.
A disability on the part of such per-
sunllrcl for physical disability re~tire-
ment, shall be deemed to halve bee~n in-
curredl, incident to Ctoast Gualrd service,
if its cause originated during any period
of service which may be included in thle
comp~uttaton of service for purposes of
r~etiretment, provided the cause is not due
to vicious habits, intemlperance or mis-
conduct. ~Suc~h personnel shall not suf-
fer any reduction in annual1 compensa-
tion, jlin.1urline-. :llowanllrrs, below the
compensation applicable to thleir perman-
nentt civil-service position at the time
enlistment, exclusive of overtime com-
pensation. Accrued military leave shall
also be credited to them. Thte civil-
service status, tendre, seniority, and
compensation of any such pecr onl who
for any reason is not commissioned, ap-
pointed or enlisted under the act, shall
not be impaired.
(2) Temporary';1'5 consmllliss~ioned' 1 OfficerS
of the C'onst Gua rd.
(3) hiefwarrant and warlrant
ofltkersl~ and enlisted mlen of the Coast
(4) 30-sullsors~ of the Coast Guard
(5) Licensedt otliversl~ of thle Unieted
State~s mercha~nt mar:inee whoe h~ve
served 4: or more~~t years alboardc a ressel
of the United States in thiat (.lll.i~Vi.
These~~ itl-rillls shalll serv~e at probationaryS
perhadlt of 2 years.
(6) P~els.rsonel of the former IBuxreau
of Mar11ine Inspection and Navrigation
of thle De~partm~ent of Comlmerce, and
the B~urealu of Customas of thle Treasury
Department, who were transferred from
those bulreaus to the Const Gunard by
Evencltive Order 908;3, dated Fe~bruary
ization Plan N~umbered 3, c.ffe~r ive July
16,, 1!1941 (11 F. R. 78m~), andi wnho on
Mar'ch 1, 1142 held the civil service ralt-
iner of CAFi-09 or P-3, or above; 453 extra
commissioned officer numbers are pro-
vilol.d within the 2',2.-(1 authorized, to
which onlly persionne~l in c; Wearll'! 6 may
be appointed. If not filled each vacancy
shall increase by one the authorized
number of line officers, while de~cl~reaine-
by one the authorized number of extra
numbers. These appointees shall be as-
signa(~l r'unning m Iates from among Ir',1-
lar line officers of thle Coast Guard in
the respective ranks in which they are
commissioned; he celiablel~ for pnromo-
tion, if otherwise unul~lifiedl when their
1lrrunine mantes become e~ltallall; und he
examinedl only in subjects pertnf;iningL to
P~ermnanent chief warrant officers may
be appol~inl~te fromt the following cate-
(1) Temporalry commissioned officers
of the Coast Guard.
(2) Trmporall; ry chief warrant Itfitorl..
of the Coast Guard.
(3) Tempor~ary and perrmanent wvar-
rant, olftlvrls of the Coast Guard.
(-1) Enllidedt men of the Coast Guard.
(;5) Members'l' of the Coast G~uard
(6i) Lic~Lnense officers of the U~nited
States merchant marine.
(T7) Personnel of the former Bureau
of Marine Inspection and N~avigation of
the Department of Commerce, and the
PRESENT STATE, OF SYSTEMVI OF AII)S TO mrARINE NAVTIGAITION
SHOWN BY ANNUAL STATISTICS
The present status of the system of aids to marine na~ig t ioni maintained by the
Coast Guanrl is shown by the statistics just ;ompljiled for the fiscal year recently
losed. A~ ?;lmil but normal increase in the total number of these aids to navi-
gation has taken place during the past 12 ~ont~hs, despite the fact that the grand
total of aids in existence on June 30, 1947, was 414 less than. at the same time
a year ago. The decrease was brought about by the discon~tinuance of many
aids established in United States and other waters for the wartime benefit of
the military services. The steady elimination of these aids which has been
going on since the cession of hostilities, is now practically completed.
The growth of the system of navigational aids is well illustrated by a comparison
of figures for periods which minimize or eliminate the eff~ects of temporary war-
time changes. This growth is shown in the following table, which also shows
graphically the present state of the aids. The electronic aids are shown in a
1927 1937 1947
Lights, 200 c. p. and above -_-- 2, 161 1, 695 2, 235
Lights, below 200 c. p .______ 3, 348 5, 646 7, 440
Lightship stations 1_ __ __ __ __ __ 45 31 28
Lighted buoys (including float lights)_.. 710 1, 130 1, 792
Lighted trumpet buoy~s------- ....., ______ ..... .. .. 9
Lighted whistle buoys-_- ____ ... 313 154 233
Lighted bell buoys-,-.. ---_ .... .... ...__ 434 624
Lighted gong buoys-,----- ..... ..-- 21 64
Total lighted aids..... _........._ 6, 577 9, 111 12, 397
Radiobeacons ___ ._,-, 37 125 182
Sound fog signals .. ... ______ 549 555 592
Lighted buoys with bells, whistles, gongs,
or trumpets* .__ ____ __. 313 609 930
Unlighted buoys with bells, whistles, or
gongs____ ____ __ ..____ 328 366 372
Total fog signals_-,.,, __..___ r.. 265 6 1, 668 2. 076
Buoys .. ...,___________ 7, 621 13, 238 '17, 766
Daybeaccons......... ._,___ 3, 213 4, 729 5, 156
Total silent and unlighted aids_ __ 10, 834 17, 967 22, 922
;Grand total__..._,,_ .. .... ... 18, 363 28, 106 36, 465
1 Lightships station not counted in totals.
z Includes auxiliary w~aring radiobeacon on. Nantucket Shoals Lightship.
8 Lighted sound buoys counted only once in grand total.
1 Included 13 submarine! signals.
Included 38 submarine signals.
COAST GUARD BULLEIN
The reduction of 414 aids to naviga-
tion during the past year is accounted
for chiefly by thze discontinuance of 269
lights of candlepowers belowFP 200, and
341 daybeacons. These and other dis-
continuances were only partly offset by
new establishments, chieflysof buoys.
COAST GUOARD TO STUDY STEVUC-
TURAL STRAINS IN ICIE
AB study of the forces acting upon a
vessel while breaking ice, and the re-
actionls in the hull girder of such a-ves-
-sel, is to be made by the Coast Guard
during the coming winter. The tests
will be made upon the cutter Miackinawc,
the world's largest icebreaker, and cut-
ELECTRONIC AIDS TO NAVIGATION
Operating -- ------ -- 3
Inactive -- _--------------- 24
Fixed transmitting stations
M(opeerating) .. .t 1---- 31
(operating) ------- 1
Fixed transmitting stations
Fixred monitor stations (oper-
F'ixed monitor stations (in- -
active), .._,,__,,-,.,... 7
COAST GUARD BULLETIN
ters of the 180-foot and 110-foot class,
while* these vessels are at work upon
the G~reat Lakes.
The proposed tests are to be con-
ducted by the Coast Guard's testing and
development division, with the assist-
ance of thte Division of Engineering Re-
search of the U~niversity of M/ichigan.
It is expected that the tests will lead to
the design. of vessels better adapted to
ice-breaking, and also to certain econ-
omies in construction.
ROYAL NATIONAL LIFEBOAT
TIhe Royal National Lifeboat Institu-
tion, of Great Britain, has just pub-
lished a booklet "The Story of the Life-
boat, 182~4 to 1947," in which is recorded
the history of 123 years of life-saving at
sea by that organization. The history
~of the British institution, insofar as re-
sults and general type of equipment are
concerned is not unlike that of life~-
saving in the United States. The two
life-saving organizations differ, however,
in that the British is and always hRS
been a charitable organization nlot sup-
ported by the government.
For the most part, the Royal Lifeboat
Institution is managed by volunteers,
this including the crews and adminlistra-
tive personnel of the various local sta-
tions. Its funds are expended for the
purchase and equipment of its boats, for
.the maintenance of its stations, for the
making of monetary awards to those
who participate in rescues, and to the
payment of pensions.
TWO FORMER SUPIERINTEND-
ENTS OF LIGHTHEOUSES
WI. H. Rhodes, formerly superintend-
ent of lighthouses in the eighteenth
lighthouse district embracing the waters
of California, died recently at his home
in California. Captain Rhodes retired
from the government service in 1939, at
th e time of the consolidation of the
Lighthouse Service with the Coast
Guard, having completed 40 years of
Captain Rhodes ~first Government em-
91oyment was with the Coast and Geo-
detic Survey, which he entered in 1899.
He commanded Coast Survey vessels in
the Philippines, H~awaii, Alaska, the
vicinity of the Panama Canal, and else-
where. *Be was appointed superin-
tendent in the Lighthouse Service in
1912, and became widely known for his
professional attainmaents in nautical,
engineering, anzd scientific fields.
Another former superintendent of
lighthouses w~ho has recently died is
Henry L. Beck, who also retired in 1939.
H~is first Government service was with
the Census Bureau and the Coast and
Geodetic Survey. HEe entered the Light-
house Service as an assistant superin-
tendenot in 1911 and wpas first stationed
in the N~ew York area. In the same
year he was appointed superintendent
of the seventeenth district, embracing
the waters of Washington and Oregon.
In 1915 he was transferred to Charles-
ton, S. C., in charge of the sixth light-
house district. He served in that ca-
pacity until the time of his retirement,
at which time he had over 39 years Gov-
RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THEI
GREAT LAKES HARBOR ASSO-
CIATION AT ITS 1947 ANNUAL
MEETING, TOLED)O, OHIO, JUNE
26 AND~ 27, 1947
COMMENDING TH~ UNITED STATES COAST
Whereas the officers and men of the
United States Coast Guard for more
than a century past have guarded the
shipping lanes of the Great Lakes and
have rendered heroic service in the pro-
tection of lives and property throughout
the Great Lakes region; and
WThereas the construction and opera-
tion of the icebreaker ~Mackinaw by the
United States Coast Guard has added
immeasurably to the safety and eff-
ciency of Great Lakes shipping, ]has
afforded vital assistance to Great Lake~s
shipping and lake ports, and has ex-
tended the practical season of naviga-
tion on the Great Lakes, thus adding to
the service, economy, and efficiency of
Great Lakes shipping operations; and
Whereas the United States Coast
Guard is loyally endeavoring to execute
its duties and to meet its many respon-
sibilities in the Great Lakes region
under the handicaps of manpower
shortages and deficiencies of equipment;
now, therefore be it
Resolved, By the Great Lakres Har-
bors Association, in annual meeting as-
sembled, that wie hereby commend the
United States Coast Guard for its skill,
its devotion to duty, and its long tradi-
tion of service to life and property in
the Great Lakes region; and be it
Resolved, That copies of this resolu-
tion be spread upon the proceedings of
this annual meeting; that copies be sub-
COAST GUARD) BULLETIN
mitte-d. to the Colnunandant, U~nited
State~s Conlst Guardl, Washington, D). C.;
the C~ommandetr of the Ninth. United
States Clorst- Guar~d District; and to
interested AhmaIIrl.er of Cannes. .~
SIMPLIFICATCION OF IDISTCRI[CT
ORGANIZATIONS WILL FIT
PEACETIME COND)ITIONS S
In a district reorgan~llli:'.:tio~n effective
July 1, 1947~, a conso~lidaltion of functions
within fewer unlits was celffctedl by
abolishingi certain sections andlc tra~ns-
feringii their functions to other sections
whose duties are generally similar. The
Chief of Staff' hats thaus become respon-
sible for the functions of the Planning
and Control o~fticcer a-ndl the ]Public In-
formlation olthe-or;l to the newly authori-
zed Legall atnd Inte~lligenlc-e officers is
transferred the legn;1 functions of the
aIboljiished Legal; Section a~nd the Intelli-
gencte andi Law Enfl-orc~ement Section,
while the operational functions of gen-
evanl lawv enforcement remain with the
Opera tions D~i \i si on, and the Mar 1inI n~ I-
sp~ectionI clni.er' contiflues to assist the
district conunander in marine inspec-
tio.n law~ enfor'cemlent matters; the fune-
tions of thle abolished Otlicre Services
Section aInd Commissaryy andi Clothilg
Section are tra:nsferredt to the Supply
Section: thle Engineering Division is
given cogniizanc~e over aeronautical engi-
Illerling~ maltters~f; thle Bludget and Ae-
ctountinlg Sec'tion is relnumedc the Ac-
c~ounlting Section, andt functions pertain-
ing to the prepafration1 of budget esti-
mates are tra;nsferred~t to thle Chtief,
F'iilinance anld Supply D~ivision: The Ship
andt Shore Un~it Section is r~enamed tle
Sear~ch and Rec-scue Section andt absorbs
the functions of the abolishedl Aviation
Sect-ion and thie albolishled Ordtnance,
Gunnery and Readiness Section; the
.11ilitary~ Personnel Section takes ovcer
thle functions of thle abolished Milita ~y
Mloralle Section, the abolished Training
and Poctur~ement Rection, and all re-
r i nnininfuRnctions of the former Reserve
aInd Auxiliary Section which do not re-
Ilate to the Auxiliary and the temporary
components of the Coast Guard Reserve.
These are tralnsfer~redl to the Chief of
Staff for administration under him by
the Director of Auxiliary.
Thle new district ol~~raizaltionll n1ow
consists of the District Commander, the
('hief of Staff and four tlivisions.~ Il;nlrly
Eng~ineerl~ll.: ine finance and Supply, Oper-
ations, and Personrnel. Undler each
divcision1 are three sections. Under the
Engrilt~inering Divisiion are the Civil,
Electronic, and Marine Engineering See-
tions; under F'inance and Supply1~ the
.le ontig.Disbur'sing, andi Supply
Sections; under the Operations Divi-
sion cotme the Aids to N;1vigatlion.l Com-
munication, aInd Search and Rescue
Sections; andi under the Personnel Divi-
sion are the Civilian Personnlel, Medc~ica;l
and MIilitar~y Personnel S5ection. Di-
r~ectly responsible to the Chief of Staff
but not inlcludedI in any D~ivision are the
Marine TInsplc~t imel officer, the Letgal and
IIntelligence officer andl the Director of
COAST GUARD CUTTER WrELL
KNOWN ON WESTERN RIVERS
Thle Coast Guard Cutter Gr~eenbr~ier,
whlich for 23 years has been ser~vicing
aids to navl\iS;tion chiefly upon the Ohiio
River, is being decommissioned and re-
placed byS a newer vessel.
TIhe G~reenbrier- was of the traditional
wRestern river type of conIstruction, with
a large stern Iublrlk-wheel, two "chim-
neys" at the forward end of the dleck
house, and noncondlensing englines.. In-
side her box-like hull were a, few steI;1rn
tanks, but not much else. On her main
deck, about 2 feet above the water line,
was the boiler and engline~ rooms, and
certain working anld stnrageiy space. The
coal bunker was aIlso on this dlcl. and
in thte very bowv. On the dleck above
wIere the clnarlters. for the officers and
er~ew, thle meshal; ;l, ad the galley.
Above this was the pilot house, a com-
mlodious glass-enclosed structures, near
th~e bow aInd almost betwcteen the "c@im-
neys"'. Insidet this were few of thle navi-
gatinlg aplpurtenances of a salt water
vetsse-l, but thle 8-foot steering wheel
(which was Irarely usedl for stering),,
the shafts which operated;~il the stceeringF
engineI~ andC the bell-pulls on which the
customary river system of dignll-
The pilot on the Greenbrier, onr~iouslyll
enough, had a foot-brake on his xtleerine~
wYheel, looked directly down into the
coal-bunkier between himself and the
bow, and the vessel had five rudders,
these arrangedl~~~ athwartships just for'-
wvar~d of the paddle-wheel.
The Greecnbrierc~ was built by the
Charles War'd Engl~ineeringl~L Works of,
Cha~l'ritlesto W. Va., at a cost of $128,000.
It is 16:1 feet in length, with a steel hull
and woodl upper works. Tlhe Green-
brier, when under the former L-ight-
house~( Service, carried President H-oover
and party from (Cilc~innatni to Louisville
durling# the Oh~io Rtiver improvement
celebration on October 22 and 23, 1',20).
YF TYPE OF VESSEL4S ARE GIVEN NEW DESIGNATIONS
The YF type vessels, which are to be used as tenders for the servicing of the
navigational aids, have been redesignated as follows:
Former Navy designation Coast Guard name CG type and No.
YF-16.............White Sumac... .... .,, WAGL-540
YF--417,...__, ....... ..WhteAler. ... WAGL-541
YF-3 9.. .... ... .... .. hite Bush .... ..... ..... WTAG L-542
YF-341,.. ... ....... White Holly..___,__ ,_ WAGL-543
YF-444.....____ .._, .... hite Sage__,,____ ..._ ..... AGCL544
YF-4 5.. ....... ...... hite Heath.... .. .., W AGL-545
YF-446,............._ ,_ __ White L~upine.. .... WT7CAGL-546
YF-48............... hite Pine.... _____ _, .... AGIr547
COAST GUARD) BULLETIN
ERECTION OF A CHAPEL( AT
COAST GUARD ACADERY IIS
AUTHORIZED BY CONGRESS
On 21 July 1947 the Pr~eside~nt signed
HrE. R. 3539 which became Public Law
No.210.Thiis nlhor'izes~ the Coast
Guard to construct a suitable chapel for
religious w~crshlip, by any denomination,
sect, or re~ligion~ll at the! Coast Guard
Academyjll~ in New London, Corin.; to ac-
quire an appropriate site for the chapel
adjoining the present Coast Guard Acad-
emy reservation either by purchase,
condemnation, gift or otherwise; and to
accept private Contributions to assist in
defraying its cost of construction, such
contributions to be received and ac-
counted for under such regulations as
the Secretary of the Treasury may pre-
scribe. Congress has also authorized to
be appropriated such sums as may be
necessary to complete the erection of
COAST GUARD) ASSISTS WHEN
On the nights of 2 and 3 July 1947 the
Mississippi River crested at St. Louis
at an all-time high of 40.3 feet. On the
night of 3 July, the temporary levee
surrounding tlhe city of Grand Tower,
Ill., crevassed and Coast Guard equip-
mlent, standing-by on the outskirts of
the town, was immediately thrown into
the evacuation of the lower portion of
the city during the hours of darkness
and necessary evacuation was completed
by daylight and Coast Guard personnel
then devoted their time to the bringing
in of neeidted medical supplies and food
from hlighway;~ terminals at the edlge of
the flooded areas.
Thet flood cresfts cotntinuled to set new
recor~,lds as thef .11issipp~i~li swept below
St. ]Louis until it rea.c~hed Cape Girar-
(lean,11 M~o. The flood waterls he-ai.;I to
recede rather rap~idly in the entilt;re are
cc-rnnuent-~ingF 8 July andi all Coast Guard
taskr forces were dlisba:ndedl :I ad re-
tullrned to their respective stations.
Aircraft on flood duty from Traversxe
City, Mich., and San Diego, Calif., were
released for return to their permanent
stations. One mobile communications
truck from the Eighth CG D~istrict was
returned to its permanent station at
ob~li l .
WVCARTIME SERVICE OF SME1ALL
BOATS IS BEING RECOGNIZED
The wartime service of small boats
which were turned over to the Coast
Guard by their owners and which have
since been returned to their owners, is
being recognized by the distribution of
service certificates, chevrons, and
Service chevrons will be awarded on
the basis of one chevron for each 6
months of continuous wartime service.
These will be awarded to boats loaned,
bought, accep~tedl as a gift, or chartered
for Coast Guard use. The chevrons
may be displayed in an appropriate
place aboard the vessel.
Certificates and bronze plaques will
be awarded to boats owiPned by members
of the Coast Guard Auxiliary, used dur-
ing the war, and since returned to their
COAST GUARD BJLL~ETIN
DECORATIONS AN) AWARDS
MLADE SI[NCIE JUNE
LEGOION OF MERIT
ZLowet, WVilliaml H-., ('a p t. (R) (T).'
BRON0hZE STAR MIEDAL
Atl.mirii Edward. J., Lt. (i).
Iunrklll~lrd, Arthlur HE-., Jr. C:ox."
Fro~c.lic~k, 8eymour J., Lt. (jg) (RI).
Kro(.n, Ecldredl J., L~t. (R)!.
Mal~ley, Kielnnthl P., (lonunu~nder.
Haws?thortrnet Jr'., John W..., Lt. (R).
.; III' I Unisn, W sltey .11.. lo lle-.=
Sw\~ier~c, Mic~hael J., 31.1.1110.=
COMM~ENDATION RIBBON '
.\110-. :, Ua-r1 J., Lt.
I~lurmester, ~Louis 16~., 101l->.
Frick, Sherlmanl Kt., L~t.
WI;laul.-r, Austin C., Lt.
PRE-SIDENTIAL, UNIT C'ITATION
L1,111m Johin AI.. Lt. (jgf).
Kiefnrle, Ge~otrge Rt., Lt. Ctomdr. (RI).
?!: 1 Inermi. Il 1hlngmond J., Caplt.
TLomkiiel, F~'rank, (lomdlr. (deceased). .
Tyler, Gutines A., Caplt.
CHANGES IN ASSIGNIVENT
TIhe follkit illg clrs::nges in alssig~nm~nts
we~re made dIn lill- the week endcing
July 1 :
Lt. Cocmdr. C'harles O. Ashley. E:leverall l
District 010.r-- to operal';tinlg Ba~se.
Lt. Clomdtr. Or;lDoyle, ordc~ers fromn De-
p~ot, South Por~tland, 31-linec, to Lan;r~ < /
Lt. ('omdr.. William L. Mlorrisonl, HEa- ~ll
qualrters tor George Washington Uni.
versity LaLw School.
Lt. Comdrll. Firedc F. Nichlols, Norlanl~tp~t
to TPrainingT Station, Groton, Clonn.
L~t. Clomdru. Glen F. Stes **nw. Melrchlant
Mal~lrin D~etail, 21;nr-teillr, Fnrace, to
MrI~1ine Insp~ection, Su rnic,
Lt. C.omdr. Maynardt Fi. Young, Heal-
Qluarters to George Washlingtonl~ Law-
'Lowe awarded Legion of Merit in lieu of
Br0Z a 2 S1 1rc lBur 1ar Naward d
Marine Corps Medal.
The following changes=1 in assignmentsllt
were madel~ during the week ending July
Commat~ nder Frla~ncis Wri. LeahyT (8),
Gra~us.Berlin, to H~eadquarter's
(011,l I of M~e~c~hant 31:irllne Safety).
Conalll.i:lll'l.I RObert S. TLa.;-k, M~ohawkc7
to. cHansafrac s (CO).
Cocimmandert Georee I R. Leslie, Onandcruag
t-o Tan)CyJ ((CO).
(conulnander~l Har~~oldl BI. RobeFrts, EleT--
enthi D~istr'ict O~1lo-e to Bibb (CO).
ilommaufnderl Simon R. 8.111.1 Jr., odler's
from Itoston Reprrjesetative, Norlarnt-
putf, to M i lll Dlistrict' at tice. caRnceled;l
to, Thilrteenlth D~ist~rict 01likeI (Chief,
('omma ndter Filoyd1 M. Soule (R), Inter-
nlationa~l Ic~e P': tentI1 Arge~ntia, to
110ad~cs H~ole Oceanograp~hic Institux-
Co!numinderl Jochn H. Wat~ginc, Thir-
teenth D~isctrict ORil.-s- to I~rebud (CO).
L~t. Conltdr'. Hartloldl J. Babbitt, The~tis to
Base, B~oston, Mass~.
L~t. (louldnl Reg~inatld W. B-utcher, Per-
S('us to EI'j.\.'.-nal DiStr'ict O~thee (tem-
porart y dutty II. Ilsaine further assign-
Lt. Countdr. Jamecs H. Coe (R), XI;I!rine
In~spc~tion, Col'ros C~hristi, Tex., to
31:: r~ine Inis~ection, Galvelston, Tex.
L~t. Comdrl. Kenneth H. Hellwecg (R),
Mar1inle Intspection, Gails e-Inn~. Te~x.,
toc Mai~ne TI~.IIn--pe-a ti Cor'pus Christi,
Ist. Conidlr. Charles~ E. Morl~ers, Jrr.,
Ope~ratinga Base, KetchikanI, Alaskra,
" to. clover (CO) .
Ist. C'omdrl. Th~omas B. M"cIinstry,,
Fourth Distric~t Oitice to Base, Ala-
Lt. Comdr~. Donah1d J1. 3II1nrell, Seven-
teenth District Office! to Citrucs (CO).
L~t. C~omdlr. John L. Olsen, Cor!!pl,-a to
Lt. Comndr. Benjamin B. Sherry, Tacncy
to Pe1rseuxS (CO).
Lt. Cathdrl. JamlleS N. Ensusu.--senI Repnre-
sentative, Commander, Weste-rn. Pa-
ceific Section, Fiourteenth District,
Alanlilul, to Third District Offce.
The following cha~nlles in nav~ignment.rl
were ma~de during the week tending
Commander H-arold J. Doebler, Head-
Qluarters to Mackcinawu (CO).
Name Present rank Retired rankl
*May be advanced on retired list to higher rank under Public Law 305.
COAST GUARD BULLETIN
Lt. ("omdr.l Johnl L. Olsen, C'onut~lrnhe to
Base, P'ortsmiouthi VaI.
Lt. C~omdvtl Rtobert N. Wlillimnlls, F~ourlth
D~istr~ict~ Olic t~o Alinnetonksl~c (EO(,).
ORDERED) HO`ME SPENDING; RE-
TIREMENT FOR PH-YSICAL;
Lt. (.ia) ItobertN. 11021I-> (Rt).
lat. (jul Da:);niei ;lacalster,
Chief Ma~chinist CO,.nr-l Grrree.
Chietf Malchtinist TM.Inns1;1- Wright.
Boattswaizn Lester B~. P~oole.
Chief Pay~g Cler~k H~ynui~n Gottliteh.
l'hilor Curpe~t nterr Samnuel J. Lordt.
Chief Pa;y Clerk'l Hulbtfrt H. Dicke~rso~n.
T~he f~hlwingiic changes in ni~aninent (I 1
were mal~de clurling the w~eekl ('ndling
CInnIII1d;111r1 Fran.-llisc WV. L~enhy (It),
qjuarlterP S CalCeled. .
Commnderllt l Alvin II. Giffin, Norlan~tpat,
to F'irst District: Olli.- (tonrililre17i~
duty pen.1linelL furLthefr :I.<.sianinent).
Contunandcer Johnl Hi. Wagline,, orders ~l
fr~om Th'lirteenth District Otlice! t"
Resdbud (CO) amend~edl; to BI2sain l
Lt. Com3dr' John 1\l. Handcley (IZ), oath
as lieutenant- commannder (R); to
active dluty, Ma;~~rin Inspection, New
RETIREMENTS EFFECTIVE 1 AUGUST 1947
Stephen G. Basnight _____
Rtobert J. ]Bussey______ _
Edw~ard F. Carraway _____
Christie T. Christiansen ____
Gerhart W~. Christianlson ___
Cecil E. Daniels _______
Ferdinlian E. D~ewer ____
SJames Dixon_______ __
WF~illiam J. Elliot_ ______
David S. Hendrix______ _
Edwin A. Hlimnel______ __
Fred P. Jacey (Jascak) ____
Gerhard P. Kretzschmar ___
Clem E,. Levendoski___ _
Grant E. M~axson______ _
Charles I. Qvi-t rnard ____
H illiam C. B. Roberts ____
WSalter A. Soldenskri _____
Clyde L. StraubeL______ _
Albert Van DeVenter ____
Harrison N. W~ilson _____
C. B. MI. ~_______
Ch. Pharm___ ____ _
C. R. M I_________
Lt. Comdr ________
C. M. 11 ________
Ch. Aliloch _____ _
C. B. 31 _________
C. M M ~r________
Bos'n ~ _________
Ch. Mach______ _
Lieutenant (R) (inactive)
C. B. M _________
Lt. (jg) ________
Lt. Comdr. (R) _____
Ch. Gunner_______ _
C. M. M _________
Ch. Pay Clerk ______
Lt. Comdr _______,
Lt. Comdr. (Rt)
C. B3. M.*
C. ]R. M~.*
C. M:. MC.*
C. B. M.*
C. ML. Al.*
C. B. M.*
Lt. Comdr. (R)
C. ;\1. M.*
Lt. Comdr. (R).
U. 5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1947
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
11u 11111111111 mrl l I111
3 1262 08748 28
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