TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO -Ae Y1QE.
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This 15-day Exhibition which will be opened daily from
September lst-15th has been designed to show:
(a) The extent and progress of Government's initiative in
the fields of Agriculture, Education, Health, Housing
(b) The initiative of private enterprise and its part in the
Industrial Development of the Country.
... ... 5 p.m. to 10 p.m.
... ... 4 p.m. to 11 p.m.
Live Entertainment on Stage Nightly
THE climate of Trinidad is fully tropical. The total rainfall varies
from year to year, and ranges from 50 inches in the driest localities
up to 120 inches .in the wettest. The average monthly maximum
temperature varies between 850 F. and 890 F. while the minimum
has a range from 660 F. to 720 F. The humidity is relatively high.
Published information on the soils of Trinidad is largely the work
of two men, viz., Professor Fred Hardy and Dr. Chenery. Broadly,
they have classified Trinidad soils into-
(a) Northern Range Soils with its sub-classes,
(b) Northern Plain Soils,
(c) Central Range Soils, and
(d) Southern Plain Soils.
Reference should be made to the work of the authors for detailed
information. The most fertile of Trinidad's soils is the chocolate
soil of the Montserrat district-a sedentary soil of very limited
extent. Trinidad's agriculture remained for too long in the
exploitation phase and is just emerging into the scientific phase.
Success of any development programme for agriculture must rest
on adequate knowledge and proper scientific treatment of its soils.
Land Ownership and Use
Of the million odd acres in Trinidad, 605,000 acres have been
alienated, the remaining 588,000 acres is Crown Land. Of the
alienated land, some 334,000 acres are under cultivation, and
produces sugar, cocoa, coconuts, citrus, coffee, rice and food crops.
The main reserves of land available for development in agriculture
in the future are the uncultivated portions of lands already alienated.
Land ownership is on the basis of freehold occupation; and on
these terms are held all the sugar estates, cacao and coconut estates
and other estates, large and small. Crown Lands are leased for
25 years with the option of renewal for another 25.
Shifting cultivation is widely prevalent and squatting is a
formidable problem in some areas.
The pattern of agriculture is about equally divided between
large and small growers.
Trinidad is a net importer of its food supply. A number of
complex factors would appear to account for this and need not be
gone into here. Emphasis is now being put on local food production,
both from the production and marketing angles. Limited areas
are devoted to market gardens.
Animal husbandry is not integrated into the farming system
and considerable quantities of milk and butter are imported; but
imports of vegetable oils and lard substitutes have been reduced
to small proportions through the operations of factories for the
production of refined and vegetable oils from coconut oil.
The Export Crops
Sugar forms the principal agricultural export. The industry is
shared between estates and small farmers. The small farmers
produce about one-third of the total cane tonnage. Sugar production
has been increasing steadily since the war and reached a record of
243,700 tons in 1961.
Cacao is believed to occupy approximately 100,000 acres.
Production declined rapidly in the late thirties and was accentuated
during the second World War owing to labour shortage.
A Cacao Rehabilitation Scheme has been in operation for some
15 years and the effects of this Scheme are beginning to be felt.
The fact that Trinidad produces a flavour cocoa which is in great
demand and enjoys a considerable price premium over basic cocoas
(West Africa and Brazil) gives cause for cautious optimism for the
future of the industry.
The current annual production is some 15,000,000 lbs.
Recently an Ordinance to establish a Cocoa Industry Board has
been proclaimed. This will give producers a bigger share in the
control of marketing policy.
The citrus industry occupies about 11,000 acres and has expanded
greatly since the War. The industry is in the hands of large and
small growers with the latter preponderating. The bulk of the crop
is handled by a Co-operative Citrus Growers' Associacn which
grades and standardises fresh fruit for export and possesses modem
equipment for canning juices and segments.
The industry faces grave competition from United States
of America (Florida), fruit in the United Kingdom market.
Assistance has been rendered to the industry in the form of free
issues of fertilisers, and by the establishment of a Regional Research
Unit for citrus investigations at the University of the West Indies
(I.C.T.A.). Exports crossed the million crate mark in 1957-58 and
the current potential is li million crates.
The Coconut Industry
The area under coconut cultivation is estimated to be about
40,000 acres. The crop is grown on both estates and small holdings,
with estate areas preponderating. The products of the industry
include coconuts, copra, coconut oil, margarine, lard, &c. Copra is
not exported, the entire production being converted by oil factories.
The vegetable oil industry is protected by duties on imported oils
and on soap. A Coconut Growers' Association and West Indian
Oil Industries Ltd. operate factories for processing the crop.
Recently, coconut growers have set up a Research Organization to
investigate the causes of Red Ring Disease (considered to be the
most serious disease of coconuts locally) and to initiate measures
for its control. The current production is some 37,000,000 lbs.
The Coffee Industry
Both Arabica and Robusta coffee are grown, the former in the
hills and the latter in the plains. Most of the coffee has been planted
in association with cacao. Processing is of a fairly high standard
and Trinidad's Robusta has a good reputation on the world market.
Current production is some 5,000,000 lbs.
The Banana Industry
The present export trade depends to a great extent on the
production of numerous small growers, few of whom have pure
stand holdings but grow bananas intercropped mostly? with cacao.
In order to achieve a production of the order of 500,000 buncheE
pea annum, the industry will need to be more broadly based anc
new areas, devoted to pure stand cultivation, opened up.
StRecent experiments conducted by a large agricultural concern
indicate that Moko Disease, which has been a seriouslimiting factor
can be controlled under certain conditions. Plans are being
formulated to bring into pure stand cultivation additional areas
both in Trinidad and Tobago, which are expected to result in a
viable industry in due course. Exports for the period 1955-61
Areo as follows:-
Year Weight (tons)
1955 ... ... ... 1,068
1956 ... ... 3,259
1957 ... ... ... 4,199
1958 ... ... ... 3,155
1959 ... ... ... 2,646
1960 ... ... ... 2,764
1961 ... ... ... 2,302
The Minor Crops
Trinidad also grows Rubber, Tonca Beans and a miscellaneous
collection of Fruit Crops, none of which is of major commercial
importance, but with proper planning, could make a greater
contribution to the economy than it does at present. Of these minor
crops, Rice is of importance as a domestic source of food. Annual
production of rice is about 12,000 tons and 27,000 tons were imported
in 1960 to satisfy local demand. The drainage of the Oropouche
Lagoon should have the effect of bringing a considerable area,
believed to be 10,000 acres, under safe cultivation for rice and
vegetables. Prospects for a small but valuable Tobacco production
In recent years incentives and encouragement have been given
for the building up of a dairy and beef industry. It cannot be said
that there is as yet an extensive cattle industry in Trinidad, but
the pioneering of the owners of certain firms and, individuals, gives
promise that the achieving of self-sufficiency in this sector of the
livestock population, is well within the capacity of the Territory's
resources. The poultry industry has expanded rapidly in the
post-war period and the island is within reach of. being self-
supporting in poultry products. Processing of pigs and poultry is
ander discussion and should be a reality in the near future.
A number of organizations exist which handle and market'
different agricultural industries. The chief ones are-
(a) The Trinidad Cocoa Planters' Association
(b) The Citrus Growers' Co-operative Association
(c) The Coconut Growers' Association
(d) The All Island Cane Farmers' Association.
Under the Development Programme, a Central Wholesale and
Retail Market is being established for the orderly marketing of
Government Aids to Agriculture
The Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce is the
official organisation responsible for the administration of Govern-
ment's Agricultural Policy. Animal husbandry and veterinary
matters are included within the scope of its operations.
The technical services are organised in six (6) main divisions-
(c) Animal Husbandry
(d) Economics and Marketing
(e) Veterinary Services
The highlights of Government's Development Programme in
Agriculture which commenced in 1958, include:-
(1) The establishment of some 1,300 acres under pangola
grass through the incentives of a planting subsidy.
(2) In the field of encouraging livestock development, some
100 heifers, 3,000 piglets, 100,000 chicks and 66 goats
were made available to farmers during this period.
(3) Some 50 farmers have benefited from the Water Subsidy
Scheme which has enabled them to construct improved
water systems for keeping livestock.
(4) Over 3,000 farmers have benefited from the Sugar-cane
The Cocoa Subsidy Scheme which has been operating since 1948,
was responsible for the distribution of some 5,000,000 plants in the
past five (5) years whilst some 500,000 economic plants mainly
citrus, mangoes, avocadoes and other fruit trees were raised and
sold from St. Augustine Nurseries which are operated by the
Ministry of Agriculture.
SECTION "B "
The island has a rather more oceanic type of climate than
Trinidad-and is to some extent, similar to that of the north-east
of Trinidad. The average rainfall for the island is approximately
85 inches ; the wettest months are June to December, and the mean
temperature at sea level is 800 F. Rainfall is heaviest in the north-
east and in the hills, and lowest in the south-west-the range being
approximately from 45 to 100 inches per annum.
The chief soil-types of Tobago may provisionally be classified
on a lithological basis as follows :-
(a) Residual Soils
(i) Derived from igneous rocks,
(ii) Derived from metamorphosed sedimentary rocks,
(iii) Derived from Territory and Post Teritiary clays
and coral limestones ;
(b) Alluvial Soils
(i) Derived from igneous rocks,
(ii) Derived from metamorphosed sedimentary rocks.
Land Ownership and Use
The present distribution of land is said to be roughly as
Total Area ... ... 74,393 acres
*Crown Land ... ... 12,833 do. 1
Forest Reserve ... 9,777 do. 22,610 acres
Alienated Lands ... 51,782 do.
*Of this, only 7,305 were in blocks of more than 10 acres.
This is an estimated total of 47,000 acres of which 29,000 were
cultivated and another 10,000 capable of cultivation with an
additional 2,000 acres classified as pasture land which is unsuited
Tobago, which enjoyed the reputation of being the bread basket
of Trinidad, is now an importer of food crops. Recently, however,
it has been encouraging to record a renewed interest in food pro-
duction promoted by Government incentives in the form of subsidies
for land preparation and cultivation of the major food crops.
The Export Crops
Cocoa represents the major agricultural enterprise of the island
of Tobago, both for small and large farmers. The crop is established
mainly where rainfall is highest.
Mention should be made here of the only three co-operative
Cocoa Fermentaries in the Territory. Since their inception over
25 years ago they have played a useful role in encouraging agri-
cultural co-operation, and in fostering the improvement of cocoa
The acreage under cocoa is estimated to be 9,000 acres and
current production is some 2,000,000 lbs.
The Coconut Industry
After cocoa, coconuts represent the next major agricultural
crop. Cultivation is done chiefly in the dry and flat leeward section.
Most large estates have recently embarked upon the mechanisation
of copra production, which makes for a quicker turnover and
increased efficiency, as compared with the sun-drying methods
formerly used. The acreage under coconuts is estimated to be 5,000
and current production about 10,000,000 lbs. of copra per annum.
The Banana Industry
The following figures indicate the progress of the industry
since its inception in 1955/56 :-
Year Weight (lbs.) Value $
1956 ... ... ... *415,560 **
1957 .. ... ... 1,120,609 32,969.00
1958 ... ... ... 1,421,115 60,553.00
1959 ... ... 1,317,808 65,890.00
1960 ... ... ... 594,731 23,293.00
1961 ... ... ... 835,560 22,500.00
Purchases from July ** Figure not available
Further development of the Industry is dependent upon the
calling of Banana boats at Tobago. A suitable port for the purpose
might be found in King's Bay. The present system of transhipment
to Trinidad results in too great a wastage of fruit.
The Minor Crops
Up to the present, tobacco has been limited in scope to the
flatter, dryer areas in the south-western section of the island.
The crop had been grown many years ago throughout Tobago,
but the quality requirements then were at a lower level. In 1956,
the West Indian Tobacco Company commenced exploratory
plantings around Scarborough, and this developed into the small
but growing industry found today.
At the end of 1961, there were some 160 farmers cultivating
224 acres of tobacco.
It is aimed to cultivate 500 to 600 acres within the next five
years, and this should provide lucrative occupation for nearly
1,000 farmers and their families. A side effect will be increased
food production ; since there are two years of food crops provided
for in the four-year rotation.
Livestock rearing is found chiefly in the dry flat Leeward
Districts, where beef type mainly, sheep, goats and equines are
reared. Pigs are found widespread throughout the island.
Cattle husbandry, especially with beef types, has made vast
strides since the introduction of pangola grass and the subsidy
in 1958. The appearance of the Jamaica Red Beef breed around the
same period has further enhanced the progress. A sound and
promising beef industry has been established around the coconut
plantations, pangola grass pastures being established in conjunction
with coconuts. It has been possible to increase stocking capacity
per acre. Growth rate per animal has risen, and at the same time,
it is claimed that coconut yields have improved owing to the
improved cultivation in association with the establishment of the
grass and the residual effects of fertilisers.
The Trinidad Cacao Planters' Association and the Coconut
Growers' Association play an important part in the marketing
of their respective industries.
The Government Marketing Board operates in Tobago.
Government Aids to Agriculture
The Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce is
responsible for the administration of Government Agricultural
The highlights of Government's Development Programme in
Agriculture which commenced in 1958, include :-
(1) The Land Use Subsidy Scheme commenced in 1955, and
continued in the 1958-1962 Five-Year Development
Programme as the Hillside Conservation Scheme, has
resulted in a growing awareness of the necessity for
Soil and Water Conservation, and the restoration of
soil fertility. Since 1955, 858 acres of land on small
and large holdings distributed throughout Tobago,
have benefited from anti-erosion measures of one kind
(2) Over the period 1958 to 1961, 421 acres of pangola grass
and 26 acres of soiling grasses have been established on
private farms. Pastures are being fenced and watered,
and rotational grazing practised.
(3) In late 1961, food crop subsidies aimed at increasing food
production were initiated. By year end, in spite of the
limitation of inadequate field staff, 605 farmers had
benefited from financial assistance on 490 acres of land.
(4) The major line of progress at the Government Stock
Farm during the last five years has been the introduction
of the nucleus stock of the Territory's Jamaica Red
Beef herd, 16 heifers being purchased from Jamaica in
1959. Pangola grass was established at the same time,
and up to the end of 1961, the herd comprised a total
of 71 animals (37 cows) run in pangola grass paddocks.
It is planned to build up this herd to over 100 breeding
cows, for supplying high class stock to the public.
(5) Pig and poultry rearing have been intensified over the
past five years by more than 100 per cent., so as to
meet the large public demand for piglets and chicks.
At the end of 1961, there were some 45 breeding sows
of the Large White (Yorkshire), Large Black and
Berkshire breeds. The poultry comprised 511 heads
Rhode Island Reds, 372 heads White Rocks and 134
heads white Leghorns, besides 37 ducks, geese and
The Cocoa Subsidy Scheme which has been operating since
1948 was responsible for the distribution of some 750,000 plants
in the past five (5) years whilst some 30,000 economic plants
including citrus, mangoes and avocadoes were raised and sold from
the Botanic Gardens operated by the Ministry of Agriculture.
EDUCATION IN TRINIDAD AND
THE Public Education System of Trinidad and Tobago had its
beginning in 1834 after emancipation. Prior to that, exigencies of
slavery restricted education largely to the free persons.
After 1834, schools were established by the Church Missionary
Society (Anglican) in the San Fernando district, Wesleyan Methodists
in Port-of-Spain, Couva, San Fernando and parts of Tobago, the
Moravians in Tobago, the Baptists after 1843 in Port-of-Spain,
and the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches in Trinidad, and
the Anglicans in Tobago. The Mico Charity also opened several
schools during and after 1837.
By 1842 however, the funds for the support of these schools-
hitherto supplied by the British Government and public support-
was substantially withdrawn and the Trinidad Government was
left searching for a general scheme of education by which to
accommodate all the religions including the Moslems and Hindus.
In 1851 Harris' Ward Scheme was introduced in the hope of
creating a unified society out of the existing multi-racial and
multi-lingual (largely French and Spanish) society. The church
bodies gave this little encouragement because it was more secular
than their system ; instruction in a strange tongue proved largely
futile, and on the recommendation of the Keenan Commission of
1869, Harris' system was abandoned in 1870. In its place was
substituted a system of church schools and state schools and the
English system of payment by results ". In 1875 school fees were
introduced by ordinance. By this time also the Canadian Mission
(Presbyterian) had entered the field largely on behalf of East
In Tobago the legislative assembly favoured the Anglicans by
more liberal grants but were never enthusiastic about education at
State expense. Still, through school fees and subscriptions from
missionary societies, the schools continued to increase in number
throughout the century.
Secondary education during the first quarter of the nineteenth
century in Trinidad was largely in private hands. During the
1830's and 1840's Sisters of the Order of St. Joseph of Cluny
conducted a church school for girls-" young ladies as they were
called-and the Roman Catholic Authorities conducted a grammar
school, St. George's College, for boys. These, however, catered
only for the upper classes. In 1863 St. Mary's College was
begun, and the Government established Queen's Collegiate school
(now Queen's Royal College) in 1858. However, only very slowly
and towards the end of the century did these schools cater for any
sector of the community but the well to do.
In the twentieth century the changes in primary education
were changes rather designed at improving the system than at
developing a radically new system. Significant departures were
recorded in the introduction of the West Indian Reader, Geography,
Arithmetic and History-all text books designed to stimulate
awareness of and to bear some relationship to environment.
However, the main lines of development were concerned with
improving the condition of work and security of job-tenure of the
teachers, with improving the buildings and equipment, and with
expanding facilities for free education to cope with a rapidly
The large residential Mausica Teachers' College typifies the
concern for higher standards.
But the twentieth century had posed certain challenges to the
society. The discovery of oil heralded a more technical pattern of
development and the change in imperial attitudes suggested that
Independence was inevitable and must be prepared for.
The pace of provision for secondary schooling was quickened
and the populace as a whole participated in this wider provision.
Several Private schools and denominational schools were opened,
providing by 1961 some 20,000 places. Government Exhibitions
to secondary schools were increased from the 4 in 1910 to the 500
or so in 1960.
In the realm of higher education Trinidad and Tobago had no
local facilities. The Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture began
soon after World War I, but its Agricultural diplomas were not of
degree level. Scholarships tenable abroad were provided. It was
only in very recent years that the building of the Technical Institute
which represents the only serious attempt to come to grips with the
technical and technological needs of the area-and the Engineering
and Agricultural faculties of the University of the West Indies in
Trinidad brought University facilities within the territory. Simul-
taneously the number of Scholarships abroad has been increased
and they have been given for study in a wide range of specified
The elements of conservatism in the nineteenth and early
twentieth century which had hesitated or refused to countenance
rapid educational (and scientific) development largely because of
its political and religious implications, had eventually to give
way to precisely that sort of political and social development
which found educational growth to be a necessary concomitant.
It was unfortunate that it took 120 years for this revolutionary
change to take place and to realise the promise of emancipation-
GOVERNMENT provides the large bulk of the health services available
in Trinidad and Tobago.
Government Specialist Medical Officers provide the majority
of the medical practitioners of consultant status. This does not,
however, mean that the services of these officers are available only
to patients in Government hospitals, as Government Specialists are
permitted consulting practice outside of hospital. There has been
considerable expansion of Government Specialist services in recent
years. The number of specialties covered has been increased, e.g.,
neurosurgery, dermatology, geriatrics. The number of specialists
in fields previously covered has also been increased, e.g., obstetrics
The technical services for which the Minister and Ministry of
Health are responsible are headed by a Chief Technical Officer.
This post still retains the old designation "Director of Medical
Services" but is to be changed to "Chief Medical Officer". The two
posts of deputy responsible for the curative and preventive services
respectively will then become Principal Medical Officer (Curative)
and Principal Medical Officer (Preventive). While it is convenient
to classify the Government Health Services under two heads-
Preventive and Curative, these are but two sides of the same coin
and must not be regarded as separate entities. The achievement
of a balanced integration between public health and curative
medicine is the ultimate goal towards which our health service is
aiming. The purpose of a health service must be a concerted effort
towards achieving the best possible health conditions. The first
line of defence against illness is Preventive Medicine which includes
health education, public health, sanitation, schools medical service
and the preventive clinics. Next come the peripheral health
services which include treatment at home, district clinics and
treatment centres. Then hospital services with casualty depart-
ments, out-patients' clinics and in-patients' services which extend
from the rudimentary services provided at district hospitals to the
highly specialised services available at the larger general and special
hospitals with all the accompanying ancillary diagnostic and
therapy departments. Then post-hospitalization services during
convalescence and rehabilitation which include medico-social
services. Finally the custodial and longstay institutions which
include those for the aged, poor, and chronically incapacitated,
(House of Refuge), those for the physically handicapped (Princess
Elizabeth Home for Crippled Children), those for the mentally
handicapped (Lady Hochoy Home) and various orphanages.
A Health Education Unit provides for a Central Office under
the administration of a Chief Health Education Officer and three
Divisional Offices, one each in North Trinidad, South Trinidad,
and Tobago, each to be headed by a Health Educational Officer.
In April, 1961, a full-time Health Education Officer took
up appointment in Tobago for the first time.
Within recent years there has been improvement in all sections
of the Public Health Services of the Territory. The improvement
has been due mainly to increase of staff and increase in Financial
provision. More Public Health Medical Officers have been ap-
pointed, there has been expansion in District Nursing Services,
Nutrition Division, Environmental Sanitation, Hookworm Control,
and new Health Offices both rural and urban have been established.
The technical officers of the Public Health Services now include
County Medical Officers, Assistant Medical Officers of Health,
Medical Officers-Schools and Clinics, Port Health Officers, County
Health Visitors, District Health Visitors, District Nurses and
Public Health Inspectors of various grades.
MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH
Maternal and Child Health work has shown marked improvement
especially in the pre-natal care of mothers. This branch of work
has progressed steadily as is shown in the increased number of
patients who attend at the Ante-natal clinics, and in the reduction
of Infant and Maternal death rates. More and more expectant
mothers are becoming aware of the advantage to be derived, and
are availing themselves of the services offered by Government.
Considerable extension of the scope of the Nutrition Division
is at present in progress in connection with an expanded Nutrition
Programme being undertaken with the assistance of WHO, FAO
and UNICEF. WHO has provided a Nutrition Adviser, FAO an
adviser in Nutrition Education, and UNICEF is providing equipment
Under the general supervision of the Ministry's Medical
Officers of Health, District Public Health Inspectors are responsible
for the inspection of dwellings, factories and business sites.
Environmental sanitation in this Territory is mainly concerned
with the prevention of intestinal and enteric diseases such as typhoid
and gastro-enteritis, and the eradication of hookworm infestation
which was until recently a very serious problem among the labouring
CARIBBEAN MEDICAL CENTRE
The Caribbean Medical Centre is the headquarters of the
Venereal Diseases and Yaws Division, but also houses the Chest
Clinic and the Health Education Department and provides a
lecture class room for courses for Public Health Inspectors and
District Health Nurses as well as for other projects.
INSECT CONTROL DIVISION
This Division of the Health Services, originally the Malaria
Division concerned mainly with malaria control, extended its
activities first to include aedes aegypti control, and more recently
the wider field of general insect control. With successful
completion of the eradication phases of the WHO/UNICEF assisted
malaria and aedes aegypti programmes, the activities in these two
connections are confined to surveillance. Considerable reduction in
the establishment has been possible, redundant staff being diverted
to other activities.
The Dental Division
The Ministry of Health maintains a Dental Services Division
with a Senior Dental Surgeon in charge. The staff comprises 4 full-
time and 21 part-time Dental Officers.
Accommodation for thoracic cases is provided at Caura Chesa
Hospital, Masson Hospital and the T.B. Ward at the San Fernando,
CAURA CHEST HOSPITAL
The extension of this hospital to provide a total of 340 beds
is nearing completion. This will, in due course, accommodate the,
patients at present at the Masson Hospital. Modem treatment
both surgical and medical, for Pulmonary Tuberculosis and othei
chest diseases is provided at this Institution. A new Occupational
Therapy unit has just been completed.
Out-patient treatment is provided at the Caribbean Medical
Centre in Port-of-Spain and at the Chest Clinic at San Fernando,
The St. Ann's Hospital at present accommodates 1,600 patients.
A new central block of 160 beds has just been completed by the
conversion and modernisation of an existing building; this has
provided welcome relief to the accommodation problem at this
Facilities for the segregation and treatment of leprosy cases are
provided at Chacachacare, an island situated off the north-western
peninsula of Trinidad. There has been a considerable decline in
the incidence of leprosy, and with modern treatment early cures
are being effected and arrested cases are regularly discharged from
The development of medico-social services has contributed
largely to the effectiveness of medical care for the community as a
whole, and goes a long way to prevent relapses by the supervision
and advice given to patients after they are discharged from
hospital. The development ofrehabilitationis at present engaging the
attention of a voluntary committee with the support of Government.
There has been considerable expansion of the Pathological
Laboratory Services in all branches provided by Government. This
expansion has been in scope as well as in volume. The Pathology
Division includes laboratories at the following institutions-
Port-of-Spain General Hospital, San Fernando General Hospital,
Tobago Hospital, Sangre Grande Hospital, Caura Sanatorium and
the Caribbean Medical Centre.
ALL too often, in telling the story of housing in any country, or in
any area of a country, or even in a town or village, there is a tendency
to emphasize only the total number or total value of houses which
have been built. While such figures are of some general interest,
they are usually quickly forgotten by those who have not bene-
fited directly, and those who do benefit are so satisfied that they
do not stop to think of those who are still not satisfactorily housed.
Seldom does anyone stop to consider what new housing really
means. Does it only mean that six new houses have been built
in a certain village in the past three years, and six families are
better off than before ? Does it mean that because three or four
thousand new houses have been built throughout Trinidad and
Tobago in the past year or two, and that there are plans to build
a few more thousand each year, the housing problem is being
solved ? The answers to these questions go far beyond the scope
of this present article. Suffice it to say, that the achievement
to date has been notable, the forward planning is sound ; housing
is being kept foremost in the minds of those who must find the
solution to this complex problem.
But housing means more than simply the kind of figures which
are so often quoted. Housing means direct capital investment in
land, materials and manpower. It also means investment in
services associated with housing, such as that in roads, sewers,
drains, water pipes, schools, playgrounds and park areas, all
amenities which do so much towards converting a house into a
home. It also means investment indirectly in a host of related
trades and industries. At present many of the building materials
and fixtures which go into the construction of our houses, including
all of the paint which gives them their finished beauty, are produced
here in Trinidad. Every effort is being made to expand the number
and quantity, as well as quality, of these locally manufactured
goods. In addition, many items which go into the finished house-
by this time, a home-are produced locally, for example, much of
the furniture and textiles, and even such mundane items as soap.
Have you ever stopped to think how much need there would be
for furniture-or perhaps even for soap !-if there were no homes ?
New residential construction, including that sponsored by
government as well as by private. interests, has accounted for
about 3 per cent. of the gross national income in recent years, and
the current and estimated future rate is substantially higher.
Investment associated' with housing has accounted for another
2 per cent., giving a total of about 5. per cent. This percentage
represents many millions of dollars. Where did these dollars go
in producing the total number of houses which stand as a result
of their expenditure ?
The total direct employment created by construction of one
dwelling is estimated to equal five men, working eight hours a day,
five days a week, for six months. These five men would be em-
ployed as follows : two men would work at construction on the
site, two would have factory jobs producing construction materials
and the remaining one man would be busy laying services, and
preparing and improving the land. In any recent year, therefore,
there have been at least fifteen hundred persons employed directly
in the house building industry.
One has only to look at the average house while it is under
construction to appreciate the wide range of materials which go
into the structure-the production of these materials, cement,
clay tile blocks, doors, windows, and so on, represents more employ-
ment, more wages for more people. Add to this list the employ-
ment in the consumer product industries, and one realizes the
great impact which housing has throughout the whole economy.
Through the medium of the press and radio, you have been
kept informed of the progress of home-building throughout Trinidad
and Tobago. In the days ahead, it is certain that there will be in-
creasing emphasis on the production of new homes for home-owners,
for the improvement of homes already owned but which require
some renovation or extension to increase their useful life, and for
the erection, both by government and private interest, of homes
for rent to those who are not yet able to embark upon home-owner-
ship. As you read or listen to the reports of the housing programme,
you will realise the far-reaching effects, and come to think of
housing as not only so many new houses for so many fortunate
families, but as a vital, dynamic component of the economic well-
being of an Independent Trinidad and Tobago.
IAxMERED by necessity, the science of increased production has
wedged itself into the life of Trinidad and Tobago, under the title
"Industrial Development ".
Agriculture, long the backbone of this country's economy,
was forced by declining markets for its main crop, cocoa, to assume,
a role of lesser importance early in the century.
Disenchanted farmers variously sought the relief of commercial
activity in built up areas ; a few turned to grapefruit ; while,
others sank into dejection at their new and lower financial status.
But the problem was still none too serious for a colony. Wages.
were low, standards of living were at a complacently similar level
and the population problem not serious.
But with the burgeoning oil industry on the scene and the,
glamour of industrial production clearly demonstrated, more and
more workers sought that type of employment, while as many
wandered from the land and agriculture.
This drift from the land continues up to today. Perhaps this
alone would have little affected a dormant colony, but other factors
were changing in the interim. The aim for higher standards of
living achieved prominence with trade unions and political activities
on the up and up.
As the fifties approached, it became more apparent to Govern-
ment that industrial development could not remain a haphazard
effort, here today, gone tomorrow, pushed by the farsighted few.
The new effort took the form of Pioneer Industry legislation
introduced in 1950. Largely impelled by this, industrialization
has been steaming ahead, not as a panacea where unemployment
is concerned but as the helpmate to agriculture which, happily,
is at last getting the attention it deserves in solving this problem,
and in boosting exports as only manufactured items can.
Reviewing the progress of industrial development, the Indus-
trial Development Corporation stated in August that at the 1st of
May, 1962, a total of 89 pioneer factories were actually established
and in operation, representing an investment of $77.1 million and
direct employment of some 4,000 persons in Trinidad and Tobago.
In addition to factories actually working, there are a further
34 under construction or being planned, representing $128.1 million
capital investment and 2,600 persons in employment.
This is a total of 122 present and immediately prospective
pioneer factories, representing investment of $200 million and
employment of 7,231, out of which 66 factories with employment
of 4,007 and investment of $159 million, were assisted since the
establishment of the corporation three years ago.
Government has created incentives to assist industries in
several forms :-
Income tax holidays of 5 years ;
Duty free import of plant, equipment and material ;
Repatriation of capital dividends ;
Industrial Estates on reasonable rental terms ;
Depreciation allowances on plant and equipment and all
possible assistance from the Industrial Development
But alas, establishing rows of new factories does not mark the
end to the problem. One big difficulty is the restricted nature of
the domestic market. This in itself has several built-in problems.
For instance, almost without exception, products turned out locally
are also produced in countries that have the benefits of large home
markets. As a result, factories in these lands can reap the benefits
of mass production.
The plants are able to install costly equipment, and by making
very large quantities of items, sell them at low cost, meet wages
and still net comfortable profits.
In such a situation, the slogan of Discipline, Production and
Tolerance is particularly sound, since employees must exert dis-
cipline in producing more, and show wage tolerance-relating pay-
packets to production, and not to a percentage drawn from a hat.
But these are the problems of existing industry. An obstacle
it shares with non-existent industry seeking to be born, is that of
obtaining capital. Foreign concerns generally bring their own
supply when setting up factories locally. For the local manu-
facturer or would-be industrialist, the task is more formidable.
But again, all is not lost. Government's efforts in whipping
up a money market are making the population aware of invest-
ment avenues. The investment club idea is moving towards a
*crescendo. All of which is important in that capital of individuals
is being made to work. But most important of all, is the con-
fidence in investment which these doings instil.
Even now, the mood and stage are being set for mobilisation
-of private funds into public companies, an eventuality that no one
doubts, since no independent country can be regarded as having a
developed economy without maximum use of all local investment,
-opportunities to invest-ultimately, a stock exchange-and habits
These are the final goals. These are the complex problems
that must be overcome. But the day cannot be won alone. We
must act as one. Together we aspire, together we achieve. If this
is observed, there will be no doubt that the consumer will buy more
locally made products, once these are up to standards which can
-compete with the imported products, and that merchants will do
their best to help sell these locally manufactured goods and so
help our nation's prosperity forward.
In the foregoing, attention has not been focused on any one
industry, but has, instead, been directed to the several factors
which have contributed to, and the measures adopted to further
the progressive development of industrialisation in the Territory.
However, no discussion of Industry in Trinidad and Tobago is
complete without special reference to OIL-the vital force in the
industrial and general economic development of the country.
Therefore, to this important industry is devoted the sub-section
which follows :-
THE first oil well in Trinidad was drilled near the Pitch Lake in
1857-even before drilling got under way in the United States. Oil
in commercial quantities, however, was not discovered until the
early years of this century, and this richest of earth's treasure has
been the mainstay of the country's economy ever since.
Trinidad's oil activities make it a microcosm of the industry
as a whole. Every phase of oil operations takes place in some
800 square miles of South Trinidad-exploring, drilling on land and
sea, producing, refining, transporting, scientific research and
marketing. Perhaps nowhere else in the world are all these
activities carried on within so small a compass.
The crude oil produced amounts to only one-half of one per
-cent. of the world's production, but it plays a vital part in the
national fabric of Trinidad and Tobago, making it the richest island
in the Caribbean in terms of annual per capital income.
The two major oil refineries are situated at Point Fortin and at
Pointe-a-Pierre. The refinery at Pointe-a-Pierre is one of the ten
or twelve largest in the world. It has a "throughput" (to use the
oilman's jargon) of 8J million Imperial gallons of crude oil per day.
Locally-produced oil is refined here, and oil is also imported from
nearby Venezuela and Colombia, as well as from countries as far
-distant as Sumatra and Saudi Arabia, to keep the refinery supplied
with the oil it needs.
One-third of Government's revenue and the greater part of the
country's exports are derived from oil. Its importance to the
economy is paramount.
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