Robinson Crusoe. Fairy tales. Tom Brown's school days


Material Information

Robinson Crusoe. Fairy tales. Tom Brown's school days
Uniform Title:
Kinder- und Hausmärchen
Fairy tales
Tom Brown's school days
Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Grimm's fairy tales
Physical Description:
80, 62+, 64 p. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Watson, John Dawson, 1832-1892
Grimm, Jacob, 1785-1863
Grimm, Wilhelm, 1786-1859
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Hughes, Thomas, 1822-1896
Dalziel Brothers
R. Clay, Sons and Taylor
Place of Publication:
R. Clay, Sons, and Taylor
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Fairy tales   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1876   ( rbgenr )
School stories -- 1876   ( rbgenr )
Boys, Stories for -- 1876   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1876
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
School stories   ( rbgenr )
Boys, Stories for   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London


General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
R. Clay, Sons, and Taylor operated between 1869 and 1885. Cf. Todd, W.B. Directory of printers and others in allied trades, London ..., 1800-1840.
General Note:
Some ill. by J.D. Watson, engraved by Dalziel.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
University of Florida library's copy imperfect: all after p. 62 of second title through p. 2 of third title missing.
General Note:
Caption titles: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe and Grimm'sfairy tales. The first leaf of the third title is missing.
General Note:
Printed in three columns.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 029060261
oclc - 30019016
System ID:

Full Text

The Baldwin Library
i r --- f nive"rsit


c, 4r~

be itfe anb Rbventures of


I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of of life which all other people envied; that kings have of their way of living; that the middle station of life
a good family, though not of that .*:',irt |r- tr-. ui- lv lal-nl,-i] trh r ;u'r,-bl .:i:. sequence f being was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of
SIfatli being a foreigner of Bremen, who .- -'I.; 1 ,.: I ra t.,: r.:.i ei-j,_n u.; l .a :hr-. tl:y. had been placed enjoyments; that peace and plentywere the handmaids
ut Hull. he got a good esli t- 1, u-.:.: .:1J;:b .j,.l i t,;- uni.l-ll- .:. te, t--:..-::tr ,m., between the mean of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,
leaving off his trade, lived 'ft,.:e ri.i: at l.,k ',: ... and the, gr.-t: ~t, thi -:-. r-i Lai ave his testimony quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and
whence he had married my ,,.lb.-, ..r:, r!,,:.. o to this, as I.: it r.nir. .:.f tfir... -,, itien he prayed to all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
were named Robinson, a vr, ;,...:.. t:.' ,i .r i t t have .:;hi.-ir p:.-.:r-, o.:. r;chi middle station of life: that this way men went silently
country, and from whom 1' -i: c l ".i.. i He Lo1.. n.'- w :,Li.:r-, it. jan I should always-find, and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in that the calamlti.- ...f Iife nr: i.. h .: a. ii: th. upi." r of it,.not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
England, we are now called,--nay, we or of the head, not sold to a life of
call ourselves, and write our name, slavery for daily bread, or harassed
Crusoe; and so my companions always with p. r[.. i:.i circumstances, which
called me. I rob the so, l :., peace, and the body of
I had two elder brothers, one of i t ml', i- rest; nor enraged with the passion of
whom was lieutenant-colonel to an .envy, or the secret burning lust of
English regiment on foot i_ Fl1,.i, -r, ambition for great things; bti, in easy
formerly commanded by tIe fain.,- circumstances, sliding gently through
Colonel Lockhart, and wa. kdie at.. the world, and sensibly tasting the
the battle near Dunkirk against the j sweets of living, without the bitter;
j.n_, ,rd' What became 'of my feeling that they are happy, and learn-
second brother I neyer knew, any ing by every day's experience to know
more than my father or mother knew it more sensibly.
what became of me. .-. \After this, he pressed me earnestly
Being the .third 'son- of the family, and in the most affectionate manner,
and not bFed to any trade, my head --not to play the young man, nor to
began to be filled very early with precipitate myself into miseries which
rambling thoughts: my father, who nature, and the station of life I was
was very ancient, had given m-e a -m born in, seemed to have provided
competent share of learning, as far as against; that I was under no necessity
house-education and a country free- --- of .,-.1i ui my br. ad; that he would
school generally go, and designed me do w, II :.r me, andl endeavour to enter
for the law; but i would be satisfied me t-rly into lb. station of lifewhich
with nothing but going to sea; and my -he had jus been recommending to me;
inclination to this led me so strongly and that if I was not very easy and
against the will, na.yv. tte, commands ItIe i. happy in the world, it must be my
of my father, and against all the en- mere fate or fault that must hinder it;
treaties and persuasions of my mother and that he should have nothing to
and other friends, that there seemed answer for, having thus discharged his
to be something fatal in that propen- duty in warning me, against measures
sity of nature, tending directly to the which he knew would be to my hurt;
life of misery which was to befall me. in a word, that as he would do very
Mny father, a wise and grave man, airr hfu 6 f. r ms. if I would stay and
gave me serious and excellent counsel s. tle at h:, me as be directed, so he
against what he foresaw was my de- would not have so much hand in my
sign. He called me one morning into misfortunes, as to give me any en-
his chamber, where he was confined co uragement to go away; and to close
by the gout, and expostulated very all, he told me I had my elder brother
warmly. with me upon this subject: for an example, to whom he had used
he asked me what reasons, more than the same earnest p,:r' tf.:, keep
a mere wandering inclination, I had him from going into the L.:,W Country
for leaving my father's house and "" wars, but could not prevail, his young
my native country, where I might be desires prompting him to run into the
well introduced, and had a prospect of .' army,where he was killed; and though
raising my fortune by application and he said he would not cease to pray'for
industry, with a life of ease and me, yet he would venture to say to
pleasure. 'He told me it was men of me, that if I did take this foolish
desperate fortunes on one hand, or of t step God would not. bless me, and I
aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, should have leisure hereafter to reflect
who went abroad upon adventures, to upon having neglected his counsel,
rise by enterprise, and make them- -when there might be none to assist
selves famous in undertakings of a in my recovery.
nature out of the common road; and ORUSOE'S FATHER ENTREATS HIM TO-STAY AT IOIE. I observed in this last part of his
these things were all either too far discourse, which was truly prophetic,
above me, or too far below me; that though I suppose my father did not
mine was the middle state, or what might be called the and lower part of mankind; but that the middle station know it to be so bhm if: I say, I observed the
.upper station of low life, which he had found, by long had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so tears run down his face wry plentifully, especially
experience, was the best state in the world, the most many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of man- when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries kind nay, they were not subjected to so many distem- when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and nocne
and hardships, tb ., la .., r L .1 t r. a: of the mechanic pers, and uneasiness, either of body 'or mind, as those to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
part of mn ,lkiuJ, and not embarrassed with the pride, were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances discourse,; and told me his heart was so full he could say
...i. a~nablt;.:n, and envy of the upper part of man- on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, no more to me.
k ;nd. H. told me, I might judge of the happiness of and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, in-
this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state distemper upon themselves by the natural consequences deed, who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to


think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father's desire. But alas! a few days
wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my
father's further importunities, in a few weeks after,
I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did
not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolu-
tion prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and
told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon
seeing the world, that I should never settle to anything
with resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force me to
go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which
was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from
my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and
if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like
it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a
double diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told
me she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my
father upon any such subject; that he knew too well
what was my interest to give his consent to anything
so m.:h for my hurt; and that she wondered how I
col:'Id tli;oli of any such thing after the discourse I
bal hadI ,lti nmy father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no
help for me; but I might depend I should never have
their consent to it; that for her.part, she would not
have so much hand in my destruction; and I should
nei,:r i. v 6 It r sa.:y tihat my mother was willing when
my fa.lli,-r wu U n:'t
l'lib'),uh mn' mnll.-r refused to move it to my father,
yet I hr!,rIl att',ri -:.'i. that she reported all the dis-
course to him, and that my father, after showing a great
concern at it, said to herewith a sigh: That boy might
be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes
r.brarn l, 1.. will 1., tli:, niu,s t r;s.,'.1.1.:. r: that ever
was b-r I .1.aD '; ;'. n- o r .:,D sn. tl it."
It 'w..i t 0 til aOll l t a ye'lir at,-r Ih; .. til t I brkb.
~ l' ic, trihoui in thi,:e mn an tiric. I :itltiir:i o .L..tin atly
,.l' lu nil I'.:.-,.',._" i| ,l ,.tiL irg t'. I.u .ou: au..l lr.:-
,.Iu.:rVl7 i:\['..[ iil, I,:.l ill. iI W tII l~l Lbelr ,i u n.:,lth,:r -il...i .
Ibh ir Lb-inig .:i .ti .': ly i i.I rr.,, g.,.i ,-r l~, ih.:V
ini : I \' inl:Iha ti.u. iii.:- 1 :.. B ul' I..:t
lv nl ilt l] I.f;re I cLfe t ..u ii il;c, "'nir'l v.tbI-'r- aIna
t..*irp;:.O-. ,':. m.aikig i u e, Li.r rur i .iL t i L tt me; but, I
-al. ri'her.. -, enl :u .:, n ,v I .i:, Il[..mi..,i I'eing about
t,', -(ll t,' Lul un in Inl 1,l. .:r'si li[' p, nul p*'t*.' *l' ;iL
ri,.:' t, g ".: i l ii u t b ti .. .m m ,. .,liir.r- i'.ut .:t
e ug a nriug m -rj, I.,it i t i i]s ull .:o..t ni. D.l -l0 t:for lit;
pr i'u ., I .l o e .tlt.:. i-.. l h.:r t i-h : :, n 'tlt.r tI :, m or'. ,
u.IJ r ,: Iriii.ll i u at t Lb i..:'l .:i.1 .: iI. -: Lut 1, t-,ic-ri thl-j
t beiar ..t it a i tb.:.y uJ,_;,lit, r, .Ih, j k;D i;.". i_.l.:-:_-
iob ,"r 1j tb,.fi'l '.', r-:,jt .ry :.:,:, -r-r" "l.:, *t .-f cir-
cumtnuees or conqueren'es, and in an ill hour, God
oi.:-sr .-or t !: lit er !.:F.t.:nli.-r, l.751, I went on board
a Ehip L.:,.oad f..r' L:-.ol. Ir. Never any young hdven-
tlrr' rnii,:.rl.iau. I Lb.:iree, began sooner, or con-
tiieiil I..2'e.r, .thra ii.0. The ship was no sooner out
of ib. Hjrub-.r, tb au ii,.: "'; -.d began to blow and the
6&ai to ri', Q ai manner; and, as I had
uiiir L|:-n t l: I l,-fr. .r I was most inexpressibly sick
in boiy. I,.'i.l t,:' ,,ri,:l u i ned. I.began now seriously
to I.. 11. l, .l u ..:in vll I h. I .lone, and how justly I'was
o,:,virtakeli, L,.7 the il:nL.. :-at of Heaven for my wicked
!, rwii nyv trial r'i lrie,. ', .l a -l,..1:,lug n.m duty.
All tbh. c :d :i:,,--i .:f~ ,.7 parcr.nt my f llier c tears
ae.l my "m,:.tlr'e -utrit.'t.: *, came now fresh into my
n',iui. ,rn.J mu,'y .~iili:,: -, which was not yet come to
til.- r ,f it.ri.ui r.u .: I v, .i,.-L ib has since, reproached
me rith the i. L.ut,.mpt :.f I.' -ice, and the breach of my
JLat 7 t:, G od au..l miy f'ii Ii, r
.tll ti.1 ib!.:. t Le lI:nria increased, andthe sea went
;rl'y ,igl, tb.:.i i no:ltinr like what I have seen it
ibito" tiui si;n.:'. ; n`., D..r i-hat I saw a few days after;,
L.u ii ri ii ... i,.:'. Ii if.:.:; me then, who was but a
.',unu s~ail:.c, unar LIl 1 La:r.:,r known anything of the
,i tr t;. I exp...:t,. 'il ".r-' -ave would have swallowed
us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea,
we should never rise more: in this agony of mind, I
made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got
once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
.;ill:- I !;r.. d: that I would take his advice, and never
r'iu my-:-.lf i r.j such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of b;; .-i'.-r- l,,..,- loutt
the middle station of life, how -- yi, I,.- .:inI.-:, I.: lai he
had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to
t"rinp.:si: '. :, si, or troubles on shore; and I resolved
t!,il I ri-,ul.l, !;Il a true repenting prodigal, go home to
my t. ilt.r.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm lasted, and indeed some time after;
but the next day -the wind was abated, and the sea

calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however, more ships,, being -driven, tli.:ir iu.:b:-., n- ,.
I was very grave all that day, being also a little sea- run out of the Roa.i] t-: .: i ar ail d,.Jrntur. ,, :i.n that
sick still; but towards night the weather clearedup, not with a mast it .ingj. T'It Lbg.t -br 'p iar 'i tb.e
the wind was quite over, and a charming fine even- best, as not so much labourin- i. th-be ca. b.,t t .r ...r
ing followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and three of them drove, and cr.-m.. !. l:,:- by u, r.uan;ir
rose so the next'morning; and having little or no wind, a- ay n'I~ only their spritsail *:,,t ,it:.:'it- Ib-. :.ui
and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, T., i', d. evening the mate and boatswain begged the
as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw. master of our ship to let them cut a- v- I te- i.:.r,- I s r,
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more which he was very unwilling to do; b.i t t lb: be i. u
sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship Would
the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, founder, he consented; and when they had cut away
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook
after. And now, lest my good resolutions should the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away
continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, also, and make a clear deck.
comes to me: Well Bob," says he, clapping me upon And- one must judge what a condition I must be in
the shoulder, "how do you do after it? I .rri ut y.:.u at ali th;b. who was but a young sailor, and who had
were frighted, wer'n't you, last night, when it ble, buLt L'b --o n in e..h a fright before at but a little. But if I
a capful of wind? "-"A capful d' ." ;. i I: n: e .:: Ir.: s at this di- ra,.-: ti- 1 ti Il.:. u; t I had about
"'twas a terrible storm."-"A storm, you I:.,'i y.:.," ae at tiattime, Iwaz in t.-tr...!.- ru..r.. b.. u .:. of mind
replies he; "do you call that a storm? why, it was upon account of my former c.. -;. I u.:., and the having
nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, returned from them to the i- :lti, ,.:.-o I had wickedly
and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that.; taken at first, than I was at death itself! and these,
but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us ad.].:.1 t... IL.- i-rror of the storm, put me into such a
make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye c..:o.hri,:,, th.1t I can :y- no r '.. i ,.i .-. ri.i- ,t. Iut t,.-
see what charming weather 'tis now ?" To make short ...i :it not come y-r : trh- i.:,rm ..:'utULi.i r'l; :,i. L,
this sad part of my story, we went the way of all tory, trl, the seameu Iht:mi-:!'r.-? :;.:ki,..'..]i..' they
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk had never seen a worEn:. t L.i (. J :, :..I Bi.p, .at. she
with it; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned 'i'.' '1-i l:p 1:1.:u.i:.l .,.il i..T:.J IL-i e: :-.., thilt be
all my repentance, all my reflections on my past conduct, i- t.-u i i ..:rr u. r.- aj. t u i:,i ....u t h- -:ild founder.
all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea .1i rj- y. :,i:. 'ut '.- il ,:,_ i.:-:..:. I i 1,i;ll i.:t kiu:'r7
was returned to .tas m.:-:,lr.::: -:f surface and settled i :r -hl a,..,ur bt.y ,. .. ..* t! i ii l.... .1:.l However,
calmness by the l' iu-ni i-t :.i t i.,t storm, so the hurry the storm was so violent, that I saw, n bat is not often
of my thoughts being over, my a. ,i] r-ippr. rh'i-Lu .:u' ..l. I-. ru i:t ri tb- L ii. 'in, oa- some others more
of being swallowed up by the se b, riin ti.:1 r:.i. :u. al i I.,:- Ilb:iu thr. r-';, t I libr pr ryers, and expecting
the current of my former desi,:- r'-t'iru'.l, I i'.ly ,.-.:r. y l...l-Lt ir.-i- t., i!aip r-.:.,l." go to the bottom.
forgot the vows and promises that I made inmy distress: li InL- t ,.i.Jl.- :.f th.. u i h!, ... i .iider all the rest of,
I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and,the our dist, r..i-. Ai r. II t tl bl I..:. .i.Un t','.
seriousthoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return see, criei .:..l v'I.. ha.1 spr..u_- .1- le.:i: a,. .:I.I i..-r d l.:rei.
again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roiised was f.:,ur f..,-t in the l.:.l. '[Lr, .l 1 U1: r'-..
myself from them as it were from a distemper, and callecE ti.:. pump. At that word, my heart. as I
applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered thought, died within me '-. i i f. II t.l:r'.r.1 .-i apon
the return of those fits-for so I called them; and I the side of my bed where I -.. iat: tL- ...i.,;u. Huow-
had in five or six days got as complete a victory.over ever, the men roused me, s I t:ld ni-, I.iat I, t!i.r was
conscience as any young fellow that resolved not to be able to do;r, i..efore, v-a; a "*c.l. :0.1- bl p[rup as
troubled with it could desire. But I was to have nri.:ilhbr: .;t '.1;.. I ilirrt. J ip, ar.l -r,, :10 tI!., piu.,.
another trial for it still; and Providence, as !ra .. i. aulr. ..':, :. -,.:ry h't Ly. l.- ti: I-. ..I,:..U, t.
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely :,'-t.r -..I -'.me 'it r:,-, .:r, l T .:. i,: t i.!.. ride
without excuse; for if I would not take this for a .:"t bthe ,61-:i. .r .- :l.i,-1i :iL.. -od ru, at-.;, t:.. the
deliverance, the next'was to be such a one s+ the worst -';.', .cr.J -r.:,,!.I,:.:.ri.- a.-, .:.ll.:.-t.) tl.. re uu i ;
and most hardened wretch .minjuj ui ,:ul ,:.:-.u-i:i ,both: i.; iil :of ,i-ik'.n ... I,.who knew o:lthu; r. bi tI..-,
the danger and the mercy o. n ul. ti:.u l-it tel,, ship had broken, or som' Ir.lli.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into tbi: Lb ,pp--.i: i.'. In a word, I was so surprised that I
Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary, and fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when every-
the weather calm, we had made but little way since the body had his own life to think of, .:.l.':.1, ; !,.,-.l n,:.
storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, or what was become of me; but o.a,:,u.:r n'...i -:i.i:.l
and here we lay, thewind continuing contrary, viz., at up to the pump, l'u.. r' i r-,ri, n- :,ni .1 .:- Iti, bi t.:..
south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time I: t .1. .', tibrrkin r i !'.,l I.u. .:.', d a rl it was a great
a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same v Lti- I-ef-. -. I c.iru. ti.. 'y ;elf.
roads, as the common harbour where the ships might W,. vri..:.i ...n: ttb- rvit-r ;L..-i :;g-in the hold,
wait for awind for the river, it '.. ,i' .ppr."r-t th:tt thae ih.p. -r:.rl.i t.: oi.c r; andthough
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should. t1le ," :.rm i I..- :.L t-o .te- itU; tI ;, t i t rV not possible
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too sEi: ..,.rl.i -' 1,11 7-ll i-e LutL r-i,, iul. a;r-. port;. so the
fresh, and, after we had lain four or five days, blew ia, ,I.-r ..: rit a:.i -rng U, fi..,r hI lj.; i.:, a light ship,
very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as who had rid it out just ahead of n', vertnred a boat out
good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground- to help us. It was with th b.... "ri"'-t L U ir.i the boat
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not came.near us.; but it was hIii .:.!i I,.r i, to get.on
in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time board,.or for the boat to li.: i. a th- .Lcip' -ide, till at
in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their'
eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we lives to save ours, our men cast- them a rope over the
had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make r-.r a with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as I.- .1 h. which they, after much labour and hazard, took
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high hold of, and we hauled them close t a.1er .:.ur stern, and
indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come or us, after we were' in the boat, to think of reaching
home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet- their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; arid
the cables veered out to the better end. our master promised them, that if the l.. .t n-i; it -...-i
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now upon shore, he would make it gbod to ri.: i' I.:- :
I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even partly.rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away
of the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as
in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went far as Winterton Ness.
in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
to himself say, several times, "Lord, be merciful to us! out of our ship till we saw her sink, and then I under-
we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone! and the stood for the first time what was meant by a i;.'p
like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still foundering in the spa. I must acknowledge I had
in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she
describe my temper: I could ill resume the first peni- was sinking; for if,-I., .l- I,,:,mori: ri li b.t t lr. ratb'-r pr-
tence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and me.intothe boat, thal, tbL r I rr'I r-i t",- i,.l t,:. i:,. i, my
hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of heart was, as it were, dead .t I.: ; in. prt i;, ., thr froi.t,
death had been past; and that this would be nothing partly with horror of minc., an.r tI., ,.t'f a -.r.
like the first; but when the master himself came by nme, was yet before me.
as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was "While -.: --- in trl, ..:.Liula-t l. ri- yet b:.urng
dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and atthe oa, to: bti;u,'re ti...,t I.:.. r th- ii .',,.:--.- ..:, --
looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the (when, cir i':at u.',; t,, ,: i-. '.:: .-. .-'.: r"'-r L. abll.:
sea ran mountains high, ar1i i.r:-k. up':' e .ri.-r ti. r,: see the h:Lri -i gr e t nja ', r.:,:'i-.l: I',iurir .l.':.n- tL.:
or four minutes; when I c i.:i.:.k i b.-.i.t, i .::.'i li '.--.. strand, t':. i.I;:t u: '-h-..a -b..iul..l .:.:. k.: i .r ti a. bi -t
nothing but distress round i.;: t';-:. L; Fi t--i r.:.l.- ,: ir made but l i.:.r ,' t.:,ri.,,i tL, :Li.:- ,'r 7a:re ,re
us, we found, had cut the:r in.ui- I.;- the br.:ard,J i.e-il able to r,-a :h th.- .:r-. l r, ll, i-ina p'.St th.: li-htbou'- al
deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which Winterton, the shore fall -t t1 t t.- r,. -st-. rl t.:.-.'ai.l
rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two Cromer,and so the land l.i:.: t' a i10. ti L:r..:i- .e in t.

~7R`~1C--~ ~~r~ri~ii II ~FP~PI~);~Cb~e~l~r41~n~ ~Ji~i~-F9TR~F~PEFElf~.1


the wind. Hei.- _'.;-:t in; and, though not without
much ditlf -ii ly. t All :.ti on shore, and walked after-
wards on foot to Y w,.. t i, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used witiL ge'it- humanity, as well by the
magistrates of the town, who assigned us ,:":.1 '!'iI.:! .
as by particular merchants and owners of ; Lbps.n. I i :.l.
money given us sufficient to carry us either to London
or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and mny father,
as in our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the



fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in
' was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while
before he had any assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason, and my more com-
posed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do
it. I know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it
is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on to be the
instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable
misery, which it was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm reasoning
and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met with
in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were at
Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters; I say,
the first time he saw me it appeared his tone was
altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking his
head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who
I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial,
in order to go farther abroad: his father, turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, "Young man,"
says he, you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you
are not to be a seafaring man." "Why, sir," said I,
will you go to sea no more? That is another case,"
said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but
as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste
Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you
persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your ac-
count, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,"
Continues he, "what are you; and on what account did
you go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of my
story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange
kind of passion: What had I done," says he, "that
such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I
would not set my foot in the same Ihip with thee again
for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an
excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have
authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very

rI 7ir.; to me, exhorting, me to go back to my father, This was the only voyage which I may say was
and not tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me I successful in all my adventures, which I owe to the
might see a visible hand of Heaven against me. "And, integrity and honesty of ny friend the captain; under
young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathe-
back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but matics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep
disasters and disappointments, till your father's words an account of the ship's course, take an observation,
are fulfilled upon you." and, in short, to understand some things that were
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took
and I saw him no more; which way he went I knew not. delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in
As for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a mer-
to London by land; and there, as well as on the road, chant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
had many struggles with myself, gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded !me in
what course of life I should take, London, at my return, almost 300; and this filled
and whether I should go home me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
Sor go to sea. completed my ruin.
SAs to going home, shame op- Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
S- posed the best motions that particularly that I was continually sick, being thrown
offered to my thoughts; and it into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the
immediately occurred to me how climate; our principal trading being upon the coast,
I should be laughed at among from the latitude of fifteen degrees north even to the
--- .- -- the neighbours, and should be line itself.
S ashamed to seenot my father and I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend,
mother only, but even everybody to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I,
else; from whence I have since resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked
often observed, how incongruous in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the
and irrational the common tem- former voyage, and had now got the command of the
per of mankind is, especially of ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man
youth, to that reason which ought made; for though I did not carry quite 100 of my
to guide them in such cases, viz., new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, hi.-h I li.1
that they are not ashamed to sin, lodged with my friend's wido,. 1.j -., rV,.n y j*',t to
and yet are ashamed to repent; me, yet I fell into terrible mnisfinituri tU. that wua
not ashamed of the action for this-our ship making her coir,- to~i r. s ih, C.'ir ary
-.. -. which they ought justly to be Islands, or rather between those ; IsI u.l- .ini. th-e At;i-;..
esteemed fools, but are ashamed shore, was surprised in the grey of the morning by a
of the returning, which only can Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all
make them be esteemed wise men. the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
In this state of life, however, I canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts can y t
M remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what
~-'--- :course of life to lead. An irre-
sistible reluctance continu.l t, i
going home; and as I st ,--.l *
while, the remembrance ..t th,,
S 7- ~ distress I had been in wnc,:. ,.rt
and as that abated, the it Il.
motion I had in my desir.: t..
return wore off with it, I1I t
last I quitelaid aside the ti .ciich ti
of it, and looked out f.r -
That evil .influence nLi.-i_,
THE STORM. carried me first away fr.m ur,
father's house,-which hursi. i ll. j
into the wild and indigested notion of rais.Ug n.
fortune; and that impressed those conceits so fi:r.:i l.l1
upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advi.:,.. at,.
to the entreaties and even the commands of my t a it-., :
-I say, the same influence, whatever it was, pr.: i. i.r ,it. 1
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my -. :
and I went on board a vessel bound to the :.:. st i r
Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voy c~. to t j.
It was my great misfortune that in all these L-
tures I did not ship myself as a sailor; when, th.:,-ih I
might indeed have worked a little harder than o: .I .ir.
yet at the same time I should have learnt the dut ;,- L-..i
office of a fore-mast man, and in time might Ihv,:,
qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not f.,r n
master. But as it was always my fate to choose tor t1 BI
worse, so I did here; for having money in my p).:okt
and good clothes upon my back, I would always ;., on
board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I r,-itl_.:r
had any business in the ship, nor learned to do t uv.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty g.:..l
company in London, which does not always halpn t.:
such loose and misguided young fellows as I the L -- i :
the devil generally not omitting to lay some sr Lr.: t.:
them very early; but it was not so with me. I rIr.:l ':'t
acquainted with the master of a ship who had I.,: .-: n
the coast of Guinea; and who, having had verb giJood
success there, was resolved to go again. This captain
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all CRUSOE IS IN GREAT FEAR DIURING THE SECOND
disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind STORM.
to see the world, told me if:I would go the voyage with
him I should be at no expense; I should be his mess- get clear ; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
mate and his companion; and if I could carry anything would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the
trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came
some encouragement. up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart
I embraced the offer: and entering into a strict our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended,
friendship with this captain, who was an honest plain- we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and
dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer
a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested off again, after returning our fire, and pouring i also his
honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very small shotfrom near two hundred m.-n wliwib hI. had on
considerably ; for I carried about 40 in such toys and board. However, we had not a man touched, all our
trifles as the captain directed me to buy. These 40 I men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again,
had mustered together by the assistance of some of my andwe to defend ourselves. But laying us on board the
relations whom I corresponded with ; and who, I believe, next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men
got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and
much as that to my first adventure, hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with


small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded,
we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadfulas at first
I apprehended; nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize,


and young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made
him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the.youth-the
Maresco, as they called him-to catch a dish of fish
for him.
It happened one tihe, that going a-fishing in a calm
morning, a tog rose so thick that though we were not
half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it- and
rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured
all day, and all the next night; and when the morning
came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling
in for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues
''rom 11 .: shore. However, we got well in again, though
tl, a g r,-:tt deal of labour and some danger; for the
win.l I' ,n to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but
we r:-r1 all very hungry
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
L.aik- n.:-rc care of himself for the future; and having
lying b, l;m the long-boat of our English ship that he
hadr talken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any
m..r.e without a compass and some provision; so he .d tie carpenter of his ship, who also was an
Enghlih ave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in
the nidliJjt of the long-boat, like that of a barge, lrth a.
p,la.. t) itnmd behind it to steer, and haul home the
mnain-s;h.i t; and room before for hand ortwo to stand
a.nd .:.rk the sails. She sailed with what we call a
bh.-.ul.JI-r.:.t'-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the
top .:.* the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had
in It r:-.rm for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
thb.- t on, with some small lockers to put in some
Ibotd-l. ofj such liquor as he thought fit to drink; and
!is i..r:Jd. rice, and coffee.
V.: i. e rt frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and
as I -v's ost dexterous to catch for him, he never went
without me. It happened that he had appointed to go
.ut in thbi boat, either for pleasure or for fish, withtwo
or thir:e Moors of some distinction in that place, and
for 'whror he had provided extraordinarily, and had
thb-refr-ir sent on board the boat over-night a larger
stO're i'f provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me
to gel r:.ia ly three fusees with powder and shot, which
-1 'ni .., I ... ard his ship, for that they designed some
sp. of:t f-: wling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited
the netI morning with the boat washed clean, her
ancie-nt uil'pendants out, and everything to accommo-
ldl.e bhi'< guests; when by and by my patron came on
hiiari. :,lIn,-, and told me his guests had put off going,
from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with main und boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
iat'hl tiem some fish, for that his friendswere to sup at
his li..,,-; and commanded that as soon as I got some
tish I should bring it home to his house: all which
I prepared to do.
T f 1i 0 V 1-T -- -- .I -

-. '--" .. enl .'Lu umy ormerUno onso i r i.- are or am r .y I .
mr.:, um tliL.ughts, for now I found I : 1i 1: t.-. have himself about, and swam for the -i,....-. au,. I iL kA uO
a littleship at mycommand; ri. n1 i a- f. i l., ;s -,.. doubt but he reached it with ease. i:.r L: we ic n x.:,l-
ORUS9E LEARNS SOMETHING 0F NAVIGATION. I prepared to furnish myself, i.:.t .r i,- il,,., i.,,.,r,. -, lent swimmer.
Sbut for a voyage; though I ki-. w i.t. nii.,tbl-c r.i 1 I could have been content to Li'. til:D. rt~i MI.:..r
and made his slave, Leing and ln;mbe and fit for much as consider, whither I should steer,-anywhere to with me, and have drowned the l...v. I.ut i, c.i- i-,. -i.
his business. At hbis s.urprirg chgij : i.ut my circum- get out of that place was my desire. vcutii;u, to trust him. When L- :.i. g.':.-, i t'umrr'
stances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
pcrtc-ll u.val-lmi-,lndi; land now I looked back upon
my fath-r'., lr.iupb,:tl. i'.lmr,,arc to me, that I should be ---
i,,ii, ral:.e and Ii.e inone to relieve me, which I thought -- -- ..... '
we,. uJw .o ,r-ieti.,rly .iouht t:- I .i, t1it I couldn't ---- -
be worse; tur now tLh. Lud .it H,. ,iu hl.- overtaken- -- --
me, and 1]' as utnd.:.n: \%ttt...ut ri.:-....lpt:.i but, alas! ------ --
this wh~s but a. taste of thLe m,.:.-rs I I-, to go through, --- --- -
as ',ill anlp,-ar in the sequel of this story. -
As my Euc palr...n, or niaster, had taken me home to --
his house, so I w s in hlope-i that he would take me with -- ---
him when he iw,.nt to sad naA;u believing that it would -
some time or other 1., hi'. t tte to be taken by a Spanish ',
or Portuguese n:i.nt-f-i.>r; and that when I should be
set at liberty. BI.rt tl.. ihope of mine was soon taken
away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to .
look after his little garden, and doathe common drudgery
of slaves about his house; and when he came home
again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin.
to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what ..
method I might take to effect it,but found no way that -
had the least probability in it; nothing presented to -- --
make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody -- -~---
to communicate it to that would embark with me-no
fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman, CRUSOE's SHIPMATES ARE TAKEN UP THE COUNTRY BY THE MOORS.
there but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had
the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice. My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to the boy, whom. they called Xury, and said to him,
After about two years, an odd circumstance pre- to this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on "Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a
sented itself, which put the old thought of making some board; for I told him We must not presume to eat our great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
attempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron patron's bread. He said that was true; so he brought true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his a aIrga hak t of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh beard, "I must throw you into the sea too." The boy
ship,which, as I heard,was for want of money, he used, nutI.:- it.:. th.- boat. I knew where, my patron'- crve nf smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently,that I could
constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if b:otl ,.. ...... which it was evident 1-, tb,.- ni. ,,:- not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go
the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go tik. -u :.ut .- ome English prize, a..i I o...u,-. ,.,- thb,t- all over the world with me.
out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took me ;at..- t .: L..:.a while the Moor was on shore, as if t!,.:iv While I was inview of the Moor that was swimming,


had bt i. It.. re t, l .-,r u:..r stIr. I conveyed also
a great ihnr-p .:.f L.e:-es-.; imt-, tb, h.,.,t, which weighed
al.,c t .li bju.iri-i, i .:- .ghtr, with a parcel of twine or
tLrcr.J, hatchet, a .w. ., an.] a hamm-, a!l :of which
were of great use j .:. uL. itt-- r i,.. 1..:.. u l1. t wax
to make ,candles. AnrithiIr trick I tried upon him,
which he :uu.:.-iltly came into-.also: his name was
Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to
him:-" Moely," said I.' .:.ur p~ h, i:ou' guns are on board
the boat; can you not ,,: t ,l t Il.- .:.. vder and shot ? It
may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our
curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's
stores in the ship." Yes," says he, I'll bring some ";
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which
held a pound and a half of ppoi.l-r, .:r ri .I-r u:-.:i-;
and an-.tlch r with shot, that '.ad'. li ..r ISix p... r ..i.- i- i
isome bull.-;. ,l.1 put all into the At tb.- b -.
timru. I bai.,l f:.I.l some powder c-i jmy m-,tr.r. r i the.
gri ,t ,h;n. -"itii which I filled on-. oi tLi !-,r 1i "t,.:,t,
in tb-e ease, wlilic was almost empty,- pourin- iT-c .is
in it into another; and, thus furnr-t-rj nVith -, ri-thiug
needful, we sailed out of the port t.:i rih. i..stle
which is at the entrance of the port. kni. w cI.Io .- were;
and took no notice of us; and -we we,-c utr abb.:.r a
mile out of the port before we ha.ui...l ii our .l, in-]
set us down to fish. The win-. bl. c fr-..m tl ~ N N E.,
which was contrary to my dl.:-ire. or bhaI t i.:it.-a
southerly, I had been sure to ha:i ti,- .:.i-. of
Spain, and at least reached to the b-,y .:.f 'I.i: i..,,t my
resolutions were, blow which way ;r w'.'J.l, I v-.:ul. be
gone from that horrid place whern. I .1rs, a~nd i-.i V- the
rest to fate.
After we had fished some time had c.A :ut ubtLing,
for when I had fish on my hook, I r,:il.i nt p-.,I trhen
up, that he might :.t --:.- them, I t.. rhe Slucr,
"T hb.s ill n.:.t do; c..r nm.;rster a,ll -not b._ i, s ;. -rraVil ;
wenmust stand fart lr :if He, tlhin il:i tu' ,i.:. h',Lm,
agreed, and. being ir ri-. h- bd jof the L..:I't, s.-t tli- .i.ilU:
.iu1,, as I b... the he:ru, I run, tli- .boat t out ..r i I.: igue
t..itlh-r. and then brought her t-o n- it I .uli ftiAL;
when, giving the boy the helm, ,I stlp.rp-l .-jrd. t.:,
where the Moor was, and makin- a, it I tr...- -.A for
something behind him, I took him -., uri.rri ith my
arm under his waist, and tossed hii :!. :'r :r.:-rboird
into the sea. He rose immediately. t.:i,. L c.v.,nm like a
cork, and called to me,,begged to i.: t- l:iau ii, t.-il nj-
he.would go all over the world oti, r.n- H-e s'.,n! -.
strong after the boat, that he woul.l la r.: i. :-e.. n,-
very quickly, there being but little iind .i u.-u "- i.i: I
itf-l.p-.l into the cabin, and fetchi:-, .:.- ':.t I!.: fi:.l -;i:-
I.-... ., I presented it at him, and t.:.. !,lu I h
him no hurt, and if he would be .i-:. ii r, ..'.i .).:. ;,o
none: "But," said I, "you swim -.. -1 .-L:.u I... I. i.:h
to the shore, and the sea is calm; II -ik tli- I I ...,' yr.ur
way to shore, and I will do you .u h ,ru, ir: .t f .:.I
come near the boat, I'll shoot you t lr.':..Ih t i., ...i,
Fn I eoclnl ed to~r have m.. lil*C.r..


I stoodout directlyto seawith tt- Lb.-.t, ra3ti er t r. t.:i bh
to windward, that they might thrin; ia g.-.i.- t:.'var.l]
the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one that had been in
their wits must have be., ii -,.-.:.-':. t.:. dl.:-. f.-.r =h.,:,
would have supposed we. -, i. I1- .1.,o t. t-r. I,. ,:, .r1 -r r.1,
to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of
Negroes were sure to surround us with r i-..: o..r,-. and
destroy us; where we could not go on shore but we
should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east,
bending my course a little towards the east, that I
might keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh
j .: of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such : ,;1
tb -t. I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be
less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee:
..uit-e .b y.:..1 the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or
i.J.:.1 .t i any other king thereabouts, for we saw no

Y, t ,i.: L was the fright I had taken of the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or
come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any
of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came
to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not
what, nor where; neither what latitude, what country,
what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired
to see any people'; the principal thing I wanted was
fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
,l.;.:..-:r tle .:, hut as soon as it was quite dark,
--., L. ,.1 ,u... L I..ifi noises of barking, roaring, and
..i'lUg *.:'t .-al.ti s.:tires, of we knew not what kinds,
that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged.
'of :u-e u.:t r.? .:' on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said
I, I b.:. I r.:.i'l; but it may be that we may see men
iay, who will be as bad to us as those lions."--
** i. ai ve give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing,
"make them run wey." Such English Xury spoke by
conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to
see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of
our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After
all Xury's advice was good, and I took it: we dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for
we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast
great creatures (we knew not what to call them) of
many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into
the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of-cooling tL.n-.rlvi:-.; iid they made such
hideous howlings ani y.,-IL.L that I never indeed heard
the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I
too; but we were both more frighted when we heard
one of these mighty creatures come swimming towards
our boat; we could not see himj but we might hear him
by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast.
Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I
-know; but poor Xury cried to weigh the anchor
:iu.d -:. a: .'. No," says I, "Xury; we can slip our
4 i..:-, w;th tt e buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot
:..!':.w ui tar.', I had no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately
'stepped to the cabin-door, ru.- 1,1:iuj up ray gun, fired
at him; upon which he iunmEii ately tnira:.- about, and
swam towards-theshore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and
hideous cries and cowlings, that were raised, as well
upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country,
upon the noise or r. p.rt 'of the I- u ., thin; I :1,-.:
reasonto believe t.:.i:-i :ra:'ture lIa.l ,I1 r'r ter-i ..- ore:
this convinced me that ther-r -a-s n. g'.:- g o. a l:AI,r,: for
us in the night cou th.:t ,.:.ast, aiid t: a to retuiro on
shore in the day T i- sa,..thir i,.--sti,.- t,:.. : fo: r t.:. have
fallen into the h'r-nd .:,t an, .:of th .' ,;:. b:i.i been
as bad as to have f..llin i, t... t1e b ,i.i .:.f t II.. ;.:- and
tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the
danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged t.:. g.:, on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we lh'-i not a pint
left in the boat; when and where to get to it was the
point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with
one of the jars, he would find if there was any water,
and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go ?
why I.should not go, and he stay in the boat ? The boy
answered with so much affection, as made me love him
ever after. Says he If wild mans come, they eat me,
you go wey."-" W li.'," said I, "we will both go,
andif the nii.1 a* as. c.:.., we will kill them, they shall
eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk
bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and
so waded on shore; carrying nothing hut our arms, and
two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of- sight of be b.) t, fearing However, Xury said he would have some of him! so he
the coming of canbes with savages down the river; but comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet.
the boy i'-ing a low' place ab.:.-t, a mile up the country, "For what, Xury?" said I. "Me cut off his head,"
rambled t.: it, aid tby sani I.y I saw him come running said he. However,Xury could not cut off his head, but
towards me. I thought-he was pursued by some savage, he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a
or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards monstrous great one.
towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin
him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which of him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
was a.creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury
in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very glad of and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it.
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good Indeed, it took us both up the whole day, but at last we
water, and seen no wild mans. got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of
But we found afterwards that we need not take such our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time,
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
we were we found the water fresh when the tide'vas out, "After this stop, we made on to the southward con-
which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, tinually for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on
and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to our provisions, which began to abate very much, and
go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged to
creature in that part of the country. -for fresh water. My design in this was, to make the
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say anywhere about
very well that the islands ofjthe Canaries, and the Cape the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with
de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what
But as I had no instruments to take an observation to course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or
know what latitude we were in, and not exactly know- perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the
ing, or at least remembering, what latitude they were ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast
in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to stand ofr Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this
off to sea. towards them; otherwise I might now easily Cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole
have found some of these islands. But my hope was, of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part meet with some ship, or must perish.
where the English traded, I should find some of their When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
relieve and take us in. inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by,
By the best of my calculation, that place where I we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we
now was must be.that country which, lying between the could also perceive they were quite black and naked. I
Emperor of Morocco's dominions aL.i tii.: Negroes, lies was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but
waste and uninhabited except by w,!.i beasts; the Xury wasmy better c.:,-m,.. IlIraul ..iil t.:, rue, N. go.
Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south, no go." However, I Lb ulk..l iu u'.ahri the lhjror that I
for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it might talk to them, ol-i I it.uindi il- j ran a.log tbo
worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, shore by me a good way: I observe-I il.:y Ii.l no
'indeed, both forsaking it 1.....- u ; of the prodigious weapons in their hands, except one, Alo ii.i.1 a long
numbers of tigers, lions, l:.:.'iil, and other furious Eil, i. r ct;.i.. Inclh X:ur;, r.1 il as 1It Ii-, rnd that
creatures which harbour-there; so that the Moors use Iti-vr ....ultl tIr:. vl t.. ,i a :.:it .L ay w r;ill ...-.I u Lm :so
it for their hunting only, where thiey go like an army, I l.ept at .h lit,,e I-at I ilk.:l ill'. Lh.'iu Lbv .i isas
two or three thousand men at a tim.: and, indeed, for well as I could; and p:ardi...l l rly in., i.,i igni tfr o.:ime-
near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we.saw thing to eat: they beckoned I.. rm.; t, stojl iv 1.-.:it. aDr,.
nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and tlh, ul. .- ii..h me some n asl. PT[.-.L tiJ,. I ,.,1 I..l
heard nothing but howlings and r,:r.r;ig of wild beasts the top of my sail, and lay ,r;.. an.l t n' of IL.- r ru up,
by night. into the country, and in I,.- tlhan half an hour came
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the back, and brought with thi-il t Ii', pieces of dried flesh
Pico of Teneriffe, being the hb:; t:op of the Mountain and some corn, such as is the produce of their country;
Teneriffe in the Canaries; r'u-l L.-l a great mind to but we neither knew i hit thl, one or the other was:.
venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on
the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us; but
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to
the shore, the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close
after we I-. 1 1. ft this place; and once in particular, 'to us again.
being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under We made signs of thanks to them, for-we had nothing
a little point of land,-which was pretty high; and the to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that
tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. very instant to oblige them wonderfully: for while we
Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one
mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we had pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from
best go farther off the shore; "for," says he, "look, the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or
hillock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and rage, we could not tell, any more than we could'tell
saw a dreadful monster ini.i-e.J. for it was a terrible whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was
great lion that lay on the sp.- i.:.- the shore, under the the latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous
shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were a little creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the
over him.. "Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and 'second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! especially the women. The man that had the lance or
he eat me at one mouth;" one mouthful he meant, dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; however,
However, I said- no more to the boy, but bade him lie as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they
still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but
musket- bore, and loaded it with a good charge of plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if
powder, and with.two slugs, and laid it down; then they had come for their diversion: at last one of them
I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected;
(for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
piece to have shot him in the head, but he lay so with others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I
his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs hit fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately
his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
up, growling at first, but finding his leg broken, fell plunged up and down, as if he was struggling for life,
down again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal
surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just
I took up the second piece immediately, and though he before he reached the shore.
began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little poor creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, them were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as
and would have me let him go on shore. "Well, go," dead with the very terror; but when they saw the
said I: so the boy jumped into the water, and taking a creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made
little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and
hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle came, and began to search for the creature. I found
of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, him by his blood staining the water: and by the help of
which despatched him quite. a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that
I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us. admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands


with admiration, to think what it was I had killed for me; and in about three hours time I came up with
him with. them.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and They asked me what I was, in Portugese, and in
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly Spanish, and in French, but I understood none. of them ;
to the mountains from whence they came; nor could I, but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called
at that distance know what it was. I found quickly to me; and I answered him, and told him I was an
the Negroes wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery
I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me; from the Moors, at Sallee; they then bade me come
on board, and very
kindly took me in,
5 -. and all my goods.
SIt was an inex-
Spressible joy to me,
-. TE O which any one will
believe, that I was
thus delivered, as
S.I esteemed it, from
such a miserable
and almost hopeless
condition as I was
in; and I imme-
av diately offered all
I had to the cap-
Swtain of the ship, as
a return for my
d deliverance; but
he generously told
S me, he would take
f 1 nothing from me,
but all that I had
'7. should be delivered
-I-'_-.-. ._ I. ssafe to me, when
I came to the Bra-
he, "I have saved
your life on no
which, when I made signs to them that they might take other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself;
him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be'
fell to work with him; and though they had no knife, taken up in the same condition. Besides," said
yet with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his he, when I carry youto the Brazils, so great a way
skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could from your own country, if I should take from you what
have done with a knife. They offered me some of the you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would give away that life I have given. No, no," says he:" Seignor
it them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave Inglese" (Mr. Englishman), "I will carry you thither in
me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of charity, and those things will help to buy your subsis-
theI provisions, which, though I did not understand, tence there, and your passage home again."
ya tI accepted. I then made signs to them for some As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the
bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I seamen, that none should touch anything that I had:
wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to then he took everything into his own possession, and
some of their friends, and there came two women, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I might
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I have them, even to my three earthen jars.
.i.t'.r..1 ; the sun: this they set down to me, as As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he
1I. ti..,i, .1 I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and saw, and told me he would buy it of me for his ship's
!,.:.1 th. ai, all three. The women were. as naked as use; and asked we what I would have for it. I told
the men. him, he had been so generous to me in everything, that
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it I could ot offer to make any price of the boat, but left
was, and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I it entirely to him: upon which he told me he would give
made forward for about eleven days more, without me anote of hand to payme eightypieces of eight for it
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance of to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also
four or i .: leagues before me; and, the sea being very sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I
calm, I kept a large offing to make this point. At was loath to take; not that I was unwilling to let the
length, doubling the point, at about. two leagues from captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
seaward: the I concluded, as it was ur u:.l ...: -tain procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
indeed, that this was the Capo de Verd, .r l t ...-.e the reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
islands called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to
Ip.:.: .they were at a great distance, and I could not set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon
W,. l t. I i what I had best do; for if I should be taken this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let
with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one nor the captain have him.
other. We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints'
the cabin, and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, Bay, in about twenty-two clays after. And now I was
on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship once more delivered from the most miserable of all
with a sail! and the foolish boy was frightened out of conditions of life; and what to do next with myself I'
his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's was to consider.
ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we were far enough The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can
out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and never enough remember: he would take nothing of me
immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's
Ia s.. :...... .,ip; and, as I thought, was bound to the skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my
:.. i .t ,,,, I.. ,for Negroes. But, when I observed boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to be
the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to
bound some other way, and did not design to come any sell, he bought of me, such as the case of bottles, two
nearer to the shore: upon which I stretched out to sea of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees'-wax-for
as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about
po.sible. two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the
be able to come in their way, but that they would be Brazils.
gone by before I could make any signal to them: but I had not been long here, before I was recommended
after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, to the house of a good, honest man, like himself, who
they, it seems, saw, by the help of their glasses, that had an i genio, as they call it (that is, a plantation and
it was some European boat, ,h i h they supposed must a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and
belong to some ship that ",, lo : ; so they shortened acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of
sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well
and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I
waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I would
gun, both which they saw; for they told me they saw turn planter among them; resolving, in the meantime,
the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon to find out some way to get my money, which I had
these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by left in London, remitted to me, To this purpose,

getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased
as much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settle-
ment; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born
of English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much
such circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbour,
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went
on very sociably together. My stock was but low, as
well as his: and we rather planted for food than any-
thing else, for about two years. However, we began
to increase, and our land began to come into order;
so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and
made each of us a large piece of ground ready for
planting canes in the year to come. But we both
wanted help; and now I found, more than before, I
had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right,
was no great wonder. I had'no remedy but to go on: I
had got into an employment quite remote to my genius.
and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, anid for
which I forsook my farther's house, and broke through
all his good advice. Nay, I was coming into the very
middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before, and which, if I resolved to
go on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and
never have fatigued myself in the world as I had done;
and I used.often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone
five thousand miles off to do it among strangers and
savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never
to hear from any part of the world thit had the least
knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with
the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but
now and then this neighbour; no work to be done, but
by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I. lived
just like a man cast away upon some desolate island,
that had nobody there but himself. But how just has
it been-and how should.all men reflect, that when
they compare their present conditions with others that
are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the ex-
change, and be convinced of their former felicity by
their experience-I say, how just has it been, that the


truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere
desolation, should be my lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had
I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and'rich.
I was, in-some degree, settled in n'.v r,1icsr for
carrying on the plantation, before my Li ol if i;,ii, the
captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back-
for the ship remained there, in providing his lading, and


preparing for his voyage, nearly three months; when,
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in
London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:-
" Seignor Inglese," says he (for so he always called me),
"if you will give me letters, and a procuration in form
to me, with orders to the person who has your money in
London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons
as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for
tbI; .:..JAitrY. I will bring you the produce of them, God
cilla; :;t my return; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give
orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you
say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first; so that, if it come safe, you nay order the rest
the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the
gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a
procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of
all my adventures-my slavery, escape, and how I had
met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity
of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with
all other necessary directions for my supply; and when
this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by
some of the English merchants there, to send over, not
the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to
her; whereupon she not only delivered the money, but,
out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had written for,
sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought
them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, with-
out my direction (for I was too young in my business to
think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of
tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for my plantation
and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made,
for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good
steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which
my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to
purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for
six years' service, and would not accept of any considera-
tion, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English
manufacture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize; and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I
found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so
that I might say, I had more than four times the value
of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour-I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a
Negro slave, and a European servant also-I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me from
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very
means of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I
went onthe next year with great success in myplantation:
I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground,
.more than I had disposed of for necessaries among
my neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being each of
above a hundred-weight, were well cured, and laid by
against the return of the fleet from Lisbon; and now
increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to
be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach;
such as are,:indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in
business. Had I continued in the station I was now in,
I had room for all the happy things to have yet befallen
me for which my father so earnestly recommended a
quiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensibly de-
scribed the middle station of life to be full of; but other
things attended me, and I was still to be-the wilful
agent of all my own miseries; and particularly, to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon my-
self, which in-my future sorrows I should have leisure
to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my
apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of
wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in
contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good
in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and those
measures of life,-which nature and Providence concurred
-to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from
my parents, so I could not be content now, but I must
go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and
thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a
rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the
nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself
down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with
life and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars
of this part of my story:-You may suppose, that
having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and
beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my

plantation, I had not only learned the language, but
had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my
fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St.
Salvador, which'was our port; and that, in my discourses
among them, I had frequently given them an account of
my two voyages to the coast of Guinea; the manner of
trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to
purchase upon the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys,
knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not
only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c.,
but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
They'listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related to
the buying Negroes, which was a trade, at that time, not
only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been
carried on by assientos, or permission of the kings of'
Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock;
so that few Negroes were bought, and those excessively
It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me next
morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and,
after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that they
had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they
had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for
nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade
that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes
on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage
the trading part on the coast of Guinea; and they
offered me that I should have my equal share of the
Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement
and a plantation of his own to look after, which was in
a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a
good stock upon it; but for me, that was thus entered
and established, and had nothing to do but to go on as I
had begun, for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who in that time, and with that little addition, could
scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousand
pounds sterling, and that increasing too-for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be
guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could
no more resist the offer than I could restrain, my first
rambling designs when my father's good counsel was
lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with
all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to
such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants
to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing of my
plantation arid effects in case of my death, making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before,
my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my
effects as I had directed in my will; one half of the
produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped
in England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and to keep up my plantation. Had I used half
as much prudence to have looked into my own interest,
and have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done and not to have done, I had certainly never gone
away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the
probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone
upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect
particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy rather than my reason.; and, accordingly,
the ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and
all things done, as by agreement, by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st of
September, 1659, beingthe same day eight years that I
went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons
burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the
master, his boy, and myself. We had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the Negroes, such as'beads, bits of glass,
shells, and other trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design
to stretch over for the African coast when we came
about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which,
it seems, was the manner of course in those days. We
had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the

way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping further off
at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were
bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our
course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line :s about twelve days'
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees
twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent
tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our know-
ledge. It began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled in the north-east; from
whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive,
and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither
ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and,
during these twelve days, I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in
the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men die of the calenture, and one
man and the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth
day, the weather abating a-little, the master made an
observation as well as he could, and found 'that he was
in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he was
twenty-two degr;.: i o it:.logt u..:- difference west from
Cape St. Augustio..: e; l ltit L, found he was upon the
coast of Guiana, or I L,: u..rth purb of Brazil, beyond the
river Amazons, 4:.'-rr.hl t11,.t .:.4 the river Oroonoque,
commonly called the Great River; and began to con-
sult with me what course he should take, for the ship
was leaky, and very much disabled, and- he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the
charts of the sea-coasts of America with him, we con-
cluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to, till we came within the circle of the
Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away
for Barbados; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid
the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance both to our ship
and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered
away N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief. But our
voyage was otherwise ( oiol.; for, ibung in the
latitude of twelve degre.. ,gil.:, n miniutL, a second
storm came upon us, which carried -s r way i tll the
same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the
way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been
saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being.
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one
of our men early in the morning cried out, "Land!"
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out,
in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her
motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such
a manner, that we expected we should all have perished
immediately; and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and
spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the
like condition to describe or conceive the consternation
of men ii such circumstances. We knew'nothing where
we were, or upon what land it was we were driven-
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not
inhabited. As the rage of the wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so much
as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of
miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word, we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every
moment, and every man, accordingly, preparing for
another'world; for there was little or nothing more for
us to do in this. That which was'our present comfort,
and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we
were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to
dl.: but t.: think of.saving our lives as well as we could.
We b ~.1 a boat at our stern just before the storm, but
she was first staved by dashing against the ship's rudder,
and in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk,
or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her.
'We had another boat on board, but how to get her off
into the sea was a doubtful thing. However,there was
no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.'
In h i d it r- the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, n.l it t ~ht help of the rest of the men, got her
slung over the ship's side; and getting all into her, let
go, and committed ourselvebeing eleven in number, to
SGod's mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm


A os :bhjl-J ,.e id arhably, y t til. c -a rjn dri.aItill- hI h 'IlI: wa i that c.aie upoU me agal..bu'1 Me a t O,'j,' -_N-at. .,: and h', ;o uok, andJ put a little tU:,bc.o
Jpon Ithe? hor-e, and .might hb t l' cal%.i clld ., r '.l:, ,)as tw,-uty or thirty tct. Jeep in it .:w'r b:.1y.iy ao I Ie Culd in miiy Min'u t prbI. pr- t Liairg,-r, ri:D-t thj rb tlt-. uan.
the Dutch call the sea in a storm. feel myself car rr,.l itt f rnigiht force and swiftness getii .i 'p into it, endeavoured to place nriyc.:lt that
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all towards the shore a very gre.t w y ; but I held my if I esbulij sleep I might not fall. And having cut me
saw plainly that the sea went so high that the boat breath, and assisted myTlif t.: swim still iorward with a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took
could not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. all my might. I wai' really to burst with holding my up iy lodging; and having been excessively t r.gEc-ed,
As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could breath, when as I telt imysetl raising up, so, to my I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as. I L.,li.e,
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar immediate relief, I found nmy head and hands shoot out few could have done in my c. ondti.:,u, ad f] .:i, n.3 mc.;
towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men above the surface of the water; and though it was not more refreshed with it than, I thiui. I e '-r .jnEULh
F-.;in ti 'ix:, iitr.iu for we all knewthat when the boat two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it an occasion.
rnme iarer t Ihe- Alre, sh. would be dashed in a thousand relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. When I waked it was broad day, -bh- w.-thet c lar,
pieces by the breach of the sea. HF ,verir,we comiritted I was covered again with water a good while, but'not so and the storm abated, so that the sea .1,id ojr, rage and
our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the long but I held it out; and, finding the water had spent swell as before. But b.t vi t-.. I -urprised me i, tr -a ,
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our itself and began to return, I struck forward against the that the ship was liftcd :it II t he :nj;.Lt from ti L a rdi
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we return of the wavesand felt ground again with my feet. where she lay, by tlic ~i.'-lII ot tie tide, and ins
could towards land. I stood still a few moments to recover breath and till driven up almost as far as the rock which I at firt
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether the waters went from me, and then took to my heels mentioned, where I had been so bruised, by the wave
steep or shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could and ran, v. itb ibh streni h I h .ri. turt.r towards the dashing me against it. This being within about a -:il-
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was, shore. B-it neitrier w.:.,ilj thi., .l.i.r.r ni from the fury from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to
if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of of the sea, which ame pouring in after me aeain; and stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that
some river, where by great chance we might have run twice more I was lifted up tby thb,,- and carried at least I might save some necessary things for my
our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and per- forwards as before, the shore bcn,:i .. ry rtir use;
haps made smooth water. But there was nothing like The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal When I came down from my apartment in the tree,
this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the to mie, for the sea having hurried me along, as before, I looked about me again, and the first thing found was
shore, the land looked mbre frightful than the sea; landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, the boat, which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and that with such force, th It it le.-t mci tn.- :l and her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right
And a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain- indeed helpless, as to my bcrc .i:!. ian.:r.; :.r the blow hand; I walked as far as I could ili..u the shore to
like, came rolling Astern of us, and plainly bade us taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of water
quite out of my body; and had it returned again imme- .between me and the boat which was about half a mile
diately, I must have been strangled in the water; but ,broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent
-Ir !, r, ,'..- ered a little before the return of the waves, and upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find some-.
S-einj I should be covered again with the water, I re- thing for my present subsistence.
-. t .ld to hold fast by a piece df the rock, and so to hold Alittle after noon,I found the sea very i:imu. s:,u tlb
r ty br.:ath, if possible, till the wave went back, Now, tide ebbed so far out that I could come v.hri 2 ..lurrtii
a 1i1s the waves were not so high as at first, being nearer of a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh re-
F ~. jnd, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then newing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had
I et.:hl another run, which brought me so near the kept on board, we had been all safe-this is to say, we
Ihor.:. that the next wave, though it went over me, yet had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so
,ii- not so swallow me iup as to carry me away; and the miserable as to be left destitute of all com-
n, x run I took, I got to the main lia 1, b.h-ri. to my fort and company, as I o.:,i w s. This forced tears
IcIt o.:mfortj Ii ,l.ul:,re.1 up il- cll'f .:.f tbhe shore, to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that,
ui.i sE.t me dbwn IupLn the' gr ,,. tlie from danger and I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship ; so I pulled off
qu,;t.: of the reach of the water. my clothes, for tb~ iwa lt r :r.; hot to extremity, and
I wis now landed, and safe on shore, anid began to took to theater. But when I came to the ship, my
:k' 'i p and thank C..1l thtit iy life was saved, in a: case difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board;
S .e-re-an there was. 'o:.'u- nijiat'i -f..ce, scarce any for, as she lay ,,gri.ui,, c.1 high out of the water,there
r. .:.a tlo h.liF. I believe it is imp.:..l.l t, express, to was nothing irtbL. bi.y r.-a:.b to lay hold of. I swam
t lie-. wLthat the ecstasies and transports of the soul round her twice, and the second t.ue I spied a small
ar., bhrn it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very piece of rope, which I wondered I 'IlI1 not -..: at first,
grave' : ir,.] T do not wonder now at the custom, when hung down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great
5a malifa'tor:.. who has the hl. r bc.. i hi .n.k, i. t .i Liffi l.:U I ..t .:.i ofir ri .- lb. th.. l .t that rcpe
lip. anr,. Ijut ,,rog to be tirn..oid c., aonl Lb a rt r;i..T I .:lt ."p r., ,i.:i- .; th.. 1 I tt:. ij,. tHie Ifound
iroight to him-I say, I do not wonder that they tr h:ot th.: i ip v.-:. ti.'i.:i, jt .i L, a i t d.ia of water
bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that vdry Io br I, il. ,but thit -i-be !y z..- c.u th.: i..le of a bank
m ' they tell him of it, that the surprise may not to b ri -i,i, i :' r rrle. i .11, Ith t I-hr et..r lay lifted
'drive the animal spirits from the heart, and over- up upor itb. bani:. u.i1 hir l, i:. li- to the
hElm after. By thit inon all !,r Vrat er.:, o -, and all
d up in a. o in that was ;u tbit Iart lv.. ni r .:.-r i. iv i.a suremy
For suddenjoys, like griefs, oyth .D r tI t U :t first work was to search, and ti., s: I ult was spoiled
and what was free. And, first, I found that ill the
I walked ib, nt :h u tb- r.i'r.e 1ftina Iai' .a I "h p'" tr:i si.:.; n-r, "l.ny i ILco.'. l wlk ip- ini ..c
an.l t wh ld beni, ts I Iand -,6 w U.1 c .in a conii :nl hetg tr. oI u--'n:.itii t.... t. Lt. ar c it te .- i-iid-
tmp t i! ti;'n ,f rn,\ i~i rra .:,: ; n.eI.l : : tli:.u r Iar. rou,. :on tfid mi p,..:.. l:, ..l ;n lt t I..:u;r. na d eat itas
g-tur,. and vugti, p:,uns, [ Ie. I bcau ,,t l.f.,r m,, h:" t.I 8E.t- I "wrent a-.,,,at other tlhin~_~. f..r I I-_.i ,,,:, r;. ,-t to lose. I
o'a upon all gn s ca I w .l..: that wei re otn.rl, an.i t bat 'il- found Er'tnl truni tr h r.irt r, n.,i f vi which I took
ei r.- boul d n.:it i- one soul arcc ...j burt i. -.; if : zfor. I i i ,r._- irtr., r 0.. bi. I L .I ul,.. ,- ,u.:.I. enough of
I t 1:. I ,r th~u,, I no ier caw them altri rwa.jr-, ,:r arv 6i.;u -ir to:I cSlrit r.- lr wi Lt e iii.. t.e i.:.. N. ysw I wanted
tI. :, exceptt three of their hats,oue ue and ti.:wo so u.t u in:.t ut a blaet 1 :. tisrt :h l up z,: t I. itl ib any things
thanth I dt"rfc o. t fi 1 n IJ. ibpr I lf..rc.L. 'i.u tI.l V I.- ,..,e. h" le e.
aI :at r wv r-t t tehe straedJ red elI wu bnt it I-r f.-nh it %was in in0 to Cit s;tll :, tr tlat was not
CRUSOE OLIMIBS INTO'THE WRECIK DY T1E r0rrT.TEiiH I,. and froth of t'b- 6-a being so b;ig, I o.,.ld rdily .i it. to ibe hanl au tie ek .:m;ty roused my application.
it lay so far off;, nd considered, Lord' b w was t 'W. bha. ~,-,trl sle are s...,o .t -.....r tlr ilrtg r
possible I could get on shore? .:.t :.'I, ao i a [r. t,-.'.' ... t;i u t, l hi I
expect the coup de grdce. In a word, it took us with After I had solaced my s Luil with the comfortable resolved to fall t... k w.t t these :, n. I tl ,iu a u ,..
such a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and part of my, I began to look rbund' me, to see of them overboard as I could ma:,:,a: t.:.r i t. Ii v.: i-j i.,
separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, what kind' f t'lae- I was in, and what was next to be I,;,g tV, ..e .a with a rope, that they =:;i t not drive
gave us not time to say, "O God!" for we were all done.: and I soon found my comforts aat.t; .,il tlhIt .,i 'v. W,..i tlb.- a. -Lone, I went ..:1-u the ship's
swallowed up in a moment. in a word, I had a dreadful d.lii: r nliu : I r. s wr. i. i, and i .ilil, tl. mi to me, I tied four of them
No.thiuig an describe the confusion of thought which had no iel tei to shift me, nor anything itbhr t.:, th-- =r ir .,tI as well as I could, in the form
I felt, tr i-en I sunk into the water; for though. swam or drink to comfort me; neither did I ;r any pro -r... t of a rai. -nd ]1 'r, ti: or three short pieces of plank
very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the beforeme, bot that of perishiig- with bun,i;., or L.-i.n, upon tbin ,rei.:-vni-. I foundd I could walk upon itvery
waves so as to draw breath,till that wave having driven .1.:voeur,..1 by ild beasts; and thatwhiic was pwar tilarcl .-Il. but that it h .- u.. to- bear u, greri ,:;iigi.
me, or rather carried me, a vast way on ftorards the afflti:t;ling tI e was, that I had no vr. pu.. ;rtbr t toe pieces tue.:, iujht, S6, I went to work, n.1 v-th
shore, and having spent itself, Went back, and left me hunt anid kill any creature for miy sir; ... ,..r t:o a carp:t.r' s"i.w I ut a spare top-mrast into three
upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the Water defend myself against any other creatre ri,t lcUrtbs. an.l I.. ..i tb ,it to my r.,F with a great de&.!
I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as ..ii a &;re to kill mie for -vbrs. In a wor-i, I h ,..1 ,itbing of I-., ,.,ir o,1 r.Io ,. li..t the L.- .:.ft furnishing myself
breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the main land raI :.ut me out a lh Li& a t.aL, and a little tobacco with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I
than I expected, I got upon my feet, and o n-lena:urlJ in a box,. This .'as all muy pr1:.ri.;aoc: sud this threw should have been able to have done upon .auuttsr
to make on towards the land as fast as I .ould. before re into terrible agonies of l,,,a,1, tbrt for a rI-L;1. T r, n c.. vision .
another wave should return and take me up gain; but about like a madinan. Night coming up..u tn.-. I b-cn. My raft was now Otroano enough to iear any ri.a.-i-
I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw with a heavy hear, to consider what -c:,u 1. my ,t i -,Ih: weight. MIly next care was what to load it wtL.,
the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as if there were any ravenous beasts in tiat coIntry, as at 'o,1 how to pr,- ...-, what I laid upon it from the
furious as an enemy, which I had a.'. r c.ans or strength night they always come abroad for their prey. surf of the c-a: bti I was not long (.:.u ;-i. i; i II,.
t6 contend with: y business was t:., h.ld my breath, All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that I first laid all the plank or board ; up..u it that .I ,ou
and raise myself upon the water, if I ci',lJ: a on s&i, time, was to get up into a thick iullihy tr.e IeLa a fir,- get, and having considered well ib .t I most wanted, I
1.5y I, m;uin.t.. pr -.4er~e mybreathing noa1 pfRit mySelf but thorny, Which grew near me, nil I resolved first. got three of the seamen's chests, which I had,-, the Abor, if possible, my greatest concern now to sit all night, and c.:o,;;'t r the next vY w''hat death broken open and emptied, and lowered -l .:a i.. upi.:o
bding, that the sea, as it would carry nime a great way I hbuld die, for as yrt I r'w t n., pri,ref,.-t of life. I my raft; the first of these I filled with r.r.%.iti.:'ri, Iz.
towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me walked about a furlong from the shliore, to see if I bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five .i. ",.- .f ,il.!
bacitk again with it when it gave back towards the sea. could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my goat's flesh (which we lived much up"c I a" i LIttkl


remainder of European corn, which had been laid by
for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley
and wheat together; but, to my great disappointment,
I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it
all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles
belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to
put then into the chest, nor any room for them. While
I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though
very calm; and I had the mortification to see my coat,
.shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore, upon
the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which were
only linen, and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them
and my stockings. However, this set me on rummag-
ing for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I- wanted for present use, for I had other
things which my eye was more upon-as, first, tools to
work with on shore. And it was after long searching
that I found out the carpenter's chest, which was, indeed,
a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than
a ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I
got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for I knew in general what it
-My next care was for some ammunition and arms.


There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first, with some
powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I kner- tih.1i -v'ire tree barrels of powder in
the ship, but ku:-. not whlir... our gunner had stowed
them; but with nouel se-rrch I found them,two of them
dry and g.:..:., he- thir.l taken water. Those.two I
got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought
myself fprt try ,ei frYilt..., and began to think how I
-.-:.i1. c.:t t.:. -h...r. w ih t1. ii, having neither sail, oar,
.:," i I..i.l..r; and the least, cap-full of wind would have
overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm sea;
2ndly, the tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3rdly,
what little wind there was 1-1a u11 towards the land.
And thus, having found two or three broken oars
belonging to the boat-and, besides the tools which were
in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer:
with this cargo I put to sea. For mile, or thereabouts,
my raft %v-.n vr.ry wv,.U. iuly that I found it drive a little.
distant frn:m Ihe pl ,-i I Lid landed before; by
which I p.r-rc'-:.- that thre- wa-s some indraft of the
uwatr,, r, .3 ,:*jo--..*lU.etly. I hb:.optl to find some creek
..r rirvr there, wbi.:h I roir-ht makli use of as a port to
get to lanl with nim .arg.:.
Aj I imagd;u-d, 6:. t ;-.-_. Tb..r.- appeared before me
a little opening of the land, and I found a strong current

of the fide set into it; so I j.-I._l.J my rat, as well as I
could, to keep in the middle of thi stream.
But here I had like-to have suffered a second ship-
wreck, which, if I. had, I think, verily, would have
broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast,
my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and
not being aground at the other end, it wanted but a
little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end
that was afloat, and so fallen into-the water. I did my
utmost, by setting iy back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft,
with.all my strength; neither durst I stir from the
posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; and, a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with
the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up
higher, I at length found nlyself in the mouth of a
little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current
of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven
too high up the river: hoping, in time, to see some ship
at sea, and therefore resolved to place .myself as near the
coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of
the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I

,=-- -^_-

"- r


guided my raft, and at last got so near, that, reaching
ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in.
But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into
I .L.- 'e' a ,;, for that shore lying pretty steep-that
is to say, sloping-there was no plac6 to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would
endanger my cargo again; All that I could do, was to
wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft
with my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast
to the shore, near aflat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; .and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough-for my raft drew about a foot of
water-I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground,
and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one
end, and one on the other side, near the other end; and
thus I lih till the water ebbed away, and left my raft
and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view. the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow my
goods to secure them from whatever might happen.
Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent
or on an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited;
whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a
hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills,

which lay as ni a ridge from it, northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a
horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for dis-
covery up to the top, of that hill, where, after. I had
with great labour and difficulty got to the top, I saw
my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was in an
island environed every way with the sea: no land to be
seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and
two small islands, les than this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and,
as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited except by
wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none. Yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither
when I killed them could I tell what was fit for food,
and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had
been fired there since the creation of the world. I had
no sooner fired, than from all parts of the wood there
arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts,
making a confused screaming and crying, and every one
according to his usual note, but not one of them of any
kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling
it, but it had no talons or claws more than common.
Its flesh -aes carrion. and fit for nothing.


Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which
took me up-the rest of that day. What to do with
myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest,
for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing
but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I
afterwards found, there was really no need for those
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought on
shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's 1l:,,l;i,,
As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply ,i3 it.
except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares,
run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I nii hl t yet get a great
many things out of the ship which would be useful to
m-. 'au.i .prtieularly some of the rigging a'.l s-il and
:u'hl ortl'r things as rai'clt co.nm, t.. lind; and I resolved
to. ma k.:- 'mother voyage on board the vessel, if possible.
And as I knew that the first storm that blew must
necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart till I had got everything out of the
ship that I could get. Then I called a council-that is
to say, in nmy th:,l_-Its--li h- .t ,r I should take back the
raft; brt this iiupracticbi:. so I resolved to
go as before, when the tide was down; and I did so,
only that I stripped before I went from my hut, having


nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before
and a pair of pumps on my feet. my cargo, it -was a great part of it lost, especially the the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its
SI got on board the ship as before, and prepared a iron, which I expected would have been of great use to semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its
second raft; and, having had experience of the first, I me: however, when the tide was out, I. got most of diameter, from its beginning and ending.
neither made this so- unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though In this half-circle I pitched two rows-of strong stakes,
but yet I brought away several things very useful to with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the driving them into the ground till they stood very firm
me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or water, a work which fatigued me very much. After like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above
three bags full of nails, and spikes, a great screw-jack, this, I went every day on board, and brought away what five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most I could get. rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in
together with several things belonging to the gunner, eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had the ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another, within
particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of brought away all that one pair of hands could well be the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the
musket bullets, seven muskets, another fowling-piece, supposed capable to bring; though I believe' verily, top, placing otherstakes in the inside, leaning against
with some small quantity of powder more; a large had the calm weather held, I should have brought them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a
bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but away the whole ship, piece by piece. But preparing post; and this fence was' so strong, that neither man
this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me a
over the ship's side. began to risa: however, at low water I went on board, great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the pil_-
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes and though I thought I had rummaged, the cabin so in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive -.h.m
that I could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, effectually, that nothing more could be found, yet I into the earth.
and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which The entrance into this placeI made to be, not by a door,
raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very I found two or three razors, and one pair of large but by a short ladder to -go over the top; which ladder,
great comfort, scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was
I was under some apprehension, during my absence forks : in another I found about thirty-six pounds value completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
from the land, that at least my provisions might be in money-some European coin, some Brazil, some the world, and consequently slept secure in the night,
devoured on shore: but when I came back, I found no pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it
sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: O appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
wild cat, upon one of the' chests, which, when I came drug!" said I, aloud, what art thot good for? Thou caution from the enemies that I apprehended .danger
towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood art not worth to me-no, not the taking off the ground: from.
still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be ac- manner of use for thee-e'en remain where thou art, carried all ihy riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
quainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but, as and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not and stores, of which you have the account above; and
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned worth saving." However, upon second thoughts, I I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the
at it, nor did she offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed took it away; and, wrapping all this in a piece of can- rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there,
her a bit of biscuit; though, by the way, I was not very vas, I began to think of making another raft; but I made double, one smaller tent within, and one larger
free of it, for my store was not great: however, I while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large
spared her a bit, I say, and. she went to it, smelled at and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails,
it, and ate it, and looked (as if pleased) for more ; but it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently oc- And now I more for a while in the bed which
I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she marched curred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was
off. with the wind off shore ; and that it was my business indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of
Having got my second cargo on 'shore,-though I was to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I the ship.
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks,-I I let myself down into the water, and swam across the thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus
went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, channel/which lay between the ship and the sands, and inclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which
and some poles which I cut for that purpose f and into even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as
this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness I said, by a short ladder.
either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and When I had done this, I began to work my way into
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to before it was quite high water it blew a storm, the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I
fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from 'man But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, dug down out through my tent, I laid them up within
or beast. with:all my wealth about me, very secure. It blew Very my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of 'the haid :all night, and in the morning, whek I looked out, the ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I
tent with some boards w:thio, and an empty chest set behold no more ship was to be seen t I was a little sur: made me a cave, just'behind my tent, which served me
up on end without; and spreading one of the beds upon prised, but recovered myself with the satisfactory reflec- like a cells1 to my house.
the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and tion, that I had lost no'time, nor abated any diligence, It cost mne much about and many days before all
my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first to get everything out of her that.could be useful to me; these things were brought to perfection; and, therefore,
time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was I must go back to some other things which took up some
weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept able'to bring away, if I had had more time. of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after
little, and had laboured very hard all day, to fetch I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and
all those things from the ship, and to get them on of aijything out of her, except what might drive on making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a
shore, shore from her wreck;. as, indeed, divers pieces of her thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened,
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that aftetWards did; but those things were of small use to pnd after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not me. the effect of it. I was not so inuch surprised with the
satisfied still, for while the ship sat upright in that My thoughts were now wholly employed about lightning, as I was with a thought which darted into my
posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her securing 'myself against either savages, if any should mind as swift as the lightning itself-O my powder
that I could: so every day at low water I went on appear, dr wild beasts, if any were in the island; and My very heart sank within me when thought that, at
board, and brought away something or other; but I had ":any thoughts of the method how to do this, one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which,
particularly the third time I went, I brought away as and'wliat kind of dwelling to malfe-whether I should not my defence only, but the providing my food, as I
much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small make; me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare and,. in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and anxious about, my own danger, though, had the powder
canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and description of which, it may not be improper to give an took fire, I should neveo have known who had hurt'
the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought account of. me. I
away all the sails first and last; only that I was fain to 'I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my Such inmpressiorn did this make upon me, that after
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I settlement, because it was upon a low, moorish ground, the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, mybuild-!
could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as near the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome, ing and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and
mere canvas only. and'more particularly because there was no fresh water boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little
But that which comforted me more still, was, that near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and more and a little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever might
last of all, after I-had made five or six such voyages as convenient spot of ground. come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it
these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from I consulted several things in my situation, which I so apart, that it should possible to make one part
the ship that was worth my meddling with;-I say, found would be proper for me: 1st, health and fresh fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight;
after all this,.Ifound a great hogshead of bread, three water, I just now mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from the and I think my powder, which in all was about two
large r.m,:I i r'F im, or spirits, and a box of sugar, heat of the sun; 3rdly, security from ravenous creatures, hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided into not
and a ir.:i of t... flour: this was surprising to me, whether mas or beast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if less than a hundred parcels; As to the barrel that had
because I had given over expecting anymore provisions, God -sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advant- been wet, I did not apprehend any. danger from that;
except what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied age for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I
the hogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel banish all my expectation yet. called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in
by parcel, in pieces ..f tibc jis, which I cut out; and, In search of a place proper for this, I found a little holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
in a word, I got all tie .af-e '-. shore also. plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards marking very carefully where I laid it.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that no- In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
having plundered the ship of what was portable and thing could come down upon me from the top. On the out once at least every day with my gun, as well, to
fit to hand out, I began with the cables. Cutting the side of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a little divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for
great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with
cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I was not really any cave, or way into the rock at all. what the island produced. The first time I went out, I
could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, presently discovered that there were goats in the island,
the mizen-yar.l, ,-l er--"ything I could, to make a I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
large raft, I 1.:..I-.d it rit! all these heavy goods, and a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay attended with this misfortune to me, viz. that they were
came away. r' t nyi g.-'..lI luck began now to leave like a green before my door; and, at the end of it,-de- so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the
me; for this r.. It wa, .:.' unwieldy, and so overladen, scendedirregularly everyway down into the low ground most difficult thing in the world to come at them; but
that, after I had entered the little cove where I had by the sea-side. It was on the NN.W. side of the hill; I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might
landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after
so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this
and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it those countries, is near the setting. manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the


valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feed-
ing in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took
no notice of me; from whence I concluded,.that by the
position of their optics, their sight was so directed down-
ward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them;( so afterwards, I took this method,-I
always climbed the rocks first,.to get above them, and
then had'frequently a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a
she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave
suck to, which grieved me heartily; for, when the old
one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the
old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed
me quite to my inclosure; upon which,.I laid down the
dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over
my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it
would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and eat it
myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my
bread especially, as much as I possibly could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel
to burn; and what I did for that, and also how I en-
larged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall
give a full account of in its place; but I must now give
some little account of myselfand of my thoughts about
living, which,it may well be.supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition for, as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as
is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, viz. some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of man-
kind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination
of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this deso-
late manner, I should end my life. The tears would run
plentifully down my face when I made these reflec-
tions; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself
why Providence should thus: completely ruin His crea-
tures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so
without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it
could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and parti-
cularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand by
the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my
present condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated
with me the other way, thus: "Well, you are in a deso-
late condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where
are the rest of you? Did not you.come eleven of you
in the boat ? Where are the ten ? Why were not they
saved, and you lost? Why were you singled out? Is
it better to be here or there ? And then I pointed to
the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good
that is in them, and with what worse attendsthem.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case
if it had not happened (which was a hundred thousand
to one) that the ship floated from the place where she
first struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I
had time to get all these things out of her; what would
have been my case,if I had been forced to have lived in
the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and' procure
them ? "Particularly," said I aloud (though to myself),
"what should I have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make anything,or to
work with, without clothes, bedding,, a tent, or any
manner of covering? and that now I had all these in
sufficient quantity, and' as in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live without my gun,
when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a toler-
able view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I
lived; for I considered from the beginning, how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the
time that was to come,, even not only after my ammuni-
tion should be spent, but even after my health and
Strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my
ammunition being destroyed at one blast-I mean my
powder being blown up by lightning; and this made
the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened
and thundered, as I observed' just now..
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of
a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard
of in the world before, I shall take it from its begin-
ning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my
account, the 30th of September, when, in the manner
as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island;
When the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head': for I reckoned myself, by
observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-
two minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten' or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I sliouldlose myreckoning
of time for want of books, and pen and'ink, and should
even forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and

making it into a great cross, I set up on the shore where
I first landed, I came on shore here on the 30th of
September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as
long again as the rest, and every first day of the month,
as long again as that long one; and thus I kept my
calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of
In the next place, we are to observe that among the
many things which I brought out of the ship, in the
several voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made to
it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less
useful to me, which I omitted setting down before; as,
in particular, pens, ink, and paper;. several parcels in
the captain's, mate's,.gunner's, and carpenter's keeping;
three or fout compasses, some mathematical instru-
ments, dials, perspectives, charts, aid books of naviga-
tion; all which I huddled together, whether I might
want them or no: also, I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which
I had packed up among my things; some Portuguese
books also; and, among them, two. or three Popish
prayer-books, and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in
the ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent history
I may have occasion to say something in its place; for
I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore
to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years;. I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me; I only wanted to,have him
talk to me, but that .would not do.. As I observed
before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my
ink lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and
of these, ink was one; as also a spade, pick-axe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and
thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want that without
much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily; and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded my habi-
tation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I
could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods,and more, by farjin bringing home;
so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home- one of those posts, and a third lay in
driving it' intb the ground; for which purpose, Igot a
heavy piece of wood at first, but -at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows; which, however,
;though I fond it, made driving those posts or piles
very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have
been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ? nor had I any
other employment, if that had been over, at least that
I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for
food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and
the circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the
state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave
them to any that were to come after me-for I was
likely to have but few heirs-as to deliver my thoughts
from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind:'
and as my reason began now to master my despondency,
I.began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something
to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I
enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:-



I am, cast upon a hor- But I am alive; and not
rible, desolate island, void drowned, as all my. ship's
of all hope of recovery. company were.

I am singled out and
separated. as it were, from
all the world, to be miser-

But I am singled' out,
too, from-all the ship's
crew, to .be spared from
death; and He that mirac-
ulously saved me from
death, can deliver me from
this condition.

I am divided from man- But I am not starved,
kind-a solitaire; one ban- and perishing- on a barren
ished from human society, place, affording no susten-

I have not clothes to'
cover me.

But I am in a hot cli-
mate, where, if I had
clothes, I could hardly
wear them.

I am without any de-
fence, or means to resist
any violence of man or

I have no soul to speak
to or relieve me.

But I am cast on an is-
land where I see no wild
beasts to hurt me, as I
saw on the coast of Africa:
and what if I had been
shipwrecked there ?

But God 'wonderfully
sent the ship in near
enough to the shore, that
I have got out as many
necessary things as. will
either supply my wants or
enable me to supply my-
self, even as long as I

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony,
that there was scarce any condition in the world so
miserable but there was something negative or some-
thing positive to be thankful for in it; and let this
stand as a direction, from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world: that we may
always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I
could spy a ship-I say, giving over these things, I began
to apply myself to. arrange my way of living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside; and after some
time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters
from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to
keep out the rain; which I found at some times of the
year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I had made be-
hind me. But I must observe, too, that at first this was
a confused heap of goods, which,as they lay in no order,
so they took up all my place;. I had no room to turn
myself :-so I' set myself to enlarge my cave,.and work
farther into the earth;. for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and
so when I- found ,I was pretty safe as to beasts of
prey, I- worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock; and then,turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of
my pale orfortification. This gave me not only egress and
regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my
storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods..
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, particularly
a chair and a table; for without these I was not able to
enjoy the few comforts I had in the world; I could not
write or eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure
without a table: so I went to work. And here I must
needs observe, that as reason is the substance and origin
of.the mathematics, so by stating and squaring every-
thing by reason, and by making the most rational judg-
ment of things, every man may be, in time, master of
every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and con-
trivance, I found, at last, that I want.-,] i...ti.,n but I
could have made it, especially if I had had tools.
However, I made abundance of things, even without
tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a
hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way before,
and that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted
a board, P had no other way but to cut down a tree, set
it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side
with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a plank,
and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this
method I could make but one board out of a whole tree;
but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more
than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour
which it took me up to make a.plank or board: but my
time or' labour was little worth, and so it was as well
employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short
pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship.
But when I had wrought out some boards as above, I
made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half,
one over another all along one side of my cave, to lay all
my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to
separate everything at large into their places, that I
might come easily at them. I knocked pieces into the
wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that
would hang up: so that, had my cave been to be seen,
it looked like'a general magazine of all necessary things;
and tI hadeverything so ready at my hand, that it was a
great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order,
and especially to find my stock of all- necessaries so


And now it was that I began to keep a journal of
every day's,employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in
too much hurry, and not only hurry as to labour, but in
too much discomposure of mind; and my journal would
have been full of many dull things; for example, I must
have said thus: Sept. 30th.-After I had got to shore,
and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to
God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the
great quantity of salt water which had got into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the
shore wringing my hands and beating my head and face,
exclaiming at my misery, and crying out,' I was undone,
undone!' till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down
on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of
being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board
the ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could
not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain,
and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then
fancy, at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself
with the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily, till
I was almost blind,lose it quite, and sit down and weep
like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure,
and having settled my household stuff and habitation,
made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about
me as I could, I began to keep my journal; of which I
shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told
all these particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for
having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

September 30, 1659.-1, poor, miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in
the offing, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate


island, which I called The Island of Despair; all the
rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself
almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at
the dismal circumstances I was brought to; viz. I
had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly
to; and,,in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me- either that I should be devoured by wild
beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for
want of food. At the approach of night I slept in a
tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great sur-
prise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and was
driven on shore again much nearer the island; which, as
it was some comfort, on one hand-for, seeing her set
upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food
and necessaries out of her for my relief-so, on the
other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my com-
rades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board,
might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would
not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had
the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a
boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to
some other part of the world. I spent great part of this
day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the
sand as near as I could, and then'swam on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th.-All these days
entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship, which I brought on shore every tide of
flood upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though
with some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this
was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had

got upon it; but, being in shoal water, and the things frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder: As
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of
tide was out. powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
Oct 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some might not be in danger.
gusts of wind; during which time the ship broke in Nov, 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making
pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before, and little square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a
was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and so,
that only at low water. I spent this day in covering putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure
and securing the goods which I had saved, that the r~.un n. r, m...te from one another as possible. On one of
might not spoil them. It ,: L t Lr,.: days, I killed- a large bird that was good to
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into
to secure myself from any attack in the night, either the rock, to make room for my further conveniency.
from wild beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon Note.-Three things I wanted exceedingly for this-
a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semi- work; viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or
circle form encampment; which I resolvedto strengthen basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to
with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, consider how to supply that want, and make me some
lined within with cables, and without with turf. tools. As for the pickaxe,;I made use of the iron crows,
From the 26th to 30th, I worked very hard in carrying which were proper enough, though heavy: i.u t hu: t
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of thing was a shovel, or spade; this was ib abi.iutIly
the time it rained exceedingly hard. necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing rf uft.iajy
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island without it; but what kind of one to make I knew
with my gun, to see for some food, and discover the not.
country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I
me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it found a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the
would not feed. Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hard-
November 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay ness. Of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling
there for the first night; making it as large as I could, my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon. difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The-
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them other way, made me a long while upon this machine,
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had for I worked it effectually by little and little into the
marked out for my fortification. form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two like ours in England, only that the board part having no
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so
afternoon went to work to make me a table, long; however, it served well enough for the uses which
I had occasion to put it to;. but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long in making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means,
Shaving no such things as twigs that would bend to make
wicker-ware-at least, none yet found out; and as to
a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the
wheel; but that I .had no notion of; neither did I
know how to go aboutit.; besides I had no possible way
to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the
__ wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying
-. away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me
a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar in
when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so
difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this
and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain
-to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less that four
days-I mean always excepting my morning walk with
my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed
also bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still,
-- because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on, and working every day, as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days en-
UP A POST. tirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it might
hold my goods commodiously.
Note.-During all this time, I worked to make this
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and
time of diversion; viz. every morning I walked out a cellar. As for my lodging, I kept to the tent; except
with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained
then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused
then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve till me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale
two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessively with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against
hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
working part of this day and of the next were wholly trees, like a thatch.
employed in making my table, for I was yet but a very December 10.-I began now to think my cave or vault
sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too
complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top
would do any one else. and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me-
Nov. 5.-This day, went abroad with my gun and my and not without reason, too, for if I had been under it,
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her I had never have wanted a grave-digger. I had now.
flesh good for nothing; every creature that I killed I a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the
took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more im-
by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which portance, I had the'ceiling to prop up, so that I might
I did not understand; but was surprised, and almost be sure no more would come down.
frightened, with two or three seals, which, while I was Dec. 11.-This day I went to work with it accordingly,
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top,
sea, and escaped me for that time. with two pieces of boards across over each post; this I
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work finished the next day; and setting more posts up with
with my table again, and finished it, though not to my boards, in a about a week more I had the roof secured,
liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it. and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The to part off the house. .
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves,
was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything
with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but up that could be hung up; and now I began to be- in
never to please me; and even in the making I pulled it some order within doors.
in pieces several times. Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and
Note.-I soon neglected my keeping Sundays ; for, began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
was which, boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me me another table.'
exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accom- Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day. No stirring
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which out.


Dec. 25.-Rain all day.-
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than
before and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another so
that I caught it and led it home in a string; when I
had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg,
which was broke.
IT.B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the
leg grew well and as strong as ever; but, by my
nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the
little green at my door, and would not go away. This
was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have
food when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.-Great heats, and no breeze, so
that there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening,
for food; this time I spent in putting all my things in
order within doors.
January 1.-Very hot still: but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the
day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which
lay towards the centre of the island, I found there were
plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to
come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring
my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mis-
taken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and
he knew his danger too well, for he would not come
near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved
to make very thick and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 3rd of
January to the 14th of April working, finishing, and
perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about
twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle, from
one place in: the rock to another place, about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks' together; but I
thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall
was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressi-
ble labour everything was done with, especially the
bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into
the ground; for I made them much bigger than I
need to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-
fenced, with aturf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded
myself that if any people were to come on shore there,
they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and
it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter,
upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day when the rain permitted me, and made
frequent discoveries in these walks of something or
other to my advantage; particularly, I found a kind of
wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree,
but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks;
and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed
them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older
they flew away, which perhaps was at first for want of
feeding them, for I had nothing to give them; however,
I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the
managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting
in many things, which I thought at first it was impos-
sible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it
was: 'for instance, I could never make a cask to be
4akoped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed
before; but I could never arrive at the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about
it; I could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so
true to one another as to make them hold water; so I
gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a great
loss for candles; so that as soon as ever it was dark,
which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to
go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax with
which I made candles in my African adventure; but I
had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with
a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to
which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a
lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it
happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little
bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn
for the feeding of poultry-not for this voyage, but
before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
The little remainder of corn that had been in the bag
was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the
bag but husks and dust; and being willing to have the
bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder
in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some
such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one
side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now men-

tioned that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice,
and not so much as, remembering that I had thrown
anything there, when, about a month after, or there-
abouts, I saw some few stalks of something green
shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I
saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our European
-nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and con-
fusion of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto
acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had
very .few notions of religion in my head, nor had
entertained any sense'of anything that had befallen me,
otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what
pleases God, without so much as inquiring-into the end
of Providence in these things, or His,order in governing
events for the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for
corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there,
it startled me strangely, and I began to suggest that
God had miraculously caused His grain to grow without
any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed
purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out
of my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a
prodigy of nature should happen upon my account; and
this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it
still, all along by the side of the rock, some other
straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa;
when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of
Providence for my support, but, not doubting that there
was more in the place, I went all over that part of the
island where I had been before, peering in every corner,
and under every rock, to see for more of it, but I could
not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts, that
I shook a bag of chickens' meat out in that place; and
then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess,
my religious thankfulness to God's providence began
to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common: though I ought to have
been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a provi-
dence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was really
the work of Providence to me, that should order or
appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain
unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest,-as
if it had been dropped from heaven; as also that I should
throw itout in that particular place, where, it being'in
the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately;
whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that time,
it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be
sure, in their season, which was about the end of June;
and, laying up every corn, I resolved to sow ti-m il
again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity, -ii-,j.. l ,
to supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth
year that I could allow myself the least grain of this
corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say
afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the
first season, by not observing the proper time; for I
sowed it just before the dry season,, so that it never
came up at all, at least not as it would have done; of
which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same
care and for the same use, or to the same purpose-to
make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook
it without baking, though I did that also after some time.
But to return to my Journal:-
I worked excessively hard these three or four months,
to get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it
up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the
wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the
outside of my habitation.
April 16-I finished the ladder; so I went up the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and
let it down in the inside. This was a complete inclosure
to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing
could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labour overthrown at once, and
myself killed. The case was thus:-As I was busy in
the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my
cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful
surprising thing indeed; for, all on a sudden, I found
the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts I had set up in' the cave cracked in a
frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought
nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking
that the top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had
done before: and for fear I should be buried in it, I ran
forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe
there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces
of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me.
I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground,

than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the
ground I stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have
overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood on the earth ; and a great piece of the top
of a rock which stood about half a mile from me next
the sea fell down, with such a terrible noise as I never
heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was
put into violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks
were stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having
never felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that
had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and the
motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one
that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of
the rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from
the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror;
and Ithought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my
tent and all my household goods, and burying all at once;
and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not
heart enough to go over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All
this while, I had not the least serious religious thought;
nothing but the common Lord, have mercy upon me!"
and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain. -Soon after that, the wind
arose by little and little, so that in less than half an
hour it blew a most dreadfulhurricane; the sea was all
on a sudden covered over with foam and froth; the
shore was covered with the breach of the water; the
trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it
was. This held about three hours, and then began to
abate: and in two hours more it was quite calm, and
began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the
ground, very much terrified and dejected; when on a
sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and
rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought, my
spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to
persuade me, I went in and sat down in my tent. But
the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be
beaten down with it; and I was forced'to go into my
cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it
should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to
a new work, viz. to cut a hole through my new fortifica-
tion, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would
else have flooded my cave. After I had been in my
cave for some time, and found still no more shocks of
the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed.
And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted
it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small
sup of rum; which, however, I did then and always very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was
gone. It continued raining all that night, and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad:
but my mind being more composed, I began to think of
what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was
subject to these earthquake-, thb.:.- -I...-l.. 1.L., u1 l;, g
for me in a cave, but I must ...:.-r.J.-. .f' Il'ui.lin a little
hut inan openplace, which I n.1;li I:ILr!':.uulI v.\itha wall,
as I had done here, and so bi.1I,. ni:lf -,ii~.i rr.-.n w i'l
beasts or men; for I conclul-. it I sl ay:.1i -i.rl:- I was,
I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent
from the place where it stood, which was just under the
hanging precipice of the hill; and which, if it should be
shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent; and I
spent the two next days, being the 19th and 20:b cf
,April, in contriving where and how to remove my iL .i-
tation. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me
that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of
lying abroad without any fence was almost equal to it;
but still, when I looked about, and saw how everything
was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and
how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.
In the mean time, it occurred to me that it would re-
quire a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I
must be contented to venture where I was, till I had
formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to
remove to it. So with this resolution I composed my-
self for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with
all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in
a circle, as before, and set up my tent in it, when it was
finished; but that I would venture to stay where I was
till it was finished, and fit to remove. This was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve into execution; but I was at
a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians); but with much chopping
and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of
notches and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I
could not tirn it and grind my tools too. This cost me
as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed
upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life

I _


and death of a man. At length, I contrived a wheel May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have shore, at a great distance, near two miles off me, but
both my hands at liberty, resolved to see what they were, and found it was a piece
Novr.-I had never seen any such thing in England, or of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
at least not to take notice how it was done, though since M3ay 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the
I have observed it is very common there; besides that, wreck; and with hard labour I loosened some things so
my grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine much with the crow, that the first blowing tide several'
cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection. casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
grinding my tools, my machine for turningmy grindstone that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which
performing very well. had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the
.i :, il1J I,- l.r.i"-i .Imybread had been lowa sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day
grci- I nli, i..' I t...i .. j ii- y of it, and reduced myself to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get
.to onebiscuit-cakeaday,whichmademyheartveryheavy. food, which I always appointed, during this part of my
Mae, I --In Ill. ri.n ii ,l.'iii kii. i,:,.~.i Hi., .i....i. employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
thetidt I., h,. I ... I ...i ,-Ai,. tl,,, .i.. rth li..I... 1 ,.',:r ready when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had
than ic.hlir,, .ii.1 t. I.....I...i 1... ..1 ..,; .li. i, I : iir: got timber and plank and iron-work enough to have
to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of built a good boat, if I had known how; and also I got at
the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by several times and in several pieces, near one hundred-
thelate hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, weight of the sheet-lead.
I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which,
on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the
but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other
hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them
for the present, and'went on upon the sands, as near as every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had paid
I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more. dear enough for them.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in
removed. The forecastle, wliclh lay before buried in her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that
sand, was heaved uip at least six feet, and the stern, time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted
which was broke in pieces and parted from the rest by in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls,
the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging since I landed in this horrid place.
her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side; and June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I
the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern, thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was some-
that whereas there was a great place of water before, so thing chilly: which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up to had been cold.
her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head,
first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earth- and feverish.
quake; and as by this violence the ship was more broke June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the
open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore, apprehensions of my sad condition-to be sick, and no
which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and help. Prayed to God, for the first time since the storm
water rolled by degrees to the land. off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of thoughts being all confused.
removing my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, June 22.-A little better; but under dreadful appre- especially, in searching whether I could make hensions of sickness.
any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and
expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was then a violent headache.
cloked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to June 24.-Much better.
despair of anything,I resolved to pull everythingtopieces June 25.-An ague very violent: the fit held me seven
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
could get from her would be of some use or other to me. June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took
.lMay 3.-1 began with my saw, and cu a piece of a my gun, but found myself very weak. However, I
beam through, which I thought held some of the upper killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home,
part or quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have
through,I cleared away the sand as well as I could from stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed
was obliged to give over for that.time. all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to
May 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not strength to
I durst eat of, till I was weary of .my sport; when, just stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed
going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I made to God again, but was light-headed; and when I was
me a long line of some rope-yamn, but I had no hooks; not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared only I lay and cried, "Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity
to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry. me! Lord, have mercy upon me! I suppose I did
May 5.-Worked on the wreck; cut another beam nothing else for two or three hours; till, the fit wearing
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from the off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night.
decks, which I tied together, and made to float on shore When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but
when the tide of flood came on.. weak, and exceeding thirsty. However, as I had no
May 6-.-Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
out of her, and other pieces of iron-work. Worked and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had
very hard, and came home very much tired, and had this terrible dream ;-I thought that I was sitting'on
thoughts of giving it over. the ground, on the outside of mywall, where I sat when
May 7,-W-oent to the wreck again, not with an intent the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a
to work, but found the weight of the wreck had broke man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame
itself down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all over as
the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look
lay so open that I could see into it; but it was almost towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly
full of water and sand. dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When.he
May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the
t9 wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earth-
water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and quake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if
brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the it had been filled with flashes of fire. .He was no sooner
iron crow in the wreck for next day. landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me;
way into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance,
and loosened them with the crow, but could not break he spoke to me-or I heard a voice so terrible that it is
them up. I felt also a roll of English- lead, and could impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can
stir it, but it was too heavy t6 remove, say I understood, was this:-" Seeing all these things
May10-14.-Went every day to the wreck; and got have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt
a great many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and die ;"-at which words, I thought he lifted up the spear
two or three hundredweight of iron. that was in his hand to kill me.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not No one that shall ever read this account will expect
cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of that I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul
one hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it lay at this terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was
about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it
any blow to drive the hatchet. any more possible to describe the impression that
Say 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I was but a dream.
stayed so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that I had alas! no divine knowledge. What I had
the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day. received 1 .Y t U- Lao.-J instruction of my father was then

worn out by an. uninterrupted series, for eight years, of
seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with
none but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane
to the last degree. I do not remember that I all
that time, one thought that so much as tended either to
looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a
reflection upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of
soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil, had
entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our
common sailors can be supposed to be: not having the
least sense, either of the fear of God, in danger, or of
thankfulness to.God, in deliverance.
In the relating what has already past of my story,
this will be the more easily believed, when I shall add,
that through all the variety of miseries that had to this
day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of
it being the hand. of God, or that it was a just punish-
ment for my sin. My rebellious behaviour against my
father-or my present sins, which were great,-or so
much as a punishment for the general course of. my
wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition
on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as
one thought of what would become of me, or one wish
to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me
from the danger which apparently surrounded mie, as
well from voracious creatures as cruel savages.. But I
was merely thoughtless of a God or a Providence, acted
like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by
the dictates of common sense only, and, indeed, hardly
that, when I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honour-
ably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least
thankfulness in: my thoughts. When, again, I was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this
island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a
judgment. I only said to myself often, that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here; and found
all my ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was
surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and some transports
of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might
have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where
it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may
say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had
preserved me, and had singled me out to be preserved
when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful unto me. Even just
the same common sort of joy which seamen generally
have, after they are got safe ashore from a shipwreck,
which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and
forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of
my life was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on
due consideration, made sensible of my condition, how
I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of
human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of
redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,
and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all
the sense of my affliction wore off;. and I began to be
very easy, applied myself to the works proper for my
preservation and supply, and was far enough from being
afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven,
or as the hand of God against me: these were thoughts
which very seldom entered my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my
Journal, had, at first, some little influence upon me,
and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I
thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon
as ever that part of the thought was removed, all the
impression that was raised from it wore off also, as I
have noted always. Even the earthquake, though
nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more
immediately directing to the invisible power which
alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the first
fright over, but, the impression it had made went off
also. I had no more sense of God, or His judgments-
much less of the present affliction of my circumstances
being from His hand-than if I had been in the most
prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began
to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of death
came to place itself before me; when my spirits began
to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and
nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever;
conscience, that had slept so long, began to wake, and
I began to reproach myself with my past life, in which
I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked
the justice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes,
and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These
reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of
my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever
as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted
some words from me like praying to God, though I
cannot say they were either a prayer attended with
desires or with hopes: it was rather the voice of mere
fright and distress. My thoughts were confused, the
convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of-dying
in such a miserable condition raised vapours into my
head with the mere apprehension; and in these hurries
of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express.


But it was rather exclamation, such as, "Lord, what a
miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I shall
certainly die for want of help; and what will become of
me?" Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I
could say no more for a good while. In this interval
the good advice of my father came to my mind, and
presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the
beginning of this story, viz. that if I did take this
foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
recovery. "Now," said I, aloud, "my dear father's
words are come to pass; God's justice has overtaken
me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected
the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me
in a posture or station of life wherein I might have
been happy and easy; but I would neither see it myself,.
nor learn to know the blessing of it from my parents.
I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am left
to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their
help and assistance, who would have lifted me in the
world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great
for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no
help, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried out, Lord,
be my help, for I am in great distress." This was the first
prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many years.
But to return to my Journal:-
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up;
and though the fright and terror of my dream was
very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague
would return again the next day, and now was my time
to get something to refresh and support myself when
I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large
square oase-bottle.with water, and set it upon my table,
in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish
disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint
of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got
me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the
coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but
was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the
return of my distemper the next day. At night, I
-made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which
I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the shell,
and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God's blessing to, that I could remember, in my whole
life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found
myself so weak, that I could hardly carry a gun, for
I never went out without that; so I went but a little
way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon
the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these
occurred to me:-What is this earth and sea, of which
I have seen so much? Whence is it produced ? And
what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame,
human and brutal? Whence are we? Sure we are all
made by some secret power, who formed the earth and
sea, the air and sky. And who is that? Then it
followed most naturally, it is God that has made all.
Well, but then, it came on strangely, if God has made
all these things, He guides and governs them all, and
all things that concern them ; for the power that could
make all things, must certainly have power to guide
and direct them. If so, nothing can happen in the
great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge
or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He
knows that I am here and am in this dreadful condition ;
and if nothing happens without His appointment, He
has appointed all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to
my thought to contradict any of these conclusions, and
therefore it rested upon me with greater force, that
it must needs be that God had appointed all this to
befall me; thai I was brought into this miserable cir-
cumstance by His direction, He having the sole power,
not of me only, but of everything that happened in the
world. Immediately it followed,-Why has God done
this to me? What have I done to be thus used? My
conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I
had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a
voice-" Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done ?
Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thy-
self what thou hast not done ? Ask, why is it that thou
wert not long ago destroyed ? Why wert thou not
drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when
the ship was taken by the Salee man of war; devoured
by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned
here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou
ask, What have I done? I was struck dumb with
these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word
to say,-no, not to answer to myself, but rose up pensive
and sad, and walked back to my retreat, and went up
over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my
thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I.had no inclination
to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my
lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehen-
sion of the return bf my distemper terrified me very
much, it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians
take no physic but their tobacco for almost all distem-

pers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of
the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that
was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this
chest I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened
the chest, and found what I looked for, the tobacco ;
and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took
out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and
which to this time I had not found leisure or inclination
to look into. I say, I took it out, and brought both
that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to
make of the tobacco I knew not, in my distemper, or
whether it was good for it or no: but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should
hit one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and
chewed it ip my mouth, which indeed, at first almost
stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong,
and that I had not been much used to. Then I took
some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and
resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down; and,
lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my
nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear
it, as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation. In
the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and
began to read; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time;
only, having opened the book casually, the first words
that occurred to me were these, Call on me in the day
of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify
me." These words were very apt to my case, and made
some impression upon my thoughts at the time of read-
ing them, though not so much as they did afterwards;
for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound, as I
may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible
in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as the
children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to
eat, Can God spread a table in the wilderness ? so I
began to say, "Can God himself deliver me'from this
place ? -And as i b was not for many years that any hopes
appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts;
but, however, the words made a great impression upon
me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew now
late, and the tobacco -had, as I said, dazed my head so
much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning
in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night,
and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I
never had done in all my life-I kneeled down and
prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called
upon him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me.
After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I
drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which
was so strong and rank of the tobacco that I could scarcely
get it down; immediately upon this I went to bed, I
found presently it flew up into my head violently; but
I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more .till, by
the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the
afternoon of the next day-nay, to this hour I am partly
of opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and
till almost three the day after; for otherwise, I know
not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the
days of the week, as it appeared some years after I had
done; for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the
Line, I should have lost more than one day; but cer-
tainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew which
way. Be that, however, one way or the other, when
I awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and
my spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up I was
stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry ; and, in short, I had no fit the
next day, but continued much altered for the better.
This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went
abroad with my gun, but did not care to travel too far.
I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose,
and brought them home; but was not very forward to
eat them; so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs,
which were very good. This evening I renewed the
medicine, which I had supposed did me good the day
before-the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take
so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or
hold my head over the smoke : however, I was not so
well the next day, which was the first of July, as I
h6ped I should have been; for I had a little spice of the
cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways;
and dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the
quantity which I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I
did not recover my full strength for some weeks after.
While I was thus gathering strength my thoughts ran
exceedingly upon this Scripture, I will deliver thee";
and the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon
my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it; but as I was
discouraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred to
my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance
from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliver-
ance I had received, and I was, as it were made to ask
myself such questions as these; viz.: Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness-from the
most distressed condition that could be, and that was so
frightful to me ? and what notice had I taken of it?

Had I done my part? God IlJ 1 llJ...:I ri. ni. Lbut I b .l
not glorified Him-that is to say, I had not owned and
been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could
I expect greater deliverance ? This touched my heart
very much; and immediately I knelt down, and gave
God thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.
July 4.-In the morning, I took the Bible; and, begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it,
;,U.l iitl':'.-..'1 lq.'u myr'.: t.: A.:.d a while every morn-
iu; .u.J .. ri. uilht; ir..t t ,i; L: myself to thenumber of
.!i.t,:i ,. b,,t ds iong a u.;, t Iioughts should engage me.
it .vi uD:.t Iu' atter I E..t ,l- i.,lsly to this work, till I
:.. a. I my more Jic. p!y i1u..l sincerely affected with
'h, W,..k.-inL.. b of ny aIr,,t lit. The impression of my
.ir..a in'. .;. ...J ; andl hI i.:.i.1.. "All these things have
!pt biL.-uict tlihe t.:. I p'.'t I:..." ran seriously in my
Th.:L.,i: l. I was etlu.. tl., b.:,;_;ing of God to give me
:.i:p. t.,' :.'., hiEu it .i i l..:' ..l i.rovidentially, the very
.I.y,. tir,t r, inhg it,: .pti-..;, I came to these words:
li: i L:.:lte d i Pt lu.... .Iu.1 a .-'1tviour, to give repent-
au..... u.l o givr L UI:.'.:.a. I threw down the book:
:,j -iri mny beat .I- .. .1 .. my hands lifted up to
.:'.',:.L, in a kind o:- ...t... '.t joy, I cried out aloud
"Jesus, thou Son of David Jesus, thou exalted Prince
and Saviour! give me repentance! This was thp first
time I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I
prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a sense of
my condition, and a true Scripture view of hope, founded
on the encouragement of the Word of God; and from
this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God
would hear me,
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
Call on me, and I will deliver thee," in a different sense
from what I had ever done before; for then I had no
notion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in; for though I was
indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world.
But now I learned to take it in another sense: now I
looked back upon mypast life with -I. h.... i.:.r, ,,id iy
sinsappearedso dreadful, that my ,,.,i i. g o. gt u during o
God but deliverance from the hlol .f ,',,ilt that hbru
down all my comfort. As for nrv ,. .ir t.. v Ii, it %us
nothing; I did not so much as pray t... L.. .I I i' .Id-i I fr'i
it, or think of it; it was all of n .o .. u. r I n, 10. i U. o ra -
parison to this. And I add this i.t t iI. l. tU tliiut to
whoever shall read it, that wheni'.'e.. tihey L.'i.u to i
true sense of things, they.will fine. *1 li .-.ti uce lu siin
a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.
But, leaving this part, I return to. my Journal:-
My condition began now to be, though not less miser-
able as to my way of living, yet much easier to my
mind: and my thoughts being directed, by a constant
reading the Scriptures and praying to God, to things of a
higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort within,
which, till now, I knew nothing of; also, my health and
strength returned, I bestirrod myself to furnish myself
with everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the ,14th, I was chiefly *
employed in walking about with my gun in my hand, a
little and a little at a time, as a man that was gathering
up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly
to be imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I
was reduced. The application which I made use of was
perfectly new, and which perhaps had never cured an
ague before; neither can I recommend it to any to
practise, by this experiment; and though it did carry off
the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me ; for
I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for
some time. I learned from it also this, in particular,
that being abroad in the rainy season was the most per-
nicious thing to my health that could be, especially in
those rains which came attended with storms and hurri-
canes of wind; for as the rain which came in the dry
season was almost always accompanied by such storms,
so I found that rain was much more dangerous than the
rain which fell in September and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten
months. All possibility of deliverance from this con-
dition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I
firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot
upon that place. Having now secured my habitation,
as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to
make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see
what other productions I might find, which I yet knew
nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a
more particular survey of the island itself. I went up
the.creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my-rafts on
shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that
the tide did not flow any higher, and that it was no
more than a little brook of running water, very fresh
and good; but this being the dry season, there was
hardly any water in some parts of it-at least, not
enough to run in any stream, so as it could be perceived.
On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered n ith
grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the
higher grounds, where the water, as might be supposed,
never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green,


and growing to a great and very strong stalk. There eluded that I had pitched upon a place to fit my abode,
were divers other plants, which I had no notion of or which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon
understanding about, that might, perhaps, have virtues the whole, I began to consider of removing my habita-
of their own, which I could not find out. I searched for tion, and looking out for a place equally safe as where
the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that climate, now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful,
make their bread of, but I could find none. Isaw large part of the island.
plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceed-
several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultiva- ing fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the
tion, imperfect. I contented myself with these dis- place tempting me: but when I came to a nearer view
coveries for this time, and came back, musing with of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side,
myself what course I might take to know the virtue where it was at least possible that something might
i..l ..1 .f anly of the fruits or plants which I happen to my advantage; and, by the same ill fate that
ii,.. I .i1-i... r, i..l, ,could bring it to no conclusion; for, brought me hither, insight bring some other unhappy
in short, I had made so little observation while I was in wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce
the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field; probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet to
. t least, very little that might serve me to any purpose inclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre
now in my distress, of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way render such an affair not only improbable, but impossi-
again; and, after going something further than I had ble; and that therefore I ought not by any means
gone the day before, I found the brook and savannahs to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place,
cease, and the country become more woody than before, that I spent much of my time there for the whole of
In this part, I found different fruits, and particularly I the remaining part of the month of July; and, though,
found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I
i-rmpr upon the trees. The vines had spread, indeed, built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it ata
., I II., trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as
in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a sur- high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between
rising discovery, and I was exceedingly glad of them; with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes
but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of two or three.nights together; always going over itwith
-them, remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, a ladder; so thatI fancied now I had my country house
the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, and my sea-coast house; and this work took me up to
who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and the beginning of August.
fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; I had but newly finished my fence, and begun to en-
and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep joy my labour, when the rains came on, and made me
them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought stick close to my first habitation; for though I had made
would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and agreeable me a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and
to eat when no grapes could be had. spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat
my habitation; which, by the way, was the first night, into when the rains were extraordinary.
as I might say, I had lain from home. In the night, I About the beginning of August, as I said, I had
took my first contrivance, and got up in a tree, where I finished my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd
slept well; and the next morning proceeded upon my of August, I found the grapes I had hung up perfectly
discovery, travelling nearlyjfour miles, as I might judge dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun;
:,' I1. length of the valley, keeping still due north, with so I began to take them down from the trees, and it was
a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed
the end of this march, I came to an opening, where the would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part
country seemed to descend to the west; and a little of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
,i.n iil- of fresh water, which issued out of the side of bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all
I I, ill by me, ran theother way, that is, due east; and down, and carried most of them home to my cave, than
the country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, it began to rain; and from hence, which was the 14th
everything being in a constant verdure or flourish of of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the
-I i ni. that it looked like a planted garden. Idescended middle of October; and sometimes so violently, that I
iI Ili In. on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it could not stir out of my cave for several days.
with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with my In this season, I was much surprised with the increase
other afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my of my family; I had been concerned for the loss of one
own; that I was king and lord of all this country inde- of my oats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought,
feasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could bad been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her, till,
convey it, I might have it in inheritance as completely to my astonishment, she came home about the end of
as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here abund- August, with three kittens. This was the more strange
dance of cocoa-trees, orange, and lemon, and citron-trees; to me, because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I
but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit; at least not called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a
then. However, the green limes that I gathered were different kind from our European cats; but the young
not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I cats were the same kind of house-breed as the old one;
'mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it and both my cats being females, I thought it very
very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found strange. But from these three cats I afterwards came
now I had business enough, to gather and carry home ; to be so pestered with cats, that I was obliged to kill
and I resolved to lay up a store as well of grapes as them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them
limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, from my house as much as possible.
which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain,
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser so that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to
heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and be much wet. In this confinement, I began to be
lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one
me, I travelled homewards; resolving to come again day killed a goat; and the last day, which was the 26th,
and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me,
the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three days in and my food was regulated thus;-I ate a bunch of
this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or
and my cave); but before I got thither the grapes were of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled; for, to my great
spoiled; the richness of the fruit and the weight of the misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything;
juice having broken them and bruised them, they were and two or three of the turtle s eggs for my supper.
good for, little or nothing: as to the limes, they were During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I
good, but I could bring but few. worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave,
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having and by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I
made me two small bags to bring home my harvest; came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way
but I was surprised, when coming to my heap of grapes, out. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open;
which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, to for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect
find them all spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged inclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed, and
about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and open for anything to come in upon me; and yet I could
devoured. By this, I concluded there were some wild not perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the
creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island
they were I knew not. However, as I found there was being a goat.
no laying them up on heaps, and no carrying them away Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary
in a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed, of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and
and the other way they would be crushed with their found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
own weight, I took another course; for I gathered a days. I kept this dayas a solemn fast, setting it apart
large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the for religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground
out branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins
in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried to God, acknowledging His righteous judgments upon
as many back as I could well stand under, me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated Jesus Christ; and not having tasted the least refresh-
with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and ment for twelve hours, even till the going down of the
the pleasantness of the situation; the security from sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes,
storms on that side the water and the wood: and con- and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I

had all this time observed no Sabbath-day; for hs at
first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had,
after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by
making a longer notch than ordinaryforthe Sabbath-day,
and so did not really know what any of the days were;
but now, having cast up the days as above, I found I had
been there-a year; so I divided them into weeks, and set-
apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found
at the end of my account, I had lost a day or two in my
reckoning. A little after this, began to fail me,
and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to
write down only the most remarkable events of my life,
without continuing a daily memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began to appear
regular to me, andI learned to divide them so as to pro-
vide for them accordingly;. but I bought all my experi-
ence before I had it, and this I am going to relate was
one of the most discouraging experiments that I made.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of
barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly found spring
up, as I thought, of themselves, and I believe there
were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of
barley; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it,
after the rains, the sun being in its southern position,
going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground
as well as I could, with my wooden spade, and dividing
it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sow-
ing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was
the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of
the seed, leaving about a handful of each. It was a
great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not
one grain of what I sowed this time came to anything:
for the dry months following, the earth having no rain
after the seed was sown, it had no moisture-to assist its
growth, and never came up at all till the wet season
had came again, and then it grew as if it had been but
newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow,
which I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for
a moister piece of ground to make another trial in, and
I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and
sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before
the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months
of March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly,
and yielded a very good crop; but having part of the
seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had
but a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amount-
ing to above half a peck of each kind. But by this ex-
periment I was made master of my business, and knew
exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I
might expect two seed times and- two harvests every
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery,
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the
rains were over, and the weather began to settle, which
was about the month of November, I made a visit up
the country to my bower, where, though I had not been
some months, yet I found all things just as I left them.
The circle or double hedge that I had made was not
only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out,
of some trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out
and grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree
usually shootsthe first year after lopping its head. I.
ciuld not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were
cut from. I was.surprised, and yet very well pleased,
to see the young trees grow: and I pruned them, and.
led them up to grow as much alike as I could ; and it is
scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in
three years ; so that though the hedge made a circle of
about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for
such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it was
a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry
season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes,
and make me a hedge like this, in a semi-circle round
my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling) which I did;
and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about
eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew
presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation,
and afterwards served for a defence also, as I shall
observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might gene-
rally be divided, not into summer and winter, as in
Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons,
which were generally thus:-
The half of February, the whole of March, and the
half of April-rainy, the sun being then on or near the
The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July,
and the half of August-dry, the sun being then to the
north of the Line.
The half of August, the whole of September, and the
half of October-rainy, the sun being then come back.
The half of October, the whole of November, Decem-
ber, and January, and the half of February-dry, the
sun being then to the south of the Line.
The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as
the winds happened to blow, but this was the general
observation I made. After I had found, by,experience,
the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took
care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that
I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors


as much as possible during the wet months. This time
I found much employment, and very suitable also to the
time, for I found great occasion for many things which
I.had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour
and constant application; particularly I tried many ways
to make myself a basket, but-all the twigs I could get
for the purpose proved so brittle that they would do
nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now,
that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in
standing at a basketmaker's, in the town where my
father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and
being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a
great observer of the manner in which they worked
those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I had by
these means full knowledge of the methods of it, and
I wanted nothing but the materials, when it came into
my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut
my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the
sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved
to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my country
house, as I called it, and cutting some of the smaller
twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I could
desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared with
a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found,
for there was great plenty of them. These I set up to
dry-within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit
for use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the
next season, I employed myself in making, as well as I
could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to
carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and though
I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, after-
wards, I took care never to be without them; and as my
wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong
deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when
I should come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world
of time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if'possible,
how to supply two wants. I had no vessels to hold
anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which
were almost full of rum; and some glass bottles-some
of the common size, and others which were case-bottles,
square, for the holding of water, spirits, &c. I had not
so much as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle,
which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big
for such as I desired it, viz. to make broth, and stew a
bit of meat by itself. The second thing I fain would
have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to
me to make one; however, I found a contrivance for
that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting my
second row of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-working
all the summer or dry season, when another business
took me up more time than it could be imagined I could
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the
whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and
so on to where I built my bower, and where I had an
opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island.
I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on
that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog,
and a larger amount of powder and shot than usual,
with two biscuit cakes and a great bunch of raisins in
my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I
had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I
came within view of the sea to the west, and it being
a very clear day, I fairly described land-whether an
island or a continent I could not tell; but it lay very
high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W. at a very
great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than
fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be,
otherwise than Sknew it must be part of America, and,
as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near the
Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by
savages, where, if I had landed, I had been in a worse
condition than I was now; and therefore I acquiesced
in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now to
own and to believe ordered everything for the best; I
say I quieted my mind with this, and left off afflicting
myself with fruitless wishes of being there.
Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I con-
sidered that if this land was the Spanish coast, I should
certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or
repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the
savage coast between the Spanish country and Brazils,
where are found the worst of savages; for they are
cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and
devour all the human bodies that fall into their
With these considerations, I walked very leisurely
forward. I found that side of the island where I now
was much pleasanter than mine-the open or savannah
fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of
very fine woods. I saw'abundance of parrots, and fain
I would have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to
be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some
painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home;
but it was some years before I could make him speak;
however, at last, I taught him to call me by name very

familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it
be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found
in the low grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and
foxes; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds
I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them,
though I killed several. But I had no need to be ven-
turous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was
very good, too, especially these three sorts, viz. goats,
pigeons, and turtle, or tortosie, which, added to my
grapes, Leadenhall-market could not have furnished a
table better than I, in proportion to the company; and
though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great
cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any
extremities for food, but had rather plenty, even to
I never travelled in this journey above two miles out-
right in a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns
and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that
I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to
sit down all night; and then I either reposed myself in
a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set
upright in the ground, either from one tree to another,
or so as no wild creature could come at me without
waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to
see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the
island, for here, indeed, the shore was covered with
innumerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had
found but three in a year and a half. Here was also
an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some which
I had seen, and some which I had not seen before, and
many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not
the names of, except those called penguins.
I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very
sparing of my powder and shot, and therefore had more
mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better
feed on; and though there were many goats here, more
than on my side the island, yet it was with much more
difficulty that I could come near them, the country being
flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than when
I was on the hills.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter
than mine; but yet I had hot the least inclination to
remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation it became
natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to
be as it were upon a journey, and from home. However,
I travelled along the shore of the sea towards the east,
I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up a
great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded -I
would go home again, and that the next journey I took
should be on the other side of the island east from my
dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again.
I took another way to come back than I went, think-
ing I could easily keep all the island so much in my
view, that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by
viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for,
being come about two or three miles, I found myself
descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded
with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I
could not see which was my way by any direction but
that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well
the position of the sun at that time of day. It happened,
to my further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy
for three or four days while I was in the valley, and not
being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncom-
fortably, and at last was obliged to find the sea-side,
look for my post, and come back the same way I went:
and then, by easy journeys, I turned homewards, the
weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition,
hatchet, and other things, very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and
seized upon it; and I, running in to take hold of it,
caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I had a
great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often
been musing whether it might not be possible to get a
kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which
might supply me when my powder and shot should
be all spent. I made a collar for this little creature,
and with a string, which I made of some rope-yarn,
which I always carried about with me, I led him along,
though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower,
and there I inclosed him and left him, for I was very
impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent
above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to
come into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-
bed. This little wandering journey, without settled
place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my
own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settle-
ment to me compared to that; and it rendered every-
thing about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would
never go a great way from it again, while it should be
my lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale
myself after my long journey; during which, most of
the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making
a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a mere
domestic, and to be well acquainted with me. Then
I began to think of the poor kid which I had penned

in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch
it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and
found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get out,
but was almost starved for want of food. I went and
cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I
could find, and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied
it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame
with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it,
for it followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed
it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond,
that it became from that time one of my domestics also,
and would never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now
come, and I kept the 30th of September in the same
solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my
landing on the island, having now been there two years,
and no more prospect of being delivered than the first
day I came there. I spent the whole day in humble
and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful
mercies which my solitary condition was attended with,
and without which it might have been infinitely more
miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks that God
had been pleased to discover to me that it was possible
I might be more happy in this solitary condition than
I should have been in the liberty of society and in all
the pleasures of the world; that He could fully make
up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the
want of human society, by His presence and the com-
munications of His grace to my soul; supporting,
comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon His
providence here, and hope for His eternal presence
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much
more happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable
circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life
I led all the past part of my days; and now I changed
both my sorrows and my joys; my very desire altered,
my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were
perfectly new from what they were at my first coming,
or, indeed, for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or
for viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my
condition would break out upon me on a sudden, and my
very heart would die within me, to think of the woods,
the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a
prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of
the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without re-
demption. In the midst of the greatest composure of
my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm,
and make me wring my hands and weep like a child.
Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work,
and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look
upon the ground for an hour or two together; and this
was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears,
or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief,
having exhausted itself, would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new
thoughts: I daily read the Word of God, and applied all
the comforts of it to my present state. One morning
being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words," I
will never, never leave thee, nor forsake thee." Im-
mediately it occurred that these words were to me;
why else should they be directed in such a manner, just
at the moment when I was mourning over my condition,
as one forsaken of God and man ? Well, then," said
I, If God does not forsake me, of what ill consequence
can it be, or what matters it, though the world should
all forsake me, seeing on the other hand, if I had all the
world, and should lose the favour and blessing of God,
there would be no comparison in the loss? "
From this moment, I began to conclude in my mind,
that it was possible for me to be more this for-
saken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should
ever have been in any other particular state in the
world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks
to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what
it was, but something shocked my mind at that thought,
and I durst not speak the words. How canst thou be-
come such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly," to pretend
to be thankful for a condition, which, however thou
mayst endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldst
rather pray heartily to be delivered from ?" So I
stopped there, but though I could not say I thanked
God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God
for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providence,
to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn
for my wickedness, and repent. I never opened the
Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed
God for directing my friend in England, without any
order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for
assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of
the ship.
Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my
third year; and though I have not given the reader the
trouble of so particular an account of my works this
year as the first; yet in general it may be observed, that
I was very seldom idle, but having regularly divided my
time according to the several daily employment that
were before me, such as, first, my duty to God, and
the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart


sonm time for, tlIrice .: iry iia : i.s,.oaJiy, tlhe .:'in
alrro dl with nmy gui for tI.:' l, .Iill gL:u.r.:ily to.:'k i n.
lip tIire loire in 1 vcry nii..ruiuin wr i.n it diil n:.t rin
tihirdi, the order g, curtig, lreserviu i, '.ni i:.:.k.liL
aliat I ha.l killed I or c-.e ght .'r mn l.lly tle s, t.-i ..k
al, gre t part of thi.' day. Also, it is to be co.i.. r .1,
that in the middle of the day, when the sun was in the
zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir
out; so that about four hodrs in the evening was all the
time I 'c-ul,1. In sp[...-.:., i.. work in, with this exception,
that -orn,'.im, I Ii rg. .1 my hours of hunting and
working, and went to work ih the morning, and abroad
with my gill in the afternoon.
To this rh... Ii ime allowed for labour, I desire may
be added the exceeding labbriousness of my work; the
many hours which for want of tools, waht of l1. II., ,.iI
want of skill, I rv l-t ,e I didtbok up out of "y tn.i .
For example, I i 's fill two and forty days in making a
board for a lol$ shelf, which I wanted in my cave;
whereas, two i .:i ith their tools and a saw-pit,
would have (ct 4,, ..'1 them out of the same tree in half
a day.
My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was
to be cut down, lIn ,ii.,- my board was to be a broad
one. This tree I .:l- tlhr,. days in irilng down, and
two more cutting .'lff iih.: h.bughs, arid reducing it to a
log, or piece of timber. With iiiexpressible hacking and
hewing, I reduced both the sidbs of it into chips till it
began to be light i.. .1:lh >t.iii 've; then I turned it, and
made one side otit hi m.-t, ii .,i. flat as a board from end
to end; then, turning that side downward, cut the other
side till I 1.r.:.iz1' the plank to be about three inches
thick, and rsm'i,.l in both sides. Any one may judge
the labour of my hands in such a piece of work; but
labour and patience ciri'ried ie through that, and many
other think. I only observe this ih particular, to show
the reason Why so much of my time went away with'so
little work, viz., that what il;J'.t be a little to be done
with help and tools, was a vast labottiu and required a
prodigious timo to do alone, and by hand. But notwith-
standing this, with plitience and labour I got through
everything that my circumstances made necessary to
me to do, as will aip,.ir 1'b, :;'hat follows.
I was now,in th!,; in:-,.tLh, of November and Decem-
ber, expecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground
I had manured and d;'i1 ip for them was not great; for,
as I observed, my s6.:: ..f each was not above the
quantity of half a p. Ak, f,.r I had lost one whole crop
by sowing in the dry siesoli. But now my crop
promised very well; when oh a sudden I found I was in
dli'i,. r of losing it all again by ieemies of seyerdl sorts,
: hi'.h it was :.- "i,.. Ij I p -1.. I.-. keep from it; as, first,
the goats, And wild tr.: rii ir. which I called hares, who,
tasting the sweethess :t thle blade, lay in it night and
day, as soon as it came up, and eat it so close, that it
could get no time to shoot up into -r ik,.
This i saw r...i i. 1i fr l 'i 1i.- 0 in.:iu an enclosure
about it with : !I...;:,- ; hii. Ii h1 r-,l great deal of
toil, and the i ,i,., I. .: i .... r i-: i -1I.i..,I However,
as my arable !lola, 1 Ilt -a,1I *., tr.l to mycrop, I
got it totally '.': feuc.:,l iln .1--.,,t three weeks' time;
and h.,'.. .'iL, oii: of the creatures in the day time, I
set my dog to ghard it in the night, tying him up to a
stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all
night long; so in 'a little time, the enemies forsook the
place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began
to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined in 1..:.r,. r, Lil my corn
was in the blade, so the birds .'*:s .; hkel -y to ruin me
now, when it wAs u 1i ., i:r; for going ,.*...l: by the
place to see hbw ;.i th i.-., I saw my :.ltl.- i.I., stir-
rounded with fWolIs, of I ttiow hot how many sorts, who
stood, as it wire, watching till I should be gone. I
immediately let f. niroue. tUrih, for I always had my
gun with me. I L.d r'. ..- '..:-. shot, but there rose up
a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from
among -b. I, :re i t:v.1
This .,I ,1l Iii ro -r.I'.. for I foresaw that in a few
days tl.: '..:..ii .i.- .:,i ill my hopes; that I should
be starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all: and
what to do I could hot tell; however, I resolved not to
lose my corn, if possible, though I should watch it night
and day. In the first place, I went amongit, to see
what damage was Alr.: ,i' .iu.1 if'.,and they had
spoiled a good deal ..t t; Lit I bt ,.t .1 yet too green
for them, the loss was not so great but that the re-
mainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be
I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away,
I could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees
about me, as if they only waited till I was gone away,
and the event proved it to be so; for as I walked off,
as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of their sight,
than they dropped down one by one into the corn again.
I was so provoked, that I could not have patience to stay
till more came on, knowing that every grain that they
eat now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the
consequence; but coming up to the hedge, I fired again,
and killed three of them. This was what I wished for;
so I took them up, and served them as we serve noto-

rln:",u thi.', En ogRIhil-hbiged thelp in chains, for a but an assistance to my work; for now, as I said, I had
t. rr.'.r t.:. t i.:r. It ilmpi:,-ible to imagine that this a great employment upon my hands, as follows: I had
ishl:uli 1.: h- ., ill ir :l-..r as it had, for the fowls long studied to -ij'ik- by some means or other, some
wn...ii.l ult i.,~ly II, i ..:i .,t the corn, but, in short,they earthen vessels,. v.!. .hi, indeed, I wanted -..'r,li. i,.it.
i..,r.-...k l ill r!iit I.'it r .'I th. island, aiid I could never see knew iot where to coihe at them, However, i,:.i,.:l,.I-
a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung ing the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I
there. This I was very glad of; you may be sure, and could find out any clay, I might make some pots that
about the latter end -or I.'...- il.... r, which was our second .i;,iglitY..:i;n,; .1ried in the sun, be hard enough and strong
harvest of the year, I reaped my corn. ,. i, :hli t,: I.,: r handling, ahd to hold anything that was
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it dry, arid required to be kept so; and as this was neces-
down aid all I could do was to make one, as well as I sary in the preparing corn, meal, &c., which was the
could, out of one of the broadswords or cutlasses, which thing I was'doing, I resolved to make some i? lirge as
I saved among the arms out of the ship. However, as I pould, and fit only to stand like jars, to .-l.l haiB
my first crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to should be put into them..
.cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way, for I cut It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at
nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great me, to tell how many awkward ways I took to raise
basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my this paste; what odd, mis-shapen, -l:. I th,.: I made;
hands; and at the end of all m, b I,' .e- ng. I found how many of t[i.. u fell in, and h.:.. i-o.r fell out,
that out of my half-peck of seed I I.1 l ue',r I -.: bushels h;.- d.. t ,;i -er;g ttff enough to ".'- 'r its .:.n weight;
of rice, and about two bushels and a half of barley; L..-v m.naiy ; 11. or- c .-:ir, r .it o t.. sun,
that is to say, by my guies, for I had no measure at being set out too ],l tl! ; ti ol b:i"- in -i, t: li in pieces
that time. with only reinoving, as well aritt r th-y were
However, this was a great encouragement to me, and dried; and, in a word, how. -it.:r ha !o-Ig I Ji h r.i
I foresaw that, in time, it would please God to i.I'pl.l to find the clay-to dig i-, t.. t.:-riq..r it, t.:. Ib.ri;u it
me with bread. And yet here I wa.s I-..., ....1 i..':,, home, and work it-I could not make above i v..:, Ikrge
for I neither knew how to grind, or I:.:.. ,n. mr earthli-i u.i' tlujri;. (I cannot -all lhlm ja~is) in .bi:it
corn, or indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if twb months' in l :,'r
made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how
to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These thiiigs
being added to my desire of having a good quantity for 4, I
store, and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to -I
taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season; and, in the mean time, to 5
S. -.l..,- 11l ~ '- t'liTy iab. hdurs of -..:.ri';e: .-. accomplish
hi r.: i t irk ort providing n., -. i dI Ll c'in and
bread. 4 1
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my
bread. I believe few people have thought much upon
the strange multitude of little things necessary in the
providing, pr.,..l.i.ii,.L:, curing, dressing, making, and
finishing t!- ,:.n i,, l!. of bread.
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found
this to my d lv .;.... ri ,. i.:.iit and was made more i
sensible of P. ..'*. i....r, ...-.. il' I had got the first '
handful of -, .-..l...:L, li., :a I have said, came up
unexpectedly and indeed to a surprise. I
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth--no spade i
or shovel to dig it. )Well, this I conquered by making
me a wooden spade, as I observed before; but this did
my work but in a wooden manner; and though it cost ,
me a great many days to make it, yet for want of iron, -
it not only wore out soon, but made my work the
harder and made it be performed much worse. How- '
ever, this I bore with, and was content to work it out .
,,,ri, p-i. r .. r... -id bear with the badness of the per- ,
IMn:ii ,:,. i -'i'-.. the corn was sown, I had no harrow,
but was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great
heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be -
called, rather than rake or harrow it. When it was
growing, and grown, I have observed already how many
things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow cr r'i ;, L \ -
cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from th.. ,:htf.
and Their I wanted a inill to iind it, l.:-is : -
dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an -
oven to bake it; but all these things I 'did without, as 1s-_
shall be observed, and yet the corn was ah inestimable
comfort and advantage to me too. All this, as I said, -
made everything laborious and tedious to me; but that -
there was no help for Ni: t.,it ., ,. ir ii': i :.. uch
loss to me, because, ;: I .i dii Juiii. ;i.. rr.1.. i part CRUSOE ATTEIMPTS TO MAKE i .r TF r.i',. i:.
pf it was every day .pp.~l- t..i l t, tbt:-' :'i k : :,ti i is I
had resolved to use'-....- .:tt or .:.:. f.l:or i.r- ,i til I had
a greater quantity by ii. I i U.:- :-.1 n,:,ntih, to However, as the sun baked theE- tw- ie,;" ,lrv itu.
q.'[ li.y -..-l i l.. .iv I ,Lil a. .1' i L ,,..:r.: t.:, .,, ish hard, I lifted them very gently up, n.i .- it t' i nu .iLi -o
uiid',l .-itb .,t.,. -il, proper for the performing all the again in two great wicker, baskets, whr lb I L .i m.,hli. :.
operations necessary for making the corn, when I had purpose for them, that they might I.:.t l. i ik .I
it, fit for my use. between the pot and the basket there .t., -, !Itl- r..o:.ri
But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now t*.:. pr.-. T w .iffed it full of the rice ., .1 t'niiy *t, i. ,
seed enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I wi I h,: t' -...- pots being to stand always dry, I thought
did this, I had a week's work at least to make me a would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when
spade, which, when it was done, was but a sorry one the corn bruised.
indeed, and very heavy, and required double labour to Though I miscarried so much in my design f..i! larti
work with it. However, I got through that, and sowed pots, yet I made several smaller things it l, ..n,
my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as near my success; such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers,
house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them and pipkins, and any things my hand turned to; and
in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut the heat of the sun baked them quite hard.
off that wood which I had set before, and knew it would But all this would not answer my end, which was to
grow; so, that, in a year's-time, I knew I should have get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear
a quick or living hedge, that would want but little the fr.: -v. l..l none of these could do. It happened
repair. This work did not take me up less than three after ra., making a pretty large fire for cooking
months, because a great part of that time was the wet my meat, when I went to put it out after I had done
season, when I could not go abroad. Within-doors, with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthen-
that is when it rained, and I could not go out, I found ware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and
employment in the following occupations-always ob- red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and
serving, that all the while I was at work,I diverted my- said t,: n .v .:lf, t it certainly they might be made. to
self with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to burn -. h.:!i., I t h..' would burn broken.
speak; and I quickly taught him to know.his own name, This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to
and at last to speak it out pretty loud," Poll," which was make it burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such
the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any as the potters burn in, or of glazing them :--; n lead,
mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my work, though I had some lead to do it with; but 1 placed


thr.-e Lir;,: pip.kiDe. and two.:, or tbree p..t -, in a pl.:. onm,
up,.on anoatrhr, anl pli :.1 my .irr'-vwoodI .ill r,.un.l it ruth,
a ,:-r t il.. p :,f em.-rs tllhm. I plhd.: the i- r
with fr.-'bb luil r..Lnd.l thle utln i.i~.,an upi'Jn th t.op till
Siis v tlj pi:' ts inS ID t ie l -ii :-' t ..1 -.-.":t ,i, t tl, ,,ugh and
:.l..i.:r.-,.l thLat th!!.v 1;,i i .:.r el..or at all. W 'hen Isaw
;.bnm ce, ,r re. i, I !i t Ib.-n lt:at. in thbt heat about five
or six hours, till I found one of them, though it did not
crclk, i;i melt or run; for the ,au.i b.i.'h v ,-na mixed
vth I tbo .Iay nS. l-. i b the violence of the ,.: t.
rw-iul I ,re r, d;u .: g i f ThI i .',-:.ej d s : I -l '.:k-.- i
nmy bre : i .lua till th.: p. p l. I.-Igau I:i al-at- .f tthie ied
colour; iadl, .- t. itig- tm all night, that I might not
let the fire abate too fast, in the morning I had three
very '.-...i ;"1 will not say handsome) pipkins, nid tbo
.,th,.r t-bu pots, as hard burnt as could I.. .:;: .1,
and one of them perfectly glazed with the r innin, i.t
the sand.
After thi- eip' rimn rt. I need not say that I wanted
no sort of I. t i r.-arei ft.:r iy use; but I mtst needs
say as to the h'.p.: t I !rnr, they were is 5-y In Jl r-eut,
ns iuS om may suppose, when I had ino a-n' ..r sslin
ti- I' .,it is the children mal:- dirt p.: s..:.r as a woman
s..,u.i rmk-li p:. iliai Oier r !,iarn.. t.. raais- paste.
N.,i r: 'it a t'irn,;- .-.t s: um-in a nftiire was ever equal
tfi irio.: si.bu I t.uid I i id mil.- an 3:artin pot that
v o.i.l li,-jr th.: tir ,sn l I haI bir- ily pI ;.I:e to stay
fill thry .T- ,: ,-..i h if...: [ :t ,:.n, bi the fireagaini,
rih : ,:.n.:- r. .t- r irs it, r.:. I.:l ni-me .'rh a"..St. whichit
did J.lairJrL. ir ll : ir .i -it!ifh piede of a kid i made
som;: ,:!. ;:..l br,-., I.h, h I wanted oatmeal, and
'S. -ir i other si;,'i r-,l:.,a r .l-i rIi:- tb make it as good as
I -.' hb -: L1- itr l., I .
My- ui::t ,::.,rri iw.iS tO: gct me a stone moitar to
stamp or beat some corn in; f.'r 'i: t.. rte aill, there
was t th..,ilht f ir ;....,7- 0 tlhat l. t.:. .:i .:.t ii t with
one .sir ':. I.-,.1 .. T. 'Suppily' this v-anlt. I "-j i .t a
igr i: !. ; 1 ; f..i .,f a! th!' t 'r'.1.. ;n il l v. rl.l I was
t:.,:.tly .ilts.]'tl .. i :.r' a '-t.-:.n t ..Ui .r, I- or i ; V
S L. i -..' ; i..:cit .,:r L .l I ',n t... rs t. ..c: aL ... it r -itli.
-*p ut l.: t.:. i .:a -i!,:.-", I bi.. uL I:.- tli (fi.:.' l nrt :r. rand. la I1: find
O:u.. at sil sh' t .' isO tlth r.-..,:i thitch
] b ,.1 t..:. y t:., s ii ..r C:.t : uhi ..r ;ti..1l .1 rwr the
i : .!.: t, thee Jri.,i 'ast b i.lej.: ; _su ;.e; u i. t v 's,. 7 all
(!of a .ly ..r.,sl lli'_ t ,:,_r. :. Ti; Lh nl it. hr a.:..l..i bear
-I,,.:i, i,.t ,i lI.. ,y p.,-: rl i ,-.r v .:.t !.1 l k li b. ,:orn
, llitur it .s.ii j.. ,:, after a great deal of
,a_.s !e..:t -:. ir.hili A i..r a stone, I gave it over, and
ii.-l: .! ,s1. I .... .:...,t t:.r ,' great bldck of hard wood,
i" 1- I f..ii-.i ,r.I.:.:.1 ai..:b easier; and getting one as
big as I i -.1 r -st b to stir, I rbondbd it, aiid formed it
on the out:.1..: r.iri, miy a:Ie :.iD1 ui:hs. t, 'rs. then, with
the help of fire, aid irS ir; rr.- !l.:.,r, uj... a Lb ll.w I ., lace
in it ,; ihl.' lusJ.liis in Er .-il m'.lk.- thi.:;r CLac- -. Aftbr
this. I 1. .. I- ,-r.:' t bi.:'J- pi-:tle -.. r I', t.:r,,..t the wood
c 11. .i I ti- ,co.n.-o'' .:oI ; iu tl,.i I pr p:aI,.1 :,l.1 laid by
-iS-.:7. I hid my ne'-. .:i.1p ..t ....rn, 'h..h I ropbsed
.., i~u, .!f ,:. riid, or rathei-bkr ii1., ri.t.) meal, to make

M11 o,: xt ..I;tlcultg was to make a sieve, or senice, to
.I!ti: i'y rni-G and to ptait it from the. bran and the
husk; without which I did not see it possible I could
have any bread. This was a most. difficult thing, even
to: thoiut: .-.. .j i tt.:. i.. sur: I ih-,i rn i. i g like theneces-
i tthis; 1 t, Di;.. t-I -Si 'T, fine: thi, canvas or stuff
.-, ,Ir.- in.,. uims,! through; here I was at a full
t..p t,:.r ismanjy i S.routhI. nor did I really know what to
i.... !Lo h I :l .r, left bht what was mere rags; I
h-,i ,;'.,t *,i, I..,t either knew hw to weave it or
spin it; and had I known how, here were ho
work it with. All the remedy that I found for this
was, that at last I did remember I had, among the
seame-' .'l..ti.. which were saved out of the ship,
some -,.:. i;i.:ris. of calico or muslin; and with some
I,.... .-. t..-:.: I ,-i...i three sinall Sltves proper enough
f.-. tl,.--, m.I this I made shift for some years:
b i... t I .1..1 :f : r. -- 'i,l t shall show t it I|'S..-.
Thj. I' Ii: ii rp rt '- the next tLb;r, ng t .:, considered,
and how I shoifd make bread when I came to have
corn; for, first, I had no yeast. As to that part, there
was no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself
much about it. But for an oven, I was indeed in great
pain. At length I found out an experiment for that
also, which was this: I made some earthen vessels very
broad but not .i- :p, that is to say, about two feet
diameter, and ,:.'t above nine inches deep. These I
burned in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid
them by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a great
fire upon my I IF-rtl,, which I had paved with some
square tiles, .:.t n,- .-. -n baking and burning also; but I
:1i.t1. .: .:.'i them square.
-i it,- firewood was burned pretty much into
embers, or live coals, I drew them forward upon this
hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there I let them
lie till the hearth was very hot. Then, :. : 7., u y
all the embers, I set my loaf or loaves, u.i- 'b.i!lm ,
down the earthern pot upon them, drew the embers all
round the outside of the lot, to keep in and add to the
heat; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the

,-sorld. I btak.:i. my t.arl.y lI.v ,:'. au.] b-i:cun.:, in i.ttli
t in': a go... ij p:stry .:.k inti th. I..argaiS ; t.:.r I rn, d
omys.lf ,-r:-r.r'dl :ak:-s .ia.! pud.lhl'.': ot thi rir'- b tJ I
inadb no pies, ieith':r b-A.1I .1r, to put iint them,
siFpp.~.'i;- I had, e r-v t the flesh eithii df fowls or
g,:, t-. .,
It leed hot be wondered it If all these iliijEs took
iie ub most part of the third yeati of my at..:..t.: here;
fbr, it is to be observed, that in the intervals of these
+tbhnii I ls .. nv nev harvest and husbandry td inange;
tor I- re- Ip:.l nv cornin its season, and carried it home
:,a v Ii a-: I :.:.ul.l, nd laid it up in the ear, ih my large
b ;si.ts till I 1.1l time to rub it out, for I had no floor
to thrash it on. ,.r i i. rt rin,-r to I bhr sh it with.
And now, ..J. -.1, n.y .-t.:,:.i,: ,:...:.r f r..-iug, I really
wanted to build my barns bigger; I v.'ut.:-. .. place to
liv tf. up in, for the increase of the corn now yielded
m.: .o much, that I-had of the barley about twenty
bushels, and of the rice as much, or more; insomuch
that now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for my
bread had been quite gone a great while; also I resolved
to see what quantity would be iitli. i.:rt. for ine a whole
year; and to sow but once a year.
Upon the whole, I fonid that the forty bushels of
barley and rice were much more than I could consume
in a year; so I resolved to sow just the same quantity
every year thht I sowed the last, in hopes that such a
q.iautity would fully provide me with bread, &c.
All Ith. while these things weie (,. you imay be
suie i.y th...ih!It: r.uin u:iuV times upon the prospect of
land r, i.:i i I!, ,.:1 :,:..i f i :ru' the other side of the island;
and I was not without secret wishes that I were on
.shore ih.:r.-, that, ,.-:e,, tie main-land, arid an
inhabited country, I might find some way or other to
convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some
means of escape.
But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers
of such an uiidertaking, arid how I might fall into the
hands of :-- i,.:, and perhaps such as I rn;.-.i L't s.
reason to-l -i-l !,r worse than the lions an.l ti-'.!i- t
Afriba: that if I once came iii their power, I bL...ul.l. rnti
a hazard of more than a thousand tb one of being killed,
and perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard that the
people of the Caribbean coast were cannibals, or man-
eaters, and I knew by the latitude that I could not be
far from that shore. Then, they were not
cannibals; yet they might kill m e:, ,; many Europeans
who had fallen into their hands had been served, even
wheh they had been ten :.r tsmeurcy ...t.: t--.,i.:1'
more I, that was but one, ii.1 .:io.'. ru'i:i i C.r; .r u.:.
defence; all these things, I say, which I ought to have
considered well, and did dome into my thoughts after-
wards, yet gave me no apprehensions at first, and my
head rai mightily upon the thought of getting over to
the shore;
Now I wished foi my boy Xury, and the long-boat
with the shoulder-of-muttoni sail, with which I sailed
above a thousand miles on the coast of Africa; but this
was in vain: then 1 tl-....'-tt [ would go and look at our
ship's boat, which, si I tr, v- said, was blown up upon
the shore a great way,'in the storm, when we were first
cast away. She lay almost where she did at first, but
hot quite; and was turned, by the force of -the waves
and the winds, almost bottom upward, against a high
ridge of beachy, rough sand, but no water about her.
If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have doie
well enough, and I might have gone back into the
Brazils with her easily enough; but I might have fore-
seen that I could no more turn her ahd set her upright
upon her bottom, than I could remove the island; how-
everi I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers,
and brought them to the boaBt,resolving to try what I
could do; s; "-.:ts? ti, myself, that if I could but turn
her down, I might repair the damage she had received,
and she would be avery good boat, and I might go to sea
in her very easily.
I spared ho pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless
toil, and spent, I. think, three or four weeks about it;
'it I ,t. fa i-1;; it impossible to heave it ip with ii.- li;tli..
-tt.-ith, I f. I! to digging away the sand, to undermine
it, and so to make it .1.'. '7., iting pieces of wood
tb thrust and guide it ri Ir ius thI fall.
But when I had d.:.- t i. z, I 1- 1 unable to stir it up
again, or to get under it, much less to move it forward
towards the water; so I was forced to give it over; and
yet, though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my
desire to venture over for the main increased, rather
than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.
This at length put me upon thinking whether it was
not possible to iii Sk anyself a canoe, or periagua, such
as the natives of thoi- climates make, even without
tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of the trunk of
a great tree. This I not only thought possible, but
easy, and pleased myself extremely with the thoughts
of making it, and with my having much more con-
venience for it than any of the N-'grP or Indians; but
not at all considering the pLrti-.ul r inconveniences
which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz. want
of hands to move it,when it was made, into the water

-i difficulty muii.'h bhrsiir for ime to s'iriount thnu all
the oif wan t ,., t...oel coll.J be to t lm ;
tn:cr v LL i t s t t... e,f 1.0 I lbj.l ':l3s..ll a sst tr ee
ih the woods, and with much ttiouble cut it di bn, if I
had been able with my tdols tb hew aid diub the outside
into the prop. r 'hapI- i.t a boat, riid birn bor cut out
the inside to it Ib:.ll.-i, o As to niiak a boat of it
-if, after all this, I must leave it just there where
I found it, and not be able to launch it into the
water ?
One would have thought I could not have had the
least reflection upion rs. mind of my circuiiistances
while I was making in-,' boat btit I should have im-
mediately thought how I should -et it int.) the sea; but
my thoughts were so intent ul.'.u nisy -vroyagu o ver the
sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get
it off the land: and it was really, in its own nature, more
easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles in sea, than
about forty-five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it
afloat in the water.
I went -.:, '.-..! sipbn this boat the iidst like a fool
that ever man ..1. i., who had any of his seisue awali:.
I pleased. i .:it n-ith the design, without dr-. .rmiuing
lhs-t!h.-r I ,'as ever able to tidertake it; n.:t t.ut that
lhar ,.li11.. utt of lsn..h;L.g my boat came often into my
I.i :.; 1.-n 1 put a crt.:. to my inquiries int... it, by this
foolish answer, which I gave myself: L.:. in first
make it; I warrant I will find some way 'or other ,d get
it along when it is ddne:"
This was a ,most preposterous method; but the eager-
ness of my fahny prevailed, and to work I wetit. I
felled a cedar-ttre, and I question inch whether S6lo-
mon ever had such a one for the building od the Temple
of Jerusalem; it was five Feet ten inches diameter at
the lower part next the stump; and four feet eleven
inches diameter at the end of twenty two feet after
which it lessened for a '.Ai;.l, auid Ihclb Init-.l in[
branches. It was not Vithl:,t- iudl;to lanbh.r ut I
felled this tree; I was tw..ttly di.s, Lias king aid i
atit at thebottom; I Wi's '..,triitn more. gettilu the
branches "' .l i; -1..aI t1'.:- i a.t |.114 a..liug h,:-uI cut oil,
which I Unl:kn..l u hl hi i. 1 tbrLu. .iti ith aisx :au1
lisa.:L.:t, and inexpressibl. InlaI.- ur alt.r Hilb. it cortl 1110
a i...-'ut to shape it and dub it to a proportion, atid to
something like fi.. i..:.rit:t.i f a boat that it :nigiat.
swim upright as itr iJo.ghlt i do. It .-'.' n,- nehar thte
months more to (!iea- ii.- iiside, .iii '.:srkli it out so as
to make an exact boat of it; this I did, indeed, i licr.u
fire, by mere mallet and chisel, arid by the dint :.f hnri
labour, till I had brought it tb be a very hanslisomia
pi' S;iu, and big enough to havb carried six andl t enty
n..:ri, ..Ibl consequently big enough to have bis
and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was .:-it r mely
delighted with it. The boat was really si-..hI tbiF2Ir
than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that ws, ruald. ,of
one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost,
you may be sure; and had I gotten it into the water,
I make no question but I should have bbguh the maddest
voyage, and the most unlikely to be perfi:orm.: d, that
ever was undertaken.
But all my devices to get it into the water failed me;
though they cost me infinite labour too. It lay about
one hundred yards from the water, and not more; but
the first inconvenietice was, it was up hill towards the
creek. Well, to take away this't, I
resolved to dig into the surface of the I atll, iaul so
make a declivity: this I began, uid it cost me a prO-
.i;_;..I- .1.l i :.f pains (but who grudge pains that have
[ht. ,i J.:1l[i, i:e in view ?); but when this was worked
through, and this difficulfv imanu'.i .1. it 'es till much
the same, fdr I could no iimorei el r tl,- i.ei Ic. than I could
the other boat. Then I measured the distance of ground,
and resolved to but a dock or canal, to bring the water
up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe
down to the water. Well, I began this work; and
when I began to enter upon it, and calculate how deep
it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be
thrown out, I found that, by the number of hands I
had, being none but my own, it must have been ten or
twelve~years before I could have gone through with it;
for the shore lay so high, that at the upper end it must
have been at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though
with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too
late, the folly of beginning a work before we count the
cost, and before we judge rightly of our own strength to
go through with it.
In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year
in this place, and kept my anniversary with the same
devotion, and ,' it ., r u.. Ii, nu lr...t rs sv. r before; for,
by a constant -tuily anuiJ si,:r...I. io to tlhe ord
of God, and by the assistance of His grace, I gained a
different knowledge from what I had before. I enter-
tained different notions of things. I looked now upon
the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do
with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about:
in a word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was
ever likely to have; so I tih.-.iuht it looked, as we may
perhaps look upon it ]L:r ..l'tcr, viz. as a place I had


lived in, but was come out of it; and well might I say, their case might have been, if Providence had thought my bread, I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the
as Father Abraham to Dives, Between me and thee is fit. ship; this I had husbanded to the last degree, allowing
a great gulf fixed." I had another reflection, which assisted me also to myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year;
p In the first place, I was removed from all the wicked- comfort my mind with hopes; and this was compar- and yet I was quite without bread for near a year be-
ness of the world here; I had neither the lusts of the ing my present situation with what I had deserved, and fore I got any corn of my own; and great reason I had
flesh, the lusts of the eye, nor the pride of life. I had had therefore reason to expect from the hand of to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it
nothing to covet, for I had all that I was now capable Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly being, as has already been observed, next to mira-
of enjoying; I was lord of the whole manor; or, if I destitute of the knowledge and fear of God.') I.had culous.
pleased, I might call myself king or emperor over the been well instructed by father and mother; neither had My clothes, too, began to decay; as to linen, I had
whole country which I had possession of: there were no they been wanting to me, in their early endeavours to had none a good while, except some chequered shirts
rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty infuse a religious awe of God into my mind, a sense of which I found in the chests of the other seamen, and
or command with me: I might have raised ship-loadings my duty, and what the nature and end of my being which I carefully preserved; because many times I
of corn, but I had no use for it; so I let as little grow required of me. But, alas! falling early into the seafaring could bear no other clothes on but a shirt; and it was a
as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoise life, which, of all lives, is the most destitute of the fear very great help to me that I had, among all the men's
or turtle enough, but now and then one was as much as of God, though his terrors are always before them; I clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There
I could put to any use: I had timber enough to have say, falling early into seafaring life, and into seafaring were also, indeed, several thick watch-coats of the
built a fleet of ships: and I had grapes enough to have company, all that little sense of religion which I had seamen's which were left, but they were too hot to
made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded entertained was laughed out of me by the messmates; wear; and though it is true that the weather was so
that fleet when it had been built, by a hardened despising of dangers, and the views of violently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I
But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: death, which grew habitual to me by my long absence could not go quite naked-no, though I had been in-
I had enough to eat and supply my wants, and what was from all manners of opportunities to converse with any- lined to it, which I was not;-nor could I abide the
all the rest to me ? If I killed more flesh than I could thing but what was like myself, or to hear anything thought of it, though I was alone. The reason why I
eat, the dog must eat it, or vermin; if I sowed more that was good or tended towards it. could not go naked was, I could not bear the heat
corn than I could eat, it must be spoiled; the trees that So void was I of everything that was good, or the of the sun so well when quite naked as with some
I cut down were lying to rot on the ground: I could least sense of what I was, or was to be, that, in the clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my
make no more use of them but for fuel, and that I had greatest deliverances I enjoyed-such as my escape from skin; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some
no occasion for but to dress my food. Sallee; my being taken up by the Portuguese master of motion, and whistling under the shirt, was twofold
In a word, the nature and experience of things dic- the ship; my being planted so well in the Brazils; my cooler than without it. No more could I ever bring
tated to me, upon just reflection, that all the good receiving the cargo from England, and the like-I never myself to go out in the heat of the sun without a cap
things of this world are no farther good to us than they had once the words, Thank God," so much as on my or a hat; the heat of the sun, beating with such violence
are for our use; and that, whatever we may heap up to mind, or in my mouth: nor in the greatest distress had as it does in that place, would give me the head-
give others, we enjoy just as much as we can use, and I so much as a thought to pray to him, or so much as to ache presently, by darting so directly on my head,
no more. The most covetous, griping miser in the say, Lord, have mercy upon me! no, nor to mention without a cap or hat on, so that I could not bear it;
world would have been cured of the vice of covetousness, the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and blas- whereas, if I put on my hat, it would presently go
if he had been in my case; for I possessed infinitely pheme it. away.
more than I knew what to do with. I had no room for I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many Upon these views I-began to consider about putting
desire, except it was of things which I had not, and they months, as I have already observed, on account of my the few rags I had, which I called clothes, into some
were but trifles, though, indeed, of great use to me. I wicked and hardened life past; and when I looked order; I had worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my
had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold about me, and considered what particular providence business was now to try if I could not make jackets out
as silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there had attended me since my coming into this place, and of the great watch-coats which I had by me, and with
the sorry, useless stuff lay; I had no manner of business how God had dealt bountifully with me-had not only such other materials as I had; so I set to work, tailor-
for it; and often thought with myself, that I would punished me less than my iniquity had deserved, but ing, or rather, indeed, botching, for I made most piteous
have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes; had so plentifully provided for me-this gave me great work of it. However, I made shift to make two or
or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have hopes that my repentance was accepted, and that God three new waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a
given it all for a sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot had yet mercy in store for me great while; as for breeches or drawers, I made but a
seed out of England, or for a handful of peas and beans, With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not very sorry shift indeed till afterwards.
and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least ad- only to a resignation to the will of God in the present I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the
vantage by it or benefit from it; but there it lay in a disposition of my circumstances, but even to a sincere creatures that I killed, I mean ones, and I
drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave, in thankfulness for my condition; and that I, who was yet had them hung up,.stretched c(.- t ; i k1 in the sun,
the wet seasons; and if I had had the drawer full a living man, ought not to complain, seeing I : ..i not by which means some of them.were so dry and hard
of diamonds, it had been the same case,.they had the due punishment of mysins;that I enjoyedsomany that they were fit for little, but others were very
been of no manner of value to me, because of no mercies which I had no reason to have expected in useful. The first thing I made of these was a great
use. that place; that I ought never more to repine at any con- cap for my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot
I had now brought my state of life to be much easier edition, but to rejoice, and give daily thanks for that off the rain; and this I performed so well, that after,
in itself than it was at first, and much easier to my daily bread, which nothing but a crowd of wonders I made me a suit of cl.:. s wholly of these skins-that
mind, as well as to my body. I frequently sat down to could have brought; that I ought to consider Ihad been is to say, a waistcoat, ai, 1 breeches open at the knees,
meat with thankfulness, and admired the hand of God's fed even by a miracle, even as great as that of feeding and both loose, for they were rather wanting to keep
providence, which had thus spread my table in the Elijah by ravens; by a long series of miracles: and me cool than to keep me warm. I must not omit to
wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side that I could hardly have named a place in the unin- acknowledge that they were wretchedly made; for if I
of my condition, and less upon the dark side, and to habitable part of the world where I could have been was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However,
consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted; and cast more to my advantage; a place where, as I had no they were such as I made very good shift with, and
this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I society, which was my affliction on one hand, so I found when I was out, if it happened to rain, the hair of my
cannot express them; and which I take notice of here, no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers, to waistcoat and cap being outermost, I was kept
to put those discontented people in mind of it, who can- threaten my life; no venomous creatures, or poisons, very dry.
not enjoy comfortably what God has given them, be- which I might feed on to my hurt; no savages to After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to
cause they see and covet something that he has not murder and devour me. In a word, as my life was a make an umbrella; I was indeed in great want of one,
given them. All our discontents about what we want life of sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another; and had a great mind to make one: I had seen them
appeared to me to spring from the want of thankfulness and I wanted nothing to make it a life of comfort, but made in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the
for what we have. to be able to make my sense of God's goodness to me, great heats there, and I felt the heats every jot as great
Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubt- and care over me in this condition, be my daily consola- here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox; besides,
less would be so to any one that should fall into such tion; and after I did make a just improvement on as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most
distress as mine was; and this was, to compare my these things, I went away, and was no more sad. I had useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats.
present condition with what I at first expected it would now been here so long, that many things which I had I took a world of pains with it, and was a great while
be; nay, with what it would certainly have been, if the brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or before I could make anything likely to hold: nay, after
good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered very much wasted and near spent. I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three
the ship to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I not My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all before I made one to my mind: but at last I made one
only could come at her, but could bring what I got out but a very little, which I eked out with water, a little that answered indifferently well; the main difficulty I
of her to the shore, for my relief and comfort; without and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce left any appear- found was to make it let down. I could make it spread,
which, I had wanted for tools to work, weapons for ance of black upon the paper. As long as it lasted I but if it did not let down too, and draw in, it was not
defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting my made useof it to minute down the days of the month portable for me any way but just over my head, which
food. on which any remarkable thing happened to me; and would not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one
I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in repre- first, by casting up times past, I remembered that there to answer, and covered it with skins, the hair upwards,
senting to myself, in the most lively colours, how I was a strange concurrence of days in the various provi- so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and
must have acted if I had got nothing out of the ship. dences which befell me, and whichif I had I'...-n -.l...-c kept off the sun so effectually, that I could walk
How I could not have so much as got any food, except stitiously inclined to observe days as fatal ,.L t.. -Ar tr.t out in the hottest of the weather with greater advan-.
fish and turtles; and that, as it was long before I found I might have had reason to have looked -p.:.u w L a tage than I could before in the coolest, and when I
one of them, I must have perished first; that I should great deal of curiosity. had no need of it, could close it,'and carry it under
have lived, if I had not perished, like a mere savage; First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke my arm.
that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any contrivance, away from my father and friends, and ran away to Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being
I had no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from Hull, in order to go to sea, the same day aftt n .,j 11 I entirely composed by resigning myself to the will of
the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw was taken by the Sallee man-of-war, and, made a slave; God, and throwing myself wholly upon the disposal of
it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a the same day of the year that I escaped out of the His providence. This made my life better than sociable,
beast. wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day for when I began to regret the want of conversation, I
These reflections made me very sensible of the good- year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in a would ask myself, whether thus conversing mutually
ness of Providence to me, and very thankful for my boat; the same day of the year I was born on, viz. the with my own thoughts, and (as I hope I may say)
present condition, with all its hardships and mis- 30th of September, that same day I had my life so with even God Himself, by ejaculations, was not better
fortunes: and this part also I cannot but recommend to miraculously saved twenty-six years after, when I was than the utmost enjoyment of human society in the
the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery, to cast on shore in this island; so that my wicked life and world ?
say, "Is any affliction like mine ? Let them consider my solitary life began both on a day. I cannot say that, after this, for five years, any extra-
how much worse the cases of some people are, and The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of ordinary thing happened to me, but I lived on in the


same course, in the same posture and place, as before;
the chief things I was employed in, besides my yearly
labour of planting my barley and rice, and curing my
raisins, of both which I always kept up just enough to
have sufficient stock of one year's provision beforehand;
I -j. I.sides this yearly labour, and my daily pursuit
of F..',ng out with my gun, I had one labour, to make a
canoe, which at last I finished: so that, by digging a
canal to it of six feet wide and four feet deep, I brought
it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the first,
which was so vastly big, for I made it without consider-
ing beforehand, as I ought to have done, how I should
be able to launch it, so, never being able to bring it into
the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let
it lie where it was as a memorandum to teach me to be
wiser the next time: indeed, the next time, though I
could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place
where I could not get the water to it at any less
distance than, as I have said, near half a mile, yet; as I
saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and
though I was near two years about it, yet I. never
grudged my labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off
to sea at last.
However, though my little periagua was finished, yet
the size of it was not at all answerable to the design
which I had in view when I made the first; I mean of
venturing over to the terra jfrma, where it was above
forty miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my boat
assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought
no more of it. As I had a boat, my next design was to
make a cruise round the island; for as I had been on
the other side in one place, crossing, as I have already
described it, over the land, so the discoveries I made in
that little journey made me very eager to see other
parts of the coast; and now I had a boat, I thought of
nothing but sailing round the island.
For this purpose, that I might do everything with
discretion and consideration, I fitted up a little mast in
my boat, and made a sail too out of some of the pieces
of the ship's sails which lay in store, and of which I had
a great stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail,
and.tried the boat, I found she would sail very well:
then I made little lockers, or boxes, at each end of my
boat, to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition, &c.,
into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the spray of
the sea; and a little, long, hollow place I cut in the
inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a
flap to hang down over it, to keep it dry.
I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a
mast, to stand over my head, and keep the heat of the
sun off me, like an awning; and thus I every now and
then took a little voyage upon the sea: but never went
far out, not far from the little creek. At last, being
eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom,
I resolved upon my cruise; and accordingly I victualled
my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves
(cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an
earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate a great
deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder
and shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats,
of those which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out
of the seamen's chests; these I took, one to lie upon,
and the other to cover me in the night.
It was the sixth of November, in the sixth year of my
reign, or my captivity, which you please, that I set out
on this voyage, and I found it much longer than I ex-
pected; far though the island itself was not very
large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I found a
great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the
sea, some above water, some under it; and beyond that
a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more, so that I
was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double the
When first I discovered them, I was going to give
over my enterprise, and come back again, not knowing
how far it might oblige me to go out to sea: and, above
all, doubting how I should get back again: so I came to
an anchor; for I had made a kind of an anchor with
a piece of a broken grappling which I got out of
the ship.
Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went
on shore, climbing up a hill, which seemed to overlook
that point where I saw the full extent of it, and
resolved to venture.
In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood,
I perceived a strong and, indeed, a most furious current,
which ran to the east, and even came close to the
point; and I took the more'notice of it, because I saw
there might be some danger, that when I came into it,
I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and
not be able to make the island again: and, indeed, had
I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would have
been so; for there was the same current on the other
side the island, only that it set off at a farther distance,
and I saw there was a strong eddy under the shore; so
I had nothing to do but to get out of the first current,
and I should presently be in an eddy.
I lay here, however, two days, because the wind
blowing pretty fresh at E.S.E., and that being just con-
trary to the current, made a great breach of the sea

upon the point; so that it was not safe for me to keep
too close to the shore for the beach, nor to go too far
off, because of the stream.
the third day, in the morning, the wind having abated
overnight, the sea was calm, and I ventured: but I am
a warning to all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner
was I come to the point, when I was not even my boat's
length from the shore, but I found myself in a great
depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill:
it carried my boat along with it with such violence that
all I could do could not keep her so much as on the
edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and
farther out from the eddy, which was on my left hand.
There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I could
do with my paddles signified nothing: and now I be-
gan to give myself over for lost; for as the current
was on both sides of the island, I knewin a few leagues'
distance they must join again, and then I was irrecover-
ably gone; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it;
so that I had no prospect before me but of perishing,
not by the sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving
from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise on the
shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into
the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh water, that is to
say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all this to
being driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure,
there was no shore, no main land or island, for a
thousand leagues at least?
And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of
God to make even the most miserable condition of
mankind worse. Now I looked back upon'my desolate,
solitary island, as the most pleasant place in the world,
and all the happiness my heart could wish for was to be
but there again. I stretched out my hands to it, with
eager wishes: 0 happy desert! said I, I shall
never see thee more. 0 miserable creature! whither
am I going ?" Then I reproached myself with my
unthankful temper, and that I had repined at my
solitary condition; and now what would I give to be
on shore there again! Thus, we never see the true
state of our condition till it is illustrated to us by its
contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but
by the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine
the consternation I was now in, being driven from my
beloved island (for so it appeared to me now to be) into
the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost
despair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked
hard till indeed my strength was almost exhausted, and
kept my boat as much to the northward, that is, to-
wards the side of the current which the eddy lay on,
as I possibly could; when about noon, as the sun passed
the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in
my face, springing up from S.S.E. This cheered my
heart a little, and especially when, in about half an
hour more, it blew a pretty gentle gale. By this time,
I had got at a frightful distance from the island, and
had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had
been undone another way, too; for I had no compass
on board, and should never have known how to have
steered towards the island, if I had but once lost sight
of it; but the weather continuing clear, I applied my-
self to get up my mast again, and spread my sail,
standing away to the north as much as possible, to get
out of the current.
Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat be-
gan to stretch away, I saw even by the clearness of the
water some alteration of the current was near; for
where the current was so strong the water was foul;
but perceiving the water clear, I found the current
abate; and presently I found to the east, at about half
a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks: these
rocks I found caused the current to part again, and as
the main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving
the rocks to the north-east, so the other returned by the
repulse of the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran
back again to the north-west, with a very sharp
They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought
to them upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves
just going to murder them, or who have been in such
extremities, may guess what my present surprise of joy
was, and how gladly I put my boat into the stream of
this eddy; and the wind also freshening, how gladly I
spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the wind,
and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.
This eddy carried me about a league in my way back
again, directly towards the island, but about two leagues
more to the northward than the current which carried
me away at first; so that when I came near the island,
I found myself open to the northern shore of it, that
is to say, the other end of the island, opposite to that
which I-went out from.
When I had made something more than a league of
way by the help of this current or eddy, I found it was
spent, and served me no farther. However, I found
that being between two great currents, viz. that on the
south side, which had hurried me away, and that on the
north, which lay about a league on the other side; I
say, between these two, in the wake of the island, I
found the water at least still, and running no way; and

having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on
steering directly for the island, though not making such
fresh way as I did before.
About four o'clock in the evening, being then within
a league of the island, I found the point of the rocks
which occasioned this disaster, stretching out, as is
described before, to the southward, and casting off the
current more southerly, had, of course, made another
eddy to the north; and this I found very strong, but
not directly setting the way my course lay, which was
due west, but !almost full north. However, having a
fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-
west; and in about an hour cam.- -itbir t.i ht a mile
of the shore, where, it being imo:oth water, I soon got
to land.
When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave
God thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside
all thoughts of my deliverance by my boat; and re-
freshing myself with such things as I had, I brought
my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I had
spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep,
being quite spent with the labour and fatigue of the
I was now at a great loss which way to get home
with my boat! I had run so much hazard, and knew too
much of the case, to think of attempting it by the way
I went out; and what might be at the other side (I
mean the west side) I knew not, nor had I any mind to
run any more ventures; so I resolved on the next
morning to make my way westward along the shore,
and to see if there was no creek where I might lay up
my frigate in safety, so as to have her again, if I wanted
her. In about three miles, or thereabouts, coasting the
shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay, about a mile
over, which narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet
or brook, where I found a very convenient harbour for
my boat, and where she lay as if she had been in a little
dock made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and
having .stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to
look about me, and see where I was.
I soon found I had but a little passed by the place
where I had been before, when I travelled on foot to
that shore; so taking nothing out of my boat but my
gun and umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I began
my march. The way was comfortable enough after
such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my
old [bower in the evening, where I found every thing
standing as I left it; for I always kept it in good
order, being as I said before, my country-house.
I got over the, fence, and laid me down in the
shade to rest my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell
asleep; but judge you, if you can, that read my story,
what a surprise I must be in when I was awaked out of
my sleep, by a voice calling me by my name several
times, "Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe: poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe ? Where are
you? Where have you been?" -
I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with row-
ing, or paddling as it is called, the first part of the day,
and with walking the latter part, that I did not wake
thoroughly; but dozing between sleeping and waking,
thought I dreamed that somebody'spoke to me ; but as
the voice continued to repeat, Robin Crusoe, Robin
Crusoe," at last I began to wake more perfectly, and
was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up in the
utmost consternation; but no sooner were my eyes
open, but I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge;
and immediately knew that it was he that spoke to me;
for just in such bemoaning language I had used to talk
to him, and teach him; and he had learned it so per-
fectly that he would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill
close to my face, and cry, "Poor Robin Crusoe! Where
are you? Where have you been? How came you
here?" and such things as I had taught him.
However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and
that indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while
before I could compose myself. First, I was amazed
how the creature got thither; and then, how he should
just keep about the place, and nowhere else; but as I
was well satisfied it could be nobody but honest Poll,
I got over it; and holding out my hand, and calling him
by his name, Poll," the sociable creature came to me,
and sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued
talking to me, "Poor Robin Crusoe! and how did I
come here ? and where had I been ? just as if he had
been overjoyed to see me again; and so I carried him
home along with me.
I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some
time, and had enough to do for many days, to sit still,
and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I would
have been very glad to have had my boat again on my
side of the island; but I knew not how it was practic-
able to get it about. As to the east side of the island,
which I had gone round, I knew well enough there was
no venturing that way; my very heart would shrink,
and my very blood run chill, but to think of it; and as
to the other side of the island, I did not know how it
might be there; but supposing the current ran with the
same force against the shore at the east as it passed by
it on the other, I might run the same risk of being


driver, down the str.anm, andl iarrn,.d L.v the, .-,
lad h.ern .-efore ot tELring ...rric:l aw ry fr..,m it: u n;
theo,: thl:,r ghtei I ..,nt-ut.:.1l iivsel I t' b: ldth .it an
boat, thiougih it buhd tr-e thL. prtodl ut O:f so many month
labour to make it, and of so many more to get it in
thl.- ea.
In this gi ,i-nmirrnt of my temper, I remained near
year; and li\.J ..iy ppdlate, retired life, as you ms
well snrppuroe LirIl ini trriniglt. 1rng very much cor
posgd, as to my ,..aui.til:.i, ad fully comforted
resigning ni,~mll to thi lia..urit..n., of Pri .iJ.: cc,
thoffghtj lived really very h].,ip..ily u all mll,-> s,...
thall Olf noLtiJ.
I inrpr.v.:.,l m.1,'y.lf in this time in all the mechan
c.x.reti.a. aIirh my necessities put me upon -a;plrli
myself to; and I believe I should, upon occasiui, 1t
made a very good carpenter, especially considering ho
few tools I had.
ECa;dr tiiis .. I ar, ir d at an unexpected perfection i
my .earthiua.rc ., and i ontri,.ed well enough to mak
them Ihiti a heI 11, % hlh. I round iLio6t.1IY -:tier an
better; tb cur'u I n, .1 tlh.Lo round au.l .1 p..r J, which
bef',re rrire ltbIty tl,;rg, inleed to look on. But
think I w.a, -. ci nimru % a.i of my own p.i-rfuru;.n ji., .
more oyfuli f...r ain thing I uIuna] out, ti ,n r.:. a, ni L..: i
able to make a tobacco-pipe : .ru ti.:'ugh it was a ver
ugly, clunary thing Ia h:u it .,.. ...,u.:, and oni, 1i;rnil
red. liike oth er :rrtlh.. au.,re, y: t as it was iard ,il i firm
an]d wrol.J Jran Iic: amirkli...1 was exceedingly cornflrt..,
witit t. for I had been always used I.u .-il-ke. :r.
there were pipes in tLh ship, but I for..;t lth.m at lii it
iot thinking thiait tL.:rc. \-i- tobacco in tbi isl, u.I. I.
after anrl. wh.a I aVarI-..J the ship a, is., I ,..,id ia
comie at Ian pIipcs.
In my Wi.ii.rnali:, also, I improved much, and M il.
abriaorane. of necessary baskets, as well as my ivent;i:i
.*bi i'nl ie, though not very handsome, yet they "Vtr.
such as were yv.ry Lh.-Ilv] and .-:.:uvenient for larin,
things upin, pr tlhrnig For .xuaj-pl:., i
I killed a goat ail-.r.- 'l,'[ iio 1 .l li.I it up in a tree, ili;
it, dress it. and cut it in pieces, and bring it home in
Llk, ut; raiJ tlh,: Iki; L a turtle; I could cut it up, tl.k
oC't tl.e eggs, an4 a piece pr two of thic flesh, which war
enough for me, and bring them home in a basket, and
leave the r it bphin4 me. 4lso, large deep 1.-,:.,-
wore the receivers of my corn, lMi.i I always r'iL-..i.
out as .uin ai it was dry. and cured, and kept in great
I began now to perc1 L- ncy powder abated consider-
ably; this was a want iihh it, was impossible for me
to supply, and I began seriously io icori.l... r 'il I T mu-t
,Jr.i % hen I sli,,,ii1 l,\' : no more i.,-i I.: r; thl t is t1. -iay,
how I .ihoul.I kill ayr goats. I had, as is observed,in
tie third y-, ir of luy being here, kept a young kid, and
i-reid li lip t.ia.. anl I was in hppes of getting a he-
gout b.t I L.r.,.i not by any'ieans bring it to pass,
till my kid grew an cl.l gI't ;' and as I could never
find in my heart to k ili r, she died at Ijrt of
mere age.
But being now in the eleventh year of my residence,
and, as I have said, my ramnnun it;., 'growing low, I set
myself to study some ar t to trapii -L,.d L. j:' il to
see whether I could r,..t t.cb ,:,I.. :f' tbhi alr.:; n j.j
particularly, I want=.l a Ah-,..:.-:t gr. it wi-tL
For bUis purpose.I aT nrla-ir u..t t.:. h.auper tli.ta:: a.ii
I do l.-l:hte lthy iae-rt lu.:.rc tlhan onr. tak-ur ita thr..r,:
but pmy ti..kl: i ui .t ,.....,i. f.:.r I had no wire, and
alivays fiaunIl thi m i brlok. .U mll nr" bait devoured.
l'notli, I i .lirc:.1 toi try a rpit.ii : so I dug several
large pits in the i.arib, ini pir ,s where I I1,.1 observedl
the gitLs risedl t.: i....,, .iai ,.r those pitsI .1 p.] -
hurdl4,.. ,i:t mr Iow'n Inial ,ing t .o r .. i II i -, it .ii,!,l ,,p.
In l ll uI ; rIn,.1 -e rat tu, ll i I p.t ,_..s ,f I..'rl v IJ J, d,
:-.;-, 'vithou t ,-..tting l .. trap. : .,ii I ...ul. i i ,l [..:r-
ceive ttbat th,. .-' ts h d .J go.., n -..uIl tia i, p i L.the : i r ,
for I ..,i. 1 s .: tlih: i .i L ..f t b.:ir !....t. A t i tlh I t
itri,... tl.rp r rar lii it. ibji r.u "I-rg tlrJ Ir. .:I irrn..In I
gone ; tlr i r.-. I-,- .ii, i a;i; H .:.- C.. I i .1
my traps; ridJ, not to trouble ;.:.risL -tlh Ir..i,.l. rsi ,
.oing one morning to see my trap. I tuir.1- il .1-.: .I
thlrLU a large id.J lIt:-.o it : and i: .* .- of tl. .:.ti,.:r-.
three kiJ.s, i male and two females.
Asr -i thl- ,ILd one,"i li,:. bni L.i h -I..t t.. ith itam :
he was so fierce, I durst no.:.t g~ it... tu.- pit t.:. Lu ,. tb
is t._, rsy. to bring lIni ui ray alive, whiLb > Zi r l hi I
t intr:J.. I could'l ~r,- i11...ll. him, but that i r :i;. .-.1 I .
business, nor w..d.l it.ui r ..r Irr cJ i;: .: I c-- aU i.t IL i
out. unJ lie rma nivra- is ;i ..I i.ri f riii, u. i Orit
of his wit. But I .1..1 o.:.t th i a la:h,:vw lr I i aft. ri .i
luainLed, that initag.'r iill taru.,: a ii..a. If I r. I t hIn
stiy there tihrEe. Ir:r 1or J1 qyn v itli-lt tf-.od, and then
have cu iri.:.1 i hnim ..u,- w.t,.c to j .Jiuk, l. I then a littr
cLin. i, hb wuirild hbaV, b:n i :s t ie ii,: i.- j.. of the kids;
for t hL.y ra re migl.ty cigitrc i;. s, tr.a: t Lle creatures, where
there are nwvll ir.. .1.
"Hoiwveir.i froi tii. I let h;nm go, knowing no
better at t Lnt tiluc thi,-u I w. .ut I1... Ht.r.:.. i. li.: r 1,
t-iking tlr:m u .: hv ,:a. ., r I t;. i thi- nni i r ; tl r i t. t,: .th..r.
nl wnith ionia diffi..ulty l..rought i br11m .rll ,itr:.

I It i is a nLile before th.y .would feed ; but oin i:f tbie hiring tatu.itipl.:id by I kiio:r. not ,L.itlkiunl
th ttrro,, y.-;[r them ni:[e :or ie t cornr, it t liptlt.] thbr:i. aCndri f I.r: iture, thbe tt., .-bj i.h I li pi r.t r -.i.! t .n .:
. tbhey hr.gaai to1. I Arnl o,.- I fliiunl thLt it I b.-,rr. tLhb r. t ruan iid i ni th.0 i o..r.,i,. 1 iil I .r.:-ru.
Is' silp-et..,d to iuppl.y ryr lf w;th go: ti i.-rh. h-ti u l lt. :l i .l.wd tr:ou i.:ori:. (.. U at !a:t i:or th." ii: ...j.1 ..ftrl.
to u.. powii,:r .r boL t i.t. brc.-.hing i ir.,e up tame i s n my into m-r Lai, l pilh .l.I- r Du.. I.. I0 till it
ouly -i'.. aih, a.pL r-ihr. I maighlit bh rv; tbhe atlolit y [ "I .i olii ,,. t.:. .; ho:, t ib..i .i;i- kill ,t. r it m u ;
a htiou. s Ike a fl.k of i.s, ,Lp. But, th,: it I:,.:ru.r- .'d ,. at I ,: gth th y left nt \W itL tthi aiti:n.l'ilr. t rj t in
ay me that I -must I ,p t th t.a rotw the:- w;ib or ,i:.- thi. plnt;If,.l rmriur I li'i d, i.:ithl r.:ui.d II..- *.,i.i 1,)
a- tht wi:ould .ilnA. i rau i;[i.J alil tlry ren. up: iurl -iwnt nirthimg A.iCty : iI ..tibtl.-ouei ti-me jfter
in the onlr iv y r t..r t illiu t.' .. h.iAv e.:-.nm itr'i.'..l pir.:.. th;-., I jr liik,:ly t,:. bjrv r.u- *i.
I of gfrroui, w ill f ..u itl .:tu with tIrdg rpi.alr, to k%. :p I V.:4, ioi,.. thi;rg im irti I r l v m1.!,- .:, t..f-li re
pt thetn in r l. r it tllv t b -t .: ir it lti r min; htr not tit ur-,: ,:f tiy i.. i t. ti.:u,,I very otl h t,... rurt i r i. m rM',-.
bre.,k iu.t, or tbo- v. .ilth, t L.r. Ak iu. L .. ;ir- : " tlri fr.:t tinae. I ,it :,ntlr;.; i ..; a i-r
ic Ttli, u i.r ..t tt.,k;iig for one pair of hands; t... g. -t !lr alI, ut thie i. !n l. a1. at o. th- r timru. I 'it,
rg yv t, -. I .,,r th:i ir:ie i. b. iu a tL,:l.t necessity for doing nay:.f .ri-.n ,..:rni .t.r i ...n.:,u'r h wiithor: it ir-ir. Drt I i.1
i. it, uy li, t wr .. k v. is t:. in.i .,,t a i-.r ,p.r piece of a ;trjnig,:. u .-r -r;rr.. a, n n r iuiL. t: i; r- t... ti h. p.: intr
w ground, where tih-:,: was likely to be -. t -. I .,' r tl. :u ..f t. i. I rii b. -r.. -. IL 1 in my li:t r: ari..-, I
to eat, water tor tIh.Iua to drink, an4 cover to li.. p thb.u [ t i ip rbe Li!l t .,:.... i,.:. thi. ,.i:oi I .;. .i.! ir..; tuh
n from the sun. .i:., irit ..t, that I miiht see whir I L i. t.:. rlo thi;
:e T'i.:. who understand such inclosures will think I in.. 1 iLti..on ii.- ; i.i...I me eri I iiy. -ti.I II i..-nth
d had very little contrivance, when I p.itlch. 1 r..ii: a I .I':i c.: r-.. t I. I tLiti. r I.- i. I f. i .ll: in i c -l;.:
h pl aI. .r:'r, proper for all these i L.u~i a plain open piece .:. th.. ,-h.:r.: I ,i.J .:.; l.. t in.l i i,. ,rj:T ii Eu-liir.l
I of nic:,l,:hr land,or savannah, s- i. i.. .:'1 it in u..-t -i..:l h u i I ,, 1.i r. ..-:t ,. th, .: i i ..r .l
Ir tL w western colonies), which had two or tihre .-;tl. him, ..r i.:. i. i .-r.. 1 .1.:.1l : I ll. a- .r And as I fre-
g r;ill, of fresh water in it, and ,t on.- ..U ri ., r i. .nti- y ,too ::t.l 1.:, i.:-k it n:j,-." I : .:l.. d nilot but
y woody,-I say, they will tini.- at my forecast, when narlt ,t th,- .r.ti:., ...t Ir tr.' -liIti; tlri...,j l Y..r -i;i';,'
I I .-lull ,.il them I began -. in..1-. iu; thii. i.-':c ,:f -.i it. L .i :lu;i -. .ri.l ii ;u.- h ,, : 1 Be .' l .d
i. tiroii' .l in s.,ii.. a manner, thAt .y -:ig r p l.e n... t. f k- I i I I.. t lm5 rigij, ni; f..l.::. '
ii i ha- I...rn at i:asttwomiles ul.:.4at. No:r -. is tb. .i- T Ijbad i gri t 'l -tl r:iii-s i ip, uj. lI of a ._- t',
I 1', of it so great as to the -:i.up.,n t..r it it --. t .:;b i. r h di. h _. I .-: ..r. a L.hi.. i : r.el to L. r p
L .s .d about.I r-- 1. i;k to hav. tiime.:l, 'ii- to .:. it ;i: thi: -in riou.: iui i; to iLo.:t tl.: ir n L .t! fi. m running
1 -jt I Jl.i bL t. co.n i.l. r th ,It -y :., :..i i .. i ht-c -. i-.1.1 ,it a ; -- ,:. I.A.,thLi i...ii' .- h!ij tf..i uL th-.:.i : u ti
;rin ..' mpcb compass gs if th. y tial bh.t i i-i rl.:.!.- l. il. .:. th..- iiib ipn tl,, i. b fl h i. i- tie -. ..,th.-i .
,ril T 1,,:,,1.1 have somuch room t. ,.h L I thb,: i ;n thit I ,.l i t i..:tj :f g ao,: s L._., Thb- irt., ..l:noin-
I hI...ii lI i .:v1,r catchthem. j' iO,: t:, ih. :it tli, .f t i- tbtb iu.1t a p i- .:01
S My !i, i.L. r,-. I, and carried on, I "-li-.v:: about : .-P ,l r.:i:. h .:of ttl:,, a. ,,- : tt.: i.- :!i, ,. r..:.
F lit, y'Ilr i.n trhi, ti:...i ilt occurred to mei sp I nl rt .i lIn. skii .:.t nn o!d i b.--,:,-.t. ., -- .:- i. i r i ui
S pr :=-. tly h .stopp.::- i.i.rt, r f. t tr he beginning. I re- I ,..... a lar I. :th, i, r t,. ih,- i.,nt &.,l .'.-
f r-:].iii to ip.!. .;.rii... of about one Llual r...l '.u1 Fity it reached to tih. .iiJIjl, -f rui l i.- : : .:.. I:; _, l .. i .:.,
ri' lrd i i ;rlth, il .onoe hundred yards in i.r,,.ith. I had nr:.-i., but hri .! nI,. n.,: i. ,,r of *..:rn t [iti. I
S which. a-, it til..I .l Lo.,int nil as many as I s-hio .,i i scar.:- lio.:r r-,it t:. ll ti;rI. lil;.- i-:.ui k ,. t -, .
in- any ri:-.-a li .i- tin.i, so, a y ,in -lAck in.:-..- ..l I my I.;. ., .r I n Ti ,- i, : .I .,tt.,.t .. 1-:b. i..t
S could .1.1 ror i l- m,;ro. -.l to my in-i.t...,ii. qf a Ui..1, t h i. .ui i .,:. r iu .:. r ,:r .ill t r,: t-t
This :-. i fi,.h ini rth some prudence, and I went to of ray :l:ot.hi-s.
Solk ill..oit a ia:. I -l al..:it tli:.. months hedgine I hi .i on :'. Ir,':. belt .:.f ,.it'i : f.L dried, which I
In tl..: pti.. .., r .. till haddone it, I t-ri-.:r.i, i.: thi I-f r : r i- i4Oi two L:.u-: thr same instead of
Stli.:c 1;1.1i in tit .: i..:; p ,i t of it, i.1 u_.I,...l fli _,i t._' .... ki. ," .n -i i id i,.1 i .f_ f ,- i1 ;. r +d ;',i.: ": ti',i .'
as near me as possible,to makett.. i. f:mailir .ril ver y .- i :t- .ii .1i l f r..r.i ".,1 d ,.i, ii i lin htt: i -- ....iii ,j
ofti:i I go and carry sliem some ears of t r!...l .. l hatchet, one on onee -ili. .ri-i ... ...u -I i. I t.-i
a hnlitul .Iof ii. it l. f.-i -.i .t of my hand'; so r:i.ath- r belt not so broad, and fastened' in tl. ; ri,.
that 'ift.r n.y i.:i...,ui.: iw.,_ arii'ii:.i. i.-l I let them manner,which lit., ..; -r i'';.-lioulder,andat the end of
lo..0., t hi: w7 ii. i fI l..a u: nip 1',.[ IIC:. .i. ith ; after it. uni.I-r n.V I '.ft irn '. .ira tw. : I'...J-: .-,i;. in, .,1.' of
m i fo.:r a i,-aii.ful .-t _.'-.A sl: n t oo :.f r. -hi.. L hi- : i y p- l .i,.., 1u. the
Tli'r ira :red.l U .A..i. : mIl i in .h..t y.: ,r 'n1.] i 1 [I .ti. r o7 .i-It. At .y l .1- I .: trr.-.- Iy i :.:-. -u.1 on
I rli, ti--..: .,f l..-;.ut t.:iv. I,. I.l. ii. ud :Ji : .r.Il ;a .ny bihil.] i r mj -uD. .iai over my head a rn. .t clumsy
tw <..' a- r- tl:r.: I lijd til .l -fl..t t ..-... -t-.. r .;i; ,g.' t--il.r i n l.r-li;, -.u t -.h i..h fi,: i li :,n : thi.
thAt i ti,.k 'ntl ihilt-l .:r nj f.:....i. 1 .\ltr t..t,. [ in- I.;.t L,.'i.::1 ir talin I .Id about me next to my gun.
cl.=,:.i 1' -,- si.-;i ..l p-....:-' or t ,r.:uti to f.:..i tht.- ir- i.:.i r ry :i.., t,. i,:.lo6ur'of it was really not so
with ilti-i. p.-.o t. o ;i:-; I.. l Lr t..., t.. t i-. tib i4 uin il:tti ilt ai, o-n- m-.lei e .: xpe:t fr: ri n L. n -l:.t t .1i
I ii ut.: uni t. oit of -tlin p :.- of gr...i a i to .:Ir.:tu! ..t t, anr i li.i .i within- ro : or t.: .. :.. .'.',.: r. thp equinox. :N ,. i. ,.i I had c .i- :,. Ir...I t.. r..i- till
I' t tli i. was not all; for now, I not only had coats' it was about a ." r..r Ir f a y i.i i.n. L...t i. I ..I.
tli: t t.:. ,Ad on when I pleased, but i__ili: t...:.,.--' tr both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pi. tfl
iml...lj, i.ieed, in iti. beginning, I did not so, ni-h i -,L:-it.. : -rcept what grew on my upper lip. which I Lid
tiiuk of. and which, when it came into my tio:u.htn. riniur. :, into ia large pair of !31li:,r.,--:l. whilnbi k r
was i.-.liy an ago.: -.i ,irpi; ... for now I :- t iip n-; such as 'I had .-..u I.rn lIy some Turks at i-,-.
dairy, :d had' s..ritir -i -i g ill-:u or two of rulji; ;n a fpr the Moors d;l -. rt .--1-i such la .o i.i, -L.- Ti l;:
day. And as Nature, who gives ,r-pplie of forM to did; of these moustachios, or v j-.l:.. I r ill .-.:
every creature, dictates evu i nil tu illy Ii.vr: t n- ia- use say they were long enough to hang my hat upon
of it, so I, that li- never rlki -m. ...'i, lI:s a them, but they were of a i;-igi. and shape monstrous
goat. or seen .'rtii r r cih.:.: : m .l 0ir I. nh a I v. rs a pmonibi, nil- sich as in E'liA oi-,i would have p- i:. tor
il.v., ittdr a g,. it mAn iuj jd i.i i-, i:; i. i~ e fii,.- i.
t1oth I.. ilter aI.l .: .:L .: t 1 ;t..i.: -. i. t itlh.:._-m I t.-.nd Flit i!l tri: i" by the by; for, as to my figure, I had
I; i. utly made to.- iy Lv ,i u.t h tl. .- I.., t ..of thi. Isn uipon so few to observe me, that it was of no manner of con-
EIOu .- if tL. to-i:, IAf t i.? i.El au.I I t--. r :- in, .i it sequence, so I say no more of that. In this kind of
att. rr.i'.,rl. H,. nii.:.;tiriy ..ii .u- I.'!.. trt-r His dress Iwent my new journey, and was out five or six
cr.-,t..r-., .ii in ti ... ....i... .it u a hih they days. I tiavelled first along the ,-!. ..1 .1i..:il', t6
seemed to be overwhelmed in- ..1-;ti.-.t i THow theplace nv-lic T :i-,:.,it ri'7 l, :.t to ., uii.Li'.r ,:
can He sweeten t C bi.ti ..,;t, and give getupon th,. ri:-. ki ikai ,-, i. rr. baoat i.v i.. til..
is calim.. t.. prii-o Hin, ti:.r .i ,;... ...s and prisons! care of, I v-ut ..-. i th.:e IlhUi n ..,:r way I.. ti..: ,,in,,
n\-7 a bt ti.: v. ]inr- v ,pre ri f...r -u.' in the wilder- height that I was upon before,when, looking forward to
a..s, -h.i.: [I -.iw I.:.thl. nrii tIrt buto to perish' for- ti r. point- of the rocks which lay out ,:.i-. .h;.. i T was
hunger. :.1. 1,. t.:- double with my boat, a; i- si.1 .t--irr. I was
It' a.nI i ir.: i .i.- i St....: nril: to have seen me iitpr-:.--i to see the sea' all i-n.'ith and Iji. t-t-
and :i-7 litl, I t.. I;!y -;t .ii' II, t ..i ir.L, i 'Tlhrewas my rip, li,;-. LO. n.. t;,ri, emr current, any more their. ti.'-u im.
male.i 'y, th-: p' L;u..: vi .I !-. .i :t t!.- --. V..-..l island;f L .J i r,,-,h.- pl>. i I .. s at l -tii.u.:- I: -' to understand
th, i,,. s .:f min, Jiln,-.ts t ri .,i solute command; this, and resolved to spend :...n. ri!i- iu the observing
Io.ii.i .lu, r,.Ir,.i, ti;.: ill r~, u. -i take it away, arid i, to see if io:,tln.i tro:i, the sets of the tide had occa;-
no re-h.i1 iu... n:y ,ili ri,. il.jl.ti. tih: n,to see howlike signed it ,''..,t I v. -, i!,-:a.utlh ,:o:- inced howit was,
a kir; I .l;n...i t':, Aill .i:,: -,I ttr-.l... by my -rn ruat, vip. -h it the tide of -.:trri,; from the west, and, a. it It b.i l. -. Lru f ii\lV. it-l Was Ilir Obly joiniri- i-b .: i :iirre-i t of -;;.at rf- 'om some great
,: i~~_ .:I r .;tt,:,l to talk to me. i[, .I-,:, who was now river ,ou th- sl:.or., ua ibe the c.. ;.: 0u o:' this current,
grown old and crazy, and hal f.-Iu. no 'rp., t:',. g: d t h. i.n.i .1.. i-i'.': lt~r..hly fioi
multiply his kind upon, sat .1- i t my r;_ -t .u.I : the v --it .:or fi-mu tbLe uortL. this curi.Et i. r u.:'l-.r i:.r
and two cats, one on one ,-i.l,: ..- n:, t .i1-M. .ii onme on yent irthir ni.m .ru c hir, ; for,n ,1lii. th, r ij..ijts
i-r tl]. :;r,... now'ir. I Ii.iin ;i ..t froii mrjy hand, till evening, I went up to thi- ::.k i" a_.o rua.i thncr tb,
i: .k ni-t .:. i-pecial favour. tide of ebb being made, I rplaioi-ly s th- :.Lrr-nt -acdti
I'Pu ti,.... r-, ,,. n:t it.. tir. ats which I brought on as before,, nuly tbhst it ran farther .-.t. liin taif a
lrH .t lrtr ti- i.. V.r.:,., I.. -,T. of them dead, and had league from the shcli -:, n,:reas in ay :r.:i: it it cl,:,
been interred near ari i bitt i tiin i y my own hand; but upon the shore, unl i irri. .- me and my cilun:i along


-v.irl it, wb;-:tl at Lii:,tri r tlneb it r...alr i c.I.t Liv,

Th'i;,. --.i .r:;-. i.:n L,.orin i : rCl Iu tLh t I ha -il u.:.t; iu, to
d'i. t: o er)icrrv th i L.bitl,; iau l tbt i].:,i'ar. the h.le.,
e l.] I mi 't '.*.:r,' c ii ly t.ri njy I,.l:.a t aL..t th i: 1 u.J
e.;iri : In lt -.'br I I..: h I t h tick o.! Iuttalg it in
pr-.r. r,.I hII. u.i t..rr.J ur |..-n- j ijy rs [-.p t t :. i tl -ir DI.:iir-
I.r ,: e ,t I i dlr o-i.:r I h .i L,.-.u L tbh i I .:...u! 1-I r:t
thir k. (f i i: rr ID I r rh nI v pII r.V .:.-., h.u ..U tb: -..-:.utrar.r
I t.....1; .ip i :. .: r r r. i -.lutnr.. i...r ii a i .r.: t l .l tli. i b
n .i ;i lI. :. u-'-- r l il,., i-, I L rit I i ...u!- l I.u! ., or
:..tL.:r ri.,ikc, n.: au .l' .:r -.'u i; J '.-.r. .A..,. rr..i ... i.. Ti
crj. t!..r .:. -- :" tli.- i l Ii.l. .aul :.- t..r th.: .Il.bLi
.:.h *r, 1.:.. ril. ro 1-1.i 1 L. I t u..' [ h., .., a I 1 a7 c Ill
it. I -,. i.Ij-l tl,.ri, I tLj.. El. Lrr,- Ou. II,' hrtl.. t. trI6-
cj C .u I t.. it, I % tb, tLh v ill : ..:. t it uF .,, r tI t r... L;.
with tI. ciar- l..-11iu.1 nm;. which by th,,- tiuji I iL,.
.-Uiar.',J iLnto .---, t .Fp ir .-ri l, ..r '.:.:, .:.e. "rItbrU
i ,,.t h.-r. (0 .? .,tf tb.: :, '.. h;. .. i; i: I. .ir L- Ft b.i i t
and had a ki.:,:.r .Our I. .:...I Qi7 all- .-. tf.,.- I.. tI"u.-
that is to say; beyond wvi i-r:- py ~"i iii I..-.;.I t, h 1.1:..
was l 8.11fil.:.1 up with ti I tr .: i- 3rI .:.:b rh :r hi ;. 11 I
have given an accou.I .nir -. ;rtt to:.rt-,i n :.-r teenn
great baskets,whichr.:wo.u l ,.i-. i :.r .i.: bu:...:r l -ach,
where I laid up my ;t..r.-s .:,- pr..;i .:.n,,,. 'p, :., ly my
*...r.. .rue in the ear. cut :.!T ,ir:.i ltronl th.b. tri'.. and
tli. r ri.L...-: .:..rt i-,th my hand.
As t...r my i -a ll, nj l., as before, r.i- l ..rj, il:;.- ,,r
I.,,!; tL.:;.. p.,1:. i,: -v il like tree; ,.. i1- : i.-c.. bi i
time -..-- u .,-:' i,.. :U.' ._pread so very luu. b tIbt th':it :
was not the least appearance, to any 'ur' rv-.,. ..I any
,ll.tit'rr i..-bliu. b l l h in.
IN. r thii -l-.Ilbig of mine, but a little farther
-r;tlhin tij, land, and upon lower ground, lay my two
pieces of corn land, which I kept duly cultivated and
sowed, and which duly yielded me their harvest in its
season; and whenever I had occasion for more corn, I
had more land adjoining as fit as that. '
B.:ri-: this, I had my country seat, r.Al T L.r.3 r-...i
to:l.C ri ,: pi!i iir;n:r. I ere also; for, tir-t I iad -i ny
itl.. L..[.- ..r. A I ...-ill.. it, v. -...: I k-..t Fi r p.. ,i thbC t
.- to.: .y, I kept the ?'.,Il ;.- rl:.h ..-.r 1 .1 it u.. .:.u-
Lit 1I;, Iitt-.l up to its ii h, i i; t, the ladder -,1n.i.rim
.!io-,- iu thi. :iu-'.- I kept the trees, which :, t. ,- r
were no more tl.aL at d;- L it v- re now grown very
'firm and tall, lir.ayj ... t, ,:i.. tht they might spread
and grow thick -nl i'i Il. .i-.l nri:.. the more .i.,:' 1i.1:
shade, whi:L thII.-y *Ir.i :F:t..I. :l- t.:r my mind. I, tiL.
middle of thiri I 1.1i my tent always -tr irrin.;. i..:;iao
piece of a sail spread over poles, set up f.,-c ri, t pur ..,
and which never wanted any repair pr r.u. i. L iu i
under this I had made me a squab or c..- :h, v.Ii I i
skins of the creatures I had killed, and with other ort
things, and a blanket laid on them, such as belonged t.-
our sea-bedding, which I had saved; a l I a great i A. i ,
coat to cover me. And here, whenever I had occasion
to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my country
Adjoining to this, I had my ;. :I..;. .;a r for my cattle,
that is to say, my goats, and I li. i tI al. U an inconceiv-
able deal of pains to fence arid inclose this ground. I
was so anxious to see it ]:, it.. i r. :. the goats should
break lthr-: u, L that I .Li-.,:r I-lt -:.rI till, with infinite
labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so full.of
small stakes, and so near to one n.r.:otli-r, that it was
rather a pale than i [.. .i,-:. :a.i l tLb. C-- vas scarce room
to putahand throu;-l i, ri-r,.:,u tli.:r. : i1;..i afr :r f i.iF.i,
when those stakes .. .r ,a t L,: l .!Il l i;.u ILI- : t r f L n.
season, made the ,o..i. EIr.u-L, ii-: a wall, indeed
stronger than any wail.
Tit will testify for me that I was not idle, and that
I spared no pains to :.i!ri I:. pass whatever appeared
necessary for my comfortable ul'p,:,rt. for I considered
the keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my
hand would be a living magazine of flesh, milk, butter,
and cheese for me as long as I lived in the place, if it
were to be forty years; and that keeping them in my
reach ..:i-.: d.] .t- r.c, ly upon my perfecting my inclo-
sures -,:- i-.h i d-ir--., that I might be sure of keeping
them r.,.bther.r r..!i. b, by this method, indeed, I so
(iT-:. t.illy .:ir..'i tlh'it i1,in, these little stakes began
1.., gr:ow. I iad pfluFt.,I th. ru so very b;i:k, that I was
forced tI, pull '.imn. :of th-in ur again.
In this place also I ,l r, ,;rp growing, which I
principally depended on for n.y i ; t.r store of raisins,
and which I never failed to preserve very carefully, as
the best and Di...: agreeable 0 i.nry of my whole diet;
and indeed they were not only agreeable,but medicinal.
whole -:,=n ...urit ,.iiu;..A r.l I :-F.: r .l,_l, tpthelait d.:. r .
A.- thir l-.. .i-.Ait0 L-..Ia- iV between :=ri --t Ib:r
li.'At a.ID. th.. place where I had laid up iyT .'L,, I
S,:ui:. !y st.,.1 alu-i lay here in my way tiithl,:r f...r.
li --.l I rI.u.-tly t.., visit my boat; su.1 I I.ept ill, -ri ici,.ruI.u g to her, in very g ...:i :,rd. r Sn..--
linjr I wCbt .,.ur in her to divert myself, but u.. rujorc
hI iFmy ,- would I go, scarcely ever il..."-' a
rt.u-r-' cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehen-
. .. .f e;rLg hurried out of nsv likrn.;il.-.: again by the
r.irrr.ts or winds, or iny,r acii:di.l't. But now I
come to a new scene of my life.

it hiapl-l.p D I : lo da .i .l rIt u,..I.. [..)ill,. .. .ari uH;,
L,.it. I w\ .. .:;.'- .llt.I I u rp,.-..,l -.7tlh ih.: jlpt. t 14f '
nj 'o, r ojl...1 tE .ot :.o tb.: il .:.r., v, bhi.h ,' i ~ r. tu
be s Oe o- thb in.] I it:...i ,:,u-: tiiri .J: r i .t : l:.:.r
.- it I hll.i e: n n a rpir ltllu. i. I ld.t..:lTi I 1I..k.:.i
r.:.-o. .i iu... ir I .:.:o l1 -: jr U rttiit. n1.:r e,.. LiytIti.-;
I re-. t .p it. .. rT:.uir.l .. I ..:k l. rti I I I ..i t up
t .,? .>L.:.r anD l- .-. tI .i .:.r ... but A I s all % | ,SAI I
il. l : .1 .: iI.:, .i:. r ni l-.r'. il.:. i il t iiul. .:. L I a I..u t.
II .,F ;u tL .. i' I ti .:re r .. I rt- r iy n.i ...i aII t,- -rl.,._ .: I
it i 'hit u.:.t bU L. ,- y i a.iL:y : .it tL-, r. n t. .i :.f r
tL t. :r f r il -r. i- .: x :tl7 tl.: I.1nil :.ft 1 :..t -- .... .
I,.-.l, ui ,. r i- [.. rt !t i f'..:,l H .:a.-. It ,i ,r.: tibtll .r I
ku.:i- n :- t, u.n-- :..ul.I I ;. tLh. I..u-A t .u .i j u.. I. l I..
innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly
confused and out of myself, I came home to my fortifi-
:tii..., -A..t fl:,:i;ug. as we say, the ground I went on, but
ti.r ii.l. t.. Ith: -.., degree, looking behind me at every
two or three steps, mistaking every bush and tree, ,i.1
fancyru; ,..ry :i Ip it .1:t i,.:e to be a man. _N.Tr
is it -.:-., l. t, .i. -.:rl.: bow.. n i.,, r .. Ibel ..- F' u
affrighi :l.1 u;ii ;Lb:t:b I. :.r.w ut, .i th. i, I .:, I.- I rj, I..:.:T
IJ V ,r .I V I-..1 : .1 .. :..i .I .! i i .:.r... nt 11. ..,',
i'QJ r 4[t 1, a, w. uU.-...:.:. L.jr %l1,! .vbiau "., .: nn. lut.: i \
"lh .u,:tl: I.;,' th," v. jr.
When I L... t.:. nv t!. .: ...i I think I called it
ever after tlhi! 1 i-l Gt... i I.k.: ,-.-- i.-m-ued. Whether
I went over L.- tlh- 1 .l.ter r, fIr-r .. .iu --ed, or went in
attheholeic h.4. i-:, .-I .-.:!, i i. ,.i Illi door, I cannot
remember; no,nor could I remember I.L u- .t1 o.rii,;l,-.
for never frightened hare fled to cover ,:. I:-: t.. r. .n tI.,
with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.
I slept none -b.r U;ct't the farther I was from the
occasion of'my l;i it, ter. greater my apprehensions
were,which i i.:,al.:ri;r: contrary 10: tL.he D tu!~i u... i.
things, and ..i-..:; liy to the t_..,I! I..- ... -..l; .:f ..I!
creatures in f.: r l." t I was so riu.l.i rrr, .'r v.';L IA,
c.' i tri.,_ l .l.:i: t th.: I.Ling, iti. t I t:. ri. I i..thrtigi
.,.it *l;iIui ;i.:,.U.,tr:,n t... myself, even though I was
,-. r a i'r I r .. i ...r': lir i. .ii I fancied it must be
-Lt *I- I.- ,bI.i r,:a r.:. i..I ,.1 ;I with me in this sup-
-;...G.t; ir. t.: I....- AhOuiil.l r y c il.r thing in human
Fb p.j; ...: r.t: thr- .1.:.:r h.:i-i: was the vessel
that brought them? PWhat marks were ft.I.: of any
other t-.:,-,. r ki' ..i i w..rv ts it pnrrible a man should
come tli..,- l 'iut IB.: ., t.'. thiik that Satan should
take human shape upon Lii ;iLu au.! i a place, where
there could be no r, Lii,.r of occasion for it. but to
leave the print of his foot behind him, and that even
for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should
.:i ;.--tl,-: "vas an amusement the other way. I
.rI...u.l,].:...l thit the devil might have found out abun-
.1 ,l,:, i.t .:.thl,: ways to have terrified me than this of
SL"- -,!..:- prnitl of a foot; that as I lived quite on the
-tli- .- ie of the island, he would never have been so
simple as to leave a mark in a place where it was ten
thousand to one whether I I-h,-1.i ver see it or not,
and in the sand too, which III. rn t. surge of the sea,
upon a high wind, would have defaced entirely. All
this seemed inconsistent with the thing itself, and with
all the notions we usually entertain of the subtilty of
the devil.
Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue
me out of all apprehensions of its being the devil; and
I pri-. tr!U concluded then, that it must be some more
dangerous creature, viz. that it must be some of the
savages of the main land opposite, who had wandered
out to sea in their canoes, and either driven by the
currents or by contrary winds, had made the island, and
had been on shore, but were go.. av-. y again to sea;
being as loath, perhaps, to have It r' ..l in this desolate
island as I would have been to have had them.
While these reflections were rolling in my mind, I
was very -i, lulift! my !...ii;h; tL -t I was so happy
as not to be thereabouts at II i tin.--, or that they did
not see my boat, by which they would have concluded
that some inhabitants had been in the place, and perhaps
have z ra.l i i frrht .:r f..r me. Then terrible thoughts
race i mtih rIir...r.ti... Ibout their having found out
my b.:.,t .b-1 tLb.r tI. r.:. were people here; and that,
if so, I .L..ul.' certainly have them come again in
greater ij'nrul.. r, and devour me; that if it should
happen tb ii I L; should not find me, yet they would
find'my inclosure, destroy all my corn, and iarry away
all my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last
for mere want.
Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that
former confidence in God, which was founded upon such
r,:,..rrlrpuii F:p. :r.'t as I had had of His goodness; as
It Hr-rhit rii t.:. me by miracle hitherto could not
preri er-re y Hi l..iwer, the provision which He had
ili: ,i.r uie i-v H;s goodness. I reproached myself
wit h n i v i'. t i t would not sow any more corn one
yi r tb. a ri.uE. i.n- tr serve me till the next season, as
It n.) ai. .l-.nt r.,ulhl itlr.c.r.:, to prevent my enjoying
ti.,: rp that Wr: up.-:i the- cr.: i qr. an] this I '.:j..glit
so just a repr ..;f, tl'jt I cr ...lhv.I t.:r tlir future t-.. i'li:
two or three yr ir -' .'r I.h f.-.rh Iri. ; so that, whatever
might come, I mn.lit n:t pri-1. i,.r want of bread.
How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life

...I n..,u u.iu 1 I- v hL t r..:i..t .I rI-.l .tr t r.riib'1 ul ? Lli"
.l -I. rr. r.u lu .. J rr .l .ut, rI Ih ri.c t ircUil:l t,.l i..
I.'...I T.....lAy '' .: ..:,- 1h.L,t t-.r-lUR.iuruw WE Lutr ;
-,:...Jay w.. .,:k whuat t-:.-.i...- r ..' F.-: r.lriu ; to-il.- y W,
*i.. ii r. hat t1 -Fr-n ir:,i iv '. f. r, iA ., 1 i\ .u triiliL .h 'It
It.,. .ippr i-ir.U .'.u f. frliJS .-. 'C:i .. iilifi'lj in n.:, at
thi; Iru :, ILt l lr Im'.I lir ly nFi rn-ir r iFli irg r I,.le, for I,
w h i....: c I.uly tlll i ..u ,,.1 tl..,t I ,:r.n,:.i l bI- i4l...,I
L .u i .... 11F ir It I in. i,:.url ii iri uLi .rl nt i .-tv L t :-
l".,,,u ll- .' c",- .lil t O ir .Fr Frti' .rl:lUlliu.l, a. l r.r..rl.. iIb. i
t.. "- hat I IIl -It..ur I. ; l. r I .1r, ,r ri ut I il r.,i l
Hi" I:;iu tbh:n.. -'l l :t A'.rt t t.. b-: ounil'lir.:r.- in ..hig ti.e
lIh [i :, -.,r t, .|'|,. r o t-r =rir r ,r I o"r II, ei,_.ilir, ;
i.Iln t I'. av ,: ,.,r. ii.,: Frt hIy .' i "r, :.. '..:.ul.l 'i br ,'
seem ed t.. Irn,: i ..:-;iu, Ir. T'r II... itL op life, ir i I ti.-
,. .: t.. :I 1 .1. 1. ii I I rt i.- i .u It : Il. ni:.:t .'. lirr 'uprem e
".i. :i. .i : ,' I t1 -. ,:..Il -t..ia. I i.y, th i I should
now tremble at the ,' 1 *il r.:l, -...l r ii,.g a man,
and was ready to :- i. i t.:. t i. ir. .u. l, but the shadow
or silent appeararn.:.- .t1 'ir u ih ,U;. set his foot in
the island.
Such is the uneven ,lat. of human life; and it
afforded me a great l':iJ\ iu~lji. -I.. l- ulr..i I t ,d r-
-, r.I-. u~ I had a 1.ttl. r i., i.i: I r...\ i.-. r r iF,:-
1 ,,. ,-,J, :r....i that this was i, l t I.'.-. .-t ihh. th.l:
ir.u rL I..: I ; ,-r I. l _.,1 i -....1 .Cl- .: I ;...i 1!.'- I r-
-..Cr.-l F:tr lu.. i bLt I .. .t l ..t- I.1 -- ..: -. r w t tlh.. a.1s
(..1 r iir .n: 'i..i...m ii",l, t I... au I il ilth, 4. I i.., r ".rI
to displrt.- i- .; :-'. r .Iuy i, I ir. H ii. iluri,
had an ,o1i F; i l. I., .11: ..r, to':. & f crr. ; iu.
dispose .:t ie .lr, .:.i,,t I,- .. -I, tl,. I. t fit : I']1 wh.'u,
as I wa. .ir Fi. tmi thal hi l. .1 -l.r.,. i. 1.1.i -
wise a 1 rr,,ihl t ......- ri ,- to ht. i pIri ,ifl 'ni t
H e 1i,.,i ft .ir ,r t I I, t it i .I. Iny ]:, t t:. .ol.rr n t l.
bear H ir l 'l. il..ii, L......" -- I Ir i r lbirl tig-iu t[
Ilim I tlh: r..-k t.h i, t1 it .LI ':01, l ah w ,. ,:t otlh
Ili. ht i.. rr, F- i,:t F.,L lrt,: .. I'I rI. th, un. 11 r ; .t fi rl thu to
punish air l ,fl-r iu0.- .. I' -: 1..ri. Fl,. l. I l.l v.:r me:
that if He did not think fit tr. eR. '-i, it ..-. rny
'rr. -Fnr'.-o..i .*luty to resign In,-i all ,ll li.-V :i1di
i,: ti.13-y I. II-, will; and, on -I,,- itl,'r hiiri it was
:,i .1ur., Al ..., i.. hope in Him, prri tI:- Illim. iji quietlyy
to attend to the dictate's .-il dl~lr.t_. ii if i[.- daily
.t ,.v .1, i,..'
Tfi, IL:.-,;iti took me up many hours, days, nay,
I may say weeks and Iii r'.tl I .rm I ,,n [.a, ti..ulhir lti .t
of my cogitations on I ... .. .. 1 i-- 1 ,:lr11il .nit. Onu
m morning eArrl ,lyiug ;iU i -. il,. ll- b .I II1 i : i i 11i li nhrglihF
about m y -I.',.-i Itr...n, I ii.i,,-i l.-u, :. -'.t ir-,.tg.,- r
found it di .* rtii .... ,i III. v l, i.ri. 1 ; upr..u 'ilili, tl.. .1
words of IIh. S ti.,1I .: aiamr ;iLI.:. nl,' thioirhlri 'Ill
upon Me in the day of trouli .... i, I vill .I1. Iln.: ti.c-,
and thou shalt glorify Me." Upon this, rising cheer-
fully out of my bed, my heart was not only comforted,
but I was guided and encouraged to pr -y ..iiur -.llv .-,
God for .1. lh ru i... 1 I nI had done prA i.., I tr-,l
up my r1,.i.- : ,i..J opening :i tIF i, tfr t ir.-t .'. -,rr.
that presented to me v..-t. '" \\'.rt in i1r Ir-I. Iuir, l I:..
of good cheer, and He shall strengtheln 1 lr II.r3!- r ; wait,
I say, on the Lord." It is uin.i-l.h. t.. ' r- i
comfort this gave me. In .ib r- I I ii. ullrly laid
down the book, and was do Lurso ri,.i, .t Ica-n i 'ra that
Iu the middle of thcir r .g;rit;..; L-, iil. r;,:,,ri,;.,l r,,
and reflections, it came iit., n.;, thi-. ilighl 1 ..1i I I'y tlil
all this might be a mere 11.[ir. 11 ..f 1-,' I. i-' i :., tlrtl
this foot might be the ot mI ':,' i t'fr ..i. f l, u I
came on shore from m-, L..'all Iljni ,i.... r.,i iL.r iI, a
little, too, and I began to persuade Iy-'.- t lf it i .Ill
a delusion; that it was nothing else 1int Ii oc.' f, u. l;
and why might I not .:,irr, that '.r y fr.-mi tin,' b'rl,
as well as I was -;ig tl'.I w.: 10) tbi : I..'..t AgrnUi I
considered also, tl,.rt I 1 no o n.: I I t. II. ...r
certain, where I had lr:c.l .,r.l -her. I ii.l i...t : ,rnd
that if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot,
I had played the part of those fools who try to make
stories of Rpectres and i'i ..ritri'o-. and ibcn are
frightened -it tb.. a more (hioi :.ni3 l..3 .y.
Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad
again, for I had not stirred out of my castle for three
days and nights, so titl, I began i.. starve for pro-
visions; for I had Inttle or ijr.lmtig within doors but
some barley-cakes and water; then I knew that my
goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my
evening diversion; and the poor creatures were in great
pain and inconvenience for want of it; and, indeed, it
almost spoiled some of their, and almost dried up their
milk. Encouraging myself, ItL r..-f.r,:. with the belief
that this was nothing ':.t r bi .. inti .:. one of my own
feet, and that I might be truly said to start at my own
shadow, I began to go abroad again, and went to my
country house to milk my flock: but to see with what
fear I went forward, how oftiu T 1.. ...I bh,-lin. m.,
how I was ready, every now a:-i ti, n. t: In,.y ilcoi my
basket, and rui for my life. i w-.:,il.d hali nile any
one have thought I -r ,, l-.init .J withi r- c:I ioni um'itnne,
or that I bad been laltly ni.-t terrlry fr.gihtit.:u~' ; andt
so, indeed, I had. However, I irc-nt riwln Ltus two
or three days, and having seen not,.Eing, I I.Lgan to be
a little bolder, and to think there was really nothing in


it but my own imagination; but I could not persuade
myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore
again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by
my own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness,
that I might be assured it was my own foot: but when
I came to the place-first, it appeared evidently to me,
that when I laid up my boat, I could not possibly be
on shore anywhere thereabouts: secondly, when I came
to measure the mark with my own foot, I found my
foot not so large by a great deal. Both these things
filled my head with new imaginations, and gave me
the vapours again to the highest degree, so that I
shook with cold like one in an ague; and I went home
again, filled with the belief that some man or men had
been on shore there; or, in short, that the island was
inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was aware;
and what course to take for my security I knew
O what ridiculous resolutions men take when pos-
sessed-with fear! It deprives them of the use of those
means which reason offers for their relief. The first
thing I proposed to myself was, to throw down my
inclosures, and turn all my tame cattle wild into the
woods, lest the enemy should find them, and then
frequent the island in prospect of the same or the like
booty: then the simple thing of digging up my two
corn-fields, lest they should find such a grain there, and
still be prompted to frequent the island: then to de-
molish my bower and tent, that they might not see any
vestiges of habitation, and be prompted to look farther,
in order to find out the persons inhabiting.
These were the subject of the first night's cogitations
after I was come home again, while the apprehensions
which had so overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and
my head was full of vapours. Thus, fear of danger is
ten thousand times more terrifying than danger itself,
when apparent to the eyes; and we find the burden of
anxiety greater, by much, than the evil which we are
anxious about: and what was worse than all this, I had
not that relief in this trouble that, from the resignation
I used to practise, I hoped to have. I looked, I thought,
like Saul, who complained not only that the Philistines
were upon him, but that God had forsaken him; for I
did not now take due ways to compose my mind, by
crying to God in my distress, and resting upon His
providence, as I had. done before, for my defence and
deliverance; which, if I had done, I had at least been
more cheerfully supported under this new surprise, and
perhaps carried through it with more resolution.
This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all
night; but in the morning I fell asleep; and having, by
the amusement of my mind, been, as it were, tired, and
my spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and waked
much better composed than I had ever been before.
And now I began to think sedately; and, upon debate
with myself, I concluded that this island (which was so
exceedingly pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the
main land than as I had seen) was not so entirely
abandoned as I might imagine; that although there
were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot, yet
that there might sometimes come boats off from the
shore, who, either with design, or perhaps never but
when they were driven by cross winds, might come to
this place; that I had lived here fifteen years now, and
had not met with the least shadow or figure of any
people yet; and that, if at any time they should be
driven here, it was probable they went away again as.
soon as ever they could, seeing they had never thought
fit to fix here upon any occasion; that the most I could
suggest any danger from was, from any casual acci-
dental landing of straggling people from the main, who,
as it was likely,.if theywere driven hither, were here
against their wills, so they made no stay here, but went
off again with all possible speed; seldom staying one
night on shore, lest they should not have the help of the
tides and daylight back again; and that, therefore, I
had nothing to do but to consider of some safe retreat,
in case I should see any savages land upon the
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave
so large as to bring a door through again, which door,
as I said, came out beyond where my fortification joined
to the rock,: upon maturely considering this, therefore,
I resolved .to draw me a second fortification, in the
manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my wall,
just where I had planted a double row of trees about
twelve years before, of which I made mention: these
trees having been planted so thick before, they wanted
but few piles to be driven between them, that they
might be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be
soon finished. So that I had now a double wall; and
my outer wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old
cables, and everything I could think of, to make it
strong; having in it seven little holes, about as big as
I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this, I
thickened my wall to.about ten feet thick, with con-
tinually bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at
the foot of the wall, and walking upon it; and through
the seven holes I contrived to plant the muskets, of
which I took notice that I had got seven on shore out

of the ship; these I planted like my cannon, and fitted
them into frames, that held them like a carriage, so
that I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes'
time; this wall I was many a weary month in
finishing, and yet never thought myself safe till it
was done.
When this was done, I stuck all the ground without
my wall, for a great length every way, as full with stakes
or sticks of the osier-like wood,which I found so apt to
grow, as they could well stand; insomuch, that I believe
I might set in near twenty thousand of them, leaving
a pretty large space between them and my wall, that I
might have room to see an enemy, and they might have
no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to
approach nmy outer wall.
Thus, in two years' time, I had a thick grove; and in
five or six years' time I had a wood before my dwelling,
growing so monstrously thick and strong that it was
indeed perfectly impassable: and no men, of what kind
soever, could ever imagine that there was anything
beyond it, "much less a habitation. As for the way
which I proposed to myself to go in and out (for I left
no avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part
of the rock which was low, and then broke in, and left
room to place another ladder upon that; so when the
two ladders were taken down, no man living could come
down to me without doing himself mischief; and if they
had come down, they were still on the outside of my
outer wall.
Thus I took all the measures human prudence could
suggest for my own preservation; and it will be seen, at
length, that they were not altogether without just
reason; though I foresaw nothing at that time more
than my mere fear suggested to me.
While this was doing, I was not altogether careless
of my other affairs; for I had a great concern upon me
for my little herd of goats: they were not only a ready
supply to me on every occasion, and began to be sufficient
for me, without the expense of powder and shot, but
also without the fatigue of hunting after the wild ones;
and I was loath to lose the advantage of them, and to
have them all to nurse up over again.
For this purpose, after long consideration, I could
think of but two ways to preserve them: one was, to
find another convenient place to dig a cave under ground,
and to drive them into it every night; and the other
was to enclose two or three little bits of land, remote
from one another, and as much concealed as I could,
where I might keep about half a dozen young goats in
each place; so that if any disaster happened to the
flock in general, I might be able to raise them again
with little trouble and time: and this, though it would
require a good deal of time and labour, I thought was
the most rational design.
Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most
retired parts of the island; and I pitched upon one,
which was as private, indeed, as my heart could wish:
it was a little damp piece of ground, in the middle of
the hollow and thick woods, where, as is observed, I
almost lost myself once before, endeavouring to come
back that way from the eastern part of the island.
Here I found a clear piece of land, near three acres, so
surrounded with woods, that it was almost an inclosure
by nature; at least, it did not want near so much labour
to make it so, as the other piece of ground I had worked
so hard at.
I immediately went to-work with this piece of ground;
and, in less than a month's time, I had so fenced it round
that my flock, or herd, call it which you please, which
were not so wild now as at first they might be supposed
to be, were well enough secured in it: so, without any
further delay, I removed ten young she-goats, aid two
he-goats, to this piece; and, when they were there, I
continued to perfect the fence, till I had made it as
secure as the other; which, however, I did 'at more
leisure, and it took me up more time by a great deal.
All this labour I was at the expense of, purely from my
apprehensions on account of the print of a man's foot;
for, as yet, I had never seen any human creature come
near the island; and I had now lived two years, under
this uneasiness, which, indeed, made my life much less
comfortable than it was before, as may be well imagined
by any who knowwhat it is to livein the constant snare
of the fear of nman. And this I must observe, with
grief, too, that the discomposure of mymind had great
impression also upon the religious part of my thoughts;
for the dread and terror of falling into the hands of
savages and cannibals lay so upon my spirits,'that I
seldom found myself in a due temper for application
to my Maker; at least, not with the sedate calmness
and resignation of soul which I was wont to do: I rather
prayed to God as under great affliction and pressure of
mind, surrounded with danger, and in expectation every
night of being murdered and devoured before morning;
and I must testify, from my experience, that a temper
of peace, thankfulness, love, and affection, is much the
more proper frame for prayer than that of terror and
discomposure; and that under the dread of mischief
impending, a man is no more fit for a comforting per-
formance of the duty of praying to God, than he is for

a repentance on a sick bed; for these discomposures
affect the mind, as the others do the body; and the
discomposure of the.mind must necessarily be as great
a disability as that of the body, and much greater;
praying to God being properly an act of the mind, not
of the body.
But to go on: after I had thus secured one part. of
my little living stock, I went about the whole island
searching for another private place to make such
another deposit; when, wandering more to the west
point of the island than I had ever done yet, and looking
out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a
great distance. I had found a perspective glass or two
in one of the seamen's chests, which I saved out of our
ship, but I had it not about me; and this was so remote
that I could not tell what to make of it, though I
looked at it till my eyes were not able to hold to look
any longer: whether it was a boat or nob, I do not know,
but as I descended from the hill I could see no more of
it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no more out
without a perspective glass in my pocket. When I was
come down the hill to the end of the island, where:
indeed, I had never been before, I was presently con-
vinced that the seeing the print of a man's foot was not
such a strange thing in the island as I imagined; and
but that it was a special providence that I was cast
upon the side of the island where the savages never
came, I should easily have known that nothing was
more frequent than for the canoes from the main, when
they happened to be a little too far out at sea,-to shoot
over to that side of the island for harbour: likewise, as
they often met and fought in their canoes, the victors,
having taken any prisoners, would bring them over to
this shore, where, according to their dreadful customs,
being all cannibals, they would kill and eat them; of
which hereafter.
When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I
said above, being the S.W. point of the island, I was
perfectly confounded and amazed; nor is it possible for
me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing the
shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of
human bodies; and particularly, I observed a place
where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in
the earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage
wretches had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon
the bodies of their fellow-creatures.
I was so astonished with the sight of these things,
that I entertained no notions of any danger to myself
from it for a long while: all my apprehensions were
buried in the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman,
hellish brutality,and the horror of the degeneracy of'
human nature, which, though I had heard of it often, yet
I never had so near a view of before; in short, I turned
away my face from the horrid spectacle; my stomach
grew sick, and I was just at the point of f ,i; .u when
nature discharged the disorder from my stomach; and
having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a little
relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place a
moment; so I got up the hill again with all the speed
I could, and walked on towards my own habitation.
When I came a little out of that part of the island, I
stood, still a while, as amazed, and then, recovering
myself, I looked up with the utmost affection of my
soul, and, with a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God
thanks, that had cast my first lot in a part of the world
where I was distinguished from such dreadful creatures
as these; and that, though I had esteemed my present
condition very miserable, had yet given me so many
comforts in it that I had still more to give thanks for
than to complain of: and this, above all, that I had,
even in this miserable condition, been comforted with
the knowledge of Himself, and the hope of His
blessing: which was a felicity more than sufficiently
equivalent to all the misery which I had suffered, or
could suffer,
In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my
castle, and began to be much easier now, as to the
safety of my circumstances, than ever I was before: for
I observed that these wretches never came to this-island
in search of what they could get; perhaps not seeking,
not wanting, or not expecting, anything here; and
having often, no doubt, been up the covered, woody part
of it, without finding anything to their purpose. I knew
I had been here now almost eighteen years, and never
saw the I. i -.'..:.t1i-. ..f human creature there before;
and I might be eighteen years more as entirely concealed
as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which
I had no manner of occasion to do; it being my only
business to keep myself entirely concealed where I was,
unless I found a better sort of creatures than cannibals.
to make myself known to. Yet I entertained such
an abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have'been
speaking of, and of the wretched inhunan custom of
their devouring and eating one another up, that I con-
tinued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own
circle, for almost two years after this: when I say my
own circle, I mean by it my three plantations, viz. my
castle,-my country-seat (which I called my bower), and
my inclosure in the woods: nor did I look after this for
any other use than as an inclosure for my goats; for


the aversion which nature gave me to these hellish
wretches was such, that I was as fearful of seeing them
as of seeing the devil himself. I did not so much as go
to look after-my boat all this time, but began rather to
think of making another ; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the other boat
round the island to me, lest I should meet with some
of these creatures at sea; in which case if I had
happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what
would have been my lot.
Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was
in no danger of being discovered by these people, began
to wear off my uneasiness about them; and I began to
live just in the same composed manner as before, only
with this difference, that I used more caution, and kept
my eyes more about me than I did before, lest I should
happen to be seen by any of them; and particularly,
I was more cautious of firing my gun, lest any of them,
being on the island, should happen to hear it. It was,
therefore, a very good providence to me that I had
t, i 1.l. a .. *~ i.:j f with a tame breed of goats, and that
I. l ..1 io r:,: I rto hunt any more about the woods, or
lI,;,._.t 4i tIM.-L ; and if I did catch any of them after
this, it was by traps and snares, as I had done before;
so that for two years after this, I believe I never fired
my gun once off, though I never went out without it;
and what was more, as I had saved three pistols out of
the ship, I always carried them out with me, or at least
two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt. I also
furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out
of the ship, and made me a belt to hang it on also;
so that I was now a most formidable fellow to look
at when I went abroad, if you add. to the former
description of myself, the particular of two pistols, and
a great broadsword hanging at my side in a belt, but
without a scabbard-
Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time,
I.seemed, excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my
former calm, sedate way of living. All these things
tended to show me, more and more, how far my con-
dition was'from being miserable, compared to some
others; nay, to many other particulars of life,which it
might have pleased God to have made my lot. It put
me upon reflecting. how little repining there would be
among mankind at any condition of life, if people
would rather compare their condition with those that
were worse, in order to be thankful, than be always
comparing them with those which are better, to assist
. their murmurings and complainings. my present condition there were not really
many things which I wanted,so, indeed, I thought that
the frights I had been in about these savage wretches,
and-the concern I had been in for my dwn preservation,
liad taken off the edge of my invention for my own
Conveniences; and I had dropped a good design, which
I had once bent my thoughts upon, and that was, to try
"if I could not make some of my barley into malt, and
then try to brew myself some beer. This was really a
whimsical thought, and I reproved myself often for the
simplicity of it: for I presently saw there would be the
want of several things necessary to the making my beer,
that it would be impossible for me to supply; as, first,
casks to preserve it in, which was,a thing that,as I have
observed already, I could never compass:. no, though
I spent not only many days, but weeks, nay months,

night and day, I could think of nothing but how I might
destroy some of these monsters in their cruel, bloody
entertainment; and, if possible, save the victim they
should bring hither to destroy. It would take up a
larger volume than ,this whole work is intended to be,
to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or rather
brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying these
creatures, or at least frightening them so as to prevent
their coming hither any more: but all this was abortive;
nothing could be possible to take effect, unless I was to
be there to do it myself: and what could one man do
among them, when perhaps there might be twenty or
thirty of them together with their darts, or their bows
and arrows,.with which they could shoot as true to a
mark as I could with my gun.
. Sometimes thought of digging. a hole under the
place where they made their fire, and putting in five or
six pounds of gunpowder, which, when they kindled
their fire, would consequently take fire, and blow up all
that was near it: but as, in the first place, I should be
unwilling to waste so much powder upon them, my store
being now within the quantity of one barrel, so neither
could I be sure of its going off at any certain time, when
it might surprise them; and, at best, that it would do
little more than just blow the fire about their ears and
fright them, but not sufficient to make them forsake the
place: so I laid it aside.; and then proposed that I
would place myself in ambush in some convenient place,
with my three guns all double loaded, and in the middle
of their bloody ceremony let fly at them, when I should
be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every
shot;-and then falling in upon them with my three
pistols and my sword, Ismade no doubt but that, if there
were twenty, I should kill them all. This fancy pleased
my thoughts.for some weeks, and I was so full of it
that I often dreamed of it, and sometimes, that I was
just going to let fly at them in my sleep. I went so far
with it in my imagination, that I employed myself
several days to find out proper places to put myself in
ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them, and I went
frequently to the place itself, which was now grown
more familiar to me :. but while my mind was thus filled
with thoughts of revenge and a bloody putting twenty
or thirty of. them to the sword, as I may call it, the
horror I-had at the place, and at the signals of the bar-
barous wretches devouring one another, abetted my
malice. Well, at length I found a place in the side of
the hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait till
I saw any of their boats coming; and might then, even
before they would be ready to come on shore, convey
myself unseen, into some thickets of trees, in one oi
which there was. a hollow large enough to conceal me
entirely; and there I might sit and observe all their
bloody doings, and take my full aim at their heads,
when they were so close together as that it would be
next to impossible that I should miss my shot, or that I
could fail wounding three or four of them at the first
shot. In this place, then, I resolved to fulfil my design;
and accordingly, I prepared two muskets and my
ordinary fowling-piece. The two muskets I loaded with
a brace of slugs.each, and four or five smaller bullets,
about-the size of pistol bullets; and the fowling piece I
loaded with near a handful of swan-shot of the largest
size; I also loaded- my pistols with about four bullets
each.; and, in, this posture, well provided with ammu-

,.iiU :l.r i Ti.L : 1 ni .:. i n ,-.i i ii D -.'. L .
in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next place, nation for a second and third charge, I prepared myself
I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to make it for my expedition.
work, no copper or kettle to make it boil; and yet with After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in
all these ti hiL i wanting, I verily believe, had not the my imagination put it in practice, I continually made
frights and terrors I was in about the savages inter- my tour every morning to the top of the hill, which was
vened, I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to from my castle, as I called it, about three miles, or
pass too; for I seldom gave anything over without more, to see if I could observe any boats upon the sea,
accomplishing it, when once I had it in my head to begin coming near the island, or standing over towards it; but
it. But my invention now ran quite another way; for, I began to tire of this hard duty, after I had for two or

s_-_-~~- _E --:- .-


so outrageous an. ....i' li.rn as the killing twenty or
thirty naked savages, ior an offunce which I had not at
all entered into any discussion of in my thoughts, any
farther than my passions were at first fired by the
horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the people
of that country; Who, it seeps, had been suffered by
Providence, in His wise disposition of the world, to have
no other guide'than that of their own abominable and
vitiated pas-ions; and, c"u-u.... urI',, were left, and
perhaps had been eo for some ages, to act such horrid
things, and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing
but nature, entirely abandoned by Heaven, and actuated
by some hellish degeneracy, could have run them into.
But now, when, as I have said, I began to be weary of
the fruitless excursion which I had made so long and so
far every moaning in vain, so my opinion of the action
itself began to alter;. and I began, with cooler and
calmer thoughts, to consider what I was going to en-
gage in: what authority or call I had to pretend to be
judge and executioner upon these men as criminals,
whom Heaven had thought fit, for so many ages, to
suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it were, the
executioners of His judgments one upon another: how
far these people were offenders against me, and what
right I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood which
they shed promiscuously upon one another. I debated
this very.often with myself thus: "How do I know
what God himself judges in this particular case? It is
certain these people do not commit this as a crime; it is
not against their own consciences reproving, or their
light reproaching them; they do not know it to be an
offence, and then commit it in defiance of divine justice,
as we do in almost all the sins we commit. They think
it no more a crime to kill a captive taken in war, than
we do to kill an ox; or to eat human flesh, than we do
to eat mutton."
When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily
that I was certainly in the wrong; that those people
were not murderers, in the sense that I had before con-
demned them in my thoughts, any more than those
Christians were murderers who often put to death the
prisoners taken in battle; or more frequently,upon
many occasions, put whole troops of men to the sword,
without giving quarter, though they threw down their
A 4

three months constantly kept my watch, but came al-
ways back without any discovery; their' having not, in
all that time, been the least appearance, not only on or
near the shore, but on the whole ocean, so far as my
eyes or glass could reach every way.
As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out,
so long also I kept up the vigour of my design, and my
spiritsseemed to be all the while in a suitable frame for


arms, and submitted. In the next pl ce, it occurred to except upon my constant employment, to milk my she- now to Providence), I was cutting down some thick
me, that although the usage they gave one another was goats, and manage my little flock in the wood, which, as branches of trees to make charcoal; and before I go on
thus brutish and inhuman, oyet it was really nothing to it was quite on the other part of the island, was out of I must observe the reason of my making this charcoal,
me: these people had done me no injury: that if they d-,nger: for ccrtin it ;i that these savage people, who which was thus: I was afraid of making a saik.: ,.:.ui
attempted, or I necessary, for my immediate pre- sometimes bhainted ti,- island, never came with any my habitation, as I said before; and yet I c.ouiJ Li r Iti
servation, to fall upon them, something might be said thoughts of finding, anything here, and consequently there without baking my bread, c.:ulio ir.; m. r.It, .: :
for it: but that I was yet out of their power, and they never-wandered off from the coast, and I doubt not but so I contrived to burn some wood her.:, a- I l'.l &..i,-n
really had no knowledge of me, and consequently no they might have been several times on shore after my done in England, under turf, till it became chark or dry
design upon me; and, therefore it could not be just for apprehensions of them had made me cautious, as well coal: and then putting th. fire r,.u. I pi:.:- rr.:. tb. .ujl
me to fall upon them; that this would justify the con- as before. Indeed, I looked back with some horror to carry home, and perform. the u.tbe r c-rvics t.:r It I.
duct of the Spaniards in all their barbarities practised upon the thoughts of what my condition would have fire was wanting, without .jag er ,.t e nll:e. Bilt tiL i.
in America, where they destroyed millions of these been,.if I had chopped upon them and been discovered by the bye. While I wa.s cuttiu.g i,.kn omtena..:...J ir.',
people; who, however they were idolaters and bar- before that; when, naked, and unarmed, except with I perceived that, behind a very thick branch of low
barans, and had several bloody and barbarous rites in one gun, and that loaded often only nith omall eh...t, T brushwood or underwood, ttr. was a kind of hollow
their customs, such as sacrificing human bodies to their walked everywhere, peeping arl- pf nnrng -al:.ut th.- place: I was curious to !...:.k in it ; and getting with
idols, were yet, as to the Spaniards, very innocent island to see what I could get; whai .1 ijr.rpri. should difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty
people; and that the rooting them out of the country I have. been in, if, when I discovered the print of a man's large, ti: t i to E a. ,i il.:;- i f. r me to stand upright in
is spokenof with the utmost abhorrence and detestation foot, I had, instead of that, seen fifteen or twenty it, and 1. rLha.- -.a,.thtLrr sia l u I t f T [..-t l.out: i..
by even the Spaniards themselves, at this time, and by savages, and found them pursuing me, and, by tth.: you ihar I ma.wi. ru.r, L.tte ,I..t iii1,an I did i ,. i, u
allother Chritiannations of Europe, as a mere butchery, swiftness of their running, uo p,,sii;i;ty of rvy ei ,: ping lok::ling f'rte-r int.: til,- pI.J;.r.-, nd -l.I..-, : ir! ri:.. I
a bloody and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifiable them! The thoughts of tL.i, .ometin.,n ooui.k my ver, I:,rirk. I awi tiw.. I.rjad, LiIL -\.i -:si f :,f.c ri :.-.tu.i,
Sitler t.. G'od or man; and for which the very name of soul within me, and distressedmy mind so.much tin t I tabethi:r .li- 1. r mr.i I l.,rw ut. raL.:h t. iii_ Il-I I :,
a :spanardi is reckoned to be frightful and terrible to all could not soon recover it, to think what I should have two stars; the dim lighb tr.:in'. I I-i .- .'_ nr:.,,rtl -irniu,"
people of humanity or of Christian compassion; as if done, and how I should not only have been unable to J;r.:.:tl. it .,a.. inri.nrg lIi red-l..:t I u Hir.- tr, atr.r
the kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for resist them, but even should not have had presence of ouiiie [I- .':, I f. c.:.d;1,:,-,j u, ,lt ,. d e 1; rin t.: i il nr ,:!f
the produce of a race of men, who were without prin- -mind enough to do what I might have done; much less s. th.'.uis ftio-, a,.J t:. tb..-r: tb it L.h. that ia air,i,\ t:.
ciples of tenderness, or the common bowels of pity to what now, after so much consideration and preparation, -.i-e h e li-, -.i n..t fit t.o Iive t -.,uty ,,- tr in ri ;ilu u .
the miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark of gener- I miiht be ab.- to do. Indeed, after serious tlhoking 11 al,:.-D ; a2nil tliit i nai migt I.t tbl,nt tIi. ,I- ia .:.tbiiug
ous temper in the mind. if tl h rbhing, I would be very melancholy, arei., o:,m- It t ,,1 ca:- tbirt a-: ro:.r iirlu] rib thn m'yt. Up..L.
These considerations really put me to a pause, and to times, it would last a great while ; but I resold .r all. th.i; a pii,;mn u|. in: ... ,':,j-r I t:,:.L up ta r.;.r u.i, ud1
a kind of a full stop; and I began, by little and little, at last, into thankfulness to that Providence wlh.i.,h Li.i i i I rje l a-1 ir, -';. -th rhi- .,.:; tlianai, iu r.i,- b hc, I
to be off my design, and to conclude I had taken wrong Jdliriiv r. mn. froaj many.unseen dangers, and hasJ hi.ld caj g.:..- t -hr- p n. .!'r l .- I -iia allh.:.t -, nu'ii
measures in my resolution to attack the savages; and I:,.pt in fr-:mni tbho,. itiichiefs which' I could have .no -tri:hr.-trc. :-, l..for. t.:.r I L.ear..l ra very i.:i l
thar it was not my business to meddle with tl.-n. .ai.,-.s a- y be-u the ,'gent int i.ielivering myself from, because riaot 1At ia 1Du io. pair :iut. it w i...]i.::,dj biy at
thby fir t. attacked me; and this it was my bitnincr it I iha not Ithe last D:.-ti.:.r of any such. tbing d-p.-ol.]ing h :Tk-n u.i:i-, .s of \.:r.J L.ilt eipreie-i r, a;u.i tL,-u
po'isi ti-, to prevent: but that, if I were discovered and or the least supposition of its being possil.l-. This r-- i. i-p .gta7 i~a I t.:ppi- lA.:, :iu. was indeed struck
attacked by them,I knew myduty. On the other hand, newed a contemplation which often ha-l ci:m, ,i :. mry tlh, u a sl[,n.- tl .t i- pt 1 n.e into a cold sweat,
I argued with myself, that this really was the way not thoughts in former times, when first 1 bka-a to :- i:. .i Li if I hai had- .1 iaut ou my head, I will not answer
to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy my- the merciful dispositions of Heaven, in tI.. .iang-ro a- fo:r It that my b tr cmit'lit o:,t ia:T bittJ it oftf it
self; for, unless I was sure to kill every one " not run through in this life; how won.irrtullvy r, arn -iti r. lu.l:ig up ,y .l.rit a. .lj a16 I cou!.J and. .j -
"only should be on shore at that time, but that should delivered whenwe know nothing of it; how. hEna wr .ri. MY::.r'ir u.rf a lirt!.:- wih cou ni riug tliht 0ri,
*ever come on shore afterwards, if but one of them are in a quandary (as we call'it), a doubt or hesitation power ani '-.n.:e 0 God wa'.s -r rot% .i.r., dnli -i. a
escaped to tell their countrypeople what had happened, whether togo this way or that way, a secret hint shall able to: prt-, t rr, -. fI t.p -.f irward ',iui. iad L tLb
they would cone oi:vr again y thousands td revenge direct us this way when we intended to go that way: light :.f thi- Ere-hria.1, I:.liDio it lup a little :.v:rr my
the cdethl ot their lellow ond. I siihold only bring upon nay, when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps busi- head, I saw lying on thi tr:..tu. .a mn~ niirui,. trithtul!.
in-ilf a crtai .li.lructi...n. v, hih, at present, Ihadno ness, has called us to go the other way, yet a. strange old he-goat, just making ii- will. iw, .-avs.. ,ri gCt-fig
minianr-r r o.i,:.,,ion fr IUpoI thte whole,-I concluded impression upon the mind, from we know not what for life, an. d.~;in. in.],:c.l, .f r r.- l e.l -. I tirrt.-
that I ought, rr-tlier in rlritlipl,- t.or in policy, one way springs, and by we know not what power, shall overrule him a little to. s.-; it I i:uld get him out, and he essayed
or other, to conc.,:r nti myt cf this affair: that ny busi- us to go this way; and it shall afterwards appear, that to get up, but was not able to raise himself; and I
nnas wuas, by all p.:.o-ibl mcans, to conceal myself from had we gone that way which we should have gone, and thought with myself he might even.lie there,-foi if he
thj m, and not to lCavr the I-aust .ign for them to guess even to our imagination ought to.have gone, we should had frightened me, so he would c. ri aiily tr~ght any .:n'-
by th1t there waer: nLy lring creajtres upontheisland- have been ruined andlost. Upon these, and many like the savages, if any of them be ... IbjJy as to
I mian of human s6Lape. R.lig]ic joined in with this reflections, I afterwards made it a certain rule with me come in there iihil, heL [1., aniy lif, ;u him.
prudential resolution; and I was convinced now, many that whenever I found those secret hints orpressings of I '-aT Dnr r.,::.:.rrr.J ifr.., ni y rurpri-., and began to
ways, that I was perfectly out of my duty when I was mind, to doing or. not doing anything that presented, or io:.k rouoJn rime, ,-h.,:u I tr.:ied. the ire- 1i. Lb, try
laying all my bloody schemestfor the destruction of going this. way or that way, I never failed to obey the small, that is to say,it n..ebt i., aboi.-t It -lr- fe-t .:.-.:r.
innocent creatures-I mean innocent as to me. As to secret dictate; though I knew no other reason for it i~ nr. m rcr...r ot sar.p,. r r'.o .,l nlr -.,-r. no-
the crimes they were guilty of towards one another, I than such a pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my lbaisA hir.a ,- ecrr rb.:-...1 t ini.,;J mE iD D: ti bit Ibt Ih.:,
habJ othingh to do wiri the; the hey v.:r,- national, and mind. I could give many examples of the success of ..i ru-r.- Nariur- I ,l..--riJ .al... that tiLri a &.i:..
I o0n hr T,: theln-ii, I. Lb juiic,, of Goud, who is the this conduct in the course of my life,but more especially at the fartlier side of it that went in-further, but was so
GL0-.rn~or )tf nDth.:rit, a knoia.w h':', t-by nationalpunish- in the latter part (t i.vy i.lail.iti;g tbi: uhappF-y island; low that it required me to creep upon my hands and
mecit, hto jmk.. i lit retrIt-atiin for i.iff,-.n'r. besides many occasi;-.-i -;hi.h ii as rvery Il;ily I might knees to go into it,andr htbh.:r it went I iceit nor: ec,
and to brlng ipubl.l: Jljudtrmoti up:,n tlhos1i, who'i,. have taken notice of, if I had seen with the same eyes having no candle, I ga-.- ,t fi:r that t'ni:, tilt
in a public: mauer. Ir, by ai..h ,vayi as bit pi.,a Hii m then that I see with now. But it is never too late to r,--.:.lh.l t- Ng.. ar..n thb next dayprovided with candles
Thts atpprarii ,, lar to me n..i-c th ti nothing was a be wise; and I cannot but advise all, It.l a tlritr-h:bo, r:-.h;ch 1had-made of-the lock of one-
greiatr s:tifai.ti.:no ti o mne: th:n that I had not been -whose lives are attended with such extraordinary inci- of tIi, n .ik.:t-, w.ith i.:,n, wi.J.i:. i b- the ra.
AuffredJ to .lo a thing whil I now saw so much reason dents as mine, or even though not so extraordir. a. n.:,t A.Vir.ibngly. the_ r .i dy I e,.m:- prov.J.:.1 wth Li
to Lelh rce vwo.ulh havt, hn,- no less a sin than that of to slight such secret intimations of Providence, 1i tthLim Il jr~g- .1le- o:f rn, ioiie niking i.:.r I mad- r. tv g,:.:...
wvai l murir, if I baLin c.:i itti.:.i t : atnd I gave most come from what invisible ib t.llige t ,.. thi .y r ill. That .: .11i rI.v .: t .:,-t tAJ.:.n,, 1ut vas hard f t..r
humble thanks, on nay ki'it,s. t.:, God,i, that I-I. had thus I shall not discuss,and perhaps; crD c.t a-.:.ouit for : batt ,. ,.illwiLcki, .Is,-,. tini. ri [:i r r,.,p,.-yjr., ad
ldliver-d m.- from lioodgiilt.iu si, : btese ,hring Him t.: certainly they are proof of ti,.: .e cr:v -,:r .- f sp;nts, and i th,: ,r-.:.1 rin.l .:.i a ir .id-li!;e i ,intl4.. an.i
prurt m thp prottcrtio of HF s prr:rci.i- -.:ie;ithat I nmighy t a secret communication ibe-rit- n rbh..s- .iru..t..j .j5l, anIl -.:- iets t i.: Ionw .1 :e I a r:,big i. to:, :reep u-Fp:.n
I:t f all it, h. e l,lso tli,, barbari an. .:.r tliatI nii ht those unembodied, and .su:l a ., r.:..:.f o, ~a ,ner.r bt: aill-f'.:.,r I I iavr. i; .d .Jr.-..t t var.J.-- hi ..i,, .v the
1ot Ia, rt',' bt.a,' up thim, uorI.sta I h.aJ a more clear withstood; of which I ib il h. r.: ...:ceao. to.: give Iy. I tht, w, a reutuire bld.:u.1.;igh. ..uuo .l.ring
tail fro:um HIeavr u t. di. it. in .iel.-nr.:, ot my : ivn life. some very remarkable iut r.-.; ;i tih r,-m ,itd r .:.i rt I 1:nn i: ..t :.r ifur it miiht go r.-.i ,.'t was
It tlns d.positioa I ,.-nriiied-.l tir iair a y.jar after my solitary residence in this dismal place. t.,,.:.r.d it. Ti-, I a.i,1 :.:, thll.,,I l the *tr:;t i t:..ind
ih,,;: aud so far wat I .. .l'.r r,:n.: -csion for [ b.:li.-,r tlh re ,d.r .:.t thii ;vii n- t tliuDk 'it ottig-, tf i r.ot ro:- hihL r itl. I hI Ii. v rnrr t'e-ity f.,-t but
falling iipon thev: n rit,.-b'l thrat in all that time Inever ,t I i.:.Dt'._ .. ti ht th-,e c -iti,.:.. Ile..-- ,;:.. trl t do'tge- rie r h .. w Au.h ri-iri. i -; iah c,-tIn i. th. .-ilju.. I d.are
once went up the hill to see whether there were any of I liv..l in. ..d I' e Ij .:oU.err thtat was now upon me, put .ay, it a -i t, t i.he -i rirt J u,.a i-...:.t I:.1 this
them in sight, or to know whether any of them had .-in o.-- t.. ul! ;nat...i,, an t.:. .all the contrivanc---. that v -i ..itr :ir a.-tti rtali r ..A:.:ti aL Ii la.Jr-.J th,'-.,nmd
been on shore there ornot, that I might not he tempted I had laid for my future accommodations and c.:.nrC, i- i-Lt- t.:. mn tr..'r- n-v t i: .:ar.--.Jl. t it v-.a i the
to renew any of my contrivances against them, or be ences. I had the care of my safety more now ulp.:.n nm r.:,,k--c'hethr .l-.., ,:,r iiiy ..l- r pi.r t,:c:.u-s ': li.:.u.
provoked by any advantage that might present itself, hands than that of my food. I cared not to .rivr a ...r ;k. ..i---r'..: I I th.-r -uppo:...l it t.:. : I.. i--I knt tL.:-I.
to fall upon them: only this Idid; Iwentand removed nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noisE I lb. p!I,.a. I vr,. ;; :- a n .:.;t .I!,,ihti~il ..tait. or
my boat, which I had on the other side of the island, might make should be heard: much less would I fir.. a, tiai,.- p. r .:i:ll Jdark thbi f.:. or ,%: aidr -ind
and carried it down to the east end of the whole island, gun for the same reason: and, above all, I was intol-r- ',_l-ii. aCLI .iad a ...!t .of a ;ian l lI -,, grat .LI p-- it, so
where Iran it into a little cove, which I found under ably uneasy at making any fire, lest the smoke, which i,. th. r ri,.-r f : n- u., ia 1- i-.-,u .-.r r,i,:,ni., .. : n i a .:. be
some high rocks, and where I knew, by reason of the visible at a great distance in the day, should betray mn- r=-in. n.iit h r t-.i ti,-r- ari i .'imp ot.r c o:. t. i,. ;i.j ..r
currents, the savages durst not, at least would not, come For this reason, I removed that part of my busin.;- r.:..:.t Tlh.-,.e l .3l-_.: .i; in t r..., It.- .iir,,...:--ih,c
W ith their boats upon any account whatever. With my which required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, howeveras it was a place of security, and such a retreat
boat I carried away everything that I had left there be- &c., into my new apartment in the woods; where, after as I wanted, I- thought was a convenience: so that I-
lunging ti:. her, though not necessary for the bare going I had been some time, I found to my unspeakable con- was really rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved, with-
thithi r, vi;.. a mast and sail which I had made for her, solution a mere natural cave in the earth, which went in out any delay, to bring some of those things which I
and a thirig lilk an anchor, but which indeed could not a vast way, and where, T -1.r.. say, no savage, had he as in...-_ a-.-il..,i .,il..:. i.:- ti:;- i- 1.: -articularly, I
be aille. eith r anchor or grapnel; however it was the been at the mouth of it, I-...s.l 1.:- so hardy as to venture ,-:-I.i-c.l t.:. l.riu o hih.r rn\ i ..-, ;LT.. ..t p-..'i..:r. .n. .ii.
best: coul.1 make of its.kind: allthese I removed, that in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one who, like a. v --pc- rr.-,:. t .:. t .. i vl.. -i......: ---I.. i I i-il i tr.
tb re might 'ni I th.e Ih: I.-a;t shadow for discovery, or me, wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat. o11- dl 4.1 tir...- pna-i:.- i;-t...r .:.t I..:In I h ,, .:;:l.t ic
appenranuc r.f any b:-at, or of any human habitation The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of i, -,ll: .,- I k.:-pt iu ii, castle only five, 1' bl.a ......l. r- i d
iptou the iIauI Pl-,side. tIi,. I kept myself, as I said, great rock, where, by mere accident (I would say, if -I ii,:urit, t, dl h :. i.i-. of cannon on my outmost fence,
more retir.l d lhl .: ver, arInd oldom went from my cell did not see abundant reason to ascribe all such things -n-i '.-ri rt :,,J a i .:,, to take 'out upon any expedition.


Liprr'n.-.. t.:. p T.-r th-- l. rril .:.f p..-v..l r w iL.:h I tI..-.i it.
c.i- t ...t tl.:- i-j, ri- l 7bl >:h h ,s Id '.,:-u s 's r, is. -. I I.:- nDl
that the water had p. r,:l--ti.1 .,I..sir itr,-c ,-r lifour
in-:iLaP int.: th: pi- ir.,Jr li s. .ry side, which c il:;ir i-iu.
gr:, ic; hb.r., b -, J I.i-:r..:r,. the inside like va i-roi ic
tli, ihbll- o tl st I I-1.i u., r sixty pounds of very good
.poV',iv r in tl.:- ..inrr,:.. tlhecask. This was a very
.,,I. -.,1. il.-- .;:... I-i to me at that time; so I carried all
si" tU b I' r, i.: v. r keeping above two or three pounds
.if p.. .'.:i r I, s n me in my cai tl, fr f.-,r .I .', :a-i!;t-
:.t i .y l.oi I :l-'s carried tlhthe-i ll th.i- I, -j I lia.
left for bullets.
-I fancied myself'now like one of the ancient giants

I. 1i-.'L ri:-r, .A DYING HE-GOAT IN THE CA1

who were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks,
where none could come at them; for I persuaded myself,
while I was here, that if five hundred savages were to
hunt me, they could never find me out-or if they did,
they would not venture to attack me here. The old
.-:.t -'i.:i, I found expiring dild in the mouth of the
.. r tIl,..- next day after I s. -.l,:. tini discovery; and I
found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and
throw him in and cover him with earth, than to drag
him out; so I interred him there, to prevent offence to
.:u i n.'._:.
1 i ,,;. L.-T iu thl: trT. i-y -tbir. 'year of my residence
l II hr l a I 1,r-i 1.- ;... i it,. !...: l to the place and
t!iih!: iiun.. r i i ,I- ili i I.... I l-ut have enjoyed the
,:itis iri tbit no: :. -.. '- :, -...,.,!.. ..olu.. to i i- pi..l to
*.I-.,l ib r,.:-, I -:,ul.! Is h t,.:..u b ...ur.:Ll to 1. I : s .it.-
l.It-le for '[.-u[ l Il; t!_,. r.- t ..f I lilsie there, even to
thIe 1,;r -n.,ni.iir. t il I :a l.ii I. .- .I.:,iwn and died, like
tbc **.1 g-..., it thi ir:. I 1 1ii i..o asrcr ..--l to some
littl. .J.. r ir.. :, ,.1 :i .1 ,, Ii r t.- t., '-i-..h ru .if the tim e
pss -i.:.Ir .-Ic-l iu, I!.' iut!T7 l lth me than it did
h.l-t. .--tir;l, I !l1 tI ,.j;ht iu;, .,!i, i, I named before,
to :_s-k: Irt: hc-.i Ii- *is .ir. t d i -iJrlv and talked so
A -ri il i..1 .ui.1 -Iisi,, ihbtit i i r -:-, -I, st to m e;
ri.d i ;.- :rl-.- m-ru.- s l -i 11sc -;i:i- a sd-twentyyears.
H-.v i.: Ld.: l,- ilt L i- I r...i L 'tA ,r.J', I know not,
thi..vnh I thry biir,- a u.-.,-,t ir th- Brazils that
th. v is. a i h'iur.:. y-at r. Mly .I.j',- iis pleasant and
lovIin i s ..pan..i toi 1i.: tor u:. .-- lI .s s'ixt.:s.: years
of ai- li a.i .ia I lthen .1i,:i ..f nre- .tI ag e. A. t:.r my
e.l r. t'-_ i li a I liir.: A:Ls.. c.,J t,: ti.i r I1.- ree,
tbitt I w1 ,...Ilih-id to- isj,-t ,h-,66 r. of th,'-u a.t lrd t, to
Skeep lth.m tr.:m .1,Io,.iri' c ,r uis, all I had; but, at
I-u0;tl. :.i .n thi t-.:- oi- .:.rI n- I ,Ir..:J it with me were
Ir: n a .i letti;u lih:n .'s u.s l.,s-a r'i-. ,io ":'i ttii mus
thlv sil rauo il.J iit,, ti.Ie i-'.:..,.. xel. [. tiv. ,:r Ihiee
li-,:,,,lte, i.-lii., I k-.:p. taiel, ar. n, use young, when
h,. i sii. a.y, I i.r ,sy ,ir.:.s;re.I and these were part of
niy tsmilv. IBe.;.J.:s iith-is i 'I! rv 1:- pt two-or three
bl.l .,:.,l.1 kli. LUe. n -:l-i I t :i.i t t-. feed out-of
riy h-ai- anI I hi-d t.vo more parrots, which talked
prFty ,.'.11. ,nd M, oiil all call "Robin Crusoe," but
n3U.,- 1il:. na tei-t. uor,. indeed, did I take the pains
-a;th ian ,:,f tas ri tiit I had done with him. I had also
several tame sea-fowls, whose, name I knew not, that I
.",:'!i "it..-:., ",. .1,.-,.. and cut their wings; and the
i; l I ie t l... *. I,, II I i,,,,. planted before~ my castle-wall
being now grown up to a good thick grove, -. i. t`
all lived among these low trees, and bred there, which
was very agreeable to me; so that, as I said a b..s C. I
began to be very well contented with the life I i,.., It i
could have been secured from the dr i-.i o. t._ i .,-r i ,.

L.Jit it %'s. 1 tl '.ri : riL '.:t,.. : an.tI i rua.-y not t.- a il., i'-.:or t.:r tl:. ruluU. 'Il a r ,-.Ir,.l. l rigLt to ie-
.:.r 'all 1.:. nhb... ,nil m -et wi lth ry it.:, t,.: m it ke M -'p.-:-.'iii v .L goa l : ti=. rl.-e s h.rc.. I cr..ul.I ee the
his,. jjt .I-.I.:- f'.:m it -- H.- friq,.-qn- tly, in th.i- ma.rl: s i h, th- di.mlli '-...k ti l" had been
course of our lives,the evil which in itself we seek most about had left beh:.D.l it, vi tb. tl.-...,i the bones, anid
toshun, and which, whenwee aI i il-u iLati:. ;4 ius-e Is:t ,pirt of the flesh ot li~im'u I.r:..L:s-Is. t..u and J.i....i:..
Cdreaitiul t.-. ,., ;4 :it.: t itin.: I thL., .-r i.:- n- i ..-r i .i...r .:."f tl,, ...: wretches wir ii r esii.'seii s.J port. I was so
our id.irr i n.a., .-.- whl ..i l o.-i [ ioi- c b.- r.. rii:l a i i il:.Ji r. ith indignat..,n a t tLh -i glt, I lat I now begail to
from tin, itli.:l .:.c :. ',r. fallen into. I could give premediate the destruction of the next that I saw
many :-. nirpli ..ft" this in the course of my unaccount- there, let them be whom or how many soever. It
able ltI; I..,it n nothing was it more pirri,:ulail, .- i m... evident to me that the visits which they made
:-ui.rhibl thiv.n i.. ih. circumstances of Imy l t yeg-~ tlhus to this islantl were not very frequent, for it was
:,t' a.:.i rj r i; .lu.. ;L this island, above fifteen months before any more of them came on'
It was now the month of December, as I said above, shore there again,-that is to say, I neither saw them
in my t.:. If hi 1-.d.1 year; and this, being the southern nor any footsteps or signals of them in all that time;
..liti';:. i.:.r winter I cannot call it), was the for as to the rainy seasons, then they are sure not to
particular time of my harvest, and required come abroad, at least not so far. Yet all this while I
i,,L t.:, ..: pretty much abroad in the fields, lived uncomfortably;by reason of the constant appre-
wh:-n. g,':'ing out early in t!h morning, even hensions of their coming upon me by surprise: from
bel.'F.: it wsas thorough ..iyllit, I was sur- whence I observe, that the expectation of evil is more
pi -l.i i-.i r. th seeing a light of some fire upon bitter than the suffering, especially if there is no
tli,:. b,:ir. I a distance from me of about two room to shake off that expectation, or those :ir.r. -,
umi oll?, t.i.,ard t-,ir l .I f t ia .: i. lrI. where I hensions.'
h:ilos hiioh're. : l- hA.l I .'.:u before, During all this time I was in -h'e Lsili.i:. i~. humour,
auil not I on Ih) .:.tilsrr -.i.-e,--hlr, .t mny great and spent most of my hours, which should il.,..- been
atlilet.i, it s' -.:-u 'y iJ.- ot ths- i--lid. better employed;in contriving how to circumvent and
I was itidJ,.l t.irribly .-pr;.:.i ua t ie sight, itll Ip.:n :i thil.n thi very next time Ishould ,' it.Ca,,-
and .lboipd s lb'i:rt ni-t'n njm gijr-.i. ,,t. daring s-p-.:-! it tIb.7 should be divided, as ih.. .-:cr,: Itie'
bto go out, i.:-t I bi;git be -.. .r; .:. ; and yet hi r t.nI-, ;i,. I vo parties; nor did I consider at all'
I ail n~, p.: .:.: 'irin, troi th,. appre- tilt It I iill-4i.. one party-suppose ten ora dozen-I
hliesions I i.a. tit if t.h-: i- in ram- was still the next day, or week, or month, to Iril
bliug ,,S v, the i ldI., should find my corn another, and so another, even ad infinitum, till I should
sha, ling .r cut, -:"r .y ms n'y w.:.rks ,or ia.- 1..:, t 1.-D s,, u.-. i.-- .1 ILr,.:r.:r than they were in being
proiev-nim set, they -, ;rU ..i:i t:-lt ..,:,t..Ir.: ma":ii ..t'.rs-AndJ -p.:,ii [.; u,.- more so. I spent .li
Il lt thbr,; were p.'ipie ;n th.: pli.... ,JI ys cn"- si crit p.i.:l-it and anxiety of I-i..l,
rwoul th-u never rv-t till tt,- -iL.l ,Exp'i-t;ng at I iouii ,:,- ;y or other fall into the
r. ,ut In tl ,s:-t.umi -; i .:.iut L..i.rl hi:Jnd* ti.:se nririii.-;:ri-.iares; andif I didatany 1.:. my -.: lti, p'. p .i -. up the ladder time venture abroad, it was not without looking around
Setter ie. ,inl nm.l,: all tiis:, without look
:,* "'il-i a .1 ussti r .s I ..,:.,it .
'Tbec I irpi-.-l.-i myself within, p.lrttig
y'.-!_ in l p-sfr.: ,r of defence. 1 i:,-l.J1 ,i
e l! Wn s.ana.:, rsa I called them--that is to ,
sy, imy is-,l.:t., r-hich were mounted upon
v my new fortification, and all my pistols, and
resolved to defend myself to the last gasp,
--not forgetting seriously to commend my-
self to the Divine protection, and earnestly
to pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of
ti. hVDr ias I continued in this posture about
two hours, and began to be impatient for intelli-
gence abroad, for I had no spies to send out." After
sitting a while longer, and musing what I should do
in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignor-
ance longer; so setting up my ladder to the side
of the hill, where there was a- flat place, as I ob- .
served before, and then pulling the ladder after ,
me, I set it up again and mounted the top of the
hill, and pulling out my perspective glass, which I
had taken.on purpose, I laid me down flat on my -
belly on the ground, and began to look for the place.
I pr--e, t!;y found there were no less than nine I snk..] i .
savages, sitting-round a small fire they had made,
not to warm them, for they had no need of that,
the weati,. r bt..: l -xi ne-ly i.,,-;, but, as -I supposed,
to dress .--:ni- ...t th.-r i:rbIr:- ,u- h..t ,-,f Laman flesh
which th, r b-l Iv it rvith -L,:n,, rb--.ther alive or
dead I c:--i.1 r-.:t tili.
They hAl tn.:- c. ,cs- -with them, which ithLy las -
hauled li.s up"-n tae -b._i,- and as it was then e4I. of
tIlI,. th.,-y ,-seems-i t,:, ue to wait for the return of the
fl:,:..I toa I:.i a s:Tsy ..ain It is not easy to imagine what -
(,:,ni ,-in thi ,;sebht p-.t me into, especially seeing them
cOal- n msiy i.,h- of the island,and so near to me; but
when I considered their corlu,, r~-.nt i be I 'ys wvthi thi..
urr.-ot .:.f r1 ..I..b, I I, sc :ri-rv--' i-. thi bli u ",i.srs Jlitt,
is my ru;lu l. i,; g sl sr _.:,i tLat I rn_,irt gE.- abr.a.,l iiwth
safety all the time of the flood of tide, if they were
opt on :ho.r- h-.r..r.- and having made this observation,
I went air..,.. ahl:Iut my harvest work with the more
composure. -
As I expected, so it proved; for, as soon as the tide
made to the westward, I saw them all take boat and
row (or paddle as we call it) away. I should' have cRUSOE TEACHES HIS IPARROT TO TALK.
.. L:rr-.-i. tht i.,'r in hour of more before they went off
th..v w-ir- Ich,:,u: aad I could easily discern their
..:tour,:-, and e...-1 .rs by my glass. I could not
p.-r. ir. tby my noi-est observation, but that they me with the greatest care and caution imaginable. And
were stark naked, and had not the least covering now I found, to my great comfort, how happy it was
upon them; but whether they were men or women that I had provided a tame flock or herd of goats, for I
I could not distinguish. durstnot upon any account fire my gun, especially near
As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two that side of the island where they usually came, lest I
guns upon my shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, should alarm tIl, asvages; and if they had fled from
and my great sword by my side-without ascabbard, and me now, I was sure to have them come again with
with all the speed I was able to make went away to the perhaps two -or three hundred canoes with them in a
-hill where I had discovered the first appearance of all; few days, and then I knew what to expect. However,
and as soon as I got thither, which was not in less than I wore Out a year and t l ,s- months more before I v..r
two hours (for I could not go quickly, being so loaded saw any more of the savages, au,l ts r- nI f.t-su.1 tMIs u,
with arms as I was), I perceived there had bden three again, as Ishall soon observe. It is tls,, lllhy miit
canoes more of the savages at that place; and looking havebeen there once or-twice; ,t i ht .lr the v rn-s no
out farther, I saw they were all at sea together, making stay, or at least I did not see them -, ibt in tho. month


of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my four-and- as might be the case many ways; particularly, by the
twentieth year, I had a very strange encounter with breaking of the sea upon their ship, which many times
them; of which in its place. obliged men to stave, or take in pieces, their boat, and
The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or sometimes to throw it overboard with their own hands.
sixteen months' interval was-very great; I slept un- Other times, I imagined they had some other ship or
quietly, dreamed always frightful dreams, and often ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress
started out of my sleep in the night. In the day, they made, had taken them up, and carried them off.
great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in the night, Other times, I fancied they were all gone off to sea in
I dreamed often of kl IIi i Ir.: ii Yii of the reasons their boat, and being hurried away by the current that
why I might justify doing it. I had been formerly in, were carried out into the great
But to waive all this for a while.-It was in the middle ocean, where there was nothing but misery and perish-
of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my ing: and that, perhaps, they might by this time think
poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked all of starving, -and of being in a condition to eat one
upon the post still; I say, it was on the sixteenth of another.
May that it blow a very great storm of wind all day, As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the con-
with a great deal of lightning and thunder,-and a very edition I was in, I could do no more than look on upon
foul n,,, It ,~ was after it. I knew not what was the the misery of the poor men, and pity them; which had
particular occasion of it; but as I was reading in the still this good effect upon my side, that it gave me
Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts about ,more and mpre cause to give thanks to God, who had
my present condi-
tion, I was surprised
with the noise of a
gun, as I :L.g1,t -
fired at sea list
was, to be sure,
surprise quite of a
different nature from
any I had met with
before; for the no-
tions this put into
my thoughts were
quite of another ind,
I started up in the
greatest haste ima-
ginable; and, in a
trice, clapped my
ladder to the middle
place of the rock,
and pulled it after
me; and mounting
it the second time,
got to the top of the
hill the very me-. aP
ment that a flash of
fire bid me listen
which, accordingly,
in about half a
minute, I heard; and by the sound, knew that it was so happily and comfortably provided for me in my deso-
from that part of the sea where I was driven down the late condition; and that of two ships' companies, who
current in my boat. I immediately considered that this were now cast away upon this part of the world, not
must be some ship in distress, and that they had some one life should be spared but mine. I learned here
comrade, or some other ship in company, and fired these again to observe, that it is very rare that the providence
for signals of distress, and to obtain help. I had the of God casts us into any cAdition so low, or any misery
presence of mind, at that minute, to think, that though so great, but we may see something or other to be
I could not help them, it might be they might help me; thankful for, and maysee others in worse circumstances
so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at than our own. Such certainly was the case of these
hand, and, making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire men, of whom I could not s9 much as see room to sup-
upon the hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely; pose any were saved; nothing could make it rational so
and, though the wind blew very hard, yet it burned much as to wish or expect that they did not' all perish
fairly out; so that I was certain, if there was any such there, except the possibility only of their being taken
thing as a ship, they must needs see it. And no doubt up by another ship in company; and this was but mere
they did; for as soon as ever my fire blazed up, I heard possibility indeed, for I saw not the least sign or ap-
another gun, and after that several others, all from the pearance of any such thing. I cannot explain, by any
same quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till day- possible energy of words, what a strange longing I felt
break : and when it was broad day, and the air cleared in my soul upon this sight, breaking out sometimes
up, I saw something at a great distance at sea, full east thus:-" 0 that there had been but one or two, nay, but
of the island, whether a sail or a hull I could not dis- one soul, saved out of this-ship, to have escaped to me,
tinguish--no, not with my glass; the distance was so that I might but have had one companion, one fellow-
great, and the weather still something hazys also; at creature, to have spoken to me and to have.conversed
least, it was so out at sea, with! In all the time of my solitary life, I never
I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon per- felt so earnest, so strong a desire after the society of my
ceived that it did not move; so I presently concluded fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the want'of it..
that it was a ship at anchor; and being eager, you may There are some secret springs in the affections, which,
be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gunmin my hand, and when they are set a-going by some object in view, or,
ran towards the south side of the island, to the rocks though not in view, yet rendered present to the mind
where I had formerly been carried away by the current; by the power of imagination, that motion carries, out
and getting up there, the weather by this time being the soul, by its impetuosity, to such violent, eager em-
perfectly clear, I could plainly see, -to my great sorrow, bracing of the object, that the absence of' it is insup-
the wreck of a stip, cast away in the night upon those portable. Such were these earnest wishing that but
concealed rocks which I found when I was out in my. one man had been saved. I believe I repeated the
boat; and which rocks, as they checked the violence of words," O thatit had been but one!" a thousand times;
the stream, and made a kind of .cunter-stream, or eddy, and my desires.were so moved by it, that when I spoke
were the occasion of my recovering from the most the words my hands would clinch together, and my
desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been in in fingers would press the palms of my hands, so that if I
all my life. Thus, what is one man's safety;is another had had any soft thing in my hand, I should have
man's destruction; for it seems these men, whoever crushed it involuntarily; and the teeth in my head
they were, being out pf their knowledge, andlthe rocks would strike together, and set against one another so
being wholly under water, h-ad been driven upon them strong, that for some time I could not part them again.
in the night, the wind blowing hard at E.N.E, Had Let the naturalists explain these things, and the reason
they seen the island, as I must necessarily puppose they and manner of them. All I can do is, to describe the
did not, they-mist, as I thought, have endeavoured to fact, which was even surprising to me when I found it,
have saved themselves on shore by the help of their though I knew not from whence it proceeded; it was
boat; but their firing off guns for help, especially when doubtless the effect of ardent wishes, and of strong
they saw, as I imagined, my fire, filled me with many ideas formed in my mind, realizing the comfort which
thoughts. First, I imagined that upon seeing my light, the conversation of one of my fellow Christians would
they might have put themselves into their boat, and have been to me. But it was not to be; either their
endeavored to make the shore; but that the sea run- fate or mine, or both, forbade it; for till the last year of
ning very high, they have been cast away. Other times my being on this island, I never knew whether any were
I imagined that they might have lost their boat before, saved out of that ship or no; and had only the afflic-

tion, some days after, to see the corpse of a drowned
boy come on shore at the end of the island which was
next the shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a sea-
man's waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen drawers,
and a blue linen shirt; but nothing to direct me so
much as to guess what nation he was of. He had
nothing-in his pockets but two pieces of eight and a
tobacco-pipe-the last was to me of ten times more
value than the first.
It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture
out in my boat to this wreck, not doubting but I
might find something on board that might be useful to
me. But that did not altogether press me so much as
the possibility that there might be yet some living
creature on board, whose life I might not only save, but
might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the last
degree; and this thought clung so to my heart that I
could not be quiet night or day, but I must venture out
in my boat on board this wreck; and committing the
rest to God's providence, I thought the impression was
so strong upon my mind that it could not be resisted,-
that it must come from some invisible direction, and
that I should be wanting to myself if I did not go.
Under the power of this impression, I hastened back
to my castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took
a quantity of bread, a great pot of fresh water, a com-
pass to steer by, a bottle ofr um (for I had still a great
c!..., .t that left), and a basket of raisins; and thus,
loading myself with everything necessary, I went down
to my boat, got the water, out of her, got her afloat,
loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again
for more. My second cargo was.a great bag of rice,
the umbrella to set up over my head for a shade, another
large pot of fresh water, and"about two dozen of small
loaves, or barley cakes, more than'before, with a bottle
of goat's-milk, and a cheese; all which with great
labour and sweat I carried to my boat; and praying to
God to direct my voyage, put out, and rowing or
paddling the canbe along the shore, came at last to the
utmost point of the island on the north-east side. And
now I was to launch out into the ocean, and either to
venture or not to venture, I looked on the rapid
currents which ran constantly on both sides of the
island at a distance, and which were very terrible to
me, from the remembrance.of 4he hazard I had been
in before, and my heart begah to fail me; for I fore-
saw that if J was driven into either of those currents,
I should be carried a great way out to sea, and perhaps
out of my reach, or sight of the island again; and that
then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale of
wind should rise, I should be inevitably lost.


These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to
give over my enterprise; and having hauled my boat
into a little creek on the shore, I stepped out, and sat
down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and
anxious, between fear and desire, about my voyage;
when, as I was musing, I could perceive that the tide


.was turned, and the flood come on; upon which, my
going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon
this, presently it occurred to me, that I should go up
to the highest piece of ground I could find, ant
observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or current,
lay when the flood came in, that I might judge whether
if I was driven one way out, I might not expect to be
driven another way home, with the same rapidity of
the currents. This thought was no sooner in my head
than I cast my eye upon a little hill, which sufficiently
overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I had
a clear view of the currents or sets of the tide, andl
which way I was to guide myself in my return. Here
I found, that as the current of ebb set out close by the
-south point of the island, so the current of the flood
set in close to the shore of the north side; and that
I had nothing to do but to keep to the north side of the
island in my return, and I should do well enough.
Encouraged by this observation, I resolved, the next
morning, to set out with the first of the tide; and, re-
posing myself for the night in my canoe, under the
watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out. I first made
a little out to sea, full north, till I began to feel the
benefit of the current, which set eastward, and which
carried me at a great rate; and yet did not so hurry
me as the current on the south side had done before, so
as to take from me all government of the boat.; but
having a strong steerage with my paddle, I went, at a
great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less -than two
hours I came up to it. It was a dismal sight to look
at: the ship, which, by its building, was Spanish, stuck
fast, jammed in between -two rocks. All the stern and
quarter of her were beaten to pieces by the sea;. and as
her f,:. .:- 's 1. which stuck in the rocks, had run on
with great violence, her mainmast and foremast were
brought by the board-that is to say, broken short off;
but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow
appeared firm. *When I came close to her, a dog
appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming, yelped and
cried; and, as soon as I called him, jumped into the
sea to come to me. I took him into the boat, but
found him almost dead with hunger and thirst. I gave
him a cake of my bread, and he devoured it like a
ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in the
snow; I then gave the poor creature some fresh water,
with which, if I would have let him, he would have
burst himself. After this I went on board; but the
first sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook-
room, or forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast
about one another. I concluded, as is indeed probable,
that when the ship struck,-it being in a storm, the sea
broke so high, and so continually over her, that the
men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with
the constant rushing in of the water, as much as if
they had been under water. Besides the dog, there
was nothing left in the ship that had life; nor any
goods, that I could see, but what were spoiled by-the
water. There re e "ome casks of liquor, whether wine
or brandy I i:.--, r.. t which lay lower in the hold, and
which, the water being ebbed out, I could see; but
they were too big to meddle with. I saw several
chests, which, I believed, belonged to some of the
seamen; and I got two of them into the boat, without
examining what was in them. Had the stern of the
ship been fixed, and the forepart broken off, I am
persuaded I might have made a good voyage; for, by
what I found in these two chests, I had room to
suppose the ship had a great deal of wealth on board;
and, if I may guess from. the.course she steered, she
must 'have been bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio
de la Plata, in the south part of America, beyond the
Brazils to the Havannah, in the Gulf of Mexico, and
so perhaps to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great
treasure in br. btf of no use, at that time,'to any-
body; but I- Il, .. .,u- f the crew I then knew not.
I found, besides these chests, a.little cask full of
liquor, of about twenty gallons, which I got into my
boa l --; ni.: ! h i t. "Ti'. were several-muskets
in I,.: ...Liu., -..i1 a .i :I'.-.ic r-horn, with about four .:. p..~,i.;r ;" ., i.s t.. he muskets, I had no
occi ;'.r !i. tlb.:m, ;.:. I litt t -ne, but took the powder-
horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted
extremely; as also two little brass kettles, a copper
pot i.. miil.: chocolate, and a gridiron; and 'with this
carg. -, .i tI,.. dog, I came away, the tide beginning to
make home again: and the same evening, about an
hour within night, I reached the island again, weary
and fitl ;:i.1 to the last degree. I reposed that night
in the boat; and in'the morning I-resolved to harbour
what I had got iu my new cave, and not carry it home
to my castle. refreshing myself, I got all my
cargo on shore, and began to examine the particulars.
The cask of liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but
not such as we had at the Brazils; and, in a word,
not at all good; bit when I came to open the chests,
I found several things of great use to me: for ex-
ample, I found in one a fine case of bottles, of an.
extraordinary kind, and filled with cordial waters, fine
and very good ; the bottles held about three pints each,
and were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very,

Good succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the
,top that the salt-water had not hurt them; and two
More of the same, which the water had spoiled. I
found some very good shirts, which were very welcome
s to me; and about dozen and a half of white linen hand-
,kerchiefs and coloured neckcloths ; the former were also
very welcome, being exceedingly refreshing to wipe my
Face in a hot day. Besides this, when I came to the
Still in the chest, I found there three great bags of pieces
of eight, which held about eleven hundred pieces in
all; and in one of them,, wrapped up in a paper, six
doubloons of gold, and some small bars or wedges of
Sold; I suppose they might all weigh near a pound.
In the other chest were some clothes, but of little
value; but, by the circumstances, it must have belonged
Sto the gunner's mate; though there was no powder in
it, except two pounds of fine glazed powder, in three
flasks, kept, -I. suppose,, for charging their fowling-
pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little
by this voyage that was of any use to me; for, as to
the money, I had no manner of occasion for it; it was
to me as the dirt under my feet, and I would have
given it all for three or four pair of English shoes
and stockings, which were things I greatly wanted, but
had had none on my feet for many years, I had,.'in-
deed, got two pair of shoes now, which I took off the
feet of the two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck,
and I found two pair more in one of the chests, which
were very welcome to me; but they were not like our
English shoes, either for ease or service, being rather
what we call pumps than shoes. I found in this sea-
man's chest about fifty pieces of eight, in rials, but
no gold: I suppose this belofiged to a poorer man than*
the other, which seemed to belong to some officer.
Well, however, I lugged this money home to my
cave, and laid it up, as I had done that before which
I had brought from our own ship ; but it was a great
pity, as I said, that the other part of this ship had not
come to my share ;.for I am satisfied I- might have.
loaded my canoe several times over with money;
and, thought I, if I- ever escape to England, it might
lie here safe enough till I come again and fetch it.
Having now brought all my things ,on shore, and
secured them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or
paddled her along the shore to her old harbour, where I
laid her up, and made the best of my way to my old
habitation, where I found everything safe and quiet.
Inow began to repose myself, live after my old fashion,
and take care of my family affairs; and-for a while I
lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant than I
used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so
much; and if at any time I did stir with any freedom,
it was always to the east part of the island, where I
was pretty well satisfied the savages never came, and
where I could go without so many precautions, and such
a load of arms and ammunition as I always carried with
me if I went the other way. I lived in this condition
near two years more; but my unlucky head, that was
always to let me know it was born to make my body
miserable, was all these two years filled with projects
and designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away
from this. island: for, sometimes I was for making
another voyage to the wreck, though my reason told me
that there was nothing left-there worth the hazard of
my voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way, sometimes
another i.and I believe verily, if I had had the boat that
I went from Sallee .in, I should have ventured to sea,
bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I have been, in
all my circumstances, a memento to those who are
touched with the general plague of mankind, whence,
for aught I know, one-half of their miseries flow; I
mean, that of not being satisfied with the station where-
in God and Nature hath placed them: for, not to look
back upon my primitive condition, and the excellent
advice of my father, the opposition to. which was, as I
may call it, my original sin, my subsequent mistakes of
the same kind had been the means of my coming into
this miserable condition- for had that Providence which
so happily seated me at the Brazils as a planter blessed
me with confined desires, and I could have been con-
tented to have gone on gradually, I might have been by
this time-I mean in the time of my being in this
island-one of the most considerable planters in the
Brazils: nay, I am persuaded, that by the improve-
ments I had made in that little time I lived there, and
the increase I should probably have made if I had
remained, I might have been worth a hundred thousand
moidores: and 'what business had I to leave a settled
fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving and in-
creasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes,
when patience and time would have so increased our
stock at home that we could have bought them at our
own door from those whose business it was to fetch
them ?- and though it had cost us something more, yet
the difference of that price was by no means worth
saving at so great a hazard. But as this is usually the
fate of young heads, so reflection upon the folly of it is
as commonly the exercise of more years, or of the dear-
bought experience of time: so it was with me now;
and yet so deep had the mistake taken root in my

temper, that I could not .tisty,' ijn. .I in my station,
but was continually poring upon the means and pos-
sibility of my escape from this place: and that I may,
with the greater pleasure to the reader, bring on the
remaining part of my story, it may not be improper to
give some account of my first conceptions on the subject
of this foolish scheme lor my escape, and how, and upon
what foundation I acted. now to be supposed retired in my castle, after
my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up and
secured under water, as usual, and my condition re-
stored to what it was before: I had more wealth, indeed,
than I had before, but was not at all the richer; for I
had no more use for it than the Indians of Peru had
before the Spaniards came there.
It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March,
the four-and-twentieth year of my first setting foot in
this island of solitude, I was lying in my bed or ham-
mock, awake, very Well in health, had no pain, no dis-
temper, no uneasiness of body, nor any uneasiness of
mind more than ordinary, but could by no means close
my eyes, that is, so as to sleep; no, not a wink all night
i.:._ otherwise than as follows:-It is impossible to set
*.1.,-. u the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled
through that great thoroughfare ofl the brain, the
memory, in -II, o,'i,t's time; I ran ovei the whole
history of my I i. .u im iature, or by abridgment, as I
may call it, to my coming to this island, and also of
that part of my lire since i came to this island. In my
reflections upon the state of my case since I came on
shore on this island, I was comparing the happy pos-
ture of my affairs in the first years of my habitation
here, with the life of anxiety, fear, and care, which I
had lived in ever since I had seen the print of a foot in
the sand. Not that I did not believe the savages had
frequented the island even .all the while, and might
have been several hundreds of them at times on shore
there; but I had never known it, and was incapable of
any apprehensions about it; my satisfaction was perfect,
though my danger was the same, and I was as happy in
not knowing my danger as if I had never really been
exposed to it. This furnished my thoughts with many
very profitable reflections, and particularly this one:
How infinitely good that Providence is, which has pro-
vided, in i;s government of mankind, such narrow
bounds to his sight and knowledge *of things; and
though he walks in the midst of so many thousand
dangers, the sight of which, if discovered to him, would
distract his mind and sink his spirits, he is kept serene
and calm, by having the events of things hid from
his eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers which
surround him.
After these thoughts had for some time entertained
me, I came to reflect seriously upon the real danger I
had been in for so many years in this very island, and
how I had walked about in the greatest security, and
with all possible tranquility, even when perhaps nothing
but- the 'brow of a hill, a great tree, or the casual
approach of night, had been between me and the worst
kind of destruction, viz. that of falling into the hands
of cannibals and savages, who would have seized on me
with the same view as I would on a goat or turtle; and
have thought it no more crime to kill and devour me,
than I did of a pigeon or a curlew. I would unjustly
slander myself, if I should say I was not sincerely
thankful to my great Preserver, to whose singul ir
protection I acknowledged, with great 1l.,;i;i,. ii
these unknown deliverances were due, and n i ir., I i, IJ
I must inevitably have fallen into their merciless hands.
'When, these thoughts were over, my head was for
some time taken up in considering the nature of these
wretched creatures, I mean the savages, and how it
came to pass in the world, that the wise Governor of
all things should give up any of his creatures to such
inhumanity--nay, to something so much. below even
brutality itself-as to devour its own kind: but as this
ended in some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it
occurred to me to inquire, what part of the world these
wretches lived in?, how far off the coast was from
whencB th&y came? what they ventured over so far
from home for? what kind of boat they had ? and why
I might not order myself and my business so, that I
might be able to go over thither, as they were to come
to me ?
I never so muchas troubled myself to consider what
I should do with myself when I went thither; what
would become of ine if I fell into the hands of these
savages ; or how I should escape them if they attacked
me; no, nor so much as how it was possible for me to
reach the coast, and not be attacked by some or other of
them, without any possibility of delivering myself: and
if I should not fall' into their hands, what I should do
For provision, or whither I should bend my course: none
of these thoughts, I say, so much as came in my way;
but my mind was wholly bent upon the notion of my
passing over in my boat to the main land. I looked
upon my present condition as the most i',-1ir.1k il 0,i.
could possibly be; that I was not able to 11i .'. ii... 11
nto'anything but death, that could be called worse;
and if I iac:hI. the shore of the main, I might perhaps


meet with relief, or I might coast along, as I did on the but none appeared. This was very discouraging, and
African shore, till I came to some inhabited country, began to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it
and where I might find some relief; and, after all, did in this case (as it had done some time before) wear
perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship that off the edge of my desire to the thing; but the longer
might take me in; and if the worst came to the worst, it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was for it: in
I could but die, which would put an end to all these a word, I was not at first so careful to shun the sight
miseries at once. Pray note, all this was the fruit of a of these savages, and avoid being seen by them, as I was
disturbed mind, an impatient temper, made desperate, now eager to be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself
as it were, by the long continuance of my troubles, and able to manage one, nay, two or three savages, if I had
the disappointments I had met in the wreck I had been them, so as to make them. entirely slaves to me, to do
on board of, and where I had been so near obtaining whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their
what I so earnestly longed for-somebody to speak to, being able. at any time to do me any hart. It was a
and to learn some knowledge from them of the place great while that I pleased myself with this affair; but
where I was, and of the probable means of my deliver- nothing still presented itself; all my fancies and schemes
ance. I was agitated wholly by these thoughts; all my came to nothing, for no savages came near me for a
calm of mind, in my resignation to Providence, and great while.
waiting the issue of the (i 1-l.~It.Iu I, of Heaven, seemed About a year and a half after I entertained these
to be suspended; and I had, as it were, no power to turn notions (and by long musing had, as it were, resolved
my thoughts to .!in li~;u g but to the project of a voyage them all into nothing, for want of an occasion to put
to the main, whlh enme upon me with such force, them into execution), I was surprised one morning by
and such an impetuosity of desire, that it was not to be seeing no less than five canoes all on shore together on
resisted. my side the island, and the people who belonged to them
When this had i,;it it.:.1 i i l.,,iil for two hours or all landed and out'of my sight. The number of them
more, with such 1 .-. ,. .. Pt t t -it y very blood into broke all my measures; for seeing so many, and knowing
a ferment, and my pulse beat as if I had been in a fever, that they always came four or six, or sometimes more in
merely with the exrl-llnrlinlly fervour of my mind a boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how to
about it, Nature- ,. t I i ..I been fatigued and ex- take my measures to attack twenty or thirty men single-
hausted with the very thoughts of it-threw me into a handed; so lay still in my castle, perplexed and discom-
sound sleep. One would have thought I should have forted. However, I put myself into the same position
dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was just
to it: but I dreamed that as I was going out in the ready for action, if anything had presented. Having
morning as usual, from my castle, I saw upon the shore wa;i.: J a g......, w-hile, listening to hear if they made any
two canoes and eleven savages, coming to land, and that na.:. ,, at i-tu ih, being very impatient, I set my guns at
they brought with them another savage, whom they t!, t.. ..4 ,.- ladder, and clambered up to the top of
.I.Ir ..;u_ 1.:. 1:;11, in order to eat him; when, on a it : hIl!. I.-,- ny two stages, as usual; standing so, how-
.u, I.I. h L I1,. I fg.- that they were going to kill jumped ever, that my head did not appear above the hill, so that
l ; I ..1 I ..i his life; and I thought, in my sleep, they could not perceive me by any means. Here I
that ie came running into my little thick grove before observed, by the help of my perspective glass, that they
my fortification, to hide him -. 1 f. ad that I, seeing him were no less than thirty in number; that they had a fire
1]....i., _u.1 .I I ... ... i;LO th t tII.. others sought him kindled, and that they had meat dressed. How they
t{hi. .1 ,:,. .,'..t.. I '~ it t... him, and smiling uponhim, had cooked it, I knew not, or what it was; but they
4 ,II .,ii:-.I bi'l i ,t 1I.: kneeled down to me, seeming were all dancing, in I know not how many barbarous
to pray me to ,,;. t. him; upon which Ishowed him my go-lltre~io n fi.7lre?. their own way, round the fire.
ladder, made him go up, and carried him into my cave, WNi.1 I ,,. ,, I h,i looking on them, I perceived, by my
and he became my servant: and that as soon as I had perspective, two miserable wretches dragged from the
got this man, I said to myself, "Now I may certainly boats, where, it seerrs, ri,. v '.r.. laid by, and were now
venture to the main land, t.:.r til- I. I!... will serve me brought out for the il. hil. i. I perceived one of them
as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither to immediate:' f .11 being knocked down, I suppose, with
go for provisions, and whither not to go for fear of being a club, or .:..:...:.. sword, for that was their way; and
devoured; whnt plice- t venmi'm-e into, and what to two or three others were at work immediately cutting
shun." I .....i l-., ii1 tl ti .:...,l r ; and was undersuch him open for their cookery. while the other victim was
inexpressible impressions of joy at the prospect of my left _t o- by himself, IlII they should be ready for
escape in my dream, that the .1; .,!:p...r L ..I t which I him. In t! 1' very moment, this poor wretch, seeing
felt upon coming to myself, -1 I r.liif, th.. it was no himself a little at lib.I ti, iu.. unbound,Nature inspired
more than a dream, were .,..0';, extravagant the other him with hopes of I.f.-, ..J L.i started away from them,
way, and threw me into a very great dejection of and ran with i..r,-.J.t..: swiftness along the sands,
spirits. directly towards me; I mean, towards that part of thfe
Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: t1,t imy coast where my habitation was. I was. dreadfully
only way to go about to attempt an escape was, to frightened, I must acknowledge, when I perceived him
endeavour to get a savage into my possession; .and, if run my way; and especially when, as I thought, I saw
possible, it should be one of their prisoners, whom they him pursued by the whole body; and now I expected
had condemned to be eaten, and should bring hither to that part of my dream was coming to pass, and that he
kill. But these -!, still were attended with this would certainly take shelter in my grove: but I.could not
difficulty: that it was impossible to effect this without depend, by any means, upon my dream, that the other
attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them savages would not pursue him thither, and find him
all; and this was not only a very desperate attempt, there. However, I. kept my station, and my spirits
and might miscarry; but, on the other hand, I had began to recover when I found ., r rh,.r.: was not above
greatly scrupled the lawfulness of it to myself; and my three men that followed him: ,,,.i !l more was I
heart trembled at the thoughts of taking so much blood, encouraged when I found that he outstripped them
though it was forn my deliverance. I need not repeat exceedingly in 'running, and gained ground on them;
the arguments il. i ........... tI.. ..- against this, they so that, if he could but hold out for half an hour,
being the same n,...,.:l. 1 I. 1... : but though I had I.saw easily he would fairly get away from them all.
-other reasons t., 1.:. r ....... li, those men were There was between them and my castle, the creek,
enemies to my life, and would devour me if they could; which I mentioned often in the first part of my story,
that it was self-preservation, in the highest degree, to where I landed my cargoes out. of the ship; and this I
deliver myself from this death of a life, and was acting saw plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the poor
in my own defence as much as if they were i...1i li:, wretch will be taken there; but when the savage
.- ,i..- o_-11_ me, and the like; I say, -I .-.i.. b.. r ,n( ld escaping came thither, he made nothing of it, though
,r,,,.. l... it, yet the thoughts cot I... 1.,_ human the tide was then up; but, plunging in, swam through,
blood for my deliverance were very terrible to me, and in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran
such as I could by no means reconcile myself to for a with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the
great while. However, at last, after many secret dis- three persons came to the creek, I found that two of
putes with myself, and after great perplexities about it them could swim, but the third could not, and that,
(for all these arguments, one way and another,struggled standing on the other side, he looked at the others, but
in my head a long time), the eager prevailing desire went no farther, and soon after went softly back again;
of deliverance at length mastered all the rest; and I which, as it happened, was very well for him in the
resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into end. I observed that the two who swam were yet more
my hands, cost what it would. My next thing was to than twice as long swimming over the creek as the fellow
contrive how to do it, and this indeed was very difficult was that fled from them. It came very warmly upon
to resolve on; but as I could pitch upon no probable my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was the
means for it, so I resolved to put myself upon the wat+h 1 t.., ,f, r., a servant, and perhaps a companion or
to see them when theycame on shore,and leave the r.- t ,:.,i.r i 1t: i, that I was plainly called by Pro:.- i.1. r.: .
to the event; taking such measures as the opportunity to save this poor creature's life. I immediately ran
should present, let what would be. down the ladders with all possible expedition, fetched
With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself my two guns, for they were both at the foot of the lad-
upon the scout as often as possible, and indeed so often, ders, as I observed before, and getting up again with
that I was heartily tired of it; for it was above a year the same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards
and a half that I waited; and for great part of that the sea; and having a very short cut, and all down hill,
time went out to the west end, and to the south-west placed myself in the way between the pursues and the
corner of the island almost every day, to look for canoes, pursued, hallooing aloud to him that" fled, who, looking

back, was at first perhaps as much frightened at me as
at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come
back; and, in the mean time, I slowly advanced to-
wards the two that followed; then rushing at once
upon the foremost, I knocked him down with the stock
of my piece. I was loath to fire, because I would not
have the rest hear; though, at that distance, it would
not have .been easily heard, and being out of sight of
the smoke, too,.they would not have known what to
make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the
other who pursued him stopped, as if he had been
frightened, and I advanced towards him: but as' I
came nearer, I perceived presently he had-a bow and
arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me: so I was then
obliged to shoot at him first, which.I did, and killed
him at first shot. The poor savage who led, but had
stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen and
killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened with the
fire and noise of my piece, that he stood stock still, and
neither came forward, nor went backward, though he
seemed rather inclined still to fly than to come on. I
hallooed again to him, and made signs to come forward,:
which he easily understood, and came a little way; then
stopped again, and then a little farther, and stopped
again; and I could then perceive that he .. ...I trem-
bling, as if he.had been taken prisoner, '. hI just
been to be killed as his two enemies were.' I beckoned
to him again to come to me, and gave him all the signs
of encouragement that I could think of ; and he came
nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve
steps, in -.-.k.: ii :f -- .:kl I.:.-r1i ,;i....u i .:.r, saving his life.
I smiled at Ijitu. i .i !.j.:.k..I 0 ,i.: i : iy, and beckoned
to him to :.l~- -till u inr, -. I i!; L.. be came close to
me; and then he kneeled down again, kissed the ground,
and laid his head upon the ground, and, taking me by
the foot, set my foot upon his head; this, it seems, was
in token of swearing to be, my slave for ever. I took
him up and made much of him, and encouraged him all
I could. But there was more work to do yet; for I
perceived the savage whom I had ku :t-l .1.'ri- ir
not killed, but stunned with the ibl:,x L .i:;.lg t.:i
come to himself: so I pointed to hi,. .i i..-L" .:..l biun
the savage, that he- .- nr.:.t .1. I. up.I.r, tLi- h.: ~.,: i:.
some words tome, tl I u...t iu.'.i- ti lu.l i,. n.,
yet I thought they v-u. oI ..l.. 1 nat t.:. b,-'u ; t.:.r t1v '-y
the first sound of a ru.L. :; V,...... thbt I tih.l L :-,r..l. .my
own excepted, foral .:...: t.v~cut-,'-.! : yai, LB t tl!,:r.
was no time for such refl...t:,'u_, ,n.w i tih savage who
was knocked down recov,: r:. I bliul-lt jo tar as to sit up
upon the ground, and I perceived that n.,- I -.;-: 1.. ,i
to be afraid; but when I saw that, I I.,, :t:i--? m;
other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him: upon
.this, my savage, for so I call him now, made a motion
to me to lend him my sword, which hung naked in a
belt by my side, which I did. He no sooner had it, but
he runs to his enemy, and at one blow, cut off his head-
so cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done
it sooner or better; which I thought very strange for
one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a sword
in his life before, except their own wooden swords:
however, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make
their wooden swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood
is so hard, that they will evwn cut off heads with them,
ay, and arms, and that at one blow too. When he had
done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of triumph,
and brought me the sword again, and with abundance
of gestures which I did not understand, laid it down,
with the head of the savage that he had killed, just
before me. But that which astonished him most, was
to know how I killed the other Indian so far off; so,
pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go
to him; and I bade him go, as well as I could. When
he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at
him, ti.i iuL l1irn first on one side, then on the.other;
looked ,,t ti.-: ound the bullet had made, which it
seems was just in his breast, where ith-ad made a hole,
and no great quantity of blood had followed; but he
had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took up
his bow and arrows, and came. back; so I turned to go
away, and beckoned him to If.ii..11 .. m making signs to
him that more may come lt- r tl,:iu. Upon this he
made igeus to me lth b be Ihould i,,ul, tlhen with sand, tL-;, Lm u l,. t a:.t L.: en 1.' thL i,:st, if they
t.:.' ii .i.., ui ... I rm r,. -i L61s to him again to do so. He
fell to work; and in an instant head scraped a hole in
the sand with his hands, big enough to bury the first in,
and then dragged him into it, and covered him; and
did so by the other also: I believe he had buried them
both in a quarter of an hour. Then, calling him away,
I carried him not to my castle, but quite away to my
cave, on the farther part of the island; so I did not let
my dream come to pass in that part, that he came into
my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and a
bunch of raisins, and a draught of water, which I
found he was indeed in great distress for, from his
running: and having refreshed him, I made signs for
him to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place
where I had laid some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it,
which I used to sleep upon myself sometimes; so the
poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.


He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well
made, with straight, strong limbs, not too large, tall and
well shaped; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years
of age. He had a very good countenance, not a fierce
and surly aspect, but seemed to have :.uL: 'trH t very
manly in his face; and yet he had all the sweetness and
softness of a European in his countenance too, especially
when he smiled. His hair was long and black, not
curled like wool; his forehead very high and large; and
a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes.
The colour of his skin was not quite black, but very
tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow,-nauseous tawny, as
the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of
America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive-colour,
that had in it something very agreeable, though not
very easy to describe. His face was round and plump ;
his nose small, not flat like the Negroes; a very good
mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set, and as
white as ivory.
After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half
an hour, he awoke again, and came out of the cave to
me; for I had been milking my goats, which I had in
the inclosure just by: when he espied me, he came run-
ning to me, laying himself down again upon the ground,
with all the possible sign's of an humble, thankful dis-
position, making a great many antic gestures to show it.
At last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to
my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as he
had done before; and after this, made all the signs to
me of subjection, servitude, and submission, imagin-
able, to let me know how he would serve me so long as
he lived. I understood him in many things, and let him
know that I was very well pleased with him. In a little
time I began to speak to him, and teach him to speak to
me; and, first, I let him know his name should be
FaIDay, which was the day I saved his life: I called
him so for the memory of the time. I likewise taught
him to say Master; and then let him know that was to
be my name': I likewise taught him to say Yes and No,
and to know the meaning of them. I gave him some
milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it
before him, and sop my bread in it; and gave him a
cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly complied
with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I
kept there with him all that night; but, as soon as it
was day, I beckoned to him to come with me, and let
him know I would give him some clothes; at which he
seemed very glad, for he was stark naked. As we
went by the place where he had buried the two men, he
pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the marks
that he had made to find them again,/making signs to
me that we should dig them up again and eat them. At
this, I appeared'very angry, expressed my abhorrence of
it, made as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and
beckoned with my hand to him to come away, which he
did immediately, with great submission. I then led him
up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were
gone; and pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw
plainly the place where they had been, but no appear-
ance of them or their canoes; so that it was plain they
were gone, and had left their two comrades behind them,
without any search after-them.
But I was not content with this discovery; but having
now more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I
took my man Friday with me, giving him the sword in
his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I
found he could use very dexterously, making him carry
one gun for me, and I two for myself; and away we
marched to the place where these creatures had been;
for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence of
them. When I came to the place, my very blood ran
chill in my veins, and my heart sunk. within me, at the
horror of the spectacle; indeed, it was a dreadful sight,
at least it was so to me, though Friday made nothing of
it. The place was covered with human bones, the
ground dyed with their blood, and great pieces of flesh
left here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched;
and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast
they had been making there, after a victory over their
enemies. I saw three skulls, five hands, and the bones
of three or four legs and feet, and abundance of other
parts of the bodies; 'and Friday, by his signs, made me
understand that they brought over four prisoners to
feast upon; that three of them were eaten up, and
that he, pointing to himself, was the.fourth; that there
had been a great battle between them and their next king,
of whose subjects, it seems, he had been onerand that
they had taken a great number of prisoners; all which
were carried to several places, by those who had taken
them in the fight, in order to feast upon them, as was done
here by these wretches upon those they brought hither.
I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh,
and whatever remained, and lay them together in a
heap, and make a great fire upon it, and burn them all
to ashes. I found Friday had still a hankering stomach
after some of the flesh, and was still a cannibal in his
nature; but I showed so much abhorrence at the very
thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it, that he
durst not discover it: for I had, by some means, let him
know that I would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our castle;
and there I fell to work for my man Friday; and first of
all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of
the poor gunner's chest I mentioned, which I found in
the wreck, and which, with a little alteration, fitted him
very well; and then I made him a jerkin of goat's skin,
as well as my skill would allow (for I was now grown a
tolerably good tailor); and I gave him a cap which I
made of hare's skin, very convenient, and fashionable
enough; and thus he was clothed, for the present,
tolerably well, and was mighty well pleased to see him-
self almost as well clothed as his master. It is true, he
went awkwardly in these clothes at first: wearing the
drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of
the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his
arms; but a little easing them where he complained
they hurt him, and using himself to them, he took to
them at length very well.
The next day, after I came home to my hutch with

attempted on the outside, would not have opened at all;
but would have fallen down and made a great noise: as
to weapons, I took them all into my side every night.
But I needed none of all this precaution; for never man
had a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday
was to me; without passions, sullenness, or designs,
perfectly obliged and engaged; his very affections were
tied to me, like those of a child to a father; and I dare
say he would have sacrificed his life to save mine, upon
any occasion whatsoever: the many testimonies he gave
me of this put it out of doubt, and soon convinced me
that I needed to use no precautions for my safety on his
This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that
with wonder, that however it had pleased Gbd in His
providence, and in the government of the works of His
hands, to take from so great a part of the world of His
creatures the best uses to which their faculties and the
powers of their souls are adapted, yet that He has

-.r '" -

-I _. s_ ,.

... .. l I 'f -


him,-I began to consider where I should lodge him; and, bestowed upon them the same powers, the same reason,
that I might do well for him and yet be perfectly easy the same affections; the same sentiments of kindness
myself, I made a little tent for him in the vacant place and obligation; the same passions, and resentments of
between my two fortifications, in the inside of the last, wrongs, the same sense of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity,
and in the outside of the first. As there was a door or and all the capacities of doing good, and receiving good,
entrance there into my cave, I made a formal framed that He has given to us; and that when He pleases to
door-case, and a door to it, of boards, and set it up in offer them occasions of exerting these, they are as ready,
the passage, a little within the entrance; and, causing nay, more ready, to apply them to the right uses for
the door to open in the inside, I barred it up in the which they were bestowed, than we are. This made
night, taking in my ladders, too; so that Friday could me very melancholy sometimes, in reflecting, as the
no way come at me in the inside of my innermost wall, several occasions presented, how mean a use we make
without making so much noise in getting over that it of all these, even though we have these powers en-
must needs awaken me; for my first wall had now a lightened by the great lamp of instruction, the Spirit
complete roof overit of long poles, covering all my tent, of God, and by the knowledge of His word added to
and leaning up to the side of the hill; which was again our understanding; and why it has ph'li sd G.:,1 (.:, li1.;.
laid across with smaller sticks, instead of laths, and then the like saving knowledge from so m:,ny nlli.:.n; c.f
thatched over a great thickness with the rice-straw, souls, who, if I might judge by this [p'.:.r -.'`%`-, v '-..l.
which was strong, like reeds; and at tie hole or place make a much better use of it than we did. From hence,
which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I had I sometimes was led too far, to invade the sovereignty
placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice of so


arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that his mouth with fresh water after it: on the other hand, him how far it was from our island to the shore, and
sight from some, and reveal it to others, and yet expect a I took some meat into my mouth without salt, and I whether the canoes were not often lost. He told me
like duty from both; but I shut it up, and checked my pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as much there was no danger, no canoes ever-lost; but that after
thoughts with this conclusion: first, That we did not as he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he a little way out to sea, there was a current and. wind,
know by what light and law these should be condemned; would never care for salt with meat or in his broth; at always one way in the morning, the other in the after-
but that as God was necessarily, and, by the nature of least, not for a great while, and then but a very little, noon. This I understood to be no more than the sets of
His 1. -, In.finitely holy and just, s: it could not be, Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I the tide, as going out or coming in; but I afterwards
but i. i -. creatures were all sentenced to absence was resolved to feast haim the next day by roasting a understood it was occasioned by the great draft and
from Himself, it was on account of sinning against that piece of the kid; this I did by hanging it before the fire reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth or
light, which, as the Scripture says, was a law to them- on a string, as I had seen many people do in England, gulph of which river, as I found afterwards, our island
selves, and by such rules as their consciences would setting two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and lay; and that this land which I perceived to be W. and
acknowledge to be just. Ii.. i.,li the foundation was not one across the top, and tying the string to the cross N.W. was the great island Trinidad; on the north point
discoveredto us; and, ...... ~,l That still, as w, .II 'r. l t..1., hitting the meat turn continually. This Friday of the mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand
the clay in the hand of the.potter, no vessel c..!l.I -.., .i.l.r..i very much; but when he came to taste the questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea,
to him, Why hast thou formed me thus ? flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked the coast, and what nations were near: he told me all
But to return to my new companion:-I was greatly it, that I could not but understand him: and at last he he knew, with the greatest openness imaginable. I
delighted with him, and mado it my business to teach told me, as well as he could, he would never eat man's asked him the names of the several nations of his sort
him %, ,'iyt ii, _' that was proper to make him, useful, flesh any more, which I was very glad to hear. of people, but could get no other name than Caribs:
handy, and helpful; but especially to make him speak, The next day, I set him to work to beating some corn from whence I easily understood that these were the
and understand me when I spoke; anil he was the out, and siftifig it in the manner I used to do, as I ob- Caribbees, which our maps place on the part of America -
aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was so served before; and he .soon understood how-to do it as which reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko to
merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased when he well as I, especially after he had seen what the meaning Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He told me, that
could but understand me, or make me understand him, of it was, and that it was to -make bread of; for after up a great way beyond the moon, that was, beyond the
that it was very pleasant to me to talk to him. Now that, I let him see me make my bread, and bake it too; setting of the moon, which must be west from their
life began to he so easy that I began to say to myself, andin a little time, Friday was able to do all the work .country, there dwelt white bearded men like me, and
that could I but have been s'fe from more savages, I for me, as I could do it myself. pointed to my great whiskers, which I mentioned before;
cared not if I was never to remove from the place where I began now to consider, that having two mouths to and they had killed much mans, that was his word: by
I lived. feed instead of one, I must provide more ground-for my all which I understood he meant the Spaniards, whose
After I had been two or three days returned to my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used cruelties in America had been spread over the .whole
castle, I thought that, in order to bring Friday off from to do; so I marked out a larger piece of land, and began country, and were remembered by all the nations from
his horrid way of feeding, and from the relish of a the fence in the same manner as before, in which Friday father to son.
cannibal's stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh; worked not only very willingly and very hard, but did it I inquired if he could, tell me how I might go from
so I took him out with me one morning to the woods, very cheerfully: and I told him what it was for; that this island, and get among those white men: he told
I went, indeed, intending to kill a kid out of my own it was for corn to make more bread, because he was now me, Yes, yes, you may go in two canoe." I could not
flock, and bring it home and dress is; but as I was with me, and that I might have enough for him and understand what he meant, or make him describe to me
going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part, what he meant by two canoe, till at last, with great
young kids sitting by her. I watched hold of Friday; and let me know that he thought I had much more difficulty, I found he meant it must be in a large boat,
-" Hold," said I, "stand still ;" and made signs to labour upon me on his account, than I had for myself; as big as two canoes. This part of Friday's discourse
him not to stir: immediately, I presented my piece, and that he would wprk the harder for me, if I would I began to relish very well; and- from this time I
shot, and killed one of the kids. The poor creature, tell him what to do. entertained some hopes that, one time or other, I
who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the savage, This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in might find an opportunity to make my escape from
his enemy, but did not lmkw, nor could imagine how it this place. Friday began to talk pretty well, and under- this place, and that this poor savage might be a means
was done, was sensibly surprised; trembled, and shook, stand the names of almost everything I had occasion to to help me.
and looked so amazed that I thought he would have call for, and of. every place I had to send him to, and During the long time that Friday had now been with
sunk down. He did not see the kid I.shot at, or per- talked a great deal to me; so that,'in short, I began me, and that he began to speak to me, and understand
ceive I had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat, tofeel now to have some use for my tongue 'again, which, me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation of religious
whether he was not wounded; and, as Ifound presently, indeed, I had very little occasion for before. Besides knowledge in his mind; particularly I asked him one
thought I was resolved to kill him: for he came and the pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular satisfac- time, who made him. The poor creature did not under-
kneeled down to me, and embracing my knees, said a tion in the fellow himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty stand me at all, but thought -I had asked who was his
.-. I many things I did not understand';' but I could appeared to me more and more every day, and I began father: butI took it up by another handle, and asked
S.'S ly see the meaning was, to piay me rl'i t... kill him. really to love the creature; and on his side, Ibelieve he him, who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and
I soon found a way to convince him i~. I would do loved me more.than it was possible for him ever to love the hills and woods. .H I.:.i.. me, "It was one Bena-
him no harm; and taking him by the hand, laughed at anything before. muckee, that lived beyond all.;" he could describe
him, and pointing to the kid. which I had killed, I had a mind once to try if he lad any inclination for nothing of this great person, but that he was very
beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which he did: and his own country again; and having taught him English old, much older," he said, than the sea or the land,
while he was wondering, and looking to see how the a Hll +th1f bh .onl.- answer me almost any question, I than the Tnoon.or the stars." I asked him then,if this
creature was killed,I loaded in,' E;-n ;' ,I. By-and-by, i:,-k. ii..n i Ii. i'.., II,.: nation that he belonged to never old person had made all things, why did not all things
I saw a great fowl, like a L ji I ;.!, i n.. upon a tree conquered in battle? At which he smiled, and said, worship him? He looked very grave, and, with a per-
within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little what "Yes,..yes, we always fight the better;" that -is, he feet look of innocence, said, "All things say O to him."-
I would do, I called him to me again, pointed at the meatit, always*get the better in fight; and so we began I asked him, if the people who die in his country went
fowl, which was indeed i. i E..l-i. rL..,,I I I,.:.t;ht it the following discourse:- away anywhere? He said," Yes, they all went to Bena-
had been a hawk; I say, ].:.,i iit. i.:. i..- I u, .t .n d to Master.-You always fight the-better; how came you muckee." Then Iasked him whether those they eat up
my gun, and to the ground. I .i.l.. i., pii! ...i h... l t him to be.taken prisoner then, Friday ? went thither too ? He said, "Yes?'
see I would make it fall, I made him understand that I Friday.-My nation beat much for all that. From these things, I began to instruct him in the
would shoot and kill the bird; accordingly, I fired, Master.-How beat? If your nation beat them, how knowledge of the true God: I told him that the great
and bade 1 .; 1...-.1 .i,.l i;,r.iediately he saw the parrot came you to be taken ? Maker of all things lived up ..there, pointing up
fall. He lI......I I1I i .in. h litenEt 1 .,:ri. notwithstand- Friday/.-They more many than my nation, in the towards heaven; that He governed the world by
ing all I ,i .1.1 t:, ,n nad I I.-.i.i 1..- was the more place where me was; I i..; i .1:r i-.-. two, three,and me; the same power and providence by which He made
amazed, I..:. i._ I. .1.i ;,.1.i see me put anything into my nation over-beat -.-'ii, ;i t.!- yonder place, where it that He was omnipotent, and could do every-
the gun, but r 1i... l.i t ii 1, .. i.-.:t be some wonder- me no was,; there my nation take one, two, great thing for us, give everything to us-take everything
ful fund of -Ir ,l .I.I .i. r. ..... 1. that thing, able to thousand. from us; and -thus, by degrees, opened his eyes.
kill man, beast, bird, or anything near or far off; and Master.-But why did not your side from He listened with great attention, and received with
the astonishment this created in him was such as could the hands of your enemies then ? pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem
not wear off for a long time; and, I believe, if I would Friday.-They .run, one,two, three, and me, and make us, and of the manner of making our prayers to God,
have let him, he would have worshipped me and my go in the canoe; my nation have no canoe that time. and His being us, even in heaven. He told
gun. As for the gun itself, he would not so much as Master.-Well,Triday, and what does your nation do me one day; that if our God could hear us, up beyond
touch it for several days after.; but he would speak to with the men they take? Do they carry them away and the sun, he must.needs be a greater God than their
it and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he eat them, as these did ? Benamuckee, who lived but a little way off, and yet
was :.y 1.;r-. I : which, as I afterwards learned of him, Friday.--Yes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up. could not hear till they went up to the greatmountains
was to desire it not to kill him. Well, after his as- .Master.-Where do they carry them ? where he dwelt to speak to him. I asked him if ever
tonishment was a little over at this, I pointed to him Friday.-Go to other place, where they think. he went thither to speak to him? He said, "No; they
to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but Master.-DDo.tlhey come hither ? never went that were young men; none went thither
., t, i..l -.... time; for the parrot, not being quite dead, Friday.-Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else but the old men," whom he called their )owlokakee;
i...I l!in .... I- away a good distance from the place where place. that is, as I made.him explain it to me, their-religious
she fell: however, he found her, took her up, and Alaster.--Have you been here. with them ? or clergy; and that they went to say O (so .he called
brought her to me; and as I had perceived his ignorance Friday.--Yes, I have been here (points to the N.W. saying prayers), and then came.back and told them what
about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge side of the island, which, it seems, was their side). Benamiuckee said. By this I observed, that .there is
the gun again, and not to let him see me do it, that I By this, ,I understood that -my man Friday .had priestcraft even amongthemmos.eblinded,ignorant pagans
might be ready for any other mark that might present; formerly been among the savages who used to come on in the,world,; and the policy of making a secret of re-
but nothing more offered at that time: so I brought shore on the farther part of the island, on the same ligion,in order to preserve the veneration of the people
home the kid, and the same evening I took the skin off, man-eating occasions he was now brought for.:.and,.some to the clergy, is not only to be found in the Roman, but,
and cut it out as well as I could; and having a pot fit time after, when J took the courage to carry him to that perhaps, among all religions in the world, even among
for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh, side, '.. ,;r ii_- dame I formerly mentioned, he presently the most brutish and barbarous savages.
and made some very good broth. After Iliad begun to knew th.: 1- ...-., and told me he was there once, when I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man
eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed very they eat up twenty men, two women,.and one child:. he Friday; and told him that the pretence of,their old
glad of it, and liked it very well; but that which was could not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them, men going up to the mountains to say O to their god
strangest to him was to see me eat salt with it. He by laying so many stones :in a row, and pointing to me Benamuckee was a cheat; and their bringing word from
made a sign to me that the salt was not good to cat; to tell them over. thence what he said was much more so; that if they
and ..ttiih; a little into his own mouth,-he seemed to I have told this passage, because it introduces what met with any answer, or spake with any one there, it
nauseate it, and would spit and sputter at it, washing follows; that after this discourse I had with him, I asked must be with an evil spirit: and then I entered into a


long discourse with him about the devil, the origin of
hja,. Lie Ir,-.. l.ii. a:,;i it God, his enmity to man, the
i ci-on orI t. ti i-teru; himself up in the dark partsof
the world to be worshipped instead of God, and as God,
and the many stratagems he made use of to delude
mankind to their ruin; how he had a secret access to
our passions and to our affections, and to adapt his
snares to our inclinations, so as to cause us even to be
our own tempters, and run upon our destruction by our
own choice.
I' was not so easy to imprint right notions
in his mind about the devil as it was about the being
of a God: nature Vssisted all my arguments to evidence
to him even the necessity of a-great First Cause-an
overruling, governing Power-a secret directing Provi-
dence; and of the equity and justice of paying homage
to Him that made us, and the like; but there appeared
nothing of this kind in the notion of an evil spirit; of
his origin, his being, his nature; and, above all, of his
inclination to do evil, and to draw us in to do so too:
and the poor creaturepuzzled me once in such a manner,
by a question merely natural and innocent, that I scarce
knew what to say to him. I had been talking a great
deal to him of the power of God, His omnipotence,
His aversion to sin, His being a consuming fire to the
workers of iniquity; how, as-He had made us all, He
could destroy us and all the world in a moment; and
he listened with great seriousness to me all the while.
After this, I had been telling him how the devil was
God's enemy in the hearts of men, and used all his
malice and skill to defeat the good designs of Provi-
dence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world,
and the like. Well," says Friday, "but you say God
is so strong, so great; is He not much strong, much
might as the devil ? Yes, yes," says I, "Friday;
God is stronger than the devil: God is above the devil,
and therefore we pray to God to tread him down under
our feet, and enable us to resist his temptations and
(1.j'ei.:1 fi:!,- darts." "But," says he again, "if God
ui..:h eh.:.n .:. ueich might as the wicked devil, why
;...i n-: Liil t l. devil, so make:him no more do
wicked ? I was strangely surprised at this question;
and, after all, though I was now an old man, yet I was
but a young doctor, and ill qualified for a casuist, or a
solver of difficulties; and at first I could not tell what
to say; so I pretended not to hear him, and asked him
what he said: but he was too earnest for an answer to
forget his question, so that he repeated it in the very
same broken words as above. By this time I had
recovered myself a little, and I said, "God will at last
punish him severely; he is reserved for the judgment,
anid is to be cast into the bottomless pit, to dwell with
everlasting fire." This did not satisfy Friday; but he
returns upon me, repeating my words, "'Reserve at
last!' me no understand: but why not kill the devil
now; not kill great ago?" "You may as well ask
me," said I, why God does not kill you or me, when
we do wicked things here that offend him: we are
preserved to repent and be pardoned."- He mused some
time on this:" Well, well," says he, mightily affec-
tionately, "that well: so you, I, devil, all wicked, all
preserve,. repent, God pardon all." Here I was run
down again by him to the last degree: and it was a
testimony to me, .how the mere notions of nature,
though they will guide reasonable creatures to the
knowledge of a God, and of a worship or homage due
to the supreme being of God, as the consequence of our
nature, yet nothing but divine revelation can form the
knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of redemption pur-
chased for us; of a Mediator of the new covenant, and
of an Intercessor at the footstool of God's throne; I
say, nothing but a revelation from heaven can form
these in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel of our
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of
God, and the Spirit of God, promised for the guide and
sanctifier of His people, are the absolutely necessary
instructors of the souls of men in the saving knowledge
of God, and the means of salvation.
I therefore diverted the [.- ..:i discourse between
me and my man, rising up I -t ,r;i, < upon some sudden
occasion of going out; then sending him for something
,a good way off, I seriously prayed to God that He would
enable me to instruct savingly this poor savage;.assist-
ing, by His Spirit, the heart of the poor ignorant
creature to receive the light of the knowledge of God'
in Christ reconciling him to Himself, and would guide
me to speak so to him from the Word of God, that his
conscience might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his
soul saved. When he came again to me, I entered into
a long discourse with him upon the subject of the re-
demption of man by the Saviour of the world, and of
the doctrine of the gospel preached from heaven, viz.
of repentance towards God, and faith in our blessed
Lord Jesus. I then explained to him as well as I could
why our blessed Redeemer too knot on Him the nature
of ino-', but the seed of Abraham; and how, for that
,. ,..i, I !,; fallen angels had no share in the redemp-
tion; that He came only to the lost sheep of the house
of Israel, and the like.
I had, God knows, inore sincerity than knowledge in

allthemethodsItookforthispoorcreature's instruction, and this without any teacher or instructor, I mean
and must acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon human; so the same plain instruction sufficiently served
the same principle will find, that in laying things open to the enlightening this savage creature, and bringlug
to him, I really-informed and instructed myself in many him to be such a Christian as I have known fu.w e-iii.l
things that either I did not know, or had not fully con- to him in my life.
sidered before, but which occurred naturally to my mind As to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and conten-
upon searching into them, for the information of this tion which have happened in the world about religion,
poor savage; and I had more affection in my inquiry whether niceties in doctrines, or schemes of Church
after things upon this occasion than ever I felt before: government, they were all perfectly useless to us, and,
so that, whether this poor wild wretch was the better for aught I can yet see, they have been so to the rest of
for me or no, I had great reason to be thankful that the world. We had the sure guide to heaven, viz. the
ever he came to me; my grief sat lighter upon me; my Word of God; and we had, blessed be God, comfortable
habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure: views of the Spirit of God teaching and instructing by
and when I reflected that in this solitary life which I His word, leading us into all truth, and making us both
have been confined to, I had not only been moved to willing and obedient to the instruction of His word.
look up to heaven myself, and to seek the Hand that And I cannot see the least use that the greatest know-
had brought me here, but was now to be made an instru- ledge of the disputed points of religion, which have
ment, under Providence, to save the life and, for aught made such confusion in the world, would have been to
I knew, the soul of a poor savage, and bring him to the us, if we could have obtained it. But I must go on
true knowledge of religion, and of the Christian with the historical part of things, and take every part
doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, in whom is in its order,
life eternal; I say, when I reflected upon all these After Fridayand I became more intimately acquainted,
things, a secret joy ran through every part of my soul, and that he could understand almost all I said to him,
and L.frequently -rejoiced that ever I was brought to and speak pretty fluently, though in broken English, to
this place, which I had so often thought the most me, I acquainted him with my own history, or at least
dreadful of all afflictions that could possibly have so much of it as related to my coming to this place;
befallen me. how I'had lived there, and how long; I let him into the
I continued in this thankful frame all the remainder mystery, for such it was to him, of gunpowder: and'


of my time; and the conversation which employed the
hours between Friday and me was such as made the
three years which we lived there together perfectly and
completely happy, if any such thing as complete happi-
ness can be formed in a sublunary state. This savage
was now a good Christian, a much better than I; though
I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we
were equally penitent, and comforted, restored peni-
tents. We had here the Word of God to read, and no
farther off from His Spirit to instruct, than if we had
been in England. I always applied myself, in reading
the Scripture, to let him know, as well as I could, the
meaning of what I read; and he again, by his serious
inquiries and questioning, made me, as I said before, a
much better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I
should ever have been by my own mere private reading.
Another thing I cannot refrain from observing here also,
from experience in this retired part of my life, viz. how
infinite and inexpressible a blessing it is that the know-
ledge of God, and of the doctrine of salvation by Christ
Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the Word of God, so
easy to be received and understood, that, as the bare
reading the Scripture made me capable of understanding
enough of my duty to carry me directly on to the great
work of sincere repentance for my sins, and laying hold
of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated reforma-
tion in practice, and obedience to all God's commands,

bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave him a
knife which he was wonderfully delighted with; and I
made him a belt, with a frog hanging to it, such as in
England we wear hangers in; and in the frog, instead
of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only
as good a weapon in some cases, but much more useful
upon other occasions.
I described to him the country of Europe, particu-
larly England, which I came from; how we lived, how
we worshipped God, how we behaved to one another,
and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world.
I gave him an account of the wreck which I had been
on board of, and showed him as near as I could, the
place where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces
before, and gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat,
which we lost when we escaped, and which I could not
stir with my whole strength then; but was now fallen
almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday
stood musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked
him what it was he studied upon. At last says he,
" Me see such boat like come to place at my nation." I
did not understand him a good while; but, at last, when
I had examined further into it, I understood by him,
that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon
the country where he lived: that is, as he explained it,
was driven thither by stress of weather. I presently
imagined that some European ship must have been cast
A 5


aisay ul.Oii tliir coast, and the boat might get loose
and .l ',ve r.hor.-; but was so dull that I never once
tlhc.ugl o .rt m. l making their escape from a wreck
thither, much less whence they might come: so I only
inquired after a description of the boat.
Friday described the boat to me well enough; but
brought me better to understand him when he added
with some warmth, "We save the white mans from
drown." Then I presently asked if there were any
white mans, as he called them, in the boat. "Yes," he
said; "the boat full of white mans." I asked him how
many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked
him then what became of them. He told me, "They
live, they dwell at my nation."
This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently
imagined that these might be the men belonging to the
ship that was cast away in the sight of my island, as
I now called it; and who .after the ship was struck on
the rock and they saw her inevitably lost, had saved
themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that
wild shore among the savages. Upon this I inquired of
him more critically what was become of them. He
assured me they lived still there; that they had been
there about four years; that the savages left them
alone, and gave them victuals to live on. I asked him
how it came to pass they did not kill them and eat
them. He said, "No, they make brother with them;"
that is, as I understood him, a truce; and then he
added. "They no eat mans but when make the war
fight;" that is to say, they never eat any men but such
as come to fight with them, and are taken in battle.
It was after this some considerable time, that being
upon the top of the hill, at the east side of the island,
from whence, as I have said, I had, in a clear day, dis-
covered the main or continent of America, Friday, the
weather being very serene, looks very earnestly towards
Sthe mainland, and, in a kind of surprise, falls a jump-
ing and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at some
distance from him. I asked him what was the matter.
" 0 joy!" says he; "0 glad! there see my country,
there my nation!" I observed an extraordinary sense
of pleasure appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled,
and his countenance discovered a strange eagerness, as
if he had a mind to be in his own .,iul ~i a:.'i-.. This
observation of mine put a great n.iauy tli:..tlighr into
me, which made mni, at tGist. b.'r so easy about my new
man Friday as I .i r- i.i-l,.., ,i.1.I I made no doubt but
that, if Friday could get back to his own i .t;'hu ,;.ui.
he would nrr ojly i.:.aL'c t his religion, bIt dil I.s
obligation to me, and would be forward enough to give
his countrymen an account of me, and come back,
perhaps, with a hundred or two of them, and make a
feast upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used
to be with those of his enemies, when they were taken
in war. But I wronged the poor honest creature very
much, for which I was very sorry afterwards. How-
ever, as my jealousy increased, and l.-1.i uw, siue .:.- i
I was a little more circumspect, and no.-t s) t. iihar ,u1L
kind to him as before: in which I '- i:.rt~uly ,.I .:.It
too; the honest, grateful creature h.,viigo no, thb:..e:'rt
about it, but what consisted ith hl'L .": It prL .:ipi..,
both as a religious Christian, and as grat'f di tr ai-l;
as appeared afterwards to my full satisfaction.
While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I
was every day pumping him, to se e he would discover
any of the new thoughts which I suspected were in him;
but I found everything he said was so honest and so
innocent, that I could find nothing to nourish my sus-
picion; and, in spite of all my uneasiness, he made me
at last entirely his own again; nor did he in the least
perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could not
suspect him of deceit.
One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather
being hazy at sea, so that we could not see the continent,
I called to him, and said, "Friday, do not you wish
yourself in your own country, your own nation?"
"Yes," he said, "I be much O glad to be at my own
nation." What would you do there ?" said I: would
you turn wild again, eat men's flesh again, and be a
savage, as you were before?" He looked full of
concern, and shaking his head, said, "No, no, Friday
tell them to live good; tell them to pray God; tell
them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk; no eat man
again."-" Why, then," said I to him, "they will kill
you." He looked grave at that, and then said, "No, no,
they no kill me, they willing love learn." He meant by
this, they would be willing to learn. He added, they
learned much of the bearded mans that came in the
boat. Then I asked him if he would go back to them.
He smiled at that, and told me that he could not swim
so far. I told him, I would make a canoe for him. He
told me he would go, if I would go with him. "I go!"
says I; why they will eat me if I come there." "No,
no," says he, "me make they no eat you; me make they
much love you." He meant, he would tell them how I
had killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he would
make them love me. Then he told me, as well as he
could, how kind they were to seventeen white men, or
bearded men, as he called them, who came on shore
there in distress.

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture
over, and see if I could possibly join with those bearded
men, who I made no doubt were Spaniards and Por-
tuguese; not doubting but, if I could, we might find
some method to escape from thence, being upon the
continent, and a good company together, better than I
could from an island forty miles off the shore, alone,
and without help. So, after some days, I took Friday
to work again, by way of- discourse, and told him I
would give him a boat to go back to his own nation;
and, accordingly, I carried him to my frigate, which lay
on the other side of the island, and having cleared it of
water (for I~lways kept it sunk in water), I brought it
out, showed it him, and we both went into it. I found
he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it, and
would make it go almost as swift again as I could. So
when he was in, I said to him, "Well, now, Friday,
shall we go to your nation ?" He looked very dull at
my saying so; which it seems was because he thought
the boat was too small to go so far. I then told him I
had a bigger; so the next day I went to the place where
the first boat lay which I had made, but which I could
not get into the water. He said that was big enough;
but then, As I had taken no care of it, and it had lain
two or three and twenty years there, the sun had split
and dried it, that it was rotten. Friday told me such a
boat would do very well, and would carry much
enough vittle, drink, bread;"-this was his way of
Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my
design of going over with him to the continent, that I
told him we would go and make one as big as that, and
he should go home in it. He answered not one word,
but looked very grave and sad. I asked him what was
the matter with him. He asked me again, "Why you
angry mad with Friday ?-what me done ? I asked
him what he meant. I told him I was not angry with
him at all. "No angry !" says he, repeating the words
several times; "why send Friday home away to my
nation ?" "Why," says I, "Friday, did not you say
you wished you were there? "Yes, yes," says he,
" wish we both there; no wish Friday there, no master
there." In a word, he would not think of going there
without me. I go there, Friday ?" says I, what
shall I do there ?" He turned very quick upon me at
this. "You do great d1.i i ru,:. g.:..:..1" iy' he; "you
teach wild mans be g.i.:.., -i.:.L. tras I ,i:; you tell
them know God, pray God, and live new life." Alas,
Friday !" says I, t" t. i. knowest not what thou sayest;
I am but an ignorant man myself." "Yes, yes," says
he, "you teacher me good, you teachee them good."
" No, no, Friday," says I, "you shall g... ;tbh.-ut me;.
leave me here to live by myself, as I 1.ii L..:i .. r.." He
looked confused again at that word; and'running to one
...f t1.- hatchets which he used to wear, he takes it up
, rily,, and gives it to me. "What must I do with
I ,;'" -:sys I to him. "-You take kill Friday," says he.
** .\'h ,t must I kill you for ?" said I again. He returns
v.:i, l..i..:k-" What you send Friday away for? Take
kli lr F,.Jy, no send Friday away." This he spoke so
...'..... that I saw tears stand in his eyes. In a
. I...,l, I so plainly discovered the utmost affection
in him to me, and a firm resolution in him, that
I told him then, and often after; that I would never
send him away from me, if he was willing to stay.
with me.
Upon the whole, as I had' found by all his discourse
a settled affection to me, and that nothing could part
him from me, so I found all the foundation of his
desire to go to his own country was. laid in his ardent
affection to the people, and his hopes of my doing them
good; a thing which, as I had no notion of myself, so I
had not the least thought or irnt .r.t u. or desire of un-
dertaking it. But still I found a strong inclination to
attempting my escape, founded, on the supposition
gathered from the discourse, that there were seventeen
bearded men there; and therefore, without any more
delay, I went to work with Friday to find out a great
tree proper to fell, and make a large periagua, or canoe,
to undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in
the island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas
or canoes, but even of good large vessels; but the main
thing I looked at was, to get one so near the water that
we might launch it when it was made, to avoid the
mistake I committed at first. At last, Friday pitched
upon a tree; for I found he knew much better than I'
what kind of wood was fittest for it; nor can I tell, to
this day, what wood to call the tree we cut down,
except that it was very like the tree we call fustic, or
between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much
of the same colour and smell. Friday wished to burn
the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to make it for a
boat, but I showed him how to cut it with tools; which,
after I had showed him how to use, he did very handily;
and iit about a month's hard labour, we finished it and
made it very handsome; especially, when, with our
axes, which I showed him how to handle, we cut and
hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. After
this, however, it cost us near a fortnight's time to get
her along, as it were inch by inch, upon great rollers

into the water: but when she was in, she would have
carried twenty men with great ease.
Wnen she was, in the water, though she was so big,
it amazed me to see with what dexterity and how swift
my man Friday could manage her, turn her, and paddle
-her along. So I asked him if he would; and if we might
venture over in her. Yes," he said, we venture over
in her very well, though great blow wind." However,
I had a farther design that he knew nothing of, and
that was, to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her with
an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy
enough to get; so I pitched upon a straight young
cedar-tree, which I found near the place, and which there
were great plenty of in the island, aid I set Friday to
work to cut it down, and gave him directions how to
shape and order it. But as to the sail, that was my
particular care. I knew I had old sails, or rather pieces
of old sails, enough; but as I had had them now.six-and-
twenty years by me, and had not been very careful to pre-
serve them, not imagining that I should ever have this
kind of use for them, I did not doubt but they were all
rotten; and, indeed, most of them were so. However,
I found two pieces, which appeared pretty good, and
with these I went to work; and with a great deal of
pains, and awkward stitching, you maybe sure, for want
of needles, I at length made a three-cornered ugly thing,
like what we call in England a shoulder-of-mutton sail,
to go with a boom at bottom, and a little short sprit at
the top, such as usually our ships' long-boats sail with,
and such as I best knew how to manage, as it was such
a one as I had to the boat in which I made my escape.
from Barbary, as related in the first part of my story.
I was near two months performing this last work,
viz. rigging and fitting my masts and sails; for I finished
them very complete, making a small stay, and a sail, or
foresail to it, to assist if we should turn to windward;
and, what was more than all, I fixed a rudder to the
stern of her to steer with. I was but a bungling ship-
wright, .yet as I knew the usefulness, and even neces-
sity, of such a thing, I applied myself with so much
pains to do it, that at last I brought it to pass; though,
considering the .may .3uil ,:.:.- ri .'Ij .:.-s Ihad that
failed, I think I it .. wet ue us much labour as
making the boat.
After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach
as to what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for,
though he knew very well how to paddle a canoe, he
knew nothing of what belonged to a sail and a rudder;
and was the most amazed when he saw me work the
boat to and again in the sea by the rudder, and how
the sail gibbed, and filled this way or that way, as the
course we sailed changed; I say, when he saw this, he
stood like one astonished and amazed. However, with
a little use, I made all these things familiar to him, and
he became an expert sailor, except that of the compass
I could make him understand very little. On the other
hand, as there was very little cloudy weather, and
seldom or never any fogs in these parts, there was the
less occasion for a compass -;i iu tbi- tars .were always
to be seen by night, and t!i.:I -:i:'. hb .y,]' -:.'..-i.t '1
the rainy seasons, and then nobody c.i,:! ti ct t.I .:..,.i
either by land or sea.
I was now.entered on the seven-and-twentieth year
of my captivity in this place; though the three last
years that I had this creature with me ought rather to
be left out of the account, my habitation being quite of
another kind than in all ti ..- i-..t of the time. I kept
the anniversary of my ir,.iiiug here with the same
thankfulness to God for His mercies as at first: and if
I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, I had
much more so now, having such additional testimonies
of the care of Providence over me, and the great hopes
I had of being effectually and speedily delivered; for I
had an invincible impression upon my thoughts that
my deliverance was at hand, and that I should not be
another year in this place. I went on, however, with
my husbandry; digging, planting, and fencing, as usual.
I gathered and cured my grapes, and did every neces-
sary thing as before.
The rainy season was, in the meantime, upon me,
when I kept more within doors than at other times.
We had stowed our new vessel as secure as we could,
bringing.her up into the creek, where, as I said in the
beginning, I landed myrafts from the ship; and hauling
her up to the shore at high-water mark, I made my
man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to hold
her, and just deep enough to give her water enough to
float in; and then, when .the tide was out, we made a
strong dam across the end of it, to keep the water out;
and so she lay dry as to the tide from the sea: and to
keep the rain off, we laid a great many boughs of trees,
so thick that she was as well thatched as a house; and
thus we waited for the months of November and
December, in which I designed to make my adventure.
When the settled season began to come in, as the
thought of my design returned with the fair weather, I
was preparing daily for the voyage. And the first thing
I did was to lay by a certain quantity of provisions,
being the stores for our voyage : and intended in week
or a fortnight's time, to open the dock, and launch out


our boat. I'was busy one morning upon something of
this kind, when I called to Friday, and bid him to go to
the sea-shore, and see if he could find a turtle or tortoise,
a thing which we generally, got once a week, for the
sake of the eggs as well as the flesh. Friday had not
been long gone when he came running back, and flew
over my outer wall, or fence, like one that felt not the
ground, or the steps he set his feet on; and before I
had time to speak to him, he cries out to me, 0 master
On m ,. r i O sorrow! 0 bad! "-" What's the matter,
F1.'!y. says I. "0 yonder there," says he, "one,
two, three canoes; one, two, three By this way of
speaking, I concluded there were six; but on inquiry I
found there were but three. Well, Friday," says I,
do not be frightened." So I heartened him up as well
as I could. However, I saw the poor fellow was most
terribly scared, for nothing ran in his head but that
they were come to look for him, and would cut him in
pieces and eat him; and the poor fellow trembled so
that I scarcely knew what to do with him. I comforted
him as well as I could, and told him I was in .as much
danger as he, and that they would eat me as well as
hir. "But;" says I, "Friday, we must resolve to fight
them.. Can you fight, Friday?" "Me shoot," says he,
but there come many great number." "No matter
for that," said I,.again; our guns will fright them that
we do not kill." So I asked him whether, if I resolved
to defend him, he would defend me, and stand by me,
and do just as I bid him. He said; "Me die, when you
bid die, master." So I went and fetched a good
dram of rum and gave him; for I had been so good a
husband of my rum, that I had a great deal left. When
he had drunk it, I made him take the two fowling-pieces,
which we always carried, and load them with large
swan-shot, as big as small pistol-bullets. Then I took
four muskets, and loaded them with two slugs, and five
small bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded with a
brace of bullets each. I hung my great sword, as usual,
naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet. When
I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspective-glass,
and went up to the side of the hill, to see what I could
discover; and I found quickly by my glass, that there
were one-and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and three
canoes; and that their whole business seemed to be the
triuAphant banquet upon these three human bodies; a
barbarous feast indeed! but nothing more than, as I
had observed, was usual with them. I observed also,
that they had landed, not where they had done when
Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek, where
the shore was 1.:.-. ;i ]-' L.': a thick wood came almost
close down to I i- 1. i1, ., with the abhorrence of the
inhuman errand these wretches came about, filled me,
with such indignation that I came down again to
Friday, and told him I was resolved to go down to them,
and kill them all; and asked him if he would stand by
me. He had now got over his fright, and his spirits
being a little raised with the dram I had given him, he
was very cheerful, and told me, as before, he would die
when I bid die.
In this fit of fury I divided the arms which I had
charged, as before, between. us; I gave Friday one
pistol to stick in his girdle, and three guns upon his
shoulder, and I took one pi: Ai ail t ii, other three guns
myself; and in this posture we marched out. I took a
-small bottle of rum in imy pocket, and gave Friday a
large bag with more powder and bullets; a as to orders,
I charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir,
or shoot, or do anything till I bid him, and in the mean
time not to speak a word. In this posture I fetched
a rcompa- +.t my right hand of near a mile, as well to
.et .:.:-.:r rb creek as to get into the wood, so that I
could come within -i.... .:.f t.-n, before I should be dis-
covered, which I had seen by my glass it was easy to do.
While I:was making this march, my former thoughts
returning, I began to abate my resolution:-I do not
mean that I entertained any fear of their number, for,
as they were naked, unarmed wretches, it is certain I
was superior to them-nay, though I had.been alone.
But it occurred to my thoughts, what call, what occa-
sion, much less what necessity, I was in to go and dip
my hands in blood; to attack people who had neither
done or intended me any wrong ? who, as to me, were
innocent, and whose barbarous customs were their own
disaster, being in them a token, indeed, of God's having
left them, with the other nations of that part of the
world, to such stupidity, and to such inhuman courses,
but did not call me to take upon me to be a judge of
their actions, much less an executioner of His justice,--
that whenever He thought fit He would take the cause
into'His own hands, and by national vengeance punish
them as a people for national crimes, but that, in the
meantime, it was none of my business,-that it was
true Friday might justify it, because he was a declared
enemy, and in a state of war with those very particular
people, and it was lawful for him to attack them,-but
I could not say the same with regard to myself. These
things were so warmly pressed upon my thoughts all the
way as I went, that I resolved I would only go and
place myself near them that I might observe their bar-
barous feast, and that I would act then as God should

direct; but that unless something offered that was more
i. .,i to mte than yet I knew of, I would not meddle
I.rlj tI' n,. ,
With this resolution I entered the wood, and, with all
possible wariness and silence, Friday following close at
my heels, I marched till I came to the skirt of the wood
on the side which was next to them, only that one
corner of the wood lay between me and them. Here I
called softly to Friday, and showing him a great tree
which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade him go
to the tree, and bring me word if he could see there
plainly what they were doing. He did so, and came
immediately back to me, and told me they might be
plainly viewed there-that they were all about their fire
eating the flesh of one of their prisoners, and that
another lay bound upon the sand a little from them,
whom he said they would kill next; and this fired the
very soul within me. He told me it was not one of their
nation, but one of the bearded men he had told me of,
that came to their countryin the boat. Iwasfilled with
horror at the very naming of the white bearded man;
and going to the tree, I saw plainly by my glass a white
man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands
and his feet tied with flags, or things like rushes, and
that he was an European, and had clothes on.
There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it,
about fifty yards nearer to them than the plac6 where I
was, which, by going a little way about, I saw I might
come at undiscovered, and that then I should be within
half a shot of them; so I withheld my passion, though
I was indeed enraged to the highest degree; and going
back about twenty paces, I got behind some bushes,
which held all the way till I came to the other tree, and
then came to a little rising ground, which gave me a full
view of them at the distance of about eighty yards.

= n- -0

~ ~ -


I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the
dreadful wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled
together, and had just sent the other two to butcher
the poor Christian, and bring him perhaps limb
to their fire, and they'were stooping down to untie the
bands at his feet. I turned to Friday :-" Now, Friday,"
said I, "do as I bid thee." Friday said he would.
' Then, Friday," says I, do exactly as you see me do;
fail in nothing.". So I set down one of the muskets and
the fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday did the
like by his, and with the other musket I took my -aim
at the savages, bidding him to do the like; and then
asking him if he was ready, he said Yes." Then fire
at them," said I; and at the same moment I fired also.
Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the
side that he shot he killed two of them, and wounded three
more; and on my side I killed one, and wounded two.
They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful consterna-
tion; and all of them that were not hurt jumped upon
their feet, but did not immediately know which way to
run, or which way to look, for they knew not from
whence their destruction came. Friday kept his eyes
close upon me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe
what I did^; so, as soon as the first shot was made, I
threw down the piece, and took up the fowling-piece,
and Friday did the like; he saw me cock and present;
he did the same, again. "Are you ready, Friday?"
said I. "Yes," says he. "Let fly, then," says I, in
the name of God and with that I fired again among
the amazed wretches, and so did Friday; and as our
pieces were now loaded with what I call swan-shot, or
small pistol-bullets, we found only two drop; but so

many were wounded, that they ran about yelling and
screaming like mad creatures, all bloody, and most of
them miserably wounded; whereof three more fell
quickly after, though not quite dead.:
Now, Friday," says I, laying down the discharged
pieces, and taking up the musket which was yet loaded,
" follow me," which he did with a great deal of courage;
upon which I rushed out of the wood and showed my-
self, and Friday close at my foot. As soon as I per-
ceived they saw me, I shouted as loud as I could, and
bade Friday do so too, and running as fast as I could,
which by the way was not very fast, being loaded with
arms as I was, I made directly towards the poor victim,
who was, as I said, lying upon the beach or shore, between
the place where they sat and the sea. The two butchers
who were just going to work with him had left him at
the surprise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible fright
to the sea-side, and had jumped into a canoe, and three
more of the rest made the same way. I turned to
Friday, and bade him step forwards and fire at them;'
he understood me immediately, and running about forty
yards, to be nearer them, he shot at them ; and I thought
he had killed them all, for I saw them all fall of a heap
into the boat, though I saw two of them up again
quickly; however, he killed twB of them, and wounded
the third, so that he lay down in the bottom of the boat
as if he had been dead.
While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my
knife and out the flags that bound the poor victim; and
loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked
him in the Portuguese tongue, what he was.- He
answered in Latin, Christianus; but was so weak and'
faint that he could scarce stand or speak. I took-my
bottle .out of my pocket, and gave it him, making signs
that he should drink, which he did; and I gave him a


piece of bread, which he ate. Then I asked him what
countryman he was: and he said Espagniole; and being
a little recovered, let me know, by all the signs he could
possibly make, how much he was in my debt for his
deliverance. Seignior," said I, with as much Spanish
as I could make up, we will talk afterwards, but we
must fight now: if you have any strength left, t ike tbil
pistol and sword, and lay about you." He took them
very thankfully; and no sooner had he the armn, in his
hands, but, as if they had put new vigour into him, he
flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had cut two of
them in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as the
whole was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures were
so much frightened with the noise of our pieces that
they fell down for mere amazement and fear, and had
no more power to attempt their own escape, than their
flesh had to resist our shot: and that was the case of
those five that Friday shot at in the boat; for as three
of them fell with the hurt they received, so the other
two fell with the fright.
I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being
willing to keep my charge ready, because I had given
the Spaniard my pistol and sword: so I calledto Friday,
and bade him run up to the tree from whence we
first fired, and fetch the arms which lay there that had
been discharged, which he did with great swiftness; and
then giving him my musket, I sat down myself to load
all the rest again, and bade them come tome when they
wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there
happened a fierce engagement between the Spaniard
and one of the savages, who made at him with one of
their great wooden swords, the weapon that was to have



killed him before, if I had not prevented it.- The
Spaniard, who was as bold and brave as could be
imagined, though weak, had fought the Indian a good
while, and had cut two great wounds on his head; but
the savage being a stout, lusty fellow, closing in with
him, had thrown him down, being faint, and was wring-
ing my sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard,
though undermost, wisely quitting the sword, drew the
pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through the body,
and killed him upon the spot, before I, who was running
to help him, could come near him.
Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the fly-
ing wretches, with no weapon in his hand but his
hatchet; and with that he despatched those three who,
as I said before, were wounded at first, and fallen, and
all the rest he could come up with: and the Spaniard
coming to me for a gun, I gave him one of the fowling-
pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages, and
wounded them both; but, as he was nqt able to run,
they both got from him into the wood, where Friday
pursued them, and killed one of them, but the other
was too nimble for him ; and though he was wounded,
yet had plunged himself into the sea, and swam with
all his might off to those two who were left in the
canoe; which three in the canoe, with one wounded,
that we knew not whether he died or no, were all that
escaped our hands, of one-and-twenty. The account of
the whole is as follows:-three killed at our first shot
from the tree; two killed at the next shot; two killed
by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday of those at
first wounded; one killed by Friday in the wood; three
killed by the Spaniard; four killed, being found dropped
here and there, of the wounds, or killed by Friday in
his chase of them; four escaped in the boat, whereof
one wounded, if not dead-twenty-one in all.
Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out
of gunshot, and though Friday made two or three shots
at them, I did not find that he hit any of them. Friday
would fain have had me take one of their canoes, and
pursue them; and, indeed, I was very anxious about
their escape, lest, carrying the news home to their
people, they should come back perhaps with two or
three hundred of the canoes, and devour us by mere
multitude; so I consented to pursue them by sea, and
running to one of their canoes, I jumped in, and bade
Friday follow me; but when I was in the canoe, I was
surprised to find another poor creature lie there, bound
hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the slaughter,
and almost dead with fear, not knowing what was the
matter; for he had not been able to look up over the
side of the boat, he was tied so hard neck and heels, and
had been tied so long, that he had really but little life
in him.
I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which
they had ;.un.l him with, and would have helped him
up; but I, -o.'ld.l not stand or speak, but groaned most
piteously, believing, it seems, still, that he was only
unbound in order to be killed. When Friday came to
him, I bade him speak to him, and tell him of his
deliverance; and pulling out my bottle, made him give
the poor wretch a dram; which, with the news of his
being delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat.
But when Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his
face, it would have moved any one to tears to have seen
how Friday kissed him, embraced him, hugged him,
cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung;
then cried again, wrung his hands, beat his own .face
and head; and then sung and jumped about again like
a distracted creature. It was a good while before I
could make him speak to me, or tell me what was the
matter; but when he came a little to himself, he told
me that it was his father.
It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to
see what ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this
poor savage at the sight of his father, and of his being
delivered from death; nor, indeed, can I describe half
the extravagances of his affection after this; for he
went into the boat, and out of the boat, a great many
times: when he went in to him, he would sit down by
him, open his breast, and hold his father's head close
to his bosom for many minutes together, to nourish it;
then he took his arms and ankles, which were numbed
and stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed them
with his- hands; and I, perceiving what the case was,
gave him some rum out of my bottle to rub them
with, which did them a great deal of good.
This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with
the other savages, who were now almost out of sight;
and it was happy for us that we did not, for it blew
so hard within two hours after, and before they could
be got a quarter of their way, and continued blowing so
hard all night, and that from the north-west, which was
against them, that I could not suppose their boat could
live, or that they ever reached their own coast.
But to return to Friday; he was so busy about his
father, that I could not find in my heart to take him
off for some time: but after I thought he could
leave him a little, I called him to me, and he came
jumping and laughing, and pleased to the highest
extreme: then I asked him if he had given his father

any bread. He shook his head, and said, "None;
ugly dog eat all up self." I then gave him a cake
of bread, out of a little pouch I carried on purpose; I
also gave him a dram for )himself; bhit he would not
taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my
pocket two or three bunches of raisins, so I gave him a
handful of them for his father. He had no sooner given
his father these raisins, but I saw him come out of the
boat, and run away as if he had been bewitched, for he
was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever I saw: I
say, he ran at such a rate that he was out of sight, as it
were, in an instant; and though I called, and hallooed out
too, after him, it was all one-away he went; and in a
quarter of an hour I saw him come back again, though
not so fast as he went; and, as he came nearer, I found
his pace slacker, because he had something in his hand.
When he came up to me, I found he had been quite
home for an earthen jug or pot; to bring his father some
fresh water, and that he had got two more cakes or
loaves of bread: the bread he gave me, but the water
he carried to his father: however, as I was very thirsty
too, I took a little of it. The water revived his father more
than all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was
fainting with thirst.
When his father had drunk, I called to him to know
if there was any water left: he said," Yes;" and I bade
him give it to the poor Spaniard, who was in as much
want of it as his father; and I sent one of the cakes,
that Friday brought, to the Spaniard too, who was in-
deed very weak, and was reposing himself upon a green
place under the shade of a tree; and whose limbs were
also very stiff and very much swelled with the rude
bandage he hah been tied with. When I saw that upon
Friday's coming to him with the water he sat up and
drank, and took the bread and began to eat, I went to
him and gave him a handful of raisins: he looked up in
my face with all the tokens of gratitude and thankful-
ness that could appear in any countenance; but was so
weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted himself in the
fight, that he could not stand up upon his feet: he tried"
to do it two or three-times, but was really not able, his
"ankles were so swelled and so painful to him; so I bade
him sit still, and caused Friday to rub his ankles, and
bathe them with rum, as he had done his father's.
I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two
minutes, or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turn
his head about, to see if his father was in the same place
and posture as he left him sitting; and at last he found
he was not to be seen; at which he started up, and,
without speaking a word, flew with that swiftness to him,
that one could scarce perceive his -feet to touch the
ground as he went: but when he came, he only found
he had laid himself down to ease his limbs, so Friday
came back to me presently; and then I spoke to the
Spaniard to let Friday help him up, if he could, and
lead him to the boat, and then he should carry him to
our dwelling, where I would take care of him. But
Friday, a lusty strong fellow, took the Spaniard upon
his back, and carried him away to the boat, and set him
down softly upon the side or gunnel of the canoe, with
his feet in the inside of it; and then lifting him quite
in, he set him close to his father; and presently stepping
out again, launched the boat off, and paddled it along
the shore faster than I could walk, though the wind
blew pretty hard too; so he brought them both safe into
our creek, and leaving them in the boat, ran away to
fetch the other canoe. As he passed me I spoke to him,
and asked him whither he went. He told me, "Go
fetch more boat:" so away he went like the wind, for
sure never man or horse ran like him; and he had the
other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to it
by land; so he wafted me over, and then went to help
our new guests out of the boat, which he did; but they
were neither of them able to walk; so that poor Friday
knew not what to do.
To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and
calling to Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while
he came to me, I soon made a kind of hand-barrow to
lay them on, and Friday and I carried them both up
together upon it between us.
But when we got them to the~outside of our wall, or
fortification, we were at a worse loss than before, for it
was impossible to get them over, and I was resolved not
to break it down; so I set to work again, and Friday
and I, in about two hours' time, made a very handsome
tent, covered with old sails, and above that with boughs
of trees, being in the space without our outward fence,
and between that and the grove of young wood which
I had planted; and here we made them two beds of
such things as I had; viz. of good rice-straw, with
blankets laid upon it to lie on, and another to cover
them, on each bed.
My island was now peopled, and I thought myself
very rich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection,
which I frequently made, how like a king I looked.
First of all, the whole country was my own property,
so that I had an undoubted right of dominion. Secondly,
my people were perfectly subjected: I was absolutely
lord and lawgiver: they all owed their lives to me, and
were ready to lay down their lives, if there had been

occasion for it, for me. It was remarkable, too, I had
but three subjects, and they were of three different
religions: my man Friday was a Protestant, his father
was a Pagan and'a cannibal, and the Spaniard was a
Papist. However, I allowed -liberty of conscience
throughout my dominions:-But this is by the way..
As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued
prisoners, and given them shelter, and a place to rest
them upon, I began to think of making some provision
for them: and the first thing I did, I ordered Friday to
take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a goat, out of
my -particular flock, to be killed; when I cut off the
hinder-quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set
Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made them
a very good dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth; and
as I cooked it without-doors, for I made no fire within
my inner wall, so I carried it all into the new tent, and
having set a table there for them, I sat down, and ate
my own dinner also with them, and, as well as I could,
cheered them and encouraged them. Friday was my
interpreter, especially to his father, and, indeed, to the
Spaniard too; for the Spaniard -l..:.. t b: language of
the savages pretty well.
After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday
to take one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets
and other fire-arms, which, for want of time, we had
left upon the place of battle; and, the next day, I
ordered him to go and bury the dead bodies of the
savages, which lay open to the sun, and would presently
be offensive. I also ordered him to bury the horrid
remains of their barbarous feast, which I could not
think of doing myself: nay, I could not bear to see
them, if I went that way; all which he punctually
performed, and effaced the very appearance of the
savages being there; so that when I went again, I could
scarce know where it was, otherwise than by the corner
of the wood pointing to the place.
I then began to enter into a little conversation with
my4two new subjects; and, first, I set Friday to
inquire of his father what he thought of the escape of
the savages in that canoe, and whether we might expect
a return of them, with a power too great for us to
resist. His first opinion was, that the savages in the
boat never could live out the storm which blew that
night they went off, but must, of necessity, be drowned,
or driven south to those other shores, where they were
as sure to be devoured as they were to be drowned if
they were cast away; but, as to what they would do if
they came safe on shore, he said he knew not; but, it
was his opinion, that they were so dreadfully frightened
with the manner of their being attacked, the noise, and
the fire, that he believed they would -1-i1 tl. people they
were all killed by thunder and lightning, not by the
1 .ri1 ..f man; and that the two which appeared, viz.
i:!. y mnd I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies, come
down to destroy them, and not men with weapons.
This, he said he knew; because he heard them all cry
out so, in their language, one to another; for it was
impossible for them to conceive that a man could dart
fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a distance, without
lifting up the hand, as was done now: and this old
savage was in the right; for, as I understood since, by
other hands, the savages never attempted to go over to
the island afterwards, they were so terrified with the
accounts given by those four nien (for it seems they did
escape the sea), that they believed whoever went to
that enchanted island would be destroyed with fire
from the gods. This, however, I knew not; and there-
fore was under continual apprehensions for a good
while, and kept always upon my guard, with all my
army: for, as there were now four of us, I would have
ventured upon a hundred of them, fairly in the open
field, at any time.
In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing,
the fear of their coming wore off; and I began to take
my former thoughts of a voyage to the main into con-
sideration; being likewise assured, by Friday's father,
that I might depend upon good usage from their nation,
on his account, if I would go. But my thoughts were
a little suspended when I had a serious discourse with
the Spaniard, and when I understood'that there were six-
teen more of his countrymen and Portuguese, who having
been cast away and made their escape to that side,
lived there at peace, indeed, with the savages, but were
very sore put to it for necessaries, and, indeed, for life.
I asked him all the particulars of their voyage, and
found they were a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de
la Plata to the Havanna, being directed'to leave their
loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver, and to
bring back what European goods they could meet with
there; that they had five Portuguese seamen on board,
whom they took out of another wreck; that five of
their own men were drowned when first the ship was
lost, and that these escaped through infinite dangers
and hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal
coast, where they expected to have been devoured every
moment. He told me they had some arms with them,
but they were perfectly useless, for that they had
neither powder nor ball, the washing of the sea having
spoiled all their powder, but a little, which they used


at their first landing, to provide themselves with some
I asked him what he, thought would become of them
there, and if they had formed any design of making
their escape. He said they had many consultations
about it; but that having neither vessel, nor tools to
build one, nor provisions of any kind, their councils
always ended in tears and despair. I asked him how he
thought they would receive a proposal from me, which
might tend towards an escape; and whether, if they
were all here, it might not be done. I told him with
freedom, I feared mostly their treachery and ill-usage
of me, if I put my life in their hands; for that gratitude
was no inherent virtue in the nature of man, nor did
men always square their dealings by the obligations
they had received, so much as they did by the advan-
tages they expected. I told him it\would be very hard
that I should be the instrument of their deliverance,
and that they should afterwards make me their prisoner
in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain to be
made a sacrifice, what necessity, or what accident soever
brought him thither; and that I had rather be delivered
up to the savages, and be devoured alive, than fall into
the merciless claws of the priests, and be carried into
the Inquisition. I added that, otherwise, I was per-
suaded, if they were all here, we might, with so many
hands, build a barque large enough to carry us all away,
either to the Brazils southward, or to the islands or
Spanish coast northward; but that if, in requital, they
should, when I had put weapons into their hands, carry
me by force among their own people, I might be ill-used
for my kindness to them, and make my case worse than
it was before.
He answered, with a great deal of candour and
ingenuousness, that their condition was so miserable,
and that they were so sensible of it, that he believed
they would abhor the thought of using any man un-
kindly that should contribute to their deliverance; and
that, if I pleased, he would go to them, with the old
man, and discourse with them about it, and return
again, and bring me their answer; that he would make
conditions with them upon their solemn oath, that they
Should be absolutely under my direction, as their com-
mane..r aw.l ] ,ipt in; and they should swear upon the
holy -.c'ramntrjr a.n gospel to be true to me, and go to
such Christian country as I should agree to, and no
other; and to be directed wholly and absolutely by my
orders, till they were landed safely in such country as
I intended; and that he would bring a contract from
then, under their hands, for that purpose. Then he
told me he would first swear to me himself, that he
would never stir from me as long as he lived, till I gave
him orders; and that he would take my side to the last
drop of his blood, if there should happen the least
breach of faith among his countrymen. He told me
they were all of them very civil, honest men, and they
were under the greatest distress imaginable, having
neither weapons nor clothes, nor any food, but at the
mercy and discretion of the savages; out of all hopes
of ever returning to their own country; and "that he
was sure, if I would undertake their relief, they would
live and die by me.
Upon these assurances, I'resolved to venture to
relieve them, if possible, and to send the old savage
and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But when we
had got all things in readiness to go, the Spaniard
himself started an objection, which had so much pru-
dence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on
the other hand, that I could not but be very well
satisfied in it; and, by his advice, put off the deliver-
ance of his comrades for at least half a year. The case
was thus: he had been with us now about a month,
during which time I had let him see in what manner I
had provided, with the assistance of Providence, for my
support; and he saw evidently what stock of corn and
rice I had laid up; which, though it was more than
sufficient for myself, yet it was not sufficient; without
good husbandry, for my family, now it was increased to
four; but much less would it be sufficient if his country-
men, who were, as he said, sixteen, still alive, should
come over; and least of all would it be sufficient to
victual our vessel, if we should build one, for a voyage
to any of the Christian colonies of America; so he told
me he thought it would be more advisable to let him
and the other two dig and cultivate some more land, as
much as I could spare seed to sow, and that we should
wait another harvest, that we might have a supply of
corn for his countrymen, when they should come; for
want might be a temptation to them to disagree, or not
to think themselves delivered, otherwise than out of one
difficulty into another. "You know," says he, "the
children of Israel, though they rejoiced at first for their
being delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even against
God Himself, that delivered them, when they came to
want, bread in the wilderness."
His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good,
that I could not but be very well pleased with his pro-
posal, as well as I was ii iii,: with his fidelity; so we
fell to digging, all four of us, as well as the wooden
tools we were furnished with permitted; and, in about

a month's time, by the end of which it was seed-time,
we had got as much land cured and trimmed up, as we
sowed two-and-twenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen
jars of rice, whichwas, in short, 'all the seed we had to
spare: indeed, we left ourselves barely sufficient for our
own food for the six months that we had to expect our
crop; that is to say, reckoning from the time we set our
seed aside for sowing; for it is not to be supposed it is
six months in the ground in that country.
Having now society enough, and our number being
sufficient to put us out of fear of the savages, if they
had come, unless their number had been very great, we
went freely all over the island, whenever we found occa-
sion; and as we had our escape or deliverance upon our
thoughts, it was impossible, at least for me, to have the
means of it out of mine. For this purpose, I marked
out several trees, which I thought fit for our work, and
I set Friday and his father to cut them down ; and then
I caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thoughts
on that affair, to oversee and direct their work. I
showed them with what indefatigable pains I had
hewed a large tree into single planks, and I caused
them to do the like, till they made about a dozen large
planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five feet
long, and from two inches to four inches thick: what
prodigious labour it took up, any one may imagine.
At the same time, I contrived to increase my little
flock of tame goats as much as I could; and for this
purpose, I made Friday and the Spaniard go out one
day, and myself with Friday the next day (for we took
our turns), and by this means we got about twenty
young kids to breed up with the rest; for whenever we
shot the dam, we saved the kids, and added them to
our flock. But, above all, the season for curing the
grapes coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity
to be hung up in the sun, that, I believe, had we been
at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun are cured, we
could have filled sixty or eighty barrels; and these,
with our bread, formed a great part of our food-very
good living, too, I assure you, for they are exceedingly
It was now harvest, and our crop in good order: it
was not the most plentiful increase I had seen in the
island, but, however, it was enough to answer our end;
for, from twenty-two bushels of barley, we brought in
and thrashed out above two hundred and twenty
bushels; and the like in proportion of the rice; which
was store enough for our food to the next harvest,
though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore
with me; or, if we had been ready for a voyage, it
would very plentifully have victualled our ship to have
carried us to any part of the world, that is to say, any
part of America. When we had thus housed and
secured our magazine of corn, we fell to work to make
more wicker-ware, viz. great baskets, in which we kept
it; and the Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at
this part, and often blamed me that I did not make
some things for defence of this kind of work; but I saw
no need of it.
And now having a full supply of food. for all the
guests I expected, Igave the Spaniard leave to go over
to the main to see what he could do with those he had
left behind him there. I gave him a strict charge not
to bring any man who would not first swear, in the
presence of himself and the old savage, that he would
in no way injure, fight with, or attack the person [he
should find in the island, who was so kind as to send
for them in order to their deliverance; but that they
would stand by him and defend him against all such
attempts, and wherever they went, would be entirely
under and subjected to his command; and that this
should be put in writing, and signed in their hands.
How they were to have done this, when I knew they
had neither pen nor ink, was a question which we never
asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the
old savage, the father of Friday, went away in one of
the canoes which they might be said to have come in, or
rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners to
be devoured by the savages. I gave each of them a
musket, with a firelock onuit, and about eight charges
of powder and ball, charging them to be very good
husbands of both, and not to use either of them but
upon urgent occasions.
This was a cheerful work, being the first measures
used by me, in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-
seven years and some days. I gave them provisions of
bread, and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for
many days, and sufficient for all the Spaniards for about
eight days' time; and wishing them a good voyage, I
saw them go, agreeing with them about a signal they
should hang out at their return, by which I should know
them again, when they came back, at a distance, before
they came on shore. They went away, with a fair gale,
on the day that the moon was at full, by my account in
the month of October; but as for an exact reckoning of
days, after I had once lost it, I_ could never recover it
again; nor had I kept even the number of years so
punctually as to be sure I was right; though, as it
proved, when I afterwards examined my account, I
found I had kept a true reckoning of years,

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them,
when a strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of
which the like has not, perhaps, been heard of in history.
I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my
man Friday came running in to me, and called aloud,
" Master, master, they are come, they are come I" I
jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went as soon as
I could get my clothes on, through my little grove,
which, by the way, was by this time grown to be a very
thick wood; I say, regardless of danger, I went without
my arms, which was not my custom to do: but I was
surprised, when, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently
saw a boat at about a league and a half distance, stand-
ing in for the shore, with a.shoulder-of-mutton sail, as
they call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring
them in: also I observed, presently, that they did not
come from that side which the shore lay on, but from
the southernmost end of the island. Upon this I
called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these were
not the people we looked for, and that we might not
know yet whether they were friends or enemies. In
the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective glass,
to see what I could make of them; and, having taken
the ladder out, I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I
used to do when I was apprehensive of L ., tli'. n, and to
make my view the plainer, without being discovered. I
had scarce set my foot upon the hill, when my eye
plainly discovered a ship lying at anchor, at about two
leagues and a half distance from me, S.S.E., but not
above a league and a half from the shore. By my
observation, it appeared plainly to be an Lii1 ;:1L l.,
and the boat appeared to be an English long-boat.
I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the
joy of seeing a ship, and one that I had reason to believe
was manned by my own countrymen, and consequently
friends, was such as I cannot describe; but yet I had
some secret doubts hang about me-I cannot tell from
whence they came-bidding me keep upon my guard.
In the first place it occurred to me to consider what
business an English ship could have in that part of
the world, since it was not the way to or from any part
of the world where the English had any traffic; and I
knew there had been no storms to drive them in there,
in distress; and that if they were really English it was
most probable that they were here upon no good design;
and that I had better continue as I was, than fall into
the hands of thieves and murderers.
Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of
danger which sometimes are given him when he may
think there is no possibility of its being real. That
such hints and notices are given us, I believe few that
have made any observations of things can deny; that
they are certain discoveries of an invisible world, and a
converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if the ten-
dency of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why
should we not suppose they are from some friendly
agent (whether supreme or inferior and subordinate, is
not the question), and that they are given for our good ?
The present question abundantly confirms me in the
justice of this reasoning; for had I not been made
cautious by this secret admonition, come it from whence
it will, I had been undone inevitably, and in a far worse
condition than before, as you will see presently. I had
not kept myself long in this posture, till I saw the boat
draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek to
thrust in at, for the convenience of landing; however,
as they did not come quite far enough, they did not see
the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but
ran their boat on shore upon the beach, at about half
a mile from me; which was very happy for me; for
otherwise they would have landed just at my door, as
I may say, and would soon have beaten me out of my
castle, and perhaps have plundered me of all I bad.
When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied they
were Englishmen, at least most of them; one or two
I thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so; there
were in all eleven men, whereof three of them I found
were unarmed, and, as I thought, bound; and when the
first four or five of them were jumped on shore, they
took those three out of the boat, as prisoners: one of
the three I could perceive using the most passionate
gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to a
kind of extravagance; the other two, I could perceive,
lifted up their hands sometimes, and appeared concerned
indeed, but not to such a degree as the first. I was
perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not what
the meaning of it should be. Friday called out to me
in English, as well as he could, "0 master! you see
English mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans."
"Why Friday," says I, do you think they are going
to eat them, then ? "-" Yes," says Friday, they will
eat them."-" No, no," says I, "Friday; I am afraid
they will murder them, indeed; but you may be sure
they will not eat them."
All this while I had no thought of what the a:,tt r
really was, but stood trembling with the horror of the
sight, expecting every moment-when the three prisoners
should be killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains lift
up his arm with a great cutlass, as the seamen call it,
or sword, to strike one of the poor men; and I expected


to see him fall every moment; at which all the blood any. In the meantime, I fitted myself up for a battle, der us all." Have they any fire-arms ? said I. He
in my body seemed to run chill in my veins. I wished as before, though with more caution, knowing I had answered, "They had only two pieces, one of which they
heartily now for the Spaniard, and the savage that was to do wiLh another kind of enemy than I had at first.- let in the boat." Weni, then," said I, leave the rest
gone with him, or that I had any way to have come I ordered Friday also, whom I had made an cxceilent to me; I see they are ad asleep; it is an easy thing to
undiscovered within shot of them, that I might have marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms. kill them all; but shall we rather take them prisoners?"
secured the three men, for I saw no fire-arms they had I took myself two fl:..ri;r-pi-c-.:-, and I gave him three He told me there were two desperate villains among
among them; but it fell out to my mind another way. muskets. My figure, indeed, was very fierce; I had my them that it was scarce safe to show any mercy to; but
After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three formidable goat-skin coat on, with the great cap I have if they were secured, he believed all the rest would
men by the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run mentioned, a naked sword by my side, two pistols in my return to their duty. I asked him which they were.
scattering about the island, as if they wanted to see the belt, and a gun upon each shoulder. He told me he could not at that distance distinguish
country. I observed that the three other men had liberty It was my design, as I said above, not to have them, but he would obey my orders in anything I would
to go also where i, Y .i.:.,,,.i ; but they sat down all made any attempt till it was dark; but about two direct. Well," says I, "let us retreat out of their view
three upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like o'clock, being the heat of the day, I found that they or hearing, lest they awake,and we will resolve further."
men in despair. This put me in mind of the first time were all gone straggling into the woods, and, as I thought, So they willingly went back with me, till the woods
when I came on shore, and began to look about me; laid down to sleep. The three poor distressed men, too covered us from them.
how I gave myself over for lost; how wildly I looked anxious for their condition to get any sleep, had, how- "Look you, sir," said I, "if I venture upon your
round me; what dreadful apprehensions I had; and ever, sat down under the shelter of a great tree, at deliverance, are you willing to make two conditions with
how I lodged in the tree all night, for fear of being about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I thought, me ? He anticipated my proposals by telling me that
devoured by wild beasts. As I knew nothing,that night, out of sight of any of the rest. Upon this I resolved both he and the ship, if recovered, should be wholly
of the supply I was to receive by the providential to discover myself to them, and learn something of their directed and commanded by me in everything; and if
driving of the ship nearer the land by the storms and condition; immediately I marched as above, my man Fri- the ship was not recovered, he would live and die with
tide, by which I have since been so long nourished day at a good distance behind me, as formidable for his me in what part of the world soever I would send him;
and supported; so these three poordesolate men knew arms as I, but not making quite so staring a spectre-like and the two other men said the same. Well," says I,
nothing how certain of deliverance and supply they figure as I did. I came as near them undiscovered as I "my conditions are.but two; first, that while you stay
were, how near it was to them, and how effectually and could, and then, before any of them saw me, I called in this island with me, you will not pretend to any
really they were in a condition of safety, at the same aloud to them in Spanish, What are ye, gentlemen? authority here; and if I put arms in your hands, you
time that they thought themselves lost, and their case They started up at the noise, but were ten times more will, upon all occasions, give them up to me, and do no
desperate. So little do we see before us in the world, confounded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure prejudice to me or mine upon this island, and in the
and so much reason have we to depend cheerfully upon that I made. They made no answer at all, but I thought meantime be governed by my orders; secondly,-that
the great Maker of the world, that He does not leave I perceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke if the ship is or may be recovered, you will carry me
His creatures so absolutely destitute, but that, in the to them in English: Gentlemen," said I, "do not be and my man to England passage free."
worst circumstances, they have always something to be surprised at me; perhaps you may have a friend near, He gave me all the assurances that the invention or
faith of man could devise that he would comply with
these most reasonable demands, and besides would owe
.. his life to me, and acknowledge it upon all occasions as
-' long as he lived. Well, then," said I, "here are three
muskets for you, with powder and ball; tell me next
-- what you think is proper to be done." He showed all
the testimonies of his gratitude that he was able, but
offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought
i t was hard venturing anything; but the best method I
could think of was to fire on them at once as they lay,
and if any were not killed at the first volley, and offered
e i n to submit, we might save them, and so put it wholly
upon God's providence to direct the shot. He said, very
Si modestly, that he was loath to kill them, if he could
help it; but that those two were incorrigible villains,
and had been the authors of all the mutiny in the ship,
and if they escaped, we should be undone still, for they
would go on board and bring the whole ship's company,
S e and destroy us all. "Well, then," says I, "necessity
legitimate my advice, for it is the only way to save our
Sf lives." However, seeing him still cautious of shedding
blood, I told him they should go themselves, and
manage as they found convenient.
.I In the middle of this discourse we heard some of
S l them awake, and soon after we saw two of them on
i their feet. I asked him if either of them were' the
heads df the mutiny? He said, "No." "Well, then,"
said I, "you may let them escape; and Providence
Seems to have awakened-them on purpose to save them-
-t.-. selves. Now," says I, "if the rest escape you, it is
.r your fault." Animated with this, he took the musket
I had given him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt,
and his two comrades with him, with each a piece in his
CItUSOE AFPEARS BEFORE THE DESPAIRING PRISONERS. hand; the two men who were with him going first made
some noise, at which one of the seamen, who was awake,
turned about, and seeing them coming, cried out to the
thankful for, and sometimes are nearer deliverance than when you did not expect it." He must be sent directly rest; but it was too late then, for the moment he cried
they imagine; nay, are even brought to their deliverance from Heaven then," said one of -them very gravely to out they fired-I mean the two men, the captain wisely
by the means by which they seem to be brought to their me, and pulling off his hat at the same time; "for our reserving his own piece. They had so well aimed their
destruction, condition is past the help of man." All help is from shot at the men they knew, that one of them was killed
It was just at high water when these people came on Heaven, sir," said I: "but can you put a stranger in the on the spot, and the other very much wounded; but not
shore; and while they rambled about to see what kind way to help you ? for you seem to be in some great dis- being dead, he started up on his feet, and called eagerly
of a place they were in, they had carelessly stayed till tress. I saw you when you landed; and when you for help to the other; but the captain stepping to him',
the tide was spent, and the water was ebbed considerably seemed to make application to the brutes that came with told him it was' too late to cry for help, he should call
away, leaving the boat aground. They had left two you, and I saw one of them liftup his sword to kill you." upon God to forgive his villany, and with that word
men in the boat, who, as I found afterwards, having The poor man, with tears running down his face, and knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so
drunk a little too much brandy, fell asleep; however, trembling, looked like one astonished, returned, Am I that he never spoke more; there were three more in the
one of them waking a little sooner than the other, and talking to God, or man? Is it a real man, or an angel?'" company, and one of them was slightly wounded. By
finding the boat too fast aground for him to stir it, -"Be in no fear about that, sir," said I; "if God had this time I was come; and when they saw their danger,
hallooed out for the rest, who were straggling about; sent an angel to relieve you, he would have come better and that it was in vain to resist, they begged for mercy.
upon which they all soon came to the boat: but it was clothed, and armed after another manner than you see The captain told them he would spare their lives.if they
past all their strength to launch her,the boat being very me; pray lay aside your fears I am a man, an English- would give assurance of their abhorrence of the
heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand, man, and disposed to assist you; you see I have one treachery they had been guilty of, and would swear to
almost like a quicksand. In this condition, like true servant only; we have arms and ammunition; tell us be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and afterwards
seamen, who are, perhaps, the least of all mankind given freely, can we serve you? F-What is your case ? Our in carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they
t., I.:.r.:tIoubht, 'ii. re it over, and awaythey strolled case, sir," said he, "is too long to tell you, while our came. They gave him all ii.- i,:.t,- .: ..mi..r, of their
ab:., t Hit .:., y i,,, n; and I heard one of them say murderers are so near us; but, in short, sir, I was com- sincerity that could be .:-h.. .. od L r.-. willing to
,~,~.i t. :.a:ther::al ,O ~ them off from theboat, "Why, mender of that ship: my men have mutinied against believe them, and spare ih,..i liv, i.1 I was not
let her .loln,.-. -. 't you? she'll float next tide;" me; they have been hardly prevailed on not to murder against, only that I obliged him to keep them bound
.-y st hch I w.,s tll\ confirmed in the main inquiry of me, and, at last, have set me on shore in this desolate hand and foot while they were on the island.
. hai elo,atr .,:u t-..: '. were. All this while I kept place, with these two men with me,-one my mate, the While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain's
:mysnj.lf r. ry .:I,-. i.-1 once daring to stir out of my other a passenger, where we expected to perish, believing mate to the boat, with orders to secure her, and bring
castle, axty farther than to my place of observation, near the place to be uninliabited, and know not yet what to away the oars and sails, which they did; and by and by
the top of the hill: and very glad I was to think how think of it." Where are these brutes, your enemies?" three straggling men, ,t were (happily for them)
well it was fortified. I knew it was no less than ten said I; "do you know where they are gone "? There parted from the rest., t,: ib,: i i. -,: .-,: l bo; I e guns
hours before the boat could float again,and bythat time they lie, sir," said he, pointing to a thicket of trees; fired; and seeing tL: Itain, '- b.:. -., i...:.,,: their
it would be dark, and I might be at more liberty to see "my heart trembles for fear they have seen us, and prisoner, now.their co:,uiueror, thl-y l-.n,,~~t..1 to be
their motions, and to hear their discourse, if they had heard you speak; if they have, they will certainly mur- bound also; and so our victory was complete.


: It *'n.. r-i.'ln.ine tbt the .:.pitin andI should inquire
into c .-- otrh2r'- .rariwu itir.:.:.. Ibeganfirst,andtold
him-my whole history, which he heard with an attention
even to amazement,-and particularly at the wonderful
manner of my being furnished with provisions and
ammunition; and, indeed, as my story is a whole col-
lection of wonders, it affected him deeply. But when
he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I seemed
to have been preserved there on purpose to save his life,
the tears ran down his face, and he could not speak a
word more. After this communication was at an end,
I carried him and his two men into my apartment,
leading them in just where I came out, viz., at the top
of the house, where I refreshed them with such provision
as I had, and showed them all the contrivances I had
made during my long, long inhabiting that place.
- All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly
amazing; but above all, the captain admired my fortifi-
cation' and how perfectly I had concealed my retreat
with a grove of trees, which, having been now planted
nearly twenty years, and the trees growing much faster
than in England, was become a little wood, so thick that
it was impassable in any part of it but at that one side
where I had reserved my little winding passage into it.
I told him this was my castle and my residence, but that
I had a seat in the country, as most princes have, whither
I could retreat upon occasion, and I would show him
that too another time; but at present our business was
to consider how to-recover the ship. He agreed with
me as to that, but told me he was perfectly at a loss
what measures to take, for that there were still six-and-
twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a
cursed conspiracy, by which they had all forfeited their
lives to the law, would be hardened in it now by des-
peration, and would carry it on, knowing that if they
were subdued they would be brought to the gallows as
soon as they came to England, or to any of the English
colonies, and that, therefore, there would be no attacking
them with so small a number as we were.
I mused for some time upon what he had said, and
found it was a very rational conclusion, and that there-
fore something was to be resolved on speedily, as well
to draw the men on board into some snare for their
surprise, as to prevent their landing upon us, and des-
troying us. Upon this, it presently occurred to me that
in a little while the ship's crew, wondering what was
become of their comrades and of the boat, would cer-
tainly come on shore in their other boat to look for
them, and that then, perhaps, they might come armed,
and be too strong for us: this he allowed to be rational.
Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do was
to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they
might not carry her off, and taking everything out of
her, leave her so far useless as not to be fit to swim.
Accordingly we went on board, took the arms, which
were left on board out of her, and whatever else we
found there,-which was a bottle of brandy, and another
of rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a
great lump of sugar in a piece of canvas'(the sugar was
five or six pounds); all which was very welcome to me,
especially the brandy and sugar, of which I had had
none left for many years.
When we had carried all these things on shore (the
oars, mast, sail, and rudder of the boat were carried
away before), we knocked a gieat hole in her bottom,
that if they had come strong enough to master us, yet
they could not carry off the boat. Indeed, it was not
much in my thoughts that we could be able, to recover
the ship; but my view was, that if they went away
without the boat, I did not much question to make her
again fit to carry us to the Leeward Islands, and call
upon our friends the Spaniards in my way, for I had
them still in my thoughts.
While we were thus preparing our designs, and had
first, by main strength,heaved the boat upon the beach,
so high that the tide would not float her off at high-
water mark, and besides, had broke a hole in her bottom
too big to be quickly stopped, and were set down'musing
what we should do, we heard the ship fire a gun, and
make a waft with her ensign as a signal for the boat to
come on board: but no boat stirred; and they fired
several times, making other signals for the boat. At
last, when all their signals and firing proved fruitless,
and they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by
the help of my glasses, hoist another boat out, and row
towards the shore; and we found, as they approached,
that there were no less than ten men in her, and that
they had fire-arms with them.
\ As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore,
we had a full view of them as they came, and a plain
sight even of their faces; because the tide having set
them a little to the east of the other boat, they rowed
up under shore, to come to the same place where the
other had landed, and where the boat lay; by this
means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the
captain knew the persons and characters of all -be men
in the boat, of whom, he. said, there were three very
honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into this
conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and fright-
ened; but that as for the boatswain, who it seems was

the chief officer among them, and all the rest, they were
as outrageous as any of the ship's crew, and were no
doubt made desperate in their new enterprise; and
terribly apprehensive he was that they would be too
powerful for us. I smiled at him, and told him that
men in our circumstances were past the operation of
fear; that seeing almost every condition that could be
was better than that which'we were supposed to be in,
we ought to expect that the consequence, whether
death or life, would be sure to be a deliverance. I
asked him what he thought of the circumstances of my
life, and whether a deliverance were not worth venturing
for ? "And where, sir," said I, is your belief of my
being preserved here on purpose to save your life, which
elevated you a little while ago ? For my part," said I,
"there seems' to be but one thing amiss in all the
prospect of it." What is that ?" says he. "Why,"
said I, "it is, that as you say there are three or four
honest fellows among them, which should be spared.
Had 'they been all of the wicked part of the crew, I
should have thought God's providence had singled them
out to deliver them into your hands; for depend upon
it, everyman that comes ashore is our own, and shall
die or live as they behave to us." As I spoke this with
a raised voice and cheerful countenance, I found it
greatly encouraged him; so we set vigorously to our
We had, upon the first appearance of the boats coming
from the ship, considered of separating our prisoners;
and we had, indeed, secured them effectually. Two of
them, of whom the captain was less assured than
ordinary, I sent with Friday, and one of the three
delivered men, to my cave, where they were remote
enough, and out of danger of being heard or discovered,
or of finding their way out of the woods, if they could
have delivered themselves: here they left them bound,
but gave them provisions; and promised them, if they there q(..i rl.. to give them their liberty in a
day or two; but t t 1 if they attempted their escape,
they should be put to death without mercy. They
promised faithfully to bear their confinement with
patience, and were very thankful that they had such
good usage as to have provisions and light left them;
for Friday gave them candles (such as we made our-
selves) for their comfort; and they did not know but
that he stood sentinel over them at the.entrance.
The other prisoners Lad better usage; two of them
were kept pinioned, indeed, because the captain was not
able to trust them; but the other two were taken into
my service, upon the captain's recommendation, and
upon their solemnly engaging to live and die with us;
so with them and the three honest men we were seven
men, well armed; and I made no doubt that we should
be able to deal well enough with the ten that were
coming, considering that the captain had said there
were three or four honest men among them also. As
soon as they got to the place where their other boat lay,
they ran their boat into the beach and came all on shore,
hauling the boat up after them, which I was glad to
see, for I was afraid they would rather have left the
boat at an anchor some distance from the shore, with
some hands in her, to guard her, and so we should not
be able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first thing
they did, they ran all to their other boat; and it was
easy to see they were under a great surprise to find her
stripped as above of all that was in her, and a great hole
in her bottom. After they had mused a while upon this,
they set up two or three great shouts, hallooing with all
their might, to try if they could make their companions
hear;-but all was to no purpose: then they came all
close in a ring, and fired a volley of their small arms,
which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the woods
ring: but it was all one; those in the cave, we were
sure, could not hear; and those in our keeping, though
they heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to
them. They were so astonished at the surprise of this,
that, as they told us afterwards, they resolved to go all
on board again to their ship, and let them know that
the men were all murdered, and the long-boat staved;,
accordingly, they immediately launched their boat again,
and got all of them on board.
The captain was terribly amazed, and even con-
founded, at this, believing they would go on board the
ship again, and set sail, giving their comrades over for
lost, and so he should still lose the ship, which he was
in hopes we should have recovered; but he was quickly
as much frightened the other way.
They had not been long put off with the boat, when
we perceived them all coming on shore again; but with
this new measure in their conduct, which it seems they
consulted together upon, viz. to leave three men in the
boat, and the rest to go on shore, and go' up into the
country to look for their fellows. This was a great
disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss what
to do, as our seizing those seven men on shore would
be no advantage to us if we let the boat escape; because
they would row away to the ship, and then the rest of
them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our
recovering the ship would be lost. However, we had no
remedy but to wait and see what the issue of tlhi,1

might present. The seven men came on shore, and the
three who remained in the boat put her off to a good
distance from the shore, and came to an anchor to wait
for them; so that it was impossible for us to come at
them in the boat. Those that came on shore kept close
together, marching towards the top of the little hill
under which my habitation lay; and we could see them
plainly, though they could not perceive us. We should
have been very glad if they would have come nearer to
us, so that we might have fired at them, or that they
would have gone farther off, that we might come
abroad. But when they were come to the brow of the
hill where they could see a great way into the valleys
and woods, which lay towards the north-east part, and
where the island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed
till they were weary: and not caring, it seems, to
venture far from the shore, nor far from one another,
they sat down together under a-tree to consider it. Had
they thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as the
other part of them had done, they had done the job.
for us; but they were too full of apprehensions of
danger to venture to go to sleep, though they could
not tell what the danger was they had to fear.
The captain made a very just proposal to me upon
this consultation of theirs, viz. that perhaps they would
all fire a volley again, to endeavour: to make their
fellows hear, and that we should all sally upon them
just-at the juncture when their pieces were all dis-
charged, and they would certainly yield, and we should
have them without bloodshed. I liked this proposal,
provided it was done while we were near enough to
come up to them before they could load their pieces
again. But this event did not happen; and we lay
still a long time, very irresolute what course to take.
At length, I told them there would be nothing done, in
my opinion, till night; and then, if they did not return
to the boat, perhaps we might find a way to get between
them and the shore, and so might use some stratagem
with them in the boat to get them on shore. We waited
a great while, though very impatient for. their remov-
ing; and were very uneasy, when, after long consul-
tation, we saw them all start up, and march down
towards the sea: it seems they had such dreadful
apprehensions of the danger of. the place, that they
resolved to go on board theship again, give their
companions over for lost, and so go on with their
intended voyage with the ship.
As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I
-imagined it to be as it.really was, that they had given
over their search, and were going back again; and the
captain, as soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready
to sink at the apprehensions of it: but I presently
thought of a stratagem to fetch them back again, and
which answered my end to a tittle. I ordered Friday
and the captain's mate to go over the little creek
westward, towards the place where the savages came
on shore when Friday was rescued, and so soon as they
came to a little rising ground, at about half a mile
distance, I bade them halloo out, as loud as they could,
and wait till they found the seamen heard them; that
as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer them,
they should return it again; and then, keeping out of
sight, take a round, always answering when the others
hallooed, to draw them as far into the island and among
the woods as possible, and then wheel about again to
me by such ways as I directed them.
They were just going into the boat when Friday and
the mate hallooed; and' they presently heard them,
and, answering, ran along the shore westward, towards
the voice they heard, when they were stopped by the
creek, where, the water being up. they could not get
over, and called for the boat to come up and set them
over; as, indeed, I expected. When they had set them-
selves over, I observed that the boat being gone a good
way into the creek, and, as it were, in a harbour within
the land, they took one of the three men out of her,
to go along with them, 'and left only two in the boat,
having fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the
shore. This was what I wished for; and immediately
leaving Friday and the captain's mate to their business,
'I took the rest with me; and, crossing the creek out of
their sight, we surprised the two men before they were
aware-one of them lying on the shore, and the other
being in the boat. The fellow on shore was between
sleeping and waking, and going to start up; the captain,
who was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him
down; and then called out to him in the boat to yield,
or he was a dead man. There needed very few argu-
ments to persuade a single man to yield, when he saw
five men upon him, and his comrade knocked down:
besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who were
not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew,
and therefore was easily persuaded not only to yield,
but afterwards to join very sincerely with o. In the
meantime, Friday and the captain's niate so rvll
managed their business with the rest, that thb5y b.l-w
them, by ballooing and answering, from one hill to
another, and from one wood to another, till they ndt
only heartily tired them, but left them where they were
very sure they could not reach back to the boat before


it was dark; and, indeed, they were heartily tired Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of man Friday, I did not think it was proper for us to stir,
themselves also, by the time they came back to us. seizing the ship: and as for the captain, now he had .having seven men left behind; nd ;t c s i li .l:.,i w, ii
We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in leisure to parley with them, he expostulated with them .enough for us to keep them L -i..l.: -, .inl p.4'pi'y th :
the dark, and to fall upon them, so as to make sure upon the villany of their practices with him, and upon with victuals. the five iu th-: .. 1,r I L ..7-.- :..1 rt
work with them. It was several hours after Friday the furtherwickedness of their design,and how certainly keep them fast,.but Friday went u t .- .1.. t... rt. I.:i.,
came back to me before they came back to their boat; it must bring them to misery and distress in the end, to supply them with necessari- ; iaIl I a.J.c tL,. other
and we could hear the foremost of them, long before and perhaps to the gallows. They all appeared very two carry provisions to a certain distance, where Friday
they camo quite up, calling to those behind to come penitent, and begged hard for their lives. As for that, was to take them.
along; and could also hear them answer, and complain he told them they were not his prisoners, but the co'm- When, I showed myself to the two hostages, it was
how lame and tired they were, and not able to come mander's of the island; that they thought they had set with the captain, who told them I was the person the
any faster: which was very welcome news to us: At him on shore in a barren, uninhabited island; but it had governor had ordered to look after them; and that it
length they came up to the boat: but it is impossible to pleased God so to direct them, that it was inhabited, and was the governor's pleasure they should not stir any-
express their confusion when they found the boat fast that the governor was an Englishman; that he might where, but by my direction; that if they did, they
aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two hang them all there, if he pleased; but as he had given would be fetched into the castle, and be laid in irons:
men gone. We could hear them call one to another in them all quarter, he supposed he would send them to so that as we never suffered them to see me as governor,
a most lamentable manner, telling one another they England, to be dealt with there as justice required, except I now appeared as another person, and .. ..:1;.: .:.f the
were got into an enchanted island; that either there Atkins, whom he was commanded by the governor to governor, the garrison, the castle, and the lliic, ',.-'. all
were inhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered, advise to prepare for death, for that he would be hanged occasions.
or else there were devils and spirits in it, and they in the morning. The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to
should be all carried away and devoured. They hallooed Though this was all but a fiction of his own, yet it had furnish his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man
again, and called their two comrades by their names a its desired effect; Atkins fell upon his knees, to beg the them. He made his passenger captain of one, with four
great many times; but no answer. After some time, captain to intercede with the governor for his life,; and of the men; and himself, his mate, and five.more, went
we could see them, by the little light there was; run all the rest begged of him, for God's sake, that they in the other; .i tby .0,A..T ii iE I.. i-r hu-..1.. u .; ..:il,
about, wringing their hands like men in despair, and might not be sent to England, for they came up to the ship about midnight. As soon
sometimes they would go and sit down in the boat to It now occurred to me, that the time of our deliver- as they came within call of the ship, he made Robinson,
rest themselves: then come ashore again, and walk ance was come, and that it would be a most easy thing hail them, and tell them they had brought off the men
about again, and so the same thing over again. My to bring these fellows in to be hearty in getting- posses- and the boat, but that it was a long time before they
men would fain have had me give them leave to fall sion of the ship; so I retired in the'dark from them, had found them, and the like; holding them in chat
upon them at once in the dark; but I was willing to that they might not see what kind of a governor they till they came to the ship's side; when the captain and
take them at some advantage, so as to spare them, and had, and called the captainto me; when I called, at a the mate entering first with their arms, immediately
kill as few of them as I could; and especially I was good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak knocked down the second mate and carpenter with the
unwilling to hazard the killing of any of our men, again, and say to the captain," Captain, the commander butt-end of their muskets, being very faithfully seconded
knowing the others were very well armed. I resolved calls for you ;" and presently the captain replied, Tell by their men; they secured all the rest that were upon
.to wait, to see if they did not separate; and therefore, his Excellency, I am just coming." This more perfectly the main and quarter-decks, and began to fasten' the
to make sure of then, I drew my ambuscade nearer, amazed them, and they all believed ti,. t ,r ,..:I n -0..l.~ hatches, to keep them down that were below; when the
and ordered Friday and the rlI.l;a 1... ..r....[ upon was just by, with his fifty men. Ui..:.n tH.:- .:>[.r:i other boat and their men, entering at thL. f:.r.: 1, in:
their hands and feet, as (I.:.- t.: t.i t g....,ud as. coming'to m&e, I told him my project for seizing the secured the forcastle of the ship, and tb.: -..., t I =.1I..
they could, that they might i.r. L...- .li..:.:..-,, and ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved to went down into the cook-room, making three men they
get as near them as they possibly could, before they put it in-execution the next morning. : But, in order to found there prisoners. When this was done, and all
offered to fire. execute it with more art, and to be secure of success, I safe upon deck, the captain ordered the mate, with
They had not been long in that posture, when the told him we must divide the prisoners, and that he three men, to break into the round-house, where the
boatswain, who'was the principal ringleader "of the should go and take Atkins, and t -.:. nm. .: t' the worst new rebel captain lay, who, having taken the alarm,.
mutiny, and had now shown himself the most dejected of them, and send them pinioned to the .cave where had got up, and with two men and a boy had got fire-
and dispirited of all the rest, came walking towards the others lay. This was committed to Friday and the arms in their hands; and when the mate, with a crow,
them, ,-vil t, mn:.i.: of the crew; the captain wai .:. iv.-, i. u n ,.. me on shore with the captain. They split open the door, the new captain and his men fired
eager .At Lnfb- hi in principal rogue so much in Li ,.:.a:.- -,.l r :ru to the cave as to.a prison: and it was, boldly among them and wounded the mate with a
power, lL t 5... t.-:. .1 hardly have patience toilet lii. i.l,..1.l, .ai- rn i place, especially;to men-in their con- musket ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two near as to be sure of him, for they only heard edition. The others I ordered to my bower; as I called more of the men, but killed nobody. The mate, call-
his tongue before: but when they cameo nearer, the it, of which I have given a full description: and as it ing for help, rushed, however, into the round-house,
captain and Friday, starting up on their feep, let fly at was fenced in, and they pinioned, the. place was secure wounded as he was, and, with .his pistol, shot the new
them. The boatswain was killed upon:the spot: the enough, considering they were upon their behaviour. captain through the head, the bullet entering at his
next man was shot ih the body, and fell.just-by him, To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was mouth, and came out again behind one of his ears, so
Il,.:.'t 1-ie did not die till an.hour or two after; and the. to enter into a parley with them; in a word, to try that he never spoke a- .:.c.' moie. u,....o ii'h the
thI,irl irn for it. Atthe noise of tI.. ti,. I im,-.-i; it -n, and tell me whether he -b.:.,,ht they might be rest yielded, and the ;h.p ia.i tl.:n i.-i....u ii,, with-
advanced with my, wii.:L i-i i .:,.v ,.il ht trri-...i or:not to'go on board and surprise the ship. out any: :: ; I. .:... -,
men; viz. myself, generalissimo; Friday, mylieutieant- HE. I. ll;...i t:- th,.m- of the injury done him, of the con- As soon .- s t-.: lip ..' buii.= .. '*;. -.. the c.,piio
general; the captain and his two men, and t-..- tble- .lri:.,u tt-v ;. -re brought to, and that though the ordered seven guns to be fired, r.-L... r i' the signal
prisoners of war whom we had-trusted with armrs. \V.. g..'.:-l.., l ,bI -ien them quarter for their lives as to agreed upon with me to give me Ct his success,
came upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that the v coil tlF.: p....-m. .:t.-n, yet that if they were sent to Eng- -*'i-.i, you may be sure, I was very glad to hear, having
not see our number; and I made the man they h.,,i I-llt i i.I, ri.-;' -..u i. all be hanged in chains; but that if sat watching upon the shore for it till-near two o'clock
in the boat, who was now one of us, to call them by they would join in so just an attempt as to recover the in the morning. Having thus heard the signal plainly,
name, to try if I could bring them to a parley and so ship, he would have the governor's engagement for their I laid me down; and it having been of: great
perhaps might reduce them to terms; which fell out pardon. fatigue to me, I slept very sound, till I was surprised
just as we desired: for, indeed, it was easy to think, as Any one may c. lr. b.:.v r. i jl;iv j. b i r.r.:.r.:,- .l would with the noise of a gun; and presently starting up, I
their conditionthen was, they would be very willing to be accepted by -i.:o u rtl.:' ..:.u. I ,.:,r; tr.:j rM. down heard a man call me by the name of "Governor!.
capitulate. So he calls out as loud as he could to one on their knees to the captain, and promised, with the Governor !" and presently I knew the captain's voice;
of them, "Tom Smith Tom Smith Tom Smith deepest imprecations, that they would be faithful to when, climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood,
answered immediately, Is that Robinson ? for it him to the last drop, and that they should owe their 'Li. IPIlo,- .:. t he ship, he embraced me in his arms.
seems he knew the voice. The other answered, "Ay, lives to him, and would go with him all over the world; *I.:.,r I*',: ,.1i ,-,d deliverer," says he, there's your
ay; for God's sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms that they would own him as a father to them as long as ship; for she's all yours, and so are we, and all that
and yield, or you are all dead men this moment." they lived. Well," says the captain, I must go and belong to her." I cast my ey- r.: tl. -LI ad there
"Who must we yield to? Where are they?" says tell the governor what you say, and see what I'can do she rode, within,little more 1i Lil Lta i.: of the
Smith again. "Here they are," says he; "here's our to bring him to consent to it." So he brought me an shore; for they had weighed her anchor as soon as they
captain and fifty men with him, have been hunting you account of the temper he found them in, and that he were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had
these two .hours; the boatswain is killed, Will Fry is verily believed they would be faithful. However, that brought her to an anchor just against the mouth of the
wounded, and I am a prisoner; and if you do not yield, we might be very secure, I told him he should go back little creek; and, the tide being up, the captain had
you are all lost." Will they give us quarter then ? again and choose out those five, and tell them, that they brought the pinnace in near the place where I had first
says Tom Smith, "and we will yield." "I'll go and ask, might see he did not want men, that he would take landed my rafts, and so landed just at my door. I was
if you promise to yield," said Robinson: so he asked out those five to be his assistants, and that the governor at first ready to sink down with surprise; for I saw my
the captain; and the captain himself then calls out, would keep the other two and the three that were sent deliverance,indeed,t ,i,..i;r t ,i t-. r;- b -iu.., all things
" You, Smith, you know my voice; if you lay down prisoners to the castle (my cave), as hostages for the easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away
your arms immediately, and submit; you shall have fidelity of those five; and that if they proved unfaithful whither I pleased to go. At first, for some time, I was
your lives, all but Will Atkins." in the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in not able to answer him one word; but as he had taken
-Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, "For God's sake, chains alive on the shore. This looked severe, and con- me in his arms, I held fast by.him, or I should have
captain, give me quarter; what have I done ? They vinced them that the governor was in earnest; however, fallen to the ground. He perceived the surprise, and
have all been as bad as I :" which, by the way, was not they had no way left them but to accept it; and it was immediately pulled a bottle out of his pocket and gave
true; for, it seems, this Will Atkins was the first man now the business of the prisoners, as much as of the me a dram of cordial, which he had brought on purpose
that laid hold of the captain, when they first mutinied, captain, to persuade the other five to do their duty. for me. After I had drunk it, I sat down upon the
atd used him barbarously, in tying his hands, and giving Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedi- ground; and though it brought me to myself, yet it
him injurious language. However, the captain told him tion: first, the captain, his mate, and passenger: second, was a good while before I could speak a word to him.
he must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust to the-two prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having All this time the poor man was in as great an ecstasy
the governor's mercy: by which he meant me, for they their character from the captain, I had given their as I, only not under any surprise as I was; and he said
all called me governor. In a word, they all laid down liberty, and trusted them with arms: third, the other a thousand kind and tender things to me, to compose
their arms, and begged their lives; and I sent the man two that I had kept till nowin my bower pinioned, but, and bring me to myself; but such was the fl...lI .:. i.. '
that had parleyed with them, and two more, who bound on the captain's motion had now released: fourth, these in my breast, that it put all my spirits into :.n t..;... ;
them all; and then my great army of fifty men, which, five released at last; so that they were twelve in all, at last it broke out into tears; and, in a little while
with those three, were in all but eight, came up and besides the five we kept prisoners in the cave for after, I recovered my speech. I then took my turn,
seized upon them, and upon their boal; only that hostages. and embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced
I kept myself and one more out of sight, for reasons I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with together. I told him I looked upon him as, a man sent
of state, these hands on board the ship; but as for me and my by Heaven to deliver me, and that the whole transaction


seemed to be a chain of wonders; that such things as they were my prisoners, not his; and that seeing I had captain to take them on board, though he hanged them
these were the testimonies we had of a secret hand of offered them so much favour, I would be as good as my immediately. Upon this, the captain pretended to have
Providence governing the world, and an evidence I It or : and that if he did not think fit to consent to it no power without me; but after some difficulty, and after
-h, :.; ;, of an infinite Power could search into the re- I would set them at liberty, as I found them, and if he their solemn promises of amendment, they were taken
motest corner of the world, and send help to the miser- did not like it, he might take them again if he could on board, and were, some time after, soundly whipped
able whenever He pleased. I forgot not to lift up my catch them. Upon this, they appeared very thankful, and pickled; after which they proved very honest and
Li. : t |a thankfulness to. Heaven; and what heart could and I accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them re- quiet fellows.
f.:. L.. ',i to bless Him,.who had not only in a miraculous tire into the woods, to the place whence they came, and Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore,
manner provided for me in such a wilderness, and in I would leave them some fire-arms, some ammunition, the tide being up, with the things promised to the men;
such a desolate condition,but from whom every dJl'er i. i .i.m,. directions how they should live very well, if to which the captain, at my intercession, caused their
ance must always be acknowledged to proceed. tli: thto..iLht fit. Upon this I prepared to go on board chests and clothes to be added, which they took, and
When we had talked a while, the.captain toll ni- L. i b- Ji.l.; I,,t told the captain I would stay that night werevery thankfulfor. Ialso encouraged them,by telling
had brought me some little refreshment, such as his to prepare my things, and desired liin ti .) .:.a board in them, that if it lay in my power to send any vessel to
Ship afforded, and such as the-wretches that had been the meantime, and keep all right in t .. i p, and send take them in, I would not forget them.
.:. l.:.; h; -f* t.:r had not plundered him of. Upon the boat on shore next day for me; ordering him at all When I took leave of this island, I carried on board,
thI bti : .lkd ia l.:.ui to the boat, and bade his men bring events, to cause the new captain, who was killed, to be for reliques, the great goat-skin cap I had made, my
ti- t L:L; 2:L:b..o that were for the governor; and, hung at the yard-arm, thatthese men might see him. umbrella, and one of my parrots: also, I forgot not
indeed, it was a present as if I had been one that was When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to take the money I formerly mentioned, which had
not to be carried away with them, but as if I had been to me to my apartment, and entered seriously into dis- laid by me so long useless that it was grown rusty
to dwell upon the island still. First, he had brought course with them on their circumstances. I told them I or tarnished, and could hardly pass for silver till it had
me a case of bottles full of excellent cordial waters, thought they had made a right choice; that if the captain been a little rubbed and handled, as also the money I
six large bottles of Madeira wine (the bottles held two had carried them away, they would certainly be hanged. found in the wreck of the Spanish ship. And thus I left
quarts each), two pounds of excellent good tobacco, I showed them the new captain hanging at the yard-arm the island, the 19th of December, as I found'by the ship's
1 .T.:!1: .:..:..1 pieces of the ship's beef, and six pieces of of the ship, and told them they had nothing less to account, in the year 1686, after I had been upon it eight-
roj,' r. Is '. bag of peas, and about a hundred-weight of expect. and-twenty years, two months, and nineteen days; being
Biscuit; he also brought me a box of sugar, a box of When they had all declared their willingness to stay, delivered from this second captivity the same day of the
flour, a bag full of lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice, I then told them I would let them into the story of my month that I first made my escape in the long-boat from
and abundance of other things. But besides these, and living there, and put them into the way of making it among the Moors of Sallee. In this vessel, after n lon
what was a thousand times more useful to me, hebrought easy to them. Accordingly, I gave them the whole voyage, I arrived in England the llth of J. u-, ia tL.:
me six new clean shirts, six.very g.:..:..1 u ll...L-, t.wo history of the place, and of my coming to it; showed year.1687, having been thirty-five years absent.
pairs of gloves, one pair of shoes, a !iAt, .u.l O:uf .' of
stockings, with a very good suit of clothes of his own,
which had been worn but very little: in a word, he
clothed me from head to foot. It was a very kind and
agreeable present, s any one may imagine, to one in
my circumstances; but never was anything in the world
of that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as
it was to me to wear such clothes at first.
After these ceremonies were past, and after all his
good things were brought into my little apartment, we
began to consult what was to be done with the prisoners
we had; for it was worth considering whether we
might venture to take them away with us-or no,
especially two of them, whom he knew to be incorrigible
and refractory to the last degree; and the captain said
he knew they were such rogues that there was no oblig-
ing them, and if he did carry them away, it must be in
irons, as malefactors, to be delivered over to justice at
the first English colony he could come to; and I found
that the captain himself was very anxious about it.
Upon this, I told him that, if he desired it, I would un-
dertake to bring the two men he spoke of to make it
their own request that he should leave them upon the
island. "I should be very glad of that," says the
captain, "with all my heart." t"Well," says I, "I will
send for them up, and talk with them for you." So I
caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were now
discharged, their comrades having performed their
promise; I say, I caused them to go to the cave, and bring
up the five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower,
and keep them there till I came. After some time I
came thither dressed in my new habit; and now I was
Called governor again. Being all met, and thle captain
with me, I caused the men to be brought before me, and
I.told them I had got a full a,:c,:.nt .:,f their villainous
behaviour to the captain, and Lho thr-y had run away
with the ship, and were preparing to commit further
robberies, but that Providence had ensnared 'them in THE MUTINEER CArTAIN IS SHOT.
their own ways, and that they were fallen into the pit
) I _. t Ih -, had dug for others. I let them know that
by my direction the ship had been seized; that she lay them my fortifications, the way I made my bread, When I came to England, I was as perfect a stranger
now in the road; and they might see by and by that planted my corn, cured my grapes; and, in a word, all to all the world as if I had never been known there. My
their new captain had received the reward of his villany, that was necessary to make them easy. I told them benefactor and faithful steward, whom I had left my
and that they would see him hanging at the yard-arm; the story also of the seventeen Spaniards that were to money in trust with, was alive, but had had great mis-
that, as to them, I wanted to know what they had to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and made them fortunes in the world, was become a widow-the second
say why I should not :--.::. ii if l,_ u as pirates, taken in promise to treat them in common with themselves, time, and very low in the world. I made her very easy as
the fact, as-by my commission they could not doubt Here it may be noted that the captain, who had ink on to what she owed me, assuring her I would give her no
but I had authority so to-do. board, was greatly surprised that I-never hit upon a trouble; but, on the contrary,in gratitude for her former
One of them answered in the name of the rest, that way of making ink of charcoal and water, or of some- care and faithfulness to me, I relieved her as my little
they had nothing to say but this, that when they were thing else, as I had done things much more difficult. stock would afford; which at that time would, indeed,
taken, the calitain promised them their lives, and they I left them my fire-arms, viz. five muskets, three allow me to do but little for her: but I assured her I would
humbly implored my mercy. But I told them I knew fowling-pieces, and three swords. I had above a barrel never forget her former kindness to me ; nor did I forget
not what mercy to show them; for as for myself, I had and a half of powder left; for after the first year ortwo her when I had sufficient to help her, as shall be observed
resolved to quit the island with all my men, and had I used but little, and wasted none. I gave them a in its proper place. I went down afterwards into York-
taken passage with the captain to go for England; and description of the way I managed the goats, and shire; but my father was dead, and my mother and all
as for the captain, he could not carry them to England, directions to milk and fatten them, and to make both the family extinct, except that I found two sisters, and
other than as prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny, butter and cheese. In a word I gave them every part two of the children of one of my brothers; and as I had
and running awaywith the ship; the consequence of of my own story; and told them I should prevail with been long ago given over for dead, there had been no pro-
which, they must needs know, would .be the gallows; so 'the captain to leave them two barrels of gunpowder vision made for me; so that, in a word, I found nothing
that I could not tell what was best forthem, unless they more, and some garden-seeds, which I told them I would to relieve or assist me; and that the little money I had
had a mind to take their fate in the island. If they have been very glad of. Also, I gave them the bag of would not do much for me as to settling in the world.
desired that, as I had liberty to leave the island, I had peas which the captain had brought me to eat, and bade I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which I did
some inclination to give them their lives, if they them be sure to sow and increase them. not expect; and this was, that the master of the ship,
t L ...cigl. they could shift on shore. They seemed very Having done all this, I left them the next 'day, and whom I had so happily delivered, and by the same means
I b ,tL fj, 1 forit, and said they would much rather venture went on board the ship. We prepared immediately to saved the ship and cargo, having given a very handsome
to stay there than be carried to England to be hanged. sail, but did not weigh that night. The next morning account to the owners of the manner of how I had saved
o80 I left it on that issue. early, two of the five men came swimming to the ship's the lives of the men, and the ship, they invited me
However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty Mi, .n.h mal:~sg tbh most lamentable complaint of the to meet them and some other merchants concerned,
of it, as if he durst not leave them there. Upon this, I r tlbr... ee.:-Ed to be taken into the ship for God's and all together made me a very handsome compliment
seemed a little angry with the captain, and told him that I sake, for they should be murdered, and begged the upon the subject, and a present of almost 200 sterling.


But after making several reflections upon the circum-
stances of my life, and how little way this would go
towards settling me in the' world, I resolved to go to
Lisbon, and see if I might not come at some information
of the state of my plantation in the Brazils, and of what
was become of my partner, who, I had reason to suppose,
had some.years past given me over for dead. With this
view, I took shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived in
April following; my man Friday accompanying me very
honestly in all these ramblings and proving a most faith-
ful servant on all occasions. When I came to Lisbon, I
found out, by inquiry, and to my particular satisfaction,
my old friend, the captain of the ship, who first took me
up at sea, off the shore of Africa. He was now grown
old, and had left off going to sea, having put his son,
who was far from a young man, into his ship, and who
still used the Brazil trade. The old man did not know
me; and indeed, I hardly knew him. But I soon
brought him to my remembrance, and as soon brought
myself to his remembrance, when I told him who I
After some passionate expressions of the old acqtain-
tanco between us, I inquired, you may be sure, after my
plantation and my partner. The old man told me he
had not been in the Brazils for about nine years; but
that he could assure me, that when he came away my
partner was living; but the trustees, whom I had joined
with him to take cognizance of my part, were both
dead: that, however, he believed I would have a very
good account of the improvement of the plantation; for
that, upon the general belief of my being cast away and

the register of the country; also he told me that the
survivors of my two trustees were very fair, honest
people, and very wealthy; and he believed I would not
only have their assistance for putting me in po.: .-";...,n
but would find a very considerable sum of v t
their hands for my account, being the produce of the
farm whiletheir fathers held the trust, and before it was
given up, as above; which as he remembered, was for
about twelve years.
I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this
account, and inquired of the old captain how it came to
pass that the trustees should thus dispose of my effects,
when he knew that I had made my will, and had made
him, the Portuguese captain, my universal heir, &c.
He told me that was true; but that as there was no
proof of my being dead, he could not act as executor,
until some certain account should come of my death;
and, besides, he was not willing to intermeddle with a
thing so remote: that it was true he had registered my
will, and put in his claim; and could he have given any
account of my being dead or alive, he would have acted
by procuration, and taken possession of the ingenio (so
they call the sugar-house), and have given his son, who
was now at the Brazils, orders to do it. But," says
the old man, "I have one piece of news to tell you,
which perhaps may not be so acceptable to you as the
rest; and that is, believing you were lost, and all the
world believing so also, your partner and trustees did
offer to account with me, in your name, for the first six
or eight years' profits, which I received. There being
at that time great disbursements for increasing the

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness
of the poor man to be able to bear this; and remember-
ing what he had done for me, how he had taken me up
at sea, and how generously he had used me on all
occasions, and particularly how sincere a friend he was
now to me, I could hardly refrain weeping at what he had
said to me; therefore, I asked him if his circumstances
admitted him to spare so much money at that time, and
if it would not straiten him?. Heltol.1 i: he ,.:...l.1 .:.t.
say but it might straiten him a little, i:.t. b.-.'i ir
was my money, and I might want it .:.r- rth jn I.e.
Everything the good man said was full of affection,
and I could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke;
in short, I took one hundred of the moidores, and
called for a pen and ink to ;'.-. h;im r'...ipt t.:.r tlj..-lu
then I returned him the ri. it, n.J tl.:.lI Ii it ev,.r I
had possession of the plantation I would return the
other to him also (as, indeed, I afterwards did); and
that as to the bill of sale of his part in his son's ship,
I would not take it by any means; but that if I wanted
the money, I found he was honest enough to pay me;
and if I did not, but came to receive what he gave me
reason to expect, I would never have a penny more
from him.
When this was past, the old man asked me if he
should put me into a method to make my claim to my
plantation. I told him- I thought to go over to it
myself. He said I might do so if I pleased; but that,
if I did not, there were ways enough to ererre my
right, and immediately to appropriate the :.r,:r.t~ tc. my
use: and as there were ships in the river of Lisbon just



drowned, my trustees had given in the account of the
produce of my part of the plantation to the procurator-
fiscal, who had appropriated it, in case I never came to
claim it, one-third to the king, and two-thirds to the
monastery .of 'St. Augustine, to be expended for the
benefit of the poor, and for the conversion of the
Indians to the Catholic faith: but that, if I appeared,
or any one for me, to claim the inheritance, it would be
restored; only that the improvement, or annual pro-
duction being distributed to charitable uses, could not
be restored: but he assured me-that the steward of the
king's revenue from lands, and the providore, or steward
of the monastery, had taken great care all along that
the incumbent, that is to say, my partner, gave every
year a faithful account of the produce, of which they
had duly received my moiety. I asked him if he knew
to what height of improvement he had brought the
plantation, and whether he thought it might be worth
looking after; or whether, on my going thither, I
should meet with any obstruction to my possessing my
just right in the moiety. He told me he could not tell
.exactly to what degree the plantation was improved;
but this he knew, that my partner was grown exceeding
rich upon the enjoying his part of it; and that, to the
best of his remembrance, he had heard that the king's
third of my part, which was, it seems, granted away to
some other monastery or religious house, amounted to
above two hundred moidores a year: that as to'my
being restored to a quiet possession of it, there was no
question to be made of that, my partner being alive to
witness my title, and my name being also enrolled in

works, building an ingenio; and buying slaves, it did not
amount to near so much as afterwards it produced:
however," says the old man, "I shall give you a true
account of what I have received in all, and how I have
disposed of it."
After a few days' further conference with this ancient
friend, he brought me an account of the first six years'
income of my plantation, signed by my partner and the
merchant-trustees, being always delivered in goods, viz.
tobacco in roll, and sugar in chests, besides rum,
molasses, &c. which is the consequence of a sugar-work;
and I found by this account, that every year the income
considerably increased; but, as above, the disbursements
being large, the sum at first was small: however, the
old man let me see that he was debtor to me four
hundred and seventy moidores of gold, besides sixty
chests of sugar, and fifteen double rolls of tobacco,
which were lost in his ship; he having been shipwrecked
coming home to Lisbon, about eleven years after my
leaving the place. The good man then began to com-
plain of his misfortunes, and how he had been obliged
to make use of my money to recover his losses, and buy
him a'share in a new ship. However, my old friend,"'
says he, you shall not want a supply in your necessity;
and as soon as my son returns, you shall be fully
satisfied." Upon this he pulls out an old pouch, and
gives me one hundred and sixty Portugal moidores in
gold; and giving the writings of his title to the ship,
which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of which he
was quarter-part owner, and his son another, he plt
them both into my hands for security of the rest.

ready to go away to Brazil, he made me enter my name
in a public register, with his affidavit, affirming, upon
oath, that I was alive, and that I was the same person
who took up the-land for the planting the said planta-
tion at first. This being regularly attested by a notary,
and a procuration affixed, he directed me to send it,
with a letter of his writing, to a merchant qf his
acquaintance at the place; and then proposed my stay-
ing with him till an account came of the return.
Never was anything, more honourable than the pro-
ceedings upon this procuration; for in less than seven
months I received a large packet from the survivors of
my trustees, the merchants, for whose account I went
to sea, in which were the following particular letters
and papers inclosed.
First, there was the account current of the produce of
my farm or plantation, from the year when their
fathers had balanced with my old Portugal captain, being
for six years; the balance appeared to be one thousand
one hundred and seventy-four moidores in my favour.
Secondly, there was the account of four years more,
while they kept the effects in their hands, before the
government claimed the administration, as being the
effects of a person not to be found, which they called
civil death; and the balance of this, the value of the
plantation increasing, amounted to nineteen thousand
four hundred and forty-six crusadoes, being about
three thousand two hundred and forty moidores.
Thirdly, there was the Prior of St. Augustine's
account, who had received the profits for above fourteen
years; but not being to account for what was disposed


of by the hospital, very honestly declared he had eight
hundred and seventy-two moidores not distributed,
which he acknowledged to my account: as '.:o ti .- in, a
part, that refunded nothing.
There was a letter of my partner's,,congratulating me
very affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an
account how the estate was improved, and what it pro-
duced a year; with the particulars of the number of
squares or acres that it contained, how planted, how
many slaves there were upon it: and making two-and-
twenty crosses for blessings told me he had said so many
Ave Marias to thank the Blessed Virgin that I was
alive; inviting me very passionately to come over and
take possession of my own; and, in the meantime, to
give him orders to whom he should deliver my effects,
if I did not come myself; concluding with a hearty
tender of his friendship, and that of his family; and sent
me, as a present, seven fine leopards' skins, which he
had, it seems, received from Africa by some other ship
that he had sent thither, and which, it seems, had made
a better voyage than I. He sent me also five chests of
excellent sweetmeats, and a hundred pieces of gold un-
coined, not quite so large as moidores. By the same
fleet, my two merchant-trustees shipped me one
thousand two hundred chests of sugar, eight hundred
rolls of tobacco, and the rest of the whole account in
I might i LI E y uoir. it.j:id. i h I Itter end of
Job was :-i:tt.r t'biu ttae hb cgnia it is impossible to
express tl- dii, te-ringes rt ny I-ery hen I found
all my w 'it ib L..:.rt r ii f.r as tbh. Crasil ships come
allinfleets rLb.: i:.iu .-tip. wLi..b Lt. my letters
brought mUy '.:....l a.un tl ,e i:ff.:t .r.r.- safe in the
river before the letters came to my hand. In a word, I
turned pale, and grew sick; and, had not the old man
run and fetched me a cordial, I believe the sudden
surprise of joy had overt..: Inr-. as I 21 T hl,. died upon
the spot: ia ','. ifr.r that. I '-:.utiu vI rvi.r il. and was
so some hoi t. Ll plby.-,'n bt:,Ein .:t t:r. and some-
thingof tl,. ,-i ~il -i : .:t i lu; :,in.i, I itug imnown, he
ordered me 1... 1..: i:r I.I..,:.i; tr-r hilch I Lad relief,
and grew wtll: but 1 ;I ly t..., if I .,.i not been
eased by advent given i, th it ni.,on r t.-. tie 6.piirL;. T
should have died.
I was now mater. ii! :n I' ,:'. about five
thousand pound; 4-r.: 1lu iU n ]rU:iy, nd. liad .0 1 .:t*1 t
as Might well (.I ,r i th.- Bra:t..I.,.t l..:.,'e th:.l .. I
pounds a year, as -'.i'e a- ..ri ,tr.t.. .:,t ILa i' in Euglr ,.i
and, in a word, I was in a condition which I scarce knew
how to understand, or how to compose myself for the
enjoyment of it. The first thing I did was to recompense
my original benefactor, my good old captain, who had
been first charitable to me in my distress, kind to me in
my beginning, and honest to me at the end, I showed
him all that was sent to me; I told him that, next to
the providence of Heaven which disposed all things, it
was owing to him; and that it now lay on me to reward
him,. which I would do a hundredfold: so I first
returned to him. the hundred moidores I had received
of him; then I sent for a notary, and caused him to
draw up a general release or discharge from the:four
hundred and seventy moidores, which he had acknow-
ledged he owed me, in the fullest and firmest manner
possible. After which, I caused a procuration to be
drawn, empowering him to be the receiver of the annual
profits of my plantation; and appointing my partner to
account with him, and make the returns, by the usual
fleets, to him in my name; and by a clause in the end,
made a grant of one hundred moidotes a year to him
during his life, out of the effects, and fifty moidores a
year to his son after him, for his life: and thus I re-
quited my old man.
I had now to consider which way to steer my course
next, and what to do with the estate that Providence
had thus put into my hands; and indeed, I had more
care upon my head now than I had in my silent state
of life in the island, where I wanted nothing but what
I had, and had nothing but what I wanted; whereas I
had now a great charge upon me, and my business was
how to secure it. I had not a cave now to hide my
money in, or a place where it might lie without lock or
key, till it grew mouldy and tarnished before anybody
would meddle with it; on the contrary, I knew not
where to put it, or whom to trust with it. My old
patron, the captain, indeed, was honest, and that was
the only refuge I had. In the next place,. y interest
in the Brazils seemed to summon me thither; but now
I could not tell how to think of going thither till I had
settled my affairs, and left my effects in some safe
hands behind me. At first I thought of my old friend
the widow, who I knew was honest, and would be just
to me; but then she was in years, and but poor, and,
for aught I knew, might be in debt; so that, in a word,
I had no way but to go back to England myself, and
take my effects with me.
It was some months, however, before I resolved upon
this; and therefore, as I had rewarded the old captain
fully, and to his satisfaction, who hhd been my former
benefactor, so I began to think of the poor widow,
whose husband had been my first benefactor, and she,

while it was in her power, my faithful steward and in- an English gentleman, the son of a merchant in Lisbon,
structor. So, the first thing I did, I got a merchant in who was willing to travel with me; after which we
Lisbon to write to his correspondent in London, not picked up two more English merchants also, and two
only to pay a bill, but to go find her out, and carry young Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris
her, in money, a hundred pounds from me, and to talk only; so that in all, there were six of us, and five
with her, and comfort her in her poverty, by telling her servants; the two merchants and the two Portuguese
she should, if I lived, have a further supply: at the contenting themselves with one servant between two,
same time, I sent my two sisters in the country a to save the charge; and as for me, I got an English
hundred pounds each, they being, though not in want, sailor to travel with me as a servant, besides my man
yet not in very good circumstances; one having been Friday, who was too much a stranger to be capable of
married and left a widow; and the other having a supplying the place of a servant on the road.
husband not so kind to her as he should be. But, In this manner I set out for Lisbon; and our
among all my relations or acquaintances, I could not company being very well mounted and armed, we made
yet pitch upon one to whom I durst commit the gross a little troop, whereof they did me the honour to call
of my stock, that I might go away to the Brazils, and me captain, as well because I was the oldest man, as
leave things-safe behind me; and this greatly per- because I had two servants, and, indeed, was the origin
plexed me. of the whole journey.
I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils, and As I have troubled you with none of my sea journals,
have settled myself there, for I was, as it were, so I shall trouble you now with none of my land
naturalized to the place; but I had some little scruple, journal; but some adventures that happened to us
in my inind about religion, which insensibly drew me in this tedious and difficult journey I must not
back. However, it was not religion that kept me from omit.
going there for the present; and as I had made no When we came to Madrid, we, being all of. us strangers
scruple of being openly of the religion of the country to Spain, were willing to stay some time to see the
all the while I was among them, so neither did I yet; court of Spain, and what was worth observing; but-, it
only that, now and then, having of late thought more being the latter part of the summer, we hastened aswl,,
of it than formerly, when I began to think of living and and set out from Madrid about the middle of 0,i tobr-r;
dying among them, I began to regret my having pro- but when we came to the edge of the Navarre, -.'. V. .: I
fessed myself a Papist, and thought it might not be alarmed, at several towns on the way, with an account.
the best religion to die with. that so much snow was fallen on the French side of the
But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that mountains, that several travellers were obliged tc ,.. -u
kept me from going to the Brazils, but that really I back to Pampeluna, after having attempted at iu
did not know with whom to leave my effects behind extreme hazard to pass on.
me; so I resolved at last to go to England, .where, if I When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found'it so
arrived, I concluded that I should make some acquaint- indeed; and to me, that had been always used to a hot
ance, or find some relations, that would be faithful to climate, and to countries where I could scarce bear any
me; and, accordingly, I prepared to go to England with clothes on, the cold was insufferable: nor, indeed, was
all my wealth, it more painful than surprising, t. i:co.,i I..t tto a.iys
In order to prepare things for my going home, I first before out of Old Castile, where tlhei- I t.:r w ,s not
(the Brazil fleet being just going away),resolved to give only warm, but very hot, and ly t., I-:l a
answers suitable to the just and faithful account of wind from the Pyrenean Mountains so very keen, so
things I had from thence; and, first, to the Prior of St. severely cold, as to be intolerable, and to endanger
Augustine, I wrote a letter full of thanks for his just benumbing and perishing of our fingers and toes.
dealings, and the offer of the eight hundred and Poor Friday was reall, tTri' li-c:.l %iii he saw the
seventy-two moidores which were undisposed of, which mountains all covered .' ith u.. ', .,oi l tlt old weather,
I desired might be given, five hundred to the monastery, which he had never seen or felt before in his life. To
and three hundred and seventy-two to the poor, as the mend the matter, when .-. .....: t,j Pamp':.'liou,, i con-
prior should *., ..- desiring the good padre's prayers tinued snowing with so nii U i i. i on: aoFi slO lrug that
for me, and ti ti.e k. I wrote next a letter of thanks the people said winter :'ai c: UL llfore its tin,- and
to my two trustees, with all the acknowledgment that the roads, which were ditfli.'!r bL..l'.,r, w,.rcr bo quite
so much justice and honesty called for: as for sending impassable; for, in a word, the snow lay in some places
them any present, they were far above having any too thL..k f..t' uL 1:. tr rri:. au-l i ;o- not hu'.l iloeftL eS
occasion of it. Lastly, I wrote to my partner, acknow- is th... i.- in thir L,:i tI Ii I, i. .a i'.. tlith i r\. njo going
lodging his industry in improving the plantation, and without being in la, .., ...r hb.i.u burl.-.l aliv.- C'.
his integrity in increasing the stock of the works; step. We stayed no less than tI unt duv- at Pam p,-
giving him instructions for his future government of luna; when (seeing the winter cou idog oD, andl D,
my part, according to the powers I ha.. lift wi;bh ny lik-lib:Loi of its being better, for it ;s bIe er-v.::t
oldpatron, to whom I desired him to s.ra..l wi atec-r.e ,'iiatr all over Europe that l.,iu kliuon ,', the
became due to me, till he should hear tr:.mi iime oir,: uinro.'; -'f man), I .I'..'.or' .. th it we Ash'.ii go away to
particularly; assuring him that it was mny ito-eti:- n.:.t Flu 'it i h,, and there take shipping to iBcr.le,,II.l, wi.: h
only to come to6him, but to settle myself there for the was a very little voyage. But, while I was considering
remainder of my life. To this I added a very handsome this, there came in four French gentlemen, who, haying
present of some Italian silks for his wife and two been stopped on the French side'of the passes, as we
daughters, for such the captain's son informed me he were on the Spanish, had found out a guide, who,
had; with two pieces of fine English broadcloth, the traversing the country near the head of Languedoc, had
best.I could get in Lisbon, five pieces of black baize, brought them over the mountains by such ways that they
L.l ; Fliu.l;rl; lace of a good value, were not much incommoded with the snow; for where
HE i',; tihi' 4 ttled my affairs, sold my cargo, and they met with snow in any quantity, they said it was
turned all my effects into good bills of exchange, my frozen hard enough to bear them and their horses. We
next difficulty was which way to go to England: I had sent for this guide, who told us he would undertake to
been accustomed enough to the sea, and yet I had a carry us the same way, with no hazard from the snow,
strange aversion to go to England by sea at that time; provided we were armed sufficiently to protect ourselves
arid though I could give no reason for it, yet the diffi- from wild beasts; for, he said, in these great snows, it
culty increased upon me so much, that though I was frequent for some wolves to show themselves at the
had once shipped my baggage in order to go, yet foot of the mountains, being made ravenous by want of
I altered my mind, and that not once, but two or food, the ground being covered with snow. We told him
three times. we were well enough prepared for such creatures as they
It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and were, if he would insure us from a kind of two-legged
this might be one of the reasons; but let no man slight wolves, which, we were told, we were in most danger
the strong impulses of his ownthoughts in cases of such from, especially on the French side of the mountains.
moment: two of the ships which I had singled out to go He satisfied us that there was no danger of that kind in
in, I mean more particularly singled out than any other, the way that we were to go; so we readily agreed to
having put my things on board one of them, and in the follow him, as did also twelve other gentlemen, with
other having agreed with the captain; I say two of these their servants, some French, some Spanish, who, as
ships miscarried; vizone was takenby theAlgerines,and I said, had attempted to go, and were obliged to come
the other was cast away on the Start, near Torbay, and back again.
all the people drowned, except three; so that in either Accordingly, we set out from Pampeluna with our
of those vessels I had been made miserable. guide, on the 15th of November; and, indeed, I was
Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old surprised, when, instead of going forward, he came
pilot, to whom I communicated everything, pressed me directly back with us on the same road that we came
earnestly not to go by sea, but either to go by land to from Madrid, about twenty miles; when, having passed
the Groyne, and cross over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, two rivers, and come into the plain country, we found
from whence it was but an easy and safe journey by land ourselves in. a warm climate again, where the country
to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover; or to go up to was pleasant, and no snow to be seen; but, on a sudden,
Madrid, and so all the way by land through France. In turning to his left, he approached the mountains another
a word, I was so prepossessed against my going by sea way; and though itis true the hills and precipices looked
at all, except from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to dreadful, yet he made so many tours, such meanders,
travel all the way by land; which, as I was not in haste, and led us by such winding ways, that we insensibly
and did not value the charge, was by much the pleasanter passed the height of the mountains without being much
way: and to make it more so, my old captain brought encumbered with the snow; and all on a sudden, he


showed us the pleasant and fruitful provinces of
Languedoc and Gascony, all green and flourishing,
though, indeed, at a great distance, and we had some
rough way to pass still.
We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it
snowed one whole day and a night so fast that we could
not travel; but he bid us be easy; we should soon be
past it all: we found, indeed, that we began to descend
every day, and to come more north than before; and so,
depending upon our guide, we went on.
It was about two hours before night, when, our guide
being something before us, and not just in sight, out
rushed three monstrous wolves, and after them a bear,
from a hollow way adjoining to a thick wood: two of
the wolves made at the guide, and, had he been far
before us, he-would have been devoured before we could
have helped him; one of them fastened upon his horse,
and the other attacked the man with such violence, that
he had not time or presence of mind draw his
pistol, but hallooed and cried out to us most lustily.
My man Friday being next me, I bade him ride up, and
see what was the matter. As soon as Friday came in
sight of the man, he hallooed out as loud as the other,
"O master! O master!" but like a bold fellow, rode
I.ri:..tly .,[. t- the poor man, and with his pistol shot the
wVrti rl tih I, ad that attacked him.
It iiias hr ly for the poor man that it was my man
Fri.Jy; for, having been used to such creatures in his
'country, he had no fear upon him, but went close up to
;m awl ,rhot him: whereas, any other of us would
l:-.u Lr.I: at a farther distance, and would perhaps
clU.: r Lave missed the wolf, or endangered shooting
.b,: nmun.
But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man
than i and indeed it alarmed all our company, when,
with the noise of Friday's pistol, we heard on both sides


the most dismal howling of wolves; and the noise,
redoubled by the echo of the mountains, appeared to us
as if there had been a prodigious number of them; and
perhaps there was not such a few as that we had no
cause of apprehension: however, as Friday had killed
this wolf, the other that had fastened upon the horse
l ft. him inn, .l; a.i .n fled, without doing him any
clnma;c. I:ipp'lv astened upon his head, where
thi. I"'.:,ses .:.f tle btrill. had stuck in his teeth. But
ti.., man rias most hirt; for the raging creature had
bit him twice, dnce in the arm, and the other time a
little above his knee; and though he had made some
defence, he was just tumbling down by the disorder of
his horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf.
It is easy to suppose that at the noise of Friday's
pistol we all mended our pace, and rode up as fast as
the way, which was very difficult, would give us leave,
to see what was the matter. As soon as we came clear
of the trees, which blinded us before, we saw clearly
what had been the case, and how Friday had disengaged
the poor guide, though we did not presently discern
what kind of creature it was he had killed,
But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in
such a surprising manner, as that which followed between
Friday and the bear,.which gave us all, though at first
we were surprised and afraid for him, the greatest diver-
sion imaginable. As a bear ist heavy, clumsy creature,
and does not gallop as the wolf does, who is swift and
light, so he has two particular qualities, which generally
are the rule of his actions; first, as to men, who are not
his proper prey (he does not usually attempt them,
except they first attack him, unless he be -excessively
hungry, which it is probable might now be the case, the
grbun.I being covered with snow), if you do not meddle
with him, he will not meddle with you; but then you
must take care to be very civil to him, and give him the

road, for he is a very nice gentleman; he will not go a
step out of his way for a prince; nay, if you are really
afraid, your best way is to look another way and keep
going on; for sometimes if you stop, and stand still,
and look steadfastly at him, he takes it for an affront;
but if you throw or toss anything at him, and it hits
him, though it were but a bit of stick as big as your
finger, he thinks himself abused, and sets all other
business aside to pursue his revenge, and will have
satisfaction in point of honour;- that is his first
quality: the next is, if'he be once affronted, he will
never leave you, night or day, till he has his re-
venge, but follows at a good round rate till he
overtakes you.
My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we
came up to him, he was helping him off his horse, for
the man was both hurt and frightened, when on a
sudden we espied the bear come out of the wood, and
a monstrous one it was, the biggest by far that ever I
saw. We were all a little surprised when we saw him;
but when Friday saw him, it was easy to see joy and
courage in the fellow's countenance : "0, 0, O !" says
Friday, three times, pointing to him; 0 master! you
give me te leave, me shakee te hand with him; me
make you good'laugh."
I was surprised to see the fellow so well pleased:
"You fool," says I, he will eat you up."-" Eatee me
up! eatee me up!" says Friday, twice over again; "me
eatee him up: me make you good laugh: you all stay
here, me show you good laugh." So down he sits, and
gets off his boots in a moment, and puts on a pair of
pumps (as we call the flat shoes- they wear, and which
he had in his pocket), gives my other servant his horse,
and with his gun away he flew, swift like the wind.
The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle
with nobody, till Friday coming pretty near, calls to

-.- .
-" -. -..-





him, aF if the bear could understand him, "Hark ye,
hark ye," says Friday, "me speakee with you." We
followed at a distance, for now being down on the
Gascony side of the mountains, we were entered a vast
forest, where the country was plain and pretty open,
though it had many trees in it scattered here and there.
Friday, who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came
up with him quickly, and took up a great stone, and
threw it at him, and hit him just on the head, but did
him no more harm than if he had thrown it against a
wall; but it answered Friday's end, for the rogue was
so void of fear that he did it merely to make the bear
follow him, and show us some laugh, as he called it.
As soon as the bear felt the blow, and saw him, he
turns about, and comes after him,. taking very long
strides, and shuffling on at a strange rate, so as would
have put a horse to a middling gallop; away runs Friday,
and takes his course as if he ran towards us for help; so
we all resolved to fire at once upon the beai, and deliver
my man; though I was angry at him heartily for bring-
ing the bear back upon us, when he was going about his
business another way; and especially I was angry that
he had turned the bear upon us and then ran away;
and I called out, You dog! is this your making us
laugh ? Come away, and take your horse, that we may
shoot the creature." He heard me, and cried out, No
shoot, no shoot; stand still, and you get much laugh:"
and as the nimble creature ran two feet for the bear's
one, he turned on a sudden on one side of us, and seeing
a great oak-tree fit for his purpose, he beckoned to us
to follow; and doubling his pace, he got nimbly up the
tree, laying his gun down upon the ground, at about
fve or six yards from the.bottom of the tree. The bear
soon came to the tree, and we followed at a distance:
the first thing he did, he stopped at the gun, smelled it,
but let it lie, and up he scrambles into the tree, climbing

like a cat, though so monstrous heavy. I was amazed
at the folly, as I thought it, of my man, and could not
for my life see anything to laugh at yet, till seeing the
bear get up the tree, we all rode near to him.
When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out
to the small end of a large branch, and the bear got
about half way to him. As soon as the bear got out to
that part where the limb of the tree was weaker,-
Ha!" says he to us, "now you see me teacher the bear
dance:" so he began jumping and shaking the bough,
at which the bear began to totter, but stood still, and
began to look behind him, to see how he should get
back; then, indeed, we did laugh heartily. But Friday
had not done with him by a great deal; when A,:.'.ug
him stand still, he called out to him again, as if bh: La. I
supposed the bear could speak English,." What, you
come no farther? pray you come farther;" so he left"
jumping-and shaking the tree; and the bear, just as if
he understood-what he said, did come a little farther;
then he began jumping again, and the bear stopped
again. 'We thought now was a good time to knock him
on the head, and called to Friday to stand still, and we
would shoot the bear: but he cried out earnestly, "0
pray 0 pray no shoot, me shoot by and then:" he
would have said by and by. However, to shorten the
story, Friday danced so much, and the bear stood so
ticklish, that we had laughing enough, but still we could
not imagine what the 'fellow would do; for first we
thought he depended upon shaking the bear off; and
we found the bear was too cunning.for that too; for he
would not go out far enough to be thrown down, but
clung fast with his great broad claws and feet, so that
we could not imagine what would be the end of it, and
what the jest would be at last. But Friday put us out
of doubt quickly: for seeing the bear cling fast to the
bough, and that he would not be persuaded to come
any farther, Well, well," says Friday, "you no come
farther, me go; you no come to me, me come to you ;"
and upon this he went out to the smaller end of the
bough, where it would bend with his weight, and gently
let himself down by it, sliding down the bough till he
came near enough to jump down on his feet, and away
he ran to his gun, took it up, and stood still. Well,"
says I to him, "Friday, what will you do now? Why
don't you shoot him ?"-" No shoot," says Friday,
"not yet; me shoot now, me no kill; me stay, give
you one more laugh: and, indeed, so he did; for when
the bear saw his enemy gone, he came back from the
bough where he stood, but did it very cautiously, looking
behind him every step, and coming backward till he got
into the body of the tree; then, with .the same hinder
end foremost, he came down the tree, grasping it with
his claws, and moving one foot at a time, very leisurely.
At this juncture, and just before he could set his hind
foot on the ground, Friday stepped up close to him,
clapped the muzzle of his piece into his ear, and shot
him dead. Then the rogue turned about to see if we
did not laugh; and wwhen he saw, we were pleased, by
our looks, he began to laugh very loud. "So we kill
bear in my country," -says Friday. ":So you kill them? "
says I; why, you have no guns."-" No," says he, no
gun, but shoot great much long arrow." -This was a
good diversion to us; but we were still in a wild place,
and our guide much hurt, and what to do we. hardly
knew; the howling of n,..l1-:- ran much in my head;
and, indeed, except t hL-: r,.. I once heard on the shore
of Africa, of which I have said something already,
I never heard anything that: filled me with so much
horror. -
These things, anl1 thL ppri.:.a-h .f rniiht -,ili-.1 r~ o.ff.
or else, as Friday v..:.1I.i b 1,. I,.l I q -'.*". l ,1 L rt irnl
have, taken the _. .:t rh I: Iv.:u:r: r.: .r.. tu, :, .:t,
which was worth F ,.I *b. L. r i ur .-,r I le.- !li, ..
togo, and our gui.i.- ..l i ; wo .: l.ft b.i,, iu.1
went forward on our journey.
The ground was still covered withii r.:.w, tL.:u l n.-.t
so deep and dangerous as on the r iu:.,t' i ,au.1' li
ravenous creatures, as we heard afterwards, were come
down into the forest- and' plain country, pressed by
hunger, to seek for food, and had done a great deal of
mischief in the villages, where they surprised the
country people, killed a great many:of their sheep and
horses, and some people too. We had one dangerous
place to pass, and our guide told'is;-if there were more
wolves in the country we should find them there; and
this was a small plain surrounded with woods on every
side, and a long narrow defile, or lane, which we were
to pass to get through the wood, and then we should
come to the village where we were to lodge. It w-as
within half an hour of sunset when we enters l the
wood, and a little after sunset when we entered the
plain: we met with .: tbri : u, tL, r -t. wood, except
that in a little plain "1tbin th 'w.: ,:..i. vhich was not
above two furlongs over, we saw five great wolves cross
the road, full speed, one after another, as if they had
been in chase of some prey, and had it in view;. they
took no notice of us, and were gone out of sight in a
few moments. Upoh this, our guide, who by the way
was but a faint-hearted fellow, bid us keep in a ready
posture, for he believed there were more wolves a-coming.


We kept our arms ready, and our eyes about us; but we
saw no more wolves till we came through that wood,
which was near half a league, and -entered the plain.
As soon as we came into the plain, we had occasion
enough to look about us: the first object we met. with
was a dead horse; that is to say, a poor horse which the
wolves had killed, and at least a dozen of them at work,
we could not say eating him, but picking his bones
rather; for they had eaten up all the flesh before. We
did not think fit to disturb them at their feast, neither
did they take much notice of us. Friday would have
let fly at them, but I would not suffer him by any
means; for I found we were like to have more business
u)on our hands than we were aware of. We had not half over the plain, when we began to hear the
wolves howl in the wood on our left in a frightful
manner, and (i.- -orijt after we saw about a hundred
coming on directly towards us, all in a body, and most of
them in a line, as regularly as an army drawn up by
experienced officers. I scarce knew in what manner to
receive them, but found to draw ourselves in a close line
was the only way; so we formed in a moment; but that
we might not have too much interval, I ordered that
only every other man should fire, and that the others,
who had not fired, should stand ready to give them a
second volley immediately, if they continued to advance
upon us; and then that those who had fired at first,
should not pretend to load their fusees again, but stand
ready, every one with a pistol, for we were all armed
with a fusee and a pair of pistols each man; so we were,
by this method, able to fire six volleys, half of us at a
time: however, at present we had no necessity; for
upon firing the first volley, the enemy made a full stop,
being terrified as well with the noise as with the fire.
Four of them being shot in the head, dropped; several
others were.wounded, and went bleeding off, as we could
see by the snow. I found they stopped, bfit did not
immediately retreat; whereupon, remembering that I
had been told that the fiercest creatures were terrified
at the voice of a man, I caused all the company to
halloo as loud as they could; and I found the notion
not altogether mistaken; for upon our shout they began
to retire and turn about. I then ordered a second volley
to be fired in their rear, which put them to the gallop,
and away they went to the woods. This gave us leisure
to charge our pieces again; and that we might lose no
time, we kept going; but we had but little more than
loaded our fusees, and put ourselves in readiness, when
we heard a terrible noise in the same wood on our left,
only that it was farther -onward, the same way we were
tc C...
T1 .' night was coming on, and the light began:to be
dusky, which made it worse on our side; but the noise
increasing, we could easily perceive that it was the
howling and yelling of those hellish creatures; and, on
a sudden, we perceived three troops of wolves, one on
our left, one behind us, and one in our front, so that we
seemed to be surrounded with them: however, as they
did not fall upon us, we kept our way forward, as fast
as we could make our horses go, which, the way being
very rough, was only a good hard trot. In this manner,
we came in view of the entrance of a wood, through
which we were to pass, at the farther side of the plain;
but we were greatly surprised, when coming nearer the
lane or pass, we saw a confused number of wolves
standing just at the entrance. On a sudden, at another
opening of the wood, we heard the noise of a gun,
and looking that way, out rushed a horse, with a
saddle and a bridle on him, flying like the wind, and
sixteen or seventeen wolves after him full speed: the
horse had the advantage of them; but as we supposed
that he could not hold it at that rate, we doubted not
but they would get up with him at last: no question
-but they did.
But here we had a most horrible sight; for, riding up
to the entrance where the horse came out, we found the
carcases of another horse and of two men, devoured by
the ravenous creatures; and one of the men was no
doubt the same whom we heard fire the gun, for tlhre
lay a gun just by him fired off; but as to the man, his
head and the upper part of his body were eaten up.
This filled us with horror, and we knew not what course
to take; but the creatures resolved us soon, for they
gathered about us presently, in hopes of prey; and I
verily believe there were three hundred of them. It
happened, very much to our advantage, that at the
entrance into the wood, but a little way from it, there
lay some large timber-trees, which had been cut down
the summer before, and I suppose lay there for carriage.
I drew my little troop in among those trees, and placing
ourselves in a line behind one long tree, I advised them
all to alight, and keeping that tree before us for a
breastwork, to stand in a triangle, or three fronts,
inclosing our horses in the centre. We did so, and it
was well we did; for never was a more furious" charge
than the creatures made upon us in this place. They
came on with a growling kind of noise, and mounted
the piece of timber, which, as I said, was our breast-
work, as if they were only rushing upon t o-rr pr y ; and
this fury of theirs, it seems, was principally occasioned

by their seeing our horses behind us. I ordered our
men to fire as before, every other man; and they took
their aim so sure'that they killed several-of the wolves
at the first volley; but there was a necessity to keep a
continual firing, for they came on like devils, those
behind pushing on those before.
When we had fired a second volley of our fusees, we
thought they stopped a little, and I hoped they would
have gone off, but it was but a moment, for others came
forward again; so we fired two volleys of our pistols;
and I believe in these four firings we had killed
seventeen or eighteen of them, and lamed twice as
many, yet they came on again. I was loath to spend
our shot too hastily; so I called my servant, not my
man Friday, for he was better employed, for, with the
greatest dexterity imaginable, he had charged my fusee
and his own while we were engaged,-but, as I said,
I called my c.ll.. r i, -.1 |., Lin, a horn of powder,
I bade him l, i tri ,:.i Ii...g tr-i liece of timber, and
let it be a large train. He did so, and had but just
time to get away, when the wolves came up to it, and
some got upon it, when I, snapping an uncharged pistol
close to the powder, set it on fire; those that were upon
the timber where scorched with it, and six or seven of
them fell, or rather jumped in among us with the force
and fright of the fire: we despatched these in a instant,
and the rest were so frightened with the light, which
the night-for it was now very near dark-made more
terrible, that they drew back a little; upon which I
ordered our last pistols to be fired off in one volley, and
after that we gave a shout; upon this the wolves turned
tail, and we sallied immediately upon near twenty lame
ones that we found struggling on the ground, and fell to
cutting them with our swords, which answered our ex-
pectation, for the crying and howling they made was
better understood by their fellows; so that they all fled
and left us.


~ --

We had, first and last, killed about threescore of them,
and had it been daylight we had killed many more. The
field of battle being thus cleared, we made forward
again, for we had still near a league to go. We heard
the ravenous creatures howl and yell in the woods as we
went several times, and sometimes we fancied we saw
some of them; but the snow dazzling our eyes, we were
not certain. In about an hour more we came to the
town where we were to lodge, which we found in a
terrible fright and all in arms; for, it seems, the night
before, the wolves and some bears had broke into the
village, and put them in such terror, that they were
obliged to keep guard night and day, but especially in
the night, to preserve their cattle, and indeed their
The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs
swelled so much with the rankling of his two wounds,
that he could go no farther ; so we were obliged to take
a new guide here, and go to Toulouse, where we found a
warm climate, a fruitful, pleasant country, and no snow,
no wolves,por anything like them; but when we told
our story atToulouse, they told us that it was nothing
but that was ordinary in the great forest at the foot of
the mountains, especially when the snow lay on the
ground; but they inquired much what kind of guide we
had got, who would venture to bring us that way in such
a severe season, and told us it was surprising we were
not all devoured. When we told them how we placed
ourselves and the horses in the middle, they blamed us
exceedingly, and told us it was fifty to one but we had
been all destroyed, for it was the sight of the horses
which made the wolves so furious, seeing their prey,
and that at other times they are really afraid of a gun,-
but being excessively hungry, and raging on that account,
the eagerness to come at the horses had made them

senseless of danger,-and that if we had not by the con.
tinued fire, and at last by the stratagem of the train of
powder, mastered them, it had been great odds but that
we had been torn to pieces; whereas had we been con-
tent to have sat still on horseback, and fired as horsemen,
they would not have taken the horses so much for their
own, when men were on their backs, as otherwise; and,
withal, they told us that at last, if we had stood alto-
gether, and left our horses, they would have been so
eager to have devoured them, that we might have come
off safe, especially having our fire-arms in our hands,
being so many in number. For my part, I was never so
sensible of danger in my life,-for, seeing above three
hundred devils come roaring and open-mouthed to
devour us, and having nothing to shelter us or retreat
to, I gave myself over for lost; and, as it was, I believe
I,shall never care to cross those mountains again;' I
think I would much rather go a thousand leagues by
sea, though I was sure to meet with a storm once a
I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in my
passage through France,-nothing but what other
travellers have given an account of with much more
advantage than I can. I travelled from Toulouse to
Paris, and without any considerable stay came to Calais,
and landed safe at Dover the 14th of January, after
having had a severe cold season to travel in.
I was now come. to the centre of my travels, and had
in a little time all my new-discovered estate safe about
me, the bills of exchange which I brought with me
having been very currently paid.
My principal guide and privy-counsellor was my good
ancient widow, who, in gratitude for the money I had
sent her, thought no pains too much nor care too great
to employ for me; and I trusted her so entirely with
everything, that I was perfectly easy as to the security
of my effects; and, indeed, I was very happy from the


beginning, and now to the end, in the unspotted
integrity of this good gentlewoman.
And now, having resolved to dispose of my plantation
in the Brazils, I wrote to my old friend at Lisbon, who
having offeredit to the two merchants, the survivors of
my trustees, who lived in the Brazils, they accepted
the offer and remitted thirty-three thousand pieces-
of-eight to a correspondent of theirs at Lisbon to pay
for it.
In return, I signed the instrument of sale in the form
which they sent from Lisbon, and sent it to my old man,
who sent me the bills of exchange for thirty-two
thousand eight hundred pieces-of-eight for the estate,
reserving the payment of one hundred moidores a year
to him (the old man) during his life, and fifty moidores
afterwards to his son for his life, which I had promised
them, and which the plantation was to make good as a
rent charge. And thus I have given the first part of
a life of fortune and adventure,-a life of Providence's
chequer-work, and of a variety which the world will
seldom be able to show the like of ;--beginning foolishly,
but closing much more happily than any part of it ever
gave me leave so much as to hope for.
Any one would think that in this state of complicated
good fortune I was past .running any more hazards,--
and so, indeed, I had been, if other circumstances had
concurred; but I was inured to a wandering life, had no
family, nor many relations; nor, however rich, had I
contracted fresh acquaintance; and though I had sold
my estate in the Brazils, yet I could not keep that
country out of my head, and had a great mind to be
upon the wing again; especially I could not resist the
strong inclination I had to see my island, and to know
if the poor Spaniards were in being there. My true
friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded me from it, and


so far prevailed with me, that for almost seven years they afterwards agreed, disagreed, united, separated,
she prevented my running abroad, during which time I and how at last the Spaniards were obliged to use
took my two nephews, the children of one of my violence with them,-how they were subjected to the
brothers, into my care; the eldest, having something of Spaniards,-how honestly the Spaniards used them; a
his own, I bred up as a gentleman, and gave him a history, if it were entered into, as full of variety and
settlement of some addition to his estate after my wonderful accidents as my own part,-particularly, also,
decease. The other I placed with the captain of a ship; as to their battles with the Caribbeans, who landed
and after five years, finding him a sensible, bold, enter- several times upon the island, and as to the improve-
prising young fellow, I put him into a good ship, and ment they made upon the island itself,-and how five
sent him to sea; and this young fellow afterwards of them made an attempt upon the mainland, and
drew me in, as old as I was, to further adventures brought away eleven men and five women prisoners, by
myself. which, at my coming, I found about twenty young
In the meantime, I in part settled myself here; for, children on the island.
first of all, I married, and that not either to my dis- Here I stayed about twenty days,-left them supplies
advantage or dissatisfaction, and had three children, of all necessary things, and particularly of arms,
two sons and one daughter; but my wife dying, and my powder, shot, clothes, tools, and two workmen, which I
nephew coming home with good success from a voyage had brought from England with me,-viz. a carpenter
to Spain, my inclination to go abroad, and his impor- and a smith.
tunity, prevailed, and engaged me to go in his ship as a Besides this, I shared the lands into parts with them,
private trader to the East Indies; this was in the year reserved to myself the property of the whole, but gave
J694. them such parts respectively as they agreed on; and
In this voyage I visited my new colony in the island, having settled all things with them, and engaged them
-saw my successors the Spaniards,-had the whole not to leave the place, I left them there.
story of their lives, and of the villains I left there,- From thence I touched at the Brazils, from whence I
how at first they insulted the poor Spaniards,-how sent a bark, which I bought there, with more people to

the island; and in it, besides other supplies, I sent seven
women, being such as I found proper for service, or for
wives to such as would take them. As to the English-
men, I promised to send them some women from
England, with a good cargo of necessaries, if they
would apply themselves to planting,--which I after-
wards could not perform. The fellows proved very
honest and diligent after they were mastered, and had
their properties set apart for them. I sent them, also
from the Brazils, five cows, three of them being big
with calf, some sheep, and some hogs, which when I
came again were considerably increased.
But all these things, with an account how three
hundred Caribbees came and invaded them, and ruined
their plantations, and how they fought with that
whole number twice, and were at first defeated, and
one of them killed; but, at last, a storm destroying
their enemies' canoes, they famished or destroyed
almost all the rest, and renewed and recovered the pos-
session of their plantation, and still lived upon the
All these things, with some very surprising incidents
in some new adventures of my own, for ten years more,
I shall give a farther account of in the Second Part of
my Story.


THAT homely proverb, used on so many occasions in
England, viz. "That what is bred in the bone will
not go out of the flesh," was never more verified than
in the story of my Life. Any one would think that
after thirty-five years' affliction, and a variety of un-
happy circumstances, which few men, if any, ever went
through before, ind after near seven years of peace and
enjoyment in the fulness of all things; grown old, and
when, if ever, it might be allowed me to have had ex-
perience of every state of middle life, and to know
which was most adapted to make a man completely
happy; I say, after all this, any one would have thought
that the native propensity to rambling, which I gave an
account of in my first setting out in the world to have
been so predominant in my thoughts, should be worn
out, and I might, at sixty-one years of age, have been a
little inclined to stay at home, and have done venturing
life and fortune any more.
Nay, farther, the common motive of foreign adven-
tures was taken away in me, for I had no fortune to
make; I had nothing to seek: if I had gained ten
thousand pounds, I had been no richer; for I had
already sufficient for me, and for those I had to leave
it to; and what I had was visibly increasing; for,having
no great family, I could not spend the income of what
I had, unless I would set up for an expensive way of
living, such as a great family, servants, equipage, gaiety,
and the like, which were things I had no notion of, or
inclination to; so that I had nothing, indeed, to -do but
to sit still, and fully enjoy what I had got, and see it
increase daily upon my hands. Yet all these things had
no effect upon me, or at least not enough to resist the
strong inclination I had to go abroad again, which hung
about me like a chronical distemper. In particular, the
desire of seeing my new plantation in the island, and
the colony I left there, ran in my head continually. I
dreamed of it all night, and my imagination ran upon
it all day: it was uppermost in all my thoughts; and
my fancy worked so steadily and strongly upon it, that
I talked of it in my sleep; in short, nothing could
remove it out of my mind: it even broke so violently
into all my discourses that it made my conversation
tiresome, for I could talk of nothing else; all my dis-
course ran into it, even to impertinence; and I saw it
I have often heard persons of good judgment say, that
all the stir that people make in the world about ghosts
and apparitions is owing to the strength of imagination,
and the powerful operation of fancy in their minds;
that there is no such thing as a spirit appearing, or a
ghost walking; that people's poring affectionately upon
the past conversation of their deceased friends, so
realizes it to them, that they are capable of fancying,
upon some extraordinary circumstances, that they see
them, talk to them, and are answered by them, when,
in truth, there is nothing but shadow and vapour in the
t hb;:. and they really know nothing of the matter.
F,:r my part, I know not to this hour whether there
are any such things as real apparitions, spectres, or
walking of people after they are dead; or whether there
Sis anything in the stories they tell us of that kind
more than the product of vapours, sick minds and
wandering fancies: but this I know, that my imagina-
tion worked up to such a height, and brought me into
such excess of vapours, or what else I may call it, that
I actually supposed myself often upon the spot, at my
old castle, behind the trees; saw my old Spaniard,

Friday's father, and the reprobate sailors I left upon the
island; nay, I fancied I talked with them, and looked at
them steadily, though I was broad awake, as at persons
just before me; and this I did till I often frightened
myself with the images my fancy represented to me.
One time, in my sleep, I had the villany of the three
pirate sailors so lively related to me by the first
Spaniard and Friday's father, that it was surprising:
they told me how they barbarously attempted to murder
all the Spaniards, and that they set fire to the provisions
they had laid up, on purpose to distress and starve
them; things that I never heard of, and that, indeed,
were never all of them true in fact: but it was so warm
in my imagination, and so realized to me, that, to the
hour I saw them, I could not be persuaded but that it
was or would be true: also how I resented it, when the
Spaniard complained to me; and how I brought them
to justice, tried them, and ordered them all three to be
hanged. What there was really in this shall be seen in
its place: for however I came to form such things in
my dream, and what secret converse of spirits injected
it, yet there was, I say, much of it true. I own that
this dream had nothing in it literally and specifically
true; but the general part was so true,-the base,
villanous behaviour of these three hardened rogues was
such, and had been 'so much worse than all I can de-
scribe, that the dream had too much similitude of the
fact; and as I would afterwards have punished them
severely, so, if I had hanged them all, I had been much
in the right, and even should have been justified both
by the laws of God and man.
But to return to my story: In this kind of temper I lived
some years; I had no enjoyment of my life, no pleasant
hours, no agreeable diversion, but what had something or
other of this in it; so that my wife, who saw my mind
wholly bent upon it, told me very seriously one night, that
she believed there was some secret, powerful impulse of
Providence upon me which had determined me to go
thither again; and that she found nothing hindered my
going, but my being engaged to a wife and children.
She told me that it was true she could not think of
parting with me: but as she was assured that if she
was dead it would be the first thing I would do; so, as
it seemed to her that the thing was determined above,
she would not be the only obstruction ; for, if I thought
fit and resolved to go- [Here she found me very
intent upon her words, and that I looked very earnestly
at her, so that it a little disordered her, and she stopped.
I asked her why she did not go on, and say out what she
was going to say? But I perceived that her heart was
too full, and some tears stood in her eyes.] "Speak out,
my dear," said I; "are you willing I should go ? "-
"No," says she; very affectionately, "I am far from
willing; but if you are resolved to go," says she," rather
than I would be the only hindrance, I will .:. t I you:
for though I think it a most preposterous Lu t.:.r one
of your years, and in your condition, yet, if it must be,"
said she, again weeping, "I would not leave you;
for, if it be of Heaven, you must do it; there is no
resisting it; and if Heaven make it your duty to go,
He will .also make it mine to go with you, or other-
wise dispose of me, that I may not obstruct it."
This affectionate behaviour of my wife brought me a
little out of the vapours, and I began to consider what
I was doing; I corrected my wandering fancy, and
began to argue with myself sedately what business
I had after threescore years, and after such a life.

of tedious sufferings and disasters, and closed in so
happy and easy a manner,-I say, what business had
I to rush into new hazards, and put myself upon
adventures fit only for youth and poverty to run into ?
With those thoughts I considered my new engage-
ment: that I had a wife, one child born, and my wife
then great with child of another; that I had all the
world could give me, and had no need to seek hazard
for gain; that I was declining in years, and ought
to think rather of leaving what I had gained than of
seeking to increase it: that as to what my wife had
said of its being an impulse from Heaven, and that
it should be my duty to go, I had no notion of that;
so, after many of these cogitations, I struggled with
the power of my imagination, reasoned myself out of
it, as I believe people may always do in like cases if they
will. In a word, I conquered it; composed myself with
such arguments as occurred to my thoughts, and which
my present condition furnished me plentifully with; and
particularly, as the most effectual method, I resolved
to divert myself with other things, and to engage in
some business that might effectually tie me up from any
more excursions'of this kind; for I found that thing
return upon me chiefly when I was idle, and had
nothing to do, nor anything of moment immediately
before me. To this purpose, I bought a little farm in
the county of Bedford, and. resolved to remove myself
thither. I had a little convenient house upon it, and
the land about it, I found, was capable of great im-
provement; and it was many ways suited to my in-
clination, which delighted in c~l.t;l;fn. managing,
and planting, and improving c.t Il.1 .n.i particu-
larly, being an inland country, I was removed from
conversing among sailors and things relating to the
remote parts of the world. I went down to my farm,
settled my family, bought ploughs, harrows, a cart,
waggon-horses, cows, and sheep, and, setting seriously
to work, became in one half-year a mere country gentle-
man. My thoughts were entirely taken up in managing
my servants, cultivating the ground, inclosing, planting,
&c.; and I lived,-as I thought, the most agreeable life
that nature was capable of directing, or that a man
always bred to misfortunes was capable of retreat-
.ing to.
I farmed upon my own land; I had no rent to pay,
was limited by no articles; I could pull up or cut down
as I pleased; what I planted was for myself, and what
I improved was for mny family; and having thus left off
the thoughts of wandering, I had not the least discom-
fort in any part of life as to this world. NowI thought
indeed that I enjoyed the middle state of life which my
father so earnestly recommended to me, and lived a
kind of heavenly life, something like what is described
by the poet, upon the subject of a country life:-
"Free from vices, free from care,
Age has no pain, and youth no snare."
But in the middle of all this felicity, one blow from
unseen Providence unhinged me at once; and not only
made a breach upon me inevitable and incurable, ut
drove me, by its consequences, into a deep relapse of
the wandering disposition, which, as I may say, being
born in my very blood, soon recovered its hold of me;
and, like the returns of a violent distemper, came on
with an irresistible force upon me. This blow was the
loss of my wife. It is not my business here to write an
elegy upon my wife, give a character of her particular


virtues, and make my court to the sex by.the flattery
of a funeral sermon. She was, in a few words, the stay
of all my affairs; the centre of all my enterprises; the
engine that, by her prudence, reduced me to that happy
compass I was in, from the most extravagant and
ruinous project that filled my head, and did more to
guide my rambling genius than a mother's tears, a
father's instructions, a friend's counsel, or all my own
reasoning powers could do. I was happyin listening to
her, and in being moved by her entreaties; and to the
last degree desolate and dislocated in the world by the
loss of her.
When she was gone, the world looked awkwardly
round me. I was as much a stranger in it, in my
thoughts, as I was in the Brazils, when I first went
on shore there; and as much alone, except for the
assistance of servants, as I was in my island. I knew
neither what to think, or what to do. I saw the world
busy around me: one part labouring for bread, another
part squandering in vile excesses or empty pleasures,
but equally miserable because the end they proposed
still fled from them; for the men of pleasure every
day surfeited of their vice, and heaped up work for
sorrow and repentance; and the men of labour spent
their strength in daily struggling for bread to maintain
the vital strength they laboured with: so living in a
daily circulation of sorrow, living but to work, and
working but to live, as if daily bread were the only end
of wearisome life, and a wearisome life the only occa-
sion of daily bread.
This put me in mind of the life I lived in my
kingdom, the island; where I suffered no more corn to
grow, because I did not'want it; and bred no more
goats, because I had no more use for them; where the
money lay in the drawer till it grew mouldy, and had
scarce the favour to be looked upon in twenty years.
All these things, had I improved them as I ought to
have done, and as reason and religion had dictated to
me, would have taught me to search farther than human
enjoyments for a full felicity; and that there was
something which certainly was the reason and end of
life, superior to all these things, and which was either
to be possessed, or at least hoped for, on this side of the
But my sage counsellor was gone; I was like a ship
without a pilot, that could only run afore the wind. My
thoughts ran all away again into the old affair; my head
was quite turned with the whimseys of foreign adven-
tures; and all the pleasant, innocent amusements of
my farm, my garden, my cattle, and my family, which
before entirely possessed me, were nothing to me, had
no relish, and were like music to one that has no ear, or
food to one that has no taste. In a word, I resolved to
leave off house-keeping, let my farm, and return to
London; and in a few months after I did so.
When I came to London, I was still as uneasy as I
was before; I had no relish for the place, no employ-
ment in it, nothing to do but to saunter about like an
Sidle person, of whom it may be said he is perfectly
useless in God's creation, and it is not one farthing's
matter to the rest of his kind whether he be dead or
slive.. This also was the thing which, of all circum-
stances of life, was the most my aversion, who had
been all my days used to an active life; and I would
often say to myself," A state of idleness is the very
dregs of life;" and, indeed, I thought I-was much more
suitably employed when I was twenty-six days making
a deal board.
It was now the beginning of the year 1693, when my
nephew, whom, as I have observed before, I had brought
up to the sea, and had made him commander of a ship,
was come home from a short voyage to Bilboa, being
the first he had made. He came to me, and told me
that some merchants of his acquaintance had been pro-
osing to him to go a voyage for them to the East
Indies, and to China, as private traders. "And now,
uncle," says he, if you will go to sea with me, I will
engage to land you upon your old habitation in the
island; for we are to touch at the Brazils."
Nothing can be a greater demonstration of a future
state, and of the existence of an invisible world, than
the concurrence of second causes with the ideas of things
which we form in our minds, perfectly reserved, and
not communicated to any in the world.
My nephew knew nothing how far my distemper of
wandering was returned upon me, and I knew nothing
of what he had in his thought to say, when that very
morning, before he came to me, I had, in a great deal
of confusion of thought, and revolving every part of my
circumstances in my mind, come to this resolution, that
I would go to Lisbon, and consult with my old sea-
captain; and if it was rational and practicable, I would
go and see the island again, and what was become of my
people there. I had pleased myself with the thoughts
of peopling thq place, and carrying inhabitants from
hence, getting a patent for the possession, and I know
not what; when, in the middle of all this, in comes my
nephew, as I have said, with his project of carrying me
thither in his way to the East Indies.
I paused a while at his words, and looking steadily at

him, What devil," said I, sent you on this unlucky
errand ?" My nephew stared as if he had been
frightened at first; but perceiving that I was not much
displeased with the proposal, he recovered himself. "I
hope it may not be an unlucky proposal, sir," says he,
"I dare say you would be pleased to see your new
colony there, where you once reigned with more felicity
than most of your brother monarchs in the world."
In a word, the scheme hit so exactly with my temper,
that is to say, the prepossession I was under, and of
which I have said so much, that I told him, in a few
words, if he agreed with the merchants, I would go
with him; but I told him I would not promise to go
any further than my own island. Why, sir," says he,
"you don't want to be left there. again, I hope ?"
"But," said I, can you not take me up again on your
return? He told me it would not be possible to do
so; that the merchants would never allow him to come
that way with a laden ship of subh value, it being a
month's sail out of his way, and might be three or
four. "Besides, sir, if I should miscarry," said he,
"and not return at all, then you would be just reduced
to the condition you were in before."
This was very rational; but we both found out a
remedy for it; which was, to carry a framed sloop on
board the ship, which being taken in pieces, might, by
the help of some carpenters, whom we agreed to carry
with us, be set up again in the island, and finished fit
to go to sea in a few days. I was not long resolving;
for, indeed, the importunities of my nephew joined so
effectually with my inclination, that nothing could
oppose me; on the other hand, my wife being dead,
none concerned themselves so much for me as to
persuade me to one way or the other, except my ancient
good friend the widow, who earnestly struggled with
me to consider my years, my easy circumstances, and
the needless hazards of a long voyage; and above all,
my young children. But it was all to no purpose: I
had an irresistible desire for the voyage; and I told
her I thought there was something so uncommon in the
impressions I had upon my mind, that it would be a
kind of resisting Providence if I should attempt to stay
at home; after which she ceased her expostulations,
and joined with me, not only in making provision for
my voyage, but also in settling my family affairs for my
absence, and providing for the education of my
children. In order to do this, I made my will, and
settled the estate I had in such a manner for my
children, and placed in such hands, that I was perfectly
easy and satisfied they would have justice done them,
whatever might befall me; and for their education, I
left it wholly to the widow, with a sufficient main-
tenance to herself for her care: all which she richly
deserved; for no mother could have taken more care
in their education, or understood it better: and as she
lived till 1 came home, I also lived to thank her
for it.
My nephew was ready to sail about the beginning of
January, 1694-5; and I, with my man Friday, went on
board, in the Downs, the 8th; having, besides that
sloop which I mentioned above, a very considerable
cargo of all kinds of necessary things for my colony;
which, if I did not find in good condition, I resolved to
leave so.
First, I carried with me some servants whom I pur-
posed to place there as inhabitants, or at least to set
on work there upon my account, while I stayed, and
either to leave them there or carry them forward, as
they should appear willing: particularly I carried two
carpenters, a smith, and a very handy, ingenious fellow,
who was a cooper by trade, and was also a general
mechanic; for he was dexterous at making wheels, and
hand-mills to grind corn, was a good turner, and a good
pot-maker; he also made anything that was proper to
make of earth or of wood: in a word, we called him
our Jack-of-all-trades. With these I carried a tailor,
who had offered himself to go a passenger to the East
Indies with my nephew, but afterwards consented to
stay on our new plantation, and who proved a most
necessary handy fellow as could be desired, in many
other businesses besides that of his trade; for, as
I observed formerly, necessity arms us for all
My cargo, as near as I can recollect, for I have not
kept account of the particulars, consisted of a sufficient
quantity of linen, and some English thin stuffs, for
clothing the Spaniards that I expected to find there;
and enough of them, as by my calculation, might com-
fortably supply them for seven years; if I remember
right, the materials I carried for clothing them, with
gloves, hats, shoes, stockings, and all such things as
they could want for wearing, amounted to above two
hundred pounds, including some beds, bedding, and
household stuff, particularly kitchen utensils, with pots,
kettles, pewter, brass, &c.; and near a hundred pounds
more in iron-work, nails, tools of every kind, staples,
hooks, hinges, and every necessary thing I could
think of.
I carried also a hundred spare arms, muskets and
fusees; besides some pistols, a considerable quantity of

shot of all sizes, three or four tons of lead, and two
pieces of brass cannon; and, because I knew not what
time and what extremities I was providing for, I carried
a hundred barrels of powder, besides swords, cutlasses,
and the iron part of some pikes and halberts. In short,
we had a large magazine of all sorts of stores; and I
made my nephew carry two small quarter-deck guns
more than he wanted for his ship, to leave behind if
there was occasion; so that when we came there, we
might build a fort, and man it against all sorts of
enemies. Indeed, I at first thought there would be
need enough for all, and much more, if we hoped to
maintain our possession of the island; as shall be seen
in the course of that story.
I had not such bad luck in this voyage as I had been
used to meet with; and, therefore, shall have the less
occasion to interrupt the reader, who, perhaps, may be
impatient to hear how matters went with my colony:
yet some odd accidents, cross winds, and bad weather,
happened on this first setting out, which made the
voyage longer than I expected it at first; and I, who
had never made but one voyage, my first voyage to
Guinea, in which I might be said to come back again, as
the voyage was at first designed, began to think the
same ill fate attended me; and that I was born to be
never contented with being on shore, and yet to be
always unfortunate at sea. Contrary winds first put
us to the northward, and we were obliged to put in at
Galway, in Ireland, where we lay wind-bound two-and-
twenty days: but we had this satisfaction with the
disaster, that provisions were here exceeding cheap, and
in the utmost plenty; so that while we lay here, we
never touched the ship's stores, but rather added to
them. Here, also, I took in several live hogs, and two
cows with their calves, which I resolved, if I had a good
passage, to put on shore in my island; but we found
occasion t6 dispose otherwise of them.
We set out on the 5th of'February from Ireland, and
had a very fair gale of wind for some days. As I re-
member, it might be about the 20th of February in the
evening late, when the mate, having the watch, came
into the round house, and told us he saw a flash of fire,
and heard a gun fired; and while he was telling us of it,
a boy came in, and told us the boatswain heard another.
This made us all run out upon the quarter-deck, where
for a while we heard nothing; but in a few minutes we
saw a very great light, and found that there was some
very terrible fire at a distance; immediately we had
recourse to our reckonings, in which we all agreed that
there could be no land that way in which the fire
showed itself, no, not for five hundred leagues, for it
appeared at W.N.W. Upon this, we concluded it must
be some ship on fire at sea; and as, by our hearing the
noise of guns just before, we concluded that it could not
be far off, we stood directly towards it, and were pre-
sently satisfied we should discover it, because the
further we sailed, the greater the light appeared;
though the weather being hazy, we could not perceive
anything but the light for a while. In about half an
hour's sailing, the wind being fair for us, L':..":!h not
much of it, and the weather clearing up a ltik :, we
could plainly discern that it was a great ship on fire in
the middle of the sea.
I was most sensibly touched with this disaster, though
not at all acquainted with the persons engaged in it: I
presently recollected my former circumstances, and
what condition I was in when taken up by the Portu-
guese captain; and how much more deplorable the cir-
cumstances of the poor creatures belonging to that ship
must be, if they had no other ship in company with
them. Upon this, I immediately ordered that five guns
should be fired, one soon after another, that, if possible,
we might give notice to them that there was help for
them at hand, and that they might endeavour to save
themselves in their boat; for though we could see the
flames of the ship, yet they, it being night, could see
nothing of us,
We lay by some time upon this, only driving as the
burning ship drove, waiting for daylight; when, on a
sudden, to our great terror, though we had reason to
expect it, the ship blew up in the air; and in a few
minutes all the fire was out, that is to say, the rest of
the ship sunk. This was a terrible, and indeed an
afflicting sight, for the sake of the poor men, who, I
concluded, must be either all destroyed in the ship, or
be in the utmost distress in their boat, in the middle of
the ocean; which, at present, as it was dark, I could not
see. However, to direct them as well as I could, I
caused lights to be hung out in all the parts of the ship
where we could, and which we had lanterns for, and
kept firing guns all the night long: letting them know
by this that there was a ship not far off.
About eight o'clock in the morning we discovered the
ship's boats by the help of our perspective glasses, and
found there were two of them, both thronged with
people, and deep in the water. We perceived they
rowed, the wind being against them ; that they saw our
ship, and did their utmost to make us see them. We
immediately spread our ancient, to let them know we
saw them, and hung a waft out, as a signal for them to


come on board, and then made more sail, standing
directly to them. In little more than half an hour, we
came up with them; and, took them all in, being no less
than sixty-four men, women, and children.; for there
were a great many passengers.
Upon inquiry, we found it was a French merchant
ship of three hundred tons, home-bound from Quebec.
The master gave us a long account of the distress of his
ship: how the fire began in the steerage, by the negli-
gence of the steersman; which, on his crying out for
help, was, as everybody thought, entirely put out; but
they soon found that some sparks of the first fire had
got into some part of the ship so difficult to come at
that they could not effectually quench it; and after-
wards getting in between the timbers, and within the
ceiling of the ship, it proceeded into the hold, and
mastered all the skill and all the application they were
able to exert.
They had no more to do then but to get into their
boats, which, to their great comfort, were pretty large;
being their long-boat, and a great shallop, besides a
small skiff, which was of no great service to them, other
than to get some fresh water and provisions into her,
after they had secured their lives from the fire. They
had, indeed, small hopes of their lives by getting into
These boats at that distance from any land; only, as they
said, that they thus escaped from the fire, and there was
a possibility that some ship might happen to be at sea,
and might take them in. They had sails, oars, and a
compass; and had as much provision and water as, with
sparing it so as to be next door to starving, might sup-
port them about twelve days, in which, if they had no
bad weather and no contrary winds, the captain said he
hoped he might get to the Banks of Newfoundland, and
might perhaps take some fish, to sustain them till they
might go on shore. But there were so many chances
against them in all these cases, such as storms, to, over-
set and founder them; rains and cold, to benumb and
perish their limbs; contrary winds, to keep them out
and starve them; that it must have been next to
miraculous if they had escaped.
In the midst of their consternation, every one being
hopeless and ready to despair, the captain, with tears in
his eyes, told me they were on a sudden surprised with
the joy of hearing a gun fire, and, after that four more;
these were the five guns: which I caused to be fired at
first seeing the light. This revived their hearts, and
gave them the notice, which, as above, I desired it should,
that there was a ship at hand for their help. It was
upon the hearing of these guns that they took down
their masts and sails: the sound coming from the wind-
ward, they resolved to lie by till morning. Some time
after this, hearing no more guns, they fired three
muskets, one a considerable while after another; but
thbse, the wind being contrary, we never heard. Some
time after that. again, they were still more agreeably
surprised with seeing our lights, and hearing the guns
which, as I have said, I caused to be fired all the rest of
the night. This set them to work with their oars, to
keep their boats ahead, at least, that we might the
sooner come up with them; and, at last, to their
inexpressible joy, they found we saw them.
It is impossible for me to express the several gestures,
the strange ecstasies, the variety of postures, which
these poor delivered people ran into, to express the joy
of their souls at so unexpected a deliverance. Grief
and fear are easily described: sighs, tears, groans, and
a very few motions of the head and hands, make up the
sum of its variety; hut an excess of joy, a surprise of
joy, has a thousand extravagances in it. There were
some in tears; some raging and tearing themselves, as
if they had been in the greatest agonies of sorrow;
some stark raving and downright lunatic; some ran
about the ship stamping with their feet, others wring-
ing their hands; some were dancing, some singing, some
laughing, more crying, many quite dumb, not able to
speak a word; others sick and vomiting; several swoon-
ing and ready to faint; and a few were crossing
themselves and giving God thanks.
I would not wrong them either; there might be many
that were thankful afterwards; but the passion was
too strong for them at first, and they were not able to
master it: they were thrown into ecstasies, and a kind
of frenzy, and it was but a very few that were composed
and serious in their joy. Perhaps, also, the case may
have some addition to it from the -particular circum-
stance of that nation they belonged to: I mean the
French, whose temper is allowed to be more. volatile,
more passionate, and more sprightly, and their
spirits more fluid than in other nations. I am
not philosopher enough to determine the cause; but
nothing I had ever seen before came up to it. The
ecstasies poor Friday, my trusty savage, was in, when
he found his.father in the boat, came the nearest to it;
and the surprise of the master and his two companions,
whom I delivered from the villains that set them on
shore in the island, came a little way towards it; but
'nothing was to compare to this, either that I saw in
Friday, or anywhere else in my life.
It is further observable, that these extravagances did

not show themselves in that different manner I have had saved some money -and some things of value in
mentioned, in different persons only; but all the their boats, caught hastily out of the flames, and if we
variety would appear, in a short succession of moments, would accept it, they were ordered to make an offer of
in one and the same person. A man that we saw this it all to us; they only desired to be set on shore some-
minute dumb, and, as it were, stupid and confounded, where in our way, where, if possible, they might get a
would the next minute be dancing and hallooinglike an passage to France. My nephew wished to accept their
antic; and the next moment be tearing his hair, or money at first word, and to consider what to do with
pulling his clothes to pieces, and stamping them under them afterwards; but I overruled him in that part, for
his feet like a madman; in a few moments after that I knew what it was to be set on shore in a strange
we would have him all in tears, then sick, swooning, country; and if the Portuguese captain that took me up
and, had riot immediate help been had, he would in at sea had served me so, and taken all I had for my
a few moments have been dead. Thus it was, not with deliverance, I must have starved, or have been as much
one or two, or ten or twenty, but with the greatest part a slave at the Brazils as I had been at Barbary, the mere
of them; and, if I remember right, our surgeon was being sold to a Mahometan excepted; and perhaps a
obliged to let blood of about thirty persons. Portuguese is not a much better master than a Turk, if
There were two priests among them: one an old man, not, in some cases, much worse.
and the other a young man; and that which was I therefore told the French captain that we had taken
strangest was, the oldest man was the worst. As soon them up in their distress,-it was true, but that it was
as he set his foot on board our ship, and saw himself our duty to do so, as we were fellow-creatures; and we
safe, he dropped down stone dead to all appearance. would desire to be so delivered, if we were in the like
Not the least sign of life could be perceived in him; our or any other extremity; that we had done nothing for
surgeon immediately applied proper remedies to recover them but what we believed they would have done for
him, and was the only man in the ship that believed he us, if we had.been in their case, and they in ours; but
was not dead. At length he opened a vein in his arm, that we took them up to -save them,-not to plunder
having first chafed and rubbed the part, so as to warm them; and it would be a most barbarous thing to take
it as much as possible. Upon this, the blood, which only that little from them which they had saved out of the
dropped at first, flowing freely, in three minutes after fire, and then set them on shore and leave them; that
the man opened his eyes; a quarter of an hour after this would be first to save them from death, and then
that he spoke, grew better, and after the blood was kill them ourselves: save them from drowning, and
stopped, he walked about, told us he was perfectly well, abandon them to starving; and, therefore, I would not
and took a dram of cordial which the surgeon gave him. let the least thing be taken from them. As to setting
About a quarter of an hour after this, they came run- them on shore, I toldthem, indeed, that was an exceed-
ning into the cabin to the surgeon, who was bleeding a ing difficulty to us, for that the ship was bound to the
French woman that had fainted, and told him the priest East Indies; and though we were driven out of our course
was gone stark'mad. It seems he had begun to revolve to the westward a very great way, and perhaps were
the change of his circumstances in his mind, and again directed by Heaven on purpose for their deliverance, yet
this put him into an ecstasy of joy. His spirits whirled it was impossible for us wilfully to change our voyage
about faster than the vessels could convey them, the on their particular account; nor could my nephew, the
blood grew hot and feverish; and the man was as fit for captain, answer it to the freighters, with whom he was
Bedlam as any creature that ever was in it. The under charter to pursue his voyage by way of Brazil;
surgeon would not bleed him again in that condition, and all I knew we could do for them was, to put our-
but gave him something to doze and put him to sleep; selves in the way of meeting with other ships homeward
which, after some time, operated upon him, and he bound from the West Indies, and get them a passage,
awoke next morning perfectly composed and well.' The if possible, to England or France.
younger priest behaved with great command of his The first part of the proposal was so generous and
passions, and was really an .example of a serious, well- kind, they could not but be very thankful for it; but
governed mind. At his first coming on board the ship, they were in very great consternation, especially the
he threw himself flat on his face, prostrating himself in passengers, at the notion of being carried away to the
thankfulness for his deliverance, in which I unhappily East Indies; they then entreated me, that as I was
and unseasonably disturbed him, really thinking he driven'so far to the westward before I met with them,.
had been in a swoon ; but he spoke calmly, thanked me, I would, at least, keep on the same course to the Banks
told me he was giving God thanks for his deliverance, of Newfoundland, where it was probable I might meet
begged'me to leave him a few moments, and that, next with some ship or sloop that they might hire to carry
to his Maker, he would give me thanks also. I was them back to Canada.
heartily sorry that I disturbed him, and not only left I thought this was but a reasonable request on their'
him, but kept others from interrupting him also. He part, and therefore I inclined to agree to it;. for,
continued in that posture about three minutes, or little indeed, I considered that to carry this whole company
more, after I left him, then came to tme, as he had said to the East Indies, would not only be an intolerable
he would, and with a great deal of seriousness and severity upon the--poor people, but would be ruining
affection, ".. r r-i i tears in his eyes, thanked me that our whole voyage, by devouring all our provisions; so I
had, under God, given him and so many miserable thought it no breach of charter-party, but what an un-
creatures their lives. I told him I had no need to tell foreseen accident made absolutely necessary to us, and
him to thank God for it rather than me, for I had seen in which no one could say we were to blame; for the
that he had done that already; but I added that it was laws of God and nature would have forbid that we
nothing but what reason and humanity dictated to all should refuse to take up two boats full of people in
men, and that we had as much reason as he to give such a distressed condition; and the nature of the
thanks to God, who had blessed us so far as to make us thing, as well respecting ourselves as the poor people,
the instruments of His mercy to so. many of His obliged us to set them on shore somewhere or other for
creatures. After this, the young priest applied himself their deliverance. So I consented that we would carry
to his countrymen, and laboured to compose them: he them to Newfoundland, if wind and weather would per-
persuaded, entreated, argued, reasoned withthem, and mit; and if not, that I would carry them to Martinico;
did his utmost to keep them within the exercise in the West Indies.
of their reason; and with some he had success, though The wind continued fresh easterly, but the weather
others were for a time out of all government of pretty good; and as the winds had continued in the
themselves. points between N.E. and S.E. a long time, we missed
I cannot help committing this to writing, as perhaps several opp.:.llii, .: s of sending them to France; for
it may be useful to those into whose hands it may fall, we met 6. :r.-rl iL p.. bound to Europe, whereof two
for guiding themselves in the extravagances of their were French, from St. Christopher's, but they had
passions; for if an excess of joy can carry men out to been so long beating up against the wind that they durst
such a length beyond the reach of their reason, what take in no passengers, for fear of wanting provisions for
will not the extravagances of anger,'rage, and a pro- the voyage, as well for themselves as for those they
evoked mind, carry us to? And, indeed, here I saw should take in; so we were obliged to go on. It was
reason for keeping an exceeding watch over our passions about a week after this that we made the Banks of New-
of every kind, as well those of joy and satisfaction, as foundland; where, to shorten my story, we put all our
those of sorrow an'd anger. French people on board a bark which they hired at sea
We were somewhat disordered by these extravagances there, to put them on shore, and afterwards to carry
among our new guests, for the first day; but after they them to France, if they could get provision to victual
had retired to lodgings provided for them as well as our themselves with. When I say all the French went on
ship would allow, and had slept heartily-as most of shore, I should remember, that the young priest-I spoke
them did, being fatigued and frightened-they were of, hearing we were bound to the East Indies, desired
quite another sort of people the next day. Nothing of to go the voyage with us, and to be set on shore on the
good manners, or civil acknowledgments for the kind- coast of Coromandel; which I readily agreed to, for I
ness shown them, was wanting; the French it is wonderfully liked the man, and had verygood reason, as
known, are naturally apt enough to exceed that way. will appear afterwards; also four of the seamen entered
The captain and one of the priests came to me the next themselves on our ship, and proved very useful fellows.
day, and desired to speak to me and my nephew; the From hence we directed our course for the West
commander began to consult with us what should be Indies, steering away S. and 8. by E. for about twenty
done with them; and, first, they told us we had saved days together, sometimes little or no wind at all; when
their lives, so all they had was little enough for a return we met with another subject for our humanity to work
to us for that kindness received. The captain said they upon, almost as deplorable as that before.


It was in latitude of 27 degrees 5 minutes north, on also forgot not the starving crew that were left on
the 19th day of March, 1694-5, when we spied a sail, our board, but ordered my own boat to go on board the ship,
course S.E. and by S. We soon perceived it was a large and, with my mate and twelve men, to carry them a
vessel, and that she bore up to us, but could not at first sack of bread, and four or five pieces of beef to boil.
know what to make of her, till, after coming a little Our surgeon charged the men to cause the meat to be
nearer, we found she had lost her maintopmast, fore- boiled while they stayed, and to keep guard in the cook-
mast, and bowsprit; and presently she fired a gun as a room, to prevent the men taking it to eat raw, or taking
signal of distress. The weather was pretty good, wind it out of the pot before it was well boiled, and then to
at N.N.W. a fresh gale, and we soon came to speak with give every man but a very little at a time: and by this
her. "We found her a ship of Bristol, bound home from caution he preserved the men, who would otherwise
Barbadoes, but had been blown out of the road at Bar- have killed themselves with that very food that was
badoes, a few days before she was ready to sail, by a given them on purpose to save their lives.
terrible hurricane, while the captain and chief mate At the, same time, I ordered the mate to go into the
were both gone on shore so that, besides the terror of great cabin, and see what condition the poor passengers
the storm, they were in an indifferent case for good were in; and if they were alive, to comfort them, and
mariners to bring the ship home. They. had been givethem whatrefreshment was proper: and the surgeon
already nine weeks at sea, and had met with another gave him a large pitcher, with some of the prepared
terrible storm, after the hurricane was over, which had broth which he had given the mate that was on board,
blown them quite out of their knowledge to the west- and which he did not question would restore them
ward, and in which they lost their masts. They told us gradually. I was not satisfied with this: but, as I said
they expected to have seen the Bahama-Islands, but above, having a great mind to see the scene of misery
were -then driven away again to the south-east, by a which I knew the ship itself would present me with, in
strong gale of wind at N.N.W., the same that blew now: a more lively manner than I could have it by report, I
and having no sails to work the ship with but a main took the captain of the ship as we now called him, with
course,.and a kind of square sail upon a jury foremast, me, andvwent myself, a little after, in their boat.
which they had set up, they could not lie near the wind, I found the poor men on board almost in a'tumult, to
but were endeavouring to stand away for the Canaries. get the victuals out of the boiler before it was ready;
But that which was worst of all,. was, that they were but my mate observed his orders, and kept a good guard
almost starved for want of provisions, besides the at the cook-room door, and the man he placed there,
fatigues they had undergone: their bread and flesh after using all possible persuasion to have patience, kept
were quite gone-they had not one ounce left in the them off by force; however he caused some biscuit
ship, and had had none for eleven days. The only re- cakes to be dipped in the pot, and softened with the
lief- they had was, their water was not all spent, and liquor of the meat, which they called brewis, and gave
they had about half a barrel of flour left; they had them every one some, to stay their stomachs, and told
sugar enough; some succades, or sweetmeats, they had them it was for their own safety that he was obliged to
at first, but these were all devoured; and they had seven give them but little at a time. But it was all in vain;
casks of rum. There was a youth, and his mother, and had I not come on board, and their own commander
and a- maid-servant on board, who were passengers, and and officers with me, and with good words, and some
thinking the ship -was ready to sail, unhappily came on threats also of giving them no more, I believe they
board the evening before the hurricane began; and would have broken into the cook-room by force, and
having no provisions of their own left, they were in a torn the meat out of the furnace-for words are indeed
more deplorable condition than the rest: for the seamen, of very small force to a hungry belly; however, we
being reduced to such an.extreme necessity themselves, pacified them, and fed them gradually and cautiously
had no compassion, we may be sure, for the poor at first, and the next time gave them more, and at last
passengers; and they were, indeed, in such a condition filled their bellies, and the men did well enough.
that their misery is very hard to describe. But the misery of the poor passengers in the cabin
I had perhaps not known this part, if my curiosity was of another nature, and far beyond the rest; for as,
had not led me (the weather being fair, and the wind first, the ship's company had so little for themselves, it
abated) to go on board the ship. The second mate, who was but too true that they bad at first kept them very
upon this occasion commanded the ship, had been on low, and at last totally neglected them: so that for six
board our ship, and he told me, they had three pas- or seven days it might be said they had really no food
sengers in the great cabin, that were -in a deplorable at all, and for several days before very little. -The poor
-condition: "Nay," says he, "I believe they are dead, mother,who, as the-men reported, was a woman of sense
for I have heard nothing of them for above two days: and good breeding, had spared all she could so affec-
and I was afraid to inquire after them," said he, for tionately for her son, that at last she entirely sank under
I had nothing to relieve them with." We immediately it; and when the mate of our ship went in, she sat upon
applied ourselves to give-them what relief we could the floor or deck,.with her back -up against the sides,
spare; and, indeed, I had so far overruled things with between two chairs, which were lashed fast, and her
my nephew, that I would have victualled them, though head sunk between her -shoulders like a corpse, though
we had gone away to Virginia, or any other part of the not quite dead. My mate said all he could to revive
coast df America, to have supplied ourselves; but there and encourage her, and with a spoon put some broth
was no necessity for that. into her mouth. She opened her lips, and lifted up one
But now they were in a new danger; for they wera hand, but could not speak: yet she understood what he
afraid of eating too much, even of that little we gave said, and made signs to him intimating that it was too
them. The mate, or commander, brought six men with late for her, but pointed to her child, as if she would have
him in his boat.; but these poor wretches looked like said they should take care of him. However, the mate,
skeletons, and were so weak that they could hardly sit who was exceedingly moved at the sight, endeavoured
to their oars. The mate himself was very ill, and half- to get ;some of the broth into her mouth, and, as he
starved; for he declared he had reserved nothing from said, got two or three spoonfuls down -though I question
the men, and went share and share alike with them in whether he could be sure of it or not: but it was too
every bit they ate. I cautioned him to eat sparingly, late, and she died the same night.
and set meat before him immediately, but he had not The youth, who was preserved at the price of his most
eaten three mouthfuls before he began to be sick and affectionate mother's life, was not so far gone; yet lhe
out of order; so he stopped awhile, and our surgeon lay in a cabin bed, as one stretched out, with hardly any
mixed him up something with some broth, which he life left in him. He had a piece of an old glove in his
said would be to him both food and physic; and after mouth, having eaten up the rest of it; however, being
he had taken it he grew better. In the mean tithe I young, and having more strength than his mother, the
forgot not the 'men. a ordered victuals to be given mate got something down his throat, and he began
them, and the poor creatures rather devoured than ate -sensibly to revive; though by giving him, some time
it: they were sq exceedingly hungry that they were in after, but two or three spoonfuls extraordinary, he was
a manner ravenous, and had no command of them- very sick, and brought it up'again
selves; and two of them ate with so much greediness, But the next care was the poor maid: shelay all along
that they were in danger of their lives the next morning, upon the deck, hard by her mistress, and just like one
The sight of these people's distress was very moving to that had fallen down in a fit of apoplexy, and struggled
me, and brought to mind what I had a terrible prospect for life. Her limbs were distorted; one of her hands
.of at my first coming on shore in my island, where I was clasped round the frame of the chair, and she
had not the least mouthful of food, or any prospect of gripped it so hard that we could not easily make her let
praouring any. besides the 'hourly apprehensions I had it go; her other arm lay over her head. and her feet lay
of being made the food of other creatures. But all the both together, set fast against the frame of the cabintable
while the mate was thus relating to me the miserable in short, she lay just like one in the agonies of death,
condition of the ship's company, I could not put out of and yet she was alive too. The poor creature was not
my thought the .story he had told me of the three poor' only starved with hunger, and terrified with the thoughts
creatures in the great cabin, viz. the mother, her son, of death, but,as the men told us afterwards,was broken-
and the maidservant, whom :he had heard nothing of hearted for her mistress, whom she saw dying for two
for two or three days, and whom, heseemed to confess, or three days before, and whom she loved most tenderly.
they had wholly neglected, their own extremities being We knew not what to do with this poor girl; for when
so great, by which I understood, that they had really our surgeon, who was a man of very great knowledge
given them no food at all, and that therefore they must and experience. had, with great application, recovered
be perished, and be all lying dead, perhaps, on the her as to life, he had her upon his hands still;- for she was
floor or deck of the cabin. little less than distracted for a considerable time after.
As I therefore kept the mate, whom we then called Whoever shall read these memorandums must be
captain, on board with his men. to refresh them, so I desired to consider, that visits at sea are'not like a

journey into the country, where sometimes people stay
a week or a fortnight at a place. Our business was to
relieve this distressed ship's crew, but not lie by for
them; and though they were willing to steer the same
course-with us for some days, yet we could carry no sail
to keep pace with a ship that had no masts. However,
as their captain begged of us to help:him to set up a
main-topmast, and a kind of a topmast to his jury-fore-
mast, we did, as it were, lie by him for three or four
days; and then, having given him five barrels of beef,
a barrel of pork, two hogsheads of biscuit, and a pro-
portion of peas, flour, and what other things we could
spare; and taking three casks of sugar, some rum, and
some pieces-of-eight from them for satisfaction, we left
them, taking on board with us, at their own earnest
request; the youth and the maid, and all their goods.
The young lad was about seventeen years of age, a
pretty, well-bred, modest, and sensible youth, greatly
dejected with the loss of his mother, and also at having
lost his father but a few months before, at Barbadoes.
He begged of the surgeon to speak to me to take him
out of the ship; for he said the cruel fellows had mur-
dered his mother: and indeed, so they had, that is to
say, passively; for they might have spared a small
sustenance to the poor helpless widow, though it had
been but just enough to keep her alive; but hunger
knows no friend, no relation, no justice, no right, and
therefore is remorseless and capable of no compassion.
The surgeon told him how far we were going, and that
it would carry him away from all his friends, and put
him, perhaps, in as bad circumstances almost as those
we found him in, that is to say, starving in the world.
He said it mattered not whither he went, if he was but
delivered from the terrible crew that he was among;
that the captain (by which he meant me, for he could
know nothing of my'nephew) had saved his life, and he
was sure would not hurt him; and as for the maid, he
was sure, if she came to herself, she would be very
thankful for it, let us carry them where we would.
The surgeon represented the case so affectionately to
me that I yielded, and we took them both on board,
with all their goods, except eleven hogsheads of sugar,
which could not be removed or come at; and as the
youth had a bill of lading for them, I made his com-
mander sign a writing, obliging himself to go, as soon
as he came to Bristol, to one Mr. Rogers, a merchant
there, to whom the youth said he was related, and to
deliver a letter which I wrote to him, and all the goods
he had belonging to the deceased widow; which I sup-
pose was not done, for I could never learn that the ship
came to Bristol, but was, as is most probable, lost at
sea; being in so disabled a condition, and so far from
any land, that I am of opinion the first storm she met
with afterwards, she might founder, for she was leaky,
and had damage in her hold, when we met with her.
I was now in the latitude of 190 32'. and had hitherto
a tolerable voyage as to weather, though at first, the
winds had been contrary. I shall trouble nobody with
the little incidents of wind, weather, currents, &c., on
the rest of our voyage; but, to shorten my story shall
observe that I came to my old habitation, the island, on
the 10th of April, 1695. It was with no small difficulty
that I found the place, for as I came to it, and went
from it, before, on the south and east side of the island,
coming from the Brazils, so now, coming in between the
main and the island, and having no chart for the coast,
nor any land-mark, I did not know it when I saw it,
or know whether I saw it or not. We beat about a
great while, and went on shore on'several islands in
the mouth of the great river Oronooque, but none for
my purpose; only this I learned by my coasting the shore,
that I was under one great mistake before, viz. that
the continent which I thought I saw from the island I
lived .in, was really no continent, but a long island, or
rather a.ridge of islands, reaching from one to the other
side of the extended mouth of that great river, and
that the savages who came to my island were not
properly those which we call Caribbees, but islanders,
and other barbarians of the same kind, who inhabited
nearer to our side than the rest.
In short. I visited several of these islands to no
purpose; some I found were inhabited, and some were
not; on one of them I found some Spaniards, and
thought they had lived there: but, speaking with them,
found they had a ..sloop 'lying in a small creek hard by.
and came thither to make salt, and to catch some pearl-
mussels if they could: but that they belonged to the
Isle de Trinidad. which lay farther north,in the latitude
of 10 and 11 degrees.
Thus coasting from one island to another, sometimes
with the ship, sometimes with the Frenchman's shallop,
which we had found a convenient boat, and therefore
kept her with their very good will, at length I came.
fair on the south side of my island, and presently knew
the very countenance of the place so I brought the to an anchor, broadside with the little creek
where my old habitation was. As soon as I saw the
place, I called for Friday, and.asked him if he knew
where he was ? He looked about a little, and presently
clapping his hands, cried, "0 yes, O there, O yes, O
there!" pointing to our old habitation, and fell dancing
and capering like a mad fellow; and I had much ado to


keep him f:om jumping into the sea, to swim ashore to
the place.
Well, Friday," says I, do you think we shall find
anybody here or no ? and do you think we shall see
your father ?" The fellow stood mute as a stock a good
while; but, when I named his father, the poor affec-
tionate creature looked dejected, and I could see the
tears run down his face very plentifully. "What is the
matter, Friday? are you troubled because you may see
your father?"-"No, no," says he, shaking his head,
" no see him more: no, never more see him again."
" Why so, Friday; how do you know that ?"-" O no,
0 no," says Friday, lie long ago die, long ago; he
much old man." Well, well, Fli.l.i,, you don't know;
but shall we see any one else tI. I The fellow, it
seems, had better eyes than I, and he points to the hill
just above my old house; and though we lay half a
league off, le cries out, We see, we see, yes, yes, we
see much man there, and there, and there," I looked,
but I saw nobody-no, not with a perspective glass,
which was, I suppose, because I could not hit the
place; for the fellow was right, as I found upon inquiry
the next day; and there were five or six men all
I.,tl,..r%, \ Ii stood to look at the ship, not knowing
1. i t I r tln i. of us.
As soon as Friday told me he saw people, I caused the
English ancient to be spread, and fired three guns, to
give them notice we were friends; and in about a
quarter of an hour after we perceived a smoke arise
from the side of the creek; so I immediately ordered
the boat out, taking Friday with me, and hanging out a

white flag, I went directly on shore, taking with me the ap
young friar I mentioned, to whom I had told the story isl
of my living there, and the manner of it, and every
particular, both of myself and those I left there, and we
who was, on that account, extremely desirous to go st(
with me. We had, besides, about sixteen men well ni
armed, if we had found any new guests there which we wa
did not know of; but we had no need of weapons. en
As we went on shore upon the tide of flood, near high wi
water, we rowed directly into the creek; and the first sa'
man I fixed my eye upon was the Spaniard whose life I tel
had saved, and whom I knew by his face perfectly well: ou
as to his habit, I shall describe it afterwards. I ordered ou
nobody to go on shore at first but myself; but there mi
was no keeping Friday in the boat, for the affectionate I
creature had spied his father at a distance, a good way an
< Ie S .,s';. "i:, where, indeed, I saw nothing of him; bu
andJ i tl,.: y ...I not let him go ashore, he would have th
jumped into the sea. He was no sooner on shore, but in
he flew away to his father, like an arrow out of a bow. ha
It would have made any man shed tears, in spite of the ve
firmest resolution, to have seen the first transports of wm
this poor fellow's joy when'he came to his father: how fit
he embraced him, kissed him, stroked his face, took him
up in his arms, set him down upon a tree, and lay down ha
by him; then stood and looked at him, as any one th
would look at a strange picture, for a quarter of an th
hour together; then lay down on the ground, and to
stroked his legs, and kissed them, and then got up sa:
again, and stared at him ; one would have thought the th
fellow bewitched. But it would have made a dog laugh po

.e next day to see how his passion ran out another
ay: in the morning, he walked along the shore, with
s father, several hours, always leading him by the
and, as if he had been a lady; and every now and then
Should come to the boat to fetch something or other
r him, either a lump of sugar, a dram, a biscuit, or
mething or other that was good. In the afternoon
s frolics ran another way; for then he would set the
d man down upon the ground, and dance about him,
ad make a thousand antic gestures; and all the while
! did this, he would be talking to him, and telling him
ie story or another of his travels, and of what had
ippened to him abroad, to divert him. In short, if
e same filial affection was to be found in Christians
their parents, in our part of the world, one would be
mpted to say there would hardly have been any need
the fifth commandment.
But this is a digression: I return to my landing. It
would be needless to take notice of all the ceremonies
.d civilities that the Spaniards received me with. The
st Spaniard, whom, as I said, I knew very well, was he
lose life I had saved. He came towards the boat,
tended by one more, carrying a flag of truce also; and
n not only did not know me at first, but he had no
oughts, no notion of its being me that was come, till
spoke to him. Senhor," said I, in Portuguese, do
lu not know me ? At which he spoke not a word,
it, giving his musket to the man that was with him,
rew his arms abroad, saying something in Spanish
at I did not perfectly hear, came forward and embraced
e, telling me he was inexcusable not to know that
face again that he had once seen, as
of an angel from Heaven, sent to save
his life: he said abundance of very
handsome things, as a well-bred
Spaniard always knows how, and then,
beckoning to the person that attended
him, bade him go and call out his
comrades. He then asked me if I
would walk to my old habitation,where
S he would give me possession of my
own house again, and where I should
see they had made but mean improve-
ments. I walked along with him, but,
S alas! I could no more find the place
than if I had never been there; for
they had planted so many-trees, and
placed them in such a position, so thick
and close to one another, and in ten
years' time they were grown so big,
that the place was inaccessible, except
by such windings and blind ways as
they themselves only, who made them,
could find.
I asked them what put them upon
all these fortifications: he told me I
would. say there was need enough of
I- it, when they had given me an account
how they had passed their time since
..'- their arriving in the island, especially
after they had the misfortune to find
that I was gone. He told me he could
not but have some pleasure in my good
fortune, when he heard that I was
gone in a good ship, and to my satis-
faction; and that he had oftentimes a
strong persuasion that one time or
other he should see me again, but
nothing that ever befell him in his
life, he said, was so surprising and
afflicting to him at first, as the dis-
pointment he was under when he came back to the
and and found I was not there.
As to the three barbarians (so he called them) that
re left behind, and of whom, he said, he had a long
ory to tell me, the Spaniards all thought themselves
uch better among the savages, only that their number
is so small: and," says he, had they been strong
ough, we had been all long ago in purgatory;" and
th that he crossed himself on the breast. But, sir,"
ys he, "I hope you will not be displeased when I shall
I you how, forced by necessity, we were obliged, for
r own preservation, to disarm them, and make them
r subjects, as they would not be content with being
moderately our masters, but would be our murderers."
answered, I was afraid of it when I left them there,
d nothing troubled me at my parting from the island
t that they were not come back, that I might have put
em in possession of everything first, and left the others
a state of subjection, as they deserved; but if they
d reduced them to it I was very glad, and should be
ry far from finding any fault with it: for I knew they
ere a parcel of refractory, ungoverned villains, and were
for any manner of mischief.
While I was thus saying this, the man came whom he
d sent back, and with him eleven more. In the dress
ey were in, it was impossible to guess what nation
ey were of; but he made all clear, both to them and
me. First he turned to me, and pointing to them,
id, "These, sir, are some of the gentlemen who owe
eir lives to you;" and then turning to them, and
inting to me, he let them know who I was; upon

which they all came up, one by one, not as if they had
been sailors, and ordinary fellows, and the like, but
really as if they had been ambassadors or noblemen, and
I a monarch or great conqueror: their behaviour was, to
the last degree, obliging and courteous, and yet mixed
with a manly, majestic gravity, which very well became
them; and, in short, they had so much more manners
than I, that I scarce knew how to receive their civilities,
much less how to return them in kind.
The history of their coming to, and conduct in, the
island, after my going away is so very remarkable, and
has so many incidents, which the former part of my
relation will help to understand, and which will, in most
of the particulars, refer to the account I have already
given, that I cannot but commit them, with great delight,
to the reading of those that come after me.
In order to do this as intelligibly as I can, I must go
back to the circumstances in which I left the island,and
the persons on it, of whom I am to'speak. And first, it
is necessary to repeat that I had sent away Friday's
father and the Spaniard (the two whose lives I had
rescued from the savages) in a large canoe to the main,
as I then thought it, to fetch over the Spaniard's com-
panions that he left behind him, in order to save them
from the like calamity that he had been in,.and in order
to succour them for the present; and that, if possible,
we might together find some way for our deliverance
afterwards. When I sent them away, I had no visible
appearance of, or, the least room- to hope for, my own
deliverance, any more than I had twenty years before,
-much less had I any forelmowledge of what afterwards
happened, I mean, of an English abip coming on shore
there to fetch me off; and it could not be but a very
great surprise to them, when they came back, not only
to find that I was gone, but to find three strangers left
on the spot, possessed of all that I had left behind me,
which would otherwise have been their own.
The first thing, however, which. I inquired into, that
I might begin where I left off, was of their own part;
and I desired the Spaniard would give me a particular
account of his voyage back to his countrymen with the
boat, when I sent him to fetch them over. He told me
there was little variety in that part, for nothing re-
markable happened, to them on the way; having had
very calm weather,. and a smooth sea. As for his
countrymen, it could not be doubted, he said, but that
they were overjoyed to see him (it seems he was the
principal man among them, the' captain of the vessel
they had been shipwrecked in having been dead some
time): they were, he said, the more surprised to see
him, because they knew that he was : ii. n into the
hands of the savages, who, they were satisfied, would
devour him, as they did all the rest of, their' prisoners;
that when he told them the story of his deliverance, and
in what manner he was furnished for carrying .them
away, it was like a dream to them, and their astonish-
ment,. he- said, was somewhat like that of Joseph's
brethren when he told them who he was and the story
of his exaltation in Pharaoh's court; but when he
showed them the arms, the powder, the ball, the pro-
visions, that he brought them for their journey or voyage,
they were restored to themselves, took a just share of
the joy of their deliverance, and immediately prepared
to come away with him;
Their first business was to get canoes: and in this
they were obliged not to stick so much upon the
honesty of it, but. to trespass upon their friendly
savages, and to borrow two large canoes, or periaguas,
on pretence of going out a fishing, or for pleasure. In
these they came away the next morning. It seems
they wanted' no time to get themselves ready; for they
had neither clothes, nor provisions, nor anything in the
world but what they had on them, and a few roots to
eat, of which they used to make their bread. They
were in all three weeks absent; and in that time,
unluckily for them, I had the occasion, offered for my
escape, as I mentioned in the other part, and to get off
from the island, leaving three of the most impudent,
hardened, ungoverned, disagreeable villains behind me,
that any man could desire to meet with-to the poor
Spaniards' great grief and disappointment.
The only just thing the rogues did was, that when the
Spaniards came ashore, they gave my letter to them, and
gave them provisions, and other relief, as I had ordered
them to do; also they gave them the long paper of
directions which I had left with them, containing the
particular methods which I t.-i... fc.r i i iu;"meig .;r. :r p,' rt.
of my life there; the --,Y I I.,.i: m. rIy lr;.i br.-.I I p
tame goats, and planted my corn; how I cured my grapes,
made my pots, and, in a word, -'thiahjci i did. All
this being written down, they &a7'. t':. tib Spaniards
(two of them understood English well enough): nor
did they refuse to accommodate the Spaniards with any-
thing else, for they agreed very well for some time.
They gave them an equal admission into the house, or
cave, and they began to live very sociably; and the
head Spaniard, who had seen pretty much of my methods,
together with Friday's father, managed all their affairs;
but as for the Englishmen, they did nothing but ramble
about the island, shoot parrots, and catch tortoises; and
when they came home at night, the Spaniards provided
their suppers for them.


The Spaniards would have been satisfied with this,
had the others but let them alone, which, however, they
could not find in their hearts to do long; but, like the
dog in the manger, they would not eat themselves,
neither would they let the others eat. The differences,
nevertheless, were at first but trivial, and such as are
not worth relating, but at last it broke out into open
war: and it began with all the rudeness and insolence
that can be imagined,-without reason, without provo-
cation, contrary to nature, and, indeed, to common
sense; and though, it is true, the first relation of it
came from the Spaniards themselves, whom I may call
the accusers, yet when I came to examine the fellows,
they could not deny a word of it.
But before I come to the particulars of this part, I
must supply a defect in my former relation; and this
was, I forgot to set down, among the rest, that just as
we were weighing the anchor to set sail,there happened
a little quarrel on board of our ship, which I was once
afraid would have turned to a second mutiny; nor was
it appeased till the captain, rousing up his courage, and
taking us all to his assistance, parted them by force, and,
making two of-the most refractory fellows prisoners,
he laid them in irons: and as they had been active in
the former disorders, and let fall some ugly, dangerous
words, the second time he threatened to carry them in
irons to England, and have them hanged there for
mutiny, and running away with the ship. This, it seems,
though the captain did not intend to do it, frightened
some other men in the ship;" and some of them had
put it into the head of the rest, that the captain only
gave them good words for the present, till they should
come to some English port, and that then they should

good while, be persuaded to give them any food: as for
the Spaniards, they were not yet come.
When the Spaniards came first on shore, the business
began to go forward: the Spaniards would have per-
suaded the three English brutes to have taken in their
countrymen again, that, as they said, they might be all
one family: but they would not hear of it, so the two
poor fellows lived by themselves; and finding nothing
but industry and application would make them live com-
fortably, they pitched their tents on the north shore of
the island, but a little more to the west, to be out of
danger of the savages, who always landed on the east
parts of the island Here they built them two huts, one
to lodge in, and the other to lay up their magazines and
stores in; and the Spaniards having given them some
corn for seed, and some of the peas which I had left
them, they dug, planted, and inclosed, after the pattern
I had set for them all, and began to live pretty well
Their first crop of corn was on the ground; and though
it was but a little bit of land which they had dug up
at first, having had but a little time, yet it was enough
to relieve them, and find them with bread and other
eatables; and one of the fellows being the cook's mate
of the ship, was very ready at making soup, puddings,
and such other preparations as the rice and the milk,
and such little flesh as they got, furnished him to do.
They were going on in this little thriving position
when the three unnatural rogues, their own countrymen
too, in mere humour, had to insult them, came and
bullied them, and told them the'island was theirs: that
the governor, meaning me, had given them the posses-
sion of it, and nobody else had any right to it; and
that they should build no houses upon their ground, un-

move hand or foot, they were dead men, and boldly
commanded them to lay down their arms. They did
not, indeed, lay down their arms, but seeing him so
resolute, it brought them to a parley, and they consented
to take their wounded man with thern and be gone:
and, indeed,it seems the fellow was 'fioubul'd sufficiently
with the blow. However, they,were much in the
wrong, since they had the advantage, that they did not
disarm them effectually, as they might have done, and
have gone immediately to the Spaniards, and given them
an account how the rogues had treated them; for the
three villains studied 'nothing but revenge, and every
day gave them some intimation that they did so.
But not, to crowd this part with an account of the
lesser part of'the.rogueries with which they plagued
them:continually night and day, it forced the two men
to such a desperation, that they resolved to fight them all
three, the first time they had a fair opportunity In
order to do this, they resolved to go to the castle (as
they called my old dwelling), where the three rogues
and the Spaniards all lived together at that time, in-
tending to have a fair battle, and the Spaniards should
stand by to see fair play: so they got up in the morning
before day and came to. the place, and called the
Englishmen by their names, telling a Spaniard that
answered, that they wanted to speak with them.
It happened that the day before, two of the Spaniards,
having been in the woods, had seen one of the two
Englishmen, whom, for distinction, I called the honest
men, and he had made a sad complaint to the
Spaniards of the barbarous usage they had met with
from their three countrymen, and how they had
ruined their plantation and destroyed their corn that



be all put into gaol, and tried for their lives. The mate
got intelligence of this, and acquainted us with it, upon
which it was desired that I, who still passed for a great
man among them, should go down with the mate, and
satisfy the men, and tell them that they might be
assured, if they behaved well the rest of the voyage, all
they had done for the time past should be pardoned. So
I went, and after passing my honour's word to them,
they appeared easy, and the more so when I caused
the two men that were in irons to be released and
But this mutiny had brought us to an anchor for that
night; the wind also falling calm next morning, we
i.-.i. l th. .-.,r i.:. men,.who had been laid in irons. iad
! .,.. i..,.. ,..i th. in a musket, and some other weapons
(what powder or shot they had we knew not), and had
taken the ship's pinnace, which was not yet hauled up,
and run away with her to their companions in roguery
on shore. As soon as we found this, I ordered the long-
boat on shore with twelve men and the mate, and away
they went to seek the rogues; but they could neither
find them nor any of the rest, for they all fled ihto the
woods when they saw the boat coming on shore. The
mate was once resolved, in justice to their roguery, to
have destroyed their plantations, burned all their house-
hold stuff and furniture, and left them to shift without
it; but having no orders, he let it all alone, left every-
thing as he found it, and, "..,- ;: ."- the pinnace away,
came on board without th.-j. u' ii., two men made
their number five; but the other three villains were so
much more wicked than they, that after they had been
two or three days together, they turned the two new-
comers out of doors to shift for themselves, and would
have nothing to do with them; nor could they, for a

less they would pay rent for them. The two men,
thinking they were jesting at first, asked them to come
in and sit down, and see what fine houses they were
that they had built, and to tell them what rent they
demanded; and one of them merrily said, if they were
the ground-landlords, he hoped, if they built.tenements
upon their land, andmade improvements, they would,
according to the custom of landlords, grant a long lease:
and desired they would get a scrivener to draw the
writings. One of the three, cursing and raging, told
them they should see they were not in jest: and going
to a little place at a distance, where the honest men had
made a fire to dress their victuals, he takes a firebrand,
and claps it to the outside of their hut, and set it on
fire: indeed, it would have been all burned down in a
few minutes, if one of the two had not run to the
fellow, thrust him away, and trod the fire out with his
feet, and that not without some difficulty too.
The fellow was in such a rage at the honest man's
thrusting him away, that he returned upon him, with a
pole he had in his hand, and had not the man avoided
the blow very nimbly, and run into the hut, he had
ended his days at once. His comrade, seeing the danger
they were both in, ran in after him, and immediately
they came both out with their muskets, and the man
that was first struck at with the pole knocked the fellow
down that began the quarrel with the stock of his mus-
ket, and that before the other two could come to help
him; and then, seeing the rest come at them, they
stood together, and presenting the other ends of their
pieces to them, bade them stand off.
The others had fire-arms with them too;. but one of
the two honest men,bolder than his comrade,and made
desperate by his danger, told them, if they offered to

they had laboured so hard to bring forward, and killed
the milch-goat, and their three kids, which was all they
had provided for their sustenance: and that if he and
his friends, meaning the Spaniards, did not assist them
again, they should be starved. When the Spaniards
came home at night, and they were all at supper, one of
them took the freedom to reprove the three Englishmen,
though in very gentle and mannerly terms, and asked
them how they could be so cruel, they being harmless,
inoffensive fellows: that they were putting themselves
in a way to subsist by their labour, and that it had cost
them a great deal of pains to bring things to such per-
fection as they were then in.
One of the Englishmen returned very briskly. What
had they to do there? that they came on shore without
leave; and that they should not plant or build upon the
island; it was none of their ground." Why." says
the Spaniard very calmly Seignior Inglese. they must
not starve." The Englishman replied, like a rough tar-
pauling, They might starve; they should not plant
nor build in that place." "But what must they do
then, seignior ?" said the Spaniard. Another of the
brutes returned, "Do? they should be servants, and
work for them." "But how can you expect that of
them ? says the Spaniard; they are not bought with
your money; you have no right to make them
servants." The Englishman answered," The island was
theirs; the governor had given it to them, and no man
had anything to do there but themselves;" and with
that be swore that he would go and burn all their new
huts; they should build none upon their land. Why,
seignior," says the Spaniard, by the same rule, we must
be your servants too." Ay," returned the bold dog,
"and so you shall, too, before we have done with you;",




mixing two or three oaths in the proper intervals of his
speech. The Spaniard only smiled at that, and made
him no answer. However, this little discourse had
heated them; and starting up, one says to the other (I
think it was he they called Will Atkins), Come, Jack,
let's go, and have t'other brush with them; we'll
demolish their castle,T'll warrant you; they shall plant
no colony in our dominions."
Upon this they were all trooping away, with every
man :. ..;i [.tol, and a sword, and muttered some in-
sol lit rfliiL' :-. ong themselves, of what they would do
to :h.' i n.r.l. too, when opportunity offered; but the
Spaniards, it seems, did not so perfectly understand
them as to know all the particulars, only that, in general,
they threatened them hard for taking the two English-
men's part. Whither they went or how they bestowed
their time that evening, the Spaniards said they did not
know; butit seems they wandered about the country
part of the night, and then lying down in the place which
Used my bower, they were weary and overslept
themselves. The case was this: they had resolved to
stay till midnight, and so to take the two poor men
when they were asleep, and as they acknowledged
afterwards, intended to set fire to their huts while they
'were in them, and either burn them there, or murder
them as they came out. As malice seldom sleeps very
sound, it was very strange they should not have been kept
awake. However, as the two men had also a design
upon them, as I have said, though a much fairer one
than that of burning or murdering, it happened, and
very luckily for them all, that they were up and gone
abroad, before the bloody-minded rogues came to their
When they came there, and found the men gone,
Atkins, who, it seems, was the forwardest man, called
out to his comrade, Ha, Jack, here's the nest, but the
birds are flown." They mused awhile, to think what
should be the occasion of their being gone abroad so
soon, and suggested presently that the Spaniards had
given them notice of it; and withthat they shook hands
and swore to one another that they would be revenged
of the Spaniards. As soon as they had made this bloody
bargain, they fell to work with the poor men's habita-
tion; they did not set fire, indeed, to anything, but
they pulled down both their houses, not leaving the
least stick standing, or scarce any sign on the ground
where they stood; they tore all their household stuff in
pieces, and threw everything about in such a manner,
that the poor men afterwards found some of their things
a mile off. When they had done this, they pulled up
all the young trees which the poor men had planted;
broke down an inclosure they had made to secure their
cattle and their corn; and, in a word, sacked and
plundered everything as completely as a horde of Tartars
would have done.
The two men were, at this juncture, gone to find them
out, and had resolved to fight them wherever they had
been though they were but two to three; so that, had
they met, there certainly would have been bloodshed
among them, for they were all very stout, resolute,
fellows, to give them their due.
But Providence took more care to keep them asunder
than they themselves could do to meet; for, as if they
had dogged one another, when the three were gone
thither, the two were here; and afterwards, when the
two went back to find them, the three were come to the
old habitation again: we shall see their different con-
duct presently. When the three came back like furious
creatures, flushed with the rage which the work they
had been about had put them into, they came up to the
Spaniards, and told them what they had done, by way
of scoff and bravado ; and one of them stepping up to
one of the Spaniards, as if they had been a couple
of boys at play, takes hold of his hat as it was
upon his head, and giving it a twirl about, fleering in his
face, says to him, "And you, Seignior Jack Spaniard,
shalljiave the same sauce, if you do not mend your
manners." The Spaniard, who, though a quiet, civil i
man, was as brave a man as could be, and, withal, a t
strong, well-made man, looked at him for a good while, t
and then, having no weapon in his hand, stepped gravely E
up to him, and, with one blow of his fist, knocked him t
down, as an ox is felled with a pole-axe; at which one t
of the rogues, as insolent as the first, fired his pistol at c
the Spaniard immediately: he missed his body, indeed, I
for the bullets went through his hair, but one of them
touched the tip of his ear, and he bled pretty much.
The blood made the Spaniard believe he was more hurt t
than he really was, and that put him into some heat, for e
before he acted all in a perfect calm ; but now resolving a
to go through with his work, he stooped, and taking the
fellow's musket whom lie had knocked down, was jnst p
going to shoot the man who had fired at him, when the v
rest of the Spaniards, being in the cave, came out, and p
calling to him not to shoot, they stepped in, secured the t
other two, and took their arms from them. I
When they were thus disarmed, and found they had
made all the Spaniards their enemies, as well as their p
own countrymen, they began to cool, and, giving -the t
Spaniards better words, would have had their arms t
again; but i,. .L.;air.l. considering the feud that w
,was between b. iu .i.l tll. other two Englishmen, and h

that it would be the best method they could take to
keep them from killing one another, told them they
would do them no harm; and if they would live peace-
ably, they would be very willing to assist and associate
with them as they did before; but that they could not
think of giving them their arms again, while they
appeared so resolved to do mischief with them to their
own countrymen, and had even threatened them all to
make them their servants.
The rogues were now quite deaf to all reason, and
being refused their arms, they raved away like madmen,
threatening what they would do, though they had no
fire-arms. But the Spaniards, despising their threaten-
ing, told them they should take care how they offered
any injury to their plantation or cattle; for if they did,
they would shoot them as they would ravenous beasts,
wherever they found them; and if they fell into their
hands alive, they should certainly be hanged. However,
this was far from cooling them, but away they went,
raging and swearing like furies. As soon as they were
gone, the two men came back, in passion and rage
enough also, though of another kind; for having been
at their plantation, and finding it all demolished and
destroyed, as above mentioned,it will easily be supposed
they had provocation enough. They could scarce have
room to tell their tale, the Spaniards were so eager to
tell them theirs; and it was strange enough to find that
three men should thus bully nineteen, and receive no
punishment at all.
The Spaniards, indeed, despised them, and especially,
having thus disarmed them, made light of their threat-
enings; but the two Englishmen resolved to have their
remedy against them, what pains soever it cost to find
them out. But the Spaniards interposed here too, and
told them, that as they had disarmed them, they could
not consent that they (the two) should pursue them with
fire-arms, and perhaps kill them. "But," said the
grave Spaniard, who was their governor, "we will en-
deavour to make them do you justice, if you will leave
it to us: for there is no doubt but they will come to us
again, when their passion is over, being not able to
subsist without our assistance. We promise you to
make no peace with, them without having a full satis-
faction for you; and, upon this condition, we hope you
will promise to use no violence with them, other than
in your own defence." The two Englishmen yielded to
this very awkwardly, and with great reluctance; but
the Spaniards protested that they did it only to keep
them from bloodshed, and to make them all easy at last.
For," said they, we are not so many of us; here is
room enough for us all, and it is a great pity that we
should not be all good friends." At length they did
consent, and waited for the issue of the thing,-living for
some days with the Spaniards; for their own habitation
was destroyed.
In about five days' time the vagrants, tired with
wandering, and almost starved with hunger, having
chiefly lived on turtles' eggs all that while, came back
to the grove; .and finding my Spaniard, who, as I have c
said, was the governor, and two more with him, walking t
by the side of the creek, they came up in a very sub- i
missive, humble manner, and begged to be received s
again into the society. The Spaniards used them civilly,
but told them they had acted so unnaturally to their o
countrymen, and so very grossly to themselves, that
they could not come to any conclusion without consult- l
ing the two Englishmen and the rest; but, however, v
they would go to them and discourse about it, and they a
should know in half an hour. It may be guessed that c
they were very hard put to it; for, as they were to wait t
this half-hour for an answer, they begged they would a
send them out some bread in the mean time, which r
they did, sending, at the same time, a large piece of e
goat's flesh, and a boiled parrot, which they ate very c
eagerly. r
After half an hour's consultation they were called in,
nd a long debate ensued, their two countrymen charg- e
ng them with the ruin of all their labour, and a design t
o murder them; all which they owned before, and a
therefore could not deny now. Upon the whole, the c
Spaniards acted the moderators between them; and as b
hey had obliged the two Englishmen not to hurt the h
bhree while they were naked and unarmed, so theynow s;
obliged the three to go and rebuild their fellows' two p
uts, one to be of the same and the other of larger a
dimensions than they were before ; to fence their ground h
Lgain, plant trees in the room of those pulled up, dig up b
;he land again for planting corn, and, in word, to restore w
everything to the same state as they found it, that is, w
as near as they could.
Well, they submitted to all this; and as they had ir
plenty of provisions given them all the while, they grew d
ery orderly, and the whole society began to live ol
pleasantly and agreeably together again; only that a1
hese three fellows could never be persuaded to work- to
mean for themselves-except now and then a little, Ib
ust as they pleased: however, the Spaniards told them '
lainly, that if they would but live sociablyand friendly ol
together, and study the good of the whole plantation, b
hey would be content to work for them, and let them fr
salk about and be as idle as they pleased; and thus; n
having lived pretty well together for a month or two, F

the Spaniards let them.have arms again, and gave them
liberty to go abroad with them as before.
It was not above a week after they had these arms,
and went abroad, before the ungrateful creatures began
to be as insolent and troublesome as ever: however, an
accident happened presently upon this, which en-
dangered the safety of them all, and they were obliged
to lay by all private resentments, and look to the
preservation of their lives.
It happened one night that the governor, the Spaniard
whose life I had saved, who was now the governor of
the rest, found himself very uneasy in the night, and
could by no means get any sleep: he was perfectly well
in body, only found his thoughts tumultuous; his mind
ran upon men fighting and killing one another; but he
was broad awake, and could not by any means get any
sleep; in short, he lay a great while, but, growing more
and more uneasy, he resolved to rise. As they lay,
being so many of them, on goat-skins laid thick upon
such couches and pads as they made for themselves,
so they had little to do, when they were willing to rise,
but to get upon their feet, and perhaps put on a coat,
such as it was, and their pumps, and they were ready
for going any way that their thoughts guided them.
Being thus got up, he looked out; but, being dark, he
could see little or nothing, and, besides, the trees which
I had planted, and which were now grown tall, inter-
cepted, his sight, so that he could only look up, and see
that it was a starlight night, and, hearing no noise, he
returned and lay down again; but to no purpose: he
could not compose himself to anything like rest; but
his thoughts were to the last degree uneasy, and he
knew not for what. Having made some noise with
rising and walking about, going out and coming in,
another of them waked, and asked who it was that was
up. The governor told him how it had been with him.
Say you so ? says the other Spaniard; such things
are not to, be slighted, I assure you; there is certainly
some mischief working near us;" and presently he
asked him, "Where are the Englishmen ?"-" They
are all in their huts," says lie, "safe enough." It seems
the Spaniards had kept possession of the main apart-
ment, and had made a plice for the three Englishmen,
who, since their last mutiny, were always quartered by
themselves, and could not come at the rest. "Well,"
says the Spaniard, -"there is something in it, I am
persuaded, from'my own experience. I am satisfied
that our. spirits embodied have a converse with, and
receive intelligence from, the spirits unembodied, and
inhabiting the invisible world; and this friendly notice
is given for our advantage, if we knew how to make use
of it. Come, let us go and look abrohd; and if we find
nothing at all in it to justify the trouble, I'll tell you a
story to the purpose, that shall convince you of the
justice of my proposing it."
They went out presently, to go up to the top of the
hill, where.I used to go; but they being strong, and a
good company, nor alone, as I was, used none of my
autions to go up by the ladder, and pulling it up after
;hem, to go up a second stage to the top, but were going
round through the grove, unwarily, when they were
surprised with seeing a light as of fire, a very little
vay from them, and hearing the voices of men, not of
ne or two, but of a great number.
Among the precautions I used to take on the savages
ending on the island, it was may constant care to pre-
vent them making the least discovery of there being
my inhabitant upon the place; and when by any
occasion they came i.:' u.:. w it they felt it so effectually
hat they that got ia ay 1' r r. scarce able to give any
account of it; for we disappeared as soon as possible;
lor did ever any that had seen me-escape to tell any one
,lse, except it was the three savages in our last en-
ounter, who jumped into the boat; of whom, I
mentioned, I was afraid they should go home and bring
nore help. Whether it was the consequence of the
scape of those men that so great a number came now
together, or whether they came ignorantly, and by
accident, on their usual bloody errand, the Spaniards
would not understand; but, whatever it was, it was their
business either to have concealed themselves, or not to
ave seen them at all, much less to have let the
avages have seen there were any inhabitants in the
lace; or to have fallen upon them so effectually as not
man of them should have escaped, which could only
ave been by getting in between them and their boats:
ut this presence of mind was wanting to them,
whichh was the ruin of their tranquillity for a great
We need not doubt but that the governor and the
ian with him, surprised with this sight, ran back imme-
iately and raised their fellows, giving them an account
f the imminent danger they were all in, and they
gain as readily took the alarm; but it was impossible
persuade them to stay close within where they were,
nt they must all run out to see how things stood.
Thile it was dark, indeed, they were safe, and they had
opportunity enough, for some hours, to.view the savages
y the light of three fires they had .made at a distance
'om one another; what they were doing they knew
ot, neither did they know what to do themselves.
or, first, the enemy were too many; and, secondly,


they did not keep together, but were divided into
several parties, and were on shore in several places.
The Spaniards were in no small consternation at this
sight; and, as they found that the fellows went
straggling all over the shore, they made no doubt but,
first or last, some of them would chop in upon their
habitation, or upon some other place where they would
see the token of inhabitants; and they were in great
perplexity also for fear of their flock of goats, which,
if they should be destroyed, would have been little less
than starving them. So the first thing they resolved
upon was to despatch three men away before it was
light, two Spaniards and one Englishman, to drive all
the goats away to the great valley where the cave was,
and, if need were, to drive them into the very cave
itself. Could they have seen the savages altogether in
one body, and at a distance from their canoes, they
were resolved, if there had been a hundred of them, to
attack them; but that could not be done, for they were
some of them two miles off from the other; and, as it
appeared afterwards, were of two different nations.
After having mused a great while on the course they
should take, they resolved, at last, while it was still
dark, to send the old savage, Friday's father, out as a
spy, to learn, if possible, something concerning them,-
as what they came for, what they intended to do, and
the like. The old man readily undertook it; and
stripping himself quite naked, as most of the savages
were, away he went. After he had been gone an hour
or two, he brings word that he had been among them
undiscovered,-that he found they were two parties,
and of two several nations, who had war with one
another, and had a great battle in their own country;
and that both sides having had several prisoners taken
in the fight, they were, by mere chance, landed all on
the same island, for the devouring their prisoners and
making merry; but their coming so by chance to the
same place had spoiled all their mirth,-that they were
in a great rage at one another, and were so near, that he
believed they would fight again as soon as daylight
began to appear; but he did not perceive that they had
any notion of anybody being on the island but them-
selves. He had hardly made an end of telling his
story, when they could perceive, by the unusual noise
they made, that the two little armies were engaged in
a bloody fight. Friday's father used all the arguments
he could to persuade our people to lie close, and not be
seen; he told them their safety consisted in .it, and
that they had nothing to do but lie still, and the
savages would kill one another to their hands, and then
the, rest would go away; and it was so to a tittle.
But it was impossible to prevail, especially upon the
Englishmen; their curiosity was so importunate, that
they must run out and see the battle; however, they
used some caution too: they did not go openly, just by
.their own dwelling, but went farther into the woods,
and placed themselves to advantage, where they might
securely see them manage the fight, and, as they thought,
not be seen by them; but the savages did see them, as
we shall find hereafter.
The battle was very fierce; and, if I might believe
the Englishmen, one of them said he could perceive
that some of them were men of great bravery, of
invincible spirits, and of great policy in guiding the
fight. The battle, they said, held two hours before they
could guess which party would be beaten ; but then that
party which was nearest our people's habitation began
to appear weakest, and after some time more, some of
them began to fly; and this put our men again into a
great consternation, lest any one of those that fled
should run into the grove before their dwelling for
shelter, and thereby involuntarily discover the place;
and that, by consequence, the pursuers would also do
the like in search of them. Upon this, they resolved
that they would stand armed within the wall, and who-
ever came into the grove, they resolved to sally out
over the wall and kill them, so that, if possible, not one
should return to give an account of it they ordered
also that it should be done with their swords, or
by knocking them down with the stocks of their
muskets, but not by shooting them, for fear of raising
an alarm by the noise.
As they expected it fell out; three of the routed
army fled for life, and crossing the creek, ran directly
into the place, not in the,least knowing whither they
went, but running as into a thick wood for shelter. The
scout they kept to look abroad gave notice of this with-
n,. -';ih this comforting addition, that the conquerors
i nA:t' pursued them, or seen which way they were
gone; upon this, the Spaniard governor, a man of
humanity, would not suffer them to kill the three
fugitives, but sending three men out by the top of the
hill, ordered them to go round, come in behind them,
and surprise and take them prisoners; which was done.
The residue of the conquered people fled to their
canoes, and got off to sea; the victors retired, made no
pursuit, or very little, but drawing themselves into a
body together, gave two great screaming shouts, most
likely by way of triumph--and so the fight ended: the
same day, about three o'clock in the afternoon, they also
marched to their canoes. And thus the Spaniards had
the island again free to themselves, their fright was

Over, and' they saw no savages for several years
After they were-all gone, the Spaniards came out of
their den, and viewing the field of battle, they found
about two-and-thirty men dead on the spot; some were
killed with long arrows, which were found sticking in
their bodies; but most of them were killed with great
wooden swords, sixteen or seventeen of which they'
found in the field of battle, and as many bows, with a
great many arrows. These swords were strange, un-
wieldy things, and they must be very strong men that
used them; most of those that were killed with them
had their heads smashed to pieces, as we may say, or,
as we call it in English, their brains knocked out, and
several their arms and legs broken; so that it is evident
they fight with inexpressible rage and fury. We found
npt one man that was not stone dead; for either they
stay by their enemy till they have killed him, or they
carry all the wounded men that are not quite dead away
with them.
This deliverance tamed our ill-disposed Englishmen
for a great while; the sight had filled them with horror,
and the consequences appeared terrible to the last
degree, especially upon supposing that some time or
other they should fall into the hands of those creatures,
who would not only kill them as enemies, but for food,
as we kill our cattle and they professed to me that the
thoughts of being eaten up like beef and mutton,
though it was supposed it was not to be till they were
dead, had something in it so horrible that it nauseated
their very stomachs, made them sick when thby thought
of it, and filled their minds with such unusual terror,
that they were not themselves for some weeks after.
This, as I said, tamed even the three English brutes I
have been speaking of; and for a great while after they
were tractable, and went about the common business of
the whole society well enough,-planted, sowed, reaped,
and began to be all naturalized to the country. But
some time after this they fell into such simple measures
again, as brought them into a great deal of trouble.
They had taken three prisoners, as I observed; and
these three being stout young fellows, they made them
servants, and taught them to work for them, and as
slaves they did well enough; but they did not take.
their measures as I did by my man Friday, viz. to begin
with them upon the principle of having saved their
lives, and then instruct them in the rational principles
of life; much less did they think of teaching them
religion, or attempt civilizing and reducing them by
kind usage and affectionate arguments. As they gave
them their food every day, so they gave them their
work too, and kept them fully employed in drudgery
enough; but they failed in this by it, that they never
had them to assist them and fight for them as I had my
man Friday, who was as true to me as the very flesh
upon my bones.
But to come to the family part. Being all now good
friends-for common danger, as I said above, had
effectually reconciled them-they began to consider
their general circumstances; and the first thing that
came under consideration was whether, seeing the
savages particularly haunted that side of the island, and
that there were more remote and retired parts of it
equally adapted to their way of living, and manifestly
to their advantage, they should not rather move their
habitation, and plant in some more proper place for
their safety, and especially for the security of their
cattle and corn.
Upon this, after long debate, it was concluded that
they would not remove their habitation; because that,
some time or other, they thought they might hear from
their governor again, meaning me; and if I should send
any one to seek them, I should be sure to direct them
to that side, where, if they should find the place de-
molished, they would conclude the savages had killed us
all, and we were gone, and so our supply would go too.
But, as to their corn and cattle, they agreed to remove
them into the valley where my cave was, where the
land was as proper for both, and where, indeed, there
was land enough. However, upon second thoughts,
they altered one part of their resolution too, and re-
solved only to remove part of their cattle thither, and
plant part of their corn there; so that if one part was
destroyed, the other might be saved. And one part of
prudence they luckily used: they never .trusted those
three savages whih. they had taken prisoners with
knowing anything of the plantation they had made in
that valley, or of any cattle they had there, much less
of the cave at that place, which they kept, in case of
necessity, as a safe retreat; and thither they carrl..1
also the two barrels of powder, which I had sent
at my coming away. They resolved, however, not to.
change their habitation; yet, as I had carefully covered
it first with a wall or fortification, and then with a
grove of trees, and as they were now fully convinced
their safety consisted entirely in their being concealed,
they set to work to cover and conceal the place yet
more effectually than before, For this purpose, as I
planted trees, or rather thrust in stakes, which in time
all grew up to be trees, for some good distance before
the entrance into my apartments, they went on in the
same manner, and filled up the rest of that whole space

of ground from the trees I had set quite down to the
side of the creek, where I landed my floats, and even
into the very ooze where the tide flowed, not so muclh
as leaving any place to land, or any sign that there had
been any landing thereabouts,-these stakes also being
of a wood very forward to grow, they took care to have
them generally much larger and taller than those which
I had planted. As they grew apace, they planted them
so very thick and close together, that when they had
been three or four years grown, there was no piercing
with the eye any considerable way into the plantation.
As for that part which I had planted, the trees were
grown as thick as a man's thigh, and among them they
had placed so many other short ones, and so thick, that
it stood like a palisade a quarter of a mile thick, and it
was next to impossible to penetrate it, for a little dog
could hardly get between the trees, they stood so close.
But this was not all; for they did the same by all the
ground to the right hand and to the left, and round
even to the side of the hill, leaving no way, not so
much is for themselves, to come out but by the ladder
placed up to the side of the hill, and then lifted up, and
placed again from the first stage up to the top: so that
when the ladder was taken down, nothing but what had
wings or witchcraft to assist it could come at them.
This was excellently well contrived: nor was it less
than what they afterwards found occasion for, which
served to convince me, that as human prudence has the
authority of Providence to justify it, so it has doubtless
the direction of Providence to set it to work; and if we
listened carefully to the voice of it, I am persuaded we
might prevent many of the disasters which our lives
are now, by our own negligence, subjected to.
They lived two years after this in perfect retirement,
and had no more visits from the savages. They had,
indeed, an alarm given them one morning, which put
them into a great consternation; for, some of the
Spaniards being out early one morning on the west side,
or end, of the island (which was that end where I never
went, for fear of being discovered), they were sur-
prised with seeing above twenty canoes of Indians just
coming on shore. They made the best of their way
home in hurry enough; and giving the alarm to their
comrades, they kept close all that diy and the next,
going out only at night to make their observation; but
they had the good luck to be undiscovered, for wherever
the savages went, they did not land that time on the
island, but pursued some other design.
And now they had another broil with the three
Englishmen; one of whom, a most turbulent fellow,
being in a rage at one of the thi ... .I.ti. .. slaves, be-
cause the fellow had not done -..*,, .t bii ight which
he bid him do, and seemed a little untractable in his
showing him, drew a hatchet out of a frog-belt, which
he wore by his side, and fell upon the poor savage, not
to correct him, but to kill him. One of the Spaniards,
who was by, seeing him give the fellow a barbarous cut
with the hatchet, which he aimed at his head, but struck
into his shoulder, so that he thought he had cut the
poor creature's arm off, ran to him, and, entreating him
not to murder the poor man, placed himself between
him and the savage, to prevent the mischief. The
fellow, being enraged the more at this, struck at the
Spaniard with his hatchet, and swore he would serve
him as he intended to serve the savage; which the
Spaniard perceiving, avoided the blow, and with a
shovel which he had in his hand (for they were all
working in the field about their corn land) knocked the
brute down. Another of the Englishmen, running up
at the same time to help his comrade, knocked the
Spaniard down; and then two Spaniards more came in
to help their man, and a third Englishman fell in upon
them. They had none of them any fire-arms or any
other weapons but hatchets and other tools, except this
third Englishman; he had one of my rusty cutlasses,
with which he made at the two last Spaniards, and
wounded them both. This fray set the whole family
in an uproar, and more help coir ;i in. tlln, ith
three Englishmen prisoners. Thl i,'rt I.n-t.a.'u a,
what should be done with them? il .y l .ad L.,..:u so
often mutinous, and were so veiy fi.r...-., s, k-..".r t.
and so idle withal, they knew not li.,t ....., ti:. ti. t i
wilb them, for they were mischievous to the highest
degree, and cared not what hurt they did to any man;
so that, in short, it was not safe to live with them.
The Spaniard who was governor told them, in so
many words, that if they had been of his own country,
he would have hanged them; for all laws and all
governors were to preserve society, and those who were
.l~,oii':u:'i to the sa:iety ought to be expelled out of it I
hb.,t a, tNev were Englishmen, and that it was to the
generous kindness of an Englishman that they all owed
their preservation and deliverance, he would use them
with all possible len'ty, and would leave them to the
judgment of the other two Englishmen, who were
their countrymen. One of the two honest Englishmen
stood up, and said they desired it might not be left to
them,-" For," says he, "I am sure we ought to sentence
them to the gallows;" and with that he gives an account
how Will Atkins, one of the three, had proposed to
have all the five Englishmen join together, and murder
all the Spaniards when they were in their sleep.


When the Spanish governor heard this, he calls to but little. Indeed, having all-their plantation to form,
Will Atkins, "How, Seignior Atkins, would you murder they had a great deal of work upon their hands; and
us all? What-have you to say to that?" The hardened when they came to make boards and pots, and such
villain was so far from denying it, that he said it was things, they were quite out of their element, and could
true, and swore they would do it still before they had make nothing of it; therefore, when the rainy season
done with them. "Well, but Seignior Atkins," says came on, for want of a cave in the earth they could not
the Spaniard, "what -have we done to you, that you will Jkeep their grain dry, and it was in great danger of
kill us? What would you get by killing us? And spoiling. This humbled them.much: so they came and
what must we do to prevent you killing us ? Must we begged the Spaniards to help them, which they very
kill you, or you kill us? Why will you put us to the readily did; and in four days worked a great hole in
necessity of this, '. c'i...r Atkins? says the Spaniard the side of the hill for them, big enough to secure their
very calmly, and -riiilirig Seignior Atkins was in such corn and other things from the rain: but it was a poor
a rage at the Spaniard's making a jest of it, that, had place at best, compared to mine, and especially as mine
he not been held by three men, and withal had no was then,for the Spaniards had greatly enlarged it, and
weapon near him, it was thought he would have at- made several new apartments in it.
tempted to kill the Spaniard in the middle of all the About three quarters of a year after this separation,
company. This hare-brained carriage obliged them to a new frolic took these rogues, which, together with the
consider seriously what was to be done. The two former villany they had committed, brought mischief
Englishmen, and the Spaniard who saved the poor enough upon them, and had very near been the ruin of
savage, were of the opinion that they should hang one the whole colony. The three new associates began, it
of the three, for an example to the rest, and that seems, to be weary of the laborious life they led, and
Particularly it should be he that had twice attempted that without hope of bettering their circumstances: and
to commit murder with his hatchet; indeed, there was a whim took them that they would make a voyage to
some reason to believe he had done it, for the poor the continent,from whence the savages came, and would
savage was in such a miserable condition with the try if they could seize upon some prisoners among the.
wound he had received, that it was thought he could natives there, and bring them home, so as to make them
not live. But the governor Spaniard still said no; it do the laborious part of the work for them.
was an Englishman that had saved all their lives, and The project was not so preposterous, if they had gone
he would.never consent to put an Englishman to death, no further. But they did nothing, and proposed nothing,
though he had murdered half of them; nay, he said if but had ejt er mischief in the design, or mischief in the
he had been killed himself by an Englishman, and had event. .Ad if I may.give my opinion, they seemed to
time left to speak, it should be that they should pardon be under a blast from Heaven; for if we will not allow
him. a visible curse to pursue visible crimes, how shall we
This was so positively insisted on by the governor .reconcile the events of things with the Divine justice ?
Spaniard, that there was no gainsaying it; and as It was certainly an apparent vengeance on their crime
merciful counsels are most apt to prevail, where they of mutiny and piracy that brought them to the state
are so earnestly pressed, so they all came into it; but they were in; and they showed not the least remorse
then it was to be considered what should be done to for the crime, but added new villanies to it, such as the
keep them from doing'the mischief they designed; for piece of monstrous cruelty of wounding a poor slave
all agreed, governor and all, that means were to be used because he did not, or perhaps could not, understand to
for preserving the society from .1],,,..1 After a long do what he directed, and to wound him in such a manner
debate, it was agreed that they -1...1.I 1..1 disarmed, and as made him a cripple all his life, and in a place where
not permitted to have either gun, powder, shot, sword, no surgeon or medicine could be had for his cure; and,
or any weapon; that they should be turned out of the what was. still worse, the' intentional murder, for such
society, and left to live where they would, and how they to be sure it was, as was afterwards the formed design
would, by themselves; but that none of the rest, either they all laid, to murder the Spaniards in cold blood, and
Spaniards or English, should hold any kind of converse in their sleep.
with them, or have anything to do with them: that The three fellows came down to the Spaniards one
they should be forbid to come within a certain distance morning, and in very humble terms desired to be
of the place where the rest dwelt; and if they offered admitted to speak with them. The Spaniards very
to commit any disorder, so as to spoil, burn, kill, or readily heard what they had to say, which was this:-
destroy any of the corn, ..ri-.c- buildings, fences, or that they were tired of living in the manner they did,
cattle belonging to the ... .. -, I .- should die without and that they were not handy enough to make the
mercy, and would shoot them wherever they could find necessaries they wanted, and that having no help, they
them. found they should be starved; but if the Spaniards
The humane governor, musing upon the sentence, would give them leave to take one of the canoes which
considered a little upon it; and turning to the two they came over in, and give them armsand ammunition
honest Eni]-lihm-n ~mid, "Hold; you mu r. il...: ii-, i proportioned to their defence, they would go over to the
it will .. I...._ t.: ,1. y can raise cornand c ,tl- ..t I ,-- r main, and seek their fortunes,and so deliver them from
own, and they must not starve; we must therefore thetrouble of supplyingthem with any other provisions.
allow them provisions." So he caused to 1 .. 1..:.1. i..f The Spaniards were glad enough to get rid of them,
they should have a proportion of corn ,o'.- I! IIn. 11 ... but very honestly represented to them the certain
last them eight months, and for seed to sow, by which destruction they were running into; told them they
time they might be supposed to raise some of their had suffered such hardships upon that very spot, that
own; that -i!. 7 ~i.. .i have six milch-goats, four he- they could, without any spirit of prophecy, tell them
goats, and six kids given them, as well for present sub- they would be starved or murdered, and bade them con-
sistence as for a store; and that they should have tools sider of it. The men replied audaciously, they should
given them for their work in the fields, but they should be starved if they stayed here, for they could not work,
have none of these tools or provisions, unless they and would not work, and they could but be starved
would swear solemnly that they would not hurt or abroad; and if they were murdered, there was an end
injure any of the Spaniards with them, or of their of them; they had no wives or children to cry after
fellow Englishmen. them; and, in short, insisted importunately upon their
Thus they dismissed them the society, and turned demand, declaring they would go, whether they gave
them out to shift for themselves. They went away them any arms or no.
sullen and refractory, as neither content to go away nor The Spaniards told them, with great kindness, that
to stay; but, as there was no remedy, they went, pre- if they were resolved to go, they should not go like
tending to go and choose a place where they would naked men, and be in no condition to defend themselves;
settle themselves; and some provisions were given them, and that though they could ill spare fire-arms, not having
but no weapons. About four or five days after, they enough for themselves, yet they would let them have
came again for some victuals, and gave the governor an two muskets, a pistol, and a cutlass, and each man a
account where they had pitched their tents, and marked hatchet, which they thought was sufficient for them. In
themselves out a habitation and plantation; and it was a word, they accepted the offer; and having baked bread
a very convenient place indeed, on the remotest part of enough to serve them a month given them, and as much
the island, N.E., much about the place where I provi- goat's flesh as they could eat while it was sweet, with a
dentially landed in my first voyage, when I was driven great basket of dried grapes, a pot of fresh water, and a
out to sea, in my foolish attempt to sail round the island, young kid alive, they boldly set out in the canoe for a
Here they built themselves two handsome huts, and voyage over the sea, where it was at least forty miles
contrived them in a manner like my first habitation, broad. The boat, indeed, was a large one, and would
being close under the side of a hill, having some trees very well have carried fifteen or twenty men,and there-
growing already on three sides of it, so that by planting fore was rather too big for them to manage; but as they
'others, it would be very easily covered from the sight, had a fair breeze and flood-tide with them, they did well
unless narrowly searched for. They desired some dried enough. They had made a mast of a long pole, and a
.'u.t--k;i for beds and covering, which were given sail of four large goat-skins dried, which they had sewed
: -l.r.i,; ~i.i upon giving their words that they would not or laced together; and away they went merrily enough.
disturb the rest, or injure any of their plantations, they The i,.'; .1r .-. .1i i after them "eBon veyajo;" and no
gave them hatchets, and what other tools they could man .I Hi.-... .t ..t seeing them any more.
spare; some peas, barley, and rice, for sowing; and, in The Spaniards were often saying to one another, and
a word, anything they wanted except arms and ammu- to the two honest Englishmen who remained behind,
nation. how quietly and comfortably they lived, now these
They lived in this separate condition about six months, three turbulent fellows were gone. As for .their coming
and had got in their first harvest, though the quantity again, that was the remote ti.r, I,.:-.r. their thoughts
was but small,the parcel of land they had planted being that could be imagined; v hl,, I. 1i....1, after two-and-

twenty: days' absence, one of the Englishmen, being
abroad upon his planting-work, sees three strange men
coming-towards him at a distance, with guns upon their
Away runs the Englishman, frightened and amazed,
as if he was bewitched, to the governor Spaniard, and
tells him they were all undone, for there were strangers
upon the island, but he could not tell who they were.
The Spaniard, pausing a while, says to him, "How do
you mean-you cannot tell who? Tneyare -in: .. '.:.
to be sure."-"No, no," says the ,. t!,.:y
are men in clothes, with arms." "1. t'.:l, 3ays the
Spaniard, hy are you so concerned ? If they are not
savages, they must be friends; for there is no Christian
nation upon earth but will do us good rather than
harm." While they were debating thus, came up the
three Englishmen, and, standing without the wood,
which was new planted, hallooed to them. They pre-
sently knew their voices, and so all the wonder ceased.
But now the admiration was turned upon another ques-
tion:-what could be the matter, and what made them
come back again ?
It was not long before they brought the men in, and
inquiring where they had been, and what they had been
doing, they gave them a full account of their voyage in
a few words:-that they reached the land in less than
two days, but finding the people alarmed at their coming;
and preparing with bows and arrows to fight them, they
dirst not go on shore, but sailed on to the northward
six or seven hours, till they came to a great opening, by
which they perceived that the land which they saw from
our island was not the main, but an island: that upon
entering that opening of the sea,they saw another island
on the right hand north, and several more west; and
being resolved to land somewhere, they put over to one
of the islands which lay west, and went boldly on shore;
that they found the people very courteous and friendly
to them; and they gave them several roots and some
dried fish, and appeared very sociable; and that the
women, as well as the men, were very forward to supply
them with anything they could get for them to eat, and
brought it to them a great way upon their heads. They
continued here four days, and inquired, as well as they
could of them by signs, what nations were this way, and
that way, and were told of several fierce and terrible
people that lived almost every way, who, as they made
known by signs to them, used to eat men; but, as for
themselves, they said, they never ate men or women, ex-
cept only such as they took in the wars; and then they
owned they made a great feast, and ate their prisoners.
The Englishmen inquired when they had had a feast
of that kind; and they told them about two i.'..... ij.
pointing to the moon and to two fingers; and t Li It t!,-.r
great king had two hundred prisoners now, which he
had taken in his war, and they were feeding them to
make them fat for the next feast. The Englishmen
seemed mighty desirous of seeing those prisoners; but
the others mistaking them, thought they were desirous
to have some of them to carry away for their own
eating. So they beckoned to them, pointing to the
setting of the sun, and then to the rising; which was
to signify that the next morning at sunrising they would
bring some for them; and, accordingly, the next morning
they brought down five women and eleven men, and
gave them to the Englishmen, to carry with them on
their voyage, just as we would bring so many cows and
oxen down to a seaport town to victual a vessel.
As brutish and barbarous as these fellows were at
home, their stomachs turned at this sight, and they did
not know what to do. To refuse the prisoners would
have been the highest affront to the savage gentry that
could be offered them, and what to do with them they
knew not. However; alter some debate, they resolved
to accept of them, and, in return, they gave the savages
that brought them one of their hatchets, an old key, a
knife, and six or seven of their bullets; which, though
they did not understand their use, they seemed particu-
larly pleased with; and then tying the poor creatures'
hands behind them, they dragged the prisoners into the
boat for our men.
The Englishmen were obliged to come away as soon
as they had them, 'or else, they that gave them this
noble present would certainly have expected that they
should have workwith them, have killed two or
three of them the next morning, and, perhaps, have
invited the donors to dinner. But having taken their
leave, with all the respect and thanks that could well
pass between people, where, on either side, they under-
stood not one word they could say, they put off with
their boat, and came back towards the first island;
where, when they arrived, they set eight of their
prisoners at liberty, there being too many of them for.
their occasion. In their voyage they endeavoured to
have some communication with their prisoners: but it
was impossible to make them understand anything.
Nothing they could say to them, or give them, or do
for them, but was looked upon as going to murder them.
They first of all unbound them ; but the poor creatures
screamed at that, especially the women, as if they had
just felt the knife at their throats; for they immediately
concluded they were unbound on purpose to be killed.
If they gave them anything to eat, it was the same


thing; they then concluded it was for fear they should(
sink in flesh, add so not be fat enough to kill. If the1
looked at one of them more particularly, the part
presently concluded it was to see whether he or sh(
was fattest, and fittest to kill first; nay, after they hac
,brought them quite over, and began to use them kindly
and treat them well, still they expected every day. tc
make a dinner or supper for their new masters.
When the three wanderers had given this unaccount-
able history or journal of their voyage, the Spaniard
asked them where their new family was; and being told
that they had brought them on shore, and put them intc
one of their huts, and were come up to beg some victuals
for them, they (the' Spaniards) and the other two
Englishmen, that is to say, the whole colony, resolved
to go all down to the place and see them; and did so,
Sand Friday's father with them. When they came into
the hut, there they sat, all bound; for when they had
brought them on shore, they bound their hands, that they
might not take the boat and male their escape; there, I
say, they sat, all of them stark naked. First, there were
three comely fellows, well shaped, with straight limbs,
about-thirty to thirty-five years of age; and five women,
whereof two might be from thirty to forty, two more
about four or five-and-twenty; and the fifth, a tall,
comely maiden, about seventeen. The women were well-
favoured, agreeable persons, both in shape and features,
only tawny; and two of them, had they been perfect
white, would have passed for very handsome women,
even in London, having pleasant countenances, and of a
very modest behaviour; especially when they came
afterwards to be clothed and dressed, though that dress
was very indifferent, it must be confessed.
The sight, you may be sure, was something uncouth
to our Spaniards, who were, to give them a just
character, men of the most calm, sedate tempers, and
perfect good humour, that ever I met with; and, in
particular, of the most modesty: I say, the sight was
very uncouth, to see three naked men and five naked
women, all together bound, and in the most miserable
circumstances that human nature could be supposed to
be, viz. to be expecting every moment to be dragged
out, and have their brains knocked out, and then to be
eaten up like a calf that is killed for a dainty.
The first thing they did was to cause the old Indian,
Friday's father, to go in, and see first if lie knew any
of them, and then if he understood any of their
speech. As soon as the old man came in, he looked
seriously at them, but knew none of them; neither
could any of them understand a word he said, or a sign
he could make, except one of the women. However,
this was enough to answer the end, which was to satisfy
them that the men into whose hands they were fallen
were Christians; that they abhorred eating men or
women : and that they might be sure they would not
be killed. As soon as they were assured of this, they
discovered such a joy, and by such awkward gestures,
several ways, as is hard to describe; for it seems they
were of several nations. The woman who was their
interpreter, was bid, in the next place, to ask them if
they were willing to be servants, and to work for the
men who had brought them away, to save their lives;
at which they all fell a dancing; and presently one fell
to taking up this, and another that, anything that lay
next, to carry on their shoulders, to intimate theykvere
willing to work.
The governor, who' found that the having women
among them would presently be attended with some
inconvenience, and might occasion some strife, and
perhaps blood, asked the threemen what they intended
to do with these women, and how they intended to use
them, whether as servants or as wives? One of the
Englishmen answered, very boldly and readily, that they
would use them as both; to which the governor said:
I am not going to restrain you from it-you are your
own masters that ; but this I think is but just, for
avoiding disorders and quarrels among you, and I desire it
of you for that reason only, viz. that you will all engage,
that if any of you take any of these women as a wife, he
shall take but one; and that, having taken one, none
else shall touch her: for though we cannot marry any
one of you, yet it is but reasonable, that while you stay
here, the woman any of you take shall be maintained
by the man that takes her, and should be hig wife-I
mean," says he, "while he continues here, and that
none else shall have anything to do with her." All this
appeared so just, that every one agreed to it without
any difficulty.
Then the Englishmen asked the Spaniards if they
designed to take any of them ? But every one of them
answered No." Some of them said they had wives in
Spain, and the others did not like women that were not
Christians; and altogether declared they would not
touch one of them,which was an instance of such virtue
as I have not met with in all my. travels. On the
other hand, the five Englishmen took them every one a
wife-that is to say, a temporary, wife; and so they set
up a new form of living; for the Spaniards and Friday's
father lived in my old habitation, which they had
enlarged exceedingly within. The three servants
which were taken in tie last battle of the savages
lived with them; and these carried-on the main part

I of the colony, :,jpp,; 3 .1ll the rest with food, and
r assisted them in .a, :thi,;o as they could, or as they
found necessity required.
But the wonder of the story was, how five such
Srefractory, ill-matched fellows should agree about these
,women, and that some two of them should not choose
Sthe same woman, especially seeing two or three of them
were, without comparison, more agreeable than the
others; but they took a good way enough to prevent
Squarrelling among themselves, for they set the five
-women by themselves in one of their huts, and they
went all into the other hut, and drew lots among
them who should choose first.
Him that drew to choose first went away by himself
to the hut where the poor naked creatures were, and
fetched out her he chose; and it was worth observing,
that he that chose first took her that was reckoned tlhe
homeliest and oldest of the five, which made mirth
enough among the rest; and even the Spaniards laughed
at it; but the fellow considered better than any of
them, that it was ti.!.1- it ,.:.o and business they were to
expect assistance in, as much as in anything else; and
she proved the best wife of all the parcel.
When the poor women saw themselves set in a row
thi, and fetched out one by one, the terrors of their
condition returned upon them again, and they firmly
believed they were now going to be devoured. Accord-
ingly, when the English sailor came in and fetched out
one of them, the rest set up a most lamentable cry, and
hung about her, and took their leave of her with such
agonies and affection as would have grieved the hardest
heart in the world; nor was it possible for the English-
men to satisfy them that they were not to be immedi-
ately murdered, till they fetched the old man, Friday's
father, who immediately let them know that the five
men, who were to fetch them out one by one, had
chosen them for their wives. When they had done, and
the fright the women were in was a little over, the men
went to work, and the Spaniards came and helped
them; and in a few hours they had built them every
one a new hut or tent for their lodging apart; for those
they had already were crowded with their tools, house-
hold stuff, and provisions. The three wicked ones
had pitched farthest off, and the two honest ones
nearer, but beth on the north shore of the island, so
that they continued separated as before; and thus my
island was peopled in three places, and, as I might say,
three towns were begun to be built.
And here it is very well worth observing that, as it
often happens in the world. (what the wise ends of
God's providence are, in such a disposition of things I
cannot say), the two honest fellows had the two worst
wives; and the three reprobates, that were scarce worth
hanging, that were fit for nothing, and neither seemed
born to do themselves good, nor any one else, had three
clever, diligent, careful, and ingenious wives; not that the
first two were bad wives, as to their temper or humour,
for all the five were most willing, quiet, passive, and
subjected creatures, rather like slaves, than wives; but
my meaning is, they were not alike, capable, ingenious,
or industrious, or alike cleanly and neat. Another
observation I must make, to the honour of a diligent
application on one hand, and to the disgrace of a sloth-
ful, negligent, idle temper on the other, that when I
came to the place, and viewed the. several improve-
ments; plantings, and management of the several little
colonies, the two men had so far outgone the three,
that there was no comparison. They had, indeed, both
of them as much ground laid out for corn as they
wanted, and the reason was, because, according to my
rule, nature dictated that it was to no purpose to sow
more corn than they wanted; but the difference of the
cultivation, of the planting, of the fences, and, indeed,
of everything else, was easy to be seen at first view.
The two men had innumerable young trees planted
about their huts, so that, when you came to the place,
nothing was to be seen but a wood: and though they
had twice had their plantation demolished, once by their
own countrymen, and once by the enemy, as shall be
shown in its place, yet they had restored all again, and
everything was thriving and flourishing about them;
they had grapes planted in order, and managed like a
vineyard, though they had themselves never seen any-
thing of that kind; and, by their good ordering their
vines, their grapes were as good again as any of the
others. They had also found themselves out a retreat
in the thickest part of the woods, where, though there
was not a natural cave, as I had found, yet they made
one with incessant labour of their hands, and where,
when the mischief which followed happened, they
secured their wives and children so as they could never
be found: they having, by sticking innumerable stakes
and poles of the wood which, as I said, grew so readily,
made the grove impassable, except in some places, when
they climbed up to get over the outside part, and then
went on by ways of their own leaving.
As to the three reprobates, as I justly call them,
though they were much civilized by their settlement
compared to what they were before, and were not so
quarrelsome, having not the same opportunity; .yet one
of the certain companions of a profligate mind never left
them, and that vas their idleness. It is true, they planted

Scorn, and made fences: but S,.1,.i,..uI' r--,., ,i .'.- u.:.. r
better verified than in then., 1 i -r by thi. '.,r. i.i
of the slothful, and it was .,11 .' o* ,.",i v t i..I.. -
for when the Spaniards cai.. r; i.. t .- ..* r... ., il .r-
Scould not see it in some places for weeds, the' hedge
had several gaps in it, i! .. ,, i.;1.1 ' iiji hr ,tun and
Seaten up the corn; 1.-r qi-.. !, -''. .,.I tI. r,. ;, .lh bush
Swas crammed in, ,i ,t..p tlii:u 1.t t.:.i tih. I. ,-it, but
it was only shutting tt,.. sr,ti:k lu..r I t..t t, tl,,-t r..d was
stolen. Whereas, wl,.i. U.y l 1- .:. :. .ii cn ll..,uy of
the other two, there ,- *., tl.. ii;, !...i ...t .h.I.t. y and
Success upon all they. tl1.i '. t u...t ...i tobe
seen in all their corn, ....., i ,u 11;' .y t i. ii n dges;
Sand they, on the other hand, verified Solomon's words
Sin another place, "that the diligent hand maketh rich";
for everything grew and thrived, and they had plenty
within and without; they had more tame cattle than
,the others, more utensils and necessaries within doors,
and yet more pleasure and diversion too.
It is true, the wives of the three were very handy
and cleanly within doors; and having learned the
English ways of dressing and cooking from one of the
other Englishmen, who, as I said, was a cook's mate on
board the ship, they dressed their husbands' victuals
very nicely and well; whereas the others could not be
brought to understand it; but then the husband, who,
as I say, had been cook's mate, did it himself. But
as for the husbands of the three wives, they loitered
about, fetched turtles' eggs, and caught fish and birds;
in a word, anything but labour; and they fared accord-
ingly. The diligent lived well and comfortably, and
the slothful hard and beggarly: and so, I believe,
generally speaking, it is all over tile world.
But I now come to a scene different from all that had
happened before, either to them or to me; and the
origin of the story was this:-Early one morning, there
came on shore five or six canoes of Indians or savages,
call them which you please, and there is no room to
doubt they came upon the old errand of feeding upon
their slaves; but that part was now so familiar to the
Spaniards, and to our men too, that they did not concern
themselves about it, as I did: but having been made
sensible, by their experience, that their only business
was to lie concealed, and that if they were not seen by
any of the savages, they would go off again quietly,
when their business was done, having, as yet, not tlhe
least notion of their being ci; ;~y il i ,i1. ;,, lie island ;
I say, having been made -... iLl.. ..i in 1., Ila. had no-
thing to do but to give notice to all the three plantations
to keep within.doors, and not show themselves, only
placing a scout in a proper place, to give notice when
the boats went to sea again.
This was, without doubt, very right; but a disaster
spoiled all these measures, and made it known among
the savages that there were inhabitants there; which
was, in the end, the desolation of almost the whole
colony. After the canoes with the savages were gone
off, the Spaniards peeped abroad again; and some of
them had the curiosity to go to the place where they.
had been, to see what they had been doing. Here, to
their great surprise, they found three savages left behind,
and lying fast asleep upon the ground. It was supposed
they had either been so gorged with their inhuman
feast, that, like beasts, they were fallen asleep, and
would not stir when the others went, or they had.
wandered into the woods, and did not come back in time
to be taken inm
The Spaniards were greatly surprised at this sight,
and perfectly at a loss what to do. The Spaniard.
governor, as it happened, was with them, and his
advice was asked, but he professed he knew not what to
do. As for slaves, they had enough already; and as to
killing them, there were none of them inclined to do
that: the Spaniard governor told me, they could not
think of shedding innocent blood; for as to them, the
poor creatures had done them no wrong, invaded none
of their property, and they thought they had no just.
quarrel against them, to take away their lives. And
here I must, in justice to these Spaniards, observe, that
let the accounts of Spanish cruelty in Mexico and Peru
be what they will, I never met with seventeen men of
any nation whatsoever, in any foreign country, who
were so universally modest, temperate, virtuous, so very
good-humoured,and so courteous as these Spaniards:
and as to cruelty, they had nothing of it in their very
nature: no inhumanity, no barbarity, no outrageous
passions ; and yet all of them men of.great courage and
spirit. Their temper and calmness had appeared in their
bearing the insufferable usage of the three Englishmen;
and their justice and humanity appeared now in the
case of the savages as above. After some consultation,.
they resolved upon this; that they would lie still a
while longer, till, if possible, these three men might be
gone. But then the governor recollected that the three
savages had no boat; and if they were left to rove about
the island, they would certainly discover that there
were inhabitants in it; and so they should be undone
that way. Upon this, they went back again, and there
lay the fellows fast asleep still, and so they resolved to
awaken them, and take them prisoners; and they did so.
The poor fellow wivre .itr'.nroly frightenDr-. when they
were seized ,5,i i.i,,uhi .I i 'tri.. i L.. t L. L .. ui. .


that they should be murdered and eaten: for it seems, already had noticed where they stood, and were coming muskets; and first they made sure of the runaway
those people think all the world does as they do, in up to attack them; and a little way farther they espied savage, that had been the cause of all the mischief, and
eating men's flesh; but they were soon made easy as to three more coming after them, and five more beyond of another that was hurt in the knee, and put them out
that, and away they carried them. them, all coming the same way; besides which, they saw of their pain; then the man that was not hurt at all,
It was very happy for them that they did not carry seven or eight more at a distance, running another way; came and kneeled down to them, with .his two hands
them home to the castle, I mean to my palace under the for, in a word, they ran every way, like sportsmen held up, and made piteous moans to them, by gestures
hill; but they carried them first to the bower, where beating for their game. and signs, for his life, but could not say one word to
was the chief of their country work, such as the keep- The poor men were now in great perplexity whether them that they could understand. However, they made
ing the goats, the II rt.. ii.-- ... &c.; and afterward they should stand and keep their posture, or fly; but, signs to him to sit down at the foot of a tree hard by;
they carried them t... ti,. I1.,E lt.. of the two English- after a very short debate with themselves, they con- and one of the Englishmen, with a piece of rope-yarn,
men. Here they were set to work, tl. it was not sidered, that if the savages ranged the country thus which he had by great chance in his pocket, tied his
much they had for them to do; and -. i.-'.. r it was by before help came, they might perhaps find out their two hands behind him, and there they left him; and
negligence in guarding them, or that they l-.l...j' t the retreat in the woods, and then all would be lost; so they with what speed they could, made after the other two,
fellows could not mend themselves, I know not, but one resolved to stand them there, and if they were too many which were gone before, fearing they, or any more of
of them ran away, and, taking to the woods, they could to deal with, then they would get up to the top of the them, should find the way to their covered place in the
never hear of him any more. They had good reason to tree, from whence they doubted not to defend them- woods, where their wives, and the few goods they had
believe he got home again soon after in some other selves, fire excepted, as long as their ammunition lasted, left, lay. They came once in sight of the two men,
boats or canoes of savages who came on shore three or though all the savages that were landed, which was but it was at a great distance: however, they had the
four weeks afterwards, and who, carrying on their revels near fifty, were to attack them. satisfaction to see them cross over a valley towards the
as usual, went off in two days' time. This thought Having resolved upon this, they next considered sea, quite the contrary way from that which led to their
terrified them exceedingly; for they concluded, and whether they should fire at the first two, or wait for the retreat, which they were afraid of; and being satisfied
that n.ot it ho. ot -. ).. -, .1, indeed, that if this fellow three, and so take the middle party by which the two with that, they went back to. the tree where they left
came I..,in. -.... ; )n .:,,,,; I, comrades, he would certainly and the five that followed would be separated; at length their prisoner, who, as they supposed, was delivered by
give tin i .n .. ,riit -jit h there were people in the they resolved to let the first two pass'by, unless they his comrades, for he was gone, and the two pieces of
island, and also how few and weak they were; for this should spy them in the tree, and come to attack them. rope-yarn, with which they had bound him, lay just at
savage, as observed before, had never been told, and it The first two savages confirmed them also in this the foot of the tree.
was very happy he had not, how many there were, or resolution, by turning a little from them towards another They were now in as great concern as before, not
where they lived; nor had he ever seen or heard the part of the wood; but the three, and the five after knowing what course to take, or how near the enemy
fire of any of their guns, much less had they shown him them, came forward directly to the tree, as if they had might be, or in what number; so they resolved to go
any of their other retired places; such as the cave in the known the Englishmen were there. Seeing them come away to the place where their wives were, to see if all
valley, or the new retreat which the two Englishmen so straight towards them, they resolved to take them in was well there, and to make them easy. These were in
had made, and the like. a line as they came; and as they resolved to fire but one fright enough, to be sure; for though the savages were
The first testimony they had that this fellow had at a time, perhaps the first shot might hit them all their own countrymen, yet they were most terribly
given intelligence of them was, that about two months three; for which purpose the man who was to fire put afraid of them, and perhaps the more for the knowledge
after this, six canoes of savages, with about seven, three or four small bullets into his piece; and having a I !.I- h .. f them. When they came there, they found
eight, or ten men in a canoe, came rowing along the fair loop-hole, as it were, from a broken hole in the tree, t !,. :':. had been in the wood, and very near that
north side of the island, where they never used to he took a sure aim, without being seen, waiting till they place, but had not found it; for it was indeed inacces-
come before, and landed, about an hour after sunrise, were within about thirty yards of the tree, so that heo sible, from the trees standing so thick, unless the
at a convenient place, about a mile from the habita- could not miss. persons seeking it had been directed by those that
tion of the two Englishmen, where this escaped man While they were thus waiting, and the savages came knew it, which these did not:. they found, therefore,
had been kept. As the chief Spaniard said, had they on, they plainly saw that one of the three was the run- everything very safe, only. the women in a terrible
been all there, the d 'ii. ~.,: ,mould not have been so away savage that had escaped from them; and they fright. While they were here, they had the comfort to
much, for not a mar iE- i -li, would have escaped; both knew him distinctly, and resolved that, if possible have seven of the Spaniards come to their assistance;
but the case differed now very much, for two men lie should not escape, though they should both fire: so the other ten, with their servants, and Friday's father,
to fifty was too much odds. The two men had the the other stood ready with his piece, that if he did not were gone in a body to defend their bower, and the corn
happiness to discover them about a league off, so that drop at the first shot, he should be sure to have a second, and cattle that were kept there, in case the savages
it was above an hour before they landed; and as But the first was too good a marksman to miss his aim; should have roved over to that side of the country, but
they landed a mile from their huts, it was some time for as the savages kept near one another, a little behind they did not spread so far' With the seven Spaniards
before they could come at them. Now, having great in a line, he fired, and hit two of them directly; the came one of the three savages, who, as I said, were
reason to believe that they were betrayed, the first foremost was killed outright, being shot in the head; the their prisoners formerly; and with them also came the
thing they did was to, bind the two slaves which second, which was the runaway Indian, was shot through savage whom the Englishman had left bound hand and
were left, and cause two of the three men whom the bodyvand fell, but was not quite dead; and the third foot at the tree; for it seems they came that way, saw
they brought with the women (who, it seems, proved had a little scratch in the shoulder, perhaps by the same the slaughter of the seven men, and unbound the
very faithful to them), to lead them, with their two ball that went through the body of the second; and eighth, and brought him along with them; where, how-
wives, and whatever they could carry away with them, being dreadfully frightened, though not so much hurt, over, they were obliged to bind him again, as they had
to their retired places in the woods, which I have sat down upon the ground, screaming and yelling in a the two others who were left when the third ran
spoken of above, and there to bind the two fellows hand hideous manner. away.
and foot, till they heard farther. In the next place, The five that were behind, more frightened with the The prisoners now began to be a burden to them;
seeing the savages were all come on shore, and that noise than sensible of the danger, stood still at first; for and they were so afraid of their escaping, that they
they had bent their course directly that way, they opened the woods made the sound a thousand times bigger than it were once resolving to kill them all, believing they were
the fences where the milch cows were kept, and drove really was, the echoes rattling from one side to another, under an absolute necessity to do so for their-own
them all out; leaving their goats to straggle in the and the fowlsrising from all parts, screaming, and every preservation. However, the chief of the Spaniards
woods, whither they pleased, that the savages might sort making a different noise, according to their kind; would not consent to -it, but ordered, for the present,
think r,,. were all bred wild; but the rogue who just as it was when I fired the first gun that perhaps t I~.t ti,..- should be sent out of the way, to my old cave
came I EHi them was too cunning for that, and gave was ever shot off in the island. L. ti.: aley, and be kept there, with two Spaniards to
them an account of it all, for they went directly to However, all being silent again, and they not knowing guard them, and have food for their subsistence, which
the place. what the matter was, came on unconcerned, till they was doe ; and they were bound there hand and foot for
When the two poor frightened men had secured their came to the place where their companions lay in a that night.
wives and goods, they sent the other slave they had of condition miserable enough.- Here the poor ignorant When the Spaniards came, the two Englishmen were
the three who came with the women, and who was at creatures, not sensible that they were within reach of so encouraged, that they could not satisfy themselves
their place by accident, away to the Spaniards with all the same mischief, stood altogether over the wounded to stay any longer there; but taking five of the
speed, to give them the alarm, and desire, man, talking, and, as may be supposed, inquiring of him, Spaniards, and themselves, with four muskets and a
and, in the mean time, they took their arms, and what how he came to be hurt: and who, it is very rational to pistol among them, and two stout quarter-staves, away
amunition they had, and retreated towards the place in believe, told them, that a flash of fire first, and im- they went in quest of the savages. And first they came
the wood where their wives were sent; keeping at a mediately after that thunder from their gods, had killed to the tree where the men lay that had been killed ;
distance, yet so that they might see, if possible, which those two and wounded him. This,-I say, is rational; but it was easy to see that soine more of the savages
way the savages took. They had not gone far, but that for nothing is more certain than that, as -they saw no had been there, for they had attempted to carry their
from a rising ground they could see the little army of man near them, so they had never heard a gun in all dead men away, and had dragged two of them a good
their enemies come on directly to their habitation, and, their lives, nor so much as heard bf a gun; neither way, but had given it over, From thence they advanced
in a moment more, could see all their huts and house- knew they anything of killing and wounding at a to the first rising ground, where they had stood and
hold stuff flaming up together, to their great grief and distance with fire and bullets: if they had, one might seen their camp destroyed, and where they had the
mortification; for this was a great loss to them, irre- reasonably believe they would not have stood so uncon- mortification still to see some -of the smoke: but
trievable, indeed, for some time. They kept their corned to view the fate of their fellows, without some neither could they here see any of the savages.. They
station for a while, till they found the savages, apprehensions of their own. then resolved, though with all possible caution, to go
like wild beasts, spread themselves all over the place, Our two men, as they confessed to me, were grieved forward towards their ruined plantation; but, a little
rummaging every way, and every place they could to be obliged to kill so many poor creatures, who had before they came thither, coming in sight of the sea-
think of, in search of prey; and in particular for the no notion of their danger; yet, having them all thus in shore, they saw plainly the savages all embarked again
people, of whom now it plainly appeared they had their power, and the first having loaded his piece again, in their canoes, In order to be gone. They seemed sorry
intelligence. resolved to let fly both together among them; and at first, that there was no way to come atthem, to give
The two Englishmen seeing this, thinking themselves singling out, by agreement, which to aim at, they shot them a parting blow; but, upon the whole, they were
not secure where they stood, because it was likely some together, and killed, or very much wounded, four of very well satisfied to be rid of them.
of the wild people might come that way, and they them ; the fifth, frightened even to death, though not The poor Englishmen being now twice ruined, and all
might come too many together, thought it proper to hurt, fell with the rest; so that our men, seeing their improvements destroyed, the rest all agreed to
make another retreat about half a mile farther: believ- them all fall together, thought they had killed them come and help them rebuild, and assist them with need-
ing, as it afterwards happened, that the farther they all. ful supplies. Their three countrymen, who were not
strolled, the fewer would be together. Their next halt The belief that the savages were all killed made our yet noted for having the least inclination to do any
was at the entrance into a very thick-grown part'of the two men come boldly.out from the tree before they had good, yet as soon as they heard of it (for they, living
woods, and where an old trunk of a tree stood, which charged their guns, which was a wrong step; and they remote eastward, knew nothing of the matter till all
was hollow and very large; and in this tree they both were under some surprise when they came to the was over), came and offered their help and assistance,
took their standing, resolving to see there what might place, and found no less than four of them alive, and of and did, very friendly, work for several days to restore
offer. They had not stood there long before two of the them two very little hurt, and one not at all. This their habitation, and make necessaries for them. And
savages appeared running directly that way, as if they I obliged them to fall upon them with the stocks of their thus in a little time they were set upon their legs again.


About two days after this they had the farther satis- routed; for the terror that was among them came
faction of seeing three of the savages' canoes come principally from this, that they were killed by the gods
driving on shore, and, at some distance from them, two with thunder and lightning, and could see nobody that
drowned men, by which they had reason to believe that hurt them. But Will Atkins, staying to load again,
they had met with a storm at sea, which had overset discovered the cheat: some of the savages who were at
some of them; for it had blown very hard the night a distance spying them, came upon them behind; and
after they went off. However, as some might miscarry, though Atkins and his men fired at them also, two or
so, on the other hand, enough of them escaped to inform three times, and killed above twenty, retiring as fast as
the rest, as well of what they had done as of what had they could, yet they woundedAtkins himself, and killed
happened to them; and to whet them on to another one of his fellow Englishmen with their arrows, as they
enterprise, of the same nature, which they, it seems, did afterwards one Spaniard, and one of the Indian
resolved to attempt, with sufficient force to carry all slaves who came with the women. This slave was a
before them; for except what the first man had told most gallant fellow, and fought most desperately,
them of inhabitants, they could say little of it of their killing five of them with his own hand, having no
own knowledge, for they never saw one man; and the weapon but one of the armed staves and a hatchet.
fellow being killed that had affirmed it, they had no Our men being thus hard laid at, Atkins wounded, and
other witness to confirm it to them. two other men killed, retreated to arising ground in the
It was five or six months after this before they heard wood; and the Spaniards, after firing three volleys upon
anymore of the savages, in which time our men were them, retreated also; for their number was so great,
in hopes they had either forgot their former bad luck, and they were so desperate, that though above fifty of
or given over hopes of better; when, on a sudden, them were killed, and more than as many wounded, yet
they were invaded with a most formidable fleet of no they came on in the teeth of our men, fearless of
less than eight-and-twenty canoes, full of savages, danger, and shot their arrows like a cloud; and it was
armed with bows and arrows, great clubs, wooden observed that their wounded men, who were not quite
swords, and such like engines of war; and they brought disabled, were made outrageous by their wounds, and
such numbers with them, that, in short, it put all our fought like madmen.
people into the utmost consternation. When our men retreated, they left the Spaniard and
As they came on shore in the evening, and at the the Englishman that were killed behind them: and the
easternmost side of the island, our men had that night savages, when they came up to them, killed them over
to consult and consider what to do. In the first place, again in a wretched manner, breaking their arms, legs,
knowing that their being entirely concealed was their and heads, with their clubs and wooden swords, like
only safety before, and would be much more so now, true savages; but finding our men were gone, they did
while the number of their enemies would be so great, not seem inclined to pursue them, but drew themselves
they resolved, first of all, to take down the huts which up in a ring, which is, it seems, their custom, and
were built for the two Englishmen, and drive away their shouted twice, in token of their victory; after which,
goats to the old cave; because they supposed the savages they had the mortificationto see several of their wounded
would go directly thither, as soon as it was day, to play, men fall, dying with the mere loss of blood.
the old game over again, though they did not now land The Spaniard governor having drawn his little body
within two leagues of it. In the next place they drove up together upon a rising ground, Atkins, though he
away all the flocks of goats they had at the old bower, was wounded, would have had them march and charge
as I called it, which belonged to the Spaniards; and, in again altogether at once: but the Spaniard replied-
short, left as little appearance of inhabitants anywhere Seignior Atkins, you see how their wounded men
as was possible; and the next morning early they posted fight; let them alone till morning; all the wounded
themselves, with all their force, at the plantation of men will be stiff and sore with their wounds, and faint
the two men, to wait for their coming. As they guessed, with the loss of blood; and so we shall have the fewer
so it happened: these new invaders, leaving their canoes to engage." This advice was good: but Will Atkins
at the east end of the island, came ranging along the replied merrily, That is true, seignior, and so shall I
shore, directly towards the place, to the number of two too; and that is the reason I would go on while I am
hundred and fifty, as near as our men could judge. -warm."-" Well, Seignior Atkins," says the Spaniard,
Our army was but small indeed; but, that which was "you have behaved gallantly, and done your part; we
worse, they had not arms for all their number. The will fight for you if you cannot come on; but I think it
whole account, it seems, stood thus: first, as to men, best to stay till morning:" so they waited.
seventeen Spaniards, five Englishmen, old Friday, the But as it was a clear moonlight night, and theyfound
three slaves taken with the women, who proved very the savages in great disorder about their dead and
faithful, and three other slaves, who lived with the wounded men, and a great noise and hurry among them
Spaniards. To arm these, they had eleven muskets, five where they lay, they afterwards resolved to fall upon
pistols, three fowling-pieces, five muskets, or fowling- them in the night; especially if they could come to give
pieces, which were taken by me from the mutinous sea- them but one volley before they were discovered, which
men whom I reduced, two swords, and three old halberds. they had a fair opportunity to do; for one of the
To their slaves they did not give either musket or Englishmen in whose quarter it was where the fight
fusee; but they had each a halberd, or a long staff, like began, led them round between the woods and the sea-
a quarter-staff, with a great spike of iron, fastened into side westward, and then turning short south, they came
each end of it, and by his side a hatchet; also every one so near where the thickest of them lay, that, before
of our men had a hatchet. Two of the women could they were seen or heard, eight of them fired in among
not be prevailed upon but they would come into the them, and did dreadful execution upon them; in half a
fight, and they had bows and arrows, which the Spaniards minute more, eight others fired after them, pouring in
had taken from the savages when the first action hap- their small shot in such a quantity, that abundance
opened, which I have spoken of, where the Indians fought were killed and wounded; and all this while they were
with one another; and the women had hatchets too. not able to see who hurt them, or which way to fly.
The chief Spaniard, whom I described so often, com- The Spaniards charged again with the utmost ex-
manded the whole; and Will Atkins, who, though a petition, and then divided themselves into three bodies,
dreadful fellow for wickedness, was a most daring, bold and resolved to fall in among them all together. They
fellow, commanded under him. The savages came had in each body eight persons, that is to say, twenty-
forward like lions; and our men, which was the worst two men, and the two women, who, by the way, fought
of their fate, had no advantage in their situation; only desperately. They divided the fire-arms equally in each
that Will Atkins, who now proved a most useful fellow, party, as well as the halberds and staves. They would
with six men, was planted just behind a small thicket have had the women kept back, but they said they were
of bushes, as an advanced guard, with orders to let the resolved to die with their husbands. Having thus
first of them, and then fire into the middle of formed their little army, they marched out from among
them, and as soon as he had fired, to make his retreat the trees, and came up to the teeth of the enemy,
as nimbly as he could round a part of the wood, and so. shouting and hallooing as loud as they could; the savages
come in behind the Spaniards, where they stood, having stood altogether, but were in the utmost confusion,
a thicket of trees before them. hearing the noise of our men from three quarters
When the savages came on, they ran straggling about together. They would have fought if they had seen us;
every way in heaps, out of all manner of order, and for as soon as we came near enough to be seen, some
Will Atkins let about fifty -of them pass by him; then arrows were shot, and poor old Friday was wounded,
seeing the restcbme in a very thick throng, he orders though not dangerously. But our men gave them no
three of his men to fire, having loaded their muskets time, but running up to them, fired among them three
with six or seven bullets apiece, about as big as large ways, and then fell in with the butt-ends of their
pistol bullets. How many they killed or wounded they muskets, their swords, armed staves, and hatchets, and
knew not, but the consternation and surprise was in- laid about them so well, that, in a word, they set up a
expressible among the savages; they were frightened to dismal screaming and howling, flying to save their lives
the last degree to hear such a dreadful noise, and see which way soever they could.
their men killed, and others hurt, but see nobody that Our men were tired with the execution, and killed or
did it; when, in the middle of their fright, Will mortally wounded in the two fights about one hundred
Atkins and his other three let fly again among the and eighty of them; the rest, being frightened out of
thickest of them ; and in less than a minute, the first their wits, scoured through the woods and over the hills,
three being loaded again, gave them a third volley, with all the speed that fear and nimble feet could help
Had Will Atkins and his men retired immediately, as them to; and as we did not trouble ourselves much to
soon as they had fired, as they were ordered to do, or pursue them, theygot all together to the sea-side, where
had the rest of the body been at hand, to have poured they landed, and where their canoes lay. But their
in their shot continually, the savages had been effectually disaster was not at an end yet; for it blew a terrible

storm of wind that evening from the sea, so that it was
impossible for them to go off; nay, the storm continuing
all night, when the tide came up, their canoes were most
of them driven by the surge of the sea so high upon the
shore that it required infinite toil to get them off; and
some of them were even dashed to pieces against the
beach. Our men, though glad of their victory, yet got
little rest that night; but having refreshed themselves
as well as they could, they resolved to march to that
part of the island where the savages were fled, and see
what posture they were in. This necessarily led them
over the place where the fight had been, and where they
found several of the poor creatures not quite dead, and
yet past recovering life; a sight disagreeable enough to
generous minds, for a truly great man, though obliged
by the law of battle to destroy his 'enemy, takes no
delight in his misery. However, there was no need to
give any orders in this case; for their own savages, who
were their servants, despatched these poor creatures
with their hatchets.
At length they came in view of the place where the
more miserable remains of the savages' army lay, where
there appeared about a hundred still; their posture was
generally sitting upon the ground, with their knees up
towards their mouth, and the head put between the two
hands, leaning down upon the knees. When our men
came within two musket-shots of them, the Spaniard
governor ordered two muskets to be fired, without ball,
to alarm them; this he did, that by their countenance
he might know what to expect, whether they were still
in heart to fight, or were so heartily beaten as to be
discouraged, and so he might manage accordingly. This
stratagem took: for as soon as the savages heard the
first gun, and saw the flash of the second, they started
up upon their feet in the greatest consternation imagin-
able; and as our men advanced swiftly towards them,
they all ran screaming and yelling away, with a kind of
howling noise, which our men did not understand, and
had never heard before; and thus they ran up the hills
into the country.
At first our men' had much rather the weather had
been calm, and they had all gone away to sea; but they
did not then consider that this might probably have
been the occasion of their coming again in such multi-
tudes as not to be resisted, or, at least, to come so many
and so often, as would quite desolate the island, and
starve them. Will Atkins, therefore, who, notwith-
standing his wound, kept always with them, proved the
best counsellor in this case: his advice was, to take the
advantage that offered, and step in between them and
their boats, and so deprive them of the capacity of
ever returning any more to plague the island. They
consulted long about this; and some were against it for
fear of making the wretches fly to the woods and live
there desperate, and so they should have them to hunt
like wild beasts, be afraid to stir out about their business,
and have their plantations continually rifled, all their
tame goats destroyed, and, in short, be reduced to a life
of continual distress.
Will Atkins told them that they had better have to do
with a hundred men than with a hundred nations; that
as they must destroy their boats, so they must destroy
the men, or be all of them destroyed themselves. In
a word, he showed them the necessity of it so plainly,
that they all came into it; so they went to work im-
mediately with the boats, and getting some dry wood
together from a dead tree, they tried to set some of
them on fire, but they were so wet that they would not
burn; however, the fire so burned the upper part, that
it soon made them unfit for use at sea.
When the Indians saw what they were about, some of
them came running out of the woods, and coming as
near as they they could to our men, kneeled down and
cried, Oa, Oa, Waramokoa," and some other words of
their language, which none of the others understood
anything of; but as they made pitiful gestures and
strange noises, it was easy to understand they begged
to have their boats spared, and that they would be gone,
and never come there again. But our men were now
satisfied that they had no way to preserve themselves,
or to save their colony, but effectually to prevent any of
these people from ever going home again: depending
upon this, that even if so much as one of them got back
into their country to tell the story, the colony was
undone; so that, letting them know that they should
not have any mercy, they fell to work with their canoes,
and destroyed everyone that the storm had not destroyed
before; at the sight bf which, the savages raised a
hideous cry in the woods, which our people heard plain
enough, after which they ran about the island like
distracted men, so that, in a word, our men did not
really know what at first to do with them. Nor did the
Spaniards with all their prudence, consider that while
they made those people thus desperate, they ought to
have kept a good guard at the same time upon their plan-
tations; for though it is true, they had driven away their
cattle, and the Indians did not find out their main retreat,
I mean my old castle at the hill, nor the cave in the
valley, yet they found out my plantation at the bower,
and pulled it all to pieces, and all the fences and
planting about it; trod all the corn under foot, tore up
the vines and grapes; being just then almost ripe, and


did our men an inestimable damage, though to them- towards the sea l.4ifoir tbIh-mon the south-east corner
selves not one farhiiung'.-,.orti, of service. of the island. TIb.:y itd land *n,,'gh, .iud t i a 'Ar-
Though our mnI a.r.: i.-e io, fll fglt them upon all good and fruitful; about muil and a ,.ild L.r,..a.. ,rin
(oi..-i.j,., vill thiey w. rr. in IJ .1.ui.l.1-.1t to pursue them, :lIr.1 or four miles in length. Opr men t.iiigt tbuc
(,r hl unt t i.Lm utp -.I ..l.i u. for as theywere too nimble to make wooden spades, such as I made for niy, i. at, an
of foot for our people when they i.,uud them single, so gave among them twei hajltli.s and three or four
our men durst not go abroad single, for fear of being knives; and there they lii.:J, tir.: ilil ibj:. i-.tied, in-
surrounded with their numbers. The best was, they nocent creatures that ever were Lh- r ..-f.
had no weapons; for though they had bows, they had After this, the colony enjoyed a perfect tranquillity,
no arrows 1.4ti. ....- any materials to make any; nor had with respect to the savages, ll i came to revisit them,
they any ig.l....,I among them. The extremity and which was about twp years aitr: not but 'bit, nqow
distress they were reduced to was great, and indeed and then, some canoes of savages came on shore for
deplorable; but, at the same time, our men were also their triumphal, unnatural feasts; but as they were of
brought to very bad circumstances by them, for though several nations, and pu rliap, bi.l nuevpr heard of tuIL-,
their retreats were preserved, yet their provision was that came before, ,,r the, ris.:.o of it, they did not
destroyed, and their harvest spoiled, and what to do, make any search or inlii ,y .illt tr thr countrymen;
or which way to turn themselves, they knew not. The ,and if they hal., it v...u l have beep very hard to have
,iily r., fug, they had now, was the stock of cattle they found them out.
Ii il bin valley by the cave, and some little corn Thus, I think, I have given a full account of all that
which grew there, and the plantation of the three happened to them till my return, at least that was,,l.i, Will Atkins and his comrades, were now worth notice. The Indians were w.:in.1irilly .,'i-i,.:.l
reduced to two; one of them being killed by an arrow, by them, and they frequently .. nt :iuotii! th;a-: but
which struck him on the side of his head, just under they forbid, on pain of death, tiny ..r ... t th,: Irlians
the temples, so that lie never spoke more; and it was coming to them, because they would not have their
i ', ii. rk, i1.,. tl,.t tl1i was the sime barbarous fellow settlement betrayed again. One thing was very re-
tl, t .u.t LII.' I'.:r r. lug, .dlave with his hatchet,and who markable, viz. that they taught the siwageq to make
atterwarcts intended to have murdered the Spaniards. wicker-work, or baskets, but they ..-.. ...iit.i i tt, i'
I looked upon their case to have been worse at this masters: for they made abundance of ingenious things
time than mine was at any time,after I first discovered in wicker-work, particularly basket? seiwe,, bird-cages,
the grains of barley and rice, and got into the manner cupboards, &c.: as also chairs, it,.:.i. c..=. uches,
of planting and raising my corn, and my tame cattle; being very ingenious at such work when they were
for now they had, as I may say, a hundred wolves upon once put in the way of it.
the island, which would devour everything they could My coming was a p.irt:i'ulir rri;.f to these people,
come at, yet could be hardly come at themselves. because we furnished tL-m r. ith i;o ,'i: A. -..... i.i .]-.
Wih..i lii v .aw what their circumstances were, the shovels, pickaxes, ani:i all thingg; ii. ti t k-r.-i .;-ri..l.
fir-t IIiL lh l,:V concluded was, that they would, if they could want. With the help .:t tlh.:- t.:,.ol. tih.-v
I...-. ti., iih.. savages up to the farther part of the were so very handy that they cani. :it to '.ip
i.l.ui. l ..i..,.,ii.t,-t, that if any more came on shore their huts or houses, very han ls.:..n ly, ii.illii c.r
t l.. glit. not find one another; then, that they would working it up like' bhli t-. '.:.rk ill the way round. This
daily hunt and harass them, and kill as many of them piece of ingenuity, ilIt,.:.ii-i it I.:.ked very odd, was ap
as they could come at, till they had reduced their exceeding good fence, as well against heat asagainst all
number; and if they could at last tame them, and sorts of vermin; and our men were so. t- i;.: n ib it ,
bring them to anything, they would give them corn, that they got the Indians to come and ..I thl: ltl; t'I.:.
and teach them how to plant, and live upon their daily them; so that when I came to '. i. t. '-. Eul -.h, .' ,
labour. In order to this, they so followed them, and colonies, they looked, at a distance, as if they all lived
so terrified them with their guns, that in a few days, if like bees in a hive.
any of them fired a gun at an Indian, if he did not hit 'As for Will Atkins, who was now become a very
hil, yet le would f:ill down for fear. So dreadfully industrious, useful, and sober fellow, he had made him-
frigitcned were they that they kept out of sight farther self such a tent of basket-work as, I believe, was never
and farther; till, at last, our men following them, and seen; it was one hundred and twenty p'i-" round op
ailtost every day killing or wounding some of them, the outside, as I measured by my steps; Lh. walls were
ii,' V kept up in the woods or hollow places so much, as close worked as a basket, in panels or squares f
tl..t it reduced them to the utpmost misery for want of th', t;-t-.i-. in number, and very -sI..u-,.6, i lini, about
food; andmnany were afterwards found dead in the s.-o -. f.-t igh; in the middle .s an.:.ttl- above
woods, without any hurt, absolutely starved to death. twenty-two paces round, but iri..:i being
'When our men found this, it made their hearts octagon in its form, and in the eight corners stood
relent, and pity moved them, especially the generous- eight very strong posts; round the top of which he
iil;.l'].,i .-'1; ii ',.io", r.i:o'; and heproposed,if possible, laid strong pieces, knit together with wooden pins,
tI. ii k.. :.r'.. I m-r i i .., and bring him to understand from which he raised pT-' Tu.;] f:.. a i'j'1.i' o, -:of of
what they meant, sb far as to be able to act as inter- eight rafters, joined t.,: I hlir v-i; r-ll. tb:..,i. L .-. had
prefer, and go among them.and see if they might be no nails, and only a few iron spikes, which he made
brought to some conditions that might be depended himself too, out of the old iron that I had left there.
upon, to save their lives and do us no harm. Indeed, this fellow showed abundance of ingenuity in
It was some while before any of them could be taken; several things which he had no knowledge of: he made
but being weak and half-starved, one of them was at him a forge, with a pair of wooden bellows to blow the I
last surprised and made a prisoner.' He was sullen at fire; he made himself charcoal for his work; and he I
first, and would neither eat nor drink; but finding him- formed out of the iron crows a middling good o, il tf. 1
self kindly used, and victuals given to him, and no hammer upon: in this manner he made many tLti.i..
violence offered him, he at last grew tractable, and put especially hooks, staples, and spikes, ;..:,it-, and
came to himself. They often brought old Friday to talk hinges. But to return to the house: after he had i
to him, who always told him how kind the others would pitched the roof of his innermost tent, he worked it i
be to them all; that they would not only save their hp between the rafters with basket work, so firm, and
lives, but give them part of the island to live in, pro- thatched that over again so ir'a.:. r. ."i- n i, i .. -.. t aw,
vided they would give satisfaction that they would no.1 o:.-.-r tat,. a large leaf of I. tr-, L.L .o-. ,:r.. i the t
keep in their own bounds, and not come beyond it to lop. ti.,t Li- house was as cr-, a. it I, .i L.... I.!:..1 or i
injure or prejudice others; and that they should have fl t.-.. Fl .:.wned, indeed, that the savisev had made c
corn given them to plant and make it grow for their the basket-work for him. The .oir. ..;_.:u t was cov-
bread, and some bread given them for their present ered as a lean-to all round this inner apartment, and
subsistence; and old Friday bade the fellow go and long rafters lay from the thirty-two angles to the top
talk with the rest of his countrymen, and see what posts of the inner house, being about twenty feet dis-
they said to it; assuring them that, if they did not tant, so that there was a space like i ,ik a liur tL.:. I.
agree immediately, they should be all destroyed. outer wicker-wall and without the 'uii-r uti r I':t;, .
The poor wretches, thoroughly humbled, and reduced feet wide.
in number to about thirty-seven, closed with the pro- The inner place he partitioned off '-ith thp same
posal at the first offer, and begged to have some food wicker-work, but much: fairer, and divided into six :
given them; upon which, twelve Spaniards and two apartments, so that he had six rooms on a floor, and out
Englishmen well armed, with three Indian slaves and of every one of these there was a door: first intp the
old Friday, marched to the place where they were. entry, or coming into the main tent, s'uo:tl I.r door into
The three Indian slaves carried them a large quantity the iain tent, and another door into the sat.. .:.- r -.ill.
of bread, some rice boiled up to cakes and dried in the that was round it; so that walk was also ir1 i f
sun, and three live goats; and they were ordered to go six equal parts, which served not only for a retreat, but I
to the side of a hill, where they sat, down, ate their to stdreuup ai,- n.-: in. -!i..:L th!,. f,-;ib. l io... .i.:.o t
provisions very thankfully, and were the most faithful for. Th..-4 ;r..-.. n.:. tI td-;l i u, p the whole circum- i
fellows to their words that could be thought.of; for, lerence;' hat other apartments the outer circle bad.
except when they came to beg victuals and directions, were thus ordered: As soon as you were in at the dpor t
they never came out of their bounds; and there they of the outer circle, you had a shorp passing etrnaibt
lived when I came'to the island, and I went to see before you to the door of the inner house; Iut .-.u .;i. r
them. They had taught them both to plint corn, make side was a wicker partition, and a door in it, by which
bread, breed tame goats, afid milk them: th.,- 'A, t.d you went first into a large room, .r ,r.:,r.b:,. I venty t
nothing but wives in order for them soon toi b.-. a feet wide iad about thirty feet l.:.u0, .ia through that i
nation. They were confined to a neck of land, sur- into another not quite so long; so that in the outer circle
rounded with high rocks behind them, and lying plain were ten handsome rooms, six of which were only to be t at thl, alartmct[ut :t thb, iaur tCrtt, :rid
4iir.i, as i l.:a u, i s or r.-tliriJ-r.:.oaui to tth- ri:p, re
Lba.lmbrsi. tbu. innI r.rIl.... ',L1 touIr l.rg r ivro.-,us,
or barns, or what you [.lis.- to tkum. -i L..b wetrri
tl hiiD: ;h ..cle au.lA etir, t. I L -r0 -tbr r LaJ d I _I tl I ]., un ,
L it i..i tLhri.u tl thi Outer .b.:.:r tI. tbi i ra r taor Su:h
.:i p I, f Lt ~t-ic.,rl. I L.:l- i- jI ui.-vs .r ,:r, iI tiL,
.,,idl.I,u,:r a hu.oi or tCuLt e... i C tl,- .:.:.utrliiuj 0Iu.:1i |i-i
.: built I, th-: c- r e l i-,: -' ,'-, i 1 th, i b r: t .Ir nid Z,
that ., I... r iy, Wtll Atkrilks ; u, L,-, L-.,arniir.u tb,
ILird wI s, kjll, .], .but Ii m It,, rl"n!Liut.,l -. 1,I thri=..
(;lIdrilr. uJ lbe i ith,.r t i -r;,. v erl u t at .,ll b tol'ok r. t.:
give tu.': wi:liw I:r lull .t.bIrI 'L -~icL-tlUj, 1 Ilm:li...
to their .ru, ra.lik .'-a t:, .: 'L] wb n thiy i.ill.J .1
kid, or f'uDJ .1 tur ii .:.,I tIi.: iLore; so that they all
lived :,:u .u...u. th:.-ol. i. it j:i true, they were not
so ind -trn,:.u; ., the riritr t.:,, as has been observed
or.: thi;o-, io:tv,-rr, cannot be oTultti,. viz. lbit, as
for r.g..-l:.r. I ., i,,:,t ku..r that there was anything of
that kind among tlh.:ni; lt.: c;t. i: i.i: .1, .iut one
another in mind, tL ht tblre t as a GC...1, y It.i very
common method of seamen, swearing I, H; Iii:.- nor
-.,-r.: tl. .-r ,; ..ant savage wive.r lmui h-, tt.-r for
. iu; I,...:-n Ia rr,:. to i'bri-lti.o-:. as we must call
-Li r. i-r .. tl,.: ItMew -.:r', i.tri. of Godd themselves,
so they were utterly incapable of entering into any
.i.:.'i.u;. ii;. h their wives about a i r...i, or to t !i
.uI' loi t t.I hem concerning religion.
Ib in.:. t. of all i .:.. iupr.:..-r.-u.i which I can say
the wi-es bhasl iu.l- ti.:, i -,:, ti .t they had
- :A.1' I I h.: i tI a -.l; EL.- L pretty well; and most of
:i Ir ibilh I.. T tb., were na r twenty in all, were taught
-': .ca: k Eui.:b t:.:., fro:.m tl,.;r first learning to speak,
-'I..,ugh th.y .-t fitt spoke it in a very broken manner, thl-ir o, Nou- u .t tbl..; i. ldr.rn ".Vri; al.o'e
six years old when I i:.i.- I tLri :. ir It Ivi oa:.t iuu..L
above seven years ;',,-: ti', v hI ,i I.t..L..t tbe.-- i.'.;
savage ladies over; tb.:y Lba. .1 .Lil. -1 .i. U -u.. .: ..r 1.: ,
the nj.:.thc- r--ri aul o.:.-i .:.ft ..-t A ll ...jrcii l.1 qI 1 ,L
laborious women, n"d. I-t ab..t i.nt-it. hi.l[.!ul t. ,.-o,
o hir. rI i. biA y ,.,l-.i rr- at'n. :j ur ii 1 t n,: tl i ..i i _,5 .1: -
[ :"bU:t ..lJ! t l. iu.L i'u L. u l;.. u.*I' ,I ..--,I r.rIhiui, luI
-, i ,e w ell i.isti,.ic:t.,i i, tb.: ,.'lIr: t, i r ,Ih: l.., .uA d ,:,
be legally married; Lbi.:t -x.v.:r. L .1'I l .....iht
a. c. ir al -r *i r,-. bv re x" rii'_,,,Liu U ,:,r at l,: 2-t it ..... b'h_-
qu I.,. :t r.I ..:.miung among them.
Ta.-i,'' tlhu given an account of the colony in
general, anti I.Itl n_,..i. of my rupaga*e Englichmen.
I must say .:,_ I L, ...t the Spaniards. ", ... -: ..i-- ti.-
nain body tt tir t..-.Ivly, and in whose -tt:.r; tI.-r.- ie.
some incidents also remarkable enough.
I had a great many discourses ,,1 them about their
;r. uUitii.:,- clwbr. il..-; i-re among th.: savages.
Ib-y to:ld. nm. i.:.. i,, t' it ti.--. had no instances to give
of their application or ingenuity in that country; that
I. :y .- r a l .....r --r.,l.i ..1.i.:. t.:i1 :uli ,..f 'p:,.-.l :
that even i o i. a)ni bi.J hl put ,l t.. It .ll r ba..I ;. :t
ihey had so abandoned t j:., I.'.:. r:', d.: 1 ,r, aJ .-r,.
'.:. uul, ur i.. r it.: weight ..' tt .i aL ii f... rtu L i i,. I t .I
L-..~ i t :_ Lb tI:,tIrI ; but st .'" : i O u. ,:.t tth.t i .r:u ..'A
"D.i j i t.L r.' u, E -".'l ru,: ir: :'u-rr'-d thh.;, xri;
a fh.: -: r.:.u: l It 1 -. a o...i tL.: r-'l t lt r i. lul tu'
,ir. tb;-lr.s rup l... tb.i t ir i-.i'.ry, Ltlt alTiysto take
]'*ii- ,:' tL.- b.:!pi r .-., :.. ff t!-, 4i well for
.i,,ii,. ,t i l[ as i..:r l ure j-el.ri- i ,'r:. :: be told m e
Lit t ".1 t,; u-,,',n t -tr 'e :li_ -_,ir, -;uicf Cl tu passioniin
Il, t,'.:rl.. fi..r thaL t iti ri.c rd. i 'uJly tbucg- past, which
r..r.: g r-,ril, i imp,:i.:il.i t, I,. r-.:ail.,i or to be
amj,:-.d:.i. L.ut Ltj.a UL:. v'i-' of tIiufg_ t:, come, and had
i:. -'!ar,; i a .3 tL b.i.g tbLb l L,:,k... ti ke ,..:U' -r'n.i:. but
fatherr ad).-i t: tl afil- :.i u r.:.p.:.s..1 a r.:n..-y ,
nd upor tii.s I!.- r. :p.At.-l .. S i5.'i.i- i irr. l I i. which,
hough I ::'L.:.t rj.:-.:t o tII.: Eac; w.rd:. that i.: spoke
tin, yet Iremember rmadi. it iut.:. .,a Eoius h prqyyerb
if my own, thus:-
In tro.1.1.. f t. t--..l .1. .
Is to i, I 3"ui l..ul.i.. I .!..ii..'d
He then ran on in remarks upon.ll t h LhItii iripr.:.r....-
nmeot had made -: i"i, ...|lul,:. my rLa'. ;rt,:i 'i.pi,-
,t,:.u, .s he called It: aori L -: I had .',rJ. ..: a, i,,: L ,
vhich in its circumstances was at Iii.t !,; .:Li *r..i. tl. v .
heirs, a lii.:-.ia'.i times more happy tb-i fleirL v- s,
V' iu .7 W n tbs'.; *-".. : all t:,1..' L r. f,. ...l r'.. it.
Sz r..iu.,rL iL.. tIL t ELu t i ,J I .i r l.:r p : t:i.: :e
.f rum.1, iu t s. .i -r .e th1 .|- y pI.: pl.. thLit e'. r bi,
., t r.itb ,. uul ,pp- r ,- r, u i, tII.- P' ..rt.. .,-
vereth v:-t uthe tlbi r-...rliJ t:o tr,,;.l: Lr.t nbi-
ortu'+ne f,:r thit btL ir _i,'rt -t,. i, .jLc r-o. -l't.:r thei.
.:mn..., efforts were'over, was t: r r. 1i, down
mnder it, and die, i , rousing thi.r tlb.,u'Lbts up to
proper remedies' for escape.
I Itl :!,ni thcr case and mine differed excepdingly.;
Iiut t-, iS.wi r: c st. upon the shore mi .t h u..t u -;i.r,-:
i-th.:.ut ,ipplfy ..t fqodi or present tu-t.umAL..- 1!1 tbEy'
.n.ii J pr -,:-i. tor t1 tli. it was r.ti:I L ..i tlh; fuirth:r
Sli,.lu: l ig. tiL.j .:lsscomfort.that I r.i a uii.-i: but tL.
he .ilppli;i I biJa prr..l.,nutl ly ttroi-.rb it to' :, y li.odin s,
by the unexpected diiiinig ci thL. ibip n shore,was
uch a help as would ba r'. e.D, r ig:eJ any creature in
he world to have alipld h.iljs:U as I had done.


.'* e,;u;.:.r," say-s tbl- S lAin jta Lad w, .-.:.-:r SI.-.ui tr.1-
beenin your ca-_, i. it4b.uld [a:1a-., Lbai. g.l-t hb'l tbl.r's
tlaiuj -. out of th. rt, ib ", :u u;i," a.iV a, -.," a-,
ri:i..alIl never h.a- fr,:and n,,-ans t barti goat ., ralt to
carry them, or to hire ;, t tIL, raft un abore w;thl-iut
boat or sail; Ju.a h-.-. Ia-. J , "i- L'ai- .1i.:'-
if any of us:.) L,....:n al.:u..'" Well, I J.:ire-.l b.m to
abate his coimplnr ts ,-i inI t... .i 'ith thl l bhit.-.r-r -f
their coming On bh-I' I:. ja i.i thI,'y lansiiJ, H. taoldl m,-
they -a.ilt i i.ily labd..i al a i l-.., ia.-. r- thir- 'r,r.:
-.,,:-r i'-. .v ath..ut pr.r:'-1..o -; aiah r.a a. h.,] tL, ; h J tLhe
i:, l i. L :A : t' : r.Ut 0ill[ 1 tr. .' b5it i l aI 'a.l~, ':''la" t['
:1 ..t litr 4l.,t1,.i .1 ittl,- f II l :r, th. y b d i li:,j ,, pL .:. ..- ai.
-h.:.ii, b i;ti...ut I..-'.pl- I E.. .,-; sa ;-lO .i tb t v*'- y
f, tLy L,. 1 L.,:L t t, l, -!i.: ,: tto,. d.-.:r.. .r...-.i- I,:, ,
-L.:a,-h u.: p.b-.l--thbr 1; I... say the O'..f1i'r.i.- :'f
i ,a trI-Il'.: .Li y L...-U there, and L ,.i il!:.1i lb.
,-li.a J .i-_i. ,-.'t: t-i b- ,,-: .it '- veral times, vT- :r, theyl
a-i L.1r.- ir -''l I'a...itutl.'a al1 wht o- t.a'l l. 'au.I I -.-
I,:. I 1 1, -. --,a. 1. .- L1 17, tl -t they c. ..,. a : I ..... a
- a'. a i l :I t 11..;,h tI b.- -..'L thc i had n.. L.r,- i ;
. i..:ca-, Lbar.-. thi r,:i. ... iiy sustained '.ib a -1.
., .i ,,.1 t,.:rt.- in,..., !l .-vy uij.i.:c:t.I- not, ai -.i bi b..
had no substance in thi-am '1 .i.l 'Iai. L the,,t.,
;: lb t,: .: r j. '.r.i; i a =a. .i,;1. and they could t ri ,t t b..ii
u:. i.:itt=r, ,i.i l-- thb.v n.:- uia turn 'aiultAi',,I .i a it
!n. tj',: 'l:.!h. ,
'Il -, ,.~y .' .:'. i .i .:.,ct a 'r u,"- aany v' a. -b.. tr.:; -e
I. a. .: :i l i- th.: ." -: tI h,-. ar r-' i;tb., .a to t.: i ..a th.. ot
rational ,.1 rt:.rt iu, t :..1.,'aa y 'r.'.y .- f li"i- ;. lui in
-a ; : t.- i 1 .-r; tin r.-t-.rt. -.3 it 1.jpi:i- tb.:r 1 iqjust,
-Il t hr..v -T.-I.'. iain thl f.:r : ;t.,r-,: : ai1 -.,pport,
l.-I','.il art.:nj r. tl t u ,[ f'...i- lult i aj.t: r .:.f Ui--. tl- at
S. t h l [t...... ; lUbtaU tla ,. it :.: a ,, tl Ul -:.a '
..t uL [ tf.' i 1 :i t ..:t.:.r, .t ,, tl., r: l l ... ... u::,, l. i
,'- A ath.i .:.ult tt-iu. T Iiy ;'... ie dl;ln J a-...-.: I--t -..f tL.
.. -tr.-Ll-U t .: Ih .:y 'V i-r .ir,- to0'; I,:."- -..,l i- ru.. a th:r,
were ruLo; J. 7 .- itL :I- t : a iy food lt l!. ti': '.I ,,,i il., y
w ere rL[.I u L-.;t, r.'i l..tb t by .- .* t :-r -a V. th.t I' 1 ,:
more indolent, and for that reason -r- !-:s I ,'[,.l.i-l
'.,ith T- e e nece srie, of life than li.:y h :.l ra:' ':.u t.,
belie.:,: :thI-. ': --\-r, in th. sam e r-art ..f tih. I ,:.a -I. oi l
,.: th- tV-l :.,jil tb-t these ,-,',=,, were !'-- r:':-t.'t u-
and ...r'. ia:... t 'L a those 'v..I:, l.' i "'a .r .r t i ,ii-i' ,: f
food. .A! :. tt.:y a-ided, they could not -ut ; .a -t.l'
what .-li r,.lr t tI i.:.on- of r li-.:.In an.1 ;.....J i-.-_i il.
governing providence of God direct' I r. ,:- It: ,: I
things in this world, b-, h. r,.iy -:1 :,1' ,[,iri -.j- iu thil r
circumstances: for if. .a'-I,.l ay tilh b t' al-hi., thr'y
..rJ. ].--.1r. r, r'l the barreni eP -*I tL- .:mintry -.. i,.r.
Ilh.7 ".': .-, iy ~id .i:, ,ftr a '1l-. tt,-, t.: I' ', .
itt.- b tii i h. .-n c.,, t I-, A .: i -L y c t1 b r li-tf ti. l
i, ,i'~=.i.-.1 r., It bh, by my means.
Tl. y th i M.: me an n.....u -t hi.r:c- 'r agi-,. whom
they lived amongst expect. d ti,: u t.. ,: .':...t ;th them
into their wars; and, it a ji tr.r. Lthbt .1 Il. it ai fire-
arms rith them, had th, 7 i.[l Li .tl th- .1;:;ti-tr to lose
til.. .iLa.u'anrti,:.'i, rltey could have been serviceable not
(t.y t.:. tl..' t .-'.i-, but haven ma-1- li., an i.-'.-~ i-rrible
1:--A. t,.. 't!,.:r; '. b I; --:0..- ac t Il..: ; l u Tilb ,ut .-powder
.,.1i I r-.. r ]a ] yet in .... .ilta...l rllh'a tI..,- not in
:- :.,- i.. !i.a- to go :, t wittl th..;r I a'lli:r.1-' t., their
wars; so when they came into thl- rirld .:.f i. t ,11. thb:y
were in a worsE a-ni;ta;i.n h ,tI thr: : ',-ir. tiir 1 ,i .l- :.
for they had Ir-;ti.- r L...', nor arr..t.- ub..r ,elu'.. t-in.:
ia,: tl.:;-se the sCqviqge gave tht. >'.. tI.t-y -"ul-i li:-
l...rlilu but -tzi. l till and be n...u.ii-,l 7 .t0i :,aii -i.'
till h.y .i..: ... I.:. i, l teeth .f iL-r.n r., ,u, .; an.l thL:u.
inde..i., tL, tl. ,.i : i. il- erds t!.- y L l -..r,: qf .'.- t.,
them 'i. th.a ,.-,I. I (.Ft,-t L 1a ,: a- W a wh.:Il.:- 1 i;1.. tarraiy_
befcr- lh bn- ..-.t- tL...-.: halberds, and -b'icp I,..!i ktr :-
put it,:. tl'. mli'i..:.:=- of thli'r mrnin 'e- ['ut f..r ail
this, they were sometimes "c..' .ii I-l ',th l lta...l..
ad in great danger from Itlb.r fr- ai t!l ,t I t-i t!.. y
found the way to make tl.rn,. i.. lri ti. -Lts .:!
wood,which lil.y covered "I all 'I.- .t :1 .'' I",.t:,
-. .:,,-.: nam es theyknew :,:,, ,t. ti a. ": ..."-r-.l tl..:n,
ir...a- tlhe arrows of the savages: ti. t. a-.t nai, rll. i,.-
these, they were. snme+im;n in re it ..1i II.:r; '. r: 'I1 lie
of them once we--= i--..- .l:..,i ,il. n t,-,-t'.- l .- tb II,.
clubs of 4lape crva;'.v s i ..b rii ti, h- at 'a. : .. .I.f
i,.-i w as taU : ut [,*ri :r_,r, t h ,I;l t ,: ..y. til: Sl' ni
l.:.m I r-:laI.:i. .1 t ir t t 1 t_ ,;- th-, : I, t i .- i-
l ill.:.1; b ,r w bh :u ti,.y air. r.'. l r- a-i 1' I,.. .-, t ,i:. .
prisonerO th..y vr -.. ir.i- r tb. i' it.'t C'', It i.i ,:;r, ill
and would '.il;ngl-i biV'-: ial tlhi Ih-,' to:
have rescue In,
Ti.:,' t.1.-1 I'.-: it ,t -,I.. tlh:.y a-v.rae -,: knocked down,
it,.. r:, it t.. i ..:'.inpany V..-.1u.I tbLa. and stood over
tim I6.hing i.i| iCi.=y -, ce come to th.i ,i'' .., .11
I,,t ira, ,i.:.n_ tih.. tih.-..iht had been i. ..1: rl: ,I tb.-
thr ,- na.i, th-ir V- "v irtL their halberds 'and piice,- liu ll... t l:g( tha. t ;it a line,-bir.,_.ii:h a l.:l',' .:f
above a thousand savi'e", healing -.:n'r, n :i1 tih t i(A im.
in their way, got tbe i..try o'.':. Iil a :na.,-, i,' t I.,
tl_.: r a.'.:'i -,..rr..w, because it w a. a itb thei 1.-.f th.-ir
Si i al., .!l-.ri,-n tla ,:.t tL.r pirty, t. i dire 'hi.l,-. : .a ritil i::'f,
-.;tlh -.a..O other-., a; I ga;'. an Ir-t',..ulnt ba-t.or-,. They
.1. ;.r;l.-. i, most arf.: :t it.:' Ialy, bow tb:y :r.:a r: i, 4irt .
;I i .:.' 7 at tlh. ret. ira .:.f tb. r frrn-..l ai-i o i:,m p nanii:n
in mieryv,who th.: y tloljgbt b :1 beer deouro.rd I,y iaild
L ,i: it .f: the rorsrt kind, wild men; andl yet, .hi ma ore

.iad more they were surprised w;al the account he gave
thait of his errand a nd that thEri ras a ( 'Laiiat.:n i
aLu place near, niulh more one tLh't w.a 'ai., Ju.l l..-l
oiiail aitV reu,,~al to o:lihtr;L.ate- to thl:;r Jlii lciL'nce.
TL..: ,' .i. .rbIt-d i.:.7 thi.-y i~a r. ast _:ib i l it th, ;ighit
,:.f the relief I i..l. thj:, narli at the happ.l...alla: i:
I.vis-.' ti.-'.l-liL-til,t thi:i7 li,-..i not seen ,iu..: thbua
-.::miln t... t. at l ia' r a'L.I.- pl,: a. ; I-', If.t` they crossed
:t and L.-i .J it u- L.t'.J ti.i fril:n Hr.avn--'r; and what
reviving :.-r.d; dI it "'as t perilss to taste it, as
di.. th:. ..'t. :r IL;;ai I hadl .,ut t.Ir supply; and,
.itr .l, ti,:y b .:..I.I. .-i, i .1: .h l n,:s .ur'i tlin ,:f the joy
thi.:,' el, I..- ; tn :;.t .: ht .:.f .1 L.I.:.t .D I p .. to carry
rl,.:im a 3.a t,:, t iL.: Irl.-'u aid I.1l. e from whence all
Lthe. nU,rt. ii.. But it was :In.P1.,5l'.L. to
..-I.rrs~ it r. -r w,:.l-r t.,r th'ir .: ,.: sa .. i-,-V L., tu 'lly
,Ic. i",; them t.' ,t -L'.:,t ln,: :tl a'.'.! .aL:- t[I-h L .1i u,:
r .7 to .i'rit.r; th.:rn bit i .' t llinLg- n; thl y iL..-r..r i. i
. ,.-.a b. ja..- I l,' L'... .a y 1. I.. :-nt to ti.,ir
tp.ii.''si; uit l a.le .: th: a r.. t h t r .-- up,..ii th.n, .
th'l 11 :. .*,Luc i[t rit .,l :,l 0i. ra" i0o, l ;i.. -.:,n,- ri,:tli-, .
ii th.,at ..rt tl,-rn,, tbir:] la s -rprr.- of joy,wpuld
I.ur-t ipt... t.-a i, :.t~ r: Lk, :t.uak ad. and .:th: i lim-
na.:.1,,; i. Iy f.ii it. T'ihi- d n..:t ;, atf... t,-.i :mu ,
,r i-,. .. -...J t., 'a. iu i Fri.l ', .. t '.ih he ni :t
hi iti.-r. arn-i thl,: b--.r p:I-:' :'-' ,:t '.: wiaI tpok
thil, na i 't i..1 .itt. r tL, a :h v.; u r i2 tile joy .,I
-l,.. tLi t.: :f t1i4 s hi.i b. 'ft.:i.ial iai': f delivered
it, ti., pi..' rI b1, i., .: L : i...' td t.r: [I.":V ls .1-n m y own
' b:,. w r-', ift-r t ..:,r y-,i:h't ",: i r' L i- [ rV"it'. I found a
,:.:....'1 -Lu r.: iy t.- i.i i- rt, r.: t I:. ,,' .:;,' .:.:ur try. All
thIr-. thiin.' r ..',' I n-' P :,'i: i ; .ibl- at tih. t;i:a' of
- c1-, .: .-.-,,..r iL r-L a. ii r ,:,ri Aff,:,. t:.l w ;th it.
H i ;tlo thii, ,s ,r vie, .:.f tic sta.,t ...I tb;ui ,.' i I
:.:.urn.I tl. .u, I ri,-t relate tir,: b.. .1 A.'I bar I 11.i t..,r
these people, ai,1i tlj..:.:,u it ., it. v. which I l-tt thl- ..
It was -l.-nr i.:.p- ..u. ia.1 mrt,' to,:.' th I thiy ,, bt-
troubled no -i.. or --' tt th.: tah"... .: ,." it t'.:, .-...i. t -ha-y
would be abl. t.:. ,tr tbi-r: ff, it tliey were twice as
many as bef:'rc" : tLiy b-,l i .:'"alcern about that.
Then I ent-.r.. iut', a 'ia.s i, iscourse with the
Spaniard, wl.:r. i all .:"' !i b.-r, alibut. their t. ia fl Ha:
island: for ai I ''-'t".. t t : t, rr, any of th: r *r.
so it would not be just to carry off some and leave
others, who, perhaps, would be ,an -. il ii ; t.:- stay if their
;st. t.gthl was diminished. On thb -:lL..- r hand, I told
t I:.iu I 'ame to establish them tlh, i.. niot to remove
tI.-m : :La, then I let them kli-u:., thIit I had brought
- t_ itl.. relief of sundry-kinds for them; that I had
been at a great charge to supply them with e Ii tl tt
necessary, as well fdI their convenience as thb~r L .-I
fence; afd that I had such and such particular persons
i-,ll. ia .. 1 .:11 tl ..r e- a'- r.u.] i.:. r.ait ili rlr nar l".. c'.
as by rLt. part.' al r a.,-:.: :-'' a.m-l...- a-o~nt, ai hwi, thi. '
were ".1i t.. '.. I,!,; irt;it..:r-. t... :--it thlim a. those
''iia ;_, iu l. ,. I at [V..Ca at tl..y u a itr. w' a t.
TI... -..r. ill t,- tl I.: i-,. .l I t ik... th.. to them ;
and bh t..r.- I J.:l;"r..i. tI -u th- iLt.:-. I -.1i 1.r..ught,
Iasl-I th.rri. on.-. if tl..r b i a.ntir. 1:; forgot
and i',.i":l ih. -,, t ii.a j'.al l,:..: tbt L..i tL.-, :among
:.L:rua, rlua.1 '-.:-,u i !.'a-' .ai- L l '.'oa a.u'.:ti,. '. and
engage: u a ltr..t t'r-itl.lbip .r. l u,.a:ii .:,' f I t,. l.a t, t i l.atl
so th.:; L uni,clt I.-:' .:b iu':,r- iiai-'rr.! ri t nl.lina' and
"Will Atkins, -;tii abundance of frankness and gopd
humour, said they had met with ;alli..a l:.. enough to
make them all sober, and enemies enough to make them
.l11 friends; tL it, '...r his part, he would live and die
,t'h Ir..r a'nd .ai: so far from designing :urti;ii-:
_: ;'it il., Spaniards. that he owned they had done
I.:.lthlng to: i.iL I.a t 1',i .. I ,.u !i'd.I humour made
.':.:-,i rT. 'a.i %-lI. t 1i, .i.'ul. I .' --, and perhaps
.,r n ri-,a, r *.: :-: ari,. thl t b. "voild .-kl tl,..,
Fa. .I:.u. .f I J.:ir- .l ,. t..r tlb. h..,..a:h .d brutLi l l :.
i.. h li al.:ui t ti. ,r. '.i. I -.-i. a--.l Illing ar-i i,: -; .i--
..t l; iu.-' iu t. I i f t' .rt;ir. ti -..ij: l' i i. and Iiu :.,ra 'iall
i i.. a..._ :,,I :,'.,.l i.-. iuyiLthin, th ,ti ;:, u his power to
convin.:'- ti.:ui : ,f it : a.ndi .. I.r -....u,, to Ei,ni.a.1], he
cared nr..t if 1 .i, o.:.-t g.:. L: tLhr! hr th.:i- twenty years.
The r,- i,; u',. I 1 il It ..',- i. Ir .l.i , first disarmed
ai. i .a .i t....-i W\ ill At_ : ,-. inti i .- countrymen t-..r
tli. r all 'ouJJ.,:t, b h[-i:y I. 1-it ua-, know, and thly.
appeal:d t.:, ni _e f,:.r Ih ,. r,.:.:: it- thI-.y w. ,-. ,ud. -l tf:, ,i,-,
so ; b.t hi t iI .\till :;:. I ."..a. L.. ,:d I,,au' lif ,.,1
bravely in tlb. ..r. it git th tht ,: .. i '.;1II tl] .. .,.
pnd 'n a*r' ral r :..:: :. ,:,a ..i iu'.. .l 1 I'ia l b:.ia ...i la. ,r J.,:l i
io f'l l.i l t.:. no.J ..:a-l. rra,: i rrt..b : g... I a ,ut,. ia t ;
"t h. rt, l, tt,; I 1. toL g,',-l ,I, /U th,,t ",-,,., ,,.* ,. ,
,,I l ti. ,-J l t !... |!u- l. ,:l ,I *, .l. .l t: I..:- tr.,; t. l .ithi
arms and 'ai.pi..:.1 "Thl a'.- ,:- ara.; i r atI O f I iicn :
-h It i ,7 h.L I t" iri, 1 t ,,ir It; -.f t,. "r .17 i ., L.;
( .run t,,ti 'u t .1 r..azu .i 11. h' t i'-at to tI .,: I-.. .'-'l .
l.m alt u t.1l t. -:;, hi'.l :utla r ,oi,'ria l-lt..,: ;u I lam i.
ia l aL ; ':.' intrym.r -. :bh. ,' h la.i.a.r. I.:.i .i tl.-: v La-
r:..ri l.:. h t, ..:It'i-Jau. .- by all th a-,,tb ...hla tLh t bi.:Li---t
:tl.-i. -a.,id mU'aa t t':, b'. valued aar, tni -t.:,i; ,a.lI ib,.y
:iL'o t I,-irti' i' ~ hl''.i''':'.1 the occa-i.-.. of gi' Ia,, M'. Ih
,'_. 'ar.i r ,..', th btt tI ,-y roild n-- r hl,'- .an a uIEr.:st
separate from one ao' it h, r.
Upon these frank and open declarations of friendship,
we appointed the next day to dine all together; and,
indeed, we made a splendid feast. I caused the ship's

cook and his mate to come on shore and dress our
dinner, and 1-h. old c:oolk' mate we had on shore
i.ia-k;t.. W\\ rfqught on lshpre six pieces of good beef
ant.i Ipnr pieces of pprk. out of the ship's provisions,
wiltb o'ar p.j4uh'bbiu'vl, .4,Ul materials to fill it; and, in
paticular, I ga r tlhlm it.. Lb.ttlka l French claret,and
ten bpttler o Euglj il Lber; tlhiiigs that neither the
i.? ar.,nr.l sn:.r th.- Engiish had tasted for many years,
nii.J i-.. it may bp supposed they were very glad of.
The Spiar;ri.i aidill-3 to our feast five whole kids, which
the cooks roasted; ald] three of them were sent, covered
up close, on board hi- ship to the seamen, that they
might feast on fresh meat from on shore, as we did with
their salt meat from on board.
After Iaia feast, at which we were very innocently
merry, I brought my cargo of goods; wherein, that
there might be no dispute about dividing, I showed
:i. m that there was a sufficiency for them all, desiring
that they might all take an equal quantity, when made
up. of tt.: g ,-,il. tbhalt v,,r, ir it t i'ar, g. A. A r, Ir 1T 1.1;-
rbut,.d liOi.a .al,',. t t.' .D 'll(a : 'La' l 'bc li ar t tlh, Ia lour
shirts, and, it th' SpI:jui ,l'. ri. u-1.Et, nift.r a vards made
them up six, tL.- .r a. r- ,C.-ia-,i la:a afi:,l table tothem,
ia '.i.'lag leen v;ia. t thL y hi:.i long sali t'..r ...t. the use of,
i:r -.l'at. t .-as tlo ',: r tbaht. I a.ll:ted the thin
English stuis, ,- ih. lI I nl-a:iti -.n..l I L.- ior. .l make every
one a light ',oat., li;e .i tr.ek, .'.i. I I ii.tdg,'d fittest for
hL.: it of thi.- F Il ;..', cool and loose; and ordered that
vi b. :. rer t hl ..- .i'id, they should make more,as they
ib..ig'hrt fit; tli. like for pumps, shoes, stockings, hats
&c. I cannot express what pleasure sat upon the coun-
tenances of all these poor men, when they saw the care
I had taken of bil.ii,. an.r how well I had furnished
them. T'Lhy t.:,ii one I was a father to them; and that
having such a correspondent as I was in so remote a
part of the world, it would make them forget that they
were left in a desolate place; and they all voluntarily
engaged to me not to leave the place without my
Thpn I presented to them the people I had brought
til mr.'-, [' i' tl..ul. Il,' ll'.I tailor, the smith, and the t.vo
.:iipaCtlars. ill o)f tln.tLr most necessary people; but, .111, ai 'y g'.L- II .rtificer, than whom they could
not name anything that was more useful to them; and
the tailor, to show his concern for them, went to work
immediately, and. with my leave, made them every one
a shirt, the first L L g he did; and, what was still more,
he taught the women not only how to sew and stitch,
and use the needle, but made them assist to make the
shirts for their husbands, and for all the rest. As to
the carpenters. I scarce need mention how useful they
were; I...r tl. I: t.:o:k t.:. pieces all my clumsy, unhandy
things, and made clever convenient tables, stools, bed-
steads, cupboards, lockers, shelves, and everything they
wanted of t.. kind. But to let them see how nature
made artificers at first, I carried the carpenters to see
Will Atkins' basket-house, as I called it; and they both
owned they never saw an instance of such natural in-
genuity before, nor anything so regular and so handily
built, at least of its kind; and one of them, when he
saw it, after musing a good while, turning about to me,
I am sure," says he, "that man has no need of us;
you need do nothing but give him tools."
Then I brought them out all my store of tools, and
gave every man a .i'alg-in--r~.i ]. a shovel, and a rake,
for we had no harrows or .pl.:ughl; aiudto every separate
.1a: p;i:k :is crow, a L.r.. 'l .x-, and a saw; always
.|.... |L,' an, tlh.t as often as'any were broken or worn, ri. i-y lr.l...iJ bp supplied without grudging, out of
the general stores that I :: it behind. Nail., staples,
hioge', hbmmers, ebiels, knives, scissors, and all sorts
.:,t li..::--w,.r. th-y Lad '~itii.:.ut reserve, as they re-'.r:; tlr Lu: 1nn would take more than he wanted,
.i.1 Ih.. nalit Il, a f,:ul that would tal'i. or spoil them
on any account whatever; and for til. isi- of the smith,
I left two tons of unwrought iron for a supply.
My miy'g'a:r; of powder and arms which I brought
them na aaucai. even to profusion, that they could not
but rejoice at them; f .r now thL-y could march as I
used to do, with a musket upon each shoulder, if there
was occasion; and were able to fight a thousand savages,
if they had but some little advantages of situation,
a b... I also they could not miss, if they had occasion.
I ..arried on shore 'i ;th me the young man whose
i'rl t i r was starved to death, and" the maid also; she
:' '5 sober, well-educated, religious young woman, and
Ih. .ba' -d so inoffensively that every one gave her a good
:.,r. she had, indeed, an unhappy life with us, there
i..;ul no woman in the ship but herself, but she bore it
a-;th l:.aoe''... After a while, seeing things so well
.-ri-.r.i..: and in so fine a way of tirivitng upon my
il irJd ..d ,::.asidering that they liJ naitiCr business
u. r acquaintancee in the East Indies, or reason for taking
i,. lhui, a voyage, both of them came to me, and desired
I wo-uld give them leave to remain on the island, and be
cat,.re.l among my .fa;lyv, as they called it. I agreed
t. tbus ;: aly ; and they had a little plot of ground;.d-:. tli.r',. where they had three tents or houses
set up, surrounded with a basket-work, palisadoel like
Atkins', adjoining to his plantation. Their tents were
contrived so that they had each of them a room apart to
lodge in, and'a middle tent like a great storehouse, to


lay their goods in, and to eat and drink in. And now
the other two Englishmen removed their habitation to
the same place; and so the island was divided into three
colonies, and no.more, viz. the Spaniards, with old Friday
and the first servants, at my old habitation under the
hill, which was, in a word, the capital city, and where
they had so enlarged and extended their works, as well
under as on the outside of the hill, that they lived,
though perfectly concealed, yet full at large. Never
was there such a little city in a wood, and so hid, in any
part of the world; for I verily believe that a thousand
men might have ranged the island a month, and, if they
had not known there was such a thing, and looked on
purpose for it, they would not have found it. .Indeed,
the trees stood so thick and so close, and grew so fast
woven one into another, that nothing but cutting them
down first could discover the place, except the only two
narrow entrances where they went in and out could be
found, which was not very easy; one of them was close
down at the water's edge, on the side of the creek, and
it was afterwards above two hundred yards to the place:
and the other was up a ladder at twice, as I have already
described it; and they had also a large wood, thickly
planted, on the top of the hill, containing above an
acre, which grew apace, and concealed the place from all
discovery there, with only one narrow place between two
trees, not easily to be discovered, to enter on that side.
The other colony was that of Will Atkins, where
there were four families of Englishmen, I mean those I
had left there, with their wives and children; three
savages that were slaves, the widow and the children of
the Englishman that was killed, the young man and the
maid, and, by the way, we made a wife, of her before
we went away. There were besides the two carpenters
and the tailor, whom I brought with me for them: also
the smith, who-was a very necessary man to them,
especially as a gunsmith, to take care of their arms;
and my other man, whom I called Jack-of-all-trades,
who was in himself as good almost as twenty men; for
he was not only a very ingenious fellow, but a very
merry fellow, and before I went away we married him
to the honest maid that came with the youth in the
ship I mentioned before.
And now I speak of marrying, it brings me naturally
to say something of the French ecclesiastic that I holt
brought with me out of the ship's crew whom I took up
at sea. It is true this man was a Roman, and perhaps
it may give offence to some hereafter, if I leave any-
thing extraordinary upon record of a man whom, before
I begin, I must (to set him out in just colours) represent
in terms very much to his disadvantage, in the account
of Protestants; as, first, that he was a Papist; secondly,
a Popish priest; and, thirdly, a French Popish priest.
But justice demands of me to give him a due character;
and I must say, he was a grave, sober, pious, and most
religious person; exact in his life, extensive in his
charity, and exemplary in almost everything he did.
What then can any one say against being very sensible
of the value of such a man, notwithstanding his pro-
fession ? though it may be my opinion, perhaps, as well
as the opinion of others who shall read this, that he
was mistaken.
The first hour thatI began to converse with him after
"he had agreed to go with me to the East Indies, I found
reason to delight exceedingly in his conversation; and
he first began with me about religion in the most obliging
manner imaginable. "Sir," says he, "you have not only
under God (and at that he crossed his breast) saved my
life, but you have admitted me to go this voyage in
your ship, and by your obliging civility, have taken me
into your family, giving me an opportunity of free
conversation. Now, sir, you see by my habit what my
profession is, and I guess by your nation what yours is;
I may think is is my duty, and doubtless it is so, to use
my utmost endeavours, on all occasions, to bring all the
souls I can to the knowledge of the truth, and to em-
brace the Catholic doctrine; but as I am here under
your permission, and in your family, I am bound in
justice to your kindness, as well as in decency and good
manners, to be under your government; and therefore
I shall not, without your leave, enter into any debate on
the points of religion in which we may not agree, further
than you shall give me leave."
I told him his carriage was so modest that I could not
but acknowledge it; that it was true we were such
people as they call heretics, but that he was not the
first Catholic I had conversed with, without falling into
inconveniences, or carrying the questions to any height
in debate; that he should not find himself the worst
used for being of d different opinion from us, and if we
did not converse without any dislike on either side, it
should be his fault, not ours.
He replied that he thought all our conversation might
be easily separated from disputes; that it was not his
business to cap principles with every man he conversed
with; and that he rather desired me to converse with
him as a gentleman than as a religionist; and that, if
I would give him leave at any time to discourse upon
religious subjects, he would readily comply with it, and
that he did not doubt but I would allow him also to
defend his own opinions as well as he could; but that,
without my leave, he would not break in upon me with

any such thing. He told me further, that he would not
cease to do all that became him, in his office as a priest,
as well as a private Christian, to procure the good of
the ship, and the safety of all that was in her; and
though, perhaps, we would not join with him, and he
could not pray with us, he hoped he might pray for us,
which he would do upon all occasions. In this manner
we conversed; and as he was of the most obliging,
gentlemanlike, behaviour, so he was, if I maybe allowed
to say so, a man of good sense, and, as I believe, of
great learning.
He gave me a most diverting account of his life, and
of the many extraordinary events of it; of many ad-
ventures which had befallen him in the few years that
he had been abroad in the world; and particularly it
was very remarkable, that in the voyage he was now
engaged in, he had the misfortune to be five times
shipped and unshipped, and never to go to the place
whither any of the ships he was in were at first designed.
That his first intent was to have gone to Martinico, and
that he went on board a ship bound thither at St. Malo;
but, being forced into Lisbon by bad weather, the ship
received some damage by running aground in the mouth
of the river Tagus, and was obliged to unload her cargo
there ; but finding a Portuguese ship there bound to the
Madeiras, and ready to sail, and supposing he should
easily meet with a vessel there bound to Martinico, he
went on board, in order to sail to the Madeiras; but the
master of the Portuguese ship, being but an indifferent
mariner, had been out of his reckoning, and they drove
to Fayal; where, however, he happened to find a very
good market for his cargo, which was corn, and there-
fore resolved not to go to the Madeiras, but to load
salt at the Isle of May, and to go away to Newfound-
land. He had no remedy in this exigence but to go
with the ship, and had a pretty good voyage as far as
Banks (so they call the place where they catch the fish),
where meeting with a French ship bound from France
to Quebec, and from thence to Martinico, to carry pro-
visions, he thought he should have an opportunity to
complete his first design; but when he came to Quebec,
the master of the ship died, and the vessel proceeded
no further; so the next voyage he shipped himself for
France, in the ship that was burned when we took them
up at sea, and then shipped with us for the East Indies,
as I have already said. Thus he had been disappointed
in five voyages, all, as I may call it, in one voyage,
besides what I shall have occasion to mention further
of him.
But I shall not make digression into other men's
stories, which have no relation to my own; so I return
to what concerns our affairs in the island. He came
to me one morning (for he lodged among us all the
while we were upon the island), and it happened to be
just when I was going to visit the Englishmen's colony,
at the furthest part of the island; I say, he came to
me, and told me, with a very grave countenance, that
he had for two or three days desired an opportunity
of some discourse with me, which he hoped would not
be displeasing to me, because he thought it might in
some measure correspond with my general design, which
was, the prosperity of my new colony, and perhaps
might put it, at least more than he yet thought it was,
in the way of God's blessing.
I looked a little surprised at the last part of his
discourse, and turning a little short, "How, sir," said I,
"can it be said that we are not in the way of God's
blessing, after such visible assistance and deliverances
as we have seen here, and of which I have given you a
large account ? "-" If you had pleased, sir," said he,
with a world of modesty, and yet great readiness, "to
have heard me, you would have found no room to have
been displeased, much less to think so hard of me, that
I should suggest that you have not had wonderful
assistance and deliverances; and I hope, on your behalf,
that you are in the way of God's blessing, and your
design is exceeding good, and will prosper. But, sir,
though it were more so than is even possible to you, yet
there may be some among you that are not equally right
in their actions: and you know, that in the story of the
children of Israel, one Achan in the camp removed
God's blessing from them, and turned his hand so
against them, that six-and-thirty of them, though not
concerned in the crime, were the objects of divine
vengeance, and bore the weight of that punishment."
I was sensibly touched with this discourse, and told
him his inference was so just, and the whole design
seemed so sincere, and was really so religious in its own
nature, that I was very sorry I had interrupted him,
and begged him to go on; and, in the meantime,
because it seemed that what we had both to y u;l.-1 t
take up some time, I told him I was goiin. t.:. I-.
Englishmen's plantations, and asked him to go with
me, and we might discourse of it by the way. He told
me he would the more willingly wait on me thither,
because there partly the thing was acted which he de-
sired to speak to me about; so we walked on, and I
pressed him to be free and plain with me in what he
had to say.
Why, then, sir," says he, be pleased to give me
leave to lay down a few propositions, as the foundation
of what I have to say, that we may not differ in the

general principles, though we may be of some differing
opinions in the practice of particulars. First, sir; though
we differ in some of the doctrinal articles of religion
(and it is very unhappy it is so, especially in the case
before us, as I shall show afterwards), yet there are
some general principles in which we both agree-that
there is a God; and that this God having given us some
stated general rules for our service and obedience,
we ought not willingly and knowingly to offend Him,
either by neglecting to do what He has commanded, or
by doing what He has expressly forbidden. And let
our different religions be what they will, this general
principle is readily owned by us all, that the blessing of
God does not ordinarily follow presumptuous sinning
against His command; and every good Christian will
be affectionately concerned to prevent any that are
under his care living in a total neglect of God and His
commands. It is not your men being Protestants,
whatever my opinion may be of such, that discharges
me from being concerned for their souls, and from
endeavouring, if it lies before me, that they should live
in as little distance from enmity with their Maker as
possible, especially if you give me leave to meddle so-
far in your circuit."'
I could not yet imagine what he aimed at, and told
him I granted all he had said, and thanked him that he
would so far concern himself for us: and begged he
would explain the particulars of what he had observed,
that like Joshua, to take his own parable, I might put
away the accursed thing from us.
Why, then, sir," says he, "I will take the liberty
you give me; and there are three things, which, if I am
right, must stand in the way of God's blessing upon
your endeavours here, and which I should rejoice, for
your sake and their own, to see removed. And, sir, I
promise myself that you will fully agree with me in
them all, as soon as I name them; especially because I
shall convince you that every one of them may, with
great ease, and very much to your satisfaction, be
remedied. First, sir," says he, "you have here four
Englishmen, who have fetched women from among the
savages, and have taken them as their wives, and have
had many children by them all, and yet are not married
to them after any stated legal manner, as the laws of
God and man require. To this, sir, I know, you will
object that there was no clergyman or priest of any
kind to perform the ceremony; nor any pen and ink, or
paper, to write down a contract of marriage, and have
it signed between them. And I know also, sir, what the
Spaniard governor has told you, I mean of the agree-
ment that he obliged them to make when they took
those women, viz. that they should choose them out by
consent, and keep separately to them: which, by the
way, is nothing of a marriage, no agreement with the
women, as wives, but only an agreement among them-
selves, to keep them from quarrelling. But, sir, the
essence of the sacrament of matrimony (so he called it,
being a Roman) consists not only in the mutual consent
of the parties to take one another as man and wife, but
in the formal and legal obligation that there is in the
contract to compel the man and woman, at all times, to
own and acknowledge each other; obliging the men to
abstain from all other women, to engage in no other
contract while these subsist; and, on all occasions, as
ability allows, to provide honestly for them and their
children; and to oblige the women to the same or like
conditions, on their side. Now, sir," says he, "these
men may, when they please, or when occasion presents,
abandon these women, disown their children, leave
them to perish, and take other women, and marry them
while these are living;" and here he added, with some
warmth, How, sir, is God. honoured in this unlawful
liberty? And how shall a blessing succeed your en-
deavours in this place, however good in themselves, and
however sincere in your design, while these men, who
at present are your subjects, under your absolute govern-
ment and dominion, are allowed by you to live in open
adultery ? "
I confess I was struck with the thing itself, but much
more with the convincing arguments he supported it
with; but I thought to have got off my young priest by
telling him that all that part was done when I was not
there: and that they had lived so many years with
them now, that if it was adultery, it was past remedy;
nothing could be done in it now.
"Sir," says he," asking your pardon for such freedom,
you are right in this, that, it being done in your absence,
you could not be charged with that part of the crime;
but, I beseech you, flatter not yourself that'you are not,
therefore, under an obligation to do your utmost now to
put an end to it. You should legally and effectually
marry them; and as, sir, my way of marrying may not
be easy to reconcile them to, though it will be effectual,
even by your own laws, so your way may be as well
before God, and as valid among men. I mean by a
written contract, signed by both man and woman, and
by all the witnesses present, which all the laws of
Europe would decree to be valid."
I was amazed to see so much true piety, and so much
sincerity of zeal, besides the unusual impartiality in his
discourse as to his own party or church, and such true
warmth for preserving people that he had no knowledge


of or relation to, from transgressing the laws of God.
But recollecting what he had said of marrying them by
a written contract, which I knew he would stand to, I
returned it back upon him, and told him I granted all
that he had said to be just, and on his part very kind;
that I would discourse with the men upon the point
now, when I came to them; and I knew no reason why
they should scruple to let him marry them all, which I
knew well enough would be granted to be as authentic
and valid in England as if they were married by one of
our own clergymen.
I then pressed him to tell me what was the second
complaint which he had to make, acknowledging that I
was very much his debtor for the first, and thanked
him heartily for it. He told me he would use the same
freedom and plainness in the second, and hoped I would
take it as well; and this was, that, notwithstanding
these English subjects of mine, as he called them, had
lived with these women almost seven years, had taught
them to speak English, and even to read it, and that
they were, as he perceived, women of tolerable under-
standing, and capable of instruction, yet they had not,
to this hour, taught them anything of the Christian re-
ligion-no, not so much as to know there was a God, or
a worship, or in what mariner God was to be served, or
that their own idolatry, and worshipping they knew not
whom, was false and absurd. This, he said, was an un-
accountable neglect, and what God would certainly call
them to account for, and perhaps at last take the work
out of their hands. He spoke this very affectionately
and warmly.
"I am persuaded," says he, "had those men lived in
the savage country whence their wives came, the savages
would have taken more pains to have brought them to
be idolators, and to worship the devil, than any of
these men, so far as I can see, have taken with them to
teach the knowledge of the true God. Now, sir," said
he, "though I do not acknowledge your religion, or you
mine, yet we would be glad to see the devil's servants
and the subjects of his kingdom taught to know the
general principles of the Christian religion; that they
might, at least, hear of God and a Redeemer, and of the
resurrection, and of a future state-things which we all
believe; that they might, at least, be so much nearer com-
.ing into the bosom of the true church than they are now,
in the public profession of idolatry and devil-worship."
I could hold no longer: I took him in my arms, and
embraced him eagerly. "How far," said I to him,
have I been from understanding the most essential
part of a Christian, viz. to love the interest of the
Christian church, and the good of other men's souls!
I scarce have known what belongs to the being a
Christian."-" Oh, sir! do not say so," replied he; "this
thing is not your fault."-" No," said I; "buit why did
I never lay it to heart as well as you ? "-"It is not too
late yet," said he; "be not too forward to condemn
yourself."--" But what can be done now ? said I: "you
see I am going away."-" Will you give me leave to talk
with these poor men about it ?"-" Yes, with all my
heart," said I: "and will oblige them to give heed to
what you say too."-" As to that," said he, we must
leave them to the mercy of Christ, but it is your business
to assist them, encourage them, and instruct them; and
if you give me leave, and God his blessing, I do not
doubt but .the poor- ignorant souls shall be brought
home to the great circle of Christianity, if not into the
particular faith we all embrace, and that even while
ydu stay here." Upon this I said, "I shall not only
give you leave, but give you a thousand thanks for it."
I now pressed him for the third article in which we
were to blame. "Why, really," says he, "it is of the
same nature. It is about your poor savages, who are,
as I may say, your conquered subjects. It is a maxim,
sir, that is, or ought tobe received among all-Christians,
of what church or pretended church soever, that the
Christian knowledge ought to be propagated by all
possible means, and on all possible occasions. It is on
this principle that our church sends missionaries into
Persia, India, and China; and that our clergy, even of
the superior sort, willingly engage in the most hazardous
voyages, and the most dangerous residence amongst
murderers and barbarians to teach them the knowledge of
the true God, and to bring them over to embrace the
Christian faith. Now, sir, you have such an opportu-
nity here to have six or seven-and-thirty poor savages
brought over from'a state of idolatry to the knowledge
of God, their Maker and Redeemer, that I wonder how
you can pass such an occasion of doing good, which
is really worth the expense of a man's whole life."
I was now struck dumb indeed, and had not one word
to say. I had here the spirit of true Christian zeal for
God and religion before me. As for me, I had not so
much as entertained thought of this in my heart before
and I believe I should not have thought of it; forI looked
upon these savages as slaves, and people whom, had we
not had any work for them to do, we would have used
as such, or would have been glad to have transported
them to any other part of the world; for our business
was to get rid of them, and we would all have been
satisfied if they had been sent to any country so they
had never seen their own. I was confounded at his
discourse, and knew not what answer to make him.

He looked earnestly at me, seeing my confusion-
"Sir," says he, "I shall be very sorry if what I have
said gives you any offence."-" No, no," said I, "I am
offended with nobody but myself; but I am perfectly
confounded, not only to think that I should never take
any notice of this before, but with reflecting what notice
I am able to take of it now. You know, sir," said I,
what circumstances I am in; I am bound to the East
Indies in a ship freighted by merchants, and to whom it
would be an insufferable piece of injustice to detain
their ship here, the men lying all this while at victuals
and wages on the owners' account. It is true, I agreed
to be allowed twelve days here, and if I stay more, I
must pay three pounds sterling per diem demurrage;
nor can I stay upon demurrage above eight days more,
and I have been here thirteen already; so that I am
perfectly unable to engage in this work, unless I would
suffer myself to be left behind here again; in which
case if this single ship should miscarry in any part of
her voyage, I should be just in the same condition that
I was left in here at first, and from which I have been
so wonderfully delivered." He owned the case was very
hard upon me as to my voyage; but laid it home upon
my conscience, whether the blessing of saving thirty-
seven souls was not worth venturing all I had in the
world for. I was not so sensible of that as he was. I
replied to him thus: Why, sir, it is a valuable thing,
indeed, to be an instrument in God's hand to convert
thirty-seven heathens to the knowledge of Christ; but
as you are an ecclesiastic, and are given over to the
work, so it seems so naturally to fall into the way of
your profession; how is it, then, that you do not
rather offer yourself to undertake it than press me to
Upon this he faced about just before me, as he walked
along, and putting me to a full stop, made me a very
low bow. "I most heartily thank God and you, sir,"
said he, "for giving me so evident a call to so blessed a
work; and if you think yourself discharged from it,
and desire me to undertake it, I will most readily do it,
and think it a happy reward for all the hazards and
difficulties of such a broken, disappointed voyage as I
have met with, that I am dropped at.last into so glorious
a work."
I discovered a kind of rapture in his face while he
spoke this to me; his eyes sparkled like fire, his face
glowed, and his colour came and went; in a word, he
was fired with the joy of being embarked in such a
work. I paused a considerable while before I could
tell what to say to him; for I was really surprised to
find a man of such sincerity, and who seemed possessed
of a zeal beyond the ordinary rate of men. But after I
had considered it a while, I asked him seriously if he
was in earnest, and that he would venture, on the single
consideration of an attempt to convert those poor people,
to be locked up in an unplanted island for perhaps his
life, and at last might not know whether he should be
able to do them good or not? He turned short upon
me, and asked me what I called a venture? f' Pray,
sir," said he, "what do you think I consented to go in
your ship to the East Indies for ? "-" Nay," said I,
"that I know not, unless it was to preach to the
Indians."-" Doubtless it was," said he; and 'do you
think, if I can convert these thirty-seven men to the
faith of Jesus Christ, it is not worth my time, though I
should never be fetched off the island again ?-nay, is it
not infinitely of more worth to save so many souls than
my life is, or the life of twenty more of the same pro-
fession ? Yes, sir," says he, "I would give God thanks
all my days, if I could be made the happy instrument
of saving the souls of these poor men, though I were
never to get my foot off this island, or see my native
country any more. But since you will honour me with
putting me into this work, for which I will pray for you
all the days of my life, I have one humble petition to
you besides."-" What is that? said I.-" Why," says
he. "it is, that you will leave your man Friday with
me, to be my interpreter to them, and to assist me;
for without some help I cannot speak to them, or they
to me."
I was sensibly touched at his requesting Friday,
because I could not think of parting with him, and
that for many reasons: he had been the companion of
my travels; he was not only faithful to me, but sincerely
affectionate to the last degree; and I had resolved to
do something considerable for him if he outlived me, as
it was probable he would. Then I knew that, as I had
bred Friday up to .be a Protestant, it would quite con-
found him to bring him to embrace another religion;
and he would never, while his eyes were open, believe
that his old master was a heretic, and would be damned;
and this might in the end ruin the poor fellow's
principles, and so turn him back again to his first
idolatry. However, a sudden thought relieved me in
this strait, and it was this: I told him I could not
say that I was willing to part with Friday on any
account whatever, though a work that to him was
of more value than his life, ought to be of much more
value than the keeping or parting with a servant. But,
on the other hand, I. was persuaded that Friday would
by no means agree to part with me; and I could not
force him to it without his consent, without manifest

injustice; because I had promised I would never send
him away, and.he had promised and engaged to me that
he would never leave me, unless I sent him away.
He seemed very much concerned at it, for he had no
rational access to these poor people, seeing he did not
understand one word of their language, nor they one of
his. To remove this difficulty, I told him Friday's
father had learned Spanish, which I found he also under-
stood, and he should serve him as an interpreter. So he
was much better satisfied, and nothing could persuade
him but he would stay and endeavour to convert them;
but Providence gave another very happy turn to all this.
I come back now to the first part of. his objections.
When we came to the Englishmen, I sent for them all
together, and after some account given them o f what I
had done for them, viz. what necessary things I had
provided for them, and how they were distributed,
which they were very sensible of, and very thankful for,
I began to talk to them of the scandalous life they led,
and gave them a full account of the notice the clergy-
man had taken of it; and arguing how unchristian and
irreligious a life it was, I first asked them if they were
married men or bachelors? They soon explained their
condition to me, and showed that two of them were
widowers, and the other three were single men, or
bachelors. I asked them with what conscience they
could take these women, and call them their wives, and
have so many children by them, and not be lawfully
married to them? They all gave me the answer I
expected, viz. that there was nobody to marry them;
that they agreed before the governor to keep them as
their wives, and to maintain them and own them as their
wives; and they thought as things stood with them,
they were as legally married as if they had been married
by a parson, and with all the formalities in the world.
I told them that no doubt they were married in the
sight of God, and were bound in conscience to keep
them as their wives; but that the laws of men being
otherwise, they might desert the poor women and
children hereafter; and that their wives, being poor
desolate women, friendless and moneyless, would have
no way to help themselves. I therefore told them that,
unless I was assured of their honest intent, I could do
nothing for them, but would take'care that what I did
should be for the women and children without them;
and that, unless they would give me some assurances
that they would marry the women, I could not think it
was convenient they should continue together as man
and wife; for that it was both scandalous to men and
offensive to God, who they could not think would bless
them if they went on thus.
All this went on as I expected; and they told me,
especially Will Atkins, who now seemed to speak for
the rest, that they loved their wives as well as if they
had been born in their own native country, and would
not leave them on any account whatever; and they did
verily believe that their wives were as virtuous and
as modest, and did, to the utmost of their skill, as much
for them and for their children, as any women could
possibly do: and they would not part with them on
any account. Will Atkins, for his own particular,
added, that if any man would take him away, and offer
to carry him home to England, and make him captain
of the best man-of-war in the navy, he would not go
with him, if he might not carry his wife and children'
with him; and if there was a clergyman in the ship, he
would be married to her now with all his heart.
This was just as I would have it. The priest was not
with me at that moment, but was not far off: so
to try him further, I told him I had a clergyman with
me, and, if he was sincere, I would have him married
next morning, and bade him consider of it, and
talk with the rest. He said, as for himself, he need
not consider of it at all, for he was very ready to do it,
and was glad I had a minister with me, and he believed
they would be all willing also. I then told him that my
friend, the minister, was a Frenchman, and could not
speak English, but I would act the clerk between them.
He never so much as asked me whether he was a Papist
or Protestant, which was, indeed, what I was afraid of.
We then parted, and I went back to my clergyman, and
.Will Atkins went in to talk to his companions. I
desired the French gentleman not to say anything to
them till the business was thoroughly ripe; and I told
him what answer the men had given me.
Before I went from their quarter, they all came to me
and told me they had been considering what I had said;
that they were glad to hear I had a clergyman in my
company, and they were very willing to give me the
satisfaction I desired, and to be formally married as
soon as I pleased; for they were far from desiring to
part with their wives, and that they meant nothing but
what was very honest when they chose them. So I
appointed them to meet me the next morning; and, in
the mean time, they should let their wives know the
meaning of the marriage law; and that it was not only
to prevent any scandal, but also to oblige them that
they should not forsake them, whatever might happen.
The woman were easily made sensible of the meaning
of the thing, and were very well satisfied with it, as,
indeed, they had reason to be: so they failed not to
attend altogether at my apartment next morning, where


I brought :.ut my .'kr.-yirin ; au he I.,.1 nu
on a mmiuLi.t.r's go. .n,afti r til:. m'-n,.r ,of Englrd, .:.I thi.:
Lh.Int iIt pi i:.nt, alter th., .r ..I t Frarnc:, v,. t iha i,.u
a hla.:k .r-.t t.:,m IItl in lik .).k, ,ith a si-b r i.aud.
it, lihe li, l no:t I.,ok vr' i unlik.n a minister : .,I,. a5 '...r
hin Ingue'tg".. I a i.' Ii., i t. rpr. t..r. But l I.e ri.- a-i --
of I1. In, '....'u t.- th.t-ti, inl theI scruples he made of
marrying the women, because they were not I.,'.i, ,.J
and professed Christians, gave them an ~- .si..-. l n
reverence for his person; and there was no i,. -I, i. r
that, to inquire whether he was a clergyman or not.
Indeed, I was afraid his scrItupIs would have been
carried so far as that he ....ulI u..t have married them
at all; a .y, uncItl.t~l;in.; gll Ii a .s able to say to
him he i'l*..i I.. 1 ., tliu t.iLh ri..I...Hly, i. virI' bl .lily,
and At lIa t I-l. ..lI auliilat. IJ i.: na, rry, thleni ur.I .ja i..
had l;r.t I Iked l i lth I ih niL, anld thi: women too; and
though t nrf.t I ,1.1' ,1 little. I, k,,.lii r.I to it. yet at last I
agreed to it with a good will, 1i,:r,'irerug th.. sincerity
of his design.
When he came to them, he let them know that I had
acquainted him with their circumstances, and with t Ih:
present design; that he was very willing to perform
that part of his function, and marry them, as I desired;
but that before he could do it, he must take the liberty
to talk with them. He told them, that in the sight of
all indifferent men, and in the sense of the laws of
society, they had lived all this while in a state of sin;
and that it was true, that nothing but the consenting
to marry, or effectually separating them from one
another, could now put an end to it; but there was a
difficulty init too, i;tb r.. cp.: t; to the laws of Christian
matrimony, which he was not tully ~.i t,-l'....l .' i..i r, that
of marrying one, that is a pr..ti:--i.i 'brit,-i to a
savage, an idolater, and a h.,ith.'n,-.u.- tlh t is not
baptized; and yet that he did not see that there was
time left to endeavour to persuade the women to be
baptized, or to profess the name of Christ, whom they
had, he doubted, heard nothing of, and without which
they could not be baptized, He told them he doubted
they were but indifferent Christians themselves; that
they had but little knowledge of God or of his ways,
and therefore he could not expect that they had said
much to their wives on that head yet; but that unless
they would promise him to use their endeavours with
their wives to persuade them to become 'Christians,
and would, as well as they could, instruct them in the
knowledge and belief of God that made them, and to
worship Jesus Christ that redeemed them, he could not
marry them; for he would have no hand in joining
Christians with savages, nor was it consistent with the
principles of the Christian religion, and was, indeed
expressly forbidden in God's law.
They heard all this very attentively, and I delivered
it very faithfully to them from his mouth, as near his
own words as I could; only sometimes adding some-
thing of my own, to convince them how just it was, and
that I was of his mind; and I always very faithfully
distinguished between what I said from myself, and
what were the clergyman's words. They told me it
was very true what the gentleman said, that they were
very indifferent Christians themselves, and that they
had never talked to their wives about religion. Lord,
sir," says Will Atkins, "how should we teac'i I ...i,
religion? Why, we know nothing ourselves; ii.l bi-:
sides, sir," said he, should we talk to them of God and
Jesus Christ, and heaven and hell, it would make them
laugh at us, and ask us what we believe ourselves ?
And if we should tell them that we believe all the
things we speak of to them, such as of good people
going to heaven, and wicked people to -the devil, they
would ask us where we intend to go ourselves, that
believe all this, and are such wicked fellows as we
indeed are? Why, sir, 'tis enough to give them a
surfeit of religion at first hearing; folks must have
some religion themselves before they begin to teach
other people."-" Will Atkins," said I to him, though
I am afraid that what you say has too much truth in it,
yet can you not tell your wife she the wrong; that
there is a God, and a religion better than her own;
that her gods are idols; that they can neither hear nor
speak; that there is a great Being that made all Jinu..,
and that can destroy all that he has made; that he
rewards the good and punishes the bad; and' that we
are to be judged by him at last for all we do here ? You
are not so ignorant,but even nature itself will teach
you that all this is true; and I am satisfied you know
it all to be true, and believe it yourself."-" That is true,
sir," said Atkins; but with what face can I say any-
thing to my wife of all this, when she will tell me
immediately it cannot be true? "-" Not true! said I;
"what do you mean by that? "-" Why sir," said he,
"she will tell me it cannot be true that this God I
shall tell her of can be just, or can punish or reward,
since I am not punished and sent to the devil, that have
been such a wicked creature as she knows I have been,
even to her, and to everybody else; and that I should
be suffered to live, that have been always acting so con-
trary to what I must tell her is good, and to what I
ought to have done."--" Wi'., trti;-, Ailkin,. .iid I,
"I am afraid thoa, spr" ak.t t'.-. un..:h tr hit, '' nd
with that I informed i th- .le';i rij .:. t .\tl:oi had

,,iJ.i for L. w'as ijmp[ tie:ut t-. kn.-, --' -" S i. the
pnt-nt. tell bm th.,,: ., ,on.:- tOwln, will mA-L I lla tLL,
b.-it iniit,:r ;u tIe i;, .rl.' t- I, .I t., anr-d llit is,
r.-pl tnt..,: ; f.:r rinarn t'. ..h r.:-pri bt.t r.. lik.- ti:u
p.r''..utB. He wivnt, rthliuig but to repeat, and then
I:. ,ill i..,: i.; "much the better iIli;i.. i to instruct his
wife; he will tnI, I, 1w. able to tell her that there is not
only a God, .i.1l tI.i. hb is ti: i'l-t rewarder of good
and e, il, 1I-,t that be is arlucr, ; r i being, and with
iuiriit,:- ,,.s, and log-u..urli og forbears to p uil.l
th...-,i thjt .:,rf,:u. ; Ld a. tinig t.:. L.,: t..i:iL: -, r-. lJ ill;ii,
not the death of a sinner, but ri-atu r that IU. should
return ah] In ,. ; ..ri i 'eu i-. -ri,. .ianriaht...o tI.) tb
g, u r i1 d .,t r,:tt;I..ti.Ou ; tihait it ;, Ji .l.,ar .-vi.let. .: .,f
G: ".I oul of a tuluie s, iat,:, Ill.t !l'.igt...u n,: .,: .:V..
not their r.:a.v:r.l, ,r i-I. k.J ru-u tl,: ir punrhbmut. till
they coain lt,: au,:t.)'.r w,:.riM ; and thii l .t!l l-.I l tint to
teach his w-;if the doctrine to te- rt',urr-.i:trn an-l ...
the last judgment., Let hrii bit r:,pnet Li,:..l., hL.
will b.. a .i r : t lr.i.c;Ib -i of r plQt,.u, ,r t,:. i-il viti.-."
I r.:p:4t,: .l ll trL to .ILkion, w b. Looked very serious
all the while, and, as w-: co,-ilid :j-,ly perceive, was m r.
than;ily ff-,ititeJ 'th I.t ; r;i.,: being eager, a Dl
lurdlyv lil'erLn,; mi to make an end-" I know all
nm it:r." 'sa-yv t-. and -i grErn deal more: but I have
S.:.t Ib. inpi'. :-:.: to i llk tui to liir It., when God
and my ..:,ce.=cI.- know, and my ''ift riiU be an un-
deniable 1..--Li..: against me, that I have lived as if I
had never heard of a God or future state, or anything
about it; and to talk of my repenting, alas (and with
that lI. f.i .li.c_ a deep sigh, and I could E,- it,, t il:
tears t.:ii..:,. his eyes) ;'tis past all that I' ithb uI -
"Past it, Atkins s said I: what dost thou mean by
t.t.' "'-" I know well enough what I mean," says he;
I i,'i ,n 'tis too late, and that is too true."
I told the clergyman, word for word, what he said,
and this affectionate man could not refrain from tears;
but, recovering himself, said to me, "Ask him but one
question : I, lie ': J.y tlh t It i: t1i0:. lt : or il.- I- troubled,
and wislL- it w-.r. : ijt so. I I r.,t be 'la i'.t fairly
to A hkld : kn. 1h .1 ,-.I. L*tl!- r ,- t Ai, 1,..i pa ,.,u,'
"L 'OW CI.:.ul.I a nil I.,,: i Y ra a if,,udi, ion thlbb must
certainly .u in ,:=-rDi i l .:- rr.j.. t..: ttjt i,,- ''as far
from g i..-y: l.ut that, on the contrary, he believed
it woull :.'ue l;nr,.: ... other .ruin him."- Whiit do you
mean '.,; t .' 1 ..i1 I. "Why," he -.1., ** lie believed
he should one time or othei cut his rlr.:..It, to put an
end to the terror of it."
Tile L ..1 r' y ,.,_,u l_,..:.: i;_ ip,:;,i 1 b igr,:'t ..:.i:r..,u u in
his f-... .bii n I t,.: i ti,, ,ll ft _- : i. ut turu ,g .j.1 : L t.:.
me, hrp:,l a it ,:,-.. I Ii tli t h.- 1,. case, we may assure
him it ;s e.. t...:. l (i ri. ,rit -'lIi ;ive him repentance.
But pry," ', v, Iv. Xf sprl.i H- to himd; that as no
man I *jrei t-u b 1. .. (.'l;:t.,a.i tihe merit of his passion
procuring ,hir,, Iu..: 'i. :.r bii h,'w c'1l it be too late
for any man to receive mercy ? D...- li, think he is
able to sin beyond the powei or reach of, divine mercy ?.
Pray tell him, there may be a tiie when provoked
mercy will no longer strive, and when God ai 1v r fI'.:
to hear, but that it is rn.-n ir .:..: late for men to ask
mercy; and we, that .t'. 'h..-t' seirants, are com-
manded to preach mercy at all times, in the name of
Jesus Christ, to all those that sincerely repent: so that
it is never too late to repent."
I told Atkins all this, and ie heard me w;it1 '. 't
earnestness; but it seemed as if he turned (rf I t,- .I -
course to the rest, for he said to me, he would go and
have some talk with his wife; so he went out a while,
and we talked to the rest. I perceived Ib::v v.: ,: all
stupidly ignorant as to matters of ieligiciI, ai- n,.'h as
I was when I went rambling a:.- fl ..n my father; yet
there were none of them backward to hear hliat had
been said ; and all of them seriouslypromiised that they
would talk with their wives about it, and do their
endeavours to persuade them to turn Christians.
The clergyman smiled upon me when I reported what
answer they gave, but said nothing a good ..,.l. ; but
at last shaking his head, "We that are i:'li t'. ser-
vants," says he,."can go no further than to exhort and
instruct: and when men comply, submit to the reproof,
and promise what we ask, 'tis all we can do; we are
I....,U1.1 to accept their good words; but believe me, sir,"
said he," whatever you may have known of the life of
that man you call. Will Atkins, I believe he is the only
sincere convert among them; I will not -'l.. i 'ii of the
rest; but that man is apparently liu .-k ', L it h. sense
of his past :;f. .,L.l I .i.:. .. l...r he comn,- .-. t dlk
of religion i: i's -i ift, ib, --ill t11 Ik himself (d-- ti il!y
into it: for attempting t.:. I'[ :I .-i i r is sometimes the
best way of teaching ourselves. If that poor Atkins
begins but once to talk seriously of Jesus Christ to his
wife, he will Wi;.,r-..lIy talk himself into a lh..r.:.ui:,i
convert, make himself a peititent, and who k or'-- a ut
may follow!"
Upon this discourse, however, and their promising, as
above, to endeavour to persuade their wives to embrace
Christianity, he married the other two couple; but Will
Atkins and his wife were not yet come in. After this,
my clergyman, waiting a while, was cur:.-is ti:, know
where Atkins was gone, and turning t.:. mn-. :,i.1 "I
erIt -: It .:.'. -ir, let us walk out of your I h,- rjjit, here,
&.1t.l [:,..k; I .luri-r say we shall find this poor mai some-

where -,r.-.tit,-r t lkIuig As.rhiu hly to his i .t:..aud. rrea,.iiu;.
her jlr,:'i d comctlitg olf i lii .:_ .' i br IJo t-. bc i.'
thb" tartij. rUID, ,o weN .r,.lir out to._-th:.t r, .in-] r.aTri.l
luru a wr\Ly w hLih t.:.Ur kiu.iw btut n..,f lt. an.1 tbh,
tree were -i. ieryi thi..( tlhat it was not easy to see
th .:u'gh the thicket of leaves, and far harder to see in
than to see out: when,coming to the edge of the wood,
I saw Atkins and his tawny wife sitting under the shade
of a bush, very eager in discourse: I stopped short till
my clergyman came up to me, and then having showed
him where they were, we stood and looked very steadily
at them a good while. We observed him very earnest
In, th her, pointing up to the sun, and to every quarter
.t rItr. heavens, an.l tIb,.u down to the earth, then out to
thes.., t&.. tto 1; a-,!r. then to her, to the woods, to
the ti,i. Nt:i".'says the clergyman, "you see my
words are made good, the rnn preaches9 tr her,; mark
him now, he is telling hir ih it :.ur G.:... his made him,
her .ia,,i tb. Ib.:..- tLhbi rri. ttb E j, tLj woods, the
trees, .';.e."--'** I Ilii..-- Ie, is." 6ii.J I In.i_,u-.1;.t l.y, Wr
percei-.,.. "i\ .il t A 'insI tjrit r upoiI l. f-et, d.1o u .:.u
hi. lui, s, :a ,d hit -itJ h, :lh Li:- rll 1V-1 s ,Ip,:,_tl '1_,
6.,;,1 e ,,,u, i'iit, we could not hear him ; it was too
t.r "f:r tl' t. H. did not continue kneeling half a
minute, but comes and sits down again by his wife, and
talks to her again; wie perceived then the woman very
attentive, but wi-tb. r she said anything to him we
could not tell. [\j!l.: the poor fellow was upon his
knees, I could see the tears run plentifully down my
clergyman's cheeks, and I could hardly forbear myself;
but it -,- .. ,, a: t r ltt; i.i t.: l t I bt that *v,- v ere not
near e u.:..l. .h t:. hb-:r ..u, thi,o; tI,,t ps.reIl t.,-i .:i a tl-im.
W ell, li..:ru r. *..- ,:, ,.,:.rh : n l irt.r r t.:.r f, tr 1.1 d,.-
to,lil.;u l: t : ,.. r -.:, r .,l t,: s,-.: ..:i ...t tul i' I.i.,- .:
.:t slil t ..1)icr_'rti..u, and it spoke loud enough to us
irl.:.u.t tlh. i' voice. He sat down ti-.n, as I
have said., close Tiy her, and talked again earnestly to
her, and t .:;. or tire- times we could see 1.i1i ..mtrg ..
her most p.--.a tt..v anot.:t!ir t:- v.-. .i a i him .,l-.I.
out his L ,niI:. -.r.:li: u .vi q..- h, -r ,, a, .l r:,-, Lis
her ag -. r a-iti. akind of transport very unusual; and
after -- : ,c l I .: these i; .'. we saw him on a sudden
jump up again, and lend her his hand to help her up,
when iiuL..ri.itily I, iL.i;r her by the hand ii t.-p .r
two, .l-,y t..jh Il:Ujl.-li down together,and c..*tm,-.:.l
so about two minutes.
My friend could 'L.-ar it i:, l.:. 1.: r, but cries out aloud,
"St. Paul! St. Paul behold, he prayeth." I was.afraid
Atkihs would hear him, therefore I entreated him to
withhold himself a while, that we might see an end of
the scene, which to me, I must cnr fes". w'i the most
ftT... ii,. tL.t ever 1 saw in n.; lit-. \- ii l, o strove
";ith hin -,i:! for a while, but was in such raptures, to
tiul.l tbIt tue poor heathen woman was become a
Christian, that he was-not able to contain himself; he
wept, several times, then throwing up his hands and
crossing his breast, said over '-:r ira thius i i j.:u1 ,tI:.-T-.
and by lb.: 1 ,a of ; : .iri' God th.ouii i.r -'... nima, .:J.:..,- .,.
t,. tl !n.:.],i t tl .. o.'.:,:,- of c...r -..,l 't ..,'L:.. L.l'_lr; bh :
I..":.'L -':i'tlh', .'1 i c" ld mn(t ".v..I I... ,-- .:.t :l ; S.:.' '.
things bIj : .l I L i r some 'in French; then two or
three times -h., ti i. ":.:uil ;it-rL ,i.t him, that he could
L ,o: p i: :it ll I.ut I I.. g.- ,-.i riat he would contain
i_,i,, :! l. -.l 1.t -. bE,..: i A.r.: .i y -l3- fuliy ,:,bserve
r lat -.'- I..:t: .re us, alli.h he -1.1 fo.r hrt.r tli, scene L,.;-r, r,.,r l:ra.i.-.l. :t for .itt. the poor man and
bL. ." f'- ;r-re ri:,.u e:..,r tre...u iikn.i-.',we observed he
it.:,i...i ial.:u :t ,l ,..,i.-cry to, her, and we obs-rved ber
motion itb r 1: t.- ~ sd1,1t,,l 1 h1 rVi- tl bt 1 .-j l). ,
byhier ftr.-.4,'-l.: l; Ifl, 1 '. L. ,r b i 1I, h' la 1,,I
to her Lrr .. t, _.i 1 + .:l Ih" ,., ur._ i~ ::...: t ....
g~eatestl _-:r.-_i,:u nl .: mld tl :I t..- tl_:.:. .ttu'r,-Ja,, l.h.,III.
half a -. t ri. ,:t h '.ur, nati l tl..u t h-l ) i..L .Il .I- y,
so we (c:,il..l t.- o:. rLu.,t, ... f t i.t ir h i t i
I took this interval to e ti..' lh clergyman, first,
that I was I .1 t.:. see the p rti....-l -ts we had both been
witnesses ti.; t t, though I Il ..i enough of belief
in such cases, yet that I'began to think it was all very
,-"':t; here, both in the man and his wife, however
i.u. r'it. they might both be, and I hoped such a be-
,I-uiii,; would yet have a more happy end: "But, my
friend," added I, will you give me leave to start one
diffciulty here ? I cannot tell how to object the least
I ui : 'lue t i!' It affectionate concern which you show
for ti:. -i., u, of the poor people from their Paganism
to the1 C'Li i *i religion; but how does this comfort
t:i, hbile these peorbl: i.: !; v.:,, account, out of the
1'.i.- .f the Catholic (h there is no salvation 1 .: I Lut j:..u esteem these but
heretics, as effectually lost as the Pagans I n ..!. "
To this he answered, with abundance of candour, thus:
" Sir, I am a Catholic of the Roman church, and a priest
of the or I.: r :tI t. E..o..-.l1. ., and I embrace.all the prin-
ciples of t h. l.::u U f ; I..utyet, if you will believe me,
and that I do not speak in compliment to you, or in
.:..:.:t I. n.-, ... r.' iut .r,... *.Ifj. your civilities; I say,
I. '. o t 1.: u.:. I :. ...I I ..'.Ili you, who call yourselves
. f.-., i ]...l .iti.:,.ii ..a .: l II -,. I dare not say (though
I know it is our opinion in general) that you cannot be
saved; I will by no means limit the mercy of I.'Ihri:r so
far as to think that he cannot receive you into the bosom
of his church, in a manner to us unperceivable ; and I


h'.;p you h~b.- the in~ e ciar;iy to r au I pray d.ily fI r R. -Pray. Wdll, [,et us knorv what p c..l bitw --n I.'.-BHo me te ak y:.o hb 'r..t nmuhb i..d up
yv:.,r l.. I: g ll r.,t.,:re.- to C'hr;It's.ihurch. b :.Cb-at.-.. '-,:r vy u n.- l your ail'; for I Ln.: :- on th, ng t..f it already. theri [ h.- points up to h.avrcuj, ji.-i yet no io w~ ll, no
,ii. :lio- hWih.:. all-ni'.,i. pl:1.s- d to. -r-I.:t. IL t L : A.-Sir, it inmpoil. y,:, fujil a.i,.o t .1.: good thing? Can he tell? Stire he hlo -ill e-lo:it.
ri,. l.. ane, l yl S i l all~ .r it :,as istsii with rn.:, ." it; I ain to i ful rt:- tol.l it, ,Id yet h V, .:O, t.,.,- you do
a P.:,nmu, t,:. d|i;ji'In b f Lr Lf r ..;.v,-,-u 3 Prot.-.lj t in ..I a to express i:t;: ut lie hL.r hlb'. lt hI- i;ll. W. A.--Yes, yes, he knows ahd sees all things; he
PI',;i ; ie-twveu ..u-: tjht ..-,ll on Jeus Chrt. thoj; bh ti.:-gh I ia-o.t gIi -e a.a..t .I .i.:ci.unt o:f it, tl, I .:n bei-a-s 'us speak, sees what we do, knows what we think;
in i i.-y ,bi. h I J... not think is ...:.:.r. t.: t. tr le yru.~, tthat [ l r-,v l, r:-:,lh ,d t: ane J .uli r-tform rln thou-i:jb we do not speak.
fith, a.i.I a tr iE- i r Iarbar,u. tbt kno,'s r;i Go.J, n., Iif-. i .r: .-'What! he no hear you curse, swear, speak de
Clr,t, ro) P -i n-m r. ali :u .-, n.-.t ..iti-uu ti R. C.-E ilt till u omr, of it: hoc. ji.l yi:.,u .:;;n, great'damn?
pa.l- of tie Ca.:li..11 .* ur,:h, w y, n. r, --rr W il l .' F...r thi hi 1,..:.: an :::t'aa. r.l,;ri ry ,.. I-,, tht ii W A.- Yes, yes, he hears it all.
being restor- .i t. it h.ia th.-- ho I.. -v aoiia, ..f ..i t, in Shb.- hi- pr...Lr.i a, e..ruiD.,n. inl..-..l, if ibh. l a Wife.-Where be then theemu.: 1 ,I pr.:t pir, .r .troi.''
t;id -:.r .t hIs ,..hur.,.h .nI I rI-ii.e, hsr-f..r., hu I .- ..g-,ht tlis upon ,', i W A.- He is merciful, that is JI ,: ci 'u .,y I'..r it,
i. t r.i poor uinrn, -.ho, zjyu 1.,, hil.s bt.i-l F-, proall,; it n .I .-- Whiy. I Iit .:. t tfl p Ii .1h.1t h-rf p i hii t, be the true God; he is God, and
.ii l Ira,:i.t a nur.,-l.:rr. kn-,:l I .-o.. n a .l pr.y t .:,.iu: b. .ut uarint t -.,. ,in bh.I t tb.: rea-.-,o: wa r,- that rt ,:i n,.:t man, rian, ti.,.r ,: :or. we are not consumed.
C'lOr;t, i w..- uppo'. L., ,tl.1 th, t..,u,.h uot fully Cr- :. 1 .on:. .:u i. wr- .:. .ig-..i to cua ,:r into iu.:L ap.-:ts, a', i lH:re W ill Atkiu- told us he was struck with horror,
]iht-it:u.l 1 h- li,.- a.i thiat iG:oI. tir. ,a b hoiu :r,-ry ~,,cih It _..[ rni_;thal. iL tih- p-: .r -o o-.,u- r.r othlbr to br.: k : to th.) k how he could tell his wife so clearly that God
..rlk proio.:-ik. wil ~u.isly t:ou. Ib : .;jrt .il brain that otbri-i.,or. Jr ,D.- ju-.-:.. i.:0oul. not b,: Aintira, :.l :,? .au.l hears, anid knows the secret thoughts of the
hi ti- to t- f.jiti-r knowli, o tht.t triuthl .u tL. a ..u san- r,.., iio1 r.,i.i !r..r Ir.., b.r .--.... *. .il iu.i tl ; I, b..rl, and all that we do, and yet that h e ha d dared to
I ai.-; lu.- if Got, I isall ,arlu I .:.:o ttis poor mn, t., o ,- c ,h, im : .:O-u .i:*,-.l .tly I;:- .i,-otb.-r. ja. nctlr .. jl 1 th b. vile -hli gi hli. had done.]
vert and instri.-t the i;L.:- ort aI- i,. ,;. r.if., I r, a.n,,.! b,. k -pt .ilir,... o:rl DLn itan.c.'s. he s,:ttle, bI. Wiri -M,:r.:;ifu What you call dat?
never I,.i--- fl-at i. : bLI a. hl- -T-.y banr,.if. An.d li e. d.: .u-it. IV.. .-He I; our father andmaker, and he pities-and
bi%,- I r.,t r.:. io tihi..n to r,-.-:,,c tihe o rr ,-r-y ire R '.'.-- .i lI. a civilian, "W ill. < .:.nI vou spares us.
br-i:iiht to. tb.: kr.:b-.-.:- .. -'.*'rit, th.:uigh tIl.y my n ak-- .r ia-,l .t .ai -h.l t you meant inheLrt ,ta.- Wife.--So thehbe never make kill, neir ,riici v I I.n
Dn:,t I.- Irc.~.uhL t *i t : ho-,u i;n. :, I .. ..: b. ~ua th.: ,.,i fai i!i ,.. l! :y k!.. v r,.:. -i 1, ti lj:;, .rmi:,t,; IiL you do wicked; theii he no good hi ', -!lf, or Lu. grt. n
chiir.:li jj-t It th,:. ,LIIn, -NbuL E I d, sir, it, k .,r -it.a, it to: e.-, 1.,t ,arrv u_ ion. .-th.,ul .. .r to i,: i., ,:,u. IIbi,-.
tle g,...,. Ir,- o, i i,,ist tI,: p.:,i-f..-t I w,..rk I, I, -..i a ..- : Lgin-lty, or f ril ; u,. .t. r, a.y, : I i. A.- Yes, yes, my dear, he is infinitely good and
tin,. a,ni t L hiS .:.u -vny .' C'-rtaily. 51I r.:.:.I tl .l:. C I. ,:,- C I...i I-. i-r. th,- either th.- i.d,i htt:r, anl infinitely great, and able to punish too; and sometimes,
it all th.- a.,..- in Ai- ?r.: a. :r I-r.: ,hi, lik tli- tl .-au ln I l mth,,r. to show his justice'and vengeance, he lets fly his anger
!.:-:,-r i,,.ia t,, pi -_ y :, i.1:.i, th,: i ti;,j -v.i-, :i t,:o i. 1.-- I iL.ii-:., *". vyou ari.: iL i-i. :r.-rn.Ji r..ij miy t'd -'. i,:,.v irn. tII arid make examples ; m any are cut
l,.. l'Pc:. .a ,nti a- t 4rt rath. r tih th.. v :I,...ul i,.. t L, ..- r; i ~ urt :s m.: oi f th i- .:i..outi .l tlit ti at,.h-.:r it; off a tlhu- ;r,.
Pi.a,,I or HEl-th.: ,. thir.J-l i.-lie f;, third H, tht pti,:lHai.. for ,y foi-ltlhr i.-latI;:.., tb.:y l. '.u,:-t l.. so Ifr r'.--But nomke kill you yet; then he tell you,
I.l I.. ,i-i-.i- tl-h: firt lir;lt ,..u trl.rn w-o,,ld flrtlir xis ,t La a ,-; but As'-. ttl.,s me :r ii tih- near 'nyI hi- that L.: no make you kill: so you make do
il!,,, ,uat i Lt i.u r;ti l,. Iru o: t i L- ...lly ,c', : r' : lti, 1iou.hL p you speak of. 'arSg iI. w th liim, yoii do bad tiiuig, ie no be angry at
.rii t.iiua ti.iu in It tihe- pi ....f hi, ..uritch AL an hb i'. r ..- .-ll, nliht .1lid sr se y t& o t -la I- ,.u toV.i.-I her? -,-lU r. L_,i he be angry at other ianii.
ib,:i.1 .-e g ooJ .. .l.-- .: i l, i-.,I t v.: i r. .i:I, as ;t t., msich I", '.!.-No, indeed, my sins are all presumptions
I i., ,ib.i.:ib,-.l .. l :, ineDr;tiy I a.l.r .-f th; "ctl-r th | a, -ber county. uon hiis goodness; i ad he would be infinitely just
.pi '.,ri P .-i-t, rm.-:1 as I t .:.pi,:-.iI I. -,- t .:..-.,-r R.. -'.-lt Iil O:j t.ll ltr what Uirri a ic nrv. ? if he destroyed me, as he has done other men.
I.., h' r,'o ndni; .n it pi.:-.,tly c.:c..L,.a. t., uy W. A.--.y, ;,. li..i.. hi: a , I k.:..l i"r:.-Well, and yet no d ill, no make you dead;
tlUi. it-, tLit if -:,.uh I t.: pi:r ,ja ,i'ul, .ri-. r U.ght -i I it -.h !- 1.1 I.: u...i- to .:, ,- cr t ., y. Sh.: ,bk,,il what -o:i .s to him for that Yo no tell him thanked
.. ill c thiOli.. 'lirist, u bat.-:.-r Ihu b or pai t;..aia, ar t-t w-,ay tr t was; I t..l.l h-r r,.ari i ,: a for 4gl t 1 r too?
prof,-io-u -":. jo:i-a--I, ; tbit 1 ,pint o-t .b h.,i ty -v...l.1 .I-poi iad Iy G, 1, and here w- h ..l ,I r f I l: il W. d.-I am atn nthankful, uatgrateful dog, that is
-*..n ,rk a,I all p l t ir,: I;ljt p !;u..;plr and as he t. ithei indeed, as ever mi a ir .l -.f, h ,. I I ., I .. true. ,
tbI..-g t that t li- i ,lrity c,-ul.-1 make us all N.E.--This dialogue '-i r.:n W11l .\ll_;ii iand his Wife.--Why he anb mnkee yoy inuch good better?
_. ,th...liI..-. I toM.i himn I ;- .... r, ,il .ll th.. meta-l..i. if- -..L;,. I to..k .: ... u ; writing i. t air. he had yo say he inakee you.
.f lii- .:t.ur.:h th.- ikI,- U-a.r..iratn:.n, thb:y roi soon all tol-d t in.:, t.,- .l. IV. A.-He made ie as h~ isade all the world; it is
1:. P-,:.t.-tant-. thlire wT-:. I t tit t fr't for we 17" r.-AppOl..:-.l L.y I 'air I..,I' Wiy, have y:-.i a I hlibe deformed my:ill and abused his goodness, and
-u.:I r .li-pt.-l i ,ill H u.-,-r, I balked to him atiother '.o y.:..z-r .:..irnt r ii-1: m.,i'-tlf .1 asl..on,iua l. wietch.
S,-, t kid bim 1..7 tit, h i. uI, "My friend," says I, i" .-I.-Y: my .1I. r, u :'-:ry c...aulry. ll"r..- I r. s- you make God knowme. I no make
I 'I .1 il t- :l, .z-ry of thi- RIomishl church were 1I '' -N.-. .: -.I ;...I iu ns.y n bry ; imycouhtry haviae -i ; nli;ry-I no do bad wicked thing.
i.i.-i i -triu t -.: .:J.t nj. ,to:, .In.] had an .lij.i l share rh- .:-r ct -.:1 BI u, ..-i-,.:1;-.: i :;.. Hi r-. Will Atkins said his heart sunk within him, to
:4( v:,uir Iha.rit. I ,a -.:at ,: ly of your opinion; but I '. .1 'll.I. I ar,, r, -v -Ilt t.:o ,hi.r you Who God i..: ir po-or untaught creature desire to i.. tilirht to
,.,'t I.11 .you, iht ;t.:.,, ib.:uld preach such doctrine i- I.'.-I I i I bh:,'.:. Iu.i mui.: th.-: 1i, iaven and the I: ,:i. G.:.r .nd he stich a wicked wretch, that he could
:, 'paiu o- Italy, th.-.- ,.:.,l.l put you into it .-Inqul- earth, the sea, and all that in them is. iot 'iay O-.:-, word to heir about God, bht What the
;r.:o u."-" It ru..,' I-,: .:., ,lii.l he; "I aI-...r not what it r:..--N:, o.d.l; ... .1- c .r li-: no you bod make all reproachof his own carriage wouldiiiakemost irrational
th- i.-l.1 .1:. u .-Sp in or It .iy; but IX ill ai ., say they -..,I i: aO nol:.:- my ......,ir,. ,, her tb believe; nay, that already she haid told him
,...J I .. th5- I.,. itr I'Chi;'ti .a. E.-r ti. t -.... itv : f.i I Wiil Al.;Ius. 1 i..L ..i l, liat at her expressio odf God :I. it ; would d not believe in God, because he, that was
a. ,re I,-.- .. hl:r..i i i...i .-.. ,, r -ith ,hi;tr." a,..t kiijg I.-r ..--o-ute so a i: Led, was not destroyed.]
W l W 11 At!. -a .t-.i La ti.: u.i -- .. ur :'...-No l-.ei.I, -bhy Ilj ah me ? This ho ting to iff. A.-My dear, you mean, you wish I dould teach
..i -_- th.:r. a- "....i., -went-back ourown ray; .-l.I you to ktow God, not God to know you; for he knows
and when we came back, we found them waiting tp be I[HI: i j.- ti;, r. pr-:': i hy his wife, for she was you already, and every thought in your heart.
called in a: l.:r:- ; 1li,; I asked my clergyman if we mo:r,- .r;.:r. ,s Lh b !... 1, .t.] /.-W-\\!7, then, he know what I say to you now:
should di-.._:---, r t,: ii,, tit we had seen him under the i'..l.--Tbr'i tru., ;i.l-, ...:.; I w- ill not laugh any he liL-..- .. -;;i"- to knowhim. How shall me know
bush .: no:t. .in-l ;t rws his opinion we should not, but miore, im, d.i r who make me ?
that .,- hi:iI.1 tilk to Lie rtrst, and hear what lie Wii.. --\Wb., vu say yoi Gio.i rik,-.- all? W. A.-Poor creature, he must teach thee: I can-
would say to is: so we a il-d. him in, alone, nobody W..l -Y.--, ihild, Uc..r God i, a.i: lh. whble wild, riot teach thee. I will pray to him to teach thee to
beihg in th- i... h- i.,It ,:iur:-,!I.': I .] I tb-r, in li ai!;.iu arid :a1.,. ad ui., arid all hing: f..r ij. .: the oily true 1 nI.r. him, and forgive me, that ain unworthy to teach
him -.-.-.. p_ , ,h.:.,t ,sliA r. at .i. ,:,, ll. tl;.:.u Gdd, .,a, -I tL:r,: ,i no God t aI ; he lives foi ever in tl ...
te el.l i. Ir .ily rii. h. .,i4 hii f .r t -s a .. .-i. --- v: g'.. [The poor fellow was in such an agony at her desiring
man who .-.,-,ldi t ..- r;li i.t Lnt t.-l, fIut iat Ii.-\ly, v .. tii, me lonig agoo? him to make her ::r,..,. i ,;,l ind her v i.-lii to know
Will Ai,;Uai, .J..srpif--i al ;intr.i.-ti: .,u.1 :.... t:, i'" .L.- l'liat. ti ..:, indeed; but I have -.-i a him, that he said I,.e i-!l .Jda on his knees before her,
and t.y ;I. br.ji-h ,:o:ni, .:t ut t thr-.a ,:.f .1l hi,; ck.:. l r.:b, iu.- ha--.: Dot only forgotten t a.....p ;ut and prayed to God to .:nli'ith:n her mind with the
ff!b.:r' col',ort-f ...t 1 I,.:-, .t-n-. his days, for that he 1i.-- !i lj, raythg;o Inir, but have lived vrah,:,ut i,.:..I saving knowledge of J. -, i -fhrit. and to pardon his
broke hi. -.: IIr 1:.. tL. ,.-t ungrateful, unnatural in tL., n ,y:l f. sins, and accept of his l-..iltg- 11.,, iuworthy finsti-timent
return fo:- ti:- .most iF.::tt.,r:'it- treatment a father ever\ at. Lai : you a greii i;...l in your country ..i" i,_tria.. ilu her in ti, p' of -,-liil.. afti r
gave. -.,i' uoa kn:-a Li i No say 0 to him? No do good %-i' I. he l it down by her again, and -l.:i. 1i-ilog.:
In wlit I ,;.i _,.,i i,:. .,. tih i i.: ; J,:i. ,ity of I!L 'oi.:" L; iu 1.'l.It no possible. ent on. This was the time when we saw him kneel
tr-i. .... l h t it piIf,,It.l- 1 1J ..i -:. .I ...d not W. A.-It is triue ; it...;L. or all that, we live as if i da..v, a-l 1.o:1.1 up his hands.]
i.,t r.rilt ti ,t I. to,.... 1 .i .i. t '. n i. i i_.: .'i -: .-.1 l there was ho God in L..:t. L, :or thathe had no power on '. .--iWhl you put down the knee for? What
tender'Ytt.,.r .,-. -,y l.,.i.:.:.,.iu..i n.I.:t o aL;t.:it.. -t. 11i. earth. 3 ..,:1. u ti.: hand for? What you say? Who you
.I was, iih,.l.i -..l .:., -.ii., i il, ,~ I, uI .lldme, li i -But .lv God let you do so? Why he no speakto? Whatis allthat?
itb t T thi....ul t, i. ii ,t.l-.t ro, ,..= ;- .7.i..... t t.- t,. ..Il.h and "5L: y... i oo :.. ire ? W. A.--My dei-, I bow my knees in token of my
iutiu,. t !iutl, tih. IL .In v, L aade teacher andinstructoi Ir .I --i, ;1Jll our own fault. submission to him that made me: I said 0 to him, rs
to -... o iu-:,t 1r ,:p.: :l-. manner. 1' r' .--ul v.yo say me he is i.r. *-.i. !ic..h great, have you call it, and as your old men do to their idol Bena-
AI !.i dl Ii.,; i-.. :- Ig.. young clergyman, who was :it-i:l '-5,t i-':. :r ; can make I lt .'. Ih a he will: 1, iui.1:.T:. ; that, is, I prayed to him.
're ,Ity il',:.t.t:.i w.;tll it. iulJ said to me,"Did I not say, :, an,.,o,. ik;l- i hen you no serve him ? no say O to it .-Wi.,i a 3 you O to him for?
iir, thAit nIh i thi; Li r ,-n converted he would preach him ? no be good il.- i'; W. A-I I r-' :.! to him to open your eyes and your
to us all I tell y.:..,. i-. ; t t oi; one man be made a W. A.-That i Itru.-, Ih. n, i .t btr ki.. me dead An d I i -d.-r.-t;, ti t y. -.. may know him, and be accepted
true pI..roirt -t. h.-r a I.. u-., I,.-.l of me; he will make ought to expect it, t.r I l. a.; I ;.. ..-.1- ,retch, 1., hi,,.
ClIristi.,a of all iii tlj.-"---But having a i;tri, true; but God is iierciful, arid do:., not deal I'.-..-' C. I; .Io that too?
eiu.:.Imp.. r.u,-. it. I renewed my discourse with W-ill iatr t us as we deserve. r1. .-.-Y.. Li. t. he can do all things.
_Itia. I:,t Will." said how comes the sense of Wife.- But then do you not tell God thankee for n'. r.--Et rE .., !. I ear what you say ?
r1-ai m ltt-- to .- I..: you just now ?" that too ? T.. '. .: h, Ih. L.- bid us pray tb him, and promised
W. .1.- Sir. r ..-, ha ,- a. bout a work that has W. A.-No, indeed, I have not thanked God ori his to hear us.
strutka i J.,rt thli...i.-. y ..-..-rv :,ul: I have been talk- mercy, any more than I have feared God for his Wife.-Bid you pray? When he bid you? Howho
ing al-.ot '.:s.I an.l rli.: -:, to wife, in order, as you power. bidyou? What you hear hin speak ?
dire( ai u t,. t n, ai.- i,:'l.C;t .au of her, and she has Wife.-Then you God no God; me no think, believe IV. A.-No, we do not hear him speak; but he has
prai-..-.,l such a sermon to me as I shall never forget he be such one, great much power, strong: no makee revealed himself many ways to us.
nit, i. I live. kill you, though you make !;a inLu-.1a. angry. [Here he was at ", c i'- loss to make her under-
B. C.-No, no, it is not your wife has preached to you; W. A.-What, will my -.v.: k... I nie hinder you from stane t!t t but when you were moving religious arguments to her, believing in God ? What :a di -a.lIl f .r .: tu. u I .r.-I and -. .t i. a,.ord was; but at last he told it her
conscience ;.i duag II. t. h.- ..k ir-on you. what a sad truths it, tliat I. ii- horr.l Ir s .:i (C'hri.t; u. L-.]
W. A.-A,;, -tz, at't uchI for.:.:. .s is iot to beresisted. hinder the conversion cf Ih,:. t b- n i A.-Gdd has spoken to some good men in farmer


days, even from heaven, by plain words; and God has
inspired good men by his Spirit; and they have written
all his laws down in a book.
Wife.-Me no understand that; where is book ?
W. A.-Alas my poor creature, I have not this book;
but I hope I shall one time or other get it for you, and
help you to read it.
[Here he embraced her with great affection, but with
inexpressible grief that he had not a Bible.]
Wife.-But how you makee me know that God
teacher them to write that book ?
W. A.-By the same rule that we know him to be
Wife.-What rule ? What way you know him ?
W. A.-Because he teaches and commands nothing
but what i .:..:..1, righteous, and holy, and tends to
make us 1.:r ,-.. y good, as well as perfectly happy;
and because he forbids, and commands us to avoid, all
that is wicked, that is evil in itself, or evil in its con-
Wife.-That me would understand, that me fain see;
if he teacher all good thing, he make all good thing,
he give all thing, he hear me when I say O to him, as
you do just now; he make me good, if I wish to be
good; he spare me, no make kill me, when I no be
good: all this you say he do, yet he be great God: me
take, think, believe him to be great God; me say 0 to
him with you, my dear.
Here the poor man could forbear no longer, but
raised her up, made her kneel by him, and he prayed to
God aloud to instruct her in the knowledge of himself,
by his Spirit; and that by some good providence, if
possible, she might, some time or other, come to have a
Bible, that she might read the Word of God, and be
taught by it to know him. This was the time that we
saw him lift her up by the hand, and saw him kneel
down by her, as above.
They had several other discourses, it seems, after
this; and particularly she made him promise that, since
he confessed his own life had been awicked, abominable
course of provocations against God, that he would re-
form it, and not make God angry any more, lest he
should make him dead, as she called it, and then she
would be left alone, and never be taught to know this
God better; and lest he should be miserable, as he had
told her wicked men would be, after death.
This was a strange account, and very affecting to us
both, but particularly to the young clergyman; he was,
indeed, wonderfully surprised with it, but under the
greatest affliction imaginable that he could not talk to
her, that he could not speak English, to make her
understand him; and as she spoke but very broken
English, he could not understand her; however, he
turned himself to me, and told me that he believed
that there must be more to do with this woman than to
marry her. I did not understand him at first; but at
length he explained himself, viz. that she ought to be
baptized. I agreed with him in that part readily, and
wished it to be done presently. No, no; hold, sir,"
says he; "though I would have her be baptized, by all
means, for I must observe that Will Atkins, her hus-
band, has indeed brought her, in a wonderful manner,
to be willing to embrace a religious life, and has given
her just ideas of the being of a God; of his power,
justice, and mercy: yet I desire to know of him if he
has said anything to her of Jesus Christ, and of the
salvation of sinners; of the nature of faith in him, and
redemption by him; of the Holy Spirit, the-resurrection,
the last judgment, and the future state."
I called Will Atkins again, and asked him; but the
poor fellow fell immediately into tears, and told us he
had said-something to her of all those things, but that
he was himself so wicked a creature,'and his own con-
science so reproached him with his horrid, ungodly life,
that he trembled at the apprehensions that her know-
ledge of him should lessen the attention she should give
to those things, and make her rather contemn religion
than receive it; but he was assured, he said, that her
mind was so disposed to receive due impressions of all
those things, and that if I would but discourse with her,
she would make it appear to my satisfaction that my
labour would not be lost upon her.
Accordingly I called her in, and playing myself as in-
terpreter between my religious priest and the woman, I
entreated him to begin with her; but sure such a
sermon was never preached by a Popish priest in these
latter ages of the world; and, as I told him, I thought
he had all the zeal, all the knowledge, all the sincerity
of a Christian, without the error of a Roman Catholic;
and that I took him to be such a clergyman as the
Roman bishops were, before the church of Rome
assumed spiritual sovereignty over the consciences of
men. In a word, he brought the poor woman to em-
brace the knowledge of Christ, and of redemption by
him, not with wonder and astonishment only, as she
did the first notions of a God, but with joy and faith ;
with an affection, and a surprising degree of under-
standing, scarce to be imagined, much less to be ex-
pressed; and, at her own request, she was baptized.
When he was preparing to baptize her, I entreated
him that he would perform that office with some
caution, that the man might not perceive he