African wild life


Material Information

African wild life
Series Title:
Brooke Bond Picture Cards
Physical Description:
14 p. ; 14 cm.
Tunnicliffe, C. F.
Berkshire Printing Co. Ltd.
Place of Publication:
Reading, England


General Note:
Brook Bond tea company Picture Cards illustrated and described by C.F. Tunnicliffe, R.A.

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Source Institution:
UF Special Collections
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
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Full Text

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Wild Life




'4 ~

HILDREN OF TODAY may live to see the
extinction, or near extinction, of some of
the animals which haunt the plains, forests, and
rivers of Africa. The human population of that
continent is ever increasing, and more and
more virgin land is required for agriculture and
large engineering projects. During the last fifty
years there has been vast slaughter of big game,
chiefly in the interests of agriculture and cattle-
rearing, and had it not been for the forming of
game reserves the wild animals would have
fared even worse. The protection of the law is
helping to preserve certain animals, but even so
poaching is a serious menace to their numbers.
Several species have already been lost, and it
will be a sad day when Africa no longer holds
the wonderful variety of wild life which may
still be found there, and of which the following
cards depict but a small section. May that day
be long delayed.

Brooke Bond thanks Colonel Mervyn H. Cowie, C.B.E.,
Director of the Royal National Parks of Kenya, for his
valuable help in the preparation of this series.

A 'plains' scene with giraffe, zebra and wildebeest.

Head of a mountain gorilla

GORILLA (Gorilla gorilla) This largest
of all the apes rves in the depths of
the hot and steamy forests of Equa-
torial Africa. A fully grown malc,
when standing erect, may be between
six and seven feet high, and his
strength is prodigious. Females are
smaller. They are vegetarians, and
wander about the forest floor in small
family groups, feeding during the
day. At night the males make a nest of
branches often on the ground, while
the females and young make plat-
form nests of branches in low trees.
On the ground Gorillas progress on
all fours. They are shy, and flee from
the presence of man, but attack on

CHIMPANZEE (Pan Iroglodytes) An
active, noisy intelligent apc which
lives in family groups and com-
munities in the forests of Western
and Central Equatorial Africa. They
feed on fruits, leaves, shoots and
roots, and spend much of the day on
the forest floor. However, each night
new platform nests are built from
leafy boughs among the branches,
and none spend the night on the
ground. Of all the apes and monkeys
the skeleton of the Chimpanzec most
nearly resembles that of man. Its
powers of reasoning are considerable,
and it is very teachabke.

MANTLED BABOON (Cynocephalus hamadryas) T~his dog-faced monkey,
with the cape of long hair, inhabats open country and rocky hills in
Abyssinia and the Sudan. It is the baboon represented in the carvings
and mural paintings of the ancient Egyptians and was held sacred by
them, though there are no baboons in Egypt today. They wander about
mn troops which are dommated and disciplined by the large males, the
very young riding on their mothers' backs like jockeys. They are chiefly
vegetarians and do much damage to crops. They are bold in their forays
and can be dangerous. Their chief enemy is the leopard.

MANDRILL (Papio sphinx) This is the
largest and most grotesque of the
baboons. The adult male, in addition
to the gaudy colouring of his face, has
naked red and purple patches on his
buttocks. Mandrills, like other
baboons, live in troops. The adult
males are savage and powerful, and
the devilish expression of their
countenance is a true indication of
their nature. When really in a temper
he develops patches of vivid blue on
the chest and patches of bright red
appear ori wrists and ankles. Unlike
other baboons Mandrills are forest
dwellers, but they often come into
the open and search stony places for
insects and grubs. In the forest they
eat fruit and bulbs. They inhabit the
Cameroons, Gabon, and the Congo

COLOBUS MONKEY (Colobus abyssimr-
cus) This handsome monkey lives in
the high forests of Abyssinia and
Central East Africa. Its white cape
and tail blend perfectly with the pale
lichens which are pendant from the
branches of Its forest home. It is shy,
silent, and aloof, going about its
business and ignoring other creatures.
In the mid-nineteenth century it was
hunted for its "fur", and many
thousands were killed and its numbers
decreased alarmingly. The black and
white Colobus is one of a number
belongingto thefamily called Guereza.
"Colobus" is the Greek word for
mutilated, and this refers to the fact
that this monkey has the merest lump
where the thumb should be. It is a

.~:~q~~~' \ ~jY '

PATAS MONKEY (Erythrocebus paras) This monkey which, hike Sykes's
monkey, belongs to the large family called Guenon is unlike them in that
it inhabits open country and semi-desert, and Is not a forest dweller,
Because ofits red coat it is sometimes called the "Hussar" monkey; and
because sometimes troops of these monkeys move in ordered formation
it is called the "Military" monkey. They live in companies and hunt the
grasslands for their food, which consists chiefly of fruit, small animals
and insects. They walk and run somewhat like dogs, and their hands and
feet are adapted to their terrestrial existence. Their home is West and
Central Africa.

Sykes's monkey Galago

The true lemurs are confined to the

( .us... Islan3 ih.: Par-ced-r ele
Lemur lives in south-western Mada-
gascar. It is a ground-living animal,
inhabiting dry rocky areas of few
trees, and in this differs from other
lemurs which are arboreal. It lives in
small parties, is noisy, and most active
at early morning and in the evening,
taking a siesta during the heat of the
day, and sleeping with its tail curled
round its body at nigh~t. This lemur
is almost vegetarian, living on fruits
and roots, though some animal food
suh olung id and rp eunsay
and makes an interesting pet.

SYK(ES'S MONKEY (Ceropitheous mitis
kolbl) A typical member of the large
family called Guenon, a dweller in
the high forests of East Africa. The
name "Guenon" is French and means
"one who grimaces" but it appears
that Sykes's monkey is of a grave and
sedate disposition, gentle in manner,
and not so rowdy and irascible as
most members of the Guenon family.
It roams the forests in family parties
or groups feeding on nuts, leaves,
shoots and buds, and also insects. It
was first brought to England by
Colonel WYilliam Henry Sykes in
183r, and was named after him-

BUSHY-TAILED GALAGO (Galago crassacaudatus) This galago inhabts
East Africa. It is about the size of a small cat, and Is nocturnal in its
habits, spending the day asleep among the foliage of mangrove and palm
forests. It is very agile and makes great leaps from branch to branch.
The "fingers" and "thumbs" of all four feet have flattened discs at their
tips, these enabling it to grip smooth surfaces with ease. Its food
consists of fruit, insects, small birds, and eggs. The large ears are
extremely mobile, and can be turned and even folded at will.

LION (Panthero leo) The largest of the cat tribe in Africa. It is unique
among cats in that the male grows a large mane. The female has no
mane. The young are spotted. Lions are found in many areas of Africa,
especially where the animals which are their food abound. Chiefly they
live on the plains and prey on antelopes, zebras, wart hogs, etc. They
usually hunt at night and in parties, the male circling a herd of zebra or
antelope to drive them in the direction of the waiting females. Often it is
the female which makes the actual kill.

LEOPARD (Panthere pardus) This
handsome cat ranges widely in Africa,
and when provoked is considered more
dangerous than the lion. It is almost
as much at home in the trees as on the
ground, and two of the principal
items in its diet are monkeys and
baboons. It is a scourge to African
herdsmen, taking goats, calves, and
dogs, especially dogs, which it kills
at every opportunity. Its strength is
amazing, and it will take the body of a
victim much heavier than itself up
into the branches of a tree with ease.
Black leopards are sometimes found
in Africa.

1 1

CHEETAH (Acinoplyx jubatlus) In spite of its superficial resemblance to the
leopard the Cheetah is not a true cat. In some ways it resembles a dog-
e.g. it cannot fully retract its claws and its powers of speed are far
greater than any cat's. It is probably the swiftest of all land animals, for
it can run down a gazelle or an antelope. These animals, birds and small
rodents are its food. It ranges widely throughout East Africa, and is
partial to open hilly country, open tree country, or semi-desert. Like
other predators it follows where its food leads.

SERVAL (Fei~rs srelal) The Serval 1\ found over a very large part of
Africa. Its large cars, small head, long legs and short tall differentiate at
from the true cats. It Ilves In bush country and is chiefly a nocturnal
hunter, preying on guinea-fow~l, francolins, hares and rats. Sometimes
small antelopes are its victims. It stands about nineteen inches high at
the shoulder. Its skin wvas, at one time, much in favour with native chlefr
for mantles, and even today its fur is used for that purpose by the
European furriers.

CARACAL (Febsr caraal[) This rs the
nearest approach to a lynx: which
Africa possesses. It is widely distri-
buted over this content and into
Asia; in fact, the name "Caracal" is
of T~urkish origin. Like the ly~nxes it is
*avage, and possesses great speed.
It hives on small mammals and birds,
and such is its agility that it can strike
down birds even when they have
sprung to wing. It is chtelly nocturnal
mn It hunt ng but wrl atanak in bro d

inches at the shoulder

GENET (G~enetta) Genets are of wide dilstributlon throughout Africa, and
one species extends northwards into Europe. They are beautiful little
animals, and measure, from the uip of their tall to the nose, about thirty-
six inches. G;enets haunt the Jungle and forest and feed on small rodents,
birds, and eggs. They are not popular with African farmers for they will
raid the chicken pens. They climb well. When stalking their prey they
are snake-like with their long thin body and tail pressed close to the
ground. They are sometimes tamed, andi are expert mouse and rat

Guinea-fowl (preyed upon by the smaller cats)

Caracal (note the tufted ears)

BANDED MONGOOSE (Ctrosarchus fasciatus) This Mongoose is a native of
Eastern and Southern Africa, and lives in burrows, or holes under
termite nests. Like other species of mongoose it is carnivorous, and
hunts its prey on the ground, rarely climbing trees. It is active and bold,
and feeds on small mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, eggs, and occasion-
ally fruit. Mongooses are deadly enemies of snakes and, because of their
speed and cunning, are usually the victors in their battles with these
reptiles. Banded Mongooses live communally, several families occupy-
ing the same system of burrows.

RAEMlivra caesscpni)Ti trdbde-ieaia s
found thogotArcbtmr atcual ntesuhadws f

coragE e isras stryas nits bodynd it will standy and fr-ight anml

PORCUPINE (Hysrtrix galeata ambigua) A large and powerful rodent
whose coat of hair has developed into quills, those on the back bemng
long and stiff, and banded black and white, others are pliable and black.
Porcupines are nocturnal, sleeping by day in holes and caves, and forag-
ing for food, which may be of roots, fruit, bark and green vegetation, at
night. In defending itself the Porcupine turns its back on its enemy and
endeavours to leave some of its easily detachable quills in it. These
cause painful and suppurating wounds.

ZOILA(Zo~rila nte nm o hsanml h ap oea.I

theirU smerlla isthirpothectin.Tey feedhi onia mice Cand ratst birdnd

their eggs, lizards and frogs, and, in inhabited districts, will destroy
poultry. They are nocturnal and are ground hunters, and do not climb
trees. If forced to the water they can swim well.

JUMPINGC HARE (Pedetes cajfer) This curious rodent, about the size of an
English hare, progresses by great leaps on its back legs when travelling
fast, but otherwise potters about on all fours. It is a vegetarian, and is
entirely nocturnal,1lying up during the day in its burrow. Heavy flooding
is the only circumstance which will move it from its burrow in the day-
time. It lives in family groups, sometimes in colonies, in a labyrinth of
burrows, usually made in arid and semi-desert ground. It is distributed
through South Africa and northwards to Angola and Kenya.

ROCK HYRAX (Heterohyrax) This curious little animal is in a class alone,
and its nearest relative is, of all animals, the elephant It lives in holes in
rocky outcrops, hills and mountains, and usually in colonies. It is well
adapted to its life among rocks, especially in the structure of its feet,
which enables it to grip almost vertical surfaces. Hyraxes are vegetarians,
are shy and retiring in their habits, but will turn and bite anything which
molests them. They are very noisy, chattering and screaming loudly
among themselves. They are the "Coneys" of the Bible.

GROUND SQUIRREL (Euxerus erythropus fulvior) This squirrel is widely
distributed through tropical Africa, and inhabits a variety of country
from the forest edge to the margins of desert. Unlike its tree-haunting
cousins it lives in burrows. Its food is mainly vegetarian and consists of
roots, grass-seeds, etc., although some insects are taken. It is diurnal in
its hunting, and may often be seen running across roads. Its total length
is about seventeen inches, of which eight inches is tail.

JENNEC FOX (Fennecus zerda) This pretty fox lives in the deserts of
North and East Africa. It spends the daytime asleep in its burrow which
it lines with feathers, hair, and soft vegetable material. At dush it makes
for the nearest waterhole, and, having quenched its thirst, begins to hunt
for food which may be mice, insects, small birds, lizards, or fruits. The
burrows are often linked together by passages. As might be expected in
an animal with such large ears, it is ever wary and alert, and, when the
need arises, it can burrow at prodigious speed, and often escapes the
hunter by this stratagem.

Marabou storks.

(scavengers) A

AFRICAN HUNTING DOG (Lycaonl piitus) From Somaliland to the Cape
the hunting dog may be found wherever there is game. It is dreaded by
all the antelope tribe. It hunts in packs, and captures its victim by sheer
relentless running, biting at haunches and flanks, and then at the throat
before its prey goes down. Once the hunt is on it rarely abandons its
chosen victim. Its colour is very variable, and no two are identical,
though different localities tend to produce dogs of differing colour. As a
rule it is nocturnal, but not invariably so. It has a peculiar un-dog-hlke

SPOTTED HYENA (Crocula crocuta)
This hyena ts found over most of
Africa south of the Sahara. It is an
uncouth beast of great strength, and
can crack and demolish large bones
with its powerfid jaws. It is cowardly
yet dangerous, and will attack any-
thmng that is weak or wounded, and it
as also a scavenger. It has a peculiar
gait which looks clumsy, but which
is, in reality, very fast. Hyenas are
noisy, and give voice to the most
hair-raising howls ending in amania-
cal laugh. They travel in packs. They
give birth to pups which are jet black
in colour.

BLACK-BACKED JACKAL (Thos aurcusa bea) Tlhe Black-backed Jackal is
widely distributed through East and South Africa. It is a shy and wary
creature and has many ways of obtaining food. Often It will walt on
until the lion has finished his meal, and will then move mn with the
vultures and take his till. When hunting for itscif It preys on small
antelopes, rats, mice, and insects. Sometimes jackals will hunt in packs,
but are uhsully seen single or in pairs. Tlhey are chiefly nocturnal and,
when on the prowl, they give vent to the most appalling and hair-
raissmg cries.

Vultures (scavengers)

ZEBRA (Eqyuusquragga granrr) Zebras still roam the plains of
Africa mn large numbers. There are several species between
which there Is a marked differences in the pattern and arrange-
ment of the stripes. TLhese stripes are a very effective camouflage
when the animals are grazmng on the grassy plains for they tend
to break up the beast's contours. Zebras and wildebeest are the
chief food of lions. No wonder then that they are such nervou\
creatures and will suddenly stampede for no apparent reason.
Tihis is especially so at their drinking places where enemies may
lurk. ~The Zebra depicted is known as G;rant's Zebra.

Grant's and Grevy's zebra showing
the difference in stripe-patterns

BUFFALO (Syncerus caffer) T~he Cape
Buffalo (depicted) Is distributed from
the southern Sudan to South Africa
It is a large and powerful member of
the ox tribe, and, by some hunters, is
considered to be the most dangerous
of animals to hunt. It lives in herds,
and its preference Is for swampy
ground, though it often grazes on the
drier plains. In South Africa the
calves are born In the African summer
--January to March, and, for some
weeks after the birth, the mother
separates from the herd and tends
her calf, which she hides in long
herbage. Often sohitary old bulls,
which have been banished from the
herd b a master bull, are encountered.

BARBARY SHEEP (Ammoiruagu lervea) Tlhis 1s the only true wild sheep
found in Africa and its distribution is Ilmlted to the southern \lope\ of
the Atlah Mountains. It is adept at concealment, Its colour admirably
matching its arld surroundings. P'osslbly its chief enecmies are the
wandering Arab\ who uhe all Its drinking place\ to, water their own
flock\ and herds; and, had thre Barbary Sheep been less expert at Lon-
coalmgf itself, it would no, doubt have become extinct by now. Tlhe rams
are dlstingulshed by great fringes of hair which hang from necck and
fore-leg*. In the females the harr rs much shorter. Tlhey are agile rock

A Barbary lamb

BRINDLED GNUl or WILDEBEEST (Connochaeres taitrinus) A
grotesque animal resembling a buffalo in front, and a horse
behind, but which is really classed with the antelopes. It is an
animal of the open plains of East Africa, and is often seen in
large herds grazing in the company of zebras. In spite of its
morose appearance it is capable of performing the most hilarious
antics, rearing, bucking, leaping, and kicking in a most spirited
manner, then suddenly living up to face the intruder as if to
charge, which they never do. Both sexes are horned. They are
preyed upon by lions.

GIRAFFE (Giraffp) This strange and
( beautiful animal feeds solely on leaves
and shoots of trees, chiefly acacia' It
does not graze on grass or other
ground herbage as its head cannot
4, reach the ground when standing

f to spread its fore-legs widely to
', 4 A 6 24) it enable its head to reach the water. Its
tongue is long and its upper lip pre-
hensile, both adaptations for tree-
COK(E'S HARTEBEEST (Alcelaphus buselaphuscokii)Although the Hartebeest grazing. Wherever the thorn acacia
looks ungainly it is reputed to be the swiftest of the antelopes. Its thrives giraffe may be found, especi-
melancholy long face is an indication of its sober disposition, and it does ally in East Africa. They usually live
not indulge in the mad gambols and capers so characteristic of the gnu. in small herds of twenty or thirty.
It is the commonest species of hartebeest in East Mfrica, and is dis- There are several species, each vary-
tributed widely on the open plains and scattered bush. When they graze ing in the pattern of its marking.
they always place a sentry on some adjacent high ground. If danger is That shown is the reticulated giraffe.
seen or sensed a snort from the sentry puts the whole herd to the gallop.
It is called Kongoni in East Africa.

rr~ '
Profile of a gnu

3 = '

ELAND (Tauroirragus) Eland are the largest of all the antelopes.
an average sized bull measuring almost six feet at the shoulders.
They are found in large herds in a wride variety of country from
forest edge to semi-desert in East Africa. As well as being grass
eaters they also browse on young leaves. They are timid and
difficult to approach, bemng often accompanied by tick-birds,
which give the alarm at the approach of an enemy. (Tick-birds
search the hides of various African animals for parasites.) In
spite of their size eland are speedy, and are surprisingly good
jumpers. Both sexes are horned.

Tick-birds clingn
to an animal

0KAPI (Okapia johnsoni) Before 1901
this animal was unknown to science.
It inhabits the deep forests of Central
Africa, and is related to the giraffe.
Like it it is a leaf grazer. Okapis are
timid, inoffensive animals, living
either in pairs or alone. Secluded as
they are in the deepest recesses of the
forest little is known of their habits.
Their peculiar colouring and mark-
ings are admirable camouflage in their
dark homes. Only afew have appeared
in zoos. The males have short stubby
horns, the females none, thus differ-
ing from the giraffe in which both
sexes are horned, and whereas the
giraffe is almost mute the Okapi is
said to have a cow-like call.

BONGO (Boocerous iraalcr) This large antelope Is essentially a forest
animal. Its rich red, white striped colouring helps to camouflage it, and
its large ears enable It to pick up the slightest sounds. It is shy and
nocturnal in its habits, and is normally solitary or in pairs. Both sexes
have horns, those of the male being markedly larger than those of the
female. The Bongo inhabits the dense forests of WCest, Central, and East
Africa. Few Europeans have seen it, and only occasionally has it
appeared in zoos.

I.. We;li~. ,~r~~'"CT: IL~C~p

An adult Sable antelope

~ ::1'kr

ORY X (Oryx beisa- annctlens) There
p are several species of oryx in Africa,
the one depicted being the Beisa
4115 Oryx of East Africa. It is an animal of
: the dry bush and the semi-desert
country. Oryx live in herds. Both
sexes are horned, the males being
quarrelsome and often indulging in
fierce fights. The females have
longer, thinner horns than the males,
'but in both they are very deadly
L e pnh e pcialay agins dogs

horned ATheyO mhaitcu nt~ry o sctter trbes andeo bush aond acreound
ismallso ti herdsoeses. They hethrptatione of bing veycour ageos, andtcintesi o hi ek n

will attack if sufficiently provoked. Their horns are deadly weapons, and
an adult sable bull is considered a match for a lion.

KUDU (Strepsiceros) A large and hand-
some antelope, and a coveted trophy
of the hunter. Only the male Is
horned, and it is said that the longer
the horns the more wary the animal.
Kudu are partial to bush country and
forested hill-countryi and, in spite of
their size and long horns, the males
dash through dense woodland with
case, keeping their heads horizontal
to the ground and their horns flat

Lesser Kudu is much smaller.

THOMSON'S GAZELLE (Gazella thomsoni) "Tommies" as they are called
mn Africa, are the commonest, as well as one of the handsomest, of the
small antelopes. Hunters frequently describe seeing them in countless
thousands on the plains of Kenya and Tanganyika. They graze on short
grass. When the grass grows tall the Tommlcs move away to younger,
shorter pastures, for tall grass will hide lurking enemies such as leopards
and jackals. Like other gazelles they appear to glory in their agility,
turning, twisting, and leaping when at play. Both sexes are horned.

*, *e

IMPALA (Aepycerus malantpus) A
graceful, agile antelope inhabiting
scrub-land and sandy plains near
rivers. Their presence is an indica-
tion that water is in the vicinity for
they are seldom seen far from it.
They are very fleet of foot, and
amazing leapers. When a herd panics
the animals leap in all directions, one
over the other, this way and that,
with little forward progression. When
they are really going away they
indulge in effortless bounds of
twenty to thirty feet. Only the males
are horned. Impala are found in
South, East, and Central Africa.

GRANT'S GAZELLE. (Gazella granti)
This handsome gazelle measures
about three feet at the shoulders. It is
perhaps the most beautiful of the
gazelles, especially the male which has
slender graceful horns. It is found in
parties (usually consisting of a male
with a number of females) on the
plains of East Africa, where it grazes
and also browses on shrubs. The
fawns, as soon as they are born, are
hidden under a bush or a canopy of
long grass, while its mother feeds
near it. Grant's Gazelle has many
enemies, hunting dogs and leopards
probably being the most deadly.

:. ,
!' : ..... -~ -


Impala panic::

KLIPSPRINGER (Oreotragus) This little antelope measures only
twenty-two inches at the shoulder. It inhabits rocky hills and
outcrops, and is widely distributed through South and East
Africa. It has hoofs which are adapted to its rocky home, and
only the tips make contact with the ground. It can climb up
almost vertical rock faces. In its often arid surroundings it
appears to be able to do without water. The Klipspringer lives
as a family, a male, a female and a fawn, and does not herd. It is
covered with a pecuhiarly thick and brittle coat of which the
hairs are hollow.

The jaws of a hippo

ELEPHANT (Loxodonta africana) An
adult male African Elephant may
weigh six tons and measure eleven
feet at the shoulder. In spite of its
size it can move through bush and
forest amazingly quietly. Elephants
have acute senses of smell and hear-
ing but their eyes are not so efficient.
The trunk is a versatile fifth limb; it
is a scenting organ, a hand for tearing
away leaves and branches, a squirt
for spraying water when bathing, and
a duster for blowing sand over the
body. The tusks are used as digging
implements for obtaining roots in
addition to being weapons of defence.
Elephants are entirely vegetarian,
and their tempers are unpredictable.

HIPPOPOTAMUS (Hippopotamus) An adult male hippo weighs about
21 tons. It is entirely vegetarian in its diet, and spends the night feeding,
Leaving its river home after dusk it often travels several miles for food.
Being so heavy much damage is done to native crops for as much is
trampled as is eaten. The daytime is spent almost completely sub-
merged in a favourite pool or mud wallow, exposing only the eyes and
nostrils. It has a prodigious mouth and huge teeth, and can bite a
crocodile completely in two. Usuallyit lives in herds, and is found in most
of the rivers and lakes of Wecst. Central and East Africa.

RED RIVER-HOG (Potamochoerus) If the Wart Hog is the most grotesque
of pigs then the Red River-Hog is surely the most handsome. It lives in
herds in the moist forests and swampy river banks of West Africa. Like
other bush-pigs the Red River-Hog, with its strong elongated snout, is a
forager of the forest floor, rooting for its food which may be roots,
tubers, grubs and snails. It is nocturnal in its feeding. The female makes
a deep nest of dry grass and leaves in which the young are born.

White rhino

~.J ..yS

(note the
square muzzle)

BLACK RHINOCEROS (Dicerosbicornis)
There are two species of rhino in
Africa-Black and White. Both are
shades of grey, the chief difference
lying in their anatomy. The Black is a
nervous, even timid beast, uncertain
in its temper and liable to charge any
moving thing. It is a vegetarian, a
browser of leaves and fruit, and
usually inhabits open tree and bush
country. For so heavy a beast it is
fleet of foot. Its horns are not really
horn but are consolidated hair, and
are not attached to the bone of the
skull but to the tough skin of the
head. Rhinos rely on their senses of
smell and hearing to give warning of
approaching danger. They are also
aided in this by the tick-birds which
accompany them,

WART HOG (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) This grotesque pig is widely
distributed through East and Central Africa, and roams about in small
family parties of sows and young, the boars preferring a more solitary
existence. They live in holes which they invariably enter backwards so
that the formidable tusked snout faces outwards. Only rarely will a Wart
Hog attack (it has been known to charge) and usually flees from man,
galloping away with its tail held vertically. The young are born uni-
formly coloured and without the white stripes characteristic of the
young of many wild swine.

AARDVARK (Orycleropus) The Boers of the Cape named this animal
Aardvark which means "carth pig". However this curious creature is no
pig but is in a class by itself in the animal kingdom. Aardvarks feed on
the nests of ants and termites, their tremendously strong legs and claws
enabling them to dig rapidly in even the hardest ground. They are
nocturnal in their feeding, and by day they sleep in holes, excavated by
themselves, at the base of ant-hills. They are not common but their
distribution extends from the Cape to Somaliland,

G1IANT PANGOLINI (Manirgiantea) "'Scaly ant-cater" is another name for
the Pangolin. Of the four species of African pangolin this is the largest.
Several of these are arboreal in their habits, but the Giant Pangolin is a
ground specis and does not climb trees. It feeds on ants and termites,
digging out their nests with its immensely strong front limbs. The ants
exposed, it flicks out a very long, sticky, worm-like tongue to which the
ants adhere and are swallowed. It sleeps in holes, curling up on its side,
encircled by its tail for protection. When thus curled up no human is
strong enough to uncurl it.

NIILE CROCODILE (Crocodylus niloticus) These fierce reptiles infest many
African rivers and lakes, but only the upper reaches of the Nile. They
are flesh eaters and feed on fish, animals, and, too often, humans,
grabbing them at the water's edge and drowning them. They will also
knock animals into the water with their immensely powerful tails.
Crocodiles are fond of basking on sand-banks, usually with their mouths
wide open. Females lay their eggs in the sand, covering them, and
leaving them to be incubated by the sun's heat. When the young are
ready to hatih, the nests are uncovered by the females.


Termite nests and an aardvark


e I li NI 81

Brooke Bond "t

HWiOl~ H Bnd .lnJ Frrench C~.alice

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