The Cambridge ritualists

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The Cambridge ritualists an annotated bibliography of the works by and about Jane Ellen Harrison, Gilbert Murray, Francis M. Cornford, and Arthur Bernard Cook
Arlen, Shelley, 1951-
Place of Publication:
Metuchen, N.J
Scarecrow Press
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
x, 414 p. : ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Classical philology -- Study and teaching -- History -- Bibliography -- England -- Cambridge ( lcsh )
Literature and anthropology -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Mythology -- Historiography -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Ritual -- Historiography -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Classical philology -- Bibliography ( lcsh )
Klassischer Philologe ( swd )
Geschichte (1874-1957) ( swd )
Intellectual life -- Bibliography -- Cambridge (England) ( lcsh )
Civilization -- Bibliography -- Catalogs -- Rome
Greece -- History
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes index.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Shelley Arlen.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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This material is still protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Please contact the publisher for permission to copy, distribute or reprint.
Resource Identifier:
22389000 ( OCLC )
90047304 ( LCCN )
081082373X ( ISBN )
Z7016|PA72 .A75 1990 ( lcc )
016.48 ( ddc )
6,12 ( ssgn )


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The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Metuchen, N.J., & London

An Annotated Bibliography of
the Works by and about
Jane Ellen Harrison,
Gilbert Murray,
Francis M. Cornford, and
Arthur Bernard Cook


British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data available


Arlen, Shelley, 1951-
The Cambridge ritualists : an annotated bibliography of the
works by and about Jane Ellen Harrison, Gilbert Murray, Francis
M. Cornford, and Arthur Bernard Cook / by Shelley Arlen.
p. cm.
Includes indexes.
ISBN 0-8108-2373-X
1. Classical philology--Study and teaching--England--
Cambridge--History--Bibliography. 2. Cambridge (England)--
Intellectual life--Bibliography. 3. Murray, Gilbert, 1866-1957
--Bibliography. 4. Cornford, Francis Macdonald, 1874-1943--
Bibliography. 5. Harrison, Jane Ellen, 1850-1928--Bibliography.
6. Cook, Arthur Bernard, 1868-1952--Bibliography. 7. Literature
and anthropology--Bibliography. 8. Mythology--Historiography--
Bibliography. 9. Ritual--Historiography--Bibliography.
10. Classical philology--Bibliography. I. Title.
Z7016.A75 1990
016.48--dc20 90-47304

Copyright Q 1990 by Shelley Arlen
Manufactured in the United States of America

Printed on acid-free paper


List of Illustrations v
Preface vii
Acknowledgements ix

General Surveys and Bibliographic Works on Myth
and Myth Criticism 5
Works About 7

Books and Pamphlets 23
Books--Collaborations 32
Translations 33
Translations--Collaborations 34
Articles, Contributions to Books, Published
Letters, Lectures, Miscellaneous 35
Published Letters--Collaborations 56
Reviews 56
Critical, Biographical, and Miscellaneous Works
About 63
Obituaries and Biographical Entries in
Encyclopedias 78

Books and Pamphlets 86
Books and Pamphlets--Collaborations 112
Translations and Critical Editions 113
Aeschylus 113
Aristophanes 117
Euripides 118
Menander 131
Sophocles 132
Translations--Miscellaneous 133
Translations--Miscellaneous Collections 136
Articles, Contributions to Books, Published
Letters, Selected Lectures, Miscellaneous 137
Articles, Contributions to Books, Published
Letters--Collaborations 230
Reviews 235
Critical, Biographical, and Miscellaneous Works
About 241
Obituaries and Biographical Entries
in Encyclopedias 295

Books and Pamphlets 303

Translations 310
Translations--Collaborations 314
Articles, Contributions to Books,
Published Letters, Selected Lectures,
Miscellaneous 315
Articles, Published Letters--Collaborations 325
Poems 326
Reviews 326
Critical, Biographical, and Miscellaneous
Works About 328
Obituaries and Biographical Entries
in Encyclopedias 338

Books and Pamphlets 345
Articles, Contributions to Books
Published Letters, Selected Lectures,
Miscellaneous 348
Articles--Collaborations 355
Poems 355
Reviews 355
Critical, Biographical, and Miscellaneous
Works About 356
Obituaries and Biographical Entries
in Encyclopedias 359

Author Index 361
Title Index 373
Subject Index 391


In compiling this work, I have tried to be as
comprehensive as possible within certain limitations.
For each book by one of the four Ritualists, I have
noted original date of publication and subsequent
editions and issue dates. This information comes
primarily from the National Union Catalog, British
Library Catalog, and the bibliographic utilities,
RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network) and
OCLC (Online Computer Library Center). Translated
editions of their books are not included.

Numbers in parentheses in the introductory
sections, cross-references in the bibliography, and
numbers in the three indexes refer to citations, not

I have consulted the Gilbert Murray Papers,
Western Manuscripts Division, Bodleian Library; Jane
Ellen Harrison Papers, Newnham College Library
Archives; Francis M. Cornford Papers, British
Library, and those held by Professor Christopher

Published indexes and guides consulted include:

L'Annee Philologique
Arts & Humanities Citation Index
Bibliographie de 1'Antiquite Classique, 1896-
Bibliographie de Klassischen Altertumswis-
Bibliography Index
Bibliotheca Philologica Classica
Book Review Digest
Book Review Index
British Humanities Index
British Library Catalog
Dix Annees de Bibliographie Classique (1914-
Essay and General Literature Index
Humanities Index
Index to The Times Literary Supplement
International Index
National Union Catalog
New York Times Book Review Index
New York Times Index

Philosopher's Index
Poole's Index
Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature
Social Science Index
Social Sciences and Humanities Index
Social Sciences Citation Index
Subject Index to Periodicals (Athenaeum)
The Times Index
Wellesley's Victorian Periodicals Index
Year's Work in Classical Studies

I have also examined complete runs of the
Cambridge Review and Oxford Magazine, up to 1960 for
reviews, lecture notices, correspondence, and other
information on the Ritualists. Complete perusal of
newspapers has been done for The Times of London and
the New York Times. Articles and reviews in other
newspapers have been included when verified.
Periodicals with similar titles are distinguished by
a note on place of publication or other identifying

Bookman (L) London
Bookman (NY) New York

Journal of
Education (L) London
Journal of
Education (NY) New York

Nation (L) London
Nation (NY) New York

Saturday Review London
Saturday Review
of Literature New York

For reviews of plays on the London stage, I am
indebted to J. P. Wearing's series The London Stage
(Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1976-1984 [subsequent
volumes have been published through 1990]).

The papers presented at the Conference on the
Cambridge Ritualists, held at the University of
Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, are scheduled for
publication as Supplement 2 of the Illinois Classical
Studies, Fall 1990.

Shelley Arlen
Head of Reference
University of Oklahoma



I am indebted to the many people who have helped
make this bibliography possible through their kind-
ness, encouragement and assistance. I want to thank
Dean Sul Lee and Sue Harrington of the University of
Oklahoma Libraries for their support of my seemingly
never-ending project. Many thanks also to Pat
Weaver-Meyers, Carolyn Mahin, and James Pool of the
University of Oklahoma Interlibrary Loan Department
for the years of cheerful and tireless effort in
locating needed materials.

To the following libraries and their faculty and
staff, I owe a great debt: Library, University of
California at Berkeley; Sterling Library, Yale Uni-
versity; University Libraries, University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign; Suzzallo Library, University of
Washington; Tulane University Libraries; Newnham Col-
lege Library; Cambridge University Library; Bodleian
Library, University of Oxford; British Library.

I wish to express my appreciation to Dr. William
M. Calder III, who sponsored the International Con-
ference on the Cambridge Ritualists, held at the Uni-
versity of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 27-29 April,
1989. I also thank all the participants of that
Conference: Robert Ackerman; Thomas W. Africa;
Mortimer H. Chambers; Susan Guettel Cole; Robert L.
Fowler; Robert Alun Jones; David P. Kubiak; P. G.
Naiditch; J. K. Newman; Sandra J. Peacock; Annabel
Robinson; Robert A. Segal; Morton Smith; Renate
Schlesier; Hans Schwabl; John Vaio; and members of
the Department of the Classics, University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

I want to especially thank several people for
the particular efforts they made to guide me along my
way and make my travels enjoyable: Ann Phillips,
Archivist, Newnham College Library; Professor
Christopher and Lucy Cornford of Cambridge; Helen
Langley, Western Manuscripts Division, Bodleian
Library; Alexander Murray, Oxford; Douglas K. Wood,
Cornford's biographer. I also owe a great debt to
Paul G. Naiditch for sharing his endless sources with
me. For their permission to use photographs, I thank

Hilary Kent of the British Academy, and Mrs. Jean
Stewart Pace. I'm grateful to Madeline Patry for
allowing me access to her bibliography of Gilbert

For their infinite
I thank Mary McClain of
Center and Joe Grissom

patience and continual help,
the OU Information Processing
of the University Computing

Most of all, I want to thank my family for their
patience, understanding and support: my husband John
H. Moore, daughters Jessica and Alexandra, son
Jeremy, and my parents, Ann and Charles H. Arlen.


The Cambridge Ritualists, also known as the
Cambridge Group of Classical Anthropologists, were a
turn-of-the-century intellectual movement that
anticipated the rise of structuralism in social
science while embracing a generally anti-positivist
philosophical position. Working primarily during the
period 1900 to 1915, four classical Greek scholars--
Jane Ellen Harrison, Francis M. Cornford, Gilbert
Murray and, to a lesser extent, Arthur Bernard Cook--
developed theories concerning the relationship of
myth to ritual and on the origins of religion and
drama. Except for Murray, who was appointed Regius
Professor of Greek at Oxford in 1908, all held posi-
tions at Cambridge University, which enabled them to
interact intensively, on an almost daily basis.

Contrary to popular belief, none of the Group
were anthropologists, yet they pioneered in applying
anthropological theories to the study of ancient
Greece at a time when many classicists were primarily
philologists engaged in textual criticism. Led by a
remarkable woman, Jane Ellen Harrison, and reinforced
by the very public and versatile Gilbert Murray, the
Ritualists enjoyed great popular exposure and appeal
in their active period. As proto-Structuralists and,
like Andrew Lang and James Frazer, as popularizers of
myth, the Ritualists inspired some of the great works
of twentieth-century literature and initiated liter-
ary studies in what is now known as myth-ritual crit-

The Ritualists arose from a nineteenth-century
milieu in which a central intellectual preoccupation
was evolutionary theory. Their fascination with
origins drew both on theories of social origins in
anthropology as espoused by Edward Tylor, Herbert
Spencer, and Emile Durkheim, and theories of the
origin of the intellect in psychology as promoted by
Carl Jung and Henri Bergson to illuminate the nature
and relationships of religion and art. The Ritual-
ists worked with many of the same ideas as Frazer,
such as taboo and the Year Spirit, but they went
beyond Frazer. Recognizing the importance of not
merely describing and classifying what they encoun-
tered but also of determining significance, they used
an organic theory of society derived from Durkheim

2 The Cambridge Ritualists

and Spencer to study the function and structure of
religion in society.

Jane Ellen Harrison was the acknowledged leader
of the Group. A charismatic figure, Harrison had the
ability to draw people around her, providing stimula-
tion and encouragement to those with similar scholar-
ly interests. By 1900, the closely knit group of
Harrison, Murray, and Cornford, with the help of
Cook, had become focused on problems concerning the
origin of Greek religion.

Called Ritualists for their belief in the
primacy of the rite over mythology in man's attempt
to control the unknown, they hypothesized that ritual
is an acting out or doing (dromenon) to procure fer-
tility or prevent disaster. Originating as seasonal
fertility rites, these actions mimicked the cycle of
birth, death, and renewal, and evolved from basic
needs vital to the survival of the social group.
This cycle of death and rebirth, or the "tragic
rhythm," as Harrison described it, constitutes the
ritual structure.

Myth is the primitive story or legend which
often "explains" some unknown or unexplainable factor
in nature and, according to the Ritualists, it is
secondary to the rite. As narrative content overly-
ing the ritual, myth is, in effect, a separate entity
and, over time, it can change while the ritual itself
tends to remain essentially the same. The myth
focuses on a Year Spirit, what Harrison termed an
Eniautos Daimon, a Spirit which, personifying the
life cycle, passes through prescribed stages of life,
mirroring the cycle of nature: birth, conflict,
death, rebirth.

Behind the tales of classical Greek mythology
and its gods, Harrison perceived more primitive
myths, those of the chthonic or pre-Greek peoples
whose rituals and myths had been taken over by their
conquerors, the people who became the classical
Greeks. Over time, the content of the myth changed,
but the structure or ritual endured, meeting some
preconscious need in man. The Greeks imposed their
own narrative on the chthonic ritual structure, a.
story or myth generally based on a heroic epic. Un-
der the influence of the Greeks, the Eniautos Daimon
of the chthonic myth became the heroic figure of a
god or culture hero known in various guises such as
Zeus, Dionysus, or Attis, but the underlying struc-
ture or plot of the myth, from birth to resurrection,
remained intact.

The Cambridge Ritualists

Gilbert Murray furthered Harrison's theoretical
work with his formal studies of ancient Greek
tragedy. As editor and translator of Greek plays,
primarily those of Euripides, he knew plots and
character types. Murray had perceived similarities
between drama and ritual that appeared to reinforce
Aristotle's statement that drama arose from the
dithyramb, the Greek song associated with the worship
of Dionysus. Murray elucidated a six-part sequence
or structure in the drama corresponding to the
"tragic rhythm" of the chthonic rite which he had
described in his 1912 "Excursus on the Ritual Forms
Preserved in Greek Tragedy" (609). According to
Murray, this structure consists of: 1) the Agon or
conflict; 2) pathos of the Year Spirit, his ritual or
sacrificial death/dismemberment; 3) a Messenger who
announces the death; 4) lamentation; 5) the discovery
or recognition of the slain spirit, followed by: 6)
his resurrection. Some individual dramas did not
appear to follow this exact structure, and Murray
acknowledged that structural adjustment was necessary
in some cases to accommodate the heroic drama imposed
on the chthonic ritual form.

Murray's 1914 essay, "Hamlet and Orestes" (652),
was the first attempt to extend the study of ritual
pattern beyond Greek literature. In this work, he
hypothesized that the similarities between these two
heroes indicate that they are both incarnations of
the Year Spirit; they are, in effect, archetypes or
representatives of an ancient paradigm which appeals
to modern man on some unconscious primitive level.

Cornford found the same myth-ritual pattern in
literature, this time in historical writings--
Thucydides' account of the Peloponnesian War.
According to Cornford, the historian had used the
form of Aeschylean drama as a framework upon which to
tell his story. Thucydides' history is not objective
history but rather a dramatic meta-historical
narrative. In his work, FROM RELIGION TO PHILOSOPHY
(1737), Cornford expanded the theory of the "tragic
rhythm" to include other kinds of ancient Greek
literature, including natural history and philosophy.
In yet another work, Cornford alleged that comedy as
well as tragedy derived from ritual: THE ORIGIN OF
ATTIC COMEDY (1740). His 1922 essay, "Origin of the
Drama" (1793), hypothesized that the survival of the
ritual form was evidence of the universal psycho-
logical need for such form.

Arthur Bernard Cook's role in the Ritualist
group was more subtle. He supported their efforts

4 The Cambridge Ritualists

and provided the others with classical examples to
bolster their theories, but he did not completely ac-
cept some of their wilder speculations. While he
conceived of a slightly different origin of Greek
tragedy, he too found structural traces of the ritual
pattern in tragedy and comedy.

With the onset of World War I came unavoidable
distractions. The deprivations of a nation at war
and the deaths of many of their students and col-
leagues had a profound effect on the scholarship of
the Ritualists. Harrison turned from classical
studies to languages, and she taught Russian for
several years at Newnham College. Murray put more of
his efforts into working for world peace and the
League of Nations, somewhat to the detriment of his
classical studies. Cornford turned from the study of
religion and drama to the study of philosophy. The
first volume of Cook's monumental work ZEUS (1931)
was released on the eve of the war's outbreak, and
Cook spent a quarter of a century finishing it.

Research on the Cambridge Ritualists

The Cambridge Ritualists have always been con-
troversial. Among early critics, the classicists
William Ridgeway and Lewis Farnell, each of whom had
his own conflicting theories of the origin of reli-
gion, were the most vocal. In his Origin of Tragedy,
Ridgeway (67) criticized the theory that drama arose
from fertility rites in favor of his own idea that
drama arose from funeral rites for a dead hero.
Probably the most rigorous critic of the Group was
Arthur Pickard-Cambridge. In Dithyramb, Tragedy and
Comedy (62), he said he found no evidence of the al-
leged universal structure in any drama or even in any
chthonic ritual. Other critics of the Group included
anthropologists who were particularly hostile to the
Ritualists' alleged misuse of the comparative method
in which similar social elements were compared among
peoples as different in time and space as the classi-
cal Greeks and the Australian aboriginals, without
concern for the social context of those features.
Evans-Pritchard (31) pointed out the value of the
comparative Durkheimian approach to classical reli-
gion yet faulted the Ritualists' theories of origins
for going beyond the bounds of legitimate specula-

Literary critics interested in the psychological
underpinnings of art's creation and its relation to
religion have continued to value the Ritualists for

The Cambridge Ritualists

their discussions of myth and ritual. It is no coin-
cidence that T. S. Eliot (who became a confirmed
Anglican) and Northrop Frye (himself a minister),
were influenced by their theories. As Eliot and Frye
contend, modern alienation, the hunger for something
nameless, finds sustenance in myth which gives life
order and meaning. For many literary critics, struc-
turalists, and psychologists, it is the Ritualists'
plumbing of the irrational, unconscious aspect of
man's mind that continues to fascinate, regardless of
whether the Ritualists are considered historically
correct in their theories of origins. Ackerman (15)
was the first modern critic to study the Group in
depth. Works concerning the general gestalt of the
Ritualists include those by Block (21), Hyman (43),
Payne (60), Segal (71), Turner (77), Vickery (81),
and Weisinger (84).

Among those who have used the Cambridge Ritual-
ist's theoretical framework for studying literature
are Jesse Weston, Maud Bodkin, Margaret Murray, and
Bertha Phillpotts. T. S. Eliot used the myth of the
Year Spirit in The Waste Land, and some of the works
of D. H. Lawrence and Virginia Woolf also show the
influence of the Group. The idea of the scapegoat
was used in "The Lottery," by Shirley Jackson, wife
of Stanley Edgar Hyman who was one of Harrison's most
vocal advocates. More recently, Ted Hughes and
Sylvia Plath (both Cambridge graduates) appear to
have been influenced by the Ritualists, though the
extent of that influence has yet to be examined in
depth. Neither has there been an assessment of the
Ritualists' influence on the "Bennington School" of
myth-criticism (William Troy, Francis Fergusson,
Herbert Weisinger, Stanley Edgar Hyman, and Kenneth


1 Bidney, David. "The Concept of Myth." Theoret-
ical Anthropology. New York: Columbia UP, 1953.

2 Chase, Richard. Quest for Myth. Baton Rouge,
LA: Louisiana State UP, 1949.

3 Cohen, Percy S. "Theories of Myth." Man 4
(1969): 337-53.

6 The Cambridge Ritualists

4 Douglas, Wallace W. "The Meanings of 'Myth' in
Modern Criticism." Modern Philology 50 (1953):

5 Duncan, Joseph E. "Archetypal Criticism in
English, 1946-1980." Bulletin of Bibliography
40 (1983): 206-30.

6 Feldman, Burton and Robert D. Richardson.
"Bibliography of Works on Myth, 1680-1860." The
Rise of Modern Mythology, 1680-1860. Bloom-
ington: Indiana UP, 1972. 528-54.

7 Fischer, J. L. "The Sociopsychological Analysis
of Folktales." Current Anthropology 4 (1963):

8 Flanagan, Cathleen C. and John T. Flanagan.
American Folklore: A Bibliography, 1950-1974.
Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1977.

9 Frye, Northrop. "Literature and Myth." Rela-
tions of Literary Study: Essays on Interdisci-
plinary Contributions. Ed. James Thorpe. New
York: MLA, 1967. 27-56.

10 Grimes, Ronald L. Research in Ritual Studies:
Programmatic Essay and Bibliography. American
Theological Library Association Bibliographical
Series 14. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1985.

11 Peradotto, John. Classical Mythology: An
Annotated Bibliographical Survey. American
Philological Association Bibliographical Guides.
Boulder: American Philological Assn., 1973.

12 Seboek, Thomas A., ed. Myth: A Symposium.
Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1958. Rpt. of spec.
issue of Journal of American Folklore 78 (1955).

13 Vickery, John B. "Literature and Myth." Inter-
relations of Literature. Ed. Jean-Pierre
Barricelli and Joseph Gibaldi. New York: MLA,
1982. 67-89.

14 Waldthausen, Heide M. "The Analysis of Myth:
Some German Contributions." Reviews in Anthro-
pology 5 (1978): 443-56.

The Cambridge Ritualists


15 Ackerman, Robert. "The Cambridge Group and the
Origins of Myth Criticism." Diss. Columbia U,
1969. New York: Garland, in press.
The major study on the Cambridge Ritual-
ists. Ackerman considers the work of their predeces-
sors (Andrew Lang, E. B. Tylor, William Robertson
Smith, J. G. Frazer) and examines the influential
works of each of the four Ritualists, focusing on
Jane Harrison as the center of the Group.

16 "The Cambridge Group: Origins and Com-
position." Paper read at The Cambridge Ritual-
ists: An International Colloquium, University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 27-29 Apr. 1989.
Discusses influences on the Group's ideas,
their interactions, the emotional and intellectual
tensions, and evaluates their achievements.

17 "Frazer on Myth and Ritual." Journal of
the History of Ideas 36 (1979): 115-34.
Examines Frazer's position on the relation-
ship between myth and ritual. In later years, Frazer
criticized the Ritualists.

18 J. G. Frazer: His Life and Work.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987.
Includes several references to the Cam-
bridge Ritualists, and is especially revealing of the
collaboration between Frazer and A. B. Cook.

19 "Some Letters of the Cambridge Ritual-
ists." Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 12
(1971): 113-36.
The selected letters give the flavor of the
relationships among the members of the Group.

20 Africa, Thomas W. "Psychohistory, Ancient His-
tory, and Freud: The Descent into Avernus."
Arethusa 12 (1979): 5-33.
The impact of psychoanalysis on studies in
ancient history, including those of the Cambridge

21 Block, Haskell M. "Cultural Anthropology and
Contemporary Literary Criticism." Journal of
Aesthetics and Art Criticism 11 (1952): 46-54.
Rpt. in Myth and Literature: Contemporary Theory
and Practice. Ed. John B. Vickery. Lincoln: U
of Nebraska P, 1966. 129-36.
On the usefulness of a critical approach to
literature that utilizes anthropological concepts.

The Cambridge Ritualists

The accuracy of the Ritualists' findings is not so
important as their influence on literature and
literary interpretation.

22 Bodkin, Maud. Archetypal Patterns in Poetry:
Psychological Studies of Imagination. London:
Oxford UP, 1934.
Examines archetypal patterns in terms of
Ritualist theories, especially Murray's theory (as
expressed in his "Hamlet and Orestes") of the eternal
durability of ancient themes and their appeal to
man's emotions.

23 Bonanate, Ugo. "I Filologi Dell'Inquietante."
Rivista di Filosofia 65 (1974): 272-308.
The contributions of the Cambridge School--
Harrison, Murray, and Cornford--to classical studies.

24 Brooke, Rupert. The Letters of Rupert Brooke.
Ed. Geoffrey Keynes. London: Faber, 1968.
Several letters provide insight into the
lives and activities of Harrison, Cornford, and
Murray, circa 1900-1915.

25 Burkert, Walter. "Greek Tragedy and Sacrificial
Ritual." Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 7
(1966): 87-121. 113.
The validity of the Eniautos Daimon theory
is difficult to assess. The Eniautos is seldom per-
sonified and is never called a daimon.

26 _. Structure and History in Greek Mythology.
Sather Classical Lectures 47. Berkeley: U of
California P, 1979.
Acknowledges the Cambridge Ritualists'
(especially Harrison's) importance in deriving
metaphysical ideas from ritual (see pp. 35-39).

27 Campbell, A[rchibald] Y. "Professor Ridgeway
and Greek Tragedy." Cambridge Review 24 May
1916: 326-29.
In this review of William Ridgeway's Dramas
and Dramatic Dances, Campbell defends the "vegeta-
tionists" (e. g. the Ritualists).

28 Chase, Richard. "The Study of Myth." Nation
(NY) 4 Dec. 1948: 635-38.
Criticizes the Ritualists for ignoring the
fact that myth is literature. The ritual pattern
does not underlie all myths.

29 Crawford, Robert. The Savage and the City in
the Work of T. S. Eliot. Oxford: Clarendon,

The Cambridge Ritualists

Discusses the influence on Eliot of mythic
ideas and anthropology as expressed by, among others,
the Cambridge Ritualists, in light of the discovery
of an Eliot manuscript.

30 Davidson, H[ilda] R. Ellis. "Folklore and
Myth." Folklore 87 (1976): 131-45.
Surveys theories of myth, including the
myth-ritual school and its subsequent followers.

31 Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Theories of Primitive
Ritual. Oxford: Clarendon, 1965.
Critiques the Durkheimian analysis of
religion and criticizes the Ritualists' speculative
theories of origin.

32 Farnell, Lewis Richard. Greece and Babylon: A
Comparative Sketch of Mesopotamian, Anatolian
and Hellenic Religions. Edinburgh: Clark, 1911.
In a section on anthropomorphism, Farnell
analyzes Harrison's theories on the bird cult and
Cook's theories on Mycenaean animal worship (pp. 66-

33 Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality.
Oxford: Clarendon, 1921.
The Clifford Lectures delivered 1920, Uni-
versity of St. Andrews. Farnell examines Cook's
suggestion of the hero as a priest-king (pp. 317-19)
and acknowledges Cornford's discovery of the struc-
tural similarities of the Theogony to the Babylonian
epic of creation.

34 Fergusson, Francis. The Idea of a Theater: A
Study of Ten Plays. Princeton: Princeton UP,
An influential work that endorses the Cam-
bridge Group's methods. Fergusson analyzes Oedipus
Rex in terms of the rituals of the Year Daimon.
Oedipus is the scapegoat, and the plot is in the
tragic sequence.

35 Fowlie, Wallace. "Francis Fergusson and The
Idea of a Theater." Sewanee Review 90 (1982):
Review essay of Fergusson's work, discus-
sing the Ritualists and literary advocates of myth-
ritual criticism.

36 Guthrie, W. K. C. Orpheus and Greek Religion: A
Study of the Orphic Movement. London: Methuen,
Critiques the theories of Harrison and Cook
regarding Orphic rituals (pp. 208-15).

The Cambridge Ritualists

37 Harris, Rendel. Boanerges. Cambridge: Cam-
bridge UP, 1913.
Attempts to discredit the theories of
Harrison and Cook on the ritual hymn of the Kouretes
(pp. 350-53) and on bird cults (pp. 209-10).

38 Hartman, Geoffrey H. "Structuralism: The Anglo-
American Adventure." Yale French Studies 36-37
(1966): 148-68. Rpt. in Beyond Formalism:
Literary Essays, 1958-1970. New Haven: Yale UP,
Harrison and the Cambridge Ritualists were
among the first modern structuralists.

39 Hirschberg, Stuart. Myth in the Poetry of Ted
Hughes: A Guide to the Poems. Totowa, NJ:
Barnes, 1981.
The Cambridge Ritualists provided Hughes
with materials and a framework for his poetry.

40 Howarth, T. E. B. Cambridge Between Two Wars.
London: Collins, 1978.
Gives references to the activities of both
Cook and Cornford.

41 Hyman, Stanley Edgar. The Armed Vision: A Study
in the Methods of Modern Literary Criticism.
New York: Knopf, 1948.
An advocate of the Ritualists, Hyman sum-
marizes their methods and theories.

42 "Myth, Ritual and Nonsense." Kenyon
Review 11 (1949): 455-75.
Review essay. In providing background on
myth-ritual studies, Hyman credits Harrison with for-
malizing the ritual approach, and answers Richard
Chase's criticisms.

43 "The Ritual View of Myth and the Mythic."
Journal of American Folklore 68 (1955): 462-72.
Rpt. in Myth: A Symposium. Ed. Thomas A.
Sebeok. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1958. 84-94.
Rpt. in Myth and Literature: Contemporary Theory
and Practice. Ed. John B. Vickery. Lincoln: U
of Nebraska P, 1966. 47-58.
An historical introduction to the Cambridge
Ritualists. Discusses their ritual theories and the
application to literature, and problems. Provides a
good bibliography on other myth-ritual applications
to literature.

44 The Tangled Bank: Darwin, Marx, Frazer and
Freud as Imaginative Writers. New York:
Atheneum, 1962.

The Cambridge Ritualists

In the work of the Cambridge Ritualists,
Frazer's influence transformed the field of classics.

45 Jones, Robert Alun. "La Genese du Systeme? The
Origins of Durkheim's Sociology of Religion."
Paper read at The Cambridge Ritualists: An
International Conference, University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign, 27-29 Apr. 1989.
The ideas which the Cambridge Ritualists
shared with Fustel, Wundt, Robertson Smith, and Durk-
heim included historicism, romanticism, irrational-
ity, and the unconscious.

46 "Robertson Smith and James Frazer on
Religion: Two Traditions in British Social
Anthropology." Functionalism Historicized:
Essays on British Social Anthropology. Ed.
George W. Stocking, Jr. History of Anthropology
2. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1984. 31-58.
Though the Ritualists claimed Frazer's
Golden Bough as their source, they were influenced by
Smith's ritual theory of myth rather than Frazer's
euhemerist and cognitionist interpretations of myth.

47 Kirk, G. S. Myth: Its Meaning and Function in
Ancient and Other Cultures. Sather Classical
Lectures 40. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1970.
The Ritualists' approach brought a fresh
vitality to classics; it is generally thought that
their views, though excessive, were correct.
Critiques Cornford's "Ritual Basis for Hesiod's

48 The Nature of Greek Myths. Harmondsworth:
Penguin, 1974.
Acknowledges that much of the English
critical work on the myths was done by the Cambridge
Ritualists. Discusses Cornford on the relation
between myth and philosophy in Greece.

49 Kluckhohn, Clyde. Anthropology and the
Classics. Culver Lectures. Providence, RI:
Brown UP, 1961.
In these lectures given at Brown Univer-
sity, 1960, on the relations between the two fields,
Kluckhohn discusses the reaction of conservative
Hellenists to the intrusion of anthropology (e. g.
the work of Harrison and Murray) into their field.

50 Lenz, John R. "Bertrand Russell and the
Greeks." Russell ns 7 (1987-1988): 104-18.
The Cambridge Ritualists had some influence
on Russell's views of the Greeks, but he was skep-

12 The Cambridge Ritualists

tical that primitive religious forms lay behind Greek
philosophy. Recounts Russell's 1901 "conversion"
after hearing Murray's translation of The Hippolytus,
and his later pamphlet fight with Murray over British
foreign policy.

51 Lloyd, G. E. R. "William Keith Chambers Guth-
rie, 1906-1981." Proceedings of the British
Academy 68 (1982): 561-77.
Notes the influence of Cook and Cornford on
Guthrie, with a statement on Guthrie's attitude
toward Harrison.

52 Marlow, A. N. "Myth and Ritual in Early
Greece." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
43 (1961): 373-402.
The Cambridge Ritualists overstated the
case for a Year Daimon. Examines the theories of
Cornford and Cook on the origin of the Olympic games.

53 Naiditch, P. G. "Classical Studies in Nine-
teenth Century Great Britain as Background to
the Cambridge Ritualists." Paper read at The
Cambridge Ritualists: An International Confer-
ence, University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign, 27-29 Apr. 1989.
Naiditch cites problems in our knowledge of
the history of British classical scholarship which
hinder an evaluation of the Ritualists' accomplish-

54 Newman, J. K. "A Ritualist Odyssey, Victorian
England to Soviet Russia." Paper read at The
Cambridge Ritualists: An International Con-
ference, University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign, 27-29 Apr. 1989.
Discusses contributions of Russian thought
to Ritualist studies.

55 News [of the Week] and Notes. Cambridge Review
16 Feb. 1911: 281; 23 Feb. 1911: 300-01; 9 Mar.
1911: 341; 4 May 1911: 390.
Notes a series of lectures given by Har-
rison, Cornford, and Ridgeway, with the discussion
following each. William Ridgeway (supported by James
Frazer) challenged the views presented by Harrison
and Cornford, and was criticized in turn by A. B.

56 Newsome, David. On the Edge of Paradise: A. C.
Benson, the Diarist. Chicago: U of Chicago P,
1980. 187, 212, 245, 228-29.
Brief glimpses of Harrison and Cornford.

The Cambridge Ritualists

57 Niesen, Laura Elizabeth. "The Refining Fire:
Classical and Christian Purgation in T. S.
Eliot's Works." Diss. U of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill, 1982.
Eliot draws on the works of Jane Harrison
and Francis Cornford for a heroic ideal.

58 Nilsson, Martin P. The Minoan-Mycenean Religion
and Its Survival in Greek Religion. Lund:
Gleerup, 1927.
Summarizes and analyzes the theories of
Harrison and Murray on the Hymn to the Kouretes (pp.
475-78) and that of Harrison on Zeus the woodpecker
(pp. 483-84). Cook's ideas of matriarchy (p. 187)
and his paper on animal worship are not valid (p. 324
n. 2). Cornford's paper in the Ridgeway festschrift
explains the significance of Kore's abduction.

59 Notes and News. Oxford Magazine 16 June 1910:
Summary of Andrew Lang's lecture, Oxford
Anthropological Society, attacking A. B. Cook's view
on the slaying of the minotaur as an example of the
slaying of the divine king. Gilbert Murray, repre-
senting Cook, defends the latter's viewpoint.

60 Payne, Harry C. "Modernizing the Ancients: The
Reconstruction of Ritual Drama, 1870-1920."
Proceedings of the American Philosophical
Society 122 (1978): 182-92.
A study of the Ritualists illustrates the
interaction of new ideas with traditional disci-
plines. Payne provides historical background, a
summary of the Cambridge Ritualists' findings, and
their reception.

61 "The Ritual Question and Modernizing
Society, 1800-1945: A Schema for a History."
Historical Reflections 11 (1984): 403-32.
On the development of the theme of ritual
loss. Places the Ritualists in historical context.

62 Pickard-Cambridge, Arthur W. Dithyramb, Tragedy
and Comedy. Oxford: Clarendon, 1927; 2nd ed.,
rev. by T. B. L. Webster, 1962.
A detailed refutation of the Cambridge
Ritualist's theory of tragedy arising from ritual.
In the revised edition, Murray's theories are
reassessed. Webster suggests the plays of Aris-
tophanes preserve not the ritual "but the ritual
refracted into myths" (p. 193).

The Cambridge Ritualists

63 Pollard, John. Birds in Greek Life and Myth:
Aspects of Greek and Roman Life. London:
Thames, 1977.
Cook and Harrison were among those who
tried to show that birds, particularly the woodpecker
and the cuckoo, were the object of cult in Greece.

64 Ridgeway, William. The Dramas and Dramatic
Dances of Non-European Races in Special Refer-
ence to the Origin of Greek Tragedy, with an
Appendix on the Origin of Greek Comedy. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge UP, 1915.
The nemesis of the Cambridge Ritualists,
Ridgeway criticizes their theories (see especially
pp. 1-64). Comedy was not a development from ritual
but from the lampoon. Tragedy arose in the worship
of the dead.

65 "The Methods of Mannhardt and Frazer as
Illustrated by the Writings of the Mistress of
Girton (Miss Phillpotts, O. B. E.), Miss Jessie
Weston, and Dr. B. Malinowski." Proceedings of
the Cambridge Philological Society 125 (1923):
Ridgeway defends himself against Phillpotts
and Weston, adherents of the Frazer-Harrison-Murray
school. There is no evidence of a god-king put to

66 [The Origin of Greek Tragedy.] Pro-
ceedings of the Classical Association 11 (1914):
Summary of Ridgeway's paper in which he
criticizes the Eniautos Daimon theory of Harrison,
Cornford, and Murray. Uses examples from Non-European
races which favor his theory that drama arose as a
song/dance in honor of the dead.

67 The Origin of Tragedy, with Special Re-
ference to the Greek Tragedians. Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 1910.
Maintains that, contrary to Cornford,
comedy has no ritual basis at all. Disagrees with
the Ritualists' views on the origin of tragedy.

68 [The Origin of the Great Games of Greece.]
"Annual Report of the Council. Session 1910-
1911: General Meetings." Journal of Hellenic
Studies 31 (1911): xlvi-1.
Summary of Ridgeway's paper, theorizing
that the games originated out of the worship of dead
heroes. Ridgeway criticizes the Cambridge Ritualists
for their lack of historical perspective and takes

The Cambridge Ritualists

issue with Harrison on the importance of Zeus'

69 Ross, Charles L. "D. H. Lawrence's Use of Greek
Tragedy: Euripides and Ritual." D. H. Lawrence
Review 10 (1977): 1-19.
Gilbert Murray's translations of Greek
tragedies and Harrison's Themis and Ancient Art and
Ritual were formative influences on Lawrence's work.

70 Russell, Bertrand. The Autobiography of Ber-
trand Russell. 3 vols. London: Allen, 1967-
Offers brief insights into the activities
and personalities of Jane Harrison and Gilbert Murray
during the pre-war years.

71 Segal, Robert A. "The Myth-Ritualist Theory of
Religion." Journal for the Scientific Study of
Religion 19 (1980): 173-85.
Even when false, social scientific theories
of religion are valuable for their suggestiveness.
Compares Harrison's myth-ritual views with those of
Samuel Hooke, Emile Durkheim, Robertson Smith,
Bronislaw Malinowski, E. B. Tylor, A. R. Radcliffe-
Brown, Mary Douglas, and Claude Levi-Strauss.

72 Siebers, Robin. The Mirror of Medusa. Berke-
ley: U of California P, 1983.
Cook and Harrison recognized the relation-
ship between Athena and Medusa, the prophylactic eye
and the evil eye. Harrison identified them as

73 Smith, Carol T. T. S. Eliot's Dramatic Theory
and Practice: From Sweeney Agonistes to The
Elder Statesman. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1963.
Discusses the influence of the Ritualists
(especially Cornford) on Eliot's work.

74 Smith, Morton. "William Robertson Smith."
Paper read at The Cambridge Ritualists: An
International Conference, University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign, 27-29 Apr. 1989.
The ideas of Robertson Smith influenced the
Cambridge Ritualists.

75 Stewart, Jessie. "Memories of the Cambridge
Background." Studies Presented to George
Thomson on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday.
Spec. issue of Acta Universitatis Carolinae
1963: Philosophica et Historica 1, Graecolatina
Pragensia 2. 19-22.

The Cambridge Ritualists

Reminiscence of Cambridge scholars in the
Classics, including Harrison and Cornford. George
Thomson "continued and intensified their profound and
broadening insights."

76 Stocking, George W., ed. "Dr. Durkheim and Mr.
Brown: Comparative Sociology at Cambridge in
1910." Functionalism Historicized: Essays on
British Social Anthropology. Ed. George W.
Stocking. History of Anthropology 2. Madison:
U of Wisconsin P, 1984. 106-30.
In examining the introduction of Durk-
heimian thought into British anthropology, Stocking
finds that Durkheim is not evident in the early works
of the Ritualists. R. R. Marett may have been
responsible for Harrison's use of French sociology
after 1907, and she did hear Radcliffe-Brown's 1910
lectures given at the Archaeological Museum at

77 Turner, Frank M. The Greek Heritage in Vic-
torian Britain. New Haven: Yale UP, 1981.
A study of Victorian commentary on the
Greeks as a means of understanding Victorian intel-
lectual life. The chapter on "Greek Mythology and
Religion" (pp. 77-134) provides an analysis of the
forebears of the Cambridge Group and the latter's own
influence. Discusses Harrison on myth, Murray on

78 Vaio, John. "70 Years Before The Golden Bough:
George Grote's Unpublished Essay on 'Magick.'"
Paper read at The Cambridge Ritualists: An In-
ternational Conference, University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign, 27-29 Apr. 1989.
The essay, written for but not published in
the Encyclopaedia Britannica utilizes a basic con-
ceptual framework similar to that of The Golden

79 Vickers, Brian. Towards Greek Tragedy: Drama,
Myth, Society. London: Longman, 1973.
Examines the evidence for a Dionysian
element in Greek tragedy, and considers the model
advocated by Harrison and Murray, along with its
refutation by Pickard-Cambridge.

80 Vickery, John. "The Golden Bough and Modern
Poetry." Journal of Aesthetics & Art Criticism
15 (1957): 271-88.
Vickery shows how the public in general and
writers in particular were familiar with the Ritual-
ists' works.

The Cambridge Ritualists

81 _. The Literary Impact of The Golden Bough.
Princeton: Princeton UP, 1973.
On Frazer's influence on Harrison, Murray,
and Cornford, and their collective influence on
creative writers.

82 Webb, Clement C. J. Group Theories of Religion
and the Individual. London: Allen, 1916.
A critique of these theories as espoused by
Durkheim, Levy-Bruhl, Harrison, and Cornford.
Particularly vituperative toward Harrison.

83 Webster, T. B. L. "Some Thoughts on the Pre-
History of Greek Drama." Bulletin of the
Institute of Classical Studies 5 (1958): 43-48.
The form and rhythm of tragedy and comedy
are ultimately derived from vegetation ritual, as
Murray suggests. These factors appear most clearly
in stories of a Year God.

84 Weisinger, Herbert. "Between Bennington and
Bloomington." The Agony and the Triumph: Papers
on the Use and Abuse of Myth. East Lansing:
Michigan State UP, 1964. 172-79. Orig. pub.
"The legacy of the Cambridge school has
been more than a legacy of method; it has been an
abiding absorption in the wellsprings and streams of
the Western tradition" (p. 179).

85 "An Examination of the Myth and Ritual
Approaches to Shakespeare." Myth and Myth-
making. Ed. Henry A. Murray. New York:
Braziller, 1960. 132-40.
The Myth-Ritual approach to literature,
first taken by the Cambridge school, has had great
influence. Weisinger discusses some methodological
problems but emphasizes the richness and variety of
the approach.

86 Williams, Raymond. Modern Tragedy. Stanford:
Stanford UP, 1966.
The Ritualists' theories have great appeal
but no factual basis (pp. 42-43).


^-^tl~rSJi .-I 1

Jane Ellen Harrison at Newnham College,
ca. 1905-1910. Photo by Jessie Stewart.
Courtesy of Jean Stewart Pace. Reproduced
by University Library, Cambridge.

I I~

t~':~ .' I ,~
i .' ;

M- 1-,


Severely criticized during her lifetime for
letting "female" traits intrude into her scholarship,
Jane Ellen Harrison nevertheless was a pioneer in her
field, leader of an intellectual movement of contin-
uing influence, the woman who, it was said, "put the
guts back into Greek religion"'l Known for her work
on pre-Olympic religion and on women's roles in
ancient Greece, Harrison was one of the first to
apply anthropological theories to classical studies,
and she led English scholars in the use of artifacts
for the interpretation of culture at a time when most
classicists relied primarily on ancient literature.
Through her work in uncovering the "hidden shapes"
lurking behind ritual and through her examination of
the psychological aspects of languages, Harrison was
a forerunner to modern structuralism, and she antici-
pated Jung's idea of the collective unconscious.

Born in 1850 to a Yorkshire timber merchant,
Harrison faced Victorian obstacles to women's intel-
lectual development. She showed special aptitude for
languages as a child, but her family was critical of
such knowledge in a girl and, throughout her life,
Harrison bemoaned the poor schooling that inade-
quately prepared her for later scholarly work. Her
father first opposed her going to college, but gave
in when she won a scholarship to Newnham College in
1874. As one of the first resident students at the
new women's colleges at Cambridge, Harrison distin-
guished herself, though she only took seconds in the
1879 Classical Tripos. Even so, she was reputed to
have earned the highest place of any woman at that
time at Cambridge. Her hopes for obtaining a posi-
tion at Newnham were lost when the classical lecture-
ship she'd counted on was offered instead to her
friend, Margaret Merrifield (later Mrs. A. W.
Verrall). Though perhaps better qualified, Harrison
may have been considered too flamboyant for the

In 1880, Harrison taught Latin for one term at
an Oxford girls' school, then began studies in Greek
art and archaeology under Charles Newton at the
British Museum. She gave public lectures at the
Museum and at schools in the provinces, and travelled

20 The Cambridge Ritualists

and worked with archaeologist Wilhelm Dorpfeld in
Greece. In 1888 and later in 1896, Harrison applied
unsuccessfully for the Yates Professorship in Archae-
ology at University College, London. A published
interview of the time blamed her failure on the fact
that she was a woman. Finally, in 1898, she was
offered an Associates' Research Fellowship at Newnham
and, when her appointment ended, she was asked to
stay. Harrison remained at Newnham until she retired
in 1920. In 1897, she was given honorary degrees by
the universities of Aberdeen and Durham.

From Newton and Dorpfeld, Harrison learned the
significance of material culture (vases, monuments,
etc.) in the interpretation of Greek culture and so-
ciety, and she applied this knowledge to her studies.
Her first works were outgrowths of her lectures on
Greek art, presented in a framework of philosophical
(94); and a series of articles written for Magazine
of Art (143). In 1887, after severe criticism of her
aesthetic style from D. S. MacColl, an art historian,
she reassessed her work and switched from the study
of art to mythology. Though in love with MacColl,
Harrison realized the strength of his intellectual
hold over her and she rejected his eventual proposal
of marriage.

Her mythological studies were controversial.
She scorned the sterile and lofty Olympian gods and
in her major works, PROLEGOMENA, 1903 (100) and
THEMIS, 1912 (105), focused instead on the vibrant
pre-Olympian spirits and rituals that she perceived
underlying Hellenic religions. PROLEGOMENA marked a
new era in the study of early Greek religion. In it,
Harrison analyzed Athenian festivals for the light
they shed on the chthonic rituals. In THEMIS, a work
inspired by Durkheim, Harrison sought the source of
the religious impulse. She analyzed primitive Greek
religion in terms of its social function, perceiving
the god as a projection of the collective unconscious
of the group. Asserting that the function of ritual
was to ensure the continued existence of the group
and fertility in agriculture and mankind, Harrison
(with James Frazer) saw the god as a vegetation
spirit, a year spirit that suffers, dies, and is
reborn. Harrison coined a new phrase for this god,
Eniautos Daimon, and perceived the type in numerous
manifestations (Dionysus, Bacchus, etc.) In the 1912
ANCIENT ART AND RITUAL (89), Harrison again focused
on the origin of the religious impulse, and found it
to be the same as the artistic impulse. Art and rit-
ual are both the acting out, or dromenon, of this im-

Jane Ellen Harrison

pulse; in effect, art and religion fulfill the same

Though not an activist, Harrison campaigned for
the granting of university degrees to women, and her
obituary in the Annual of the British School at
Athens notes her support of women students. She
wrote "HOMO SUM" (93), a pamphlet advocating votes
for women and she marched at the head of the 1911
Suffrage Procession in London. She also contributed
an article to the special Women's Issues supplement
edited by Beatrice Webb for the 1913 New Statesman,
entitled "Scientiae Sacra Fames" or "Woman and Know-
ledge" (221). Harrison used her studies to elucidate
the role which women played in society, particularly
in religion, and she championed the unpopular view
that pre-Hellenic society was based on a matriarchy.
This view is expounded in her major works Prolegomena
and Themis as well as in such articles as "Pandora's
Box" (188), "Sculptured Tombs of Hellas" (209),
"Kouretes and Korybantes" (160), and "Mountain-
Mother" (169). This search was met with severe
criticism from male colleagues, who doubted the
importance of women's roles in ancient Greek society.
Harrison's interest in women's activities also led to
significant studies on the ritual functions of the
winnowing basket--"Mystica Vannus Iacchi" (170);
"Note on the Mystica Vannus Iacchi" (180); "Athene
Ergane" (117).

Her "feminist" views, though mild by today's
standards, and the fact that she was a woman in a
field dominated by men, made her many enemies among
classical scholars. Discouraged by the critical and
personal attacks, Harrison turned late in life to her
first love, languages, and it was said that she even-
tually knew sixteen languages. Her works on the
Russian language--RUSSIA AND THE RUSSIAN VERB, 1915
1919 (90)--theorize that language is a key to a
people's psychology.

Harrison never married, though she was engaged
to the Cambridge philologist R. A. Neil before his
sudden death from appendicitis in 1901. In her later
years, she relied on former students as companions,
first Jessie Stewart and then Hope Mirrlees, a novel-
ist who stayed with Harrison for twenty years. When
she retired from Newnham in 1920, Harrison moved with
Mirrlees to Paris. There she wrote her autobiog-
raphy, which was published by Hogarth Press--
following year, Harrison returned to London, where
she died of leukemia. Harrison had burned her papers

The Cambridge Ritualists

before leaving for Paris, but Gilbert Murray donated
his collection of over 800 letters from Harrison to
the Newnham College Library.

Research on Harrison

Contemporary reviews of Harrison's works reveal
the attitudes and prejudices of her critics. William
Ridgeway (64-68) and Lewis Farnell (303, 304) were
perhaps her most vehement critics. A recent hostile
critic is Joseph Fontenrose (306). More sympathetic
or respectful views of Harrison's scholarship are ex-
pressed in the works of Robert Ackerman (15-19, 285)
and Frank Turner (77). Park McGinty (333) has of-
fered an insightful study of her interpretation of
Dionysus. The literary critic Stanley Edgar Hyman
(41-44, 318) considered THEMIS the most influential
book of the twentieth century. Recent works that exa-
mine Harrison's influence on Virginia Woolf include
those by Finkel (305), Little (332), Maika (334),
Marcus (336-342), Moore (349), Robinson (368), and
Shattuck (372).

Both Francis Cornford (322, 393) and Gilbert
Murray (350, 351) recorded their memories of Har-
rison. Jessie Stewart's 1959 biography (376) is
based on recollections and on the letters Murray
saved. A biography by Sandra Peacock (361) was
published in 1988. Another is in process: Annabel
Robinson is writing a biography of Harrison that will
analyze her scholarly works. Renate Schlesier wrote
the Harrison entry for the Encyclopedia of Classical
Scholars (402).


1. The Times Literary Supplement 24 July 1959: 432.
2. Women's Penny Paper 24 Aug. 1889: 1.
3. Annual of the British School at Athens 29 (1927-
1928): 313.

Jane Ellen Harrison


87 The Agora of Ancient Athens. Agora Series 1.
London: Allenson, [1905].
Pamphlet, an excerpt from Mythology and
Monuments (108). The agora evolved from marketplace
to place of law and religion.

88 Alpha and Omega. London: Sidgwick, 1915. New
York: AMS, 1973.
A collection of essays and lectures,
largely autobiographical, ranging in subject from
primitive magic to post-Impressionism, and written
primarily from 1909 to 1914. Several address the
issues of intellect versus emotion, individualism vs.
Contents: Crabbed Age and Youth, 1-26.
Heresy and Humanity, 27-41.
Unanimism and Conversion, 42-79.
'Homo Sum,' 80-115.
Scientiae Sacra Fames, 116-42.
The Influence of Darwinism on the Study of
Religions, 143-78.
Alpha and Omega, 179-208.
Art and Mr. Clive Bell, 209-20.
Epilogue on the War: Peace with Patriotism,
Athenaeum 5 June 1915: 500.
Cambridge Review 2 June 1915: 366.
New Statesman 1 May 1915: 92.
Oxford Magazine 19 Nov. 1915: 76-77.
Saturday Review 15 May 1915: 507-08.
Spectator 5 June 1915: 780-81.
The Times Literary Supplement 29 Apr. 1915:

89 Ancient Art and Ritual. Home University Library
of Modern Knowledge 70 [75]. London: Williams,
[1913]; [1914]; 1918. New York: Holt, [1913].
London: Oxford UP, 1913. London/New York: Ox-
ford UP, 1918; [1947]; 1948; [1951]. London:
Butterworth, 1918; 1927; rev. ed., [1935]. New
York: Greenwood, [1969]. Bradford-on-Avon:
Moonraker, 1978.
A popular work on the origin of ancient
Greek drama in primitive ritual. Harrison theorizes
that art and ritual emerge from the same impulse;
the collective action of ritual gives way to art in
which the individual becomes spectator rather than
participant. The final chapter discusses theories
and functions of art. Listed as one of the Hundred
Best Books of 1913 by the New York Times.

The Cambridge Ritualists

Athenaeum 2 Aug. 1913: 116.
Bookman (L) 45 (1913): supp. 40.
C[romer, Evelyn Baring]. Spectator 9 Aug.
1913: 212-13. Rpt. in his Political
and Literary Essays. 1st ser.
London: Macmillan, 1913. 361-71.
De Bary, R. Church Quarterly Review 77
(1914): 357-88.
Hadzsits, George Depue. Classical Weekly 5
Mar. 1917: 142-43.
Nation (NY) 20 Nov. 1913: 486.
New Statesman 30 Aug. 1913: 666-67.
New York Times Book Review 30 Nov. 1913:

1978 edition:
Worth, Katharine. Drama 132 (1979): 83.
SEE ALSO: 334, 372

90 Aspects, Aorists and the Classical Tripos. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge UP, 1919. Rev. version pub.
as "L'imperfectif dans la langue et la littera-
ture." Trans. Jacques Heurgon. L'Art et la
pensee. Spec. issue of Journal de Psychologie
Normale et Pathologique 26 (1926): 133-47. Pre-
vious ed. pub. as Russia and the Russian Verb,
On the psychological significance of the
Russian aspects. Of the two chief aspects of the
Russian language, the imperfective dominates Russian
language and literature and expresses the Russian
soul while the perfective is cold and intellectual.
Modern man is fed up with abstractions and desires
this concreteness of a life lived whole and unana-
lyzed. This is an expanded version of a discussion
originally presented in Russia and the Russian Verb
M[urray], J[ohn] M[iddleton]. Athenaeum 19
Dec. 1919: 1370.
Shorey, Paul. Classical Philology 15
(1920): 302.
Storr-Best, Lloyd. Classical Review 34
(1920): 113-14.

91 Epilegomena to the Study of Greek Religion.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1921. Facs. ed., Books
on Demand. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1977. Rpt. with
Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek
Religion. New Hyde Park, NY: University Books,
A summary of Harrison's views on philos-
ophy, religion, and psychology. Influenced by

Jane Ellen Harrison

Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Vladimir Soloviov.
Preface by John C. Wilson (386).
B., J. Cambridge Review 10 Feb. 1922: 219.
Hewitt, Joseph William. Classical Weekly
12 Nov. 1923: 47-48.
Journal of Hellenic Studies 41 (1921): 279.
Leeuw, G. van der. Nieuwe Theologische
Studien ns 4 (1921): 252-54.
Notes and Queries 13 Aug. 1921: 139-40.
Pickard-Cambridge, Arthur W. Classical
Review 36 (1922): 140.

1962 edition:
James, E. O. Folk-Lore 74 (1963): 351-52.
Lagage, F. Les Etudes Classiques 31
(1963): 115-16.
Verdenius, W. J. Mnemosyne 16 (1963): 434-
Vian, Francis. Revue des Etudes Anciennes
65 (1963): 170-72.

92 Heresy and Humanity. London: Watts, 1911. Rpt.
in Alpha and Omega. 27-41. Rpt. in Classics in
Sociology: A Course of Selected Reading by
Authorities. New York: Philosophical Lib.,
1960. 119-28.
Address before the Heretics Society, Cam-
bridge, 7 Dec. 1909. When and why does personal
choice in thought and act become dangerous and when
desirable? In a primitive society bound by tradi-
tion, personal choice is impossible; such a society
defends the collective and is repressive of the indi-
vidual. Individualism and the division of labor
break hold of tradition. Science and humanity
(sympathy with individual differences) have made
heresy acceptable, and modern man has the freedom to
experiment and change his mind. Criticized by Edward
Selwyn in his Tradition and Reason (370). The con-
troversy is noted in Cambridge Review 25 May 1911:

93 "Homo Sum," Being a Letter to an Anti-Suffragist
from an Anthropologist. Oxford: Blackwell,
[1909?]. London: Watts, 1911. New York:
National College Equal Suffrage League, [1912].
London: National Union of Women's Suffragist
Societies, [1913]. Rpt. in Alpha and Omega.
80-115. Microfilm ed., History of Women 9056.
Woodbridge, CN: Research Pub., [1977].
Harrison explains why she now wants the
vote, having denied it 10-20 years ago. The vote is
neither unwomanly nor unmanly, but is vital to

The Cambridge Ritualists


94 Introductory Studies in Greek Art. London:
Unwin, 1885; 2nd ed, 1892; 3rd ed., 1894; 4th
ed., 1897; 5th ed., 1902. New York: Macmillan,
1892; 1902.
Harrison's lectures at the British Museum
were the source for this work in which she discusses
the development and decline of Greek art. According
to the idealized view, Greek art has moral and intel-
lectual qualities. Harrison contrasts Greek art with
Egyptian, Chaldaeo-Assyrian, and Phoenician art, and
distinguishes between decorative and expressive art.
Athenaeum 19 Dec. 1885: 812-13.
B., L. A. Oxford Magazine 25 Nov. 1885:
Contemporary Review 49 (1886): 151-52.
Murray, A. S. Academy 13 Feb. 1886: 116.
New York Times 18 Jan. 1886: 3.
Notes and Queries 21 Nov. 1885: 420.
Saturday Review 27 Feb. 1886: 311.

1892 edition:
Cambridge Review 4 Feb. 1892: 187.
D'Ooge, Martin L. Dial 12 (1892): 392.
Nation (NY) 31 Mar. 1892: 248.
Oxford Magazine 30 Nov. 1892: 139-40.

95 Mythology. Our Debt to Greece and Rome 26.
London: Harrap; New York: Longmans, 1924.
Boston: Marshall Jones, [1924]. Illus. ed. New
York: Harcourt, 1963. New York: Cooper Square,
1963. Microfiche of Harcourt ed. Washington,
DC: Microcard, 1972. Facs. ed. of Marshall ed.,
Books on Demand. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1977.
Rev. ed., pub. as Myths of Greece and Rome,
1927. Prev. ed. pub. as The Religion of Ancient
Greece, 1905.
Intended for a popular audience in a series
designed to revive interest in classical culture.
Harrison traces the development of several gods from
primitive spirit to anthropomorphized divinity. A
major contribution of the Greeks to religion is the
expulsion of fear from religion.
Brooke, Dorothy. Classical Review 40
(1926): 19-20.
Davis, Elmer. New York Times Book Review
24 May 1925: 21.
Lecrivain, Ch. Revue Historique 154
(1927): 268-69.
New Statesman 11 July 1925: 376-78.
Nock, A[rthur] D. Journal of Roman Studies
14 (1924): 264.

Jane Ellen Harrison

Oxford Magazine 19 Feb. 1925: 308.
Reiss, Ernst. Classical Weekly 22 Mar.
1926: 153-56.
R[ose], H. J. Journal of Hellenic Studies
45 (1925): 141.
Folk-Lore 36 (1925): 403.
Studies in Philology 22 (1925): 557.
SEE ALSO: 96, 102

96 Myths of Greece and Rome. Benn's Sixpenny
Library 59. London: Benn, [1927]; [1928];
[1933]. The Little Books of Modern Knowledge.
Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1928. Folcroft, PA:
Folcroft, 1976. Norwood, PA: Norwood, 1977.
Philadelphia: West, 1978. Darby, PA: Arden,
1984. Previous eds. pub. as The Religion of
Ancient Greece, 1905; Mythology, 1924.
SEE ALSO: 95, 102

97 Myths of the Odyssey in Art and Literature.
London: Rivingtons, 1882. New Rochelle, NY:
Caratzas, [1980].
Harrison's first book analyzes six Homeric
myths of the Cyclops, Laestrygones, Circe, the De-
scent into Hades, the Sirens, and Scylla and Charib-
dis. She praises Hellenic art for its idealism.
Athenaeum 21 Jan. 1882: 87.
Cambridge Review 9 Nov. 1881: 64.
Notes and Queries 5 Nov. 1881: 379.

98 Peace with Patriotism. Cambridge: Deighton,
1915. Rpt. as "Epilogue on the War: Peace with
Patriotism." Alpha and Omega. 221-59.
Discussion of the meaning and function of
patriotism and its excesses in war which upset values
and devalue learning. Mankind must foster tolerance
and cooperation. Harrison wrote this after the Scar-
borough air raid, 4 Aug. 1914.

99 Primitive Athens as Described by Thucydides.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1906. Ancient Religion
and Mythology Series. Chicago: Ares, 1976.
Microfiche ed. Washington, DC: Microcard, 1970.
Facs. ed., Books on Demand. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI,
1977. Summary in American Journal of Archae-
ology 10 (1906): 457. Noted in Cambridge Review
15 Feb. 1906: 234.
Dedicated to Wilhelm Dorpfeld, the work is
a detailed commentary on Thucydides' (ii.15) account
of the city and its limits, using Dorpfeld's archaeo-
logical findings and interpretations. It became a
popular guidebook. Gilbert Murray provided a "Criti-
cal Note," p. 159 (572).

28 The Cambridge Ritualists

Academy 2 June 1906: 526.
American Historical Review 11 (1906): 729.
Athenaeum 27 Oct. 1906: 521.
Bosanquet, R. C. Quarterly Review 208
(1908): 252-71.
Dial 1 Mar 1908: 135-36.
Gardner, Ernest A. Classical Review 21
(1907): 114-16.
Gerland, E. Berliner Philologische
Wochenschrift 30 Mar. 1907: 385-87.
Hastings, Harold R. Classical Weekly 21
Nov. 1908: 52-53.
Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte der
Klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 138
(1908): 131-32.
Journal of Hellenic Studies 26 (1906): 293.
Judeich, W. Wochenschrift fur Klassische
Philologie 13 Feb. 1907: 173-74.
Luckenbach, H. Neue Philologische
Rundschau 9 (1908): 203-05.
My. Revue Critique 23 (1907): 444.
Nation (NY) 21 June 1906: 511-12; 7 May
1908: 423.
Oxford Magazine 13 Feb. 1907: 212.
Saturday Review 22 Sept. 1906: 367.

100 Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1903; 2nd ed., 1908;
3rd ed., 1922; New York: Meridian, 1955; 1957;
[1959]; [1960]; [1966]. Cleveland: World, 1959;
1966. London: Merlin, 1961; 1962; 1980. New
York: Arno, 1975. Whitstable, Kent: Whitstable,
One of Harrison's major works, this is a
survey of ancient Greek festivals. The two strata of
Greek religion, primitive chthonic and Olympian, re-
flect, respectively, a matriarchal and patriarchal
social structure. Harrison's thesis is that official
Olympic cults were superimposed on the native cults.
Gilbert Murray contributed a "Critical Appendix on
the Orphic Tablets," pp. 659-73 (571).
Athenaeum 27 Feb. 1904: 278.
Bookman (L) 26 (1904): 215.
Cambridge Review 10 March 1904: 245.
Expository Times 15 (1903-1904): 347.
Farnell, Lewis R. Hibbert Journal 2 (1903-
1904): 821-27.
SYear's Work in Classical Studies 1
(1906): 46; 3 (1908): 70.
H[ubert], H. L'Annee Sociologique 8 (1903-
1904): 270-76.
Journal of Hellenic Studies 24 (1904): 174.

Jane Ellen Harrison

Murray, Gilbert. Speaker 27 Feb. 1904:
Nation (NY) 2 June 1904: 434-36.
Rouse, W. H. D. Classical Review 18
(1904): 465-70.
Spectator 9 Apr. 1904: 570-71.
Steuding, H. Wochenschrift fur Klassische
Philologie 23 Nov. 1904: 1273-76.
The Times Literary Supplement 26 Feb. 1904:
Wide, Sam. Berliner Philologische
Wochenschrift 8 July 1905: 869-74.

1955 edition:
Herbert, Kevin. Classical Bulletin 34
(1958): 39-41, 44.
SEE ALSO: 105, 386

101 Rationalism and Religious Reaction. Conway
Memorial Lectures. London: Watts, 1919.
Delivered at South Place Institute, 6 Mar.
1919, Gilbert Murray in the Chair. The old ration-
alist guiding principle is giving way to a religious
one. The new religious mysticism resents abstrac-
tions and is aware of the unity of things, yet the
two forces (rationalist and religious) are united in
the spirit of man.
Athenaeum 25 Apr. 1919: 250; 20 June 1919:
New Statesman 9 Aug. 1919: 478.

102 The Religion of Ancient Greece. Religions,
Ancient and Modern. London: Constable, 1905;
1913; 1921. Chicago: Open Court, [1907;]
[1908]. Rev. ed., enl., pub. as Mythology,
1925. Rev. ed., pub. as Myths of Greece and
Rome, 1927.
Neither survey nor handbook but an "inquiry
into the nature of Greek religion," its origins and
characteristics. Poetry and philosophy (beauty and
reason) transformed the baser parts of Greek religion
into something fine. Emphasizes the importance of
studying ritual as well as mythology, pre-Homeric
religion, and using historical as well as comparative
SEE ALSO: 95, 96

103 Reminiscences of a Student's Life. London:
Hogarth, 1925; 1926. Rpt. in Arion 4 (1965):
312-46. Excerpt pub. as "Reminiscences of a
Student's Life, I: Yorkshire Days." Nation &
the Athenaeum 29 Nov. 1924: 326-27; "II: Cam-
bridge and London," 13 Dec. 1924: 410-11; "III:
Greece and Russia," 27 Dec. 1924: 468-70.

The Cambridge Ritualists

An autobiography written while Harrison was
living in Paris, four years before her death. Orig-
inal edition contains six photographs.
G., E. Cambridge Review 19 Feb. 1926: 269.
New Statesman 2 Jan. 1926: 361.
The Times Literary Supplement 12 Nov. 1925:

104 Russia and the Russian Verb: A Contribution to
the Psychology of the Russian People. Cam-
bridge: Heffer, 1915. Noted in Cambridge Review
3 Nov. 1915: 67. Rev. ed., pub. as Aspects,
Aorists and the Classical Tripos, 1919.
Paper read to the Cambridge Society of
Heretics, 17 Oct. 1915. The aspects are a clue to
the human soul. "A people's philosophy of life is
... always to be found in its language ... [and]
expressed unconsciously" (p. 5). The imperfective
feeds man spiritually and emotionally. The Russian
hungers for duree, hence the objectivity of a Russian
Forbes, Nevill. Oxford Magazine 4 Feb.
1916: 167.
New Statesman 11 Dec. 1915: 234-36.

105 Themis: A Study of the Social Origins of Greek
Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1912; 2nd
rev, ed., 1927. Cleveland: World, 1927; [1962];
1969; 1972. London: Merlin, 1963. Gloucester,
PA: Smith, 1974. New ed., pub. with Epilegomena
to the Study of Greek Religion. New York: Uni-
versity Books, [1962]. Microfiche ed. Washing-
ton, DC: NCR Microcard, 1972.
The culmination of Harrison's thought and
Cambridge Ritualist theory. Influenced by Levy
Bruhl, Henri Bergson, and Emile Durkheim, Harrison
revises some views of her Prolegomena. The Hymn of
the Kouretes reveals the importance of the boy-god
cult and tribal initiation. Religion is the result
of collective thinking, and the boy-god is the pro-
jection of the matrilinear social group. This daimon
who continually dies and is reborn ensures the con-
tinuous existence of the group. Francis Cornford
contributed a chapter on "The Origin of the Olympic
Games," pp. 212-59 (1794), and Gilbert Murray,
"Excursus on the Ritual Forms Preserved in Greek
Tragedy," pp. 341-69 (609). The Introduction to the
second edition was the last thing Harrison wrote.
Preface to the 1962 edition was written by John C.
Wilson (386).

Jane Ellen Harrison 31

Athenaeum 16 Mar. 1912: 317-18.
Barret, LeRoy Carr. Classical Journal 8
(1912-1913): 121-23.
Cambridge Review 9 May 1912: 427-28.
Crooke, W. Folk-Lore 23 (1912): 394-96.
D[avid], M. L'Annee Sociologique 12 (1909-
1912): 254-60.
De Bary, R. Church Quarterly Review 77
(1914): 357-88.
Expository Times 23 (1911-1912): 529-31.
Farnell, L[ewis] R. Hibbert Journal 11
(1912-1913): 453-58.
Year's Work in Classical Studies 7
(1912): 59-63.
Gruppe, O[tto]. Berliner Philologische
Wochenschrift 5 Apr. 1913: 429-42.
Hewitt, Joseph William. Classical Weekly
10 Jan. 1913: 86-88.
Hutchinson, W. M. L. Classical Review 27
(1913): 132-34.
Journal of Hellenic Studies 32 (1912): 397-
Moore, Clifford H. Classical Philology 7
(1912): 359-63.
Nation (NY) 27 Mar. 1913: 309-10.
New York Times Book Review 12 May 1912:
Oxford and Cambridge Review 19 (1912): 188-
Oxford Magazine 28 Nov. 1912: 116-17.
Reinach, Adolphe. Revue de 1'Histoire des
Religions 69 (1914): 323-71. (SEE:
R[einach], S. Revue Archeologique 4th ser.
21 (1913): 442.
Saturday Review 4 May 1912: 558-59.
Spectator 27 Apr. 1912: 678-79.
Tukey, Ralph Hermon. American Journal of
Theology 18 (1914): 296-99.
The Times Literary Supplement 21 Mar. 1912:

1927 edition:
Bonner, Campbell. Classical Journal 23
(1927): 154-55.
Nilsson, Martin P. Gnomon 4 (1928): 456.
Picard, Charles. Revue des Etudes Grecques
42 (1929): 352-54.
Pickard-Cambridge, A. W. Classical Review
41 (1927): 146.
R[ose], H. J. Journal of Hellenic Studies
47 (1927): 272-73.
SYear's Work in Classical Studies 20
(1926-1927): 50-51.

The Cambridge Ritualists

Weinreich, Otto. Philologische
Wochenschrift 27 Sept. 1930: 1184-86.

1962 edition:
James, E. O. Folk-Lore 74 (1963): 351-52.
Lagage, F. Les Etudes Classiques 31
(1963): 115-16.
Verdenius, W. J. Mnemosyne 16 (1963): 434-
Vian, Francis. Revue des Etudes Anciennes
65 (1963): 170-72.
SEE ALSO: 306, 318, 333, 365, 368, 386

106 Unanimism: A Study of Conversion and Some Con-
temporary French Poets. Cambridge: Heretics,
1913. Rpt. as "Unanimism and Conversion."
Alpha and Omega. 42-79.
Paper read before the Society of Heretics,
25 Nov. 1912. Unanimism, the unity of the spirit,
affirms life and the movement is a reaction against
aestheticism and individualism. The poets Rene Arcos
and Jules Romains were influenced by Henri Bergson
and Emile Durkheim, respectively. Harrison advocates
dropping theology and keeping conversion, the mys-
tical state, that new birth or initiation that comes
on the heels of a crisis. Lines by Vildrac are
translated by Gilbert Murray.


107 Harrison, Jane Ellen, and D. S. MacColl. Greek
Vase Paintings. London: Unwin, 1894.
Plates and commentary on a selection of
vases chosen for their beauty rather than for their
archaeological or mythical value, mainly from the
period of the red-figured vases (circa 550 B. C. to
450 B. C.) Harrison provides an "Introductory His-
torical Note" (pp. 9-32) to the plates, giving the
methods and mannerisms of the artists, main forms and
uses, how dated, and artists who worked within tradi-
tional art types. She discusses the depiction of the
myths, maintaining that the artists worked from a
non-literary tradition, imposing their own sense of
harmony and grace. 42 plates.
Athenaeum 20 Oct. 1894: 533-35.
Illustrated London News 28 July 1894: 118.
Nation (NY) 24 May 1894: 394-95.
Spectator 7 Apr. 1894: 468-70.

Jane Ellen Harrison

Stevenson, R. A. M. Art Journal ns 57
(1894): 208-09.

108 Harrison, Jane Ellen, and Margaret de G.
Verrall. Mythology and Monuments of Ancient
Athens: Being a Translation of a Portion of the
'Attica' of Pausanias. London: Macmillan, 1890;
1894. Excerpt pub. as The Agora of Ancient
Athens. Agora Series 1. London: Allenson,
Harrison provides an introductory essay on
the major Attic legends to Verrall's translation of
selected chapters by Pausanias. It is based on
Dorpfeld's work and the literary, epigraphical, and
monumental evidence, and it foreshadows the concerns
of the Cambridge Ritualists. A popular work, it
gained Harrison a reputation among archaeologists.
Athenaeum 2 Aug. 1890: 166-67.
Atlantic Monthly 66 (1890): 839-44.
C[ook], A. B. Cambridge Review 5 June
1890: 379-80.
Critic 12 July 1890: 14.
[Gardner, Percy.] Quarterly Review 171
(1890): 122-49.
Nation (NY) 17 July 1890: 55-56.
R. Oxford Magazine 18 June 1890: 393-94.
Revue des Etudes Grecques 4 (1891): 410-11.
R[ichards], G. C. Journal of Hellenic
Studies 11 (1890): 218-20.
Speaker 23 Aug. 1890: 218-20.
Spectator 17 May 1890: 697-98.
Tarbell, F. B. Classical Review 4 (1890):
430-32. Excerpt pub. in American
Journal of Archaeology 7 (1892): 72-


109 Manual of Ancient Sculpture. By Pierre Paris.
Enl. ed., ed. and trans. Jane Ellen Harrison.
London: Grevel; Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1890.
New Rochelle, NY: Caratzas, 1984.
A critical survey of masterpieces of sculp-
ture from Egypt, the Asiatic East, Greece, and Italy,
intended for the student rather than the archaeol-
ogist. Harrison points out that the questions of
taste addressed are the opinions of the author and
not the translator.

The Cambridge Ritualists

Art Journal ns 53 (1890): 96.

110 Manual of Mythology in Relation to Greek Art.
By Maxime Collignon. Enl. ed., trans. Jane E.
Harrison. London: Grevel, 1890; 1894; 2nd ed.,
1899. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1890. New
Rochelle, NY: Caratzas, 1982.
Translation of Collignon's Mythologie
figure de la Grece, 1883, a study of mythography,
the evolution of mythological types in art. Harrison
made additions and corrections to the text based on
more recent archaeological discoveries.


111 Harrison, Jane Ellen, and Hope Mirrlees, trans.
The Book of the Bear: Being Twenty-One Tales
Newly Translated from the Russian. London:
Nonesuch, 1926. Preface, vii-xii.
Folk tales and stories told by Remizov,
Tolstoy, Krylov, Pushkin, and others. Harrison felt
a special relationship to bears, calling them her
totem animal, and this work is a tribute to them.
The Times Literary Supplement 30 Dec. 1926:

112 Harrison, Jane Ellen and Hope Mirrlees, trans.
The Life of the Archpriest Avvakum, By Himself.
By Protopope Avvakum. London: Hogarth, 1924;
1963. Hamden, CN: Archon, 1963.
Translated from the 17th century Russian.
A largely propagandistic declaration of faith from
the Russian religious fanatic Avvakum, one of the
founders of Russian Non-conformity who refused to
accept National Church reforms, identifying them with
the rule of the Anti-Christ, and who was executed in
1681. As an original stylist writing in colloquial
language, Avvakum's work has literary, religious, and
historical significance. D. S. Mirsky, a Russian
aristocrat who left Russia after the revolution, a
suitor to Jane in Paris and London, provides a
The Times Literary Supplement 27 Nov. 1924:

Jane Ellen Harrison

Includes fly-sheets related to lectures. For
full bibliographic information for chapters in Alpha
and Omega, refer also to entry no. 88 in BOOKS AND
PAMPHLETS section.

113 "Aegis--AGRENON." Bulletin de Correspondance
Hellenique 24 (1900): 284. Summary in American
Journal of Archaeology 5 (1901): 476. Noted in
Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte der Klas-
sischen Altertumswissenschaft 140 (1908): 36-37.
Noted in Journal of Hellenic Studies 20 (1900):
Paper originally delivered 5 May 1900,
Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, ren-
dered here in French. Supplements her earlier dis-
cussion of the omphalos in "Delphika" (130). The
omphalos at Delphi was treated as a child clad in a
goat-skin, later in knitted wool. The gorgoneion is
the goat's head, worn with the skin. Once prophy-
lactic masks, they became eagles which are frequently
represented on the sides of the omphalos.

114 "Alpha and Omega." Alpha and Omega. 179-208.
A paper delivered to the Sunday Essay So-
ciety, Trinity College, Cambridge. Examines the de-
velopment of magic, ritual, and theology.

"Archaeological Notes and News."
SEE: 175

115 "Archaeology in Greece, 1887-88." Journal of
Hellenic Studies 9 (1888): 118-33; summary,
xliv. Summary rpt. in Academy 30 June 1888:
452; Athenaeum 30 June 1888: 830.
Paper read 21 June, 1888, Annual Meeting of
the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies.
Surveys current excavations, discoveries, museum
building, arrangement and exhibition, excluding the
work of the British School in Cyprus.

116 "Art and Mr. Clive Bell." Alpha and Omega.
Harrison agrees with many of Bell's views
in his 1914 work, Art, but she disagrees with his
idea that art is the creation of significant form and
that the representative element in art is irrelevant.

117 "Athene Ergane." Classical Review 8 (1894):

The Cambridge Ritualists

Investigates the use of winnowing baskets
(fertility symbols) at the festival honoring Athene
the craftswoman. Determines that the goddess' func-
tion evolved from that of the tilled ground to god-
dess of the needle and loom, chisel and hammer as her
worshippers changed from rural laborers to city
craftsmen and artists.

118 Athens: Its Mythology and Art. University
Extension Study. s. 1.: s. n., 1890.
Fly-sheet noting a series of ten lectures
by Harrison, beginning 24 Jan. 1890, Chelsea Town
Hall and South Kensington Museum.

119 "Bird and Pillar Worship in Connexion with
Ouranian Divinities." Transactions of the Third
International Congress for the History of Reli-
gions 2 (1908): 154-64. Summary in "The Con-
gress for the History of Religions." The Times
17 Sept. 1908: 9.
Held at Oxford, 15-18 Sept. 1908. The an-
thropomorphic system of Hellenism was preceded by a
cult of birds associated with the cult of the pillar.
The bird brooding on a pillar signifies the marriage
of sky the father with earth the mother from which
came man. Harrison was too ill to attend the con-
ference, so A. B. Cook read her paper, which Farnell
criticized (304). The summary in The Times notes a
comment by Robert Eisler.

120 "The Central Group of the East Frieze of the
Parthenon: Peplos or STROMNE?" Classical
Review 9 (1895): 427-28.
Etymological investigation of the evolution
of the carpet/couch. The primitive leaf-strewn car-
pet retained a traditional usage in ritual long after
the raised couch was used in everyday life. Rejoin-
der to Furtwangler (307).

121 "The Central Slab of the E. Parthenon Frieze."
Classical Review 3 (1889): 378.
Archaeological note on the priestess and
her two attendants and a religious ritual.

122 [The Coming of Bacchus and the Mysteries.]
Noted in Cambridge Review 14 Nov. 1901: 66.
The second part of the series of lectures
on "Primitive Greek Ritual and Mythology" (201) to be
given next term.

"The Congress for the History of Religions."
SEE: 119

123 [The Constant Linking Together in Greek Art,
Literature, and Cultus of Ares, the God of War,

Jane Ellen Harrison

and Aphrodite, the Goddess of Love.] Noted in
Record of Events. Englishwoman's Review 15 Jan.
1892: 46.
Harrison's lecture given 7 Nov. 1891, South
Kensington Museum, the first of three lectures.

124 "Crabbed Age and Youth." Alpha and Omega. 1-
Paper read to the Trinity College Sunday
Essay Society, Cambridge, 1914. A response to Rupert
Brooke's comment that "No one over thirty is worth
speaking to." Harrison sees youth as egotistic, ra-
tionalistic, individualistic, and old age as tradi-
tional, emotional, altruistic.

125 [The Cults, Mythology, and Topography of Primi-
tive Athens (in special relation to Thucydides
ii. 15).] Noted in University Intelligence.
Cambridge Review 18 Jan. 1900: 149.
Harrison is to give a series of lectures on
these topics beginning 19 Jan. 1900.

126 [The Danaides.] Summary in "Session 1896-1897."
Journal of Hellenic Studies 17 (1897): xxxiv-
xxxv. Summary rpt. in Athenaeum 17 Apr. 1897:
513. Summary in American Journal of Archaeology
1 (1897): 419-20.
Harrison's paper, read to the Society for
the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, 12 Apr. 1897. The
Danaid myth has been misunderstood. Water-carrying
is the well-nymphs' function, not a punishment, and
they perform this function in Hades as well as in the
upperworld. The denizens of Hades, other than the
Olympian gods, are of Pelasgian origin.

127 "The Dawn of Greece." Quarterly Review 194
(1901): 218-43.
In this unsigned review essay, Harrison
assesses the significance of the archaeological find-
ings from 1873 to 1901 on classical studies. During
this time, classics began to pay more attention to
monumental evidence, and the Homeric question gave
way to the larger issues of the Mycenaean question.
Harrison surveys contemporary theories with particu-
lar attention to those of William Ridgeway.
Works considered:
Ridgeway, William. The Early Age of
Hogarth, D. G., ed. Authority and
Archaeology, Sacred and Profane.
Myres, J. L. Prehistoric Man in the
Eastern Mediterranean.
Hogarth, D. G. and P. B. Welch. "Primitive
Painted Pottery in Crete."

The Cambridge Ritualists

Evans, A. J., D. G. Hogarth, and P. B.
Welch. "Knosses."
Evans, A. J. The Palace of Knosses in Its
Egyptian Relations.
Hall, H. R. The Oldest Civilisation of
Homer. The Iliad. Ed. Walter Leaf. 2nd

128 "Death and the Underworld." Magazine of Art 6
(1883): 366-71; 464-68.
Parts IV and V of the series, "Greek Myths
in Greek Art" (143). Stressing the need to use pri-
mary sources, Harrison examines the art of Greek
funeral monuments to determine the Hellenic attitude
toward death. Greek thought lacks the moral sanc-
tions of reward and punishment.

129 [Delphi.] Summary in "Miss Harrison on Delphi."
The Times 4 Mar. 1898: 3; 10 Mar. 1898: 6; 19
Mar. 1898: 6; 26 Mar. 1898: 3. Noted in "Miss
Jane Harrison's Lectures on Delphi." English-
woman's Review 15 Apr. 1898: 122-23. Rpt. of
lectures noted in Delphi. s. 1.: s. n., [1898].
Summaries of Harrison's lectures on the
Religion of Delphi, given March 1898, at the Passmore
Edwards Institute in Bloomsbury, specifically her
study of the evolution of society from a matriarchy
to a patriarchy, and matriarchy's reassertion in
religious ideas. Notes her comments on the omphalos,
the coming of Dionysus, and the matriarchal revival
symbolized by the E at Delphi. The fly-sheet notes
the lectures were also given at the Archaeological
Museum, Fitzwilliam Museum, 11 Nov. 1898 to 14 Feb.

130 "Delphika: (A) The Erinyes. (B) The Omphalos."
Journal of Hellenic Studies 19 (1899): 205-51.
Summary in American Journal of Archaeology 4
(1900): 361. Noted in Jahresbericht uber die
Fortschritte der Klassischen Altertumswissen-
schaft 140 (1908): 36-37.
Mythological investigations should begin
with cult and end with literary crystallizationss."
Harrison discusses the origin and evolution of the
snake goddess cult (Erinyes/ancestral ghosts) and its
sanctuary (omphalos/grave), then turns to the liter-
ary evidence in the Choephoroi and Eumenides of
Aeschylus. Supplemented by her "Aegis--AGRENON"

131 "Demeter." Magazine of Art 6 (1883): 145-53.
Part III of the series "Greek Myths in
Greek Art" (143). After describing the Knidian

Jane Ellen Harrison

Demeter at the British Museum, Harrison describes
Greek art detailing the Demeter cycle, Triptolemus
the Messenger King, and initiation ceremonies.

132 "Dike or Eurydike." Archiv fur Religionswis-
senschaft 12 (1910): 411.
A suggested example of the transition from
a younger to an older form of the myth. Comments on
vase fragments found by Dietrich.

133 [The Dithyramb, Dionysus and the Drama.] Sum-
mary in Cambridge Review 16 Feb. 1911: 281.
Lecture given to the Cambridge Classical
Society. The dithyramb belonged to Dionysus and was
a spring song connected with initiation ceremonies.
In the discussion, Harrison was challenged by William
Ridgeway; her views were defended by A. B. Cook.

134 "The Divine Right of Kings." Fortnightly Review
91 (1909): 97-107.
Review article of works by J. G. Frazer and
A. B. Cook investigating the significance of the evo-
lution of medicine men to kings to gods.
Works considered:
Cook, A. B. "Zeus, Jupiter and the Oak."
Frazer, James G. Adonis, Attis and Osiris.
SLectures on the Early History of the

135 "Dr. Dorpfeld on the Greek Theatre." Classical
Review 4 (1890): 274-77. Noted in Jahresbericht
uber die Fortschritte der Klassischen Altertums-
wissenschaft 90 (1896): 39-41.
Comments on Dorpfeld's suggestion that the
chorus and actors in a Greek play stood on the scene

136 "The E at Delphi." Summary in Proceedings of
the Cambridge Philological Society 70 (1905): 1-
3. Summary in Comptes Rendus de Congres Inter-
nationale d'Archeologie. Athens: Hestia, 1905.
Noted in Cambridge Review 9 Feb. 1905: 179; 5
Mar. 1905: 227.
Summary of a paper read 26 Jan. 1905, in
Cambridge and later in April at Athens, where she was
the ony female speaker. Harrison argues that the E
was originally three betyl stones or pillars repre-
senting the three charities. The editor of Cambridge
Review (9 Feb.) called this a "brilliant attempt to
solve the problem of the mysterious E at Delphi."

137 [The Enneacrunus Question.] Summary in "Session
1895-1896." Journal of Hellenic Studies 16
(1896): xxxvii-xxxix. Summary rpt. in Athenaeum
9 Nov. 1895: 649-50; Academy 7 Dec. 1895: 487.

40 The Cambridge Ritualists

Harrison presents Wilhelm Dorpfeld's radi-
cal interpretation of Thucydides ii. 15, in light of
his recent excavations. He places Athens to the west
and south-west of the Acropolis, and the Enneacrunus
under the Pnyx rock. Dorpfeld has also found the
precinct of Dionysus Limnaeus in the area between the
Pnyx, Areopagus, and Acropolis. Critiques are given
by Ernest Gardner, J. L. Myres, John Sandys, and John

"Epilogue on the War: Peace with Patriotism."
SEE: 98

138 "Euripides' Cretans fragg. 472 Nauk.)"
Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological
Society 85 (1910): 1-2.
Summary of a paper read 3 Mar. 1910.
Harrison relates the fragment to initiation
ceremonies, "thunder-rites."

139 "Fan." Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.
Ed. James Hastings. 12 vols. Edinburgh: Clark,
1908-26. 5: 754-57.
Details shapes and uses of the fan or win-
nowing basket, as well as its ritual use among the
Greeks and Romans and in India.

140 "The Festival of the Aiora." Classical Review 3
(1889): 378-79.
Explication of the swing-festival, the
meaning of which was lost to the historical Greeks.

141 "Gorgon." Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.
Ed. James Hastings. 12 vols. Edinburgh: Clark,
1908-26. 6: 330-32. [1915.]
The idea of a gorgon as monster originated
to explain a ritual mask worn to scare away evil
things; the mask had fallen into disuse, but was
still portrayed on pottery and on shields.

142 "A Greek Dressing-Case." Magazine of Art 7
(1884): 234-38.
Description of the Ficoroni Cista engraved
with a scene from the myth of the Argonauts. The
athletic subject, details, and theme imply ownership
by a young man.

143 "Greek Myths in Greek Art." Magazine of Art 5
(1882): 502-10; 6 (1883): 55-62, 145-53, 366-71,
464-68; 7 (1884): 317-23; 8 (1885): 33-38, 498-
Series on the representations of myths in
Greek art. Articles are annotated under their spe-
cific titles:

Jane Ellen Harrison

I: The Judgment of Paris (158).
II: Helen of Troy (147).
III: Demeter (131).
IV, V: Death and the Underworld (128).
VI: Theseus and Ariadne (215).
[VII]: The Youth of Achilles (223).
[VIII]: The Myth of Perseus and Andromeda

144 "Greek Religion and Mythology." Year's Work in
Classical Studies 10 (1915): 71-80; 12 (1917):
Survey articles for the annual review. In
volume 10, Harrison discusses Cook's Zeus and Mur-
ray's Alcestis and "Conception of Another Life." In
Volume 12, she responds to critics of her Eniautos
Daimon theory (notably Ridgeway who called the term
an abstraction), acknowledges the warnings of Cook
and Marett, and apologizes for the term but not the
theory. She also notes her "Head of John Baptist"

145 "Harpies." Encyclopaedia of Religion and
Ethics. Ed. James Hastings. 12 vols. Edin-
burgh: Clark, 1908-26. 6: 517-19. [1915.]
Harpies, or "snatchers," functioned to take
away humans. Originally, they were the winds, viewed
as both life-giving and destructive. Later, they
became death-demons.

146 "The Head of John Baptist." Classical Review 30
(1916): 216-19. Noted in Cambridge Review 21
Feb. 1917: 233.
The biblical tale is cast in the mold of a
primitive ritual, e. g. rejoicing over the dead year
daimon. Harrison finds analogies with Greek figures
(Adonis, Tammuz, Dionysus, Orpheus, etc.) M. R.
James (321) wrote a harsh critique. Both Harrison
(164) and Gilbert Murray (735) responded with letters
in the Classical Review. The controversy was noted
by F. H. Colson in Year's Work in Classical Studies
13 (1918-1919): 191.

147 "Helen of Troy." Magazine of Art 6 (1883): 55-
Part II of the series "Greek Myths in Greek
Art" (143). Description of scenes from Helen's life
depicted in Greek art, and a discussion of the evolu-
tion of their expression from the majestic ideality
characteristic of Pheidias' time to the expressive
individuality of Praxiteles and later artists.

The Cambridge Ritualists

148 "Helios--Hades." Classical Review 22 (1908):
Certain difficulties and anomalies in the
cult and mythology of Hades disappear when the god is
viewed as the underworld sun.

149 "Hellas at Cambridge." Magazine of Art 7
(1884): 510-15.
Commenting on the Cast Museum at Cambridge
and its specimens, Harrison praises the new view that
art is equal to literature, not subordinate or sup-
plementary. On the value of Classical Archaeology
and scientific classification.

"Heresy and Humanity."
SEE: 92

"'Homo Sum,' Being a letter to an Anti-Suffragist
From an Anthropologist."
SEE: 93

150 [Hospital Life among the Ancient Greeks.] Noted
in Cambridge Review 25 Nov. 1914: 103; 2 Dec.
1914: 120.
Announcement of Harrison's lecture to be
given 4 Dec., in aid of the Belgian Relief Fund.

"L'Imperfectif dans la langue et la literaturee"
SEE: 90

151 "In Memoriam--Dr. Arthur Woollgar Verrall."
Newnham College Letter 1912: 53-55.
Memorial to a fellow classicist, the hus-
band of Harrison's friend, Margaret Merrifield.

152 "In Memoriam--Mrs. A. W. Verrall." Newnham Col-
lege Letter 1916: 53-63. Rpt. in Proceedings of
the Society for Psychical Research 29 (1917):
Memorial to a friend and colleague,
Margaret de Gaudrion Merrifield, with whom Harrison
collaborated on Mythology and Monuments of Ancient
Athens (108).

153 "The Influence of Darwinism on the Study of Re-
ligions." Darwin and Modern Science: Essays in
Commemoration of the Centenary of the Birth of
Charles Darwin and of the Fiftieth Anniversary
of the Publication of The Origin of Species.
Ed. A. C. Seward. Cambridge: Cambridge UP,
1909. 494-511. Rpt. in Alpha and Omega. 143-
78. Noted in Cambridge Review 27 May 1909: 420-
In the old view, religion was considered in
terms of theology and mythology revealed complete and

Jane Ellen Harrison

sacrosanct; primitive religion was beneath consider-
ation. Now, the latter is considered a necessary
step in the evolution of human thought. Action, or
ritual, leads to thought, or doctrine. The editor of
Cambridge Review criticized some of Harrison's
remarks as "distasteful."

154 "Initiation." Encyclopaedia of Religion and
Ethics. Ed. James Hastings. 12 vols. Edin-
burgh: Clark, 1908-26. 7: 322-23.
Initiation, or the rite of maturity, is
shown in the myth of the daughters of Proetus who go
mad because they refused the maturity rites of Diony-
sus and are cured by a ritual dance after which they
are married.

"Introductory Historical Note."
SEE: 107

155 "Iranian Religion and Ionian Philosophy."
Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological
Society 89 (1911): 15-16.
Summary of a paper read 23 Nov. 1911. Har-
rison gives evidence for the Iranian influence on
Greece in art, early Ionian philosophy, and Orphism.

156 "Is Tragedy the Goat-Song?" Classical Review 16
(1902): 331-32.
Reviews the argument on the etymology of
"tragedy" and suggests that tragedy is the song of
the drink made from spelt. The horsemen sang a
spelt-song at the fermentation of this beer and
danced a tragic dance in chorus.

157 "Itys and Aedon: A Panaitios Cylix." Journal of
Hellenic Studies 8 (1887): 439-45.
The artifact represents the Homeric form of
the nightingale myth.

158 "The Judgment of Paris." Magazine of Art 5
(1882): 502-10.
Part I of the series "Greek Myths in Greek
Art" (143). Studies the most popular myth replicated
on Greek vases to elucidate the evolution of artistic
portrayal through three centuries (500 to 200 B. C.)
The vases exemplify the rise and decline of art from
an art in the service of religion to rigid conven-
tionality to graceful charm to sentimentality and,
finally, to mere fancy.

159 "The Judgment of Paris: Two Unpublished Vases in
the Graeco-Etruscan Museum at Florence." Jour-

44 The Cambridge Ritualists

nal of Hellenic Studies 7 (1886): 196-219; sum-
mary, 8 (1887): xlviii. Summary rpt. in
Athenaeum 30 Oct. 1886: 572.
Paper read 21 Oct. 1886, Society for the
Promotion of Hellenic Studies. Details the typogra-
phy of the myth and the origins of its early-art

160 "Kouretes and Korybantes." Encyclopaedia of
Religion and Ethics. Ed. James Hastings. 12
vols. Edinburgh: Clark, 1908-26. 7: 758-60.
On the nature and functions of the Kou-
retes. They reflect a matrilinear social structure
which centers on the mother and child, and secondari-
ly a consort. Summarizes the Hymn of the Kouretes
and discusses the Korybantes (medicine man and cul-
ture hero).

161 "The Kouretes and Zeus Kouros: A Study in Pre-
Historic Sociology." Annual of the British
School at Athens 15 (1908-1909): 308-38.
Explains the functions of the Kouretes in
terms of initiation rites. Reviews Strabo's account,
and discusses the Kouretes as daimons, attendants on
the gods, magicians, seers, dancers, and gives the
elements of the mysteries of Zagreus as practiced by
the Kouretes with explanation.

162 Letter. Athenaeum 22 Feb. 1896: 258.
Harrison reports that German excavations
near the Theseion have already begun. These will
determine the situation of the Stoa Basileios, the
first building described by Pausanias on entering the

163 Letter. Cambridge Review 13 June 1907: 483.
In response to Percy Gardner's letter, 13
June (308) that protests her review of Lewis R.
Farnell's Cults of the Greek States (247), Harrison
repeats her criticism that Farnell excludes non-
Olympian cults and that he separates myth from

164 Letter. Classical Review 31 (1917): 63.
Response to M. R. James' criticisms (321)
of her "Head of John Baptist." Harrison abides by
her main contention. "To me the keenest joys of
science are always perilous."
SEE ALSO: 146, 362

165 Letter. Folk-Lore 26 (1915): 98.
On representations of chariots carrying
away souls.

Jane Ellen Harrison

166 Letter. The Times 11 July 1910: 6.
The Ceremony of the Alphabet is a magical
ceremony. The alphabet, like the rest of the world,
is made up of elements.

167 "The Meaning of the Word TELETE." Classical
Review 28 (1914): 36-38.
Harrison discusses the term "initiation
rite." An elaboration of her "Initiation" article
for the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (154).

168 "Monuments Relating to the Odyssey." Journal of
Hellenic Studies 4 (1883): 248-65.
On two vases depicting the escape of Odys-
seus from the cave of Polyphemus. Harrison expounds
the type doctrine. Vase analyses must consider ty-
pography as well as technique. Cataloging by type
would avoid the need for tedious enumeration.

169 "Mountain-Mother." Encyclopaedia of Religion
and Ethics. Ed. James Hastings. 12 vols.
Edinburgh: Clark, 1908-26. 8: 868-69.
The chthonic earth mother divinity reflects
matrilinear social structure and is characterized by
a focus on fertility and the group; it is also mys-
tical and orgiastic. Harrison contrasts this with
patrilinear worship of the Olympian Father.

[The Mystic Fan of Iacchus.]
SEE: 170

170 "Mystica Vannus Iacchi." Journal of Hellenic
Studies 23 (1903): 292-324; 24 (1904): 241-54.
Summary in American Journal of Archaeology 8
(1903): 314-15; 9 (1904): 216. Lecture noted in
Cambridge Review 29 Jan. 1903: 147; 19 Feb.
1903: 194.
Originally a lecture, "The Mystic Fan of
Iacchus," given 16 Feb. 1903, Cambridge University,
called by the editor of Cambridge Review, "one of the
most brilliant events of the term" (19 Feb.) Eluci-
dates the mysticism of the winnowing fan (symbol of
fertility and purification) and throws light on the
shift from the worship of Demeter (earth mother) to
that of Dionysus (god of wine). The grain basket
became a grape basket. Harrison notes examples from
several cultures of the use of winnowing implements.

171 "The Myth of Odysseus and the Sirens." Magazine
of Art 10 (1887): 133-36.
May have originally been intended as part
of the series, "Greek Myths in Greek Art" (143). On
the art form of the Sirens in ancient and early medi-

The Cambridge Ritualists

eval times. Classical art depicts them as bird-
women, while medieval art portrays them as half bird,
half fish. Discusses three drawings from the "Hortus
Deliciarum" manuscript of Abbess Herrad de Laudsperg.
Homer doesn't describe the sirens as bird women, and
Harrison postulates that the accidental juxtaposition
of a decorative bird-woman with galleys suggested the
art form of the myth.

172 "The Myth of Perseus and Andromeda." Magazine
of Art 8 (1885): 498-504.
Unnumbered article [Part VIII] in the
series, "Greek Myths in Greek Art" (143). Descrip-
tion of the artistic depictions of the myth, illus-
trating the simple objectivity of the ancient artist.

173 "The Myth of the Nightingale on Greek Vase-
Paintings." Magazine of Art 14 (1891): 227-30.
The Greek form of the myth and its depic-
tion on two Attic-style vases.

174 [The Myth of the Sirens]. Noted in Cambridge
Review 29 Jan. 1903: 134; 4 Mar. 1903: 226.
Lecture given 2 Mar. 1903, Cambridge

175 [The Myth of Zagreus in Relation to Primitive
Initiation Ceremonies.] Summary in "Proceed-
ings. Session 1909-10." Journal of Hellenic
Studies 30 (1910): xlviii. Summary in "Hellenic
Society." The Times 16 Feb. 1910: 11. Summary
in "Archaeological Notes and News." Classical
Review 24 (1910): 99-100.
Harrison's paper given 15 Feb. 1910, So-
ciety for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies. She
uses an analogy from New South Wales to explain the
myth as a passage to adulthood. The explanation must
take into account the primitive ceremonies on which
it is based.

176 "Mythological Studies I: The Three Daughters of
Cecrops." Journal of Hellenic Studies 12
(1892): 350-55; summary, xxxix. Summary rpt. in
Athenaeum 18 Apr. 1891: 510.
Paper read 13 Apr. 1891, Society for the
Promotion of Hellenic Studies. By examining the
ritual, Harrison determines the significance of these
mythological figures; she finds this is an instance
exemplifying Muller's dicta that the heroes in a
city's mythology may have originally been its gods
and that a weak tribe, when merged with another,
stronger one, keeps only its goddess or its goddess
subsumes the character of the god.

Jane Ellen Harrison

177 Mythology of the Parthenon Marbles in Special
Relation to Recent Investigations. Oxford
University Extension Lecture. Oxford: Hart, n.
Fly-sheet noting a series of six lectures
by Harrison.

178 "Myths of the Dawn on Greek Vase-Paintings."
Magazine of Art 17 (1894): 59-63.
Depictions of Eos, the Goddess of Dawn.
Provides an example of the effect of the art type on
mythological tradition.

179 [Myths of the Homeric Cycle.] Homeric Greek and
the Myths of the Homeric Cycle. University Ex-
tension Lectures. London: Cooperative Printing
Society, 1890.
The syllabus for a course of four lectures
by Walter Leaf on Homeric Greek and four by Harrison
on Myth. Leaf "was persuaded by Miss Jane Harrison
to undertake a series of lectures at the Chelsea Town
Hall in connection with the London University Exten-
sion Society," (Walter Leaf, 1852-1927: Some Chapters
of Autobiography. London: Murray, 1932: 154.)

180 "Note on the Mystica Vannus Iacchi." Annual of
the British School at Athens 10 (1903-1904):
144-47. Noted in American Journal of Archaeol-
ogy 9 (1905): 478.
An addendum to her "Mystica Vannus Iacchi"
(170), describing two artistic representations of the
likna and its uses that have since come to her atten-

181 [Note Supplementary to the Newly-Discovered
Vases.] Classical Review 2 (1888): 234-35.
Details a red-figured cylix to be described
more fully in "Two Cylices Relating to the Exploits
of Theseus" (217).

182 "Notes Archaeological and Mythological on
Bacchylides." Classical Review 12 (1898): 85-
86. Noted in American Journal of Archaeology 2
(1898): 309.
Examination of Croesus and Theseus vases
sheds light on three Odes (III, XVII, VII) of
Bacchylides. Representations of the Croesus myth
show the same mythologizing impulse as in Ode III
(the Croesus myth). Certain elements in Ode XVII
(Theseus, Minos and the ring) indicate the origin of
the myth in chthonic matriarchal time.

183 "Ode VII." Classical Review 12 (1898): 140-41.
Comments on Bacchylides' ode.

The Cambridge Ritualists

184 "Odysseus and the Sirens--Dionysiac Boat-Races--
A Cylix by Nikosthenes." Journal of Hellenic
Studies 6 (1885): 19-29; summary, xlv. Summary
rpt. in Athenaeum 16 May 1885: 634.
Paper read 7 May 1885, Society for the Pro-
motion of Hellenic Studies. On the art form of the
myth as represented by nautical races in honor of
Dionysus and the Oriental bird-woman.

185 "On the Meaning of the Term Arrephori." Clas-
sical Review 3 (1889): 187.
On mythological grounds, Harrison hypothe-
sizes that the obscure ceremonial of the Arrephoria
had not to do with dew or even dew-laden branches,
but with young pigs.

186 [Origin of the Cossacks.] Noted in Jane Ellen
Harrison: A Portrait from Letters. By Jessie G.
Stewart. London: Merlin, 1959. 206.
A lecture given in 1918 to aid the Russian
Relief Fund.

187 [Origins of the God Hermes.] Noted in Cambridge
Review 9 Feb. 1905: 179.
Lecture given 9 Feb., Cambridge Classical

188 "Pandora's Box." Journal of Hellenic Studies 20
(1900): 99-114; summary, xxxiv-xxxv. Summary
rpt. in Athenaeum 12 May 1900: 596. Summary in
American Journal of Archaeology 5 (1901): 237.
Paper read 3 May 1900, Society for the Pro-
motion of Hellenic Studies. Harrison demonstrates
the significance of Pandora. She surveys ancient
authors and vase-paintings on the myth and shows her
relation to the ghost cult. Pandora is the earth
mother, giver of all good gifts. Her jar is the
burial jar from which the souls of the dead are re-
leased at the Anthesteria, the feast of All Saints.
In Hesiod, however, she is diminished as the
handiwork of Zeus.

189 "The Pharmakos." Folk-Lore 27 (1916): 298-99.
Commentary in light of Morley Roberts' "The
Pharmakos" (pp. 218-24). The social outlaw becomes
the magical vehicle.
SEE ALSO: 1606

190 "The Pictures of Sappho." Woman's World 1
(1888): 274-78.
Describes the representations of Sappho on

Jane Ellen Harrison

191 "The Pillar and the Maiden." Proceedings of the
Classical Association 5 (1907): 1-13. Noted in
Oxford Magazine 31 Oct. 1907: 36.
Harrison defends her interest in chthonic
elements and discusses the evidence of a pillar cult.
She maintains that aneikonism and eikonism represent
not two stages of development but two tendencies in
the human mind (the subconscious and conscious).

192 "Pindar Olympian ii. 126." Proceedings of the
Cambridge Philological Society 72 (1905): 21-22.
Summary of a paper read 23 Nov. 1905. The
tower of Kronos is of Babylonian influence.

193 "Pompeii in Black and White." Magazine of Art 8
(1885): 98-105.
Criticizes the illustrations published with
"Euphorion," a poem by F. Gregorovius, about a slave
boy in Pompeii. Contrasts these illustrations with
black-figured Greek vase-painting in terms of senti-
mentality, emotion, and elaboration of pictorial ef-

194 [Poseidon and the Minotaur.] Summary in "Pro-
ceedings. Session 1913-14." Journal of Hel-
lenic Studies 34 (1914): xlix. Summary in
"Greek Archaeology." Journal of the British
Archaeological Association ns 20 (1914): 73-74.
Harrison's paper, given 10 Feb. 1914, So-
ciety for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, and 10
Mar. 1914, to the Cambridge Classical Society. The
cult of Poseidon was Minoan in origin. Harrison
looks to the activities and social structure of his
worshippers to explain the complexities of the god.
Poseidon was a projection of fishermen and traders as
well as of horsemen and herdsmen who worshipped the

195 "Postscript." Classical Review 16 (1902): 332.
Suggests an unexplained epithet of Dionysus
discovered at Delphi may include a reference to a
cereal drink.

196 [Postscript to] "The Mysteries in the Frogs of
Aristophanes." By T. G. Tucker. Classical
Review 18 (1904): 418.
Harrison emphasizes the significance of
Herakles in light of Dorpfeld's excavations of a
precinct of Dionysus in the Marshes.

197 Preface. Byliny Book: Hero Tales of Russia. By
Marion Chilton Harrison. Cambridge: Heffer,
1915. vii-xii.
Russian folktales generally depict a pea-
sant hero.

50 The Cambridge Ritualists

198 Preface. Douris and the Painters of Greek
Vases. By Edmond Pottier. Trans. Bettina
Kahnweiler. London: Murray, 1909. New York:
Dutton, 1916. v-x.
Pottier's monograph clarifies the seriously
misunderstood relation of Greek vase-painting to
Greek literature and mythology. Greek art does not
illustrate literary works, but is an art work in its
own right. Thanks to anthropology, we now regard
mythology as a necessary step in the evolution of
human thought.

199 Preface. The Gods of Olympos, or Mythology of
the Greeks and Romans. By A. H. Petiscus.
1863. Trans. Katherine A. Raleigh. London:
Unwin, 1892. v-ix.
Introduction to an English translation of a
popular German work on mythology intended for ele-
mentary students. Harrison warns of its old-
fashionedness since it doesn't venture into the
"tempting field of unproved hypothesis" (viii).

200 Preface. Russian Poets and Poems: "Classics"
and "Moderns". Ed. N. Jarintzov. New York:
Longmans, 1917. I: v-vi.
On translation. Some slight contortions
are sometimes necessary to recreate the spirit of the
original language.

201 [Primitive Greek Ritual and Myth.] Noted in
Cambridge Review 14 Nov. 1901: 66.
A series of four lectures to be given this
term by Harrison on the Keres, harpies, Tritopatores,
gorgons, sphinxes, Lamiae, and Maniae. The second
series of four lectures will be "The Coming of Bac-
chus and the Mysteries" (122).

202 "Promethee et le Culte du Pilier." Revue
Archeologique 7 (1907): 429-31.
Maintains that the legend and personality
of Prometheus are derived from a bird and pillar

203 "Query: Dante's Eunoe and an Orphic Tablet."
Classical Review 17 (1903): 58.
Two Orphic well-springs have a close
analogy in Dante. Harrison asks for information on
his source which is supplied by J. A. Stewart (374).

204 "A Rain-Making Ceremony on a Fragment of a
Dipylon Vase." Proceedings of the Cambridge
Antiquarian Society 15 (ns 9) (1910-1911): 165.
Harrison read this paper on 13 Feb. 1911,
but it was not published or summarized.

Jane Ellen Harrison

205 [Reminiscence.] Literary Essays: Classical and
Modern. By A. W. Verrall. Oxford: Blackwell,
1917. xix-xx; xciv.
Memoir of Verrall, friend and colleague.

"Reminiscences of a Student's Life."
SEE: 103

206 [Report of the Curricula Committee.] "General
Meeting." Proceedings of the Classical Associa-
tion 3 (1906): 65-66.
Harrison reports on her teaching methods in
Greek. She selects passages from the Greek, reads an
English translation (such as a chorus from Murray's
translation of The Hippolytus) so the class will know
what the passage means, then has the class learn the
poetry by heart. This also teaches the rhythms of
Greek verse.

207 "The Ritual of Birth, Marriage, and Death."
Cambridge Companion to Greek Studies. Ed.
Leonard Whibley. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1905;
2nd ed., 1906. 499-503.
Description of rites and customs, including
burial and mourning practices and funeral monuments.

208 "Satyrs." Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.
Ed. James Hastings. 12 vols. Edinburgh: Clark,
1908-26. 11: 211-13.
Satyrs originated as ritual mummers, real
men given semi-divine status by their ritual disguise
and function. Their original animal form is unknown,
but they are fertility figures. Discusses the satyr
play, ritual mime (the basis of both tragedy and
comedy), which magically secures fertility.

"Scientiae Sacra Fames."
SEE: 221

209 "Sculptured Tombs of Hellas." Edinburgh Review
185 (1897): 441-64.
Review article published anonymously. Re-
lates the Attic stellae of primitive tombs to the art
and thought that preceded. A blending of art types
indicates a blending of chthonic (mystic), matri-
linear, and agricultural societies that practiced
burial and ancestor worship with a patrilinear, ra-
tionalizing society that ignored the hereafter and
burned their dead. On the evolution of burial prac-
tice and the art forms on monuments attending it,
which reflect social structure.
Works considered:
Gardner, Percy. Sculptured Tombs of

The Cambridge Ritualists

Couze, A. "Die attischen Grabreliefs."
Bruckner, A. and E. Pernice. "Ein
attischer Friedhof."
Fritze, H. von. "Zu den griechischen
Murray, A. S. and A. H. Smith. White
Athenian Vases in the British Museum.
Smith, Cecil H. Catalogue of the Greek and
Etruscan Vases in the British Museum.
Vol. 3.
Bosanquet, R. Carr. "On a Group of Early
Attic Lekythoi."
Roscher. "Heros." Ausfuhrliches Lexicon
der griechischen und romischen
Rohde, Erwin. Die Religion der Griechen.
Maass, Ernst. Orpheus.
Knapp, Paul. Uber Orpheus Darstellungen.
Dummler, F. Delphika: Untersuchungen zur
griechischen Religionsgeschichte.
Robert, Carl. Weiteres uber Polygnot.
Ridgeway, William. "What People Produced
the Objects Called Mycenaean?"

210 "Silenoi." Encyclopaedia of Religion and
Ethics. Ed. James Hastings. 12 vols.
Edinburgh: Clark, 1908-26. 11: 513-14.
Horse and ass-daimons, fertility figures,
are redeemed by the spirit of music and prophetic

211 "Some Fragments of a Vase Presumably by
Euphronios." Journal of Hellenic Studies 9
(1888): 143-46.
Description of a signed cylix on the death
of Orpheus, found at the Acropolis.

[Some Fragments of Vase Paintings.]
SEE: 217

212 "Some Points in Dr. Furtwangler's Theories on
the Parthenon and Its Marbles." Classical
Review 9 (1895): 85-92.
A review essay of Masterpieces of Greek
Sculpture, by Adolf Furtwangler. While acknowledging
Furtwangler's contributions to the whole question of
interpretation, Harrison questions some details of
his conclusions and notes his weakness in mythology.
Harrison had earlier presented a summary of Master-
pieces at the 9 Apr. 1894 meeting of the Society for
the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, noted in Journal
of Hellenic Studies 14 (1894): xli; summary in
Athenaeum 14 Apr. 1894: 482. Furtwangler responded
to this review (307).

Jane Ellen Harrison

213 "Sophocles, Ichneutae, col. IX. 1-7, and the
Dromenon of Kyllene and the Satyrs." Essays and
Studies Presented to William Ridgeway on His
Sixtieth Birthday, 6 August, 1913. Ed. E. C.
Quiggin. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1913. Free-
port, NY: Books for Libraries, [1966]. 136-52.
Elucidates some phrases in the play by re-
lating them to Anodos rites. This scene is a form of
the spring dromenon, the resurrection of life and na-
ture from its winter death; "what was once magical
mystery becomes mere mime." On underground treasury
tombs, the evolution from cave-dwellings to storage
granaries to graves. Examines some sacred survivals
of the underground hill-hut.

214 "The Story of a Phenician Bowl." Magazine of
Art 6 (1883): 518-24.
Description of bowls that exhibit a min-
gling of Assyrian and Egyptian art. Phoenician ar-
tists tended to copy the work of others; they traded
crafts with the Hellenes who, in turn, borrowed many
of their attributes.

215 "Theseus and Ariadne." Magazine of Art 7
(1884): 317-23.
Part VI of the series, "Greek Myths in
Greek Art" (143). Recounts the myth of Europa to
shed light on the story of her granddaughter,
Ariadne. Contrasts the reserve and suggestion of
Greek vase paintings with the sensationalism of
Pompeiian paintings.

216 "Titans." Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics.
Ed. James Hastings. 12 vols. Edinburgh: Clark,
1908-26. 12: 346-47.
Chthonic gods, distinct from the Giants and
sky spirits derived from a king-god or medicine man
who controlled the weather. The bibliographical
notes point out Cook's correction (in Zeus) of Har-
rison's former derivation of Titans from "white-clay

217 "Two Cylices Relating to the Exploits of
Theseus." Journal of Hellenic Studies 10
(1889): 231-42; summary, xxxvii. Summary rpt.
in Academy 9 Mar. 1889: 172; Athenaeum 2 Mar.
1889: 285.
Paper read 25 Feb. 1889, Society for the
Promotion of Hellenic Studies, entitled, "Some Frag-
ments of Vase Paintings." Describes two previously
unpublished red-figured vases, one that Harrison
believes to be the work of Duris, and the other
fragments of a cylix that Harrison conjecturally
restores, giving her justifications.

The Cambridge Ritualists


"Unanimism and Conversion."
SEE: 106

218 "Under World (Greek)." Encyclopaedia of Re-
ligion and Ethics. Ed. James Hastings. 12
vols. Edinburgh: Clark, 1908-24. 12: 518-19.
Evolution of the conception of an under-
world, from local gravesite, collective daimon,
tribal hero or king to remote kingdom of the dead
with its aristocratic heroes without function, to a
moralized underworld complete with retribution and

219 "Vases Representing the Judgment of Paris."
Journal of Hellenic Studies 8 (1887): 268.
Milani, Director of Museum Greco Etrusco in
Florence, supplies the provenance of plate and am-
phora in the previous number of the Journal.

220 "Who Were the Kouretes?" Proceedings of the
Cambridge Philological Society 85 (1910): 6.
Referring to a fragment of Euripides (Nauk
472), Harrison finds the Kouretes were initiated

221 "Woman and Knowledge." Newnham College Letter
1913: 22-25. Rpt. as "Scientiae Sacra Fames."
New Statesman 1 Nov. 1913: supp. vi-viii. Rpt.
in Alpha and Omega. 116-42. Summary pub. as
"Woman and Knowledge." The Times 29 Oct. 1913:
4. Noted in Cambridge Review 30 Oct. 1913: 57.
Paper read 28 Oct. 1913, to the London
Sociological Society, and 8 Nov. to the Cambridge
Branch of the National Union of Suffrage Societies,
on the power of knowledge, and the relationship
between the intellect and the emotions. Examines the
idea that the pursuit of learning for learning's sake
is deemed unwomanly. To face and solve the problems
of today, we need the "binocular vision" of both
sexes. The New Statesman supplement on "The Awaken-
ing of Women," was edited by Mrs. Sidney (Beatrice)
Webb. In The Times entry, Gilbert Murray, presiding,
acknowledges the differences between the sexes: each
must realize his own limitations and likewise the
strengths of the other.
SEE ALSO: 88, 368

222 [The Year Bull and the Fiesta de Toros.] Noted
in Jane Ellen Harrison: A Portrait from Letters.
By Jessie G. Stewart. London: Merlin, 1959.
A lecture given for the Cambridge Classical
Association, 1920.

Jane Ellen Harrison 55

223 "The Youth of Achilles." Magazine of Art 8
(1885): 33-38.
Unnumbered article (part VII) in the
series, "Greek Myths in Greek Art" (143). Greek art
fills the gap in the literary record of Achilles'
early life, before the events of the Iliad. Harrison
describes the scenes depicted on vases.

224 "Zeus, the Woodpecker." The Times 22 Feb. 1909:
Summary of Harrison's lecture to the Cam-
bridge Classical Society. The Hagia Triada sarcoph-
agus confirms the theory of the chthonic worship of

56 The Cambridge Ritualists


225 Harrison, Jane Ellen, et al. Letter. Morning
Post 17 Mar. 1917: 9.
Insidious Pacifist Propaganda. Defends the
Cambridge Magazine against attack by representatives
of the Fight for Right Movement. Freedom of the
press and independent thought is especially important
in these times. Signed by Arnold Bennett, J. B.
Bury, Arthur Clutton Brock, Courtney of Penwith,
Thomas Hardy, Harrison, Gilbert Murray, Parmoor, Eden
Phillpotts, Arthur Quiller-Couch, Graham Wallas, and
Josiah C. Wedgwood.

226 Harrison, Jane Ellen, et al. Letter. The Times
18 Sept. 1914: 3.
Britain's Destiny and Duty; Declaration by
Authors, A Righteous War. Fifty-two writers signed
this manifesto, drafted by Gilbert Murray, supporting
the British cause and considering how to counteract
German propaganda among neutral countries. Those who
signed include J. M. Barrie, Robert Bridges, G. K.
Chesterton, Arthur Conan Doyle, John Galsworthy,
Thomas Hardy, Rudyard Kipling, John Masefield, and H.
G. Wells.
SEE ALSO: 1422

Unsigned Spectator reviews are attributed to
Harrison based on her correspondence with Lytton
Strachey (British Museum, Manuscripts) and the papers
of Francis M. Cornford. For works considered in
review essays, refer to the essay in the ARTICLES
section as noted.

227 Annual of the British School at Athens 19 (1912-
1913). Cambridge Review 11 Nov. 1914: 81.

228 Bailey, Cyril. The Religion of Ancient Rome.
Cambridge Review 25 Apr. 1907: 355-56.

229 Baudissin, Wolf Wilhelm Friedrich. Adonis und
Esmun. Spectator 13 Apr. 1912: 589-90.

230 Baudrillart, Andre. Les Divinites de la
Victoire en Grece et en Italie d'apres les
textes et les monuments figures. Classical
Review 9 (1895): 187.

Jane Ellen Harrison

231 Beazley, Raymond, Nevill Forbes, and G. A.
Birkett. Russia--From the Varangians to the
Bolsheviks. Cambridge Review 14 Feb. 1919: 215.

Bell, Clive. Art.
SEE: 116

232 Blinkenberg, Christian. The Thunder Weapon in
Religion and Folklore. Classical Review 26
(1912): 196-97.

Bosanquet, R. Carr. "On A Group of Early Attic
SEE: 209

Bruckner, A. and E. Pernice. "Ein attischer
SEE: 209

233 Budge, E. A. Wallis. Osiris and the Egyptian
Resurrection. Spectator 13 April 1912: 589-90.

234 Cook, Arthur Bernard. Zeus, A Study in Ancient
Religion. Vol. 1. Spectator 27 Feb. 1915: 303-
04. (Unsigned.)

235 Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion. Vol.
2. Nation & the Athenaeum 13 Feb. 1926: 683-84.

"Zeus, Jupiter, and the Oak."
SEE: 134

236 Cornford, Francis M. From Religion to Philos-
ophy. Spectator 27 July 1912: 132-33.

237 Greek Religious Thought from Homer to the
Age of Alexander. Nation & the Athenaeum 20
Oct. 1923: 121-22.

Couze, A. "Die attischen Grabreliefs."
SEE: 209

238 Davis, Gladys M. N. The Asiatic Dionysos.
Cambridge Review 10 Feb. 1915: 192.

239 Diehl, Charles. Excursions in Greece to Re-
cently Explored Sites of Classical Interest.
Classical Review 7 (1893): 184-85.

240 Dorpfeld, Wilhelm. Haigh's Attic Drama. Clas-
sical Review 4 (1890): 223-74.

The Cambridge Ritualists

Dummler, F. Delphika: Untersuchungen zur
griechischen Religionsgeschichte.
SEE: 209

241 Duff, J. D. Russian Lyrics. Cambridge Review
29 Nov. 1917: 156.

242 Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of the
Religious Life. New Statesman 23 Oct. 1915: 62-

243 Elliot Smith, G. Elephants and Ethnologists.
Nation & the Athenaeum 5 July 1924: 446.

244 .The Evolution of the Dragon. Folk-Lore 34
(1923): 177-81.

245 Englemann, R. and W. C. F. Anderson. Pictorial
Atlas to Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. Classical
Review 6 (1892): 231-32.

246 Ermatinger, Emil. Die attische Autochthonensage
bis auf Euripides. Classical Review 12 (1898):

Evans, A. J. The Palace of Knossos in Its Egyptian
SEE: 127

Evans, A. J., D. G. Hogarth, and P. B. Welch.
SEE: 127

247 Farnell, Lewis R. The Cults of the Greek
States. Cambridge Review 30 May 1907: 440-41
(signed); 27 Jan. 1910: 226 (signed); Athenaeum
2 Apr. 1910: 403-04 (unsigned).
SEE ALSO: 163, 308

248 The Evolution of Religion: An Anthro-
pological Study. Classical Review 20 (1906):

249 _. Greece and Babylon. Saturday Review 29
June 1912: 812.

250 Forbes, Nevill. Third Russian Book. Cambridge
Review 6 June 1917: 396.

251 Foucart, M. P. Les Grands Mysteres d'Eleusis.
Classical Review 17 (1903): 84-86.

Frazer, James G. Adonis, Attis, and Osiris.

Jane Ellen Harrison

SEE: 134

252 Balder the Beautiful. Cambridge Review 5
Feb. 1914: 262-63; Spectator 13 June 1914: 995-

253 The Belief in Immortality and the Worship
of the Dead. Spectator 28 June 1913: supp.
1089-90. (Unsigned.)

254 Lectures on the Early History of the King-
ship. Classical Review 20 (1906): 423-24.

255 __. Totemism and Exogamy. Spectator 30 July
1910: 172-73. (Unsigned.)

Fritze, H. von. "Zu den griechischen Totenmahl-
SEE: 209

256 Furtwangler, Adolf. Aiginetica. Vorlaufiger
Bericht uber die Ausgrabungen auf Aegina. Clas-
sical Review 15 (1901): 473-75.

SMasterpieces of Greek Sculpture.
SEE: 212

Gardner, Percy. Sculptured Tombs of Hellas.
SEE: 209

257 Gruppe, Otto. Griechische Mythologie und
Religionsgeschichte. Classical Review 17
(1903): 473.

Hall, H. R. The Oldest Civilisation of Greece.
SEE: 127

258 Hepding, Hugo. Attis seine Mythen und sein
Kult. Classical Review 18 (1904): 234-35.

Hogarth, D. G., ed. Authority and Archaeology,
Sacred and Profane.
SEE: 127

Hogarth, D. G. and P. B. Welch. "Primitive Painted
Pottery in Crete."
SEE: 127

Homer. The Iliad. Ed. Walter Leaf. 2nd ed. Vol.
SEE: 127

The Cambridge Ritualists

259 Hose, Charles and William McDougall. Pagan
Tribes of Borneo. Spectator 26 Apr. 1913: 683-
84. (Unsigned.)

260 Hutchinson, W. M. L. Aeacus, A Judge of the
Under-world. Classical Review 15 (1901): 475-

261 Jarintzov, N. The Russians and Their Language.
Cambridge Review 2 May 1917: 312.

Knapp, Paul. "Uber Orpheus Darstellungen."
SEE: 209

262 Lawson, John Cuthbert. Modern Greek Folklore
and Ancient Greek Religion: A Study in Sur-
vivals. Classical Review 24 (1910): 181-83.

263 Lucian. De Dea Syria. Trans. H. A. Strong.
Classical Review 28 (1914): 61-62.

Maass, Ernst. Orpheus.
SEE: 209

264 Marett, R. R., ed. Anthropology and the Clas-
sics. Classical Review 23 (1909): 123-24.

265 Minns, Ellis H. Scythians and Greeks. Spec-
tator 15 Nov. 1913: supp. 791-92. (Unsigned.)

266 Mitchell, Lucy. A History of Ancient Sculpture.
Academy 7 June 1884: 408-09.

Murray, A. S. and A. H. Smith. White Athenian Vases
in the British Museum.
SEE: 209

267 Murray, Gilbert. The Rise of the Greek Epic.
Albany Review ns 1 (1907): 453-58 (signed);
Athenaeum 16 May 1908: 596-97 (unsigned).

Myres, J. L. Prehistoric Man in the Eastern
SEE: 127

268 Perdrizet, Paul. Cultes et Mythes du Pangee.
Classical Review 24 (1910): 244-46.

269 Le Fragment de Satyros. Classical Review
24 (1910): 244-46.

270 Perry, W. J. The Origin of Magic and Religion.
Nation & the Athenaeum 20 Oct. 1923: 121-22.

Jane Ellen Harrison 61

271 Radhakrishnan, S. The Philosophy of
Rabindranath Tagore. Cambridge Review 16 May
1919: 315-16.

Ridgeway, William. The Early Age of Greece. Vol. 1.
SEE: 127

"What People Produced the Objects Called
SEE: 209

272 Rivers, W. H. R. Medicine, Magic, and Religion.
Nation & the Athenaeum 3 May 1924: 147.

273 Social Organization. Nation & the
Athenaeum 20 Dec. 1924: 445.

Robert, Carl. Weiteres uber Polygnot.
SEE: 209

274 Rohde, Erwin. Psyche: Seelencult und Unster-
blichkeitsglaube der Griechen. Classical Review
4 (1890): 376-77; 8 (1894): 165-66.

"Die Religion der Griechen."
SEE: 209

Roscher. "Heros." Ausfuhrliches Lexicon der
griechischen und romischen Mythologie.
SEE: 209

275 Ruhl, Ludovicus. De mortuorum iudicio. Clas-
sical Review 18 (1904): 234-35.

276 Smirnoff, P. M. A Progressive Russian Course.
Cambridge Review 6 June 1917: 396.

Smith, Cecil H. Catalogue of the Greek and Etruscan
Vases in the British Museum. Vol. 3.
SEE: 209

277 Strong, H. A. The Syrian Goddess. Classical
Review 28 (1914): 61.

278 Swindler, Mary Hamilton. Cretan Elements in the
Cult and Ritual of Apollo. Classical Review 28
(1914): 62.

279 Trofimov, Michael V. and James P. Scott. Hand-
book of Russian. Vol. 1. Cambridge Review 11
June 1919: 402.

280 Underwood, E. G. A School Russian Grammar.
Cambridge Review 6 June 1917: 396.

62 The Cambridge Ritualists

281 Waldstein, Charles. Excavations of the American
School of Athens at the Heraion of Argos. Clas-
sical Review 6 (1892): 473-4; 7 (1893): 74-78.

282 Walters, Henry B. History of Ancient Pottery:
Greek, Etruscan, and Roman. Classical Review 20
(1906): 87-90.

283 Walton, Alice. The Cult of Asklepios. Clas-
sical Review 9 (1895): 138.

Jane Ellen Harrison


284 A., J. D. Letter. Cambridge Review 23 May
1919: 325.
"Tagore-ism." Comments on Harrison's
review of Radhakrishnan's The Philosophy of Rabin-
dranath Tagore (271). Tagorism does owe something to

285 Ackerman, Robert. "Jane Ellen Harrison: The
Early Work." Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies
13 (1972): 209-30.
On Harrison's central role in the develop-
ment of the Ritualist circle.

286 Africa, Thomas W. "Aunt Glegg Among the Dons,
or Taking Jane Harrison at her Word." Paper
read at The Cambridge Ritualists: An Interna-
tional Conference, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, 27-29 Apr. 1989.
Harrison described herself as Aunt Glegg
(from George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss). Africa
examines the problem of "the colorful metaphor and
irrational data" for biographical studies. If there
is a plausibility to the pattern, it is then histor-
ically significant as data.

287 Bandler, David B., Jr. "Theatricality: A Theory
of the Role of Theatre Implicit in Drama with
Special Reference to Hamlet, Man and Superman,
and Waiting for Godot." Diss. Carnegie-Mellon
U, 1980.
Critiques and integrates the work of social
scientists who have examined the analogies between
theater and social life. Includes the theories of

288 Barnes, Hazel E. "The Look of the Gorgon." The
Meddling Gods: Four Essays on Classical Themes.
Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1974. 3-51.
Discusses Harrison's summary of the evi-
dence for the origin of the Gorgon/Medusa as evil
eye, and the gorgon's relation to the Mother goddess.

289 Benedict, Ruth. "Ritual." Encyclopedia of the
Social Sciences. 1933 ed. 13: 396-98.
The origin of art in ritual was set forth,
in particular, by Harrison. Her major contribution
lies in emphasizing "the primacy of ritual in rela-
tion to other cultural traits."

The Cambridge Ritualists

290 Bodkin, Maud. Studies of Type-Images in Poetry,
Religion, and Philosophy. London: Oxford UP,
Uses excerpts from Harrison's autobio-
graphical essays to "illustrate the diversity of form
through which different individuals encounter the
Divine" (p. 3).

291 Brown, E. G. "In Newnham Walk." A Newnham
Anthology. Ed. Ann Phillips. Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 1979. 50.
Brief reminiscence of Harrison.

292 Brown, F. M. "Queen Anne and Mary Anne." A
Newnham Anthology. Ed. Ann Phillips. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge UP, 1979. 47-48.
Brief reminiscence of Harrison.

B[unsen], V[ictoria] de. [Reminiscences.]
SEE: 322

293 Burkert, Walter. "Apellai und Apollon."
Rheinisches Museum fur Philologie 118 (1975): 1-
Sympathetic to Harrison's theories, Burkert
describes her sociological methods.

294 Byrd, Don. Charles Olson's Maximus. Urbana: U
of Illinois P, 1980.
Examines the influence of Harrison's
theories on Olson's poetry.

295 Calder, William M., III. "Jane Harrison's
Failed Candidacies for the Yates Professorship
(1888, 1896): What Did Her Colleagues Think of
Her?" Paper read at The Cambridge Ritualists:
An International Conference, University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 27-29 Apr. 1989.
Examines evidence for the theory that Har-
rison was not appointed to the Professorship because
she was female, and concludes that the successful
candidate in each case was the more qualified.

296 "Cambridge Letter." Newnham College Club 1898:
6-7; 1899: 6-7; 1900: 22.
Notes Harrison's activities, mainly her

297 "Changes on the College Staff." Newnham College
Letter 1923: 11-12.
After being in residence at Newnham College
since 1898, Harrison is now in Paris. Her "original
contributions controversial though many of her
conclusions may be, are generally recognized as

Jane Ellen Harrison

placing her in the front rank among her fellow-

298 Clutton Brock, A. Letter. New Statesman 13
Nov. 1915: 133-34.
Critical of Harrison's statements on reli-
gion in her review of Emile Durkheim's Elementary
Forms of the Religious Life (242).

299 Cope, K. B. MacP. "'Poisonous Place.'" A
Newnham Anthology. Ed. Ann Phillips. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge UP, 1979. 126-31.
Brief statement regarding Harrison on
indecency at a Heretics meeting.

Cornford, Francis M. "Harrison, Jane Ellen (1850-
SEE: 393

SEE: 322

300 Dempsey, T. The Delphic Oracle: Its Early His-
tory, Influences, and Fall. Oxford: Blackwell,
Dempsey briefly examines Harrison's theory
of Dionysus.

Dew-Smith, Alice. [Reminiscences.]
SEE: 322

301 "Durham University: Coronation in Newcastle."
Newcastle Daily Chronicle 27 Sept. 1897: 1.
Harrison is the "first lady recipient of
Durham's honorary degree."

302 Ellsworth, Edward W. Liberators of the Female
Mind: The Shirreff Sisters, Educational Reform,
and the Women's Movement. Contributions in
Women's Studies 7. Westport, CN: Greenwood,
Harrison represents the ideal for which the
Shirreff sisters worked (pp. 171-73).

303 Farnell, Lewis R. The Cults of the Greek
States. 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1896-1909.
Appendix I, volume 1 (pp. 199-201) criti-
cizes Harrison's theory on the connection between
Zeus and Hera. In volume 5, Farnell examines and
tests Harrison's hypotheses regarding Dionysus. He
refutes her theory of the Anthesteria as a feast of
All Souls, with Dionysus a latecomer, and he criti-
cizes her suggestion of "beer-song" as tragodia.

The Cambridge Ritualists

304 "Greek Religion and Mythology." Year's
Work in Classical Studies 3 (1908): 75.
Comments on Harrison's "Bird and Pillar
Worship" (119), citing an error and cautioning
against uncritical use of the word "worship." Takes
issue with Harrison's view that zoolatry and anthro-
pomorphism are distinct phases of human evolution in

305 Finkel, De Ann C. "Jane Ellen Harrison and
Virginia Woolf: Scholarship and Art in a Woman's
Tradition." M. A. Thesis. Bucknell U, 1983.
The analysis of Woolf's first five novels
reveals Harrison's influence.

306 Fontenrose, Joseph. The Ritual Theory of Myth.
Berkeley: U of California P, 1971.
Critiques Harrison's theories, primarily
those in Themis. Charges that her translation of the
Hymn of the Kouretes slants the meaning to conform
with her interpretations.

307 Furtwangler, Adolf. "The Lemnia of Pheidias and
the Parthenon Sculptures." Classical Review 9
(1895): 269-76.
His response to Harrison's review of his
Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture (212) and to other

308 Gardner, Percy. Letter. Cambridge Review 13
June 1907: 482.
Protests the tone of Harrison's review of
Lewis R. Farnell's Cults of the Greek States in
Cambridge Review (247). "Miss Harrison cares more
for the superstitions of Greece than its religions."
Harrison responded to his criticisms (163).

309 "A New Pandora Vase." Journal of Hellenic
Studies 21 (1901): 1-9.
Follows up on Harrison's work on the Pan-
dora myth (188).

310 Hall, Nor. Those Women. Dallas: Spring, 1988.
A meditative work on the Dionysian element
in the work of three women who embraced Jung's depth
psychology--Jane Harrison, H. D., and analyst Linda

311 Halliday, D. L. "Years of Renaissance." A
Newnham Anthology. Ed. Ann Phillips. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge UP, 1979. 136-43.
Brief reminiscence of Harrison and A. B.

Jane Ellen Harrison

312 Hamilton, Mary Agnes. Newnham: An Informal
Biography. London: Faber, 1936. 106, 110, 113,
146, 157.
Several notes on Harrison at Newnham. She
took the Classical Tripos in 1879 but was not placed.

313 Harrison-Ford, Carl. "Charles Olson." New
Poetry (Sydney) 20 (1972): 19-41.
Olson's Special View of History uses
concepts from Harrison to redefine history as
personal and mythic.

314 Hawkes, Jacquetta. "Books in General." New
Statesman and Nation 3 Mar. 1951: 249-50.
Appreciation of Harrison's major works and
theories, written on the occasion of Newnham Col-
lege's celebration of the centenary of Harrison's

315 Henrichs, Albert. "Loss of Self, Suffering,
Violence: The Modern View of Dionysus from
Nietzsche to Girard." Harvard Studies in
Classical Philology 88 (1984): 205-40.
Considers Harrison's view of Dionysian
religion, including her application of sacramental
sacrifice (pp. 229-32).

316 Hogg, Robert Lawrence. "Maximus in Dogtown: A
Topology of the Soul." Diss. State U of New
York at Buffalo, 1983.
Charles Olson's Maximus Poems, volume 2,
draws upon and inverts Harrison's theories of the
development of ancient Greek religion from matri-
archal, chthonic deities toward patriarchal Olympic

317 Holland, M. E. "The Suffrage March." A Newnham
Anthology. Ed. Ann Phillips. Cambridge: Cam-
bridge UP, 1979. 86-87.
Recalls the vivid impression made by Har-
rison in the classroom.

318 Hyman, Stanley Edgar. "Leaping for Goodly
Themis." New Leader 29 Oct. 1962: 24-25. Rpt.
in Standards: A Chronicle of Books for Our Time.
New York: Horizon, 1966. 103-07.
Themis may well be the most revolutionary
book of the twentieth century. Hyman discusses the
"intellectual revolution" of the Cambridge Ritual-

319 Ingram, Angela. "The Sacred Edifices: Virginia
Woolf and Some of the Sons of Culture." Vir-
ginia Woolf and Bloomsbury: A Centenary Cele-

The Cambridge Ritualists

bration. Ed. Jane Marcus. Bloomington, IN:
Indiana UP, 1987. 125-45.
In A Room of One's Own, Virginia Woolf
invokes Harrison to balance images of youth and age.

320 "Interview." Women's Penny Paper 24 Aug. 1889:
Biographical account, with high praise for
this "born lecturer." On being female, Harrison's
lecture methods, and her candidacy for the Yates
Professorship of Archaeology at University College,

321 James, M[ontague] R[hodes]. "Some Remarks on
'The Head of John Baptist.'" Classical Review
31 (1917): 1-4.
Critical of Harrison's treatment of the
evidence in her "Head of John Baptist" (146). Such
work justifies denying to comparative mythology the
name of science.
SEE ALSO: 164, 362, 735

322 "Jane Ellen Harrison." Newnham College Roll
Letter 1929: 51-78.
Memoriam recounting the Harrison Memorial
inaugural lecture by Gilbert Murray, gives chronology
(pp. 51-53), bibliographic essay by Jessie Stewart
(pp. 53-60) with bibliography (pp. 60-62), reminis-
cences by Alice Dew-Smith (pp. 62-65), Victoria de
Bunsen (pp. 66-70), Helen de G. Salter (pp. 70-72),
and Francis Cornford (pp. 72-78).

323 "Jane Harrison Appeal." Cambridge Review 6 June
1928: 482. Rpt. as "Jane Ellen Harrison Memo-
rial." The Times 11 June 1928: 17. Noted in
Oxford Magazine 14 June 1928: 663-64.
An appeal to endow an annual public lec-
tureship at Newnham, signed by R. C. Bosanquet, A. B.
Cook, Francis Cornford, Arthur Evans, James G.
Frazer, D. S. MacColl, and Gilbert Murray, among

324 "The Jane Harrison Memorial Fund." Cambridge
Review 19 Oct. 1928: 27.
The fund will establish an annual lecture-
ship and an endowment for a travelling scholarship.

325 John, Augustus. Chiaroscuro. London: Cape,
1952. 64-65.
Brief statement on painting Harrison's
portrait at Newnham.

326 Jones, D. Ll. G. "King's Comes Round." A
Newnham Anthology. Ed. Ann Phillips. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge UP, 1979. 9-10.

Jane Ellen Harrison

Description of classmate Harrison.

327 Kestner, Joseph A. Mythology and Misogyny: The
Social Discourse of Nineteenth-Century British
Classical-Subject Painting. Madison: U of Wis-
consin P, 1988.
Contemporary mythological art reflected
patriarchal values of the nineteenth-century. Kest-
ner uses several of Harrison's Magazine of Art essays
as examples of mythological interpretations that
"echo the status of women."

328 Leach, Edmund R. "Golden Bough or Gilded Twig?"
Daedalus 90 (1961): 371-87.
In discussing J. G. Frazer as a source of
inspiration, Leach attributes Harrison's fascination
for The Golden Bough to Victorian repression.

329 "Ritual." International Encyclopedia of
the Social Sciences. 1968 ed. 13: 520-26.
Harrison's inquiry into the relationship
between ritual and art was a development from
Radcliffe-Brown's ideas. Both Radcliffe-Brown and
Malinowski were indebted to her writings. Radcliffe-
Brown's idea of "ritual release" was essentially that
iterated by Harrison.

330 Levyns, M. R. "Life in Peile Hall." A Newnham
Anthology. Ed. Ann Phillips. Cambridge: Cam-
bridge UP, 1979. 95-98.
Reminiscence of Harrison at Newnham's High

331 "Literary Work of Old Students." Newnham Col-
lege Letter 1907-1908: 44-45.
Bibliography of Harrison's major works to

332 Little, Judy. "Festive Comedy in Woolf's Be-
tween the Acts." Women & Literature 5 (1977):
Virginia Woolf's work, containing ritual
elements, draws upon that of Harrison.

McGinty, Park. "Approach to Dionysos."
SEE: 333

333 _. Interpretation and Dionysos: Method in the
Study of a God. Religion and Reason 16. The
Hague: Mouton, 1978. Orig. title, "Approach to
Dionysos: The Study of the Methodological Pre-
suppositions in the Various Theories of Greek
Religion as Illustrated in the Study of
Dionysos." Diss. U of Chicago, 1972.

70 The Cambridge Ritualists

Devotes a chapter to analyzing Harrison's
theories on Dionysus. Themis represents a major
shift in Harrison's thought from Dionysus as expres-
sion of mental backwardness to the expression of
social unity. Gives a considered estimation of the
value of her work.

334 Maika, Patricia. Virginia Woolf's Between the
Acts and Jane Harrison's Con/spiracy. Studies
in Modern Literature. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1987.
Discusses Harrison's influence on Woolf, in
particular how the former's Ancient Art and Ritual
aids in understanding the political ideas found in
Woolf's Between the Acts.

335 Manganaro, Marc. "T. S. Eliot and the Primitive
Mind." Diss. U of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill, 1985.
T. S. Eliot used Harrison's theories of the
totemic process to develop his vision of the hollow
secularism of modern man.

336 Marcus, Jane. "Invincible Mediocrity: The Pri-
vate Selves of Public Women." The Private Self.
Ed. Shari Benstock. Chapel Hill, NC: U of North
Carolina P, 1988.
Examines several women's autobiographies,
including Harrison's Reminiscences of a Student's
Life, as rejections of the patriarchal establishment.

337 "Pargeting 'The Pargeters': Notes of an
Apprentice Plasterer." Bulletin of the New York
Public Library 80 (1977): 416-35. Rpt. in Vir-
ginia Woolf and the Languages of Patriarchy.
Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987. 57-74.
Virginia Woolf's work shows the influence
of Harrison.

338 "Quentin's Bogey." Critical Inquiry 11
(1985): 486-97.
In a response to Quentin Bell, Virginia
Woolf's literary executor, Marcus discusses Har-
rison's concept of the "bogey"/god which Woolf
applied to English patriarchal culture.

339 "Taking the Bull by the Udders: Sexual
Difference in Virginia Woolf--A Conspiracy
Theory." Virginia Woolf and the Languages of
Patriarchy. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987.
As a role model and mentor, Harrison
contributed to the classical images in Virginia
Woolf's writing. Harrison was Woolf's model as a

Jane Ellen Harrison

340 "Thinking Back Through Our Mothers." New
Feminist Essays on Virginia Woolf. Ed. Jane
Marcus. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P., 1981. 1-30.
Harrison's influence on Virginia Woolf.

341 Virginia Woolf and the Languages of
Patriarchy. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987.
A collection of essays by Marcus, several
of which make reference to Harrison's influence on
Virginia Woolf.

342 "The Years as Greek Drama, Domestic Novel,
and Gotterdammerung." Bulletin of the New York
Public Library 80 (1977): 276-301. Rpt. in Vir-
ginia Woolf and the Languages of Patriarchy.
Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987. 36-56.
Virginia Woolf took many ideas on classical
culture from Harrison.

343 Marshall, Mary Paley. What I Remember. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge UP, 1947.
Brief reminiscence of Harrison at Newnham
(pp. 20-21).

344 M[errill], E[lmer] T[ruesdell]. "Execution of a
Vestal and Ritual Marriage." Classical Philol-
ogy 9 (1914): 317-22.
Criticism of Harrison's paper, "Sophocles
Ichneutae" (213). The excavation of the unchaste
Vestal was not a ritual marriage, as Harrison theo-
rizes, but a punishment to appease the offended god.

345 Mirrlees, Hope and Jessie Stewart. Letter. The
Times Literary Supplement 21 July 1932: 532.
Requests copies of correspondence from Har-
rison for a proposed biography.

346 Mirsky, D. S. Jane Ellen Harrison and Russia.
Jane Harrison Memorial Lecture 2. Cambridge:
Heffer, 1930. Summary in Cambridge Review 14
Feb. 1930: 255.
Lecture given 9 Feb. 1930, on Harrison, the
intellectual revolutionary with a sense of the coming
age. Perhaps more than anyone, Harrison epitomized
and influenced the intellectual revolution that over-
threw the Victorian establishment. Mirsky, Harri-
son's Russian friend, discusses Harrison's love for

"Miss Harrison on Delphi."
SEE: 129

347 "Miss J. E. Harrison, LL. D." The Student 14
Dec. 1899: 153-54.

The Cambridge Ritualists

Reviews her accomplishments, lectures, and
books, from her lectures at the British Museum to the
honorary degree from the University of Aberdeen.
Mentions her workmanlike spirit and distinctive

348 "Miss Jane Harrison." The Times 20 Apr. 1928:
Harrison's funeral, with a list of

"Miss Jane Harrison's Lectures on Delphi."
SEE: 129

349 Moore, Madeline. "Some Female Versions of
Pastoral: The Voyage Out and Matriarchal
Mythologies." New Feminist Essays on Virginia
Woolf. Ed. Jane Marcus. Lincoln: U of Nebraska
P, 1981. 82-104. Rpt. in The Short Season
Between Two Silences: The Mystical and the
Political in the Novels of Virginia Woolf.
Boston: Allen, 1984. 36-58.
Analyzes Harrison's myth of Mother and
Maiden as a creative source for Virginia Woolf's
Helen and Rachel.

350 Murray, Gilbert. "A Great Scholar." Listener 8
Mar. 1951: 373-74.
Reminiscence of Harrison. Characterizes
her as "a searcher" with unconventional methods and
discusses her scholarship.

351 Jane Ellen Harrison: An Address Delivered
at Newnham College, October 27th, 1928. Harri-
son Memorial Lecture 1. Cambridge: Heffer,
1928. Rpt. in Epilegomena and Themis: A Study
of the Social Origins of Greek Religion. New
York: University Books, [1962]. 559-77. Sum-
mary in "Jane Ellen Harrison." The Times 29
Oct. 1928: 11. Summary in Cambridge Review 9
Nov. 1928: 108. Noted by S. Reinach, Revue
Archeologique 29 (1929): 378.
An appreciation of Harrison and her work.

352 Myres, J. L. "The Mythical Element in History."
Cambridge Review 2 June 1933: 449-50. Summary
in Cambridge Review 5 May 1933: 366.
Excerpt from his Jane Ellen Harrison
Memorial Lecture, summarizing the state of Greek
studies when she began her career, the problems on
which she focused, and her contributions.

353 "Newnham College Fellowship,Fund." Newnham
College Letter 1902: 31-32; 1903: 39.

Jane Ellen Harrison

Notes regarding Harrison's three-year fel-
lowship, which afforded her facilities for travel.

354 "Newnham College Letter." Newnham College
Letter 1910: 5-11; 1917: 5.
Reports on Harrison's activities.

355 News [of the Week] and Notes. Cambridge Review
14 Nov. 1901: 66; 29 Jan. 1903: 147; 19 Feb.
1903: 194; 4 Mar. 1903: 226; 9 Feb. 1905: 179; 5
Mar. 1905: 227; 15 Feb. 1906: 234; 27 May 1909:
420-21; 16 Feb. 1911: 281; 25 May 1911: 459; 30
Oct. 1913: 57; 25 Nov. 1914: 103; 2 Dec. 1914:
120; 3 Nov. 1915: 67; 21 Feb. 1917: 233.
Accounts of Harrison's public lectures and
SEE ALSO: 92, 99, 104, 122, 133, 136, 146, 150, 153,
170, 174, 187, 201, 221

356 Nilsson, Martin P. The Dionysiac Mysteries of
the Hellenistic and Roman Age. Lund, Sweden:
Gleerup, 1957.
In a chapter on the liknon, Nilsson acknow-
ledges the "fundamental" papers by Harrison and de-
pends on her work for an analysis of the winnowing
basket (pp. 21-37).

357 Olson, Charles. "Carrying Water to the Youth in
Honor of Sappho/Jane Harrison/& Miss Duncan If/
She Had." The Collected Poems of Charles Olson,
Excluding the Maximus Poems. Ed. George F.
Butterick. Berkeley: U of California P, 1987.

358 Osborn, Christabel. "Newnham--And After."
Windsor Magazine 4 (1896): 301-08.
In this article on the joys and value of a
Newnham education, Harrison comments on the advan-
tages of education by personal contact, first-rate
literary training, and learning to enjoy the society
of other women.

359 Panofsky, Dora and Erwin Panofsky. Pandora's
Box: The Changing Aspects of a Mythical Symbol.
Bollingen Series 52. New York: Pantheon, 1956.
Credits Harrison as the first to notice the
philological transformation of a storage jar to a
small box. Harrison blamed Giraldi for this mis-
understanding, but the Panofskys blame Erasmus of

360 Peacock, Sandra J. "An Awful Warmth About her
Heart: The Sources of Jane Harrison's Ideas on

The Cambridge Ritualists

Religion." Paper read at The Cambridge Ritual-
ists: An International Conference, University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 27-29 Apr.
Harrison's works can be read on two levels:
as studies of ancient religion and as autobiograph-
ical texts.

"The Concealed Self: A Life of Jane Ellen
SEE: 361

361 .Jane Ellen Harrison: The Mask and the
Self. New Haven: Yale UP, 1988. Orig. title,
"The Concealed Self: A Life of Jane Ellen Har-
rison." Diss. State U of New York Binghamton,
A psychological biography of Harrison that
makes extensive use of the notes generated by Hope
Mirrlees for her own proposed biography, now housed
at Newnham College Library. Harrison's "gender
influenced her work" (p. 116). Photos.
Beard, Mary. The Times Literary Supplement
27 Jan.-2 Feb. 1989: 82.
Kimball, Roger. New Criterion 7 (1989):

362 Pfaff, Richard W. Montague Rhodes James.
London: Scolar, 1980.
Gives an account of James' criticism of
Harrison's "Head of John Baptist" (pp. 255-56).
SEE ALSO: 146, 164, 321, 735

363 Phillips, Ann, ed. A Newnham Anthology. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge UP, 1979.
A collection of reminiscences of life at
Newnham College that includes several anecdotes
regarding Harrison.
SEE ALSO: 291, 292, 299, 311, 317, 326, 330, 364, 385

364 Phyllis, Sister. "The Rainbow is Discovered."
A Newnham Anthology. Ed. Ann Phillips. Cam-
bridge: Cambridge UP, 1979. 111-13.
After hearing Harrison lecture, "archae-
ology claimed me as her own for ever."

365 Reinach, Adolphe. "Themis: Un Nouveau Livre sur
les Origines Sociales de la Religion Grecque."
Revue de l'Histoire des Religions 69 (1914):
An extensive critique of Harrison's major

Jane Ellen Harrison

366 "Report of the Principal to the General Meeting
of Newnham College .. .." Newnham College Club
1899: 15; 1900: 35; 1903: 21.
Reports on Harrison's activities at

367 Riviere, George-Henri and Andre Varagnac. Let-
ter. Folk-Lore 48 (1937): 420-25.
Folklore in France. Representatives of the
International Folklore Congress acknowledge their
debt to British scientists, particularly Harrison and
Frazer, for focusing on the study of both material
and spiritual culture.

368 Robinson, Annabel. "Something Odd at Work: The
Influence of Jane Harrison on A Room of One's
Own." Wascana Review 22 (1987): 82-88.
Harrison's writing and friendship led Vir-
ginia Woolf to consider the importance of a room.
Particular attention is given to Themis, "Scientiae
Sacra Fames," and Dionysian renewal.

S[alter], H[elen] de G. [Reminiscences.]
SEE: 322

Schlesier, Renate. "Jane Harrison on the History of
Greek Religion."
SEE: 369

369 "Prolegomena zum Beitrag von Jane Harrison
zur Antiken Griechischen Religionsgeschichte."
Summary entitled "Jane Harrison on the History
of Greek Religion." Paper read at The Cambridge
Ritualists: An International Conference, Univer-
sity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 27-29 Apr.
Harrison's life work was formed by a
coherent model of the history of Greek religion.
Schlesier examines some of these conceptions:
evolution, origin, reality, anthropomorphism, daimon
versus god, Olympic versus chthonic, matriarchate
before patriarchate, monotheism, mystery-ecstasis,
and asceticism.

370 Selwyn, Edward Gordon. Tradition and Reason:
Being a Reply to Miss Harrison's Pamphlet
Entitled "Heresy and Humanity." Cambridge:
Bowes, 1911.
A patronizing challenge to what he calls
the misunderstandings and prejudices of Harrison's
pamphlet (92). Selwyn calls her illogical and
accuses her of provincialism.

371 "Session .." Journal of Hellenic Studies 6
(1885): xlv; 8 (1887): xlviii; 9 (1888): xliv;

The Cambridge Ritualists

10 (1889): xxxvii; 11 (1890): xxxvii; 12 (1891):
xxxvii, xxxix, xl; 13 (1892-1893): xlv; 14
(1894): xli-xlii; 15 (1895): xxxvii; 16 (1896):
xxxvii-xxxix; 17 (1897): xxxiv-xxxv; 18 (1898):
xxxix; 19 (1899): xxxv; 20 (1900): xxxiv-xxxv;
25 (1905): xlii; 30 (1910): xlviii; 34 (1914):
Sometimes published with the additional
title of "Proceedings." Accounts of Harrison's
activities in the Society for the Promotion of
Hellenic Studies, summaries of papers given and com-
mentary, her committee work, and donations of books,
slides and negatives to the Society's library.

372 Shattuck, Sandra D. "The Stage of Scholarship:
Crossing the Bridge from Harrison to Woolf."
Virginia Woolf and Bloomsbury: A Centenary
Celebration. Ed. Jane Marcus. Bloomington:
Indiana UP, 1987. 278-98.
Harrison's Ancient Art and Ritual illumi-
nates Virginia Woolf's Between the Acts, especially
with regard to ritual and the chorus.

373 Sinclair, Louie. "A List of the Writings of J.
E. Harrison (1850-1928.)" Typescript. Cam-
bridge University Library. 1956.
An alphabetical listing of 145 books and
articles, introductions and book reviews written by

374 Stewart, J. A. "The Source of Dante's Eunoe."
Classical Review 17 (1903): 117-18.
A response to Harrison's "Query" (203).

Stewart, Jessie G. [Bibliographical Essay.]
SEE: 322

375 "The Harrison Memorial Lecture." Cam-
bridge Review 28 Apr. 1951: 458.
Harrison's centenary was celebrated with a
lecture by W. K. C. Guthrie, "The Nature of Early
Greek Mysticism," here reviewed by G. S. Kirk. The
lecture was preceded by a personal talk, given by
Mrs. W. H. Salter, daughter of the Verralls.

376 Jane Ellen Harrison: A Portrait from
Letters. London: Merlin, 1959.
A biography based on personal friendship
and on the over 800 letters Harrison sent to Gilbert
Murray from 1900 to 1928. Contains a bibliography of
Harrison's major works and photos.
Hawkes, Jacquetta. New Statesman and
Nation 20 June 1959: 870-71.

Jane Ellen Harrison

Leach, Edmund. Spectator 31 July 1959:
Nicolson, Harold. Observer 21 June 1959:
The Times Literary Supplement 24 July 1959:

377 "Jane Ellen Harrison, 1850-1928." Cam-
bridge Review 3 Feb. 1951: 302-04.
An appreciation of Harrison on the centen-
nial of her birth, summarizing her life and work.

"Jane Harrison: A Memoir."
SEE: 403

378 "A Scholar's Friendship: Birthday Letters
from Jane Harrison to Gilbert Murray, 1900-
1928." Cambridge Review 28 Jan. 1956: 276-78.
Excerpts from the letters, showing the
intellectual collaboration of the two friends.

379 Stewart, Jessie and Agnes Conway. "Memorial to
Miss Harrison." Newnham College Letter 1929:
Four hundred pounds have been collected for
the Jane Harrison Lectureship.

380 Strachey, J. P. "Jane Harrison Memorial Lec-
ture." Newnham College Roll 1929: 14.
Announces the first Lecture by Gilbert
Murray. Characterizes Harrison as "a spirit, eager,
swift and free."

381 Studniczka, Franz. "Eine Corruptel im Ion des
Euripides." Hermes 37 (1902): 258-70.
Gives archaeological evidence that the
reading of Euripides' Ion, as given by Harrison
(113), among others, is impossible. The gorgons have
no place on or near the omphalos.

382 Thomson, Gladys Scott. Mrs. Arthur Strong: A
Memoir. London: Cohen, 1949. 24, 43.
Harrison's work as lecturer at the British
Museum inspired Eugenie Sellers [Strong]. The two
women were friends for a time, but their temperaments
were incompatible.

383 Vicinus, Martha. Independent Women: Work and
Community for Single Women, 1850-1920. Chicago:
U of Chicago P, 1985.
Harrison's life represents the struggle for
balance between the emotions and mind as faced by the
female scholar/teacher (pp. 152-57).

The Cambridge Ritualists

384 "Wills and Bequests: Miss Jane Ellen Harrison."
The Times 16 July 1928: 16.
A brief account of Harrison's estate.

385 Wilson, F. M. "Friendships." A Newnham Anthol-
ogy. Ed. Ann Phillips. Cambridge: Cambridge
UP, 1979. 65-69.
Students at Newnham vied for a seat next to
Harrison at dinner.

386 Wilson, John C. "Preface to This Edition."
Epilegomena and Themis: A Study of the Social
Origins of Greek Religion. New York: University
Books, [1962]. vii-xii.
Harrison revolutionized Greek studies.
"Since Prolegomena (1903) it has been quite impos-
sible to discuss Greek religion except in terms of
the problems she posed and the solutions she offered"
(p. ix).

387 "A Woman's View of the Greek Question: An
Interview with Miss Jane Harrison." Pall Mall
Gazette 4 Nov. 1891: 1-2.
Harrison admits to a prejudice in favor of
compulsory Greek at the universities. She also de-
scribes her lectures and her audiences.

388 Woolf, Leonard. Downhill All the Way: An
Autobiography of the Years 1919-1939. London:
Hogarth, 1968.
Brief glimpse of Harrison: "one of the most
civilized persons I have ever known the most
charming, humorous, witty, individual human being"
(p. 26).

389 Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. London:
Hogarth, 1929.
Contains brief references to Harrison.
Woolf is responsible for the well-known description
of Harrison in her later years: "a bent figure,
formidable yet humble, with her great forehead and
her shabby dress" (p. 28).

SEE ALSO: 322, 351

390 American Journal of Archaeology 33 (1929): 109.

391 Annual of the British School at Athens 29 (1927-
28): 313.

Jane Ellen Harrison 79

392 Conway, Agnes E. Women's Leader 27 April 1928:

393 Cornford, Francis M. "Harrison, Jane Ellen
(1850-1928)." Dictionary of National Biography
supp. 4 (1922-1930): 408-09.

394 Manchester Guardian 18 Apr. 1928: 15.

395 Mirsky, D. S. Slavonic Review 7 (1929): 414-16.

396 Nature 5 May 1928: 719-20.

397 New York Times 17 Apr. 1928: 29.

398 Newnham College Register, 1871-1971. 2 vols.
Cambridge: Newnham College, 1963. 2nd ed.,
1979. I: 8-9.

399 R[einach], S. Revue Archeologique 28 (1928):

400 Rose, H. J. Year's Work in Classical Studies 21
(1927-1928): 56.

401 _. Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 1933
ed. 7: 275.

402 Schlesier, Renate. "Jane Ellen Harrison."
Encyclopedia of Classical Scholars. Ed. William
M. Calder, III and Ward Briggs. New York:
Garland, in press.

403 Stewart, Jessie G. "Jane Harrison: A Memoir."
Cambridge Review 27 Apr. 1928: 364.

404 The Times 17 April 1928: 11.

405 Toynbee, J[ocelyn]. Thersites [May term] 1928:
n. pag.

406 Who Was Who 2 (1916-1928): 469.

Gilbert Murray, January 20, 1940.
Courtesy of the British Academy.

GILBERT MURRAY (1866-1957)

Known as the foremost Hellenist of his time in
England and as a tireless worker for world peace,
George Gilbert Aime Murray was born in 1866 in
Sydney, Australia, where his father was President of
the Legislative Council of New South Wales. His
father died when Murray was eight. Three years
later, the family moved to England. As a student at
St. John's College, Oxford, Murray won all the clas-
sics prizes and obtained a First Class in both parts
of the Classical Tripos. In 1888, he earned a fel-
lowship to New College at Oxford. The following
year, at the age of 23, Murray was appointed to the
coveted Chair of Greek at the University of Glasgow;
he resigned a decade later due to poor health.

Retiring on a special Fellowship from New
College, Murray spent his recuperation editing and
translating Euripides. The 1903 production of THE
HIPPOLYTUS (485) at Court Theatre, under the direc-
tion of Harley Granville Barker and J. E. Vedrenne,
was a landmark event in the history of drama, and
gained for both Murray and Euripides fame and ac-
claim. In 1908, his health restored, he was ap-
pointed Regius Professor of Greek at Oxford, where he
was active in the campaign to abolish compulsory
Greek. He held that position until his retirement in
1936. Murray served as Charles Eliot Norton Pro-
fessor of Poetry at Harvard University in 1926, and
he was given honorary degrees from the universities
of Oxford, Cambridge, Glasgow and Birmingham. A
Liberal in the Gladstonian tradition, Murray spent
much of his life working for world peace and inter-
national cooperation through the League of Nations.
For his work with the League, he was awarded the
British Order of Merit in 1941. In 1956, he was
nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by fellow League
activists Robert Cecil, Norman Angell, and Harold

Murray's first major work, the 1897 HISTORY OF
ANCIENT GREEK LITERATURE (432), displayed the crea-
tive imagination for which he became known, but his
early scholarship consisted primarily of editing and
translating. His critical edition of Euripides--
EURIPIDIS FABULAE, 1902-1909 (482)--was the standard

82 The Cambridge Ritualists

text for over half a century. Translating from the
Greek was a favorite pastime, and it is said that
through his verse translations, Murray almost single-
handedly revived the Greek drama in English theaters.
In Murray's hands, the plays of Aeschylus, Aris-
tophanes, Euripides, Menander, and Sophocles were
rendered in the florid style of William Morris and A.
C. Swinburne, and proved quite popular at the time.
Though Murray's dramatic style went out of fashion
after World War I, he continued his translations, and
his are still among the most playable of the English
versions. Murray was influential in resuscitating
the reputation of Euripides, a playwright he saw as
his Greek counterpart, the radical fighting injus-
tice. As his translations of Greek plays and his own
plays were produced--ANDROMACHE (411), CARLYON SAHIB
(415)--he came to befriend a theatrical and literary
crowd that included Harley Granville Barker, John
Masefield, and John Galsworthy. George Bernard Shaw
immortalized Murray as Adolphus Cusins in Major

Murray's 1909 Inaugural Lecture at Oxford, THE
defines a Greek scholar's duty as acting as a bridge
between the living and the dead, and this was clearly
the role Murray took. He tried to make the classics
come alive for the masses, and his work often strad-
dled scholarly/popular categories. As an interpreter
of classical literature, Murray's reputation was made
RELIGION (426), revised in 1925 as FIVE STAGES OF
was a stimulating work on that Greek playwright that
proved popular. Jane Harrison's influence on Murray
can be clearly seen in these early works. Murray had
met her in 1900, and contributed a "Critical Appendix
on the Orphic Tablets" (571) to her Prolegomena.
They became lifelong friends, and he readily came to
her defense when she was attacked by critics--see his
1917 Letter to the Classical Review (735). Though in
later years he was to wonder if perhaps they had made
too much of the Year Daimon, nonetheless the idea of
an underlying ritual framework in drama clearly
influenced his work. In 1912, he contributed the
"Excursus on the Ritual Forms Preserved in Greek
Tragedy" (609) to Harrison's Themis, in which he
outlined how the plot in Greek drama followed the
primitive ritual structure. This influential work
and his 1914 "Hamlet and Orestes" (652) were pre-
cursors to the kind of myth criticism that is
continued today by literary critic Northrop Frye,
among others.

Gilbert Murray

Murray believed strongly in public service and
took an active role in social and political issues.
Allying himself with the radical wing of the Liberal
Party, he openly opposed the Boer War and denounced
nationalism--"National Ideals: Conscious and Uncon-
scious," 1900 (1018). He stood several times (unsuc-
cessfully) for Parliament from Oxford. With the
onset of the First World War, Murray devoted more and
more of his energies toward working for international
peace. No pacifist, Murray recognized the need to
answer force with force, and he backed the British
government's policies in World War I. His FOREIGN
POLICY OF SIR EDWARD GREY (425) was one of the first
effective works of British propaganda in this period.

He was a founder of the League of Nations Union,
acting as chairman of the Executive Council (in 1923-
1938) where his chief concern was disarmament. For
eight years (1928-1936), he was Chairman of the
League's Committee on Intellectual Co-operation, with
colleagues such as Henri Bergson, Albert Einstein,
Marie Curie, and Paul Valery. From 1945 to 1957, he
acted as joint or sole president of the United Na-
tions Association.

His Irish ancestry and early exposure to the
cruelty and injustice toward aborigines in Australia
gave him a life-long compassion for the oppressed.
During World War I, he lobbied on behalf of consci-
entious objectors (including Clive Bell and Stephen
Hobhouse), publicly denouncing their treatment. He
intervened with Asquith on behalf of 34 CO's sen-
tenced to death in France. After Bertrand Russell
had been expelled from Trinity College for his paci-
fism, Murray organized a subscription to finance
Russell's 1919 lectures at the London School of Eco-
nomics. During World War II, Murray and his family
personally aided many refugees, providing room and
board for years. One biographer cynically noted that
perhaps Murray's "most permanent service to pure
scholarship" was his effort at securing positions for
refugee scholars at British universities.

Though he exhibited a Victorian ambivalence
toward democracy, Murray believed in the equality of
the races and of the sexes, and he openly supported
women's education. In the League, he became an
expert on minority affairs. His articles on polit-
ical and social issues appeared regularly in such
periodicals as Contemporary Review and the League of
Nations' Headway, and he was a frequent speaker on
the BBC, many of the speeches subsequently published
in the Listener. As a firm believer in moral evolu-
tion and progress, he valued human reason, but his

The Cambridge Ritualists

interests included the paranormal, and his work with
mental telepathy led to two terms as President of the
Society for Psychical Research (1915-1916, 1952-

With his commitment to social causes, Murray's
scholarship inevitably suffered. THE CLASSICAL
(412), and his 1937 critical text of Aeschylus,
proved disappointments. His translations, too,
except for those of Menander, showed the effects of
divided interest. Murray may perhaps be best remem-
bered as a great humanist. His life had one central
dominating theme--a longing to achieve the high
ideals espoused by Hellenism: Reason, Truth, Good-
ness, and Beauty. Much of his work is an eloquent
testimonial to the value of the classics and to the
vital roles which political liberalism and the
humanities have played in Western civilization.

Concerning his personal life, in 1889 he married
Lady Mary Howard, the daughter of a well-known aris-
tocratic Liberal family, and they had five children,
three of whom they outlived. For many years, their
daughter Rosalind was married to historian Arnold J.
Toynbee. Lady Mary died in 1956. Although he was a
professed atheist, Murray's ashes are interred in
Westminster Abbey. His papers are housed at the
Bodleian Library, Oxford.

Research on Murray

Murray's style of translation is discussed by
Ackerman (1327), Bush (1364), Chapman (1370), Gran-
ville Barker (1450), Helms (1461), Masefield (1511),
Mason (1512), Page (1543), and Palmer (1544). Ward
(1678) focuses on the idea of Tradition as envisioned
by Murray and its influence on Eliot. Murray's role
in the creation of G. B. Shaw's Major Barbara has
been examined by Albert (1331), Brown (1362), and
Smith (1630). Todd (1654) analyzes Murray's views on
Euripides. Eckert (1407), Else (1413), and Webster
(1682) examine Murray's theories of ritual structure
and motifs. Salmon (1611) has studied the friendship
and mutual influences of Murray and Granville Barker.
Two major biographies have been written, one by West
(1686) and the most recent by Wilson (1690). Robert
Fowler wrote the Murray entry for the Encyclopedia of
Classical Scholars (1713).

Several articles express the deep impression
Murray made as a teacher, friend, and colleague:

Gilbert Murray 85

Bowra (1356, 1357), Curvengen (1385), Dodds (1403),
Fraser (1432), Henderson (1462), Highet (1464),
Lloyd-Jones (1504), Panichas (1727), and Price
(1576). Murray's activities in World War I--Rae
(1597), Thompson (1649)--his role in the League--Birn
(1353), Cecil (1368), Madariaga (1510), and Winckler
(1692)--and the role he played in British propa-
ganda--Buitenhuis (1363), Wright (1702)--have also
undergone scrutiny. Two festschriften were presented
to Murray on his retirement from Oxford in 1936:
Essays in Honour of Gilbert Murray (1415) and Greek
Poetry and Life (1454). Two previous bibliographies
have been compiled as theses/dissertations: Patry
(1545) and Gongoll (1447). Mrs. Pamela Neville-
Sington has also done work toward a bibliography.


1. Henderson, M. I. "Murray, Gilbert (1866-1957)."
Dictionary of National Biography 1951-1960.
Supp. 7 (1971): 760.

86 The Cambridge Ritualists

Includes original plays and fly-sheets. For
full bibliographic information for works published as
chapters in Murray's books, refer also to the col-
lected work, as noted in the cross reference. Full
bibliographic information and annotations for works
originally published as articles will be found in the
ARTICLES section.

The Admission of Germany to the League. [1919?]
SEE: 523

407 Advance Under Fire. Ramsay Muir Memorial Lec-
ture. London: Gollancz, 1951.
Delivered Oxford Union Society, 22 July
1951. On the decline of Liberalism and its values in
modern society because of the increasing lust for
power. Yet there is reason for hope: Murray finds a
new urge afoot, self-preservation by mutual

408 Aeschylus, The Creator of Tragedy. Oxford:
Clarendon, 1940; [1951]; [1958]. Oxford
Paperbacks 51. New York: Oxford UP, 1962.
Westport, CN: Greenwood, 1978.
A popular guide to the plays. Murray gives
his interpretation of the problem of the satyr play,
the chronology of extant plays, and the reconstruc-
tion of lost plays. Aeschylus was innovative in
three ways: he was a pioneer in stage technique, he
made tragedy a thing of majesty, and he was a poet of
ideas. Tragedy originated in the rituals of the Year
Daimon, which explains its spirit. Murray emphasizes
the prevalence of Dionysian elements in the lost
plays and theorizes that Suppliant Women is the
closest of Aeschylus' plays to the dance out of which
tragedy arose.
Campbell, A[rchibald] Y. Spectator 12 Apr.
1940: 534.
Durham University Journal ns 1 (1940): 233-
Grene, David. New Republic 9 Sept. 1940:
Hadas, Moses. Classical Journal 37 (1941-
1942): 495-97.
Highest, Gilbert. Saturday Review of Lit-
erature 29 June 1940: 19.
Kitto, H. D. F. Classical Review 54
(1940): 81-82.
Kozlenko, William. New York Times Book
Review 9 June 1940: 2.

Gilbert Murray

Lucas, D. W. Cambridge Review 10 May 1940:
M., K. J. Oxford Magazine 13 June 1940:
M., P. G. Greece and Rome 10 (1940): 46-
Morton, Frederick. Theatre Arts 24 (1940):
O'Neill, Eugene, Jr. Classical Weekly 6
Jan. 1941: 110-11.
R., J. J. Catholic World 152 (1941): 625-
Smith, Gertrude. Classical Philology 37
(1942): 234-35.
The Times Literary Supplement 20 July 1940:
Treves, P. Les Etudes Classiques 10
(1941): 304-05.
Vysoky, Z. K. Listy Filologicke 72 (1947):
Webster, T. B. L. Manchester Guardian 5
Mar. 1940: 3.

1962 edition:
Rexine, John E. Classical Bulletin 40
(1964): 94.
Ritchie, W. Proceedings of the African
Classical Association 6 (1963): 59-60.

409 The Anchor of Civilization; The Philip Maurice
Deneke Lecture Delivered at Lady Margaret Hall,
on 24 November 1942. London: Oxford UP, 1943.
Rpt. in From the League to U. N. 86-108.
The lust for power is the cause for all
suffering in the world. Nations must come together
to establish the rule of law and international order.

410 Andrew Lang, the Poet. Andrew Lang Lecture.
London: Oxford UP, 1948.
Delivered at the University of St. Andrews,
7 May 1947. An appreciation of Lang, lover of form
and the legendary past, who restored and popularized
the fairytale and folklore, and made anthropology
romantic and fascinating. Murray discusses poetry,
its diction and form, the perfection of which is no
longer a goal in the postwar utilitarian period.

411 Andromache; A Play in Three Acts. London:
Heinemann, 1900. Ltd. ed. Portland, ME:
Mosher, 1913. Rev. ed. London: Allen, 1914;
3rd ed., 1931. Microform ed., Nineteenth
Century English and American Drama 2007. [New
York]: Readex Microprint, [n. d.]

The Cambridge Ritualists

An original play based on the Greek tale of
Orestes who killed his mother for her part in the
death of his father Agamemnon, and who is pursued by
the avenging furies. Unlike classical drama,
Andromache omits the chorus, disregards the unities,
shows slaughter onstage, and gives a Christian per-
spective. The play was admired by Jane Harrison, but
the Nation's critic called it "a most interesting
failure." Performed by the Stage Society, 24 Feb.
1901, at the Strand and 25 Feb. 1901 at the Garrick
Athenaeum 21 Apr. 1900: 507.
B[railsford], H. N. Speaker 28 Apr. 1900:
Literature 12 'ay 1900: 368.
Nation (L) 18 July 1901: 58-59.
New York Times Book Review 5 May 1900: 292.

1914 edition:
Palmer, John. Saturday Review 28 Mar.
1914: 292.

Theater reviews:
Athenaeum 2 Mar. 1901: 283-84.
Beerbohm, Max. Saturday Review 2 Mar.
1901: 267-68. Rpt. in his Around
Theatres. 1924. London:
Hart, 1953. 127-31.
C., P. Speaker 2 Mar. 1901: 592-93.
Era 2 Mar. 1901: 15.
Stage 28 Feb. 1901: 14.
The Times 26 Feb. 1901: 14.
World 6 Mar. 1901: 25-26.
SEE ALSO: 1389

412 Aristophanes: A Study. Oxford: Clarendon; New
York: Oxford UP, 1933. London: Oxford UP,
[1965]; 1968. New York: Russell, 1964. Facs.
ed., Books on Demand. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, n. d.
A defense of Aristophanes, exponent of the
Old Comedy, for his attitude toward women, his treat-
ment of Euripides and Sophocles, his malicious humor
and outrageous language. Gives literary and politi-
cal background to the plays, and treats the plays
topically rather than chronologically. With Corn-
ford, Murray finds certain elements in Comedy derive
from phallic ritual. Murray considers Aristophanes a
pacifist, devoted to "Peace, Poetry and the philo-
sophic criticism of life."
B[owra], C. M. Oxford Magazine 4 May 1933:
Cambridge Review 12 May 1933: 393.

Gilbert Murray

Cornford, F. M. Listener 7 June 1933: 922.
Flickinger, Roy C. Classical Journal 29
(1933-1934): 386-88.
Gilder, Rosamund. Theatre Arts Monthly 17
(1933): 978-79.
Greece and Rome 3 (1933): 63-64.
Hutchison, Percy. New York Times Book
Review 30 Apr. 1933: 4.
Journal of Hellenic Studies 54 (1934): 102.
M., K. New Statesman and Nation 6 May
1933: 574.
Navarre, Oct. Revue des Etudes Anciennes
36 (1934): 274.
Norwood, Gilbert. Classical Philology 28
(1933): 217-19.
0., E. T. Canadian Forum 13 (1933): 437.
Perry, Henry Ten Eyck. Yale Review ns 23
(1933): 190-92.
Pickard-Cambridge, Arthur W. Classical
Review 47 (1933): 178-80.
R[ostagni], A. Rivista di Filologia e
d'Istruzione Classica 12 (1934): 267-
Saturday Review 15 July 1933: 77.
Shorey, Paul. Nation (NY) 14 June 1933:
Spencer, F. A. Symposium 4 (1932-1933):
The Times Literary Supplement 18 May 1933:
Treves, P. Civilta Moderna 8 (1936): 353-
Wilkinson, L. P. Spectator 23 June 1933:
Young, Stark. New Republic 30 Aug. 1933:

413 Aristophanes and the War Party: A Study in the
Contemporary Criticism of the Peloponnesian War.
Creighton Lecture. London: Allen, [1919]. Rpt.
in Essays and Addresses/Tradition and Progress.
31-55. Rpt. in Humanist Essays. 30-50. Sum-
mary in "Cleon and the War." The Times 8 Nov.
1918: 9. Summary pub. as "Cleon and Aris-
tophanes: The Contemporary Criticism of the
Peloponnesian War." Educational Review 57
(1919): 87-89. Rpt. as Our Great War and the
Great War of the Ancient Greeks. Creighton Lec-
ture. New York: Seltzer, 1920.
Delivered at the London School of Econom-
ics, 7 Nov. 1918. In discussing the effects of the
war on Athenian society, Murray makes an analogy
between Athens and Britain during the Great War, and
uses The Knights to illustrate certain points.

90 The Cambridge Ritualists

A[ppleton], R. B. Classical Review 34
(1920): 180.
Knapp, Charles. Classical Weekly 25 Feb.
1925: 105-07.
Sheppard, J. T. Athenaeum 18 July 1919:

1920 edition:
Hughan, Jessie Wallace. Socialist Review 8
(1920): 208.
Nation (NY) 28 Aug. 1920: 252.
SEE ALSO: 421, 434

414 Attic Sentence-Construction. By G. G. A.
Murray. Glasgow: MacLehose, 1898.
Pamphlet on Greek syntax. An outline of
all normal forms of Attic sentence construction.

415 Carlyon Sahib: A Drama in Four Acts. London:
Heinemann, 1900. Microform ed., Nineteenth
Century English and American Drama. New York:
Readex Microprint, 1966.
An original prose play inspired by Ibsen's
Peer Gynt that treats the theme of hubris and criti-
cizes imperialism. Set in India, the play tells of a
retired proconsul who is haunted by a journalist who
threatens to reveal a dark secret: he once let an
infection spread to quell a native uprising. Mrs.
Patrick Campbell produced and acted in the play which
was performed in June 1899, at Kennington Theatre
with the actors Nutcombe Gould, Bertie Thomas, and
Harley Granville Barker. William Archer provided
critical assistance, and the play was admired by J.
M. Barrie and G. B. Shaw, but audiences didn't like
Bookman (L) 17 (1900): 189-90.

Theater reviews:
A[rcher,] W[illiam]. World 28 June 1899.
B[eerbohm], M[ax]. Saturday Review 24 June
1899: 781-82. Rpt. in his More
Theatres, 1898-1903. London: Hart;
New York: Taplinger, 1969. 158-62.
The Times 20 June 1899: 10.
W[alkley,] A. B. Speaker 1 July 1899: 781-

416 Christ of the Andes. London: League of Nations,
n. d. [Paris: Societe des Amis,] n. d.
The statue of Christ represents the signing
of the first general arbitration treaty ever con-
cluded. This treaty, between Chile and Argentina,
enabled the disarmament of the two countries.

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