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A CERAMIC ART RESOURCE FOR THE ART EDUCATION CLASSROOM BY JENNIFER ANNE HANSEN SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE CRAIG ROLAND, CHAIR LINDA ARBUCKLE, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVE RSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 2012 Jennifer Hansen
3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my family, friends, and my supervisory committee who help ed guide and support me through this journey.
4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS3 LIST OF FIGURES 5 ABSTRACT6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW16 3 RESEARCH DESIGN 22 4 REFLECTIONS35 REFERENCES38 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH40
5 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 3 1 Oh Happy Clay23 3 2 Oh Happy Clay: Clay25 3 3 Oh Happy Clay: Technical Skills26 3 4 Oh Happy Clay: Clay in t he Classroom27 3 5 Vimeo: Reclaiming Clay28 3 6 Oh Happy Clay: Kiln30 3 7 Oh Happy Clay: Enrichment31 3 8 Oh Happy Clay: Educa tional Resources32 3 9 Pinterest: Contemporary Ceramic Artists 33 3 10 Blogger: Oh Happy Clay Blog34
6 Summary of Project in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the Colleg e of Fine Arts of the University of Florida In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts A CERAMIC ART RESOURCE FOR THE ART EDCATION CLASSROOM By Jennifer Anne Hansen May 2012 Chair: Craig Roland Major: Art Education The purpose of this Project in Lieu of Thesis was to create a ceramic resource for art educators. My research focused on the use and development of ceramics in the art education classroom. I was motivated to create this resource due to the small number of comprehensive resources available for PreK 12 art teachers interested in using clay in the classroom. I formed a partnership with several art educators to determine their specific needs regarding incorporating clay usage into the art curriculum. With this information as well as my own knowledge of the material and processes, I created a website to educate teachers in the ceramics arts. The website includes sections addressing the importance of clay as a n art material, technical skills, use of clay in the classroom, proper kiln usage, enrichment, educational resources, contemporary artists, and a blog. In addition to the informative text, I have included photos, instructional videos, links to lessons, and potential
7 resources. The outcome is an informative, relevant and easy to navigate website. This project is important to the field of art education because it will simplify what has been considered a time consuming process that dissuades art educators from using clay. The website may be viewed at www.ohhapp yclay.org.
8 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION I first experienced clay as a child walking along the shore of Lake Michigan. This material could have been easily mistaken for a rock. When I picked it up and pressed it into my hands, it moved and for med different shapes. I spent my days walking the beach and digging in the sand to find more of this material When the clay was form ed it was left to dry along the sea wall at my home. This magical experience during my childhood created a deep passion for the ceramic arts. As a child, my experiences in art class were much different than the experiences I had at home. Art class was a neglected subject if it could even be considered a subject at all. In middle school, the uncle of one of the girls in my cla ss would sometimes come on Friday for a thirty minute art lesson. It averaged out to maybe once or twice a month. I remember only one experience with clay in school during all of middle school, and I have no memory of being able to keep the piece I created The experience involved rolling, flattening, and fastening little balls of clay to one another to create a tall vessel that I had hoped would hold flowers. With clay, it seemed I had the potential to make anything. However, in art class I felt restricted ; I was rarely given the opportunity to work with clay and was often only provided two dimensional art materials.
9 I am passionate about the use of ceramic arts in the PreK 12 art classroom. Clay can be a frustrating material causing art educators to quest ion the value of the material. Cultivating true appreciation and understanding for the visual arts requires proving students with opportunities to explore and experiment with a variety of art forms, including those that are three dimensional as well as two dimensional. Studio Potter (1988) suggested that, clay has been overlooked as a valuable educational medium. There are many individuals who understand the value of clay and advocate its use. Art educators Wackowiak and Clements (2001) state: "All Childre n, both in elementary and middle school, should have the opportunity to create and express their ideas in clay. Clay is a hands on wonder sensuous, malleable, unpredictable, and on occasion, messy. Some students respond to clay more enthusiastically than o thers, but all children benefit from the unique challenges provided by this gift from Mother Earth" (p. 356). Using clay as an art material gives students the opportunity to create in a three dimensional space with additive and/or subtractive methods of b uilding. Objects are created in the round, meaning that can be viewed and built from every side Smilansky (1988) suggests that three dimensional art, unlike drawing, allows for concepts of space to be realistically depicted. Golomb (2004) supports use of clay based on its ability to create depth without the skills needed in two
10 dimensional mediums to represent the illusion of the third dimension. Statement of the Problem In the PreK 12 art classroom there is a need for additional opportunities in the ceram ic arts for both students and teachers. There is a large population of PreK 12 art teachers who lack the knowledge and resources to effectively and confidently use clay as an art material S tudents are often limited in exposure, or worse, not given the opp ortunity to experience working in clay. Using clay in the classroom is a valuable experience. This project is focused around the lack of comprehensive information available to educators who desire to use clay as an art material. I have searched the Web and found limited clay resources accessible to teachers. In many cases, websites are outdated with broken and missing links. My research aimed to discover how I could make ceramics m ore accessible to art educators. Questions I investigated were: What does a ceramic resource need to include? Why is clay a valuable material to be used in the art classroom? How does the histor y of ceramics education a ffect today's art education? This project focused on fulfilling the specific needs of the PreK 12 art educator w ith a basic understanding of clay. Providing the knowledge, skills, and resources to incorporate clay in the classroom. PreK 12 art teachers who desire to use
11 clay and increase their knowledge of the ceramic arts often question problems they face when usi ng clay in the classroom. These questions helped guide my research. Specific questions included but were not limited to: understanding the usage of various tools and supplies, general kiln knowledge, and trouble shooting the issues of pieces becoming damag ed or destroyed during firing. These questions led me to build a website resource with information about techniques, clay in the classroom, proper kiln usage, enrichment, and educational resources. This site promotes the use of clay through written explan ations, photographs, and videos. Significance of the Project Many PreK 12 art educators choose not to use clay as an art material because they lack the knowledge or do not have adequate resources to guide them. This project is important to the field of a rt education because as we advance in the art of technology historical craft practices are left behind. It is of great importance that children are given the opportunity to form clay as they learn about the representation of objects. This helps them to be tter understand three dimensional space. A Web inventory was conducted to record the type of and quality of resources that currently exist. This research revealed that sources are not compiled in a single location and
12 thus, are not easily accessible. With out the knowledge to search for the proper terms, research is a tedious process. This project is significant because it provides art educators with a comprehensive resource that did not previously exist. It brings together information that facilitates the use of clay in a clear and concise manner. It bridges the gap in knowledge of the ceramic arts to bring clay into the PreK 12 art classroom. Project Overview Students should be given the opportunity to use clay as an art material during their education. T he purpose of this project was to make ceramics more accessible to art educators by providing them with the proper information and guidance. The development of the website resource began with a desire to create a one stop resource that provided the basic information needed to use, fire, and glaze ceramics. This project aimed to find out what resources educators need to use clay in the classroom. I worked in partnership with art educators from around the United States to develop the content of the website. Diana Faris the current Senior Key Accounts Manager at the America Art Clay Company (AMACO) facilitated the development of the sections on safety and tools. She works closely with teachers to help provide the correct materials for using clay in
13 the class room. She has developed lesson plans and teaches ceramic workshop s all over the country. Nancy Wilde is an elementary school teacher at Ochwilla Elementary School in the Putnam County School District, Hawthorne, Florida. While pursuing her PHD at the Unive rsity of Florida researching joy and excitement in learning, Nancy found that within her classroom the arts bring pleasure to learning. Nancy said, "Four years ago, because of mandated testing, art, music, dance and theatre were eliminated. Last year the c ounty received a grant that included art in a n after school program." The school had appropriate facilities and a functioning kiln. Nancy needed guidance on how to implement clay projects. Here are a few of her questions: What is the difference between ear thenware and stoneware? What kind of clay should I use and what cone number do I order? How thick should their project be? How do we store unused clay? Can the bottom of the project be painted? Should we order lead free glazes? What cone glaze do I order? What tools should I order? Nicki Leatherwood a recent graduate of the University of Texas at Austin focused on painting and photography. She is currently an elementary art educator in the Austin Independent School District. Without much experience in clay Nicki still attempted projects with her students but was faced with disappointment when pieces exploded in the kiln. She wanted to
14 know specifics about the kiln and firing to prevent this from happening in the future. I posted an inquiry on the site Art Education 2.0 in an attempt to promote awareness of my project and gain some interest. Two significant contacts were created through this site. The first is Trista Meisner an art educator at the International School of Bangkok. Trista was curious to see the content of the website. She said, "This is actually something I've been looking for the past several weeks and was disappointed to find that a well maintained and resource ful site did not exist." She is currently working with two classes in three dimen sional art They already learned some basic clay processes and are completing the term by making a clay video on a process of their choice. Lorian Dean an art educator who was interested in my blog, is currently pursuing her MA in Liberal Arts in Teachin g for Artistic Behavior. Her own artistic practice is focused on painting and drawing but she is interested in learning about clay. Forming partnerships with art educators answered my research question while guiding the content to be included in the websi te. Examination of the history of ceramics education and the value of working with clay guided my research. Extensive ceramic research and the partnerships mentioned above helped
15 established the appropriate content for the website. Through this research I created Oh Happy Clay a ceramic website and blog aimed to make ceramics more accessible to art educators. Oh Happy Clay is a resource that contains basic ceramic introduction process photographs, and how to videos. \
16 CHAPTER 2: LIT ERATURE REVIEW My review of literature included texts in art education, ceramics and child development in clay. My research was focused on developing appropriate content for the website resources as well as the historical developments of ceramic education and the value of clay. I also reviewed ceramic websites and resources that are currently available on the Internet. Historical Context The first influences in ceramics art education were Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Froebel. Hill (1988) state s that both believed in a sensory education and used clay to increase students' development and understanding. Froebel specifically focused on the identity of the individual, and used clay as a means of expression. He believed expression through art making was more valuable then expression with words. Froebel's ideas arrived in America at the onset of manual training in schools. Clay modeling was the activity of choice because of the malleable quality of the material and the sensory experiences that could b e explored Clay was used for several purposes, including promotion of dexterity, sensory learning, and in combination with other subjects to advance learning. Early progressive educators valued Froebel s ideas, and schools included clay in the curriculum Clay was still considered an important medium until the onset of the American
17 Arts and Crafts Movement in 1980 when individuality lost some of its value in art education, and to some, clay was even considered an unsafe material. Griffith (1958) suggests that during the 1800's, American art and ceramics specifically felt inferior to other countries' art and design, and thus, began a movement in the United States industrial arts. In 1870, American schools in Massachusetts hired Walter Smith to come over fr om England to help direct the school art programs. Hill (1988) state d that at this time art was focused on serving the need of industry; Smith implemented clay and drawing programs in the public school system. As America grew as a country, trades and skil ls began to improve. Ceramics as a n advanced science did not come to America at its beginning ; it too k many years of research. It took time and energy to develop skills, techniques, and the understanding of the materials available in the land. America had potteries that were producing functional wares but they were not regarded as highly as the impor ted wares, from England. There are some discrepancies in who started the first pottery in America. Griffith (1958) suggests that the first pottery was st arted i n Jamestown, Virginia. Hill (1988) believes that by the late 1800's potteries were beginning to surface He documents the first in Cincinnati under the direction of Louise McLaughlin and Maria Longworth Nichols. Their classification s for pottery may
18 be dif ferent causing for the significant differences in dates and locations Ceramics education had a place in America's public schools long before making its way to the university. It was because of the competition with England that the United States chose to advance the ceramics arts. Ohio State University was the first to have a ceramics pr ogram, but it was focused on ceramics engineering. In the early 1900's, ceramics programs began to appear throughout the United States. Charles Binns was very important in the development of ceramics He helped s tart the first ceramic arts college Alfred University (Formally New York State School of Clay Working). Binns was a lead er in American ceramics and took on the challenge of educating others (Hill 1988 & Griffith 19 58). The Value in Clay Over time the value of clay in America's schools has changed. It started with Froebel's interest in sensory learning and nonverbal expression that lead to the development of knowledge and ideas. At the time, people believed that art was able to develop moral and ethical behavior. A growing desire for aesthetic s developed the idea of art for art s sake. Later there was a switch to an emphasis on vocational skills. Today a new argument needs to be made for the value of working with c lay. Brown (1975, 1984), one of the first
19 researchers of child development in clay, attempted to discover changes that took place in children's development through sculpture At the conclusion of the first study she encouraged educators to use clay in the classroom and begin it s use at a young age. At the time of her second stud y her findings did not c onclude anything more th a n the first suggesting educators are not listening to research and still avoid using clay in the classroom Golomb (2004) suggest s the importance of clay as an art material. Clay can to be formed in the round; attention can be given to all sides of the object being sculpted. It is different from drawing a two dimensional surface that can only create the illusion of space, depth, and form and can never reproduce the world in a direct way. Golomb (2004) conducted two studies one with 300 hundred students the other with 109, in which participants were asked to create a sculptural representation of figures. She evaluated them based on posture, attention to multiple sides, and the manner the material was used. She discovered a difference in child development between the two dimensional drawings and three dimensional sculptures. One specific example states "compared with the drawn human figure, the trend in modeling is toward an earlier differentiation of the trunk as a separate structure" (Golomb, 2002, p. 58). Golomb suggest s that the conceptual development in working with clay is
20 different from that of two dimensional media (Golomb 200 2; DeMuro, 1992; Smilansky, 1988; Grossman, 1980; Douglas & Schwartz, 1967). Warchowiak and Clements (2001), authors of the book Emphasis Art support Golomb by dedicating a chapter to the importance and use of clay in the art classroom. Ash (2000) sugge sts that sculpture is a neglected discipline and supports the use of clay because of its unique ability to activate the senses in a way that two dimensional work cannot. He encourages the active participation of the viewer and creator of three dimensional work. Teachers and researchers advocate the use of clay for many different reasons ranging from sensory learning to developing cognitive and affective skills for learning. Meng (2002) and H ack (2009) have found that their students are enthusiastic, eager and enjoy learning when working with clay. Walkup (2005) supports it for the enjoyment of the teacher and student, and Warick (2005) for the scientific knowledge that can be gained. Similansky, Hagan, and Lewis (1988) conducted a field based research proj ect with 1,600 children using clay in the classroom. The results support the notion that clay can promote the development of learning skills and allows for a different type of representation than drawing offers. Their book provides everything from teaching strategies to managing clay in the classroom.
21 In conclusion, Hill (1988) argues that historical evidence does support the value of clay as a medium for expression but that further research is needed to support its use in the classroom. Hill suggests, "Rev iving the progressive argument for handwork in clay modeling could provide what is needed" (p. 189). Golomb h as taken these ideas one step fu rther, but additional research is needed to support the use of clay in the classroom
22 CHAPTER 3: RE SEARCH DESIGN The purpose of this project was to make ceramics more accessible to PreK 12 art educators. With this goal in mind, a Web based ceramic resource and blog was created. The Internet provided the availability that I was looking for. The blog incl uded current information for example the first post mentioned the February 2012 issue of Arts & Activities that was primarily focused on clay. T wo instructional videos s how ing how to apply kiln wash and how to reclaim clay were included as part of my websi te to visually demonstrate necessary processes for the classroom. Monica Patterson a current MA Art Education graduate student at the Univer sity of Florida filmed the videos. She then taught me to edit the videos using Final Cut Pro The videos and the b log are integral to the success of the website. I linked sections of the website to Pinterest boards that I created with relevant information and links. The website stores the main content and technical information needed to understand and use clay in the classroom. To accomplish the goal of making ceramics accessible, art educators were interviewed to determine what type of information would be more valuable and useful. Using their questions as guidance in deciding what content would be appropriate. I dec ided to create a website using WordPress.org because I was able to upload a chosen theme at no cost. WordPress does not
23 host the site, so I had to find an outside host I chose Hostgator because they came high ly recommend ed, and my domain name was purchase d through Network Solutions. Figure 3 1 In progress work on website through WordPress The website is focused on specific content that helps create an understanding of materials and guides educators through proces ses in ceramics. Going beyond technical content, I created an interactive and easy navigate site using the feature theme from Moon Themes What emerged was Oh Happy Clay located at www.ohhappyclay.org The feature theme provided a clean and easy to n avigate website (Figure 3 1). Marisa Falcigno a MFA
24 Graphic Design major at the University of Florida provided guidance in the development of designing the website. We worked together to upload the theme into WordPress while making specific adjustments. L ydia Challenger a senior Photography major at the University of Florida took photographs to supplement the content of the website. The website includes the following categories: clay, technical skills, clay in the classroom, kiln, enrichment, educational resources, contemporary artists, and a link to the blog. The information to create each section was gathered after deciding which categories to include. The section on Clay provides an introduction to the material, how it is formed, and the different type s of clay (Figure 3 2). Each section includes a bibliography and recommended readings to guide the reader to further research. The section on clay also includes a subsection on Why Clay is a valuable material to be used in education.
25 Figure 3 2 Clay Th e section on Technical Skills gives the reader a basic introduction of ceramic techniques. These techniques include Handbuilding, Wheel throwing, Molds, Glazing, Surface, and Image Transfer (Figure 3 3). Each section is linked to a PDF that can be download ed. It is important that these files are downloaded, as PDF's to preserve the integrity of the project.
26 Figure 3 3 Technical Skills The section on Clay in the Classroom provides an introduction to the preparations that need to be made before using clay in the classroom (Figure 3 4). It includes section s on Materials, Tools, Ceramic Suppliers, Classroom Setup, Safety, and Reclaiming Clay The Materials section explains the different types of clay bodies, which are earthenware, stone ware, and porcelain. I t also gives recommendations for clay and glazes for classroom u se. The Tools section provides photograph s descriptions and links to tools used in ceramics.
27 The ceramics suppliers section links directly to Pinterest where a variety of ceramic suppliers from all over the United States are listed. Classroom Setup provides a brief recommendation for the arrangement of the classroom while working with clay. The Safety section highlights the importance of safety in the art class room when using clay and firing the kiln. The last section is Reclaiming Clay I t includes instructions on the basics of reclaiming clay in the form of a video that was originally posted on Vimeo It is available at www.vimeo.com/38817031 (Figure 3 5) Figure 3 4 Clay in the Classroom
28 Figure 3 5 Reclaiming Clay The kiln is a very important part of using clay in the classroom. There is an entire section dedicated to the Kiln I t includes the Clay in the Kiln, What is a Kiln, Cones and Firing Temperatures, Kiln Preparation and Care, and How to Fire a Kiln The opening page has a diagram from the Skutt Kiln Manual as well as vocabulary (Figure 3 6). The section on Clay in the Kiln details what happens to the clay as it is fired. What is a Kiln? links directly to a PDF that outl ines the difference between electric and atmospheric kiln s and the d ifferent atmospheres that can create oxidation and reduction. Photos of the different
29 kilns are included E lectric kilns are more commonly foun d in the art education classroom therefore photos of both programmable and manual electric kilns are shown. Specific images correlate with each type of kiln. The section on Cones and Firing Temperatures explains what a cone is and how it functions in the kiln. There are included l inks to the Orton cone chart and a firing chart from Ceramic Arts Daily. Kiln Preparation and Care links directly to a PDF with specific directions for preparing an electric kiln for firing. It provides instructions on starting, l oading, caring for the kiln, and a link to the second video on applying kiln wash posted on Vimeo. The last kiln section outlines How to Fire a Kiln It includes both bisque and low fire glaze firing schedules for programmable and manual kilns.
30 Figure 3 6 Kiln The Enrichment section was created in an effo r t to gather relevant educational experiences available beyond traditional education (Figure 3 7). This includes Organizations, Ceramics Enrichment Opportunities, and Student Opportunities The section on Organizations is link ed to Pinterest where I include organizations and web based groups that support the use of clay in the classro om. Ceramics Enrichment includes links to art and craft schools and artist's residencies.
31 Figure 3 7 Enrichment The section Educational Resources simplifies the abundance of ceramic resources available on the Web and in print (Figure 3 8). It includes links to Lesson Plans, Ceramic Vocabulary, Books, Magazines, and Art Museums A board on Pinterest links websites with s pecific esson plans t hat are of interest. A list of ceramic vocabulary that can be used in the classroom is provided in this section. There is also a link to recommended look books (image based books) and resource books that would be valuable for the class room. The Magazines section also links to Pinterest where ceramic magazines from several different
32 countries are cited. There is also a link to a Pinterest board that focuses on Art Museums that have a significant ceramics collection. Figure 3 8 Educa tional Resources My board on Pinterest provides links to Contemporary Ceramic Artists working with different materials and techniques. This board is a resource for both teachers and the students. The board can be viewed at http://pinterest.com/jenigard/contemporary ceramic artists/ (Figure 3 9).
33 Figure 3 9 Contemporary Ceramic Artists Lastly, a blog supplements the content and information provided on the website. It provides a platform for sharing the curren t and ever changing experience of ceramics. The blog was originally available at www.ohhappyclay.blogspot.com (Figure 3 10) and can now be found at www.gardclaystudios.blogspot.com
34 Figure 3 10 Oh Happy Clay Blog
35 CHAPTER 4: REFLECTIONS The goal of this project was to make ceramics more accessible to PreK 12 art educators by cre ating a website resource that includes text, videos, Pinterest boards, photographs, and an accompanying blog. Different ideas about the content surfaced throughout the process based on my research and exchanges with partnering art educators. I originally pl anned to create videos with one or two take s and use a simple video editing program. After filming the videos, it was evident that the task was going to be greater then I had anticipated. I worked with Monica Patterson to edit the videos using Final Cut Pro. The program allows one to import individual clips and assign them names. The advantage in using this program is that one can unlink the video and audio as you import them to use close up views from the camera and sound from a different clip, creating smooth transitions from one clip to the next. When preparing to setup the website, I used The Non Designer Web Book written by Williams and Tollett (2006) as a guide. After researching WordPress themes, I decided the best choice, would be to use WordPress.org to build my site. I have the option to change the theme if appropriate. The development of the website, revealed that while it would provide content, it would not connect me to the visitor
36 and reader. A blog share current, relevant information as well as creates a platform for sharing and interaction. The website is designed as pages without an option to post or respond. The blog is open to co mments and frequent i nquires about blog posts fill my inbox. The blog created a personal connection that I did not anticipate Clay is a valuable material. Many educators face the challenge of not knowing how to properly use clay as an art material. My project has made ceramics more accessible to PreK 12 art educators through an interactive website that provides detailed information on ceramic processes, proper kiln usage, enrichment, and classroom resources. In conclusion, while clay may be a messy material, it offers many advantages in learning. Understanding a three dimensional space offers students the opportunity to develop skills in creativity, cognitive and affective skills for learning, sensory learning, and leads to a different understanding of the world closer to the actual three dimensional world we live in. Future Direction In the future, the specific direction I take may in clude updating my website with lesson plans, how to videos, sections on photographing work, ceramics history, and a section on adapting lessons for special needs. It would be beneficial to include grade level specific information. I plan to continually
37 wor k with educators to update my website content through conversations and interviews. I intend to continue posting current ceramics information on the blog keeping an open communication with readers.
38 References Ash, A (2000). Sculpture in secondary schools: a neglected discipline. In N. Addison, & L. Burgess (Eds.), Learning to teach art & design in the secondary school: A companion to school experience (210 219). New York, NY: Routledge. Brown, E. V. (1975). Develop mental characteristics of clay figures made by children ages three through the age eleven. Studies in Art Education 16 (3), 45 53. Brown, E. V. (1984). Developmental characteristics of clay figures made by children: 1970 1981. Studies in Art Education 26 (1), 56 60. De Muro, T. (1992). Making a case for clay in the art room. Unpublished master's thesis, Columbia University Teachers College, New York, New York. Douglas, N., & Schwartz, J. (1967). Increasing awareness of art ideas of young children throug h guided experiences with ceramics. Studies in Art Education, 8 (2), 2 9. Froebel, F. (2005) The education of man. (W. N. Hailmann, Trans.). Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. (Original work published 1826) Golomb, C. (2002 ). Child art in context: A cultura l and comparative perspective Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Golomb, C. (2004). Sculpture: Representational development in a Three dimensional medium. In E. Eisner, & M. Day, (Eds.), Handbook of research and policy in art education (329 358) Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Golomb, C. (1974). Young children's sculptures and drawings. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Griffith, L. (1959). The importance of ceramics in the United States today. Unpublished master 's thesis, New Haven State Teachers College, New Haven, Connecticut. Hill, J. (1988). An historical analysis of and speculations about the value of clay working in American education. Unpublished master's thesis, Columbia University Teachers College, New York, New York.
39 Meng, K. (2002). An elementary curriculum based on ceramics from around the world. Unpublished master's thesis, Georgia State University. Roland, C. (2012). Art Education 2.0: Connecting art educators around the globe. Retrieved from http://arted20.ning.com/ Smilansky, S., Hagan, J., & Lewis, H. (1988). Clay in the classroom: Helping children develop cognitive and affective skills for learning. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publications, Inc. Tillander, M. (2012). UFARE 2.0: UF Art Educ ation faculty, alumni, students and friends. Retrieved from http://ufare20.ning.com/ Walkup, N. (2005). Not just clay. School Arts, 104 (8), 30. Warwick, S. (2005). The science of clay. School Arts, 105 (3), 28 29. Wachowiak, F., & Clements, R. D. (2001). Emphasis art: a qualitative art program for elementary and middle schools. New york: Longman. Williams, G. (Eds.). (1988). A case for clay in art education. Studio Potter 16(2), 17 72. Williams, R., & Tollett, J. (2006) The non designer's web book: An easy guide to creating, designing, and posting your own web site. Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press.
40 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jeni Hansen was born and raised in West Michigan, the state that resembles a mitten She grew up living in a Bed & Breakfa st that her parents still own and operate on the Lake Michigan shoreline. Jeni's mother was a nurse and her father was a teacher. She was always a very energetic child who enjoyed playing with clay and doing cartwheels anywhere she could. After graduating from high school in 2003, Jeni attended Hope College to pursue a degree in Art Education with an emphasis in ceramics. After completing her undergraduate work, she taught at the secondary level serving as a high school art teacher, yearbook teacher, newspa per advisor, and cheerleading coach. She is currently a graduate student at the University of Florida and has been a Graduate Teaching Assistant since 2010. She teaches the lab component to "Art for the Elementary School Teacher," which is a course design ed for Elementary Education majors. She has been an active member in multiple organizations including National Art Education Association (NAEA), Handbuilt or Wheel Thrown Clay (H.O.T. Clay), and Arts and Health. Her fianc Forrest Gard, is pursuing his MF A in Ceramics at Louisiana State University. They will marry June 2012 and look forward to their life together that will always be surrounded by the wonderful messiness of clay!