THE RELATIONSHIP OF LEARNING STYLES AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STRING ORCHESTRA STUDENTS FEROL P. CARYTSAS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: CHARLES R. HOFFER, CHAIR MITCHELL ESTRIN, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS IS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2012
2 This project is dedicated to my parents : M om: for your unconditional love patience, friendship, all the late nights spent proof reading papers and always believing I could a c h i e v e anything I w a n t e d t o a c c o m p l i s h D ad : who continually inspired me with his cre ativity and always encouraged my quest for knowledge
3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Most sincere thanks to Dr. Charles H offer for his kindness, patience, and wisdom and t o Professor Mitchell Estrin for agreeing to be on a violist s committee and providing such valuable feedback. Special thanks to the University of Florida and all my professors for always being so accommodating and to Mrs. Valerie Terry for being so cooperative and willing to help. Las tly, thank you to my colleagues for your support and to my friends who have been my faithful cheering section throughout this whole process of laughter and tears.
4 Ta ble of Contents Abstract 5 Chapter 1: Introduction 6 Chapter 2: Review of the Literature 8 Chapter 3: Method 1 5 Chapter 4: Results 1 6 Chapter 5: Discussion 1 8 References 20 Appendix A: Learning Style and Instrument Selection Questionnaire 22 Appendix B: Parental Consent Form 2 4 Biographical Sketch 25
5 Summary of Project Option in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music THE RELATIONSHIP OF LEARNING STYLES AND MIDDLE SCHOOL STRING ORCHESTRA STUDENTS By Ferol P. Carytsas May 2012 Chair: Charles R. Hoffer Major: Music Education The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationship of learning styles and the musical instruments studied by middle school string orchestra students. The specific research questions investigated were: the relationship between student le arning styles and the musical instruments studied, whether students chose the instrument they currently played in their school orchestra program, and if a n over al l trend of a particular learning style existed within the study. Participants N =229 were st udents selected through convenience sampling from one middle school string orchestra program in the Tampa Bay area. Students were asked to complete a shortened version of the VARK learning inventory questionnaire and results were analyzed using descriptiv e statistics. A n overall tr end was observed within the study that the preferred learning style of string orchestra students was kinesthetic suggesting that a relationship existed between student learning styles and the musical instrument studied.
6 CHAPTER ONE Introduction Different s tudies have been conducted on the relationship between learning styles and music. Moore 1990 conducted a study examining the relationship between compositional processes and learning styles. Zhukov 2007 conducted a study regarding student learning styles in advanced music lessons. In another study, undergraduate music students le arning styles were examined, the mean scores of their learning preference were measured, and differences among classes and gender were determined Tanwinit & Sittiprapaporn, 2010. There is no apparent evidence that the relationship between learning style s and musical instruments studied by middle school students has been researched. The need for this study is to contribute research to the area of learning styles and musical instruments studied among middle school string orchestra students. Statement of purpose The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationship of learning styles and the musical instruments studied by middle school string orchestra students. The research questions included: 1. Is there a relationship between student learning styles and the musical instruments studied? 2. Did students choose the instrument they are currently playing or was it chosen for them? 3. Is there an overall trend within the study toward a particular learning style? Limitations It is acknowledged that most individuals are multi modal, but it was assumed that the majority of individuals would have one dominant learning style. Self reported data from
7 students can have intrinsic restrictions and could be biased because it is self reported. In spite of t his limitation s elf reported data were considered to be the only realistic way t o obtain data from the students Application of research This research can serve as a supplemental tool for teachers enabling them to consider students learning styles when helping them select a musical instrument. Teachers can use this research to communicate instruction in a way that students will process the information to the best of their ability. The result sh ould increase instruction time thus create more effic iency in the classroom. This research is not an attempt to stereotype learning styles with specific instruments.
8 CHAPTER TWO Review of the Literature Learning Styles Learning styles can be defined numerous ways, but for the purpose of this study, the t erm learning style will be defined as an individual s preferred approach to learning. The concept of teaching to one s learning style has become increasingly popular. Individuals learn to adapt learning styles, also known as learning modalities or sensory modalities, to meet different learning situations, but generally individuals have a d ominant learning style Silver, Strong & Perini, 2000; Sprenger, 2003. Learning style inventories classify individuals into categories and this is attractive to students and parents because it allows students to be seen as unique individuals Pashler, Mc Daniel, Rohrer & Bjork, 2008. Knowledge of l earning styles enable s teachers to discuss the way students learn and how their preferences for specific forms of thinking processes affect their learning behaviors Silv er et al. 2000 Several learning styl e theories exist, but only the more prominent theori es will be examined. Psychologist Carl Jung is considered to be the father of the learning style theory Snyder, 1999. In the 1920 s, he introduced the idea that individuals have different methods, or preferences, of perceiving and judging information. Myer Briggs Foundation, n.d. ; Silver et al. 2000 Jung felt that t hese different methods represent ed the characteristics of an individual s personality Silver et al. 2000 Learning Style Inventory During 1968 69, Dunn and Dunn 1978 developed and tested a sequence of questions to determine students self identified learning style preferences. These questions and subsequent studies led to the creation of the Learning Style Inventory Dunn & Dunn, 1978. The LSI
9 examines environmental, emotional, sociological, and physical factors Dunn & Dunn, 1978; Zhukov, 2007. The components of the factors are presented in Table 1. The inventory identifies a student s learning style, and a supplementary manual provides instructions for achieving the most ideal learning and academic growth based on the student s learning style Dunn & Dunn, 1978. Table 1 Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Factors Factor Elements Environmental Sound, Light, Temperature, Design Emotional Motivation, Persistence, Responsibility, Structure Sociological Peers, Self, Pair, Team, Adult Physical Perceptual, Intake, Time, Mobility Note Adapted from Teaching Students through their Individual Learning Styles: A Practical Approach p.4 by R. Dunn and K. Dunn, 1978 Reston VA: Prentice Hall Company Myer Briggs Type Indicator The Myer Briggs Type Indicator, MBTI, groups individuals with the same personality traits which is often useful in occupational settings Pashler et al., 2008; Feldman, 2011. It is a personality focused inventory and classifies personalities on four scales Zhukov, 2007 ; Pritchard 2009 These four scales are Extroversion or Introversion, Sensing or Intuition, Thinking or Feeling, and Judging or Perceiving which can be combined to create sixteen different personality types Myer Briggs Foundation, n.d. ; Pritchard, 2009 For example, an individual may be an E S T P which means that they are an extrovert, sensor, thinker, perceiver personality type. The MBTI s purpose is to make the theories introduced by Jung more accessible to individuals Myer Briggs Foundation, n.d.
10 Kolb Learning Style Inventory The Kolb Learning Style Inventory assesses student s strengths and weak nesses based on experiential learning theory Zhukov, 2007 ; Kolb Learning Style Inventory, n.d. Experiential learning theory defines learning as the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience Kolb, 1984, p. 24; Hawk & Shaw, 2007 Kolb s Learning Style I nventory evaluates students learning style preferences in two bipolar dimensions Diaz & Cartn al, 1999 ; Pritchard, 2009 Kolb describes four general learning types, diverger, assimilator, converger, and accommodator see Table 2 based on the two dimensions, concrete or abstract and active or reflective Pritchard, 2009. Table 2 Definitions of Kolb s Learning T ypes Learning Type Strength Converger The ability to practically apply ideas Diverger The ability to be creative and imaginative Assimilator The ability to understand and create theories Accommodator The ability to experiment and take risks Note Adapted from Kolb s Learning Style Inventory, n.d. Multiple Intelligences Gardner 19 8 3, 1999 identifies nine different intelligences: linguistic, musical, logical mathematical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, the personal intelligences: interpersonal and intrapersonal naturalist, and existential see Table 3 Like learning styles individuals typically demonstrate favor in one or two of these intelligences. Silver et al., 2000 Gardner did not develop the mult iple intelligences with the intention of educators incorporating the concept into their teaching methodology Gardner, 1996
11 Table 3 Definition s of Multiple Intelligences Intelligence Definition Linguistic To think in words and to use language to express and understand complex meanings Musical To think in sounds, rhythms, melodies, and rhymes Logical mathematical To think i n t e r m s of cause and effect and to understand relationships among actions, objects, or ideas Spatial To think in pictures and to perceive the visual world accurately Bodily kinesthetic To think in movements and to use the body in skilled and complicate d ways for expressive as well as goal directed activities Interpersonal The ability to understand people and relationships Intrapersonal To have a heightened awareness of oneself and others Naturalist To understand the natural world including plants, animals, and scientific studies E xistentialist T he ability to conceptualize questions regarding human existence. Note. Adapted from Multiple Intelligences: Definitions and Examples, 2002. Learning styles and multiple intelligences are sometimes construed as being synonymous. To clarify this misconception, learning styles differ fro m multiple intelligences. Lear ning styles concentrate on how concepts are learned or on the process of learning rather than focusing on th e topic being learned or the matter a nd outcome of learning Silver et al. 2000 ; Snyder, 1999. Hemispheric Dominance Another way of looking at learning styles is to examine the way the brain processes information, sometimes called hemispheric dominance. The left hemisphere of the brain, the linguistic side, processes information in a logical and sequential order The right hemisphere of the brain, the visual side, processes informati on intuitively and holistically As seen with t he other learning styles, most individuals demonstrate a dominant hemisphe re Hopper, 2006. Gardner 198 3 refers to hemispheric dominance when he discusses musical intelligence which is
12 housed primarily in the right hemisphere of the brain. However, th e left hemisphere becomes more active based on the amount of musical training an individual has received Gardner, 19 8 3. VARK I nventory One of the most standard learning style inventories is the VARK due to its face validity, its simplicity, its ease of use, and the wealth of learning materials that have been designed to accompany it Leite, Svinicki & Shi, 2009, p. 24 In 1987, Fleming developed the VARK inventory which identifie s four learning styles: visual V auditory A read/write R and kinesthetic/tactile K Fleming, 2011 These four learning styles create the acronym VARK. The VARK assesses preferred receptive learning styles and how much indi viduals rely on these visual, auditory, read/write, and kinesthetic methods Feldman, 20 11. The VARK inventory is an extension of an idea generated from neuro linguistic programming, the manner in which we communicate and how this shapes our learning Pritchard, 2009. Visual learners prefer materials which present information visually, suc h as diagrams or pictures. Auditory learners process material most easily when listening. Read/write learners favor information which is written and reinforce what they read by taking notes. Kinesthetic learners learn by touching objects. Feldman, 2011 Individuals will typically demonstrate unimodal or multimodal learning style preferences, but they may also demonstrate bimodal or trimodal preferences. Instrument Selection Although the primary focus of this study was on learning styles, it is necessar y to briefly examine factors which influence instrument selection. Eros 2008 identifies musical instrument selection as one of the most crucial points in a student s music education. There are a variety of methods which can be used to help a student ch oose a musical instrument Eros, 2008. Some of
13 the factors which effect a student s musical instrument selection include teachers, parents, friends, instrument availability, and the instrument s timbre Bayley, 2004; Fortney, Boyle, & DeCarbo, 1993. Ge nder stereotyping can also play a role in instrument selection. This stereotyping contributes to the preconceived notion regarding the ease of learning an instrument and whether they will be able to master the instrument successfully McPherson & Davidson 2006. Albert LeBlanc has done a considerable amount of research on musical preferences as they relate to the interactions between environment and musical variables Radocy & Boyle, 2003. Musical preference is a topic too wide for the scope of this pap er but should be acknowledged as an influencing factor in instrument selection.
1 4 CHAPTER THREE Method Participants This descriptive study consisted of male and female middle school string orchestra students N =229. One middle school orchestra program in the Tampa Bay area was selected through convenience sampling. The study focused on the learning styles of students playing string family instrument s: violins, violas, cellos, and basses. Procedure An adaptation of the VARK questionnaire was administered by the regular classroom music education teacher. The VARK questionnaire was chosen because of its accessibility and straightforwardness. The standard VARK questionnaire consists of sixteen questions. A shortened version of the VARK questionnaire which consisted of eight questions rather than sixteen was used for time purposes see Appendix A. Students were allowed to choose one or more options if more than one answer applied to their perceived learning style. In addition to the shortened VARK questionnaire, students were asked to identify their gender, grade level, instrument played in their school orchestra program, and whether they c hose the instrument they play in their school orchestra program. The questionnaires were evaluated by the researcher based on previously validated scoring instructions constructed by the instiga tor of the VARK questionnaire and t he total number of student responses was computed to determine preferred learning styles. The questionnaire was reviewed for content and clarity by peer researchers for validity and reliability. The research propo sal and parental consent form w ere submitted to the University of Flor ida s Institutional Review Boa rd for approval a letter was sent to parents
15 asking for passive consent of their child s involvement in the study see Appendix B and verbal assent was received from the students No identifying information was given and student identity remained anonymous.
16 CHAPTER FOUR Results The study consisted of 134 female students, 94 male students, and 1 stud ent whose gender was undeclared. Forty f ive percent of students were in sixth grade, 34.1% were in seventh grade, and 21.4% were in eighth grade. Of those students, 49.3% played violin, 25.8% played cello, 18.8% played viola, and 6.1% played bass. An examination of frequencies indicated that 42.9 % of bassists, 34.9 % of violists, 32.7% of violinists, and 25.4% of cellists, had kinesthetic learning style preferences. Figures 1 through 4 demonstrate the learning style pr eferences for each instrument. Kinesthetic and multimodal learning styles, with the exception of the viola, were the two most frequently indicated preferences among students In these results, multimodal means that the student scored evenly on at least two learning style preferences, thus not demonstrating a specific dominant le arning style. The overall learning style preferences within the study can be seen in figure 5 but the two most preferred learning styles were kinesthetic and multimodal Figure 1 Learning Style Preferences for Violin Figure 2. Learning Style Preferences for Vio la
17 Figure 3. Learning Style Preferences for Cello Figure 4. Learning Style Preferences for Ba s s Figure 5 Learning Style Preferences within the Study Note In all bar graphs, learning styles which received sum responses of less than 5% were excluded from the chart. Table 2 Key for Bar Graphs A Aural AK Aural/Kinesthetic AKV Aural/Kinesthetic/Visual AR Aural/Read Write K Kinesthetic KR Kinesthetic/Read Write KV Kinesthetic/Visual MM Multimodal R Read Write V Visual
18 CHAPTER FIVE Discussion This study surveyed the entire population of a middle school orchestra program in the Tampa Bay area. The demographics of the population showed that almost 60% of the sample was female and the largest enrollment number was in sixth grade which equaled a t otal of 102 students. Enrollment rates dropped as the grade level increased with seventh grade equaling a total of 78 students and eighth grade equaling a total of 49 students. Ninety nine percent of the students indicated that they had chosen their own instrument. Based on this response and instructor feedback, it is believe d that the wording of question four on the questionnaire needed more clarity. This specific question should have provided more response options allowing students to indicate factor s which influenced their instrument selection choice. Having more information on the factors of how students chose their instruments would have strengthened the study, but was not crucial to the outcome of the study. Even though it is assumed that most students will have a dominant learning style, 20.1% of students did not have an identifiable dominant learning style preference. The lack of report ed dominant learning styles might have been decreased by asking an odd n umber of learning style questions rather than an even number. P revious studies indicate that a high majority of individuals demonstrate multimodal learning style preferences. According to the VARK website, performing art students typically demonstrate a higher preference for the visual learning style Fleming, 2011 This study indicated that within each musical instrument classification, the kinesthetic learning style was the most preferred preference, thus indicating a possible overal l tr end within the study. In the study conducted by Tanwinit and Sittiprapaporn 2010, which examined the learning styles among undergraduate
19 music students, they found that the undergraduate music students preferred learning modality was aural. Based on t he contradiction of studies, it is evident that more research needs to be conducted. Lastly, it is worth noting that each instrument group indicated significantly strong preferences for kinesthetic learning styles also supporting the need for future research in this area Conclusion The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of middle school student s learning styles a nd the musical instruments they studied whether students had chosen the instrument they wer e currently playing, and if a n overall trend toward a particular learning style existed within the study. A n overall trend was observed within the study indicating the preferred learning style of string orchestra students was kinestheti c thus suggesting that a relationship existed between student learning styles and the musical instrument studied. A future replication of this study would further confirm these findings. As stated earlier, self reported data from students can have intrinsic restrictions. One way to eliminate this problem in the future would be to conduct observation based research. An observational approach research design would reduce errors of reliabil ity and validity. Implications for the future include conducting a larger scale study for all instruments, not just one instrument family. It might be beneficial to test learning styles using other learning style inventories to cross correlate results. Finally a related research subject to this topic would be an examination of personality styles and instrument selection.
20 References Bayley, J. G. 2004. The procedure by which teachers prepare students to choose a musical instrument. UPDATE: Applications of Research i n Music Education 22 2, 23 34. Diaz, D. P., & Cartnal, R. B. 1999. Students' learning styles in two classes: Online distance learning and equivalent on campus. College Teaching 47 4, 130 135. Dunn, R. S., & Dunn, K. J. 1978. Teaching students through their individual learning styles: A practical approach Reston, VA: Prentice Hall Company. Eros, J. 2008. Instrument selection and gender stereotypes A review of recent literature. UPDATE: Applications of Research i n Music Education 27 1, 57 64. Feldman, R. 2011. P.O.W.E R learning and your life: Essentials of student success New York, NY: McGraw Hill. Fleming, N.D. 2011 VARK: A Guide to Learning Styles. Retrieved from : http://www.vark learn.com/english/index.asp Fortney, P. M., Boyle, J. D. & DeCarbo, N. J. 1993. A study of middle school band students' instrument choices. Journal of Research in Music Education 41 1, 28 39 Gardner, H. 19 8 3. Frames of mind, the theory of multiple intelligences New York, NY: Basic Books. Gardner, H. 1996. Question and Answer Session In .V. Brummett Ed., Ithaca Conference 96 Music as Intelligence: A Sourcebook pp. 13 29 Ithaca, NY: Ithaca College Gardner, H. 1999. Intelligence reframed, multiple intelligences for the 21st century New York: Basic Books. Hawk, T.F., & Shah, A.J. 2007 Using l earning style i nstruments to enhance student l earning. Decision Sciences Jour nal of Innovative Education, 5 1 1 19 Hopper, C.H. 2007 Practicing college learning strategies New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin. Kolb, D. 1984. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Kolb learning s tyle i nventory. n.d.. Retrieved from http://casa.colorado.edu/~dduncan/teachingseminar/KolbLearningStyleInventoryInfo.pdf Leite, W.L., Svinicki M., & Shi Y. 2009 Attempted validation of the scores of the VARK: Learning styles inventory with multitrait multimethod confirmatory factor analysis models. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70 2, 323 339
21 McPherson, G. E. & Davidson, J.W. 2006. Playing an inst rument. In G.E. McPherson Ed., The child as musician, a handbook of musical development pp. 331 34 9. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Moore, B.R. 1990. The relationship between curriculum and learner: Music composition and learning style. Journal o f Research in Music Education 38 1, 24 38. Multiple intelligences: Definition and examples. 2002. Retrieved from http://enhancinged.wgbh.org/research/multi/examples.html Myers Briggs Foundation. n.d.. C. G. Jung s Theory Retrieved from http://www.myersbriggs.org/my mbti personality type/mbti basics/c g jungs theory.asp Pa shler, H., McDaniel, D., Rohrer, D & Bjork, R. 2008. Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 9 3, 106 119. Prichard, A. 2009. Ways of learning 2 nd ed.. London : Routledge. Radocy, R.E. & Boyle, J.D. 2003. Psychological foundations of musical behavior 4 th ed.. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Silver, H. F., Strong, R. W. & Perini, M. J. 2000. So each may learn: Integrating learning styles and multiple intelligences Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Sprenger, M. 2003. Differentiation through learning styles and memory Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press Inc. Snyder, R. 1999. The r elationship between learning styles/multiple int elligences and academic achievement of high school students. High School Journal 83 2, 11. Tanwinit, A. & Sittiprapaporn, W. 2010. Learning styles of undergraduate musical students attending music college in Thailand Revista Electr. de LEEME Retrieved from music a.rediris.es/leeme/revista/wichian10.pdf Zhukov, K. 2007. Student learning styles in advanced instrumental music lessons. Music Education Research 9 1, 111 127.
22 Appendix A: Learning Style and Instrument Selection Questionnaire Part I: 1. What is your gender? MALE FEMALE 2. What grade are you in? 6 7 8 3. What instrument do you play in your school orchestra program? VIOLIN VIOLA CELLO BASS 4. Did you choose the musical instrument you are currently playing in your school orchestra program? Yes, I chose my instrument No, my instrument was chosen for me Part II: Choose the answer which best explains your preference and circle the letter next to it. Please circ le more than one if a single answer does not match your perception. 1. I like websites that have: a. things I can click on and do. b. audio channels for music, chat and discussion. c. interesting information and articles in print. d. interesting design and visual effects. 2. You are not sure whether a word should be spelled 'dependent' or 'dependant'. I would: a. see the words in my mind and choose by how they look. b. hear them in my mind or out loud. c. find them in the dictionary. d. write both words on paper and choose one. 3. You want to plan a surprise party for a friend. I would: a. invite friends and just let it happen. b. imagine the party happening. c. make lists of what to do and what to buy for the party. d. talk about it on the phone or text others.
23 4. When learning to play a new computer or video game, I learn best by: a. using the controls or keyboard and trying things out. b. talking to people who are familiar with the game. c. clues from the diagrams in the instructions. d. reading the instructions. 5. After reading a play you need to do a project. Would you prefer to:? a. write about the play. b. act out a scene from the play. c. draw or sketch something that happened in the play. d. read a speech from the play. 6. A new mov ie was just released. What would most influence your decision to go? a. you hear friends talking about it. b. you read what others say about it online or in a magazine. c. you see a preview of it. d. it is similar to others you have liked. 7. Do you prefer a teacher who likes to use: a. demonstrations, models or field trips. b. class discussions, online discussion, online chat and guest speakers. c. a textbook and plenty of handouts. d. diagrams, graphs or charts. 8. You have to present your ideas to your c lass. I would: a. make diagrams or get graphs to help explain my ideas. b. write a few key words and practice what to say again and again. c. write out my speech and learn it by reading it again and again. d. gather examples and stories to make it real and practical. Fleming, N.D. 2011. VARK: A Guide to Learning Styles. Retrieved from http://www.vark learn.com/documents/The%20VARK%20Questionnaire%20 %20Younger.pdf.
24 Appendix B : Passive Consent Letter Dear Parent or Legal Guardian, I am doing research on learning styles and musical instrument selection. I would like to know whether there is any relationship between student learning styles and the musical instrument they are studying. The study will occur in music class during reg ular school hours and should take less than 10 minutes to complete Students will be asked to take a learning styles questionnaire and to answer a few questions about how they chose the musical instrument they are studying. There are no direct benefits, risks, or compensation to your child for participating in the study. No identifying information will be gathered ; therefore your child will remain anonymous. The results of this study will be included in my final graduate project, b ut any identifying information will not be revealed. If you do not wish your child to be in this study, please sign below and return this form to school with your child within 3 days You may withdraw your consent at anytime without penalty. For infor mation regarding your child s rights as a research participant please contact the U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e v i e w B o a r d a t 352 392 0433. If you have any questions regarding the study please contact me. Sincerely, Ferol Car ytsas, Master of Music candidate University of Florida Fpc10@ufl.edu Return this portion if you do NOT want your child to participate in the study described above. I do not wish my child______________________________________ to be in the research study regarding learning styles and musical instrument sele ction ____________________________________ __________ Signature of Parent/Legal Guardian Date
25 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ferol Carytsas was born and raised in Bradenton, FL. Ferol attended Longy School of Music in Cambridge, MA where she studied with vi olist, Patricia McCarty, and graduated with an Undergraduate Diploma in viola performance in 2007. After returning to Florida, she attended Florida State University and received her Bachelor of Arts in music with a minor in psychology in 2010. In Fall 20 10, she began the masters program in music education at the University of Florida. Prior to attending Florida State University, she worked in arts administration as an Education Programs Assistant for the Sarasota Orchestra and as an Administrative Assista nt for the Perlman Music Program Suncoast. While attending the University of Florida, she has had the privilege of serving as research assistant and Editorial Assistant to the Co Editor, Dr. Timothy S. Brophy, of the International Journal of Music Educati on: Practice