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Work behavior types, job satisfaction, and attrition in medical technology

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Work behavior types, job satisfaction, and attrition in medical technology
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Wellstood, Sybil Auriel
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vi, 144 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Biomedical technology ( jstor )
Hospitals ( jstor )
Industrial and organizational psychology ( jstor )
Job satisfaction ( jstor )
Labor ( jstor )
Medical practice ( jstor )
Medical technology ( jstor )
Psychology ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Technology ( jstor )
Job satisfaction ( lcsh )
Medical technologists -- Vocational guidance ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1984.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 130-142).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sybil Auriel Wellstood.

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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES, JOB SATISFACTION, AND
ATTRITION IN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY











BY

SYBIL AURIEL WELLSTOOD


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1984


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The author thanks Dr. Margaret Morgan for her time, expertise,

and guidance as chairperson of the doctoral committee. She also

thanks Drs. James Hensel, Herman Baer, Sylvia Coleman, and Gordon

Lawrence for serving as committee members.

A special acknowledgement goes to Dr. John Nickens who provided

valuable assistance with the Marcus Paul Placement Profile and data

analyses.

The author is grateful for the cooperation and support of the

chief medical technologists and administrators in participating

facilities. She is also indebted to the technologists and former

technologists who provided the data for this study.

Finally, the author thanks John, a special friend, who provided

support, encouragement, a sympathetic ear, and numerous chocolate bars

during this ordeal.


























TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . .


ABSTRACT . . . .


CHAPTER


I INTRODUCTION . . .


Background . .
Statement of the Problem .
Delimitations and Limitations
Justification for the Study
Assumptions . .
Definition of Terms .
Organization of the Study .


II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . .


Organization of the Chapter .
Job Satisfaction .
Definition . .
Measures . .
History . .
Theories ...


Intrinsic Factors and Job Satisfaction
Extrinsic Factors and Job Satisfaction
Individual Differences .
Turnover................
Definition . .
fC


Personal and Demographic Predictor Variables
Organizational and Work Environment Variables
SJob Content Variables . .
Attitudinal Variables . .
Availability of Alternatives . .
Turnover Models . .
Work Behavior Type . ... .
Definition . . .
Industrial Psychology . .
Educational Psychology .. ... .
Theories of Vocational Development .
History of Work Behavior Types .
Marcus Paul Placement Profile .
Job Satisfaction, Attrition, Work Behavior Typl
Medical Technologists . .


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CHAPTER Page

III DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY . ... 72

Design . . . 72
Population . . .. 73
Data Collection .... . . 73
Instrumentation . . .. 76
Job Descriptive Index. . .. 76
Marcus Paul Placement Profile. . .. 77
Questionnaires for Practicing and Former Medical
Technologists . .. .. 79
Data Treatment and Analysis . .. 79

IV RESULTS . . .. 81

Description of Population. . ... 81
Practicing Medical Technologists . 81
Former Medical Technologists . .. 83
Research Questions . . .. 87
Chapter Summary. . . .107

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS .. .109

Problem and Procedures . .. 109
Conclusions. . . .112
Implications .... . ... 113
Recommendations . . 115

APPENDICES

A LETTER TO CHIEF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS. ... 118

B INSTRUMENTS . . 120

C LETTER TO PRACTICING MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS .. 127

D LETTER TO FORMER MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS . 129

LIST OF REFERENCES .... . . .130

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . .. 143
At


















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES, JOB SATISFACTION, AND
ATTRITION IN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY

By

Sybil Auriel Wellstood

April 1984

Chairman: Margaret Morgan
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction


Job dissatisfaction and attrition are major concerns in medical

technology. The purpose of this study was to identify work behavior

types of medical technologists and to determine their relationship to

job satisfaction and attrition. Information generated by this work

could be useful in counseling and matching the right person to the

right job.

Ninety-two bench-level technologists employed in hospital and

nonhospital laboratories and 19 former technologists employed in a

variety of occupations comprised the sample. The Job Descriptive

Index measured job satisfaction. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile

indicated work behavior type. A questionnaire provided demographic data.

The majority of technologists were females (78.3%) with more than

5 years experience. One third expected to leave medical technology and

22.8% expected to leave within the coming year. Most received












inadequate career counseling prior to choosing medical technology;

three fourths indicated information about work behavior types would have

helped in career decision making.

Technologists were predominantly Producers and Concentrators.

These types occurred more frequently than in the general population.

Work behavior types among former technologists approximated those of the

general population. Findings are consistent with earlier research on

personality types among medical technologists.

Results indicate that work behavior type relates to overall and

specific aspects of job satisfaction. Inducers indicate higher levels

of overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with promotions than other

types. The relationship between work behavior type and attrition is

equivocable. However, Energizers and Inducers leave at higher rates

than Producers and Concentrators.

Former technologists are more satisfied with their jobs, work,

pay, promotions, and co-workers than practicing technologists in

hospital or nonhospital laboratories. No differences exist in overall

job satisfaction or specific aspects of it among practicing technologists.

Although the sex of the participant does not affect job satisfaction,

sex relates to attrition and may stem from poor salaries received by

technologists compared to others with comparable education.

Attrition from medical technology can be predicted from age, sex,

years experience, satisfaction with promotions, Producer and Energizer

scores. These variables explain 30.4% of the variance in attrition.


vi


















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


Work is a central life activity for the majority of adults in

modern society--more than just a means for earning a living. According

to Terkel (1972), work is

a search, too, for daily meaning as well as daily bread,
for recognition as well as cash, for astonishment rather
than torpor; in short, for a sort of life rather than a
Monday through Friday sort of dying. Perhaps immortality,
too, is part of the quest. (p. xi)

Since the Industrial Revolution, job dissatisfaction, turnover,

and poor productivity have been growing problems among American

workers. Toeffler (1980) stated that industrialization "drove a

giant invisible wedge into our economy, our psyches, and even our

sexual selves" (p. 53). Industrialization separated production from

consumption and producer from consumer. Mass production brought

synchronization, centralization, specialization, standardization,

concentration, and maximization. Workers lost control over the

processes and outcomes of work. The importance of skill and

creativity diminished and workers no longer felt challenged or

stimulated.

Industrialization also satisfied workers' lower order needs

enabling them to focus on satisfaction inherent in the work itself.

Workers demand that work be satisfying, meaningful, and less

depersonalized. They expect equity and justice in the work place












and sufficient wages to live comfortably, according to the current

standard of living (Yankelovich, 1974). When these demands and

expectations clash with the realities of the world of work,

disappointment, dissatisfaction, and turnover may follow.

Inadequate career planning and improper placement of people in

jobs are central to the problems of job dissatisfaction and turnover.

Poor use of human resources often leads to a mismatch between the

individual and the job. Effective person/job matching is a major

challenge for business, industry, and education today.

This study was designed to provide new insights into the

problems of people/job matching in medical technology. The purpose

was to investigate the relationship among work behavior types, job

satisfaction, and attrition among a selected group of Florida medical

technologists.


Background


Since the 1970s, medical technology has been expanding to meet

the growing demands of the nation's health care system. Technological

advances have created needs for additional technologists to perform

the increasing numbers of laboratory tests available to physicians for

diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. Population growth,

especially for the elderly, greater health awareness by the public,

and widespread availability of health insurance have also, indirectly,

influenced personnel requirements for medical technology. Employment

opportunities will continue to spiral. Projections for the 1980s

indicate that the number of medical technology positions will increase











faster than the average of all occupations (U.S. Bureau of Labor

Statistics, 1982).

In 1982, approximately 205,000 medical laboratory workers were

employed in hospitals, independent laboratories, physicians' offices,

clinics, public health agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and

research institutions (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1982). Many

others will be needed to fill new positions and to serve as replacements

for those who retire, die, or leave medical technology for other kinds

of work.

The literature contains increasing evidence that the numbers of

technologists will not be sufficient to fill future vacancies. Jeanne

Burson (1981), former president of the American Society for Medical

Technology, indicated that medical technology, like nursing, is facing

a personnel shortage. She attributed this situation, in part, to

insufficient pay for the educational requirements and job responsibilities

demanded by the profession. She also stated that medical technologists

have experienced an "identity crisis." Many feel they do not receive

adequate recognition as health care professionals from the public or

from other health care practitioners.

Studies by Hajek and Blumberg (1982), Myers, Bronstein, and Vojir

(1982), Koneman (1982), and Irwin (1983) on job dissatisfaction and

attrition among medical technologists also agreed with these

observations. More than half of the technologists working today

indicated they would not be active in medical technology within 5 years.

Schools of medical technology are facing declining enrollments.

Some schools have been forced to close or operate with less than full

enrollments. Others have accepted less qualified applicants in order











to remain open (French & Elkins, 1982). These are indications that

schools of medical technology may not graduate sufficient numbers of

technologists to meet the increased demands for these allied health

professionals.

The current trends in attrition among medical technologists and

the shortage of new graduates could have serious impact on the health

care industry. Koneman (1982) noted that future laboratories might be

staffed by inexperienced, less qualified individuals. The National

Commission for Health Certifying Agencies (cited in Irwin, 1983) also

expressed concerns about the effects of technologists' dissatisfaction

and attrition on the quality and accuracy of laboratory results.

High turnover not only compromises the quality of patient care;

it also raises the cost of that care because the care must be provided

by fewer people at higher rates (Price & Mueller, 1981). Karni,

Studer, and Carter (1981) found that laboratory personnel were among

the most expensive hospital employees to replace. Simpson and LaValle

(1983) estimated that turnover costs for a vacated staff technologist

position could run as high as $7,458. These costs are eventually

passed along to the patient consumer, making health care an expensive

commodity.

Attrition also represents a waste of human resources, with

psychosocial implications for individuals, organizations, and society.

Greenberg (1979) indicated that 80% of the people working today are not

matched to the right job. Not surprisingly, a majority of American

workers are dissatisfied with their jobs and would not voluntarily

choose the same work again if given the opportunity (Special Task Force

to the Secretary of H.E.W., 1973).











In a recent study by Irwin (1983), medical technologists expressed the

same views.

During the past 20 years, the rising educational level of American

workers has increased their expectations and demands for useful,

satisfying work. However, the realities of the job may not fulfill

these expectations. Furthermore, the capabilities of the employee

often do not match the requirements of the job (Jelinik, 1979). Under

these conditions, the worker fails to achieve self-actualization,

becomes dissatisfied with the job, and sometimes leaves the organization.

Medical technology students are prepared to assume a collaborative

role with physicians and become members of the health care team. In

addition to being trained to perform tests and report results, they are

trained to interpret the significance of those results. However, poor

communications and rivalries between technologists and the medical staff

preclude technologist involvement in patient care at this higher level.

Recent advances in automation have also reduced the technical expertise

required to perform tests. Yet employers tend to "overhire" and

technologists find themselves in relatively low paying, routine jobs

that provide little opportunity for self-actualization, esteem, or

upward mobility. The brightest and best recruits may also become the

most dissatisfied workers and move on to more challenging fields.

Therefore, placement and training decisions must be based on additional

factors.

Although organizations claim that human resources are their most

important asset, they do little to match an individual's skills,

knowledge, interests, aptitudes, or work behavior preferences to

available jobs. Jelinik (1979) stated that even the most progressive











organizations lacked expertise in the area of person/job matching.

Many use outdated selection and placement methods that include

evaluation of past work history, educational background, interviews,

and reference checks. Occasionally these subjective techniques may

be supplemented by objective, job-related tests (Silver & Berke, 1981).

During the past 10 years, industrial psychologists and other

researchers have contributed useful knowledge and methods for a more

rational approach to matching people to jobs or students to careers.

Recent studies in the personnel selection literature provide a greater

understanding of the basic structures and taxonomies of human

characteristics. Others have suggested significantly improved methods

for measuring the behavioral components of jobs and job performance

dimensions (Dunnette & Borman, 1979). McCormick's (1976) task

inventory technology has provided a basis for job analysis techniques

used to infer the personal attributes important for doing a job. The

development of job samples has permitted evaluation of a candidate's

proficiency in performing the tasks involved in the job. Job samples

have been useful for jobs requiring motor skills and are more valid

than other types of tests in reflecting an individual's performance

level (Asher & Sciarrino, 1974).

Dunnette and Borman (1979) conceptualized the ideal counseling and

placement system of the future: a data bank containing the parameters

of available jobs and the attributes of available persons. Standardized

task checklists, scorable in terms of behavioral and attribute

categories, would be used to derive job parameters. Job candidates or

students would use similar checklists to record previous experience,

preferences, and estimated capabilities. Scores generated according











to job and attribute categories would be referred to the data bank for

job matching. Aptitude tests, job knowledge tests, job samples, and

simulations would provide additional data for individual and organizational

decision making.

Recent studies by Bauch (1981) and Glenn (1982) indicated that an

individual's work patterns or work behavior traits also played an

important role in job matching and recommended additional research in

this area. The assumption is that effective job matching will maximize

use of human resources and decrease job dissatisfaction, poor

productivity, and turnover.

As previously discussed, job dissatisfaction and attrition are

major concerns in medical technology. In the interest of providing

new insights into these problems, this investigator examined the

relationships among work behavior type, job satisfaction, and attrition

among Florida medical technologists.


Statement of the Problem


The problem of this study was to determine the relationships

among work behavior type, job satisfaction, attrition, and demographic

variables of medical technologists in Florida. The study was developed

to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the work behavior types of medical technologists
in Florida as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile?

2. Does a relationship exist between the work behavior type
of technologists and overall job satisfaction as measured
by the Job Descriptive Index?

3. Does a relationship exist between work behavior types and
specific aspects of job satisfaction as determined by the
subscales of the Job Descriptive Index?











4. Do participants' work behavior types relate to attrition
or the intention to leave medical technology?

5. Do medical technologists working in hospitals differ in
overall job satisfaction from those working in nonhospital
laboratories or other fields?

6. Do medical technologists working in hospitals differ in
specific aspects of job satisfaction from those working
in nonhospital laboratories or other fields?

7. Does a relationship exist between the sex of the
participant and job satisfaction?

8. Does a relationship exist between the sex of the
participant and attrition or the intention to leave
medical technology?

9. Can some combination of demographic variables, work
behavior type, and job satisfaction predict attrition
of Florida medical technologists?


Delimitations and Limitations


This study was delimited by the following factors:

1. The subjects of this study were practicing and former staff
medical technologists in Florida holding, at least, a
Bachelor of Science degree.

2. Information on work behavior type was confined to that
measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.

3. Information about job satisfaction was restricted to the
facets measured by the Job Descriptive Index.

The following limitations were also observed in this study:

1. Medical technologists volunteered to participate in this
study. There is no assurance they are representative of
the population of medical technologists in Florida or
medical technologists in general. Therefore, results may
not be generalizable to other populations of technologists.

2. The design of the study made it impossible to manipulate the
independent variables.











Justification for the Study


Medical technologists are dissatisfied with their jobs and are

leaving the profession to work in other areas. Karni et al. (1982)

estimated that the overall turnover rate among laboratory personnel

in Minneapolis hospitals ranged between 15% and 20%. An estimated

43% of those resignations were avoidable. Investigators have

identified many sources of dissatisfaction and attrition and have

made many recommendations to remedy the situation. Although these

proposals have merit, they have not alleviated the problem. Attrition

among medical technologists not only impairs the delivery of health

services; it represents a significant threat to the quality and cost

of health care. Immediate solutions are required to reduce the

attrition rate and reduce personnel shortages in medical technology.

Research indicates that people exhibit a particular pattern of

behaviors and qualities in the working situation (Geier, 1979). When

individuals have information about their work behavior styles and they

are matched to jobs requiring and encouraging those styles, they have

a greater opportunity for success and job satisfaction. The right "fit"

between employee and job also decreases the likelihood that the employee

will become frustrated and quit.

If information were available on the work behavior types of

medical technologists who enjoyed their work and intended to remain in

the profession, major efforts could be directed toward matching people

with these profiles to jobs and educational programs. This study was

designed to add to the limited research on work behavior types.

Findings may also provide new insights into the problems of job











satisfaction and attrition among medical technologists as these

problems relate to people/job matching.

Results of the study may also have implications for career

planning, academic advising, and planning effective educational and

training programs for medical technologists. Advisors, counselors,

students, and employers may use the information as a basis for a

more systematic approach to hiring and career selection. Program

developers may apply the results in developing instructional strategies

that would foster and enhance work behaviors essential for success in

medical technology.


Assumptions


This study is based on the following assumptions:

1. Participants answered the surveys honestly and responses
accurately reflect their attitudes and preferences.

2. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile is a valid and reliable
instrument for measuring work behavior type of medical
technologists.

3. The Job Descriptive Index is a valid, reliable measure of
job satisfaction.

4. Responses to behavioral intention questions predict
turnover.


Definition of Terms


Medical technologist. An individual who has completed four years

of college with a Bachelor of Science degree in medical technology or

a Bachelor of Science degree that includes 16 hours of chemistry, 16

hours of biology, and one semester of math and is qualified to perform

laboratory tests that require the exercise of independent judgment and











responsibility under the supervision of the laboratory director or

supervisor.

Job satisfaction. A participant's score in the Job Descriptive

Index.

Attrition. As used in this study, the loss of medical

technologists to other fields or professions.

Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP). An instrument designed to

measure work behavior type (described more fully in Chapter II).

Work behavior type. A description of an individual's general

qualities and behaviors as they relate to the work situation and

derived from responses on the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.

Job Descriptive Index (JDI). An instrument designed to measure

job satisfaction (described more fully in Chapter III).


Organization of the Study


The remainder of this study is organized into four chapters.

Chapter II presents a review of the literature and research on job

satisfaction, attrition, and development of work behavior types. It

concludes with a review of the literature on these topics as they

relate to medical technologists.

Chapter III describes the design and methodology of the study.

It contains the research design, population, data collection,

instrumentation, and procedures.

Chapter IV contains the results of the study, including data

analysis, and discussion.

Chapter V includes a summary of the study, conclusions about the

findings, implications, and recommendations for additional research.


















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Organization of the Chapter

This review covers four areas. The first section presents an

overview of research on job satisfaction. This is followed by a review

of the literature on turnover, including the relationship between job

satisfaction and turnover. The next section consists of research and

theories leading to the development of work behavior types and the

Marcus Paul Placement Profile. The final section provides a synthesis

of the research on job satisfaction, attrition, and career development

in medical technology.


Job Satisfaction

Definition

According to Locke (1976), more than 3,000 articles, books, and

dissertations have been written about job satisfaction. Gruneberg

(1979) stated it was one of the most researched topics in psychology.

Because job satisfaction impacts on the well-being of individuals,

organizations, and society, it is not surprising to find a large

volume of research on this subject.

Numerous definitions of job satisfaction have emerged from these

studies and researchers do not agree on a single, universal definition

of the term (Locke, 1969). Davis (1977) related job satisfaction to

the fit between employee and job. For him, it was











the favorableness or unfavorableness with which employees
view their work. It results when there is a fit between job
characteristics and the wants of employees. It expresses
the amount of congruence between one's expectations of the
job and the rewards that the job provides. (p. 74)

Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969) defined job satisfaction as "feelings

or affective responses to facets of the situation" (p. 6). Wanous

and Lawler (1972) listed nine different operational definitions,

theoretically based on need fulfillment, equity, or work values.

Porter and Steers (1973) defined job satisfaction as the "sum total of

an individual's met expectations on the job" (p. 167).

The term job satisfaction is, however, distinguished from the

term morale. The former refers to an individual's response to the

job and the latter term refers to group well-being (Gruneberg, 1979).

Measures

Job satisfaction has also been measured by a variety of

objective, descriptive, or projective instruments. Many investigators

have devised new instruments or altered others to meet the demands of

their particular study. Objective surveys contain questions with

pre-determined responses. Descriptive surveys allow respondents an

opportunity for unstructured replies and questions are open-ended.

Psychologists devise and administer projective surveys to assess

mental health, usually in nonwork settings (Davis, 1977).

Herzberg (1966) used a form of descriptive survey called the

critical incident technique to collect data on job satisfaction.

He asked workers to think of a time when they felt especially good

or bad about their jobs. While this technique has been popular, it

has also been criticized (Gardner, 1977).










Wanous and Lawler (1972) determined that different measures of

job satisfaction may not assess the same variables and concluded there

was no one best way to measure this construct. In a later review of

the literature, Gruneberg (1979) drew the same conclusion and added

that the best measure of job satisfaction depended on the variables

under investigation.

However, the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) developed by Smith,

Kendall, and Hulin (1969) has been regarded as the most reliable,

carefully developed, and researched instrument for measuring job

satisfaction. After examining inventories and terms used by previous

investigators to describe the same or similar facts, Smith and

co-workers found five common factors in these inventories. They

included a general factor, a pay and material rewards factor, the work

itself, a supervision factor, and a factor related to other workers on

the job. These factors formed the five subscales of the JDI and

measured satisfaction with work, pay, opportunities for promotion,

supervision, and co-workers.

History

Historically, industrial psychologists have been interested in

job satisfaction since the early 1900s. In 1911, Frederick Taylor

brought principles of scientific management to the work setting.

Using time and motion studies at the Bethlehem steelworks, he redesigned

equipment, simplified, fragmented, and compartmentalized work tasks,

and placed workers under continuous supervision. Although primarily

concerned with increasing productivity and efficiency, Taylor also

called attention to the importance of the human element in getting the

job done.











In the 1920s, the "human relations" school of thought on job

satisfaction emerged from the Hawthorne studies conducted by Elton

Mayo (1933). Like Taylor, Mayo sought to find ways to improve

productivity by altering physical work conditions. However, he also

observed that human relationships within the organization were more

important to the workers. He contended that "friendly" relationships

between employees and supervisors or between co-workers led to job

satisfaction. Job satisfaction, in turn, led to higher productivity.

Hoppock (1935) published results of several studies on job

satisfaction. He used survey methods and attitude scales to collect

his data. He concluded job satisfaction consisted of many factors.

The presence of these factors in the work situation led to satisfaction

while their absence led to job dissatisfaction. He also examined the

relationship among job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and mental

health. In a survey involving 500 teachers, 21% of the least

satisfied teachers were from unhappy homes, compared to only 6% of

the teachers expressing high satisfaction.

Theories

Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler, and Weik (1970) classified current

theories of satisfaction as either content or process theories.

Content theories relate to factors that motivate people to work and

process theories are intended to explain job satisfaction in terms of

the interaction between the individual's needs and what the job actually

offers.

Maslow's (1943) needs hierarchy theory is a major content theory.

He explained the dynamics of job satisfaction in terms of fulfilling

individual needs. Maslow arranged human needs in an ascending hierarchy.











Lower-order needs were (a) basic physiological needs, (b) safety and

security needs, and (c) social (affection) needs. Higher-order needs

were (d) esteem and (e) self-actualization. Lower-order needs had to

be satisfied before higher-order needs could assume importance.

However, once a need was met, it no longer served as a motivator.

Building on Maslow's work, Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959)

formulated the two-factor theory of job satisfaction. They claimed

that two classes of work variables, the motivators and hygiene factors,

influenced job satisfaction. Motivators were intrinsic factors such

as achievement, recognition, advancement, responsibility, and the

inherent interest of the work itself. When present in a job,

motivators were satisfiers because they had a positive effect on

employee output. Achievement was the strongest motivator followed by

recognition. Motivators correspond to Maslow's higher-order needs.

Hygiene factors were extrinsic to the job and included pay,

security, supervision, and physical working conditions. They were

analogous to Maslow's lower-order needs. When absent from the job,

they were linked to dissatisfaction. However, Herzberg and associates

clearly pointed out that the presence of a hygiene factor doesn't

automatically produce job satisfaction and the absence of a motivator

doesn't necessarily lead to dissatisfaction.

Vroom's (1964) expectancy theory is representative of process

theories. He proposed that job satisfaction depended on the degree to

which a job met the individual's needs. Motivation depended on the

workers' perceptions of the likelihood that their needs would be

satisfied. Individuals ascribe valences to job outcomes such as

higher pay, promotion, peer approval, and recognition, according to











their perceived importance in satisfying various needs. Workers also

assign a valence to the expectancy or their perception of the likelihood

the outcome will actually materialize. Motivation is a product of the

valence of expectancy times the valence of the outcome.

Porter and Lawler (1968) expanded and refined Vroom's model. They

developed a multivariable model to explain the complex relationship

among motivation, satisfaction, and performance. They claimed that

the amount of effort or motivation expended by an employee depended on

the interaction between the value of the reward for them and the

perceived effort-reward probability. Effort leads to performance and

the level of performance depends on the employee's abilities, traits,

and role expectations as well as the amount of effort expended. The

rewards that follow performance and how they are perceived affect job

satisfaction.

According to the Porter and Lawler model, job satisfaction

depends on the extent to which rewards measure up to the individual's

perceived equitable level of those rewards. In contrast to previous

models, in this model the theorists recognize that job satisfaction

is only partially determined by actual rewards received. The

employee's perceptions of what the rewards should be for a given

level of performance also play a significant role in satisfaction.

Furthermore, this model states that satisfaction depends on performance

and not the reverse.

Equity theorists are also process theorists who examine job

satisfaction in terms of the equity in treatment workers perceive they

receive compared to the treatment others receive in a similar job.

Adams (1965) argued that the degree of equity or inequity perceived by











an employee is compared to other workers and forms the basis for job

satisfaction and motivation. Employees contribute Inputs (skills,

personal traits, and experiences) to a job. They receive Outputs

(salary, promotions, praise) from the work. They form a ratio of

Inputs to Outputs and compare it to other workers. The ratio must be

perceived as equal for the worker to be satisfied.

Recently, attribution theory and locus of control have become

important for understanding job satisfaction. Attribution theorists

claim that an individual's perceived behavior is determined by

internal forces (personal attributes such as ability, effort,

fatigue) and external forces (environmental attributes such as rules

or the weather). People behave differently when they perceive internal

as compared to external attributes (Luthans, 1981).

Locus of control explains work behavior in terms of employees'

perceptions of internally or externally controlled outcomes.

Perceived locus of control has an impact on job performance and

satisfaction. Mitchell, Smyser, and Weed (1975) tested the

attribution/locus of control model and found that internally

controlled employees are generally more satisfied with their jobs

than employees who perceive external control.

Intrinsic Factors and Job Satisfaction

Herzberg et al. (1959) were the earliest investigators to point

out the importance of changes in the actual job performed as a

necessary factor for increasing job satisfaction. Success, recognition,

appreciation of skills, the feeling of doing something worthwhile, and

job involvement are content or intrinsic factors of the actual job

performed that affect job satisfaction.











Locke (1965) demonstrated that success at a task increased job

satisfaction because success enhanced self-esteem. However, the

individual had to perceive the task as being important (Nord, 1977).

Many individuals also require external validation of their successes

and achievements in the form of tangible recognition (promotion,

merit pay increase) or intangible recognition (praise). In one study,

workers rated recognition by supervisors and colleagues as a major

source of job satisfaction (Locke, 1976).

Workers must also be able to use their skills or abilities to

feel successful at a job. Walker and Guest (1952) studied the

relationship of skill level to job satisfaction among automobile

production workers. They found job satisfaction was related to the

amount of skill required and to the number of operations performed in

a job.

Hackman and Lawler (1971) examined the relationship of job

satisfaction to job variety, job autonomy, job identity, and feedback.

Findings on job variety agreed with those of Walker and Guest (1952).

However, Hackman and Lawler (1971) added that not all employees

preferred task variety in their jobs. Individuals with little interest

in meeting higher-order needs were satisfied with repetitive work.

The degree of job autonomy (the extent to which individuals make

decisions about their jobs) was also positively correlated to job

satisfaction. Workers free to choose their own methods and pace of

work were satisfied. Task identity or wholeness of the work was

important for job satisfaction among workers with higher-order needs.

They had to perform an entire piece of work for it to have meaning

and be satisfying.











Lodahl and Kejner (1965), Weissenberg and Gruenfield (1968), and

Hall, Schneider, and Nygren (1970) reported a positive correlation

between job satisfaction and job involvement. Job involvement is the

extent to which an individual identifies with a particular job

(Gruneberg, 1979). Individual attitudes toward work (Lodahl, 1964),

strength of higher-order needs (Hackman & Lawler, 1971), and the

organizational structure or situation (Argyris, 1964; Rabinowitz &

Hall, 1977) influence job involvement. However, little is known

about how individuals develop an interest in a particular job

(Gruneberg, 1979).

Extrinsic Factors and Job Satisfaction

Although intrinsic factors are generally regarded as most

important for job satisfaction, extrinsic or context factors also play

a significant role. These factors include pay, job security, work

groups, and supervision.

Pay is an important aspect of job satisfaction. It provides more

to individuals than the means to purchase goods and services. Pay is

often associated with achievement, recognition, and worth; Wernimont

and Fitzpatrick (1972), however, found significant individual

differences in the meaning of money according to the stage of career

development, experiences, sex, economic status, and personality of the

worker.

The actual level of pay is not as important to job satisfaction

as the relative level. According to the equity theorists (discussed

earlier), workers compare themselves to other workers in terms of

Inputs and Outputs. Individuals weigh the equity of their pay in

terms of their skills, amount of effort, responsibility, and











experience compared to pay received by similar workers. Dissatisfaction

occurs when the pay received is not perceived as equitable (Warr &

Wall, 1975).

Many individuals rate job security as a leading factor for job

satisfaction. It is one of Herzberg's Hygiene factors and, when

absent, causes job dissatisfaction. When it is present, however, it

is unimportant. Our society places a high value on work. Individuals

associate having a job with competence and worth. Siassi, Crocetti,

and Spiro (1975) identified a higher incidence of mental illness in

the unemployed compared to others. Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and

Capwell (1957) pointed out the importance of the work group and social

aspects of the job for job satisfaction. Maslow (1943) also included

needs for social interaction as a basic lower-order need. Walker and

Guest (1952) demonstrated that workers with isolated jobs were more

dissatisfied than others. In addition, Van Zelst (1952) found that job

satisfaction, turnover, and productivity improved when workers were

permitted to select their work mates. Workers of similar backgrounds,

skills, and values formed cohesive work groups. These groups also

provided support, generated feelings of self-esteem from being valued

by others, and were a source of satisfaction derived from cooperating

with others to achieve common goals.

Supervision is another extrinsic factor involved in job satisfaction.

The "human relations" school of management regarded "friendly" supervision

as vital for the improvement of job satisfaction. The Hawthorne studies

related increased productivity to increases in friendly supervision.

However, these results have been questioned and increased productivity

may have resulted in friendlier supervision (Gruneberg, 1979).











Weed, Mitchell, and Moffitt (1976) examined the relationship

between leadership style and job satisfaction. They distinguished

between employee-oriented leaders who established personal relationships

with employees and were pleasant and leaders who were task-oriented and

saw the group as a vehicle for achieving production targets.

Task-oriented leaders also initiated and organized the work. However,

Warr and Wall (1975) pointed out that task-oriented leaders were not

necessarily the opposites of employee-oriented leaders. Task-oriented

leaders also demonstrated concern for employees while organizing the

work.

House (1971) stated that different groups of workers wanted and

expected different styles of leadership. Unskilled and semi-skilled

workers resented the task-oriented supervisor. High-level workers

found this type of supervision satisfying because it helped them achieve

goals.

One of the major sources of discontent among workers is the

feeling that they have no say in what happens to them. A number of

studies have indicated that a democratic style of leadership increases

job satisfaction and cooperation (Coch & French, 1949; Startup &

Gruneberg, 1973). Workers usually indicate a desire to participate in

decision making, especially when the decision directly affects them

(Hespe & Wall, 1976). Employee participation in decision making not

only results in higher job involvement and greater commitment to the

decisions made, it also produces better decisions, develops group

cohesion, and establishes group norms (Argyle, 1972). The Japanese

have capitalized on participatory management theories. Their success











as world leaders in technology has been largely attributed to this

management style (Ouchi, 1981).

Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, and Rosenthal (1964) and Keller (1975)

studied job satisfaction in terms of role ambiguity and role conflict.

Individuals experience role conflict when the behaviors expected of

them are inconsistent with the behaviors they expect of themselves.

They experience role ambiguity when expectations are unknown or unclear.

Role ambiguity and role conflict in the job situation often create

stress and job dissatisfaction. However, there are differences related

to the occupational level of the worker (Kahn et al., 1964; Schuler,

1977). Role ambiguity was more stressful for higher level personnel

in organizations, whereas lower level personnel experienced more job

dissatisfaction when role conflict existed.

Organizational climate or the quality of the total workplace

environment also affects job satisfaction. However, Friedlander and

Margulies (1969), Pritchard and Karasick (1973), and Schneider and

Snyder (1975) pointed out that individual differences played a

significant role in the relationship between these factors. For

example, organizations with high levels of control appealed to workers

with strong needs for security, whereas creative individuals or those

who preferred to participate in decision making favored more democratic

organizations. Supportiveness, concern for social relationships,

progressiveness, harmony, and consideration were important aspects of

organizational climate correlated to high job satisfaction.

Individual Differences

In addition to the content and context factors of the job,

individual differences between people affect job satisfaction.











Researchers have considered the influence of age, sex, educational

level, race, cultural background, and personality. However, results

from this area of job satisfaction research have not been as consistent

or reliable as results from other areas.

Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and Campbell (1957) found a U-shaped

relationship between age and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction

starts out high in the young worker, declines rapidly, and then rises

again with increasing age. Supposedly, as individuals age they adjust

more easily to work and life situations. Hunt and Saul (1975)

related age and job satisfaction to the sex of the worker and found

significant relationship only in males. Glenn, Taylor, and Weaver

(1977) found a significant relationship in both sexes. Hulin and

Smith (1965) disagreed with the U-shaped relationship between age and

satisfaction. They found that satisfaction declined five years

before retirement. At this stage of a worker's career, opportunities

for growth and promotion usually declined.

Studies relating sex to job satisfaction have also been

contradictory. According to traditional thinking, men and women had

different attitudes and values about work and jobs. Schuler (1975)

stated that women were more interested in the social aspects of the

job, whereas men were interested in self-expression and promotion

opportunities. Herzberg et al. (1957) also reported that males

regarded the intrinsic factors of the job as more important than

females did. Brief and Oliver (1976) found no significant sex-related

differences in work attitudes, particularly when other variables

(occupational level, salary, career orientation) were statistically

controlled.










Klein and Maher (1966) and Vollmer and Kinny (1955) reported a

negative correlation between education level and job satisfaction.

These findings suggested that employees with higher levels of

education expected more from their jobs and became more dissatisfied

when the job failed to meet those expectations. They also pointed

out the problems in hiring over-qualified individuals for positions,

or unnecessarily raising the academic qualifications for a job.

Herzberg et al. (1957) showed a positive relationship between

education and job satisfaction.

In a 1973 survey conducted by a Special Task Force, job

satisfaction among minority groups was consistently lower than

satisfaction among white workers. However, Jones, James, Bruni, and

Sells (1977) found no differences in overall job satisfaction among

black and white sailors matched by type of job.

The relationship between job satisfaction and personality

factors has not been thoroughly researched (Gruneberg, 1979).

Clearly, however, aspects of personality determine the extent to

which different job characteristics affect an individual's job

satisfaction.

For example, McClelland (1961) demonstrated that individuals with

high needs for achievement required challenging jobs to enhance their

self-esteem and provide them with job satisfaction. Steers (1975) found

that individuals with high achievement needs derived job satisfaction

from high levels of job performance. These high achievers became

involved in their jobs when they perceived opportunities for success

and rewards as a result of performance.











Self-esteem is another personality dimension related to job

satisfaction. Warr and Wall (1975) argued that job satisfaction

declines when an individual's self-esteem is threatened. This may

occur when workers are unable to apply skills or are placed in

situations where they compare poorly with other workers.

Korman's (1977) findings on self-esteem and job satisfaction were

comparable to Steer's results for high achievers and job satisfaction.

He demonstrated that those with high self-esteem were satisfied when

they performed well on the job. However, these individuals also

expected rewards for high performance and experienced job dissatisfaction

when they did not receive those rewards.

Many studies have focused on the relationship between personality

type, measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and job

satisfaction. The MBTI is an instrument designed by Myers (1962) to

identify personality type according to dimensions of extraversion (E)

or introversion (I), sensing (S) or intuition (N), thinking (T) or

feeling (F), and judging (J) or perception (P).

Brown's (1973) study of occupational therapists in Florida,

William's (1975) study of medical technologists, and Kuhn's (1981)

study of teachers revealed that extraverts were more satisfied with

their overall careers than introverts. Fellers (1974), French and

Rezler (1976), and Glenn (1982) found no relationship between

personality type and job satisfaction among dietitians, medical

technologists, and vocational education administrators. In 1975,

Clitsome studied job satisfaction and turnover of intensive care (ICU)

and general staff nurses. Among ICU nurses, judging types were more











satisfied than perceptive types. Among general staff nurses, the STJ

types were more satisfied with work than the NFP types.

In summary, job satisfaction is a complex, multifaceted attitude.

A variety of content (success, recognition, appreciation, job variety,

job autonomy, job involvement), context (pay, job security, supervision,

work groups, role ambiguity, role conflict, organizational climate),

and personal factors (age, sex, education level, race, personality type,

tenure) affect an individual's job satisfaction. Job satisfaction, in

turn, impacts on many other aspects of life. The relationship between

job satisfaction and turnover will be discussed in the next section.


Turnover

This section is a review of literature describing the turnover

process. It will include definitions of turnover, consequences for

the individual and organization, predictor variables (personal,

organizational/work-related, job content, attitudinal), and turnover

models.

Definition

Turnover has also been a well researched topic. According to

Steers and Mowday (1981), more than 1000 studies have appeared in the

literature since 1910.

Brayfield and Crockett (1955) described turnover as an extreme

behavior along a continuum of behaviors showing psychological withdrawal

of commitment to a job. Absences, lateness, grievances, strikes, and

sabotage are less extreme forms of withdrawal behavior that may precede

or substitute for turnover when quitting is not a viable option.

Because most turnover is voluntary (Price, 1977), Price and Mueller











(1981) called turnover "a voluntary separation from an organization"

(p. 2).

Gillies (1982) classified turnover as unavoidable or avoidable.

Marriage, childbearing, or transfer of a spouse were associated with

unavoidable turnover, where avoidable turnover resulted when a job

failed to meet the employee's needs or expectations.

Consequences

Turnover has increased significantly in many organizations over

the past 20 years. Turnover rates of 50% to 60% are not unusual

(Silver & Berke, 1981).

Turnover has both negative and positive consequences for the

organization, the individual leaver, and the individual stayer. For

the organization, the cost of replacing one employee is high. Direct

and indirect costs are involved. Direct costs include expenses for

recruiting, selecting, processing, orienting, and training new

employees. Indirect costs are incurred for overtime pay for remaining

employees to complete the work. New employees are also less efficient

and productive during training periods (Gillies, 1982).

Turnover also has-potentially desirable consequences for organizations.

These include replacement of poor performers, opportunities for cost

reduction, consolidation, introduction of new knowledge/technology,

and internal mobility (Mobley, 1982).

The cost of turnover for the individual who decides to leave an

organization may include increased stress, disruption of family and

social life, loss of seniority and nonvested benefits, and moving

expenses. Advantages of quitting could include higher earnings,











career advancement, better person-organization "fit," stimulation from

a new environment, and self-development (Mobley, 1982).

Most researchers have neglected the "stayers" in the turnover

process. Those who remain with the organization may become overburdened

by the increased workload created by the loss of an employee.

Performance may decline as a result of the increased demands and

stress. Morale, commitment, and satisfaction may decrease, especially

if the departing employee voices strong negative opinions about the

job or organization. Leavers may also make others aware that better

jobs are available elsewhere. When the departing employee was a

valued member of the work group, social and communication patterns

may be disrupted by the loss of this employee. On the other hand,

turnover may increase promotion opportunities for those who remain and

the new replacement may fit in better with coworkers (Mobley, 1982).

Personal and Demographic Predictor Variables

Researchers have identified critical factors involved in the

turnover process. Some investigators have examined personal and

demographic variables as predictors of the decision to terminate

employment. These factors include age, tenure, and family

responsibilities.

With few exceptions, there is a strong positive relationship

between age and turnover (Muchinsky & Tuttle, 1979). However, Mobley,

Griffeth, Hand, and Meglino (1979) pointed out that age was related to

many other variables and, alone, explained only 7% of the variance in

turnover.

Tenure in an organization (length of service) is consistently,

inversely related to turnover (Muchinsky & Tuttle, 1979). Mangione











(1973) and Steers (1977) suggested tenure was one of the single best

predictors of turnover behavior.

Family responsibilities, including marital status and number of

dependents, are also associated with turnover. For males, increases

in family responsibilities are inversely related to withdrawal.

However, for females, the relationship depends on the wage earner

status of the employee. When women work as primary wage earners, there

is a negative relationship between family responsibilities and turnover,

whereas for women who are secondary wage earners, increases in family

responsibilities are positively correlated to withdrawal (Federico,

Federico, & Lundquist, 1976).

Schuh (1967) attempted to predict turnover from personality and

vocational inventories and biographical information. Although he

found no relationship between turnover and scores on intelligence,

aptitude, or personality tests, he did find evidence for predicting

turnover from vocational interest inventories and biographical

information.

Organizational and Work Environment Variables

Pay, promotion, supervision, and peer group relations are

organizational and work environment factors related to turnover.

Early studies indicated that low pay and few promotion opportunities

were major reasons for withdrawal (Mobley et al., 1979). Knowles

(1964), Hulin (1968), and Federico, Federico, and Lundquist (1976)

pointed out that the perceived equity of pay and promotion was more

important than the actual pay received in the decision to stay or quit.

Recent studies suggest there is no relationship between pay, promotion,











and turnover (Koch & Steers, 1978; Kraut, 1975; Mobley, Horner, &

Hollingsworth, 1978).

These inconsistencies may be attributed to other variables that

mediate the effects of pay satisfaction on turnover. Mobley (1977)

and Mobley et al. (1978) reported that intention to quit and intention

to search for another job were the direct antecedents of turnover.

Pay satisfaction may be more correlated to these variables than to

actual turnover.

Motowidlo (1983) examined the relationship between pay

satisfaction, amount of pay, expectations of receiving more satisfying

pay in another job, withdrawal intentions, and actual quitting.

Satisfaction with pay explained 43% of the variance in withdrawal

intentions beyond that explained by age, tenure, general satisfaction,

amount of pay received, and pay expectation. Although the amount of

pay received was weakly correlated to turnover, results suggest it is

strongly associated with pay satisfaction which, in turn, is related to

withdrawal intentions.

Saleh, Lee and Prien (1965) demonstrated the importance of

supervisory behavior as a variable in turnover among hospital nurses.

Nurses cited lack of consideration from supervisors as a major reason

for leaving. Ley (1966), Hulin (1968), and Graen and Ginsburgh (1977)

obtained similar results for production and clerical workers.

Bassett (1967) related turnover to the amount of supervisory

experience. Employees supervised by individuals with less than 5 years

of management experience withdrew at a higher rate than employees with

more experienced supervisors.











Although studies, generally, offer support for a negative

relationship between satisfaction with supervision and turnover,

Mobley et al. (1979) identified several recent studies that show no

significant relationship between these variables. The nature of the

leadership measures and the need for multivariate analyses may

explain these results.

Research conducted during the past 10 years on the relationship

between peer group interactions and turnover indicates no significant

correlation between these variables (Mobley et al., 1979). Although

Koch and Steers (1978) found a significant relationship between

satisfaction with co-workers and turnover, only 4% of the variance in

turnover was explained by this factor.

Studies prior to 1973, however, indicated a strong, negative

impact of peer group relations on turnover (Evan, 1973; Farris, 1971;

Hulin, 1968; Schuh, 1967). Porter and Steers (1973) suggested that

individual needs for affiliation played an important role in explaining

discrepant findings in this area of turnover research.

Job Content Variables

Satisfaction with the work itself, task repetitiveness, job

autonomy and responsibility, and role clarity are job content variables

impacting on an employee's decision to terminate employment.

Satisfaction with the work itself is negatively correlated to

turnover. However, it explains less than 16% of the variance in

turnover (Mobley et al., 1979).

Routinization of jobs and task repetitiveness contribute to

turnover. Job stress is an intervening variable. Increases in











routinization result in greater job stress; job stress, in turn, leads

to higher turnover (Porter & Steers, 1973).

Numerous studies (Farris, 1971; Lawler, 1973; Porter & Steers,

1973) indicate that high job autonomy results in low turnover.

However, job satisfaction may be an intervening variable (Price &

Mueller, 1981).

Weitz (1956) demonstrated that role clarity played a significant

part in turnover. In a well controlled study, he demonstrated that

applicants who had detailed information about their jobs prior to

employment remained with the organization longer than those who had

little or no information about their jobs. Macedonia (1969) and

Youngberg (1963) drew the same conclusions from their studies.

Lyons (1971) added that the relationship between role clarity and

turnover may depend on individual tolerances for job ambiguity.

Tolerant individuals are not affected by unclear roles, whereas those

low in tolerance for job ambiguity withdraw at a higher rate when roles

are not well defined.

Attitudinal Variables

Turnover has also been assessed in terms of attitudinal variables

designed to measure workers' perceptions and feelings about their jobs

and organizations. These variables include job satisfaction,

organizational commitment, satisfaction of expectations, and existence

of perceived conflicting standards.

Research has generally supported the premise that a satisfied

worker will remain with the organization and attend work regularly.

In 1973, Porter and Steers reviewed 60 studies on employee turnover.

They found consistent evidence that job satisfaction represented an











important influence on turnover. The average correlation between these

variables was .25. Although the magnitude of the relationship was

small, it was consistent.

Vroom (1964) described the relationship between turnover and job

satisfaction in terms of his expectancy/valence theory. He theorized

that the decision to leave was a function of the difference in

strength between forces to remain and forces to leave. The force to

remain was reflected in job satisfaction levels. The force to leave

was influenced by the valence of outcomes individuals could not attain

unless they left their present position as well as by the expectancy

that these outcomes could be attained elsewhere.

Hulin's (1966) study is a notable example of research relating

job satisfaction and turnover. Using the JDI, he obtained baseline

job satisfaction measures on all female clerical workers who participated

in the study. Each subject who subsequently left the company during

the next 12 months was matched to two "stayers" along several

demographic variables. The leavers had significantly lower mean job

satisfaction scores than the stayers. Hulin concluded he could predict

leavers, at least on a group basis, using job satisfaction measures.

In 1968, Hulin repeated the study in the same company and obtained

similar results. However, scores on four of the five scales of the JDI

had risen and the turnover rate dropped more than 50%. He linked these

changes to new salary and promotion policies instituted by the company

after the first study.

Recent literature suggests that job satisfaction is indirectly

related to turnover. It may act as a precursor for other behaviors,











constructs, and processes that are more important predictors of

withdrawal (Parasuraman, 1982).

Organizational commitment, involvement, and job attachment have

been the subjects of other investigations on turnover. Porter,

Steers, Mowday, and Boulian (1974) defined organizational commitment

as "the strength of an individual's identification with and involvement

in a particular organization" (p. 604). They found it was significantly

and negatively related to turnover. Intention to remain is a component

of commitment. Porter et al. (1974), Steers (1977), and Marsh and

Mannari (1977) found that commitment had a higher negative correlation

to turnover than job satisfaction.

Koch and Steers (1978) stated that job attachment was significantly

and negatively related to turnover. They defined job attachment as

"an attitudinal response to one's job." While related to organizational

commitment, job attachment focuses more specifically on the job or

occupation rather than on the organization.

Porter and Steers (1973) explained the diverse views on turnover

by a theoretical framework based on met expectations. They proposed

that each individual brings a unique set of expectations for a job to

the employment situation. Individuals are less likely to quit if they

perceive their expectations are being met on the job. The decision to

remain is based on a process of balancing rewards (received or

potential) with expectations. The studies of Farr et al. (1973),

Wanous (1973), and Federico et al. (1976) supported this position.

Availability of Alternatives

Limited research has been conducted on the role of available

alternatives in the turnover process. Woodard (1975-1976) found a











negative relationship between unemployment and turnover and a position

relationship between available jobs and withdrawal rates. Locke

(1976) and Price (1977) also documented the relationship between

economic factors and turnover. Mobley et al. (1978) stated that the

expectancy of finding an acceptable alternative job was significantly

and positively correlated to intention to quit but not to actual

resigning. However, intention to quit was significantly and positively

related to turnover.

Turnover Models

Until recently, most of the studies on turnover have been limited

and have failed to provide a comprehensive view of the withdrawal

process. Mobley (1982), Mowday, Porter, and Steers (1982), and Steers

and Mowday (1981) have advocated the development of process-oriented

models of turnover based on multivariate analyses and longitudinal

research.

In 1958, March and Simon proposed a participation model. This

model serves as a basis for many current theoretical models of

turnover that specify the various processes underlying the decision

to withdraw. According to the model, the decision to leave an

organization depends on the individual's perception of the desirability

of movement and ease of movement. The level of job satisfaction

influences desirability to leave. Available alternatives, the current

economy, and the personal characteristics of the individual influence

ease of movement.

Price (1977) extended the March-Simon model by adding a variety

of variables to explain turnover. He suggested that five organizational

factors determined job satisfaction. These were pay, integration











(the degree to which an individual has close friends in the

organization), instrumental communication (degree to which information

about a job is transmitted by an organization to its members), formal

communications, and centralization (degree of autonomy). Job

satisfaction, in turn, combined with opportunity to leave to determine

actual turnover.

Mobley (1977) also presented a conceptual model of turnover,

focusing on the intermediate steps between job satisfaction and the

decision to leave. He stated that job dissatisfaction led to thinking

about quitting, intention to search, intention to stay or leave, and,

finally, to actual quitting. He also argued that intention to leave

was a more accurate predictor of actual turnover than job satisfaction.

In 1978, Mobley, Horner, and Hollingsworth evaluated Mobley's

model on 203 hospital employees. Their results supported the accuracy

of the model and the contention that the behavioral intention to leave

was a more important determinant of turnover than job satisfaction.

Behavioral intent correlated .49 to turnover, whereas dissatisfaction

correlated .21 with the decision to withdraw.

Earlier studies by Atchinson and Lefferts (1972), Kraut (1975),

and Waters, Roach, and Waters (1976) also indicated that behavioral

intentions to leave or remain with an organization account for more

variance in turnover than does job satisfaction. Job satisfaction,

however, was a salient precursor of behavioral intentions.

Miller, Katerberg, and Hulin (1979) evaluated the Mobley-Horner-

Hollingsworth (1978) model and proposed a more general model of the

turnover process. They collapsed the seven variables that Mobley and

his coworkers studied into four general constructs: career mobility











(age, tenure, probability of finding another job), job satisfaction,

withdrawal cognitions (intention to quit, intention to search), and

withdrawal behavior (turnover).

Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, and Meglino (1979) presented an expanded

turnover model focusing on behavioral intentions (intention to search,

intention to quit) as the immediate precursor of turnover. The model

also recognized the role of perceptions, expectations, values, and

available job alternatives as factors in the decision to leave an

organization.

In 1981, Steers and Mowday proposed a comprehensive, process-oriented

model of turnover. This model incorporated determinants of turnover

from earlier models and featured several new dimensions of the turnover

process. The new variables added to the model included job

expectations, employee performance level, ability to change the work

situation, and nonwork related factors that influenced the decision

to leave. Figure 1 represents this 13-stage model.

Price and Mueller (1981) described a causal model of turnover,

containing 13 variables or "determinants" of turnover. They posited

that routinization (repetitiveness of job), participation, instrumental

communication, integration, pay, distributive justice (rewards or

punishments are related to job inputs) and promotional opportunity

would influence turnover through the intervening variable, job

satisfaction. Job satisfaction, in turn, affected intent to stay.

Professionalism (degree of dedication to occupational standards of

performance), amount of general training, and kinship responsibility

(degree of an individual's obligations to relatives in the community)











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also influenced intent to stay. Intent to stay and opportunity

determine actual turnover.

Arnold and Feldman (1982) tested a multivariate model of turnover

on 654 accountants. The variables in their model were individual

demographic factors, tenure, cognitive/affective orientations to the

position (including multiple measures of job satisfaction and

organizational commitment), job security, perceived availability of

alternatives, intention to search for alternatives, intention to quit,

and actual turnover.

Results indicated that the most powerful model of turnover

behavior contained four significant predicator variables: tenure,

overall job satisfaction, perceived job security, and intention to

search for an alternative position. The results also suggested that

all variables did not influence turnover behavior through their impact

on intentions to change positions. Several variables explained

additional, unique variance in turnover behavior beyond that explained

by intentions. Turnover was more strongly related to intentions to

search for alternatives than to intentions to quit. Intentions to

search for alternatives were, in turn, highly predictable by a

combination of age, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.

Using the Mobley et al. (1979) model, Youngblood, Mobley, and

Meglino (1983) analyzed turnover among Marine Corps enlistees. The

authors assessed the enlistees over a four-year period on the variables

posited in the model. These were behavioral intentions, expected

utility of the present role, expected utility of alternative roles, and

satisfaction. For subjects who left the Marines both early and later

in the enlistment period, behavioral intentions to continue were











lowest in the period immediately prior to leaving. For those who left

early, the perceived likelihood of finding an alternative job appeared

to influence the turnover decision. Results supported earlier research

that suggested behavioral intentions were a diagnostic precursor of

turnover.

Rusbult and Farrell (1983) also conducted a longitudinal study of

turnover using an investment model to predict turnover. They stated

that, in general, high rewards (high pay, autonomy, variety) and low

job costs (unexpected variations of workload, numerous deadlines,

inadequate resources, unfair promotion practices) generated higher

employee satisfaction. Job commitment increased with higher rewards,

lower costs, greater investment of resources (years of service,

nonvested benefits, work-related friendships), and less attractive

alternatives. The impact of rewards on job satisfaction and commitment

remained constant over time. However, the effects of job costs and

investments increased with time. Just prior to leaving, the job

commitment of leavers was best predicted by a combination of rewards,

costs, and alternatives.

In summary, numerous variables are involved in the decision to

withdraw. Some variables are organization-related (pay, promotion

policies), whereas others are related to the immediate work

environment (supervision, peer group relations). The content of the

job (nature of the job itself, autonomy, routinization, role clarity),

characteristics of workers (age, tenure, family responsibilities),

their attitudes about the job (overall job satisfaction, satisfaction

of expectations, organizational commitment), and economic factors

(availability of alternatives) influence the withdrawal decision.











Several researchers have developed models incorporating these variables

to explain and predict the turnover process.

Organizations and individuals have also recognized that matching

the right person to the right job influences job satisfaction,

productivity, and turnover. Research on person/job matching and work

behavior type will be reviewed in the next section.


Work Behavior Type

Research on work behavior type itself has been limited. Therefore,

this portion of the review will focus on research related to person/job

matching and work behavior type. It will include a definition of work

behavior, contributions of industrial and educational psychology to

person/job matching, theories of vocational choices, history of work

behavior types, and development of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.

Definition

According to Neff (1969), adult work behavior is "the complex

product of a long series of learned and habitual styles of perceiving

and coping with demands of the environment" (p. 72). Coping behaviors

consolidate to form a particular "work style."

Industrial Psychology

Many researchers have claimed that work behavior is a distinctive

area of human behavior and, therefore, requires separate theories to

explain the behavior of people at work (Neff, 1969; Bass & Barrett,

1974). The field of industrial psychology evolved, specifically, to

address the issues, problems, and behaviors of people in the work

environment.

During World War I, industrial psychologists made major

contributions to testing. The Army needed a fast way to place large











numbers of men in optimal assignments. Industrial psychologists

responded by developing a series of psychological tests to match men

to jobs (Siegel & Lane, 1982).

Recently, spiraling labor costs, increased demands for productivity,

international competition, rising costs of turnover, and the

heterogeneity and educational level of the work force have forced

many organizations to examine their personnel selection and placement

procedures (Cascio & Awad, 1981).

Industrial psychologists have responded to these needs by

developing new methods to improve selection and placement programs.

The methods focus on improving the predictive powers of managers in

selecting the individual who can satisfactorily perform a job or work

activity.

Traditionally, organizations relied heavily on results from

intelligence, personality, interest, aptitude, or achievement tests

in the selection process. However, the advent of civil rights

legislation and equal employment opportunity guidelines frightened

many organizations into abandoning testing completely (Luthans, 1981).

Interviewing has also been a traditional selection procedure.

Many consider it an art rather than a science (Luthans, 1981).

Evidence suggests that interviews are less valid than tests in

selection for the following reasons (Porter, Lawler, & Hackman, 1975):

1. The same material is not covered in each interview.

2. Different interviewers weigh the same information differently.

3. Except for intelligence or mental ability, interviewers
cannot assess traits accurately.

4. Interviewers make selection decisions early in the interview,
before the candidate has presented all information.











5. Interviewers give more weight to negative than to favorable
information.

Selection problems inherent in testing and interviewing have led

organizations to assessment centers for assistance in hiring and

promoting people. The assessment center is a holistic approach to

selection and uses multiple assessment techniques and multiple

assessors. It also demonstrates high validity and selection fairness

for men, women, minorities, and nonminorities. The center method has

been successful and cost effective for organizations (Cascio & Awad,

1981).

Assessment techniques include in-basket exercises, leaderless

group discussions, paper and pencil ability tests, simulations,

personality questionnaires, projective tests, and background interviews.

Assessors are trained to standardize interpretations of candidates'

behaviors and go through the training as participants before rating

others. Selection decisions are derived from the pooled judgments of

all assessors.

The dimensions, attributes, characteristics, or qualities that

are evaluated are derived from an analysis of relevant job behaviors.

McCormick and his associates (1964) analyzed characteristics common to

a variety of jobs in terms of worker activities (job content) and

prerequisites (attributes). They developed the Position Analysis

Questionnaire (PAQ) to rate job elements for different jobs. The PAQ

consists of 194 job elements that were reduced to 30 job dimensions

which, in turn, were subsumed under six major activity categories:

1. Information input (where and how the worker gets the

information used for the job).











2. Mental processes (decision making and information processing).

3. Output (the physical activities performed by the worker and

tools or devices used).

4. Interpersonal activities (communicating instructions,

supervising others).

5. Job context in which the work is performed (stresses, hazards).

6. Miscellaneous aspect of the work activities (work schedule,

clothing worn).

Job analysis methods and new assessment techniques are an attempt

to bring the individual, job, and organization together for a

potentially rewarding relationship. When the matching process is

successful, it is mutually beneficial to the individual, organization,

and society.

Educational Psychology

Although industrial psychologists focus on people who are already

working and educational psychologists concentrate on people in school,

their interests often overlap. Educational psychologists, however,

place more emphasis on career development and planning, occupational

choice, and career counseling than their industrial counterparts.

The need and demand for career development and planning have never

been greater than they are today. Employees realize that their careers

impact not only on the quality of their work life but on the quality of

life in general. Organizations recognize the effect of the quality of

life on employee job satisfaction, performance, and turnover (Luthans,

1981).

Career decision making has also become complex. Social and legal

changes have opened up a range of career alternatives and opportunities











for both men and women. Technology has created a rapid pace of change

in the labor market. New jobs emerge as others become obsolete.

Medical advances have expanded life expectancy. Instead of one career

decision, people must make multiple career decisions in a lifetime.

Theories of Vocational Development

Several authors have proposed theories of vocational development

and occupational choice. Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, and Herma (1951)

argued that occupational choice was an irreversible process. It took

place over 8 to 10 years and passed through a number of well-marked

developmental stages. Early decisions reduced the number of successive

choices and available options.

Occupational decision making occurs in three stages. The fantasy

stage occurs between ages 10 and 12. Children at this stage have no

conception of their capabilities, occupational limitations, or

opportunities. During the tentative stage, adolescents think about

occupations in terms of their abilities and interests. The realistic

stage is characteristic of late adolescence and early adulthood when

individuals become more concerned with realistic opportunities and the

limitations of the available work environment. The final occupational

choice is a compromise between personal preferences (interests,

abilities) and the constraints of the work world.

In 1971, Ginsberg revised his earlier position and claimed that

occupational choice was "open-ended" throughout a person's life. Choice

was influenced by work experiences, changes in values, physiological

changes, marital relationships, financial status shifts, and loss or

change in job.











Super's (1953) theory of vocational development was based on the

premise that people selected occupations consistent with their

self-concept. The self-concept developed in the individual over time

and passed through many stages of formation, differentiation, and

articulation. Using a longitudinal research design, Super attempted

to assess the components of the self-concept at different points in

time and to correlate these components to the career patterns that

emerged.

Using psychoanalytic theory, Roe (1956) hypothesized that career

development and occupational identity formed during early childhood.

The quality of the parent-child relationship had a strong influence on

the development process. She devised a typological classification of

occupations according to the amount of involvement with people or

objects demanded by the occupation. She also classified types of early

parent-child relationships. Positive parent-child relationships

predisposed the child to enter person-oriented occupations, whereas a

negative family atmosphere led to a nonperson-oriented occupation.

In 1964, Roe revised her original hypothesis and said vocational

development .was more complex and vocational behaviors developed

independently of early childhood experiences.

Holland (1959) developed a typology theory of career choice.

His theory is based on the assumption that most people in our culture

can be classified into one of six types: realistic, investigative,

artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional. He also identified

six types of environments: realistic, investigative, artistic, social,

enterprising, and conventional. Individuals search for the environment

that will allow them to exercise their abilities and values and











assume acceptable roles. People's behaviors are determined by the

interaction between their personalities and the characteristics of

the immediate environment.

Holland also assumed that at the time people selected a career,

they were the product of heredity and a variety of environmental

factors, including peers, parents, other significant adults, social

class, culture, and the physical environment. From this background,

the individual developed a typology or hierarchy of orientations for

coping with environmental tasks. When people make career choices,

they are searching for those environments that are congruent with their

personal orientations. Holland (1959) devised the Vocational Preference

Inventory to estimate personality patterns.

Tiedman (1961), like Super (1951), was interested in the

development of the vocational self-concept. He based his work on

Erickson's (1959) theory of personality development and psycho-social

crisis. Tiedman related vocational development to the process of

decision making and adjustment from a period of exploration to final

integration.

Recently, it has become popular to view career and occupational

development as a major component of adult life stages (Levinson, 1978;

Sheehy, 1977). Hall (1976) synthesized these adult life-stage theories

into an overall model of career development. This was a psychological

success-based model that integrated concepts of the self with individual

task behavior and job attitudes. Hall stated that people developed in

their careers through a cyclical process of goal setting, performance,

feelings of success, favorable job attitudes, and goal resetting.











During the exploration stage, the young employee searched for an

identity and tried out several jobs and roles. In the second stage,

the employee settled down and grew in a career role. The third stage

of maintenance was where the employee's productivity reached a

plateau. At this time, the individual might assume a mentor role out

of a need for generativity (the concern to leave something for the

next generation). The individual could also stagnate, decline, or have

a growth spurt. The final stage was decline. The employee searched

for integrity (feelings of satisfaction with life choices and overall

career).

Although there are many theories of career choice, they all

reflect people's efforts to obtain a proper fit between themselves and

their jobs. The closer the match, the greater the rewards for both

employees and organizations.

Organizations are slowly becoming aware of their role in career

planning and development to improve the effectiveness of their

operations. Organizations are beginning to provide employees with

workshops, counseling services, and innovative programs for special

career needs (i.e. flex-time) as part of human resource management

programs (Luthans, 1981).

When individuals obtain more information about themselves, they

can make more accurate career decisions and find the right job. With

this premise in mind, Bauch (1981) developed the Marcus Paul Placement

Profile (MPPP). This instrument for measuring work behavior types had

its foundations in trait and type theory.











History of Work Behavior Types

William Marston's (1927) work formed the basis for current

theories of work behavior traits and types. He proposed a model of

behavior based on four primary emotions: Dominance, Compliance,

Inducement, and Submission. A primary emotion was "an emotion which

contained the maximal amount of alliance, antagonism, superiority of

strength of the motor self in respect to the motor stimulus"

(Marston, 1928, p. 106).

This means that Marston designated a primary emotion according

to people's reactions in a favorable environment (alliance) or

unfavorable environment (antagonism). An interaction with the

environment could be active (superior strength) or passive (inferior

strength). Individuals need a balance between active and passive

interactions with the environment. The intensity of an emotion or

subsequent reaction to a stimulus, depended on the individual's past

experience.

Marston described each emotion in physiological and behavioral

terms. He defined Dominance as a "central release of additional motor

energy directed toward dominating obstacles to a reaction already in

progress (Marston, 1927, p. 349). It consists of "an increase of the

self to overcome an opponent,. .a feeling of an outrush of energy to

remove opposition" (Marston, 1928, p. 140).

Dominance is a fundamental behavior, important for survival of

early humans. It is the primary life-propelling emotion of human beings

during the first 3 years of life (Marston, 1927). It may be a desirable

emotion when competition and aggressiveness are appropriate behaviors.

However, dominance may also act as a negative emotion when it is out of











control or is expressed in the wrong environment. Dominant people in

authority positions may create dissatisfaction and hostility among

subordinates.

Compliance is also a basic emotional response and refers to

"control (but not inhibition) of tonic motor discharge reinforcement

by a phasic reflex? (Marston, 1927, p. 350). It may also mean taking

an interest in the stimuli and "is not to be confused with inaction

or inhibition" (p. 351). Marston (1928) subsequently defined Compliance

as a

decrease of the motor self to let an opponent move the
organism as if by will; either passively, by making the
self give up some dominant activity, or some anti-dominant
way. It is a feeling of acceptance of an object of force
as inevitably just what it is, followed by self-yielding
sufficient to bring about harmonious readjustment of self
to object. (p. 128)

Compliant behavior results from recognizing or believing that

outside forces are imminently stronger. It may occur when individuals

are afraid, startled, experience sudden change, or voluntarily

surrender. Compliance may also result from an intense enduring or

repeated environment stimulus. Compliance may be a pleasant experience

when it allows individuals to be one with God or nature, to feel empathy,

or to be an effective team member.

Dominance and Compliance form one axis of Marston's two-axis

model. Figure 2 illustrates this model. Although individuals display

these emotions in varying degrees at various times, there is always an

effort to maintain a balance between the extremes of each axis.

Differences in behavior among individuals relate to the differences in

the point of balance on the axis.





























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Submission, according to Marston (1927) is a "voluntary yielding

to whatever stimuli may be imposed. .It does not seem to overwhelm,

or dominate the subject by force, but rather brings about a spontaneous

lessening of the subject's resistance to it until the subject has

become less strong than the stimulus" (pp. 356-357). In other words,

Submission is a willingness or mutual feeling of warmth between the

person submitting and the person submitted to (Marston, 1928).

Submission is usually a pleasant emotion and may take the form of

consideration, service to others, selflessness, accommodation, and

generosity.

The fourth primary emotion described by Marston (1927) was

Inducement. It was the "active solicitation of attention and

stimulation. .calculated to reinforce submission reaction in order

to induce further submission from another individual" (p. 539).

Inducement is also a "central release of additional motor energy

directed toward drawing forth or inducing submission responses from

another individual" (p. 361).

In 1928, Marston's definition of Inducement stated that

Inducement consists of an increase of self, and making of
the self more completely allied with the stimulus person,
for the purpose of establishing control over that person's
behavior. (p. 273)

Individuals who gain voluntary submission from others exhibit

Inducement behavior. This behavior may take the form of persuasion,

personal charm, friendliness, seduction, or subtle manipulation.

Commercial advertising is a prime example of inducement behavior in


our culture.











Submission and Inducement form the second axis of Marston's model.

They are also opposite ends of a continuum, separated by intensity of

response (either active or passive) and by the orientation of the

individual (either outward or inward). Inducement requests Submission,

whereas Dominance demands Compliance. Dominance is antagonistic toward

its subject and inducement is allied with its subject.

Marston divides the two axes of the model horizontally.

Dominance and Inducement form the upper, active component of the model

and Submission and Compliance form the lower, passive component. The

dimensions represent tendencies, not all inclusive labels. Individuals

exhibit degrees of all types of behaviors. Behavior traits, however,

tend to cluster more around one particular dimension.

Marston identified clusters of traits for each primary emotion.

Figure 3 lists these traits. Allport and Odbert (1936) and Geier

(1980) used factor analyses to confirm these findings. Geier (1980)

obtained an overall correlation of, at least, R=.60 between the

suggested traits and the emotions.

Building on Marston's work, Geier (1967) attempted to formulate

a trait approach to leadership. He found that subjects used trait

terminology to describe their own behavior traits as well as to describe

the behavior and leadership style of others. He also discovered that

subjects reported themselves in terms of behaviors they least exhibited.

These findings were the basis for the Marcus Paul Placement Profile

that discerned work behavior types from descriptions of traits which

were most and least like the subject. Geier also developed an updated

list of cluster traits (Figure 4).


































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Geier clarified Marston's terminology and redefined Dominance

as "active positive movement in an antagonistic environment"

(Geier, 1979, p. 2). Compliance was "a cautious tentative response

designated to reduce antagonistic factors in an unfavorable environment"

(p. 2). Submission was defined as "passive aggressiveness in a

favorable environment" (p. 2) and Inducement was "active positive

movement in a favorable environment" (p. 2).

He also added the idea to the two-axis model that people with

traits centered around the Dominance or Inducement dimension were

process-oriented and wanted to shape the environment according to their

own particular viewpoint. Individuals with traits centered around the

Submission or Compliance dimensions were product-oriented and focused

on the how and why of things and events.

Marcus Paul Placement Profile

Bauch (1981) used Marston's model and Geier's research to develop

the Marcus Paul Placement Profile. This instrument was designed to'

identify work behavior types in order to match people to jobs. In the

educational setting, it could provide a basis for counseling, career

development, and selection. Organizations could use it for recruiting,

job placement, training, and team building.

The intent of the MPPP was to increase understanding of work

behaviors. Therefore, Bauch modified some of Marston's and Geier's

terminology to remove any judgmental overtones from these terms. He

replaced words with negative connotations with positive or neutral

terms. In place of Marston's categories of Dominance, Inducement,

Submission, and Compliance or Geier's Dominance, Influence, Steadiness,











and Compliance, Bauch described work behavior types as Energizer,

Inducer, Concentrator, and Producer.

Bauch (1981) defined these work types as follows:

1. Energizer type workers actively engaged in getting
results. They are assertive, impatient with detail,
and desire direct answers and actions from associates.
They are also creative and have many ideas for improving
the work process (p. 16).

2. Inducer type workers involve others as they pursue
objectives. They are sensitive to the needs of their
associates and have optimistic attitudes as they
influence others. They are good at using group processes
to accomplish goals, being able to clarify ideas for
themselves and others. They place more emphasis on
people and interpersonal relations than on the
organization (p. 16).

3. The Concentrator types can apply their skills in orderly
ways resisting distractions. They are steady workers,
and are loyal to the organization, showing great patience.
They are systematic, effective, and help maintain
moderation in these situations (p. 17).

4. Producers strive for quality as they carefully follow
procedures, guidelines, or standards. They can support
their decisions and actions with irrefutable documentation.
Producers expect their directions but they can be relied
on to meet their deadlines, follow orders and carry out
their assignments with precision (p. 17).

Figure 5 presents the MPPP work behavior traits characteristic of

each work behavior type. These traits are used in the MPPP in the form

of 24 sets of forced choice items. In each set, subjects indicate

which term is most descriptive of their work behavior and the term which

least represents their work behavior.

A computer analysis of the responses generates the individual's

work behavior profile in terms of one of the four major work behavior

types. It also provides a more detailed description of the individual's

strengths and tendencies by identifying one of 18 possible types.

These descriptions reflect varying intensities of work behavior along


























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the four major dimensions and the complex relationship between the

dimensions. They also differentiate among individuals in the same

category. In general, the profile describes the individual's style of

interacting with others, ability to complete tasks, leadership potential,

need for supervision, and preference for working in a technical or

data-oriented position or in one that is people-oriented (Bauch, 1981).

Approximately 20% of the population are Energizers and about 20%

are Inducers. Concentrators and Producers make up the remaining 60%.

Although certain job descriptions or roles show preference for one

specific type, most organizations work best with a combination of all

types.

Using the MPPP, Glenn (1982) studied the relationship among work

behavior type, personality function, job satisfaction, and effectiveness

of vocational education administrators. She found that some work

behavior types were significantly related to some personality functions

as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Although there

was no significant relationship between overall job satisfaction and

work behavior type, there was a significant relationship between work

behavior type and specific areas of job satisfaction.

Energizers were satisfied by opportunities for promotion, volume

of work, unanticipated job tasks,and recognition for accomplishments.

Inducers were interested in the physical working conditions, volume of

work, and section/division meetings. Concentrators indicated that

opportunity for job promotion, volume of work, unanticipated job tasks,

amount of supervision, and recognition for accomplishments were

important to them. Producers listed physical working conditions,











communication with clients, and section/division meetings as important

for their job satisfaction.

In summary, although there has been an urgent need to effectively

match people to jobs, little research has been done on work behavior

types. Many fields of study form the basis for an understanding and

application of work behavior types. Industrial psychology has

contributed selection methods and job analysis. Educational psychology

has provided theories of vocational development and choice. Trait and

type theories have provided a foundation for an instrument to measure

work behavior type. Work behavior types may affect employee job

satisfaction and turnover.


Job Satisfaction, Attrition, Work Behavior Type of Medical Technologists

This section will present an overview of literature on job

satisfaction, attrition, career development, and work behavior type

among medical technologists.

Since 1970, several authors have published studies on job

satisfaction among laboratory personnel. Gerstenfeld and Whitt (1970)

examined goal priorities of medical technologists. Medical technologists

listed good working conditions as the number one priority, followed by

challenging work and higher earnings. Supervision, administrative

policies, schedules, available equipment, interaction among personnel,

and the quality of work influenced good working conditions.

In a study of senior medical technology students, Karni and Husted

(1970) reported that as students progressed through their rotations,

they became more dissatisfied and discouraged. Students perceived a

lack of recognition accorded to medical technologists by other health











professionals and the general public. Students also perceived a lack

of identity for the profession of medical technology.

In 1971, Jeswald conducted an extensive study of job satisfaction

among medical technologists. Using Maslow's theory of needs hierarchy,

he found that medical technologists considered security and self-

actualization needs as primary factors for job satisfaction, whereas the

need for autonomy was least important. Jeswald's results also indicated

that self-actualization and esteem were the least satisfied needs

across all categories of laboratory personnel. Clinical practitioners

consistently reported they felt lack of appreciation and recognition

for their work.

Showery's (1976) survey of 300 medical technologists revealed that

only 30.8% of those surveyed with more than 5 years experience

indicated they would choose medical technology again if given the

choice and 49.5% stated they were uncertain. The major reason offered

by 83.5% of the subjects was lack of respect and recognition for

laboratorians by other hospital personnel.

French and Rezler (1976) reported that clinical practitioners

were less satisfied with their work, co-workers, and opportunities for

advancement than medical technologists who were educators or

administrators. All technologists were least satisfied with pay and

promotion. Poor communication was a major source of frustration and

dissatisfaction in all work settings. Most technologists found their

work moderately stressful.

Matteson, Ivancewich and McMahon (1977) examined the relationship

among medical technologists' needs, organizational practices, and job

satisfaction. Their results suggested that job satisfaction was a











function of how well a job or organization met the individual's needs

which, in turn, was a function of organizational practices or

characteristics. Like Jeswald (1971), they found that attainment of

higher order needs was strongly associated with job satisfaction.

However, they were also the least satisfied needs. All subjects listed

self-actualization as the least satisfied need. Security was the most

satisfied need. The most important organizational practice related to

satisfaction was coordination, the degree to which technologists were

given necessary information. Yet, it was also the practice technologists

found most dissatisfying.

While factors influencing job satisfaction were the same for

administrative and nonadministrative technologists, administrators

experienced higher levels of self-actualization, esteem, and autonomy.

Satisfaction levels were also lowest in small hospitals and may be

related to availability of modern technology in these facilities.

Love (1977) found that organizational stratification was related

to job satisfaction. He defined stratification as "the degree of an

organization's dispersion of power, prestige, monetary compensation,

rewards, and other social resources to its members" (p. 1136). Of the

10 stratification-satisfaction relationships studied, the most

significant was the inverse relationship between both social distance

and authority distinction and satisfaction with supervision. Social

distance was comparable to the dimension of the leadership behavior,

consideration, discussed earlier in the job satisfaction text.

Authority distinction is comparable to authoritarian leadership style.

When social distance and authority distinction are high in an

organization, there is less social interaction and support from











supervisors and fewer opportunities for autonomy. There was a

significant positive relationship between authority distinction and

satisfaction with work. The author concluded medical technologists

preferred a cordial, supportive, well-structured work setting that

permitted them an opportunity to participate in making decisions related

to the goals, methods, and activities of their department.

The work of McMahan, Ivancewich, and Matteson (1977) confirmed

the findings of several other authors. Comparing administrative to

nonadministrative medical technologists, males to females, and hospital

to nonhospital workers, they examined the relationship of organizational

climate and job satisfaction. The organizational climate dimensions

of thrust (refers to management's desire to motivate employees to

accomplish the job through task oriented behavior), consideration and

esprit most significantly related to need satisfaction among all

categories of medical technologists.

Relating their interpersonal values to job satisfaction, Oliver

(1978) found that medical technologists who valued independence and

recognition were the least satisfied with their jobs. Those who valued

benevolence (doing things for others) and conformity were more

satisfied with their work. These findings are consistent with those of

Love (1977), Karniand Husted (1970), Jeswald (1971), Showery (1976),

and Matteson et al. (1977).

Harting and Oliver (1978) investigated the perceptions of

bench-level and supervisory medical technologists regarding their work

role and working conditions. The work role included the job itself,

rewards, helping relationships, interpersonal relations, and recognition.

Results were comparable to those found in earlier studies. All medical











technologists were least satisfied with recognition and rewards. They

perceived few opportunities for advancement and little recognition or

prestige associated with their work. Supervisors were generally more

satisfied with their jobs than bench-level technologists.

Using the JDI, Broski and Cook (1978) determined job satisfaction

levels for medical dietitians, physical therapists, occupational

therapists, and medical technologists. All groups had significantly

lower mean scores compared to national norms. However, dietitians

reported the lowest satisfaction scores on all job facets except pay.

Medical technologists followed dietitians with regard to overall

satisfaction and were the most dissatisfied group on the pay subscale.

All groups were equally dissatisfied with promotion opportunities.

In 1982, Broski, Manuselis, and Noga conducted a similar study

and found that medical technologists had become the most dissatisfied

group on four of the five subscales of the JDI. They were more

satisfied than dietitians or occupational therapists on the supervision

subscale and as equally satisfied as physical therapists. They also

scored lower than the national sample on these same job facets. Many

technologists provided supplementary comments that indicated they saw

little opportunity for advancement, received inadequate pay to support

a family, were overprepared for the tasks they performed, had limited

authority, experienced high job stress,and perceived lack of respect

and recognition from other health professionals.

Spencer (1982) attempted to determine the relationship between a

sense of accomplishment on the job and career commitment and the

relationship between sense of accomplishment and job satisfaction. His











findings also indicated intrinsic factors were important for job

satisfaction and career commitment of medical technologists.

A recent study by Myers et al. (1982) related job dissatisfaction

in medical technology to the acquisition of unrealistic expectations

during clinical training. They claimed these expectations were later

translated into unmet professional role expectations and were

concentrated in the areas dealing with lack of upward mobility, respect

from other health practitioners, poor pay, and job stress.

Rogers (1983) examined the problem of job stress as it related to

job satisfaction in the hospital laboratory setting. She demonstrated

that stress was significantly related to job dissatisfaction, with 78%

of the highly stressed technologists in the sample also reporting high

levels of job dissatisfaction. Stress stemmed from job pressure

(workload and time pressure), job scope (having authority commensurate

with responsibilities), and rapport with management.

Recent studies into the causes of job dissatisfaction among medical

technologists have also addressed the related issue of the rising

attrition rates among this group of laboratory workers. Medical

technologists are not merely dissatisfied with their jobs, they are

disenchanted with the profession of medical technology and are defecting

to other professions.

Hajek and Blumberg (1982) surveyed 83 former medical technologists

to determine their reasons for leaving medical technology. Although

medical technology is dominated by women, the investigators found that

73% of the sample left the profession for nondomestic reasons. Job

related factors, particularly those related to self-actualization, were

cited as the principal causes of attrition. Participants expressed











disappointment and frustration with their work experiences in medical

technology. While they had been highly trained for careers as

responsible members of the health care team, they found themselves in

"jobs," unrecognized and disregarded by other health care professionals

as well as by the public. In addition, these jobs became routine,

lacked challenge, were stressful, and provided little opportunity for

advancement. In light of these results, the authors recommended

re-evaluation of the medical technologist's role in health care, and

creation of career ladders to permit advancement within the profession.

Based on the work of Hajek and Blumberg (1982), Irwin (1983)

investigated the causes of dissatisfaction and attrition among medical

technologists in New Jersey and obtained comparable results. Of the 115

participants, 66 (57%) indicated they would definitely leave medical

technology within 5 years and 10% were undecided. The decision to

continue in the field or go elsewhere was primarily related to

self-actualization and esteem factors. Technologists who planned to

leave felt overtrained and frustrated with their jobs because those with

less training were performing the same tasks. They also found the work

monotonous and had few opportunities to use their knowledge of laboratory

medicine. In terms of esteem factors, they felt that they were invisible

members of the health care team, received too little pay and recognition

for their training and responsibilities, and that there was little

prestige associated with being a medical technologist. Increased

opportunities for career advancement and more attractive financial

rewards were the major incentives cited by technologists that might

encourage them to remain in the profession.











Inadequate career planning by students and incomplete selection

criteria for program admission may, later, contribute to technologists'

job dissatisfaction and turnover. Students may select medical

technology as a career based on misinformation as to what the occupation

actually involves and requires. Educators may select students into

programs on the basis of criteria that do not relate to on-the-job

performance.

In 1975, Holstrom surveyed freshman medical technology majors

about the factors influencing them to select medical technology as a

career. Students cited the availability of jobs, high earnings, a

chance for career advancement, and prestige of the occupation as major

reasons for choosing medical technology. Yet, earlier Jeswald (1971)

and Karni and Husted (1970) reported that clinical practitioners felt

medical technologists were not held in esteem and did not have

opportunities for career advancement.

Zufall (1976) determined that the majority of medical technology

students made a career choice based on information they had obtained

from visiting hospital programs, talking to students enrolled in

programs, writing to national sources, and visiting an employment site.

Parents, friends, and health professionals were the most influential

persons involved in student career decisions while counselors played a

minor role.

Youse and Clark (1977) demonstrated that medical technology students

had little understanding of the qualities and interests needed for

medical technology and did not have accurate perceptions of what the

profession entailed. These investigators developed a vocational

competency test to find out how much entering students knew about











medical technology and how much their knowledge increased over time.

After six months in clinical rotations, graduating seniors correctly

answered only 71% of the general information questions about medical

technology. Juniors answered 59% accurately and entering students

had an accurate response rate of 42%. In response to a question about

the most valuable trait for a medical technologist, 20% of the seniors,

and 34% of the juniors responded, "Speed." Other responses were

honesty, creativity, and high I.Q. Many students (12%) were unaware

that technologists worked weekends and holidays in hospital laboratories.

A majority of all levels of students stated they chose medical

technology because they enjoyed science courses. They also cited job

security as a major factor in selection.

Results suggested that selection of students earlier than the

junior year could contribute to a high attrition rate and to a

population of students poorly matched to the profession. At this stage

students have little awareness of the major responsibilities of medical

technology.

Gleich (1978) also demonstrated that preclinical medical technology

students did not make a career choice based on knowledge of the work or

the profession. Friends, family, and relatives were the leading sources

of information about medical technology. Only 14% had worked as lab

aides or clerks and only 2% had spoken to a practicing technologist

about the field. Students ranked the type of work involved in medical

technology as the leading factor influencing their career choice.

Choosing students for positions in medical technology programs may

also be based on inadequate information about the student. During the

1970s, medical technology programs were popular among undergraduates.











At a time when graduates of other programs had limited employment

opportunities, medical technology students were assured a job after

graduation. As a result, medical technology programs had more applicants

than available slots. Competition for slots was keen and criteria were

established to select students who would most likely succeed in the

program and thus graduate. Criteria included gradepoint average (GPA),

key course grades, aptitude test scores, work records, volunteer

service, recommendations, and personal interviews (Love, Holter & Krall,

1982).

Although research indicates that these selection criteria are

valid measures for predicting academic success in the program (Eberfield

& Love, 1970; Love et al., 1982; Lundgren, 1968), they do not adequately

predict clinical or professional performance (Duntman, Anderson, &

Barry, 1966). With the decrease in the numbers of applicants for medical

technology programs and the high attrition rate among clinical

practitioners, new selection criteria may be in order. Students who

have lower academic credentials may demonstrate other essential traits

for success in medical technology.

Information about the work behavior traits of satisfied clinical

practitioners would be useful in career planning, job counseling, and

student placement. Although research on the work behavior types of

medical technologists is nonexistent, the existing literature suggests

that certain traits and types are related to success and satisfaction

in this occupation.

French and Rezler (1976) found a higher proportion of sensing

people among medical technologists who were in clinical practice but a

higher percentage of intuitive types among educators and administrators.











In an earlier study, Rezler and French (1975) found more intuitive,

feeling, and perceiving types among medical technology students. The

authors hypothesized these types of students left medical technology

before entering practice or shortly thereafter because they were

disappointed with the actual work situation.

Williams (1975) stated that "the prospective medical technology

student should possess manual and finger dexterity, must be able to

accept responsibility, and have intellectual integrity, a high degree

of persistence, and a high capacity for patient, thorough effort"

(p. 36). She added they should also like people.

Oliver (1978) determined that medical technologists who valued

independence and recognition were least satisfied with their jobs.

Those interested in doing things for others and valuing conformity were

most satisfied.

In conclusion, medical technologists, like other workers, bring

expectations, needs, values, goals, skills, abilities, interests,

motivation, and personality traits to the work setting. These factors

determine the work behavior type of the individual technologist. When

the work behavior type is consistent with the demands and requirements

of the job, the individual is more likely to experience job satisfaction

and remain in the profession. Students, educators, and employers need

more information on work behavior types to make adequate career,

selection, and placement decisions.

















CHAPTER III
DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


This chapter includes the design and methodology of the study.

In it are the research design, population, description, data

collection, instrumentation, and data analysis procedures.


Design

The investigator used a descriptive research design to investigate

job satisfaction, work behavior type, attrition, and demographic

characteristics of practicing and former medical technologists in the

state of Florida. Specifically, she sought answers to the following

questions:

1. What are the work behavior types of medical technologists
in Florida?

2. Does a relationship exist between the work behavior type
of the technologist and overall job satisfaction?

3. Does a relationship exist between work behavior type and
specific aspects of job satisfaction?

4. Do participants' work behavior types relate to attrition
or the intention to leave medical technology?

5. Do medical technologists working in hospital laboratories
differ from those working in nonhospital laboratories or
other fields in overall job satisfaction?

6. Do medical technologists working in hospital laboratories
differ on specific aspects of job satisfaction from those
working in nonhospital laboratories or other fields?

7. Does a relationship exist between the sex of the participant
and job satisfaction?











8. Does a relationship exist between the sex of the participant
and attrition or the intention to leave medical technology?

9. Can some combination of demographic variables, work
behavior type, and job satisfaction predict attrition
among medical technologists.


Population

The sample population consisted of two groups of medical

technologists. Practicing medical technologists employed in various

laboratory settings (hospitals, clinics, private laboratories, blood

banks, reference laboratories) located in a Florida community comprised

the first group. These were bench-level technologists, primarily

responsible for performing the technical work in the laboratory. All

technologists holding a bachelor's degree were invited to participate.

Supervisory technologists, educators, and medical technicians were

excluded to assure homogeneity of the sample.

The second group included former medical technologists, currently

employed in occupations other than medical technology. The investigator

selected these participants from business contacts, former employees,

and lists of University of Florida medical technology graduates from

the past 5 years who lived in the community.


Data Collection

The researchers mailed a letter to the chief technologist, or

administrator at each facility (see Appendix A). The letter contained

an explanation of the purpose of the project and a request for

participation by the staff of the facility. Willingness to participate

in the study was determined by a followup telephone call. At that time,

the researcher also ascertained the number of technologists employed at











the facility and made an appointment to deliver questionnaires to a

contact person. The contact person served as a coordinator to

distribute and collect the materials. The investigator returned on a

specified date to collect the completed packets. When it was more

convenient to mail materials to a participating facility, the

researcher enclosed a stamped, addressed envelope with a request that

subjects return completed packets by a specified date. She telephoned

nonrespondents after 7 days.

The investigator gave volunteers a packet of instruments (see

Appendix B) to complete and a cover letter (see Appendix C) explaining

the purpose and importance of the study. Instruments were numerically

coded to eliminate personal identification but to permit correlation

of responses. Participants were instructed, however, to put their

names on the MPPP if they wanted an assessment of their work behavior

type.

The investigator sent a copy of the instruments and a cover letter

(see Appendix D) to former medical technologists. She instructed them

to return the completed questionnaires in the enclosed stamped,

addressed envelope by December 15, 1983. After 7 days, she telephoned

nonrespondents or individuals who did not complete all instruments.

Of the seven hospitals and nine nonhospital laboratories the

investigator contacted, six hospitals and eight nonhospital facilities

agreed to participate. Table 1 shows the number of questionnaires

distributed to each group of technologists. Hospitals are listed

individually. Responses for nonhospital technologists are pooled

because each facility only employed up to three technologists. The











Table 1. Response rate on questionnaire by group of respondents.


No. No. Useable
Questionnaires Questionnaires Percent
Group Distributed Returned Returned


Hospital
Technologists
1 13 8 62
2 20 10 50
3 48 12 25
4 28 26 93
5 15 14 93
6 10 10 100
TOTAL 134 80 60

Nonhospital
Technologists 20 12 60

Former
Technologists 29 19 66

GRAND
TOTAL 183 111 61



table also contains the number of useable questionnaires returned by

each group of technologists and the percentage returned.

The percentage of questionnaires returned by hospital respondents

ranged from 25% to 100% for an overall response of 60%. Nonhospital

respondents returned 60% of the questionnaires and former medical

technologists contacted returned 66% of the questionnaires. Nonuseable

packets returned from all groups totaled 19. These respondents either

failed to meet the education requirements for inclusion in the study or

did not complete all instruments. Efforts to retrieve missing data were

unsuccessful. The final population consisted of 111 technologists--

80 from hospitals, 12 from nonhospital facilities, and 19 former

technologists. The overall response rate was 61%.










Instrumentation

Job Descriptive Index

Job satisfaction was assessed by the Job Description Index (JDI)

developed by Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969). The JDI is the most

reliable and valid measure of job satisfaction currently available

(Bass & Barrett, 1974; Crites, 1969; Gruneberg, 1979; Vroom, 1964).

The JDI contains 72 items measuring satisfaction with five facets of

the job: the work itself (18 items), supervision (18 items), pay

(9 items), promotion (9 items), and co-workers (18 items). Smith and

co-workers derived these items by performing factor analyses on

numerous job satisfaction inventories available at the time of their

study.

The items are descriptive adjectives or short phrases arranged in

a checklist form. The 72 items are approximately half favorable and

half unfavorable items. The JDI does not directly ask respondents how

satisfied they are with their work. The instrument contains a provision

for respondents to describe their work. However, in describing their

jobs, they provide information that may be used to infer satisfaction.

Some items include evaluative words and others describe objective

features of the job.

Respondents mark a "Y" for yes next to the item if it describes

their job, "N" for no if it does not describe their job, and "?" if they

are undecided. Smith et al. selected the checklist format with short

descriptive phrases to permit administration of the questionnaire across

a variety of educational levels and jobs.

Values are assigned to responses and scores are derived from a

scoring key by adding the values for items in each subscale. A yes











response to a negative item and a no response to a positive item

receive a zero. A yes response to a positive item and a no response

to a negative item receive three points. An indecision receives one

point. Smith et al. found that the "?" response was more indicative

of dissatisfaction than satisfaction and assigned the "?" response a

weight of one instead of two. The maximum score for each JDI subscale

is 54. Scores for the nine-item scales are doubled to achieve an

equivalence of total points and ranges. In addition to subscale scores,

the JDI also generates an overall index of job satisfaction by adding

the subscale scores for a total score. A score of 18 on a subscale

signifies indifference (all items answered with a question mark) and a

score of 27 indicates a balanced attitude toward a job facet.

The JDI has internal consistency coefficients, corrected by the

Spearman-Brown formula, in the .80s. The coefficients of reliability

for the five subscales are: work (a = .79), supervision (a = .85),

co-workers (a = .88), pay (a = .81), and promotion (a = .79) (Smith

et al., 1969). Crites (1969) determined that scale ordering did not

affect scores. Schneider and Dachler (1978) stated that the JDI had

retest reliability of .57 after a 16-month interval.

Marcus Paul Placement Profile

The Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) describes work behavior

patterns of people under normal working conditions. These patterns are

stable over time as long as the work environment is stable. Although

individuals exhibit all patterns to some degree, one pattern of behavior

predominates.

A computer program developed to score the instrument analyzes the

subject's responses and designates the predominant work behavior type.











The program will also generate a subtype based on the strength and

interaction of responses on the other work dimensions. The subject's

scores on each work behavior dimension are printed on a graph. Scores

range from -15 to 15. The major work behavior type will have the

highest score. The historical background and other details of the MPPP

were described in Chapter II.

In order to obtain validity data on the MPPP, Gene Wiggington

(personal communication, February 10, 1984) administered a questionnaire

to 96 students who had taken the MPPP as part of a career education

course. The single-item questionnaire follows:

Please check the statement that is most accurate for you.

1. Both paragraphs of the Placement Profile are a fairly
accurate description of my work behavior.

2. The first paragraph of the Placement Profile is a fairly
accurate description of my work behavior; the second
paragraph is not.

3. The second paragraph of the Placement Profile is a fairly
accurate description of my work behavior; the first is not.

4. My Placement Profile is not a very accurate description of
my work behavior.

A total of 85 students (88.6%) indicated that both paragraphs of

the MPPP accurately described their work behavior. Seven (7.3%)

responded to the second choice, 3 (3.1%) to the third choice, and only

one student (1%) indicated the MPPP was not an accurate description of

that person's work behavior.

The MPPP requires less than 10 minutes to complete. The items are

written to make the instrument useful for a variety of educational

backgrounds. Test-retest reliability is about 98% (J. Nickens, personal

communication, November, 1983).











Questionnaires for Practicing and Former Medical Technologists

The investigator developed two closed-form questionnaires to

collect demographic data and career information from practicing and

former medical technologists. Based on previous research, the

questionnaire for practicing technologists included items to measure

perceived existence of alternative careers (Mobley et al., 1978;

Mobley et al., 1979; Steers & Mowday, 1981), intention to search for

alternative careers (Mobley, 1977; Mobley et al., 1978), met

expectations (Muchinsky & Tuttle, 1979; Porter & Steers, 1973), and

intention to leave (Mobley, 1982; Mobley et al., 1979). Behavioral

intention to leave is the immediate precursor to turnover and may be

assessed by a single-item measure of intention (Kraut, 1975; Waters

et al., 1976).

Data Treatment and Analysis

The researcher scored the JDI manually according to the key

described by Smith et al. (1969). She derived five subscores and a

total score for each participant.

A computer program developed by Marcus Paul Computer Systems was

used to score the MPPP. Subjects' responses to the 24 frames are

entered into the computer. The program generated a score for each work

behavior type and denoted the major work behavior type and subtype for

each subject. Scores were rounded off to the nearest half-point for

statistical analyses.

The researcher entered data from the Profile, index, and demographic

questionnaire directly into the computer terminal. After printing and

checking these entries for accuracy, she used the Statistical Analysis

System (SAS) with appropriate subprograms to answer the research questions.











The program generated frequencies and means to determine the work

behavior types of medical technologists. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

showed the relationships between work behavior type and overall job

satisfaction or specific aspects of job satisfaction. Tukey's test of

Honestly Significant Differences was used to make pairwise comparisons

between groups. This test controls for the Type I error rate. The

relationship between work environment and job satisfaction was also

tested by ANOVA and Tukey's test. The chi-square test assessed the

relationship between intention to leave medical technology, sex, and

work behavior type. Sex differences on total JDI scores were determined

by the t test. Stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to see

which combinations of variables, if any, would be the best predictors

of attrition. Significance for all tests was determined at the .05

confidence level.


















CHAPTER IV
RESULTS


This section contains results of the study and provides answers to

the research questions posed in Chapter III. The first section

describes the sample population and contains analyses of data relevant

to each question.


Description of Population

Practicing Medical Technologists

Table 2 summarizes the data on practicing technologists obtained

from the demographic questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were

females (N = 72, 78.3%). More than 60% had practiced medical technology

for more than 5 years and most (56.5%) worked in large (more than 400

beds), teaching hospitals.

When asked about their future in medical technology, 32.6% of the

respondents expected to leave and 22.8% were uncertain. Furthermore,

22.8% indicated they would most likely leave within the next year.

More than three fourths of the subjects (77.2%) felt it would be easy

for them to find other jobs.

Medical technology met the professional expectations of three

fourths (76.1%) of the sample. However, only one third indicated that,

if they had it to do again, they would select medical technology as a

career.

Fewer than one half (48.9%) of those surveyed felt they had

received adequate career information to make an informed choice about











Table 2. Characteristics of practicing medical technologists.


Characteristics N Percent


A. Sex
1. Male 20 21.7
2. Female 72 78.3

B. Age
1. Under 25 years 9 9.8
2. 25-35 59 64.2
3. 36-45 15 16.3
4. 46-55 5 5.4
5. Over 55 years 4 4.3

C. Years at current job
1. Less than 1 year 20 21.7
2. Between 1 and 3 years 22 23.9
3. Between 3 and 5 years 26 28.3
4. Between 5 and 10 years 15 16.3
5. More than 10 years 9 9.8

D. Total years of experience
1. Less than 1 year 3 3.3
2. Between 1 and 3 years 15 16.3
3. Between 3 and 5 years 13 14.1
4. Between 5 and 10 years 25 27.2
5. More than 10 years 36 39.1

E. Work setting
1. Hospital
a) small (fewer than 200 beds) 8 8.7
b) medium (200-400 beds) 20 21.7
c) large (more than 400 beds) 52 56.5
2. Private laboratory 3 3.3
3. Blood bank 3 3.3
4. Research laboratory 1 1.1
5. Clinic 5 5.4

F. Future in medical technology
1. Definitely will not leave 14 15.2
2. Probably will not leave 27 29.4
3. Uncertain 21 22.8
4. Probably will leave 23 25.0
5. Definitely will leave 7 7.6

G. Perceived ease of finding an alternative job
1. Very easy 24 26.1
2. Fairly easy 47 51.1
3. Not easy at all 12 13.0
4. Uncertain 9 9.8











Table 2 (continued)


Characteristic N Percent


H. Likelihood of leaving medical
technology within a year
1. Highly likely 12 13.0
2. Most likely 9 9.8
3. Not likely 58 63.0
4. Uncertain 13 14.2

I. Met expectations of the profession
1. Exceeded expectations 2 2.2
2. Met expectations 33 35.9
3. Somewhat met expectations 35 38.0
4. Did not meet expectations 22 23.9

J. Would choose medical technology
again as a career
1. Would choose again 30 33.0
2. Would choose again with reservations 6 6.6
3. Probably would not choose again 35 38.4
4. Definitely would not choose again 20 22.0

K. Adequate career information to choose
medical technology
1. More than adequate 15 16.3
2. Adequate 30 32.6
3. Some information but more needed 38 41.3
4. Very little 9 9.8

L. Perceived usefulness of work behavior
characteristics in career decision making
1. Very helpful 34 37.4
2. Probably helpful 34 37.4
3. Would not help 15 16.4
4. Uncertain 8 8.8



entering medical technology. A total of 68 technologists (74.8%) felt

that information about work behavior types would have been helpful in

career decision making.

Former Medical Technologists

Table 3 contains the demographic data for former medical

technologists. Of the 19 former technologists surveyed,.10 (52.6%)











Table 3. Characteristics of former medical technologists.


Characteristics N Percent


A. Sex
1. Male 10 52.6
2. Female 9 47.4

B. Age
1. Under 25 years 1 5.3
2. 25-35 8 42.0
3. 36-45 9 47.4
4. 46-55 1 5.3
5. Over 55 years 0 0

C. Years since practicing medical technology
1. Less than 1 year 1 5.3
2. Between 1 and 3 years 6 31.6
3. Between 3 and 5 years 6 31.6
4. Between 5 and 10 years 5 26.2
5. More than 10 years 1 5.3

D. Total years experience as a medical
technologist
1. Less than 1 year 0 0
2. Between 1 and 3 years 4 21.1
3. Between 3 and 5 years 4 21.1
4. Between 5 and 10 years 6 31.6
5. More than 10 years 5 26.2

E. Present profession
1. Physician's assistant 2 10.5
2. Sales representative (health related) 9 47.3
3. Biomedical engineer 2 10.5
4. Hospital administrator 1 5.3
5. Chef 1 5.3
6. Small business owner (electronics) 1 5.3
7. Technical rep. (health related) 2 10.5
8. Pathology resident 1 5.3

F. Would recommend medical technology to others
1. Would strongly recommend it 4 21.1
2. Would recommend it with reservation 4 63.1
3. Would probably recommend it 2 10.5
4. Would strongly advise against it 1 5.3

G. Adequate career information to choose
medical technology
1. More than adequate 3 15.8
2. Adequate 6 31.6
3. Some information but more needed 8 42.1
4. Very little 2 10.5











Table 3 (continued)


Characteristics N Percent


H. Would return to medical technology
1. Yes 4 21.1
2. No 10 52.6
3. Uncertain 5 26.3



were males. More than half the subjects (52.7%) were over 35 years,

and 57.9% had practiced as medical technologists more than 5 years.

Former technologists worked in a variety of occupations. Only two,

however, worked in nonhealth related fields (chef, electronics

business owner). The majority (68.5%) had left medical technology

less than 5 years ago.

When asked if they would return to medical technology, 52.6% of

the subjects responded "NO" and 26.3% were uncertain. The majority

(63.1%) would recommend the field to others. More than half the

respondents (52.6%) indicated they had received little or insufficient

information about medical technology before making a decision to enter

this field.

Table 4 contains a comparison of medical technologists' responses

to items asking them to list, in order of importance,- the five factors

that influenced them to enter medical technology and the five factors

most influential in their decision to leave. Practicing technologists

ranked interest in science and medicine, desire to help the sick, job

opportunities, security, and expected salary as major reasons for

selecting medical technology as a career. Former medical technologists

listed interest in science and medicine, desire to help the sick,

availability of an educational program, job opportunities, and security.











Table 4. Comparison of the five major factors influencing medical
technologists in selecting, leaving, or intending to leave
medical technology.


Factor "Intention"/Attrition
Group rank Selection factors factors


Practicing
Technologists 1 Interest in science Lack of career advance-
and medicine ment
2 Desire to help the Inadequate salary
sick
3 Job opportunities Routine nature of work
4 Job security Stressful nature of work
5 Expected salary Lack of status and
recognition


Former
Technologists 1 Interest in science Lack of career advance-
and medicine ment
2 Desire to help the Inadequate salary
sick
3 Availability of Lack of status and
educational program recognition
4 Job opportunities Stressful nature of work
5 Job security Routine nature of work



Reasons for leaving or intending to leave the field were the same

for both groups of technologists. In order of importance, former

medical technologists left for the following reasons: lack of career

advancement, inadequate salary, lack of status and recognition,

stressful nature of work, and routine nature of work. Practicing

technologists also ranked lack of career advancement and inadequate

salary as the two major factors for desiring to leave followed by the

routine nature of work, stressful nature of work, and lack of status

and recognition.

Technologists' responses in this study were comparable to those

reported by previous researchers. Showery (1976) reported that only











30.8% of the technologists in his survey would choose medical technology

again if given the choice. Irwin (1983) found that 57% of the

participants in her study definitely planned to leave medical technology

within 5 years and 10% were undecided. Reports of inadequate career

information are consistent with studies by Youse and Clark (1977) and

Gleich (1978).

Holstrom (1975) and Koneman (1982) also reported that medical

technologists chose this field because they desired to help people,

had an interest in science and medicine, saw a potential for

advancement and financial rewards, and felt it offered security.

Technologists in studies by Hajek and Blumberg (1982), Irwin (1983),

Miller (1982), Myers et al. (1982), Rogers (1983), and Showery (1976)

cited the same reasons for leaving or intending to leave medical

technology as the subjects in this study: lack of recognition, poor

pay, no upward mobility, job stress, and boredom (from over

specialization and mechanization).


Research Questions


Question 1: What are the work behavior types of medical

technologists in Florida? Table 5 contains the frequencies and

percentages of work behavior types among practicing and former medical

technologists. Of the 92 practicing technologists, 55 (59.8%) were

Producers. Almost a third (32.6%) were Concentrators. Only four (4.3%)

and three (3.3%) of those surveyed were Energizers and Inducers

respectively.

The most common work behavior type among former technologists was

the Concentrator type (36.8%). More than one fourth (26.3%) were Inducers.











Table 5. Work behavior types of medical technologists.

Practicing technologists Former technologists Total
Type N Percent N Percent N Percent


Energizer 4 4.3 4 21.1 8 7.2

Inducer 3 3.3 5 26.3 8 7.2

Concentrator 30 32.6 7 36.8 37 33.3

Producer 55 59.8 3 15.8 58 52.3



Of the remaining seven subjects, four (21.1%) were Energizers and three

(15.8%) were Producers.

Overall, the majority (52.3%) of technologists in the study were

Producers. One third (33.3%) were Concentrators and the remaining

subjects were equally divided between Energizer (7.2%) and Inducer

types (7.2%).

Concentrators and Producers work to maintain the organization in

its present form. They can be counted on to do the job and follow the

rules and regulations of the organization. Energizers and Inducers

seek to alter the system and effect change in the organization. Chapter

II contains detailed descriptions of the types.

Medical technology contains a higher proportion of Producers and

Concentrators than occurs in the general population. Approximately

60% of the general population are either Producers or Concentrators,

with Producers predominating. Energizers and Inducers represent an

additional 20% each (Bauch, 1981). The proportion of work behavior

types among former technologists, however, approximates these figures

more closely than the proportions of work behavior types among practicing

technologists.











Table 6 contains the means and standard deviations for scores of

work behavior types on each dimension of the Profile. Compared to

Energizers and Inducers, Producers and Concentrators scored high on

their respective scales. Producers had a mean score of 9.68. The

mean score for Concentrators was 8.12. Energizers and Inducers

scored an average of 3.63 and 4.81 respectively. As mentioned in

Chapter III, scores on the MPPP can range from -15 to 15 with zero as

the mean score.

Producers' scores on the other dimensions indicate they also

scored high on the Concentrator scale (x = 4.49) and low on the Inducer

and Energizer scales. Concentrators scored high on the Producer

scale (x = 3.34) and also scored low on the Energizer and Inducer

scales. Although not high, Energizers' second strongest scores were

on the Producer dimension (x = -.75). For Inducers, the Concentrator

dimension had the second highest mean score (x = 1.38).



Table 6. Mean scores and standard deviations for each work behavior
type on each work dimension.


Type Work Behavior Dimension

Energizer Inducer Concentrator Producer

Energizer x 3.63 -2.81 -0.13 .75
SD 1.33 5.49 2.39 3.19

Inducer x .50 4.81 1.38 -2.88
SD 3.89 0.59 3.09 4.50

Concentrator x -5.05 -3.08 8.12 3.34
SD 4.46 4.23 2.82 3.72

Producer x -3.83 -5.41 4.49 9.68
SD 4.64 4.14 3.61 2.74











As discussed in Chapter II, the MPPP generates, in addition to one

of the four major work behavior types, a more detailed description of

an individual's work behavior. This "subtype" is based on the

interactions among all choices and the strength of the individual's

responses on each dimension of work behavior.

Almost two thirds (65%) of practicing technologists fell into

three subtypes. Descriptions of these types are as follows:

Type 9 has characteristics of the worker types who apply
their skills in nonthreatening situations. They will
cautiously follow procedures and rules. They are committed
to doing the job correctly, and try hard to be prepared to
do their best. They like predictable work environments where
their jobs are clearly defined, but will enthusiastically
accept new assignments if the assignments are in their area
of expertise. They will take the time to be sure they
understand exactly what is desired of them, get the facts
relating to the assignment, and if they make a commitment,
they produce accordingly. An important value to the
organization is the precision and quality of their work and
their personal identity with their product. (Bauch, 1981,
p. 23)

Type 11 has traits of perfectionist workers. These
individuals follow directions exactly and strive for
flawless products. When procedures and deadlines are
clear and specific, they attend to all the detail and
quality work. Thus, no backing up or correcting will be
needed. They ask for clarification frequently to make
sure things are being done right. They can explain the
rules and operating procedures to the new employee as
well as the author. They accept the system without great
concern about why and do not require intensive supervision
once the job is described. They are noted for dependability
in completing work when expected and doing their best to
attain quality. (Bauch, 1981, p. 24)

Type 16 has characteristics of the specialist group. These
people are noted for good planning and persistence on the
job over long periods. They are quite accepting of the
varieties of styles of co-workers but will maintain a small
group of good friends. They like consistency in their work
environment as they value the tried and proven methods.
They establish a steady pace and follow it with or without
supervision. They appreciate recognition for their staying
at the job until it is done. (Bauch, 1981, p. 27)











Subtypes of the former medical technologists were heterogeneous.

No one type predominated.

These findings on work behavior types among medical technologists

are consistent with results of personality types reported by other

researchers. Bowling (1973) determined that 57% of the medical

technologists in her sample had a strong preference for the sensing-

judging dimensions on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). They

were predominately introvert-sensing-thinking-judging (ISTJ),

extravert-sensing-thinking-judging (ESTJ), or introvert-sensing-

feeling-judging (ISFJ) types.

Fellers (1974), French and Rezler (1976), Hill (1974), and

Rezler and French (1975) also reported that medical technologists

preferred sensing, thinking, and judging. About 20% of the clinical

practitioners in the French-Rezler (1976) study were ISTJ or ESTJ

types.

Compared to practicing technologists,student technologists were

more intuitive, feeling, and perceiving (Rezler & French, 1975;

Williams, 1974). French and Rezler (1976) speculated these types found

working conditions disappointing and left medical technology before or

shortly after entering the field.

Glenn's (1982) research demonstrated significant relationships

between personality functions measured on the MBTI and work behavior

types measured by the MPPP. She found significant correlations between

the Producer type work behavior and the introvert (r = .35), sensing

(r = .48), and judging (r = -.36) scores on the MBTI. Producers who

are exacting in their work were also introverts, prefering the sensing

and judging modes.











Bauch's description of Producers (presented in Chapter II) and

Myers' (1976) description of the introvert-sensing-judging type are
i
very similar. According to Myers, the introvert-sensing-judging

types are those who

like quiet for concentration, tend to be careful with
details, and seldom make errors of fact. They tend not
to mind working on one project for a long time
uninterruptedly, and like to think a lot before they act,
sometimes without acting. They are patient with routine
details, and tend to be good at precise work. They are
at their best when they plan their work and follow their
plan. (pp. 17-18)

Glenn also reported that Concentrators were most likely to be

sensing and judging, introverted or extraverted, with a preference for

the feeling function. Energizer scores correlated significantly with

the intuitive and thinking personality functions. Inducer scores, as

expected, correlated with the extravert, intuitive, and perceptive

personality functions.

In light of these studies on personality types among medical

technologists and correlations of personality type to work behavior

type, it is not surprising, then, to find the high proportion of

Producers and low proportion of Energizers and Inducers among medical

technologists. Producers have the qualities required and desired for

medical technology. They carefully follow procedures and strive for

precision. The subtypes of medical technologists also reflect

essential work behavior characteristics for this field. In addition

to producing precise, quality work and following directions, these

subtypes complete the work on time with little supervision.

As a bench-level technologist, the Inducer would not have many

opportunities for contacts with fellow workers or patients.











The Energizer would find few outlets for new ideas, solving

problems, or bringing about change. However, Energizers and Inducers

would probably find avenues for expressing their work behavior traits

as administrative or teaching technologists.

Former technologists work in a variety of occupations. Therefore,

it is reasonable to find that the proportions of work behavior types

among this group approximate those of the general population.

Question 2: Does a relationship exist between the work behavior

type of the technologist and overall job satisfaction? The researcher

used a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to answer this question.

The findings are reported in a summary table (Table 7). A significant

relationship occurred between work behavior type and the overall job

satisfaction score of the subject.

The investigator used Tukey's test of Honestly Significant

Differences (HSD) to determine the source of variance between the work

behavior types. The mean scores of Inducers differed significantly

from scores of Producers and indicated higher levels of overall job

satisfaction. There were no significant differences among the total

JDI scores of the other work behavior types.

Glenn (1982) found no significant relationship between overall job

satisfaction, measured by a Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, and work

behavior types of vocational education administrators. French and

Rezler (1976) could not correlate overall job satisfaction with

personality type among medical technologists. Williams (1976), however,

determined that medical technologists with introvert personality types

as measured by the MBTI were, in general, less satisfied with their











Table 7. Analysis of variance results for JDI scores by work behavior
type.

Total JDI Scores
Source df Sum of squares Mean square F ratio F prob.

Between Groups 3 17,657.32 5,885.77 3.44 .02*
Within Groups 107 182,868.92 1,709.06

x Group
145.71 (4) Producer
162.16 (3) Concentrator
166.375 (1) Energizer
190.00* (2) Inducer
(2 was different from 4, but not from 1 or 3)

Work Subscale of JDI
Source df Sum of squares Mean square F ratio F prob.

Between Groups 3 671.30 223.77 2.26 .09
Within Groups 107 10,602.97 99.09

x Group
28.79 (4) Producer
32.38 (3) Concentrator
33.88 (1) Energizer
36.63 (2) Inducer

Promotion Subscale of JDI
Source df Sum of squares Mean square F ratio F prob.

Between Groups 3 2,855.11 951.70 5.21 .002*
Within Groups 107 19,557.00 182.78

x Group
9.12 (4) Producer
13.97 (3) Concentrator
16.00 (1) Energizer
28.38* (2) Inducer
(2 was different from 3 and 4, but not from 1)

Pay Subscale of JDI
Source df Sum of squares Mean square F ratio F prob.

Between Groups 3 1,832.02 610.67 2.88 .04*
Within Groups 107 22,667.56 211.85

x Group
21.47 (4) Producer
25.92 (3) Concentrator
32.12 (2) Inducer
34.25 (1) Energizer




Full Text
84
Table 3. Characteristics of former medical technologists.
Characteristics
N
Percent
A. Sex
1. Male 10 52.6
2. Female 9 47.4
B. Age
1. Under 25 years 1
2. 25-35 8
3. 36-45 9
4. 46-55 1
5. Over 55 years 0
C. Years since practicing medical technology
1. Less than 1 year 1
2. Between 1 and 3 years 6
3. Between 3 and 5 years 6
4. Between 5 and 10 years 5
5. More than 10 years 1
D. Total years experience as a medical
technologist
1. Less than 1 year 0
2. Between 1 and 3 years 4
3. Between 3 and 5 years 4
4. Between 5 and 10 years 6
5. More than 10 years 5
E. Present profession
1. Physician's assistant 2
2. Sales representative (health related) 9
3. Biomedical engineer 2
4. Hospital administrator 1
5. Chef 1
6. Small business owner (electronics) 1
7. Technical rep. (health related) 2
8. Pathology resident 1
F. Would recommend medical technology to others
1. Would strongly recommend it 4
2. Would recommend it with reservation 4
3. Would probably recommend it 2
4. Would strongly advise against it 1
G. Adequate career information to choose
medical technology
1. More than adequate 3
2. Adequate 6
3. Some information but more needed 8
4. Very little 2
5.3
42.0
47.4
5.3
0
5.3
31.6
31.6
26.2
5.3
0
21.1
21.1
31.6
26.2
10.5
47.3
10.5
5.3
5.3
5.3
10.5
5.3
21.1
63.1
10.5
5.3
15.8
31.6
42.1
10.5


37
(the degree to which an individual has close friends in the
organization), instrumental communication (degree to which information
about a job is transmitted by an organization to its members), formal
communications, and centralization (degree of autonomy). Job
satisfaction, in turn, combined with opportunity to leave to determine
actual turnover.
Mobley (1977) also presented a conceptual model of turnover,
focusing on the intermediate steps between job satisfaction and the
decision to leave. He stated that job dissatisfaction led to thinking
about quitting, intention to search, intention to stay or leave, and,
finally, to actual quitting. He also argued that intention to leave
was a more accurate predictor of actual turnover than job satisfaction.
In 1978, Mobley, Horner, and Hollingsworth evaluated Mobley's
model on 203 hospital employees. Their results supported the accuracy
of the model and the contention that the behavioral intention to leave
was a more important determinant of turnover than job satisfaction.
Behavioral intent correlated .49 to turnover, whereas dissatisfaction
correlated .21 with the decision to withdraw.
Earlier studies by Atchinson and Lefferts (1972), Kraut (1975),
and Waters, Roach, and Waters (1976) also indicated that behavioral
intentions to leave or remain with an organization account for more
variance in turnover than does job satisfaction. Job satisfaction,
however, was a salient precursor of behavioral intentions.
Miller, Katerberg, and Hulin (1979) evaluated the Mobley-Homer-
Hollingsworth (1978) model and proposed a more general model of the
turnover process. They collapsed the seven variables that Mobley and
his coworkers studied into four general constructs: career mobility


ED HEALTH INSTRUCTIONAL ReRSO(\Jf\iet_
November 16 1983
Dear Chief Medical Technologist:
Your staff has been selected to participate in a study of Job satisfaction
and attrition among bench-level Dedlcal technologists in the state
of Florida. Tills project Is under the direction of Dr. Margaret Morgan,
director of the Center of Allied Health Instructional Personnel, and
professor of Instructional Leadership and Support, University of Florida.
/
The objectives of the study are to:
1. Identify the work behavior types of practicing and former
ciedlcal technologists.
2. Determine If work behavior type Is related to Job satisfaction
and attrition.
3. Determine if (a)work environment (hospital compared to nonhospital
laboratories or other fields) and ('o)sex of the participant
are related to Job satisfaction.
A. Formulate implications for career planning and academic advising
of students selecting the medical technology curriculum.
5. Iuprove the selection of students into medical technology
programs and the placement of technologists Into Jobs.
I would like to come to your laboratory, at a time convenient to you, to
deliver packets of Instruments for the technologists under your supervision
to complete. These Instruments Include a questionnaire to obtain
background Information about the participants, the Job Descriptive
Index designed to ueasure Job satisfaction, and the Marcus Paul Placement
Profile that Indicates work behavior type. All Instruments will require
less than 20 minutes to complete.
Your participation In this study Is very important. All results will be
kept In confidence. I will contact you by phone to make the necessary
arrangements.
Very truly yours.
Sybil Uellstood
Microbiologist, VA Medical Center
118


67
disappointment and frustration with their work experiences in medical
technology. While they had been highly trained for careers as
responsible members of the health care team, they found themselves in
"jobs," unrecognized and disregarded by other health care professionals
as well as by the public. In addition, these jobs became routine,
lacked challenge, were stressful, and provided little opportunity for
advancement. In light of these results, the authors recommended
re-evaluation of the medical technologist's role in health care, and
creation of career ladders to permit advancement within the profession.
Based on the work of Hajek and Blumberg (1982), Irwin (1983)
investigated the causes of dissatisfaction and attrition among medical
technologists in New Jersey and obtained comparable results. Of the 115
participants, 66 (57%) indicated they would definitely leave medical
technology within 5 years and 10% were undecided. The decision to
continue in the field or go elsewhere was primarily related to
self-actualization and esteem factors. Technologists who planned to
leave felt overtrained and frustrated with their jobs because those with
less training were performing the same tasks. They also found the work
monotonous and had few opportunities to use their knowledge of laboratory
medicine. In terms of esteem factors, they felt that they were invisible
members of the health care team, received too little pay and recognition
for their training and responsibilities, and that there was little
prestige associated with being a medical technologist. Increased
opportunities for career advancement and more attractive financial
rewards were the major incentives cited by technologists that might
encourage them to remain in the profession.


20
Lodahl and Kejner (1965), Weissenberg and Gruenfield (1968), and
Hall, Schneider, and Nygren (1970) reported a positive correlation
between job satisfaction and job involvement. Job involvement is the
extent to which an individual identifies with a particular job
(Gruneberg, 1979). Individual attitudes toward work (Lodahl, 1964),
strength of higher-order needs (Hackman & Lawler, 1971), and the
organizational structure or situation (Argyris, 1964; Rabinowitz &
Hall, 1977) influence job involvement. However, little is known
about how individuals develop an interest in a particular job
(Gruneberg, 1979).
Extrinsic Factors and Job Satisfaction
Although intrinsic factors are generally regarded as most
important for job satisfaction, extrinsic or context factors also play
a significant role. These factors include pay, job security, work
groups, and supervision.
Pay is an important aspect of job satisfaction. It provides more
to individuals than the means to purchase goods and services. Pay is
often associated with achievement, recognition, and worth; Wernimont
and Fitzpatrick (1972), however, found significant individual
differences in the meaning of money according to the stage of career
development, experiences, sex, economic status, and personality of the
worker.
The actual level of pay is not as important to job satisfaction
as the relative level. According to the equity theorists (discussed
earlier), workers compare themselves to other workers in terms of
Inputs and Outputs. Individuals weigh the equity of their pay in
terms of their skills, amount of effort, responsibility, and


Table 2. Characteristics of practicing medical technologists.
Characteristics
N
Percent
Sex
1.
Male
20
21.7
2.
Female
72
78.3
Age
1.
Under 25 years
9
9.8
2.
25-35
59
64.2
3.
36-45
15
16.3
4.
46-55
5
5.4
5.
Over 55 years
4
4.3
Years at current job
1.
Less than 1 year
20
21.7
2.
Between 1 and 3 years
22
23.9
3.
Between 3 and 5 years
26
28.3
4.
Between 5 and 10 years
15
16.3
5.
More than 10 years
9
9.8
Total years of experience
1.
Less than 1 year
3
3.3
2.
Between 1 and 3 years
15
16.3
3.
Between 3 and 5 years
13
14.1
4.
Between 5 and 10 years
25
27.2
5.
More than 10 years
36
39.1
Work setting
1.
Hospital
a) small (fewer than 200 beds)
8
8.7
b) medium (200-400 beds)
20
21.7
c) large (more than 400 beds)
52
56.5
2.
Private laboratory
3
3.3
3.
Blood bank
3
3.3
4.
Research laboratory
1
1.1
5.
Clinic
5
5.4
Future in medical technology
1.
Definitely will not leave
14
15.2
2.
Probably will not leave
27
29.4
3.
Uncertain
21
22.8
4.
Probably will leave
23
25.0
5.
Definitely will leave
7
7.6
Perceived ease of finding an alternative job
1.
Very easy
24
26.1
2.
Fairly easy
47
51.1
3.
Not easy at all
12
13.0
4.
Uncertain
9
9.8


105
Table 11. Comparison of males' and females' responses to Question 10:
"How likely is it that you will actively look for a position
in another field within the coming year?"
Group
Highly likely
Most likely
Not likely
Not certain
Total
Males
N
14
3
11
2
30
%
12.61
2.70
9.91
1.80
27.03
Females
N
17
6
47
11
81
%
15.32
5.41
42.34
9.91
72.97
Total
N
31
9
58
13
111
%
27.93
8.11
52.25
11.71
100
2
X
= 8.16
df
= 3
2
X Prob
= .04
leaving a job and remaining unemployed were family related (Gleich si
Routh, 1974; Kami & Husted, 1970). Recent studies indicate that women
leave medical technology to enter other fields (Broski et al., 1982;
Hajek SI Blumberg, 1982) .
Of the 30 male subjects in this study, 14 (46.7%) had left medical
technology or intended to leave within a year. A total of 17 females
(15.3%) intended to leave or no longer practiced medical technology.
Several subjects added written comments on the survey. One of the
concerns expressed was in regard to pay. Many commented they could not
support a family on their earnings and depended on a working spouse to
provide additional income. Poor pay may be a major determinant of
attrition among male technologists.
Question 9: Can some combination of demographic variables, work
behavior type, and job satisfaction predict attrition among medical
technologists? The investigator used stepwise discriminant analysis
to determine what variables, if any, could predict attrition or


98
Table 8. Relationship between work behavior type and attrition.
Definitely
Group
intend to
leave
Probably
will leave
Will not
leave
Uncertain
Total
Energizers
N
5
0
2
1
8
%
4.50
0
1.8
.90
7.21
Inducers
N
6
1
1
0
8
%
5.41
.90
.90
0
7.21
Concentrators
N
11
2
21
3
37
%
9.91
1.80
18.92
2.70
33.33
Producers
N
9
6
34
9
58
%
8.11
5.41
30.63
8.11
52.25
Total
N
31
9
58
13
111
%
27.93
8.11
52.25
11.71
100
X2 = 20.76
df = 9
2
X Prob = .02
Inducers and Energizers in the sample contributed to low frequencies
in some of the cells.
Based on the statistical analysis, it is difficult to answer a
question about work behavior type and attrition among medical
technologists. However, the following attrition rates were observed
for each work behavior type among the 40 technologists who left or
indicated they would probably leave the field within the next year:
Energizers (N = 5, 62.5%), Inducers (N = 7, 87.5%), Concentrators
(N = 13, 35.1%), Producers (N = 15, 25.9%).
The higher attrition rates of Energizers and Inducers appear
consistent with the lower proportions of these types among medical
technologists. Not only may fewer Energizers and Inducers be attracted



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38
(age, tenure, probability of finding another job), job satisfaction,
withdrawal cognitions (intention to quit, intention to search), and
withdrawal behavior (turnover).
Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, and Meglino (1979) presented an expanded
turnover model focusing on behavioral intentions (intention to search,
intention to quit) as the immediate precursor of turnover. The model
also recognized the role of perceptions, expectations, values, and
available job alternatives as factors in the decision to leave an
organization.
In 1981, Steers and Mowday proposed a comprehensive, process-oriented
model of turnover. This model incorporated determinants of turnover
from earlier models and featured several new dimensions of the turnover
process. The new variables added to the model included job
expectations, employee performance level, ability to change the work
situation, and nonwork related factors that influenced the decision
to leave. Figure 1 represents this 13-stage model.
Price and Mueller (1981) described a causal model of turnover,
containing 13 variables or "determinants" of turnover. They posited
that routinization (repetitiveness of job), participation, instrumental
communication, integration, pay, distributive justice (rewards or
punishments are related to job inputs) and promotional opportunity
would influence turnover through the intervening variable, job
satisfaction. Job satisfaction, in turn, affected intent to stay.
Professionalism (degree of dedication to occupational standards of
performance), amount of general training, and kinship responsibility
(degree of an individual's obligations to relatives in the community)


122
10- How likely is it tli.it you will actively look for a position in another field
within the next year?
a)Highly likely,
k) Most likely.
c) Not likely.
d) Not certain.
|| in general, has your career in medical technology measured up to your ex
pectations about the profession?
a) Has exceeded my expectations.
b) Has met my expectations.
c) Has somewhat met my expectations.
d) Has not met my expectations.
12. Knowing what you now know about medical technology, would you choose
medical technology again as a career?
a) 1 would choose It again without hesitation.
b) I would choose it again but not work as a "bench" technologist.
c) I would probably not choose it again.
d) 1 deflnately would not choose it again.
1> Which of the following factors were most influential In your choice of medical
technology as a career? From the list of items, select the 5 most important
factors; then rank those factors i
for the most important factor and "
Job security
Job opportunities
Interest in science l medicine
_ Availability of an educational
program
Desire to help sick people
Expected salary
the order of their importance, using I'
for the least important.
_ Influence by family
_ Influence by friends
School guidance program
Prior work or volunteer
experience in a lab.
Other (specify)
14- Do you feel that you had adequate information about yourself (skills, person
ality traits, interests, values) and edical technology to make a '
knowledgeable career decision?
a) More than adequate Information.
b) Adequate Information.
c) Some Information but more would have been helpful.
<0 Very little lnforma'tlon.
15- Do you feel you could have made a more Intelligent decision about selecting
medical technology as a career if information had been available to you
about c|,e characteristics of your work behavior and those of satisfied
/ medical technologists?
a) This Information would have been very helpful.
b) This information would probably have been helpful.
c) This information would not have helped.
d) I am not sure.


I
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Organization of the Chapter
This review covers four areas. The first section presents an
overview of research on job satisfaction. This is followed by a review
of the literature on turnover, including the relationship between job
satisfaction and turnover. The next section consists of research and
theories leading to the development of work behavior types and the
Marcus Paul Placement Profile. The final section provides a synthesis
of the research on job satisfaction, attrition, and career development
in medical technology.
Job Satisfaction
Definition
According to Locke (1976), more than 3,000 articles, books, and
dissertations have been written about job satisfaction. Gruneberg
(1979) stated it was one of the most researched topics in psychology.
Because job satisfaction impacts on the well-being of individuals,
organizations, and society, it is not surprising to find a large
volume of research on this subject.
Numerous definitions of job satisfaction have emerged from these
studies and researchers do not agree on a single, universal definition
of the term (Locke, 1969). Davis (1977) related job satisfaction to
the fit between employee and job. For him, it was
12


139
Porter, L., Steers, R., Mowday, R., & Boulian, P. (1974). Organizational
commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric
technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 603-609.
Price, J. (1977). The study of turnover. Ames, IA: Iowa State
Press.
Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1981). Professional turnover: The
case of nurses. New York: Spectrum Publications.
Pritchard, R., & Karasick, B. (1973). The effects of organizational
climate on managerial job performance and job satisfaction.
Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 9, 126-146.
Rabinowitz, W., & Hall, D. (1977). Organizational research on job
involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 265-288.
Rezler, A., & French, R. (1975). Personality types and learning
preferences of students in six allied health professions.
Journal of Allied Health, 4, 20-26.
Roe, A.
(1956).
The psychology of occupations. New York:
Wiley.
Roe, A.
(1964).
Early determinants of vocational choice.
Journal of
Counseling Psychology, 4_, 212-217.
Rogers, D. (1983). Stress and job satisfaction of clinical laboratory
scientists. American Journal of Medical Technology, 49, 183-188.
Rusbult, C., & Farrell, D. (1983). A longitudinal test of the
investment model: The impact on job satisfaction, job commitment,
and turnover of variations in rewards, costs, alternatives, and
investments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 429-438.
Saleh, S., Lee, R., & Prien, E. (1965). Why nurses leave their jobs
an analysis of female turnover. Personnel Administration, 22, 25-
28.
Schneider, B., & Dachler, H. (1978). A note on the stability of the
Job Descriptive Index. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 650-
653. " '
Schneider, B., & Snyder, R. (1975). Some relationships between job
satisfaction and organizational climate. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 60, 318-328.
Schuh, A. (1967). The predictability of employee tenure: A review of
the literature. Personal Psychology, 20, 133-152.
Schuler, R. (1975). Sex, organization level and outcome importance:
Where the differences are. Personal Psychology, 28, 365-375.


102
as many of these factors and, therefore, experience more autonomy in
their work setting.
Results of this study did not indicate differences in job
satisfaction between hospital or nonhospital technologists. Numerous
studies have shown that technologists are dissatisfied with their
jobs. Work environment does not appear to transcend these
dissatisfactions.
Broski and Cook (1978) and Broski et al. (1982) compared the job
satisfaction scores of medical technologists on the JDI with scores of
other health professionals. Medical technologists were less satisfied
than dietitians, physical therapists, and occupational therapists on
the work, pay, promotion, and co-worker subscales of the Index.
Broski and his co-workers also compared job satisfaction scores
for each group of subjects with national norms established by Smith
et al. (1969). Smith et al. based the norms for the JDI on a sample
of 2000 male and 600 female workers in numerous occupations and
communities throughout the United States. They also stratified these
norms on the basis of education, income, community prosperity, and
length of job tenure. Because norms for females stopped at 9 years
of education, Broski et al. (1982) used norms established for males
with 15 or more years of education. Although not ideal, these norms
were £he most appropriate standards for interpreting median subscale
scores of the allied health professionals in the study.
Median scores of medical technologists were low in comparison to
national norms. They ranked in the following percentiles for each
subscale: work20th, supervision50th, co-workers30th, promotion
25th, and pay18th.


100
Table 9. Analysis of variance results for technologists on JDI by
work environment.
Source df
Total JDI
Sum of squares
Scores
Mean square
F ratio
I
F prob.
Between Groups 2
65,308.90
32,654.45
26.08
.0001*
Within
Groups 108
13,217.33
1,252.01
X
Group
143.66
(1) Hospital technologists
153.42
(2) Nonhospital technologists
208.84
* (3) Former
technologists
(3
is different from 1 and 2)
Work Subscale of JDI
Source df
Sum of squares
Mean square
F ratio
F prob.
Between Groups 2
2,474.13
1,237.06
15.18
.0001*
Within
Groups 108
8,800.14
81.48
X
Group
28.28
(1) Hospital technologists
32.83
(2) Nonhospital technologists
40.84
(3) Former
technologists
(3 is different from 1 and 2)
Supervision Subscale of JDI
Source df
Sum of squares
Mean square
F ratio
F prob.
Between Groups 2
810.95
405.47
2.99
.06
Within
Groups 108
14,658.08
135.72
X
Group
40.75
(2) Nonhospital technologists
42.90
(1) Hospital technologists
49.58
(3) Former
technologists
Pay Subscale of JDI
Source df
Sum of squares
Mean square
F ratio
F prob.
Between Groups 2
4,973.18
2,486.59
13.75
.0001*
Within
Groups 108
19,526.41
180.80
x ,
Group
21.50
(2) Nonhospital technologists
21.61
(1) Hospital technologists
39.37
(3) Former
technologists
(3 is different from 1 and 2)


57
Geier clarified Marston's terminology and redefined Dominance
as "active positive movement in an antagonistic environment"
(Geier, 1979, p. 2) Compliance was "a cautious tentative response
designated to reduce antagonistic factors in an unfavorable environment"
(p. 2). Submission was defined as "passive aggressiveness in a
favorable environment" (p. 2) and Inducement was "active positive
movement in a favorable environment" (p. 2).
He also added the idea to the two-axis model that people with
traits centered around the Dominance or Inducement dimension were
process-oriented and wanted to shape the environment according to their
own particular viewpoint. Individuals with traits centered around the
Submission or Compliance dimensions were product-oriented and focused
on the how and why of things and events.
Marcus Paul Placement Profile
Bauch (1981) used Marston's model and Geier's research to develop
the Marcus Paul Placement Profile. This instrument was designed to
identify work behavior types in order to match people to jobs. In the
educational setting, it could provide a basis for counseling, career
development, and selection. Organizations could use it for recruiting,
job placement, training, and team building.
The intent of the MPPP was to increase understanding of work
behaviors. Therefore, Bauch modified some of Marston's and Geier's
terminology to remove any judgmental overtones from these terms. He
replaced words with negative connotations with positive or neutral
terms. In place of Marston's categories of Dominance, Inducement,
Submission, and Compliance or Geier's Dominance, Influence, Steadiness,


3
faster than the average of all occupations (U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1982).
In 1982, approximately 205,000 medical laboratory workers were
employed in hospitals, independent laboratories, physicians' offices,
clinics, public health agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and
research institutions (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1982). Many
others will be needed to fill new positions and to serve as replacements
for those who retire, die, or leave medical technology for other kinds
of work.
The literature contains increasing evidence that the numbers of
technologists will not be sufficient to fill future vacancies. Jeanne
Burson (1981), former president of the American Society for Medical
Technology, indicated that medical technology, like nursing, is facing
a personnel shortage. She attributed this situation, in part, to
insufficient pay for the educational requirements and job responsibilities
demanded by the profession. She also stated that medical technologists
have experienced an "identity crisis." Many feel they do not receive
adequate recognition as health care professionals from the public or
from other health care practitioners.
Studies by Hajek and Blumberg (1982), Myers, Bronstein, and Vojir
(1982), Koneman (1982), and Irwin (1983) on job dissatisfaction and
attrition among medical technologists also agreed with these
observations. More than half of the technologists working today
indicated they would not be active in medical technology within 5 years.
Schools of medical technology are facing declining enrollments.
Some schools have been forced to close or operate with less than full
enrollments. Others have accepted less qualified applicants in order


62
professionals and the general public. Students also perceived a lack
of identity for the profession of medical technology.
In 1971, Jeswald conducted an extensive study of job satisfaction
among medical technologists. Using Maslow's theory of needs hierarchy,
he found that medical technologists considered security and self-
actualization needs as primary factors for job satisfaction, whereas the
need for autonomy was least important. Jeswald's results also indicated
that self-actualization and esteem were the least satisfied needs
across all categories of laboratory personnel. Clinical practitioners
consistently reported they felt lack of appreciation and recognition
for their work.
Showery's (1976) survey of 300 medical technologists revealed that
only 30.8% of those surveyed with more than 5 years experience
indicated they would choose medical technology again if given the
choice and 49.5% stated they were uncertain. The major reason offered
by 83.5% of the subjects was lack of respect and recognition for
laboratorians by other hospital personnel.
French and Rezler (1976) reported that clinical practitioners
were less satisfied with their work, co-workers, and opportunities for
advancement than medical technologists who were educators or
administrators. All technologists were least satisfied with pay and
promotion. Poor communication was a major source of frustration and
dissatisfaction in all work settings. Most technologists found their
work moderately stressful.
Matteson, Ivancewich and McMahon (1977) examined the relationship
among medical technologists' needs, organizational practices, and job
satisfaction. Their results suggested that job satisfaction was a


133
Gillies, D. (1982). Nursing management. A systems approach.
Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Ginsberg, E. (1971). Career guidance: Who needs it, who provides it,
who can improve it. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ginzberg, E., Ginsburg, S., Azelrod, S., & Herma, J. (1951).
Occupational choice. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gleich, C. (1978). Influence factors affecting career choice of
preclinical medical technology students. American Journal of
Medical Technology, 44, 532-537.
Gleich, C., & Routh, J. (1974). A statistical significance testing
of hypotheses concerning clinical laboratory manpower. American
Journal of Medical Technology, 40, 156-164.
Glenn, M. (1982). Relationships among work behavior type, personality
function, job satisfaction, and effectiveness ratings of
vocational education administrators (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Florida, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International,
49, 2843A (University Microfilms No. 83-02,234).
Glenn, W., Taylor, P., & Weaver, C. (1977). Age and job satisfaction
among males and females: A multivariate, multisurvey study.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 189-193.
Graen, G., & Ginsburgh, S. (1977). Job resignation as a function of
role orientation and leader acceptance: A longitudinal investigation
of organization assimilation. Organizational Behavior and Human
Performance, 19, 1-17.
Greenberg, H. (1979). Right person in right job is key to success.
Advertising Age, 50, 56.
Gruneberg, M. (1979). Understanding job satisfaction. New York:
Wiley and Sons.
Hackman, J., SLawler, E. (1971). Employee reactions to job satisfaction
characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55, 259-286.
Hajek, A., & Blumberg, P. (1982). Factors contributing to professional
a/ttuition of medical technologists. American Journal of Medical
Technology, 13, 488-497.
Hall, D. (1976). Careers in organizations. Pacific Palisades, CA:
Goodyear Publishing.
Hall, D., Schneider, B., & Nygren, H. (1970). Personal factors in
organization identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15,
176-190.


95
Table 7 (continued)
Source
df
Supervision Subscale of JDI
Sum of squares Mean square
F
ratio
F prob.
Between
Groups 3
67.89
22.63
0.16
.92
Within
Groups
107
75,401.14
143.94
X
Group
42.62
(2)
Inducers
43.29
(4)
Producers
44.51
(3)
Concentrators
45.50
(1)
Energizers
Co-worker Subscale of JDI
Source
df
Sum of squares
Mean square
F
ratio
F prob.
Between
Groups 3
980.94
326.98
2.44
.07
Within
Groups
107
14,360.03
134.21
X
Group
36.75
(1)
Energizers
42.98
(4)
Producers
46.19
(3)
Concentrators
50.38
(2)
Inducers
*p<.05
jobs than extraverted technologists. Brown's (1973) findings for
occupational therapists were similar.
In this study, Inducers may have indicated higher levels of overall
job satisfaction because they are predominantly extraverts.
Characteristically, Inducers and extraverts reflect a more optimistic
outlook and place more importance on people and interpersonal
relationships than on the organization or job.
Question 3: Does a relationship exist between work behavior type
and specific aspects of job satisfaction? A series of one-way ANOVAs
between subjects' scores on the subscales of the JDI and work behavior
types provided the answers for this question.
As shown in Table 7, F ratios were significant on the pay and
promotion scales. Tukey's test indicated that Inducers were more


80
The program generated frequencies and means to determine the work
behavior types of medical technologists. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
showed the relationships between work behavior type and overall job
satisfaction or specific aspects of job satisfaction. Tukey's test of
Honestly Significant Differences was used to make pairwise comparisons
between groups. This test controls for the Type I error rate. The
relationship between work environment and job satisfaction was also
tested by ANOVA and Tukey's test. The chi-square test assessed the
relationship between intention to leave medical technology, sex, and
work behavior type. Sex differences on total JDI scores were determined
by the _t test. Stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to see
which combinations of variables, if any, would be the best predictors
of attrition. Significance for all tests was determined at the .05
confidence level.


86
Table 4.
Comparison of the five major factors influencing medical
technologists in selecting, leaving, or intending to leave
medical technology.
Group
Factor
rank
Selection factors
"Intention"/Attrition
factors
Practicing
Technologists
1
Interest in science
and medicine
Lack of career advance
ment
2
Desire to help the
sick
Inadequate salary
3
Job opportunities
Routine nature of work
4
Job security
Stressful nature of work
5
Expected salary
Lack of status and
recognition
Former
Technologists
1
Interest in science
and medicine
Lack of career advance
ment
2
Desire to help the
sick
Inadequate salary
3
Availability of
educational program
Lack of status and
recognition
4
Job opportunities
Stressful nature of work
5
Job security
Routine nature of work
Reasons for leaving or intending to leave the field were the same
for both groups of technologists. In order of importance, former
medical technologists left for the following reasons: lack of career
advancement, inadequate salary, lack of status and recognition,
stressful nature of work, and routine nature of work. Practicing
technologists also ranked lack of career advancement and inadequate
salary as the two major factors for desiring to leave followed by the
routine nature of work, stressful nature of worl$, and lack of status
and recognition.
Technologists' responses in this study were comparable to those
reported by previous researchers. Showery (1976) reported that only


4
to remain open (French & Elkins, 1982). These are indications that
schools of medical technology may not graduate sufficient numbers of
technologists to meet the increased demands for these allied health
professionals.
The current trends in attrition among medical technologists and
the shortage of new graduates could have serious impact on the health
care industry. Koneman (1982) noted that future laboratories might be
staffed by inexperienced, less qualified individuals. The National
Commission for Health Certifying Agencies (cited in Irwin, 1983) also
expressed concerns about the effects of technologists' dissatisfaction
and attrition on the quality and accuracy of laboratory results.
High turnover not only compromises the quality of patient care;
it also raises the cost of that care because the care must be provided
by fewer people at higher rates (Price & Mueller, 1981) Kami,
Studer, and Carter (1981) found that laboratory personnel were among
the most expensive hospital employees to replace. Simpson and LaValle
(1983) estimated that turnover costs for a vacated staff technologist
position could run as high as $7,458. These costs are eventually
passed along to the patient consumer, making health care an expensive
commodity.
Attrition also represents a waste of human resources, with
psychosocial implications for individuals, organizations, and society.
Greenberg (1979) indicated that 80% of the people working today are not
matched to the right job. Not surprisingly, a majority of American
workers are dissatisfied with their jobs and would not voluntarily
choose the same work again if given the opportunity (Special Task Force
to the Secretary of H.E.W., 1973).


112
nonhospital laboratories. There were no differences in overall job
satisfaction or specific aspects of job satisfaction between groups
of practicing technologists.
In comparison to national norms established for the JDI, medical
technologists scored in the 55th percentile or lower on all subscales
except supervision. Former medical technologists scored at the 65th
percentile or higher on all but the work subscale. Results were
comparable to earlier studies on job satisfaction among medical
technologists.
The sex of the participant did not affect job satisfaction.
However, sex was related to attrition or intention to leave medical
technology. Males appear to leave at a higher rate than females and
may relate to the poor pay received by technologists compared to other
professionals with comparable education.
Multiple stepwise discriminant analysis determined that attrition
or intention to leave medical technology could be predicted from a
model including Producer and Energizer scores, years of service as a
medical technologist, age, sex, and promotion scores on the JDI. The
model explained 30.4% of the variance in attrition or intention to
leave the field.
Conclusions
/
Job dissatisfaction is costly to individuals and organizations.
High turnover rates and poor morale are often the consequences. The
personalities and work behavior types of the individual may play an
important role in achieving success and adapting to a particular job or
work environment. Therefore, to maximize effectiveness and job


78
The program will also generate a subtype based on the strength and
interaction of responses on the other work dimensions. The subject's
scores on each work behavior dimension are printed on a graph. Scores
range from -15 to 15. The major work behavior type will have the
highest score. The historical background and other details of the MPPP
were described in Chapter II.
In order to obtain validity data on the MPPP, Gene Wiggington
(personal communication, February 10, 1984) administered a questionnaire
to 96 students who had taken the MPPP as part of a career education
course. The single-item questionnaire follows:
Please check the statement that is most accurate for you.
1. Both paragraphs of the Placement Profile are a fairly
accurate description of my work behavior.
2. The first paragraph of the Placement Profile is a fairly
accurate description of my work behavior; the second
paragraph is not.
3. The second paragraph of the Placement Profile is a fairly
accurate description of my work behavior; the first is not.
4. My Placement Profile is not a very accurate description of
my work behavior.
A total of 85 students (88.6%) indicated that both paragraphs of
the MPPP accurately described their work behavior. Seven (7.3%)
responded to the second choice, 3 (3.1%) to the third choice, and only
one student (1%) indicated the MPPP was not an accurate description of
that person's work behavior.
The MPPP requires less than 10 minutes to complete. The items are
written to make the instrument useful for a variety of educational
backgrounds. Test-retest reliability is about 98%. (J. Nickens, personal
communication, November, 1983).


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author thanks Dr. Margaret Morgan for her time, expertise,
and guidance as chairperson of the doctoral committee. She also
thanks Drs. James Hensel, Herman Baer, Sylvia Coleman, and Gordon
Lawrence for serving as committee members.
A special acknowledgement goes to Dr. John Nickens who provided
valuable assistance with the Marcus Paul Placement Profile and data
analyses.
The author is grateful for the cooperation and support of the
chief medical technologists and administrators in participating
facilities. She is also indebted to the technologists and former
technologists who provided the data for this study.
Finally, the author thanks John, a special friend, who provided
support, encouragement, a sympathetic ear, and numerous chocolate bars
during this ordeal.
11


108
satisfaction and to specific aspects of job satisfaction. Expected
frequencies were less than five in 20% of the cells in the chi-square
analysis to determine the relationship between work behavior type and
attrition. The investigator could draw no definite conclusions.
Former medical technologists differed from practicing technologists in
hospital and nonhospital laboratories in total job satisfaction, work,
pay, promotions, and co-workers. The participant's sex did not play a
significant role in job satisfaction but did affect attrition or
intention to leave. Attrition may be predicted from a set of variables
including Producer and Energizer scores, years as a medical technologist,
age, sex, and scores on the promotion subscale of the Index.
t


76
Instrumentation
Job Descriptive Index
Job satisfaction was assessed by the Job Description Index (JDI)
developed by Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969). The JDI is the most
reliable and valid measure of job satisfaction currently available
(Bass & Barrett, 1974; Crites, 1969; Gruneberg, 1979; Vroom, 1964).
The JDI contains 72 items measuring satisfaction with five facets of
the job: the work itself (18 items), supervision (18 items), pay
(9 items), promotion (9 items), and co-workers (18 items). Smith and
co-workers derived these items by performing factor analyses on
numerous job satisfaction inventories available at the time of their
study.
The items are descriptive adjectives or short phrases arranged in
a checklist form. The 72 items are approximately half favorable and
half unfavorable items. The JDI does not directly ask respondents how
satisfied they are with their work. The instrument contains a provision
for respondents to describe their work. However, in describing their
jobs, they provide information that may be used to infer satisfaction.
Some items include evaluative words and others describe objective
features of the job.
Respondents mark a "Y" for yes next to the item if it describes
their job, "N" for no if it does not describe their job, and "?" if they
are undecided. Smith et al. selected the checklist format with short
descriptive phrases to permit administration of the questionnaire across
a variety of educational levels and jobs.
Values are assigned to responses and scores are derived from a
scoring key by adding the values for items in each subscale. A yes


48
assume acceptable roles. People's behaviors are determined by the
interaction between their personalities and the characteristics of
the immediate environment.
Holland also assumed that at the time people selected a career,
they were the product of heredity and a variety of environmental
factors, including peers, parents, other significant adults, social
class, culture, and the physical environment. From this background,
the individual developed a typology or hierarchy of orientations for
coping with environmental tasks. When people make career choices,
they are searching for those environments that are congruent with their
personal orientations. Holland (1959) devised the Vocational Preference
Inventory to estimate personality patterns.
Tiedman (1961), like Super (1951), was interested in the
development of the vocational self-concept. He based his work on
Erickson's (1959) theory of personality development and psycho-social
crisis. Tiedman related vocational development to the process of
decision making and adjustment from a period of exploration to final
integration.
Recently, it has become popular to view career and occupational
development as a major component of adult life stages (Levinson, 1978;
Sheehy, 1977). Hall (1976) synthesized these adult life-stage theories
into an overall model of career development. This was a psychological
success-based model that integrated concepts of the self with individual
task behavior and job attitudes. Hall stated that people developed in
their careers through a cyclical process of goal setting, performance,
feelings of success, favorable job attitudes, and goal resetting.


5
In a recent study by Irwin (1983), medical technologists expressed the
same views.
During the past 20 years, the rising educational level of American
workers has increased their expectations and demands for useful,
satisfying work. However, the realities of the job may not fulfill
these expectations. Furthermore, the capabilities of the employee
often do not match the requirements of the job (Jelinik, 1979). Under
these conditions, the worker fails to achieve self-actualization,
becomes dissatisfied with the job, and sometimes leaves the organization.
Medical technology students are prepared to assume a collaborative
role with physicians and become members of the health care team. In
addition to being trained to perform tests and report results, they are
trained to interpret the significance of those results. However, poor
communications and rivalries between technologists and the medical staff
preclude technologist involvement in patient care at this higher level.
Recent advances in automation have also reduced the technical expertise
required to perform tests. Yet employers tend to "overhire" and
technologists find themselves in relatively low paying, routine jobs
that provide little opportunity for self-actualization, esteem, or
upward mobility. The brightest and best recruits may also become the
most dissatisfied workers and move on to more challenging fields.
Therefore, placement and training decisions must be based on additional
factors.
Although organizations claim that human resources are their most
important asset, they do little to match an individual's skills,
knowledge, interests, aptitudes, or work behavior preferences to
available jobs. Jelinik (1979) stated that even the most progressive


Energirer
(Dominance)
aggressive
bold
certain
competitive
decisive
demanding
determined
direct
dominant
eager
forceful
independent
leader
new ideas
original
outspoken
sure
takes charge
venturesome
vigorous
Bauch, 1981
* Marston's (1928)
Inducer
(Inducement)*
attracts people
change agent
convincing
enthusiastic
expressive
friendly
happy
hopeful
inspiring
playful
personable
persuader
popular
respected
seeks new ideas
sociable
talkative
team leader
original terms
Figure 5. Bauch's (1981) list of
Concentrator
(Submission)*
accepting
attentive
caring
committed
contented
considerate
diplomatic
disciplined
easy going
exacting
loyal
orderly
patient
peaceful
reasonable
respectful
satisfied
sharing
steady
tolerant
trusting
understanding
behavior traits.
Producer
(Compliance)*
accurate
agreeable
careful
cautious
compliant
conforming
contented
devoted
exacting
follows orders
follows procedures
governed
logical
precise
resigned
respectful
responsible
systematic
thinker
&


Dominance
adventurous '
aggressive
argumentative
arrogant
assertive
bold
brave
competitive
da ring
decisive
de iant
determined
direct
eager
fearless
firm
force of character
forceful
inquisitive
inventive
irritable
nervy
original
outspoken
persistent
pioneering
positive
rebe 11ious
restless
rigorou s
self-reliant
stubborn
unconqueraole
vigorou s
wi11 powe r
Ceier, 1980
Marstons
.Influencing
(inducement!)
admirable
a f fectiona te
anima ted
attractive
boastful
charming
companionable
confident
convincing
cordial
energetic
expressive
fervent
flexible
fluent
good mixer
high-spirited
inspiring
jovia1
joyful
life of the party
1 ight-hearted
open-minded
optimistic
persuasive
playful
polished
popular
prideful
proud
responsive
self-assured
spirited
talkative
trusting
terms
(1928)original
Figure 4. Geier
s (1979) list of cluster
accommodating
a 11en tive
cheerful
companionable
confidentia1
considerate
contented
control led
deliberate
earnest
easy mark
even-tempered
friendly
gene rou s
gentle
good-natured
gracious
hospitable
kind
1enient
loya 1
mild
mo derate
mode s t
neighbor1y
nonchalant
obedient
patient
peaceful
possessive
reliant
sentimental
sympathetic
trustful
willing
traits.
Comp 11 a nr r>
accurate
adaptable
adhe rent
agreeable
calculating
calm
cautious
con f ormis t
consistent
contempla ti ve
cu 1 tu r ed
devout
di ploma tic
easily-led
exacting
fearful
fussy
God-fearing
ha r monious
humb1e
logical
objective
obliging
peaceful
precise
receptive
res igned
respectful
sof t-spoken
strict
systematic
tactful
timid
tolerant
we 1 1 -di scipl ined
tn



21
experience compared to pay received by similar workers. Dissatisfaction
occurs when the pay received is not perceived as equitable (Warr &
Wall, 1975).
Many individuals rate job security as a leading factor for job
satisfaction. It is one of Herzberg's Hygiene factors and, when
absent, causes job dissatisfaction. When it is present, however, it
is unimportant. Our society places a high value on work. Individuals
associate having a job with competence and worth. Siassi, Crocetti,
and Spiro (1975) identified a higher incidence of mental illness in
the unemployed compared to others. Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and
Capwell (1957) pointed out the importance of the work group and social
aspects of the job for job satisfaction. Maslow (1943) also included
needs for social interaction as a basic lower-order need. Walker and
Guest (1952) demonstrated that workers with isolated jobs were more
dissatisfied than others. In addition, Van Zelst (1952) found that job
satisfaction, turnover, and productivity improved when workers were
permitted to select their work mates. Workers of similar backgrounds,
skills, and values formed cohesive work groups. These groups also
provided support, generated feelings of self-esteem from being valued
by others, and were a source of satisfaction derived from cooperating
with others to achieve common goals.
Supervision is another extrinsic factor involved in job satisfaction.
The "human relations" school of management regarded "friendly" supervision
as vital for the improvement of job satisfaction. The Hawthorne studies
related increased productivity to increases in friendly supervision.
However, these results have been questioned and increased productivity
may have resulted in friendlier supervision (Gruneberg, 1979).


83
Table 2 (continued)
Characteristic
N
Percent
H.
Likelihood of leaving medical
technology within a year
1.
Highly likely
12
13.0
2.
Most likely
9
9.8
3.
Not likely
58
63.0
4.
Uncertain
13
14.2
I.
Met
expectations of the profession
1.
Exceeded expectations
2
2.2
2.
Met expectations
33
35.9
3.
Somewhat met expectations
35
38.0
4.
Did not meet expectations
22
23.9
J.
Would choose medical technology
again as a career
1.
Would choose again
30
33.0
2.
Would choose again with reservations
6
6.6
3.
Probably would not choose again
35
38.4
4.
Definitely would not choose again
20
22.0
K.
Adequate career information to choose
medical technology
1.
More than adequate
15
16.3
2.
Adequate
30
32.6
3.
Some information but more needed
38
41.3
4.
Very little
9
9.8
L.
Perceived usefulness of work behavior
characteristics in career decision making
1.
Very helpful
34
37.4
2.
Probably helpful
34
37.4
3.
Would not help
15
16.4
4.
Uncertain
8
8.8
entering medical technology. A total of 68 technologists (74.8%) felt
that information about work behavior types would have been helpful in
career decision making.
Former Medical Technologists
Table 3 contains the demographic data for former medical
technologists. Of the 19 former technologists surveyed, 10 (52.6%)


Ill
Medical technologists were predominantly Producers and Concentrators.
There were higher proportions of these types among practicing
technologists compared to the general population. Proportions of work
behavior types among former technologists approximated those of the
general population. The subtypes of practicing medical technologists
also clustered into three major groups.
These findings are consistent with earlier research on personality
types of medical technologists and correlations between personality
type and work behavior type. Producers display work behavior traits
required and desired in medical technology. The subtypes also reflect
essential characteristicsprecision, ability to follow directions,
complete the work on time, and desire to produce quality work.
Inducers and Energizers would find few opportunities, as bench
technologists, to express most of their predominant work behavior
characteristics.
Analysis of variance determined that a relationship existed
between work behavior type and overall job satisfaction. Inducers were
more satisfied them Producers. Inducers were also more satisfied with
promotions than Concentrators and Producers. There were no other
significant relationships between work behavior type and facets of job
satisfaction. A chi-square test gave equivocable results for the
relationship between work behavior type and attrition or intention to
leave medical technology. Energizers and Inducers appear to leave at
higher rates than Producers and Concentrators.
Analysis of variance also determined that former medical
technologists are more satisfied with their jobs, work, pay, promotions,
and co-workers than practicing technologists in hospital or


136
Locke, E. (1965). The relationship of task success to task liking and
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140
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71
In an earlier study, Rezler and French (1975) found more intuitive,
feeling, and perceiving types among medical technology students. The
authors hypothesized these types of students left medical technology
before entering practice or shortly thereafter because they were
disappointed with the actual work situation.
Williams (1975) stated that "the prospective medical technology
student should possess manual and finger dexterity, must be able to
accept responsibility, and have intellectual integrity, a high degree
of persistence, and a high capacity for patient, thorough effort"
(p. 36). She added they should also like people.
Oliver (1978) determined that medical technologists who valued
independence and recognition were least satisfied with their jobs.
Those interested in doing things for others and valuing conformity were
most satisfied.
In conclusion, medical technologists, like other workers, bring
expectations, needs, values, goals, skills, abilities, interests,
motivation, and personality traits to the work setting. These factors
determine the work behavior type of the individual technologist. When
the work behavior type is consistent with the demands and requirements
of the job, the individual is more likely to experience job satisfaction
and remain in the profession. Students, educators, and employers need
more information on work behavior types to make adequate career,
selection, and placement decisions.


120
JOB descriptive index
Inst ructions
Words to describe particular aspects of any job (work, supervision, pay,
promotions, and co-workers) are listed. Place a IT for Yes beside items
that describe your job. Place an N for No if the item does not describe
your job. if you cannot decide if the item is applicable, place a beside it.
WRK PAY
Fascinating
Routine
Satisfying
Boring
Good
Creative
Respected
Hot
Pleasant
_ Useful
Tiresome
Healthful
Challenging
On your feet
Frustrating
Simple
Endless
Gives a sense of accomplishment
SUPERVISION
Asks my advice
Hard to please
Impolite
Praises good work
Tactful
Influential
Up-to-date
Doesn't supervise enough
Quick tempered
Tells me where I stand
Annoying
Stubborn
Knows job well
Bad
Intel 1igent
Leaves me on my own
Lazy
Around when needed
Income adequate for normal expenses
~ Satisfactory profit sharing
Barely live on income
Bad
Income provides luxuries
Insecure
Less than I deserve
Highly paid
Underpaid
PROMOTIONS
Good opportunity for advancement
Opportunity somewhat limited
Promotion on ability
Dead-end job
Good chance for promotion
Infrequent promotions
Regular promotions
Fairly good chance for promotion
Unfair promotion policy
CO-WORKERS
Stimulating
_ Boring
Slow
Ambitious
Stupid
Responsible
Fast
Intelligent
_ Easy to make enemies
Talk too much
_ Smart
_ Lazy
Unpleasant
_ No privacy
_ Active
Narrow interests
~ Loyal
Hard to meet


65
technologists were least satisfied with recognition and rewards. They
perceived few opportunities for advancement and little recognition or
prestige associated with their work. Supervisors were generally more
satisfied with their jobs than bench-level technologists.
Using the JDI, Broski and Cook (1978) determined job satisfaction
levels for medical dietitians, physical therapists, occupational
therapists, and medical technologists. All groups had significantly
lower mean scores compared to national norms. However, dietitians
reported the lowest satisfaction scores on all job facets except pay.
Medical technologists followed dietitians with regard to overall
satisfaction and were the most dissatisfied group on the pay subscale.
All groups were equally dissatisfied with promotion opportunities.
In 1982, Broski, Manuselis, and Noga conducted a similar study
and found that medical technologists had become the most dissatisfied
group on four of the five subscales of the JDI. They were more
satisfied than dietitians or occupational therapists on the supervision
subscale and as equally satisfied as physical therapists. They also
scored lower than the national sample on these same job facets. Many
technologists provided supplementary comments that indicated they saw
little opportunity for advancement, received inadequate pay to support
a family, were overprepared for the tasks they performed, had limited
authority, experienced high job stress, and perceived lack of respect
and recognition from other health professionals.
Spencer (1982) attempted to determine the relationship between a
sense of accomplishment on the job and career commitment and the
relationship between sense of accomplishment and job satisfaction. His


121
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRACTICING TECHNOLOGISTS
Plwaso circle (he appropriate response on the answer sheet unless
otherwise Instructed. Answer all questions.
1. What Is your sex?
a)Hale b) Female
2. What is the highest level of education you have attained?
a) Baccalaureate degree c) Doctorate
b) Masters degree d) Professional degree (H.D.. D.D.S.)
d)Research laboratory
e)Cllnlc
OOther (please specify In space
provided)
4. If you work In a hospital laboratory, how many beds does It have?
a)Fewer than 200 c) sore than 400
b)200-400 d) does not apply
5. If you work In a hospital laboratory, la It a teaching hospital?
a)Yes b)No c) Does not apply
6. How long have you worked In your current Job?
a) Less than 1 year d) Between 5 and 10 years
b) Between I and 3 years e) More than 10 years
c) Between 3 and 3 years
7. How long have you been a medical technologist?
a) Less than 1 year d) Between S and 10 years
b) Between 1 and 3 years e) More than 10 years
c) Between 3 and S years
8. Which of the following statements reflects your feeling about your
future In medical technology?
a) Definitely will not leave.
b) Froably will not leave.
c) Uncertain.
d) Probably will leave.
e) Definitely will leave.
9. Clven your age, education, experience, and present job market, how
easy would It be for a medical technologist with your qualifications
/ to find a Job with another organization?
a) Very easy.
b) Fairly easy.
c) Not easy at all.
d) Not certain.
3. In what type of setting do you work?
a) Hospital clinical laboratory
b) Private laboratory
c) Public helath laboratory


89
Table 6 contains the means and standard deviations for scores of
work behavior types on each dimension of the Profile. Compared to
i
Energizers and Inducers, Producers and Concentrators scored high on
their respective scales. Producers had a mean score of 9.68. The
mean score for Concentrators was 8.12. Energizers and Inducers
scored an average of 3.63 and 4.81 respectively. As mentioned in
Chapter III, scores on the MPPP can range from -15 to 15 with zero as
the mean score.
Producers' scores on the other dimensions indicate they also
scored high on the Concentrator scale (x = 4.49) and low on the Inducer
and Energizer scales. Concentrators scored high on the Producer
scale (x = 3.34) and also scored low on the Energizer and Inducer
scales. Although not high, Energizers' second strongest scores were
on the Producer dimension (x = -.75). For Inducers, the Concentrator
dimension had the second highest mean score (x = 1.38).
Table 6. Mean scores and standard deviations for each work behavior
type on each work dimension.
Type Work Behavior Dimension
Energizer
Inducer
Concentrator
Producer
Energizer x
3.63
-2.81
-0.13
- .75
SD
1.33
5.49
2.39
3.19
Inducer x
.50
4.81
1.38
CO
00

CN
1
SD
3.89
0.59
3.09
4.50
Concentrator x
-5.05
-3.08
8.12
3.34
SD
4.46
4.23
2.82
3.72
Producer x
-3.83
-5.41
4.49
9.68
SD
4.64
4.14
3.61
2.74


123
K, If you intend lo lesivo medical technology in the near future, which of the
following factors would he most influential in your decision to leave? From
the list of items, select the 5 most important factors; then rank then in
the order of their importance, using "I" for the most important factor and
"5" for the least important.
Routine nature of work.
Supervisors I worked under.
Lack of career advancement in medical technology.
_ Lack of status and recognition of medical technologists by the public and
other health care practitioners.
_ Job setting, work conditions.
Stressful nature of work.
Inadequate salary.
I was not an integral part of the health care team.
Returned to school to prepare for another profession.
Personal reasons unrelated to the work or perofession of medical technology.
I was overtrained for the job I was doing.
17. What is your age?
a) Under 25 years
b) 25-35
c)36-45
d)46-55
e)
Over 55 years


144
She entered the doctoral program in 1980. Her interest in job
satisfaction and attrition among medical technologists stemmed from her
experiences and frustrations as a supervisor dealing with these
problems in the laboratory.


135
Jones, A., James, L. Bruni, J., & Sells, S. (1977). Black-white
differences in work environment perceptions and job satisfaction
and its correlates. Personnel Psychology, 30, 5-16.
Kahn, R., Wolfe, D., Quinn, R., Snoek, J., & Rosenthal, R. (1964).
Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity.
New York: Wiley.
Kami, K., & Husted, F. (1970). Attitudes, self-concepts, and the
student in medical technology. American Journal of Medical
Technology, 36, 491-507.
Kami, K. Studer, W., & Carter, S. (1982). A study of job turnover
among clinical laboratory personnel. American Journal of Medical
Technology, 48, 49-59.
Keller, R. (1975). Role conflict and ambiguity: Correlates with job
satisfaction and values. Personnel Psychology, 28, 57-64.
Klein, S., & Maher, J. (1966). Educational level and satisfaction with
pay. Personnel Psychology, 19, 195-208.
Knowles, M. (1964). A review of labor turnover research. Personnel
Practice Bulletin, 20, 25-37.
Koch, J., Steers, R. (1978). Job attachment, satisfaction, and turnover
among public sector employees. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12,
119-128.
Koneman, E. (1982). The dropout syndromea cause of concern.
Laboratory Medicine, 13, 474-477.
Korman, A. (1977). Organizational behavior. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice
Hall.
Kraut, A. (1975). Predicting turnover of employees from measured job
attitudes. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13,
233-243.
Kuhn, B. (1981). Teacher personality type and job satisfaction.
(Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1981. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1982, 43_, 104A. (University Microfilms
Ho. 82-13,669).
Lawler, E. (1973). Motivation in work organizations. Monterey, CA:
Brooks/Cole.
Levinson, D. (1978). The seasons of a man's life. New York: Knopf.
Ley, R. (1966). Labor turnover as a function of worker differences,
work environment, and authoritarianism of foremen. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 50, 497-500.


27
satisfied than perceptive types. Among general staff nurses, the STJ
types were more satisfied with work than the NFP types.
In summary, job satisfaction is a complex, multifaceted attitude.
A variety of content (success, recognition, appreciation, job variety,
job autonomy, job involvement), context (pay, job security, supervision,
work groups, role ambiguity, role conflict, organizational climate),
and personal factors (age, sex, education level, race, personality type,
tenure) affect an individual's job satisfaction. Job satisfaction, in
turn, impacts on many other aspects of life. The relationship between
job satisfaction and turnover will be discussed in the next section.
Turnover
This section is a review of literature describing the turnover
process. It will include definitions of turnover, consequences for
the individual and organization, predictor variables (personal,
organizational/work-related, job content, attitudinal), and turnover
models.
Definition
Turnover has also been a well researched topic. According to
Steers and Mowday (1981), more than 1000 studies have appeared in the
literature since 1910.
Brayfield and Crockett (1955) described turnover as an extreme
behavior along a continuum of behaviors showing psychological withdrawal
of commitment to a job. Absences, lateness, grievances, strikes, and
sabotage are less extreme forms of withdrawal behavior that may precede
or substitute for turnover when quitting is not a viable option.
Because most turnover is voluntary (Price, 1977), Price and Mueller


APPENDIX C
LETTER TO PRACTICING MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS


15
In the 1920s, the "human relations" school of thought on job
satisfaction emerged from the Hawthorne studies conducted by Elton
Mayo (1933). Like Taylor, Mayo sought to find ways to improve
productivity by altering physical work conditions. However, he also
observed that human relationships within the organization were more
important to the workers. He contended that "friendly" relationships
between employees and supervisors or between co-workers led to job
satisfaction. Job satisfaction, in turn, led to higher productivity.
Hoppock (1935) published results of several studies on job
satisfaction. He used survey methods and attitude scales to collect
his data. He concluded job satisfaction consisted of many factors.
The presence of these factors in the work situation led to satisfaction
while their absence led to job dissatisfaction. He also examined the
relationship among job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and mental
health. In a survey involving 500 teachers, 21% of the least
satisfied teachers were from unhappy homes, compared to only 6% of
the teachers expressing high satisfaction.
Theories
Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler, and Weik (1970) classified current
theories of satisfaction as either content or process theories.
Content theories relate to factors that motivate people to work and
process theories are intended to explain job satisfaction in terms of
the interaction between the individual's needs and what the job actually
offers.
Maslow's (1943) needs hierarchy theory is a major content theory.
He explained the dynamics of job satisfaction in terms of fulfilling
individual needs. Maslow arranged human needs in an ascending hierarchy.


106
intention to leave medical technology. The following independent
variables were entered into the model: sex, time in profession,
availability of career information, age, work behavior type, and
JDI scores. Multiple stepwise discriminant analysis allows for an
assessment of the influence of each variable relative to the others
on the dependent variable and indicates how much each variable
contributes to explaining the model.
Results of the analysis indicate that Producer and Energizer
scores, years as a medical technologist, age, sex, and scores on the
promotion subscale of the JDI are useful in predicting attrition
(Table 12). Producer scores explained 13% of the variance in the
model. Age explained 6.3% and sex explained 3.9%. Length of service
contributed 2.7% and promotion scores contributed 2.3%. Energizer
scores explained 2.2% of the variance. Overall, the model explained
30.4% of the variance in attrition or intention to leave medical
technology.
As discussed in the literature review, researchers have proposed
a variety of models to explain the turnover process. These models
assessed the influence of personal, job, attitudinal, and behavioral
characteristics on turnover. Although the details of the models differ,
all point to turnover as a function of negative job attitudes, personal
characteristics, and an ability to find employment elsewhere. Past
models, however, did not view turnover in terms of lack of fit between
the individual and the job. The model proposed in this study integrated
features of earlier models and extended them to include work behavior
type as a personal variable.


60
the four major dimensions and the complex relationship between the
dimensions. They also differentiate among individuals in the same
category. In general, the profile describes the individual's style of
interacting with others, ability to complete tasks, leadership potential,
need for supervision, and preference for working in a technical or
data-oriented position or in one that is people-oriented (Bauch, 1981).
Approximately 20% of the population are Energizers and about 20%
are Inducers. Concentrators and Producers make up the remaining 60%.
Although certain job descriptions or roles show preference for one
specific type, most organizations work best with a combination of all
types.
Using the MPPP, Glenn (1982) studied the relationship among work
behavior type, personality function, job satisfaction, and effectiveness
of vocational education administrators. She found that some work
behavior types were significantly related to some personality functions
as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Although there
was no significant relationship between overall job satisfaction and
work behavior type, there was a significant relationship between work
behavior type and specific areas of job satisfaction.
Energizers were satisfied by opportunities for promotion, volume
of work, unanticipated job tasks, and recognition for accomplishments.
Inducers were interested in the physical working conditions, volume of
work, and section/division meetings. Concentrators indicated that
opportunity for job promotion, volume of work, unanticipated job tasks,
amount of supervision, and recognition for accomplishments were
important to them. Producers listed physical working conditions,


9
Justification for the Study
Medical technologists1 are dissatisfied with their jobs and are
leaving the profession to work in other areas. Kami et al. (1982)
estimated that the overall turnover rate among laboratory personnel
in Minneapolis hospitals ranged between 15% and 20%. An estimated
43% of those resignations were avoidable. Investigators have
identified many sources of dissatisfaction and attrition and have
made many recommendations to remedy the situation. Although these
proposals have merit, they have not alleviated the problem. Attrition
among medical technologists not only impairs the delivery of health
services; it represents a significant threat to the quality and cost
of health care. Immediate solutions are required to reduce the
attrition rate and reduce personnel shortages in medical technology.
Research indicates that people exhibit a particular pattern of
behaviors and qualities in the working situation (Geier, 1979). When
individuals have information about their work behavior styles and they
are matched to jobs requiring and encouraging those styles, they have
a greater opportunity for success and job satisfaction. The right "fit"
between employee and job also decreases the likelihood that the employee
will become frustrated and quit.
If information were available on the work behavior types of
medical technologists who enjoyed their work and intended to remain in
the profession, major efforts could be directed toward matching people
with these profiles to jobs and educational programs. This study was
designed to add to the limited research on work behavior types.
Findings may also provide new insights into the problems of job


113
satisfaction and minimize attrition, workers should be placed in jobs
or roles consistent with their needs for structure, supervision,
recognition, contacts with other people, and autonomy.
Results of this study indicate that work behavior type may play a
role in job satisfaction and attrition. Practicing medical technologists
are less satisfied with their jobs than technologists who have moved on
to other occupations. These jobs afford former technologists with more
opportunities for promotion, higher pay, satisfying work, agreeable
co-workers, and may also be more consistent with their work behavior
traits. Although sex did not affect job satisfaction, more males seemed
to leave medical technology. Attrition from medical technology can be
predicted, to some degree, from a combination of age, years as a
medical technologist, sex, Producer, Energizer, and Promotion scores.
Implications
These findings have implications for counseling students planning
to enter medical technology. Counselors could encourage Energizers and
Inducers who select this field to prepare for administrative and
educational roles. These aspects of medical technology would maximize
opportunities for Energizers and Inducers to perform jobs consistent
with their work behavior characteristics. Other types of students
could ^lso make wiser career decisions about selecting medical technology.
In the work setting, supervisors and managers could make valuable
use of knowledge about their work behavior types as well as the types
of their subordinates when assigning tasks or projects. In the
laboratory, for example, Inducers would probably enjoy working on the
phlebotomy team, working with student technologists, and organizing or


61
communication with clients, and section/division meetings as important
for their job satisfaction.
In summary, although there has been an urgent need to effectively
match people to jobs, little research has been done on work behavior
types. Many fields of study form the basis for an understanding and
application of work behavior types. Industrial psychology has
contributed selection methods and job analysis. Educational psychology
has provided theories of vocational development and choice. Trait and
type theories have provided a foundation for an instrument to measure
work behavior type. Work behavior types may affect employee job
satisfaction and turnover.
Job Satisfaction, Attrition, Work Behavior Type of Medical Technologists
This section will present an overview of literature on job
satisfaction, attrition, career development, and work behavior type
among medical technologists.
Since 1970, several authors have published studies on job
satisfaction among laboratory personnel. Gerstenfeld and Whitt (1970)
examined goal priorities of medical technologists. Medical technologists
listed good working conditions as the number one priority, followed by
challenging work and higher earnings. Supervision, administrative
policies, schedules, available equipment, interaction among personnel,
and the quality of work influenced good working conditions.
In a study of senior medical technology students, Kami and Husted
(1970) reported that as students progressed through their rotations,
they became more dissatisfied and discouraged. Students perceived a
lack of recognition accorded to medical technologists by other health


13
the favorableness or unfavorableness with which employees
view their work. It results when there is a fit between job
characteristics and the wants of employees. It expresses
the amount of congruence between one's expectations of the
job and the rewards that the job provides. (p. 74)
Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969) defined job satisfaction as "feelings
or affective responses to facets of the situation" (p. 6). Wanous
and Lawler (1972) listed nine different operational definitions,
theoretically based on need fulfillment, equity, or work values.
Porter and Steers (1973) defined job satisfaction as the "sum total of
an individual's met expectations on the job" (p. 167).
The term job satisfaction is, however, distinguished from the
term morale. The former refers to an individual's response to the
job and the latter term refers to group well-being (Gruneberg, 1979).
Measures
Job satisfaction has also been measured by a variety of
objective, descriptive, or projective instruments. Many investigators
have devised new instruments or altered others to meet the demands of
their particular study. Objective surveys contain questions with
pre-determined responses. Descriptive surveys allow respondents an
opportunity for unstructured replies and questions are open-ended.
Psychologists devise and administer projective surveys to assess
mental health, usually in nonwork settings (Davis, 1977).
Herzberg (1966) used a form of descriptive survey called the
critical incident technique to collect data on job satisfaction.
He asked workers to think of a time when they felt especially good
or bad about their jobs. While this technique has been popular, it
has also been criticized (Gardner, 1977).


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Work is a central life activity for the majority of adults in
modern societymore than just a means for earning a living. According
to Terkel (1972), work is
a search, too, for daily meaning as well as daily bread,
for recognition as well as cash, for astonishment rather
than torpor; in short, for a sort of life rather than a
Monday through Friday sort of dying. Perhaps immortality,
too, is part of the quest. (p. xi)
Since the Industrial Revolution, job dissatisfaction, turnover,
and poor productivity have been growing problems among American
workers. Toeffler (1980) stated that industrialization "drove a
giant invisible wedge into our economy, our psyches, and even our
sexual selves" (p. 53). Industrialization separated production from
consumption and producer from consumer. Mass production brought
synchronization, centralization, specialization, standardization,
concentration, and maximization. Workers lost control over the
processes and outcomes of work. The importance of skill and
creativity diminished and workers no longer felt challenged or
/
stimulated.
Industrialization also satisfied workers' lower order needs
enabling them to focus on satisfaction inherent in the work itself.
Workers demand that work be satisfying, meaningful, and less
depersonalized. They expect equity and justice in the work place
1


77
response to a negative item and a no response to a positive item
receive a zero. A yes response to a positive item and a no response
to a negative item receive three points. An indecision receives one
point. Smith et al. found that the "?" response was more indicative
of dissatisfaction than satisfaction and assigned the "?" response a
weight of one instead of two. The maximum score for each JDI subscale
is 54. Scores for the nine-item scales are doubled to achieve an
equivalence of total points and ranges. In addition to subscale scores,
the JDI also generates an overall index of job satisfaction by adding
the subscale scores for a total score. A score of 18 on a subscale
signifies indifference (all items answered with a question mark) and a
score of 27 indicates a balanced attitude toward a job facet.
The JDI has internal consistency coefficients, corrected by the
Spearman-Brown formula, in the .80s. The coefficients of reliability
for the five subscales are: work (a = .79), supervision (a = .85),
co-workers (a = .88), pay (a = .81), and promotion (a = .79) (Smith
et al., 1969). Crites (1969) determined that scale ordering did not
affect scores. Schneider and Dachler (1978) stated that the JDI had
retest reliability of .57 after a 16-month interval.
Marcus Paul Placement Profile
The Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) describes work behavior
patterns of people under normal working conditions. These patterns are
stable over time as long as the work environment is stable. Although
individuals exhibit all patterns to some degree, one pattern of behavior
predominate s.
A computer program developed to score the instrument analyzes the
subject's responses and designates the predominant work behavior type.


74
the facility and made an appointment to deliver questionnaires to a
contact person. The contact person served as a coordinator to
distribute and collect the materials. The investigator returned on a
specified date to collect the completed packets. When it was more
convenient to mail materials to a participating facility, the
researcher enclosed a stamped, addressed envelope with a request that
subjects return completed packets by a specified date. She telephoned
nonrespondents after 7 days.
The investigator gave volunteers a packet of instruments (see
Appendix B) to complete and a cover letter (see Appendix C) explaining
the purpose and importance of the study. Instruments were numerically
coded to eliminate personal identification but to permit correlation
of responses. Participants were instructed, however, to put their
names on the MPPP if they wanted an assessment of their work behavior
type.
The investigator sent a copy of the instruments and a cover letter
(see Appendix D) to former medical technologists. She instructed them
to return the completed questionnaires in the enclosed stamped,
addressed envelope by December 15, 1983. After 7 days, she telephoned
nonrespondents or individuals who did not complete all instruments.
Of the seven hospitals and nine nonhospital laboratories the
investigator contacted, six hospitals and eight nonhospital facilities
agreed to participate. Table 1 shows the number of questionnaires
distributed to each group of technologists. Hospitals are listed
individually. Responses for nonhospital technologists are pooled
because each facility only employed up to three technologists. The


54
Submission and Inducement form the second axis of Marston's model.
They are also opposite ends of a continuum, separated by intensity of
response (either active or passive) and by the orientation of the
individual (either outward or inward). Inducement requests Submission,
whereas Dominance demands Compliance. Dominance is antagonistic toward
its subject and inducement is allied with its subject.
Marston divides the two axes of the model horizontally.
Dominance and Inducement form the upper, active component of the model
and Submission and Compliance form the lower, passive component. The
dimensions represent tendencies, not all inclusive labels. Individuals
exhibit degrees of all types of behaviors. Behavior traits, however,
tend to cluster more around one particular dimension.
Marston identified clusters of traits for each primary emotion.
Figure 3 lists these traits. Allport and Odbert (1936) and Geier
(1980) used factor analyses to confirm these findings. Geier (1980)
obtained an overall correlation of, at least, R=.60 between the
suggested traits and the emotions.
Building on Marston's work, Geier (1967) attempted to formulate
a trait approach to leadership. He found that subjects used trait
terminology to describe their own behavior traits as well as to describe
the behavior and leadership style of others. He also discovered that
subjects reported themselves in terms of behaviors they least exhibited.
These findings were the basis for the Marcus Paul Placement Profile
that discerned work behavior types from descriptions of traits which
were most and least like the subject. Geier also developed an updated
list of cluster traits (Figure 4).


WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES, JOB SATISFACTION, AND
ATTRITION IN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY
BY
SYBIL AURIEL WELLSTOOD
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1984


8
4. Do participants' work behavior types relate to attrition
or the intention to leave medical technology?
5. Do medical technologists working in hospitals differ in
overall job satisfaction from those working in nonhospital
laboratories or other fields?
6. Do medical technologists working in hospitals differ in
specific aspects of job satisfaction from those working
in nonhospital laboratories or other fields?
7. Does a relationship exist between the sex of the
participant and job satisfaction?
8. Does a relationship exist between the sex of the
participant and attrition or the intention to leave
medical technology?
9. Can some combination of demographic variables, work
behavior type, and job satisfaction predict attrition
of Florida medical technologists?
Delimitations and Limitations
This study was delimited by the following factors:
1. The subjects of this study were practicing and former staff
medical technologists in Florida holding, at least, a
Bachelor of Science degree.
2. Information on work behavior type was confined to that
measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.
3. Information about job satisfaction was restricted to the
facets measured by the Job Descriptive Index.
The following limitations were also observed in this study:
1. Medical technologists volunteered to participate in this
study. There is no assurance they are representative of
the population of medical technologists in Florida or
medical technologists in general. Therefore, results may
not be generalizable to other populations of technologists.
2. The design of the study made it impossible to manipulate the
independent variables.


114
leading special committees. Energizers might be effective in
trouble shooting instrument malfunctions or other problems and would
probably enjoy testing new procedures or equipment. Concentrators
would probably dislike the "Stat" laboratory. They would be
frustrated by constant interruptions and unanticipated job tasks.
The large volume of work that must be completed quickly and accurately
would also dissatisfy them. Producers would be most comfortable
performing the routine tasks in the laboratory.
Teaching and training techniques should also differ for the
various work behavior types. Producers require structure, organization,
and step-by-step instructions. Inducers would prefer instructional
and training strategies that would permit group interaction.
Different management styles may be more effective with some work
behavior types than others. A participatory management style might
be effective with Inducers and Energizers but frustrating for the
Producer who wants things spelled out clearly.
There are broader implications for curriculum developers to
restructure the training of medical technologists to be more consistent
with the roles they actually perform. Hospital administrators and
pathologists should be more aware of the capabilities of the
technologist and only hire them to work in jobs that lower level
persor>nel could not perform as effectively. The advent of cost
containment policies will help to ensure that recruiters will not
"overhire" for jobs.
Broad implications for management include a review of current
practices that tend to ignore the individual worker. Technologists
want potential for advancement, a chance to use and develop their


40
also influenced intent to stay. Intent to stay and opportunity
determine actual turnover.
!
Arnold and Feldman (1982) tested a multivariate model of turnover
on 654 accountants. The variables in their model were individual
demographic factors, tenure, cognitive/affective orientations to the
position (including multiple measures of job satisfaction and
organizational commitment), job security, perceived availability of
alternatives, intention to search for alternatives, intention to quit,
and actual turnover.
Results indicated that the most powerful model of turnover
behavior contained four significant predicator variables: tenure,
overall job satisfaction, perceived job security, and intention to
search for an alternative position. The results also suggested that
all variables did not influence turnover behavior through their impact
on intentions to change positions. Several variables explained
additional, unique variance in turnover behavior beyond that explained
by intentions. Turnover was more strongly related to intentions to
search for alternatives than to intentions to quit. Intentions to
search for alternatives were, in turn, highly predictable by a
combination of age, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.
Using the Mobley et al. (1979) model, Youngblood, Mobley, and
Meglino (1983) analyzed turnover among Marine Corps enlistees. The
authors assessed the enlistees over a four-year period on the variables
posited in the model. These were behavioral intentions, expected
utility of the present role, expected utility of alternative roles, and
satisfaction. For subjects who left the Marines both early and later
in the enlistment period, behavioral intentions to continue were


28
(1981) called turnover "a voluntary separation from an organization"
(p. 2).
!
Gillies (1982) classified turnover as unavoidable or avoidable.
Marriage, childbearing, or transfer of a spouse were associated with
unavoidable turnover, where avoidable turnover resulted when a job
failed to meet the employee's needs or expectations.
Consequences
Turnover has increased significantly in many organizations over
the past 20 years. Turnover rates of 50% to 60% are not unusual
(Silver & Berke, 1981).
Turnover has both negative and positive consequences for the
organization, the individual leaver, and the individual stayer. For
the organization, the cost of replacing one employee is high. Direct
and indirect costs are involved. Direct costs include expenses for
recruiting, selecting, processing, orienting, and training new
employees. Indirect costs are incurred for overtime pay for remaining
employees to complete the work. New employees are also less efficient
and productive during training periods (Gillies, 1982).
Turnover also has.potentially desirable consequences for organizations.
These include replacement of poor performers, opportunities for cost
reduction, consolidation, introduction of new knowledge/technology,
and internal mobility (Mobley, 1982).
The cost of turnover for the individual who decides to leave an
organization may include increased stress, disruption of family and
social life, loss of seniority and nonvested benefits, and moving
expenses. Advantages of quitting could include higher earnings,


50
History of Work Behavior Types
William Marston's (1927) work formed the basis for current
theories of work behavior traits and types. He proposed a model of
behavior based on four primary emotions: Dominance, Compliance,
Inducement, and Submission. A primary emotion was "an emotion which
contained the maximal amount of alliance, antagonism, superiority of
strength of the motor self in respect to the motor stimulus"
(Marston, 1928, p. 106).
This means that Marston designated a primary emotion according
to people's reactions in a favorable environment (alliance) or
unfavorable environment (antagonism) An interaction with the
environment could be active (superior strength) or passive (inferior
strength). Individuals need a balance between active and passive
interactions with the environment. The intensity of an emotion or
subsequent reaction to a stimulus, depended on the individual's past
experience.
Marston described each emotion in physiological and behavioral
terms. He defined Dominance as a "central release of additional motor
energy directed toward dominating obstacles to a reaction already in
progress (Marston, 1927, p. 349). It consists of "an increase of the
self to overcome an opponent,. .a feeling of an outrush of energy to
remove opposition" (Marston, 1928, p. 140).
Dominance is a fundamental behavior, important for survival of
early humans. It is the primary life-propelling emotion of human beings
during the first 3 years of life (Marston, 1927). It may be a desirable
emotion when competition and aggressiveness are appropriate behaviors.
However, dominance may also act as a negative emotion when it is out of


APPENDIX B
INSTRUMENTS


69
medical technology and how much their knowledge increased over time.
After six months in clinical rotations, graduating seniors correctly
answered only 71% of the general information questions about medical
technology. Juniors answered 59% accurately and entering students
had an accurate response rate of 42%. In response to a question about
the most valuable trait for a medical technologist, 20% of the seniors,
and 34% of the juniors responded, "Speed." Other responses were
honesty, creativity, and high I.Q. Many students (12%) were unaware
that technologists worked weekends and holidays in hospital laboratories.
A majority of all levels of students stated they chose medical
technology because they enjoyed science courses. They also cited job
security as a major factor in selection.
Results suggested that selection of students earlier than the
junior year could contribute to a high attrition rate and to a
population of students poorly matched to the profession. At this stage
students have little awareness of the major responsibilities of medical
technology.
Gleich (1978) also demonstrated that preclinical medical technology
students did not make a career choice based on knowledge of the work or
the profession. Friends, family, and relatives were the leading sources
of information about medical technology. Only 14% had worked as lab
aides or clerks and only 2% had spoken to a practicing technologist
about the field. Students ranked the type of work involved in medical
technology as the leading factor influencing their career choice.
Choosing students for positions in medical technology programs may
also be based on inadequate information about the student. During the
1970s, medical technology programs were popular among undergraduates.


132
Eberfield, S., & Love, B. (1970). Identification of aptitude
criteria for medical technology. American Journal of Medical
Technology, 36, 388-399.
Erickson, E. (1959). Identity and the life cycle; Selected papers
with a historical introduction by David Rapaport. New York:
International Universities Press.
Evan, W. (1973). Peer-group interaction and organizational socializa
tion: A study of employee turnover. American Sociological Review,
28, 436-440.
Farr, J., O'Leary, B., & Bartlett, C. (1973). Effect of work sample
test on self-selection and turnover of job applicants. Journal
of Applied Psychology, 58, 283-285.
Farris, G. (1971). A predictive study of turnover. Personnel
Psychology, 24, 311-328.
Federico, J., Federico, P., & Lundquist, G. (1976). Predicting
women's turnover as a function of extent of met salary expectations
and biodemographic data. Personnel Psychology, 29, 559-566.
Fellers, R. (1974). Relationships between career satisfaction and
personality type among employed dietitians (Doctoral dissertation,
University of Florida, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts International,
35, 1465-1466A. (University Microfilms No. 75-19, 331).
French, R., & Elkins, C. (1982). Trends in enrollments and applicant
pools. Laboratory Medicine, 13 (8), 478-481.
French, R., & Rezler, A. (1976). Personality and job satisfaction of
medical technologists. American Journal of Medical Technology,
42, 92-103.
Friedlander, F., & Margulies, N. (1969). Multiple inputs of organizational
climate and individual value systems upon job satisfaction.
Personnel Psychology, 22, 171-183.
Gardner, G. (1977). Is there a valid test of Herzberg's two factor
theory? British Journal of Occupational Psychology, 50, 197-204.
Geier,, J. (1967). A trait approach to the study of personalities.
The Journal of Communications, 17, 316-323.
Geier, J. G. (1979). Personal Profile System. Minneapolis, MN:
Performance Systems International.
Geier, J. (1980). Introduction to emotions of normal people.
Minneapolis, MN: Performax Systems International.
Gerstenfeld, A., & Whitt, F. (1970). The goal priorities of medical
technologists. American Journal of Medical Technology, 36, 159-166.


94
Table 7. Analysis of variance results for JDI scores by work behavior
type.
Source df
Total JDI Scores
Sum of squares Mean square
F
ratio
F prob.
Between
Groups 3
17,657.32
5,885.77
3.44
.02*
Within
Groups 107
182,868.92
1,709.06
X
Group
145.71
(4) Producer
162.16
(3) Concentrator
166.375
(1) Energizer
190.00*
(2) Inducer
(2 was different from 4, but not from 1 or 3)
Work Subscale of JDI
Source df
Sum of squares
Mean square
F
ratio
F prob.
Between
Groups 3
671.30
223.77
2.26
.09
Within Groups 107
10,602.97
99.09
X
Group
28.79
(4) Producer
32.38
(3) Concentrator
33.88
(1) Energizer
36.63
(2) Inducer
Promotion Subscale of JDI
Source df
Sum of squares
Mean square
F
ratio
F prob.
Between
Groups 3
2,855.11
951.70
5.21
.002*
Within Groups 107
19,557.00
182.78
X
Group
9.12
(4) Producer
13.97
(3) Concentrator
16.00
(1) Energizer
28.38*
(2) Inducer
(2 was different from 3 and 4, but
not from 1)
Pay Subscale of JDI
Source df
Sum of squares
Mean square
F
ratio
F prob.
Between
Groups 3
1,832.02
610.67
2.88
.04*
Within Groups 107
22,667.56
211.85
X
Group
21.47
(4) Producer
25.92
(3) Concentrator
32.12
(2) Inducer
34.25
(1) Energizer


137
Marston, W. (1928). Emotions of normal people. New York: Harcourt,
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relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction
of medical technologists. American Journal of Medical Technology,
43, 15-17.
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satisfaction of medical technologists (Doctoral dissertation,
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Mobley & Homer, and Hollingsworth model of employee turnover.
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Mitchell, T., Smyser, C., & Weed, S. (1975). Locus of control:
Supervision and work satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal,
18, 623-631.
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job satisfaction and employee turnover. Journal of Applied
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conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological
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91
Subtypes of the former medical technologists were heterogeneous.
No one type predominated.
These findings on work behavior types among medical technologists
are consistent with results of personality types reported by other
researchers. Bowling (1973) determined that 57% of the medical
technologists in her sample had a strong preference for the sensing-
judging dimensions on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). They
were predominately introvert-sensing-thinking-judging (ISTJ),
extravert-sensing-thinking-judging (ESTJ), or introvert-sensing-
feeling- judging (ISFJ) types.
Fellers (1974), French and Rezler (1976), Hill (1974), and
Rezler and French (1975) also reported that medical technologists
preferred sensing, thinking, and judging. About 20% of the clinical
practitioners in the French-Rezler (1976) study were ISTJ or ESTJ
types.
Compared to practicing technologists, student technologists were
more intuitive, feeling, and perceiving (Rezler & French, 1975;
Williams, 1974). French and Rezler (1976) speculated these types found
working conditions disappointing and left medical technology before or
shortly after entering the field.
Glenn's (1982) research demonstrated significant relationships
between personality functions measured on the MBTI and work behavior
types measured by the MPPP. She found significant correlations between
the Producer type work behavior and the introvert (r = .35), sensing
(r = .48), and judging (r = -.36) scores on the MBTI. Producers who
are exacting in their work were also introverts, prefering the sensing
and judging modes.


124
SUKVKY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR FORMER MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS
Please Circle Che appropriate response on Che answer sheec unless otherwise
Instructed. Answer all questions.
|. Whac Is your sex?
a) Hale b) Female
2. What Is the highest level of education you have attained?
a) Bacchalaureace degree c) Doctorate
b) Hasters degree d) Professional degree (M.D., D.D.S.)
}. In whac type of setting were you lase employed as a medical technologist?
a) Hospital ollnlcal laboratory <0 Research laboratory
b) Private laboratory e) Clinic
c) Public health laboratory f) Other (please specify In space provided)
4. If you worked In a hospital laboratory, how many beds did It have?
a) Fewer than 200 c) more than 400
b) 200 to 400 d) does not apply
3. If you worked In a hospital laboratory was It a teaching hospital?
a) Yes
b) No
c) Does not apply
6. In what capacity were you working as a medical technologist at the time of
your last employment?
a) Bench technologist d) Laboratory manager
b) Educator e) Other (please specify)
c) Section supervisor
7. How long were you a medical
profession)?
a) Less Chan one year
b) Between 1 and 3 years
c) Between 3- and 5 years
fr. How long has It been since you practiced as a medical technologist!
a) Less than one year d) Between 3 and 10 years
b) Between i ao<] j years e) More than 10 years
c) Between 3 and 3 years
9>. Which of the following factors were most Influential In your decision to leave
medical technology? From the 1 at of Items, select the 5 most Important
factors; then rank Chen In the order of their Importance, using "l** for Che most
Important factor and "3" for the least Important.
technologist (total years of practice In the
d) Between 5 and 10 years
e) More than 10 years


Dominance
aggressiveness
boldness
courage
dare-deviltry
determination
ego centricity
ego-emotion
fighting instinct
force o character
fury
high spirit
inferiority feeling
initiative
persistency
rage
self-assertion
sel f-sceking
stick-to-itiveness
stubbornness
superiority complex
unconquerableness
will
L'ontpl lance
adapting
awe
caution
candor
conforming
well disciplined
empathy
fear
"getting down to
brass tacks*
harmony
humility
"oneness with
nature"
open mindedness
peace
being a realist
resignation
respect
"swimming with the
stream"
timidity
tolerance
weak will
yielding to
Submission
accommodating
admiration
"a good child*
altruism
benevolence
considerate
docility
"being an easy mark*
generosity
gentleness
good nature
being manageable"
meekness
obedience
obliging
* lavishness
sweetness
tender heartedness
"being tractable"
unselfishness
willing service
wil1ingne s s
1nduccmunt
alluring
appealing
attraction
attractive personality"
captivation
charming
convincing
converting
"inducing a
person*
leading
"making an impression"
"personal magnetism"
persuasion
seduction
"selling an idea"
"selling oneself*
"winning a person's
confidence*
"winning a person's
friendship*
Figure 3. Marston's clusters of
traits for each primary emotion.


92
Bauch's description of Producers (presented in Chapter II) and
Myers' (1976) description of the introvert-sensing-judging type are
very similar. According to Myers, the introvert-sensing-judging
types are those who
like quiet for concentration, tend to be careful with
details, and seldom make errors of fact. They tend not
to mind working on one project for a long time
uninterruptedly, and like to think a lot before they act,
sometimes without acting. They are patient with routine
details, and tend to be good at precise work. They are
at their best when they plan their work and follow their
plan. (pp. 17-18)
Glenn also reported that Concentrators were most likely to be
sensing and judging, introverted or extraverted, with a preference for
the feeling function. Energizer scores correlated significantly with
the intuitive and thinking personality functions. Inducer scores, as
expected, correlated with the extravert, intuitive, and perceptive
personality functions.
In light of these studies on personality types among medical
technologists and correlations of personality type to work behavior
type, it is not surprising, then, to find the high proportion of
Producers and low proportion of Energizers and Inducers among medical
technologists. Producers have the qualities required and desired for
medical technology. They carefully follow procedures and strive for
precision. The subtypes of medical technologists also reflect
essential work behavior characteristics for this field. In addition
to producing precise, quality work and following directions, these
subtypes complete the work on time with little supervision.
As a bench-level technologist, the Inducer would not have many
opportunities for contacts with fellow workers or patients.


25
Klein and Maher (1966) and Vollmer and Kinny (1955) reported a
negative correlation between education level and job satisfaction.
These findings suggested that employees with higher levels of
education expected more from their jobs and became more dissatisfied
when the job failed to meet those expectations. They also pointed
out the problems in hiring over-qualified individuals for positions,
or unnecessarily raising the academic qualifications for a job.
Herzberg et al. (1957) showed a positive relationship between
education and job satisfaction.
In a 1973 survey conducted by a Special Task Force, job
satisfaction among minority groups was consistently lower than
satisfaction among white workers. However, Jones, James, Bruni, and
Sells (1977) found no differences in overall job satisfaction among
black and white sailors matched by type of job.
The relationship between job satisfaction and personality
factors has not been thoroughly researched (Gruneberg, 1979).
Clearly, however, aspects of personality determine the extent to
which different job characteristics affect an individual's job
satisfaction.
For example, McClelland (1961) demonstrated that individuals with
high needs for achievement required challenging jobs to enhance their
self-esteem and provide them with job satisfaction. Steers (1975) found
that individuals with high achievement needs derived job satisfaction
from high levels of job performance. These high achievers became
involved in their jobs when they perceived opportunities for success
and rewards as a result of performance.


30
(1973) and Steers (1977) suggested tenure was one of the single best
predictors of turnover behavior.
Family responsibilities, including marital status and number of
dependents, are also associated with turnover. For males, increases
in family responsibilities are inversely related to withdrawal.
However, for females, the relationship depends on the wage earner
status of the employee. When women work as primary wage earners, there
is a negative relationship between family responsibilities and turnover,
whereas for women who are secondary wage earners, increases in family
responsibilities are positively correlated to withdrawal (Federico,
Federico, & Lundquist, 1976).
Schuh (1967) attempted to predict turnover from personality and
vocational inventories and biographical information. Although he
found no relationship between turnover and scores on intelligence,
aptitude, or personality tests, he did find evidence for predicting
turnover from vocational interest inventories and biographical
information.
Organizational and Work Environment Variables
Pay, promotion, supervision, and peer group relations are
organizational and work environment factors related to turnover.
Early studies indicated that low pay and few promotion opportunities
were major reasons for withdrawal (Mobley et al., 1979). Knowles
(1964), Hulin (1968), and Federico, Federico, and Lundquist (1976)
pointed out that the perceived equity of pay and promotion was more
important than the actual pay received in the decision to stay or quit.
Recent studies suggest there is no relationship between pay, promotion,


Figure 1. Steers and Mowday's (1981) model of employee turnover


85
Table 3 (continued)
Characteristics
N
Percent
H. Would return to medical technology
1. Yes
4
21.1
2.
No
10
52.6
3.
Uncertain
5
26.3
were males. More than half the subjects (52.7%) were over 35 years,
and 57.9% had practiced as medical technologists more than 5 years.
Former technologists worked in a variety of occupations. Only two,
however, worked in nonhealth related fields (chef, electronics
business owner). The majority (68.5%) had left medical technology
less than 5 years ago.
When asked if they would return to medical technology, 52.6% of
the subjects responded "NO" and 26.3% were uncertain. The majority
(63.1%) would recommend the field to others. More than half the
respondents (52.6%) indicated they had received little or insufficient
information about medical technology before making a decision to enter
this field.
Table 4 contains a comparison of medical technologists' responses
to items asking them to list, in order of importance, the five factors
that influenced them to enter medical technology and the five factors
most influential in their decision to leave. Practicing technologists
ranked interest in science and medicine, desire to help the sick, job
opportunities, security, and expected salary as major reasons for
selecting medical technology as a career. Former medical technologists
listed interest in science and medicine, desire to help the sick,
availability of an educational program, job opportunities, and security.


90
As discussed in Chapter II, the MPPP generates, in addition to one
of the four major work behavior types, a more detailed description of
an individual's work behavior. This "subtype" is based on the
interactions among all choices and the strength of the individual's
responses on each dimension of work behavior.
Almost two thirds (65%) of practicing technologists fell into
three subtypes. Descriptions of these types are as follows:
Type 9 has characteristics of the worker types who apply
their skills in nonthreatening situations. They will
cautiously follow procedures and rules. They are committed
to doing the job correctly, and try hard to be prepared to
do their best. They like predictable work environments where
their jobs are clearly defined, but will enthusiastically
accept new assignments if the assignments are in their area
of expertise. They will take the time to be sure they
understand exactly what is desired of them, get the facts
relating to the assignment, and if they make a commitment,
they produce accordingly. An important value to the
organization is the precision and quality of their work and
their personal identity with their product. (Bauch, 1981,
p. 23)
Type 11 has traits of perfectionist workers. These
individuals follow directions exactly and strive for
flawless products. When procedures and deadlines are
clear and specific, they attend to all the detail and
quality work. Thus, no backing up or correcting will be
needed. They ask for clarification frequently to make
sure things are being done right. They can explain the
rules and operating procedures to the new employee as
well as the author. They accept the system without great
concern about why and do not require intensive supervision
once the job is described. They are noted for dependability
in completing work when expected and doing their best to
attain quality. (Bauch, 1981, p. 24)
Type 16 has characteristics of the specialist group. These
people are noted for good planning and persistence on the
job over long periods. They are quite accepting of the
varieties of styles of co-workers but will maintain a small
group of good friends. They like consistency in their work
environment as they value the tried and proven methods.
They establish a steady pace and follow it with or without
supervision. They appreciate recognition for their staying
at the job until it is done. (Bauch, 1981, p. 27)


79
Questionnaires for Practicing and Former Medical Technologists
The investigator developed two closed-form questionnaires to
collect demographic data and career information from practicing and
former medical technologists. Based on previous research, the
questionnaire for practicing technologists included items to measure
perceived existence of alternative careers (Mobley et al., 1978;
Mobley et al., 1979; Steers & Mowday, 1981), intention to search for
alternative careers (Mobley, 1977; Mobley et al., 1978), met
expectations (Muchinsky & Tuttle, 1979; Porter & Steers, 1973), and
intention to leave (Mobley, 1982; Mobley et al., 1979). Behavioral
intention to leave is the immediate precursor to turnover and may be
assessed by a single-item measure of intention (Kraut, 1975; Waters
et al., 1976).
Data Treatment and Analysis
The researcher scored the JDI manually according to the key
described by Smith et al. (1969). She derived five subscores and a
total score for each participant.
A computer program developed by Marcus Paul Computer Systems was
used to score the MPPP. Subjects' responses to the 24 frames are
entered into the computer. The program generated a score for each work
behavior type and denoted the major work behavior type and subtype for
each subject. Scores were rounded off to the nearest half-point for
statistical analyses.
The researcher entered data from the Profile, index, and demographic
questionnaire directly into the computer terminal. After printing and
checking these entries for accuracy, she used the Statistical Analysis
System (SAS) with appropriate subprograms to answer the research questions.


10
satisfaction and attrition among medical technologists as these
problems relate to people/job matching.
Results of the study may also have implications for career
planning, academic advising, and planning effective educational and
training programs for medical technologists. Advisors, counselors,
students, and employers may use the information as a basis for a
more systematic approach to hiring and career selection. Program
developers may apply the results in developing instructional strategies
that would foster and enhance work behaviors essential for success in
medical technology.
Assumptions
This study is based on the following assumptions:
1. Participants answered the surveys honestly and responses
accurately reflect their attitudes and preferences.
2. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile is a valid and reliable
instrument for measuring work behavior type of medical
technologists.
3. The Job Descriptive Index is a valid, reliable measure of
job satisfaction.
4. Responses to behavioral intention questions predict
turnover.
Definition of Terms
Medical technologist. An individual who has completed four years
of college with a Bachelor of Science degree in medical technology or
a Bachelor of Science degree that includes 16 hours of chemistry, 16
hours of biology, and one semester of math and is qualified to perform
laboratory tests that require the exercise of independent judgment and


134
Harting, R., & Oliver, R. (1978). Job satisfaction in medical technology.
Laboratory Medicine, _9, 30-58.
Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man. New York: World
Publishing.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Peterson, R., & Capwell, D. (1957).
Job attitudes. Pittsburgh: Psychological Service of Pittsburgh.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to
work. New York: Wiley.
Hespe, G., & Wall, T. (1976). The demand for participation among
employees. Human Relations, 29, 411-428.
Hill, J. (1974). A comparison of Myers-Briggs types among black and
white technical clinical laboratory personnel (Doctoral
dissertation. University of Florida, 1974). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 35, 4910A. (University Microfilms No. 75-03,498).
Holland, J. (1959). A theory of vocational choice. Journal of
Counseling Psychology, 6, 35-44.
Holstrom, E. (1975). Changing characteristics of students in health
fields. Journal of Allied Health, 4, 9-18.
Hoppock, R. (1935). Job satisfaction. New York: Harper.
House, R. (1971). A path goal theory of leader effectiveness.
Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 321-338.
Hulin, C. (1966). Job satisfaction and turnover in a female clerical
population. Journal of Applied Psychology, 50, 280-285.
Hulin, C. (1968). Effects of changes in job satisfaction levels on
employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 52, 122-126.
Hulin, C., & Smith, P. (1965). A linear model of job satisfaction.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 49, 209-216.
Hunt, J., & Saul, P. (1975). The relationship of age, tenure, and job
satisfaction in males and females. Academy of Management Journal,
18, 690-702.
Irwin, B. (1983). A look at the high attrition rate among technologists.
Medical Laboratory Observer, 15, 52-68.
Jelinik, M. (1979). Career Management. Chicago: St. Clair Press.
Jeswald, T. (1971). Psychological and organizational correlates of
career patterns of clinical laboratory occupations (Doctoral
dissertation, Purdue University, 1971). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 32, 1265B. (University Microfilms No. 71-10,025).


107
Table 12. Summary table for stepwise discriminant analysis to predict
attrition or intention to leave medical technology.
Step
!
Variable entered
. 2
Partial R
F
Prob F
1
Producer score
.130
16.34
.0001
2
Years in profession
.027
2.99
.09
3
Age
.063
7.18
.01
4
Sex
.039
4.25
.04
5
Energizer score
.022
2.41
.12
6
Promotion score
.023
2.45
.12
The significant predictor variables obtained in this study are
consistent with some of those previously reported by researchers for
other groups of workers. Age and length of service are usually negatively
correlated to turnover (Mobley et al., 1979; Steers, 1977). In this
study 85.7% of the technologists who intended to leave medical
technology and 70.4% of the stayers were under 35 years old. Of the
technologists intending to leave, 57.1% had more than 10 years of
experience as medical technologists compared to 33.8% of those intending
to stay in the field.
Chapter Summary
This chapter contained results of the following statistical
analyses to answer the research questions posed in Chapter III: One-way
ANOVA, t test, chi-square, and multiple stepwise discriminant analysis.
Frequencies and means were also determined for responses to demographic
items.
Medical technologists were predominately Producers and Concentrators.
Results indicated that work behavior type was related to total job


6
organizations lacked expertise in the area of person/job matching.
Many use outdated selection and placement methods that include
evaluation of past work history, educational background, interviews,
and reference checks. Occasionally these subjective techniques may
be supplemented by objective, job-related tests (Silver & Berke, 1981).
During the past 10 years, industrial psychologists and other
researchers have contributed useful knowledge and methods for a more
rational approach to matching people to jobs or students to careers.
Recent studies in the personnel selection literature provide a greater
understanding of the basic structures and taxonomies of human
characteristics. Others have suggested significantly improved methods
for measuring the behavioral components of jobs and job performance
dimensions (Dunnette & Borman, 1979). McCormick's (1976) task
inventory technology has provided a basis for job analysis techniques
used to infer the personal attributes important for doing a job. The
development of job samples has permitted evaluation of a candidate's
proficiency in performing the tasks involved in the job. Job samples
have been useful for jobs requiring motor skills and are more valid
than other types of tests in reflecting an individual's performance
level (Asher & Sciarrino, 1974).
Dunnette and Borman (1979) conceptualized the ideal counseling and
placement system of the future: a data bank containing the parameters
of available jobs and the attributes of available persons. Standardized
task checklists, scorable in terms of behavioral and attribute
categories, would be used to derive job parameters. Job candidates or
students would use similar checklists to record previous experience,
preferences, and estimated capabilities. Scores generated according


101
Table
9 (continued)
Source df
Promotion Subscale of JDI
Sum of squares Mean square
F ratio
F prob.
Between Groups 2
Within Groups 108
6,814.72 3,
15,597.39
407.36
144.42
23.59
.0001*
X
8.90
10.17
29.84
(3
Group
(1) Hospital technologists
(2) Nonhospital technologists
(3) Former technologists
is different from 1 and 2)
Source df
Co-worker Subscale of JDI
Sum of squares Mean square
F ratio
F prob.
Between Groups 2
Within Groups 108
946.60
14,394.38
473.30
133.28
3.55
.03
X
42.33
48.17
49.21
Group
(1) Hospital technologists
(2) Nonhospital technologists
(3) Former technologists
*p<.05
because technologists seldom dealt with many critically ill patients,
had fewer sources of aggravation, had a slower pace of activity, and
were paid slightly higher salaries.
Breslau, Novack, and Wolf (1978) compared the job satisfaction of
primary care physicians and paramedical personnel in large medical
centers to those in traditional, small office practices. Personnel
working in large medical centers were less satisfied with the work,
co-workers, and pay than those in traditional practices. The
researchers attributed these differences in satisfaction to differences
in autonomy experienced by each group in their respective work
environment. Personnel working in large, bureaucratic organizations
contend with a variety of rules, regulations, and political
considerations. Small practice personnel are not constrained by


49
During the exploration stage, the young employee searched for an
identity and tried out several jobs and roles. In the second stage,
the employee settled down and grew in a career role. The third stage
of maintenance was where the employee's productivity reached a
plateau. At this time, the individual might assume a mentor role out
of a need for generativity (the concern to leave something for the
next generation). The individual could also stagnate, decline, or have
a growth spurt. The final stage was decline. The employee searched
for integrity (feelings of satisfaction with life choices and overall
career).
Although there are many theories of career choice, they all
reflect people's efforts to obtain a proper fit between themselves and
their jobs. The closer the match, the greater the rewards for both
employees and organizations.
Organizations are slowly becoming aware of their role in career
planning and development to improve the effectiveness of their
operations. Organizations are beginning to provide employees with
workshops, counseling services, and innovative programs for special
career needs (i.e. flex-time) as part of human resource management
programs (Luthans, 1981).
When individuals obtain more information about themselves, they
can make more accurate career decisions and find the right job. With
this premise in mind, Bauch (1981) developed the Marcus Paul Placement
Profile (MPPP). This instrument for measuring work behavior types had
its foundations in trait and type theory.


75
Table 1. Response rate on questionnaire by group of respondents.
No.
No. Useable
Questionnaires
Questionnaires
Percent
Group
Distributed
Returned
Returned
Hospital
Technologists
1
13
8
62
2
20
10
50
3
48
12
25
4
28
26
93
5
15
14
93
6
10
10
100
TOTAL
134
80
60
Nonhospital
Technologists
20
12
60
Former
Technologists
29
19
66
GRAND
TOTAL
183
111
61
table also contains the number of useable questionnaires returned by
each group of technologists and the percentage returned.
The percentage of questionnaires returned by hospital respondents
ranged from 25% to 100% for an overall response of 60%. Nonhospital
respondents returned 60% of the questionnaires and former medical
technologists contacted returned 66% of the questionnaires. Nonuseable
packets returned from all groups totaled 19. These respondents either
failed to meet the education requirements for inclusion in the study or
did not complete all instruments. Efforts to retrieve missing data were
unsuccessful. The final population consisted of 111 technologists
80 from hospitals, 12 from nonhospital facilities, and 19 former
technologists. The overall response rate was 61%.


23
as world leaders in technology has been largely attributed to this
management style (Ouchi, 1981).
Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, and Rosenthal (1964) and Keller (1975)
studied job satisfaction in terms of role ambiguity and role conflict.
Individuals experience role conflict when the behaviors expected of
them are inconsistent with the behaviors they expect of themselves.
They experience role ambiguity when expectations are unknown or unclear.
Role ambiguity and role conflict in the job situation often create
stress and job dissatisfaction. However, there are differences related
to the occupational level of the worker (Kahn et al., 1964; Schuler,
1977). Role ambiguity was more stressful for higher level personnel
in organizations, whereas lower level personnel experienced more job
dissatisfaction when role conflict existed.
Organizational climate or the quality of the total workplace
environment also affects job satisfaction. However, Friedlander and
Margulies (1969), Pritchard and Karasick (1973), and Schneider and
Snyder (1975) pointed out that individual differences played a
significant role in the relationship between these factors. For
example, organizations with high levels of control appealed to workers
with strong needs for security, whereas creative individuals or those
who preferred to participate in decision making favored more democratic
organizations. Supportiveness, concern for social relationships,
progressiveness, harmony, and consideration were important aspects of
organizational climate correlated to high job satisfaction.
Individual Differences
In addition to the content and context factors of the job,
individual differences between people affect job satisfaction.


70
At a time when graduates of other programs had limited employment
opportunities, medical technology students were assured a job after
graduation. As a result, medical technology programs had more applicants
than available slots. Competition for slots was keen and criteria were
established to select students who would most likely succeed in the
program and thus graduate. Criteria included gradepoint average (GPA),
key course grades, aptitude test scores, work records, volunteer
service, recommendations, and personal interviews (Love, Hoiter & Krall,
1982).
Although research indicates that these selection criteria are
valid measures for predicting academic success in the program (Eberfield
& Love, 1970; Love et al., 1982; Lundgren, 1968), they do not adequately
predict clinical or professional performance (Duntman, Anderson, &
Barry, 1966). With the decrease in the numbers of applicants for medical
technology programs and the high attrition rate among clinical
practitioners, new selection criteria may be in order. Students who
have lower academic credentials may demonstrate other essential traits
for success in medical technology.
Information about the work behavior traits of satisfied clinical
practitioners would be useful in career planning, job counseling, and
student placement. Although research on the work behavior types of
medical technologists is nonexistent, the existing literature suggests
that certain traits and types are related to success and satisfaction
in this occupation.
French and Rezler (1976) found a higher proportion of sensing
people among medical technologists who were in clinical practice but a
higher percentage of intuitive types among educators and administrators.


19
Locke (1965) demonstrated that success at a task increased job
satisfaction because success enhanced self-esteem. However, the
individual had to perceive the task as being important (Nord, 1977) .
Many individuals also require external validation of their successes
and achievements in the form of tangible recognition (promotion,
merit pay increase) or intangible recognition (praise). In one study,
workers rated recognition by supervisors and colleagues as a major
source of job satisfaction (Locke, 1976).
Workers must also be able to use their skills or abilities to
feel successful at a job. Walker and Guest (1952) studied the
relationship of skill level to job satisfaction among automobile
production workers. They found job satisfaction was related to the
amount of skill required and to the number of operations performed in
a job.
Hackman and Lawler (1971) examined the relationship of job
satisfaction to job variety, job autonomy, job identity, and feedback.
Findings on job variety agreed with those of Walker and Guest (1952).
However, Hackman and Lawler (1971) added that not all employees
preferred task variety in their jobs. Individuals with little interest
in meeting higher-order needs were satisfied with repetitive work.
The degree of job autonomy (the extent to which individuals make
decisions about their jobs) was also positively correlated to job
satisfaction. Workers free to choose their own methods and pace of
work were satisfied. Task identity or wholeness of the work was
important for job satisfaction among workers with higher-order needs.
They had to perform an entire piece of work for it to have meaning
and be satisfying.


104
controlled, no significant sex differences existed (Brief & Oliver,
1976). Smith et al. (1969) found that men and women ranked areas of
!
job satisfaction in the same orderco-workers, supervision, work,
pay, and promotion. Means and standard deviations for each group on
each subscale were also comparable, although females were less
satisfied than males on the promotion scale.
Most medical technologists are women. Studies of job satisfaction
in other female-dominated professions showed no sex-related differences
in satisfaction (Kuhn, 1981; Mulkerne, 1980). Results from this study
are consistent with previous findings.
Question 8; Does a relationship exist between the sex of the
participant and attrition or the intention to leave medical technology?
Table 11 contains the chi-square analysis of the responses of males
and females to item 10 on the demographic questionnaire. Responses of
former technologists were combined with technologists who definitely
intended to leave within a year to increase expected cell frequencies.
Results indicate sex-related differences in attrition or intention to
leave medical technology.
Irwin (1983) determined that 76.5% of the male respondents in her
study planned to leave medical technology within 5 years as opposed to
54.1% of female subjects. Furthermore, two thirds of the respondents
agreed,with the statement that medical technology was not a good
profession for men to enter today, whereas 60% of those planning to
leave and 89% of those planning to stay in the field disagreed with the
same statement about women.
Past surveys of health related occupations in which women
constituted a majority indicated that the major reasons cited for


CersJTEM FOR ALLIED HEALTH INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL
Norman Hall
Urriversity ol Florida
Gaioesville, Florida 3261 I
(SO November 22, 1983
Dear Medical Technologist:
You have been selected to participate in a study of job satisfaction
and attrition among bench level medical technologists in the State of
Florida. This project is under the direction of Dr. Margaret Horgan,
director of the Center of Allied Health Instructional Personnel, and
professor of Instructional Leadership and Support. University of Florida.
The objectives of the study are Co:
1. Identify Che vork behavior types of practicing and former
Dedlcal technologists.
2. Determine If vork behavior type Is related to Job satisfaction
and attrition.
3. Determine if (a)vork environment (hospital compared to nonhospital
laboratories or other fields) and (b)sex of Che participant are
related to Job satisfaction.
4. Formulate Implications for career planning and academic advising
of students selecting the medical technology curriculum.
5. Improve the selection of students Into medical technology programs
and Che placement of technologists Into jobs.
The study Includes a questionnaire to obtain information about you and
your career as a medical technologist, the Job Descriptive Index designed
to measure you: job satisfaction, an the Marcus Paul Placement Profile
(MPPP) that provides some Indication of your vork behavior type. Tou will
be able to complete these Instruments In about 20 minutes.
Your participation In this study la very Important. You will provide
valuable Information that can Improve the match between people selecting
medical technology as a career and the job of the medical technologist.
Please answer all questions as honestly as you can. Responses will be
kept In confidence. Results vlll be reported statistically so that
Individuals or Institutions vlll not be Identified.
Return the completed Instruments to me In the addressed, stamped envelope
by December 6, 19G3. 'If you would like a computer analysis snd explanation
of your particular work behavior type, put you name on the MPPP and I vlll
mall you a copy of your results.
Very truly yours.
Sybil Uellstood
Microbiologist, VA Med.
Ctr.. Calnesvllle
127


73
8. Does a relationship exist between the sex of the participant
and attrition or the intention to leave medical technology?
9. Can some combination of demographic variables, work
behavior type, and job satisfaction predict attrition
among medical technologists.
Population
The sample population consisted of two groups of medical
technologists. Practicing medical technologists employed in various
laboratory settings (hospitals, clinics, private laboratories, blood
banks, reference laboratories) located in a Florida community comprised
the first group. These were bench-level technologists, primarily
responsible for performing the technical work in the laboratory. All
technologists holding a bachelor's degree were invited to participate.
Supervisory technologists, educators, and medical technicians were
excluded to assure homogeneity of the sample.
The second group included former medical technologists, currently
employed in occupations other than medical technology. The investigator
selected these participants from business contacts, former employees,
and lists of University of Florida medical technology graduates from
the past 5 years who lived in the community.
Data Collection
The researchers mailed a letter to the chief technologist, or
administrator at each facility (see Appendix A). The letter contained
an explanation of the purpose of the project and a request for
participation by the staff of the facility. Willingness to participate
in the study was determined by a followup telephone call. At that time,
the researcher also ascertained the number of technologists employed at


Dominance
Active
Orientation
Passive
Orientation
Submission
Figure 2. Marston's (1928) two-axis model
Inducement
Process
Orientation
Product
Orientation
Compliance


I
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pa9e
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
ABSTRACT v
CHAPTER
I INTRODUCTION 1
Background 2
Statement of the Problem 7
Delimitations and Limitations 8
Justification for the Study 9
Assumptions 10
Definition of Terms 10
Organization of the Study 11
II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 12
Organization of the Chapter 12
Job Satisfaction 12
Definition 12
Measures 13
History 14
Theories 15
Intrinsic Factors and Job Satisfaction 18
Extrinsic Factors and Job Satisfaction 20
Individual Differences 23
Turnover 27
Definition 27
Consequences 28
Personal and Demographic Predictor Variables 29
Organizational and Work Environment Variables 30
' Job Content Variables 32
Attitudinal Variables 33
Availability of Alternatives 35
Turnover Models 36
Work Behavior Type 42
Definition 42
Industrial Psychology 42
Educational Psychology 45
Theories of Vocational Development 46
History of Work Behavior Types 50
Marcus Paul Placement Profile 57
Job Satisfaction, Attrition, Work Behavior Type of
Medical Technologists
61


16
Lower-order needs were (a) basic physiological needs, (b) safety and
security needs, and (c) social (affection) needs. Higher-order needs
were (d) esteem and (e) self-actualization. Lower-order needs had to
be satisfied before higher-order needs could assume importance.
However, once a need was met, it no longer served as a motivator.
Building on Maslow's work, Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman (1959)
formulated the two-factor theory of job satisfaction. They claimed
that two classes of work variables, the motivators and hygiene factors,
influenced job satisfaction. Motivators were intrinsic factors such
as achievement, recognition, advancement, responsibility, and the
inherent interest of the work itself. When present in a job,
motivators were satisfiers because they had a positive effect on
employee output. Achievement was the strongest motivator followed by
recognition. Motivators correspond to Maslow's higher-order needs.
Hygiene factors were extrinsic to the job and included pay,
security, supervision, and physical working conditions. They were
analogous to Maslow's lower-order needs. When absent from the job,
they were linked to dissatisfaction. However, Herzberg and associates
clearly pointed out that the presence of a hygiene factor doesn't
automatically produce job satisfaction and the absence of a motivator
doesn't necessarily lead to dissatisfaction.
Vroom's (1964) expectancy theory is representative of process
theories. He proposed that job satisfaction depended on the degree to
which a job met the individual's needs. Motivation depended on the
workers' perceptions of the likelihood that their needs would be
satisfied. Individuals ascribe valences to job outcomes such as
higher pay, promotion, peer approval,. and recognition, according to


142
Weitz, J. (1956). Job expectancy and survival. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 40, 245-247.
Wernimont, P., & Fitzpatrick, S. (1972). The meaning of money.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 218-226.
Williams, M. R. (1974). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and medical
technologist personality types. In M. Morgan, C. Broward, &
D. Filson (Eds.), Cognitive and affective dimensions in health
related education. Gainesville, FL: Center for Allied Health
Instructional Personnel.
Williams, R. (1975). The relationship between the MBTI and job
satisfaction: A preliminary report. American Journal of Medical
Technology, 41, 56-59.
Williams, M. R. (1976). The relationships among personality types,
job satisfactions, and job specialties of a selected group of
medical technologists (Doctoral dissertation, Florida State
University, 1976). Dissertation Abstracts International, 37,
3342B. (University Microfilms No. 76-29,495).
Woodward, N. (1975-1976). The economic causes of labor turnover:
A case study. Industrial Relations Journal, 6, 19-32.
Yankelovich, E. (1974). The new morality: A profile of American
Youth in the 70's. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Youngberg, C. (1963). An experimental study of job satisfaction and
turnover in relation to job expectancies and self expectancies
(Doctoral dissertation, New York University, 1963). Dissertation
Abstracts International, 1964, 3£, 656. (University Microfilms
No. 64-6516).
Youngblood, S., Mobley, W., & Meglino, B. (1983). A longitudinal
analysis of the turnover process. Journal of Applied Psychology,
68, 507-516.
Youse, J., & Clark, A. (1977). Curriculum and career: By choice or
chance? American Journal of Medical Technology, 42, 127-130.
Zufall, D. (1976). Career planning of medical laboratory science
Students. American Journal of Medical Technology, 42, 361-366.


7
to job and attribute categories would be referred to the data bank for
job matching. Aptitude tests, job knowledge tests, job samples, and
simulations would provide additional data for individual and organizational
decision making.
Recent studies by Bauch (1981) and Glenn (1982) indicated that an
individual's work patterns or work behavior traits also played an
important role in job matching and recommended additional research in
this area. The assumption is that effective job matching will maximize
use of human resources and decrease job dissatisfaction, poor
productivity, and turnover.
As previously discussed, job dissatisfaction and attrition are
major concerns in medical technology. In the interest of providing
new insights into these problems, this investigator examined the
relationships among work behavior type, job satisfaction, and attrition
among Florida medical technologists.
Statement of the Problem
The problem of this study was to determine the relationships
among work behavior type, job satisfaction, attrition, and demographic
variables of medical technologists in Florida. The study was developed
to answer the following research questions:
1. What are the work behavior types of medical technologists
in Florida as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile?
2. Does a relationship exist between the work behavior type
of technologists and overall job satisfaction as measured
by the Job Descriptive Index?
3. Does a relationship exist between work behavior types and
specific aspects of job satisfaction as determined by the
subscales of the Job Descriptive Index?


46
for both men and women. Technology has created a rapid pace of change
in the labor market. New jobs emerge as others become obsolete.
Medical advances have expanded life expectancy. Instead of one career
decision, people must make multiple career decisions in a lifetime.
Theories of Vocational Development
Several authors have proposed theories of vocational development
and occupational choice. Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, and Herma (1951)
argued that occupational choice was an irreversible process. It took
place over 8 to 10 years and passed through a number of well-marked
developmental stages. Early decisions reduced the number of successive
choices and available options.
Occupational decision making occurs in three stages. The fantasy
stage occurs between ages 10 and 12. Children at this stage have no
conception of their capabilities, occupational limitations, or
opportunities. During the tentative stage, adolescents think about
occupations in terms of their abilities and interests. The realistic
stage is characteristic of late adolescence and early adulthood when
individuals become more concerned with realistic opportunities and the
limitations of the available work environment. The final occupational
choice is a compromise between personal preferences (interests,
abilities) and the constraints of the work world.
In 1971, Ginsberg revised his earlier position and claimed that
occupational choice was "open-ended" throughout a person's life. Choice
was influenced by work experiences, changes in values, physiological
changes, marital relationships, financial status shifts, and loss or
change in job.


87
30.8% of the technologists in his survey would choose medical technology
again if given the choice. Irwin (1983) found that 57% of the
participants in her study definitely planned to leave medical technology
within 5 years and 10% were undecided. Reports of inadequate career
information are consistent with studies by Youse and Clark (1977) and
Gleich (1978).
Hoistrom (1975) and Koneman (1982) also reported that medical
technologists chose this field because they desired to help people,
had an interest in science and medicine, saw a potential for
advancement and financial rewards, and felt it offered security.
Technologists in studies by Hajek and Blumberg (1982), Irwin (1983),
Miller (1982), Myers et al. (1982), Rogers (1983), and Showery (1976)
cited the same reasons for leaving or intending to leave medical
technology as the subjects in this study: lack of recognition, poor
pay, no upward mobility, job stress, and boredom (from over
specialization and mechanization).
Research Questions
Question 1: What are the work behavior types of medical
technologists in Florida? Table 5 contains the frequencies and
percentages of work behavior types among practicing and former medical
technologists. Of the 92 practicing technologists, 55 (59.8%) were
Producers. Almost a third (32.6%) were Concentrators. Only four (4.3%)
and three (3.3%) of those surveyed were Energizers and Inducers
respectively.
The most common work behavior type among former technologists was
the Concentrator type (36.8%). More than one fourth (26.3%) were Inducers.


115
abilities, and a challenging job. Taking these factors into
consideration, management could implement counter-attrition strategies
to retain valuable technologists.
Recommenda tion s
This investigator examined attrition among medical technologists
in terms of work behavior type, demographic variables, and job
satisfaction. Research indicates that other factors may play a more
important role in predicting attrition. Further areas of research
could include testing a more comprehensive model of attrition.
A longitudinal study of attrition among medical technologists
would provide more accurate predictors for those who leave this field
than the present study. Attrition was indirectly measured as a
function of intention to leave.
The JDI may not adequately distinguish among the work behavior
types' satisfaction levels. Negative items on the JDI may have positive
values for some work behavior types. The study might be repeated using
other measures of job satisfaction.
Future studies might include teaching, administrative, and
supervisory technologists to determine work behavior types and job
satisfaction among them. Are there more Energizers and Inducers among
these technologists and are they more satisfied in their roles than
Energizers and Inducers at the bench?
An experimental study could be designed to examine the
relationship of early intervention techniques with students planning
to enter medical technology to future attrition. Intervention
techniques could include earlier exposure to the work environment,


131
Breslau, N., Novack, A., & Wolf, G. (1978). Work settings and job
satisfaction: A study of primary care physicians and paramedical
personnel. Medical Care, 16, 850-862.
Brief, A., & Oliver, R. (1976). Male-female differences in work
attitudes among retail sales managers. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 61, 526-528.
Broski, D., & Cook, S. (1978). The job satisfaction of allied health
professionals. Journal of Allied Health, _7, 281-287.
Broski, D., Manuselis, G., & Noga, J. (1982). Comparative study of
job satisfaction in medical technology. American Journal of
Medical Technology, 48, 207-211.
Brown, P. (1973). Career development and satisfaction of occupational
therapists in Florida (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida,
1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 34, 6930A.
(University Microfilms No. 74-10,025).
Burson, J. (1981). Med tech manpower shortage just around the corner,
pathologist warns. Health Planning and Manpower Report, 10, 7-8.
> Campbell, J., Dunnette, M., Lawler, E., & Weik, K. (1970). Managerial
behavior performance and effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cascio, W., & Awad, E. (1981). Human resources management: An
information systems approach. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing.
Clitsome, T. (1975). Job satisfaction and turnover of intensive care
and general staff nurses. Paper presented at the First National
Conference on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Gainesville, FL.
Coch, L., & French, J. (1949). Overcoming resistance to change. Human
Relations, 1^, 512-532.
Cohen, E., & Korper, S. (1977). Medical laboratory personnel:
Clinical education and employment in Connecticut. American Journal
of Medical Technology, 43, 531-535.
Crites, J. (1969). Vocational psychology: The study of vocational
behavior and development. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Davis, K. (1977). Human behavior at work. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dunnette, M.D., & Borman, W.C. (1979). Personnel selection and
classification systems. Annual Review of Psychology, 30, 477-525.
Dunteman, G., Anderson, H., & Barry, J. (1966). Characteristics of
students in the health related professions. Rehabilitation
Research Monograph Series No. 2, Gainesville, FL: University
of Florida.


14
Wanous and Lawler (1972) determined that different measures of
job satisfaction may not assess the same variables and concluded there
was no one best way to measure this construct. In a later review of
the literature, Gruneberg (1979) drew the same conclusion and added
that the best measure of job satisfaction depended on the variables
under investigation.
However, the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) developed by Smith,
Kendall, and Hulin (1969) has been regarded as the most reliable,
carefully developed, and researched instrument for measuring job
satisfaction. After examining inventories and terms used by previous
investigators to describe the same or similar facts, Smith and
co-workers found five common factors in these inventories. They
included a general factor, a pay and material rewards factor, the work
itself, a supervision factor, and a factor related to other workers on
the job. These factors formed the five subscales of the JDI and
measured satisfaction with work, pay, opportunities for promotion,
supervision, and co-workers.
History
Historically, industrial psychologists have been interested in
job satisfaction since the early 1900s. In 1911, Frederick Taylor
brought principles of scientific management to the work setting.
Using time and motion studies at the Bethlehem steelworks, he redesigned
equipment, simplified, fragmented, and compartmentalized work tasks,
and placed workers under continuous supervision. Although primarily
concerned with increasing productivity and efficiency, Taylor also
called attention to the importance of the human element in getting the
job done.


110
9. Can some combination of demographic variables, work behavior
type and job satisfaction predict attrition among medical
technologists?
!
The Job Descriptive Index measured overall job satisfaction and
specific aspects of it: work, pay, promotion, co-workers, and
supervision. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile indicated work behavior
type. A demographic questionnaire provided career information and
personal data about participants.
The investigator distributed 183 questionnaires to hospital and
nonhospital laboratories employing baccalaureate-level technologists
and to former medical technologists currently employed in a variety of
occupations. Of these, 92 (60%) of the practicing technologists and
19 (66%) of the former technologists participated in the study.
Data from the demographic questionnaire indicated that the majority
of subjects were females (78.3%) who had worked as technologists more
than 5 years. About one third expected to leave medical technology and
22.8% expected to do so within the coming year. The majority of
technologists had not received adequate career information prior to
choosing medical technology as a career and almost three fourths
indicated that information about work behavior types would have been
helpful in making career decisions.
Former technologists worked in a variety of health related
occupations. The majority had been out of medical technology less
than 5 years and would not return.
Both groups felt that medical technologists lacked opportunities
for career advancement, received inadequate pay, had little status in
the medical community, and worked under stressful, boring conditions.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES, JOB SATISFACTION, AND
ATTRITION IN MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY
By
Sybil Auriel Wellstood
April 1984
Chairman: Margaret Morgan
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction
Job dissatisfaction and attrition are major concerns in medical
technology. The purpose of this study was to identify work behavior
types of medical technologists and to determine their relationship to
job satisfaction and attrition. Information generated by this work
could be useful in counseling and matching the right person to the
right job.
Ninety-two bench-level technologists employed in hospital and
nonhospital laboratories and 19 former technologists employed in a
variety of occupations comprised the sample. The Job Descriptive
Index measured job satisfaction. The Marcus Paul Placement Profile
indicated work behavior type. A questionnaire provided demographic data.
The majority of technologists were females (78.3%) with more them
5 years experience. One third expected to leave medical technology and
22.8% expected to leave within the coming year. Most received
v


32
Although studies, generally, offer support for a negative
relationship between satisfaction with supervision and turnover,
Mobley et al. (1979) identified several recent studies that show no
significant relationship between these variables. The nature of the
leadership measures and the need for multivariate analyses may
explain these results.
Research conducted during the past 10 years on the relationship
between peer group interactions and turnover indicates no significant
correlation between these variables (Mobley et al., 1979). Although
Koch and Steers (1978) found a significant relationship between
satisfaction with co-workers and turnover, only 4% of the variance in
turnover was explained by this factor.
Studies prior to 1973, however, indicated a strong, negative
impact of peer group relations on turnover (Evan, 1973; Farris, 1971;
Hulin, 1968; Schuh, 1967). Porter and Steers (1973) suggested that
individual needs for affiliation played an important role in explaining
discrepant findings in this area of turnover research.
Job Content Variables
Satisfaction with the work itself, task repetitiveness, job
autonomy and responsibility, and role clarity are job content variables
impacting on an employee's decision to terminate employment.
Satisfaction with the work itself is negatively correlated to
turnover. However, it explains less than 16% of the variance in
turnover (Mobley et al., 1979).
Routinization of jobs and task repetitiveness contribute to
turnover. Job stress is an intervening variable. Increases in


29
career advancement, better person-organization "fit," stimulation from
a new environment, and self-development (Mobley, 1982).
Most researchers have neglected the "stayers" in the turnover
process. Those who remain with the organization may become overburdened
by the increased workload created by the loss of an employee.
Performance may decline as a result of the increased demands and
stress. Morale, commitment, and satisfaction may decrease, especially
if the departing employee voices strong negative opinions about the
job or organization. Leavers may also make others aware that better
jobs are available elsewhere. When the departing employee was a
valued member of the work group, social and communication patterns
may be disrupted by the loss of this employee. On the other hand,
turnover may increase promotion opportunities for those who remain and
the new replacement may fit in better with coworkers (Mobley, 1982).
Personal and Demographic Predictor Variables
Researchers have identified critical factors involved in the
turnover process. Some investigators have examined personal and
demographic variables as predictors of the decision to terminate
employment. These factors include age, tenure, and family
responsibilities.
With few exceptions, there is a strong positive relationship
between age and turnover (Muchinsky & Tuttle, 1979). However, Mobley,
Griffeth, Hand, and Meglino (1979) pointed out that age was related to
many other variables and, alone, explained only 7% of the variance in
turnover.
Tenure in an organization (length of service) is consistently,
inversely related to turnover (Muchinsky & Tuttle, 1979). Mangione


APPENDIX D
LETTER TO FORMER MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS


63
function of how well a job or organization met the individual's needs
which, in turn, was a function of organizational practices or
characteristics. Like Jeswald (1971), they found that attainment of
higher order needs was strongly associated with job satisfaction.
However, they were also the least satisfied needs. All subjects listed
self-actualization as the least satisfied need. Security was the most
satisfied need. The most important organizational practice related to
satisfaction was coordination, the degree to which technologists were
given necessary information. Yet, it was also the practice technologists
found most dissatisfying.
While factors influencing job satisfaction were the same for
administrative and nonadministrative technologists, administrators
experienced higher levels of self-actualization, esteem, and autonomy.
Satisfaction levels were also lowest in small hospitals and may be
related to availability of modern technology in these facilities.
Love (1977) found that organizational stratification was related
to job satisfaction. He defined stratification as "the degree of an
organization's dispersion of power, prestige, monetary compensation,
rewards, and other social resources to its members" (p. 1136). Of the
10 stratification-satisfaction relationships studied, the most
significant was the inverse relationship between both social distance
and authority distinction and satisfaction with supervision. Social
distance was comparable to the dimension of the leadership behavior,
consideration, discussed earlier in the job satisfaction text.
Authority distinction is comparable to authoritarian leadership style.
When social distance and authority distinction are high in an
organization, there is less social interaction and support from


j
LIST OF REFERENCES
Adams, J. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.),
Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267-299).
New York: Academic Press.
Allport, G., & Odbert, H. (1936). A psychological study. Psychological
Monographs. (No. 211).
Argyle, M. (1972). The social psychology of work. New York: Taplinger
Publishing.
Argyris, C. (1964). Integrating the individual and the organization.
New York: Wiley.
Arnold, H., & Feldman, D. (1982). A multivariate analysis of the
determinants of job turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67,
350-360.
Asher, J., & Sciarrino, J. (1974). Realistic work sample tests: A
review. Personnel Psychology, 27, 519-33.
Atchinson, T., & Lefferts, E. (1972). The prediction of turnover
using Herzberg's job satisfaction technique. Personnel Psychology,
25, 53-64.
Bass, B., & Barrett, G. (1974). Man, work, and organizations.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bassett, G. (1967). A study of factors associated with turnover of
exempt personnel. Crotonville, NY: Behavioral Research Service,
General Electric.
Bauch, J. (1981). Marcus Paul Placement Profile user manual.
Nashville, TN: Marcus Paul Computer Systems.
/
Bowling, C. (1973). The Jungian personality function types of
pathologists and selected medical technologists in the state of
Florida (Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1973) .
Dissertation Abstracts International, 34, 6404A-6405A.
(University Microfilms No. 74-9475,222).
Brayfield, A. H., & Crockett, W. H. (1955). Employee attitudes and
employee performance. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 396-424.
13Q


11
responsibility under the supervision of the laboratory director or
supervisor.
Job satisfaction. A participant's score in the Job Descriptive
Index.
Attrition. As used in this study, the loss of medical
technologists to other fields or professions.
Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP). An instrument designed to
measure work behavior type (described more fully in Chapter II).
Work behavior type. A description of an individual's general
qualities and behaviors as they relate to the work situation and
derived from responses on the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.
Job Descriptive Index (JDI). An instrument designed to measure
job satisfaction (described more fully in Chapter III).
Organization of the Study
The remainder of this study is organized into four chapters.
Chapter II presents a review of the literature and research on job
satisfaction, attrition, and development of work behavior types. It
concludes with a review of the literature on these topics as they
relate to medical technologists.
Chapter III describes the design and methodology of the study.
It contains the research design, population, data collection,
instrumentation, and procedures.
Chapter IV contains the results of the study, including data
analysis, and discussion.
Chapter V includes a summary of the study, conclusions about the
y
findings, implications, and recommendations for additional research.


66
findings also indicated intrinsic factors were important for job
satisfaction and career commitment of medical technologists.
A recent study by Myers et al. (1982) related job dissatisfaction
in medical technology to the acquisition of unrealistic expectations
during clinical training. They claimed these expectations were later
translated into unmet professional role expectations and were
concentrated in the areas dealing with lack of upward mobility, respect
from other health practitioners, poor pay, and job stress.
Rogers (1983) examined the problem of job stress as it related to
job satisfaction in the hospital laboratory setting. She demonstrated
that stress was significantly related to job dissatisfaction, with 78%
of the highly stressed technologists in the sample also reporting high
levels of job dissatisfaction. Stress stemmed from job pressure
(workload and time pressure), job scope (having authority commensurate
with responsibilities), and rapport with management.
Recent studies into the causes of job dissatisfaction among medical
technologists have also addressed the related issue of the rising
attrition rates among this group of laboratory workers. Medical
technologists are not merely dissatisfied with their jobs, they are
disenchanted with the profession of medical technology and are defecting
to other professions.
Hajek and Blumberg (1982) surveyed 83 former medical technologists
to determine their reasons for leaving medical technology. Although
medical technology is dominated by women, the investigators found that
73% of the sample left the profession for nondomestic reasons. Job
related factors, particularly those related to self-actualization, were
cited as the principal causes of attrition. Participants expressed


APPENDIX A
LETTER TO CHIEF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST


88
Table 5. Work behavior types of medical technologists.
Type
Practicing
N
technologists
Percent
Former
N
technologists
Percent
N
Total
Percent
Energizer
4
4.3
4
21.1
8
7.2
Inducer
3
3.3
5
26.3
8
7.2
Concentrator
30
32.6
7
36.8
37
33.3
Producer
55
59.8
3
15.8
58
52.3
Of the remaining seven
subjects, four
(21.1%) were Energizers
and
three
(15.8%) were Producers.
Overall, the majority (52.3%) of technologists in the study were
Producers. One third (33.3%) were Concentrators and the remaining
subjects were equally divided between Energizer (7.2%) and Inducer
types (7.2%).
Concentrators and Producers work to maintain the organization in
its present form. They can be counted on to do the job and follow the
rules and regulations of the organization. Energizers and Inducers
seek to alter the system and effect change in the organization. Chapter
II contains detailed descriptions of the types.
Medical technology contains a higher proportion of Producers and
Concentrators than occurs in the general population. Approximately
60% of the general population are either Producers or Concentrators,
with Producers predominating. Energizers and Inducers represent an
additional 20% each (Bauch, 1981). The proportion of work behavior
types among former technologists, however, approximates these figures
more closely than the proportions of work behavior types among practicing
technologists.


41
lowest in the period immediately prior to leaving. For those who left
early, the perceived likelihood of finding an alternative job appeared
to influence the turnover decision. Results supported earlier research
that suggested behavioral intentions were a diagnostic precursor of
turnover.
Rusbult and Farrell (1983) also conducted a longitudinal study of
turnover using an investment model to predict turnover. They stated
that, in general, high rewards (high pay, autonomy, variety) and low
job costs (unexpected variations of workload, numerous deadlines,
inadequate resources, unfair promotion practices) generated higher
employee satisfaction. Job commitment increased with higher rewards,
lower costs, greater investment of resources (years of service,
nonvested benefits, work-related friendships), and less attractive
alternatives. The impact of rewards on job satisfaction and commitment
remained constant over time. However, the effects of job costs and
investments increased with time. Just prior to leaving, the job
commitment of leavers was best predicted by a combination of rewards,
costs, and alternatives.
In summary, numerous variables are involved in the decision to
withdraw. Some variables are organization-related (pay, promotion
policies), whereas others are related to the immediate work
environment (supervision, peer group relations). The content of the
job (nature of the job itself, autonomy, routinization, role clarity),
characteristics of workers (age, tenure, family responsibilities),
their attitudes about the job (overall job satisfaction, satisfaction
of expectations, organizational commitment), and economic factors
(availability of alternatives) influence the withdrawal decision.


116
work behavior type assessment, exploration of role expectations, and
coping strategies for the problems commonly encountered by medical
technologists in the work environment.
This study was confined to a limited geographic area. Future
studies could include technologists throughout the state.
The MPPP could be used in conjunction with McCormick's (1976)
task analysis inventories to match work behavior types to jobs or
occupations.
In conclusion, turnover is complex and multifaceted. No simple
solutions exist to reduce the incidence of this problem among medical
technologists. Knowledge of work behavior types may contribute to
improving the match between those aspiring to be medical technologists
and the work of medical technology.
/


64
supervisors and fewer opportunities for autonomy. There was a
significant positive relationship between authority distinction and
satisfaction with work. The author concluded medical technologists
preferred a cordial, supportive, well-structured work setting that
permitted them an opportunity to participate in making decisions related
to the goals, methods, and activities of their department.
The work of McMahan, Ivancewich, and Matteson (1977) confirmed
the findings of several other authors. Comparing administrative to
nonadministrative medical technologists, males to females, and hospital
to nonhospital workers, they examined the relationship of organizational
climate and job satisfaction. The organizational climate dimensions
of thrust (refers to management's desire to motivate employees to
accomplish the job through task oriented behavior), consideration and
esprit most significantly related to need satisfaction among all
categories of medical technologists.
Relating their interpersonal values to job satisfaction, Oliver
(1978) found that medical technologists who valued independence and
recognition were the least satisfied with their jobs. Those who valued
benevolence (doing things for others) and conformity were more
satisfied with their work. These findings are consistent with those of
Love (1977), Kami and Husted (1970), Jeswald (1971), Showery (1976),
and Matteson et al. (1977).
Harting and Oliver (1978) investigated the perceptions of
bench-level and supervisory medical technologists regarding their work
role and working conditions. The work role included the job itself,
rewards, helping relationships, interpersonal relations, and recognition.
Results were comparable to those found in earlier studies. All medical


33
routinization result in greater job stress; job stress, in turn, leads
to higher turnover (Porter & Steers, 1973).
Numerous studies (Farris, 1971; Lawler, 1973; Porter & Steers,
1973) indicate that high job autonomy results in low turnover.
However, job satisfaction may be an intervening variable (Price &
Mueller, 1981).
Weitz (1956) demonstrated that role clarity played a significant
part in turnover. In a well controlled study, he demonstrated that
applicants who had detailed information about their jobs prior to
employment remained with the organization longer than those who had
little or no information about their jobs. Macedonia (1969) and
Youngberg (1963) drew the same conclusions from their studies.
Lyons (1971) added that the relationship between role clarity and
turnover may depend on individual tolerances for job ambiguity.
Tolerant individuals are not affected by unclear roles, whereas those
low in tolerance for job ambiguity withdraw at a higher rate when roles
are not well defined.
Attitudinal Variables
Turnover has also been assessed in terms of attitudinal variables
designed to measure workers' perceptions and feelings about their jobs
and organizations. These variables include job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, satisfaction of expectations, and existence
of perceived conflicting standards.
Research has generally supported the premise that a satisfied
worker will remain with the organization and attend work regularly.
In 1973, Porter and Steers reviewed 60 studies on employee turnover.
They found consistent evidence that job satisfaction represented an


138
Mobley, W. Horner, S., & Hollingsworth, A. (1978). An evaluation of
precursors of hospital employee turnover. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 63, 408-414.
Motowidlo, W. (1983). Predicting sales turnover from pay satisfaction
and expectation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 484-459.
Mowday, R., Porter, L., & Steers, R. (1982). Employee-organization
linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover.
New York: Academic Press.
Muchinsky, P., & Tuttle, M. (1979). Employee turnover: An empirical
and methodological assessment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14,
43-77.
Mulkerne, D. (1980). Job satisfaction of fulltime professional nurses
employed in hemodialysis treatment facilities (Doctoral dissertation
University of Florida, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International,
42, 1494A. (University Microfilms No. 81-15659).
Myers, I. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator manual. Princeton,
NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Myers, I. (1976). Introduction to type. Gainesville, FL: Center
for Applications of Psychological Type, Inc.
Myers, K., Bronstein, R., & Vojir, C. (1982). Why are medical
technologists dissatisfied? Laboratory Medicine, 13 (6), 482-487.
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Nord, W. (1977). Job satisfaction reconsidered. American Psychologist,
32, 1026-1035.
Oliver, R. (1978). Interpersonal values and job satisfaction of
medical technologists. American Journal of Medical Technology, 44,
855-858.
Ouchi, W. (1981). Theory Z: How American business can meet the
Japanese challenge. New York: Avon Books.
Parasuraman, S. (1982). Predicting turnover intentions and turnover
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Porter, L., & Lawler, E. (1968). Managerial attitudes and performance.
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Porter, L., & Steers, R. (1973). Organization, work, and personal
factors in employee turnover and absenteeism. Psychological
Bulletin, 80 (2), 151-176.




MXJ"
CENTER FOR ALLIED
Ncxrrvan Hall
Uoivarsity of Florca
GaioesviUa. Fkxkia 3261 I
(90h) 392-2391
HEALTH INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL
December 6, I9A3
Dear Former Medical Technologist:
Tou have been selected to participate In a study of Job satisfaction
and attrition among medical technologists In Che State of Florida.
As a former medical technologist, you have valuable Insights Into medical
technology that nay be useful Co others considering a career In this field.
This study Is under the direction of Dr. Margaret Morgan, director of
Che CenCer of Allied Health Instructional Personnel, University of Florida.
The objectives are to:
1. Identify the work behavior types of practicing and former
cedlcal technologists.
2. Determine If work behavior type is related to Job satisfaction
and attrition.
3. Determine If (a)work environment (hospital coupared to nonhospital
laboratories or other fields) and (b)sex of the participant are
related Co job satisfaction.
4. Formulate Implications for career planning and academic advising
of students selecting the oedlcal technology curriculum.
5. Improve the selection of students into oedlcal technology
programs and the placencnt of technologists Into jobs.
This study Includes a questionnaire to obtain Information about you,
your foroer career as a oedlcal technologist, and your present career.
The Job Descriptive Index will oeasure job satisfaction In your present
career and Che Marcus Paul Placeoent Profile (MTrP) will be a means of
Identifying your work behavior type. You will be able to complete these
Instruments In about 20 minutes.
Your participation In this study Is Important. Please answer all questions
as honestly as you can. All responses will be kept In confidence. Results
will be reported statistically so thac Individuals or Institutions will not
be Identified.
Return the coopleted Instruments, to me In the addressed, stamped envelope
by Deceober IS, 1983. If you would like a computer analysis and explanation
of your particular work behavior type, put your name on the ,'TPP and I will
mall you a copy of your results.
Very truly yours,
Sybil Wellstood
Microbiologist,
VA Medical Center, Calnesvllle
129


I certify that I have read this study and that in ray opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
3 p J ~
Professor of Instructional Leadership
and Support
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
James Hensel
Professor of Instructional Leadership
and Support
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Herman Baer
Professor of Pathology
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
Division of Curriculum and Instruction in the College of Education
and to the Graduate School, and was accepted as partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
April 1984
Dean for Graduate Studies and
Research


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
This section contains results of the study and provides answers to
the research questions posed in Chapter III. The first section
describes the sample population and contains analyses of data relevant
to each question.
Description of Population
Practicing Medical Technologists
Table 2 summarizes the data on practicing technologists obtained
from the demographic questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were
females (N = 72, 78.3%). More than 60% had practiced medical technology
for more than 5 years and most (56.5%) worked in large (more than 400
beds), teaching hospitals.
When asked about their future in medical technology, 32.6% of the
respondents expected to leave and 22.8% were uncertain. Furthermore,
22.8% indicated they would most likely leave within the next year.
More than three fourths of the subjects (77.2%) felt it would be easy
for them to find other jobs.
Medical technology met the professional expectations of three
fourths (76.1%) of the sample. However, only one third indicated that,
if they had it to do again, they would select medical technology as a
career. '*
Fewer than one half (48.9%) of those surveyed felt they had
received adequate career information to make an informed choice about
81


35
constructs, and processes that are more important predictors of
withdrawal (Parasuraman, 1982).
Organizational commitment, involvement, and job attachment have
been the subjects of other investigations on turnover. Porter,
Steers, Mowday, and Boulian (1974) defined organizational commitment
as "the strength of an individual's identification with and involvement
in a particular organization" (p. 604). They found it was significantly
and negatively related to turnover. Intention to remain is a component
of commitment. Porter et al. (1974), Steers (1977), and Marsh and
Mannari (1977) found that commitment had a higher negative correlation
to turnover than job satisfaction.
Koch and Steers (1978) stated that job attachment was significantly
and negatively related to turnover. They defined job attachment as
"an attitudinal response to one's job." While related to organizational
commitment, job attachment focuses more specifically on the job or
occupation rather than on the organization.
Porter and Steers (1973) explained the diverse views on turnover
by a theoretical framework based on met expectations. They proposed
that each individual brings a unique set of expectations for a job to
the employment situation. Individuals are less likely to quit if they
perceive their expectations are being met on the job. The decision to
remain is based on a process of balancing rewards (received or
potential) with expectations. The studies of Farr et al. (1973),
Wanous (1973), and Federico et al. (1976) supported this position.
Availability of Alternatives
Limited research has been conducted on the role of available
alternatives in the turnover process. Woodard (1975-1976) found a


97
However, intensive care nurses who were judging types were more
satisfied than perceptive types.
Except for promotions, results of this study indicate that work
behavior type does not relate to medical technologists' satisfaction
with specific aspects of the job. These findings may, in part, relate
to the design of the instrument used to measure job satisfaction.
Although the JDI is regarded as the most reliable measure of job
satisfaction, it may not be sensitive to differences among work
behavior types. The specific items in each subscale might be more
revealing. For example, on the work subscale, Concentrators would
probably consider routine work as satisfying. Yet, a Yes response to
this item receives a score of zero.
Question 4: Do participants' work behavior types relate to
attrition or the intention to leave medical technology. The
investigator used a chi-square test to compare responses of the four
work behavior types to an intention to leave item (question 10) on the
demographic questionnaire. In order to increase the expected cell
frequencies, data for former technologists were combined with data for
individuals who definitely intended to leave within a year (response 1).
In Table 8, the chi-square results indicate a significant
relationship between work behavior type and intention to leave medical
technology or attrition. However, these results must be viewed
cautiously. Although two groups of respondents were combined to
increase the expected cell frequencies, more than 20% of the cells
were empty or had expected frequencies of less than 5. When this
situation occurs in a contingency table, results may be overestimated
and the validity of the analysis is weakened. The small numbers of


43
numbers of men in optimal assignments. Industrial psychologists
responded by developing a series of psychological tests to match men
to jobs (Siegel & Lane, 1982).
Recently, spiraling labor costs, increased demands for productivity,
international competition, rising costs of turnover, and the
heterogeneity and educational level of the work force have forced
many organizations to examine their personnel selection and placement
procedures (Cascio & Awad, 1981).
Industrial psychologists have responded to these needs by
developing new methods to improve selection and placement programs.
The methods focus on improving the predictive powers of managers in
selecting the individual who can satisfactorily perform a job or work
activity.
Traditionally, organizations relied heavily on results from
intelligence, personality, interest, aptitude, or achievement tests
in the selection process. However, the advent of civil rights
legislation and equal employment opportunity guidelines frightened
many organizations into abandoning testing completely (Luthans, 1981).
Interviewing has also been a traditional selection procedure.
Many consider it an art rather than a science (Luthans, 1981).
Evidence suggests that interviews are less valid than tests in
selection for the following reasons (Porter, Lawler, & Hackman, 1975):
1. The same material is not covered in each interview.
2. Different interviewers weigh the same information differently.
3. Except for intelligence or mental ability, interviewers
cannot assess traits accurately.
4. Interviewers make selection decisions early in the interview,
before the candidate has presented all information.


22
Weed, Mitchell, and Moffitt (1976) examined the relationship
between leadership style and job satisfaction. They distinguished
between employee-oriented leaders who established personal relationships
with employees and were pleasant and leaders who were task-oriented and
saw the group as a vehicle for achieving production targets.
Task-oriented leaders also initiated and organized the work. However,
Warr and Wall (1975) pointed out that task-oriented leaders were not
necessarily the opposites of employee-oriented leaders. Task-oriented
leaders also demonstrated concern for employees while organizing the
work.
House (1971) stated that different groups of workers wanted and
expected different styles of leadership. Unskilled and semi-skilled
workers resented the task-oriented supervisor. High-level workers
found this type of supervision satisfying because it helped them achieve
goals.
One of the major sources of discontent among workers is the
feeling that they have no say in what happens to them. A number of
studies have indicated that a democratic style of leadership increases
job satisfaction and cooperation (Coch & French, 1949; Startup &
Gruneberg, 1973). Workers usually indicate a desire to participate in
decision making, especially when the decision directly affects them
(Hespe & Wall, 1976). Employee participation in decision making not
only results in higher job involvement and greater commitment to the
decisions made, it also produces better decisions, develops group
cohesion, and establishes group norms (Argyle, 1972). The Japanese
have capitalized on participatory management theories. Their success


53
Submission, according to Marston (1927) is a "voluntary yielding
to whatever stimuli may be imposed. .It does not seem to overwhelm,
i
or dominate the subject by force, but rather brings about a spontaneous
lessening of the subject's resistance to it until the subject has
become less strong than the stimulus" (pp. 356-357). In other words,
Submission is a willingness or mutual feeling of warmth between the
person submitting and the person submitted to (Marston, 1928).
Submission is usually a pleasant emotion and may take the form of
consideration, service to others, selflessness, accommodation, and
generosity.
The fourth primary emotion described by Marston (1927) was
Inducement. It was the "active solicitation of attention and
stimulation. .calculated to reinforce submission reaction in order
to induce further submission from another individual" (p. 539).
Inducement is also a "central release of additional motor energy
directed toward drawing forth or inducing submission responses from
another individual" (p. 361).
In 1928, Marston's definition of Inducement stated that
Inducement consists of an increase of self, and making of
the self more completely allied with the stimulus person,
for the purpose of establishing control over that person's
behavior. (p. 273)
Individuals who gain voluntary submission from others exhibit
Inducement behavior. This behavior may take the form of persuasion,
personal charm, friendliness, seduction, or subtle manipulation.
Commercial advertising is a prime example of inducement behavior in
our culture.


58
and Compliance, Bauch described work behavior types as Energizer,
Inducer, Concentrator, and Producer.
Bauch (1981) defined these work types as follows:
1. Energizer type workers actively engaged in getting
results. They are assertive, impatient with detail,
and desire direct answers and actions from associates.
They are also creative and have many ideas for improving
the work process (p. 16).
2. Inducer type workers involve others as they pursue
objectives. They are sensitive to the needs of their
associates and have optimistic attitudes as they
influence others. They are good at using group processes
to accomplish goals, being able to clarify ideas for
themselves and others. They place more emphasis on
people and interpersonal relations than on the
organization (p. 16).
3. The Concentrator types can apply their skills in orderly
ways resisting distractions. They are steady workers,
and are loyal to the organization, showing great patience.
They are systematic, effective, and help maintain
moderation in these situations (p. 17).
4. Producers strive for quality as they carefully follow
procedures, guidelines, or standards. They can support
their decisions and actions with irrefutable documentation.
Producers expect their directions but they can be relied
on to meet their deadlines, follow orders and carry out
their assignments with precision (p. 17).
Figure 5 presents the MPPP work behavior traits characteristic of
each work behavior type. These traits are used in the MPPP in the form
of 24 sets of forced choice items. In each set, subjects indicate
which term is most descriptive of their work behavior and the term which
least represents their work behavior.
A computer analysis of the responses generates the individual's
work behavior profile in terms of one of the four major work behavior
types. It also provides a more detailed description of the individual's
strengths and tendencies by identifying one of 18 possible types.
These descriptions reflect varying intensities of work behavior along


44
5. Interviewers give more weight to negative than to favorable
information.
Selection problems inherent in testing and interviewing have led
organizations to assessment centers for assistance in hiring and
promoting people. The assessment center is a holistic approach to
selection and uses multiple assessment techniques and multiple
assessors. It also demonstrates high validity and selection fairness
for men, women, minorities, and nonminorities. The center method has
been successful and cost effective for organizations (Cascio & Awad,
1981).
Assessment techniques include in-basket exercises, leaderless
group discussions, paper and pencil ability tests, simulations,
personality questionnaires, projective tests, and background interviews.
Assessors are trained to standardize interpretations of candidates'
behaviors and go through the training as participants before rating
others. Selection decisions are derived from the pooled judgments of
all assessors.
The dimensions, attributes, characteristics, or qualities that
are evaluated are derived from an analysis of relevant job behaviors.
McCormick and his associates (1964) analyzed characteristics common to
a variety of jobs in terms of worker activities (job content) and
prerequisites (attributes). They developed the Position Analysis
Questionnaire (PAQ) to rate job elements for different jobs. The PAQ
consists of 194 job elements that were reduced to 30 job dimensions
which, in turn, were subsumed under six major activity categories:
1. Information input (where and how the worker gets the
information used for the job).


CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS
Problem and Procedures
Job dissatisfaction and attrition are major concerns in medical
technology. In the interest of providing new insights into these
problems, the investigator examined the relationship among work
behavior types, job satisfaction, and attrition among a selected group
of Florida medical technologists. The information generated by this
study could be used for counseling and matching the right person to the
right job.
Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions:
1. What are the work behavior types of medical technologists?
2. Does a relationship exist between the work behavior type of
the technologist and overall job satisfaction?
3. Does a relationship exist between work behavior type and
specific aspects of job satisfaction?
4. Do participants' work behavior types relate to attrition or
the intention to leave medical technology?
5. Do medical technologists working in hospital laboratories
differ from those working in nonhospital laboratories or
/ other fields in overall job satisfaction?
6. Do medical technologists working in hospital laboratories
differ in specific aspects of job satisfaction from those
working in nonhospital laboratories or other fields?
7. Does a significant relationship exist between the sex of the
participant and job satisfaction?
8. Does a significant relationship exist between the sex of the
participant and attrition or the intention to leave medical
technology?
109


36
negative relationship between unemployment and turnover and a position
relationship between available jobs and withdrawal rates. Locke
(1976) and Price (1977) also documented the relationship between
economic factors and turnover. Mobley et al. (1978) stated that the
expectancy of finding an acceptable alternative job was significantly
and positively correlated to intention to quit but not to actual
resigning. However, intention to quit was significantly and positively
related to turnover.
Turnover Models
Until recently, most of the studies on turnover have been limited
and have failed to provide a comprehensive view of the withdrawal
process. Mobley (1982), Mowday, Porter, and Steers (1982), and Steers
and Mowday (1981) have advocated the development of process-oriented
models of turnover based on multivariate analyses and longitudinal
research.
In 1958, March and Simon proposed a participation model. This
model serves as a basis for many current theoretical models of
turnover that specify the various processes underlying the decision
to withdraw. According to the model, the decision to leave an
organization depends on the individual's perception of the desirability
of movement and ease of movement. The level of job satisfaction
influences desirability to leave. Available alternatives, the current
economy, and the personal characteristics of the individual influence
ease of movement.
Price (1977) extended the March-Simon model by adding a variety
of variables to explain turnover. He suggested that five organizational
factors determined job satisfaction. These were pay, integration


CHAPTER III
DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter includes the design and methodology of the study.
In it are the research design, population, description, data
collection, instrumentation, and data analysis procedures.
Design
The investigator used a descriptive research design to investigate
job satisfaction, work behavior type, attrition, and demographic
characteristics of practicing and former medical technologists in the
state of Florida. Specifically, she sought answers to the following
questions:
1. What are the work behavior types of medical technologists
in Florida?
2. Does a relationship exist between the work behavior type
of the technologist and overall job satisfaction?
3. Does a relationship exist between work behavior type and
specific aspects of job satisfaction?
4. Do participants' work behavior types relate to attrition
or the intention to leave medical technology?
5. Do medical technologists working in hospital laboratories
differ from those working in nonhospital laboratories or
other fields in overall job satisfaction?
6. Do medical technologists working in hospital laboratories
differ on specific aspects of job satisfaction from those
working in nonhospital laboratories or other fields?
7. Does a relationship exist between the sex of the participant
and job satisfaction?
72


45
2. Mental processes (decision making and information processing).
3. Output (the physical activities performed by the worker and
tools or devices used).
4. Interpersonal activities (communicating instructions,
supervising others).
5. Job context in which the work is performed (stresses, hazards).
6. Miscellaneous aspect of the work activities (work schedule,
clothing worn).
Job analysis methods and new assessment techniques are an attempt
to bring the individual, job, and organization together for a
potentially rewarding relationship. When the matching process is
successful, it is mutually beneficial to the individual, organization,
and society.
Educational Psychology
Although industrial psychologists focus on people who are already
working and educational psychologists concentrate on people in school,
their interests often overlap. Educational psychologists, however,
place more emphasis on career development and planning, occupational
choice, and career counseling than their industrial counterparts.
The need and demand for career development and planning have never
been greater than they are today. Employees realize that their careers
impact not only on the quality of their work life but on the quality of
life in general. Organizations recognize the effect of the quality of
life on employee job satisfaction, performance, and turnover (Luthans,
1981).
Career decision making has also become complex. Social and legal
changes have opened up a range of career alternatives and opportunities


125
i
Koucinc nature of cite work.
Supervisors 1 worked under.
Lack of career advancement in medical technology.
Lack of status and recognition of medical techno logIsts by the public and
other health care practitioners.
Job setting, working conditions.
Stressful nature of work.
Inadequate salary.
I was not an integral port of the health care team.
I returned to school to prepare for another profession
Personal reasons unrelated to the work or profession of medical technology
1 Ml overtrained for the job I was doing.
10. Would you return to work as a medical technologist?
a)Yes
k) Ho
c) Not certain
11. Would you recommend medical technology as a career to someone else?
a) Would strongly recommend.
b) Would recommend with reservations.
c) Would probably recommend lc.
d) Would strongly advise against It.
U. Which of Che following factors were most influential In your choice of medical
technology as a career? From the list of items, select the 5 most Important
factors; Chen rank chose factors In
for the most Important factor and
Job securlcy
Job opportunities
Interest in science 6 medicine
Availability of an educational
program
Desire to help sick people
* Expected salary
the order of their importance, using "1"
i" for the least Important.
Influence by family
Influence by friends
School guidance program
Frlor work or volunteer
experience In a lab.
Ocher (specify)
13. Do you feel Chat you had adequate Information about yourself (skills, person
ality traits. Interests, values.) ,n knowledgeable career decision!
a) Sore than adequacc Information.
b) Adequate Information.
c) Some Information but more would have been helpful.
d) Very little Information.
11. What Is your age!
*) Under -25 years
b) 25-35
c) 36-45
d) 46-55
e) Over 55 years


93
The Energizer would find few outlets for new ideas, solving
problems, or bringing about change. However, Energizers and Inducers
would probably find avenues for expressing their work behavior traits
as administrative or teaching technologists.
Former technologists work in a variety of occupations. Therefore,
it is reasonable to find that the proportions of work behavior types
among this group approximate those of the general population.
Question 2; Does a relationship exist between the work behavior
type of the technologist and overall job satisfaction? The researcher
used a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to answer this question.
The findings are reported in a summary table (Table 7). A significant
relationship occurred between work behavior type and the overall job
satisfaction score of the subject.
The investigator used Tukey's test of Honestly Significant
Differences (HSD) to determine the source of variance between the work
behavior types. The mean scores of Inducers differed significantly
from scores of Producers and indicated higher levels of overall job
satisfaction. There were no significant differences among the total
JDI scores of the other work behavior types.
Glenn (1982) found no significant relationship between overall job
satisfaction, measured by a Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, and work
behavior types of vocational education administrators. French and
Rezler (1976) could not correlate overall job satisfaction with
personality type among medical technologists. Williams (1976), however,
determined that medical technologists with introvert personality types
as measured by the MBTI were, in general, less satisfied with their


CHAPTER
Page
III DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 1 72
Design 72
Population 73
Data Collection 73
Instrumentation 76
Job Descriptive Index 76
Marcus Paul Placement Profile 77
Questionnaires for Practicing and Former Medical
Technologists 79
Data Treatment and Analysis 79
IV RESULTS 81
Description of Population 81
Practicing Medical Technologists 81
Former Medical Technologists 83
Research Questions 87
Chapter Summary 107
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 109
Problem and Procedures 109
Conclusions 112
Implications 113
Recommendations 115
APPENDICES
A LETTER TO CHIEF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS 118
B INSTRUMENTS 120
C LETTER TO PRACTICING MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS 127
D LETTER TO FORMER MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS . 129
LIST OF REFERENCES 130
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 143
/
iv


141
Taylor, F. (1911). The principles of scientific management. New York:
Harper.
Terkel, S. (1972). Working: People talk about what they do all day
and how they feel about what they do. New York: Pantheon Books.
Tiedman, D. (1961). Decision and vocational development: A paradigm
and its implications. Personnel Guidance Journal, 40, 15-21.
Toeffler, A. (1980). The third wave. New York: William Morrow
Company.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (1982). Occupational outlook
handbook. Washington, DC : Government Printing Office.
Van Zelst, R. (1952). Validation of a sociometric regrouping
procedure. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 47, 229-301.
Vollmer, H., & Kinney, J. (1955). Age, education and job satisfaction.
Personnel, 32, 38-43.
Vroom, V. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.
Walker, C., & Guest, R. (1952). The man on the assembly line. Harvard
Business Review, 30, 71-83.
Wanous, J. (1973). Effects of a realistic preview on job acceptance,
job attitudes, and job survival. Journal of Applied Psychology,
58, 327-332.
/
Wanous, J. (1977). Organizational entry: Newcomers moving from out
side to insider. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 601-618.
Wanous, J., & Lawler, E. (1972). Measurement and meaning of job
satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 95-105.
Warr, P., & Wall, T. (1975). Work and well being. Harmondsworth:
Penguin.
Waters, L., Roach, D., & Waters, C. (1976). Estimate of future
tenure, satisfaction and biographical variables as predictors
of termination. Personnel Psychology, 29, 57-60.
Weed, S., Mitchell, T., & Moffitt, W. (1976). Leadership style,
subordinate personality and task type as predictors of performance
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61, 58-66.
Weissenberg, P., & Gruenfield, L. (1968). Relationship between job
satisfaction and job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology,
52, 469-473.


42
Several researchers have developed models incorporating these variables
to explain and predict the turnover process.
Organizations and individuals have also recognized that matching
the right person to the right job influences job satisfaction,
productivity, and turnover. Research on person/job matching and work
behavior type will be reviewed in the next section.
Work Behavior Type
Research on work behavior type itself has been limited. Therefore,
this portion of the review will focus on research related to person/job
matching and work behavior type. It will include a definition of work
behavior, contributions of industrial and educational psychology to
person/job matching, theories of vocational choices, history of work
behavior types, and development of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.
Definition
According to Neff (1969), adult work behavior is "the complex
product of a long series of learned and habitual styles of perceiving
and coping with demands of the environment" (p. 72). Coping behaviors
consolidate to form a particular "work style."
Industrial Psychology
Many researchers have claimed that work behavior is a distinctive
area of human behavior and, therefore, requires separate theories to
explain the behavior of people at work (Neff, 1969; Bass & Barrett,
1974). The field of industrial psychology evolved, specifically, to
address the issues, problems, and behaviors of people in the work
environment.
During World War I, industrial psychologists made major
contributions to testing. The Army needed a fast way to place large


17
their perceived importance in satisfying various needs. Workers also
assign a valence to the expectancy or their perception of the likelihood
the outcome will actually materialize. Motivation is a product of the
valence of expectancy times the valence of the outcome.
Porter and Lawler (1968) expanded and refined Vroom's model. They
developed a multivariable model to explain the complex relationship
among motivation, satisfaction, and performance. They claimed that
the amount of effort or motivation expended by an employee depended on
the interaction between the value of the reward for them and the
perceived effort-reward probability. Effort leads to performance and
the level of performance depends on the employee's abilities, traits,
and role expectations as well as the amount of effort expended. The
rewards that follow performance and how they are perceived affect job
satisfaction.
According to the Porter and Lawler model, job satisfaction
depends on the extent to which rewards measure up to the individual's
perceived equitable level of those rewards. In contrast to previous
models, in this model the theorists recognize that job satisfaction
is only partially determined by actual rewards received. The
employee1s perceptions of what the rewards should be for a given
level of performance also play a significant role in satisfaction.
Furthermore, this model states that satisfaction depends on performance
and not the reverse.
Equity theorists are also process theorists who examine job
satisfaction in terms of the equity in treatment workers perceive they
receive compared to the treatment others receive in a similar job.
Adams (1965) argued that the degree of equity or inequity perceived by


18
an employee is compared to other workers and forms the basis for job
satisfaction and motivation. Employees contribute Inputs (skills,
personal traits, and experiences) to a job. They receive Outputs
(salary, promotions, praise) from the work. They form a ratio of
Inputs to Outputs and compare it to other workers. The ratio must be
perceived as equal for the worker to be satisfied.
Recently, attribution theory and locus of control have become
important for understanding job satisfaction. Attribution theorists
claim that an individual's perceived behavior is determined by
internal forces (personal attributes such as ability, effort,
fatigue) and external forces (environmental attributes such as rules
or the weather). People behave differently when they perceive internal
as compared to external attributes (Luthans, 1981).
Locus of control explains work behavior in terms of employees'
perceptions of internally or externally controlled outcomes.
Perceived locus of control has an impact on job performance and
satisfaction. Mitchell, Smyser, and Weed (1975) tested the
attribution/locus of control model and found that internally
controlled employees are generally more satisfied with their jobs
than employees who perceive external control.
Intrinsic Factors and Job Satisfaction
Herzberg et al.(1959) were the earliest investigators to point
out the importance of changes in the actual job performed as a
necessary factor for increasing job satisfaction. Success, recognition,
appreciation of skills, the feeling of doing something worthwhile, and
job involvement are content or intrinsic factors of the actual job
performed that affect job satisfaction.


47
Super's (1953) theory of vocational development was based on the
premise that people selected occupations consistent with their
self-concept. The self-concept developed in the individual over time
and passed through many stages of formation, differentiation, and
articulation. Using a longitudinal research design, Super attempted
to assess the components of the self-concept at different points in
time and to correlate these components to the career patterns that
emerged.
Using psychoanalytic theory, Roe (1956) hypothesized that career
development and occupational identity formed during early childhood.
The quality of the parent-child relationship had a strong influence on
the development process. She devised a typological classification of
occupations according to the amount of involvement with people or
objects demanded by the occupation. She also classified types of early
parent-child relationships. Positive parent-child relationships
predisposed the child to enter person-oriented occupations, whereas a
negative family atmosphere led to a nonperson-oriented occupation.
In 1964, Roe revised her original hypothesis and said vocational
development was more complex and vocational behaviors developed
independently of early childhood experiences.
Holland (1959) developed a typology theory of career choice.
His theory is based on the assumption that most people in our culture
can be classified into one of six types: realistic, investigative,
artistic, social, enterprising, or conventional. He also identified
six types of environments: realistic, investigative, artistic, social,
enterprising, and conventional. Individuals search for the environment
that will allow them to exercise their abilities and values and


inadequate career counseling prior to choosing medical technology;
three fourths indicated information about work behavior types would have
helped in career decision making.
Technologists were predominantly Producers and Concentrators.
These types occurred more frequently than in the general population.
Work behavior types among former technologists approximated those of the
general population. Findings are consistent with earlier research on
personality types among medical technologists.
Results indicate that work behavior type relates to overall and
specific aspects of job satisfaction. Inducers indicate higher levels
of overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with promotions than other
types. The relationship between work behavior type and attrition is
equivocable. However, Energizers and Inducers leave at higher rates
than Producers and Concentrators.
Former technologists are more satisfied with their jobs, work,
pay, promotions, and co-workers than practicing technologists in
hospital or nonhospital laboratories. No differences exist in overall
job satisfaction or specific aspects of it among practicing technologists.
Although the sex of the participant does not affect job satisfaction,
sex relates to attrition and may stem from poor salaries received by
technologists compared to others with comparable education.
/
Attrition from medical technology can be predicted from age, sex,
years experience, satisfaction with promotions, Producer and Energizer
scores. These variables explain 30.4% of the variance in attrition.
vi


96
satisfied with promotions than Concentrators and Producers. Tukey's
test, however, failed to reveal significant differences among the work
i
behavior types on the pay scale.
In Glenn's (1982) study, Energizers' scores correlated with
opportunity for promotion and recognition for accomplishment. This
work behavior type also enjoyed the challenge of large volumes of work
and unanticipated job tasks. Inducers were satisfied by physical
working conditions that allowed contact with fellow workers, a work
volume that allowed time for interactions with others, and participation
in meetings. Concentrators cited opportunities for promotion, minimal
amounts of supervision, and recognition for accomplishments as job
satisfiers. They did not enjoy large volumes of work or unanticipated
tasks because these factors might hinder them in meeting deadlines and
planning their work. Producers favored secure and secluded physical
working conditions. They also enjoyed attending meetings in order to
obtain information and guidelines to help them plan and carry out their
work assignments.
According to French and Rezler (1976), the relationships between
personality type and specific aspects of job satisfaction among medical
technologists were questionable. Introverted administrators were more
satisfied with pay than extraverted administrators, whereas extraverted
educators were more satisfied with working conditions than introverts.
Williams (1976) concluded that extravert medical technologists
were less satisfied with promotions than introverts. Feeling types
were more satisfied with pay and co-workers than thinking types.
Clitsome (1975) reported a difference in work satisfaction scores
among general staff nurses of the sensing-thinking-judging type.


I
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Sybil Auriel Wellstood was born and grew up in New York City.
She attended the city's public schools and graduated from Brooklyn
College (City University of New York) with a Bachelor of Science degree
in biology.
After graduation she worked as a microbiologist at the Connecticut
State Department of Health and, later, as a junior bacteriologist at
Coney Island Hospital, Brooklyn.
In 1970 she moved to Florida and attended graduate school at the
University of South Florida. As a teaching assistant, she taught
courses in basic and advanced microbiology. In 1973 she received the
Master of Arts degree in microbiology.
From 1973 to 1976 she worked as a microbiologist at the University
of Florida. Since 1976 she has been a microbiologist at the VA Medical
Center, Gainesville, where she heads the clinical microbiology section
of Laboratory Services. In that capacity she assumes a variety of
supervisory, administrative, technical, teaching, and advisory functions.
She is a clinical faculty member of the Department of Medical Technology,
/
University of Florida.
She has published several articles in professional journals and
received second prize in the 1982 Medical Laboratory Observer Essay
Contest. She is a member of the American Society for Microbiology and
Phi Sigma, a biology honor society. She also serves on the Clinical
Executive Board of the Association of VA Clinical Microbiologists.
143


26
Self-esteem is another personality dimension related to job
satisfaction. Warr and Wall (1975) argued that job satisfaction
declines when an individual's self-esteem is threatened. This may
occur when workers are unable to apply skills or are placed in
situations where they compare poorly with other workers.
Korman's (1977) findings on self-esteem and job satisfaction were
comparable to Steer's results for high achievers and job satisfaction.
He demonstrated that those with high self-esteem were satisfied when
they performed well on the job. However, these individuals also
expected rewards for high performance and experienced job dissatisfaction
when they did not receive those rewards.
Many studies have focused on the relationship between personality
type, measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and job
satisfaction. The MBTI is an instrument designed by Myers (1962) to
identify personality type according to dimensions of extraversin (E)
or introversion (I), sensing (S) or intuition (N), thinking (T) or
feeling (F), and judging (J) or perception (P).
Brown's (1973) study of occupational therapists in Florida,
William's (1975) study of medical technologists, and Kuhn's (1981)
study of teachers revealed that extraverts were more satisfied with
their overall careers than introverts. Fellers (1974), French and
Rezler (1976), and Glenn (1982) found no relationship between
personality type and job satisfaction among dietitians, medical
technologists, and vocational education administrators. In 1975,
Clitsome studied job satisfaction and turnover of intensive care (ICU)
and general staff nurses. Among ICU nurses, judging types were more


51
control or is expressed in the wrong environment. Dominant people in
authority positions may create dissatisfaction and hostility among
subordinates.
Compliance is also a basic emotional response and refers to
"control (but not inhibition) of tonic motor discharge reinforcement
by a phasic reflex? (Marston, 1927, p. 350). It may also mean taking
an interest in the stimuli and "is not to be confused with inaction
or inhibition" (p. 351). Marston (1928) subsequently defined Compliance
as a
decrease of the motor self to let an opponent move the
organism as if by will; either passively, by making the
self give up some dominant activity, or some anti-dominant
way. It is a feeling of acceptance of an object of force
as inevitably just what it is, followed by self-yielding
sufficient to bring about harmonious readjustment of self
to object. (p. 128)
Compliant behavior results from recognizing or believing that
outside forces are imminently stronger. It may occur when individuals
are afraid, startled, experience sudden change, or voluntarily
surrender. Compliance may also result from an intense enduring or
repeated environment stimulus. Compliance may be a pleasant experience
when it allows individuals to be one with God or nature, to feel empathy,
or to be an effective team member.
Dominance and Compliance form one axis of Marston's two-axis
model. Figure 2 illustrates this model. Although individuals display
these emotions in varying degrees at various times, there is always an
effort to maintain a balance between the extremes of each axis.
Differences in behavior among individuals relate to the differences in
the point of balance on the axis.


2
and sufficient wages to live comfortably, according to the current
standard of living (Yankelovich, 1974). When these demands and
expectations clash with the realities of the world of work,
disappointment, dissatisfaction, and turnover may follow.
Inadequate career planning and improper placement of people in
jobs are central to the problems of job dissatisfaction and turnover.
Poor use of human resources often leads to a mismatch between the
individual and the job. Effective person/job matching is a major
challenge for business, industry, and education today.
This study was designed to provide new insights into the
problems of people/job matching in medical technology. The purpose
was to investigate the relationship among work behavior types, job
satisfaction, and attrition among a selected group of Florida medical
technologists.
Background
Since the 1970s, medical technology has been expanding to meet
the growing demands of the nation's health care system. Technological
advances have created needs for additional technologists to perform
the increasing numbers of laboratory tests available to physicians for
diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. Population growth,
especially for the elderly, greater health awareness by the public,
and widespread availability of health insurance have also, indirectly,
influenced personnel requirements for medical technology. Employment
opportunities will continue to spiral. Projections for the 1980s
indicate that the number of medical technology positions will increase


103
Median scores on each subscale of the JDI were calculated for
practicing and former technologists in this study. Table 10 contains
a comparison of these median scores with national norms based on male
subjects with 15 or more years of education. With the exception of
the supervision subscale, median scores for practicing technologists
fell at or below the 55th percentile in comparison to the norm group.
Former technologists scored at or above the 65th percentile on all but
the work subscale. Compared to the technologists in Broski and Cook's
(1978) study, practicing technologists scored lower on the work,
promotion, and pay scales and higher on supervision and co-workers.
Question 7: Does a relationship exist between the sex of the
participant and job satisfaction? The mean total job satisfaction
score for males was 163.03 with a standard deviation of 46.51. Female
subjects had a mean total score of 153.22 with a standard deviation of
41.19. Results of a t test indicated there were no significant
differences between subjects' means (t = 1.08, t Prob. = .28).
Findings on the relationship between sex and job satisfaction have
been inconsistent (Gruneberg, 1979). When other variables were
Table 10. Normative comparisons of technologists' median scores on
the JDI subscales.
JDI subscale
/
Practicing
Median
technologists
Percentile
Former
Median
technologists
Percentile
Work
28
10
42
40
Supervision
48
65
54
99
Pay
21
15
42
65
Promotion
6
15
32
65
Co-workers
48
55
51
75


99
to medical technology, but those who do enter the field may leave at
higher rates than Concentrators and Producers.
Question 5: Do medical technologists working in hospital
laboratories differ in overall job satisfaction from those working in
nonhospital laboratories or other fields? A one-way ANOVA compared the
mean total job satisfaction scores of former medical technologists,
practicing technologists employed in hospitals, and practicing
technologists working in nonhospital laboratories. Tukey's test
analyzed group differences.
Total job satisfaction scores were related to work setting (Table 9).
Former medical technologists were more satisfied with their jobs than
either group of practicing technologists. Practicing technologists did
not differ in overall job satisfaction. The investigator will discuss
these findings below with results for Question 6.
Question 6; Do medical technologists working in hospital
laboratories differ in specific aspects of job satisfaction from
those working in nonhospital laboratories or other fields? A series
of one-way ANOVAs between the subscales of the JDI and work setting
determined that the groups differed significantly on the work, pay,
promotion, and co-worker scales of the JDI (Table 9). Tukey's test
indicated that former medical technologists were more satisfied than
practicing technologists with work, pay, and promotions. Tukey's test
did not reveal differences between the groups on the co-worker scale.
Hospital and nonhospital technologists did not differ on any scale.
Showery (1976) reported that employees in private laboratories, as
a whole, were less dissatisfied with their jobs than those in hospitals.
He hypothesized that private laboratories were better places to work


24
Researchers have considered the influence of age, sex, educational
level, race, cultural background, and personality. However, results
from this area of job satisfaction research have not been as consistent
or reliable as results from other areas.
Herzberg, Mausner, Peterson, and Campbell (1957) found a U-shaped
relationship between age and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction
starts out high in the young worker, declines rapidly, and then rises
again with increasing age. Supposedly, as individuals age they adjust
more easily to work and life situations. Hunt and Saul (1975)
related age and job satisfaction to the sex of the worker and found
significant relationship only in males. Glenn, Taylor, and Weaver
(1977) found a significant relationship in both sexes. Hulin and
Smith (1965) disagreed with the U-shaped relationship between age and
satisfaction. They found that satisfaction declined five years
before retirement. At this stage of a worker's career, opportunities
for growth and promotion usually declined.
Studies relating sex to job satisfaction have also been
contradictory. According to traditional thinking, men and women had
different attitudes and values about work and jobs. Schuler (1975)
stated that women were more interested in the social aspects of the
job, whereas men were interested in self-expression and promotion
opportunities. Herzberg et al. (1957) also reported that males
regarded the intrinsic factors of the job as more important than
females did. Brief and Oliver (1976) found no significant sex-related
differences in work attitudes, particularly when other variables
(occupational level, salary, career orientation) were statistically
controlled.


68
Inadequate career planning by students and incomplete selection
criteria for program admission may, later, contribute to technologists'
job dissatisfaction and turnover. Students may select medical
technology as a career based on misinformation as to what the occupation
actually involves and requires. Educators may select students into
programs on the basis of criteria that do not relate to on-the-job
performance.
In 1975, Holstrom surveyed freshman medical technology majors
about the factors influencing them to select medical technology as a
career. Students cited the availability of jobs, high earnings, a
chance for career advancement, and prestige of the occupation as major
reasons for choosing medical technology. Yet, earlier Jeswald (1971)
and Kami and Husted (1970) reported that clinical practitioners felt
medical technologists were not held in esteem and did not have
opportunities for career advancement.
Zufall (1976) determined that the majority of medical technology
students made a career choice based on information they had obtained
from visiting hospital programs, talking to students enrolled in
programs, writing to national sources, and visiting an employment site.
Parents, friends, and health professionals were the most influential
persons involved in student career decisions while counselors played a
minor role.
Youse and Clark (1977) demonstrated that medical technology students
had little understanding of the qualities and interests needed for
medical technology and did not have accurate perceptions of what the
profession entailed. These investigators developed a vocational
competency test to find out how much entering students knew about


34
important influence on turnover. The average correlation between these
variables was .25. Although the magnitude of the relationship was
small, it was consistent.
Vroom (1964) described the relationship between turnover and job
satisfaction in terms of his expectancy/valence theory. He theorized
that the decision to leave was a function of the difference in
strength between forces to remain and forces to leave. The force to
remain was reflected in job satisfaction levels. The force to leave
was influenced by the valence of outcomes individuals could not attain
unless they left their present position as well as by the expectancy
that these outcomes could be attained elsewhere.
Hulin's (1966) study is a notable example of research relating
job satisfaction and turnover. Using the JDI, he obtained baseline
job satisfaction measures on all female clerical workers who participated
in the study. Each subject who subsequently left the company during
the next 12 months was matched to two "stayers" along several
demographic variables. The leavers had significantly lower mean job
satisfaction scores than the stayers. Hulin concluded he could predict
leavers, at least on a group basis, using job satisfaction measures.
In 1968, Hulin repeated the study in the same company and obtained
similar results. However, scores on four of the five scales of the JDI
had risen and the turnover rate dropped more than 50%. He linked these
changes to new salary and promotion policies instituted by the company
after the first study.
Recent literature suggests that job satisfaction is indirectly
related to turnover. It may act as a precursor for other behaviors,


31
and turnover (Koch & Steers, 1978; Kraut, 1975; Mobley, Horner, &
Hollingsworth, 1978) .
These inconsistencies may be attributed to other variables that
mediate the effects of pay satisfaction on turnover. Mobley (1977)
and Mobley et al. (1978) reported that intention to quit and intention
to search for another job were the direct antecedents of turnover.
Pay satisfaction may be more correlated to these variables than to
actual turnover.
Motowidlo (1983) examined the relationship between pay
satisfaction, amount of pay, expectations of receiving more satisfying
pay in another job, withdrawal intentions, and actual quitting.
Satisfaction with pay explained 43% of the variance in withdrawal
intentions beyond that explained by age, tenure, general satisfaction,
amount of pay received, and pay expectation. Although the amount of
pay received was weakly correlated to turnover, results suggest it is
strongly associated with pay satisfaction which, in turn, is related to
withdrawal intentions.
Saleh, Lee and Prien (1965) demonstrated the importance of
supervisory behavior as a variable in turnover among hospital nurses.
Nurses cited lack of consideration from supervisors as a major reason
for leaving. Ley (1966), Hulin (1968), and Graen and Ginsburgh (1977)
obtained similar results for production and clerical workers.
Bassett (1967) related turnover to the amount of supervisory
experience. Employees supervised by individuals with less than 5 years
of management experience withdrew at a higher rate than employees with
more experienced supervisors.