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Developmental guidance for school success skills

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Developmental guidance for school success skills a comparison of modeling and coaching
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Cuthbert, Marjorie Irene, 1947-
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English
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viii, 216 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Classrooms ( jstor )
Coaching ( jstor )
Control groups ( jstor )
Learning ( jstor )
School counselors ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Self control ( jstor )
Student attitudes ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Educational counseling -- Psychological aspects ( lcsh )
Students -- Attitudes ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1987.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 209-215).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Marjorie Irene Cuthbert.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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ocm16881836
00947038 ( ALEPH )

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DEVELOPMENTAL GUIDANCE FOR
SCHOOL SUCCESS SKILLS:
A COMPARISON OF MODELING AND COACHING











By

MARJORIE IRENE CUTHBERT


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMEeTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1987














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to extend sincere thanks to Dr. Robert Myrick for

serving as chairman of my ccmnittee. His professional suggestions and

personal encouragement were invaluable to me and are greatly

appreciated. I would also like to thank Dr. Larry Loesch for serving on

my committee. His careful attention to detail and high expectations

elicited my best efforts in all aspects of this study. I also would

like to thank Dr. Cecil Mercer. His support and helpful input

substantially contributed to the study. Thanks are also extended to

Drs. Athol Packer and Esther Morgan for serving on the camnittee.

I would also like to thank Dr. Wiley Dixon, Director of Guidance,

Alachua County, Florida, Public Schools, for his support of the project

and his sincere interest in the results. Special thanks also go to the

school counselors who presented the units and carefully carried out the

research procedures.


Additional thanks are extended (a) to my husband, Bruce, for his

constant love and support throughout the entire graduate degree; (b) to

my daughter, Kristina, for her unselfish help and sincere desire to

assist me; (c) to my son, Scott, for his continuous belief in his

mother; (d) to my mother- and father-in law for their assistance with

data entry and help with the children; and (e) to my loving mother and

late father who willingly made innumerable sacrifices for me and who

always thought I could do anything I put my mind to doing.

ii















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKIM LEDGME2NTS. .. .

LIST OF TABLES ... ...............

ABSTRACT .......... .. .............


ii

v

vii


CHAPTERS


I INTRODUCTION ........ ..............


Theoretical Perspective .
Statement of the Problem..
Need for the Study .....
Purpose of the Study .
Research Questions. .
Definition of Terms .
Overview of the Remainder of


the Study.


II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. . .

School Success Skills . .
Developmental Classroom Guidance. . .
Target Students .. .................
Modeling. . . .
Coaching.........................
Outcome Measures...................
Summary ................... ...

III METHODOLOGY ....................


Population .............
Sampling Procedure .
Resultant Sample . .
Research Design . .
Treatment Descripticn .
Assessment Techniques .
Hypotheses ..............
Research Procedures . .
Research Participant Training .
Data Analyses ............
Methodological Limitations .


iii









IV RESULTS ........ ... ..

School Success Classroom Behaviors.
School Success Classroom Attitudes.
Student Summary Sheet .
Summary ..............

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION,
LIMITATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECbOMMENDATIONS . .
Suay... .IOS .........

Sumnmry.. . .
Conclusions . .
Discussion ..........
Limitations ............
Implications. . .
Recacmendations . .


APPENDICES


A SKILLS FOR SCHOOL SUCCESS MODELING .

B SKILLS FOR SCHOOL SUCCESS COACHING .

C SCHOOL SUCCESS INVENTORY TEACHER FORM .

D SCHOOL SUCCESS INVENTORY STUDENT FROM .

E SCHOOL ATTITUDE INVENTORY . .

F DATA ANALYSIS SUMMARY TABLES .

G STUDENT SUMMARY SHEET . .

H STUDENT FEEDBACK SUMMARY. . .

REFERENCES . . ..

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. .................










107

129

149

151

153

159

206

207

209

216


66

67
81
89
89




93

93
95
98
103
104
105


. .


S .


















LIST OF TABLES


Tables Page


3-1 Number of Students per Condition by Schools 53

3-2 Pre-Post Control Group Design . 55

4-1 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF) 68

4-2 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
School Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF),
by Condition and Individual Schools . 70

4-3 Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores
for Total School Success Inventory Teacher
Form (SSI-TF) ................... 72

4-4 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), for
Conditions by Race ................. 73

4-5 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), for
Conditions by Gender ................ 75

4-6 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF) 76

4-7 Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores
for Total School Success Inventory Student
Form (SSI-SF) ................... 78

4-8 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF), for
Conditions by Race .. ............... 79

4-9 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF), for
Conditions by Gender . . 80

4-10 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School Attitude
Inventory (SAI), Total and by Dimensions 82









4-11 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School Attitude
Inventory Scores of Individual Schools for Total
Score and Dimensions ................ 84

4-12 Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores
for School Attitude Inventory (SAI) ... 87

4-13 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Attitude Inventory (SAI), for Conditions by Race 88

4-14 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Attitude Inventory (SAI), for Conditions by Gender 90















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


DEVELOPMENTAL GUIDANCE FOR SCHOOL SUCCESS SKILLS:
A COMPARISON OF MODELING AND COACHING

By

Marjorie Irene Cuthbert

May, 1987

Chairman: Robert D. Myrick
Major Department: Counselor Education

Two developmental guidance units were evaluated for their effects

on teachers' perceptions of student school success behaviors (School

Success Inventory, SSI-TF), on students' self-reported school success

behaviors (School Success Inventory, SSI-SF), and on students'

attitudinal ratings of school situations (School Attitude Inventory,

SAI). Six school success skills were presented and included paying

attention in school, listening to teachers and peers, volunteering in

school, using self-control, interacting with teachers and peers, and

utilizing self-assessment techniques at school. The units were

delivered by five state certified school counselors to third-grade

students in 15 classrooms in public elementary schools.

A randomized pre-post control group research design was used to

compare students in three conditions. Students in the modeling

condition (n=102) learned vicariously as they watched peers demonstrate

the skills. Students in the coaching condition (n=101)

vii








learned the skills directly by listening to the counselors; students

then practiced in small groups, where they coached each other's

performances of the skills. The control students (n-96) did not receive

the units until the study was completed.

Although an overall analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on total SSI-TF

scores revealed no significant differences with respect to conditions,

subsequent ANCOVAs by individual schools showed significant differences

(p <.05) among the groups, with students in the coaching group improved

in three of the five schools and those in the modeling group improved in

one school. The students' corresponding perceptions of their behavior

did not show consistent improvement.

Scores on the overall SAI indicated a significant difference in

attitudes toward school for students in the coaching condition, as

compared to the modeling and control conditions. Further analyses also

indicated a significant effect for attitudes on the excitement-calm

dimension of the SAI, with students in the coaching condition rating

themselves as feeling more calm about school situations following the

guidance unit. It was concluded that developmental guidance units

designed to teach school success skills, especially one that included

coaching, can influence student attitudes about school situations.


viii















CHAPTER I
IIIRODUCTION


Traditionally, schools have concentrated on teaching children basic

academic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic (Cartledge &

Milburn, 1978; McGinnis & Goldstein, 1984). Where time and money were

available, schools expanded academic subjects and taught skills in areas

such as athletics and the arts. However, there has been a noticeable

lack of teaching the task and interpersonal skills linked directly to

achieving success in the school setting.

Snme students come to school seemingly knowing what skills to use

to become successful. They understand what teachers mean and respond

when teachers say, "Class, pay attention!" or "Class, listen carefully

now." Other children, who are not as aware of such school success

skills or responses, often become frustrated and achieve less.

Direct instruction in skills that enhance a child's success at

school is typically absent in most schools. When offered, instruction

in school success skills has usually been fragmented, unsystematic, or

incomplete (Cartledge & Milburn, 1978). Administrators, school

counselors, parents, and teachers at each grade level have often assumed

that someone was instructing students in the school success skills that

they would need, only to find that most children have not accumulated

them. The acquisition of essential school success skills could be

greatly facilitated if direct instruction were incorporated as formal,

didactic components of school curricula.

1










Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of

helping children learn school success skills. Two different

instructional methods (i.e., modeling and coaching) were incorporated

into developmental guidance units presenting school success skills of

(a) paying attention, (b) listening to teachers and peers, (c)

volunteering in school, (d) using self-control, (e) interacting with

teachers and peers, and (f) utilizing self-assessment. The effects of

these units on third-grade students were examined. Target students,

those identified by their teachers as the lowest in school success

skills, received particular attention in the study.


Theoretical Perspective


Behaviors can be learned. Therefore, behaviors can be taught to

children. If school success skills are expressed behaviorally, then

they can be taught to children. Krumboltz and Krumboltz (1972) stated

that new behaviors can be developed through (a) the successive

approximations principle (e.g., reward steps to the final behavior), (b)

the cueing principle (i.e., cue the correct performance before the

action is expected), (c) the discrimination principle (e.g., identify

differentiating cues and appropriately reward them), and (d) the

modeling principle (i.e., expose children to an appropriate person

performing the desired behavior). This study used the modeling

principle for the modeling condition, where behaviors (i.e., school

success skills) were presented by same-age peers to classrooms of

students who learned these behaviors vicariously from the models. This

study also utilized the successive approximations principle in the

coaching condition where peers, after being instructed directly on









specific behaviors (i.e., school success skills) by counselors, rewarded

and shaped each others' attempts of expected behaviors.

After behaviors have been emitted, they can be strengthened through

the positive reinforcement principle where an immediate reward is given

after each correct performance of the behaviors, thus increasing their

chances of occurring again. After behaviors have been established, they

can be maintained by the substitution principle (i.e., reinforcing with

a previously ineffective reward just before the more effective reward is

given) or the intermittent reinforcement principle (i.e., gradually and

intermittently decreasing the frequency of rewarding the behavior)

(Krumboltz & Krumboltz, 1972). These basic principles of behavioral

learning are consistent with those used in the current study. Since the

school success skills are representative of those behaviors teachers

look for in the classroom, and are thought to enhance learning, it is

assumed that teachers will attempt to maintain these behaviors with

positive reinforcement and that internal reinforcement will also occur

with students as they experience success.

Cartledge and Milburn (1978), in reviewing related literature,

noted that the acquisition of certain skills may be crucial to the

academic experience and to overall individual school success. Skills

which have been linked to school success from previous studies and

identified by teachers need to be taught to children. It appears that

children who are taught specific school success skills are more

productive and achieve more (Cartledge & Milburn, 1978). It also

appears that students will rate themselves more positively on

attitudinal statements related to school success as a result of










participation in classroom guidance units (Gerler & Anderson, 1986;

Myrick, Merhill, & Swanson 1986).


Statement of the Problem


Modeling, by which new behavior is learned vicariously after

viewing a model's demonstration, has been used successfully in a variety

of situations as a mode of instruction to teach new skills or behaviors.

Further, it has been shown to be effective with specific target

populations (Bandura & Barab, 1973; Evers & Schwarz, 1973; Gottman,

1977; Keller & Carlson, 1974; O'Connor, 1969; Sarason, 1968). However,

only a small proportion of studies has been carried out with

"unselected" elementary school populations (Conger & Keane, 1981). The

importance of teaching skills to children, particularly those

interpersonal and task skills related to school achievement, has been

well established, and the attainment of those skills shown to be crucial

to overall school success (Cartledge & Milburn, 1978). However, it is

not known if the use of modeling to teach a set of school success

skills, when they are presented in developmental guidance units, is

effective with groups of students in unselected elementary school

classrooms.

Coaching, where new skills are presented directly and practiced

while being coached or shaped by others, also has been shown to be

effective with isolated and withdrawn children both in preschool and

elementary age ranges (Bornstein, Bellack, & Hersen, 1977; Conger &

Keane, 1981; Gottman, Gonso, & Schuler, 1976; Gresham & Nagle, 1980;

Ladd, 1981; LaGreca & Santogrossi, 1980; Oden & Asher, 1977). It has

also been shown to be effective with learning disabled students










(Schumaker & Hazel, 1984). However, the effectiveness of coaching has

not been evaluated with groups of students in classrooms.

Developmental guidance units, where skills are presented by a

counselor or teacher to classes of students, have been shown to be

effective in teaching interpersonal ideas and skills to students (Cobb &

Richards, 1983; Cuthbert, 1984, 1985; Duncan & Gumaer, 1980; Gerler &

Anderson, 1986; Myrick et al., 1986). However, it is not known if

developmental guidance units can be effective with young students where

modeling or coaching are used to teach school success skills.


Need for the Study


There is a need to teach students skills that can lead to success

at school. Staggering numbers of youth continue to drop out of school.

Gadwa and Griggs (1985) noted that the 1979 Carnegie Council on Policy

Studies in Higher Education pinpointed the high school dropout rate as a

major problem facing youth and suggested that educators should give

serious attention to reducing the number of high school drop outs,

reducing rates of -bsenteeism, and bettering the high school experience.

According to the U.S Census Bureau (Gadwa & Griggs, 1985), 43.1% of

youth were not enrolled in school or did not graduate. Elementary

school is a critical time to attend to instilling school success skills

which may contribute to keeping youth in school. Reports dealing with

high school dropouts suggest that the causes can be traced back to

elementary school levels, where problems can be assessed as early as the

third grade (Schreiber, 1967).

Another major problem area for educators continues to be disruptive

behavior and student discipline (Bleck & Bleck, 1982; Cobb & Richards,









1983; Frith & Clark, 1983; Sorsdahl & Sanche, 1985). A steady increase

in personal, social, and behavioral problems has been seen for students

in regular classrooms during the 1970s, and 13 of 14 annual Gallup polls

have identified discipline as the most important problem in education in

the United States (Sorsdahl & Sanche, 1985). Bleck and Bleck (1982)

also stated that disruptive behavior can adversely affect relationships

with peers and teachers. If presenting school success skills to

children proves to be effective, disruptive behavior may be decreased,

thereby lessening the emphasis on discipline and increasing students'

chances for positive interactions. There would be more time for

productive learning, and teachers would have more time to teach all the

students.

In addition to the enhancement of the classroom environment, the

learning effectiveness and efficiency of individual children can be

increased if developmental guidance units improve specific school

success skills for children. For example, if children can learn to

control their aggressiveness, their achievement may increase. If

children learn skills to overcame the anxiousness that often accompanies

raising their hand to share ideas and are able to increase the number of

times they do so, they may also affect their teachers' positive

perceptions of them. If children learn skills to interact with peers

and teachers, they will feel more positive about themselves and have a

better opportunity for academic achievement (Cartledge & Milburn, 1978).

If the modeling condition were shown to be the more effective way

to teach certain skills, teachers or counselors could be trained to use

this technique to introduce new skills and concepts across many subject

areas. Because most new skills are presented didactically in schools,










the addition of models to illustrate the content would add the dimension

of vicarious learning to direct learning, thereby improving teaching

activities.

If the coaching condition proved to be an efficacious way to teach

new skills, then school counselors and teachers could provide more time

where students are coached as they perform new behaviors. Skills such

as interacting with teachers and peers, paying attention to teachers,

and using self-control are too often talked about in an abstract manner

and rarely practiced by the students as part of a specific lesson on

school success skills. Some children do not understand what they are to

do; consequently, they became frustrated and could become disruptive or

engage in misconduct. If coaching of skills, which in this study means

being coached by members of small groups, were shown to be effective,

teachers could use this technique to enhance learning in their classes.

If the effects of these conditions were known, same practices

within the educational profession also could be revised. School

counselors who have chosen to work with children on school success

skills, either individually or in small groups, might redirect more of

their efforts to other areas of helping children since school success

skills could be effectively presented to entire classrooms. Or, they

would have more time for follow-up with children who need more attention

or practice. Also, if students were able to feel more successful about

school and to have their teachers perceive them as having school success

skills, the number of referrals to school counselors could decrease.

This would free school counselors to create and present other

developmental guidance units or activities.










If guidance units using modeling and coaching proved to be

successful in improving school success skills, school counselors might

use similar units at different grade levels. They also might act as

consultants to teachers, alerting teachers to the skills that facilitate

school success. Counselors could also train teachers in the use of the

modeling and coaching techniques so that the teachers could teach skills

directly to their students. In addition, more impetus to provide school

success skills within approved curricula for schools at local, state, or

national levels might be possible.


Purpose of the Study


The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two

elementary school developmental guidance units designed to help children

learn school success skills and improve their attitudes about school.

More specifically, these two classroom guidance units, one incorporating

modeling and the other incorporating coaching, were presented to

third-grade elementary public school students and evaluated through a

research design which included three groups (i.e., modeling, coaching,

and control). Specifically, answers were sought to the following

research questions.


Research Questions


1. Will classroom teachers report changes in their perceptions of

student school behaviors after the students have completed developmental

guidance units focusing on school success skills?










2. Will the school success skills of target students be perceived

differently by their teachers after the students have participated in

the developmental guidance units?


3. Do race and gender interact with the effects of the developmental

guidance units on teachers' perceptions of students' school behaviors?


4. Are students' perceptions of their school success behaviors affected

by participation in developmental guidance units focusing on school

success skills?


5. Will target students change their perceptions of relevant school

behaviors after participating in the developmental guidance units?


6. Do race and gender interact with the effect of the developmental

guidance units on students' perceptions of their school behaviors?


7. After students receive the developmental guidance units, will their

attitudes about school situations change?


8. Will target students who receive the developmental guidance units

change their attitudes about school situations?


9. Do race and gender differentially affect students' attitudes about

school situations following participation in the developmental guidance

units?


Definition of Terms


Coaching. A technique for instilling new behavior by direct

instruction and practice with shaping by observers. In this study,










school success skills were presented didactically by a school counselor

to students. In turn, students practiced the skill in small groups

where peers within the group assisted in coaching and praising the

performance of the skill.


Control. A dimension of the School Attitude Inventory used for

assessing attitudes about school. The scale ranges from being

controlled by others at one extreme of the rated continuum to being in

control at the other extreme.


Developmental classroom guidance. A form of guidance whereby a

counselor or teacher interacts with students in a classroom to enhance

students' personal and/or academic growth.


Elementary school counselors. Professional educators who are

certified by the state in which they work to provide counseling and

guidance services in elementary schools.


Excitement. A dimension of the School Attitude Inventory used for

assessing attitudes about school. The scale ranges from being excited

at one extreme of the rated continuum to being calm at the other

extreme.


Guidance unit. A series of classroom guidance sessions related to

a particular topic. Each session has a goal and specific objectives

related to accomplishing the general purpose of the unit.


Modeling principle. A technique for teaching children new behavior

by vicarious learning. In this study, school success skills were










presented verbally to students by a school counselor while they observed

another child (model) performing the school success skill.


Pleasure. A dimension of the School Attitude Inventory used for

assessing attitudes about school. The scale ranges from happy at one

extreme of the rated continuum to sad at the other extreme.


School situations. Circumstances in school to which students

respond, including teacher calling on students, asking questions in

class, organizing school work, talking in front of the class, accepting

suggestions, asserting one's self, participating in class discussions,

and accepting teacher's corrections and suggestions.


School success skills. Behaviors (i.e., skills) which help

students perform effectively in school and the classocm.


Target students. Students who were identified by their teachers as

being low-skilled (i.e., those students who were rated a 4 or under on a

scale of 1 through 7 with 7 indicating the most skills) in terms of task

and interpersonal behaviors that students use to make an effort to learn

successfully in the classroom.


Overview of the Remainder of the Study


The remainder of the study is organized into four additional

chapters. A review of the related literature is presented in Chapter

II. Chapter III contains the research methodology, where procedures of

the study are described. The results are presented in Chapter IV.

Chapter V includes a summary, conclusions, discussion, limitations,

implications, and reccnmendations.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


In 1983, the National Carnission on Education issued a report, A

Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Reform, which declared that American

education was not in step with the technological times:

Our nation is at risk. Our once unchallenged preeminence in
commerce, industry, science, and technological innovation is
being overtaken by competitors of the world. .educational
foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a
rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as
a nation and a people. (National Commission on Excellence
in Education, 1983, p. 12)

This report listed many indicators of the "risk," including (a) lower

average achievement scores than during the "Sputnik" era 26 years ago,

(b) falling college board scores, and (c) fewer students having superior

scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests.

McDaniel (1985) noted that while the initial focus of the several

"reform" or "excellence" carnissions was at the secondary level, many

recent reports dealing with excellence have been directed to elementary

and middle schools as well. He estimated that about 30 national reports

have been issued and that the 50 states have appointed about 300 task

forces in the name of excellence.

Cassil (1986) attempted to identify the factors emerging from the

reports on educational excellence. The basic premise is that if

education is doing so poorly, "it must be broken and therefore should be

fixed." Subsequently, a variety of remedies have been proposed to

improve the educational system. However, these efforts, for the most

12










part, appear to have treated only the symptoms of the problem (Cassil,

1986). For example, merit pay has been proposed as a way to recognize

and motivate teachers. However, Watts (1985) argued that merit pay was

not the answer to improved instructional programs. lie proposed that

teachers should be paid for what they accomplish with students, not

rewarded for certificates, degrees, and years of experience.

Short (1985) also addressed the need for excellence and called for

strengthening curriculum through content restructuring or improvement as

the answer to bettering America's schools. He stated that reform is

unlikely to came unless attention is given to daily content and to the

purposes upon which student learning is centered.

Several of the major reform reports (e.g., "Educating Americans for

the 21st Century," by the National Science Board Ccmnission on

Precollege Education, 1983; "Secondary Education in America," by the

Carnegie Foundation, 1983; "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for

Educational Reform," by the National Cranission on Excellence in

Education, 1983) called for increased high school curriculum for

students. The implementation of this demand may benefit those who stay

within the system or go onto college, but also may have a negative

effect on those who struggled to meet the original requirements

successfully. Thus, while for sane students excellence means further

enhancement of academic prowess, for many marginal or disadvantaged

students success involves maintaining sufficient skills and motivation

to stay in school.

The Business Advisory Cannission of the Education Caomission of the

United States stated that many students are still "disconnected" fron

society and that (a) 700,000 students drop out of school each year,










(b) three million youths ages 16 to 19 are looking for work, (c) one

million teenagers become pregnant, (d) juvenile arrests jumped 60-fold

between 1960 and 1980, and (e) suicides among teenagers grew by 177%

among white teens and 162% for nonwhites between 1950 and 1978 (Business

Advisory Ccmnission, 1985). It has been noted that school counselors

can play an important part in helping these students and called for drop

out prevention programs. An added emphasis on prevention at early ages

in school also could help prevent the "disconnected" youth of later

years (Schappi, 1985).

Because academic achievement is critical in helping students at all

levels reach their maximum potential, educators at all levels have been

charged with striving toward excellence. However, educators have not

yet addressed the fact that students may not have the basic skills with

which to meet the new standards of excellence. Students may not know

the skills that help them learn optimally and thus may not be achieving

to their fullest capacities. Perhaps if students can learn school

success skills at early ages, the standards of excellence can be nore

readily met.


School Success Skills


Cartledge and Milburn (1978), after reviewing the literature on

behavioral skills in the classroom setting, found certain skills linked

to academic success and to school success. These skills can be

expressed behaviorally within the general categories of personal

interaction skills and task-related skills. Since these have been

linked to school achievement and success, it seems logical to expose

children to them. If these findings are not put to use, children may be










cheated and not experience their maximum academic and social potential

in school. The specific school success skills selected for this study

are a subset of interpersonal and task skills. They were chosen because

they have been shown to help students become successful at school and

also have been shown to have positive outcomes for skills training. The

school success skills for this study were paying attention in school,

listening to teachers and peers, volunteering in school, using

self-control, interacting with teachers and peers, and utilizing

self-assessment. Each is discussed below.


Paying Attention (Attending)

One important school success skill is that of attending. The

discussion of attending as a complex neurological and physical process

is beyond the scope of this review. Rather, it is defined in terms of

classroom attending which "involves the social element of orienting

toward the teacher or to stimuli defined by the teacher at times and

under conditions specified by the teacher and as such, may be regarded

as an academically-relevant social skill" (Cartledge & Milburn, 1978, p.

138).

Cobb (1972), in a multiple regression analysis study of the

relationship of discrete classroom behaviors to fourth-grade

achievement, defined attending as doing what was appropriate in an

academic situation, e.g., looking at teachers when they presented

material, writing answers to arithmetic problems, or looking at other

students who are reciting. Results showed attending to be the most

powerful of eight behavioral categories in each of two schools,









contributing multiple Rs of .40 and .47, respectively, to arithmetic

achievement.

Cobb and Hops (1973) studied the effects of academic survival skill

training on low achieving first-grade students. In earlier research,

Cobb (1972) had found a relationship between achievement test

performance and the behavioral classes of attending to teacher,

following teacher instructions, and volunteering to answer academic

questions. These behaviors, therefore, were included as the "survival"

skills to be studied. Attending was redefined from earlier studies to

include two categories: attending and work. Eighteen first-grade

children chosen for low rates of academic survival skills combined with

low scores on standardized reading tests comprised the control group

(n=6) and the experimental group (n=12).

Results showed that the experimental groups increased their level

of survival skills by 24% and the control group only 3%, and that such

gains were related to reading achievement gains. Because the results

for students who had been identified as having low reading scores and

low academic skills showed positive gains (Cobb & Hops, 1973), in the

present study those students low in school success skills (by teachers'

perceptions) were identified in order to assess treatment effectiveness.

Hops and Cobb (1974) investigated the survival skills of attending,

following teacher instructions, and volunteering by training two

first-grade teachers in contingent reinforcement of the survival skills

and a third teacher in a new method of programmed, individualized

reading instruction; a fourth teacher whose class served as a control

group received no new instructions. Both experimental approaches

resulted in improved reading achievement for first-grade students in the









regular classroom when compared to the control group. The proportion of

children's survival-skill behaviors increased only for the groups who

received reinforcement of survival skills.


Listening

The skill of listening also contributed to the positive results of

the studies described previously (Cobb & Hops, 1973; Hops & Cobb, 1974).

It also has been identified by several other authors as an important

skill.

McGinnis and Goldstein (1984) identified listening as an important

skill in their curriculum for teaching prosocial skills as part of

mainstream and special education programs. They pointed out the

importance of teaching students how to show that they are listening to

others. They listed steps indicative of listening which included (a)

looking at the person who is talking, (b) remembering to sit quietly,

(c) thinking about what is being said, (d) acknowledging ideas by saying

yes or nodding your head, and (e) asking a question to seek more

information on the subject.

Myrick and Bowman (1981) stressed that listening is an important

part of learning and that students who listen closely do well in school,

follow directions better, and make fewer mistakes. They identified four

behaviors of careful listeners, including (a) looking at persons when

they are talking, (b) paying attention to persons' words, (c) being

aware of persons' feelings, and (d) verbally responding to the speaker.

Foster (1983) pointed out that being a good listener necessitated

acting like a good listener. Acting like a good listener included (a)

maintaining eye contact; (b) sitting attentively and leaning forward at









times; (c) looking as if listening is enjoyable by raising eyebrows,

nodding, smiling, and laughing appropriately; (d) asking questions; and

(e) appearing alert but not tense.

In the current study, listening skills were built upon the previous

attending skill and included actively listening for content and feelings

of teachers' and peers' cotnunications. Students were instructed in how

to show that they were actively listening and in how to respond to show

that they were listening.


Volunteering

Volunteering, in the sense of participating in classroom

discussions, has been positively correlated with academic achievement

(Hops & Cobb, 1973). Teachers were trained in reinforcement techniques

designed to increase "survival skills" (volunteering, looking around,

attending, and working) in first-grade students. After 20 days of

intervention the students in the experimental classrooms increased in

frequency of these "survival skills" and were significantly different

from the control students. Students in the experimental groups also

showed gains in reading achievement which allowed the researchers to

conclude that increases in skills would lead to increases in

achievement.

Zimmerman and Pike (1972) were able to increase question-asking

behavior in disadvantaged Mexican-American second-grade boys by adult

modeling of skills and contingent praise. The authors noted that the

modeling plus praise group was significantly different from the other

groups, with more response transfer to natural settings. This same










experimental group also produced more questions than the control group

and was significantly different from it.

Wittmer and Myrick (1980) also spoke to the importance of teachers

using open-ended questions to promote a facilitative atmosphere in

classrooms. They noted that a question is a facilitative response when

it seeks more information, provokes discussion, or is used to query

individuals on particular matters. The present study included the

presentation of open-ended questions as part of volunteering skills to

help students learn the advantages of this type of questioning to

enhance learning. Asking questions or contributing answers was believed

to reflect careful listening and active processing of material just

presented.

Noble and Nolan (1976), in a study of high school classes, found

that students could shape the frequency of the teacher calling on them

by the amount of volunteering they did in class. After three months of

school, observers found that teachers directed more questions to those

who volunteered more, where initially no relationship had existed.


Self-Control

The fourth school success skill used in this study was

self-control. The use of self-control has been shown to be an important

part of school behavior. Dunn and Kowitz (1970) submitted a list of 40

adjectives, believed to relate to academic success, to 100 secondary

school teachers who were then asked to rate the characteristics on a

5-point scale in terms of significance to school achievement. The

results showed the composite of a hard-working, mature student.

Included in this composite was self-control.









Principals, teachers, school counselors, and researchers have long

been concerned with finding ways to help reduce aggressive behaviors by

teaching self-control mechanisms. Drabman, Spitalnik, and O'Leary

(1973), as one of their experimental conditions, taught eight 9- and

10-year-old boys who were in classes for students with academic and

emotional problems to control themselves by earning bonus points for

matching a teacher's evaluation of their academic efforts and social

behaviors. The authors reported that the students maintained very low

levels of disruptive behavior and high rates of academic output. They

also noted generalization of appropriate behavior at times in the day

when the token program was not in effect.

The skill of using self-control is enhanced by the teaching of

assertive behaviors where students are taught the differences between

passive, aggressive, and assertive behaviors (Bower, Amatea, & Anderson,

1976). Students can be more in control if they can recognize situations

in which they can be assertive. They can also utilize the skills

associated with being assertive to act constructively, rather than

turning to aggressive behaviors where self-control is lost.


Interacting

The fifth school success skill, interacting with teachers and

peers, also has been reported to have a positive relationship to success

in learning. Cartledge & Milburn (1978), in their review of selected

studies, found a growing recognition of the reciprocal nature of

interactions between teachers and students. Experimental studies showed

that varying students' behaviors could bring changes in teachers'

behaviors.









Klein (1971), in a study of college students, found that positive

student behavior influenced teachers to use positive behaviors. She

pointed out that other researchers have studied interactions between

students and teachers through various types of student feedback and

found that written student feedback influenced teachers to change their

behaviors and become more like the model the students suggested.


Self-Assessment

The sixth school skill included was self-assessment. Students who

monitor themselves can increase appropriate behaviors. Bandura and

Perloff (1967) found that 7- to 10-year-old children who reinforced

their own behaviors generated more responses and were significantly

different fran control groups.

Broden, Hall, and Mitts (1971) demonstrated that self-recording of

classroom behavior can be used to increase appropriate behavior. An

eighth-grade female, using a plus to indicate that she was studying and

a minus for not studying to self-monitor study time, increased study

time to 78%. When the recording slips were taken away, the subject's

study time decreased from 70% the first day to an average of 27% for the

next four days. When the self-recording slips were reinstated,

performance increased to 80%, which was at a level where the classroom

teacher was able to praise her for a high rate of performance. It was

the school counselor who was able to institute the procedures that led

to increased appropriate behavior, which was maintained by the classroom

teacher and "natural" classroom reinforcers.

Kaufman and O'Leary (1972) also found that self-evaluation was

effective in maintaining a low level of disruptive behaviors that had










been established by a token program. Sixteen students from a

psychiatric hospital, who were deficient in reading and showed high

rates of disruptive classroom behavior, were instructed to make their

own judgments about how they followed the rules and to tell the class

and the teacher how many tokens they deserved. For the six class days

that the procedure was in effect, disruptive behavior remained at the

previous low level.

Johnson and Martin (1973) showed that second-grade children in a

self-reinforcement group yielded significantly different response rates

on visual discrimination tasks than the control group. Drahnan et al.

(1973) used self-assessment procedures to reduce disruptive behavior and

to effect transfer of behavior to times when the system was not in

effect. The present study had school counselors teach the students ways

to monitor their assignments and to extend these ideas to any area that

may have been of help to the students.

Cox and Gunn (1980) noted that instruction in acceptable

interaction skills in education has been limited and quite informal,

with the primary function of education being that of providing students

with academic skills. However, the social functioning of students

within the school has direct impact on the acquisition of these academic

skills. They further pointed out that the lack of appropriate social

skills may be the result of the students not (a) knowing what behavior

is appropriate, (b) knowing the correct motor skills to execute the

known behavior, and (c) being able to deal with the emotional response

which inhibits the skill performance, even when the correct skill is

known and has been practiced. Thus, it would seem logical to teach

children the behaviors they need to perform well in school, provide them










with a safe environment in which to practice the skills, and teach them

coping mechanisms to overcome emotional responses that inhibit maximum

performance.

Studies have documented many positive outcomes from exposure to

school success skills. In view of these findings, the issue of teaching

school success skills in the classroom should not be left unattended.

The problem then becomes one of finding the most effective and efficient

way to reach a large number of children with school success skill

instruction. Large numbers of children can be reached through

developmental guidance units where school counselors present

age-appropriate information to entire classrooms of children. However,

it had not been determined if a specific set of skills related to school

success can be taught to third-grade students in regular classrooms

through developmental guidance units and particularly to target

students. Therefore, the problem investigated in this study was whether

the presentation of school success skills, through a developmental

guidance unit using peer modeling or through a developmental guidance

unit utilizing a coaching technique, would distinguish from each other

or a control group on selected outcome measures.


Developmental Classroom Guidance


Developmental classroom guidance is a form of group guidance.

Group guidance is distinct from group counseling, which places emphasis

on remediation and is problem oriented. It is also distinct from group

psychotherapy wherein the main thrust is reconstructive or reeducative

and aims toward personality change (Brammer & Shostrom, 1976).









Branrmer and Shostrom (1976) characterized group guidance as (a)

preventative, (b) developmental, (c) emphasizing personally relevant

information, (d) being cognitive, (e) having an environmental emphasis,

(f) being delivered through presentation and discussion, (g) leader

directed, (h) topic oriented, (i) using planned activities, (j)

emphasizing skills, and (k) using camnon goals.

Duncan and Gumaer (1980) stated succinctly that, "Developmental

classroom group guidance is a systematic, sequentially planned

humanistic education program that provides an environment for

integrating affective and cognitive learning experiences" (p. 91). This

emphasis in guidance evolved slowly, but is now being implemented in

many school systems across the nation.

Growth of Developmental Guidance

Developmental guidance as it is known today emerged after much

evolution had taken place in the field of school guidance. Aubrey

(1982), in his historical review of guidance, stated that in general,

school guidance began with Jesse B. Davis, who is credited with

integrating guidance into the school curriculum. Frank Parsons also is

noted as being very influential in guidance, for in 1908 he established

the Vocation Bureau in Boston designed to help children who left school

to work.

Aubrey (1982) further noted that two major trends evolved in

guidance-vocational guidance and educational guidance. He stated "the

emergence of vocational guidance in public schools was consequently a

direct result of rapidly changing conditions in American industry and

quite unrelated to the accepted process of schooling known at that time"

(p. 199). In fact, the movement had no strong philosophical or










psychological support. The incorporation of psychometric approaches led

to a new interest with the development of predictive aptitude and

selection tests. This movement continued to influence guidance into the

1940s.

The other movement, educational guidance, developed in the 1920s

and encompassed two distinct views. One view saw educational guidance

concerned with distribution (i.e., pupil assistance in school, home,

recreation, vocational and social pursuits) and adjustment (i.e., help

for students when they are unable to learn at school). The second

emphasis was a widening of earlier vocational and moral guidance issues.

This view was a forerunner of developmental guidance. However,

developmental guidance did not evolve as a smooth transition from the

educational guidance movement. It emerged on the strengths of its

advocates, not in response to economic or societal pressures. Aubrey

(1982) also noted that the real roots of developmental guidance can be

traced to Robert Mathewson, who as early as 1949 advocated that the

guidance process moves with the student in a developmental sequence up

to the age of maturity. Aubrey (1982) stated that Mathewson also felt

the guidance process helped individuals gain in self-understanding, gain

in perspective on surroundings, and questioned whether teachers alone

could monitor this process.

Other writers also made cases for guidance in the schools. Wilson

(1950) stated that guidance was not a privilege, but rather "a necessity

for every normal child" (p.47). Kowitz and Kowitz (1959) wrote a book

for teachers that emphasized the need for guidance at the elementary

level. It also was intended to help the teacher increase sensitivity to

the child and provided specific techniques for problem solving. Some










basic ideas of modern developmental guidance were emerging in the 1950s,

but the literature was still filled with justifications for elementary

guidance and arguments about who should deliver it. Arbuckle (1950)

purported that counseling should be performed by all teachers, who would

have training in the field of human development and adjustment.

Controversy among writers and educators existed over who would deliver

the humanistic-type education.

Major events influenced guidance in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

America's reaction to the launch of Sputnik influenced guidance in that

much attention and money were directed toward education. Munson (1970)

pointed out that the National Defense Education Act of 1958 established

institutes to train school guidance personnel, the Higher Education Act

of 1965 provided fellowships for teachers to train in guidance, and the

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965) allowed a greater number

of schools to develop programs, all of which had great impact on the

guidance profession. As a result of these new provisions, school

counselor-student ratios lowered and school counselors had greater

access to more students and could begin to devote time and attention to

developmental needs.

The writings of the 1960s time period were influential in school

guidance and counseling. C. Gilbert Wrenn (1962) wrote the Counselor in

a Changing World wherein he expressed strongly that guidance should be

for the full range of students and be designed to meet their

developmental needs. Dinkmeyer (1968) also wrote that guidance must be

developmental in addition to remedial and preventative.

Faust (1968) stressed that the approach to children in the school

setting should be of a developmental focus for all children rather than










just for children in "crisis." Faust further noted that the school

counselor works with students in a developmental stage when students'

lives are centered in the classroom and in academic learning activities.

This perception lends strength to this study because the counselor

worked with students in a developmental capacity in the classroom.

Blocher (1966) and Munson (1970) also wrote in support of elementary

school counselors as established positions since they act as agents of

change and help education keep pace with change itself.

Developmental guidance had at its roots, and incorporates into its

basic principles today, the idea that appropriate information should be

taught to all children within appropriate developmental stages so that

they can realize their fullest potentials academically and socially.

This belief supports a basic theoretical position of this dissertation,

that appropriate school success skills or behaviors can be learned when

presented to children in age-appropriate contexts. Developmental

guidance is a valid media through which specific skills can be delivered

to children.


Classroom Guidance Units

Classroom guidance units have been shown to be effective and

efficient vehicles to use with large groups of students. Duncan and

Gumaer (1980) addressed the strengths of classroom units by stating that

"they use human developmental stages and growth patterns of children to

enhance the entire learning process" (p. 95). The success of this

process has been demonstrated in the following studies.

Myrick et al. (1986) demonstrated that school counselor-led

classroom guidance units resulted in improvements in school attitudes in










fourth-grade students ranked both high and low initially. Students from

67 schools were randomly assigned to a treatment group which received

the guidance unit. The unit consisted of six, 30- to 45-minute

sessions. Each session used the format of an introduction, an activity

for large groups, an activity for peer-led small group interactions, and

a closure where the whole group processed discussion together. The

others were assigned to a control group. The lowest and highest

students were determined by teachers who rated each students' attitude

on a scale of 1 through 7, with 7 being the most positive. Students

responded to a 20-item inventory that included classroom behaviors

related to achievement in school and general attitudes. Teachers also

responded to these items in terms of their perceptions of the students'

behaviors and attitudes. Results indicated that there were positive

changes and significant differences in school attitude for both low and

high students as a result of intervention.

The present study utilized the basic format of an introduction, an

activity for large groups, an activity for peer-led small groups, and a

whole group discussion for closure for one of the two treatment

conditions called coaching. It was not known if this vehicle would be

effective in teaching specific school success skills to third-grade

students. The peer-led small group component of the Myrick model was

chosen for third-grade students in the present study because it was

effective with fourth-grade students.

Dinkmeyer and Caldwell (1970) attested to the importance of small

group work, noting that it provides the safety and support which are

necessary for self reinforcement. Muro and Dinkmeyer (1977) also noted









encouragement is powerful when given by group members rather than from

the leader.

Cobb and Richards (1983) found the combination of group guidance,

small group counseling for target students, and teacher consultation to

be an effective intervention for a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade

students to increase student self-awareness and understanding of the

unique characteristics of others. Even though the results were in a

positive direction, it was unclear exactly how each component

contributed to the end result. In the present study the two components

were separated in an attempt to assess each of their separate merits.

Sorsdahl and Sanche (1985) found that classroom meetings, where the

entire class meets with the teacher for the purpose of problem solving

or discussion, were effective in changing classroom behavior in the

positive direction for fourth-grade students. The authors concluded

that, "Classroom meetings also seem to be effective means of providing

preventive counseling to entire classes of children by enhancing their

problem-solving skills, their decision-making skills, their acceptance

of responsibility, and their interpersonal skills" (p. 55). The current

study utilized this basic concept in the modeling condition, where the

model demonstrated a skill and the class watched and discussed it as a

whole unit. However, in this study, the discussion was led by the

school counselor instead of the teacher, as was the case above.

Classroom meetings have been found to be effective for some purposes;

however, it remained to be shown if they will work to teach school

success skills to third-grade students.

Cuthbert (1984) also found developmental guidance units to be

appropriate in teaching communication skills to fourth-grade students










(N=108). Two fourth-grade classes were assigned to the experimental

group and two to the control group (which received the treatment later).

The treatment group received training in six specific communication

skills delivered through a counselor-directed unit. The outcome measure

was a student/teacher, Likert-type rating scale designed to assess

passive and aggressive behaviors and school behaviors related to working

carefully on school assignments and handing them in on time. Results

showed that students in the experimental groups were significantly

different from the control group and showed improvement on school

behaviors on the teacher scale, but pretest differences on passive and

aggressive subscales confounded the findings. The present investigation

used the basic format of this study, but used different outcome measures

to assess treatment. The ccrmunication skills study did demonstrate

that teacher's ratings of school behaviors (e.g., working hard on school

assignments, handing in assignments, having materials ready to work, and

doing work carefully) were improved after the students had participated

in developmental guidance units.

Cuthbert (1985) utilized a developmental guidance classroom unit to

enhance students' feelings about self. It consisted of six, 30-minute

sessions and was delivered by the counselors to second-grade classroans.

One classroom received delayed treatment so that it could serve as a

control group. The format of the unit did not incorporate the small

group practice segment. Each session consisted of the school counselor

leading the students through a classroom activity, through group

processing of related questions, and through large-group closure or

sunnary. The outcome measure was a pictorial Self-Assessment Manikin

(Lang, 1980) where children marked, for each question, how they felt









about themselves in terms of pleasure, excitement, and control on a

5-point pictorial scale. Even though results did not strongly support

inferences regarding treatment effects, several key items (e.g., How I

feel about myself and How I feel about being different from others)

indicated that the unit had had some positive impact on self ratings

with greater pleasure, less excitement and more control being indicated

by those who had not used a maximum rating on the pre assessment. This

study used the SAM pictorial scales as an outcome measure for school

success skills.

In a large study (N=896), Gerler and Anderson (1986) investigated

the effects of classroom guidance on children's classroom behavior,

attitudes toward school, and achievement in language arts and

mathematics. After school counselors presented classroom guidance units

to fourth- and fifth-grade students, results showed that the treatment

group improved on two measures of classroom behavior and on a measure of

school attitude, whereas the control group declined. Language grades

improved for the treatment group, but there were no significant

differences in language and math grades between the groups.

There is support in the literature to show that developmental

guidance units are effective ways to teach children new ideas. It was

believed that the use of such units for the teaching of academically

relevant school success skills would be further supported if the

developmental guidance unit using modeling and/or the the unit using

coaching had an effect on outcome measures for children in third-grade

classrooms. More particularly, the use of the guidance units would be

further supported if target students (i.e., those ranked by teachers as

having lower skills) showed improvement on dependent measures.











Target Students


As covered in the review of literature relating to specific school

success skills, target students, or those selected from a larger

population for particular intervention or study, increased reading

achievement (Cobb & Hops, 1973), increased question-asking behavior

(Zimmerman & Pike, 1972), decreased disruptive behavior and increased

academic output (Drabman et al., 1973; Kaufman & O'Leary, 1972),

increased study time (Broden et al., 1971), and increased response rates

on visual discrimination tasks (Johnson & Martin, 1973). Other studies

also have shown that target students are of particular interest in terms

of finding effective methods to help students better themselves both in

their behaviors and their attitudes.

Lewin, Nelson, and Tollefson (1983) noted that the behaviors

performed by students in the classroom affect the way their teachers

respond to them. Students who are too aggressive and disruptive are

often rejected by their teachers, and those who are high achievers,

motivated, and skilled socially are often favored. To determine if

teachers' attitudes toward students could be altered as a result of the

students changing their disruptive behaviors, they had each student

teacher (N=35) identify a target student whose behavior was disruptive.

The experimental group (n=19) and control group (n=16) teachers observed

their target students for seven school days. Student teachers in the

experimental group also received training in behavioral techniques of

alternative reinforcement of other behavior in combination with

extinction. Results showed that teachers' attitudes toward disruptive









target students did not change even though they were successful in

decreasing disruptive behavior.

Myrick and Dixon (1985) found that teachers rated their students

more positively after intervention. They noted that students who do not

feel good about themselves at school often have learning problems,

perform poorly in class, and disrupt others. In an attempt to help

students develop positive attitudes, Myrick and Dixon had target

students participate in six, small-group counseling sessions. They

found that small-group counseling with fifth- and sixth-grade target

students (N=59), who were identified by their teachers as needing

improved attitudes, helped them became aware of changes in themselves.

Teachers reported differences in classroom behaviors. In the present

study an attempt was made to increase positive school behaviors and

attitudes by working with the target and other students in their

classroom settings through developmental guidance units.

Myrick et al. (1986), in the Florida Classroom Guidance Project,

also found that target students and top students benefited from

participation in developmental guidance units delivered by school

counselors. The target students (n=623) were ranked by their teachers

as the six lowest in each class regarding attitudes toward school.

After participating in six, 30- to 45-minute sessions dealing with

understanding feelings and behaviors, experimental condition target

students improved over the control students on their ratings of (a)

finishing assignments on time, (b) saying kind things to others, (c)

believing that others were interested in what they had to say, (d) being

good workers at school, and (e) reporting that school made them feel

happy. Teachers rated the target students improved on three of eight










classroom behaviors and on nine attitude statements. Top students also

benefited.

Similar results were also seen in the Indiana Project, a

replication of the Florida study (Myrick et al., 1986). Again, target

students who received the classroom guidance unit rated themselves

significantly different from the control students on 4 items and

teachers rated the students significantly different on 13 of 20 items.

Top students also improved on 4 items.

Because it has been shown that target students benefited from

developmental guidance units and from the presentation of specific

school skills in other studies, in the present study outcome measures

were also examined for target students as well as for total third-grade

classes to see if either or both would rate themselves as improved on

school success behaviors and on attitudes about school situations.

Specific school success skills were presented to all students in

developmental guidance units, one incorporating modeling and the other

coaching, as techniques for counselors to deliver the content of the

units.


Modeling


Modeling, one of the fundamental means by which an observer can

acquire new behavior vicariously from the demonstrating person's display

of that behavior, has been shown to be an effective teaching method for

adults and children. Bandura (1969) pointed out that a wide variety of

response patterns have been transmitted through modeling, including

diverse behaviors such as stylistic response patterns, modes of









aggressive behavior, dramatic play patterns, prosocial frustration

reactions, and teaching styles.

Toner, Moore, and Ashley (1978) used models to teach the prosocial

behavior of self-control. First- and second-grade boys who were told

that they would model self-control for other children were themselves

more self-controlled and touched prohibited toys less than those not

told they would be models. In addition, Sarason (1968), in a series of

studies using models (primarily psychologists) to present skills (e.g.,

applying for a job, resisting temptation to engage in antisocial acts)

to juvenile delinquent boys, found the results to be the strongest and

most positive for the modeling groups, followed by role-playing and

control groups. On rating scales, they were less defensive and showed a

greater willingness to admit to having problems.

Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1961) demonstrated that using live models,

or social imitation, rather than successive approximations, may

short-cut the acquisition of new behaviors, since subjects (36 boys, 36

girls; 37-69 months of age) watching adult male and female models

displayed more physical and verbal aggression than those who were

exposed to nonaggressive models. Bandura and Walters (1963) also noted

the efficiency of the social imitation modeling condition. They

criticized traditional approaches to treating unassertive children,

where the desired social behavior is waited for and then reinforced, and

suggested that modeling can be more effective in treating inhibited

behavior.

The use of modeling has been effective in many areas, including

reduction of aggressiveness and the development of prosocial behaviors.

Thelen, Fry, Fehrenbach, and Frautschi (1979) pointed out that the









cognitive processes that are important components of modeling also can

occur from watching filmed models. For example, Bandura and Barab

(1973) noted that snake phobic adults (16 to 54 years of age) made

comparable reductions in snake fear when they saw adult or child models

demonstrate approach responses toward snakes.

Filmed, or symbolic modeling, has also been used extensively to

teach social skills to isolated or withdrawn children in the preschool

age range. O'Connor (1969) designed a 23-minute modeling film, in which

six nursery school actors served as models, to demonstrate social

competencies, and, at the same time, to reduce fear of peer interaction.

The film was shown to an experimental group of six preschool isolates (4

females and 2 males) while a film about dolphins was shown to seven

preschool isolates (4 females and 3 males) for the control group. These

children were considered to be isolated and so were targeted by first

being nominated as such by their teacher, and then observed on total

number of social interactions. Nonisolates were also observed to

provide baseline data for frequency of interaction. The experimental

group increased in social interaction rate after the modeling

intervention, but no follow-up assessment was done.

O'Connor (1972) included follow-up data in a subsequent study where

the same modeling film and the same control film were shown to social

isolates who were also divided in terms of external reinforcement or no

external reinforcement conditions. Graduate students supplied the

external reinforcement, which consisted of giving each child a total of

five hours of praise and attention upon successive approximations of the

behaviors during a 2-week period. All of the conditions--modeling and

shaping (n=7), modeling alone (n=9), and shaping alone (n=8)-produced









an increase in social interactions compared to the control group. At

the third posttreatment assessment period, follow-up data showed the

conditions for modeling and modeling plus shaping to have maintained

their effect with no significant differences between them, thus

indicating no incremental effect for shaping.

Evers and Schwarz (1973), in studying isolated nursery school

children on the bases of teacher nomination and low interaction rate,

utilized the same O'Connor (1969) social skills film in their modeling

group (N=8, 4 females and 4 males). No control group was included.

They also had a modeling plus praise treatment group (N=7, 3 females and

4 males) where, for two days, the teacher provided praise verbally to

the targeted children as group members so as not to redirect their

attention from the peer group to the adult. The teacher also was

permitted one prompt per day to guide the isolated child into group

activity. The results indicated that the modeling plus praise condition

was not significantly different from the modeling only group, and at

follow-up all subjects maintained or improved their posttest scores.

Their rationale for using teacher reinforcement was that familiar adults

might be more effective reinforcement agents than graduate students. On

the other hand, O'Connor's (1972) rationale for using graduate students

was that teachers actually reinforce children for attention to adults,

thereby diminishing peer interaction; also, strangers have been more

effective reinforcers than parents, and presumably more so than

teachers.

Gottman (1977) also used the O'Connor film for his experimental

group (N=17, 8 females and 8 males) and an Alaskan travelogue film for

his control group (N=17, 8 females and 9 males). The latter was









different from O'Connor's Marineland control film, which was devoid of

people. Pretreatment to posttreatment changes were found for both

experimental and control groups, and thus failed to replicate O'Connor's

1972 findings. It was suggested that this might be due, in part, to the

use of the different film or to the use of different assessment times.

This study included and expanded its outcome assessment measures beyond

just the frequency of the social interaction measure and included

examining the proportion of positive peer and teacher interactions, time

alone, and a sociometric rating of acceptance and rejection. There were

no significant differences for main effects, sociametric main effect, or

treatment by sociometric interactions. The researcher suggested that

the failure to replicate O'Connor's results raised methodological

questions about observational techniques.

Even though the O'Connor studies (1969, 1972) and the Evers and

Schwarz (1973) study were conducted on small numbers of nursery-school

age isolated children, and with varied treatment conditions which

included modeling plus external reinforcement given by graduate students

and teachers, they all have relevance for the current study because they

demonstrated that modeling of social canpetencies by same-age peers had

an effect on outcome measures. Because of the above considerations, the

size of the sample in this study was increased, included all children in

regular third-grade classrooms (i.e., not just those identified as only

an extreme in natural populations), and had third-grade peer models

demonstrating the specific skills. Separate data were obtained on those

with the lowest school success skills ratings, but all children received

treatment.









In an attempt to more precisely identify specific social

interaction behaviors, and thereby further clarify the process by which

interaction increases, Keller and Carlson (1974) developed four 5-minute

videotapes depicting the specific social behaviors thought to be

components of social interaction (i.e., imitation, smiling, laughing,

token giving, and affection giving). These tapes were shown to isolated

preschoolers in the experimental group while the control group saw four

nature video tapes. An accompanying sound track described these

actions. All subjects were observed on the behaviors of interacting,

giving reinforcement, and receiving reinforcement, with the last two

being broken down more specifically to include imitation, smiling or

laughing, giving tokens, giving affection, and verbalization. Results

revealed increases in all three categories for the experimental group

(i.e., the control group remained the same) at posttreatment, but the

differences were not significant at follow-up. The results also showed

that treatment procedures raised the probability of occurrence of

responses that the subjects had already learned (i.e., verbalization,

imitation, and smiling) but did fail to implant new responses (affection

and token giving) into the subjects' repertoires. This study

highlighted the importance of defining skills specifically and of

assessing outcomes on quality of interaction to gain specific

information about the relationship of skills and behaviors. Student and

teacher perceptions were included in this current study, as well as an

attitudinal measure to determine how the students (the vicarious

learners) feel about themselves in relation to school.

As was shown from the studies reviewed above, modeling has been

used extensively to teach skills to isolated or withdrawn preschool










children. However, it is not clear if these findings would be the same

for elementary school age children or if they would work for a large

number of subjects treated at one time. The present study included

specific school skills which are relevant to success in the classroom.

They were presented by same-age models to classrooms of students.

Student and teacher behavioral ratings were used along with a student

attitudinal instrument to obtain a comprehensive set of outcome

measures.


Coaching


Coaching, a technique where new skills are presented and practiced

or shaped while being coached, has been shown to be effective in

training or facilitating behaviors in children. Although the exact

procedures used vary across studies, the efficacy of coaching has been

established in several studies.

Gottman et al. (1976) used a form of coaching as part of a

treatment to teach skills to two third-grade females. The experimental

treatment condition consisted of (a) showing them a videotape on how to

initiate interaction, (b) having them role-play how to make friends with

a male college coach who took the part of a new child in the class to be

befriended by the subject, and (c) participating in a game designed to

have each take the "special perspective" of the listener. The control

group (n=2) played games with a female experimenter. Even though

results indicated that the girls in the treatment group were

significantly different in sociometric position at follow-up and

redistributed their interactions to peers, the study had limitations.

First, the number of subjects is small, and second, the treatment group
n










was coached by a different male for each subject and the control group

by a single female. The true effect of coaching cannot be seen here

because it was only one part of three in the treatment condition.

Bornstein et al. (1977) showed that skills training consisting of

instructions, feedback from a therapist, behavior rehearsal by the

subject, and modeling of the skill resulted in considerable improvement

in component behaviors and overall assertiveness for all of four

subjects (8 to 11 years old). A type of coaching occurred when the

therapist gave feedback to the subject on the chosen skill until the

therapist felt the criterion for that behavior had been reached. It is

hard to determine the true effect of the coaching component here since

modeling (i.e., a model presented the prompt while the therapist

presented a chosen scene) was a part of the treatment. Again, the

number of subjects was small, which makes generalizability of results

questionable.

Oden and Asher (1977) used a clearly defined coaching component as

one of three conditions in their study. The number per condition (n=ll)

was expanded in relation to the studies cited earlier, and included

third- and fourth-grade socially isolated children (low-acceptance

students, total N=33). The coaching condition consisted of three parts

where (a) the student was verbally instructed in social skills by the

experimenter, (b) the student was given an opportunity to practice the

skills with a peer, and (c) the student and peer had a postplay review

session with the coach. The skills coached had to do with making

game-playing fun and included (a) participating in a game, (b)

cooperating, (c) talking and listening, and (d) validating. The coach

proposed a concept (e.g., cooperation), probed understanding of it,










rephrased the child's examples, asked for the description of opposite

behavior, and asked the subjects to try out ideas in a game. In a

postplay review, the coach discussed the experience with the subject.

The other treatment conditions were peer-pairing, where no coaching of

skills was given, and a control group where the students played.

Results showed that the coaching group was significantly different from

the other two conditions and increased on a play sociametric rating.

This group also gained in friendship nominations.

The Oden and Asher study (1977) added strength to the skill

training literature by clearly defining the coaching condition and

specifying the exact skills being taught. However, it failed to show if

these techniques, particularly the coaching technique, are effective

with more than two children at a time since the targeted, socially

isolated children and a paired partner were pulled from their classrooms

and returned after intervention. It also is unknown if the skills

learned in a created environment transferred to other real life

situations.

Ladd (1981) also examined third-grade children with low sociometric

ratings or peer acceptance and low behavior ratings (N=36). Three

treatment conditions were utilized and included (a) skill training or

coaching, which used the same three components as Oden and Asher above;

(b) attention control; and (c) nontreatment control. All three

treatments were implemented across three elementary schools. Each

condition had 4 students (1 male and 1 female from each of two

classroans) within each school, for a total of 12 per condition. The

skills coached in condition one included asking questions, leading, and

offering support to peers. Children were trained in dyads in an










experimental room for a total of eight, 45- to 50-minute sessions on

alternating days. The attention control dyads were also separated from

the classroom, where they received only experimenter attention and peer

interaction. The control group dyad was not separated and did not

receive training. Results showed that children who had been coached in

the concept of the skill spent a greater amount of time engaged in

question asking and leading and were significantly different from the

other groups. They were also significantly different in classroom peer

acceptance. The design of this experiment, the analysis (where the

effect of class was examined statistically in the pretest measures), the

identification of specific skills, and the careful detailing of the

coaching condition brought clarity to the use of this procedure.

However, again, the students were taken in dyads from their natural

classroom environment to an experimental room for training. It was

still not known if these techniques wrk in larger groups or for

moderately socially deficient students since low social acceptance

students in dyads were studied.

Gresham and Nagle (1980) studied isolated third- and fourth-grade

students who had been so labeled by sociametric methods. The results

indicated that coaching, which consisted of presenting rules for

behavior, rehearsal with the coach, and peer partner and feedback;

modeling; and an abbreviated combination of the two, were functionally

equal in training isolated third- and fourth-grade students in social

skills (i.e., participation, cooperation, carnnunication, and

validation). Again, children were coached in dyads or triads apart from

the classroom.










La Greca and Santogrossi (1980) worked with an isolated sample of

elementary school age children (grades 3 to 5) selected for low peer

acceptance ratings, but presented treatment in a group setting held

after school as opposed to individual, dyadic, or triadic groupings as

in previous studies. Subjects were divided into three treatment

conditions. The first was a skills training group (SK) where eight

skills (i.e., smiling, greeting, joining, inviting, conversing, sharing

and cooperating, complimenting, and grooming) were presented by first

having the students view the skills presented by peer-models, with

discussion following. Next, students were coached by receiving

suggestions from the trainers in the use of the skills provided and

given a chance to rehearse them. Role-playing situations were based on

situations that were relevant to the students and practiced with each

other. Third, in the SK condition, students were given homework

assignments that encouraged more practice of the skills. The attention

placebo group received the same training except that they saw movie

excerpts, played pretend games, and had unrelated homework. The waiting

list control group participated only in pre- and postmeasures. Results

indicated that the SK group showed increased skill in role playing,

greater verbal knowledge of skills, and more initiation behavior with

peers at school. The attempt to teach specific skills to groups was a

unique feature of this study; however, the true effectiveness of

coaching was confounded since it was coupled with modeling. It still

was not knriwn if coaching of skills with large groups of children

divided into smaller groups of five or six students where they coach

each other on skills will be efficacious.









The literature showed coaching to be effective with samples of

children who showed a deficit in skills both at the nursery school age

and at elementary school age. In the current study coaching was

examined as a separate condition to determine if it were effective in

presenting school success social skills to children in third-grade

classrooms. Students rated the lowest in school skills were targeted

for separate analysis so that impact of this treatment could be more

fully understood.

A promising link can be made between the modeling and coaching

literature, that was originally developed on socially isolated children

in nursery school samples and expanded to elementary school age

children, and the educational literature which identified skills as

being necessary for academic achievement and school success. Both

fields have successfully demonstrated that modeling and coaching have

positive effects on outcome measures of school success skills. The

developmental guidance literature also attested to the importance of

enhancing children through the presentation of various school success

skills. The classroom may be the area where all types of children can

make gains in acquiring school success skills and in achievement. It

also may be the arena where the strengths of these separate disciplines

can culminate and have impact on the development of large numbers of

children. The combined literatures document that school success skills

can be defined as behaviors, modeling and coaching are effective

techniques for teaching new behaviors, classroom guidance units are

successful vehicles to deliver new information to be learned by

students, and school success is the result of the utilization of

specific skills. Therefore, in this study these diverse findings were










integrated to investigate whether one or the other treatment components

(or both) proved successful in enhancing students' school success

skills.


Outcome Measures


In order to assess the effects of the treatments, several dependent

variables were used. Thelen et al. (1979) have stressed the importance

of multiple outcome measures in skills training. In the past, the use

of outcome measures has varied from using only one to using several.

However, results have been confusing to interpret because of

inconsistencies in methods and definitions.

Wanlass and Prinz (1982), in an extensive review of literature

related to childhood social isolation, found that the majority of

modeling treatments used only frequency of interaction as their

behavioral indicator of effects. They pointed out that controversy

exists over whether interaction rate has been established as a predictor

of later maladjustment and stated that there is a trend away from

relying on overall interaction rate as the primary outcome variable,

toward evaluating the quality of interaction. Gresham and Nagle (1980),

in their overview and analysis of effective ways to present social

skills to isolated children, also found modeling being assessed by

social interaction rate, while coaching treatment studies used quality

of interaction as primary outcome measures. They indicated that both

modeling and coaching researchers championed their own methods as best.

Foster and Ritchey (1979) stated that direct observations have

positive features; i.e., generate objective data, are under experimenter

control, can be checked among raters, allow for specification of










treatment effects, and "are the behavioral 'bottom lines' for

establishing functional relationships among antecedent conditions,

social behavior, and interpersonal consequences" (p. 631). However,

even with all of these positive assets, data generated from behavioral

observations have been confusing and inconsistent, with emphases on rate

of interaction and/or quality of interaction generated by various coding

systems. Because of the design of this study, where five counselors

worked in three different classrooms each, behavioral measures for which

raters tabulate scores were not used. This technique could not be

practically implemented in this study.

Goldfried and Kent (1972) pointed out that while behavioral

scientists generally are suspicious of self-report measures, they may be

reliable and valid under specified conditions. The Behavior and

Attitude Inventory (Myrick et al., 1986), a self-report measure where

children rate classroom behaviors in terms of self-perceived frequency

and rate attitudes about school in degrees of agreement on a Likert-type

scale system, has been used successfully for evaluation of developmental

guidance units. This study used the School Success Inventory-Student

Form which is modeled after Myrick's instrument. Students rated

themselves in terms of frequency with regard to school success

behaviors. They also rated themselves along continue of attitudes

toward school on the School Attitude Inventory in terms of pleasure,

excitement, and control with regard to school situations.

Teachers recorded their perceptions of students' behaviors on the

School Success Inventory--Teacher Form which reflected the same school

success skills upon which the students rated themselves. Edelbrock and

Achenback (1984) stated that teachers' perceptions often play a key role










in determining what is done to help disturbed children. Pekarik, Prinz,

Liebert, Weintraub, and Neale (1976) noted that teacher ratings are

usually regarded as relatively reliable and valid measures of children's

adjustment, and the combination of self report and teacher report are

thought to be a more valid index of disturbance than the teacher ratings

alone. Khan and Hoge (1983) cautioned researchers to be aware that

teachers may be sensitive to different aspects of behavior in boys and

girls and may reflect this in their ratings.


Sunmary


A review of the related literature has (a) shown that developmental

guidance is a viable vehicle to present information to children, (b)

shown that modeling and coaching have been effective techniques for

presenting new skills, and (c) demonstrated that self-report and teacher

ratings of behaviors and attitudes can be used to assess treatment, thus

their inclusion as dependent measures.

Confusion has existed and still exists in the literature about how

best to teach skills to children. Educators and researchers have tried

various methods to help students gain skills to make them more

successful in the school environment and continue to direct energies

toward this goal. This awareness of the importance of teaching school

success skills must continue so that interventions can help children

achieve the excellence sought in contemporary education. The problem of

how to help children learn school success skills most effectively still

remains.

Researchers in education studying ways to enhance academic success

have begun to identify skills for success at school, researchers in the










counseling professions have demonstrated that developmental guidance

units are effective methods for helping students learn and change their

attitudes, and researchers in the social sciences studying ways to

improve social isolation have shown that modeling and coaching are

effective ways to present skills. However, a specific set of school

success skills, presented through developmental guidance units

incorporating modeling and coaching, had never been delivered to

classrooms of children and evaluated for effectiveness. Such research

became the focus of this study.















CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY


This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of

developmental guidance units for improving school success behaviors and

attitudes toward school in third-grade children. A unit featuring

modeling and another involving coaching were compared with a control

group in terms of teachers' and students' perceptions of school success

behaviors and students' attitudinal ratings of school situations.


Population


The population for this study was composed of children in regular

third-grade classrooms in Alachua County, Florida, Public Schools. It

included special education students who were "mainstreamed" as well as

students who had been accelerated or retained.

Alachua County is located in north central Florida. The University

of Florida is located in the county. In the 1980 census, Alachua County

had a total population of 151,348 with about 71% designated urban and

29% designated rural. The 1984 median family income was $17,072

(Florida Department of Education, 1983-84).

In the academic year 1983-84, the Alachua County Public Schools had

approximately 22,345 students--64.29% white, 32.32% black, 1.45%

Hispanic, 1.28% Asian and .03% American Indian/Alaskan native. In the

population estimate of 1983, 51.2% of the total population for the age









range of 0-17 was male and 48.8% for this same age range was female

(Florida Department of Education, 1983-84).


Sampling Procedure


Permission to conduct the study in Alachua County Public Schools

was obtained. First, a detailed description of the project was

submitted to the University of Florida Institutional Review Board which

gave permission to conduct the study. The study was then presented to

the University of Florida Extended Services Office where approval was

obtained frcm the College of Education. Approval was obtained from the

Department of Planning and Evaluation, Alachua County Public Schools.

The principals of the 20 public elementary schools in Alachua

County, Florida, were informed of the nature of the study and invited to

volunteer their schools for participation. Each of the principals

received a copy of the Application for Research in Alachua County Public

Schools form which explained the purpose of the research, gave a brief

summary, stated the population needs, and delineated the amount of time

involved to complete the study. Twelve principals and school counselors

decided that their students would participate. Six of the schools met

the criteria of having three regular third grades. Principals and/or

school counselors from eight schools chose not to participate because of

other commitments and schedule problems. Five of the six eligible

school counselors completed the study and one failed to complete the

unit within the specified time frame.

Within each school, all third-grade classrooms in the participating

schools were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions by using

a table of random numbers. All students from whom data were obtained









and included were present for at least five of the six guidance

sessions.

Within each of the three experimental conditions, target students

were identified by their teachers. On a class roster teachers rated

their students on a 1-7 scale, with 7 indicating high levels of task and

interpersonal skills related to success in school. Those with the

lowest ratings (i.e., 4 and under) were considered the target students.



Resultant Sample


The sample was composed of 299 students from 15 classrooms within

five elementary schools in Alachua County, Florida, Public Schools (see

Table 3-1). Each classroom of students was randomly assigned to the

three experimental conditions of modeling (student n=102), coaching

(student n=101), and control (student n=96) within each school. The

target students (n=74) were distributed across all three conditions (see

Table 3-1). All schools who (a) gave permission; (b) had at least three

third-grade classrooms within the school; (c) had an experienced,

certified school counselor; (d) and administered all experimental

conditions in accord with the protocol were included. The final sample

included 58 black, 236 white, and 5 other ethnic students, and 147 boys

and 147 girls.










Table 3-1

Number of Students per Condition by School


4

Conditions

School Modeling Coaching Control

Total Target Total Target Total Target


School A 20 4 18 7 23 5

School B 20 6 21 2 20 6

School C 18 12 23 5 14 3

School D 20 5 17 3 18 1

School E 24 5 22 4 21 6



TOTAL 102 32 101 21 96 21











Research Design


The research design used in this study was a pre-post control group

design with three conditions (Issac & Michael, 1981) (see Table 3-2).

Classrooms of students in each elementary school were randomly assigned

to one of three conditions by using a table of randan numbers.


Treatment Description


Two experimental guidance units were used to present school success

skills to third-grade children. Students who participated in them were

compared to a control group. The set of school success skills presented

in the developmental guidance units included (a) paying attention in

school, (b) listening to teachers and peers, (c) volunteering in school,

(d) using self-control, (e) interacting with teachers and peers, and (f)

utilizing self-assessment. These skills were depicted by models,

practiced by students, and were evaluated by selected outcane measures.

School success skills were incorporated in the developmental guidance

units and tested for efficacy in the following conditions-(a) modeling,

(b) coaching, and (c) control.

Developmental Guidance Units

Both experimental treatments (i.e., modeling and coaching) were

incorporated into two developmental guidance units one entitled Skills

for School Success-Modeling (SSS-M) and the other entitled Skills for

School Success-Coaching (SSS-C). Each unit was delivered to

third-grade children by their respective elementary school counselors.

The units presented the same set of school success skills (i.e., paying

attention in school, listening to teachers and peers, volunteering at










Table 3-2

Pre-Post Control Group Design


Conditions


Outcome measurement times

Pre Post


T1 (Modeling) 01 02 03 X 1 02 03

T2 (Coaching) 1 02 03 X 01 02 03

C1 (Control) 01 02 03 01 02 03


School Success Inventory -

School Success Inventory -

School Attitude Inventory


Teacher Form

Student Form


O1=

02=

03










school, using self-control at school, interacting with teachers and

peers, and utilizing self-assessment techniques), but each involved a

separate teaching technique of either modeling (see Appendix A) or

coaching (see Appendix B).

Both guidance units consisted of six, 30-minute sessions. Each of

the six sessions had a stated goal and accompanying objectives

consistent with the overall purpose of teaching school success skills

and with the goals of the School Board of Alachua County's (1983)

Developmental Guidance and Counseling Plan. The goals, objectives, and

content of the units were the same, with the units differentiated only

by the experimental treatments of modeling and coaching.


Skills for School Success--Modeling

Children in the modeling condition participated in a developmental

guidance unit entitled Skills for School Success--Modeling (SSS-M) (see

Appendix A). For each session the school counselor choose students, one

male and one female, to model and demonstrate the skill being taught.

School counselors identified the modeling students from those who spoke

well, appeared to be leaders, and were respected by classmates. The

other observing students learned the skills vicariously as they watched

the students modeling the behaviors.

The school counselor facilitated the modeling condition by guiding

the models through the skill, as outlined in the guidance unit. A new

skill was modeled for each of the six sessions, using different models

each session to promote class interest and participation. Each session

concluded with a discussion and summary.









Skills for School Success-Coaching

Children in the coaching condition participated in a developmental

guidance unit, Skills for School Success--Coaching (SSS-C) (see Appendix

B). For each session the school counselor presented didactically the

new skill After the school counselor presented the school success

skill for each session, the students were divided into groups of five or

six students where they practiced the skill for about 15 minutes. They

coached each other on performance as they practiced. Each session

concluded with a discussion and summary.


Control Group

Students in the control group responded to the same measures of

school success at the same 8-week interval as the two modeling and

coaching groups. Their participation in one of the two conditions was

delayed for eight weeks until after the study was completed.


Assessment Techniques


In order to assess the effects of the treatments, the following

measures were used (a) School Success Inventory-Teacher Form (SSI-SF),

(b) School Success Inventory-Student Form (SSI-TF), and (c) School

Attitude Inventory (SAI).


School Success Inventory--Teacher Form

The School Success Inventory--Teacher Form (see Appendix C) was a

paper and pencil measure on which teachers responded to 12 items related

to school behavior for each student. These items reflected the same

behaviors listed on the student form (i.e., attending, listening,

volunteering, using self-control, interacting, and assessing self);









corresponding items were keyed to the behaviors on the students' forms

with verb tense and pronoun use made appropriate for the rater.

The teachers marked each item in terms of perceived frequency of

occurrence on a 5-point scale of "Very Often," "Often," "Sanetimes,"

"Seldom," and "Very Seldom." Respondents indicated their choice by

marking with an X or a check mark. Each of these categories was

assigned a numerical score, with one indicating the "desired" behavior

and corresponding to "Very Often." The scores ranged from 12 (very

often) to 60 (very seldmn).

Test-retest reliability for the SSI-TF was .94, as obtained from a

pilot study of two third-grade classes. The SSI-TF was administered to

teachers in two third-grade classes who first rated their students

(N=54) on the scale described above and then responded to the same

instrument two weeks later.


School Success Inventory--Student Form

The School Success Inventory--Student Form (see Appendix D) was a

paper and pencil measure. It contained 12 items, 2 items to represent

each of the six classroom behaviors of attending, listening,

volunteering, using self-control, interacting, and assessing self. The

items comprise behaviors related to school success.

The students marked each item in terms of perceived frequency of

occurrence on a 5-point scale of "Very Often," "Often," "Sanetimes,"

"Seldom," and '"Very Seldmn." They indicated their choices by marking

with an X or a check mark. Each of these categories was assigned a

numerical score, with one indicating the "desired" behavior and

corresponding to "Very Often." The total score over the 12 items ranged









from 12 (behaviors occurring very often) to 60 (very seldom). A total

frequency score was recorded for each student.

Test-retest reliability for the SSI-SF was .79 as obtained from a

pilot study of two third-grade classes. The SSI-SF was administered to

students in two third-grade classrooms (N=49) to gather preliminary data

on its psychometric characteristics. Students responded to the 12

behavioral statements on the scale described above and then rated

themselves on the same instrument two weeks later.


School Attitude Inventory

The School Attitude Inventory was designed by the researcher (see

Appendix E). It consisted of 10 items dealing with success at school.

Each item was rated by the individual student using a pictorial scale

called the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) (Lang, 1980), which was based

on factor analytic studies of affective ratings (Osgood, 1962).

The evaluation scale was presented visually in three cartoon panels

of five pictures each. The first panel showed the cartoon figure with

variations of smiles (happy) to frowns (unhappy), thus measuring the

dimension of pleasure. The second cartoon panel measured excitement and

ranged from excited to calm. The third dimension measured control,

which ranged from a small-size figure (being controlled) to a large-size

figure (controlling). Children indicated their choices in relation to

each item on all three dimensions separately by marking a large X over

the figure they choose to represent their feelings. Each scale thus has

a range of five points. For analysis, each response was converted to

numbers, with 5 representing the most pleasure, 1 the most calm, and 5

the most in control. Total scores ranged from 30 to 150. Test-retest










reliability was .76 as obtained from a pilot study of students (N=49) in

two third-grade classes who responded to the items initially and again

after two weeks.

A general questionnaire was given at the completion of treatment.

It asked for personal reactions to the units, suggestions for

improvement and general ccmnents. It was evaluated subjectively and not

entered into formal, statistical analyses.


Hypotheses


The following hypotheses were evaluated at the .05 level of significance

in this study:


1. There are no significant differences among the three groups on

teachers' perceptions of student school success behaviors, as measured

by pre-post change on the School Success Inventory--Teacher Form.


2. There are no significant differences among the three groups on

teachers' perceptions of target students' school success behaviors, as

measured by pre-post change on the School Success Inventory-Teacher

Form.


3. There are no significant differences among the three groups with

respect to race or gender on teachers' perceptions of student school

success behaviors, as measured by pre-post change on the School Success

Inventory-Teacher Form.


4. There are no significant differences among the three groups on

students' perceptions of school success behaviors, as measured by

pre-post change on the School Success Inventory--Student Form.











5. There are no significant differences among the three groups on

target students' perceptions of school success behaviors, as measured by

pre-post change on the School Success Inventory-Student Form.


6. There are no significant differences among the three groups with

respect to race or gender on students' perceptions of school success

behaviors, as measured by pre-post change on the School Success

Inventory--Student Form.


7. There are no significant differences among the three groups on

students' attitudinal ratings of school situations, as measured by

pre-post change on the School Attitude Inventory.


8. There are no significant differences among the three groups on

target students' attitudinal ratings of school situations, as measured

by pre-post change on the School Attitude Inventory.


9. There are no significant differences among the three groups with

respect to race or gender on students' attitudinal ratings of school

situations, as measured by pre-post change on the School Attitude

Inventory.



Research Procedures


One week before treatment began, all pretreatment measures were

given. The school counselors at each school involved in the study

administered assessments in their respective schools. School counselors

were trained in the procedures for administering the School Success










Inventories--Teacher and Student Forms and the School Attitude

Inventory.

To lessen the teachers' burden, names of the students were printed

on their forms by the school counselors. All forms were recovered by

the school counselors in their respective schools. Within this

pretreatment week, school counselors also planned the room configuration

for the coaching treatment group, which required students to be grouped

into circles containing five or six students.

The six treatment sessions took place once per week and started the

week after the premeasures were taken. After six weeks in which

students participated in development guidance units, the school

counselors administered the School Success Inventory-Student Form and

had the teachers respond to the School Success Inventory--Teacher Form

as postmeasures. They also had the students fill out the School

Attitude Inventory. A general questionnaire was completed by those who

received the guidance units. School counselors filled out information

sheets on each student to include gender and race so that this

information could be included for analyses. The data were placed in

clearly marked envelopes and sent by inter-school truck mail to the

investigator.

Subjects were eliminated frgm the sample if complete data were not

collected for them or if attendance had been less than five of six

sessions. All scores were entered directly into the computer for data

analyses.










Research Participant Training


The participating Alachua County Public School counselors were

trained by the researcher. Only counselors who had at least one year

experience in teaching developmental guidance units, were certified by

the State of Florida, and attended a training session given by the

researcher participated. The school counselors attended a training

session where the study was described in detail. The school counselors

were given copies of the dependent measures and instruction on how to

present them. Specific information regarding the experimental

conditions were given in addition to giving each counselor copies of the

two development guidance units. The researcher demonstrated the

modeling and coaching procedures and explained how they would be used in

classrooms. The researcher also showed how the small-group technique

would be used as part of the coaching condition.

School counselors administered pre- and postmeasures to the

third-grade students in the study and returned the measures to the

researcher. The pretreatment measures were administered within the week

prior to the first sessions of the guidance units. The posttreatment

measures were administered one week after the completion of session six

in each unit.

School counselors delivered the guidance units according to the

instructions provided by the researcher. After completion of the study,

the school counselors responded to a summary sheet to ensure that all

procedures were followed in accordance with the study.









Data Analyses


For all tests used in this study, the significance level was set at

.05. Analyses were performed on the pre-to-post change scores for all

measures. To account for the effect of preintervention levels, analyses

of covariance were used in examining the data, using the prescore as the

covariate. As indicated above, the design involved three levels of the

treatment factor (i.e., modeling, coaching, and control), and at least

five classes nested within each treatment.

Both pre- and posttreatment data were initially analyzed using a

hierarchical design analysis of variance model (Myers, 1979). This

analysis was appropriate since each subject belonged to an intact

classroom, which may have partly influence his/her score due to

interactions with this particular set of individuals or occurrences. In

this analysis the effects due to group membership (class) were separated

from the within-group residual error term. Due to the small number of

classes in each group, treatment effects were also assessed with a

standard analysis of covariance (ANCOVA); the larger number of degrees

of freedom available yielded more powerful tests of the hypotheses.

Pooling of the error terms in such analyses was considered appropriate

in this case, as there appeared to be no a priori grounds for regarding

the classes as differing systematically on any of the dependent

variables.

Tests were carried out on the pre-to-post change scores of the

various dependent variables following treatment. These included change

in the total scores (i.e., those obtained by sunming individual item

values) for the School Success Inventories-Teacher and Student Forms,









and the total and subtotal scores for the three dimensions of pleasure,

excitement, and control on the School Attitude Inventory. A limitation

of examining subtotal scores is that there are fewer items available for

each separate analysis, and thus lower reliability; however, these

analyses were performed in an attempt to determine which dimensions

might be most sensitive to students' attitude changes. ANOOVAs were

performed on the data of all students, and on the subsample of

low-skilled target students. Hypotheses regarding race or gender were

tested by analyses including both variables as factors, to allow

evaluation of potential interactions; these analyses were restricted to

black and white students only, due to the low numbers of other racial

groups in the sample. Significant effects were further evaluated with

Bonferroni t-tests, with alpha levels adjusted to control for the number

of contrasts performed (Myers, 1979).


Description of Methodological Limitations


Attempts were made to strengthen the internal validity of the study

in several ways. A control group was included to neutralize the effects

of history, equate for the effects of maturation, control for the effect

of regression, and equalize the effects of pretest measurement on

groups. However, in regard to the last point, no group received only

the posttest measures to control for test sensitization.















CHAPTER IV
RESULTS


To assess the effectiveness of developmental guidance units for

presenting school success skills to third-grade students in their

classrooms, analyses were performed on pre- and postdata obtained from

three dependent measures. These were (a) teachers' perceptions of

student school success behaviors as measured by the School Success

Inventory-Teacher Form, (b) students' perceptions of school success

behaviors as measured by the School Success Inventory--Student Form, and

(c) students' attitudinal ratings of school situations as measured by

the School Attitude Inventory. Two experimental conditions, modeling

(n=102) and coaching (n=101), were compared to a third control condition

(n=96). Data were collected from students in five public elementary

schools (total N=299).

In order to assess comprehensively all aspects of the three

experimental conditions, nine hypotheses were investigated. The

confidence level was set at .05 to determine statistical significance.

Each hypothesis is discussed in this chapter in relation to dependent

measures. To sharpen the assessment of experimental effects by removing

the influence of any preintervention variation, prescores were used as

covariates in computing analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) on the change

scores for each measure.

This study involved classrooms of students nested within the three

experimental conditions. Accordingly, a hierarchical ANCOVA was










initially employed for overall analyses because students' scores were

influenced not only by the conditions or treatments they received, but

also by membership in the classes to which they belonged. Because there

were three conditions in only five schools, resulting in a small number

of degrees of freedom with which to evaluate the hypotheses, standard

ANOOVAs were also performed on the dependent measures to provide more

pawer and lessen the chance of Type II error. Detailed listings of

means and statistical tests for all measures may be found in Appendix F.


School Success Classroom Behaviors


To investigate the effects of treatment on classroom behaviors,

two dependent variables were subjected to analyses. Teachers'

perceptions of student behavior were recorded on the School Success

Inventory-Teacher Form (SSI-TF). Students rated themselves in terms of

school success behavior on the School Success Inventory--Student Form

(SSI-SF). Overall scores for these forms were obtained by summing the

ratings on the 12 items in each scale. Results for each variable, with

their relevance to the hypotheses, are discussed below.


Teachers' Perceptions of Student School Success Behaviors


Hol: There are no significant differences among the
three groups on teachers' perceptions of student
school success behaviors, as measured by pre-post
change on the School Success Inventory--Teacher Form.

Overall analysis by conditions. Mean change scores showed that

teachers rated students in all conditions as using school success skills

more frequently at the time of the posttest (see Table 4-1). A negative

mean change score indicated improvement, because the highest frequency










Table 4-1

Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher
Form (SSI-TF)



Modeling Coaching Control
n=102 n=101 n=96

Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Total -1.20 (7.85) -2.63 (6.91) -.70 (7.90)



Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-l (p. 160)
and Table F-13 (p. 181).
As the range for the total prescore or postscore on this
instrument was 12 to 60 (12 items x a score of 1-5 on each
dimension), the range of possible change scores was
+/- 48; in the total sample, the observed range of change
scores was -27 to 21.









of occurrence for each item was recorded as a one. Students in the

coaching condition increased more than those in the modeling condition,

and both increased more than students in the control condition.

However, a hierarchical ANCOVA revealed no significant differences among

the groups; therefore, Hol was not rejected. A standard ANCOVA also

failed to show significant differences among the groups. However,

further analyses revealed that there were differences between the

conditions which could be detected by tests of individual school data.

Individual school analyses by conditions. Individual ANCOVAs were

performed on each school's SSI-TF data separately to investigate further

effects possibly masked because of the pooling across schools. The mean

change scores in two schools (B & C) showed that students in the

modeling condition were rated as utilizing the school success skills

more often at posttest. The difference between modeling and the other

two conditions was significant only for students in school C (F(2,51) =

28.65, p <.001; see Table 4-2).

For the coaching condition, teachers rated students as using school

success skills more at posttest in four schools. AN]OVAs revealed that

significant effects for rated changes in coaching, as ccnpared to

modeling and controls, were seen for schools B and E (F(2,57) = 10.38, p

<.001; F(2,63) = 7.55, p <.001); however, this effect occurred for the

latter largely because of poorer scores for the other two groups. In

school D coaching was significantly different from modeling, with

coaching showing the most improvement (F(2,51) = 3.54, p <.04).

Teachers in school A in the control group rated their students

significantly different from the other two treatment groups. Thus,

significant differences were seen in four schools for the treatment









Table 4-2


Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for
Form (SSI-TF), by Condition and


Total School Success Inventory Teacher
Individual Schools


Modeling Coaching Control
n=102 n=101 n=96

Race Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


School A 2.05a (6.54) -1.17a (7.84) -5.48b (10.44) *
School B -3.60a (5.30) -7.90b (6.42) -1.95a (3.05) *
School C -1.50a (4.26) .39b (4.72) -2.86b (4.44) *
School D 2.20a (6.27) -4.18b (6.45) -.28ab (4.85) *
School E 3.00a (6.34) -.77b (6.20) 6.81a (6.67) *



Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
= Overall F, p <.05
Means with different letters are significantly different
with a Bonferroni t test, p <.017 (after adjusting
for the covariate).
For further details see Table F-2 (p. 161)
and Table F-14 (p. 182).










conditions, with students in three schools more improved in the coaching

condition and students in one school more improved in the modeling

condition.

While the overall ANCOVA did not shcw significant differences among

the groups, some effects of the experimental conditions could be

observed when the results were examined in terms of overall scores for

individual schools by condition.


Ho2: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on teachers' perceptions of target student's
school success behaviors, as measured by pre-post change
on the School Success Inventory-Teacher Form.

An ANCOVA was computed to test for significant differences among

the groups for target students. The criterion for designation as a

target student was a score of 4 or lower on the teacher's global school

success skill rating. The mean change scores showed that teachers rated

their students as using school success skills more frequently at

posttest for modeling, coaching, and control (see Table 4-3). However,

differences among these changes for the three groups failed to reach

significance; therefore, Ho2 was not rejected.


Ho3: There are no significant differences among the three
groups with respect to race or gender on teachers'
perceptions of student school success behaviors, as
measured by pre-post change on the School Success
Inventory--Teacher Form.

For white students, improvement was seen in all three conditions,

with coaching showing the most improvement (see Table 4-4). Black

students were rated improved in both the modeling and coaching

conditions, but not in the control condition. These differences were

reflected in the ANCOVA by an overall effect for race (F(1,231) = 11.07,










Table 4-3

Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF)



Modeling Coaching Control
n=32 n=21 n=21

Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


SSI-TF -4.50 (7.83) -3.71 (8.07) -.52 (8.48)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-3 (p. 162)
and Table F-15 (p. 184).









Table 4-4

Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher
Form (SSI-TF), for Conditions by Race



Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n=99 n=94

Race Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Blacks (n=58) -.11 (8.76) -.22 (4.88) .96 (10.02)
Whites (n=236) -1.41 (7.72) -3.26 (7.24) -1.26 (7.24)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-4 (p. 163)
and Table F-16 (p. 185).










p <.001), with white students (n=236) being rated as improving in school

skills to a greater degree than black students (n=58). However, there

were no significant differences among the experimental groups on race as

a function of condition; therefore, Ho3 was not rejected.

There were no overall significant differences for gender on the

SSI-TF (see Table 4-5). Teachers rated males as displaying the school

success skills more frequently at posttest in all three conditions, with

the largest increment attributed to coaching. Females were also rated

similarly; students in all conditions were rated as using skills more

frequently, with coaching once again increasing the most.


Students' Perceptions of School Success Behaviors


Ho4: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on students' perceptions of school success behaviors,
as measured by pre-post change on the School Success
Inventory-Student Form.

Overall analysis by conditions. To investigate significant

differences among the three experimental conditions (i.e., modeling,

coaching, and control) on students' perceptions of school success

behaviors, a hierarchical ANCOVA, where the prescores were used as the

covariate, was performed on the change scores of overall SSI-SF data.

Results of the hierarchical ANOXVA showed no significant differences

among the groups; thus, Ho4 was not rejected. A standard ANCOVA also

failed to show any significant differences among the groups.

The mean change scores did not show improvement in modeling or

coaching (see Table 4-6). Only the students in the control condition

rated themselves improved. Students in the modeling and coaching










Table 4-5

Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher
Form (SSI-TF), for Conditions by Gender



Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n=99 n=94

Gender Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Males (n=147) -1.29 (7.81) -3.12 (6.89) -1.38 (9.15)
Females (n=147) -1.06 (8.04) -2.29 (7.06) -.16 (6.76)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-4 (p. 163)
and Table F-16 (p. 185).










Table 4-6

Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Student
Form (SSI-SF)



Modeling Coaching Control
n=102 n=101 n=96

Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Total .13 (6.06) 1.06 (5.93) -.10 (7.47)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-5 (p. 165)
and Table F-17 (p. 186).
As the range for the total prescore or postscore on this
instrument was 12 to 60 (12 items x a score of 1-5 on each
dimension), the range of possible change scores was
+/- 48; in the total sample, the observed range of change
scores was -23 to 27.









conditions rated themselves as using school success skills slightly less

frequently.

Individual school analysis by conditions. In order to examine the

experimental effects more closely, ANCOVAs were run on data from the

five individual schools. The mean change scores from some individual

schools showed students rating themselves as more frequently using

school success skills at posttest. However, ANCOVAs showed no

significant differences for treatment effects on the overall instrument.


Ho5: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on target students' perceptions of school success
behaviors, as measured by pre-post change on the
School Success Inventory-Student Form.

To investigate significant differences among the three experimental

groups on students' perceptions of school success behaviors for target

students, an ANCOVA was computed on the SSI-SF change scores, using the

pre SSI-SF scores as the covariate.

The mean change scores showed that target students rated themselves

as using school success skills more frequently at posttest in the

modeling and control conditions and less frequently in the coaching

group (see Table 4-7). The ANCOVA revealed that the groups were not

significantly different from one another; therefore, Ho5 was not

rejected.


Ho6: There are no significant differences among the three
groups with respect to race or gender on students'
perceptions of school success behaviors, as measured by
pre-post change on the School Success Inventory-Student Form.

ANCOVAs were performed to investigate differences among the three

groups with respect to race and gender on students' perceptions of

school success behaviors as measured by the SSI-SF. There were no










Table 4-7

Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF)



Modeling Coaching Control
n=32 n=21 n=21

Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


SSI-SF -.91 (7.90) .62 (7.24) -4.38 (8.48)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-7 (p. 167)
and Table F-19 (p. 189).










Table 4-8

Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Student
Form (SSI-SF), for Conditions by Race



Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n=99 n=94

Race Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Blacks (n=58) -.83 (7.03) 1.22 (7.22) -3.36 (9.41)
Whites (n=236) .34 (5.89) 1.01 (5.73) .92 (6.63)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-8 (p. 168)
and Table F-20 (p. 190).










Table 4-9

Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Student
Form (SSI-SF), for Conditions by Gender



Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n=99 n=94

Gender Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Males (n=147) -.65 (6.67) .52 (5.40) -.47 (7.94)
Females (n=147) .96 (5.35) 1.59 (6.55) .26 (7.22)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-8 (p. 168)
and Table F-20 (p. 190).









significant differences for either race (see Table 4-8) or gender (see

Table 4-9) on the SSI-SF for conditions; therefore, Ho6 was not

rejected. Black students rated themselves improved in the modeling and

control groups and slightly lower in the coaching conditions. White

students rated themselves less successful in all three conditions.

Irrespective of condition, there was an overall interaction of race and

gender on the SSI-SF (F(1,281) = 8.56, p <.005). Black females and

white males rated themselves improved, with black males and white

females indicating a decrease in use of school success skills.


School Success Classroom Attitudes


In order to investigate the effects of developmental guidance units

on students' attitudinal ratings of school situations, analyses were

performed on the School Attitude Inventory (SAI).


Ho7: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on students' attitudinal ratings of school
situations, as measured by pre-post change on the School
Attitude Inventory.

Overall analysis by conditions. A hierarchical ANCOVA was

performed on total SAI change scores and for the separate dimensions of

pleasure, excitement, and control. Results of the hierarchical ANCOVAs

for total SAI scores, pleasure, excitement, and control showed no

significant differences with respect to conditions. However, results of

the standard ANCOVAs revealed a significant difference among the groups

for SAI total scores, (F(2,295) = 4.36, p <.01). Students rated

themselves more favorably in all conditions, with coaching showing the

largest increment (Table 4-10). Post hoc analyses showed students in

the coaching condition rating themselves significantly different from









Table 4-10

Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School Attitude Inventory (SAI),
Total and by Dimensions



Modeling Coaching Control
n=102 n=101 n=96

Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Total 1.89a (12.83) 6.68b (16.29) 1.30a (15.14) *

Pleasure -.01 (5.36) 1.08 (5.72) .91 (5.34)

Excitement -.65ab (8.27) -2.67b (9.10) .23a (9.80) *

Control 1.26 (6.35) 2.93 (8.87) .62 (7.84)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement for the Excitement scale.
= Overall F, p <.05
Means with different letters are significantly different
with a Bonferroni t test, p <.017 (after adjusting
for the covariate).
For further details see Table F-9 (p. 170)
and Table F-21 (p. 191).
As the range for the total prescore or postscore on this
instrument was 30 to 150 (10 items x 3 dimensions per item
x a score of 1-5 on each dimension), the range of possible
change scores was +/- 120; in the total sample, the
observed range of change scores was -35 to 49. Observed
ranges for the dimensions (possible scores +/- 40) were:
Pleasure, -14 to 16; Excitement, -30 to 36;
Control, -27 to 32.









those in the control and modeling conditions (F(1,295) = 6.16, p <.01; F

(1,295) = 6.85, p <.01). In addition, there were significant

differences among the groups on the excitement dimension (F(2,295) =

3.93, p <.03). Post hoc analyses also showed students in the coaching

condition to be significantly different from those in the control group

(F(1,295) = 7.05, p <.01). Students in the coaching condition rated

themselves the most calm, followed by modeling. Students in the control

conditions rated themselves less calm.

Individual school analysis by conditions. ANCOVAs were carried out

on total scores, and on the three separate dimensions, for individual

schools with respect to conditions. The mean change scores for total

SAI increased for three schools for modeling, in all five schools for

coaching, and in three schools for the control group (Table 4-11).

ANCOVAs performed on individual school data indicated significant

differences for two schools for total SAI scores in the coaching

condition (F(2,51) = 3.71, p <.04; F(2,51) = 4.67, p <.02), where

students rated themselves improved.

On the pleasure dimension, students in two schools showed an

increase in the mean change scores in the modeling condition, suggesting

that they felt happier about school situations at posttest. Students in

all five schools in the coaching condition also rated themselves

happier, as did students in four schools in the control group. ANCOVAs

revealed significant differences among the three experimental conditions

in two of the schools, with the coaching condition contributing the most

change in the favored direction of students rating themselves happier in

school D (F(2,63) = 4.14, p <.03); the control group was most improved

in school E (F(2,63) = 3.70, p <.03).










Table 4-11


Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for
of Individual Schools for Total


School Attitude Inventory Scores
Score and Dimensions


Modeling Coaching Control
n=102 n=101 n-96

School Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Total Score
School A
School B
School C
School D
School E

Pleasure
School A
School B
School C
School D
School E

Excitement
School A
School B
School C
School D
School E


Control
School
School ]
School 4
School i
School


5.60
3.45
-. 06a
-1. 00ab
1.38


1.80
-0.40
1.00
-1.35a
-.83a


-2.90
-1.25ab
2.33a
-1.45
.17


.90
2.60
1.28
-1.10
2.38


(14.59)
(11.77)
(15.86)
(11.96)
(10.18)


(6.38)
(3.91)
(6.86)
(5.04)
(4.27)


(9.09)
(5.84)
(11.50)
(7.76)
(6.60)


(5.89)
(7.84)
(5.59)
(6.34)
(5.79)


2.22
7.14
11.74b
11. 00a
1.27


.39
1.29
.65
2.82b
.54ab


-1.72
-2.14a
-6.52b
-3.35
.59


.11
3.71
4.56
4.82
1.32


(19.97)
(17.25)
(15.58)
(17.64)
(8.66)


(6.16)
(5.82)
(6.37)
(5.80)
(4.65)


(10.64)
(7.85)
(9.51)
(9.06)
(7.59)


(7.61)
(9.86)
(7.02)
(11.69)
(7.95)


1.83
-1.20
6.21ab
-.28b
1.19


1.00
-.35
1.71
.50ab
1.81b


-2.04
1.95b
-1.21ab
.83
1.52


-1.22
1.10
3.29
.06
.90


(15.30)
(17.52)
(10.23)
(16.78)
(14.34)


(4.25)
(6.31)
(3.77)
(5.79)
(6.06)


(14.15)
(9.06) *
(9.08) *
(7.65)
(6.48)


(6.67)
(9.47)
(4.51)
(9.03)
(8.10)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement for Excitement.
= Overall F, p <.05
Means with different letters are significantly different
with a Bonferroni t test, p <.017 (after adjusting
for the covariate).
For further details see Table F-10 (p. 171)
and Table F-22 (p. 195).









On the excitement dimension, students in three schools rated

themselves less aroused or excited for the modeling condition. Students

in the coaching condition in four schools rated themselves more calm.

Students in two schools in the control condition also rated themselves

in the favored direction. An ANCOVA showed students in one school

showing significant differences among the groups (F(2,51) = 3.22, p

<.05), with coaching showing the largest change in terms of students

rating themselves more calm at posttest. A second school showed a

marginal effect for coaching on this dimension (F(2,57) = 3.04, p

<.056).

On the control dimension at posttest, students in four schools

rated themselves as feeling more in control in school situations for the

modeling condition. For the coaching condition, students in all five

schools rated themselves in the favored direction. Students in four

schools in the control condition also rated themselves improved. No

significant differences among groups were found on the control

dimension. Only a marginal effect emerged from one school (F(2,51) =

3.01, p <.058), with the modeling condition contributing the most change

in the means.


Hog: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on target students' attitudinal ratings of
school situations, as measured by pre-post change on the
School Attitude Inventory.

ANCOVAs were performed on total SAI scores and the scores for the

three separate dimensions (pleasure, excitement, and control) to

investigate the differences among the three experimental groups on

target students' attitudinal ratings of school situations. The target

students showed improvement on mean change scores for total SAI scores









in the coaching and control conditions; modeling students rated

themselves less improved (see Table 4-12). There were no significant

differences among the groups for total SAI scores; therefore, }Ho8 was

not rejected.

Improvements were seen on each of the three separate SAI

dimensions. Students rated themselves happier on the pleasure dimension

for all three experimental conditions. Students rated themselves calmer

on the excitement dimension in the coaching and control groups and

somewhat more excited in the modeling condition. Improvement was seen

on the control dimension across all three conditions. However, ANCOVAs

revealed no significant differences among the groups on any of the three

dimensions.


Hog: There will be no significant differences among the
three groups with respect to race or gender on students'
attitudinal ratings of school situations, as measured by
pre-post change on the School Attitude Inventory.

To investigate differences between the experimental groups with

regard to race and gender, ANCOVAs were performed on the SAI total score

and on each of the three dimensions separately. In these analyses,

there was a significant condition by race interaction on the pleasure

dimension of the SAI (F(2,281) = 3.19, p <.05), with black students

rating themselves happier in modeling and whites happier in the coaching

condition (Table 4-13). There was also a significant condition by race

interaction effect on the excitement dimension (F(2,281) = 3.31, p

<.04); white students rated themselves more calm in the modeling and

coaching conditions, with black students calmer only in the coaching

condition. There were no significant differences for conditions by race

on the total SAI scores or on the control dimension. There also were no










Table 4-12

Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School
Attitude Inventory (SAI)


Modeling Coaching Control
n=32 n=21 n=21

Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Total -.56 (14.53) 6.24 (16.48) 4.86 (17.08)

Pleasure .38 (6.84) 1.76 (5.16) 2.67 (5.60)

Excitement 1.28 (10.01) -3.86 (8.66) -2.14 (10.70)

Control .34 (6.95) .62 (11.16) .05 (9.01)


Note: A negative change indicates improvement on Excitement.
For further details see Table F-ll (p. 172)
and Table F-23 (p. 203).









Table 4-13

Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School Attitude Inventory
(SAl), for Conditions by Race


Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n=99 n-94

Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Total Scores
Blacks -1.28 (12.17) 5.11 (21.41) 4.09 (20.43)
Whites 2.35 (12.85) 6.70 (15.16) .51 (13.39)

Pleasure
Blacks .61 (6.01) -1.11 (6.52) 2.41 (6.67)
Whites -.16 (5.27) 1.48 (5.50) .35 (4.83)

Excitement
Blacks 2.22 (10.46) -6.00 (10.54) .54 (11.92)
Whites -1.17 (7.66) -1.72 (8.60) -.10 (9.18)

Control
Blacks .33 (6.79) .22 (11.51) 2.23 (8.54)
Whites 1.34 (6.23) 3.52 (8.25) .07 (7.70)



Note: A negative change indicates improvement on Excitement.
For further details see Table F-12 (p. 173)
and Table F-24 (p. 204).










significant differences for conditions by gender on total SAI scores or

on the separate dimensions (Table 4-14). However, because of the

findings for conditions by race on the pleasure and excitement

dimensions, Ho9 was rejected.


Student Summary Sheet


At the conclusion of all treatment and posttest measurements,

students were asked to give informal feedback on a Student Surmary sheet

(see Appendix G). The purpose of this instrument was to gain added

insight into how students felt about the units so that improvements

could be made for further implementation of the units. Mbst of the

students viewed the units favorably. Some of the croments are

summarized in Appendix H.


Summary


A summary of the results of the ANCOVAs for this study is presented

below. It is organized by the dependent variables related to school

success behaviors and the relevant hypotheses. The third dependent

variable, related to attitudinal ratings of school situations, is shown

next, with related hypotheses.


Teachers' Perceptions of Student School Success Behaviors as Measured by

the School Success Inventory-Teacher Form (SSI-TF)


1. There were no significant differences among the three groups on

teachers' perceptions of student school success behaviors.










Table 4-14

Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Attitude Inventory
(SAI), for Conditions by Gender



Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n-99 n=94

Mean s.d. Mean s.d. Mean s.d.


Total Scores
Males 1.29 (13.77) 8.12 (16.44) 3.22 (14.98)
Females 2.14 (11.69) 4.69 (16.24) -.37 (15.50)

Pleasure
Males .04 (6.22) 1.72 (5.63) .89 (5.86)
Females -.08 (4.41) .29 (5.84) .78 (4.91)

Excitement
Males -.52 (9.01) -3.48 (9.64) -1.73 (10.11)
Females -.61 (7.50) -1.49 (8.44) 1.69 (9.37)

Control
Males .73 (6.32) 2.92 (9.74) .60 (7.92)
Females 1.61 (6.32) 2.92 (8.18) .55 (7.99)



Note: A negative change indicates improvement on Excitement.
For further details see Table F-12 (p. 173)
and Table F-24 (p. 204).










2. There were no significant differences among the three groups on

teachers' perceptions of target student school success behaviors.


3. There were no significant differences among the three groups

with respect to race or gender on teachers' perceptions of student

school success behaviors.


Students' Perceptions of School Success Behaviors as Measured by the

School Success Inventory--Student Form (SSI-SF)


4. There were no significant differences among the three groups

on students' perceptions of school success behaviors.


5. There were no significant differences among the three groups on

target students' perceptions of school success behaviors.


6. There were no significant differences among the three groups

with respect to race or gender on students' perceptions of school

success behaviors.


Students' Attitudinal ratings of School Situations as Measured by the

School Attitude Inventory (SAI)


7. There were significant differences among the three groups on

students' attitudinal ratings of school situations on overall scores and

the excitement dimension of the SAI.


8. There were no significant differences among the three groups on

target students' attitudinal ratings of school situations.







92


9. There were significant differences among the three groups with

respect to race, but not gender, on students' attitudinal ratings of

school situations.




Full Text
11
presented verbally to students by a school counselor while they observed
another child (model) performing the school success skill.
Pleasure. A dimension of the School Attitude Inventory used for
assessing attitudes about school. The scale ranges fran happy at one
extreme of the rated continuum to sad at the other extreme.
School situations. Circumstances in school to which students
respond, including teacher calling on students, asking questions in
class, organizing school work, talking in front of the class, accepting
suggestions, asserting one's self, participating in class discussions,
and accepting teacher's corrections and suggestions.
School success skills. Behaviors (i.e., skills) which help
students perform effectively in school and the classocm.
Target students. Students who were identified by their teachers as
being lew-skilled (i.e., those students who were rated a 4 or under on a
scale of 1 through 7 with 7 indicating the most skills) in terms of task
and interpersonal behaviors that students use to make an effort to learn
successfully in the classroom.
Overview of the Remainder of the Study
The remainder of the study is organized into four additional
chapters. A review of the related literature is presented in Chapter
II. Chapter III contains the research methodology, where procedures of
the study are described. The results are presented in Chapter IV.
Chapter V includes a summary, conclusions, discussion, limitations,
implications, and recomiendations.


95
InventoryTeacher Form (SSI-TF). This instrument asked teachers to
rate students on a 5-point scale for 12 items related to school success
skills, with 2 items pertaining to each of the six skills presented in
the guidance units. Scores were obtained by summing the individual item
ratings, and ranged from 12 (best) to 60 (worst). These scores were
used in the overall hierarchical and standard ANCOVAs.
The second dependent variable, students' perceptions of school
success behaviors, was measured by the School Success InventoryStudent
Form (SSI-SF), which asked students to rate themselves on 12 items
related to the six school success skills in terms of perceived
frequency. These items corresponded to those the teachers responded to
on the SSI-TF. Scores ranged fron 12 (best performance) to 60 (worst
performance). Total scores were used in the subsequent hierarchical and
standard ANCOVAs.
The third dependent variable, students' attitudinal ratings of
school situations, was measured by the School Attitude Inventory (SAI).
Total scores and subtotal scores for the separate dimensions of
pleasure, exc it orient, and control were used for the overall hierarchical
and standard ANCOVAs.
Conclusions
The outcomes of the study were mixed. Results suggested that
developmental guidance units designed to teach third-grade students
school success skills through the teaching techniques of modeling and
coaching were not effective in changing teachers' and students'
perceptions of frequencies of school success behaviors, but were
effective in producing seme positive changes in student attitudes about


201
Table F-22 (continued)
Control
School h
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
Condition
2
17.43
8.72
0.21
.82
Prescore
1
250.92
250.92
6.03
.02
Error
57
2372.57
41.62
School B
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
2_S
Condition
2
121.69
60.84
0.97
.39
Prescore
1
1247.82
1247.82
19.94
.001
Error
57
3567.07
62.50
School C
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_S
Condition
2
114.43
57.21
1.68
.20
Prescore
1
145.78
145.78
4.29
.05
Error
51
1734.34
34.01


125
SUMMARY IT IS SO IMPORTANT TO LET TEACHERS AND OTHER STUDENTS KNOT
WHAT YOU ARE THINKING AND FEELING SO THAT THEY CAN CLEAR UP THINGS THAT
MIGHT GET IN THE WAY OF YOUR DOING YOUR BEST SCHOOLWORK. KNOWING HOT
YOU FEEL AND THINK, AND HAVING SKILLS TO TELL OTHERS, WILL HELP YOU IN
EVERYTHING THAT YOU DO AT SCHOOL. IT WILL HELP YOU GET ALONG WITH OTHER
STUDENTS AND TEACHERS.
ASSIGNMENT: PRACTICE THE FEEDBACK MODEL ABOUT A SCHOOL SITUATION IN
YOUR IMAGINATION. IF YOU FEEL COMFORTABLE, GO AHEAD AND TRY IT OUT.
SEE IF IT FEELS GOOD TO GIVE A COMPLIMENT (PERHAPS TO YOUR TEACHER)
USING THIS MODEL.


131
- COACHING. When the first leader finishes timing, explain that the
next student to the left becomes the timer and instructs the group to
pay attention for 20 seconds, and then gives reinforcement for their
having done this. This proceeds around the circle with each leader
increasing the paying attention time by 5 seconds. The group will go
until the counselor tells then that time is up.
PROCESSING: Move the teams so that they are part of the large
discussion group. Discuss hew things went in the group. Discussion
questions might include:
Specific coaching questions 1. WHAT WAS IT LIKE TRYING TO
USE GOOD EYE CONTACT WITH YOUR LEADER?
2. WHAT WERE SOME OF THE THINGS THAT HELPED YOU PAY
ATTENTION IN THE GROUP?
General questions 1. BOW DO YOU THINK USING THESE SKILLS
WILL HELP YOU IN SCHOOL?
2. WHAT ARE SOME THINGS YOU CAN DO TO HELP YOURSELF PAY
ATTENTION EVEN IF OTHERS AROUND YOU ARE NOT?
SUMMARY: PAYING ATTENTION AT SCHOOL CAN HELP YOU BE BETTER STUDENTS AND
GET BETTER GRADES. TEACHERS WILL KNOW BY LOOKING THAT YOU ARE
CONCENTRATING AND TRYING TO LEARN. YOU CAN START TO USE THESE SKILLS
RIGHT AWAY. REMEMBER TO SIT UP STRAIGHT, LEAN FORWARD, AND GIVE YOUR
BEST EYE CONTACT. YOU ARE ON YOUR WAY TO BEING A BETTER STUDENT.
ASSIGNMENT: SOMETIME TODAY OR DURING THE WEEK, PRACTICE PAYING
ATTENTION TO A FRIEND OR TO YOUR PARENTS AS THEY TALK ABOUT SOMETHING
IMPORTANT TO THEM


40
children. However, it is not clear if these findings would be the same
for elementary school age children or if they would work for a large
number of subjects treated at one time. The present study included
specific school skills v/hich are relevant to success in the classroom
They were presented by same-age models to classrooms of students.
Student and teacher behavioral ratings were used along with a student
attitudinal instrument to obtain a comprehensive set of outcone
measures.
Coaching
Coaching, a technique where new skills are presented and practiced
or shaped while being coached, has been shewn to be effective in
training or facilitating behaviors in children. Although the exact
procedures used vary across studies, the efficacy of coaching has been
established in several studies.
Gottman et al. (1976) used a form of coaching as part of a
treatment to teach skills to two third-grade fereles. The experimental
treatment condition consisted of (a) shewing them a videotape on how to
initiate interaction, (b) having them role-play hew to make friends with
a male college coach who took the part of a new child in the class to be
befriended by the subject, and (c) participating in a game designed to
have each take the "special perspective" of the listener. The control
group (n=2) played games writh a female experimenter. Even though
results indicated that the girls in the treatment group were
significantly different in socicmetric position at follcw-up and
redistributed their interactions to peers, the study had limitations.
First, the number of subjects is small, and second, the treatment group


118
The third skill to be modeled is self talk. Have the models talk
about what they could say to themselves to overcome their nervous
feelings in a situation where they are told that they have to give a
speech to two third-grade classrooms at one time. Guide then in the use
of positive sentences on how they would prepare themselves for this
task. Reinforce them. Choose who will demonstrate first by hew ready
each seems.
PROCESSING: Talk about their experiences. Seme questions might
include:
Specific modeling questions 1. WHAT DID YOU LEARN FROM
THE MODEL THAT WILL HELP YOU VOLUNTEER MORE IN CLASS?
2. WHAT DID THE MODEL DO THAT YOU KNOW YOU ARE GOING TO TRY
WHEN YOU NEED A WAY TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS?
General questions 1. HO DO YOU THINK THESE NEW SKILLS
MIGHT HELP YOU VOLUNTEER MORE IDEAS AT SCHOOL?
2. HCW DO YOU THINK BEING ABLE TO ASK QUESTIONS IN
CLASS WILL HELP YOU BECOME BETTER STUDENTS?
SUMMARY: BEING ABLE TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS AT SCHOOL IS VERY
IMPORTANT. TEACHERS RESPOND IN POSITIVE WAYS TO STUDENTS WHO VOLUNTEER
TO DO THINGS, ARE NOT AFRAID TO ASK QUESTIONS, AND SHARE IDEAS IN CLASS.
NOW, WHEN YOU FEEL THOSE NERVOUS FEELINGS GETTING IN THE WAY, YOU KNOW
WHAT TO DO TO OVERCOME THEM.
ASSIGNMENT: TRY TO USE ONE OF THE WAYS YOU LEARNED TO OVERCOME NERVOUS
FEELINGS WHEN YOU FEEL ANXIOUS OR NERVOUS. FOR PRACTICE, TEACH A FAMILY
MEMBER ONE OF THE WAYS YOU LEARNED TO HELP YOURSELF VOLUNTEER TO DO MORE
THINGS, AND SHARE MORE OF YOUR IDEAS WITH OTHERS AT SCHOOL.


164
Table F-4 (continued)
Race by Gender
Black Males
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
Black Females
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
White Males
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
White Females
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
n =
= 10
32.90
(9.45)
33.20
(10.29)
.30
(10.87)
n =
= 8
27.13
(4.97)
26.50
(6.39)
-.63
(5.80)
n =
= 42
29.71
(9.26)
28.05
(9.20)
-1.67
(7.01)
n =
= 41
28.22
(8.14)
27.07
(9.88)
-1.15
(8.46)
n =
= 10
33.30
(4.97)
34.40
(7.14)
1.10
(5.09)
n =
= 8
35.13
(9.09)
33.25
(10.11)
-1.83
(4.36)
n =
= 40
29.90
(10.03)
25.73
(9.14)
-4.18
(6.92)
n =
= 41
24.85
(7.56)
22.49
(8.05)
-2.37
(7.51)
n =
= 10
28.80
(10.20)
30.50
(11.02)
1.70
(11.81)
n =
= 12
24.92
(10.17)
25.25
(8.31)
.33
(8.74)
n =
= 35
25.74
(9.16)
23.49
(9.43)
-2.26
(8.24)
n =
= 37
20.03
(7.53)
19.70
(8.14)
-.32
(6.13)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACN^JLEDGMEOTS ii
LIST OF TABLES v
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTERS
IINTRODUCTION 1
Theoretical Perspective 2
Statement of the Problem 4
Need for the Study 5
Purpose of the Study 8
Research Questions 8
Definition of Terms 9
Overview of the Remainder of the Study 11
IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 12
School Success Skills 14
Developmental Classroom Guidance 23
Target Students 32
Modeling 34
Coaching 40
Outcome Measures 46
Summary 48
IIIMETHODOLOGY 50
Population 50
Sampling Procedure 51
Resultant Sanple 52
Research Design 54
Treatment Description 54
Assessment Techniques 57
Hypotheses 60
Research Procedures 61
Research Participant Training 62
Data Analyses 63
Methodological Limitations 64
iii


163
Table F-4
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), for
Race, Gender, and Race by Gender
Modeling Coaching Control
Scores
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Race
Blacks
n =
13
n =
18
n =
22
Prescores
30.33
(8.13)
34.11
(6.93)
26.68
(10.13)
Postscores
30.22
(9.20)
33.89
(8.33)
27.64
(9.77)
Change scores
-.11
(8.76)
-.22
(4.88)
.96
(10.02)
Whites
n =
83
n =
81
n =
72
Prescores
28.98
(8.71)
27.35
(9.17)
22.81
(8.79)
Postscores
27.57
(9.50)
24.09
(8.71)
21.54
(8.93)
Change scores
-1.41
(7.72)
-3.26
(7.24)
-1.26
(7.24)
Gender
lales
n =
52
n =
50
n =
45
Prescores
30.33
(9.29)
30.58
(9.30)
26.42
(9.37)
Postscores
29.04
(9.54)
27.46
(9.39)
25.04
(10.11)
Change scores
-1.29
(7.81)
-3.12
(6.89)
-1.38
(9.15)
Females
n =
49
n =
49
n =
49
Prescores
28.04
(7.68)
26.53
(8.63)
21.22
(8.41)
Postscores
26.98
(9.34)
24.24
(9.22)
21.06
(8.45)
Change scores
-1.06
(8.04)
-2.29
(7.06)
-.16
(6.76)


175
Table F-12 (continued)
PLEASURE
Race
Blacks
n =
18
Prescores
39.11
(4.61)
Postscores
39.72
(7.31)
Change scores
.61
(6.01)
Whites
n =
83
Prescores
37.18
(6.29)
Postscores
37.02
(6.81)
Change scores
-.16
(5.27)
Gender
Males
n =
52
Prescores
37.69
(5.59)
Postscores
37.73
(6.50)
Change scores
.04
(6.21)
Females
n =
49
Prescores
37.35
(6.56)
Postscores
37.27
(7.45)
Change scores
-.08
(4.41)
n =
18
n =
22
.56
(6.96)
39.45
(7.01)
.44
(8.41)
41.86
(6.24)
.11
(6.52)
2.41
(6.67)
n =
81
n =
72
.73
(6.75)
38.14
(6.42)
.21
(7.45)
38.49
(5.83)
.48
(5.50)
.35
(4.83)
n =
50
n =
45
.64
(6.68)
37.71
(7.17)
.36
(6.32)
38.60
(6.64)
.72
(5.63)
.89
(5.86)
n =
49
n =
49
.49
(6.95)
39.12
(5.91)
.78
(8.76)
39.90
(5.47)
.29
(5.84)
.78
(4.91)
39
38
-1
37
39
1
37
39
1
38
38


195
Table F-22
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for School Attitude
Inventory (SAI), Total Score and Dimensions, by Individual Schools
Total Score
School A
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£_i
Condition
2
152.40
76.20
0.30
.75
Prescore
1
1341.18
1341.18
5.22
.03
Error
57
14630.03
256.67
School B
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
Condition
2
1151.04
575.52
2.69
.08
Prescore
1
2203.31
2203.31
10.28
.002
Error
57
12213.41
214.27
School C
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
PjS
Condition
2
1300.93
650.46
3.71
.04
Prescore
1
2034.51
2034.51
11.60
.001
Error
51
8945.22
175.40


83
those in the control and modeling conditions (F(1,295) = 6.16, £ <.01; F
(1,295) =6.85, £ <.01). In addition, there were significant
differences among the groups on the excitement dimension (F(2,295) =
3.93, £ <.03). Post hoc analyses also shewed students in the coaching
condition to be significantly different frem those in the control group
(F(l,295) = 7.05, £ <.01). Students in the coaching condition rated
themselves the most calm, followed by modeling. Students in the control
conditions rated themselves less calm.
Individual school analysis by conditions. ANCOVAs were carried out
on total scores, and on the three separate dimensions, for individual
schools with respect to conditions. The mean change scores for total
SAI increased for three schools for modeling, in all five schools for
coaching, and in three schools for the control group (Table 4-11).
ANCOVAs performed on individual school data indicated significant
differences for two schools for total SAI scores in the coaching
condition (F(2,51) = 3.71, £ <.04; F(2,51) = 4.67, £ <.02), where
students rated themselves improved.
On the pleasure dimension, students in two schools shewed an
increase in the mean change scores in the modeling condition, suggesting
that they felt happier about school situations at posttest. Students in
all five schools in the coaching condition also rated themselves
happier, as did students in four schools in the control group. ANCOVAs
revealed significant differences among the three experimental conditions
in two of the schools, with the coaching condition contributing the most
change in the favored direction of students rating themselves happier in
school D (F(2,63) = 4.14, £ <.03); the control group was most improved
in school E (F(2,63) = 3.70, £ <.03).


179
Table F-12 (continued)
CONTROL
Race
Blacks
n =
18
Prescores
34.33
(5.50)
Postscores
34.67
(3.57)
Change scores
.33
(6.79)
Whites
n =
83
Prescores
34.31
(7.50)
Postscores
35.65
(7.46)
Change scores
1.34
(6.23)
Gender
Males
n =
52
Prescores
34.75
(6.11)
Postscores
35.48
(6.92)
Change scores
.73
(6.32)
Females
n =
49
Prescores
33.86
(8.16)
Postscores
35.47
(8.40)
Change scores
1.61
(6.32)
n =
18
n =
22
.61
(7.82)
35.23
(9.45)
.83
(10.55)
37.45
(8.38)
.22
(11.51)
2.23
(8.45)
n =
81
n =
72
.48
(8.83)
35.78
(8.42)
.00
(9.08)
35.85
(8.94)
.52
(8.25)
.07
(7.70)
n =
50
n =
45
.00
(8.38)
36.20
(8.89)
.92
(8.49)
36.80
(8.76)
.92
(9.73)
.60
(7.92)
n =
49
n =
49
.43
(8.87)
35.14
(8.42)
.35
(9.84)
35.69
(8.88)
.92
(8.18)
.55
(7.99)
37
37
33
37
3
36
30
2
32
35
2


210
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Conger, J.C., Sc Keane, S.P. (1981). Social skills intervention in the
treatment of isolated or withdrawn children. Psychological
Bulletin, 90, 473^195.
Cox, R.D., Sc Gunn, W.B. (1980). Interpersonal skills in the schools:
Assessment ard curriculum development. In D.P Rathjen Sc J.P.
Foreyt (Eds.), Social competence: Interventions for children and
adults (pp. 113-132). Y Pergamon Press.
Cuthbert, M.I. (1934). Affecting behavior through corrmunication
skills. Unpublished manuscript, University of Florida, Department
of Counselor Education, Gainesville.
Cuthbert, M.I. (1985). Each of us is special. Unpublished manuscript,
University of Florida, Department of Counselor Education,
Gainesville.
Dinkmeyer, D.C. (1968). Guidance and counseling in the elementary
school: Readings in theory and practice. NY: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston.


204
Table F-24
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for School Attitude
Inventory (SAI), Total Score and Dimensions, by Race and Gender
Total Score
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
P <
Condition
2
947.68
473.84
2.39
.10
Race
1
0.37
0.37
0.00
.97
Gender
1
51.12
51.12
0.26
.62
Condition x Race
2
293.82
146.91
0.74
.48
Condition x Gender
2
972.09
486.04
2.45
.09
Race x Gender
1
7.32
7.32
0.04
.85
Condition x Race
x Gender
2
874.08
437.04
2.20
.12
Prescore
1
6401.90
6401.90
32.27
.001
Error
281
55745.25
198.38
Pleasure
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£_i
Condition
2
72.21
36.11
1.35
.27
Race
1
15.98
15.98
0.60
.44
Gender
1
4.15
4.15
0.16
.69
Condition x Race
2
170.99
85.49
3.19
.05
Condition x Gender
2
2.88
1.44
0.05
.95
Race x Gender
1
0.56
0.56
0.02
.89
Condition x Race
x Gender
2
26.84
13.42
0.50
.61
Prescore
1
989.33
989.33
36.96
.001
Error
281
7522.10
26.77


8
If guidance units using modeling and coaching proved to be
successful in improving school success skills, school counselors might
use similar units at different grade levels. They also might act as
consultants to teachers, alerting teachers to the skills that facilitate
school success. Counselors could also train teachers in the use of the
modeling and coaching techniques so that the teachers could teach skills
directly to their students. In addition, more impetus to provide school
success skills within approved curricula for schools at local, state, or
national levels might be possible.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two
elementary school developmental guidance units designed to help children
learn school success skills and improve their attitudes about school.
More specifically, these two classroom guidance units, one incorporating
modeling and the other incorporating coaching, were presented to
third-grade elementary public school students and evaluated through a
research design which included three groups (i.e., modeling, coaching,
and control). Specifically, answers were sought to the following
research questions.
Research Questions
1. Will classroom teachers report changes in their perceptions of
student school behaviors after the students have completed developmental
guidance units focusing on school success skills?


5
(Schumaker & Hazel, 1984). However, the effectiveness of coaching has
not been evaluated with groups of students in classrooms.
Developmental guidance units, where skills are presented by a
counselor or teacher to classes of students, have been shown to be
effective in teaching interpersonal ideas and skills to students (Cobb &
Richards, 1983; Cuthbert, 1984, 1985; Duncan & Gumaer, 1980; Gerler &
Anderson, 1936; Myrick et al., 1986). However, it is not known if
developmental guidance units can be effective with young students where
modeling or coaching are used to teach school success skills.
Need for the Study
There is a need to teach students skills that can lead to success
at school. Staggering numbers of youth continue to drop out of school.
Gadwa and Griggs (1985) noted that the 1979 Carnegie Council on Policy
Studies in Higher Education pinpointed the high school dropout rate as a
major problem facing youth and suggested that educators should give
serious attention to reducing the number of high school drop outs,
reducing rates of 'bsenteeism, and bettering the high school experience.
According to the U.S Census Bureau (Gadwa & Griggs, 1985), 43.1% of
youth were not enrolled in school or did not graduate. Elementary
school is a critical time to attend to instilling school success skills
which may contribute to keeping youth in school. Reports dealing with
high school dropouts suggest that the causes can be traced back to
elementary school levels, where problems can be assessed as early as the
third grade (Schreiber, 1967).
Another major problem area for educators continues to be disruptive
behavior and student discipline (Bleck & Bleck, 1982; Cobb & Richards,


136
SESSION THREE: VOLUNTEERING SUCCESSFULLY
HJRPQSE: 1. To help students learn how to volunteer ideas in class,
and 2. To help students become aware of coping mechanisms to overcome
nervous feelings that inhibit their school performance.
MATERIALS: Newsprint or chalkboard.
INTRODUCTION: 90 FAR WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT HOW PAYING ATTENTION AND
BEING GOOD LISTENERS CAN HELP US BECOME BETTER STUDENTS AT SCHOOL.
Review the paying attention behaviors of (a) sitting up straight, (b)
using eye contact, and (c) leaning toward the speaker. Also review (a)
the listening skills of paying attention to the speaker, (b) thinking
about what the person said, and (c) saying scmething to the person on
the same topic.
TODAY WE ARE GOING TO LEARN ANOTHER WAY TO HELP YOU BECOME
SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS. SOMETIMES YOU HAVE IDEAS BUT YOU DO NOT SHARE THEM
WITH OTHERS. 90METIMES YOU WANT TO HELP TEACHERS ON SPECIAL PROJECTS,
BUT YOU DO NOT LET THEM KNOW YOU ARE INTERESTED. DO YOU KNOW WHAT GETS
IN THE WAY OF YOUR DOING WHAT YOU WANT TO DO SOMETIMES?NERVOUS
FEELINGS TODAY WE WILL LEARN SOME WAYS TO HELP OVERCOME THESE NERVOUS
FEELINGS. STUDENTS WHO KNOW HOW TO SHARE IDEAS AND HOW TO TRY NEW
THINGS DO BETTER IN SCHOOL. TEACHERS WILL SEE YOU AS REALLY WANTING TO
DO YOUR BEST. LET'S LOOK AT SOME WAYS TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS SO
YOU CAN BECOME MORE SUCCESSFUL IN SCHOOL.
ACTIVITY ONE: WHO CAN TELL US A TIME THAT MADE YOU NERVOUS AT SCHOOL?
Facilitate any answers given. Help incorporate seme of the following
situations if the students do not generate them giving a report in


121
set of six, and guide the models through them. Alternate between boy
and girl models. Guide than so that they demonstrate standing up for
themselves without hurting others. Help them remember to use body
language, a confident voice, and the broken record technique.
Reinforce them for the assertive things they do. KNOWING HCW TO ASSERT
YOURSELF CAN HELP YOU STAY ON TASK AND MAINTAIN YOUR SELF-CONTROL.
PROCESSING; After the models return to their places, begin a class
discussion. Sane questions might include:
Specific modeling questions 1. WHAT DID YOU LEARN FROM
THE MODEL THAT CAN HELP YOU BECOME ASSERTIVE AT SCHOOL?
2. WHAT WERE SOME THINGS IHAT THE MODEL DID THAT YOU KNOW
YOU CAN BEGIN TO USE RIGHT AWAY FOR YOURSELF?
General questions 1. BOW DO YOU THINK KNOWING HOW TO
CONTROL YOURSELF AT SCHOOL WILL HELP YOU BE A BETTER
STUDENT?
2. WHAT ARE THE TIMES AT SCHOOL THAT ARE THE HARDEST FOR
YOU TO USE YOUR SELF-CONTROL AND NOT LOSE YOUR COOL?
SUMMARY: TODAY YOU LEARNED WAYS TO USE SELF-CONTROL BY ASSERTING
YOURSELVES WITH BODY LANGUAGE, BROKEN RECORD, and CONFIDENT VOICE.
USING THESE SKILLS CAN HELP YOU STAY ON-TASK, USE SELF-CONTROL, AND
BECOME SUCCESSFUL AT SCHOOL.
ASSIGNMENTS: IF SOMEONE IS TRYING TO MAKE YOU DOSE YOUR SELF CONTROL,
TRY OUT 01 OF THE NEW SKILLS. TELL AT LEAST ONE MORE PERSON TWO WAYS
TO USE SELF CONTROL


10
school success skills were presented didactically by a scIkxdI counselor
to students. In turn, students practiced the skill in small groups
where peers within the group assisted in coaching and praising the
performance of the skill.
Control. A dimension of the School Attitude Inventory used for
assessing attitudes about school. The scale ranges fran being
controlled by others at one extreme of the rated continuum to being in
control at the other extreme.
Developmental classroom guidance. A form of guidance whereby a
counselor or teacher interacts with students in a classroom to enhance
students' personal and/or academic growth.
Elementary school counselors. Professional educators who are
certified by the state in which they work to provide counseling and
guidance services in elementary schools.
Excitement. A dimension of the School Attitude Inventory used for
assessing attitudes about school. The scale ranges from being excited
at one extrae of the rated continuum to being calm at the other
extreme.
Guidance unit. A series of classroom guidance sessions related to
a particular topic. Each session has a goal and specific objectives
related to accomplishing the general purpose of the unit.
Modeling principle. A technique for teaching children new behavior
by vicarious learning. In this study, school success skills were


72
Table 4-3
Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF)
Modeling
Coaching
Control
n=32
n=21
n=21
Mean s.d.
Mean s.d.
Mean s.d.
SSI-TF
-4.50 (7.83)
-3.71 (8.07)
-.52 (8.48)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-3 (p. 162)
and Table F-15 (p. 184).


115
SESSION THREE: VOLUNTEERING SUCCESSFULLY
PURPOSE: 1. To help students learn how to volunteer ideas in class,
and 2. To help students become aware of coping mechanisms to overcane
nervous feelings that inhibit their school performance.
MATERIALS: Newsprint or chalkboard.
INTRODUCTION: SO FAR WE HAVE TALKED ABOUT HOW PAYING ATTENTION AND
BEING GOOD LISTENERS CAN HELP US BECOME BETTER STUDENTS AT SCHOOL.
Review the paying attention behaviors of (a) sitting up straight, (b)
using eye contact, and (c) leaning toward the speaker. Also review (a)
the listening skills of paying attention to the speaker, (b) thinking
about what the person said, and (c) saying something to the person on
the same topic.
TODAY WE ARE GOING TO LEARN ANOTHER WAY TO HELP YOU BECOME
SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS. SOMETIMES YOU HAVE IDEAS BUT YOU DO NOT SHARE THEM
WITH OTHERS. SOMETIMES YOU WANT TO HELP TEACHERS ON SPECIAL PROJECTS,
BUT YOU DO NOT LET THEM KNOW YOU ARE INTERESTED. DO YOU KNOT WHAT GETS
IN THE WAY OF YOUR DOING WHAT YOU WANT TO DO SOMETIMES?NERVOUS
FEELINGS TODAY WE WILL LEARN SOME WAYS TO HELP OVERCOME THESE NERVOUS
FEELINGS. STUDENTS WHO KNOW HOT TO SHARE IDEAS AND HOT TO TRY NEW
THINGS DO BETTER IN SCHOOL. TEACHERS WILL SEE YOU AS REALLY WANTING TO
DO YOUR BEST. LET'S LOOK AT SOME WAYS TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS SO
YOU CAN BECOME MORE SUCCESSFUL IN SCHOOL.
ACTIVITY OTE: WHO CAN TELL US A TIME THAT MATE YOU NERVOUS AT SCHOOL?
Facilitate any answers given. Help incorporate sane of the following
situations if the students do not generate them giving a report in


10
times; (c) looking as if listening is enjoyable by raising eyebrcws,
nodding, smiling, and laughing appropriately; (d) asking questions; and
(e) appearing alert but not tense.
In the current study, listening skills were built upon the previous
attending skill and included actively listening for content and feelings
of teachers' and peers' carmunications. Students were instructed in how
to shew that they were actively listening and in hew to respond to show
that they were listening.
Volunteering, in the sense of participating in classroom
discussions, has been positively correlated with academic achievement
(Hops & Cobb, 1973). Teachers were trained in reinforcement techniques
designed to increase "survival skills" (volunteering, looking around,
attending, and working) in first-grade students. After 20 days of
intervention the students in the experimental classrooms increased in
frequency of these "survival skills" and were significantly different
frem the control students. Students in the experimental groups also
shewed gains in reading achievement which allowed the researchers to
conclude that increases in skills would lead to increases in
achievement.
Zimmerman and Pike (1972) were able to increase question-asking
behavior in disadvantaged Mexican-American second-grade boys by adult
modeling of skills and contingent praise. The authors noted tliat the
modeling plus praise group was significantly different frem the other
groups, with more response transfer to natural settings. This same


97
Students' Attitudinal Ratings of School Situations
With respect to school attitudes, an ANCOVA revealed significant
differences for the total SAI scores, reflecting an improvement for
students in the coaching and, to a lesser extent, modeling conditions.
This result indicated that students' attitudinal ratings of school
situations were improved as a result of intervention. Further analyses
also indicated a significant effect for attitudes on the excitement-calm
dimension of the SAI, with students in the coaching condition rating
themselves as feeling more calm about school situations following the
guidance unit. Thus, the developmental guidance units were effective in
enhancing students' attitudes toward school situations.
In the individual school analyses, students in the coaching
condition rated themselves improved and significantly different on the
combined scores of pleasure, excitement, and control in schools C and D;
happier on the pleasure dimension in schools D and E; and more calm on
the excitement dimension in school C. In individual item analyses for
the entire sample, students also rated themselves significantly
different in the coaching condition in terms of feeling happier, more
calm, and more in control when classmates gave them suggestions. They
also rated themselves more in control with regard to how they felt when
teachers called on them.
Even though the mean change scores were in the favored direction,
there were no significant differences among the groups for the target
students on overall attitudinal ratings of school situations.
There were significant differences among the groups on the SAI with
respect to race and gender. On the pleasure dimension of the SAI, black
students rated themselves happier in the modeling condition, with white


191
Table F-21
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for School Attitude
Inventory (SAI), Total Score and Dimensions
Total Score
Hierarchical Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
Condition
2
1609.48
804.74
2.12
.16
Classes within
Condition
12
4564.38
380.36
2.01
.02
Prescore
1
8375.71
8375.71
44.26
.001
Error
283
53552.80
189.23
Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
P <
Condition
2
1718.31
859.16
4.36
.02
Prescore
1
6802.74
6802.74
34.53
.001
Error
295
58117.18
197.01


37
an increase in social interactions compared to the control group. At
the third posttreatment assessment period, follow-up data showed the
conditions for modeling and modeling plus shaping to have maintained
their effect with no significant differences between than, thus
indicating no incranental effect for shaping.
Evers and Schwarz (1973), in studying isolated nursery school
children on the bases of teacher nomination and lew interaction rate,
utilized the same O'Connor (1969) social skills film in their modeling
group (N=8, 4 females and 4 males). No control group was included.
They also had a modeling plus praise treatment group (N=7, 3 fanales and
4 males) where, for two days, the teacher provided praise verbally to
the targeted children as group members so as not to redirect their
attention from the peer group to the adult. The teacher also was
permitted one prompt per day to guide the isolated child into group
activity. The results indicated that the modeling plus praise condition
was not significantly different frem the modeling only group, and at
follov-up all subjects maintained or improved their posttest scores.
Their rationale for using teacher reinforcement was that familiar adults
might be more effective reinforcement agents than graduate students. On
the other hand, O'Connor's (1972) rationale for using graduate students
was that teachers actually reinforce chidren for attention to adults,
thereby diminishing peer interaction; also, strangers have been more
effective reinforcers than parents, and presumably more so than
teachers.
Gottman (1977) also used the O'Connor film for his experimental
group (N=17, 8 fanales and 8 males) and an Alaskan travelogue film for
his control group (N=17, 8 females and 9 males). The latter was


82
Table 4-10
Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School Attitude Inventory (SAI),
Total and by Dimensions
Modeling Coaching Control
n=102 n=101 n=96
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Total
1.89a
(12.83)
6.68b
(16.29)
1.30a
(15.14) *
Pleasure
-.01
(5.36)
1.08
(5.72)
.91
(5.34)
Excitement
-.65ab
(8.27)
-2.67b
(9.10)
.23a
(9.80) *
Control
1.26
(6.35)
2.93
(8.87)
.62
(7.84)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement for the Excitement scale.
* = Overall F, p <.05
Means with different letters are significantly different
with a Bonferroni t test, £ <.017 (after adjusting
for the covariate).
For further details see Table F-9 (p. 170)
and Table F-21 (p. 191).
As the range for the total prescore or postscore on this
instrument was 30 to 150 (10 items x 3 dimensions per item
x a score of 1-5 on each dimension), the range of possible
change scores was +/- 120; in the total sample, the
observed range of change scores was -35 to 49. Observed
ranges for the dimensions (possible scores +/- 40) were:
Pleasure, -14 to 16; Excitement, -30 to 36;
Control, -27 to 32.


188
Table F-18 (continued)
School D
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
P <
Condition
2
219.03
109.51
3.74
.03
Prescore
1
1015.08
1015.08
34.71
.001
Error
51
1491.62
29.25
School E
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
R_i
Condition
2
31.74
15.87
0.86
.43
Prescore
1
243.51
243.51
13.13
.001
Error
63
1168.41
18.55


166
Table F-6
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Individual Schools by 1
Condition
Scores
Modeling
Mean s.d.
Coaching
Mean s.d.
Control
Mean s.d.
School A
n =
20
n =
18
n =
23
Prescores
26.
25
(6.99)
24.00
(7.13)
27.83
(4.93)
Postscores
26.
80
(8.06)
28.83
(8.38)
23.91
(6.36)
Change scores

55
(6.94)
4.83
(9.87)
-3.91
(7.00)
School B
n =
20
n =
21
n =
20
Prescores
24.
15
(4.36)
21.76
(7.64)
25.50
(7.08)
Postscores
25.
10
(5.37)
20.43
(6.90)
24.20
(3.71)
Change scores

95
(4.75)
-1.33
(3.65)
-1.30
(7.68)
School C
n =
18
n =
23
n =
14
Prescores
26.
00
(4.54)
23.74
(6.50)
22.29
(5.00)
Postscores
22.
06
(6.29)
23.83
(6.57)
22.50
(5.73)
Change scores
-3.
94
(6.82)
.09
(4.81)
.21
(5.13)
School D
n =
20
n =
17
n =
18
Prescores
24.
30
(3.44)
21.29
(5.90)
24.33
(6.70)
Postscores
26.
60
(6.85)
22.29
(5.03)
27.83
(3.82)
Change scores
2.
30
(6.98)
1.00
(4.92)
3.50
(8.38)
School E
n =
24
n =
22
n =
21
Prescores
23.
83
(4.28)
25.41
(3.70)
22.00
(5.18)
Postscores
24.
17
(4.09)
26.73
(4.46)
23.90
(6.13)
Change scores

33
(3.20)
1.32
(3.77)
1.90
(6.62)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.


200
Table F-22 (continued)
School D
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
ELi.
Condition
2
195.14
97.57
1.67
.20
Prescore
1
479.09
479.09
8.22
.01
Error
51
2974.24
58.32
School E
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
Condition
2
10.88
5.44
0.12
.89
Prescore
1
190.53
190.53
4.20
.05
Error
63
2859.36
45.39


176
Table F-12 (continued)
Race by Gender
Black teles
n =
10
n =
10
n =
10
Prescores
38.50
(5.13)
40.40
(6.75)
37.40
(8.28)
Postscores
39.20
(S.51)
38.90
(5.17)
41.00
(7.45)
Change scores
.70
(7.10)
-1.50
(6.59)
3.60
(6.42)
Black Females
n =
8
n =
8
n =
12
Prescores
39.88
(4.09)
38.50
(7.54)
41.17
(5.54)
Postscores
40.38
(6.00)
37.88
(11.69)
42.58
(5.26)
Change scores
.50
(4.78)
-.63
(6.84)
1.42
(7.00)
White teles
n =
42
n =
40
n =
35
Prescores
37.50
(5.73)
36.95
(6.56)
37.80
(6.95)
Postscores
37.38
(6.00)
39.48
(6.63)
37.91
(6.34)
Change scores
-.12
(6.07)
2.53
(5.14)
.11
(5.54)
White Females
n =
41
n =
41
n =
37
Prescores
36.85
(6.86)
38.49
(6.93)
38.46
(5.95)
Postscores
36.66
(7.62)
38.95
(8.24)
39.03
(5.32)
Change scores
-.20
(4.39)
.46
(5.71)
.57
(4.12)


46
integrated to investigate whether one or the other treatment components
(or both) proved successful in enhancing students' school success
skills.
Putearte Measures
In order to assess the effects of the treatments, several dependent
variables were used. Thelen et al. (1979) have stressed the importance
of multiple outcome measures in skills training. In the past, the use
of outcane measures has varied from using only one to using several.
However, results have been confusing to interpret because of
inconsistencies in methods and definitions.
Wanlass and Prinz (1982), in an extensive review of literature
related to childhood social isolation, found that the majority of
modeling treatments used only frequency of interaction as their
behavioral indicator of effects. They pointed out that controversy
exists over whether interaction rate lias been established as a predictor
of later maladjustment and stated that there is a trend away frem
relying on overall interaction rate as the primary outcane variable,
toward evaluating the quality of interaction. Gresham and Nagle (1980),
in their overview and analysis of effective ways to present social
skills to isolated children, also found modeling being assessed by
social interaction rate, while coaching treatment studies used quality
of interaction as primary outcane measures. They indicated that both
modeling and coaching researchers championed their cwn methods as best.
Foster and Ritchey (1979) stated that direct observations have
positive features; i.e., generate objective data, are under experimenter
control, can be checked among raters, allcw for specification of


137
front of the class, taking a hard test, or being called on when you are
not sure of the answer.
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE FEELINGS YOU GET IN YOUR BODY WHEN YOU ARE
NERVOUS? Generate a list on a chalk board or newsprint. These might
include (a) butterflies in stomach, (b) dry or cotton mouth, (c) feel
like you have to go to the bathrocni, (d) heart beats faster, (e) breathe
faster, (f) sweat, (g) knees shake, (h) hands quiver, or (i) talk very
fast, etc.
THERE ARE WAYS TO OVERCOME THESE NERVOUS FELLINGS SO YOU CAN BECOME
EVEN BETTER STUDENTS. Teach the following coping mechanisms:
1. Imagery IMAGERY, OR USING YOUR IMAGINATION, CAN HELP YOU
OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS THAT GET IN THE WAY OF YOUR DOING THINGS.
THINKING OF SAFE PLACES IN YOUR MIND CAN HELP YOU RELAX. WHEN YOU THINK
OF SPECIAL SAFE PLACES (e.g., LIKE YOUR ROOM, YOUR TREE HOUSE, GRANDMA'S
HOUSE) YOUR BODY ALSO BEGINS TO FEEL RELAXED. YOUR NERVOUS FEELINGS
BEGIN TO GO AWAY AND YOU FEEL MORE IN CONTROL OF WHAT YOU ARE NEEDING TO
DO. JUST THINKING YOU ARE CALM CAN ACTUALLY HELP YOU FEEL LESS NERVOUS
AND HELP THE BUTTERFLIES GO AWAY.
2. Deep Breathing DEEP BREATHING, OR BREATHING IN AND OUT, CAN
HELP YOU OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS TOO. BREATHING IN AND OUT SLOWLY
THREE TIMES HELPS YOU RELAX. AS YOU BREATHE IN AND OUT YOUR NERVOUS
FEELINGS BEGIN TO GO AWAY, AND YOU FEEL MORE ABLE TO DO WHAT YOU NEED TO
DO. JUST BREATHING IN AND OUT SLOWLY CAN HELP YOU FEEL LESS NERVOUS AND
MORE IN CONTROL OF YOURSELF.
3. Self Talk SELF TALK, OR TALKING TO YOURSELF IN POSITIVE WAYS,
CAN HELP YOU OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS. TELLING YOURSELF THAT YOU ARE
GOING TO BE CALM WILL HELP YOU FEEL MORE RELAXED. TELLING YOURSELF THAT


13
part, appear to liave treated only the symptoms of the problem (Cassil,
1986). For example, merit pay has been proposed as a way to recognize
and motivate teachers. However, Watts (1985) argued that merit pay was
not the answer to improved instructional programs. He proposed that
teachers should be paid for what they accomplish with students, not
rewarded for certificates, degrees, and years of experience.
Short (1985) also addressed the need for excellence and called for
strengthening curriculum through content restructuring or improvement as
the answer to bettering America1s schools. He stated that reform is
unlikely to ccme unless attention is given to daily content and to the
purposes upon which student learning is centered.
Several of the major reform reports (e.g., "Educating Americans for
the 21st Century," by the National Science Board Conmission on
Precollege Education, 1983; "Secondary Education in America," by the
Carnegie Foundation, 1983; "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for
Educational Reform," by the National Commission on Excellence in
Education, 1983) called for increased high school curriculum for
students. The implementation of this demand may benefit those who stay
within the system or go onto college, but also may have a negative
effect on those who struggled to meet the original requirements
successfully. Thus, while for seme students excellence means further
enhancement of academic prowess, for many marginal or disadvantaged
students success involves maintaining sufficient skills and motivation
to stay in school.
The Business Advisory Corrmission of the Education Conmission of the
United States stated that many students are still "disconnected" frem
society and that (a) 700,000 students drop out of school each year,


45
The literature showed coaching to be effective with samples of
children who showed a deficit in skills both at the nursery school age
and at elementary school age. In the current study coaching was
examined as a separate condition to determine if it were effective in
presenting school success social skills to children in third-grade
classrooms. Students rated the lowest in school skills were targeted
for separate analysis so that impact of this treatment could be more
fully understood.
A promising link can be made between the modeling and coaching
literature, that was originally developed on socially isolated children
in nursery school samples and expanded to elementary school age
children, and the educational literature which identified skills as
being necessary for academic achievement and school success. Both
fields have successfully demonstrated that modeling and coaching have
positive effects on outcane measures of school success skills. The
developmental guidance literature also attested to the importance of
enhancing children through the presentation of various school success
skills. The classroom may be the area where all typ>es of children can
make gains in acquiring school success skills and in achievement. It
also may be the arena where the strengths of these separate disciplines
can culminate and have impact on the development of large numbers of
children. The combined literatures document that school success skills
can be defined as behaviors, modeling and coaching are effective
techniques for teaching new behaviors, classroom guidance units are
successful vehicles to deliver new information to be learned by
students, and school success is the result of the utilization of
specific skills. Therefore, in this study these diverse findings were


CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS,
IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two
elementary school developmental guidance units designed to help children
learn school success skills. More specifically, these two classroom
guidance units, one incorporating modeling and the other incorporating
coaching, were presented to third-grade elementary school students and
evaluated through a research design which included three conditions
(modeling, coaching, and control). Third-grade students within 15
classrocms frcm five elementary schools, each with three classes of
third grades, were included in the study (total student N=299).
Classrocms of students were randomly assigned to conditions using a
table of random numbers, with each condition appearing at each school.
All classrooms were combined within each of the conditions for analyses.
Each experimental condition contained five classrocms of students. Five
school counselors delivered the guidance units to the students.
The developmental guidance units, entitled School Success
SkillsModeling (SSS-M) and School Success SkillsCoaching (SSS-C),
presented the same set of school success skills, but each used a
separate teaching technique. The school success skills presented in
both units included (a) paying attention in school, (b) listening to the
teacher and peers, (c) volunteering at school, (d) using self-control at
93


53
Table 3-1
Number of Students per Condition by School
4
School
Conditions
Modeling
Coaching
Control
Total
Target
Total
Target
Total
Target
School A
20
4
18
7
23
5
School B
20
6
21
2
20
6
School C
18
12
23
5
14
3
School D
20
5
17
3
18
1
School E
24
5
22
4
21
6
TOTAL
102
32
101
21
96
21


99
additional ANCOVAs were performed on individual school data.
Significant differences were seen among the three experimental
conditions in individual schools on the SSI-TF. Students in school C
were rated as using school success skills more in the modeling
condition. Students in schools B, D, and E were rated as using the
school success skills more in the coaching condition. When the students
rated themselves in terms of school behaviors on the SSI-SF, there were
no significant differences among the treatment groups in the individual
schools. The students' perceptions of their behavior on the SSI-SF did
not show any consistent improvement, possibly cwing somewhat to the
lcwer reliability of students' ratings.
In examining school attitudes, students rated themselves better for
the coaching group for students in schools C and D on the SAI total
scores, in schools D and E on the pleasure dimension, and in school C on
the excitement dimension. Thus, seme of the lack of overall differences
may be attributable to the fact that different treatments were effective
depending on the particular school, classroom, and counselor involved.
These differences across schools can perhaps be attributed to the
varying skills of the counselors, to the basic composition of certain
classrooms of children, to the meshing of students and teachers with
their accompanying learning and teaching styles, and to the new
assessment instruments.
Target students
To investigate the effectiveness of units for the target students,
ANCOVAs were performed on their data from the SSI-TF, SSI-SF, and SAI.
There were no significant differences among the groups for the target


168
Table F-8
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for Total School Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF), for
Race, Gender, and Race by Gender
Modeling Coaching Control
Scores
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Race
Blacks
n =
18
n =
18
n =
22
Prescores
25.17
(5.78)
23.61
(8.48)
26.32
(7.23)
Postscores
24.33
(7.44)
24.83
(7.20)
22.95
(6.14)
Change scores
-.83
(7.03)
1.22
(7.22)
-3.36
(9.41)
Whites
n =
83
n =
81
n =
72
Prescores
24.80
(4.70)
23.23
(5.73)
23.99
(5.69)
Postscores
25.13
(6.12)
24.25
(6.77)
24.90
(5.22)
Change scores
.34
(5.89)
1.01
(5.73)
.92
(6.63)
Gender
Males
n =
52
n =
50
n =
45
Prescores
26.00
(5.29)
24.10
(6.33)
25.87
(5.43)
Postscores
25.35
(6.93)
24.62
(6.05)
25.40
(5.59)
Change scores
-.65
(6.67)
.52
(5.40)
-.47
(7.94)
Females
n =
49
n =
49
n =
49
Prescores
23.65
(4.13)
22.49
(6.17)
23.31
(6.51)
Postscores
24.61
(5.69)
24.08
(7.58)
23.57
(5.28)
Change scores
.96
(5.35)
1.59
(6.55)
.26
(7.22)


77
conditions rated themselves as using school success skills slightly less
frequently.
Individual school analysis by conditions. In order to examine the
experimental effects more closely, ANCOVAs were run on data frcm the
five individual sc)tools. The mean change scores frcm some individual
schools showed students rating themselves as more frequently using
school success skills at posttest. However, ANCOVAs showed no
significant differences for treatment effects on the overall instrument.
Ho,-: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on target students' perceptions of school success
behaviors, as measured by pre-post change on the
School Success InventoryStudent Form.
To investigate significant differences among the three experimental
groups on students' perceptions of school success behaviors for target
students, an ANCOVA was computed on the SSI-SF change scores, using the
pre SSI-SF scores as the covariate.
The mean change scores shewed that target students rated themselves
as using school success skills more frequently at posttest in the
modeling and control conditions and less frequently in the coaching
group (see Table 4-7). The ANCOVA revealed that the groups were not
significantly different from one another; therefore, Hoc was not
D
rejected.
HOg.: Hiere Eire no significant differences among the three
groups with respect to race or gender on students'
perceptions of school success behaviors, as measured by
pre-post change on the School Success InventoryStudent Form.
ANCOVAs were performed to investigate differences among the three
groups with respect to race and gender on students' perceptions of
school success behaviors as measured by the SSI-SF. There were no


198
Table F-22 (continued)
School D
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
Condition
2
232.56
116.29
4.14
.03
Prescore
1
160.77
160.77
5.73
.02
Error
51
1430.76
28.05
School E
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
P_1
Condition
2
153.65
76.82
3.70
.03
Prescore
1
299.43
299.43
14.44
.001
Error
63
1306.60
20.74


90
Table 4-14
Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Attitude Inventory
(SAI), for Conditions by Gender
Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n=99 n=94
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Total Scores
Males
1.29
(13.77)
8.12
(16.44)
3.22
(14.98)
Females
2.14
(11.69)
4.69
(16.24)
-.37
(15.50)
Pleasure
Males
.04
(6.22)
1.72
(5.63)
.89
(5.86)
Females
-.08
(4.41)
.29
(5.84)
.78
(4.91)
Excitement
Males
-.52
(9.01)
-3.48
(9.64)
-1.73
(10.11)
Females
-.61
(7.50)
-1.49
(8.44)
1.69
(9.37)
Control
Males
.73
(6.32)
2.92
(9.74)
.60
(7.92)
Females
1.61
(6.32)
2.92
(8.18)
.55
(7.99)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement on Excitement.
For further details see Table F-12 (p. 173)
and Table F-24 (p. 204).


29
encouragement is powerful when given by group members rather than from
the leader.
Cobb and Richards (1983) found the combination of group guidance,
small group counseling for target students, and teacher consultation to
be an effective intervention for a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade
students to increase student self-awareness and understanding of the
unique characteristics of others. Even though the results were in a
positive direction, it was unclear exactly ho; each component
contributed to the end result. In the present study the two components
were separated in an attempt to assess each of their separate merits.
Sorsdahl and Sanche (1985) found that classrocm meetings, where the
entire class meets with the teacher for the purpose of problem solving
or discussion, were effective in changing classroom behavior in the
positive direction for fourth-grade students. The authors concluded
that, "Classrocm meetings also seem to be effective means of providing
preventive counseling to entire classes of children by enhancing their
problem-solving skills, their decision-making skills, their acceptance
of responsibility, and their interpersonal skills" (p. 55). The current
study utilized this basic concept in the modeling condition, where the
model demonstrated a skill and the class watched and discussed it as a
whole unit. However, in this study, the discussion was led by the
school counselor instead of the teacher, as was the case above.
Classrocm meetings have been found to be effective for seme purposes;
however, it remained to be shown if they will work to teach school
success skills to third-grade students.
Cuthbert (1984) also found developmental guidance units to be
appropriate in teaching ccrrmunication skills to fourth-grade students


63
Research Participant Training
The participating Alachua County Public School counselors were
trained by the researcher. Only counselors who had at least one year
experience in teaching developmental guidance units, were certified by
the State of Florida, and attended a training session given by the
researcher participated. The school counselors attended a training
session where the study was described in detail. The school counselors
were given copies of the dependent measures and instruction on how to
present them. Specific information regarding the experimental
conditions were given in addition to giving each counselor copies of the
tvro development guidance units. The researcher demonstrated the
modeling and coaching procedures and explained how they would be used in
classrooms. The researcher also showed how the small-group technique
would be used as part of the coaching condition.
School counselors administered pre- and postmeasures to the
third-grade students in the study and returned the measures to the
researcher. The pretreatment measures were administered within the week
prior to the first sessions of the guidance units. The posttreatment
measures were administered one week after the completion of session six
in each unit.
School counselors delivered the guidance units according to the
instructions provided by the researcher. After completion of the study,
the school counselors responded to a summary sheet to ensure that all
procedures were followed in accordance with the study.


70
Table 4-2
Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher
Form (SSI-TF), by Condition and Individual Schools
Modeling Coaching Control
n=102 n=101 n=96
Race
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
School A
2.05a
(6.54)
-1.17a
(7.84)
-5.48b
(10.44)

School B
-3.60a
(5.30)
-7.90b
(6.42)
-1.95a
(3.05)
*
School C
-11.50a
(4.26)
.39b
(4.72)
-2.86b
(4.44)
*
School D
2.20a
(6.27)
-4.18b
(6.45)
-.28ab
(4.85)
*
School E
3.00a
(6.34)
-.77b
(6.20)
6.81a
(6.67)
*
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
* = Overall F, £ <.05
Means with different letters are significantly different
with a Bonferroni t test, £ <.017 (after adjusting
for the covariate).
For further details see Table F-2 (p. 161)
and Table F-14 (p. 182).


9
2. Will the school success skills of target students be perceived
differently by their teachers after the students have participated in
the developmental guidance units?
3. Do race and gender interact with the effects of the developmental
guidance units on teachers' perceptions of students' school behaviors?
4. Are students' perceptions of their school success behaviors affected
by participation in developmental guidance units focusing on school
success skills?
5. Will target students change their perceptions of relevant school
behaviors after participating in the developmental guidance units?
6. Do race and gender interact with the effect of the developmental
guidance units on students' perceptions of their school behaviors?
7. After students receive the developmental guidance units, will their
attitudes about school situations change?
8. Will target students who receive the developmental guidance units
change their attitudes about school situations?
9. Do race and gender differentially affect students' attitudes about
school situations following participation in the developmental guidance
units?
Definition of Terms
Coaching. A technique for instilling new behavior by direct
instruction and practice with shaping by observers. In this study,


71
conditions, with students in three schools more improved in the coaching
condition and students in one school more improved in the modeling
condition.
While the overall ANCOVA did not shew significant differences among
the groups, sane effects of the experimental conditions could be
observed when the results were examined in terms of overall scores for
individual schools by condition.
Ho^: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on teachers1 perceptions of target student's
school success behaviors, as measured by pre-post change
on the School Success InventoryTeacher Form.
An ANCOVA was computed to test for significant differences among
the groups for target students. The criterion for designation as a
target student was a score of 4 or lewer on the teacher's global school
success skill rating. The mean change scores shewed that teachers rated
their students as using school success skills more frequently at
posttest for modeling, coaching, and control (see Table 4-3). However,
differences among these changes for the three groups failed to reach
significance; therefore, Ho2 was not rejected.
Ho^: There are no significant differences among the three
groups with respect to race or gender on teachers'
perceptions of student school success behaviors, as
measured by pre-post change on the School Success
InventoryTeacher Form.
For white students, improvement was seen in all three conditions,
with coaching shewing the most improvement (see Table 4-4). Black
students were rated improved in both the modeling and coaching
conditions, but not in the control condition. These differences were
reflected in the ANCOVA by an overall effect for race (F(1,231) = 11.07,


38
different from O'Connor's tor ineland control film, which was devoid of
people. Pretreatment to posttreatment changes were found for both
experimental and control groups, and thus failed to replicate O'Connor's
1972 findings. It was suggested that this might be due, in part, to the
use of the different film or to the use of different assessment times.
This study included and expanded its outcome assessment measures beyond
just the frequency of the social interaction measure and included
examining the proportion of positive peer and teacher interactions, time
alone, and a socicmetric rating of acceptance and rejection. There were
no significant differences for train effects, socicmetric main effect, or
treatment by socicmetric interactions. The researcher suggested that
the failure to replicate O'Connor's results raised methodological
questions about observational techniques.
Even though the O'Connor studies (1969, 1972) and the Evers and
Schwarz (1973) study were conducted on small numbers of nursery-school
age isolated children, and with varied treatment conditions which
included modeling plus external reinforcement given by graduate students
and teachers, they all have relevance for the current study because they
demonstrated that modeling of social competencies by same-age peers had
an effect on outcome measures. Because of the above considerations, the
size of the sample in this study was increased, included all children in
regular third-grade classrooms (i.e., not just those identified as only
an extreme in natural populations), and had third-grade peer models
demonstrating the specific skills. Separate data were obtained on those
with the lowest school success skills ratings, but all children received
treatment.


178
Table F-12 (continued)
Race by Gender
Black teles
n =
10
n =
10
n =
10
Prescores
32.30
(7.02)
34.40
(10.43)
32.60
(10.37)
Postscores
36.90
(5.32)
24.10
(10.87)
30.60
(8.33)
Change scores
4.60
(11.99)
-10.30
(11.04)
-2.00
(12.94)
Black Feriales
n =
3
n =
8
n =
12
Prescores
27.00
(10.76)
22.13
(9.57)
29.75
(9.85)
Postscores
26.25
(9.22)
21.50
(12.00)
32.42
(10.80)
Change scores
-.75
(7.92)
-.63
(7.35)
2.67
(11.11)
White teles
n =
42
n =
40
n =
35
Prescores
31.33
(6.93)
29.93
(8.43)
31.34
(10.19)
Postscores
29.60
(8.78)
28.15
(9.79)
29.69
(9.21)
Change scores
-1.74
(7.84)
-1.78
(8.59)
-1.66
(9.37)
White Females
n =
41
n =
41
n =
37
Prescores
26.61
(9.01)
26.78
(8.23)
25.22
(9.81)
Postscores
26.02
(9.18)
25.12
(8.43)
26.59
(9.86)
Change scores
-.59
(7.52)
-1.66
(8.71)
1.38
(8.88)


126
SESSION SIX: SELF-ASSESSMENT
PURPOSE: 1. To help students learn techniques to organize their school
work, 2. To help students learn to reinforce themselves for
per formalice, and 3. To help students become aware of time-management
skills.
INTRODUCTION: IN ALL YOUR IESSQNS TOGETHER SO FAR, YOU HAVE BEEN
TALKING ABOUT WAYS TO BE SUCCESSFUL AT SCHOOL. EVEN WHEN YOU USE ALL OF
THESE SKILLS WELL, YOU SOMETIMES HAVE TROUBLE GETTING YOUR BEST WORK
DONE AND HANDING IT IN ON TIME. TIME BECOMES SO IMPORTANT FOR ALL OF US
WHEN WE HAVE SO MANY THINGS TO DO.
ACTIVITY ONE: THERE ARE SOME THINGS STUDENTS CAN DO TO MANAGE THEIR
TIME IF THEY WANT TO BE SUCCESSFUL AND GET BETTER GRADES. Have students
make a list which might include: get books, pencils and papers ready to
begin; start working as soon as teacher tells you; and write down
assignments. Let them generate what canes to their minds, but be
certain to include the ideas of handing in assignments on time and
working as hard as you can on assignments.
Talk about the importance of managing your time so everything gets
done and done well. VHEN YOU DO YOUR BEST ON YOUR SCHOOL WORK AND HAND
IT IN, YOU SHOULD FEEL A-OK ABOUT YOURSELF.
MODELING DEMONSTRATION: TODAY YOU WILL WATCH TWO OF YOUR CLASSMATES
WORKING ON SOME TIME CARDS. IN SOME JOBS, PEOPLE HAVE TO PUNCH A TIME
CARD DAILY. TT HELPS THEM KNOW THEY HAVE TO BE ON TIME. IT COULD HELP
YOU KNCW ABOUT TIME AND WHEN SCHOOL WORK IS DONE AND HANDED IN. PAY
CAREFUL ATTENTION TO HOW THEY DECIDE TO FILL IT OUT SINCE EACH OF YOU
WILL GET A DESK SIZE CARD FOR YOUR OWN. LET'S WATCH AND SEE WHAT SYMBOL


197
Table F-22 (continued)
Pleasure
School A
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_1
Condition
2
41.94
20.97
0.70
.50
Prescore
1
113.09
113.09
3.79
.06
Error
57
1702.39
29.87
School B
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_i
Condition
2
59.60
29.80
1.15
.33
Prescore
1
250.86
250.86
9.71
.003
Error
57
1472.78
25.84
School C
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
P_S
Condition
2
3.67
1.83
0.07
.94
Prescore
1
543.35
543.35
20.76
.001
Error
51
1334.73
26.17


94
school, (e) interacting with teachers and peers, (f) assessing yourself
at school. Each unit consisted of six 30-minute sessions, each of which
was delivered once per week per classroom.
Students in the modeling group (n=102) participated in the SSS-M
unit. For each of the six sessions, the school counselor chose student
peers to model and demonstrate one of the school success skills. The
observing classmates were to learn the skills vicariously. Students in
the coaching groups (n=101) participated in the SSS-C unit. For each of
the six sessions, the school counselor presented a school success skill
didactically and students were to learn it directly. After the
presentation of the skill, classes were divided into groups of five or
six students in which they practiced the skill and coached each other by
correcting or praising each others' performances. The control group
(n=96) did not receive treatment at the same time; however, the school
counselors visited the classrooms weekly in an observing or helping
capacity. These groups received treatment after the conclusion of the
study. All three groups responded to the dependent measures one week
prior to delivery of the units and again one week following completion
of the units.
Target students (n=74), i.e., those who had been identified by
their classroom teachers on a 1-7 rating scale of task and interpersonal
skills as being at a 4 or belcw, participated in the guidance units
along with the other students. Separate analyses were performed on
their data.
The effectiveness of the units was investigated on three dependent
variables. The first dependent variable, teachers' perceptions of
student school success behaviors, was measured by the School Success


150
9.Tells the teacher
his/her thoughts
and feelings
about school.
10.Listens to others'
opinions without
interrupting.
11.Volunteers ideas in
class discussions.
12.Works as hard as
he/she can on all
assignments.


59
from 12 (behaviors occurring very often) to 60 (very seldom). A total
frequency score was recorded for each student.
Test-retest reliability for the SSI-SF was .79 as obtained from a
pilot study of two third-grade classes. The SSI-SF was adminstered to
students in two third-grade classrooms (N=49) to gather preliminary data
on its psychometric characteristics. Students responded to the 12
behavioral statements on the scale described above and then rated
themselves on the same instrument two weeks later.
School Attitude Inventory
The School Attitude Inventory was designed by the researcher (see
Appendix E). It consisted of 10 items dealing with success at school.
Each item was rated by the individual student using a pictorial scale
called the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) (Lang, 1980), which was based
on factor analytic studies of affective ratings (Osgood, 1962).
The evaluation scale was presented visually in three cartoon panels
of five pictures each. The first panel shewed the cartoon figure with
variations of smiles (happy) to frowns (unhappy), thus measuring the
dimension of pleasure. The second cartoon panel measured excitement and
ranged from excited to calm. The third dimension measured control,
which ranged from a snail-size figure (being controlled) to a large-size
figure (controlling). Children indicated their choices in relation to
each item on all three dimensions separately by marking a large X over
the figure they choose to represent their feelings. Each scale thus has
a range of five points. For analysis, each response was converted to
numbers, with 5 representing the most pleasure, 1 the most calm, and 5
the most in control. Total scores ranged from 30 to 150. Test-retest


32
Target Students
As covered in the review of literature relating to specific school
success skills, target students, or those selected from a larger
population for particular intervention or study, increased reading
achievement (Cobb & Hops, 1973), increased question-asking behavior
(Zimmerman & Pike, 1972), decreased disruptive behavior and increased
academic output (Drabrman et al., 1973; Kaufman & O'Leary, 1972),
increased study time (Broden et al., 1971), and increased response rates
on visual discrimination tasks (Johnson & Martin, 1973). Other studies
also have shewn that target students are of particular interest in terms
of finding effective methods to help students better themselves both in
their behaviors and their attitudes.
Lewin, Nelson, and Tollefson (1983) noted that the behaviors
performed by students in the classroom affect the way their teachers
respond to them. Students who are too aggressive and disruptive are
often rejected by their teachers, and timse who are high achievers,
motivated, and skilled socially are often favored. To determine if
teachers' attitudes toward students could te altered as a result of the
students changing their disruptive behaviors, they had each student
teacher (N=35) identify a target student whose behavior was disruptive.
The experimental group (n=19) and control group (n=16) teachers observed
their target students for seven school days. Student teachers in the
experimental group also received training in behavioral techniques of
alternative reinforcement of other behavior in combination with
extinction. Results showed that teachers' attitudes toward disruptive


138
YOU CAN DO SOMETHING ACTUALLY Vi ILL HELP YOU DO IT. FOR EXAMPLE, TELLING
YOURSELF THAT YOU ARE GOING TO DO A GOOD JOB ON YOUR REPORT TO THE CLASS
TODAY BECAUSE YOU PREPARED IT WELL WILL HELP YOU FEEL LESS NERVOUS WHEN
YOU GIVE IT, RATHER THAN HAVING TOLD YOURSELF THAT YOU WOULD BE SO
SCARED IN FRONT OF THE WHOLE CLASS. TALKING TO YOURSELF IN POSITIVE
WAYS CAN HELP YOU FEEL LESS NERVOUS AND HELP YOU BE MORE SUCCESSFUL AT
SCHOOL.
COACHING & PRACTICE: NOW IT IS TIME TO PRACTICE AND COACH EACH OTHER ON
THESE SKILLS IN OUR GROUPS BECAUSE YOU WANT TO BECOME BETTER STUDENTS.
THE LEADERS WILL START BY TELLING A TIME WHEN THEY FELT VERY NERVOUS
ABOUT A SCHOOL SITUATION. THEN THEY WILL TELL VJAYS TO OVERCOME NERVOUS
FEELINGS. NEXT THEY WILL TELL YOU TO PRACTICE THE WAY THEY CHOSE.
REMEMBER TO HELP OR COACH EACH OTHER. ALSO, REMEMBER TO TELL EACH OTHER
WHEN YOU HAVE DONE THE SKILLS CORRECTLY. NEXT, THE PERSON ON THE LEFT
WILL TELL ABOUT A NERVOUS TIME AND THE WAY HE/SHE CHOSE TO OVERCOME
NERVOUS FEELINGS. THE SECOND LEADER WILL GUIDE THE GROUP IN PRACTICE.
This will continue around the circle.
PROCESSING: Move the teams back into the large discussion group. Talk
about their experiences. Sane questions might include:
Specific coaching questions 1. WHAT WAS IT LIKE TRYING
OUT WAYS TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS?
2. WHAT DID YOUR GROUP MEMBERS DO TO MAKE YOU FEEL
COMFORTABLE TRYING OUT YOUR NEW SKILLS?
General questions 1. HOW DO YOU THINK THESE NEW SKILLS
MIGHT HELP YOU VOLUNTEER MORE IDEAS AT SCHOOL?
2. HOW DO YOU THINK BEING ABLE TO ASK QUESTIONS IN
CLASS WILL HELP YOU BECOME BETTER STUDENTS?


6
1983; Frith & Clark, 1983; Sorsdahl & Sanche, 1985). A steady increase
in personal, social, and behavioral problems has been seen for students
in regular classrooms during the 1970s, and 13 of 14 annual Gallup polls
have identified discipline as the most important problem in education in
the United States (Sorsdahl & Sanche, 1985). Bleck and Bleck (1932)
also stated that disruptive behavior can adversely affect relationships
with peers and teachers. If presenting school success skills to
children proves to be effective, disruptive behavior may be decreased,
thereby lessening the emphasis on discipline and increasing students'
chances for positive interactions. There would be mare time for
productive learning, and teachers would have more time to teach all the
students.
In addition to the enhancement of the classroom environment, the
learning effectiveness and efficiency of individual children can be
increased if developmental guidance units improve specific school
success skills for children. For example, if children can learn to
control their aggressiveness, their achievement may increase. If
children learn skills to overcome the anxiousness that often accompanies
raising their hand to share ideas and are able to increase the number of
times they do so, they may also affect their teachers' positive
perceptions of them. If children learn skills to interact with peers
and teachers, they will feel more positive about themselves and have a
better opportunity for academic achievement (Cartledge & Milbum, 1978).
If the modeling condition were shewn to be the more effective way
to teach certain skills, teachers or counselors could be trained to use
this technique to introduce new skills and concepts across many subject
areas. Because most new skills are presented didactically in schools,


68
Table 4-1
Form (SSI-TF)
Modeling
Coaching
Control
n=102
n=101
n=96
Mean s.d.
Mean s.d.
Mean s.d.
Total -1.20 (7.85)
-2.63 (6.91)
-.70 (7.90)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-l (p. 160)
and Table F-13 (p. 181).
As the range for the total prescore or postscore on this
instrument was 12 to 60 (12 items x a score of 1-5 on each
dimension), the range of possible change scores was
+/- 48; in the total sample, the observed range of change
scores was -27 to 21.


214
Noble, C.G., & Nolan, J.D. (1976). Effect of student verbal behavior
on classroom teacher behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology,
69, 342-346.
O'Connor, R.D. (1969). Modification of social withdrawal through
symbolic modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2,
15-22.
O'Connor, R.D. (1972). Relative efficacy of modeling, shaping, and the
combined procedures for modification of social withdrawal.
Journal of Abnormal Psycliology, 79, 327-334.
Oden, S., & Asher, S.R. (1977). Coaching children in social skills for
friendship making. Child Development, 48, 495-506.
Osgood, C.E. (1962). Studies on the generality of affective meaning
systems. American Psychologist, 17, 10-28.
Pekarik, E.G., Prinz, R.J., Liebert, D.E., Weintraub, S., & Neale, J.M.
(1976). The Pupil Evaluation Inventory: A sociometric technique
for assessing children's social behavior. Journal of Abnormal
Child Psychology, 4, 83-97.
Sarason, I. (1968). Verbal learning, modeling, and juvenile
delinquency. American Psychologist, 23, 254-266.
Schappi, A.C. (1985, December 12). Report says millions of youths
'disconnected' frcm society. Guidepost, 28, 1, 7.
School Board of Alachua County. (1983). Developmental guidance and
counseling plan for the Alachua county school district.
Gainesville, FL: Author.
Schreiber, D. (Ed.). (1967). Profile of the school dropout. NY:
Random House.
Schumaker, J.B., & Hazel, J.S. (1984). Social skills assessment and
training for the learning disabled: Who's on first and what's on
second? Part II. Journal of Learning Disabilites, 17, 492-499.
Short, E.C. (1985). Strengthening the curriculum: Eight policy
recommendations. The Educational Forum, 49, 351-360.
Sorsdahl, S.N., & Sanche, R.P. (1985). The effects of classroom
meetings on self-concept and behavior. Elementary School Guidance
& Counseling, 20, 49-56.
Thelen, M.N., Fry, R.A., Rehrenbach, P.A., & Frautschi, N.M. (1979). A
review of symbolic modeling procedures. Psychological Bulletin,
86, 701-720.


170
Table E-9
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for School Attitude Inventory (SAI)Total and Dimensions
Modeling Coaching Control
n=102 n=101 n=96
Scores
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Total
Prescores
102.60
(15.10)
103.81
(15.82)
105.18
(16.66)
Postscores
104.49
(14.84)
110.50
(20.91)
106.48
(17.28)
Change scores
1.89
(12.83)
6.68
(16.29)
1.30
(15.13)
Pleasure
Prescores
37.54
(6.02)
38.04
(6.87)
38.36
(6.52)
Postscores
37.53
(6.92)
39.12
(7.60)
39.27
(6.06)
Change scores
-.01
(5.36)
1.08
(5.72)
.91
(5.34)
Excitement
Prescores
29.22
(8.38)
28.48
(8.95)
28.79
(10.23)
Postscores
28.57
(9.15)
25.80
(9.65)
29.02
(9.60)
Change scores
-.65
(8.27)
-2.67
(9.10)
.23
(9.80)
Control
Prescores
34.27
(7.14)
34.25
(8.87)
35.60
(8.54)
Postscores
35.53
(7.62)
37.18
(9.36)
36.23
(8.70)
Change scores
1.25
(6.35)
2.93
(8.87)
.63
(7.84)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement for Excitement.


122
SESSION FIVE: INTERACTING V7ITH OTHERS
PURPOSE: 1. To help students learn a model for giving feedback to
others, and 2. To help students realize hew their behavior inpacts on
others.
MATERIALS: Tag board, newsprint or blackboard.
INTRODUCTION YOU HAVE BEEN LEARNING WAYS TO BECOME SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS
BY ATTENDING, LISTENING, VOLUNTEERING, AND STICKING-UP FOR YOURSELVES.
YOU SAW HOW IMPORTANT THESE SKILLS ARE FOR MAKING YOU SUCCESSFUL
STUDENTS AT SCHOOL. SOMETIMES, WHEN YOU INTERACT WITH STUDENTS AND
TEACHERS, YOU WOULD LIKE TO KNOW t-DRE ABOUT WHAT THEY FEEL Aid THINK
ABOUT YOU, AND THEY WOULD LIKE TO KNOW WHAT YOU THINK AND FEEL ABOUT
THEM.
ACTIVITY ONE: WHEN YOU SHARE YOUR FEELINGS AND THOUGHTS ABOUT SOMEONE
WITH THEM, YOU ARE GIVING FEEDBACK. AS YOU KNOW, IT IS A TERM FROM
SCIENCE WHERE SCIENTISTS LEARN IF THEIR EXPERIMENTS ARE ON OR OFF TARGET
BY GETTING DIFFERENT KINDS OF INFORMATION FROM MACHINES. WE CERTAINLY
CAN'T GIVE INFORMATION BACK AND FORTH LIKE MACHINES, BUT THERE IS A GOOD
MODEL THAT ALLOWS YOU TO USE ALL YOUR NEW COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN AN
ORGANIZED MANNER. IT HELPS YOU INTERACT SUCCESSFULLY WITH OTHERS.
Present the following model on tag board, newsprint or blackboard.
A Feedback Model
1. BE SPECIFIC ABOUT WHAT YOU SAY AND HEAR HERE'S WHERE YOU NEED
ALL YOUR SHARP LISTENING SKILLS AND YOUR OBSERVATIONS OF BODY LANGUAGE
TO TELL WHAT YOU HEAR AND SEE.


36
cognitive processes that are important components of modeling also can
occur from watching filmed models. For example, Bandura and Barab
(1973) noted that snake phobic adults (16 to 54 years of age) nade
comparable reductions in snake fear when they saw adult or child models
demonstrate approach responses tcward snakes.
Filmed, or symbolic modeling, has also been used extensively to
teach social skills to isolated or withdrawn children in the preschool
age range. O'Connor (1969) designed a 23-minute modeling film, in which
six nursery school actors served as models, to demonstrate social
competencies, and, at the same time, to reduce fear of peer interaction.
The film was shown to an experimental group of six preschool isolates (4
females and 2 males) while a film about dolphins was shown to seven
preschool isolates (4 females and 3 nales) for the control group. These
children were considered to be isolated and so were targeted by first
being nominated as such by their teacher, and then observed on total
number of social interactions. Nonisolates were also observed to
provide baseline data for frequency of interaction. The experimental
group increased in social interaction rate after the modeling
intervention, but no follcw-up assessment was done.
O'Connor (1972) included follow-up data in a subsequent study where
the same modeling film and the same control film were shown to social
isolates who were also divided in terms of external reinforcement or no
external reinforcement conditions. Graduate students supplied the
external reinforcement, which consisted of giving each child a total of
five liours of praise and attention upon successive approximations of the
behaviors during a 2-week period. All of the conditionsmodeling and
shaping (n=7), modeling alone (n=9), and shaping alone (n=8)produced


93
students happier in the coaching condition. On the excitement dimension
of SAI, white students rated themselves more calm in the modeling and
coaching conditions and black students rated themselves calmer in the
coaching condition. It was concluded that there were differences among
the groups with respect to race. Thus, although the direction of effect
was not consistent, the possibility of differential effectiveness of the
conditions as a function of race merits further exploration. There were
no significant differences among groups for gender.
Discussion
Results of the present study support the general idea that the
presentation of developmental guidance units enhances students'
attitudes toward school situations. These results are consistent with
other studies that have shown that participation in developmental
guidance units effects changes in children's attitudes (Cobb & Richards,
1983; Cuthbert, 1985; Duncan & Gumaer, 1980; Gerler & Anderson, 1986;
Myrick et al., 1986). The ANCOVA revealed significant differences among
modeling, coaching, and control for the combined schools on students'
attitudinal ratings of school situations. Other AIJCOVAs did not shew
overall significant differences among the groups in terms of school
behaviors. However, significant differences in teachers' perceptions of
school behaviors were seen on subsequent ANCOVAs for individual schools
by conditions.
Individual School Data
To further explore the differences between groups, given the lack
of overall significance among the groups on behavioral measures,


86
in the coaching and control conditions; modeling students rated
themselves less improved (see Table 4-12). There were no significant
differences among the groups for total SAI scores; therefore, Ho^ was
not rejected.
Improvements were seen on each of the three separate SAI
dimensions. Students rated themselves happier on the pleasure dimension
for all three experimental conditions. Students rated themselves calmer
on the excitement dimension in the coaching and control groups and
somewhat more excited in the modeling condition. Improvement was seen
on the control dimension across all three conditions. However, ANGOVAs
revealed no significant differences among the groups on any of the three
dimensions.
HOg: There will be no significant differences among the
three groups with respect to race or gender on students'
attitudinal ratings of school situations, as measured by
pre-post change on the School Attitude Inventory.
To investigate differences between the experimental groups with
regard to race and gender, ANGOVAs were performed on the SAI total score
and on each of the three dimensions separately. In these analyses,
there was a significant condition by race interaction on the pleasure
dimension of the SAI (F(2,281) = 3.19, £ <.05), with black students
rating themselves happier in modeling and whites happier in the coaching
condition (Table 4-13). There was also a significant condition by race
interaction effect on the excitement dimension (F(2,281) = 3.31, £
<.04); white students rated themselves more calm in the modeling and
coaching conditions, with black students calmer only in the coaching
condition. There were no significant differences for conditions by race
on the total SAI scores or on the control dimension. There also were no


91
2. Hiere were no significant differences among the three groups on
teachers' perceptions of target student school success behaviors.
3. There were no significant differences among the three groups
with respect to race or gender on teachers' perceptions of student
school success behaviors.
Students' Perceptions of School Success Behaviors as Measured by the
School Success InventoryStudent Form (SSI-SF)
4.There were no significant differences among the three groups
on students' perceptions of school success behaviors.
5. There were no significant differences among the three groups on
target students' perceptions of school success behaviors.
6. There were no significant differences among the three groups
with respect to race or gender on students' perceptions of school
success behaviors.
Students' Attitudinal ratings of School Situations as Measured by the
School Attitude Inventory (SAI)
7. There were significant differences among the three groups on
students' attitudinal ratings of school situations on overall scores and
the excitement dimension of the SAI.
8. There were no significant differences among the three groups on
target students' attitudinal ratings of school situations.


112
Generate ideas from the students about how good listening is
important in school. For example, a student would know directions for
assignments, when to line up for activity or lunch, and what ideas other
kids were talking about.
YES, IF YOU LISTEN TO DIRECTIONS YOU WILL KNOW WHAT TO DO AND
BECOME A SUCCESSFUL STUDENT. IF YOU LISTEN FOR IDEAS AND FEELINGS OF
OTHERS YOU CALI LEARN NEW THINGS. SOMETIMES IN SCHOOL YOU LISTEN FOR
FACTS OR DIRECTIONS, (e.g., "DO PAGES 101-103" OR "FIND THE PLANET
CLOSEST TO THE SUN"), BUT SOMETIMES, YOU LISTEN FOR BOW PEOPLE ARE
FEELING (e.g., "I'M SCARED ABOUT THE MATH TEST" OR 'I'M WORRIED ABOUT MY
HANDWRITING").
THERE ARE SEVERAL THINGS WE CAN DO TO HELP US BECOME BETTER
LISTENERS AND STUDENTS. IF WE LISTEN AND DO NOT UNDERSTAND, WE CAN ASK
FOR MORE INFORMATION BY USING QUESTIONS. THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF
QUESTIONS THAT MIGHT HELP YOU THINK ABOUT THINGS. ONE IS AN OPEN
QUESTION. THE SECOND IS A CLOSED QUESTION. Explain and demonstrate how
a yes or no will answer most closed questions, but that an open question
encourages people to share more ideas.
Do you like doing your math? (Closed)
How do you feel about doing your math? (Open)
KNOWING HOW TO ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS LIKE THIS CLEARS UP THINGS THAT
YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND.
MODELING DEMONSTRATION: Ask a boy model to come to the front of the
roam and sit facing the class. Remind him to pay attention to you by
sitting up straight, giving you eye contact, and leaning toward you.
Start a conversation about the playground at your school. Next, ask him
to think about what is said and ask an open-ended question about the


16
contributing multiple Rs of .40 and .47, respectively, to arithmetic
achievement.
Cobb and Hops (1973) studied the effects of academic survival shill
training on low achieving first-grade students. In earlier research,
Cobb (1972) had found a relationship between achievement test
performance and the behavioral classes of attending to teacher,
following teacher instructions, and volunteering to answer academic
questions. These behaviors, therefore, were included as the "survival"
skills to be studied. Attending was redefined from earlier studies to
include two categories: attending and work. Eighteen first-grade
children chosen for lew rates of academic survival skills combined with
low scores on standardized reading tests comprised the control group
(n=6) and the experimental group (n=12).
Results showed that the experimental groups increased their level
of survival skills by 24% and the control group only 3%, and that such
gains were related to reading achievement gains. Because the results
for students who had been identified as having lew reading scores and
lew academic skills showed positive gains (Cobb & Hops, 1973), in the
present study those students low in school success skills (by teachers'
perceptions) were identified in order to assess treatment effectiveness.
Hops and Cobb (1974) investigated the survival skills of attending,
following teacher instructions, and volunteering by training two
first-grade teachers in contingent reinforcement of the survival skills
and a third teacher in a new method of programed, individualized
reading instruction; a fourth teacher whose class served as a control
group received no new instructions. Both experimental approaches
resulted in improved reading achievement for first-grade students in the


130
WHAT DOES IT MEAN WHEN THE TEACHER SAYS, "CLASS, PAY ATTENTION WHEN
I GIVE TELESE DIRECTIONS"? Generate some ideas from the students and
then put stars by "sitting up straight," "eye contact" and "leaning in"
on the list already generated. Review each of these skills with a brief
explanation.
Sitting up straight sitting nice and tall with a fairly straight
back. It is not sitting so straight that you look like you would break,
but also not so laid back that it appears you are not listening.
Eye contact looking at, but not staring at the person (teacher)
who is talking.
Leaning in leaning a little toward the talker (teacher) with your
body.
ALL OF THESE SKILLS CAN HELP YOU BECOME MORE SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS.
THE TEACHER KNOWS YOU ARE PAYING ATTENTION AND THAT YOU ARE READY TO
LEARN THINGS.
COACHING & PRACTICE: NOW IT IS TIME TO SPLIT INTO SMALL GROUPS TO
PRACTICE THESE SKILLS. EACH GROUP WILL PLAY THE PAY ATTENTION GAME.
ALL STUDENTS WILL HAVE A CHANCE TO SIT UP STRAIGHT, LEAN TOWARD THE
LEADER, AND MAINTAIN EYE CONTACT.
THE LEADER WILL BE THE FIRST TIMER. Explain to the students that
they can use a watch or count to 15 by saying one, one thousand; two,
one thousand, etc. ALL THE OTHER STUDENTS IN EACH GROUP WILL LOOK AT
THE LEADERS (TIMERS), SIT UP STRAIGHT, AND LEAN TOWARD THEM. AFTER 15
SECONDS, THE LEADER WILL REINFORCE THE OTHER STUDENTS BY SAYING, "YOU
DID A GOOD JOB OF PAYING ATTENTION FOR 15 SECONDS." ALL GROUP MEMBERS
HELP EACH OTHER LEARN TO SIT UP STRAIGHT, LEAN IN, AND USE EYE CONTACT,
OR CORRECT EACH OTHER ON THE SKILLS. WE WILL CALL THIS KIND OF HELPING


81
significant differences for either race (see Table 4-8) or gender (see
Table 4-9) on the SSI-SF for conditions; therefore, Ho^ was not
rejected. Black students rated themselves improved in the modeling and
control groups and slightly lower in the coaching conditions. White
students rated themselves less successful in all three conditions.
Irrespective of condition, there was an overall interaction of race and
gender on the SSI-SF (F(l,281) = 3.56, p <.005). Black females and
white males rated themselves improved, with black males and white
females indicating a decrease in use of school success skills.
School Success Classroom Attitudes
In order to investigate the effects of developmental guidance units
on students' attitudinal ratings of school situations, analyses were
performed on the School Attitude Inventory (SAI).
Ho.-,: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on students' attitudinal ratings of school
situations, as measured by pre-post change on the School
Attitude Inventory.
Overall analysis by conditions. A hierarchical ANCOVA was
performed on total SAI change scores and for the separate dimensions of
pleasure, excitement, and control. Results of the hierarchical ANCOVAs
for total SAI scores, pleasure, excitement, and control showed no
significant differences with respect to conditions. However, results of
the standard ANOOVAs revealed a significant difference among the groups
for SAI total scores, (F(2,295) = 4.36, £ <.01). Students rated
themselves more favorably in all conditions, with coaching showing the
largest increment (Table 4-10). Post hoc analyses shewed students in
the coaching condition rating themselves significantly different frem


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of
developmental guidance units for improving school success behaviors and
attitudes toward school in third-grade children. A unit featuring
modeling and another involving coaching were compared with a control
group in terms of teachers' and students' perceptions of school success
behaviors and students' attitudinal ratings of school situations.
Population
The population for this study was composed of children in regular
third-grade classrooms in Alachua County, Florida, Public Schools. It
included special education students who were "mainstreamed" as well as
students who had been accelerated or retained.
Alachua County is located in north central Florida. The University
of Florida is located in the county. In the 1980 census, Alachua County
had a total population of 151,348 with about 71% designated urban and
29% designated rural. The 1984 median family income was $17,072
(Florida Department of Education, 1983-84).
In the academic year 1983-84, the Alachua County Public Schools had
approximately 22,345 students64.29% white, 32.32% black, 1.45%
Hispanic, 1.28% Asian and .03% American Indian/Alaskan native. In the
population estimate of 1983, 51.2% of the total population for the age
50


124
I want to turn my back toward you" or -whatever is generated from the
daronstration.
Set up another school scene where the boy and girl are working on a
play fran one of their reading stories. The girl has seme great ideas,
but the boy keeps constantly interrupting her so that she has not been
able to get one of her ideas stated. Each time she tries, he takes
over, and she is getting quite frustrated. Help the models act this out
as you describe it. Guide the girl through telling the boy about his
specific behavior of interrupting her, how the situation makes her feel,
and what she would like to do about it. Reinforce each step and have
the girl give a final delivery of her generated response (e.g., "Your
never letting me tell my ideas makes me feel so left out, it makes me
want to cry and quit the play" or whatever is generated from the
demonstration.)
PROCESSING: The models return to their seats and general discussion
begins. Processing questions might include:
Specific modeling questions 1. WHAT DID THE MODELS CO
THAT YOU THINK YOU CAN USE TO HELP YOU TELL OTHERS WHAT IS
GOING ON FOR YOU?
2. WHAT DID THE MODELS DO TO KEEP THEIR COOL AND NOT DOSE
THEIR SELF-CONTROL?
General questions 1. HOW DO YOU THINK USING THE FEEDBACK
MODEL WILL HELP YOU BE MORE SUCCESSFUL AT SCHOOL?
2. TELL SOME TIMES YOU THINK YOU MIGHT USE TOE MODEL AT
SCHOOL.
(Point out that they listened to each other and asserted
themselves, etc.)


2
Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of
helping children learn school success skills. Two different
instructional methods (i.e., modeling and coaching) were incorporated
into developmental guidance units presenting school success skills of
(a) paying attention, (b) listening to teachers and peers, (c)
volunteering in school, (d) using self-control, (e) interacting with
teachers and peers, and (f) utilizing self-assessment. The effects of
these units on third-grade students were examined. Target students,
those identified by their teachers as the lcv/est in school success
skills, received particular attention in the study.
Theoretical Perspective
Behaviors can be learned. Therefore, behaviors can be taught to
children. If school success skills are expressed behaviorally, then
they can be taught to children. Krumboltz and Krumboltz (1972) stated
that new behaviors can be developed through (a) the successive
approximations principle (e.g., reward steps to the final behavior), (b)
the cueing principle (i.e., cue the correct performance before the
action is expected), (c) the discrimination principle (e.g., identify
differentiating cues and appropriately reward them), and (d) the
modeling principle (i.e., expose children to an appropriate person
performing the desired behavior). This study used the modeling
principle for the modeling condition, where behaviors (i.e., school
success skills) were presented by same-age peers to classrooms of
students who learned these behaviors vicariously frcm the models. This
study also utilized the successive approximations principle in the
coaching condition where peers, after being instructed directly on


190
Table F-20
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF), by Race and Gender
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
Condition
2
43.20
21.60
0.68
.51
Race
1
79.67
79.67
2.50
.12
Gender
1
107.29
107.29
3.36
.07
Condition x Race
2
69.66
34.83
1.09
.34
Condition x Gender
2
14.86
7.43
0.23
.79
Race x Gender
1
273.24
273.24
8.56
.005
Condition x Race x
Gender
2
60.04
30.02
0.94
.39
Prescore
1
2713.98
2713.98
85.00
.001
Error
281
8972.45
31.93


92
9. There were significant differences among the three groups with
respect to race, but not gender, on students' attitudinal ratings of
school situations.


4
participation in classroom guidance units (Gerler & Anderson, 1986;
Myrick, Merhill, & Swanson 1986).
Statement of the Problem
Modeling, by which new behavior is learned vicariously after
viewing a model's demonstration, has been used successfully in a variety
of situations as a mode of instruction to teach new skills or behaviors.
Further, it has been shewn to be effective with specific target
populations (Bandura & Barab, 1973; Evers & Schwarz, 1973; Gottman,
1977; Keller & Carlson, 1974; O'Connor, 1969; Sarason, 1968). However,
only a small proportion of studies has been carried out with
"unselected" elementary school populations (Conger & Keane, 1981). The
importance of teaching skills to children, particularly those
interpersonal and task skills related to school achievement, has been
well established, and the attainment of those skills shewn to be crucial
to overall school success (Cartledge & Milbum, 1978). Hcwever, it is
not known if the use of modeling to teach a set of school success
skills, when they are presented in developmental guidance units, is
effective with groups of students in unselected elementary school
classrooms.
Coaching, where new skills are presented directly and practiced
while being coached or shaped by others, also has been shewn to be
effective with isolated and withdrawn children both in preschool and
elementary age ranges (Bomstein, Bellack, & Hersen, 1977; Conger &
Keane, 1981; Gottman, Gonso, & Schuler, 1976; Gresham & Nagle, 1980;
Ladd, 1981; LaGreca & Santogrossi, 1980; Oden & Asher, 1977). It has
also been shown to be effective with learning disabled students


learned the skills directly by listening to the counselors; students
then practiced in small groups, where they coached each other's
performances of the skills. The control students (n=96) did not receive
the units until the study was completed.
Although an overall analysis of covariance (AIJCOVA) on total SSI-TF
scores revealed no significant differences with respect to conditions,
subsequent ANCOVAs by individual schools shewed significant differences
(p <.05) among the groups, with students in the coaching group improved
in three of the five schools and those in the modeling group improved in
one school. The students' corresponding perceptions of their behavior
did not shew consistent improvement.
Scores on the overall SAI indicated a significant difference in
attitudes toward school for students in the coaching condition, as
compared to the modeling and control conditions. Further analyses also
indicated a significant effect for attitudes on the excitement-calm
dimension of the SAI, with students in the coaching condition rating
themselves as feeling more calm about school situations following the
guidance unit. It was concluded that developmental guidance units
designed to teach school success skills, especially one that included
coaching, can influence student attitudes about school situations.
Vlll


52
and included were present for at least five of the six guidance
sessions.
Within each of the three experimental conditions, target students
were identified by their teachers. On a class roster teachers rated
their students on a 1-7 scale, with 7 indicating high levels of task and
interpersonal skills related to success in school. Those with the
lcwest ratings (i.e., 4 and under) were considered the target students.
Resultant Sample
The sample was composed of 299 students from 15 classrooms within
five elementary schools in Alachua County, Florida, Public Schools (see
Table 3-1). Each classroom of students was randomly assigned to the
three experimental conditions of modeling (student n=102), coaching
(student n=101), and control (student n=96) within each school. The
target students (n=74) were distributed across all three conditions (see
Table 3-1). All schools who (a) gave permission; (b) had at least three
third-grade classrooms within the school? (c) had an experienced,
certified school counselor; (d) and administered all experimental
conditions in accord with the protocol were included. The final sample
included 58 black, 236 white, and 5 other ethnic students, and 147 boys
and 147 girls.


31
about themselves in terms of pleasure, excitement, and control on a
5-point pictorial scale. Even though results did not strongly support
inferences regarding treatment effects, several key items (e.g., How I
feel about myself and Hew I feel about being different frem others)
indicated that the unit had had some positive impact on self ratings
with greater pleasure, less excitement and more control being indicated
by those who had not used a maximum rating on the pre assessment. This
study used the SAM pictorial scales as an outccme measure for school
success skills.
In a large study (N=S96), Gerler and Anderson (1986) investigated
the effects of classroom guidance on children's classroom behavior,
attitudes toward school, and achievement .in language arts and
mathematics. After school counselors presented classroom guidance units
to fourth- and fifth-grade students, results showed that the treatment
group improved on two measures of classroom behavior and on a measure of
school attitude, whereas the control group declined. Language grades
improved for the treatment group, but there were no significant
differences in language and math grades between the groups.
There is support in the literature to shew that developmental
guidance units are effective ways to teach children new ideas. It was
believed that the use of such units for the teaching of academically
relevant school success skills vould be further supported if the
developmental guidance unit using modeling and/or the the unit using
coaching had an effect on outccme measures for children in third-grade
classrooms. More particularly, the use of the guidance units would be
further supported if target students (i.e., those ranked by teachers as
having lower skills) shewed improvement on dependent measures.


26
basic ideas of modern developmental guidance were emerging in the 1950s,
but the literature was still filled with justifications for elementary
guidance and arguments about who should deliver it. Arbuckle (1950)
purported that counseling should be performed by all teachers, who would
have training in the field of human development and adjustment.
Controversy among writers and educators existed over who would deliver
the humanistic-type education.
Major events influenced guidance in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
America's reaction to the launch of Sputnik influenced guidance in that
much attention and money were directed toward education. Munson (1970)
pointed out that the National Defense Education Act of 1958 established
institutes to train school guidance personnel, the Higher Education Act
of 1965 provided fellowships for teachers to train in guidance, and the
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965) allowed a greater number
of schools to develop programs, all of which had great impact on the
guidance profession. As a result of these new provisions, school
counselor-student ratios lowered and school counselors had greater
access to more students and could begin to devote time and attention to
developmental needs.
The writings of the 1960s time period were influential in school
guidance and counseling. C. Gilbert Wrenn (1962) wrote the Counselor in
a Changing World wherein he expressed strongly that guidance should be
for the full range of students and be designed to meet their
developmental needs. Dinkmeyer (1968) also wrote that guidance must be
developmental in addition to remedial and preventative.
Faust (1968) stressed that the approach to children in the school
setting should be of a developmental focus for all children rather than


30
(N=108). Two fourth-grade classes were assigned to the experimental
group and two to the control group (which received the treatment later).
The treatment group received training in six specific ccrrmunication
skills delivered through a counselor-directed unit. The outcome measure
was a student/teacher, Likert-type rating scale designed to assess
passive and aggressive behaviors and school behaviors related to working
carefully on school assignments and handing them in on time. Results
showed that students in the experimental groups were significantly
different from the control group and shewed improvement on school
behaviors on the teacher scale, but pretest differences on passive and
aggressive subscales confounded the findings. The present investigation
used the basic format of this study, but used different outcome measures
to assess treatment. The conmunication skills study did demonstrate
that teacher's ratings of school behaviors (e.g., working hard on school
assignments, handing in assignments, having materials ready to work, and
doing work carefully) were improved after the students had participated
in developmental guidance units.
Cuthbert (1985) utilized a developmental guidance classroom unit to
enhance students' feelings about self. It consisted of six, 30-minute
sessions and was delivered by the counselors to second-grade classrooms.
One classroom received delayed treatment so that it could serve as a
control group. The format of the unit did not incorporate the small
group practice segment. Each session consisted of the school counselor
leading the students through a classroom activity, through group
processing of related questions, and through large-group closure or
summary. The outcome measure was a pictorial Self-Assessment Manikin
(Lang, 1980) where children marked, for each question, how they felt


119
SESSION POUR: USING SELF-CONTROL
PURPOSE: 1. To help students understand the use of self-control at
school, and 2. To help students knew ways to stick up for themselves
and their ideas assertively.
MATERIALS: Newsprint or chalkboard. Note cards with situations on
them.
INTRODUCTION: YOU HAVE BEEN LEARNING WAYS TO HELP YOU BECOME SUCCESSFUL
AT SCHOOL. WE HAVE LEARNED HOW TO PAY ATTENTION, HOW TO LISTEN, AND HCW
TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS 'THAT GET IN YOUR WAY OF VOLUNTEERING TO DO
THINGS OR SHARE IDEAS. TODAY YOU WILL LEARN WAYS TO MANAGE YOURSELVES,
OR TO CONTROL YOUR ACTIONS AND FEELINGS AT SCHOOL. YOU WILL LEARN WAYS
TO STICK UP FOR YOUR IDEAS AND FOR YOURSELVES WITHOUT LOSING YOUR TEMPER
OR SELF-CONTROL. IETS SEE IF WE CAN THINK OF SOME TIMES WHEN IT IS
HARD TO STAY IN CONTROL. Briefly have the students list times when they
felt like they would lose control at school, or times they did, or times
they saw someone else losing control.
ACTIVITY ONE: SUPPOSE YOU ARE SITTING AT YOUR DESK. YOU ARE WORKING
VERY HARD ON YOUR SKILLPACK PAGES, KNOWING YOU HAVE TO DO THREE MORE
PAGES BEFORE YOU CAN GO OUT TO BREAK. THE PERSON NEXT TO YOU KEEPS
ANNOYING YOU, TRYING TO GET YOU TO LOOK AT SOME PICTURES. YOU GLANCE
OVER ONCE AND SEE THAT THEY ARE SKIING PICTURES, BUT BY NOW, YOU DO NOT
WANT TO TALK OR LOOK AT THEM, BECAUSE IT IS THE THIRD TIME YOU HAVE BEEN
INTERRUPTED. YOU ARE BEGINNING TO FEEL UPSET. WHAT ARE SOME THINGS
THAT MIGHT HAPPEN? Have the students generate things. They might
include (a) You might tell the teacher, (b) You might get mad and shove
the person as he/she leans over toward you, (c) You might get interested


144
2. TELL WHAT YOU ARE FEELING FIND A WORD THAT TELLS HOW YOU ARE
FEELING AND LET OTHERS KNOW HOW THEY MADE YOU FEEL (MIGHT HAVE TO USE
ONE OF THE WAYS YOU LEARNED TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS).
3. TELL WHAT YOUR FEELINGS MAKE YOU WANT TO DO IF IT IS A GOOD
FEELING YOU MAY WANT TO SMILE, MAKE A CARD FOR THE PERSON, OR HUG THEM.
Demonstrate the feedback model using a school situation.
JOHN, YOUR KICKING MY CHAIR MAKES ME FEEL SO ANGRY THAT I WANT TO
TELL THE TEACHER RIGHT AWAY. Help the students identify the three parts
of the feedback model. Be certain to stress the fact that this feedback
model can also be USED for giving compliments to other students and
teachers.
COACHING & PRACTICE: NOW TT IS TIME TO PRACTICE IN OUR GROUPS. TODAY
EACH GROUP WILL BE ASKED TO QUIETLY WORK OUT A SCHOOL SITUATION THAT
WILL Sim ALL THE PARTS OF THE FEEDBACK MODEL. YOU MAY ALL WORK AS
GROUP MEMBERS, TRYING OUT THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE MODEL UNTIL YOU
HAVE IT JUST THE WAY YOU WANT IT TO GO. REMEMBER TO COACH EACH OTHER ON
THE USE OF THE MODEL, SO THAT YOU ALL UNDERSTAND HOW TO USE IT. WHEN
YOU COME BACK TO LARGE GROUP, EACH GROUP WILL CHOOSE ONE PERSON TO READ
YOUR EXAMPLE OF THE MODEL TO US. IF YOU FINISH BEFORE GROUP TIME IS UP,
YOU MAY GO AHEAD AND PREPARE ANOTHER ONE.
PROCESSING: Quickly have each group read the model. Reinforce with a
simple acknowledgement. Discussion questions might include:
Specific coaching questions 1. IO DID IT FEEL TO WORK
AS A GROUP ON THE FEEDBACK MODEL PROJECT TODAY?
2. WHAT SKILLS DID YOU USE IN YOUR GROUPS TODAY THAT HELPED
YOU GET THE JOB DONE? (Point out that they listened to each
other and asserted themselves, etc.)


105
Because the results were mixed and did reveal several interactions,
perhaps another study could combine the modeling and coaching components
and provide a stronger vehicle with which to present school success
skills.
The results of this study also contribute to the major goal of
schoolshelping students learn. School counselors are an integral part
of the total education of children: They can impact on students'
attitudes through developmental guidance units such as those presented
in this study, where specific skills related to school success were
taught to students. In turn, enhancing feelings of success at school
can lead to enhanced learning. The long-term implication is that if
systematic programs of research can demonstrate conclusively the utility
of such guidance units, then appropriate changes should be made to
incorporate these units into formal school curricula.
Recommendations
The inclusion of behavioral measures is strongly reccrrmended for
further studies. A study of this nature would be strengthened by having
independent observers mark actual occurrences of specific school success
skills. This would improve validity of assessments. Because having
observers in individual schools is often difficult to execute, the use
of sane criterion measure, such as assignments handed in or a recording
of the percentage of time on task over a number of brief observation
intervals, also would lend validity to the study. Other dependent
variables also might be explored for inclusion in a comprehensive
battery.


161
Table F-2
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), for
Individual Schools by Condition
Scores
Modeling
Mean s. d.
Coaching
Mean s.d.
Control
Mean s.d.
School A
n =
20
n =
= 18
n =
23
Prescores
28.
,65
(7.04)
31.28
(11.17)
26.
,22
(9.34)
Postscores
30.
,70
(6.37)
30.11
(11.91)
20.
,74
(7.40)
Change scores
2.
,05
(6.54)
-1.17
(7.84)
-5.
,48
(10.44)
School B
n =
20
n =
= 21
n =
20
Prescores
29.
,80
(5.99)
26.71
(7.86)
27.
.70
(10.81)
Postscores
26.
.20
(6.91)
18.81
(5.54)
25.
,75
(10.14)
Change scores
-3.
,60
(5.30)
-7.90
(6.42)
-1.
,95
(3.05)
School C
n =
18
n =
= 23
n =
14
Prescores
34.
.28
(5.00)
29.35
(4.22)
20.
,43
(6.30)
Postscores
22.
,78
(6.39)
29.74
(6.18)
17.
,57
(6.91)
Change scores
-11.
.50
(4.26)
.39
(4.72)
-2.
,86
(4.44)
School D
n =
20
n =
= 17
n =
18
Prescores
25.
,35
(13.56)
33.94
(8.69)
21.
.83
(7.83)
Postscores
27.
.55
(14.86)
29.76
(8.38)
21,
.56
(6.65)
Change scores
2.
,20
(6.27)
-4.18
(6.45)
i
.28
(4.85)
School E
n =
24
n =
= 22
n =
21
Prescores
28.
.79
(6.80)
23.18
(9.98)
21.
.33
(8.39)
Postscores
31.
.79
(7.59)
22.41
(8.58)
28,
.14
(11.32)
Change scores
3.
.00
(6.34)
-.77
(6.20)
6
.81
(6.67)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.


127
YOUR CLASSMATES WILL USE TO SHOW THAT TLEY HANDED IN THEIR WORK. AS YOU
WATCH THEM FILL OUT THE TIME CARD, THINK ABOUT WHAT YOU WILL PUT IN THE
BLANKS. Talk the models through filling out the time cards, stressing
the importance of what organizing your time is, of keeping track of your
assignments, of handing in your papers, and of reinforcing yourself for
having done assignments.
PROCESSING: When the models return to their seats, begin the large
group discussion. Seme questions might include:
Specific modeling questions 1. HZM WILL YOU USE SOME OF
THE THINGS THE MODELS DID TO ORGANIZE YOUR TIME CARD?
2. TELL SOME THINGS THAT THE MODELS HELPED YOU LEARN ABOUT
MANAGING YOUR TIME SO THAT YOU CAN BECOME SUCCESSFUL
STUDENTS.
General questions 1. HCW DO YOU THINK KNOWING WAYS TO
USE TIME IN SCHOOL WILL HELP YOU BECOME SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS?
2. SHARE SOME OF THE WAYS YOU WILL REWARD YOURSELF ON YOUR
TIME CARDS.
SUMMARY: Pass out a time card to each student. USING YOUR TIME CARD
WILL HELP YOU KEEP TRACK OF YOUR ASSIGNMENTS. IT WILL ALSO HELP YOU
REMEMBER TO DECIDE FOR YOURSELF IF YOU REALLY HAVE WORKED AS HARD AS YOU
CAN ON AN ASSIGNMENT. IT WILL ALSO HELP YOU KEEP TRACK OF THE
ASSIGNMENTS YOU HAVE HANDED IN OR STILL NEED TO GET DONE. IT WILL
REMIND YOU THAT YOU HAVE SKILLS TO HELP YOU BECOME REALLY SUCCESSFUL AT
SCHOOL.
WE HAVE HAD DOTS OF FUN WORKING TOGETHER ON SKILLS TO BECOME SUCCESSFUL
AT SCHOOL. WE HAVE LEARNED TO PAY ATTENTION, TO LISTEN, AND HOW TO



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PAGE 226

81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


20
Principals, teachers, school counselors, and researchers have long
been concerned with finding ways to help reduce aggressive behaviors by
teaching self-control mechanisms. Drabman, Spitalnik, and O'Leary
(1973), as one of their experimental conditions, taught eight 9- and
10-year-old boys who were in classes for students with academic and
emotional problems to control themselves by earning bonus points for
matching a teacher1s evaluation of their academic efforts and social
behaviors. The auttors reported that the students maintained very low
levels of disruptive behavior and high rates of academic output. They
also noted generalization of appropriate behavior at times in the day
when the token program was not in effect.
The skill of using self-control is enhanced by the teaching of
assertive behaviors where students are taught the differences between
passive, aggressive, and assertive behaviors (Bower, Amatea, & Anderson,
1976). Students can be more in control if they can recognize situations
in which they can be assertive. They can also utilize the skills
associated with being assertive to act constructively, rather than
turning to aggressive behaviors where self-control is lost.
Interacting
The fifth school success skill, interacting with teachers and
peers, also has been reported to have a positive relationship to success
in learning. Cartledge & Milbum (1978), in their review of selected
studies, found a growing recognition of the reciprocal nature of
interactions between teachers and students. Experimental studies showed
that varying students' behaviors could bring changes in teachers'
behaviors.


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Traditionally, schools have concentrated cn teaching children basic
academic skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic (Cartledge &
Milbum, 1978; McGinnis & Goldstein, 1984). Where time and money were
available, schools expanded academic subjects and taught skills in areas
such as athletics and the arts. However, there has been a noticeable
lack of teaching the task and interpersonal skills linked directly to
achieving success in the school setting.
Sane students cane to school seemingly knowing what skills to use
to become successful. They understand what teachers mean and respond
when teachers say, "Class, pay attention!" or "Class, listen carefully
now." Other children, who are not as aware of such school success
skills or responses, often become frustrated and achieve less.
Direct instruction in skills that enhance a child's success at
school is typically absent in most schools. When offered, instruction
in school success skills has usually been fragmented, unsystematic, or
incomplete (Cartledge & Milbum, 1978). Administrators, school
counselors, parents, and teachers at each grade level have often assumed
that someone was instructing students in the school success skills that
they wuuld need, only to find that most children have not accumulated
them. The acquisition of essential school success skills could be
greatly facilitated if direct instruction were incorporated as formal,
didactic components of school curricula.
1


89
significant differences for conditions by gender on total SAI scores or
on the separate dimensions (Table 4-14). However, because of the
findings for conditions by race on the pleasure and excitement
dimensions, HOg was rejected.
Student Sunrnary Sheet
At the conclusion of all treatment and posttest measurements,
students were asked to give informal feedback on a Student Summary sheet
(see Appendix G). The purpose of this instrument was to gain added
insight into hew students felt about the units so that improvements
could be made for further implementation of the units. Most of the
students viewed the units favorably. Same of the carments are
surrmarized in Appendix H.
Sunrnary
A sunrnary of the results of the ANCOVAs for this study is presented
belcw. It is organized by the dependent variables related to school
success behaviors and the relevant hypotheses. The third dependent
variable, related to attitudinal ratings of school situations, is shewn
next, with related hypotheses.
Teachers' Perceptions of Student School Success Behaviors as Measured by
the School Success InventoryTeacher Form (SSI-TF)
1. There were no significant differences among the three groups on
teachers' perceptions of student school success behaviors.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
DEVELOPMENTAL GUIDANCE FOR SCHOOL SUCCESS SKILLS:
A COMPARISON OF MODELING AND COACHING
By
Marjorie Irene Cuthbert
May, 1987
Chairman: Robert D. Myrick
Major Department: Counselor Education
Two developmental guidance units were evaluated for their effects
on teachers' perceptions of student school success behaviors (School
Success Inventory, SSI-TF), on students' self-reported school success
behaviors (School Success Inventory, SSI-SF), and on students'
attitudinal ratings of school situations (School Attitude Inventory,
SAI). Six school success skills were presented and included paying
attention in school, listening to teachers and peers, volunteering in
school, using self-control, interacting with teachers and peers, and
utilizing self-assessment techniques at school. The units were
delivered by five state certified school counselors to third-grade
students in 15 classrooms in public elementary schools.
A randomized pre-post control group research design was used to
compare students in three conditions. Students in the modeling
condition (n=102) learned vicariously as they watched peers demonstrate
the skills. Students in the coaching condition (n=101)
Vll


15
cheated and not experience their maximum academic and social potential
in school. The specific school success skills selected for this study-
are a subset of interpersonal and task skills. They were chosen because
they have been shewn to help students become successful at school and
also have been shewn to have positive outcomes for skills training. The
school success skills for this study were paying attention in school,
listening to teachers and peers, volunteering in school, using
self-control, interacting with teachers and peers, and utilizing
self-assessment. Each is discussed below.
Paying Attention (Attending)
One important school success skill is that of attending. The
discussion of attending as a complex neurological and physical process
is beyond the scope of this review. Rather, it is defined in terms of
classroom attending which "involves the social element of orienting
toward the teacher or to stimuli defined by the teacher at times and
under conditions specified by the teacher and as such, may be regarded
as an academically-relevant social skill" (Cartledge & Milbum, 1978, p.
138).
Cobb (1972), in a multiple regression analysis study of the
relationship of discrete classroom behaviors to fourth-grade
achievement, defined attending as doing what was appropriate in an
academic situation, e.g., looking at teachers when they presented
material, writing answers to arithmetic problems, or looking at other
students who are reciting. Results shewed attending to be the most
powerful of eight behavioral categories in each of two schools,


158
9. How I feel when teacher corrects me.
10. How I feel about myself at school.
La


49
counseling professions have demonstrated that developmental guidance
units are effective methods for helping students learn and change their
attitudes, and researchers in the social sciences studying ways to
improve social isolation have shewn that modeling and coaching are
effective ways to present skills. However, a specific set of school
success skills, presented through developmental guidance units
incorporating modeling and coaching, had never been delivered to
classrocms of children and evaluated for effectiveness. Such research
became the focus of this study.


141
and look at the pictures too, and (d) You might get in trouble for
shouting out at him even though you were the one trying to study.
WHAT COULD YOU DO? LET'S TALK ABOUT SOME WAYS TO STAND UP POR
OURSELVES. THERE ARE THREE WAYS TO LOOK AT THE SITUATION. Introduce:
Passive behavior WHEN YOU USE PASSIVE BEHAVIOR YOU DON'T STICK-UP
OR SPEAK-OUT FOR YOURSELF. YOU LET THE OTHER PERSON GET WHAT HE WANTS.
YOU GET OFF-TASK, TEACHER IS UPSET WITH YOU, YOU DON'T GET YOUR WORK
DONE, AND YOUR REPORT CARD SHOWS IT.
Aggressive behavior WHEN YOU USE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR YOU TRY TO
GET BACK AT SOMEONE. YOU TRY TO HURT ANOTHER PERSON. YOU FEEL LIKE YOU
CAN'T TAKE BEING INTERRUPTED ONE MORE TIME, SO YOU LOSE YOUR COOL OR
SELF-CONTROL, AND HIT YOUR CLASSMATE. YOU END UP IN SERIOUS TROUBLE.
Assertive behavior WHEN YOU USE ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR YOU "STAND-UP
AND SPEAK-OUT" FOR YOURSELF. YOU DO NOT HURT THE OTHER PERSON.
THERE ARE SOME WAYS TO DO THIS:
1. Body language YOU USE YOUR BODY AND STAND OR SIT FIRMLY, USE
EYE CONTACT, REMAIN CALM, AND DON'T SMILE. (Point out how we already
know sane of these skills and can now apply them to this situation.)
2. Confident voice YOU USE YOUR REGULAR WAYS OF SPEAKING, NOT AN
ANGRY SOUNDING VOICE. (Dononstrate different pitches, tones, and
durations to shew how these convey different things to the listener).
3. Broken record YOU REPEAT YOURSELF OVER AND OVER AGAIN LIKE A
BROKEN RECORD AND SAY SOMETHING LIKE "NOT NOW, I AM WORKING, NOT NOW,
I AM WORKING," ETC.
COACHING Sc PRACTICE: NOW IT IS TIME TO PRACTICE THESE NEW SKILLS IN OUR
GROUPS. EACH GROUP WILL RECEIVE NOTE CARDS WITH SITUATIONS WRITTEN ON
THEM. THE LEADER WILL READ THE CARD AND EACH MEMBER WILL THINK OF AN


154
1. Hew I feel when teacher calls on me.
2. Hew I feel about my school wrk.


58
corresponding items v/ere keyed to the behaviors on the students' forms
with verb tense and pronoun use made appropriate for the rater.
The teachers marked each item in terms of perceived frequency of
occurrence on a 5-point scale of "Very Often," "Often," "Scmetimes,"
"Seldom," and "Very Seldom" Respondents indicated their choice by
marking with an X or a check mark. Each of these categories was
assigned a numerical score, with one indicating the "desired" behavior
and corresponding to "Very Often." The scores ranged frcm 12 (very
often) to 60 (very seldan).
Test-retest reliability for the SSI-TF was .94, as obtained from a
pilot study of two third-grade classes. The SSI-TF was administered to
teachers in two third-grade classes who first rated their students
(N=54) on the scale described above and then responded to the same
instrument two weeks later.
School Success InventoryStudent Form
The School Success InventoryStudent Form (see Appendix D) was a
paper and pencil measure. It contained 12 items, 2 items to represent
each of the six classroom behaviors of attending, listening,
volunteering, using self-control, interacting, and assessing self. The
items comprise behaviors related to school success.
The students marked each item in terms of perceived frequency of
occurrence on a 5-point scale of "Very Often," "Often," "Scmetimes,"
"Seldom," and "Very Seldom." They indicated their choices by marking
with an X or a check mark. Each of these categories was assigned a
numerical score, with one indicating the "desired" behavior and
corresponding to "Very Often." The total score over the 12 items ranged


202
Table F-22 (continued)
School D
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£_i
Condition
2
388.82
194.41
3.01
.06
Prescore
1
1045.81
1048147
16.22
.001
Error
51
3289.40
64.50
School E
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
R_S
Condition
2
65.07
32.53
0.89
.42
Prescore
1
1120.56
1120.56
30.80
.001
Error
63
2291.65
36.38


213
Ladd, G. (1981). Effectiveness of a social learning method for
enhancing children1s social interaction and peer acceptance.
Ctrl Id Development, 52, 171-178.
Lang, P.J. (1980). Behavioral treatment and bio-behavioral assessment:
Computer applications. In J.B. Sidowski, J.H. Johnson, Sc T.A.
Williams (Eds.), Technology in mental health care delivery systems
(pp. 129-139). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Lewin, P., Nelson, R., & Tollefson, N. (1983). Teacher attitudes
toward disruptive children. Elementary School Guidance &
Counseling, 17, 188-193.
McDaniel, T.R. (1985). Inquiries into excellence: A reexamination of
a familiar concept. The Educational Forum, 49, 389-396.
McGinnis, E., & Goldstein, A.P. (1984). Skill streaming the elementary
school child: A guide for teaching prosocial skills. Champaign,
IL: Research Press.
Munson, H.L. (1970). Elementary school guidance: Concepts,
dimensions, and practice. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Muro, J.J., & Dinkmeyer, D.C. (1977). Counseling in the elementary and
middle schools: A pragmatic approach. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C.
Brown.
Myers, J.L. (1979). Fundamentals of experimental design. Boston, MA:
Allyn and Bacon.
Myrick, R.D., Sc Bcwman, R.P. (1981). Becaning a friendly helper: A
handbook for student facilitators. Minneapolis, MN: Educational
Media.
Myrick, R.D., Sc Dixon, R.W. (1985). Changing student attitudes and
behavior through group counseling. The School Counselor, 32,
325-330.
Myrick, R.D., Merhill, H., Sc Swanson, L. (1986). Changing student
attitudes through classroom guidance. The School Counselor, 33,
244-252.
National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983, April 27). A
nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform.
(Reprinted in Education Week, pp. 12-16).
National Science Board Ccrrmission on Precollege Education in
Mathematics, Science, and Technology. (1983, September 14).
Educating Americans for the 21st century. (Reprinted in Education
Week, pp. 14-16).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to extend sincere thanks to Dr. Robert Myrick for
serving as chairman of my ccntnittee. His professional suggestions and
personal encouragement were invaluable to me and are greatly
appreciated. I would also like to thank Dr. Larry Loesch for serving on
my ccmnittee. His careful attention to detail and high expectations
elicited my best efforts in all aspects of this study. I also would
like to thank Dr. Cecil Mercer. His support and helpful input
substantially contributed to the study. Thanks are also extended to
Drs. Athol Packer and Esther Morgan for serving on the committee.
I would also like to thank Dr. Wiley Dixon, Director of Guidance,
Alachua County, Florida, Public Schools, for his support of the project
and his sincere interest in the results. Special thanks also go to the
school counselors who presented the units and carefully carried out the
research procedures.
Additional thanks are extended (a) to my husband, Bruce, for his
constant love and support throughout the entire graduate degree; (b) to
my daughter, Kristina, for her unselfish help and sincere desire to
assist me; (c) to ny son, Scott, for his continuous belief in his
mother; (d) to my mother- and father-in law for their assistance with
data entry and help with the children; and (e) to my loving mother and
late father who willingly made innumerable sacrifices for me and who
always thought I could do anything I put my mind to doing.
ii


APPENDIX B
SKILLS FOR SCHOOL SUCCESS COACHING
SESSION ONE: PAYING ATTENTION
PURPOSE: 1. To help students become aware of non-verbal behaviors, and
2. To help students become aware of attending skills (sitting up
straight, eye contact, and leaning in) that help them achieve success at
school.
MATERIALS: Newsprint or chalkboard.
NOTE: Capital letters other than headings indicate suggested
text for counselors to use with the students.
INTRODUCTION: TODAY WE ARE GOING TO LEARN SOME WAYS THAT WE
COMMUNICATE BY USING OUR BODIES. CAN ANYONE SEND THE REST OF US A
MESSAGE BY ONLY USING A SIGNAL OR BODY LANGUAGE? Proceed to generate a
list of ways to canmunicate nonverbally frcm students' ideas. These
behaviors might include smiling, clenched fists, frcwning, OK sign, and
hands folded. Make certain that you include sitting up straight (shews
you are ready to listen or work), eye contact (lets the others know you
are ready to listen), and leaning in (explain how this gesture conveys
that you are ready to listen).
ACTIVITY ONE: SOME OF THESE SKILLS ARE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT FOR YOU TO
USE TO HELP YOU BECOME BETTER STUDENTS. BY USING THEM YOU CAN BECOME
MORE SUCCESSFUL IN SCHOOL. TEACHERS LIKE TO WORK BEST WITH STUDENTS WHO
PAY ATTENTION.
129


APPENDIX A
SKILLS FOR SCHOOL SUCCESS tDDELING
SESSION ONE: PAYING ATTENTION
PURPOSE: 1. To help students become aware of non-verbal behaviors, and
2. To help students becane aware of attending skills (sitting up
straight, eye contact, and leaning in) that help them achieve success at
school.
MATERIALS: Newsprint or chalkboard.
NOTE: Capital letters other than headings indicate suggested
text for counselors to use with the students.
INTRODUCTION: TODAY WE ARE GOING TO LEARN SOME WAYS THAT WE
COMMUNICATE BY USING OUR BODIES. CAN ANYONE SEND THE REST OF US A
MESSAGE BY ONLY USING A SIOIAL OR BODY LANGUAGE? Proceed to generate a
list of ways to ccmnunicate nonverbally frcm students' ideas. These
behaviors might include smiling, clenched fists, frowning, OK sign, and
hands folded. Make certain that you include sitting up straight (shows
you are ready to listen or work), eye contact (lets the others know you
are ready to listen), and leaning in (explain hew this gesture conveys
that you are ready to listen).
ACTIVITY ONE: SOME OF THESE SKILLS ARE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT FOR YOU TO
USE TO HELP YOU BECOME BETTER STUDENTS. BY USING THEM YOU CAN BECOME
MORE SUCCESSFUL IN SCHOOL. TEACHERS LIKE TO WORK BEST WITH STUDENTS WHO
PAY ATTENTION.
107


80
Table 4-9
Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Student
Form (SSI-SF), for Conditions by Gender
Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n=99 n=94
Gender
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Males (n=147)
Females (n=147)
-.65
.96
(6.67)
(5.35)
.52
1.59
(5.40)
(6.55)
-.47
.26
(7.94)
(7.22)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-8 (p. 168)
and Table F-20 (p. 190).


155
3. Hew I feel about asking questions in class.
4. Hew I feel about organizing all the work I have to do.


74
£ <.001), with white students (n=236) being rated as inproving in school
skills to a greater degree than black students (n=58). However, there
were no significant differences among the experimental groups on race as
a function of condition; therefore, Ho^ was not rejected.
There were no overall significant differences for gender on the
SSI-TF (see Table 4-5). Teachers rated males as displaying the school
success skills more frequently at posttest in all three conditions, with
the largest increment attributed to coaching. Females were also rated
similarly; students in all conditions were rated as using skills more
frequently, with coaching once again increasing the most.
Students' Perceptions of School Success Behaviors
Ho^: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on students' perceptions of school success behaviors,
as measured by pre-post change on the School Success
InventoryStudent Form.
Overall analysis by conditions. To investigate significant
differences among the three experimental conditions (i.e., modeling,
coaching, and control) on students' perceptions of school success
behaviors, a hierarchical ANCOVA, where the prescores were used as the
covariate, was performed on the change scores of overall SSI-SF data.
Results of the hierarchical ANOOVA showed no significant differences
among the groups; thus, Ho^ was not rejected. A standard ANCOVA also
failed to show any significant differences airong the groups.
The mean change scores did not shew inprovement in mcdeling or
coaching (see Table 4-6). Only the students in the control condition
rated themselves irrproved. Students in the modeling and coaching


177
Table F-12 (continued)
EXCITEMENT
Race
Blacks
n =
18
n =
18
n =
22
Prescores
29.94
(9.01)
28.94
(11.60)
31.05
(9.95)
Postscores
32.17
(8.93)
22.94
(11.12)
31.59
(9.58)
Change scores
2.22
(10.46)
-6.00
(10.54)
.55
(11.92)
Whites
n =
83
n =
81
n =
72
Prescores
29.00
(8.32)
28.33
(8.43)
28.19
(10.39)
Postscores
27.83
(9.11)
26.62
(9.20)
28.10
(9.61)
Change scores
-1.17
(7.66)
-1.72
(8.60)
-.10
(9.19)
Gender
Males
n =
52
n =
50
n =
45
Prescores
31.52
(6.89)
30.82
(8.93)
31.62
(10.12)
Postscores
31.00
(8.69)
27.34
(10.03)
29.89
(8.93)
Change scores
-.52
(9.01)
-3.48
(9.65)
-1.73
(10.11)
Females
n =
49
n =
49
n =
49
Prescores
26.67
(9.19)
26.02
(8.54)
26.33
(9.91)
Postscores
26.06
(9.09)
24.53
(9.06)
28.02
(10.29)
Change scores
0.61
(7.51)
-1.49
(8.44)
1.69
(9.37)


133
Generate ideas from the students about hew good listening is
important in school. For example, a student would know directions for
assignments, when to line up for activity or lunch, and what ideas other
kids were talking about.
YES, IF YOU LISTEN TO DIRECTIONS YOU WILL KNOW WHAT TO DO At
BECOME A SUCCESSFUL STUDENT. IF YOU LISTEN FOR IDEAS AND FEELINGS OF
OTHERS YOU CAN LEARN NEW THINGS. SOMETIMES IN SCHOOL YOU LISTEN FOR
FACTS OR DIRECTIONS, (e.g., "DO PAGES 101-103" OR "FIND THE PLANET
CLOSEST TO THE SUN"), BUT SOMETIMES, YOU LISTEN FOR HOW PEOPLE ARE
FEELING (e.g., "I'M SCARED ABOUT THE MATH TEST" OR 'I'M WORRIED ABOUT MY
HANDWRITING").
THERE ARE SEVERAL THINGS WE CAN DO TO HELP US BECOME BETTER
LISTENERS AND STUDENTS. IF WE LISTEN AND DO NOT UNDERSTAND, WE CAN ASK
FOR MORE INFORMATION BY USING QUESTIONS. THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF
QUESTIONS THAT MIGHT HELP YOU THINK ABOUT THINGS. ONE IS AN OPEN
QUESTION. THE SECOND IS A CLOSED QUESTION. Explain and demonstrate how
a yes or no will answer most closed questions, but that an open question
encourages people to share more ideas.
Do you like doing your math? (Closed)
Hew do you feel about doing your math? (Open)
KNOWING HOT TO ASK AND ANSWER QUESTIONS LIKE THIS CLEARS UP THINGS THAT
YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND.
COACHING & PRACTICE; NOW, IT IS TIME TO PRACTICE YOUR LISTENING SKILLS.
EACH GROUP MEMBER WILL PRACTICE ASKING AN OPEN-ENDED QUESTION. IN ORDER
TO DO THIS, EACH OF YOU WILL NEED TO PAY ATTENTION TO THE SPEAKER AND
THINK ABOUT WHAT WAS SAID, SO THAT YOU CAN ASK A QUESTION ABOUT CONTENT
OR FEELINGS. THE STARTER WILL BEGIN BY TALKING ABOUT SOMETHING AT


196
Table F-22 (continued)
School D
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_1
Condition
2
2076.14
1038.07
4.67
.02
Prescore
1
1145.60
1145.60
5.15
.03
Error
51
11340.01
222.35
School E
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_i
Condition
2
206.97
103.48
1.04
.37
Prescore
1
1780.68
1780.68
17.82
.001
Error
63
6294.54
99.91


41
was coached by a different male for each subject and the control group
by a single female. The true effect of coaching cannot be seen here
because it was only one part of three in the treatment condition.
Bomstein et al. (1977) showed that skills training consisting of
instructions, feedback from a therapist, behavior rehearsal by the
subject, and modeling of the skill resulted in considerable improvement
in component behaviors and overall assertiveness for all of four
subjects (8 to 11 years old). A type of coaching occurred when the
therapist gave feedback to the subject on the chosen skill until the
therapist felt the criterion for that behavior had been reached. It is
hard to determine the true effect of the coaching component here since
modeling (i.e., a model presented the prompt while the therapist
presented a chosen scene) was a part of the treatment. Again, the
number of subjects was small, which makes generalizability of results
questionable.
Oden and Asher (1977) used a clearly defined coaching component as
one of three conditions in their study. The number per condition (n=ll)
was expanded in relation to the studies cited earlier, and included
third- and fourth-grade socially isolated children (low-acceptance
students, total N=33). The coaching condition consisted of three parts
where (a) the student was verbally instructed in social skills by the
experimenter, (b) the student was given an opportunity to practice the
skills with a peer, and (c) the student and peer had a postplay review
session with the coach. The skills coached had to do with making
game-playing fun and included (a) participating in a game, (b)
cooperating, (c) talking and listening, and (d) validating. The coach
proposed a concept (e.g., cooperation), probed understanding of it,


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In 1983, the National Cormassion on Education issued a report, A
Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Reform, which declared that American
education was not in step with the technological times:
Our nation is at risk. Our once unchallenged preeminence in
carneree, industry, science, and technological innovation is
being overtaken by competitors of the world. . educational
foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a
rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as
a nation and a people. (National Commission on Excellence
in Education, 1983, p. 12)
This report listed many indicators of the "risk," including (a) lcwer
average achievement scores than during the "Sputnik" era 26 years ago,
(b) falling college board scores, and (c) fewer students having superior
scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests.
McDaniel (1985) noted that while the initial focus of the several
"reform" or "excellence" ccrrmissions was at the secondary level, many
recent reports dealing with excellence have been directed to elementary
and middle schools as well. He estimated that about 30 national reports
have been issued and that the 50 states have appointed about 300 task
forces in the name of excellence.
Cassil (1986) attempted to identify the factors emerging from the
reports on educational excellence. The basic premise is that if
education is doing so poorly, "it must be broken and therefore should be
fixed." Subsequently, a variety of remedies have been proposed to
inprove the educational system. However, these efforts, for the most
12


145
General questions 1. BOW DO YOU THINK USING THE FEEDBACK
MODEL WILL HELP YOU BE MORE SUCCESSFUL AT SCHOOL?
2. TELL SOME TIMES YOU THINK YOU MIGHT USE THE MODEL AT
SCHOOL.
(Point out that they listened to each other and asserted
themselves, etc.)
SUMMARY IT IS SO IMPORTANT TO LET TEACHERS AND OTHER STUDENTS KNOW
WHAT YOU ARE THINKING AND FEELING SO THAT THEY CAN CLEAR UP THINGS THAT
MIGHT GET IN THE WAY OF YOUR DOING YOUR BEST SCHOOLWORK. KNOWING HOW
YOU FEEL AND THINK, AND HAVING SKILLS TO TELL OTHERS, WILL HELP YOU IN
EVERYTHING THAT YOU DO AT SCHOOL. IT WILL HELP YOU GET ALONG WITH OTHER
STUDENTS AND TEACHERS.
ASSIGNMENT; PRACTICE THE FEEDBACK MODEL ABOUT A SCHOOL SITUATION IN
YOUR IMAGINATION. IF YOU FEEL COMFORTABLE, GO AHEAD AND TRY IT OUT.
SEE IF IT FEELS GOOD TO GIVE A COMPLIMENT (PERHAPS TO YOUR TEACHER)
USING THIS MODEL


172
Table F-ll
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for School Attitude InventoryTotal and Dimensions, for Target
Students
Modeling Coaching Control
n=32 n=21 n=21
Scores
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Total
Prescores
100.94
(18.62)
101.43
(13.52)
101.67
(19.47)
Postscores
100.38
(14.67)
107.67
(19.20)
106.52
(12.90)
Change scores
-.56
(14.53)
6.24
(16.48)
4.86
(17.08)
Pleasure
Prescores
36.31
(7.28)
36.24
(7.29)
37.29
(6.83)
Postscores
36.69
(7.60)
38.00
(8.05)
39.95
(4.35)
Change scores
.38
(6.84)
1.76
(5.16)
2.67
(5.60)
Excitement
Prescores
28.72
(8.71)
31.33
(9.68)
31.86
(10.65)
Postscores
30.00
(9.09)
27.48
(10.67)
29.71
(7.09)
Change scores
1.28
(10.01)
-3.86
(8.66)
-2.14
(10.70)
Control
Prescores
33.34
(7.17)
36.52
(9.09)
36.24
(8.46)
Postscores
33.69
(7.64)
37.14
(9.30)
36.29
(7.50)
Change scores
.34
(6.95)
.62
(11.16)
.05
(9.01)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement for Excitement.


109
STUDENTS ARE PAYING ATTENTION AND GIVING GOOD EYE CONTACT. TEACHERS
WANT TO KNOW WHO IS TRYING TO LEARN.
Next, the girl model demonstrates sitting up straight while using
good eye contact. She is timed for 25 seconds and reinforced for her
behaviors. The boy model also demonstrates (for 25 seconds), sitting up
straight and maintaining eye contact as the class watches. He receives
positive reinforcement for these behaviors. TEACHERS NOTICE WHO IS
SITTING UP STRAIGHT AND USING GOOD EYE CONTACT.
Instruct the boy model to lean in a little as he sits up straight
and uses good eye contact. The girl model follows doing the same three
behaviors. Each student is timed for 30 seconds and given positive
praise.
Ask the students what they noticed about the models, emphasizing
the skills of paying attention. The models return to their seats.
PROCESSING: After the models have demonstrated all three skills and
returned to their desks, discuss the demonstrations with the class.
Questions might include:
Specific modeling questions 1. WHAT DID THE MODELS DO
THAT WILL HELP YOU REMEMBER TO USE THE PAYING ATTENTION
SKILLS?
2. WHAT WERE SOME OF THE THINGS THAT HELPED YOU PAY
ATTENTION TO THE MODELS?
General questions 1. HOW DO YOU THINK USING THESE SKILLS
WILL HELP YOU IN SCHOOL?
2. WHAT ARE SOME THINGS YOU CAN DO TO HELP YOURSELF PAY
ATTENTION EVEN IF OTHERS AROUND YOU ARE NOT?


192
Table F-21 (continued)
Pleasure
Hierarchical Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_S
Condition
2
92.66
46.33
1.15
.35
Classes within
Condition
12
483.54
40.30
1.55
.11
Prescore
1
1258.48
1258.71
48.42
.001
Error
283
7356.26
25.99
Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_i
Condition
2
96.22
48.11
1.81
.17
Prescore
1
1046.72
1046.72
39.39
.001
Error
295
7839.80
26.58


193
Table F-21 (continued)
Excitement
Hierarchical Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£L_S
Condition
2
470.99
235.50
3.53
.07
Classes within
Condition
12
800.90
66.74
1.03
.42
Prescore
1
4851.89
4851.89
75.01
.001
Error
283
18305.07
64.68
Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
RS
Condition
2
508.49
254.25
3.93
.03
Prescore
1
5202.50
5202.50
80.33
.001
Error
295
19105.93
64.77


56
school, using self-control at school, interacting with teachers and
peers, and utilizing self-assessment techniques), but each involved a
separate teaching technique of either modeling (see Appendix A) or
coaching (see Appendix B).
Both guidance units consisted of six, 30-minute sessions. Each of
the six sessions had a stated goal and accompanying objectives
consistent with the overall purpose of teaching school success skills
and with the goals of the School Board of Alachua County's (1983)
Developmental Guidance and Counseling Plan. The goals, objectives, and
content of the units were the same, with the units differentiated only
by the experimental treatments of modeling and coaching.
Skills for School SuccessModeling
Children in the modeling condition participated in a developmental
guidance unit entitled Skills for School SuccessModeling (SSS-M) (see
Appendix A). For each session the school counselor choose students, one
male and one female, to model and demonstrate the skill being taught.
School counselors identified the modeling students from those who spoke
well, appeared to be leaders, and were respected by classmates. The
other observing students learned the skills vicariously as they watched
the students modeling the behaviors.
The school counselor facilitated the modeling condition by guiding
the models tlirough the skill, as outlined in the guidance unit. A new
skill was modeled for each of the six sessions, using different models
each session to promote class interest and participation. Each session
concluded with a discussion and summary.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 6728


113
topic. Continue the exchange for a few sentences to shew that the model
is listening. Demonstrate hew one can listen for content and feelings.
Reinforce the model. Ask the students how they know the model is
listening and hew teachers would knew students were listening.
Have a girl model demonstrate the same listening and questioning
techniques. She will pay attention, listen to what has been said, and
ask an open-ended question. Continue the conversation to shew that each
is listening to the other. Demonstrate listening for content and
feelings. Again reinforce the model and have students point out things
they noticed that would indicate that the model was listening carefully
to the counselor.
PROCESSING; After the models return to their seats, begin a large
discussion group. Questions might include:
Specific modeling questions 1. WHAT DID YOU NOTICE MOST
ABOUT THE MODELS WHEN THEY WERE LISTENING?
2. TELL SOME WAYS THAT YOU THINK YOU ARE LIKE THE MODELS
AND CAN ALSO BECOME A GOOD LISTENER AND A SUCCESSFUL
STUDENT.
General questions 1. HOW DO YOU THINK LISTENING
CAREFULLY AT SCHOOL WILL HELP YOU BECOME BETTER STUDENTS?
2. WHEN MIGHT IT BE IMPORTANT TO LISTEN FOR FEELINGS OF
OTHERS AT SCHOOL?
SUMMARY; GOOD LISTENING SKILLS HELP YOU BECOME GOOD STUDENTS. REMEMBER
LISTENING MEANS PAYING ATTENTION TO THE SPEAKER, THINKING ABOUT WHAT
TEE PERSON SAID, AND SAYING SOMETHING TO THE PERSON ON THE SAME TOPIC.
THE USE OF TEJESE LISTENING SKILLS WILL HELP YOU BECOME MORE SUCCESSFUL
AT SCHOOL.


128
OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS 1HAT KEEP US FROM VOLUNTEERING IDEAS. WE ALSO
HAVE LEARNED WAYS TO USE SELF-CONTROL BY BEING ASSERTIVE AND STICKING UP
FOR OURSELVES. WE KNOW WAYS OF GETTING ALONG WITH OTHERS, AND CAN TELL
THEM HOW WE FEEL BY USING THE FEEDBACK f-DDEL. WE ALSO KNOW HCW TO
ORGANIZE OUR TIME SO WE CAN GET OUR SCHOOL WORK DONE. WHEN YOU USE ALL
THESE NEW SKILLS, YOU WILL HAVE SUCCESS AT SCHOOL!


57
Skills for School SuccessCoacliing
Children in the coaching condition participated in a developmental
guidance unit, Skills for School SuccessCoaching (SSS-C) (see Appendix
B). For each session the school counselor presented didactically the
new skill After the school counselor presented the school success
skill for each session, the students were divided into groups of five or
six students where they practiced the skill for about 15 minutes. They
coached each other on performance as they practiced. Each session
concluded with a discussion and surtmary.
Control Group
Students in the control group responded to the same measures of
school success at the same 8-week interval as the two modeling and
coaching groups. Their participation in one of the two conditions was
delayed for eight weeks until after the study was carpieted.
Assessment Techniques
In order to assess the effects of the treatments, the following
measures were used (a) School Success InventoryTeacher Form (SSI-SF),
(b) School Success InventoryStudent Form (SSI-TF), and (c) School
Attitude Inventory (SAI).
School Success InventoryTeacher Form
The School Success InventoryTeacher Form (see Appendix C) was a
paper and pencil measure on which teachers responded to 12 items related
to school behavior for each student. These items reflected the same
behaviors listed on the student form (i.e., attending, listening,
volunteering, using self-control, interacting, and assessing self);


142
ASSERTIVE WAY TO SPEAK ABOUT TEE SITUATION, AND PRACTICE DOING SO.
REMEMBER TO HELP EACH OTHER OUT AND COACH EACH OTHER UNTIL YOU CAN USE
ASSERTIVE IDEAS. TELL EACH OTHER WHEN YOU DO A GOOD JOB TOO! THE
LEADERS WILL ALSO GIVE ASSERTIVE RESPONSES WHEN THEIR TURNS COME AROUND
THE CIRCLE. WHEN THIS ROUND FINISHES, THE NEXT LEADER WILL READ HIS/HER
CARD, AND THIS CONTINUES AROUND THE CIRCLE.
PROCESSING: Move the teams back to classroom discussion configuration.
Questions might include:
Specific coaching questions 1. HOW DID IT FEEL TO BE
ASSERTIVE IN YOUR GROUPS?
2. WHAT WERE SOME THINGS THAT DISTRACTED YOU IN YOUR GROUPS
TODAY? DO YOU THINK THESE MIGHT HAPPEN IN A REAL SCHOOL
DAY?
General questions 1. BOW DO YOU THINK KNOWING HOW TO
CONTROL YOURSELF AT SCHOOL WILL HELP YOU BE A BETTER
STUDENT?
2. WHAT ARE THE TIMES AT SCHOOL THAT ARE THE HARDEST FOR
YOU TO USE YOUR SELF-CONTROL AND NOT LOSE YOUR COOL?
SUMMARY: TODAY YOU LEARNED WAYS TO USE SELF-CONTROL BY ASSERTING
YOURSELVES WITH BODY LANGUAGE, BROKEN RECORD, and CONFIDENT VOICE.
USING THESE SKILLS CAN HELP YOU STAY ON-TASK, USE SELF-CONTROL, AND
BECOME SUCCESSFUL AT SCHOOL.
ASSIGNMENTS: IF SOMEONE IS TRYING TO MAKE YOU LOSE YOUR SELF CONTROL,
TRY OUT ONE OF THE NEW SKILLS. TELL AT LEAST ONE MORE PERSON TWO WAYS
TO USE SELF CONTROL


187
Table F-13
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for School Success
Inventory Student
Form (SSI-SF)
, Conditions by Individual Schools
School A
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
RS
Condition
2
415.11
207.56
4.09
.03
Prescore
1
759.46
759.46
14.98
.001
Error
57
2889.81
50.70
School B
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
Rl
Condition
2
123.25
61.62
3.01
.06
Prescore
1
649.51
649.51
31.69
.001
Error
57
1168.30
20.50
School C
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
RJl
Condition
2
107.11
53.56
1.92
.16
Prescore
1
223.16
223.76
8.04
.007
Error
51
1419.37
27.83


157
7. Hew I feel about sticking up for myself.
8. How I feel about telling my ideas in class discussions.


199
Table F-22 (continued)
Excitement
School A
Source of Variance
df
S3
MS
F
E_S
Condition
2
44.04
22.02
0.27
.77
Prescore
1
3245.89
3245.89
39.75
.001
Error
57
4654.48
81.66
School B
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
R.1
Condition
2
282.17
141.09
3.04
.06
Prescore
1
792.24
792.24
17.05
.001
Error
57
2649.04
46.47
School C
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£1_S
Condition
2
536.40
268.20
3.32
.05
Prescore
1
1195.07
1195.07
14.80
.001
Error
51
4117.03
80.73


39
In an attempt to more precisely identify specific social
interaction behaviors, and thereby further clarify the process by which
interaction increases, Keller and Carlson (1974) developed four 5-minute
videotapes depicting the specific social behaviors thought to be
components of social interaction (i.e., imitation, smiling, laughing,
token giving, and affection giving). These tapes were shewn to isolated
preschoolers in the experimental group while the control group saw four
nature video tapes. An accompanying sound track described these
actions. All subjects were observed on the behaviors of interacting,
giving reinforcement, and receiving reinforcement, with the last two
being broken dewn more specifically to include imitation, smiling or
laughing, giving tokens, giving affection, and verbalization. Results
revealed increases in all three categories for the experimental group
(i.e., the control group remained the same) at posttreatment, but the
differences were not significant at follow-up. The results also shewed
that treatment procedures raised the probability of occurrence of
responses that the subjects had already learned (i.e., verbalization,
imitation, and smiling) but did fail to implant new responses (affection
and token giving) into the subjects' repertoires. This study
highlighted the importance of defining skills specifically ard of
assessing outcomes on quality of interaction to gain specific
information about the relationship of skills and behaviors. Student and
teacher perceptions were included in this current study, as well as an
attitudinal measure to determine hew the students (the vicarious
learners) feel about themselves in relation to school.
As was shown from the studies reviewed above, modeling has been
used extensively to teach skills to isolated or withdrawn preschool


108
WHAT DOES IT MEAN WHEN THE TEACHER SAYS, CLASS, PAY ATTENTION WHEN
I GIVE THESE DIRECTIONS"? Generate sane ideas from the students and
then put stars by "sitting up straight," "eye contact" and "leaning in"
on the list already generated. Review each of these skills with a brief
explanation.
Sitting up straight sitting nice and tall with a fairly straight
back. It is not sitting so straight that you look like you would break,
but also not so laid bade that it appears you are not listening.
Eye contact looking at, but not staring at the person (teacher)
who is talking.
Leaning in leaning a little toward the talker (teacher) with your
body.
ALL OF THESE SKILLS CAN HELP YOU BECOME MORE SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS.
THE TEACHER KNOWS YOU ARE PAYING ATTENTION AND THAT YOU ARE READY TO
LEARN THINGS.
MODELING DEMONSTRATION; Call a boy from the class to be a model. He
sits facing the class and counselor, and where all students can see him.
The counselor tells the students to watch the model as he uses eye
contact with the counselor, and times him for 20 seconds as the
counselor talks to the class. The counselor now calls up a girl model
and has her demonstrate good eye contact for 20 seconds.
Positive reinforcement is given at the end of each model's
demonstration. Explain that one can increase paying attention time
with practice.
Ask the class what they noticed about the models as they were
paying attention. TEACHERS LIKE TO LOOK OUT IN THE ROOM AND SEE WHICH


167
Table F-7
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for Total School Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF), for
Target Students
Modeling Coaching Control
n=32 n=21 n=21
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Prescores
26.22
(4.15)
24.38
(6.90)
28.43
(7.20)
Postscores
25.31
(7.39)
25.00
(6.56)
24.05
(5.86)
Change scores
-.91
(7.90)
.62
(7.24)
-4.33
(8.48)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement


14
(b) three million youths ages 16 to 19 are looking for work, (c) one
million teenagers beccme pregnant, (d) juvenile arrests jumped 60-fold
between 1960 and 1980, and (e) suicides among teenagers grew by 177%
among white teens and 162% for nonwhites between 1950 and 1978 (Business
Advisory Comiission, 1985). It has been noted that school counselors
can play an important part in helping these students and called for drop
out prevention programs. An added emphasis on prevention at early ages
in school also could help prevent the "disconnected" youth of later
years (Schappi, 1985).
Because academic achievement is critical in helping students at all
levels reach their maximum potential, educators at all levels have been
charged with striving toward excellence. Hcwever, educators have not
yet addressed the fact that students my not have the basic skills with
which to meet the new standards of excellence. Students my not knew
the skills that help them learn optimally and thus my not be achieving
to their fullest capacities. Perhaps if students can learn school
success skills at early ages, the standards of excellence can be more
readily met.
School Success Skills
Cartledge and Milbum (1978), after reviewing the literature on
behavioral skills in the classrocm setting, found certain skills linked
to academic success and to school success. These skills can be
expressed behaviorally within the general categories of personal
interaction skills and task-related skills. Since these have been
linked to school achievement and success, it seems logical to expose
children to them. If these findings are not put to use, children my be


146
SESSION SIX: SELF-ASSESSMENT
PURPOSE: 1. To help students learn techniques to organize their school
work, 2. To help students learn to reinforce themselves for
performance, and 3. To help students become aware of time-management
skills.
INTRODUCTION: IN ALL YOUR LESSONS TOGETHER SO FAR, YOU HAVE BEEN
TALKING ABOUT WAYS TO BE SUCCESSFUL AT SCHOOL. EVEN WHEN YOU USE ALL OF
THESE SKILLS WELL, YOU SOMETIMES HAVE TROUBLE GETTING YOUR BEST WORK
DONE AND HANDING IT IN ON TIME. TIME BECOMES SO IMPORTANT FOR ALL OF US
WHEN WE HAVE SO MANY THINGS TO DO.
ACTIVITY ONE: THERE ARE SOME THINGS STUDENTS CAN DO TO MANAGE THEIR
TIME IF THEY WANT TO BE SUCCESSFUL AND GET BETTER GRADES. Have students
make a list which might include: get books, pencils and papers ready to
begin; start working as soon as teacher tells you; and write down
assignments. Let them generate what comes to their minds, but be
certain to include the ideas of handing in assignments on time and
working as hard as you can on assignments.
Talk about the importance of managing your time so everything gets
done and done well. WHEN YOU DO YOUR BEST ON YOUR SCHOOL WORK AND HAND
IT IN, YOU SHOULD FEEL A-OK ABOUT YOURSELF.
COACHING & PRACTICE: TODAY WE WILL PRACTICE USING OUR GROUP TIME
WISELY. WE WILL WORK ON TIME CARDS TO HELP US USE OUR TIME EFFICIENTLY.
IN SOME JOBS, PEOPLE HAVE TO PUNCH A TIME CARD DAILY. IT HELPS THEM
KNOW THEY HAVE TO BE ON TIME. IT COULD HELP US KNOW ABOUT TIME, AND
WHEN SCHOOL WORK IS DONE AND HANDED IN. EACH OF YOU HAS A TIME CARD.
IN YOUR GROUP, YOU CAN TALK ABOUT WAYS TO USE THESE CARDS FOR YOU.


212
Gottman, J., Gonso, J., & Schuler, P. (1976). Teaching social skills
to isolated children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4,
179-197.
Gresham, F.M., & Nagle, R.J. (1980). Social skills training with
children: Responsiveness to modeling and coaching as a function
of peer orientation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 48, 718-729.
Hops, H., & Cobb, J.A. (1973). Survival behaviors in the educational
setting: Their Implications for research and intervention. In
L.A. Hairmerlynk, L.C. Handy, & E.J. Mash (Eds.), Behavior change
(pp.193-208). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
Hops, H., & Cobb, J. (1974). Initial investigations into academic
survival skill training, direct instruction and first grade
achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 548-553.
Issac, S., & Michael, W.B. (1981). Handbook in research and
evaluation. San Diego, CA: EdITS Publishers.
Johnson, S.M., & Martin, S. (1973). Developing self-evaluation as a
conditioned reinforcer. In B. Ashem & E.G. Poser (Eds.), Adaptive
learning: Behavior modification with children (pp. 69-78). NY:
Pergamon.
Kaufman, K.F., & O'Leary, K.D. (1972). Reward, cost and
self-evaluation procedures for disruptive adolescents in a
psychiatric hospital school. Journal of Applied Behavior
Analysis, _5, 293-309.
Keller, M.F., & Carlson, P.M. (1974). The use of symbolic modeling to
prenote social skills in preschool children with low levels of
social responsiveness. Child Development, 45, 912-919.
Khan, N.A., Sc Hoge, R.D. (1983). A teacher-judgment measure of social
competence: Validity data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 51, 809-814.
Klein, S.S. (1971). Student influence on teacher behavior. American
Educational Research Journal, 8, 403^421.
Kowitz, G.T., & Kowitz, N.G. (1959). Guidance in the elementary
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Krurriboltz, J.D. Sc Krumboltz, H.B. (1972). Changing children1 s
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54
Research Design
The research design used in this study was a pre-post control group
design with three conditions (Issac & Michael, 1981) (see Table 3-2).
Classrooms of students in each elementary school were randomly assigned
to one of three conditions by using a table of randan numbers.
Treatment Description
Two experimental guidance units were used to present school success
skills to third-grade children. Students who participated in them were
compared to a control group. The set of school success skills presented
in the developmental guidance units included (a) paying attention in
school, (b) listening to teachers and peers, (c) volunteering in school,
(d) using self-control, (e) interacting with teachers and peers, and (f)
utilizing self-assessment. These skills were depicted by models,
practiced by students, and were evaluated by selected outcane measures.
School success skills were incorporated in the developmental guidance
units and tested for efficacy in the following conditions(a) modeling,
(b) coaching, and (c) control.
Developmental Guidance Units
Both experimental treatments (i.e., modeling and coaching) were
incorporated into two developmental guidance units one entitled Skills
for School SuccessModeling (SSS-M) and the other entitled Skills for
School SuccessCoaching (SSS-C). Each unit was delivered to
third-grade children by their respective elementary school counselors.
The units presented the same set of school success skills (i.e., paying
attention in school, listening to teachers and peers, volunteering at


69
of occurrence for each item was recorded as a one. Students in the
coaching condition increased more than those in the modeling condition,
and both increased more than students in the control condition.
However, a hierarchical ANOOVA revealed no significant differences among
the groups; therefore, Ho^ was not rejected. A standard ANCOVA also
failed to shew significant differences among the groups. However,
further analyses revealed that there were differences between the
conditions which could be detected by tests of individual school data.
Individual school analyses by conditions. Individual ANCOVAs were
performed on each school's SSI-TF data separately to investigate further
effects possibly masked because of the pooling across schools. The mean
change scores in two schools (B & C) shewed that students in the
modeling condition were rated as utilizing the school success skills
more often at posttest. The difference between modeling and the other
two conditions was significant only for students in school C (F(2,51) =
28.65, £ <.001; see Table 4-2).
For the coaching condition, teachers rated students as using school
success skills more at posttest in four schools. AiKDVAs revealed that
significant effects for rated changes in coaching, as compared to
modeling and controls, were seen for schools B and E (F(2,57) = 10.38, p
<.001; F(2,63) = 7.55, £ <.001); however, this effect occurred for the
latter largely because of poorer scores for the other two groups. In
school D coaching was significantly different from modeling, with
coaching showing the most improvement (F(2,51) = 3.54, £ <.04).
Teachers in school A in the control group rated their students
significantly different from the other two treatment groups. Thus,
significant differences were seen in four schools for the treatment


100
students on the three measures. With regard to item analyses on
attitudinal ratings of school situations for the target students,
results showed students in the coaching condition rating themselves
happier, more calm, and more in control on accepting suggestions fran
their classmates; these differences were all significant. Perhaps the
lack of more pervasive effects can be attributed to the fact that
teachers rated only one student as a 1 (i.e., the lcwest) on the
preexperimental school success skills scale, 7 students as a 2 (next to
lowest), 15 students as a 3, and 51 as a 4.
Race and gender
There were no significant differences on the total SSI-TF and the
total SSI-SF form with respect to race and gender. There was a
significant condition by race interaction effect on the pleasure
dimension of the SAI, with black students rating themselves irtproved in
the modeling condition and white students improved in the coaching
condition. A condition by race interaction effect on the excitement
dimension shewed white students improving in both modeling and control
conditions and black students in the coaching condition. While these
effects suggest differential effectiveness of treatments as a function
of race, no firm conclusions could be drawn, because the directions of
results were not consistent across the SAI scales.
Overall treatment effects
In summary, the overall ANCOVA shewed significant differences among
the groups for school attitude. The coaching group was significantly
different and more improved than the control group. Additional ANCOVAs
also shewed significant differences among the groups in individual


79
Table 4-8
Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Student
Form (SSI-SF), for Conditions by Race
Modeling
Coaching
Control
n=101
n=99
n=94
Race
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Blacks
(n=58)
-.83
(7.03)
1.22
(7.22)
-3.36
(9.41)
Whites
(n=236)
.34
(5.39)
1.01
(5.73)
.92
(6.63)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-8 (p. 168)
and Table F-20 (p. 190).


42
rephrased the child's examples, asked for the description of opposite
behavior, and asked the subjects to try out ideas in a game. In a
postplay review, the coach discussed the experience with the subject.
The other treatment conditions were peer-pairing, where no coaching of
skills was given, and a control group where the students played.
Results showed that the coaching group was significantly different frcm
the other two conditions and increased on a play socicmetric rating.
This group also gained in friendship nominations.
The Oden and Asher study (1977) added strength to the skill
training literature by clearly defining the coaching condition and
specifying the exact skills being taught. However, it failed to show if
these techniques, particularly the coaching technique, are effective
with more than two children at a time since the targeted, socially
isolated children and a paired partner were pulled frcm their classrooms
and returned after intervention. It also is unknown if the skills
learned in a created environment transferred to other real life
situations.
Ladd (1981) also examined third-grade children with low socicsnetric
ratings or peer acceptance and low behavior ratings (N=36). Three
treatment conditions were utilized and included (a) skill training or
coaching, which used the same three conponents as Oden and Asher above;
(b) attention control; and (c) nontreatment control. All three
treatments were implemented across three elementary schools. Each
condition had 4 students (1 male and 1 female frcm each of two
classrooms) within each school, for a total of 12 per condition. The
skills coached in condition one included asking questions, leading, and
offering support to peers. Children were trained in dyads in an


184
Table F-15
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), for Target Students
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_i
Condition
2
131.51
65.75
1.01
.37
Prescore
1
63.36
63.36
0.97
.33
Error
70
4578.17
65.40


182
Table F-14
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for School Success
Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), Conditions by Individual Schools
School A
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
P_S
Condition
2
881.03
440.52
8.17
.001
Prescore
1
1180.27
1180.27
21.89
.001
Error
57
3072.92
53.91
School B
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
Condition
2
450.86
225.43
10.38
.001
Prescore
1
297.80
297.80
13.71
.001
Error
57
1237.76
21.72
School C
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£Ji
Condition
2
1172.84
586.42
28.65
.001
Prescore
1
9.84
9.84
.48
.49
Error
51
1043.85
20.47


76
Table 4-6
Pre-Post Mean
Change Scores for
Total School Success
Inventory Student
Form (3SI-SF)
Modeling
Coaching
Control
n=102
n=101
n=96
Mean s.d.
Mean s.d.
Mean s.d.
Total
.13 (6.06)
1.06 (5.93)
-.10 (7.47)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-5 (p. 165)
and Table F-17 (p. 186).
As the range for the total prescore or postscore on this
instrument was 12 to 60 (12 items x a score of 1-5 on each
dimension), the range of possible change scores was
+/- 48; in the total sample, the observed range of change
scores was -23 to 27.


62
InventoriesTeacher and Student Forms and the School Attitude
Inventory.
To lessen the teachers' burden, names of the students were printed
on their forms by the school counselors. All forms were recovered by
the school counselors in their respective schools. Within this
pretreatment week, school counselors also planned the roan configuration
for the coaching treatment group, which required students to be grouped
into circles containing five or six students.
The six treatment sessions took place once per week and started the
week after the premeasures were taken. After six weeks in which
students participated in development guidance units, the school
counselors administered the School Success InventoryStudent Form and
had the teachers respond to the School Success InventoryTeacher Form
as postmeasures. They also had the students fill out the School
Attitude Inventory. A general questionnaire was completed by those who
received the guidance units. School counselors filled out information
sheets on each student to include gender and race so that this
information could be included for analyses. The data were placed in
clearly marked envelopes and sent by inter-school truck mail to the
investigator.
Subjects were eliminated from the sample if complete data were not
collected for them or if attendance had been less than five of six
sessions. All scores were entered directly into the carputer for data
analyses.


211
Dinkmeyer, D. & Caldwell, E. (1970). Developmental counseling and
guidance; A comprehensive school approach. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Dratman, R.S., Spitalnik, R., & O'Leary, K.D. (1973). Teaching
self-control to disruptive children. Journal of Abnormal
Psychology, 82, 10-1G.
Duncan, J.A., & Gurnaer, J. (1900). Developmental groups for children.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thcmas.
Dunn, C.J., & Kowitz, G.T. (1970). Teacher perceptions of correlates
of academic achievement. School and Society, 98, 370-372.
Edelbrock, C., & Achenbach, T.M. (1984). The teacher version of the
child behavior profile: I. Boys aged 6-11. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 207-217.
Evers, W.L., & Schwarz, J.C. (1973). Modifying social withdrawal in
preschoolers: The effects of filmed modeling and teacher praise.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, _1, 248-256.
Faust, V. (1968). The counselor-consultant in the elementary school.
Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Florida Department of Education. (1983-84). The annual report of the
comnissioner of education: Profiles of Florida school districts.
Tallahassee, FL: Department of Educaton.
Foster, E.S. (1983). Tutoring: Learning by helping. Minneapolis, MN:
Educational Media.
Foster, S.L., & Ritchey, W.L. (1979). Issues in the assessment of
social competence in children. Journal of Applied Behavior
Analysis, 12, 625-638.
Frith, G.H., & Clark, R. (1983). Using self-imposed research for
counseling students with behavior problems. The School Counselor,
31, 125-129.
Gadwa, I., & Griggs, S. A. (1985). The school dropout: Implications
for counselors. The School Counselor, 33, 9-17.
Gerler, E.R., & Anderson, R.F. (1986). The effects of classroom
guidance on children's success. Journal of Counseling and
Development, 65, 78-81.
Goldfried, M.R., & Kent, R.N. (1972). Traditional versus behavioral
personality assessment: A comparison of methodological and
theoretical assumptions. Psychological Bulletin, 77, 409-420.
Gottman, J. (1977). The effects of a modeling film on social isolation
in preschool children: A methodological investigation. Journal
of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5, 69-78.


60
reliability was .76 as obtained from a pilot study of students (N=49) in
twa third-grade classes who responded to the items initially and again
after two weeks.
A general questionnaire was given at the completion of treatment.
It asked for personal reactions to the units, suggestions for
improvanent and general ccmments. It was evaluated subjectively and not
entered into formal, statistical analyses.
Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were evaluated at the .05 level of significance
in this study:
1. There are no significant differences among the three groups on
teachers' perceptions of student school success behaviors, as measured
by pre-post change on the School Success InventoryTeacher Form.
2. There are no significant differences among the three groups on
teachers' perceptions of target students' school success behaviors, as
measured by pre-post change on the School Success InventoryTeacher
Form.
3. There are no significant differences among the three groups with
respect to race or gender on teachers' perceptions of student school
success behaviors, as measured by pre-post change on the School Success
InventoryTeacher Form.
4. There are no significant differences among the three groups on
students' perceptions of school success behaviors, as measured by
pre-post change on the School Success InventoryStudent Form.


34
classroom behaviors and on nine attitude statements. Top students also
benefited.
Similar results were also seen in the Indiana Project, a
replication of the Florida study (Myrick et al., 1986). Again, target
students who received the classroom guidance unit rated themselves
significantly different frcm the control students on 4 items and
teachers rated the students significantly different on 13 of 20 items.
Top students also improved on 4 items.
Because it has been shewn that target students benefited from
developmental guidance units and frcm the presentation of specific
school skills in other studies, in the present study outcome measures
were also examined for target students as well as for total third-grade
classes to see if either or both would rate themselves as improved on
school success behaviors and on attitudes about school situations.
Specific school success skills were presented to all students in
developmental guidance units, one incorporating modeling and the other
coaching, as techniques for counselors to deliver the content of the
units.
Modeling
Modeling, one of the fundamental means by which an observer can
acquire new behavior vicariously frcm the demonstrating person1s display
of that behavior, has been shewn to be an effective teaching method for
adults and children. Bandura (1969) pointed out that a wide variety of
response patterns have been transmitted through modeling, including
diverse behaviors such as stylistic response patterns, modes of


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
To assess the effectiveness of developmental guidance units for
presenting school success skills to third-grade students in their
classrooms, analyses were performed on pre- and postdata obtained from
three dependent measures. These were (a) teachers' perceptions of
student school success behaviors as measured by the School Success
InventoryTeacher Form, (b) students' perceptions of school success
behaviors as measured by the School Success InventoryStudent Form, and
(c) students' attitudinal ratings of school situations as measured by
the School Attitude Inventory. Two experimental conditions, modeling
(n=102) and coaching (n=101), were compared to a third control condition
(n=96). Data were collected from students in five public elementary
schools (total N=299).
In order to assess comprehensively all aspects of the three
experimental conditions, nine hypotheses were investigated. The
confidence level was set at .05 to determine statistical significance.
Each hypothesis is discussed in this chapter in relation to dependent
measures. To sharpen the assessment of experimental effects by removing
the influence of any preintervention variation, prescores were used as
covariates in computing analyses of covariance (ANGOVA) on the change
scores for each measure.
This study involved classrooms of students nested within the three
experimental conditions. Accordingly, a hierarchical ANGOVA was
66


183
Table F-14 (continued)
School D
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£_i
Condition
2
238.58
119.29
3.54
.04
Prescore
1
96.47
96.47
2.87
.10
Error
51
1716.81
33.66
School E
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_1
Condition
2
588.06
294.03
7.55
.001
Prescore
1
166.83
166.83
4.29
.05
Error
63
2452.27
38.92


152
9. I listen for ideas
and feelings of
others in class
discussions.
10.Itell teacher my
thoughts and feelings
about school.
11.Itell my ideas in
class discussions.
12.1work as hard as
I can on all
assignments.


87
Table 4-12
Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School
Attitude Inventory (SAI)
Modeling
n=32
Coaching
n=21
Control
n=21
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Total
-.56
(14.53)
6.24
(16.48)
4.86
(17.08)
Pleasure
.38
(6.84)
1.76
(5.16)
2.67
(5.60)
Excitement
1.28
(10.01)
-3.86
(8.66)
-2.14
(10.70)
Control
.34
(6.95)
.62
(11.16)
.05
(9.01)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement on Excitement.
For further details see Table F-ll (p. 172)
and Table F-23 (p. 203).


165
Table F-5
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for Total School Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF)
Modeling
n=102
Mean s.d.
Coaching
n=101
Mean s.d.
Control
n=96
Mean s.d.
Prescores
24.84
(4.86)
23.33
(6.35)
24.60
(6.14)
Postscores
24.97
(6.31)
24.39
(6.93)
24.50
(5.48)
Change scores
.13
(6.06)
1.06
(5.93)
-.10
(7.47)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.


132
SESSION TWO: LISTENING CAREFULLY
PURPOSE: 1. To help students become aware of how to listen for the
expression of general ideas (content) and feelings, and 2. To help
students learn the use of open-ended questions to clarify issues at
school.
MATERIALS: Newsprint or chalkboard.
INTRODUCTION: IAST WEEK WE LEARNED MORE ABOUT HCW TO PAY ATTENTION.
CAN ANYONE REMEMBER THE SPECIAL THINGS WE DO TO SHOW THAT WE ARE PAYING
ATTENTION AT SCHOOL? ....YES, THAT'S CORRECT SIT UP STRAIGHT, USE EYE
CONTACT AND LEAN TOWARD THE TALKER. Reinforce students for the good
listening skills that they are using new and the ones that they used
last time to ranember the attention skills. TODAY WE ARE GOING TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT LISTENING AND HCW IT HELPS US BECOME EVEN BETTER STUDENTS.
ACTIVITY ONE: HOW MANY OF YOU BROUGHT YOUR EARS WITH YOU TODAY? OH,
GOOD, I GUESS THAT MEANS ALL OF YOU ARE GOOD LISTENERS. LET'S SEE IF
THAT IS TRUE. I WOULD LIKE SOMEONE TO TELL ME ABOUT THEIR FAVORITE
FOOD. ANY VOLUNTEERS? Choose someone and let them talk for a few
seconds. You then respond to them with something totally off the
subject, e.g., Student talks about pizza and you respond with, "I heard
that the cost of shoes was going up in China." Students will probably
look confused and you say WELL, I HAVE MY EARS, THEREFORE, I AM A GOOD
LISTENER RIGHT? OKAY, IT TAKES MORE TO BE A GOOD LISTENER. Have the
children discuss briefly what a good listener does include things like
pays attention to the speaker, thinks about what the person said, and
says something to the person on the same topic.


21
Klein (1971), in a study of college students, found that positive
student behavior influenced teachers to use positive behaviors. She
pointed out that other researchers have studied interactions between
students and teachers through various types of student feedback and
found that written student feedback influenced teachers to change their
behaviors and beccme more like the model the students suggested.
Self-Assessment
The sixth school skill included was self-assessment. Students who
monitor themselves can increase appropriate behaviors. Bandura and
Perloff (1967) found that 7- to 10-year-old children who reinforced
their own behaviors generated more responses and were significantly
different iron control groups.
Broden, Hall, and Mitts (1971) demonstrated that self-recording of
classroom behavior can be used to increase appropriate behavior. An
eighth-grade female, using a plus to indicate that she was studying and
a minus for not studying to self-monitor study time, increased study
time to 78%. When the recording slips were taken away, the subject's
study time decreased from 70% the first day to an average of 27% for the
next four days. When the self-recording slips were reinstated,
performance increased to 80%, which was at a level where the classroom
teacher was able to praise her for a high rate of performance. It was
the school counselor who was able to institute the procedures that led
to increased appropriate behavior, which was maintained by the classroom
teacher and "natural" classroom reinforcers.
Kaufman and O'Leary (1972) also found that self-evaluation was
effective in maintaining a low level of disruptive behaviors that had


169
Table F-8 (continued)
Race by Gender
Black Males
n =
10
Prescores
27.40
(4.99)
Postscores
26.70
(8.68)
Change scores
-.70
(8.53)
Black Females
n =
8
Prescores
22.38
(5.76)
Postscores
21.38
(4.41)
Change scores
-1.00
(5.15)
White Males
n =
42
Prescores
25.67
(5.36)
Postscores
25.02
(6.53)
Change scores
-.64
(6.27)
White Females
n =
41
Prescores
23.90
(3.77)
Postscores
25.24
(5.74)
Change scores
1.34
(5.36)
n =
10
n =
10
.70
(7.51)
26.40
(5.15)
.70
(6.72)
24.40
(7.56)
.00
(6.80)
-2.00
(10.52)
n
8
n =
12
.50
(10.10)
26.25
(8.84)
.25
(6.45)
21.75
(4.67)
.25
(6.52)
-4.50
(8.69)
n =
40
n =
35
.20
(6.10)
25.71
(5.58)
.85
(5.71)
25.69
(4.99)
.35
(4.69)
-.03
(7.17)
n =
41
n =
37
.29
(5.25)
22.35
(5.37)
.63
(7.73)
24.16
(5.38)
.34
(6.37)
1.81
(6.04)
23
27
4
23
21
-2
24
23
22
24
2
Note: A negative change indicates improvement


Ill
SESSION TOO: LISTENING CAREFULLY
PURPOSE: 1. To help students become aware of how to listen for the
expression of general ideas (content) and feelings, and 2. To help
students learn the use of open-ended questions to clarify issues at
school.
MATERIALS: Newsprint or chalkboard.
INTRODUCTION: LAST WEEK WE LEARNED MORE ABOUT HOW TO PAY ATTENTION.
CAN ANYONE REMEMBER THE SPECIAL THINGS WE DO TO SHOT THAT WE ARE PAYING
ATTENTION AT SCHOOL? ....YES, THAT'S CORRECT SIT UP STRAIGHT, USE EYE
CONTACT AND LEAN TOWARD THE TALKER. Reinforce students for the good
listening skills that they are using now and the ones that they used
last time to remember the attention skills. TODAY WE ARE GOING TO LEARN
MORE ABOUT LISTENING AND HCW II' HELPS US BECOME EVEN BETTER STUDENTS.
ACTIVITY ONE: HQ'/ MANY OF YOU BROUGHT YOUR EARS WITH YOU TODAY? OH,
GOOD, I GUESS THAT MEANS ALL OF YOU ARE GOOD LISTENERS. LETT'S SEE IF
THAT IS TRUE. I WOULD LIKE SOMEONE TO TELL ME ABOUT THEIR FAVORITE
FOOD. ANY VOLUNTEERS? Choose someone and let them talk for a few
seconds. You then respond to them with something totally off the
subject, e.g., Student talks about pizza and you respond with, "I heard
that the cost of shoes was going up in China." Students will probably
look confused and you say WELL, I HAVE MY EARS, THEREFORE, I AM A GOOD
LISTENER RIGHT? OKAY, IT TAKES MORE TO BE A GOOD LISTENER. Have the
children discuss briefly what a good listener does include things like
pays attention to time speaker, thinks about what the person said, and
says something to the person on the same topic.


APPENDIX H
STUDENT FEEDBACK SUMMARY
Student comnents about participation in the developmental guidance units
are summarized belcw by treatment conditions.
Modeling Condition
What did you like best about the School Success lessons?
I love it, it was fun, I could not wait to get to school.
I liked hew it helped me in school.
Well, what I liked about it was that I can learn.
Sticking up for myself.
The broken record.
Learning things I didn't know before.
What did you like the least about the School Success lessons?
I didn't get to go up front except for one time.
When I don't get a turn to act in front of the class.
Filling out the packet (instruments).
Waiting for the discussion.
Hew could your counselor make the lessons even better?
Think and think and think.
Nothing, I love it.
Have us do more projects.
Call on more people.
207


APPENDIX D
SCHOOL SUCCESS INVENTORY STUDENT FORM
Teacher1 s Name Name
First Last
Very Sane- Very
Often Often times Seldom Seldom
1.I look at the
teacher when he/
she is talking
to us.
2.I hand in my
assignments on time.
3.I listen carefully
for direcions in
class.
4.I do what my teacher
suggests to help me
during school.
5.I ask questions
in class.
6. I stay on-task
on my work.
7. I sit up straight
when listening to
my teachers.
8.I stay in my seat
and do my
assignments.
151


23
with a safe environment in which to practice the skills, and teach them
coping mechanisms to overcctne emotional responses that inhibit maximum
performance.
Studies have documented many positive outcomes from exposure to
school success skills. In view of these findings, the issue of teaching
school success skills in the classroom should not be left unattended.
The problem then becomes one of finding the most effective and efficient
way to reach a large number of children with school success skill
instruction. Large numbers of children can be reached through
developmental guidance units where school counselors present
age-appropriate information to entire classrooms of children. However,
it had not been determined if a specific set of skills related to school
success can be taught to third-grade students in regular classrooms
through developmental guidance units and particularly to target
students. Therefore, the problem investigated in this study was whether
the presentation of school success skills, through a developmental
guidance unit using peer modeling or through a developmental guidance
unit utilizing a coaching technique, would distinguish from each other
or a control group on selected outcome measures.
Developmental Classroom Guidance
Developmental classroom guidance is a form of group guidance.
Group guidance is distinct from group counseling, which places emphasis
on remediation and is problem oriented. It is also distinct from group
psychotherapy wherein the main thrust is reconstructive or reeducative
and aims toward personality change (Brarrmer & Shostrom, 1976).


APPENDIX C
SCHOOL SUCCESS INVENTORY TEACHER FORM
Teacher1 s Name Name
First
Very
Often Often
1.Looks at the teacher
when the teacher is
talking to the class.
Seme-
times
2.Hands in assignments
on time.
3.Listens carefully for
directions in class.
4.Accepts helpful
suggestions from
teachers.
5.Asks questions in
class.
6.Stays on-task
on work.
7.Sits up straight
when listening
to teachers.
8.Stays in seat and
does assignments.
Last
Very
Seldom Seldom
149


61
5. There are no significant differences among the three groups on
target students' perceptions of school success behaviors, as measured by
pre-post cliange on the School Success InventoryStudent Form.
6. There are no significant differences among the three groups with
respect to race or gender on students' perceptions of school success
behaviors, as measured by pre-post change on the School Success
InventoryStudent Form.
7. There are no significant differences among the three groups on
students' attitudinal ratings of school situations, as measured by
pre-post change on the School Attitude Inventory.
8. There are no significant differences among the three groups on
target students' attitudinal ratings of school situations, as measured
by pre-post change on the School Attitude Inventory.
9. There are no significant differences among the three groups with
respect to race or gender on students' attitudinal ratings of school
situations, as measured by pre-post change on the School Attitude
Inventory.
Research Procedures
One week before treatment began, all pretreatment measures were
given. The school counselors at each school involved in the study
administered assessments in their respective schools. School counselors
were trained in the procedures for administering the School Success


173
Table F-12
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for School Attitude InventoryTotal Score and Dimensions, by
Race, Gender, and Race by Gender
Modeling
Coaching
Control
Scores
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
TOTAL
Race
Blacks
n =
18
n =
18
n =
22
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
103.50
102.22
-1.28
(12.96)
(16.04)
(12.17)
108.22
113.33
5.11
(16.33)
(21.89)
(21.41)
103.64
107.73
4.09
(15.63)
(16.79)
(20.43)
Whites
n =
83
n =
81
n =
72
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
102.49
104.84
2.35
(15.65)
(14.67)
(12.85)
102.88
109.59
6.72
(15.25)
(20.49)
(15.15)
105.72
106.24
.51
(17.25)
(17.74)
(13.39)
Gender
Males
n =
52
n =
50
n =
45
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
100.92
102.21
1.29
(12.29)
(13.82)
(13.77)
102.82
110.94
8.12
(14.28)
(19.33)
(16.44)
102.29
105.51
3.22
(16.83)
(17.51)
(14.98)
Females
n =
49
n =
49
n =
49
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
104.53
106.67
2.14
(17.64)
(15.73)
(11.69)
104.90
109.59
4.69
(16.74)
(22.17)
(16.24)
107.94
107.57
-.37
(16.53)
(17.50)
(15.50)


33
target students did not change even though they were successful in
decreasing disruptive behavior.
Myrick and Dixon (1985) found that teachers rated their students
more positively after intervention. They noted that students who do not
feel good about themselves at school often have learning problems,
perform poorly in class, and disrupt others. In an attempt to help
students develop positive attitudes, Myrick and Dixon had target
students participate in six, small-group counseling sessions. They
found that small-group counseling with fifth- and sixth-grade target
students (N=59), who were identified by their teachers as needing
improved attitudes, helped them beccme aware of changes in themselves.
Teachers reported differences in classroom behaviors. In the present
study an attempt was made to increase positive school behaviors and
attitudes by working with the target and other students in their
classroom settings through developmental guidance units.
Myrick et al. (1986), in the Florida Classroom Guidance Project,
also found that target students and top students benefited from
participation in developmental guidance units delivered by school
counselors. The target students (n=623) were ranked by their teachers
as the six lowest in each class regarding attitudes toward school.
After participating in six, 30- to 45-minute sessions dealing with
understanding feelings and behaviors, experimental condition target
students improved over the control students on their ratings of (a)
finishing assignments on time, (b) saying kind things to others, (c)
believing that others were interested in what they had to say, (d) being
good workers at school, and (e) reporting that school made them feel
happpy. Teachers rated the target students improved on three of eight


140
SESSION FOUR: USING SELF-CONTROL
PURPOSE: 1. To help students understand the use of self-control at
school, and 2. To help students know ways to stick up for themselves
and their ideas assertively.
MATERIALS: Newsprint or chalkboard. Note cards with situations on
them.
INTRODUCTION: YOU HAVE BEEN LEARNING WAYS TO HELP YOU BECOME SUCCESSFUL
AT SCHOOL. WE HAVE LEARNED HOW TO PAY ATTENTION, HOW TO LISTEN, AND HOW
TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS THAT GET IN YOUR WAY OF VOLUNTEERING TO DO
THINGS OR SHARE IDEAS. TODAY YOU WILL LEARN WAYS TO MANAGE YOURSELVES,
OR TO CONTROL YOUR ACTIONS AND FEELINGS AT SCHOOL. YOU WILL LEARN WAYS
TO STICK UP FOR YOUR IDEAS AND FOR YOURSELVES WITHOUT LOSING YOUR TEMPER
OR SELF-CONTROL. LET'S SEE IF WE CAN THINK OF SOME TIMES WHEN IT IS
HARD TO STAY IN CONTROL. Briefly have the students list times when they
felt like they would lose control at school, or times they did, or times
they saw scmeone else losing control.
ACTIVITY ONE: SUPPOSE YOU ARE SITTING AT YOUR DESK. YOU ARE WORKING
VERY HARD ON YOUR SKELLPACK PAGES, KNOWING YOU HAVE TO DO THREE MORE
PAGES BEFORE YOU CAN GO OUT TO BREAK. TOE PERSON NEXT TO YOU KEEPS
ANNOYING YOU, TRYING TO GET YOU TO LOOK AT SOME PICTURES. YOU GLANCE
OVER ONCE AND SEE THAT THEY ARE SKIING PICTURES, BUT BY NOW, YOU DO NOT
WANT TO TALK OR LOOK AT THEM, BECAUSE IT IS THE THIRD TIME YOU HAVE BEEN
INTERRUPTED. YOU ARE BEGINNING TO FEEL UPSET. WHAT ARE SOME THINGS
THAT MIGHT HAPPEN? Have the students generate things. They might
include (a) You might tell the teacher, (b) You might get mad and shove
the person as he/she leans over toward you, (c) You might get interested


7
the addition of models to illustrate the content would add the dimension
of vicarious learning to direct learning, thereby improving teaching
activities.
If the coaching condition proved to be an efficacious way to teach
new skills, then school counselors and teachers could provide more time
where students are coached as they perform new behaviors. Skills such
as interacting with teachers and peers, paying attention to teachers,
and using self-control are too often talked about in an abstract manner
and rarely practiced by the students as part of a specific lesson on
school success skills. Sane children do not understand what they are to
do; consequently, they become frustrated and could become disruptive or
engage in misconduct. If coaching of skills, which in this study means
being coached by members of smil groups, were shewn to be effective,
teachers could use this technique to enhance learning in their classes.
If the effects of these conditions were known, sane practices
within the educational profession also could be revised. School
counselors who have chosen to work with children on school success
skills, either individually or in small groups, might redirect more of
their efforts to other areas of helping children since school success
skills could be effectively presented to entire classrooms. Or, they
would have more time for follcw-up with children who need more attention
or practice. Also, if students were able to feel more successful about
school and to have their teachers perceive them as having school success
skills, the number of referrals to school counselors could decrease.
This would free school counselors to create and present other
developmental guidance units or activities.


215
Toner, I.J., Moore, L.P., & Ashley, P.K. (1978). The effect of serving
as a model of self-control on subsequent resistance to deviation
in children. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 126, 127-134.
Wanlass, R.L., & Prinz, R.J. (1982). Methodological issues in
conceptualizing and treating childhood social isolation.
Psychological Bulletin, 92, 39-55.
Watts, D. (1985). Merit pay for teachers: A wolf in sheep's clothing.
Kappa Delta Pi Record, 21, 100-104.
Wilson, F.M. (1950). Guidance in elementary schools. In D. Dinkmeyer
(Ed.), Guidance and Counseling in the Elementary School (pp.
47-54). NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Wittmer, J., & Myrick, R.D. (1980). Facilitative teaching: Theory and
practice Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media.
Wrenn, C.G. (1962). The counselor in a changing world. Washington,
D.C: APGA.
Zinmerman, B.J., & Pike, E.O. (1972). Effects of modeling and
reinforcement on the acquisition and generalization of
question-asking behavior. Child Development, 43, 892-907.


44
La Greca and Santogrossi (1980) worked with an isolated sample of
elementary school age children (grades 3 to 5) selected for lew peer
acceptance ratings, but presented treatment in a group setting held
after school as opposed to individual, dyadic, or triadic groupings as
in previous studies. Subjects were divided into three treatment
conditions. The first was a skills training group (SK) where eight
skills (i.e., smiling, greeting, joining, inviting, conversing, sharing
and cooperating, complimenting, and groaning) were presented by first
having the students view the skills presented by peer-models, with
discussion following. Next, students were coached by receiving
suggestions from the trainers in the use of the skills provided and
given a chance to rehearse them. Role-playing situations were based on
situations that were relevant to the students and practiced with each
other. Third, in the SK condition, students were given homework
assignments that encouraged more practice of the skills. The attention
placebo group received the same training except that they saw movie
excerpts, played pretend games, and had unrelated homework. The waiting
list control group participated only in pre- and postmeasures. Results
indicated that the SK group showed increased skill in role playing,
greater verbal knowledge of skills, and more initiation behavior with
peers at school. The attempt to teach specific skills to groups was a
unique feature of this study; however, the true effectiveness of
coaching was confounded since it was coupled with modeling. It still
was not kno/n if coaching of skills with large groups of children
divided into smaller groups of five or six students where they coach
each other on skills will be efficacious.


203
Table F-23
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for School Attitude
Inventory (SAI), Target
Students
, Total Score
and Dimensions
Total Score
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
P <
Condition
2
765.33
382.66
2.22
.12
Prescore
1
5719.56
5719.56
33.12
.001
Error
70
12088.70
172.70
Pleasure
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
P_S
Condition
2
91.06
45.53
1.53
.23
Prescore
1
530.61
530.61
17.88
.001
Error
70
2077.37
29.68
Excitement
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
P <
Condition
2
164.15
82.08
1.22
.31
Prescore
1
2192.57
2192.57
32.63
.001
Error
70
4703.04
67.19
Control
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£_S
Condition
2
63.52
31.76
0.57
.57
Prescore
1
1690.75
1690.75
30.19
.001
Error
70
3920.38
56.00


85
On the excitement dimension, students in three schools rated
themselves less aroused or excited for the modeling condition. Students
in the coaching condition in four schools rated themselves more calm.
Students in two schools in the control condition also rated themselves
in the favored direction. An ANCOVA shewed students in one school
showing significant differences among the groups (F(2,51) = 3.22, £
<.05), with coaching shewing the largest change in terms of students
rating themselves more calm at posttest. A second school shewed a
marginal effect for coaching on this dimension (F(2,57) = 3.04, p
<.056).
On the control dimension at posttest, students in four schools
rated themselves as feeling more in control in school situations for the
modeling condition. For the coaching condition, students in all five
schools rated themselves in the favored direction. Students in four
schools in the control condition also rated themselves improved. No
significant differences among groups were found on the control
dimension. Only a marginal effect emerged from one school (F(2,51) =
3.01, £ <.058), with the modeling condition contributing the most change
in the means.
HOg: There are no significant differences among the three
groups on target students' attitudinal ratings of
school situations, as measured by pre-post change on the
School Attitude Inventory.
ANCOVAs were performed on total SAI scores and the scores for the
three separate dimensions (pleasure, excitement, and control) to
investigate the differences among the three experimental groups on
target students' attitudinal ratings of school situations. The target
students shewed improvement on mean change scores for total SAI scores


25
psychological support. The incorporation of psychometric approaches led
to a new interest with the development of predictive aptitude and
selection tests. This movement continued to influence guidance into the
1940s.
The other movement, educational guidance, developed in the 1920s
and encompassed two distinct views. One view saw educational guidance
concerned with distribution (i.e., pupil assistance in school, heme,
recreation, vocational and social pursuits) and adjustment (i.e., help
for students when they are unable to learn at school). The second
emphasis was a widening of earlier vocational and moral guidance issues.
This view was a forerunner of developmental guidance. Hcwever,
developmental guidance did not evolve as a smooth transition frem the
educational guidance movement. It emerged on the strengths of its
advocates, not in response to economic or societal pressures. Aubrey
(1982) also noted that the real roots of developmental guidance can be
traced to Robert Mathewson, who as early as 1949 advocated that the
guidance process moves with the student in a developmental sequence up
to the age of maturity. Aubrey (1982) stated that Mathewson also felt
the guidance process helped individuals gain in self-understanding, gain
in perspective on surroundings, and questioned whether teachers alone
could monitor this process.
Other writers also made cases for guidance in the schools. Wilson
(1950) stated that guidance was not a privilege, but rather "a necessity
for every normal child" (p.47). Kowitz and Kcwitz (1959) wrote a book
for teachers that emphasized the need for guidance at the elementary
level. It also was intended to help the teacher increase sensitivity to
the child and provided specific techniques for problem solving. Seme


67
initially employed for overall analyses because students' scores were
influenced not only by the conditions or treatments they received, but
also by membership in the classes to which they belonged. Because there
were three conditions in only five schools, resulting in a small number
of degrees of freedom with which to evaluate the hypotheses, standard
ANCOVAs were also performed on the dependent measures to provide more
pcwer and lessen the chance of Type II error. Detailed listings of
means and statistical tests for all measures may be found in Appendix F.
School Success Classroom Behaviors
To investigate the effects of treatment on classroom behaviors,
two dependent variables were subjected to analyses. Teachers'
perceptions of student beliavior were recorded on the School Success
InventoryTeacher Form (SSI-TF). Students rated themselves in terms of
school success behavior on the School Success InventoryStudent Form
(SSI-SF). Overall scores for these forms were obtained by surmiing the
ratings on the 12 items in each scale. Results for each variable, with
their relevance to the hypotheses, are discussed below.
Teachers' Perceptions of Student School Success Behaviors
Ho^: There are no significant differences among the
three groups on teachers' perceptions of student
school success behaviors, as measured by pre-post
change on the School Success InventoryTeacher Form.
Overall analysis by conditions. Mean change scores shewed that
teachers rated students in all conditions as using school success skills
more frequently at the time of the posttest (see Table 4-1). A negative
mean change score indicated improvement, because the highest frequency


106
To gain a clearer picture of how school success skills are actually
learned, it is reccrrmended that follow-up assessments be made at later
intervals. Because the development of school success skills is
important for students, it is recctnnended that longer treatment times be
provided to allcw for more gradual integration of the skills.
A further recomiendation is to extend the presentation of the
School Success Skills units to other grade levels. Fourth- and
fifth-grade students may respond more readily to the coaching condition
because they may have experienced more small group work in their other
classes. They also may be more aware of peers and, therefore, influence
each other even more strongly. Middle school children would appear to
be an ideal population to expose to skills that would also benefit than
greatly in terms of school success.
It is recommended that modeling and coaching be combined and tested
in addition to testing the modeling and coaching groups separately, to
evaluate more fully the effectiveness of developmental guidance units
for presenting school success skills to students. In addition, such a
research approach would address the differences observed in response to
the two treatments, as discussed above, between black and white students
and between males and females.
A final recommendation is to provide more training for school
counselors. It should include more experience with the teaching
techniques. One of the provisions of such an approach would be
supervisory coaching of the counselors in the actual practice and
performance of related techniques and teaching skills.


101
schools by conditions. Therefore, it was concluded that modeling and
coaching are effective techniques to use within developmental guidance
units designed to improve attitudes toward school situations for
third-grade children.
The coaching condition emerged consistently across all analyses as
the most favored. Coaching was most often significantly different frcm
the other groups within individual schools as measured by the SSF-TF.
Significant differences also were seen for coaching within individual
schools and individual items on the SAI for all students, and for
individual items for target students. On the excitement dimension, both
black and white students rated themselves more calm in the coaching
condition, with white students also improving in the modeling condition.
Also, when race was entered in the analyses on the SAI data, white
students in the coaching condition improved on the pleasure dimension
while black students improved in the modeling condition.
Perhaps sane of the variation fran school to school could be
explained fcy the fact that scxne school counselors were more adept at
presenting one condition than the other. In spite of the significant
differences favoring coaching, the effects might have been even stronger
if all the school counselors had felt more confortable delivering this
condition. Even though the school counselors in the experiment were
instructed in the coaching method prior to its implementation, it may
have been difficult for some because the technique involved the
counselor facilitating groups of students while they practiced skills in
small groups, an approach not used as often as others. They also may
have had less actual experience in teaching classrooms of students


24
Brarrmer and Shostrom (197G) characterized group guidance as (a)
preventative, (b) developmental, (c) emphasizing personally relevant
information, (d) being cognitive, (e) having an environmental emphasis,
(f) being delivered through presentation and discussion, (g) leader
directed, (h) topic oriented, (i) using planned activities, (j)
emphasizing skills, and (k) using ccrrmon goals.
Duncan and Gurnaer (1980) stated succinctly that, "Developmental
classrocm group guidance is a systematic, sequentially planned
humanistic education program that provides an environment for
integrating affective and cognitive learning experiences" (p. 91). This
emphasis in guidance evolved slcwly, but is no/ being implemented in
many school systems across the nation.
Grcv/th of Developmental Guidance
Developmental guidance as it is kncwn today emerged after much
evolution had taken place in the field of school guidance. Aubrey
(1982), in his historical review of guidance, stated that in general,
school guidance began with Jesse B. Davis, who is credited with
integrating guidance into the school curriculum. Frank Parsons also is
noted as being very influential in guidance, for in 1908 he established
the Vocation Bureau in Boston designed to help children who left school
to work.
Aubrey (1982) further noted that two major trends evolved in
guidancevocational guidance and educational guidance. He stated "the
emergence of vocational guidance in public schools was consequently a
direct result of rapidly changing conditions in American industry and
quite unrelated to the accepted process of schooling known at that time"
(p. 199). In fact, the movement had no strong philosophical or


DEVELOPMENTAL GUIDANCE FOR
SCHOOL SUCCESS SKILLS:
A COMPARISON OF MODELING AND COACHING
By
MARJORIE IRENE CUTHBERT
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1987


27
just for children in "crisis." Faust further noted that the school
counselor works with students in a developmental stage when students'
lives are centered in the classroom and in academic learning activities.
This perception lends strength to this study because the counselor
worked with students in a developmental capacity in the classroom.
Blocher (1966) and Munson (1970) also wrote in support of elementary
school counselors as established positions since they act as agents of
change and help education keep pace with change itself.
Developmental guidance had at its roots, and incorporates into its
basic principles today, the idea that appropriate information should be
taught to all children within appropriate developmental stages so that
they can realize their fullest potentials academically and socially.
This belief supports a basic theoretical position of this dissertation,
that appropriate school success skills or behaviors can be learned when
presented to children in age-appropriate contexts. Developmental
guidance is a valid media through which specific skills can be delivered
to children.
Classroom Guidance Units
Classroom guidance units have been shewn to be effective and
efficient vehicles to use with large groups of students. Duncan and
Gumaer (1980) addressed the strengths of classroom units by stating that
"they use human developmental stages and growth patterns of children to
enhance the entire learning process" (p. 95). The success of this
process has been demonstrated in the following studies.
Mytrick et al. (1986) demonstrated that school counselor-led
classroom guidance units resulted in improvements in school attitudes in


43
experimental roan for a total of eight, 45- to 50-minute sessions on
alternating days. The attention control dyads were also separated frcm
the classroom, where they received only experimenter attention and peer
interaction. The control group dyad was not separated and did not
receive training. Results showed that children who had been coached in
the concept of the skill spent a greater amount of time engaged in
question asking and leading and were significantly different from the
other groups. They were also significantly different in classrocm peer
acceptance. The design of this experiment, the analysis (where the
effect of class was examined statistically in the pretest measures), the
identification of specific skills, and the careful detailing of the
coaching condition brought clarity to the use of this procedure.
Ho/ever, again, the students were taken in dyads from their natural
classrocm environment to an experimental roan for training. It was
still not known if these techniques work in larger groups or for
moderately socially deficient students since lew social acceptance
students in dyads were studied.
Gresham and Nagle (1980) studied isolated third- and fourth-grade
students who had been so labeled by socicmetric methods. The results
indicated that coaching, which consisted of presenting rules for
behavior, rehearsal with the coach, and peer partner and feedback;
modeling; and an abbreviated combination of the two, were functionally
equal in training isolated third- and fourth-grade students in social
skills (i.e., participation, cooperation, carmunication, and
validation). Again, children were coached in dyads or triads apart frcm
the classrocm.


47
treatment effects, and "are the behavioral 'bottom lines' for
establishing functional relationships among antecedent conditions,
social behavior, and interpersonal consequences" (p. 631). Hcwever,
even with all of these positive assets, data generated frcm behavioral
observations have been confusing and inconsistent, with emphases on rate
of interaction and/or quality of interaction generated by various coding
systems. Because of the design of this study, where five counselors
worked in three different classrooms each, behavioral measures for which
raters tabulate scores were not used. This technique could not be
practically implemented in this study.
Goldfried and Kent (1972) pointed out that while behavioral
scientists generally are suspicious of self-report measures, they may be
reliable and valid under specified conditions. The Behavior and
Attitude Inventory (Myrick et al., 1986), a self-report measure where
children rate classroom behaviors in terms of self-perceived frequency
and rate attitudes about school in degrees of agreement on a Likert-type
scale system, has been used successfully for evaluation of developmental
guidance units. This study used the School Success InventoryStudent
Form which is modeled after Myrick1s instrument. Students rated
themselves in terms of frequency with regard to school success
behaviors. They also rated themselves along continua of attitudes
toward school on the School Attitude Inventory in terms of pleasure,
excitement, and control with regard to school situations.
Teachers recorded their perceptions of students' behaviors on the
School Success InventoryTeacher Form which reflected the same school
success skills upon which the students rated themselves. Edelbrock and
Achenback (1984) stated that teachers' perceptions often play a key role


REFERENCES
Arbuckle, D.S. (1950). Teacher counseling. Cambridge, MA:
Addison-Wesley Press.
Aubrey, R.F. (1982). A house divided: Guidance and counseling in
20th-century America. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 61,
193-204.
Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. NY: Holt,
Rinehart, & Winston.
Bandura, A., & Barab, P. (1973). Processes governing disirihibitory
effects through symbolic modeling. Journal of Abnormal
Psychology, 82, 1-9.
Bandura, A., & Perloff, B. (1967). Relative efficacy of self-monitored
and externally imposed reinforcement systems. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 1_, 111-116.
Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S.A. (1961). Transmission of aggression
through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology, 63, 575-582.
Bandura, A., & Walters, R.H. (1963). Social learning and personality
development. NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Bleck, R.T., & Bleck, B.L. (1982). The disruptive child's play group.
Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 17, 137-141.
Blocher, D.H. (1966). Developmental counseling. NY: Ronald Press.
Bomstein, M., Bellack, A., & Hersen, M. (1977). Social skills
training for unassertive children: A multiple baseline analysis.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 183-195.
Bcwer, S., Amatea, E., & Anderson, R. (1976). Assertiveness training
with children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 90,
478-495.
Brairmer, L.M., & Shostrom, E.L. (1976). Therapeutic psychology:
Fundamentals of counseling and psychotherapy. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice-Hall.
209


194
Table F-21 (continued)
Control
Hierarchical Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
Condition
2
158.03
79.02
0.84
.46
Classes within
Condition
12
1133.43
94.45
1.98
.03
Prescore
1
3599.10
3599.10
75.63
.001
Error
233
13466.82
47.59
Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
JE_S
Condition
2
196.50
98.24
1.98
.14
Prescore
1
3170.14
3170.14
64.05
.001
Error
295
14600.24
49.49


64
Data Analyses
For all tests used in this study, the significance level was set at
.05. Analyses were performed on the pre-to-post change scores for all
measures. To account for the effect of preintervention levels, analyses
of covariance were used in examining the data, using the prescore as the
covariate. As indicated above, the design involved three levels of the
treatment factor (i.e., modeling, coaching, and control), and at least
five classes nested within each treatment.
Both pre- and posttreatment data were initially analyzed using a
hierarchical design analysis of variance model (Myers, 1979). This
analysis was appropriate since each subject belonged to an intact
classroom, which may have partly influence his/her score due to
interactions with this particular set of individuals or occurrences. In
this analysis the effects due to group membership (class) were separated
fran the within-group residual error term. Due to the small number of
classes in each group, treatment effects were also assessed with a
standard analysis of covariance (ANCOVA); the larger nuniber of degrees
of freedom available yielded more powerful tests of the hypotheses.
Pooling of the error terms in such analyses was considered appropriate
in this case, as there appeared to be no a priori grounds for regarding
the classes as differing systematically on any of the dependent
variables.
Tests were carried out on the pre-to-post change scores of the
various dependent variables following treatment. These included change
in the total scores (i.e., those obtained by summing individual item
values) for the School Success InventoriesTeacher and Student Forms,


75
Table 4-5
Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher
Form (SSI-TF), for Conditions by Gender
Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n=99 n=94
Gender
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Males (n=147)
Females (n=147)
-1.29
-1.06
(7.81)
(8.04)
-3.12
-2.29
(6.89)
(7.06)
-1.38
-.16
(9.15)
(6.76)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-4 (p. 163)
and Table F-16 (p. 185).


84
Table 4-11
Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School Attitude Inventory Scores
of Individual Schools for Total Score and Dimensions
School
Modeling
n=102
Mean s.d.
Coaching
n=101
Mean s.d.
Control
n=96
Mean s.d.
Total Score
School A
5.60
(14.59)
2.22
(19.97)
1.83
(15.30)
School B
3.45
(11.77)
7.14
(17.25)
-1.20
(17.52)
School C
-.06a
(15.86)
11.74b
(15.58)
6.21ab
(10.23)

School D
-l.OOab
(11.96)
11.00a
(17.64)
-.28b
(16.78)
*
School E
1.38
(10.18)
1.27
(8.66)
1.19
(14.34)
Pleasure
School A
1.80
(6.38)
.39
(6.16)
1.00
(4.25)
School B
-0.40
(3.91)
1.29
(5.82)
-.35
(6.31)
School C
1.00
(6.86)
.65
(6.37)
1.71
(3.77)
School D
-1.35a
(5.04)
2.82b
(5.80)
.50ab
(5.79)
*
School E
-.83a
(4.27)
54ab
(4.65)
1.81b
(6.06)
*
Excitement
School A
-2.90
(9.09)
-1.72
(10.64)
-2.04
(14.15)
School B
-1.25ab
(5.84)
-2.14a
(7.85)
1.95b
(9.06)
*
School C
2.33a
(11.50)
-6.52b
(9.51)
-1.21ab
(9.08)

School D
-1.45
(7.76)
-3.35
(9.06)
.83
(7.65)
School E
.17
(6.60)
.59
(7.59)
1.52
(6.48)
Control
School A
.90
(5.89)
.11
(7.61)
-1.22
(6.67)
School B
2.60
(7.84)
3.71
(9.86)
1.10
(9.47)
School C
1.28
(5.59)
4.56
(7.02)
3.29
(4.51)
School D
-1.10
(6.34)
4.82
(11.69)
.06
(9.03)
School E
2.38
(5.79)
1.32
(7.95)
.90
(8.10)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement for Excitement.
* = Overall F, £ <.05
Means with different letters are significantly different
with a Bonferroni t test, £ <.017 (after adjusting
for the covariate).
For further details see Table F-10 (p. 171)
and Table F-22 (p. 195).


156
5. Hew I feel about talking in front of the class.
6. Hew I feel when iny classmates give suggestions to me.
U=t


103
developmental guidance units can be effective in changing students'
attitudes about school.
Limitations
Six new skills were presented in a 6-week time period. It may take
sane students a longer time to integrate the skills into their
repertoires, and the 6-week time frame of this study may not have
allowed for this process. Perhaps more changes might occur by a longer
intervention time.
The limited validity of the SSI-TF, SSI-SF, and SA.I also may have
rendered the data less sensitive to actual changes. In addition, it was
necessary to rely upon teacher and students' ratings. Data based on
direct observation of children's actual behavior could not be obtained.
Counselors may not have been equally effective in the execution of
the specific techniques required in this study. Even though all
counselors worked directly with the investigator to learn the
techniques, several had never actually conducted these types of units in
the given formats. The training sessions may not have been long enough,
or inadequate, in properly preparing the school counselors for the
delivery of the units. Perhaps each school counselor should have tried
the modeling and coaching techniques in other classrocms to gain
familiarity with them.
The results suggested that there were differences in the natures of
the schools that were not addressed in the study. Identification of
variables within the schools which may contribute to differences would
help clarify treatment effects.


139
SUMMARY: BEING ABLE TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS AT SCHOOL IS VERY
IMPORTANT. TEACHERS RESPOND IN POSITIVE WAYS TO STUDENTS WHO VOLUNTEER
TO DO THINGS, ARE NOT AFRAID TO ASK QUESTIONS, AND SHARE IDEAS IN CLASS.
NOW, WHEN YOU FEEL THOSE NERVOUS FEELINGS GETTING IN THE WAY, YOU KNOW
WHAT TO DO TO OVERCOME THEM.
ASSIGNMENT: TRY TO USE ONE OF THE WAYS YOU LEARNED TO OVERCOME NERVOUS
FEELINGS WHEN YOU FEEL ANXIOUS OR NERVOUS. FOR PRACTICE, TEACH A FAMILY
MEMBER ONE OF THE WAYS YOU LEARNED TO HELP YOURSELF VOLUNTEER TO DO MORE
THINGS, AND SHARE MORE OF YOUR IDEAS WITH OTHERS AT SCHOOL.


55
Table 3-2
Pre-Post Control Group Design
Outcome measurement times
Conditions
Pre
Post
T^ (Modeling)
1 2 3
X
o
o
O
O
GJ
T^ (Coaching)
00
O
CM
O
i1
o
X
1 2 3
C^ (Control)
1 2 3

00
O
CM
O
r-H
o
0^ = School Success Inventory Teacher Form
02 = Sdiool Success Inventory Student Form
= School Attitude Inventory


147
REMEMBER TO HELP EACH OTHER OUT, OR COACH EACH OTHER, ON IIOT TO USE THE
CARDS. WHAT SYMBOL TOLL YOU USE TO REWARD YOURSELF? WHAT TOLL YOU PUT
IN THE BLANKS?
PROCESSING: Have the small groups return to the large group for
discussion. Questions might include:
Specific coaching questions 1. HOT DID YOUR GROUP
MEMBERS HELP YOU ORGANIZE YOUR TIME CARD?
2. TELL WAYS YOU USED TIME WELL IN YOUR GROUP TODAY THAT
YOU THINK WOULD ALSO HELP YOU IN THE CLASSROOM.
General guestions 1. HOT DO YOU THINK KNOWING WAYS TO
USE TIME IN SCHOOL WILL HELP YOU BECOME SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS?
2. SHARE SOME OF THE TOYS YOU WILL REWARD YOURSELF ON YOUR
TIME CARDS.
SUMMARY: Pass out a time card to each student. USING YOUR TIME CARD
TOLL HELP YOU KEEP TRACK OF YOUR ASSIGNMENTS. IT TOLL ALSO HELP YOU
REMEMBER TO DECIDE FOR YOURSELF IF YOU REALLY HAVE WORKED AS HARD AS YOU
CAN ON AN ASSIGNMENT. IT TOLL ALSO HELP YOU KEEP TRACK OF THE
ASSIGNMENTS YOU HAVE HANDED IN OR STILL NEED TO GET DONE. IT WILL
REMIND YOU THAT YOU HAVE SKILLS TO HELP YOU BECOME REALLY SUCCESSFUL AT
SCHOOL.
WE HAVE HAD DOTS OF FUN WORKING TOGETHER ON SKILLS TO BECOME SUCCESSFUL
AT SCHOOL. WE HAVE LEARNED TO PAY ATTENTION, TO LISTEN, AND HOT TO
OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS THAT KEEP US FROM VOLUNTEERING IDEAS. WE ALSO
HAVE LEARNED TOYS TO USE SELF-CONTROL BY BEING ASSERTIVE AND STICKING UP
FOR OURSELVES. TO KNOW TOYS OF GETTING ALONG WITH OTHERS, AND CAN TELL
THEM HOT WE FEEL BY USING THE FEEDBACK MODEL. TO ALSO KNOW HOT TO


no
SUMMARY: PAYING ATTENTION AT SCHOOL CAN HELP YOU BE BETTER STUDENTS AND
GET BETTER GRADES. TEACHERS WILL KNOW BY LOOKING THAT YOU ARE
CONCENTRATING AND TRYING TO LEARN. YOU CAN START TO USE THESE SKILLS
RIGHT AWAY. REMEMBER TO SIT UP STRAIGHT, LEAN FORWARD, AND GIVE YOUR
BEST EYE CONTACT. YOU ARE ON YOUR WAY TO BEING A BETTER STUDENT.
ASSIGNMENT: SOMETIME TODAY OR DURING THE WEEK, PRACTICE PAYING
ATTENTION TO A FRIEND OR TO YOUR PARENTS AS THEY TALK ABOUT SOMETHING
IMPORTANT TO THEM.


186
Table F-17
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF)
Hierarchical Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_S
Condition
2
10.84
5.42
.05
.95
Classes within
Condition
12
1269.05
105.75
3.60
.001
Prescore
1
2717.41
2717.41
92.53
.001
Error
283
8311.43
29.37
Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
RS
Condition
2
11.83
5.92
0.18
.83
Prescore
1
2941.47
2941.47
90.57
.001
Error
295
9580.48
32.48


3
specific behaviors (i.e., school success skills) by counselors, rewarded
and shaped each others' attempts of expected behaviors.
After behaviors liave been omitted, they can be strengthened through
the positive reinforcement principle where an immediate reward is given
after each correct performance of the behaviors, thus increasing their
chances of occurring again. After behaviors have been established, they
can be maintained by the substitution principle (i.e., reinforcing with
a previously ineffective reward just before the more effective reward is
given) or the intermittent reinforcement principle (i.e., gradually and
intermittently decreasing the frequency of rewarding the behavior)
(Krumboltz & Krurriboltz, 1972). These basic principles of behavioral
learning are consistent with those used in the current study. Since the
school success skills are representative of those behaviors teachers
look for in the classroom, and are thought to enhance learning, it is
assumed that teachers will attempt to maintain these behaviors with
positive reinforcement and that internal reinforcement will also occur
with students as they experience success.
Cartledge and Milburn (1978), in reviewing related literature,
noted that the acquisition of certain skills may be crucial to the
academic experience and to overall individual school success. Skills
which have been linked to school success from previous studies and
identified by teachers need to be taught to children. It appears that
children who are taught specific school success skills are more
productive and achieve more (Cartledge & Milburn, 1978). It also
appears that students will rate themselves more positively on
attitudinal statements related to school success as a result of


35
aggressive behavior, dramatic play patterns, prosocial frustration
reactions, and teaching styles.
Toner, Moore, and Ashley (1978) used models to teach the prosocial
behavior of self-control. First- and second-grade boys who were told
that they would model self-control for other children were themselves
more self-controlled and touched prohibited toys less than those not
told they would be models. In addition, Sarason (1963), in a series of
studies using models (primarily psychologists) to present skills (e.g.,
applying for a job, resisting temptation to engage in antisocial acts)
to juvenile delinquent boys, found the results to be the strongest and
most positive for the modeling groups, followed by role-playing and
control groups. On rating scales, they were less defensive and showed a
greater willingness to admit to having problems.
Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1961) demonstrated that using live models,
or social imitation, rather than successive approximations, may
short-cut the acquisition of new behaviors, since subjects (36 boys, 36
girls; 37-69 months of age) watching adult male and female models
displayed more physical and verbal aggression than those who were
exposed to nonaggressive models. Bandura and Walters (1963) also noted
the efficiency of the social imitation modeling condition. They
criticized traditional approaches to treating unassertive children,
where the desired social behavior is waited for and then reinforced, and
suggested that modeling can be more effective in treating inhibited
behavior.
The use of modeling has been effective in many areas, including
reduction of aggressiveness and the development of prosocial behaviors.
Thelen, Fry, Fehrenbach, and Frautschi (1979) pointed out that the


22
been established by a token program. Sixteen students from a
psychiatric hospital, who were deficient in reading and showed high
rates of disruptive classroom behavior, were instructed to make their
own judgments about hew they followed the rules and to tell the class
and the teacher how many tokens they deserved. For the six class days
that the procedure was in effect, disruptive behavior remained at the
previous low level.
Johnson and Martin (1973) showed that second-grade children in a
self-reinforcement group yielded significantly different response rates
on visual discrimination tasks than the control group. Drabman et al.
(1973) used self-assessment procedures to reduce disruptive behavior and
to effect transfer of behavior to times when the system was not in
effect. The present study had school counselors teach the students ways
to monitor their assignments and to extend these ideas to any area that
may have been of help to the students.
Cox and Gunn (1980) noted that instruction in acceptable
interaction skills in education has been limited and quite informal,
with the primary function of education being that of providing students
with academic skills. However, the social functioning of students
within the school has direct impact on the acquisition of these academic
skills. They further pointed out that the lack of appropriate social
skills may be the result of the students not (a) knowing what behavior
is appropriate, (b) knowing the correct motor skills to execute the
known behavior, and (c) being able to deal with the emotional response
which inhibits the skill performance, even when the correct skill is
known and has been practiced. Thus, it would seem logical to teach
children the behaviors they need to perform well in school, provide them


171
Table F-10
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for School Attitude InventoryTotal Score, by Schools
Modeling Coaching Control
Scores
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
School A
n =
20
n =
18
n =
23
Prescores
98.05
(13.97)
96.28
(14.91)
102.52
(12.95)
Postscores
103.65
(18.62)
98.50
(21.90)
104.35
(14.57)
Change scores
5.60
(14.59)
2.22
(19.97)
1.83
(15.30)
School B
n =
20
n -
21
n =
20
Prescores
102.95
(12.33)
111.67
(18.53)
106.50
(12.66)
Postscores
106.40
(12.66)
118.81
(21.67)
105.30
(14.79)
Change scores
3.45
(11.77)
7.14
(17.25)
-1.20
(17.52)
School C
n =
18
n =
23
n =
14
Prescores
105.33
(18.32)
104.09
(14.62)
107.93
(16.14)
Postscores
105.28
(12.75)
115.83
(19.25)
114.14
(15.84)
Change scores
-.06
(15.87)
11.74
(15.58)
6.21
(10.23)
School D
n =
20
n =
17
n =
18
Prescores
106.45
(18.11)
108.12
(15.26)
96.72
(15.30)
Postscores
105.45
(19.01)
119.12
(19.82)
96.44
(17.61)
Change scores
-1.00
(11.96)
11.00
(17.64)
-.23
(16.78)
School E
n =
24
n =
22
n =
21
Prescores
100.83
(12.45)
98.86
(11.49)
112.24
(2.93)
Postscores
102.21
(10.93)
100.14
(12.72)
113.43
(19.01)
Change scores
1.38
(10.18)
1.27
(8.66)
1.19
(14.34)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement for Excitanent.


181
Table F-13
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Forro (SSI-TF)
Hierarchical Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_1
Condition
2
81.95
40.98
.10
.91
Classes within
Condition
12
4752.68
395.06
11.28
.001
Prescore
1
1335.98
1335.98
38.04
.001
Error
283
9938.85
35.12
Analysis of Covariance
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_L
Condition
2
144.75
72.38
1.45
.24
Prescore
1
2232.23
2232.23
44.82
.001
Error
295
14691.53
49.80


102
divided into small groups. Perhaps inexperience with the method
dampened the true effect of the coaching technique.
The treatments also may have been a first experience in working in
small groups for seme third-grade students. Even if it were not a first
group experience, it may have been the first time that new skills were
practiced with other peers praising and correcting the approximations
toward the skills. It was interesting to note that students and target
students in the coaching condition rated themselves happier and more
calm on the question relating to how they felt when classmates gave
suggestions to them. The target students also felt more in control with
respect to this item. The students in the coaching condition felt more
in control about their teachers calling on them.
Another potential contributing factor to the lack of overall
significance among the groups was the combination of which skill the
counselor either preferred or was more comfortable presenting, with
which technique actually worked better for certain classrooms of
students. Perhaps a rating could be included in future studies where
students and teachers indicate their preferences and confort levels to
help explain the interaction. Because there were effects for all
conditions across schools, future research could begin to unravel this
complex interaction.
Evaluative summaries and feedback from the students, teachers, and
counselors reflected the merits of the units in enhancing children's
behavior and attitudes at school. While the technique of coaching was
best supported by the current study, research combining coaching and
modeling warrants consideration. Overall, it was concluded that


78
Table 4-7
Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SS1-SF)
Modeling
Coaching
Control
n=32
n=21
n=21
Mean s.d.
Mean s.d.
Mean s.d.
SSI-SF
-.91 (7.90)
.62 (7.24)
-4.38 (8.48)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-7 (p. 167)
and Table F-19 (p. 189).


IV RESULTS 66
School Success Classroom Behaviors 67
School Success Classroom Attitudes 81
Student Summary Sheet 89
Sunmary 89
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION,
LIMITATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS 93
Sumnary 93
Conclusions 95
Discussion 98
Limitations 103
Implications 104
Reccnmendations 105
APPENDICES
A SKILLS FOR SCHOOL SUCCESS MODELING 107
B SKILLS FOR SCHOOL SUCCESS COACHING 129
C SCHOOL SUCCESS INVENTORY TEACHER FORM 149
D SCHOOL SUCCESS INVENTORY STUDENT FROM 151
E SCHOOL ATTITUDE INVENTORY 153
F DATA ANALYSIS SUMMARY TABLES 159
G STUDENT SUMMARY SHEET 206
H STUDENT FEEDBACK SUMMARY 207
REFERENCES 209
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 216
iv


51
range of 0-17 was male and 48.8% for this same age range was female
(Florida Department of Education, 1983-84).
Sampling Procedure
Permission to conduct the study in Alachua County Public Schools
was obtained. First, a detailed description of the project was
submitted to the University of Florida Institutional Review Board which
gave permission to conduct the study. The study was then presented to
the University of Florida Extended Services Office where approval was
obtained fran the College of Education. Approval was obtained fran the
Department of Planning and Evaluation, Alachua County Public Schools.
The principals of the 20 public elementary schools in Alachua
County, Florida, were informed of the nature of the study and invited to
volunteer their schools for participation. Each of the principals
received a copy of the Application for Research in Alachua County Public
Schools form which explained the purpose of the research, gave a brief
surrmary, stated the population needs, and delineated the amount of time
involved to complete the study. Twelve principals and school counselors
decided that their students would participate. Six of the schools met
the criteria of having three regular third grades. Principals and/or
school counselors from eight schools chose not to participate because of
other ccrrmitments and schedule problems. Five of the six eligible
school counselors completed the study and one failed to complete the
unit within the specified time frame.
Within each school, all third-grade classrooms in the participating
schools were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions by using
a table of random numbers. All students from whom data were obtained


96
school situations. The conclusions are discussed with regard to each of
the dependent variables.
Teachers' Perceptions of Student School Success Behaviors
The overall, hierarchical analyses of covariance performed on all
caribined groups showed no significant differences among the groups on
teachers' perceptions of school success behaviors. Hcwever, ANCOCAs
revealed significant differences for conditions within the individual
schools. In three schools teachers rated students improved and
significantly different frcm the other groups in school success skills
for the coaching condition and in one school for the modeling condition.
Therefore, it was concluded that the developmental guidance units
impacted on students in their teachers' perceptions within seme
individual schools, but not significantly across the entire sample.
There were no significant differences for target students as
measured by teachers' perceptions of student school success behaviors.
There were also no overall effects for condition by race or gender.
Students' Perceptions of School Success Behaviors
The analyses of covariance performed on the students' perceptions
of school success behaviors shewed no significant differences among the
experimental groups. There also were no significant differences for the
target students on the SSI-SF.
There were no effects of condition by race or gender. There was,
however, an overall interaction of race and gender; black females, white
males, and white females rated themselves improved, and black males
rated themselves somewhat worse.


208
Students' reponses in general were very positive about the units.
Teachers gave very positive informal feedback. Counselors also reported
enjoying delivering the units.
Coaching Condition
What did you like best about the school success lessons?
Everything.
I liked getting in groups, and learning to stand up for myself.
I liked it when you told me about hew to be a better student.
It felt good to share my ideas with my friends.
I liked it when you talked about self-control because now I can
control myself with my brother.
I think it will help me a lot in classwork.
What did you like the least about the School Success lessons?
Nothing.
Nobody would speak in our group.
Filling out the packet (instruments).
I do not like getting in groups.
Hew could your counselor make the lessons even better?
I would like you to let me be the leader in the group.
They can't do anything, it's already good enough.
Teach us more stuff.
It's already even better than even better, so why make things even
better?


APPENDIX E
SCHOOL ATTITUDE INVENTORY
153


I certify that I have read this study and that in ray opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
tS t./h rv-T^lr 7
Robert D. Myrick, Chairman
Professor of Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
Loesch
or of Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
.. f hu
Cecil D. Mercer
Professor of Special Education
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
May, 1987
AJ t.\
Dean, College of Education
Dean, Graduate School


205
Table F-24 (continued)
Excitement
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£_i
Condition
2
763.94
381.97
6.04
.01
Race
1
10.26
10.26
0.16
.69
Gender
1
8.04
8.04
0.13
.73
Condition x Race
2
419.34
209.67
3.31
.04
Condition x Gender
2
358.85
179.42
2.84
.06
Race x Gender
1
3.74
3.74
0.06
.81
Condition x Race
x Gender
2
307.25
153.62
2.43
.10
Prescore
1
4818.68
4818.68
76.10
.001
Error
281
17776.72
63.26
Control
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
£Li
Condition
2
56.35
28.18
0.56
.58
Race
1
0.67
0.67
0.01
.91
Gender
1
8.38
8.38
0.17
.68
Condition x Race
2
126.76
63.38
1.26
.29
Condition x Gender
2
117.60
58.80
1.17
.31
Race x Gender
1
0.00
0.00
0.00
.99
Condition x Race
x Gender
2
149.61
74.80
1.48
.23
Prescore
1
3054.23
3054.23
60.59
.001
Error
281
14164.46
50.41


134
SCHOOL. THE PERSON ON HIS/HER LEFT WILL ASK Mi OPEN-ENDED QUESTION
ABOUT THE IDEAS OR THE FEELINGS THAT THE STARTER HAD. GROUP MEMBERS
WILL REINFORCE STUDENTS ASKING THE QUESTIONS WHEN THEY DO THEM
CORRECTLY, BY SAYING GOOD JOB OR NICE WORK. GROUP MEMBERS WILL COACH
EACH OTHER OR HELP EACH OTHER OUT, IF GROUP MEMBERS HAVE TROUBLE ASKING
THE QUESTIONS. EACH PERSON IN THE CIRCLE ASKS THE FIRST STARTER AN
OPEN-ENDED QUESTION. For the 15 minutes of practice time, the same
pattern will continue with the next person to the starter's left talking
about something related to school, and group members asking open-ended
questions of him/her around the circle again. Group members will
continue to help or coach each other.
PROCESSING: Move the teams so they are part of the large discussion
group. Questions might include:
Specific coaching questions 1. WHAT WAS IT LIKE FOR YOU
TO USE OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS IN YOUR GROUP?
2. TELL SOME WAYS THAT YOU FELT YOU WERE A GOOD LISTENER IN
YOUR GROUP.
General questions 1. HOW DO YOU THINK LISTENING
CAREFULLY AT SCHOOL WILL HELP YOU BECOME BETTER STUDENTS?
2. WHEN MIGHT IT BE IMPORTANT TO LISTEN FOR FEELINGS OF
OTHERS AT SCHOOL?
SUMMARY: GOOD LISTENING SKILLS HELP YOU BECOME GOOD STUDENTS. REMEMBER
LISTENING MEANS PAYING ATTENTION TO THE SPEAKER, THINKING ABOUT WHAT
THE PERSON SAID, AND SAYING SOMETHING TO THE PERSON ON THE SAME TOPIC.
THE USE OF THESE LISTENING SKILLS WILL HELP YOU BECOME MORE SUCCESSFUL
AT SCHOOL


LIST OF TABLES
Tables Page
3-1 Number of Students per Condition by Schools .... 53
3-2 Pre-Post Control Group Design 55
4-1 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF) 68
4-2 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
School Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF),
by Condition and Individual Schools 70
4-3 Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores
for Total School Success Inventory Teacher
Form (SSI-TF) 72
4-4 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), for
Conditions by Race 73
4-5 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), for
Conditions by Gender 75
4-6 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF) 76
4-7 Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores
for Total School Success Inventory Student
Form (SSI-SF) 78
4-8 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF), for
Conditions by Race 79
4-9 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF), for
Conditions by Gender 80
4-10 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School Attitude
Inventory (SAI), Total and by Dimensions 82
v


73
Table 4-4
Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher
Form (SSI-TF), for Conditions by Race
Modeling Coaching Control
n=101 n=99 n=94
Race
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Blacks
Whites
(n=58) -.11
(n=236) -1.41
(8.76)
(7.72)
-.22
-3.26
(4.88)
(7.24)
.96
-1.26
(10.02)
(7.24)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.
For further details see Table F-4 (p. 163)
and Table F-16 (p. 185).


148
ORGANIZE OUR TIME SO WE GAN GET OUR SCHOOL WORK DONE. WHEN YOU USE ALL
THESE NEW SKILLS, YOU WILL HAVE SUCCESS AT SCHOOL 1


116
front of the class, taking a hard test, or being called on when you are
not sure of the answer.
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE FEELINGS YOU GET IN YOUR BODY WHEN YOU ARE
NERVOUS? Generate a list on a chalk board or newsprint. These might
include (a) butterflies in stomach, (b) dry or cotton mouth, (c) feel
like you have to go to the bathroom, (d) heart beats faster, (e) breathe
faster, (f) sweat, (g) knees shake, (h) hands quiver, or (i) talk very
fast, etc.
THERE ARE WAYS TO OVERCOME THESE NERVOUS FELLINGS SO YOU CAN BECOME
EVEN BETTER STUDENTS. Teach the following coping mechanisms:
1. Imagery IMAGERY, OR USING YOUR IMAGINATION, CAN HELP YOU
OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS THAT GET IN THE WAY OF YOUR DOING THINGS.
THINKING OF SAFE PLACES IN YOUR MIND CAN HELP YOU RELAX. WHEN YOU THINK
OF SPECIAL SAFE PLACES (e.g., LIKE YOUR ROOM, YOUR TREE HOUSE, GRANDMA'S
HOUSE) YOUR BODY ALSO BEGINS TO FEEL RELAXED. YOUR NERVOUS FEELINGS
BEGIN TO GO AWAY AND YOU FEEL MORE IN CONTROL OF WHAT YOU ARE NEEDING TO
DO. JUST THINKING YOU ARE CAIM CAN ACTUALLY HELP YOU FEEL LESS NERVOUS
AND HELP THE BUTTERFLIES GO AWAY.
2. Deep Breathing DEEP BREATHING, OR BREATHING IN AND OUT, CAN
HELP YOU OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS TOO. BREATHING IN Aro OUT SLOWLY
THREE TIMES HELPS YOU RELAX. AS YOU BREATHE IN AND OUT YOUR NERVOUS
FEELINGS BEGIN TO GO AWAY, AND YOU FEEL MORE ABLE TO DO WHAT YOU NEED TO
DO. JUST BREATHING IN AND OUT SLOWLY CAN HELP YOU FEEL LESS NERVOUS AND
MORE IN CONTROL OF YOURSELF.
3. Self Talk SELF TALK, OR TALKING TO YOURSELF IN POSITIVE WAYS,
CAN HELP YOU OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS. TELLING YOURSELF THAT YOU ARE
GOING TO BE CALM WILL HELP YOU FEEL MORE RELAXED. TELLING YOURSELF THAT


185
Table F-16
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), by Race and Gender
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_i
Condition
2
28.02
14.01
0.28
.76
Race
1
547.09
547.09
11.07
.001
Gender
1
78.89
78.89
1.60
.21
Condition x Race
2
96.76
48.38
0.98
.38
Condition x Gender
2
0.82
0.41
0.01
.99
Race x Gender
1
81.17
81.17
1.64
.21
Condition x Race x
Gender
2
0.50
0.25
0.00
.99
Prescore
1
2541.26
2541.26
51.42
.001
Error
281
13887.79
49.42


17
regular classroom when compared to the control group. The proportion of
children's survival-skill behaviors increased only for the groups who
received reinforcement of survival skills.
Listening
The skill of listening also contributed to the positive results of
the studies described previously (Cobb & Hops, 1973; Hops & Cobb, 1974).
It also las been identified by several other authors as an important
skill.
McGinnis and Goldstein (1984) identified listening as an important
skill in their curriculum for teaching prosocial skills as part of
mainstream and special education programs. They pointed out the
importance of teaching students how to show that they are listening to
others. They listed steps indicative of listening which included (a)
looking at the person who is talking, (b) remembering to sit quietly,
(c) thinking about what is being said, (d) acknowledging ideas by saying
yes or nodding your head, and (e) asking a question to seek more
information on the subject.
Myrick and Bcwman (1901) stressed that listening is an important
part of learning and that students who listen closely do well in school,
follcw directions better, and make fewer mistakes. They identified four
behaviors of careful listeners, including (a) looking at persons when
they are talking, (b) paying attention to persons' words, (c) being
aware of persons' feelings, and (d) verbally responding to the speaker.
Foster (1983) pointed out that being a good listener necessitated
acting like a good listener. Acting like a good listener included (a)
maintaining eye contact; (b) sitting attentively and leaning forward at


28
fourth-grade students ranked both high and low initially. Students from
67 schools were randomly assigned to a treatment group which received
the guidance unit. The unit consisted of six, 30- to 45-minute
sessions. Each session used the format of an introduction, an activity
for large groups, an activity for peer-led small group interactions, and
a closure where the whole group processed discussion together. The
others were assigned to a control group. The lowest and highest
students were determined by teachers who rated each students' attitude
on a scale of 1 through 7, with 7 being the most positive. Students
responded to a 20-item inventory that included classroom behaviors
related to achievement in school and general attitudes. Teachers also
responded to these items in terms of their perceptions of the students'
behaviors and attitudes. Results indicated that there were positive
changes and significant differences in school attitude for both lew and
high students as a result of intervention.
The present study utilized the basic format of an introduction, an
activity for large groups, an activity for peer-led small groups, and a
whole group discussion for closure for one of the tv treatment
conditions called coaching. It was not knewn if this vehicle would be
effective in teaching specific school success skills to third-grade
students. The peer-led small group ccnponent of the Myrick model was
chosen for third-grade students in the present study because it was
effective with fourth-grade students.
Dinkmeyer and Caldwell (1970) attested to the importance of small
group work, noting that it provides the safety and support which are
necessary for self reinforcement. Muro and Dinkmeyer (1977) also noted


APPENDIX F
DATA ANALYSIS SUMMARY TABLES
159


174
Table F-12 (continued)
Race by Gender
Black Males
n =
10
Prescores
101.00
(13.42)
Postscores
95.50
(11.97)
Change scores
-5.50
(13.87)
Black Females
n =
8
Prescores
106.63
(12.50)
Postscores
110.63
(17.17)
Change scores
4.00
(7.43)
White Males
n =
42
Prescores
100.90
(12.18)
Postscores
103.81
(13.88)
Change scores
2.90
(13.41)
White Females
n =
41
Prescores
104.12
(18.57)
Postscores
105.90
(15.54)
Change scores
1.78
(12.39)
n =
= 10
n =
= 10
.30
(14.40)
100.30
(19.35)
.60
(20.08)
110.20
(16.56)
.30
(24.43)
9.90
(17.31)
n =
= 8
n =
= 12
.13
(18.21)
106.42
(11.90)
.00
(25.39)
105.67
(17.42)
.13
(17.02)
-.75
(22.26)
n =
= 40
n =
= 35
.45
(14.41)
102.86
(16.31)
.28
(19.35)
104.17
(17.78)
.83
(14.19)
1.31
(13.94)
n =
= 41
n =
= 37
.29
(16.19)
108.43
(17.90)
.93
(21.77)
108.19
(17.72)
.63
(16.13)
-.24
(13.01)
104
113
9
113
113
102
110
7
103
108
5


APPENDIX G
STUDENT SUMMARY SHEET
1.What did you like best about the School Success lessons?
2.What did you like the least about the School Success lessons?
3.Hew could your counselor make the lessons even better?
206


65
and the total and subtotal scores for the three dimensions of pleasure,
excitement, and control on the School Attitude Inventory. A limitation
of examining subtotal scores is that there are fewer items available for
each separate analysis, and thus lower reliability; hcwever, these
analyses were performed in an attempt to determine which dimensions
might be most sensitive to students' attitude changes. ANCOVAs were
performed on the data of all students, and on the subsample of
lew-skilled target students. Hypotheses regarding race or gender were
tested by analyses including both variables as factors, to allow
evaluation of potential interactions; these analyses were restricted to
black and white students only, due to the lew numbers of other racial
groups in the sample. Significant effects were further evaluated with
Bonferroni t-tests, with alpha levels adjusted to control for the number
of contrasts performed (Myers, 1979).
Description of Methodological Limitations
Attempts were made to strengthen the internal validity of the study
in several ways. A control group was included to neutralize the effects
of history, equate for the effects of maturation, control for the effect
of regression, and equalize the effects of pretest measurement on
groups. However, in regard to the last point, no group received only
the posttest measures to control for test sensitization.


Table F-l
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF)
Modeling
n=102
Mean s.d.
Coaching
n=101
Mean s.d.
Control
n=96
Mean s.d.
Prescores
29.
,26
(8.55)
28.57
(9.16)
23.79
(9.13)
Postscores
28.
.06
(9.41)
25.94
(9.36)
23.09
(9.38)
Change scores
-1.
.20
(7.85)
-2.63
(6.91)
-.70
(7.90)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.


123
2. TELL WHAT YDU ARE FEELING FIND A WORD THAT TELLS HOW YOU ARE
FEELING AND LET OTHERS KNOW HCW THEY MADE YOU FEEL (MIGHT HAVE TO USE
ONE OF THE WAYS YOU LEARNED TO OVERCOME NERVOUS FEELINGS).
3. TELL WHAT YOUR FEELINGS MAKE YOU WANT TO DO IF IT IS A GOOD
FEELING YOU MAY WANT TO SMILE, MAKE A CARD FOR THE PERSON, OR HUG THEM.
Demonstrate the feedback model using a school situation.
JOHN, YOUR KICKING MY CHAIR MAKES ME FEEL SO ANGRY THAT I WANT TO
TELL THE TEACHER RIGHT AWAY. Help the students identify the three parts
of the feedback model. Be certain to stress the fact that this feedback
model can also be USED for giving compliments to other students and
teachers.
MODELING DEMONSTRATION; Ask both models to come up in front of the
class. Seat them as if they were sitting next to each other in class.
Describe the situation to the class so that the models can also hear
what their roles are. They are both to pretend that they are reading
their lesson (hand them sane books from the classroom) as they have a
test caning up. The girl proceeds to lean over and whisper to the boy
who appears to be quite upset. She does this repeatedly for about three
times. You point out that he looks like he does not like it, and you
wonder what he wishes he could do. New guide the boy model through the
feedback model by having him describe to the girl exactly what she is
doing that bothers him. Help the class recognize this as Step One. New
guide him into telling the feelings he has as a result of this girl
bothering him (Step Two). Now help him tell her what it makes him want
to do (Step Three). When all three parts have been generated, guide the
boy model into saying the whole model as precisely as he can "When you
lean over and whisper to me when I'm reading, it makes me get upset and


88
Table 4-13
Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School Attitude Inventory
(SAI), for Conditions by Race
Modeling
n=101
Coaching
n=99
Control
n=94
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Total Scores
Blacks
Whites
-1.28
2.35
(12.17)
(12.85)
5.11
6.70
(21.41)
(15.16)
4.09
.51
(20.43)
(13.39)
Pleasure
Blacks
Whites
.61
-.16
(6.01)
(5.27)
-1.11
1.48
(6.52)
(5.50)
2.41
.35
(6.67)
(4.83)
Excitement
Blacks
Whites
2.22
-1.17
(10.46)
(7.66)
-6.00
-1.72
(10.54)
(8.60)
.54
-.10
(11.92)
(9.18)
Control
Blacks
Whites
.33
1.34
(6.79)
(6.23)
.22
3.52
(11.51)
(8.25)
2.23
.07
(8.54)
(7.70)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement on Excitement.
For further details see Table F-12 (p. 173)
and Table F-24 (p. 204).


117
YOU CAN DO SOMETHING ACTUALLY WILL HELP YOU DO IT. POR EXAMPLE, TELLING
YOURSELF THAT YOU ARE GOING TO DO A GOOD JOB ON YOUR REPORT TO THE CLASS
TODAY BECAUSE YOU PREPARED IT WELL WILL HELP YOU FEEL LESS NERVOUS WHEN
YOU GIVE IT, RATHER THAN HAVING TOLD YOURSELF THAT YOU WOULD BE SO
SCARED IN FRONT OF THE VHOLE CLASS. TALKING TO YOURSELF IN POSITIVE
WAYS CAN HELP YOU FEEL LESS NERVOUS AND HELP YOU BE MORE SUCCESSFUL AT
SCHOOL.
MODELING DEMONSTRATION: The first skill to be modeled will be the use
of imagery. Ask a girl model to ccme up front. Ask her to imagine and
describe (out loud) a place that she goes to, to relax. Encourage her
to tell all the sensations and feelings she has while she is describing
her imagined place. Guide her to talk about the accompanying physiology
- butterflies leave, breathe more slowly, or whatever is true for her.
Reinforce her. THIS TECHNIQUE CAN WORK TO CALM YOU DOWN SO THAT YOU
MIGHT BE ABLE TO GIVE A BETTER SPEECH, SIGN UP FOR THE CLASS PLAY, OR
VOLUNTEER TO READ OUT IDUD IN CLASS. (Since this is a difficult
technique, the first model may not be able to give the best example.
You may need to choose someone else who feels they could talk about
their imagined place.) Proceed in the same manner with a boy model.
The second skill to be modeled is the use of deep breatMng. Have
the boy and girl models in front of the class at the same time. Talk
the models through their demonstrations of breathing in slowly and
releasing slcwly for three times. Encourage the models to try to feel
more relaxed each time they breathe in and out. Reinforce them. Ask
the students what they noticed about the models as they demonstrated
this technique. STUDENTS DO BETTER IN SCHOOL WHEN THEY HAVE A WAY OF
OVERCOMING NERVOUS FEELINGS THAT GET IN THE WAY OF DOING THINGS.


104
Implications
The results of this study add to the growing body of information
about the effects of developmental guidance units for children.
Students' attitudes about school were improved after participation in
the coaching developmental guidance unit. These findings are consistent
with the results of other researchers who found that developmental
guidance units have positive impact on children's attitudes (Cobb &
Richards, 1983; Duncan & Gumaer, 1980; Gerler & Anderson, 1986; Myrick
et al., 1986). These results further contribute to the graving body of
knowledge showing that the specific teaching techniques of modeling and
coaching can be incorporated in developmental guidance units that result
in positive attitudinal changes for students.
The findings also suggest that developmental guidance units can
effect change in attitudes toward school in a relatively short time
period. Because of tight scheduling and time restrictions at all levels
of schooling, it is important to identify methods that are effective in
short periods of time. Students' ratings of attitudes toward school
situations shewed that students in the coaching unit were significantly
different in school attitude. Students' and teachers' ratings showed
seme positive changes as a result of these 6-week interventions.
Continued refinements of skill definitions and identification of
behavioral assessments will help the content of these units to become
even more effective within short intervention time frames.
Because there were differences with respect to race and the
interactions of race and gender, further studies could identify which
treatments wark most efficaciously with either race or either gender.


180
Table F-12 (continued)
Race by Gender
Black Males
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
Black Females
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
White Males
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
White Females
Prescores
Postscores
Change scores
n =
10
34.80
(5.03)
33.20
(8.66)
-1.60
(6.43)
n =
8
33.75
(6.34)
36.50
(8.65)
2.75
(6.84)
n =
42
34.74
(6.40)
36.02
(6.45)
1.29
(6.24)
n =
41
33.88
(8.54)
35.27
(8.44)
1.39
(6.28)
n =
= 10
38.30
(8.04)
38.80
(10.26)
.50
(14.18)
n =
= 8
36.75
(8.00)
36.63
(11.48)
-.13
(7.94)
n =
= 40
35.43
(8.46)
38.95
(8.14)
3.53
(8.42)
n =
= 41
31.59
(8.88)
35.10
(9.63)
3.51
(8.19)
n =
10
35.50
(9.40)
39.80
(7.36)
4.30
(5.38)
n =
12
35.00
(9.91)
35.50
(8.98)
.50
(10.41)
n =
35
36.40
(8.88)
35.94
(9.03)
-.46
(8.27)
n =
37
35.19
(8.03)
35.76
(8.97)
.57
(7.21)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement for Excitement.


43
in determining what is done to help disturbed children. Pekarik, Prinz,
Liebert, Weintraub, and Neale (1976) noted that teacher ratings are
usually regarded as relatively reliable and valid measures of children's
adjustment, and the combination of self report and teacher report are
thought to be a more valid index of disturbance than the teacher ratings
alone. Khan and Hoge (1983) cautioned researchers to be aware that
teachers may be sensitive to different aspects of behavior in boys and
girls and may reflect this in their ratings.
Sunmary
A review of the related literature has (a) shewn that developmental
guidance is a viable vehicle to present information to children, (b)
shewn that modeling and coaching have been effective techniques for
presenting new skills, and (c) demonstrated that self-report and teacher
ratings of behaviors and attitudes can be used to assess treatment, thus
their inclusion as dependent measures.
Confusion has existed and still exists in the literature about how
best to teach skills to children. Educators and researchers have tried
various methods to help students gain skills to make them more
successful in the school environment and continue to direct energies
toward this goal. This awareness of the importance of teaching school
success skills must continue so that interventions can help children
achieve the excellence sought in contenporary education. The problem of
hew to help children learn school success skills most effectively still
remains.
Researchers in education studying ways to enhance academic success
have begun to identify skills for success at school, researchers in the


135
ASSIGNMENT; CURING THIS NEXT WEEK, PRACTICE YOUR LISTENING SKILLS, AND
USE SOME OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS WITH YOUR CLASSMATES OR YOUR TEACHERS TO
FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THEIR IDEAS AND FEELINGS.


19
experimental group also produced more questions than the control group
and was significantly different frcm it.
Wittmer and Myrick (1980) also spoke to the importance of teachers
using open-ended questions to prenote a facilitative atmosphere in
classrooms. They noted that a question is a facilitative response when
it seeks more information, provokes discussion, or is used to query
individuals on particular matters. The present study included the
presentation of open-ended questions as part of volunteering skills to
help students learn the advantages of this type of questioning to
enhance learning. Asking questions or contributing answers was believed
to reflect careful listening and active processing of material just
presented.
Noble and Nolan (1976), in a study of high school classes, found
that students could shape the frequency of the teacher calling on them
by the amount of volunteering they did in class. After three months of
school, observers found that teachers directed more questions to those
who volunteered more, where initially no relationship had existed.
Self-Control
The fourth school success skill used in this study was
self-control. The use of self-control has been shown to be an important
part of school behavior. Dunn and Kowitz (1970) submitted a list of 40
adjectives, believed to relate to academic success, to 100 secondary
school teachers who were then asked to rate the characteristics on a
5-point scale in terms of significance to school achievement. The
results shewed the ccnposite of a hard-working, mature student.
Included in this ccmposite was self-control.



120
and look at the pictures too, and (d) You might get in trouble for
shouting out at him even though you were the one trying to study.
WHAT COULD YOU DO? LET'S TALK ABOUT SOME WAYS TO STAND UP POR
OURSELVES. THERE ARE THREE WAYS TO LOOK AT THE SITUATION. Introduce:
Passive behavior WHEN YOU USE PASSIVE BEHAVIOR YOU DON'T STICK-UP
OR SPEAK-OUT FOR YOURSELF. YOU LET THE OTHER PERSON GET WHAT HE WANTS.
YOU GET OFF-TASK, TEACHER IS UPSET WITH YOU, YOU DON'T GET YOUR WORK
DONE, AND YOUR REPORT CARD SHOWS IT.
Aggressive behavior WHEN YOU USE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR YOU TRY TO
GET BACK AT SOMEONE. YOU TRY TO HURT ANOTHER PERSON. YOU FEEL LIKE YOU
CAN'T TAKE BEING INTERRUPTED ONE MORE TIME, SO YOU DOSE YOUR COOL OR
SELF-CONTROL, AND HIT YOUR CLASSMATE. YOU END UP IN SERIOUS TROUBLE.
Assertive behavior WHEN YOU USE ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOR YOU "STAND-UP
AND SPEAK-OUT" FOR YOURSELF. YOU DO NOT HURT THE OTHER PERSON.
THERE ARE SOME WAYS TO DO THIS:
1. Body language YOU USE YOUR BODY AND STAND OR SIT FIRMLY, USE
EYE CONTACT, REMAIN CALM, AND DON'T SMILE. (Point out how we already
know seme of these skills and can now apply them to this situation.)
2. Confident voice YOU USE YOUR REGULAR WAYS OF SPEAKING, NOT AN
ANGRY SOUNDING VOICE. (Demonstrate different pitches, tones, and
durations to shew how these convey different things to the listener).
3. Broken record YOU REPEAT YOURSELF OVER AND OVER AGAIN LIKE A
BROKEN RECORD AND SAY SOMETHING LIKE "NOT NOW, I AM WORKING, NOT NOW,
I AM WORKING," ETC.
MODELING DEMONSTRATION: Explain to the class that the models will shew
assertive ways to respond to several situations that might ccttie up at
school, which the teacher will read from cards. Choose three frem the


114
ASSIGNMENT: DURING THIS NEXT WEEK, PRACTICE YOUR LISTENING SKILLS, Aid
USE SOME OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS WITH YOUR CIASSMATES OR YOUR TEACHERS TO
FIND OUT MORE ABOUT THEIR IDEAS AND FEELINGS.


4-11 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for School Attitude
Inventory Scores of Individual Schools for Total
Score and Dimensions 84
4-12 Target Students: Pre-Post Mean Change Scores
for School Attitude Inventory (SAI) 87
4-13 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Attitude Inventory (SAI), for Conditions by Race . 88
4-14 Pre-Post Mean Change Scores for Total School
Attitude Inventory (SAI), for Conditions by Gender 90
vi


189
Table F-19
Analysis of Covariance on Pre-Post Change Scores for Total School
Success Inventory Student Form (SSI-SF), for Target Students
Source of Variance
df
SS
MS
F
E_i
Condition
2
53.22
26.61
0.61
.55
Prescore
1
1354.62
1354.62
30.97
.001
Error
70
3062.00
43.74


143
SESSION FIVE: INTERACTING WITH OTHERS
PURPOSE: 1. To help students learn a model for giving feedback to
others, and 2. To help students realize how their behavior inpacts on
others.
MATERIALS: Tag board, newsprint or blackboard.
INTRODUCTION YOU HAVE BEEN LEARNING WAYS TO BECOME SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS
BY ATTENDING, LISTENING, VOLUNTEERING, AND STICKING-UP FOR YOURSELVES.
YOU SAW HOW IMPORTANT THESE SKILLS ARE FOR MAKING YOU SUCCESSFUL
STUDENTS AT SCHOOL. SOMETIMES, WHEN YOU INTERACT WITH STUDENTS AND
TEACHERS, YOU WOULD LIKE TO KNOW MORE ABOUT WHAT THEY FEEL AND THINK
ABOUT YOU, AND THEY WOULD LIKE TO KNOW WHAT YOU THINK AID FEEL ABOUT
THEM.
ACTIVITY ONE: WHEN YOU SHARE YOUR FEELINGS AID THOUGHTS ABOUT SOMEONE
WITH THEM, YOU ARE GIVING FEEDBACK. AS YOU KNOW, IT IS A TERM FROM
SCIENCE WHERE SCIENTISTS LEARN IF THEIR EXPERIMENTS ARE ON OR OFF TARGET
BY GETTING DIFFERENT KINDS OF INFORMATION FROM MACHINES. WE CERTAINLY
CAN'T GIVE INFORMATION BACK AND FORTH LIKE MACHINES, BUT THERE IS A GOOD
MODEL THAT ALLCWS YOU TO USE TUX, YOUR NEW COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN AN
ORGANIZED MANNER. IT HELPS YOU INTERACT SUCCESSFULLY WITH OTHERS.
Present the following model on tag board, newsprint or blackboard.
A Feedback Model
1. BE SPECIFIC ABOUT WHAT YOU SAY AD HEAR HERE'S WHERE YOU NEED
ALL YOUR SHARP LISTENING SKILLS AND YOUR OBSERVATIONS OF BODY LANGUAGE
TO TELL WHAT YOU HEAR AND SEE.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Marjorie Irene Mathison Cuthbert was bom March 8, 1947, in
Dodgeville, Wisconsin, where she spent her entire childhood. She
graduated from Dodgeville High School in 1965. She received a good
academic foundation and enjoyed many extra-curricular activities. She
subsequently entered the University of Wisconsin, where she majored in
music education and graduated with a Bachelor of Music degree in 1969.
She also received a Master of Science degree in music and education frcm
the University of Wisconsin in 1974.
In 1982, she entered the University of Florida where she studied
school counseling in the Department of Counselor Education. In 1984,
she received the Specialist of Education degree in school counseling and
guidance. After receiving this degree, she became the school counselor
at Glen Springs Elementary School in Gainesville, Florida, where she is
currently working.
Marjorie is married to Bruce N. Cuthbert, a clinical psychologist
at the University of Florida. They have two children, Kristina who is
13 years old and Scott who is 12 years old.
Marjorie is a member of the American Association for Counseling and
Development, American School Counselor Association, Florida Association
for Counseling and Devlopment, and Florida School Counselor Association.
She is also a National Certified Counselor and a member of Chi Sigma
Iota, Pi Lambda Theta, Kappa Delta Pi, Sigma Alpha Iota, and Alpha Xi
Delta.
216


Table F-3
Means and Standard Deviations of Prescores, Postscores, and Change
Scores for Total School Success Inventory Teacher Form (SSI-TF), for
Target Students
Modeling Coaching Control
n=32 n=21 n-21
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Mean
s.d.
Prescores
37.84
(5.86)
38.19
(6.26)
33.43
(7.40)
Postscores
33.34
(10.23)
34.48
(9.76)
32.90
(8.88)
Change scores
-4.50
(7.83)
-3.71
(8.07)
-.52
(8.48)
Note: A negative change indicates improvement.