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The involvement of on-campus and off-campus students in academic and non-academic activities in Nigerian universities

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The involvement of on-campus and off-campus students in academic and non-academic activities in Nigerian universities
Creator:
Falade, Christianah I
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English
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xiii, 148 leaves : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Academic achievement ( jstor )
College students ( jstor )
Colleges ( jstor )
Commuters ( jstor )
Commuting students ( jstor )
Dormitories ( jstor )
Extracurricular activities ( jstor )
Higher education ( jstor )
On campus students ( jstor )
Universities ( jstor )
College students -- Nigeria ( lcsh )
Dormitories -- Nigeria ( lcsh )
Student activities -- Nigeria ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1988.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Christianah I. Falade.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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19563087 ( OCLC )
ocm19563087
001098794 ( ALEPH )

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THE INVOLVEMENT OF ON-CAMPUS AND OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS
IN ACADEMIC AND NON-ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES
IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES









BY

CHRISTIANAH I. FALADE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1988


17 LRSj~y OF FLORIDuma
04 MM













































Copyright 1988

by

Christianah I. Falade


















DEDICATION


To the honor and glory of my God and Savior Jesus Christ.

"Thine 0 LORD, is the greatness, and the power, and the

glory, and the victory, and the majesty; for all that is

in the heaven and in the earth is thine, thine is the

kingdom, 0 LORD, and thou art exalted as head above all.

Both riches and honor come of thee, and thou reignest over

all; and in thine hand is power and might; and in thine

hand it is to make great, and to give strength unto all.

Now therefore, our God, we thank thee, and praise thy

glorious name." (1 Chronicles 29:11-13 KJV)


















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The completion of this work has been possible through the help,

support, inspiration, and guidance of many people to whom I will be

forever grateful.

I would like to extend my gratitude to all the members of my

supervisory committee, Dr. James Wattenbarger, the chairman, who

supported, encouraged and directed me throughout the Ph.D. program.

I also extend my appreciation to Dr. Arthur Sandeen and Dr. Max

Parker for their contributions to this dissertation.

I am very grateful to Dr. James Heald for his support and the

part he played in shaping my ideas and in correcting this work. I am

also thankful to all the people at the Department of Educational

Leadership who offered me a graduate assistantship throughout my

program without which it would have been financially difficult for me

to finish my doctorate.

Special appreciation is hereby extended to Kathy Carroll and

Sharon Lake at the department office for the warm and friendly

environment they provide. I also thank Leila Cantara for her support,

help, and most especially for her expertise and enthusiasm in getting

the typing done.












I would like to express my appreciation to my parents Joseph

Richard Oni and Janet Omotayo Abiodun, though deceased they are

remembered for the character instilled in me from youth. I am also

grateful to my stepmother who loved, served, and invested in my life.

I extend thanks to my Uncle Gabriel Ojo Falegan who believed in me and

planted the first "seed" of my college education. Special gratitude

is also extended to my brothers, Vincent and Victor, for their love

and support for their "baby sister" and for willingly and joyfully

sponsoring me throughout my undergraduate education. I am also

thankful to my sister Bodunde for her love, moral and financial

support, and contribution towards my education.

My special appreciation is extended to all Maranatha Church

brethren and also to Dr. and Mrs. M. Sadiku, Dr. and Mrs. F. Ogunji,

Dr. and Mrs. Nweke, Dr. Bisi Ugbebor, Mr. Kayode Odunuga, Granny

Waveney, and Ms. Marlene Darlington for their support and prayers.

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my husband

Christopher who gave his "all" to make this achievement possible and

to my children 'Seyi and 'Seun who sacrificed, prayed, and helped me

in their own little ways to finish.

Finally, I thank God and my Savior Jesus Christ for giving me the

life, guidance, the provision, and the opportunity to achieve this in

life; for in Him I live and move and have my being.


















TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . ... ...... iii

ABSTRACT . . ... .... xii

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION . . ... ... .. 1

Statement of the Problem . . 9
Justification . . ... 11
Delimitations . .. .... 13
Limitations . .... ..... 14
Assumptions . .... ..... 15
Definition of Terms . .... .16
Research Procedure: An Overview . ... 19
Data Analysis: An Overview. . ... 21
Summary . . . 21

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . .... 23

Introduction ................ .. .. 23
Academic Achievement, Library Usage, and Study Habits .. 29
Extracurricular Activities . ... 38
Student/Faculty Interaction . .... 40
Students' Outcomes . ........ 41
Residence Location Factors . ... 43
Peer Relationships . .... 46
College Satisfaction . ... 49
Summary . . 51

III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . ..... .53

Research Design . . ... ... 53
Setting . . ... ...... 54
Sample Selectiono . .. 57
Procedure for Data Collection ............. 58
Statistical Analysis of Data . .. 59
Summary . . ... .... 61













IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY . . .. 63

Introduction . . 63
Description of the Sample . .... .64
Test of Hypothesis One . . .. 72
Test of Hypothesis Two . ... .. 83
Test of Hypothesis Three . ..... 86
Test of Hypothesis Four . ... .. 89
Test of Hypothesis Five . .... .92
Test of Hypothesis Six and Sub-hypotheses 6a, 6b, 6c,
6d, 6e, 6f, and 6g . . 98
Summary . .. . 109

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 110

Summary ............. . 110
Nigerian Students' Residence and Students' Academic
Achievement and Activities. . 112
Nigerian Students' Residence and Students' Involvement
in Clubs and Organizations . .. 113
Nigerian Students' Residence and the Students' Number
of Hours of Weekly Involvement in Extracurricular
Activities .. .. ....... .. 114
Nigerian Students' Residence and Friendships Made by
Students During Undergraduate Education .. 115
Nigerian Students' Residence and the General College
Satisfaction of the Students . 116
Nigerian Students' Residence and the Student/Faculty
Relationships .. . .117
Conclusions . . . 119
Discussion . . 121
Areas for Future Study . . .. 130
Recommendations . . 131

REFERENCES . .. . 134

APPENDIX . .. . 140

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . .. ..148

















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Ages of Sample Population from the University of Ibadan 65

2 Ages of Sample Population from the University of Lagos 66

3 Gender of Total Respondents from Both Universities .. 66

4 Ages of All Student Respondents from Both Universities 67

5 Residence Locations for Total Respondents from Both
Universities . . ... 68

6 The Most Important Reason Why Students Resided Off-Campus 69

7 Percentage Distribution of Commuters' Distances to
Residences . . ... ..... .70

8 Percentage Distribution of Commuters' Means of
Transportation . . ... ... 70

9 Percentage Distribution of Students Most Desirable
Residences . . ... ..... 71

10 Percentage Distribution of the Locations of Students'
After-Class Activities . .... .72

11 Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Ibadan Students . .... .73

12 Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Lagos Students . .... .74

13 Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University
of Ibadan . . ... .... .. 75

14 Differences in Reported Hours in Library of Students at
the University of Ibadan . .... .76


viii













15 Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University
of Lagos . . .. 76

16 Differences in Reported Library Hours of Students at the
University of Lagos . .... .77

17 Differences in Reported Library Hours of Students from
Both Universities . ... ... 78

18 Differences in Reported Study Hours of Students from Both
Universities . .... ..... 79

19 Students' Study Partners at the University of Ibadan 80

20 Students' Study Places at the University of Ibadan 80

21 Students' Study Partners at the University of Lagos 81

22 Students' Study Places at the University of Lagos 81

23 Students' Study Partners at the Combined Universities 82

24 Students' Study Places at the Combined Universities 82

25 Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Ibadan . .... .85

26 Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Lagos . .... .85

27 Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
Combined Universities . .... .86

28 Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities by
Students at the University of Ibadan ... 88

29 Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities by
Students at the University of Lagos . .. 88

30 Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities at the
Combined Universities . ... .89

31 Locations of University of Ibadan Students' Close Friends 90

32 Locations of University of Lagos Students' Close Friends 91

33 Locations of Residence of Students' Close Friends at the
Combined Universities . ..... 92














34 Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of
Ibadan . . . 94

35 Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of
Lagos . . . 94

36 Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of
Ibadan by "Satisfied" and Not Satisfied" . 95

37 Satisfaction of College Experience at University of Lagos
by "Satisfied" and "Not Satisfied" .. 95

38 Satisfaction of College Experience at the Combined
Universities . .. .. 97

39 Frequency of University of Ibadan Students' Informal
After-Class Meetings with Faculty Members .. 99

40 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussion of Class/Course Problems with Faculty Members 100

41 University of Ibadan Students' Reception of Academic
Advice-from Faculty Members . ... 100

42 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Receiving
Informal Academic Advice from Faculty Members .. 101

43 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members About Social, Political,
or Campus Issues ............. 101

44 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members About Personal Problems 102

45 University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members About Future Careers 102

46 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussion of Class/Course Problems with Faculty Members 103

47 University of Lagos Students' Reception of Academic Advice
from Faculty Members . ... 104

48 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members on Social, Political, or
Campus Issues ............. .. o 105













49 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions of Personal Problems with Faculty Members 105

50 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions of Future Careers with Faculty Members 106

51 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal After-
Class Meetings with Faculty Members . .. 106

52 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Receiving
Informal Academic Advice from Faculty Members .. 107

53 Students' Frequency of Reception of Academic Advice from
Faculty Members . . .. 108

54 Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions with Faculty
Members About Future Careers . .... .109















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE INVOLVEMENT OF ON-CAMPUS AND OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS
IN ACADEMIC AND NON-ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES
IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

By

Christianah I. Falade

August, 1988

Chairman: James L. Wattenbarger
Major Department: Educational Leadership

Some researchers have postulated that excellence in higher

education is related to student involvement. This theory was proposed

by Astin in his 1984 and 1985 reports on research studies related to

college success. In these, as well as earlier literature, Astin

classified dormitory living as one involvement factor and linked it

with several other factors of involvement. He reported that the

dormitory factor contributed positively to the involvement of students

in their academic and nonacademic activities.

This study was an exploration of the differences of on-campus and

off-campus Nigerian university students and their involvement in

college programs. The students' academic achievement and activities,

student/faculty interactions, student/peer relationships, and

extracurricular activities were used as indicators of involvement of

students in their college's academic and nonacademic activities.

Twelve null hypotheses were tested at the .10 alpha level for these










involvement variables and also for the level of students' satisfaction

with their college experience.

The students from the University of Ibadan and the University of

Lagos were used as the populations from which the samples were drawn.

Survey questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected number

of students. These questionnaires were supplemented by onsite

observation and interviews. The data were analyzed descriptively and

inferentially by chi-square and t-test statistics for independent

samples.

The level of involvement of Nigerian on-campus and off-campus

university students was found to be similar with few statistically

significant differences noted. The on-campus students at the

University of Ibadan had significantly more on-campus friendships

than their off-campus counterparts. The on-campus students at the

University of Lagos reported significantly more friendships

on-campus than the off-campus students; they also related

significantly more to their lecturers in the area of reception of

academic advice and in the frequency of discussion of academic related

problems. The on-campus students at this institution had

significantly higher academic grade point averages than their

off-campus counterparts.

Although few statistically significant differences were noted in

this study, the on-campus students of both institutions showed

consistently higher levels of involvement than the off-campus

students. While this study provided support for Astin's theory of

student involvement, it also raised questions about several points

that are not in agreement with the theory.

xiii

















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION



In recent years, successive waves of educational improvement

programs have passed through the higher education systems. Since the

1983 controversial national report entitled A Nation At Risk: The

Report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education (National

Institute of Education, 1983) and subsequent reports such as

Involvement in Learning: Realizing the Potential of American Higher

Education (National Institute of Education, 1984) and Integrity in the

College Curriculum: A Report to the Academic Community (Association

of American Colleges, 1985), leaders of American universities and

colleges have grown more concerned about the ways through which

quality and excellence can be restored to undergraduate education.

The achievement of excellence has become one of the major goals of the

institutions of higher education in this country. The Study Group on

the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education recommended

three means through which the quality of undergraduate education can

be improved (National Institute of Education, 1984). These are (a)

increased student involvement, (b) higher expectations, and (c)

improved assessment and feedback.














According to the staff of the National Institute of Education

(1984), the student involvement area is probably the most crucial

factor for the improvement of undergraduate education. The

justification for this is expressed in the following excerpt:

there is now a good deal of research evidence to suggest
that the more time and effort students invest in the
learning process and the more intensely they engage in
their own education, the greater will be their growth and
achievement, their satisfaction with their educational
experiences, and their persistence in college, and the
more likely they are to continue their learning. (p. 17)

Astin (1984, 1985) elaborated more on the issue of student

involvement by developing a theory of student involvement. The five

basic postulates of this theory are given below.

1. Involvement refers to the investment of physical and
psychological energy in various "objects." The
objects may be highly generalized (the student
experience) or highly specific (preparing for a
chemistry examination.)
2. Regardless of its object, involvement occurs along a
continuum. Different students manifest different
degrees of involvement in a given object, and the
same student manifests different degrees of involvement
in different objects at different times.
3. Involvement has both quantitative and qualitative
features. The extent of a student's involvement in,
say, academic work can be measured quantitatively (how
many hours the student spends studying) and qualitatively
(does the student review and comprehend reading
assignments, or does the student simply stare at the
textbook and daydream?).
4. The amount of student learning and personal development
associated with any educational program is directly
proportional to the quality and quantity of student
involvement in that program.
5. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice
is directly related to the capacity of that policy or
practice to increase student involvement. (Astin, 1985,
pp. 135-136)













The student involvement concept concerns the behaviors of

students who show active participation in their learning. It

incorporates the activities that are geared towards intellectual and

personal development of students during their undergraduate education.

The participation of students in student organizations, frequent

interaction with faculty members and student peers, the students'

devotion of time and energy to school work, and the involvement of

students in on-campus activities are some of the physical behaviors

usually noted as evidence that students are actively involved (Astin,

1984, 1985; National Institute of Education, 1984). The greater the

involvement of students in each of these activities, the greater will

be their rewards in terms of their intellectual and personal

development. According to the theory of student involvement, "the

extent to which students can achieve particular developmental goals is

a direct function of the time and effort they devote to activities

designed to produce these gains" (Astin, 1984, p. 301).

The student involvement concept has been recognized as vital to

improving the quality of undergraduate education. Astin (1984, 1985)

claimed that it is crucial to the intellectual and personal

development of college students. The concept of involvement was

further hypothetically illustrated by Astin (1985) as follows:

a highly involved student is one who, for example,
devotes considerable energy to studying, spends a lot
of time on campus, participates actively in student
organizations, and interacts frequently with faculty














members and other students. Conversely, an uninvolved
student may neglect studies, spends little time on campus,
abstains from extracurricular activities, and has little
time contact with faculty members or other students.
(p. 134)

According to Astin (1984), the student involvement theory grew

out of his 1975 longitudinal study of college environmental factors

and students' persistence. He summarized the findings as follows:

It turned out that virtually every significant effect
could be rationalized in terms of the involvement
concept; that is, every positive factor was likely to
increase student involvement in the undergraduate
experience, whereas every negative factor was likely
to reduce involvement. (p. 302)

In the same study and in later papers, Astin (1984, 1985)

identified the student residence as the most salient environmental

factor that contributed to students' retention. In examining all of

the different kinds of students' residences, Astin (1984) credited the

on-campus dormitory as being the most supportive element of student

involvement in the various aspects of campus academic and

extracurricular activities. He used the following statement to

buttress this point:

It is obvious that students who live in residence halls
have more time and opportunity to get involved in all
aspects of campus life. Indeed, simply by eating,
sleeping, and spending their waking hours on the college
campus, residential students have a better chance than
commuter students of developing a strong identification
and attachment to undergraduate life. (p. 302)

Similar conclusions about the relationship of on-campus students'

residence halls have been reached by other researchers. For example,















Chickering (1974a) found that on-campus residence students

participated more often in extracurricular activities than their

commuter counterparts.

In the United States, researchers have generated a number of

studies in the area of students' residence location during the last

two decades. Those who have studied the impact of colleges on

students during their undergraduate education have findings that can

be generally classified into three areas. The first group refers to

studies in which the researchers found differences between commuter

and on-campus students and attributed the positive effects to the

on-campus residence (Astin, 1973, 1975, 1978; Chickering, 1974a).

Commuters and on-campus residential students were found to differ in

the areas of academic achievement, persistence in college, faculty to

student relationships, participation in extracurricular activities,

peer relationships, the level of satisfaction with college, and future

academic aspirations. Much of the research in this first category has

led writers to credit the on-campus residence living as being

positively related to the aspects mentioned above. Chickering (1967)

stated that residence halls "provide a significant context for student

development it is there that close association with other

students occur" (p. 179). Astin (1975, 1984, 1985) identified

on-campus living as an important factor in promoting student

development and involvement. Burtner and Tincher (1979) reported less














satisfaction among the nonresidential students at Auburn University in

the area of their social lives. Chickering (1974a) and Astin (1975)

supported the finding that campus residence students are more

satisfied with their total undergraduate experiences.

Researchers in the second category have found no differences

between the commuters and those students living in the residence halls

on campus. Dressel and Nisula (1966), Mussano (1976), and Foster

(1975) reported no differences between the commuter students and the

on-campus students in the areas of academic achievement and

persistence in college. Graff and Cooley (1970) reported no

significant difference between these two groups of students in their

relationships to faculty members and their student peers. The

researchers also found no difference in their academic achievement

after the students have completed one semester in the college.

The third group of findings in the students' residence

studies is higher academic achievement and satisfaction among the

commuters. Bukowski (1975) reported higher grade point averages for

the commuter students. Belock (1978) also came to a similar

conclusion when she compared the grade point averages of freshman

commuters and residential students at Castleton State College during

1976, 1977, and 1978. These two researchers found the means of the

grade point averages of the commuters to be significantly higher than

those of the residential students. Hardy (1973) reported more














satisfaction for the commuters when both groups were compared on their

feelings towards the university administration.

Concluding from the three different sets of findings above, one

may note that there appears to be no consensus on the particular

students' living environment that can be associated with the student

outcomes mentioned. However, Flanagan's (1975) conclusion, based on a

review of literature on commuters reported from 1971 through 1975,

would suggest otherwise. According to him "a student's loci of living

seems to have a significant effect on his/her learning experience.

For a commuter student the loci of living tends to be off-campus" (p.

10). If it is true that the students' loci of living do actually

affect the students' learning experiences as claimed by this

researcher, then there should be a relationship between the students'

residence locations and the involvement of students in the learning

process. This relationship has been claimed by Astin and others, but

because the student involvement concept is becoming an important

by-word in the higher educational system it needs further study. The

present study was designed to explore the relationship that exists

between student involvement and student residence.

Astin (1984, 1985) has positively associated dormitory living

with other forms of involvement including relationship with faculty

members, relationship with student peers, participation in student

government and other student organizations, academic achievement, and














satisfaction of students in undergraduate experience. If dormitory

living is enhancing students' involvement in their undergraduate

education, the provision for dormitories on a campus may be one way of

making available an environment conducive for student learning.

However, the issue of dormitory versus no dormitory facilities

requires a considerable expenditure of money. And, again, not

everyone agrees with Astin's conclusions about the importance of

dormitories. Most, if not all, the research supporting the positive

relationship of on-campus living and student development and

involvement has been conducted in the United States. In foreign

nations, the relationship between dormitory living and student

development has not clearly been established; In order to make the

concept of student involvement applicable to other countries, there is

a need for it to be tested within the context of other nations'

cultural and social environments.

The nation of Nigeria is one of the foreign countries that will

benefit from research on the relationship of dormitory facilities and

student involvement because the Nigerian universities were, at the

time of this writing, reevaluating their commitment to the provision

of such facilities. The building and maintenance of dormitory halls

have been cited continuously by researchers and university

administrators as one of the main activities causing the greatest

drain and financial burden on the budget of the university (Enaowho,















1985; Oduleye, 1985). In an effort to avoid this dormitory problem,

the Ondo State government in Nigeria started the Ondo State University

as a non-residential institution. Enaowho (1985) suggested the

"acceptance of off-campus status as a precondition for offer of

admission to qualified candidates" (p. 316). The decision and

policies concerning the issue of dormitories in Nigerian universities

have not been based on any known research dealing with how they affect

the students and their satisfaction.

Given the existing fiscal condition within the nation, it was

believed that the provision of dormitory facilities for Nigerian

university students could be phased out as a result of limited funding

and low priority. This situation made this research on the students'

residence locations and student involvement in college activities most

useful in providing necessary data for future policy decisions for the

Nigerian university leaders, as well as offering findings from a new

context that addresses the importance of student involvement.

Statement of the Problem

This study was designed to investigate the differences in

on-campus and off-campus students' involvement in university

activities. The purposes of the research were threefold: (a) to

determine the differences in the involvement of on-campus and

off-campus students at two Nigerian universities, (b) to test the

validity of Astin's student involvement theory in Nigeria, and (c) to

determine the differences in the general college satisfaction of

on-campus and off-campus students at these two institutions.














The residence location factor was used in testing the theory of

student involvement. The students' average academic achievement and

activities, membership in student clubs and organizations, time spent

in extracurricular activities, friendships with other students, and

relationships with faculty members were used as measures of the level

and types of involvement.

The following general null hypothesis was used to test the

relationships that existed between students' residence locations and

involvement in various college activities.

Ho: There is no difference in the involvement of Nigerian

on-campus and off-campus students in the total university

program.

To test this hypothesis and determine the differences in general

satisfaction, six research questions were posed.

1. Is there a difference in Nigerian on-campus and off-campus

students' academic achievement and activities at the

university?

2. Is there a difference in Nigerian on-campus and off-campus

students' participation in campus clubs and organizations?

3. Is there a difference in the number of hours that Nigerian

on-campus and off-campus students spend in college-related

extracurricular activities per week?

4. Is there a difference in the friendships made by Nigerian

on-campus and off-campus students at college?















5. Is there a difference in the general college

satisfaction of Nigerian on-campus and off-campus

students?

6. Is there a difference in the student/faculty interactions

of Nigerian on-campus and off-campus students?

Hypotheses related to these questions were tested at the .10 level of

significance.

Justification

Historically, the Nigerian universities have been built at the

outskirts of the cities. This location justified the existence of

dormitory facilities. For example, the University of Ibadan, the

nation's first university, was patterned after London University which

epitomized the British system of higher education. At the time this

university was established in Nigeria, the residential feature along

with other British aspects of higher education was imported into the

nation. The Asquith Commission that recommended the establishment of

the university "emphasized the principles of a residential university

college in special relationship with London University (University of

Ibadan, 1977, p. 23). The dormitory, therefore, became an essential

feature of the Nigerian higher educational system. The provision and

maintenance of the dormitory facilities became one of the most

important services provided students. The service was considered an

essential one since more than 90% of the students did not have

personal transportation.













At the time of this writing, the future of dormitory services

could not be guaranteed in Nigerian higher education because of

financial exigencies (Enaowho, 1985; Oduleye, 1985). As early as

1977-1978, it was reported in the University of Ibadan catalog that

the institution's residential concept was being "threatened" by the

problems of larger enrollment and limited funds (p. 24).

Dormitory halls had been cited as causing unnecessary financial

drain on the Nigerian universities' limited budgets. However, there

was no known research on the influence of dormitory halls and Nigerian

university students. Further, the decision and recommendation on the

services of the dormitories had not been based on factors other than

economic influences.

This study resulted in the development of empirical data that

could help the Nigerian university policymakers in developing better

decisions about the role of dormitory halls in the future of the

nation's higher education. Living in the dormitory halls has been

found to be positively related to student involvement in some North

American universities. It was important for policymakers in Nigeria

to be able to know empirically the relationship between dormitory

living and student involvement in Nigerian universities.

The student involvement theory used in this study rested on five

basic postulates; two of these are considered crucial to higher

educational systems. These are














1. The amount of student learning and personal development
associated with any educational program is directly
proportional to the quality and quantity of student
involvement in that program.
2. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice
is directly related to the capacity of that policy or
practice to increase student involvement. (Astin, 1985,
p. 136)

These two postulates had not been tested empirically (Astin, 1984,

1985), but they had been given as recommendations for excellence by

The Study Group on the Condition of Excellence in Higher Education.

The validity of this theory and its different postulates needed to be

tested so that the higher educational system leaders could base

recommendations and policy on them. Astin (1984, 1985) pointed out

the necessity for validating the theory and also the need to establish

the relationships that exist among the different forms of student

involvement.

North American researchers such as Astin (1984, 1985), Chickering

(1967, 1974a), and others have pointed out the students' residence

location as an important factor in students' involvement in

undergraduate experience; this study was designed to determine if this

theory was applicable in Nigerian universities as well.

Delimitations

This study must be reviewed with the following delimitations in

mind:

1. The research was conducted with the Nigerian university

students registered during the 1987-88 academic year;














therefore the population sample only included those

students registered during this academic year period.

2. The study sample was drawn from the University of Ibadan

and the University of Lagos. Both universities are

located in the southwestern part of Nigeria.

3. All students living off-campus were classified into one

group for residence location. There was no attempt made

to group them according to the different types of off-

campus housing.

4. Indicators of involvement were limited to self-reported

academic achievement and activities, student/faculty

relationships, students' peer relationships, and

participation in extracurricular activities.

5. Lastly, it should also be noted that the study was not

developed to prove a causal relationship, but only to

determine the presence or absence of a relationship among

the different factors.

Limitations

The research design contained the following limitations:

1. The study was based on the students from the universities

in Oyo and Lagos States of Nigeria; therefore, the

results are generalizable only to those settings.

2. Residence location was used to test the theory of

involvement. Since this is an attribute independent















variable, it cannot yield itself directly to the

manipulation of the researcher. The study was therefore

subject to the weaknesses of ex post facto research.

Assumptions

The following assumptions were basic to this research:

1. Four areas of student behavior were used to represent

involvement in the total university programs. These areas

were (a) academic achievement and activities, (b) students'

peer relationships, (c) faculty/student relationships, and

(d) participation in extracurricular activities. The

foregoing were assumed to be adequate representations of

student total involvement in university programs.

2. The residence location factor was used in this research to

test the student involvement theory. This was assumed to

be a valid factor in testing this theory as Astin (1984,

1985) linked residence location with so many other forms

of student involvement.

3. Involvement in academic activities was assumed to be

evidenced through the students' study hours, study partners,

study places, and library usage.

4. Since the students in the sample population were randomly

selected, the subjects in the sample were assumed to be

representative of the population from which they came.














5. The self-reported answers of the students were assumed to

be credible and reliable.

6. The living environments of off-campus and on-campus

residence students were assumed to be different in ways

that are consistent with the findings in other studies.

7. The Nigerian university students classified as non-

residential and residential were assumed to be comparable

in precollegiate characteristics such as academic

aptitude and social status since Nigerian university

admission policy was based on standard academic

requirements, and also since all the universities were

owned by federal or state governments and were free for

those who are qualified.

8. The use of experts in reviewing the questions on the

instrument, the pilot testing of the research instrument

at the University of Florida, Gainesville, and a test-

retest reliability check using students at the University

of Ibadan in Nigeria were assumed to provide a validated

instrument for use in the research.

Definition of Terms

Commuter. This term is a designation used for students who live

in residences outside of the university campus. This term is used

interchangeably with off-campus and non-resident student.














Dormitory hall. This term refers to students' residence within

the university campus. The term is used interchangeably with

on-campus residence.

Academic achievement. Academic achievement refers to students'

academic performance as reflected by their self-reported grade point

averages.

Academic activities. This term is used for student's behaviors

in academic-related variables such as the self-reported average

weekly study hours, library usage, study partner, and study place.

Library usage. The term is used for the self-reported average

weekly hours that students spend in the library studying or doing

class assignments.

Extracurricular involvement. This term refers to the reported

participation of students in activities that are not academically

related, mostly arising through out-of-class social and athletic

activities.

Student/faculty relationships. Any reported formal and informal

interactions between the faculty members and the students, mainly

outside the class, constitute student/faculty relationships.

Students' peer relationships. The self-reported friendships of

students.

General college satisfaction. Students' self-reported fulfilled

expectation of college experience.














Student development. This term refers to student growth

especially in the areas of intellectual ability, interpersonal, and

social activities that can be attributed to the impact of education.

Preliminary (prelim) year. This is the Nigerian university

classification for students admitted into the university with either

the General Certificate of Education (GCE) ordinary level or with West

African School Certificate (WASC) coupled with the passing of the

concessional admission examination. The students that enter through

the prelim status spend 4 years in the university to obtain their

baccalaureate degree. Prelim status is equivalent to the freshman

status in an American university.

First year. This is the student classification for those

students admitted into the Nigerian university with the Advanced GCE

or the Higher School Certificate. The students in this status need

3 more years to complete the bachelor's degree. It is equivalent to

the sophomore status of the American university.

Second year. This is the student status for those students who

have 2 more years to complete the bachelor's degree. The

classification is the equivalence of the junior status in American

universities.

Third year. This is the last year of the student attending a

Nigerian university. The status has the equivalence of the senior

year in American universities.














Research Procedure: An Overview

Samples from the student populations at the University of Ibadan

in the Oyo state and the University of Lagos in the Lagos state of

Nigeria were used in the study. The lists of names of the University

of Lagos on-campus students were obtained from the student affairs

office. Two halls for male residents and two halls for female

residents were selected from which 100 students were randomly

selected. With tables of random numbers, 25 students were selected

from each residence hall. These students constituted the group that

represented the on-campus sample from the University of Lagos. The

off-campus students were from two academic faculties, the Faculty of

Arts and the Faculty of Sciences. Due to the lack of an official

off-campus residents list, the questionnaire was administered to

Faculty of Arts students during classes that were supposed to be taken

during students' off-campus years. The questionnaire was administered

in the Faculty of Sciences to all the students who identified

themselves as living off-campus. All the questionnaires were hand

delivered or administered within a 2-week period.

At the University of Ibadan, the questionnaires were administered

to students from the Departments of Mathematics, Education, Foreign

Languages, and Classics. The University of Ibadan sample came from

those who returned their questionnaires from these departments.

The instrument used in gathering the data consisted of a 41-item

questionnaire developed by the researcher based on the findings in the















area of students' residence and students' outcomes. The findings of

Chickering (1974a) and Astin (1973, 1975, 1978, 1984) were especially

used in determining the types of possible response items. Sudman and

Bradburn's (1982) guide to questionnaire design was used for the

technicality of the instrument construction. The questionnaire

contained items formed to receive information in the areas of

students' residence locations, students' academic classifications,

faculty relationships, academic performance, study habits,

satisfaction with university experience, and the students'

participation in extracurricular activities (see Appendix). This

instrument was pilot-tested with graduate students of the Department

of Educational Leadership at the University of Florida, Gainesville

and also with the University of Ibadan undergraduate students. The

reliability test of the question items yielded 86% congruent answers

over a 7-day period for the University of Florida students and 84%

congruent answers over a 7-day period for the University of Ibadan

students. This indicates a high stability for the instrument. Two

University of Florida professors, both experts in the area of higher

educational administration, judged the appropriateness of the research

instrument and deemed it to be adequate in measuring the research

hypotheses. All the data used in this research were obtained from the

self-reports of students on the questionnaires.















Data Analysis: An Overview

The data collected from the study of Nigerian students'

involvement and residence locations were of quantitative and

qualitative natures. The data were analyzed descriptively and with

t-tests and chi-square for independent samples.

The students' data on age, gender, and place of residence were

analyzed descriptively by percentages. The grade point averages,

students' weekly study hours, and the number of hours students spent

in the library in a week were analyzed with t-tests for independent

samples.

The nominal data related to students' friendships, students'

study partners, students' study places, faculty/student

relationships, and the satisfaction of students with the college

experience were handled statistically with chi-square for independent

samples. The data on the hours of students' involvement in clubs and

organization activities were analyzed also with chi-square test.

All the data were analyzed with the micro-computer software

package Microstat. The level of significance was set at .10; this

probability level was used as the basis for rejecting or accepting the

null hypotheses.

Summary

The need to study the relationships between the Nigerian

university students' residence locations and their involvement in the














total university programs has been described in this chapter. The

justification for the problem, the general null hypotheses to be

tested in the study, the research methodology, and the procedure for

the data analysis are areas that are covered in Chapter I.

Chapter II contains the review of related literature associated

with students' involvement and students' residence factors. Chapter

III contains the description of the site of the study, procedure for

data collection, and statistical analysis of the data.

In Chapter IV, the results of the data analysis on the

test of the null hypotheses and related research questions can be

found. Chapter V contains a discussion and interpretation of the

results. It also includes the implications of the study, the

recommendations, and the conclusions.

















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



Introduction

Astin (1975, 1978, 1984, 1985) related students' living

environments to their involvement in total university programs. Astin

classified the student residence as a form of student involvement and

indicated it was associated with other forms of involvement. For

example, dormitory living has been reported to be positively related

to student involvement in extracurricular activities (Astin, 1975,

1978, 1984, 1985; Chickering, 1974a; Chickering & Kuper, 1971;

Smallwood & Klas, 1983), academic achievement (Astin, 1973, 1978,

1984, 1985; Chickering, 1974a; Levin & Clowes, 1982; Nowack & Hanson,

1985), student/faculty relationships (Astin, 1973, 1978, 1984;

Chickering, 1974a; Pascarella, 1980, 1984, 1985), peer relationships

(Chickering, 1974a; Pascarella, 1980, 1984, 1985), and college

satisfaction (Astin, 1978, 1984; Chickering, 1974a).

The concept of student involvement is relatively new in the area

of higher education. It was featured prominently as a focus in the

pursuit of excellence in higher education (National Institute of

Education, 1984). Prior to the report by The Study Group on the

Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education (National














Institute on Education, 1984), Chickering wrote elaborately on

the differences in the behaviors of commuter and resident students.

In his book Commuting Versus Resident Students, he reported on the

differences in the involvement of these two groups in extracurricular

and academic activities. Astin's (1975, 1978) studies also

highlighted the differences in the participation of these two groups

of students in various aspects of college activities. The contention

of both of these researchers was that environmental factors contribute

to the enhancement or deter the involvement of students in their total

undergraduate education. Astin (1984) summed up the relationship

succinctly in the following words: "It is easier to become involved

when one can identify with the college environment" (p. 303).

Astin (1975) also related the importance of environmental factors

to college persistence. According to the researcher, "students'

chances of completing college can be significantly influenced by

environmental circumstances" (p. 107). Moos (1979) further emphasized

the importance of environmental factors on college students. In

commenting on the research in the area, Moos wrote "conclusions about

the influence of different environments vary, but all authors agree

that the social-ecological setting in which students function can

affect their attitudes and moods, their behaviors and performance, and

their self-concept and general sense of well-being" (p. 3). There is

an agreement among these authors about the relationship between the

student residence and other forms of involvement.














The exploration of the relationships between student residence

and other forms of involvement was the focus of this research. Since

student involvement has become an important concept in higher

education, its relationship with an aspect such as student residence

merited further study.

The Study Group on the Condition of Excellence in Higher

Education (National Institute of Education, 1984) considered the ways

to enhance this concept of student involvement as "one of the greatest

challenges to administration and faculty" (p. 23). The reasons are

that the students in higher education institutions are very diverse;

many of them are both commuting and/or part-time students. The group

viewed these two conditions as causing difficulties for active

involvement of students in collegiate activities on both quality and

quantity bases.

The concept of student involvement has been one of the major

findings in Astin's research pertaining to college environment. Astin

(1975) paved the way to the development of the theory of student

involvement in this study. He underscored the importance of

involvement as a crucial factor to student persistence in college.

According to him, "students who are involved in the academic life of

the institution are more likely to expend the effort necessary to get

good grades than are students who are not involved" (p. 100).

Astin used his 1984 and 1985 works to propose and discuss the

theory of student involvement. In both of these research projects, he














tried to prove the relationship between the concept of student

involvement and student development. Astin (1985) also tried to

establish the concept as related to the talent development view of

excellence in higher education. The major point stressed in this

theory was that "students learn by becoming involved" (p. 133).

The students' residence is an important environmental factor that

affects students' involvement and development in college. The impact

of colleges is experienced by students through their living

environments. The relationship between the living environments and

student development has been underscored by a number of researchers

such as Chickering (1967, 1974b) and Scott (1975). According to

Chickering (1974b),

residence hall living influences student development in
three ways. First, close friendships develop initially
with persons whose rooms are nearby and it is in the
context of such friendships that values, future plans
and aspirations, and decisions for current behavior occur
and are thought through. Second, a housing unit may
become a subculture with its own values and standards,
may become a reference group for its members and thus
behavior and attitudes may be modeled with reference to
this culture and its expectations. Third, under certain
arrangements there is opportunity for a student to observe
the impact of his behavior on other individuals and on the
larger social unit. This clear feedback allows behavior
to be modified through conscious awareness of results.
(p. 76)

Scott (1975) reported increases in self-actualization for

students living in on-campus residence halls. When compared with the

commuters, the residents in his study showed twice as much increase













in their self-actualization. Scott, therefore, concluded that "more

development was fostered during the academic year among students

living in the campus dormitory halls than among students living

off-campus" (p. 218).

Davis and Caldwell (1977) conducted an inter-campus study of

commuters and residents at two different universities (a residential

and a commuter institution). Greater positive response was reported

for residential students in the areas of personal and social

development. Commuters, on the other hand, responded more positively

in the areas of intellectual and academic environment. The

researchers concluded that the residents were more involved with

social and interpersonal activities while the commuters were more

inclined towards the academic environment.

Pascarella (1985) tried to determine the influence of resident

living on intellectual and interpersonal self-concept of students.

Significant positive relationships were found between students'

interactions with their faculty members and students' interactions

with their peers. No direct effect of residential living was found in

the areas of students' intellectual level and self-concept.

Pascarella concluded that the influence of on-campus living on student

development may be indirect, and that living on-campus was only one of

many influences of college impact on students. According to him,

there was an indirect effect mediated through other influences like

faculty and student relationships.














In spite of Pascarella's (1985) findings, he tried to argue in

favor of on-campus living. "Thus even if resident status does not

influence student development directly, it may play a central role in

the impact of college by increasing those kinds of student involvement

that positively influence development" (p. 298).

Welty (1976) also pointed to the many interactive factors,

including student residence, that work together to produce student

growth. According to the researcher, it was not residence exclusively

that produces student growth, but one of many factors, some of which

include the number of new friends during the freshman year, the

quantity and quality of student/faculty interactions, and the

interaction with administrators.

Other writers, such as Millman (1972), seem to be more convinced

that the living environment of resident students exerts direct

influence on student development. In support of this view, Millman

stated "there is no question that on-campus residence living

facilities can, through conscious effort and reasoned action, provide

a milieu which is not only supportive of student learning and personal

growth, but actually facilitates such human development" (p. 5). This

statement expresses the assumption and/or view of many people in

higher education as regards the relationship between student residence

and student development.

The literature reviewed above on student residence appears to

support dormitory living as the important factor in student














involvement and student development. In fact, Astin (1978) referred

to student residence as a "potentially important index of student

involvement" (p. 22). This present study was an extension and further

exploration of this relationship between student residence and student

development. The student residence served as a basis for

measuring student participation in some specific forms of college

involvement and will also include one more area, the students' degree

of satisfaction with college.

The forms of involvement that were used are (a) academic

activities (academic achievement, study habits, and library usage),

(b) involvement in extracurricular activities, (c) student/faculty

interaction, and (d) peer interaction. Therefore, review of related

literature following is organized according to these four forms of

involvement and it also includes the students' degree of satisfaction

with college.

Academic Achievement, Library Usage, and Study Habits

Nowack and Hanson (1985) referred to on-campus residence halls as

a "favorable environment for facilitating academic achievement" (p.

26). The researchers who have reported higher grade point averages

for on-campus residence students will agree with this statement.

However, others will disagree with the same statement based upon their

research and findings which have shown that commuters achieve

academically higher than resident students.















The research in this area of academic achievement and student

residences seems to be inconclusive. Three categories of findings

have been reported. For the first group of research findings the

on-campus dormitory residence is credited with the higher academic

achievement; for the second group of findings the commuters are

reported to have the higher academic achievement; and for the third

group similar academic achievement is indicated for both commuter and

resident students. The literature in the area of academic achievement

following herewith has been organized according to these categories of

findings.

Chickering (1974a), Astin (1973, 1975, 1978), and Levin and

Clowes (1982) have reported higher grade point averages or higher

levels of involvement in intellectual matters for the residents. In

fact, Chickering (1974a) believed that the degree of commuters'

engagement in their academic activities was less than the resident

students. This researcher reported the academic characteristics of

commuters in his study as follows:

commuters who live with their parents more frequently
flunk a course and are on academic probation; they less
frequently take pass-fail courses or participate in an
honors program or ROTC. They frequently study less than
five hours. Compared to dormitory residents, they less
frequently do extra reading, check out a book or journal
from the college library, study in the library, type a
homework assignment, or argue with an instructor in
class; they more frequently fail to complete an
assignment on time and come late to class. They much
less frequently discuss schoolwork with friends or
read books not required for courses. In general,
therefore the students who live at home with their
parents appear to be less fully engaged in academic
activities than their dormitory peers. (p. 61)














Astin (1973, 1975)) also reported positive benefits for the

dormitory students in the area of educational progress. The residents

in his study were more likely to persist in college and to finish

their degrees in 4 years. They were more likely to go to graduate

school and even to earn higher grade point averages when compared with

their commuter colleagues. In one of his works, however, Astin (1978)

was able to detect increase in undergraduate grade point averages

for only the male students living on-campus.

Levin and Clowes's (1982) research yielded results similar to

Astin's. In their study of college persistence and student residence,

Levin and Clowes found 66% of those who resided in housing owned by

the college graduated within 4 years of the enrollment in college,

while 55% of those who lived with their parents did. Academic grade

point and probation were used by Nowack and Hansen (1985) as measures

of academic achievement in their study of 1,302 resident and 740

commuter freshman students. Nowack and Hanson reported higher

academic achievement and lower probation for the resident students.

Nearly 25% of the total residence hall students sampled were placed on

probation while 31% of the non-residence hall students were on

academic probation. The researchers considered the on-campus

residence halls as "favorable environment for facilitating academic

achievement" (p. 26).

Matson (1963) investigated the influence of the different student

housing environment on students' academic abilities. The students














were classified into high, average, and low college potential. The

sample included 1,181 male students who entered Indiana University in

1954. The fraternities were grouped into high, average, and low

prestiges, and their levels of academic achievement were compared with

the residence hall and the off-campus groups. Matson reported the

highest academic potential for the students in the high prestige

fraternities. By the third year of college, the residence hall

students were slightly lower in academic potential than those in high

prestige fraternities. The residence hall group was recorded as

having the same overall academic potential as the middle prestige

fraternities. These two groups were above the off-campus and the low

prestige fraternities in academic potential. The researcher reported

no significant differences among all five groups by the time the

students were in their senior year.

In another study of commuter and resident students' achievement,

Stark (1965) divided the students into four groups according to males

and females in the commuter and residence categories. The researcher

reviewed the students' scores on the Cooperative English Test-Reading:

Comprehension and Vocabulary and found higher scores were obtained by

the two resident groups. Furthermore, Hountras and Brandt (1970)

reported similar findings. The researchers investigated the

relationship between student housing and academic achievement in five

colleges at the University of North Dakota. The study involved 270














full-time male, single undergraduate students enrolled during fall

semester of the 1966-67 academic year. Among all the different

students categorized by residence, the resident students' group had

the highest mean grade point average of 2.57; this group was followed

by students residing at home with 2.34 mean grade point average. The

lowest grade point average (2.30) was earned by the students residing

in off-campus housing.

Hountras and Brandt (1970) concluded that the residence hall was

an important factor in the academic performance of college students.

This was justified by the following explanation:

The fact that residence halls generally provide appropriate
facilities for individual study and relaxation, and that
they are in close proximity to classrooms, laboratories,
and libraries could play important and varying roles in
the motivation of undergraduate students. The planned
cultural and educational programs available to students
residing in residence halls, as well as the ready
accessibility to staff, conceivably are other important
factors contributing to the findings. (p. 353)

The results reported by Smallwood and Klas (1983) also supported

the relationship between on-campus living and higher academic

achievement. Smallwood and Klas (1983) compared 145 male university

students in three types of campus residence halls and off-campus

lodgings (students in the off-campus lodgings were students who had

applied to be in the campus residence hall but were denied due to a

shortage of space). These groups were compared on academic success,

participation in extracurricular activities, study habits and

attitudes, personality factors, and involvement in community affairs.














The students in the three on-campus halls had higher academic

success than those in the off-campus lodgings. When compared on the

Brown-Holtzman Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, the students in

the three on-campus residences had significantly higher scores

relating to study habits and attitudes than students from the

off-campus lodgings.

In all the studies reviewed above the academic achievement of

on-campus residence hall students was higher. However, contrary

findings have been offered by Davis and Caldwell (1977), Bukowski

(1975), Belock (1978), and Chickering and Kuper (1971). In these

studies, the commuters have been reported to possess the higher

academic averages or more positive identification with the

intellectual environment of their colleges.

Davis and Caldwell (1977) compared the commuter and resident

students on their responses to personal, social, and academic

environments. The commuters responded more positively in the area of

academic environment while the resident students responded more

positively in the area of personal and social environment. The

researchers concluded that the commuters identified with the academic

environment of the college while the residents were more involved with

social activities and interpersonal relationships.

Bukowski (1975) studied the freshman commuter and resident

student at Johnson and Wales private business college. Higher grade















point averages were indicated for the commuter students. In spite of

commuters' higher grade point averages, more of these students still

voluntarily withdrew from the college during that same period.

A similar finding has also been reported by Belock (1978).

Comparing the grade point averages of freshman commuter and resident

students for 3 consecutive years at Castleton State College, the

researcher reported significantly higher grade point averages for the

commuters during the 3 years. Consequently, the commuters were

pronounced academically better or equal to their resident

counterparts.

Chickering and Kuper (1971) also indicated increased intellectual

interests for commuters when they were compared with the residents on

the Omnibus Personal Inventory. Clodfelter, Furr, and Wachowiak

(1984) reported similar results to those above. In a research study

of perceived impact of student living environments on academic

performance, 304 students at the University of North Carolina at

Charlotte were studied. The students were asked to rate themselves on

a scale from 1 through 5 (extremely negative--extremely positive) on

the effect of some environmental factors on their academic

performance. The highest mean grade point average (GPA) was 3.25 for

the off-campus married students, the off-campus students living with

parents had a mean GPA of 3.00, the off-campus single students had a

mean GPA of 2.95, the dormitory students had a mean GPA of 2.88, and

the students living in on-campus apartments had a mean GPA of 2.75.













The different off-campus housing groups had higher GPAs than the

on-campus residence students.

In spite of these different findings about the commuters' and

residents' academic achievements, other researchers have reported

findings which have differed from the first two. These researchers

have reported similar academic achievement for both groups of students

(Baird, 1969; Burtner & Tincher, 1979; Dollar, 1966; Dressel & Nisula,

1966; Graff & Cooley, 1970; Mussano, 1976; Prusok & Walsh, 1964; Pugh

& Chamberlain, 1976).

Dressel and Nisula (1966) and Mussano (1976) reported similar GPA

and attrition rates for the commuters and residence students. The

results from Burtner and Tincher's (1979) study showed the Auburn

University commuters and residents to be almost identical in their

grade point averages. Dollar (1966) conducted a research study of

male freshman students at Oklahoma State University during the spring

semester of 1963. No significant differences were indicated among the

students in the three different types of housing. Prusok and Walsh

(1964) also studied the male freshman students at the State University

of Iowa. Comparing the mean adjusted grades of students at fraternity

houses, residence halls, off-campus houses, and students living at

home after the first semester in college, the researchers reported no

significant differences in the adjusted grades of students in these

different housing situations.















In another study by Pugh and Chamberlain (1976), comparisons were

made among students living in the different housing arrangements in

the area of academic achievement. No significant differences were

reported for the students. Baird (1969) compared the traits and

achievements of 2,295 males and 2,834 females in different types of

housing at 29 colleges. The students in this study rated themselves

on 31 traits and 35 life goals. The students also reported on their

college experiences and college average grades. According to the

researcher, the students in the different housing groups rated

themselves similarly on 24 of the 31 self-ratings. No significant

differences were recorded in 31 out of the 35 life goals. The women

residing in off-campus apartments reported the highest corrected mean

GPA.

Finally, Graff and Cooley (1970) found no significant difference

in the achievement of commuter and residence students after they had

completed one semester in college. No significant differences were

identified in the areas of "study skills, practices, planning, and the

use of time" (p. 57).

In summary, the research conducted in the area of academic

achievement and the college living environments is inconclusive,

producing three categories of findings. While some researchers have

reported significant differences among the commuters and the

residents, some have found them to be similar in their academic

achievement.














Extracurricular Activities

Researchers have overwhelmingly attributed involvement in

extracurricular activities with on-campus residence (Astin, 1973,

1978, 1984; Baird, 1969; Baker, 1966; Burtner & Tincher, 1979;

Chickering & Kuper, 1971; Davis and Caldwell, 1977; Smallwood & Klas,

1983; Welty, 1976). In only a few unusual studies, nonsignificant

differences have been found between commuter and resident students'

involvement in extracurricular activities (Foster, Sedlacek, &

Hardwick, 1975).

Commuters have been reported to participate in extracurricular

activities at a lesser degree than their campus resident counterparts,

and even when they do participate their range of activities is said

to be limited in comparison to the on-campus students (Chickering,

1974a; Chickering & Kuper, 1971). These researchers also claimed that

residents were more often in leadership positions than the off-campus

students.

Baird (1969) reached similar conclusions as those presented

above. In a comparative study of students living in different housing

arrangements and their participation in extracurricular activities,

the researchers found that the sorority and fraternity students scored

highest in social involvement and leadership achievement. Fraternity

and sorority students were followed by the residence students on the














same measures. The students living at home and those in off-campus

housing scored the lowest in their involvement in extracurricular

activities.

Welty (1976) and Davis and Caldwell (1977) provided further

evidence in their studies to support findings of more active

participation of dormitory residents in extracurricular activities.

Similarly, Smallwood and Klas (1983) found the students residing in

campus housing were significantly more involved in extracurricular

activities. They participated more in voluntary extracurricular

activities when compared to the students living in the off-campus

lodgings. Burtner and Tincher (1979) concurrently offered results

indicating commuters' lack of involvement and less satisfaction in the

area of social lives when compared with the resident students at

Auburn University. According to these researchers, "less than 20% of

these [the commuter] students engaged in many extracurricular

activities" (p. 23).

Contrary to the consensus findings of the researchers as

discussed above, Stark (1965) and Foster et al. (1975) reported no

significant differences for commuters and residents in the area of

extracurricular participation. Stark (1965) studied the differences

in the needs and problems of freshmen resident and commuter students

at a large, private, non-sectarian university. No significant

difference was reported for these two groups of students in their














involvement in extracurricular activities with "an average week in the

spring semester" (p. 280).

The research of Foster et al. (1975) was based on expected

behaviors and attitudes of incoming freshman students. The result of

her study was an anticipated involvement of the students and not an

actual participation. The actual experiences of these students could

be expected to be different from their anticipated behaviors.

Most of the researchers in this area agreed with the conclusion

of Dressel and Nisula (1966) that "commuters are to some extent

detached from campus life" (p. 45) and probably may be restricted in

their involvement in extracurricular activities.

Student/Faculty Interaction

The informal after class interaction between students and faculty

has been acclaimed by many researchers as an important factor

contributing to the students' intellectual, social, and personal

development during their undergraduate education (Chickering &

McCormic, 1973; Pascarella, 1980; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1976, 1978;

Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980; Wilson, 1974). The researchers

in this area have linked frequent and high quality student/faculty

interaction positively with students' intellectual, social, and

emotional development (Endo & Harpel, 1982; Pascarella & Terenzini,

1978).

Feldman and Newcomb (1969) summarized a series of studies on the

sources of influence in the students' lives. Their overall conclusion














was that students considered the faculty members to be more

influential than their peers in the areas of intellectual

development and occupational and career choices. There is a general

consensus that the faculty members act as a powerful force to shape

the students' intellectual and academic abilities.

The students' frequent faculty/student interaction has also been

positively related with the students' general satisfaction with their

total undergraduate education (Astin, 1978, 1984; Endo & Harpel, 1982;

Pascarella, 1980). According to Astin (1978),

frequent interaction with faculty is more strongly related
to satisfaction with college than any other type of
involvement or, indeed, any other student or institutional
characteristic. Students who interact frequently with
faculty members are more likely than other students to
express satisfaction with all aspects of their
institutional experience, including student friendships,
variety of courses, intellectual environment, and even
the administration of the institution. (p. 304)

The studies in the area of student/faculty informal interaction

can be grouped into two major areas. The research with the emphasis

on the impact of the relationship on students' outcomes such as

intellectual, social, and personal development; and the studies in

which commuters and resident students are compared on their general

interactions with faculty members. This section of the review of

literature is organized into these two areas.

Students' Outcomes

Endo and Harpel (1982) studied the effect of student/faculty

interaction on students' educational outcomes after 4 years in














college. The researchers affirmed the positive influence of student/

faculty interaction on intellectual, personal, and social outcomes of

students. Also, positive effects of frequent informal student/

faculty relationships were indicated on the overall satisfaction of

students' college experiences.

Pascarella and Terenzini (1978) reported a "modest statistically

significant association" between student/faculty informal

relationships and student self-perceived intellectual and personal

development. In Pascarella and Terenzini's work of 1976, the

researchers classified the freshmen studied into high, moderate, and

low interactors. According to their results, the high and moderate

interactors had a more positive view of their academic experiences

than the low interactors.

Pascarella and Terenzini (1976), Astin (1975), and Pascarella

(1980) noted a positive association of student/faculty interaction and

students' persistence in college. The conclusion from these studies

was that students who interact more frequently with their faculty

members have a greater chance of persisting in college.

Some researchers have further classified the interaction between

student and faculty members into quality and quantity of contacts

(Endo & Harpel, 1982; Pascarella, 1980; Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980).

Pascarella and Terenzini have conducted extensive research in this

area. In one of their studies (Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980), they














found that quality of students' contact with the faculty members was

only related to personal and intellectual development. According to

Terenzini and Pascarella,

frequency of contact to obtain course or academic
information was positively associated with intellectual
development while frequency of contact with faculty to
socialize informally was positively associated with the
personal development scale. (p. 526)

Endo and Harpel (1982) also classified student/faculty contacts

into "mere frequency" and "quality" of interactions. Mere frequency

of contact was reported as not adequate to bring about influence in

students' lives while quality of informal interaction was credited

with the effects on a student's life.

Wilson (1974) not only identified students as those that can

benefit from the student/faculty relationship but also the faculty

members who were more likely to be "very satisfied" with the

stimulation they received from the students. The researcher suggested

"that the out-of-class interaction may also increase faculty's

knowledge about their students' academic strengths, weaknesses,

interests, problems, and perspectives" (p. 88). The benefits of

student/faculty relationships as suggested by Wilson are not for

students only but for both the students and the faculty members.

Residence Location Factors

When resident and commuter students have been compared on

student/faculty interaction, the results have almost always favored














the resident students. The researchers have found the on-campus

students' close proximity to the faculty to be an advantage to

dormitory students (Astin, 1973, 1978, 1984, 1985; Chickering, 1974a;

Pascarella, 1980, 1984, 1985).

Chickering (1974a) found that the commuters' contacts with

faculty members were less than those of the resident students. Astin

(1978) also related closeness to faculty members positively to

on-campus living. Pascarella (1985) indicated that living on-campus

was significantly and positively related to students' involvement with

the faculty members and student peers. In his study, he established

that living on-campus was an indirect college influence that is

mediated through other influences such as faculty members'

interactions and peer relationships.

Pascarella (1984) affirmed the positive significant direct

effects of dormitory living on social integration with faculty and

peers. According to him, "living on-campus had its strongest

influence in the areas of fostering interaction with peers and

faculty" (p. 257). Pascarella (1984) and Lacy (1978) also supported

other researchers who found the influence of college environment to be

indirectly mediated through interactions with college significant

figures like faculty members and students' peers.

Graff and Cooley (1970) presented findings different from those

described above. No significant difference was found between














commuters and residents relative to their relationships among their

faculty members and peers. It should be noted, however, that the

interaction of students and faculty members in this particular

research was based on the students first semester in college. The

researchers have supported overwhelmingly the positive influence of

residence living on student/faculty interaction. No negative evidence

was found in the literature review.

The research findings in the area of student/faculty interaction

have been further classified according to purposes: those based on

discussions of academic and intellectual matters and those based on

social and personal discussions (Iverson, Pascarella, Terenzini, 1984;

Pascarella, 1980; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1978; Terenzini &

Pascarella, 1980).

In Pascarella and Terenzini's (1978) study, the student/faculty

interaction that focused on intellectual or course-related matters was

reported as one with the strongest association. This type of

interaction was significantly related to the students' academic

performance.

Iverson et al. (1984) studied commuter informal contact with

faculty members. The commuters' most common contacts with faculty

members were also noted to be for academic purposes.

In summary, researchers have suggested the interaction between

students and faculty members to be a desirable college influence which














yields intellectual, social, and personal development in the students.

These researchers have positively linked these relationships with the

students' general satisfaction with college experience and persistence

in college. Most of the researchers have attested to the positive

association of dormitory living and student/faculty interaction.

However, some of the researchers have also suggested that the

influence of dormitory living was not a direct one; rather it was an

indirect effect mediated through faculty and peer interactions.

Peer Relationships

Peer relationships and faculty interaction are two influences

that researchers have found to be responsible for mediating other

college effects such as living on-campus and student development

(Lacy, 1978; Pascarella, 1984, 1985; Welty, 1976).

Lacy (1978) found that faculty influence on students was of more

limited value than that of the students' peers. The students' peers

have been reported to be a powerful influence on the social and

personal development of students. According to Tinto's (1975)

research, students' social integration in college occurs through

faculty members, peer relationships, and extracurricular activities.

In his theoretical model of college drop-outs, the author regarded

successful social integration as one of the essential elements that

increases student persistence in college.














Feldman and Newcomb (1969) summarized the research on the

influences of faculty and peers on students. The students' peers were

regarded as being more influential than the faculty members in the

areas of social and interpersonal development. Also, Chickering and

McCormic (1973) have expressed views similar to the research findings

in the area of peer relationships. The authors believed that a

"student's personal development in college is influenced by diversity

and frequency of contact between faculty and students" (p. 66).

In spite of the inconclusive evidence of the effect of on-campus

living on certain college impacts, on-campus residence halls have been

shown to be a conducive college environment, fostering faculty/student

and student/peer relationships, and students' involvement in

extracurricular activities (Chickering, 1967, 1974a; Pascarella, 1984,

1985; Welty, 1976). Astin (1973) indicated that dormitory living

"increased the chances that students would be satisfied with their

overall undergraduate experience, particularly in the area of

interpersonal contacts with faculty and other students" (p. 207).

Most researchers who have compared the resident and off-campus

students on their interaction with peers attributed on-campus

residence positively to students' friendships (Astin, 1973, 1975,

1978; Chickering, 1974a; Davis & Caldwell, 1977; Pascarella, 1984,

1985). According to Welty (1976), the dormitory students established














more friendships with other students at college during the freshman

year.

Davis and Caldwell (1977) also associated more interpersonal

relationships with the resident students when compared with their

counterparts. Similarly, residents have been found to depend more on

peers for help and psychological support while the commuters depend

mostly on themselves for such support. Bishop and Synder (1976)

reported on the perceptions of commuters and residents on pressures,

helps, and psychological services on their college campus. The

residents indicated that they depended on friends as their number one

source of help, while the commuters' number one source of help was

self and "others" (p. 235).

Other researchers have reported different findings. Graff and

Cooley (1970) and Dollar (1966) have indicated no significant

differences in the relationships of commuter and resident students

with their peers. In his study, Dollar (1966) measured the

interpersonal relationships of male freshman students at Oklahoma

State University during the spring semester of 1963. The researcher

found no significant differences among the residents, fraternity, and

off-campus male students at this institution.

Significant differences have been reported far more often in the

area of students' peer relationships than have findings of no















significant differences. When significant differences were found,

they were in favor of residence living.

The characteristics of commuter and resident students'

friendships have been further analyzed to depict the nature of

occurrences (Dressel & Nisula, 1966; Flanagan, 1975; Grobman, 1980;

Reichard & McArver, 1975). Some researchers have indicated that the

commuters' relationships with their fellow students were of a limited

nature (Chickering, 1974a; Welty, 1976). Also, the commuters'

friendships have been reported to be mostly with neighbors and other

people not associated with the college. The commuters continued to

maintain high school friendships while their residential counterparts

developed new friendships at the college (Dressel & Nisula, 1966;

Flanagan, 1975; Reichard & McArver, 1975).

In summary, the research in the area of peer relationships has

been favorable towards the on-campus residents. The living

environment of the residents has exposed them to new friendships and

relationships that the commuters have not been exposed to due to their

staying away from the college campus.

College Satisfaction

Many of the researchers who have compared the college

satisfaction of commuters and residents have shown evidence of a

positive relationship between on-campus living and college

satisfaction (Astin, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1984; Baird, 1969; Chickering,














1974a; Davis & Caldwell, 1977). According to Astin (1978), the

residents in his study expressed "much more satisfaction with

undergraduate experience, particularly in the areas of student

friendships, faculty/student relations, institutional reputation, and

social life" (p. 221).

Baird (1969) also indicated that the commuters were more

dissatisfied with their college when compared with their resident

counterparts. In this study, the commuters showed evidence of not

being as satisfied as the residents. Davis and Caldwell (1977)

provided further evidence to support the positive relationship of

on-campus living and college satisfaction. In an inter-campus study

of students at two different residential and commuter institutions,

Davis and Caldwell (1977) reported that 76.4% of the resident students

showed satisfaction with their university selection, while only 58.2%

of the commuters did. Also, a higher percentage of the residents felt

that they were given a good education at their institution. In their

conclusion, the researchers wrote that

a greater percentage of the residential students felt
that they had received a good education and a socially
rewarding experience that prepared them for understanding
the world today. Residential students were pleased with
their choice of university and felt that the university
had provided them with the opportunity to be part of the
decision-making process. (p. 289)

Pascarella (1984) and Hardy (1973), however, presented a

different finding from those discussed above. After holding the

students' background characteristics and institutional control














constant, Pascarella (1984) declared that the effect of on-campus

living was indirectly related to the general college satisfaction of

students. According to Pascarella, the effect of on-campus living on

degree aspirations and general college satisfaction was mediated

through students' relationships with faculty members and peers.

Hardy (1973) compared the commuter and resident students of North

Texas State University in regard to their satisfaction with the

university administration. The commuters in this study were

significantly more satisfied than the residents. Hardy also indicated

no significant difference between the two groups when they were

compared on their satisfaction with faculty members.

In summary, the research in the area of college satisfaction has

suggested differences in the commuters and residents. More evidence

tends to link positively college satisfaction with on-campus living.

It appears that on-campus resident students are more satisfied with

their college selection, and their general on-campus experience.

Summary

In this chapter, an overview of the research has been provided in

the area of students' residence and its relationship to student

involvement in college activities. The literature reviewed has

produced varied and inconclusive results that can be classified into

three groups. Some researchers have showed differences in the

involvement of commuters and residents while other researchers














reported similarities in their involvement in college activities. The

researchers who have claimed differences in the involvement of

commuter and resident students have further reported contrary

findings. Some have reported positive relationships between on-campus

living and involvement while others have reported positive

relationships between off-campus living and involvement.

In spite of these varied results, the majority of the researchers

have suggested specific differences in the involvement of commuters

and residents in many college activities that are deemed to be

important factors in the total educational program.

















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY



The procedure for carrying out the study of the relationship

between Nigerian students' involvement in college and their on-campus

or off-campus residency status was briefly described in Chapter I.

Chapter III contains further elaboration on this. The contents of

Chapter III include the research design, site selection, procedure for

selection of subjects, and statistical analysis for the collected

data.

Research Design

This research was focused on the differences of on-campus and

off-campus students in several aspects of college life. Residence

was an attribute variable that could not be manipulated by the

researcher. Thus, an ex post facto design was selected as appropriate

for this study involving residence location that had been determined

prior to the research.

The ex post facto design has two main weaknesses: (a) the

inability of the researcher to manipulate the independent variables and

(b) the lack of randomization or the problem of subjects'

self-selection. In ex post facto research, the subjects have already

been assigned into categories (commuter/resident); hence the














researcher cannot randomly assign the students into these groups.

According to Kerlinger (1986),

subjects can "assign themselves" to groups, can "select
themselves" into groups on the basis of characteristics
other than those in which the investigator may be
interested. The subjects and treatments come, as it
were, already assigned to groups. (p. 349)

Setting

Two universities in the southwestern part of Nigeria were

selected as the sites for the research. The University of Ibadan and

the University of Lagos were chosen because of factors relevant to

this study. Paramount was the history of both institutions.

University education started in Nigeria, in 1948, with the

establishment of the predecessor of the University of Ibadan, which

was then called University College Ibadan. Prior to the creation of

the college, Nigerian college aspirants had traveled outside the

country to obtain a college education. The founding of this first

institution at Ibadan, therefore, opened up university opportunities

in the nation.

The University College Ibadan inherited the collegiate system

from London University. The college was founded as a residential

institution. During its early years, all the students lived in the

dormitories with housemasters/mistresses and later with their wardens.

This 100% residential nature continued until the 1960s when the

institutional leaders were forced to change the residential policy to

accommodate nonresidential students (Ajayi & Tamuno, 1973).














In 1988, the University of Ibadan operated as an institution

for both residential and nonresidential students. In fact, the

institution had a residential policy that allowed students to live the

first and last years on-campus and the 2 middle years in off-campus

housing.

The University of Lagos had a history different from that of the

University of Ibadan. The Ashby Commission, which recommended the

creation of the institution, conceived an "urban non-residential

institution" (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1963, p. 13). This idea of

a purely nonresidential university was later modified to provide for

40% campus residential accommodation for the students (Federal

Republic of Nigeria, 1963; Yesufu, 1973). The University of Lagos was

finally created in 1962, as a partially residential institution.

In 1988, the university had an elaborate residential policy

comparable to that of the University of Ibadan.

The two universities in the study were conceived with different

residential concepts but were later changed to accommodate both

residential and commuter students.

The Universities of Ibadan and Lagos were selected to be in this

study because they are both located in metropolitan areas. In Ibadan

and Lagos, private off-campus housing and public transportation are

easier to find for the off-campus students than is the case with other

universities located in smaller cities in Nigeria. This environmental














condition helped to provide a sufficient number of both kinds of

students to permit comparing off-campus and resident students.

Furthermore, the two institutions used in this study were chosen

because each had a residence policy that required students to live

on-campus and off-campus during certain academic years.

The different conditions of students commuting should be borne in

mind whenever Nigerian university students' residence is considered in

light of counterpart students in American universities. The students

in Nigeria were most likely chose to live in off-campus housing for

one of two main reasons: (a) university regulation that allows only

certain student classifications to live on-campus during their

academic years and (b) dormitory space that is limited. Since

university education was free in Nigeria, the students did not face

the problem of financing their education as do most students in

American universities. The cost of university education including

that of living in the dormitory was minimal for Nigerian students.

For example, in Nigeria, university tuition was free and students in

the universities' residence halls paid lodging fees of about N91

($21.00) per academic year (personal communication with students and

university administrator).

The different cultures surrounding the students in Nigeria and

American universities should also be considered when evaluating the

residence issue. In Nigeria, it was more convenient for students to

live on-campus; in fact most student lived off-campus not because they

wanted to, but because of circumstances such as those mentioned above.














The condition of not wanting to live off-campus has led many Nigerian

students to live illegally in campus dormitories with their friends

(Oduleye, 1985).

Commuting presented Nigerian students with a different kind of

problem from that experienced by many American student commuters. In

Nigeria, students who lived far from the university campus relied

almost totally on public transportation to get to the campus from

their off-campus residence; they had less access than American

students to personal automobiles.

The different environmental conditions of Nigerian and American

university students described above are not exhaustive but reflect

differences in their respective cultures.

Sample Selection

The on-campus sample from the University of Lagos was selected

from the lists of dormitory students provided by the student affairs

office of the university. The university leaders did not have any

official list of its off-campus students; therefore the off-campus

group was selected from two main academic faculties. The students

from the Faculty of Arts were students in classes that were required

to be taken during the students' off-campus years. Students from the

Faculty of Sciences were those who responded to the notices sent to

the off-campus students by the faculty. Fifty on-campus female

students and 50 on-campus male students were chosen randomly from the













University of Lagos to take part in the study. Fifty questionnaires

were given out at the Faculty of Arts and 50 more were distributed at

the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Lagos.

The University of Ibadan sample included students from four main

departments: Mathematics, Education, Foreign Languages, and Classics.

Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students from these

four departments. The students from both universities were at the 200

(sophomore), 300 (junior), and 400 (senior) levels.

Out of the 400 questionnaires distributed to students, 148

usable questionnaires were returned by students at the University of

Lagos, while the students from the University of Ibadan submitted 156

usable questionnaires. The total number of questionnaires subject to

study was 304.

Procedure for Data Collection

Questionnaires were administered by the researcher and were

collected directly from the subjects. The data obtained through the

questionnaires consisted of (a) students' demographic data (age, sex,

home state, and academic classification), (b) data related to

students' residence locations, (c) students' friendships, (d)

student/faculty relationships, (e) students' participation in

extracurricular activities, (f) students' academic achievement and

activities (study hours, study places, study partners, library usage,

and grade point averages), and (g) students' satisfaction with

college. (See the appendix for a copy of the questionnaire.)














Statistical Analysis of Data

The data collected for this study of relationships between

Nigerian university students' involvement in college and their type of

residence were of both qualitative and quantitative natures. The

chi-square test for independent samples was used to analyze the

nominal data, and the t-test for statistical significance of

differences was used for the data collected in interval form.

The students' information on age, gender, and place of residence

were analyzed descriptively by percentages. The data on grade point

averages, study hours, and the number of hours spent in the library

per week were analyzed by t-tests.

Chi-square analysis for independent samples was used to analyze

the nominal data related to students' study places, partners, and

friendships; satisfaction of students with the college experience; and

student/faculty relationships. Chi-square test also was used to

analyze grouped data averaging the hours of involvement of students in

club/organization activities.

All the data in the study were analyzed with the use of the

micro-computer software package called Microstat by Ecosoft. Alpha

was set at .10 and was used as the basis for rejecting the null

hypotheses.

The 12 specific null hypotheses which follow were developed from

the various research questions in Chapter I.















Hypothesis 1. There are no differences between the academic

achievement and activities of Nigerian university off-campus and

on-campus students.

Hypothesis 2. There is no difference between the Nigerian

university off-campus and on-campus students' participation in

clubs and organizations.

Hypothesis 3. There is no difference between the number of

hours that the off-campus and on-campus students spend in

extracurricular activities per week.

Hypothesis 4. There is no difference between the Nigerian

off-campus and on-campus students' types of friendships made

during their undergraduate education.

Hypothesis 5. There is no difference in general satisfaction

with college between the Nigerian university off-campus and

on-campus students.

Hypothesis 6. There is no difference in the area of student/

faculty relationships between Nigerian university off-campus and

on-campus students.

Hypothesis 6a. There is no difference between the frequency

of informal meetings of the Nigerian off-campus and on-campus

students with their faculty members.

Hypothesis 6b. There is no difference between the frequency

of informal discussion of class/course or intellectual problems














of the Nigerian university off-campus and on-campus students with

their faculty members.

Hypothesis 6c. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings with faculty

members to receive academic advice.

Hypothesis 6d. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal academic advice

received from their faculty members.

Hypothesis 6e. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings to discuss

future careers with faculty members.

Hypothesis 6f. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings to discuss

personal problems with faculty members.

Hypothesis 6g. There is no difference between the off-campus and

on-campus students' frequency of informal discussion about

social, political, or campus issues with faculty members.

Hypotheses 2 through 6g and part of hypothesis 1 were analyzed with

the chi-square method; other parts of hypotheses 1 were tested by the

t-test statistical method.

Summary

This chapter contained a description of the students that were

involved in this study, the methods that were used in selecting these











62



students, the specific null hypotheses to be tested, the research

design, and the statistical methods used in analyzing the collected

data.

















CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OF THE STUDY



Introduction

The study was designed to investigate the differences between

on-campus and off-campus Nigerian students' involvement in selected

academic and extracurricular activities. The sample population

included in the study was selected from the University of Ibadan and

the University of Lagos, both located in the country of Nigeria. The

sample included students from these two universities who resided in

on-campus residence halls and students who lived off-campus and

commuted.

In order to determine the difference between the on-campus and

off-campus students' involvement in total university programs, six

research questions were posed and stated in Chapter I. These

questions were further developed into 12 null hypotheses and stated in

Chapter III. The null hypotheses were tested for each university

sample and the two samples combined when the data were comparable and

the results are presented within this chapter. The chapter also

includes the characteristics of the respondents based on a descriptive

analysis of the data from 156 usable questionnaires returned by the

University of Ibadan students and 148 usable questionnaires returned

by the University of Lagos students.














Description of the Sample

One hundred and fifty-six questionnaires were analyzed that were

completed by the University of Ibadan students. One hundred and

twenty-three (80.39%) of these were male students and 30 (19.61%)

were female students. Of the total respondents, 128 (82%) were living

in on-campus residence halls and 28 (18%) were off-campus resident

students. According to the university administrators, about 50% of

the total university population was legally assigned to on-campus

residence halls, but in actuality this percentage was increased to

about 90% by the many students who managed to live illegally in the

dormitories through a method popularly known by the students as

"squatting." This'group of students was excluded from the sample

population.

The distribution of the ages of University of Ibadan students

that were included in the study is presented in Table 1. Over 96% of

the students from the University of Ibadan 30 years of age or younger;

about 32% were in the 19-21 years category, about 42% in the 22-24

years of age bracket, and about 21% claimed to be in the 25-30 years

group. About 76% of these students were less than 25 years of age

which was the typical college age group.

For the University of Lagos, 148 questionnaires were analyzed.

Out of this total number, 147 responded to the item on gender.

Eighty-six students (58.50%) were males and 61 (41.50%) were















females. The residence location of those included in the study

were 99 (66.89%) on-campus resident students and 49 (33.11%)

off-campus students.


Table 1

Ages of Sample Population from the University of Ibadan



Ages Frequency Percentage


16-18 years 4 2.56

19-21 years 50 32.05

22-24 years 65 41.67

25-30 years 32 20.51

over 30 years 5 3.21

Total 156 100.00




The ages of University of Lagos' sample were similar to their

counterparts at the University of Ibadan. The distribution of the

ages of these students is presented in Table 2. About 98% of the

students were 30 years old or younger. Almost 45% of all the students

indicated that they were in the 19-21 years old bracket. While about

36% reported ages in the 22-24 years category. In total, 82% of the

University of Lagos sample fell into the typical college age bracket

of 16-24 years.















Table 2

Ages of Sample Population from the University of Lagos


Ages Frequency Percentage


16-18 years 3 2.03

19-21 years 66 44.59

22-24 years 53 35.81

25-30 years 23 15.54

over 30 years 3 2.03

Total 148 100.00



Three hundred and four usable questionnaires were analyzed for

the total respondents from the two universities. The breakdown of the

students' genders, ages, and residences is presented in Tables 3, 4,

and 5.


Table 3

Gender of


Total Respondents from Both Universities


Gender Frequency Percentage


Males 209 69.7

Females 91 30.3

Total 300 100.00


- -














Four students did not respond to the question item on gender.

For the total sample, 69.7% were male students while approximately 30%

of the students were females.


Table 4

Ages of All Student Respondents from Both Universities



Ages Frequency Percentage


16-18 years 7 2.3

19-21 years 116 28.2

22-24 years 118 38.8

25-30 years 55 18.1

over 30 years 8 2.6

Total 304 100.0



In the combined data, almost 70% fell into the typical college

age bracket of 16-24 years old. Of this group, about 28% were in

the 19-21 years bracket, and about 39% were in the 22-24 years of age

category. In all, 88% were 30 years old or younger.

Almost 75% of the students who participated in this research were

on-campus resident students while about 25% were students who resided

off-campus.















Table 5

Residence Locations for Total Respondents from Both Universities



Residence Frequency Percentage


On-Campus 227 74.7

Off-Campus 77 25.3

Total 304 100.0



Most of the students who took part in the study were in their

third or fourth year of their college education. For the University

of Ibadan, almost 53% of the students were in the third year and about

37% were in their fourth year. At the University of Lagos, almost 15%

of the students were in their third year while 68% were fourth year

students.

Based on the tabulations for the off-campus respondents it was

found that 72% of University of Ibadan students had lived in

on-campus residences before, while 75% of the University of Lagos

off-campus students had prior on-campus living experiences. When

these commuters were asked the most important reason why they moved to

off-campus residences, the majority of the students indicated the

university regulation and law; about 42% of the students from the

University of Ibadan gave this reason, while about 56% of the

University of Lagos students did. This tabulation is presented in

Table 6.














Table 6

The Most Important Reason Why Students Resided Off-Campus



Reasons Ibadan Students Lagos Students


University regulation/law 42.11 56.41

Financial reasons 26.32 .00

To be with off-campus friends 5.26 .00

To be with parents/relatives .00 .00

Lack of satisfaction 15.79 12.82

Marriage 5.26 2.56

Other 5.26 28.21

Total 100.00 100.00



The commuter respondents were asked the distance of their

residence from their university campus. Presented in Table 7 are the

percentage distributions of distance to commuters' residences from

their respective college campuses.

At the University of Ibadan, about 35% of the commuters lived

less than 1 mile from their campus and about 43% lived from 3.5

through 5.45 miles away from campus. This was unlike the University

of Lagos commuters where the majority (72.34%) lived from 5.5 through

more than 10 miles away. These commuters also responded to the

question item on their means of transportation to their campuses.

Shown in Table 8 is the percentage breakdown of their responses.














Table 7

Percentage Distribution of Commuters' Distances to


Residences


Distance to Residence Ibadan Students Lagos Students


Less than 1 mile 34.78 8.51

1 to 3.45 miles 43.48 14.89

3.5 to 5.45 miles 8.70 4.26

5.5 to 7.45 miles 4.32 12.77

7.5 to 10 miles 8.70 17.02

More than 10 miles .00 42.55

Total 99.98 100.00




Table 8

Percentage Distribution of Commuters Means of Transportation



Means of Transportation Ibadan Students Lagos Students


Walk 73.91 4.08

Drive personal car 13.04 8.16

Ride bicycle/motorcycle .00 .00

Ride public transportation 13.04 83.67

Other .00 4.08

Total 99.99 99.99















The majority of the University of Ibadan commuters (73.91%)

walked to campus while 13.04% rode public transportation. The

University of Lagos students had a reversed situation: 83.67% of the

commuters rode public transportation to campus while only 4.08%

walked.

All the students were asked about their most desirable residence

and the location of their after-class activities. The tables below

contain percentage breakdowns of their responses.


Table 9

Percentage Distribution of Students Most Desirable Residences



On-Campus Off-Campus
Students Ibadan Lagos Ibadan Lagos


On-Campus 92.86 95.65 7.41 4.35

Off-Campus 60.00 95.56 40.00 4.44



For the University of Ibadan students, 92.86% of students

residing on-campus indicated the on-campus location as the most

desirable residence while 60% of those students residing off-campus

indicated the on-campus location as the most desirable. At the

University of Lagos, 95.65% of the students residing on-campus favored

on-campus residence and 95.56% of the students residing off-campus

also favored on-campus housing. There was a higher percentage of

on-campus residence preference among the University of Lagos students.














Table 10

Percentage Distribution of the Locations of Students' After-Class
Activities



Locations of Activities
On-Campus Off-Campus Equally Divided
Students Ibadan Lagos Ibadan Lagos Ibadan Lagos


On-Campus 89.92 79.17 3.36 4.17 6.72 16.67

Off-Campus 73.08 65.96 19.23 14.89 7.69 19.15



About 90% of the University of Ibadan on-campus students claimed

that their after-class activities were held on-campus, while about 73%

of the off-campus students indicated the same. For the University of

Lagos on-campus students, about 79% had their after-class activities

on campus, while almost 66% of the off-campus students indicated their

after-class activities were also on-campus.

Test of Hypothesis One

Ho 1: There are no differences between the academic achievement

and activities of Nigerian university off-campus and

on-campus students.

Part of hypothesis was tested with a t-test for independent samples.

The analysis of University of Ibadan's students academic grade point

averages yielded a t-value of -0.23 which was not significant at the

.10 level of probability. The t-value for the University of Lagos

data was 1.79 and was found to be significant at the .08 level of

probability. This part of the null hypothesis was retained for the















University of Ibadan resident and non-resident students but was

rejected for the University of Lagos students. For the University of

Ibadan resident and non-resident students, the analysis of their

academic grade point averages reflected comparable academic

achievement for both groups. However, the analysis of the University

of Lagos' data indicated a significantly different academic

achievement for on-campus and off-campus students. The on-campus

students were found to achieve academically higher than the off-campus

students; their mean academic grade point average was 2.44 while it

was 2.13 for the off-campus students. The results of the analysis for

the University of Ibadan students are presented in Table 11 and those

of the University of Lagos students appear in Table 12.


Table 11

Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Ibadan Students



On-Campus Students Off-Campus Students


Mean = 4.76 4.85

Std.Dev. = 0.45 0.95

N = 123 28

t-value = -0.23

df = 149

Prob. = NS.















Table 12

Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Lagos Students



On-Campus Students Off-Campus Students


Mean = 2.44 2.13

Std.Dev. = 0.62 0.91

N = 86 40

t-value = 1.79

df = 124

Prob. = .08

Significant at .08 prob. level.



The null hypothesis could not be tested for the combined data

from the two universities because of noncomparable grade point average

scales.

The researcher also investigated, as part of the hypothesis,

other variables that were seen as closely associated with academic

achievement. The t-test for independent samples was used to analyze

the difference between the on-campus and off-campus students' study

hours and library usage. The t-test for the average study hours and

library hours per week yielded t-values that were not significant at

the .10 level of probability for either the University of Ibadan or

the University of Lagos students.















The University of Ibadan results reflected a t-value of 0.08 with

means of 5.13 for the study hours of on-campus students and 5.08

for the off-campus students. Shown in Table 13 are the results

for the University of Ibadan students' study hours.


Table 13

Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University of Ibadan


On-Campus Students


Off-Campus Students


Mean =

Std.Dev. =

N

t-value =

df

Prob.

Not significant at .10 prob.


5.13

2.66

119

0.083

143

0.4669

level.


5.08

3.02

26


The t-value for average number of hours spent in the library per

week was 0.22 with means of 15.15 for the on-campus resident students

and 14.54 for the off-campus students. The results of the analysis

follow in Table 14.

For the University of Lagos students, the t-value for the average

study hours per week was -1.05 with means of 4.97 for the on-campus















Table 14

Differences in Reported Hours in Library of Students at
the University of Ibadan


=


On-Campus Students


Mean

Std.Dev.

N

t-value


Off-Campus Students


15.15

12.46

112

0.2269

134


Prob. = .4

Not significant at .10 prob. level.


14.54

9.12

24


104


Table 15

Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University of Lagos


On-Campus Students


Mean

Std.Dev.


4.97

2.79


Off-Campus Students


5.61

3.79

36


t-value = -1.053

df = 124

Prob. = .1473

Not significant at .10 prob. level.














resident students and 5.61 for the non-resident students. Presented

in Table 15 are the results of the analysis.

The t-value for the average hours students from the University of

Lagos spent in the library per week was -0.71. The means for the

on-campus and off-campus students were 14.10 and 15.53, respectively.

The results of the t-test analysis are presented in Table 16.



Table 16

Differences in Reported Hours in Library of Students at
the University of Lagos



On-Campus Students Off-Campus Students


Mean = 14.06 15.53

Std.Dev. = 10.66 11.06

N = 83 40

t-value = -0.7053

df = 121

Prob. = .2410

Not significant at .10 prob. level.




The analysis of the weekly hours spent in the library for both

university samples combined also yielded a nonsignificant t-value of














-0.2860, with the mean of off-campus students slightly higher than

that of the on-campus students. This analysis is presented in Table

17.



Table 17

Differences in Reported Library Hours of Students from
Both Universities


On-Campus


14.6872

11.7135

195

-.2860

257

.3876


Off-Campus


15.1563

10.3083

64


The t-test analysis on the combined weekly study hours resulted

in a nonsignificant t-value of -0.7858. The mean was 5.0574 for the

on-campus and 5.3871 for the off-campus students. This analysis is

shown below in Table 18


Mean

Std.Dev.

N

t-value

df

Prob.















Table 18

Differences in Reported Study Hours of Students from
Both Universities



On-Campus Off-Campus


Mean = 5.0574 5.3871

Std.Dev. = 2.7115 3.4705

N = 209 62

t-value = -0.7858

df = 269

Prob. = .2163





Chi-square tests were used to analyze the differences between

on-campus and off-campus students' study partners and study places.

The results of these analyses are presented in Tables 19 through 24.

No significant differences were found between the on-campus and

off-campus students and their study partners. The analysis showed

that most of the on-campus and off-campus students studied most of the

time alone.

The chi-square analysis done on the study places of students from

both the University of Ibadan and the University of Lagos students

yielded no significant differences. The result indicated that both














on-campus and off-campus students of the two institutions used their

library most of the time to study.



Table 19

Students' Study Partners at the University of Ibadan



Study Partner

Students Alone Friends Total


On-Campus 81 36 117

Off-Campus 21 5 26

Total 102 41 143

Chi-square = 0.95 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Table 20

Students' Study Places at the University of Ibadan



Students Library Bedroom Lecture Room Classroom Other Total


On-Campus 53 34 7 11 12 117

Off-Campus 15 4 0 3 3 25

Total 68 38 7 14 15 142

Chi-square = 4.24 (df=4)
Not significant at the .10 prob. level.














Table 21

Students' Study Partners at the University of Lagos


Study Partner

Students Alone Friends Total


On-Campus 51 40 91

Off-Campus 28 15 43

Total 79 55 134

Chi-square = 1.27 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Table 22

Students' Study Places at the University of Lagos



Students Library Bedroom Lecture Room Classroom Other Total


On-Campus 32 28 5 15 10 90

Off-Campus 23 10 3 5 4 45

Total 55 38 8 20 14 135

Chi-square = 4.31 (df=4)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.














Table 23

Students' Study Partners at the Combined Universities


Study Partner

Students Alone Friends Total


On-Campus 132 76 208

Off-Campus 49 20 69

Total 181 96 277

Chi-square = 1.37 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Table 24

Students' Study Places at the Combined Universities



Students Library Bedroom Lecture Room Classroom Other Total


On-Campus 85 62 12 26 22 207

Off-Campus 38 14 3 8 7 70

Total 123 76 15 34 29 277

Chi-square = 4.36 (df=4)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.















In brief, there were no significant differences between the

on-campus and off-campus students in their study patterns as reflected

by their average study hours per week, study partners, study places,

and average number of hours spent in the library per week. The

resident and non-resident students of each university were comparable

on all related academic variables tested in this study. The only

significant difference found in the analyses for this first hypothesis

was a difference in the academic grade point averages of on-campus and

off-campus students at the University of Lagos. Therefore, the null

hypothesis was retained for the academic achievement and all academic

related variables for the University of Ibadan. For the University of

Lagos, the null hypothesis was retained for all the academic related

variables but was rejected for the academic achievement of the

students.

Test of Hypothesis Two

Ho 2: There is no difference between the Nigerian

university off-campus and on-campus students'

participation in clubs and organizations.

This hypothesis was tested with a chi-square test for independent

samples. The test indicated no significant differences (p < .10) at

either the University of Ibadan or the University of Lagos. The

analysis of the University of Ibadan's data yielded a chi-square value

of 0.815 while that of the University of Lagos was 0. These














chi-square results and percentage distributions for students'

membership in clubs are presented in Tables 25 and 26. The null

hypothesis was retained for each institution since no significant

differences were found in the participation of on-campus and

off-campus students of the two universities.

About 69% of University of Ibadan on-campus students indicated

membership in campus clubs, organizations, and student groups, while

about 59% of the off-campus students indicated the same. For the

University of Lagos students, about 62% of resident students said that

they had membership in campus clubs and groups while a higher

percentage (63.3%) of the off-campus students claimed membership in

these groups.

Both on-campus and off-campus students of Nigerian universities

showed a comparable membership in campus clubs and organizations. The

students showed similar percentages of participation in these student

organizations.

The data from both the University of Ibadan and the University of

Lagos were combined and a chi-square analysis was done. A

nonsignificant (p > .10) chi-square value of 0.31 was indicated. The

hypothesis was retained for the Nigerian university students as

represented by combined institutions. The Nigerian university

on-campus and off-campus students were found to hold memberships in

college clubs, organizations, student government, and athletic groups

in a similar manner. The on-campus resident students indicated a














Table 25

Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Ibadan



Membership in Clubs and Organizations

Students Yes No Total

Number % Number % Number %


On-Campus 83 68.6 38 31.4 121 100

Off-Campus 16 59.3 11 40.7 27 100

Total 99 49 148

Chi-square = 0.815 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Table 26

Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Lagos



Membership in Clubs and Organizations

Students Yes No Total

Number % Number % Number %


On-Campus 60 61.9 37 38.1 97 100

Off-Campus 31 63.3 18 36.7 49 100

Total 91 55 146

Chi-square = 0 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level














65.6% membership while the off-campus resident students claimed a

61.8% membership. The chi-square result is presented along with the

percentage distribution in Table 27.



Table 27

Membership in Clubs and Organizations at the Combined Universities



Membership

Students Yes No Total

Number % Number %


On-Campus 143 65.6 75 34.4 218 100.0

Off-Campus 47 61.8 29 38.2 76 100.0

Total 190 104 294

Chi-square = 0.31 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.




Test of Hypothesis Three

Ho 3: There is no difference between the number of hours that

the off-campus and on-campus students spend in

extracurricular activities per week.

The hypothesis was tested for the University of Ibadan and the

University of Lagos independently and for the two samples combined.

No significant differences were indicated on the chi-square tests















done. The null hypothesis was retained for the University of Ibadan

based on a nonsignificant chi-square value of 1.2 (df=4) at the .10

level of probability and for the University of Lagos based on a

chi-square of 3.89. The analysis for Ibadan is presented in Table 28

and that for Lagos appears in Table 29.

The majority of the students at both institutions reported 1-3.4

hours of weekly involvement in extracurricular activities. As the

number of hours increased, the percentage of students who were

involved in extracurricular activities dropped.

The chi-square analysis done on the combined data from both

University of Ibadan and University of Lagos students also indicated

a nonsignificant chi-square value of 3.85. The null hypothesis was

retained for the overall data of Nigerian university students that

participated in this research. The analysis is presented in Table 30

below.

Since no significant difference was indicated on each

university's data nor the data of the universities, combined, Nigerian

on-campus and off-campus residents were comparable in the average

number of hours that they spent in club activities per week. As such,

the null hypothesis was retained.




Full Text
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS OF THE STUDY
Introduction
The study was designed to investigate the differences between
on-campus and off-campus Nigerian students' involvement in selected
academic and extracurricular activities. The sample population
included in the study was selected from the University of Ibadan and
the University of Lagos, both located in the country of Nigeria. The
sample included students from these two universities who resided in
on-campus residence halls and students who lived off-campus and
commuted.
In order to determine the difference between the on-campus and
off-campus students' involvement in total university programs, six
research questions were posed and stated in Chapter I. These
questions were further developed into 12 null hypotheses and stated in
Chapter III. The null hypotheses were tested for each university
sample and the two samples combined when the data were comparable and
the results are presented within this chapter. The chapter also
includes the characteristics of the respondents based on a descriptive
analysis of the data from 156 usable questionnaires returned by the
University of Ibadan students and 148 usable questionnaires returned
by the University of Lagos students.
63


DEDICATION
To the honor and glory of my God and Savior Jesus Christ.
"Thine 0 LORD, is the greatness, and the power, and the
glory, and the victory, and the majesty; for all that is
in the heaven and in the earth is thine, thine is the
kingdom, 0 LORD, and thou art exalted as head above all.
Both riches and honor come of thee, and thou reignest over
all; and in thine hand is power and might; and in thine
hand it is to make great, and to give strength unto all.
Now therefore, our God, we thank thee, and praise thy
glorious name." (1 Chronicles 29:11-13 KJV)


49 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions of Personal Problems with Faculty Members . 105
50 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions of Future Careers with Faculty Members .... 106
51 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal After-
Class Meetings with Faculty Members 106
52 University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Receiving
Informal Academic Advice from Faculty Members 107
53 Students' Frequency of Reception of Academic Advice from
Faculty Members 108
54 Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions with Faculty
Members About Future Careers 109


31
Astin (1973, 1975)) also reported positive benefits for the
dormitory students in the area of educational progress. The residents
in his study were more likely to persist in college and to finish
their degrees in 4 years. They were more likely to go to graduate
school and even to earn higher grade point averages when compared with
their commuter colleagues. In one of his works, however, Astin (1978)
was able to detect increase in undergraduate grade point averages
for only the male students living on-campus.
Levin and Clowess (1982) research yielded results similar to
Astin's. In their study of college persistence and student residence,
Levin and Clowes found 66% of those who resided in housing owned by
the college graduated within 4 years of the enrollment in college,
while 55% of those who lived with their parents did. Academic grade
point and probation were used by Nowack and Hansen (1985) as measures
of academic achievement in their study of 1,302 resident and 740
commuter freshman students. Nowack and Hanson reported higher
academic achievement and lower probation for the resident students.
Nearly 25% of the total residence hall students sampled were placed on
probation while 31% of the non-residence hall students were on
academic probation. The researchers considered the on-campus
residence halls as "favorable environment for facilitating academic
achievement" (p. 26).
Matson (1963) investigated the influence of the different student
housing environment on students' academic abilities. The students


109
Table 54
Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions with Faculty Members
About Future Careers
Students
Regularly
Occasionally
Rarely
Never
Total
On-Campus
8
54
98
66
226
Off-Campus
4
23
20
29
76
Total
12
77
118
95
302
Chi-square =
= 7.42
(df-3)
Significant
at .10 prob.
level.
The null hypotheses for these relationships was rejected based on
the significant chi-square values. The Nigerian on-campus and off-
campus students were found to be significantly different in their
frequency of receiving academic advice and discussion of future
careers with faculty members.
Summary
The data analyses for the study of students' residence and
involvement were presented in Chapter IV. These analyses were done
descriptively, by chi-square test for independent samples and by
jt-tests for differences in means. The 12 null hypotheses 'were tested
at the .10 level of significance and the results were presented in
tables. The null hypotheses were tested first on each university
basis and then on the overall data of both institutions.


44
the resident students. The researchers have found the on-campus
students' close proximity to the faculty to be an advantage to
dormitory students (Astin, 1973, 1978, 1984, 1985; Chickering, 1974a;
Pascarella, 1980, 1984, 1985).
Chickering (1974a) found that the commuters' contacts with
faculty members were less than those of the resident students. Astin
(1978) also related closeness to faculty members positively to
on-campus living. Pascarella (1985) indicated that living on-campus
was significantly and positively related to students' involvement with
the faculty members and student peers. In his study, he established
that living on-campus was an indirect college influence that is
mediated through other influences such as faculty members'
interactions and peer relationships.
Pascarella (1984) affirmed the positive significant direct
effects of dormitory living on social integration with faculty and
peers. According to him, "living on-campus had its strongest
influence in the areas of fostering interaction with peers and
faculty" (p. 257). Pascarella (1984) and Lacy (1978) also supported
other researchers who found the influence of college environment to be
indirectly mediated through interactions with college significant
figures like faculty members and students' peers.
Graff and Cooley (1970) presented findings different from those
described above. No significant difference was found between


59
Statistical Analysis of Data
The data collected for this study of relationships between
Nigerian university students' involvement in college and their type of
residence were of both qualitative and quantitative natures. The
chi-square test for independent samples was used to analyze the
nominal data, and the _t-test for statistical significance of
differences was used for the data collected in interval form.
The students' information on age, gender, and place of residence
were analyzed descriptively by percentages. The data on grade point
averages, study hours, and the number of hours spent in the library
per week were analyzed by jt-tests.
Chi-square analysis for independent samples was used to analyze
the nominal data related to students' study places, partners, and
friendships; satisfaction of students with the college experience; and
student/faculty relationships. Chi-square test also was used to
analyze grouped data averaging the hours of involvement of students in
club/organization activities.
All the data in the study were analyzed with the use of the
micro-computer software package called Microstat by Ecosoft. Alpha
was set at .10 and was used as the basis for rejecting the null
hypotheses.
The 12 specific null hypotheses which follow were developed from
the various research questions in Chapter I.


80
on-campus and off-campus students of the two institutions used their
library most of the time to study.
Table 19
Students Study Partners at the University of Ibadan
Study Partner
Students
Alone
Friends
Total
On-Campus
81
36
117
Off-Campus
21
5
26
Total
102
41
143
Chi-square = 0.95
Not signficant at
(df=l)
.10 prob. level.
Table 20
Students' Study Places at the University of Ibadan
Students Library Bedroom Lecture Room Classroom Other Total
On-Campus 53 34 7
Off-Campus 15 4 0
Total 68 38 7
Chi-square = 4.24 (df=4)
Not significant at the .10 prob. level.
11 12 117
3 3 25
14 15 142


74
Table 12
Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Lagos Students
On-Campus Students Off-Campus Students
Mean
=
2.44
2.13
Std.Dev.
=
0.62
0.91
N
=
86
40
_t-value
=
1.79
df
=
124
Prob.
=
.08
Significant at .08 prob. level.
The null hypothesis could not be tested for the combined data
from the two universities because of noncomparable grade point average
scales.
The researcher also investigated, as part of the hypothesis,
other variables that were seen as closely associated with academic
achievement. The t-test for independent samples was used to analyze
the difference between the on-campus and off-campus students' study
hours and library usage. The _t-test for the average study hours and
library hours per week yielded _t-values that were not significant at
the .10 level of probability for either the University of Ibadan or
the University of Lagos students.


12
At the time of this writing, the future of dormitory services
could not be guaranteed in Nigerian higher education because of
financial exigencies (Enaowho, 1985; Oduleye, 1985). As early as
1977-1978, it was reported in the University of Ibadan catalog that
the institution's residential concept was being "threatened" by the
problems of larger enrollment and limited funds (p. 24).
Dormitory halls had been cited as causing unnecessary financial
drain on the Nigerian universities' limited budgets. However, there
was no known research on the influence of dormitory halls and Nigerian
university students. Further, the decision and recommendation on the
services of the dormitories had not been based on factors other than
economic influences.
This study resulted in the development of empirical data that
could help the Nigerian university policymakers in developing better
decisions about the role of dormitory halls in the future of the
nation's higher education. Living in the dormitory halls has been
found to be positively related to student involvement in some North
American universities. It was important for policymakers in Nigeria
to be able to know empirically the relationship between dormitory
living and student involvement in Nigerian universities.
The student involvement theory used in this study rested on five
basic postulates; two of these are considered crucial to higher
educational systems. These are


34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
94
94
95
95
97
99
100
100
101
101
102
102
103
104
105
Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of
Ibadan
Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of
Lagos
Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of
Ibadan by "Satisfied" and Not Satisfied"
Satisfaction of College Experience at University of Lagos
by "Satisfied" and "Not Satisfied"
Satisfaction of College Experience at the Combined
Universities
Frequency of University of Ibadan Students' Informal
After-Class Meetings with Faculty Members
University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussion of Class/Course Problems with Faculty Members
University of Ibadan Students' Reception of Academic
Advice from Faculty Members
University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Receiving
Informal Academic Advice from Faculty Members
University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members About Social, Political,
or Campus Issues
University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members About Personal Problems
University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members About Future Careers . .
University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussion of Class/Course Problems with Faculty Members
University of Lagos Students' Reception of Academic Advice
from Faculty Members
University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussions with Faculty Members on Social, Political, or
Campus Issues
x


64
Description of the Sample
One hundred and fifty-six questionnaires were analyzed that were
completed by the University of Ibadan students. One hundred and
twenty-three (80.39%) of these were male students and 30 (19.61%)
were female students. Of the total respondents, 128 (82%) were living
in on-campus residence halls and 28 (18%) were off-campus resident
students. According to the university administrators, about 50% of
the total university population was legally assigned to on-campus
residence halls, but in actuality this percentage was increased to
about 90% by the many students who managed to live illegally in the
dormitories through a method popularly known by the students as
"squatting." This group of students was excluded from the sample
population.
The distribution of the ages of University of Ibadan students
that were included in the study is presented in Table 1. Over 96% of
the students from the University of Ibadan 30 years of age or younger;
about 32% were in the 19-21 years category, about 42% in the 22-24
years of age bracket, and about 21% claimed to be in the 25-30 years
group. About 76% of these students were less than 25 years of age
which was the typical college age group.
For the University of Lagos, 148 questionnaires were analyzed.
Out of this total number, 147 responded to the item on gender.
Eighty-six students (58.50%) were males and 61 (41.50%) were


42
college. The researchers affirmed the positive influence of student/
faculty interaction on intellectual, personal, and social outcomes of
students. Also, positive effects of frequent informal student/
faculty relationships were indicated on the overall satisfaction of
students' college experiences.
Pascarella and Terenzini (1978) reported a "modest statistically
significant association" between student/faculty informal
relationships and student self-perceived intellectual and personal
development. In Pascarella and Terenzini's work of 1976, the
researchers classified the freshmen studied into high, moderate, and
low interactors. According to their results, the high and moderate
interactors had a more positive view of their academic experiences
than the low interactors.
Pascarella and Terenzini (1976), Astin (1975), and Pascarella
(1980) noted a positive association of student/faculty interaction and
students' persistence in college. The conclusion from these studies
was that students who interact more frequently with their faculty
members have a greater chance of persisting in college.
Some researchers have further classified the interaction between
student and faculty members into quality and quantity of contacts
(Endo & Harpel, 1982; Pascarella, 1980; Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980).
Pascarella and Terenzini have conducted extensive research in this
area. In one of their studies (Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980), they


76
Table 14
Differences in Reported Hours in Library of Students at
the University of Ibadan
On-Campus Students
Off-Campus Students
Mean =
15.15
14.54
Std.Dev. =
12.46
9.12
N
112
24
t-value =
0.2269
df
134
Prob. =
.4104
Not significant at
.10 prob. level.
Table 15
Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University of Lagos
On-Campus Students
Off-Campus Students
Mean
=
4.97
5.61
Std.Dev.
=
2.79
3.79
N
=
90
36
t-value
=
-1.053
df
=
124
Prob.
=
.1473
Not significant at
.10 prob. level.


104
Table 47
University of Lagos Students' Reception of Academic Advice
from Faculty Members
Received Academic
Advice
Students
Yes %
No
%
Total
%
On-Campus
55 56.7
42
43.3
97
100
Off-Campus
4 30.8
9
69.2
13
100
Total
59
51
110
Chi-square = 3.17
Significant at .10
(df=l)
prob. level.
The same students were found not to be significantly different
(p < .10) in student/faculty relationships that dealt with informal
discussions about social, political, or campus issues; personal
problems; and future careers. They were also found not to be
significantly different in their frequency of informal after-class
meetings with faculty members and frequency of receiving informal
academic advice. The chi-square analyses for these nonsignificant
relationships are presented in Tables 48 through 57 below.


10
The residence location factor was used in testing the theory of
student involvement. The students' average academic achievement and
activities, membership in student clubs and organizations, time spent
in extracurricular activities, friendships with other students, and
relationships with faculty members were used as measures of the level
and types of involvement.
The following general null hypothesis was used to test the
relationships that existed between students' residence locations and
involvement in various college activities.
Ho: There is no difference in the involvement of Nigerian
on-campus and off-campus students in the total university
program.
To test this hypothesis and determine the differences in general
satisfaction, six research questions were posed.
1. Is there a difference in Nigerian on-campus and off-campus
students' academic achievement and activities at the
university?
2. Is there a difference in Nigerian on-campus and off-campus
students' participation in campus clubs and organizations?
3. Is there a difference in the number of hours that Nigerian
on-carapus and off-campus students spend in college-related
extracurricular activities per week?
4. Is there a difference in the friendships made by Nigerian
on-campus and off-campus students at college?


66
Table 2
Ages of Sample Population from the University of Lagos
Ages
Frequency
Percentage
16-18 years
3
2.03
19-21 years
66
44.59
22-24 years
53
35.81
25-30 years
23
15.54
over 30 years
3
2.03
Total
148
100.00
Three hundred and four usable questionnaires were analyzed for
the total respondents from the two universities. The breakdown of the
students' genders, ages, and residences is presented in Tables 3, 4,
and 5.
Table 3
Gender of Total Respondents from Both Universities
Gender Frequency Percentage
Males 209 69.7
Females 91 30.3
Total
300
100.00


75
The University of Ibadan results reflected a t-value of 0.08 with
means of 5.13 for the study hours of on-campus students and 5.08
for the off-campus students. Shown in Table 13 are the results
for the University of Ibadan students' study hours.
Table 13
Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University of Ibadan
On-Campus Students
Off-Campus Students
Mean
5.13
5.08
Std.Dev. =
2.66
3.02
N
119
26
_t-value -
0.083
df
143
Prob.
0.4669
Not significant at
.10 prob. level.
The t-value for average number of hours spent in the library per
week was 0.22 with means of 15.15 for the on-campus resident students
and 14.54 for the off-campus students. The results of the analysis
follow in Table 14.
For the University of Lagos students, the _t-value for the average
study hours per week was -1.05 with means of 4.97 for the on-campus


54
researcher cannot randomly assign the students into these groups.
According to Kerlinger (1986),
subjects can "assign themselves" to groups, can "select
themselves" into groups on the basis of characteristics
other than those in which the investigator may be
interested. The subjects and treatments come, as it
were, already assigned to groups, (p. 349)
Setting
Two universities in the southwestern part of Nigeria were
selected as the sites for the research. The University of Ibadan and
the University of Lagos were chosen because of factors relevant to
this study. Paramount was the history of both institutions.
University education started in Nigeria, in 1948, with the
establishment of the predecessor of the University of Ibadan, which
was then called University College Ibadan. Prior to the creation of
the college, Nigerian college aspirants had traveled outside the
country to obtain a college education. The founding of this first
institution at Ibadan, therefore, opened up university opportunities
in the nation.
The University College Ibadan inherited the collegiate system
from London University. The college was founded as a residential
institution. During its early years, all the students lived in the
dormitories with housemasters/mistresses and later with their wardens.
This 100% residential nature continued until the 1960s when the
institutional leaders were forced to change the residential policy to
accommodate nonresidential students (Ajayi & Tamuno, 1973).


58
University of Lagos to take part in the study. Fifty questionnaires
were given out at the Faculty of Arts and 50 more were distributed at
the Faculty of Sciences at the University of Lagos.
The University of Ibadan sample included students from four main
departments: Mathematics, Education, Foreign Languages, and Classics.
Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to students from these
four departments. The students from both universities were at the 200
(sophomore), 300 (junior), and 400 (senior) levels.
Out of the 400 questionnaires distributed to students, 148
usable questionnaires were returned by students at the University of
Lagos, while the students from the University of Ibadan submitted 156
usable questionnaires. The total number of questionnaires subject to
study was 304.
Procedure for Data Collection
Questionnaires were administered by the researcher and were
collected directly from the subjects. The data obtained through the
questionnaires consisted of (a) students demographic data (age, sex,
home state, and academic classification), (b) data related to
students' residence locations, (c) students' friendships, (d)
student/faculty relationships, (e) students' participation in
extracurricular activities, (f) students' academic achievement and
activities (study hours, study places, study partners, library usage,
and grade point averages), and (g) students' satisfaction with
college. (See the appendix for a copy of the questionnaire.)


involvement variables and also for the level of students' satisfaction
with their college experience.
The students from the University of Ibadan and the University of
Lagos were used as the populations from which the samples were drawn.
Survey questionnaires were administered to a randomly selected number
of students. These questionnaires were supplemented by onsite
observation and interviews. The data were analyzed descriptively and
inferentially by chi-square and _t-test statistics for independent
samples.
The level of involvement of Nigerian on-campus and off-campus
university students was found to be similar with few statistically
significant differences noted. The on-campus students at the
University of Ibadan had significantly more on-campus friendships
than their off-campus counterparts. The on-campus students at the
University of Lagos reported significantly more friendships
on-campus than the off-campus students; they also related
significantly more to their lecturers in the area of reception of
academic advice and in the frequency of discussion of academic related
problems. The on-campus students at this institution had
significantly higher academic grade point averages than their
off-campus counterparts.
Although few statistically significant differences were noted in
this study, the on-campus students of both institutions showed
consistently higher levels of involvement than the off-campus
students. While this study provided support for Astin's theory of
student involvement, it also raised questions about several points
that are not in agreement with the theory.
xiii


38
Extracurricular Activities
Researchers have overwhelmingly attributed involvement in
extracurricular activities with on-campus residence (Astin, 1973,
1978, 1984; Baird, 1969; Baker, 1966; Burtner & Tincher, 1979;
Chickering & Kuper, 1971; Davis and Caldwell, 1977; Smallwood & Klas,
1983; Welty, 1976). In only a few unusual studies, nonsignificant
differences have been found between commuter and resident students'
involvement in extracurricular activities (Foster, Sedlacek, &
Hardwick, 1975).
Commuters have been reported to participate in extracurricular
activities at a lesser degree than their campus resident counterparts,
and even when they do participate their range of activities is said
to be limited in comparison to the on-campus students (Chickering,
1974a; Chickering & Kuper, 1971). These researchers also claimed that
residents were more often in leadership positions than the off-campus
students.
Baird (1969) reached similar conclusions as those presented
above. In a comparative study of students living in different housing
arrangements and their participation in extracurricular activities,
the researchers found that the sorority and fraternity students scored
highest in social involvement and leadership achievement. Fraternity
and sorority students were followed by the residence students on the


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The procedure for carrying out the study of the relationship
between Nigerian students' involvement in college and their on-campus
or off-campus residency status was briefly described in Chapter I.
Chapter III contains further elaboration on this. The contents of
Chapter III include the research design, site selection, procedure for
selection of subjects, and statistical analysis for the collected
data.
Research Design
This research was focused on the differences of on-campus and
off-campus students in several aspects of college life. Residence
was an attribute variable that could not be manipulated by the
researcher. Thus, an ex post facto design was selected as appropriate
for this study involving residence location that had been determined
prior to the research.
The ex post facto design has two main weaknesses: (a) the
inability of the researcher to manipulate the independent variables and
(b) the lack of randomization or the problem of subjects'
self-selection. In ex post facto research, the subjects have already
been assigned into categories (commuter/resident); hence the
53


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
ABSTRACT xii
CHAPTERS
IINTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 9
Justification 11
Delimitations 13
Limitations 14
Assumptions 15
Definition of Terms 16
Research Procedure: An Overview 19
Data Analysis: An Overview 21
Summary 21
IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 23
Introduction 23
Academic Achievement, Library Usage, and Study Habits . 29
Extracurricular Activities 38
Student/Faculty Interaction 40
Students' Outcomes 41
Residence Location Factors 43
Peer Relationships 46
College Satisfaction 49
Summary 51
IIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGY 53
Research Design 53
Setting 54
Sample Selection 57
Procedure for Data Collection 58
Statistical Analysis of Data 59
Summary 61
vx


86
65.6% membership while the off-campus resident students claimed a
61.8% membership. The chi-square result is presented along with the
percentage distribution in Table 27.
Table 27
Membership in Clubs and Organizations at the Combined Universities
Membership
Students Yes No Total
Number
%
Number
%
On-Campus
143
65.6
75
34.4
218
100.0
Off-Campus
47
61.8
29
38.2
76
100.0
Total
190
104
294
Chi-square =0.31 (df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.
Test of Hypothesis Three
Ho 3: There is no difference between the number of hours that
the off-campus and on-campus students spend in
extracurricular activities per week.
The hypothesis was tested for the University of Ibadan and the
University of Lagos independently and for the two samples combined.
No significant differences were indicated on the chi-square tests


136
Dressel, P., & Nisula, E. (1966). A comparison of the community and
non-commuting students. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State
University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 011 967)
Enaowho, 0. (1985). Emerging issues in Nigerian education: The case
of the level and scope of growth of Nigerian universities.
Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education
and Educational Planning, 14, 307-319.
Endo, J., & Harpel, R. (1982). The effect of student-faculty
interaction on students' educational outcomes. Research in
Higher Education, 16, 115-138.
Federal Republic of Nigeria. (1963). University development in
Nigeria: Report of the National Universities Commission.
Apapa: The Nigerian National Press Ltd.
Feldman, K., & Newcomb, T. (1969). The impact of college on students
(Vol. 2). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Flanagan, D. (1975). Research on commuter students from 1971-1975.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Office of Student
Development. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 105
782)
Foster, M., Sedlacek, W., & Hardwick, M. (1975). A comparison of
dependent commuters, independent commuters, and resident
students. College Park, MD: University of Maryland Counseling
Center. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 129 159)
Graff, R., & Cooley, G. (1970). Adjustment of commuter and resident
students. The Journal of College Student Personnel, 11, 54-57.
Grobman, A. B. (1980). The missions of urban institutions.
Liberal Education, 66, 200-207.
Hardy, C. (1973). A commuter-resident profile: College satisfaction,
liberalism, and social class variables. The Southern Journal of
Educational Research, 7_, 61-65.
Hountras, P., & Brandt, K. (1970). Relation of student residence to
academic performance in college. The Journal of Educational
Research, 63, 351-354.
Iverson, B., Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (1984). Informal
faculty-student contact and commuter college freshmen.
Research in Higher Education, 21, 123-136.


92
There was also a significant difference between the combined
on-campus and off-campus students' location of close friends'
residence. The analysis on the combined data resulted in a chi-square
value of 11.11. The null hypothesis was rejected for the combined
data. The analysis is presented in Table 33.
Table 33
Locations of Residence of Students' Close Friends at the Combined
Universities
Residence of Close Friends
Students On-Campus Off-Campus Total
Number % Number % Number %
On-campus
182
83.5
36
16.5
218
100
Off-campus
49
66.2
25
33.3
74
100
Total
231
61
292
Chi-square 11.11 (df=l)
Significant at <.01 prob. level.
Test of Hypothesis Five
Ho 5: There is no difference in general satisfaction with
college between the Nigerian university off-campus and
on-campus students.
The chi-square test for independent samples was used to test the
null hypothesis on institutional bases and also on a combined data set


20
area of students' residence and students' outcomes. The findings of
Chickering (1974a) and Astin (1973, 1975, 1978, 1984) were especially
used in determining the types of possible response items. Sudman and
Bradburn's (1982) guide to questionnaire design was used for the
technicality of the instrument construction. The questionnaire
contained items formed to receive information in the areas of
students' residence locations, students' academic classifications,
faculty relationships, academic performance, study habits,
satisfaction with university experience, and the students'
participation in extracurricular activities (see Appendix). This
instrument was pilot-tested with graduate students of the Department
of Educational Leadership at the University of Florida, Gainesville
and also with the University of Ibadan undergraduate students. The
reliability test of the question items yielded 86% congruent answers
over a 7-day period for the University of Florida students and 84%
congruent answers over a 7-day period for the University of Ibadan
students. This indicates a high stability for the instrument. Two
University of Florida professors, both experts in the area of higher
educational administration, judged the appropriateness of the research
instrument and deemed it to be adequate in measuring the research
hypotheses. All the data used in this research were obtained from the
self-reports of students on the questionnaires.


27
in their self-actualization. Scott, therefore, concluded that "more
development was fostered during the academic year among students
living in the campus dormitory halls than among students living
off-campus" (p. 218).
Davis and Caldwell (1977) conducted an inter-campus study of
commuters and residents at two different universities (a residential
and a commuter institution). Greater positive response was reported
for residential students in the areas of personal and social
development. Commuters, on the other hand, responded more positively
in the areas of intellectual and academic environment. The
researchers concluded that the residents were more involved with
social and interpersonal activities while the commuters were more
inclined towards the academic environment.
Pascarella (1985) tried to determine the influence of resident
living on intellectual and interpersonal self-concept of students.
Significant positive relationships were found between students'
interactions with their faculty members and students' interactions
with their peers. No direct effect of residential living was found in
the areas of students' intellectual level and self-concept.
Pascarella concluded that the influence of on-campus living on student
development may be indirect, and that living on-campus was only one of
many influences of college impact on students. According to him,
there was an indirect effect mediated through other influences like
faculty and student relationships.


131
Recommendations
In spite of the nonsignificant results reported in most of the
areas of involvement in this study, the directions of many of the
results favored the on-carapus resident students. Of 20 straight
forward cases in which the on-campus and off-campus students were
compared (i.e., means of grade point averages, study hours, library
hours, percentage of club membership, close friends' residence,
college satisfaction, and reception of academic advice), 6 cases were
significant at .10 alpha level. In all 20 cases, the on-campus
students reported higher mean or percentage involvement in 12 areas.
The on-campus direction of higher involvement should be an issue of
consideration to the Nigerian university policy makers, this should
help them in determining the future of dormitory facilities in
Nigeria. It should help to make decisions concerning the ways to
increase the college involvement of their students. It should also be
noted that in spite of the Nigerian off-campus students' comparability
with the on-campus counterparts, they were definitely not satisfied
with their off-campus living conditions, this can be clearly seen in
the chronic problem of "squatting."
Along with all the points mentioned in the National Institute of
Education (1984) report Involvement in Learning and in Astin (1985),
the students' involvement can also be increased by providing
facilities that will encourage students to carry out most of their


55
In 1988, the University of Ibadan operated as an institution
for both residential and nonresidential students. In fact, the
institution had a residential policy that allowed students to live the
first and last years on-campus and the 2 middle years in off-campus
housing.
The University of Lagos had a history different from that of the
University of Ibadan. The Ashby Commission, which recommended the
creation of the institution, conceived an "urban non-residential
institution" (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1963, p. 13). This idea of
a purely nonresidential university was later modified to provide for
40% campus residential accommodation for the students (Federal
Republic of Nigeria, 1963; Yesufu, 1973). The University of Lagos was
finally created in 1962, as a partially residential institution.
In 1988, the university had an elaborate residential policy
comparable to that of the University of Ibadan.
The two universities in the study were conceived with different
residential concepts but were later changed to accommodate both
residential and commuter students.
The Universities of Ibadan and Lagos were selected to be in this
study because they are both located in metropolitan areas. In Ibadan
and Lagos, private off-campus housing and public transportation are
easier to find for the off-campus students than is the case with other
universities located in smaller cities in Nigeria. This environmental


130
campus students. For example, more accommodation problems in the
city may create more students' desire to reside in the campus halls
of residence. The factors related to the environment of the city
where the college is and the students' motivational factors are
probably some of the reasons why the research results in the area of
students' residence and students' outcomes have been so varied.
Areas for Future Study
1. Since this study was conducted in the southwestern part of
Nigeria, the study should be replicated to find the level of
involvement of students in other Nigerian universities.
2. A study should be conducted to determine how students'
motivational factors influence their involvement in college academic
and non-academic activities.
3. A study should be conducted to determine the involvement of
off-campus students who do most of their after-class activities
on-campus and those who do most of their after-class activities
off-campus.
4. A study should be conducted to compare the involvement of
students from different residence halls on-campus and the off-campus
group.
5. A study should be conducted to explore further the
relationships between Nigerian students and their lecturers.


103
Based on the analysis of data collected from the University of
Ibadan students, the on-campus and off-campus students were
comparable in their informal relationships with faculty members.
The analyses of the data collected at the University of Lagos
indicated significant differences (p < .10) between the on-campus and
off-campus students in the areas of informal discussion of class/
course problems with faculty members and reception of academic advice
from faculty members. These analyses are shown in Tables 46 and 47.
About 57% of the University of Lagos on-campus students indicated
that they had received academic advice from faculty members, while
almost 31% of the off-campus students claimed receiving such advice
from faculty members. The null hypotheses were rejected for these
two areas of relationships for the University of Lagos.
Table 46
University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal Discussion
of Class/Course Problems with Faculty Members
Students
Very Often
Often
Seldom
Not at all
Total
On-Campus
9
31
38
17
95
Off-Campus
4
9
15
17
45
Total
13
40
53
34
140
Chi-square =
= 7.07
(df=3)
Significant at .10 prob.
level.


89
Table 30
Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities at the
Combined Universities
Students
Less
than
1 hr.
1-3.4 hrs. 3.5-5.4 hrs.
4.4-7 hrs.
More
than
7 hrs.
Total
On-Campus
18
58 25
16
22
139
Off-Campus
8
25 6
5
3
47
Total
26
83 31
21
25
186
Chi-square = 3.85
Not significant at
(df=4)
.10 prob. level.
Test of Hypothesis Four
Ho 4: There is no difference between the Nigerian off-campus
and on-campus students' types of friendships made
during their undergraduate education.
This hypothesis was tested with a chi-square for independent
samples. The null hypothesis was tested for each university
independently and then for the combined data from both universities.
The chi-square was based on the response of students to the
questionnaire item about the residence of close friends. The analyses
yielded significant differences (p < .10) for each of the
universities. The chi-square value for the University of Ibadan


123
extensive in all areas studied except for student/faculty
relationships. However, the level of involvement appeared not to be
greatly influenced by the locations of students' residences.
Some factors are suspected to have offset the students'
environmental differences; specifically the students' after-class
environment, that is, the location of after-class activities. The
majority of the off-campus students in this study spent more time in
the campus environment than their off-campus environment. About 73%
of the University of Lagos off-campus students and about 66% of the
University of Ibadan off-campus students reported that their
after-class activities were done on their college campuses.
The off-campus students also indicated high percentages of
on-campus friendships and reported that they used the campus library
most of the time for studying. The additional time the off-campus
students spent in the campus environment probably influenced their
level of involvement and allowed them not to be "detached" from the
campus activities but rather to be closely knit to the on-campus
academic and extracurricular activities.
The Nigerian commuters' behaviors were found to be different from
those revealed by Chickering (1974a) and Astin (1973). Also, the
description of commuters by Dressel and Nisula (1966) was not
applicable to Nigerian university commuters. These students were not
"detached from campus life" but rather in tune with what was going on


4
members and other students. Conversely, an uninvolved
student may neglect studies, spends little time on campus,
abstains from extracurricular activities, and has little
time contact with faculty members or other students.
(p. 134)
According to Astin (1984), the student involvement theory grew
out of his 1975 longitudinal study of college environmental factors
and students' persistence. He summarized the findings as follows:
It turned out that virtually every significant effect
could be rationalized in terms of the involvement
concept; that is, every positive factor was likely to
increase student involvement in the undergraduate
experience, whereas every negative factor was likely
to reduce involvement, (p. 302)
In the same study and in later papers, Astin (1984, 1985)
identified the student residence as the most salient environmental
factor that contributed to students' retention. In examining all of
the different kinds of students' residences, Astin (1984) credited the
on-campus dormitory as being the most supportive element of student
involvement in the various aspects of campus academic and
extracurricular activities. He used the following statement to
buttress this point:
It is obvious that students who live in residence halls
have more time and opportunity to get involved in all
aspects of campus life. Indeed, simply by eating,
sleeping, and spending their waking hours on the college
campus, residential students have a better chance than
commuter students of developing a strong identification
and attachment to undergraduate life. (p. 302)
Similar conclusions about the relationship of on-campus students'
residence halls have been reached by other researchers. For example,


98
Test of Hypothesis Six and
Sub-hypotheses 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 6e, 6f, and 6g
Ho 6: There is no difference in the area of student/faculty
relationships between Nigerian university off-campus
and on-campus students.
This main hypothesis was sub-divided and tested with seven sub
hypotheses listed below.
Ho 6a: There is no difference in the frequency of informal
meetings of the Nigerian off-campus and on-campus
students with their faculty members.
Ho 6b: There is no difference between the frequency of
informal discussion of class/course or intellectual
problems of the Nigerian university off-campus and
on-campus students with their faculty members.
Ho 6c: There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings with
faculty members to receive academic advice.
Ho 6d: There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal academic
advice received from their faculty members.
Ho 6e: There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings to
discuss future careers with faculty members.


144
22.Do you meet with you professors informally to get academic advice?
Yes (1)
No (2)
23.How often do you get academic advice?
very often (1)
often (2)
not often (3)
_not at all (4)
24.How often do you meet with your professors informally to discuss
your future career?
regularly (1)
occasionally (2)
jrarely (3)
never (4)
25.How often do you meet your professors to discuss your personal
problems?
regularly (1)
Occasionally (2)
jrarely (3)
Oever (4)
26.How often do you meet your professors informally to discuss
social, political, or campus issues?
regularly (1)
Occasionally (2)
rarely (3)
never (4)


28
In spite of Pascarella's (1985) findings, he tried to argue in
favor of on-campus living. "Thus even if resident status does not
influence student development directly, it may play a central role in
the impact of college by increasing those kinds of student involvement
that positively influence development" (p. 298).
Welty (1976) also pointed to the many interactive factors,
including student residence, that work together to produce student
growth. According to the researcher, it was not residence exclusively
that produces student growth, but one of many factors, some of which
include the number of new friends during the freshman year, the
quantity and quality of student/faculty interactions, and the
interaction with administrators.
Other writers, such as Millman (1972), seem to be more convinced
that the living environment of resident students exerts direct
influence on student development. In support of this view, Millman
stated "there is no question that on-campus residence living
facilities can, through conscious effort and reasoned action, provide
a milieu which is not only supportive of student learning and personal
growth, but actually facilitates such human development" (p. 5). This
statement expresses the assumption and/or view of many people in
higher education as regards the relationship between student residence
and student development.
The literature reviewed above on student residence appears to
support dormitory living as the important factor in student


40
involvement in extracurricular activities with "an average week in the
spring semester" (p. 280).
The research of Foster et al. (1975) was based on expected
behaviors and attitudes of incoming freshman students. The result of
her study was an anticipated involvement of the students and not an
actual participation. The actual experiences of these students could
be expected to be different from their anticipated behaviors.
Most of the researchers in this area agreed with the conclusion
of Dressel and Nisula (1966) that "commuters are to some extent
detached from campus life" (p. 45) and probably may be restricted in
their involvement in extracurricular activities.
Student/Faculty Interaction
The informal after class interaction between students and faculty
has been acclaimed by many researchers as an important factor
contributing to the students' intellectual, social, and personal
development during their undergraduate education (Chickering &
McCormic, 1973; Pascarella, 1980; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1976, 1978;
Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980; Wilson, 1974). The researchers
in this area have linked frequent and high quality student/faculty
interaction positively with students' intellectual, social, and
emotional development (Endo & Harpel, 1982; Pascarella & Terenzini,
1978).
Feldman and Newcomb (1969) summarized a series of studies on the
sources of influence in the students' lives. Their overall conclusion


THE INVOLVEMENT OF ON-CAMPUS AND OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS
IN ACADEMIC AND NON-ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES
IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES
BY
CHRISTIANAH I. FALADE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1988
IBmmirr of nmau vmm


15
variable, it cannot yield itself directly to the
manipulation of the researcher. The study was therefore
subject to the weaknesses of ex post facto research.
Assumptions
The following assumptions were basic to this research:
1. Four areas of student behavior were used to represent
involvement in the total university programs. These areas
were (a) academic achievement and activities, (b) students'
peer relationships, (c) faculty/student relationships, and
(d) participation in extracurricular activities. The
foregoing were assumed to be adequate representations of
student total involvement in university programs.
2. The residence location factor was used in this research to
test the student involvement theory. This was assumed to
be a valid factor in testing this theory as Astin (1984,
1985) linked residence location with so many other forms
of student involvement.
3. Involvement in academic activities was assumed to be
evidenced through the students' study hours, study partners,
study places, and library usage.
4. Since the students in the sample population were randomly
selected, the subjects in the sample were assumed to be
representative of the population from which they came.


33
full-time male, single undergraduate students enrolled during fall
semester of the 1966-67 academic year. Among all the different
students categorized by residence, the resident students' group had
the highest mean grade point average of 2.57; this group was followed
by students residing at home with 2.34 mean grade point average. The
lowest grade point average (2.30) was earned by the students residing
in off-campus housing.
Hountras and Brandt (1970) concluded that the residence hall was
an important factor in the academic performance of college students.
This was justified by the following explanation:
The fact that residence halls generally provide appropriate
facilities for individual study and relaxation, and that
they are in close proximity to classrooms, laboratories,
and libraries could play important and varying roles in
the motivation of undergraduate students. The planned
cultural and educational programs available to students
residing in residence halls, as well as the ready
accessibility to staff, conceivably are other important
factors contributing to the findings, (p. 353)
The results reported by Smallwood and Klas (1983) also supported
the relationship between on-campus living and higher academic
achievement. Smallwood and Klas (1983) compared 145 male university
students in three types of campus residence halls and off-campus
lodgings (students in the off-campus lodgings were students who had
applied to be in the campus residence hall but were denied due to a
shortage of space). These groups were compared on academic success,
participation in extracurricular activities, study habits and
attitudes, personality factors, and involvement in community affairs.


8
satisfaction of students in undergraduate experience. If dormitory
living is enhancing students' involvement in their undergraduate
education, the provision for dormitories on a campus may be one way of
making available an environment conducive for student learning.
However, the issue of dormitory versus no dormitory facilities
requires a considerable expenditure of money. And, again, not
everyone agrees with Astin's conclusions about the importance of
dormitories. Most, if not all, the research supporting the positive
relationship of on-campus living and student development and
involvement has been conducted in the United States. In foreign
nations, the relationship between dormitory living and student
development has not clearly been established; In order to make the
concept of student involvement applicable to other countries, there is
a need for it to be tested within the context of other nations'
cultural and social environments.
The nation of Nigeria is one of the foreign countries that will
benefit from research on the relationship of dormitory facilities and
student involvement because the Nigerian universities were, at the
time of this writing, reevaluating their commitment to the provision
of such facilities. The building and maintenance of dormitory halls
have been cited continuously by researchers and university
administrators as one of the main activities causing the greatest
drain and financial burden on the budget of the university (Enaowho,


138
Pascarella, E. (1980). Student/faculty informal contact and college
outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 50, 545-595.
Pascarella, E. (1984). Reassessing the effects of living on campus
versus commuting to college: A causal modeling approach. The
Review of Higher Education, ]_, 247-260.
Pascarella, E. (1985). The influence of on-campus living versus
commuting to college on intellectual and interpersonal self-
concept. Journal of College Student Personnel, 26, 292-299.
Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (1976). Informal interaction with
faculty and freshman ratings of academic and non-academic
experience of college. Journal of Educational Research, 70,
35-41.
Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (1978). Student-faculty informal
relationships and freshman year educational outcomes. Journal
of Educational Research, 71, 183-189.
Prusok, R., & Walsh, B. (1964). College students residence and
academic achievement. Journal of College Student Personnel,
5, 180-184.
Pugh, R., & Chamberlain, P. (1976). Undergraduate residence: An
assessment of academic achievement in a predominantly university
community. Journal of College Student Personnel, 17, 138-141.
Reichard, D., & McArver, P. (1975). The commuting student survey:
Highlights and summary tables. Greensboro, NC: North Carolina
University, Office of Institutional Research. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED 119 597)
Sauber, R. S. (1972). College adjustment and place of residence.
Journal of College Student Personnel, 13, 205-208.
Scott, S. H. (1975). Impact of residence hall living on college
student development. Journal of College Student Personnel, 16,
214-219.
Smallwood, F., & Klas, L. (1983). A comparison of the academic,
personal, and social effects of four different types of
university residential environments. Journal of College and
University Student Housing, 13, 13-19.
Stark, M. (1965). Commuter and residence hall students compared.
Personnel and Guidance Journal, 44, 277-281.


49
significant differences. When significant differences were found,
they were in favor of residence living.
The characteristics of commuter and resident students'
friendships have been further analyzed to depict the nature of
occurrences (Dressel & Nisula, 1966; Flanagan, 1975; Grobman, 1980;
Reichard & McArver, 1975). Some researchers have indicated that the
commuters' relationships with their fellow students were of a limited
nature (Chickering, 1974a; Welty, 1976). Also, the commuters'
friendships have been reported to be mostly with neighbors and other
people not associated with the college. The commuters continued to
maintain high school friendships while their residential counterparts
developed new friendships at the college (Dressel & Nisula, 1966;
Flanagan, 1975; Reichard & McArver, 1975).
In summary, the research in the area of peer relationships has
been favorable towards the on-campus residents. The living
environment of the residents has exposed them to new friendships and
relationships that the commuters have not been exposed to due to their
staying away from the college campus.
College Satisfaction
Many of the researchers who have compared the college
satisfaction of commuters and residents have shown evidence of a
positive relationship between on-campus living and college
satisfaction (Astin, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1984; Baird, 1969; Chickering,


90
students was 2.75 and 4.21 for the University of Lagos students.
Presented in Tables 31 and 32 are the results of these analyses.
The null hypothesis was rejected for each university based on the
obtained significant chi-square values for the universities. The
analyses of students' data indicated that the residences of close
friends of on-campus and off-campus students of the University of
Ibadan and the University of Lagos were significantly different. The
percentage distribution of the students' residences of close friends
showed that a higher percentage of on-campus students' close friends
lived on-campus. The off-campus students claimed a higher percentage
of off-campus close friendships.
Table 31
Locations of University of Ibadan Students' Close Friends
Residence of
Close Friends
Students
On-Campus
Off-Campus
Total
Number %
Number %
Number %
On-Campus
105 85.4%
18 14.6
123 100
Off-Campus
18 69.2
8 30.8
26 100
Total
123
26
149
Chi-square = 2.75 (df=l)
Significant at .09 prob. level.


60
Hypothesis 1. There are no differences between the academic
achievement and activities of Nigerian university off-campus and
on-campus students.
Hypothesis 2. There is no difference between the Nigerian
university off-campus and on-campus students' participation in
clubs and organizations.
Hypothesis 3. There is no difference between the number of
hours that the off-campus and on-campus students spend in
extracurricular activities per week.
Hypothesis 4. There is no difference between the Nigerian
off-campus and on-campus students' types of friendships made
during their undergraduate education.
Hypothesis 5. There is no difference in general satisfaction
with college between the Nigerian university off-campus and
on-campus students.
Hypothesis 6. There is no difference in the area of student/
faculty relationships between Nigerian university off-campus and
on-campus students.
Hypothesis 6a. There is no difference between the frequency
of informal meetings of the Nigerian off-campus and on-campus
students with their faculty members.
Hypothesis 6b. There is no difference between the frequency
of informal discussion of class/course or intellectual problems


120
on-campus students had their close friends living on the campus, while
the off-campus students claimed a higher percentage of off-campus
close friendships.
7. A higher percentage of off-campus students had their close
friends living on the campus than living off-campus. (Over 50% of
off-campus students claimed on-campus friendships.)
8. Both the Nigerian university on-campus and off-campus
students showed general satisfaction with their college experiences;
however, the on-campus students were more satisfied. Further, the
University of Ibadan students were more satisfied with their college
experiences than their counterparts at the University of Lagos.
9. The differences in student/faculty relationships between the
Nigerian university on-campus and off-campus students were minimal.
At the University of Ibadan, both the on-campus and off-campus
students had comparable student/faculty relationships. At the
University of Lagos, the on-campus and off-campus students related
comparably to the faculty members except for informal class/course
discussions and in reception of academic advice. For the combined
data, the on-campus and off-campus students were comparable except for
frequency of reception of academic advice and in discussions of future
careers.
10.Generally, there were more differences found between the
on-campus and off-campus students at the University of Lagos than the
University of Ibadan.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE INVOLVEMENT OF ON-CAMPUS AND OFF-CAMPUS STUDENTS
IN ACADEMIC AND NON-ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES
IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES
By
Christianah I. Falade
August, 1988
Chairman: James L. Wattenbarger
Major Department: Educational Leadership
Some researchers have postulated that excellence in higher
education is related to student involvement. This theory was proposed
by Astin in his 1984 and 1985 reports on research studies related to
college success. In these, as well as earlier literature, Astin
classified dormitory living as one involvement factor and linked it
with several other factors of involvement. He reported that the
dormitory factor contributed positively to the involvement of students
in their academic and nonacademic activities.
This study was an exploration of the differences of on-campus and
off-campus Nigerian university students and their involvement in
college programs. The students' academic achievement and activities,
student/facuity interactions, student/peer relationships, and
extracurricular activities were used as indicators of involvement of
students in their college's academic and nonacademic activities.
Twelve null hypotheses were tested at the .10 alpha level for these
xii


122
In this research, the involvement of on-campus and off-campus
students in academic achievement and activities (academic grade point
averages, weekly study hours, choice of study partners, study places,
and weekly library hours) were explored. With the exception of the
University of Lagos students' academic grade point averages, the
results have supported the earlier claims of Pugh and Chamberlain
(1976), Baird (1969), and Graff and Cooley (1970). These researchers
reported no differences in the academic achievement of students living
on the campus and those living off-campus.
The results from this study have not confirmed the earlier
findings of Astin (1973, 1975, 1978), Chickering (1974a), and Levin
and Clowes (1982) who reported differences between on-campus and
off-campus students' academic achievement and claimed higher academic
achievement or involvement for on-campus students. The only
confirmation of their findings was in the University of Lagos
students' academic grade point averages where a significant difference
was found between the on-campus and off-campus students. However, it
should be noted that the on-campus students were higher in their
percentage of involvement in spite of the nonsignificant result.
The results from this study showed evidence that the concept of
involvement is applicable to Nigerian university students. The
students were involved in academic and non-academic activities at
different levels. The Nigerian students' involvement appear to be


94
Table 34
Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of Ibadan
Students
Very
Satisfied Satisfied
Not
Satisfied
Total
On-Campus
12
80
33
125
Off-Campus
4
14
10
28
Total
16
94
43
153
Chi-square = 1
Not significant
.67
at .10
(df=2)
prob. level.
Table 35
Satisfaction of College Experiences at the University of Lagos
Students
Very
Satisfied
Satisfied
Not
Satisfied
Total
On-Campus
3
61
33
97
Off-Campus
0
24
21
45
Total
3
85
54
142
Chi-square = 3.36
(df=2)
Not significant at
.10 prob.
level.


3
The student involvement concept concerns the behaviors of
students who show active participation in their learning. It
incorporates the activities that are geared towards intellectual and
personal development of students during their undergraduate education.
The participation of students in student organizations, frequent
interaction with faculty members and student peers, the students'
devotion of time and energy to school work, and the involvement of
students in on-campus activities are some of the physical behaviors
usually noted as evidence that students are actively involved (Astin,
1984, 1985; National Institute of Education, 1984). The greater the
involvement of students in each of these activities, the greater will
be their rewards in terms of their intellectual and personal
development. According to the theory of student involvement, "the
extent to which students can achieve particular developmental goals is
a direct function of the time and effort they devote to activities
designed to produce these gains" (Astin, 1984, p. 301).
The student involvement concept has been recognized as vital to
improving the quality of undergraduate education. Astin (1984, 1985)
claimed that it is crucial to the intellectual and personal
development of college students. The concept of involvement was
further hypothetically illustrated by Astin (1985) as follows:
a highly involved student is one who, for example,
devotes considerable energy to studying, spends a lot
of time on campus, participates actively in student
organizations, and interacts frequently with faculty


-0.2860, with the mean of off-campus students slightly higher than
that of the on-campus students. This analysis is presented in Table
17.
78
Table 17
Differences in Reported Library Hours of Students from
Both Universities
On-Campus
Off-Campus
Mean =
14.6872
15.1563
Std.Dev. =
11.7135
10.3083
N
195
64
_t-value =
-.2860
df
257
Prob. =
.3876
The _t-test analysis on the combined weekly study hours resulted
in a nonsignificant _t-value of -0.7858. The mean was 5.0574 for the
on-campus and 5.3871 for the off-campus students. This analysis is
shown below in Table 18


57
The condition of not wanting to live off-campus has led many Nigerian
students to live illegally in campus dormitories with their friends
(Oduleye, 1985).
Commuting presented Nigerian students with a different kind of
problem from that experienced by many American student commuters. In
Nigeria, students who lived far from the university campus relied
almost totally on public transportation to get to the campus from
their off-campus residence; they had less access than American
students to personal automobiles.
The different environmental conditions of Nigerian and American
university students described above are not exhaustive but reflect
differences in their respective cultures.
Sample Selection
The on-campus sample from the University of Lagos was selected
from the lists of dormitory students provided by the student affairs
office of the university. The university leaders did not have any
official list of its off-campus students; therefore the off-campus
group was selected from two main academic faculties. The students
from the Faculty of Arts were students in classes that were required
to be taken during the students off-campus years. Students from the
Faculty of Sciences were those who responded to the notices sent to
the off-campus students by the faculty. Fifty on-campus female
students and 50 on-campus male students were chosen randomly from the


29
involvement and student development. In fact, Astin (1978) referred
to student residence as a "potentially important index of student
involvement" (p. 22). This present study was an extension and further
exploration of this relationship between student residence and student
development. The student residence served as a basis for
measuring student participation in some specific forms of college
involvement and will also include one more area, the students' degree
of satisfaction with college.
The forms of involvement that were used are (a) academic
activities (academic achievement, study habits, and library usage),
(b) involvement in extracurricular activities, (c) student/faculty
interaction, and (d) peer interaction. Therefore, review of related
literature following is organized according to these four forms of
involvement and it also includes the students' degree of satisfaction
with college.
Academic Achievement, Library Usage, and Study Habits
Nowack and Hanson (1985) referred to on-campus residence halls as
a "favorable environment for facilitating academic achievement" (p.
26). The researchers who have reported higher grade point averages
for on-campus residence students will agree with this statement.
However, others will disagree with the same statement based upon their
research and findings which have shown that commuters achieve
academically higher than resident students.


68
Table 5
Residence Locations for Total Respondents from Both Universities
Residence
Frequency
Percentage
On-Campus
227
74.7
Off-Campus
77
25.3
Total
304
100.0
Most of the students who took part in the study were in their
third or fourth year of their college education. For the University
of Ibadan, almost 53% of the students were in the third year and about
37% were in their fourth year. At the University of Lagos, almost 15%
of the students were in their third year while 68% were fourth year
students.
Based on the tabulations for the off-campus respondents it was
found that 72% of University of Ibadan students had lived in
on-campus residences before, while 75% of the University of Lagos
off-campus students had prior on-campus living experiences. When
these commuters were asked the most important reason why they moved to
off-campus residences, the majority of the students indicated the
university regulation and law; about 42% of the students from the
University of Ibadan gave this reason, while about 56% of the
University of Lagos students did. This tabulation is presented in
Table 6.


119
about social, political, or campus issues; discussions about personal
problems and discussions about class/course problems. These students
were found to be statistically different (p < .10) in the frequency of
reception of academic advice and in discussions about future careers
with their faculty members (see Tables 53 and 54).
Conclusions
The following conclusions can be drawn from this study.
1. The most preferred residence among Nigerian university
students was an on-campus residence. (The University of Lagos had a
higher percentage of students who desired the on-campus residence than
the students from the University of Ibadan.)
2. The majority of Nigerian university off-campus students'
after-class activities were carried out on the campus.
3. Except for reported grade point average at the University of
Lagos with higher on-campus student mean GPA, the Nigerian on-campus
and off-campus students were similar in their academic activities.
4. The involvement of Nigerian university on-campus and
off-campus students in campus clubs and organizations were comparable.
5. The number of hours of weekly involvement of Nigerian
university on-campus and off-campus students in extracurricular
activities were comparable.
6. The residence of close friends of Nigerian university
on-campus and off-campus students were different. The majority of


Chickering (1974a) found that on-campus residence students
participated more often in extracurricular activities than their
commuter counterparts.
In the United States, researchers have generated a number of
studies in the area of students' residence location during the last
two decades. Those who have studied the impact of colleges on
students during their undergraduate education have findings that can
be generally classified into three areas. The first group refers to
studies in which the researchers found differences between commuter
and on-campus students and attributed the positive effects to the
on-campus residence (Astin, 1973, 1975, 1978; Chickering, 1974a).
Commuters and on-campus residential students were found to differ in
the areas of academic achievement, persistence in college, faculty to
student relationships, participation in extracurricular activities,
peer relationships, the level of satisfaction with college, and future
academic aspirations. Much of the research in this first category has
led writers to credit the on-campus residence living as being
positively related to the aspects mentioned above. Chickering (1967)
stated that residence halls "provide a significant context for student
development ... it is there that close association with other
students occur" (p. 179). Astin (1975, 1984, 1985) identified
on-campus living as an important factor in promoting student
development and involvement. Burtner and Tincher (1979) reported less


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
College of Education and to the Graduate School and was accepted as
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
August, 1988
1
l
1 CJ
:iv)
Dean, College of Ed
ucation
Dean, Graduate School


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
In recent years, successive waves of educational improvement
programs have passed through the higher education systems. Since the
1983 controversial national report entitled A Nation At Risk: The
Report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education (National
Institute of Education, 1983) and subsequent reports such as
Involvement in Learning: Realizing the Potential of American Higher
Education (National Institute of Education, 1984) and Integrity in the
College Curriculum: A Report to the Academic Community (Association
of American Colleges, 1985), leaders of American universities and
colleges have grown more concerned about the ways through which
quality and excellence can be restored to undergraduate education.
The achievement of excellence has become one of the major goals of the
institutions of higher education in this country. The Study Group on
the Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education recommended
three means through which the quality of undergraduate education can
be improved (National Institute of Education, 1984). These are (a)
increased student involvement, (b) higher expectations, and (c)
improved assessment and feedback.
1


133
off-campus living could not have been based on any reliable
information due to lack of any official off-campus student data base.
It, therefore, is recommended that the administrators of Nigerian
universities should have a data base for both on-campus and off-campus
students in order to be able to serve all their present student body
and also to be able to plan adequately for the future.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 6744


135
Bishop, J., & Synder, G. (1976). Commuters and residents: Pressures,
helps, and psychological services. Journal of College Student
Personnel, 17, 232-235.
Bukowski, J. (1975). Societal factors: An analysis of selected
factors of dormitory students and commuting students at Johnson
and Wales College. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova University,
College of Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
ED 127 869)
Burtner, R., & Tincher, W. A. (1979). A study of resident and non
resident students at Auburn University. Auburn, AL: Auburn
University, Office of the Dean of Student Services. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No. 172 664)
Chickering, A. (1967). College residences and student development.
Educational Record, 48, 179-186.
Chickering, A. (1974a). Commuting versus resident students. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Chickering, A. (1974b). Education and identity: Implications for
residence hall living. In D. DeCoster & P. Mable (Ed.),
Student development and education in college residence halls
(pp. 256-299). Washington, DC: American College Personnel
Association.
Chickering, A., & Kuper, E. (1971). Educational outcomes for
commuters and residents. Educational Record, 52, 255-261.
Chickering, A., & McCormic, J. (1973). Personality development and
the college experience. Research in Higher Education, ^(1),
43-70.
Clodfelter, I., Furr, S., & Washowiak, D. (1984). Student living
environments and their perceived impact on academic
performance. Journal of College and University Student Housing,
14, 18-21.
Davis, J., & Caldwell, S. (1977). An intercampus comparison of
commuter and residential student attitudes. Journal of College
Student Personnel, 14, 286-290.
Dollar, R. J. (1966). Characteristics and choice of housing.
Journal of College Student Personnel, 7_, 147-150.


115
University of Lagos, almost 55% of the off-campus students indicated
that they spent 1-3.4 hours in extracurricular activities per
week, while 50% of the on-campus students did. For the University of
Ibadan, about 36% of the on-campus students spent 1-3.4 hours in
weekly extracurricular activities, while 50% of the off-campus
students indicated similar hours of weekly involvement (see Tables 28
and 29).
As the number of hours of extracurricular involvement increased,
the percentage of students who were involved generally dropped. The
on-campus students, however, maintained a higher percentage of greater
hours of involvement than their off-campus counterparts.
When the samples from the two universities were combined, the
Nigerian students whether on-campus or off-campus were found to spend
comparable weekly hours in extracurricular activities. The analysis
conducted on the combined data from the two universities resulted in a
nonsignificant (p > .10) chi-square value (see Table 30).
Nigerian Students' Residence and Friendships Made by Students
During Undergraduate Education
The residence locations of on-campus and off-campus students'
close friends were found to be statistically different (p < .10). A
higher number of on-campus students' close friends at each university
and on the combined data lived on the campus, while each group of
off-campus students maintained a higher percentage of off-campus close
friendships (see Tables 31, 32, and 33).


113
Nigerian Students' Residence and Students' Involvement
in Clubs and Organizations
The on-campus and off-campus students at both the University of
Ibadan and the University of Lagos reported similar involvement in
students' clubs and organizations (see Tables 25 and 26). At the
University of Ibadan, the percentage of on-campus students'
involvement in these campus activities was slightly higher than the
off-campus students' involvement, but this difference was not of
statistical significance (see Table 25). Interestingly, at the
University of Lagos, the off-campus students had a higher percentage
of involvement in students' clubs and groups (see Table 26). The
slightly higher percentage of the off-campus students was, however,
not of statistical significance.
When both data were combined, there was still no statistical
difference in the involvement of on-campus and off-campus students in
campus students' groups (see Table 27). Overall, the on-campus
students reported a slightly higher percentage of involvement which
was, however, of no statistical value.
The Nigerian on-campus and off-campus university students showed
comparable involvement in campus clubs and organizations. Overall,
almost 66% of Nigerian university on-campus students were involved in
clubs and organizations while almost 62% of the off-campus students
were so involved (see Table 27).


101
Table 42
University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Receiving
Informal Academic Advice from Faculty Members
Students
Very Often
Often
Not Often
Not at all
Total
On-Campus
15
32
63
15
125
Off-Campus
4
7
10
7
28
Total
19
39
73
22
153
Chi-square
= 3.99
(df=3)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.
Table 43
University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions with
Faculty Members About Social. Political, or Campus Issues
Students
Regularly
Occasionally
Rarely
Never
Total
On-Campus
4
14
42
68
128
Off-Campus
0
7
9
12
28
Total
4
21
51
80
156
Chi-square = 4.46 (df=3)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.


129
While dormitory influence may be responsible for the differences
found in University of Lagos students, such influence was unnoticed in
the University of Ibadan students' case. It appears that some other
related influences like the students' motivational factors, i.e., the
students' determination to make the best use of their environmental
conditions and time; the general environment of the city where the
college is located (Lagos, for example, is bigger, busier, and has
more accommodation problems than Ibadan); the proximity of
the general environment of the campus itself; off-campus residence to
the campus; and finally, the location of students' after-class
activities may have played a greater part than the dormitory influence
in this study.
The locations of students' after-class activities probably helped
the Nigerian off-campus students to be exposed more to the college
environment than might be expected. The evidence from this study
tends to offer support to the notion that if commuters or off-campus
students do most of their after-class activities on the campus, i.e.,
engage in campus extracurricular activities, have on-campus friends,
and study on the campus, they most likely will have involvement
similar to that of their on-campus counterparts. This factor of
spending more time on-campus was noted by Astin (1985) when he related
on-campus part-time job to persistence in college.
The overall environmental factors of the city where the college
is located may influence the behaviors of both on-campus and off-


56
condition helped to provide a sufficient number of both kinds of
students to permit comparing off-campus and resident students.
Furthermore, the two institutions used in this study were chosen
because each had a residence policy that required students to live
on-campus and off-campus during certain academic years.
The different conditions of students commuting should be borne in
mind whenever Nigerian university students' residence is considered in
light of counterpart students in American universities. The students
in Nigeria were most likely chose to live in off-campus housing for
one of two main reasons: (a) university regulation that allows only
certain student classifications to live on-campus during their
academic years and (b) dormitory space that is limited. Since
university education was free in Nigeria, the students did not face
the problem of financing their education as do most students in
American universities. The cost of university education including
that of living in the dormitory was minimal for Nigerian students.
For example, in Nigeria, university tuition was free and students in
the universities' residence halls paid lodging fees of about N91
($21.00) per academic year (personal communication with students and
university administrator).
The different cultures surrounding the students in Nigeria and
American universities should also be considered when evaluating the
residence issue. In Nigeria, it was more convenient for students to
live on-campus; in fact most student lived off-campus not because they
wanted to, but because of circumstances such as those mentioned above.


6
satisfaction among the nonresidential students at Auburn University in
the area of their social lives. Chickering (1974a) and Astin (1975)
supported the finding that campus residence students are more
satisfied with their total undergraduate experiences.
Researchers in the second category have found no differences
between the commuters and those students living in the residence halls
on campus. Dressel and Nisula (1966), Mussano (1976), and Foster
(1975) reported no differences between the commuter students and the
on-campus students in the areas of academic achievement and
persistence in college. Graff and Cooley (1970) reported no
significant difference between these two groups of students in their
relationships to faculty members and their student peers. The
researchers also found no difference in their academic achievement
after the students have completed one semester in the college.
The third group of findings in the students' residence
studies is higher academic achievement and satisfaction among the
commuters. Bukowski (1975) reported higher grade point averages for
the commuter students. Belock (1978) also came to a similar
conclusion when she compared the grade point averages of freshman
commuters and residential students at Castleton State College during
1976, 1977, and 1978. These two researchers found the means of the
grade point averages of the commuters to be significantly higher than
those of the residential students. Hardy (1973) reported more


71
The majority of the University of Ibadan commuters (73.91%)
walked to campus while 13.04% rode public transportation. The
University of Lagos students had a reversed situation: 83.67% of the
commuters rode public transportation to campus while only 4.08%
walked.
All the students were asked about their most desirable residence
and the location of their after-class activities. The tables below
contain percentage breakdowns of their responses.
Table 9
Percentage Distribution of Students Most Desirable Residences
On-Campus Off-Campus
Students
Ibadan
Lagos
Ibadan
Lagos
On-Campus
92.86
95.65
7.41
4.35
Off-Campus
60.00
95.56
40.00
4.44
For the University of Ibadan students, 92.86% of students
residing on-campus indicated the on-campus location as the most
desirable residence while 60% of those students residing off-campus
indicated the on-campus location as the most desirable. At the
University of Lagos, 95.65% of the students residing on-campus favored
on-campus residence and 95.56% of the students residing off-campus
also favored on-campus housing. There was a higher percentage of
on-campus residence preference among the University of Lagos students.


73
University of Ibadan resident and non-resident students but was
rejected for the University of Lagos students. For the University of
Ibadan resident and non-resident students, the analysis of their
academic grade point averages reflected comparable academic
achievement for both groups. However, the analysis of the University
of Lagos' data indicated a significantly different academic
achievement for on-campus and off-campus students. The on-campus
students were found to achieve academically higher than the off-campus
students; their mean academic grade point average was 2.44 while it
was 2.13 for the off-campus students. The results of the analysis for
the University of Ibadan students are presented in Table 11 and those
of the University of Lagos students appear in Table 12.
Table 11
Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Ibadan Students
On-Campus Students
Off-Campus Students
Mean
4.76
4.85
Std.Dev.
0.45
0.95
N
123
28
t-value
-0.23
df
149
Prob
NS


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Christianah Iyabode Falade was born and raised in Nigeria. She
attended St. Saviour's Elementary School and Christ's School both in
Ado-Ekiti in Nigeria. She completed her secondary education in 1971,
and worked as an assistant bursar at her uncle's private secondary
school from 1972 through 1974. Christianah relocated to Liberia in
1975 to pursue higher education. She enrolled in a library science
institution in Monrovia, Liberia, that same year and was admitted to
the University of Liberia in 1976. At the university, she majored in
sociology and minored in demography. She graduated with a B.A. degree
in 1979 and returned to Nigeria to be a part of the National Youth
Service Corps.
Christianah was married in Nigeria in 1980 and came to the
United States with her husband in 1981. She earned her M.A. in
student personnel services and her Ed.S. in educational psychology at
Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee, in 1982 and
1984 respectively. She began her doctoral study at the University
of Florida in 1985 and received her Ph.D. in higher education
administration in August, 1988.
Christianah is married to Christopher Omosimoju and they have
two children, Oluwaseyi Tosin and Oluwaseun Ayooluwa. She was the
daughter of the late Joseph Richard Oni and Janet Omotayo Abiodun.
148


100
Table 40
Frequency of University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal
Discussion of Class/Course Problems with Faculty Members
Students
Very Often Often
Not Often
Not at all
Total
On-Campus
9 34
50
28
121
Off-Campus
3 5
11
6
25
Total
12 39
61
34
146
Chi-square = 1.42 (df=3)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.
Table 41
University of
Ibadan Students
Reception of Academic
Advice from
Faculty Members
Received Academic Advice
Students
Yes
%
No %
Total
%
On-Campus
70
55.1
57 44.9
127
100
Off-Campus
18
69.2
8 30.8
26
100
Total
88
65
153
Chi-square =
1.71
(df=l)
Not significant at .10
prob. level.


APPENDIX
RELATING RESIDENCE LOCATION WITH INVOLVEMENT
IN UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS
1. Sex: Male (1) Female (2)
2. How old are you?
16-18 yrs (1)
19-21 yrs (2)
22-24 yrs (3)
25-30 yrs (4)
over 30 yrs (5)
3. Where is your home state? state (1)
4. What is your academic classification?
Prelim (1)
First Year (2)
Second Year (3)
Third Year (4)
5. Where do you live?
university dormitory (1)
off-campus living independently (2)
at home with parents (3)
with relatives or others (4)
6. If you are living in on-campus dormitory, how long have you
been living in a dormitory?
less than 1 yr (1)
1-2 yrs (2)
more than 2 yrs (3)
other (specify) (4)
140


26
tried to prove the relationship between the concept of student
involvement and student development. Astin (1985) also tried to
establish the concept as related to the talent development view of
excellence in higher education. The major point stressed in this
theory was that "students learn by becoming involved" (p. 133).
The students' residence is an important environmental factor that
affects students' involvement and development in college. The impact
of colleges is experienced by students through their living
environments. The relationship between the living environments and
student development has been underscored by a number of researchers
such as Chickering (1967, 1974b) and Scott (1975). According to
Chickering (1974b),
residence hall living influences student development in
three ways. First, close friendships develop initially
with persons whose rooms are nearby and it is in the
context of such friendships that values, future plans
and aspirations, and decisions for current behavior occur
and are thought through. Second, a housing unit may
become a subculture with its own values and standards,
may become a reference group for its members and thus
behavior and attitudes may be modeled with reference to
this culture and its expectations. Third, under certain
arrangements there is opportunity for a student to observe
the impact of his behavior on other individuals and on the
larger social unit. This clear feedback allows behavior
to be modified through conscious awareness of results.
(p. 76)
Scott (1975) reported increases in self-actualization for
students living in on-campus residence halls. When compared with the
commuters, the residents in his study showed twice as much increase


LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 Ages of Sample Population from the University of Ibadan . 65
2 Ages of Sample Population from the University of Lagos . 66
3 Gender of Total Respondents from Both Universities .... 66
4 Ages of All Student Respondents from Both Universities . 67
5 Residence Locations for Total Respondents from Both
Universities 68
6 The Most Important Reason Why Students Resided Off-Campus 69
7 Percentage Distribution of Commuters' Distances to
Residences 70
8 Percentage Distribution of Commuters' Means of
Transportation 70
9 Percentage Distribution of Students Most Desirable
Residences 71
10 Percentage Distribution of the Locations of Students'
After-Class Activities 72
11 Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Ibadan Students 73
12 Differences in Academic Grade Point Averages for the
University of Lagos Students 74
13 Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University
of Ibadan 75
14 Differences in Reported Hours in Library of Students at
the University of Ibadan 76
viii


52
reported similarities in their involvement in college activities. The
researchers who have claimed differences in the involvement of
commuter and resident students have further reported contrary
findings. Some have reported positive relationships between on-campus
living and involvement while others have reported positive
relationships between off-campus living and involvement.
In spite of these varied results, the majority of the researchers
have suggested specific differences in the involvement of commuters
and residents in many college activities that are deemed to be
important factors in the total educational program.


Ill
close friends. The students at the University of Ibadan were found to
be similar in their involvement in all areas of academic and
non-academic activities tested in this study except in the area of
friendship.
The analyses of University of Lagos student data yielded more
significant differences between on-campus and off-campus students.
The differences were indicated in the students' academic achievement
as reflected by their academic grade point averages, in the residence
of students' close friends, in informal discussions of classes/courses
with lecturers, and in the reception of academic advice from faculty
members.
In the combined data of both universities, differences were found
between the on-campus and off-campus students in the areas of
students' general satisfaction with college experiences, residences of
students' close friends, frequency of students' reception of academic
advice from faculty members and in the discussions about future
careers with faculty members. In all other areas tested in this
study, the Nigerian university on-campus and off-campus students were
found to be statistically similar in their involvement in college
activities.
The summary of the findings by each variable used in this study
is presented in the sections following.


145
27. How do you feel about the following statement? My professors
are helpful to me in attaining my university goals.
strongly agree (1)
agree (2)
disagree (3)
strongly disagree (4)
28. Concerning your total experience at this university, are you
satisfied so far?
very satisfied (1)
satisfied (2)
not satisfied (Go to question 30) (3)
29.List two or three areas of university life with which you are
particularly well pleased.
30.If you are not satisfied with your university experience,
give two or three areas with which you are not pleased.
31. What are the average number of hours each day you study or
carry out class assignments?
32. Do you study alone or with friends?
alone (1)
with friends (2)


Copyright 1988
by
Christianah I. Falade


37
In another study by Pugh and Chamberlain (1976), comparisons were
made among students living in the different housing arrangements in
the area of academic achievement. No significant differences were
reported for the students. Baird (1969) compared the traits and
achievements of 2,295 males and 2,834 females in different types of
housing at 29 colleges. The students in this study rated themselves
on 31 traits and 35 life goals. The students also reported on their
college experiences and college average grades. According to the
researcher, the students in the different housing groups rated
themselves similarly on 24 of the 31 self-ratings. No significant
differences were recorded in 31 out of the 35 life goals. The women
residing in off-campus apartments reported the highest corrected mean
GPA.
Finally, Graff and Cooley (1970) found no significant difference
in the achievement of commuter and residence students after they had
completed one semester in college. No significant differences were
identified in the areas of "study skills, practices, planning, and the
use of time" (p. 57).
In summary, the research conducted in the area of academic
achievement and the college living environments is inconclusive,
producing three categories of findings. While some researchers have
reported significant differences among the commuters and the
residents, some have found them to be similar in their academic
achievement.


72
Table 10
Percentage Distribution of the Locations of Students' After-Class
Activities
Locations of Activities
On-Campus Off-Campus Equally Divided
Students Ibadan Lagos Ibadan Lagos Ibadan Lagos
On-Campus 89.92 79.17 3.36 4.17 6.72 16.67
Off-Campus 73.08 65.96 19.23 14.89 7.69 19.15
About 90% of the University of Ibadan on-campus students claimed
that their after-class activities were held on-campus, while about 73%
of the off-campus students indicated the same. For the University of
Lagos on-campus students, about 79% had their after-class activities
on campus, while almost 66% of the off-campus students indicated their
after-class activities were also on-campus.
Test of Hypothesis One
Ho 1: There are no differences between the academic achievement
and activities of Nigerian university off-campus and
on-campus students.
Part of hypothesis was tested with a _t-test for independent samples.
The analysis of University of Ibadan's students academic grade point
averages yielded a _t-value of -0.23 which was not significant at the
.10 level of probability. The t-value for the University of Lagos
data was 1.79 and was found to be significant at the .08 level of
probability. This part of the null hypothesis was retained for the


121
11. The Nigerian university on-campus and off-campus students
were generally involved in academic and extracurricular activities in
similar manners.
Discussion
The Nigerian university resident and non-resident students who
participated in this study were found to be involved in academic and
extracurricular activities in similar manners. There were more
similarities found between the two groups of students than
differences. The findings in this research tended to support the
researchers in the second category of the literature review who
reported no differences in the academic and extracurricular activities
of on-campus and off-campus students.
According to Astin's (1984, 1985) description of the involvement
concept, the Nigerian university on-campus and off-campus students
were actively involved in their academic and extracurricular
activities except for student/faculty relationships, where their
involvement was generally low.
The previous findings in the area of academic achievement of
off-campus and on-campus students were classified into three
categories in the literature review: findings in which a difference
was reported with the higher academic achievement credited to the
on-campus students, findings in which higher academic achievement was
reported for the off-campus students, and findings of no difference
between the groups.


79
Table 18
Differences in Reported Study Hoars of Students from
Both Universities
On-Campus
Off-Campus
Mean =
5.0574
5.3871
Std.Dev. =
2.7115
3.4705
N
209
62
_t-value =
-0.7858
df
269
Prob. =
.2163
Chi-square tests were used to analyze the differences between
on-campus and off-campus students' study partners and study places.
The results of these analyses are presented in Tables 19 through 24.
No significant differences were found between the on-carapus and
off-campus students and their study partners. The analysis showed
that most of the on-campus and off-campus students studied most of the
time alone.
The chi-square analysis done on the study places of students from
both the University of Ibadan and the University of Lagos students
yielded no significant differences. The result indicated that both


95
Table 36
Satisfaction of College Experience at University of Ibadan by
"Satisfied" and "Not Satisfied"
Students
Satisfied
% Not
Satisfied
%
Total
%
On-Campus
92
73.6
33
26.4
125
100
Off-Campus
18
64.3
10
35.7
28
100
Total
110
43
153
Chi-square
= 0.86
(df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.
Table 37
Satisfaction of College
Experience at
University of Lagos
by
"Satisfied"
and "Not Satisfied"
Students
Satisfied
% Not
Satisfied
%
Total
%
On-Campus
64
66.0
33
34.0
97
100
Off-Campus
24
53.3
21
46.7
45
100
Total
88
54
142
Chi-square
= 2.21
(df=l)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.


81
Table 21
Students' Study Partners at the University of Lagos
Study Partner
Students
Alone
Friends
Total
On-Campus
51
40
91
Off-Campus
28
15
43
Total
79
55
134
Chi-square = 1.27
Not significant at
(df=l)
.10 prob. level.
Table 22
Students' Study Places at the University of Lagos
Students
Library
Bedroom
Lecture Room
Classroom
Other
Total
On-Campus
32
28
5
15
10
90
Off-Campus
23
10
3
5
4
45
Total
55
38
8
20
14
135
Chi-square =4.31
Not significant at
(df=4)
.10 prob. level.


13
1. The amount of student learning and personal development
associated with any educational program is directly
proportional to the quality and quantity of student
involvement in that program.
2. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice
is directly related to the capacity of that policy or
practice to increase student involvement. (Astin, 1985,
p. 136)
These two postulates had not been tested empirically (Astin, 1984,
1985), but they had been given as recommendations for excellence by
The Study Group on the Condition of Excellence in Higher Education.
The validity of this theory and its different postulates needed to be
tested so that the higher educational system leaders could base
recommendations and policy on them. Astin (1984, 1985) pointed out
the necessity for validating the theory and also the need to establish
the relationships that exist among the different forms of student
involvement.
North American researchers such as Astin (1984, 1985), Chickering
(1967, 1974a), and others have pointed out the students' residence
location as an important factor in students' involvement in
undergraduate experience; this study was designed to determine if this
theory was applicable in Nigerian universities as well.
Delimitations
This study must be reviewed with the following delimitations in
mind:
1. The research was conducted with the Nigerian university
students registered during the 1987-88 academic year;


143
17.What are the names of the campus students clubs, organizations,
etc. in which you are an active member? (ACTIVE can mean any of
these: regular attendance of club meetings, participation in club
organization's activities, and holding an official position.)
18.Name the office(s) you have held or are holding (if any) in the
student clubs, organizations, etc., and the years.
19. What is the average number of hours you are involved in the clubs/
organization activities in a week?
less than 1 hour (1)
1-3.4 hours (2)
3.5-5.4 hours (3)
5.5-7 hours (4)
more than 7 hours (5)
20. In interacting with your professors, how often do you meet with
them outside the class time?
very often (1)
often (2)
not often (3)
not at all (4)
21. Whenever you meet with any of your professors informally, how
often do you discuss class/course or intellectual problems?
very often (1)
often (2)
seldom (3)
not at all (4)


141
7. If you are currently living outside the university, have you
lived in a dormitory on-campus prior to now?
yes (1)
no (2)
8. How long were you in the dormitory before you moved out?
less than 1 yr (1)
1 yr (2)
2 yrs (3)
other (specify) (4)
9. What was the most important reason for moving off-campus?
university regulation or laws (1)
financial reasons (2)
to be with friends living off-campus (3)
to be with parents/relatives outside the campus (4)
lack of satisfaction with dormitory living (5)
marriage (6)
other (specify) (7)
10.How far do you live from campus?
less than 1 mile (1)
1-3.4 miles (2)
3.5-5.4 miles (3)
5.5-7.4 miles (4)
7.5-10 miles (5)
more than 10 miles (6)


17
Dormitory hall. This term refers to students' residence within
the university campus. The term is used interchangeably with
on-campus residence.
Academic achievement. Academic achievement refers to students'
academic performance as reflected by their self-reported grade point
averages.
Academic activities. This term is used for student's behaviors
in academic-related variables such as the self-reported average
weekly study hours, library usage, study partner, and study place.
Library usage. The term is used for the self-reported average
weekly hours that students spend in the library studying or doing
class assignments.
Extracurricular involvement. This term refers to the reported
participation of students in activities that are not academically
related, mostly arising through out-of-class social and athletic
activities.
Student/facuity relationships. Any reported formal and informal
interactions between the faculty members and the students, mainly
outside the class, constitute student/faculty relationships.
Students' peer relationships. The self-reported friendships of
students.
General college satisfaction. Students' self-reported fulfilled
expectation of college experience.


146
33. Where do you study most of the time?
library (1)
bedroom (2)
lecture room (3)
classroom (4)
other (specify) (5)
34. What are the average number of hours you spend in the library
per week?
35. When you want to make use of the library, do you consider your
accessibility to this facility easy or difficult?
easy (Answer question 37 next) (1)
difficult (2)
36. Give reason(s) the library is not easily accessible to you?
37.Would you consider yourself to have been influenced in any way
by this university?
jes (1)
no (2)
38.Give specific areas you have been influenced.


34
The students in the three on-campus halls had higher academic
success than those in the off-campus lodgings. When compared on the
Brown-Holtzman Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, the students in
the three on-campus residences had significantly higher scores
relating to study habits and attitudes than students from the
off-campus lodgings.
In all the studies reviewed above the academic achievement of
on-campus residence hall students was higher. However, contrary
findings have been offered by Davis and Caldwell (1977), Bukowski
(1975), Belock (1978), and Chickering and Kuper (1971). In these
studies, the commuters have been reported to possess the higher
academic averages or more positive identification with the
intellectual environment of their colleges.
Davis and Caldwell (1977) compared the commuter and resident
students on their responses to personal, social, and academic
environments. The commuters responded more positively in the area of
academic environment while the resident students responded more
positively in the area of personal and social environment. The
researchers concluded that the commuters identified with the academic
environment of the college while the residents were more involved with
social activities and interpersonal relationships.
Bukowski (1975) studied the freshman commuter and resident
student at Johnson and Wales private business college. Higher grade


9
1985; Oduleye, 1985). In an effort to avoid this dormitory problem,
the Ondo State government in Nigeria started the Ondo State University
as a non-residential institution. Enaowho (1985) suggested the
"acceptance of off-campus status as a precondition for offer of
admission to qualified candidates" (p. 316). The decision and
policies concerning the issue of dormitories in Nigerian universities
have not been based on any known research dealing with how they affect
the students and their satisfaction.
Given the existing fiscal condition within the nation, it was
believed that the provision of dormitory facilities for Nigerian
university students could be phased out as a result of limited funding
and low priority. This situation made this research on the students'
residence locations and student involvement in college activities most
useful in providing necessary data for future policy decisions for the
Nigerian university leaders, as well as offering findings from a new
context that addresses the importance of student involvement.
Statement of the Problem
This study was designed to investigate the differences in
on-campus and off-campus students' involvement in university
activities. The purposes of the research were threefold: (a) to
determine the differences in the involvement of on-campus and
off-campus students at two Nigerian universities, (b) to test the
validity of Astin's student involvement theory in Nigeria, and (c) to
determine the differences in the general college satisfaction of
on-campus and off-campus students at these two institutions.


137
Kerlinger, F. (1986). Foundations of behavioral research (3rd ed.).
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Lacy, W. (1978). Interpersonal relationships as mediators of
structural effects: College student socialization in a
traditional and an experimental university environment.
Sociology of Education, 51, 201-211.
Levin, B., & Clowes, D. (1982). Effect of residence hall living at
college on attainment of the baccalaureate degree. Journal of
College Student Personnel, 23, 99-104.
Matson, R. (1963). A study of the influence of fraternity, residence
hall, and off-campus living on students of high, average, and low
college potential. Journal of NAWDC, 26, 24-29.
Millman, S. D. (1972). Residence environment: Zeroing in. The
Journal of College and University Student Housing, 2_, 3-7.
Moos, R. H. (1979). The effect of a compulsory on-campus residency
policy upon academic achievement for freshmen. Fort Lauderdale,
FL: Nova University, College of Education. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED 129 378)
Mussano, F. (1976). The effect of a compulsory on-campus residency
policy upon academic achievement for freshmen, Fort Lauderdale,
FL: Nova University, College of Education. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED 129 378)
National Institute of Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The
report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education.
Washington, DC: National Institute of Education, U.S.
Department of Education.
National Institute of Education. (1984). Involvement in learning:
Realizing the potential of American higher education (Final
report of the Study Group on the Conditions of Excellence in
American higher education). Washington, DC: National Institute
of Education, U.S. Department of Education.
Nowack, K., & Hanson, A. (1985). Academic achievement of freshmen as
a function of residence hall housing. NASPA, 22, 22-28.
Oduleye, S. 0. (1985). Decline in Nigerian universities. Higher
Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and
Educational Planning, 14, 17-40.


18
Student development. This term refers to student growth
especially in the areas of intellectual ability, interpersonal, and
social activities that can be attributed to the impact of education.
Preliminary (prelim) year. This is the Nigerian university
classification for students admitted into the university with either
the General Certificate of Education (GCE) ordinary level or with West
African School Certificate (WASC) coupled with the passing of the
concessional admission examination. The students that enter through
the prelim status spend 4 years in the university to obtain their
baccalaureate degree. Prelim status is equivalent to the freshman
status in an American university.
First year. This is the student classification for those
students admitted into the Nigerian university with the Advanced GCE
or the Higher School Certificate. The students in this status need
3 more years to complete the bachelor's degree. It is equivalent to
the sophomore status of the American university.
Second year. This is the student status for those students who
have 2 more years to complete the bachelor's degree. The
classification is the equivalence of the junior status in American
universities.
Third year. This is the last year of the student attending a
Nigerian university. The status has the equivalence of the senior
year in American universities.


21
Data Analysis: An Overview
The data collected from the study of Nigerian students'
involvement and residence locations were of quantitative and
qualitative natures. The data were analyzed descriptively and with
t-tests and chi-square for independent samples.
The students' data on age, gender, and place of residence were
analyzed descriptively by percentages. The grade point averages,
students' weekly study hours, and the number of hours students spent
in the library in a week were analyzed with jt-tests for independent
samples.
The nominal data related to students' friendships, students'
study partners, students' study places, faculty/student
relationships, and the satisfaction of students with the college
experience were handled statistically with chi-square for independent
samples. The data on the hours of students' involvement in clubs and
organization activities were analyzed also with chi-square test.
All the data were analyzed with the micro-computer software
package Microstat. The level of significance was set at .10; this
probability level was used as the basis for rejecting or accepting the
null hypotheses.
Summary
The need to study the relationships between the Nigerian
university students' residence locations and their involvement in the


77
resident students and 5.61 for the non-resident students. Presented
in Table 15 are the results of the analysis.
The _t-value for the average hours students from the University of
Lagos spent in the library per week was -0.71. The means for the
on-campus and off-campus students were 14.10 and 15.53, respectively.
The results of the _t-test analysis are presented in Table 16.
Table 16
Differences in Reported Hours in Library of Students at
the University of Lagos
On-Campus Students
Off-Campus Students
Mean =
14.06
15.53
Std.Dev. =
10.66
11.06
N
83
40
_t-value =
-0.7053
df
121
Prob.
.2410
Not significant at
.10 prob. level.
The analysis of the weekly hours spent in the library for both
university samples combined also yielded a nonsignificant t-value of


93
for both universities. For the University of Ibadan and the
University of Lagos, there were no significant differences in the
on-campus and off-campus students' responses to the item in which the
levels of satisfaction of students was stated as "very satisfied,
"satisfied," and "not satisfied." A chi-square value of 1.67 with 2
degree of freedom was obtained for the University of Ibadan, while a
chi-square value of 3.36 was obtained for the University of Lagos.
The results of these analyses are presented in Tables 34 and 35.
Because of low frequencies in the "very satisfied" cell, the
levels of satisfaction were collapsed into "satisfied" and "not
satisfied." The on-campus and off-campus students at each of the
universities were found not to be significantly different (p < .01) in
their satisfaction of experiences in their college education. A
chi-square value of 0.86 was indicated for the University of
Ibadan, and a chi-square value of 2.21 was indicated for the
University of Lagos. These analyses are presented in Tables 36
and 37.
Since no significant difference was found in the students'
satisfaction with college experience, the null hypothesis was retained
for each institution. Both the resident and non-resident students
indicated high levels of satisfaction of their college experiences;
73.6% of the University of Ibadan on-campus students claimed that they
were satisfied, while 64.3% of the off-campus students indicated
satisfaction with college experiences.


139
Sudman, S., & Bradburn, N. (1982). Asking questions: A practical
guide to questionnaire design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Terenzini, P. T., & Pascarella, E. T. (1980). Student/faculty
relationships and freshman year educational outcomes: A further
investigation. Journal of College Student Personnel, 21,
521-528.
Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: A theoretical
synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research,
45, 89-125.
University of Ibadan. (1977). University of Ibadan calendar
1977-1978. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press.
Yesufu, T. M. (1973). The University of Lagos: Profile of an
African urban university. In T. M. Yesufu (Ed.), Creating the
African university (pp. 251-271). Ibadan, Nigeria: Oxford
University Press.
Welty, J. D. (1976). Resident and commuter students: Is it only the
living situation? Journal of College Student Personnel, 17,
465-468.
Wilson, R., Woods, L., & Gaff, J. (1974). Social-psychological
accessibility and faculty-student interaction beyond the
classroom. Sociology of Education, 47, 74-92.


102
Table 44
University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions
with Faculty Members About Personal Problems
Students
Regularly
Occasionally
Rarely
Never
Total
On-Campus
2
21
39
66
128
Off-Campus
0
5
7
16
28
Total
2
26
46
82
156
Chi-square = 0.05 (df=3)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.
Table 45
University of Ibadan Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions with
Faculty Members About Future Careers
Students
Regularly Occasionally
Rarely
Never
Total
On-Campus
5 31
59
33
128
Off-Campus
2 9
9
8
28
Total
7 40
68
41
156
Chi-square = 2.94 (df=3)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.


106
Table 50
University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions
of Future Careers with Faculty Members
Students Regularly Occasionally Rarely Never Total
On-Campus
3
23
39
33
98
Off-Campus
2
14
11
21
48
Total
5
37
50
54
146
Chi-square = 3,
.58
(df=3)
Not significant
at
.10 prob. level.
Table 51
University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal After-Class
Meetings with Faculty Members
Students
Very Often Often
Not Often
Not at all
Total
On-Campus
6
16
62
15
99
Off-Campus
3
7
25
13
48
Total
9
23
87
28
147
Chi-square =3.31
Not significant at
(df=3)
.10 prob. level.


19
Research Procedure: An Overview
Samples from the student populations at the University of Ibadan
in the Oyo state and the University of Lagos in the Lagos state of
Nigeria were used in the study. The lists of names of the University
of Lagos on-campus students were obtained from the student affairs
office. Two halls for male residents and two halls for female
residents were selected from which 100 students were randomly
selected. With tables of random numbers, 25 students were selected
from each residence hall. These students constituted the group that
represented the on-campus sample from the University of Lagos. The
off-campus students were from two academic faculties, the Faculty of
Arts and the Faculty of Sciences. Due to the lack of an official
off-campus residents list, the questionnaire was administered to
Faculty of Arts students during classes that were supposed to be taken
during students' off-campus years. The questionnaire was administered
in the Faculty of Sciences to all the students who identified
themselves as living off-campus. All the questionnaires were hand
delivered or administered within a 2-week period.
At the University of Ibadan, the questionnaires were administered
to students from the Departments of Mathematics, Education, Foreign
Languages, and Classics. The University of Ibadan sample came from
those who returned their questionnaires from these departments.
The instrument used in gathering the data consisted of a 41-item
questionnaire developed by the researcher based on the findings in the


128
related problems, and student/facuity relationships ranked the highest
three areas by dissatisfied students when asked to mention areas of
lack of satisfaction. Though these same areas were mentioned by
students from both universities, the severity of these problems
differed on an individual college basis. The accommodation problems
ranked as the most mentioned area of lack of satisfaction by the
University of Lagos students, while problems related to academics was
ranked first of all the problems given by University of Ibadan
students.
Almost half (46.7%) of the University of Lagos off-campus
students indicated that they were not satisfied with their college
experiences. This group had the highest percentage of dissatisfaction
when the University of Ibadan on-campus/off-campus and the University
of Lagos on-campus/off-campus groups were compared.
The involvement of the University of Ibadan and University of
Lagos on-campus and off-campus students were similar in many areas
but also different in some areas. The students from the University of
Ibadan were statistically similar in all areas of involvement except
in the residence of their close friends. The University of Lagos
students were statistically different in academic grade point
averages, in residence of close friends, and in two areas of student/
faculty academic relationships.


36
The different off-campus housing groups had higher GPAs than the
on-campus residence students.
In spite of these different findings about the commuters' and
residents' academic achievements, other researchers have reported
findings which have differed from the first two. These researchers
have reported similar academic achievement for both groups of students
(Baird, 1969; Burtner & Tincher, 1979; Dollar, 1966; Dressel & Nisula,
1966; Graff & Cooley, 1970; Mussano, 1976; Prusok & Walsh, 1964; Pugh
& Chamberlain, 1976).
Dressel and Nisula (1966) and Mussano (1976) reported similar GPA
and attrition rates for the commuters and residence students. The
results from Burtner and Tincher's (1979) study showed the Auburn
University commuters and residents to be almost identical in their
grade point averages. Dollar (1966) conducted a research study of
male freshman students at Oklahoma State University during the spring
semester of 1963. No significant differences were indicated among the
students in the three different types of housing. Prusok and Walsh
(1964) also studied the male freshman students at the State University
of Iowa. Comparing the mean adjusted grades of students at fraternity
houses, residence halls, off-campus houses, and students living at
home after the first semester in college, the researchers reported no
significant differences in the adjusted grades of students in these
different housing situations.


51
constant, Pascarella (1984) declared that the effect of on-campus
living was indirectly related to the general college satisfaction of
students. According to Pascarella, the effect of on-campus living on
degree aspirations and general college satisfaction was mediated
through students' relationships with faculty members and peers.
Hardy (1973) compared the commuter and resident students of North
Texas State University in regard to their satisfaction with the
university administration. The commuters in this study were
significantly more satisfied than the residents. Hardy also indicated
no significant difference between the two groups when they were
compared on their satisfaction with faculty members.
In summary, the research in the area of college satisfaction has
suggested differences in the commuters and residents. More evidence
tends to link positively college satisfaction with on-campus living.
It appears that on-campus resident students are more satisfied with
their college selection, and their general on-campus experience.
Summary
In this chapter, an overview of the research has been provided in
the area of students' residence and its relationship to student
involvement in college activities. The literature reviewed has
produced varied and inconclusive results that can be classified into
three groups. Some researchers have showed differences in the
involvement of commuters and residents while other researchers


41
was that students considered the faculty members to be more
influential than their peers in the areas of intellectual
development and occupational and career choices. There is a general
consensus that the faculty members act as a powerful force to shape
the students' intellectual and academic abilities.
The students' frequent faculty/student interaction has also been
positively related with the students' general satisfaction with their
total undergraduate education (Astin, 1978, 1984; Endo & Harpel, 1982;
Pascarella, 1980). According to Astin (1978),
frequent interaction with faculty is more strongly related
to satisfaction with college than any other type of
involvement or, indeed, any other student or institutional
characteristic. Students who interact frequently with
faculty members are more likely than other students to
express satisfaction with all aspects of their
institutional experience, including student friendships,
variety of courses, intellectual environment, and even
the administration of the institution, (p. 304)
The studies in the area of student/faculty informal interaction
can be grouped into two major areas. The research with the emphasis
on the impact of the relationship on students' outcomes such as
intellectual, social, and personal development; and the studies in
which commuters and resident students are compared on their general
interactions with faculty members. This section of the review of
literature is organized into these two areas.
Students' Outcomes
Endo and Harpel (1982) studied the effect of student/faculty
interaction on students' educational outcomes after 4 years in


87
done. The null hypothesis was retained for the University of Ibadan
based on a nonsignificant chi-square value of 1.2 (df=4) at the .10
level of probability and for the University of Lagos based on a
chi-square of 3.89. The analysis for Ibadan is presented in Table 28
and that for Lagos appears in Table 29.
The majority of the students at both institutions reported 1-3.4
hours of weekly involvement in extracurricular activities. As the
number of hours increased, the percentage of students who were
involved in extracurricular activities dropped.
The chi-square analysis done on the combined data from both
University of Ibadan and University of Lagos students also indicated
a nonsignificant chi-square value of 3.85. The null hypothesis was
retained for the overall data of Nigerian university students that
participated in this research. The analysis is presented in Table 30
below.
Since no significant difference was indicated on each
university's data nor the data of the universities, combined, Nigerian
on-campus and off-campus residents were comparable in the average
number of hours that they spent in club activities per week. As such,
the null hypothesis was retained.


45
commuters and residents relative to their relationships among their
faculty members and peers. It should be noted, however, that the
interaction of students and faculty members in this particular
research was based on the students first semester in college. The
researchers have supported overwhelmingly the positive influence of
residence living on student/facuity interaction. No negative evidence
was found in the literature review.
The research findings in the area of student/faculty interaction
have been further classified according to purposes: those based on
discussions of academic and intellectual matters and those based on
social and personal discussions (Iverson, Pascarella, Terenzini, 1984;
Pascarella, 1980; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1978; Terenzini &
Pascarella, 1980).
In Pascarella and Terenzinis (1978) study, the student/facuity
interaction that focused on intellectual or course-related matters was
reported as one with the strongest association. This type of
interaction was significantly related to the students' academic
performance.
Iverson et al. (1984) studied commuter informal contact with
faculty members. The commuters' most common contacts with faculty
members were also noted to be for academic purposes.
In summary, researchers have suggested the interaction between
students and faculty members to be a desirable college influence which


142
11. How do you get to the campus?
walk (1)
drive personal car (2)
ride bicycle/motorcycle (3)
ride public transportation (4)
other (specify) (5)
12. If you have lived off-campus and in on-campus dormitory
during your undergraduate program, which one do you consider
the most desirable for you?
off-campus (1)
on-campus (2)
13. Give reasons for your answer to question 12 above.
14.
15.
16.
Are your activities after your daily classes mostly on the
university campus or outside the campus?
mostly on the university campus (1)
mostly outside the university campus (2)
about equally divided (3)
Where is/are your close friend(s) living?
off-campus (1)
on-campus (2)
Do you belong to any campus students' clubs, organizations,
student government, or athletic group?
yes (1)
no (2)


67
Four students did not respond to the question item on gender.
For the total sample, 69.7% were male students while approximately 30%
of the students were females.
Table 4
Ages of All Student Respondents from Both Universities
Ages
Frequency
Percentage
16-18 years
7
2.3
19-21 years
116
28.2
22-24 years
118
38.8
25-30 years
55
18.1
over 30 years
8
2.6
Total
304
100.0
In the combined data, almost 70% fell into the typical college
age bracket of 16-24 years old. Of this group, about 28% were in
the 19-21 years bracket, and about 39% were in the 22-24 years of age
category. In all, 88% were 30 years old or younger.
Almost 75% of the students who participated in this research were
on-campus resident students while about 25% were students who resided
off-campus.


IV RESULTS OF THE STUDY 63
Introduction 63
Description of the Sample 64
Test of Hypothesis One 72
Test of Hypothesis Two 83
Test of Hypothesis Three 86
Test of Hypothesis Four 89
Test of Hypothesis Five 92
Test of Hypothesis Six and Sub-hypotheses 6a, 6b, 6c,
6d, 6e, 6f, and 6g 98
Summary 109
V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 110
Summary 110
Nigerian Students' Residence and Students' Academic
Achievement and Activities 112
Nigerian Students' Residence and Students' Involvement
in Clubs and Organizations 113
Nigerian Students' Residence and the Students' Number
of Hours of Weekly Involvement in Extracurricular
Activities 114
Nigerian Students' Residence and Friendships Made by
Students During Undergraduate Education 115
Nigerian Students' Residence and the General College
Satisfaction of the Students 116
Nigerian Students' Residence and the Student/Faculty
Relationships 117
Conclusions 119
Discussion 121
Areas for Future Study 130
Recommendations 131
REFERENCES 134
APPENDIX 140
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 148
vii


65
females. The residence location of those included in the study
were 99 (66.89%) on-campus resident students and 49 (33.11%)
off-campus students.
Table 1
Ages of Sample Population from the University of Ibadan
Ages
Frequency
Percentage
16-18 years
4
2.56
19-21 years
50
32.05
22-24 years
65
41.67
25-30 years
32
20.51
over 30 years
5
3.21
Total
156
100.00
The ages of University of Lagos' sample were similar to their
counterparts at the University of Ibadan. The distribution of the
ages of these students is presented in Table 2. About 98% of the
students were 30 years old or younger. Almost 45% of all the students
indicated that they were in the 19-21 years old bracket. While about
36% reported ages in the 22-24 years category. In total, 82% of the
University of Lagos sample fell into the typical college age bracket
of 16-24 years.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
Astin (1975, 1978, 1984, 1985) related students' living
environments to their involvement in total university programs. Astin
classified the student residence as a form of student involvement and
indicated it was associated with other forms of involvement. For
example, dormitory living has been reported to be positively related
to student involvement in extracurricular activities (Astin, 1975,
1978, 1984, 1985; Chickering, 1974a; Chickering & Kuper, 1971;
Smallwood & Klas, 1983), academic achievement (Astin, 1973, 1978,
1984, 1985; Chickering, 1974a; Levin & Clowes, 1982; Nowack & Hanson,
1985), student/faculty relationships (Astin, 1973, 1978, 1984;
Chickering, 1974a; Pascarella, 1980, 1984, 1985), peer relationships
(Chickering, 1974a; Pascarella, 1980, 1984, 1985), and college
satisfaction (Astin, 1978, 1984; Chickering, 1974a).
The concept of student involvement is relatively new in the area
of higher education. It was featured prominently as a focus in the
pursuit of excellence in higher education (National Institute of
Education, 1984). Prior to the report by The Study Group on the
Conditions of Excellence in American Higher Education (National
23


132
after-class activities on-campus. The college leaders can also
provide after-class activities tailored to meet the needs of its
particular student body.
The Nigerian students generally reported limited student/faculty
relationships, one main reason mentioned by the majority of students
was the attitude of the faculty members towards the students. The
university administrators should, in light of this problem, create
forums whereby the students and faculty members can be brought
together informally to develop relationships. The Nigerian university
system leaders need to address the problem areas that were mentioned
by students; the problems related to accommodation, academics, and
student/faculty relationships. Since accommodation problems cannot be
solved through the university budget due to the Nigerian federal
government deferral on future dormitory building, the university
administrators should encourage private investors or businesses to
build dormitories on the university lands on lease. This will help to
ease the problem of students' accommodations and at the same time take
care of students "squatting."
Due to the difficulties encountered by this researcher in
the gathering of information about the off-campus students, the
researcher is recommending that the Nigerian policy concerning the
dormitory building should be reviewed in the light of the findings
from this study. The earlier policy concerning the issue of


83
In brief, there were no significant differences between the
on-campus and off-campus students in their study patterns as reflected
by their average study hours per week, study partners, study places,
and average number of hours spent in the library per week. The
resident and non-resident students of each university were comparable
on all related academic variables tested in this study. The only
significant difference found in the analyses for this first hypothesis
was a difference in the academic grade point averages of on-campus and
off-carapus students at the University of Lagos. Therefore, the null
hypothesis was retained for the academic achievement and all academic
related variables for the University of Ibadan. For the University of
Lagos, the null hypothesis was retained for all the academic related
variables but was rejected for the academic achievement of the
students.
Test of Hypothesis Two
Ho 2: There is no difference between the Nigerian
university off-campus and on-campus students'
participation in clubs and organizations.
This hypothesis was tested with a chi-square test for independent
samples. The test indicated no significant differences (p < .10) at
either the University of Ibadan or the University of Lagos. The
analysis of the University of Ibadan's data yielded a chi-square value
of 0.815 while that of the University of Lagos was 0. These


88
Table 28
Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities by Students
at the University of Ibadan
Less More
than than
Students
1
hr. 1-3.4 hrs.
3.5-5
.4 hrs.
5.5-
7 hrs.
7 hrs.
Total
No,
. % No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No. %
No.
%
On-Campus
13
16 29
35.8
16
19.8
10
12.4
13 16
81
100
Off-Campus
2
12.5 8
50
2
12.5
2
12.5
2 12.5
16
100
Total
15
37
18
12
15
97
Chi-square = 1.2 (df=4)
Not significant at .10 prob.
level.
Table 29
Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities by Students
at the University of Lagos
Students
Less
than
1 hr.
1-3.4 hrs.
3.5-5.4 hrs.
5.5-
-7 hrs.
More
than
7 hrs.
Total
No. %
No.
%
No. %
No.
%
No. %
No. %
On-Campus
5 8.6
29
50
9 15.5
6
10.4
9 15.5
58 100
Off-Campus
6 19.4
17
54.8
4 12.9
3
9.7
1 3.2
31 100
Total
11
46
13
9
10
89
Chi-square = 3.89 (df=4)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.


114
When the tabulation of students' location of after-class
activities and their involvement in campus activities was compared, it
was not too surprising to find that the Nigerian off-campus students'
involvement in campus activities was as close as it was to that of the
on-campus students. At the University of Ibadan, almost 90% of the
on-campus students indicated that their after-class activities were
mostly on the campus. For the off-campus students, 73% had their
after-class activities on the campus (see Tables 10 and 25).
Of the University of Lagos on-campus students, 79% reported that
their after-class activities were carried out on the campus, while
almost 66% of the off-campus students indicated such activities (see
Tables 10 and 26). From these results one may conclude that the
off-campus students stayed after their daily classes to participate in
students' club activities on the university campus.
Nigerian Students' Residence and the Students' Number of Hours
of Weekly Involvement in Extracurricular Activities
The Nigerian on-campus and off-campus university students were
found to be statistically comparable in the number of hours of weekly
involvement in extracurricular activities. At both the University of
Ibadan and the University of Lagos, the on-campus and off-campus
students reported similar weekly hours of involvement in
extracurricular activities (see Tables 28 and 29).
A majority of the on-campus and off-campus students spent less
than 3.5 hours in extracurricular activities per week. At the


16
5. The self-reported answers of the students were assumed to
be credible and reliable.
6. The living environments of off-campus and on-campus
residence students were assumed to be different in ways
that are consistent with the findings in other studies.
7. The Nigerian university students classified as non-
residential and residential were assumed to be comparable
in precollegiate characteristics such as academic
aptitude and social status since Nigerian university
admission policy was based on standard academic
requirements, and also since all the universities were
owned by federal or state governments and were free for
those who are qualified.
8. The use of experts in reviewing the questions on the
instrument, the pilot testing of the research instrument
at the University of Florida, Gainesville, and a test-
retest reliability check using students at the University
of Ibadan in Nigeria were assumed to provide a validated
instrument for use in the research.
Definition of Terms
Commuter. This term is a designation used for students who live
in residences outside of the university campus. This term is used
interchangeably with off-campus and non-resident student.


35
point averages were indicated for the commuter students. In spite of
commuters' higher grade point averages, more of these students still
voluntarily withdrew from the college during that same period.
A similar finding has also been reported by Belock (1978).
Comparing the grade point averages of freshman commuter and resident
students for 3 consecutive years at Castleton State College, the
researcher reported significantly higher grade point averages for the
commuters during the 3 years. Consequently, the commuters were
pronounced academically better or equal to their resident
counterparts.
Chickering and Kuper (1971) also indicated increased intellectual
interests for commuters when they were compared with the residents on
the Omnibus Personal Inventory. Clodfelter, Furr, and Wachowiak
(1984) reported similar results to those above. In a research study
of perceived impact of student living environments on academic
performance, 304 students at the University of North Carolina at
Charlotte were studied. The students were asked to rate themselves on
a scale from 1 through 5 (extremely negativeextremely positive) on
the effect of some environmental factors on their academic
performance. The highest mean grade point average (GPA) was 3.25 for
the off-campus married students, the off-campus students living with
parents had a mean GPA of 3.00, the off-campus single students had a
mean GPA of 2.95, the dormitory students had a mean GPA of 2.88, and
the students living in on-campus apartments had a mean GPA of 2.75.


61
of the Nigerian university off-campus and on-campus students with
their faculty members.
Hypothesis 6c. There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings with faculty
members to receive academic advice.
Hypothesis 6d. There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal academic advice
received from their faculty members.
Hypothesis 6e. There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings to discuss
future careers with faculty members.
Hypothesis 6f. There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings to discuss
personal problems with faculty members.
Hypothesis 6g. There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal discussion about
social, political, or campus issues with faculty members.
Hypotheses 2 through 6g and part of hypothesis 1 were analyzed with
the chi-square method; other parts of hypotheses 1 were tested by the
t-test statistical method.
Summary
This chapter contained a description of the students that were
involved in this study, the methods that were used in selecting these


112
Nigerian Students' Residence and Students' Academic Achievement
and Activities
For the University of Ibadan, the students from both on-campus
and off-campus residences showed similar academic grade point
averages, and they were also similar in their average number of
study hours per week, average number of weekly library hours, study
partners, and study places (see Tables 11, 13, 14, 19, and 20).
The University of Lagos students were found to be similar in all
academic activities examined except in academic grade point averages
(see Tables 12, 15, 16, 21, and 22). The University of Lagos
on-campus students were found to achieve academically higher than
their off-campus counterparts. In spite of this statistically
different academic achievement, the students showed similar study and
library behaviors. Both groups of students were found to be similar in
the weekly study hours, library weekly hours, choice of study partner,
and study places.
Due to differences in grading procedures, the grade point average
data could not be combined, however, when the responses of the samples
were combined for the other academic activities there were no
statistically significant differences between the on-campus and off-
campus students. Their involvement in these academic related
variables were found to be similar (see Tables 17, 18, 23, and 24).


127
The off-campus students in this study had a higher percentage of
their friends living on the college campus than off-campus. This
finding may probably be related to the higher amount of off-campus
students' time spent on the campus.
This study provided no evidence to confirm Graff and Cooley's
(1970) finding of no difference between on-campus and off-campus
friendships. In fact, the students' friendships were the only factor
that showed significant difference between on-campus and off-campus
students both at the institutional basis and also on the combined
data.
The evidence of positive relationships between on-campus
residence and college satisfaction reported by Chickering (1974a), and
Astin (1973, 1975, 1978, 1984) was noted in this research. The
relationship between students' college satisfaction and residence
location on the institutional basis was not statistically significant
at the .10 level of probability, however, the on-campus students
claimed a higher percentage of college satisfaction than the
off-campus students. The overall data of both universities also
supported the trend of the positive relationship of on-campus
residence and students' college satisfaction.
The University of Ibadan students reported that they were more
satisfied with their college experience when compared with the
University of Lagos students. The accommodation problems, academic


97
The data of students from both universities were combined and
analyzed. A significant difference between the on-campus and off-
carapus students was found at the .05 level of probability.
This analysis is presented in Table 38.
Table 38
Satisfaction of College Experience at the Combined Universities
Students
Satisfied
%
Not Satisfied
%
Total
%
On-Campus
156
70.3
66
29.7
222
100
Off-Campus
42
57.5
31
42.5
73
100
Total
198
97
295
Chi-square =
Significant
=4.04 (df
at .05 prob.
=D
level.
The null hypothesis was rejected based on the "collapsed" data
(i.e., the "very satisfied" and "satisfied" responses were both
considered in a "satisfied" category) from both universities. There
was a significant difference in the satisfaction of college experiences
of Nigerian university on-campus and off-campus students. The
percentage of students' satisfaction presented in Table 38 showed that
70.3% of the on-carapus students of both institutions were satisfied
with their university experiences while only 57.5% of the off-campus
students indicated that they were satisfied.


39
same measures. The students living at home and those in off-campus
housing scored the lowest in their involvement in extracurricular
activities.
Welty (1976) and Davis and Caldwell (1977) provided further
evidence in their studies to support findings of more active
participation of dormitory residents in extracurricular activities.
Similarly, Smallwood and Klas (1983) found the students residing in
campus housing were significantly more involved in extracurricular
activities. They participated more in voluntary extracurricular
activities when compared to the students living in the off-campus
lodgings. Burtner and Tincher (1979) concurrently offered results
indicating commuters' lack of involvement and less satisfaction in the
area of social lives when compared with the resident students at
Auburn University. According to these researchers, "less than 20% of
these [the commuter] students engaged in many extracurricular
activities" (p. 23).
Contrary to the consensus findings of the researchers as
discussed above, Stark (1965) and Foster et al. (1975) reported no
significant differences for commuters and residents in the area of
extracurricular participation. Stark (1965) studied the differences
in the needs and problems of freshmen resident and commuter students
at a large, private, non-sectarian university. No significant
difference was reported for these two groups of students in their


5.
11
Is there a difference in the general college
satisfaction of Nigerian on-campus and off-campus
students?
6. Is there a difference in the student/faculty interactions
of Nigerian on-campus and off-campus students?
Hypotheses related to these questions were tested at the .10 level of
significance.
Justification
Historically, the Nigerian universities have been built at the
outskirts of the cities. This location justified the existence of
dormitory facilities. For example, the University of Ibadan, the
nation's first university, was patterned after London University which
epitomized the British system of higher education. At the time this
university was established in Nigeria, the residential feature along
with other British aspects of higher education was imported into the
nation. The Asquith Commission that recommended the establishment of
the university "emphasized the principles of a residential university
college in special relationship with London University (University of
Ibadan, 1977, p. 23). The dormitory, therefore, became an essential
feature of the Nigerian higher educational system. The provision and
maintenance of the dormitory facilities became one of the most
important services provided students. The service was considered an
essential one since more than 90% of the students did not have
personal transportation.


125
Nigerian university students as a whole rarely or only occasionally
met informally with their faculty members after the classes. The
involvement of both on-campus and off-campus students with their
faculty members was generally low.
While no differences were reported between the University of
Ibadan on-campus and off-campus students relationships to faculty
members, the University of Lagos students showed differences in the
academic area of student/faculty interactions. The on-campus students
related more to their faculty members in their frequency of reception
of academic advice and in the discussion of class/course problems.
Positive relationships between frequency of students' contact to
obtain academic information from faculty members and academic
performance were reported by Pascarella and Terenzini (1978) and
Terenzini and Pascarella (1980). Although this research was not
designed to investigate the relationships between these two variables,
the higher academic grade point averages of the University of Lagos
on-campus students and the evidence of their relationships to faculty
members in the areas of academic advice tend to support the trend of a
positive relationship between academic student/faculty relationships
and better academic performance. This trend was also noticed in the
University of Ibadan's case where the off-campus students indicated a
higher average academic grade point mean and reported a higher
academic student/faculty relationship (see Tables 11 and 41).


124
on their campuses. In fact, the on-campus/off-campus concepts were
defined by the University of Lagos administrator as follows: "the
off-campus students are those who were not given accommodation in the
students halls of residence on the on-carapus students are those who
were offered accommodation in the halls" (Personal communication,
January 6, 1988).
It appears that a major difference between Nigerian off-campus
and on-campus students was their "sleeping place." The dormitory
environment was not found to be related positively to students'
involvement in extracurricular activities as claimed by Chickering
(1974a), Smallwood and Klas (1983), and Astin (1975, 1978, 1984,
1985). The Nigerian students involvement was similar in
extracurricular activities. The students held memberships in
students' groups in similar manner and they indicated comparable
number of weekly hours of involvement in extracurricular activities.
In fact, the University of Lagos off-campus students were more
involved than their on-campus counterparts.
The findings of Stark (1965) and Foster et al. (1975) were
consistent with the findings regarding students' extracurricular
activities in the present study.
The claims of Astin (1973, 1978, 1984), Chickering (1974a), and
Pascarella (1980, 1984, 1985) that dormitory living was positively
related to faculty interaction was not evident in this study. The


30
The research in this area of academic achievement and student
residences seems to be inconclusive. Three categories of findings
have been reported. For the first group of research findings the
on-campus dormitory residence is credited with the higher academic
achievement; for the second group of findings the commuters are
reported to have the higher academic achievement; and for the third
group similar academic achievement is indicated for both commuter and
resident students. The literature in the area of academic achievement
following herewith has been organized according to these categories of
findings.
Chickering (1974a), Astin (1973, 1975, 1978), and Levin and
Clowes (1982) have reported higher grade point averages or higher
levels of involvement in intellectual matters for the residents. In
fact, Chickering (1974a) believed that the degree of commuters'
engagement in their academic activities was less than the resident
students. This researcher reported the academic characteristics of
commuters in his study as follows:
commuters who live with their parents more frequently
flunk a course and are on academic probation; they less
frequently take pass-fail courses or participate in an
honors program or ROTC. They frequently study less than
five hours. Compared to dormitory residents, they less
frequently do extra reading, check out a book or journal
from the college library, study in the library, type a
homework assignment, or argue with an instructor in
class; they more frequently fail to complete an
assignment on time and come late to class. They much
less frequently discuss schoolwork with friends or
read books not required for courses. In general,
therefore the students who live at home with their
parents appear to be less fully engaged in academic
activities than their dormitory peers, (p. 61)


50
1974a; Davis & Caldwell, 1977). According to Astin (1978), the
residents in his study expressed "much more satisfaction with
undergraduate experience, particularly in the areas of student
friendships, faculty/student relations, institutional reputation, and
social life" (p. 221).
Baird (1969) also indicated that the commuters were more
dissatisfied with their college when compared with their resident
counterparts. In this study, the commuters showed evidence of not
being as satisfied as the residents. Davis and Caldwell (1977)
provided further evidence to support the positive relationship of
on-campus living and college satisfaction. In an inter-campus study
of students at two different residential and commuter institutions,
Davis and Caldwell (1977) reported that 76.4% of the resident students
showed satisfaction with their university selection, while only 58.2%
of the commuters did. Also, a higher percentage of the residents felt
that they were given a good education at their institution. In their
conclusion, the researchers wrote that
a greater percentage of the residential students felt
that they had received a good education and a socially
rewarding experience that prepared them for understanding
the world today. Residential students were pleased with
their choice of university and felt that the university
had provided them with the opportunity to be part of the
decision-making process, (p. 289)
Pascarella (1984) and Hardy (1973), however, presented a
different finding from those discussed above. After holding the
students' background characteristics and institutional control


91
The off-campus students of both universities indicated a
considerably higher percentage of on-campus close friendships than the
percentage of off-campus friendships. For the University of Ibadan,
about 69% of off-campus students claimed that their close friends
lived on the campus, while only about 31% of them claimed that their
close friends lived off-campus. The University of Lagos off-campus
students showed a similar pattern; almost 65% of the off-campus
respondents indicated on-campus close friendships while only a little
over 35% showed off-campus friendships.
Table 32
Locations of University of Lagos Students' Close Friends
Residence of
Close Friends
Students
On-Campus
Off-Campus
Total
Number %
Number %
Number
%
On-Campus
77 81.1
18 18.9
95
100
Off-Campus
31 64.6
17 35.4
48
100
Total
108
35
143
Chi-square
Significant
= 4.21
at .035
(df=l)
prob. level.


I would like to express my appreciation to my parents Joseph
Richard Oni and Janet Omotayo Abiodun, though deceased they are
remembered for the character instilled in me from youth. I am also
grateful to my stepmother who loved, served, and invested in my life.
I extend thanks to my Uncle Gabriel Ojo Falegan who believed in me and
planted the first "seed" of my college education. Special gratitude
is also extended to my brothers, Vincent and Victor, for their love
and support for their "baby sister" and for willingly and joyfully
sponsoring me throughout my undergraduate education. I am also
thankful to my sister Bodunde for her love, moral and financial
support, and contribution towards my education.
My special appreciation is extended to all Maranatha Church
brethren and also to Dr. and Mrs. M. Sadiku, Dr. and Mrs. F. Ogunji,
Dr. and Mrs. Nweke, Dr. Bisi Ugbebor, Mr. Kayode Odunuga, Granny
Waveney, and Ms. Marlene Darlington for their support and prayers.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my husband
Christopher who gave his "all" to make this achievement possible and
to my children 'Seyi and Seun who sacrificed, prayed, and helped me
in their own little ways to finish.
Finally, I thank God and my Savior Jesus Christ for giving me the
life, guidance, the provision, and the opportunity to achieve this in
life; for in Him I live and move and have my being.
v


According to the staff of the National Institute of Education
(1984), the student involvement area is probably the most crucial
2
factor for the improvement of undergraduate education. The
justification for this is expressed in the following excerpt:
there is now a good deal of research evidence to suggest
that the more time and effort students invest in the
learning process and the more intensely they engage in
their own education, the greater will be their growth and
achievement, their satisfaction with their educational
experiences, and their persistence in college, and the
more likely they are to continue their learning, (p. 17)
Astin (1984, 1985) elaborated more on the issue of student
involvement by developing a theory of student involvement. The five
basic postulates of this theory are given below.
1. Involvement refers to the investment of physical and
psychological energy in various "objects." The
objects may be highly generalized (the student
experience) or highly specific (preparing for a
chemistry examination.)
2. Regardless of its object, involvement occurs along a
continuum. Different students manifest different
degrees of involvement in a given object, and the
same student manifests different degrees of involvement
in different objects at different times.
3. Involvement has both quantitative and qualitative
features. The extent of a student's involvement in,
say, academic work can be measured quantitatively (how
many hours the student spends studying) and qualitatively
(does the student review and comprehend reading
assignments, or does the student simply stare at the
textbook and daydream?).
4. The amount of student learning and personal development
associated with any educational program is directly
proportional to the quality and quantity of student
involvement in that program.
5. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice
is directly related to the capacity of that policy or
practice to increase student involvement. (Astin, 1985,
pp. 135-136)


126
The studies of Astin (1978, 1984), Endo and Harpel (1982), and
Pascarella (1980) in which positive relationships between frequent
student/faculty interaction and students' general satisfaction with
college experience were reported were not supported in this research.
In spite of rare or occasional interaction with faculty members, the
students still indicated that they were satisfied with their general
college experiences. Those who reported dissatisfaction, however,
mentioned the attitudes of faculty to the students as an area where
they experienced lack of satisfaction.
This study has given more credence to earlier studies of
Pascarella (1984, 1985), Welty (1976), Chickering (1967, 1974a), Astin
(1973, 1975, 1978), and Davis and Caldwell (1977) who reported
positive relationships of on-campus residence and students'
friendships. The friends of on-campus students were almost all on the
campus while the off-campus students had a higher percentage of
off-campus friends than the on-campus students.
Davis and Caldwell (1977) claimed that the on-campus students had
more interpersonal relationships than the off-campus students.
Although the students' personal relationships were not compared in
this research, both the on-campus and off-campus students mentioned
their desire to live on the campus for the purpose of academic/social
association with their colleagues.


103
value was 4.98); discussions about social, political, or campus issues
(chi-square value was 1.51); discussions about personal problems
(chi-square value was 2.02); and in the reception of academic advice
(chi-square value was 0).
Significant differences (p < .10) were, however, noted on the
combined data of the two universities in the frequency of students'
reception of academic advice and in discussions of future careers with
lecturers. The chi-square analyses for these two significant
relationships are presented in Tables 53 and 54.
Table 53
Students' Frequency of Reception of Academic Advice from
Faculty Members
Students
Very Often
Often
Not Often
Not at all
Total
On-Campus
22
68
109
24
223
Off-Campus
10
22
28
16
76
Total
32
90
137
40
299
Chi-square =
Significant
= 7.4 (df=3)
at .10 prob. level.


84
chi-square results and percentage distributions for students'
membership in clubs are presented in Tables 25 and 26. The null
hypothesis was retained for each institution since no significant
differences were found in the participation of on-campus and
off-campus students of the two universities.
About 69% of University of Ibadan on-campus students indicated
membership in campus clubs, organizations, and student groups, while
about 59% of the off-campus students indicated the same. For the
University of Lagos students, about 62% of resident students said that
they had membership in campus clubs and groups while a higher
percentage (63.3%) of the off-campus students claimed membership in
these groups.
Both on-campus and off-campus students of Nigerian universities
showed a comparable membership in campus clubs and organizations. The
students showed similar percentages of participation in these student
organizations.
The data from both the University of Ibadan and the University of
Lagos were combined and a chi-square analysis was done. A
nonsignificant (p > .10) chi-square value of 0.31 was indicated. The
hypothesis was retained for the Nigerian university students as
represented by combined institutions. The Nigerian university
on-campus and off-campus students were found to hold memberships in
college clubs, organizations, student government, and athletic groups
in a similar manner. The on-campus resident students indicated a


117
either the University of Ibadan or the University of Lagos. The two
groups of students were generally satisfied with their university
education (see Tables 34 and 35). The analyses were done with two
levels of satisfaction ("very satisfied" and "satisfied") and "not
satisfied" and also with "satisfied" (combining the "very satisfied"
and "satisfied" responses) and "not satisfied."
The analysis carried out using the combined data of both
universities, yielded a significant difference (p < .10) between the
on-campus and off-campus students (see Table 38). Overall, 70.3% of
the on-campus students were "satisfied" while about 57.5% of the
off-campus students indicated satisfaction.
When the satisfaction of students from both universities were
compared, the University of Ibadan students were more satisfied with
their college experiences. Almost 74% of the on-campus and about 64%
of the off-campus students showed satisfaction at the University of
Ibadan while 66% of the University of Lagos on-campus and about 53%
of the off-campus students reported satisfaction with their college
experience (see Tables 36 and 37).
Nigerian Students' Residence and the Student/Faculty
Relationships
There were no statistical differences in the relationships with
faculty members of on-campus and off-campus University of Ibadan
students. The University of Ibadan off-campus and on-campus students


48
more friendships with other students at college during the freshman
year.
Davis and Caldwell (1977) also associated more interpersonal
relationships with the resident students when compared with their
counterparts. Similarly, residents have been found to depend more on
peers for help and psychological support while the commuters depend
mostly on themselves for such support. Bishop and Synder (1976)
reported on the perceptions of commuters and residents on pressures,
helps, and psychological services on their college campus. The
residents indicated that they depended on friends as their number one
source of help, while the commuters' number one source of help was
self and "others" (p. 235).
Other researchers have reported different findings. Graff and
Cooley (1970) and Dollar (1966) have indicated no significant
differences in the relationships of commuter and resident students
with their peers. In his study, Dollar (1966) measured the
interpersonal relationships of male freshman students at Oklahoma
State University during the spring semester of 1963. The researcher
found no significant differences among the residents, fraternity, and
off-campus male students at this institution.
Significant differences have been reported far more often in the
area of students' peer relationships than have findings of no


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The completion of this work has been possible through the help,
support, inspiration, and guidance of many people to whom I will be
forever grateful.
I would like to extend my gratitude to all the members of my
supervisory committee, Dr. James Wattenbarger, the chairman, who
supported, encouraged and directed me throughout the Ph.D. program.
I also extend my appreciation to Dr. Arthur Sandeen and Dr. Max
Parker for their contributions to this dissertation.
I am very grateful to Dr. James Heald for his support and the
part he played in shaping my ideas and in correcting this work. I am
also thankful to all the people at the Department of Educational
Leadership who offered me a graduate assistantship throughout ray
program without which it would have been financially difficult for me
to finish my doctorate.
Special appreciation is hereby extended to Kathy Carroll and
Sharon Lake at the department office for the warm and friendly
environment they provide. I also thank Leila Cantara for her support,
help, and most especially for her expertise and enthusiasm in getting
the typing done.
IV


REFERENCES
Ajayi, A. J., & Tamuno, T. N. (1973). The University of Ibadan, 1948-
1973: A history of the first twenty-five years. Ibadan,
Nigeria: Ibadan University Press.
Association of American Colleges. (1985). Integrity in the college
curriculum: A report to the academic community. Washington, DC:
Author.
Astin, A. (1973). The impart of dormitory living on students.
Educational Record, 54, 204-210.
Astin, A. (1975). Preventing students from dropping out. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Astin, A. (1978). Four critical years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Astin, A. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for
higher education. The Journal of College Student Personnel,
25, 297-308.
Astin, A. (1985). Achieving educational excellence. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Baird, L. (1969). The effects of college residence groups on
students' self-concepts, goals, and achievement. Personnel
and Guidance Journal, 47, 1015-1021.
Baker, S. R. (1966). The relationship between student residence and
perception of environmental press. Journal of College Student
Personnel, ]_, 222-224.
Belock, S. (1978). A comparison of the grade point averages of
freshmen students living in dormitories with the grade point
averages of commuting students at Castleton State College.
Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova University, College of Education.
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 158 678)
134


147
39. What is your academic average of the work you have completed up
to this time?
4.10-5.00 (1)
3.50-4.09 (2)
2.50-3.49 (3)
2.20-2.49 (4)
2.00-2.19 (5)
1.00-1.90 (6)
40. What are your plans after you obtain your degree?
enter graduate school (1)
get a job (2)
other (specify) (3)
41. Use space below for any comment or additional information. .
THANKS FOR YOUR HELP IN COMPLETING THIS QUESTIONNAIRE.


82
Table 23
Students' Study Partners at the Combined Universities
Study Partner
Students
Alone
Friends
Total
On-Campus
132
76
208
Off-Campus
49
20
69
Total
181
96
277
Chi-square = 1.37
Not significant at
(df=l)
.10 prob. level.
Table 24
Students' Study Places at the Combined Universities
Students Library Bedroom Lecture Room Classroom Other Total
On-Campus
85
62
12
26
22
207
Off-Campus
38
14
3
8
7
70
Total
123
76
15
34
29
277
Chi-square =4.36
Not significant at
(df=4)
.10 prob. level.



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46
yields intellectual, social, and personal development in the students.
These researchers have positively linked these relationships with the
students' general satisfaction with college experience and persistence
in college. Most of the researchers have attested to the positive
association of dormitory living and student/faculty interaction.
However, some of the researchers have also suggested that the
influence of dormitory living was not a direct one; rather it was an
indirect effect mediated through faculty and peer interactions.
Peer Relationships
Peer relationships and faculty interaction are two influences
that researchers have found to be responsible for mediating other
college effects such as living on-campus and student development
(Lacy, 1978; Pascarella, 1984, 1985; Welty, 1976).
Lacy (1978) found that faculty influence on students was of more
limited value than that of the students' peers. The students' peers
have been reported to be a powerful influence on the social and
personal development of students. According to Tinto's (1975)
research, students' social integration in college occurs through
faculty members, peer relationships, and extracurricular activities.
In his theoretical model of college drop-outs, the author regarded
successful social integration as one of the essential elements that
increases student persistence in college.


CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The results from the analyses of the differences between those
who resided on-campus and those who resided off-campus in regard to
Nigerian students' involvement in college academic and extracurricular
activities were presented in Chapter IV. The null hypotheses were
tested for each of the two university groups and then for the two
groups combined. The summary of these findings along with the
conclusions, discussion, areas for future study and recommendations
are presented within this chapter.
Summary
With reference to this particular study and the results reported
in Chapter IV, there seems to be no statistically significant
differences (p < .10) in many of the areas of involvement of on-campus
and off-campus Nigerian students. The on-campus and off-campus
students were found to be comparable in their involvement in various
activities. In an overall analysis, there were more differences found
between the University of Lagos on-campus and off-campus students than
their counterparts at the University of Ibadan.
The only difference indicated between the University of Ibadan
students was in the residence of on-campus and off-campus students'
110


69
Table 6
The Most Important Reason Why Students Resided Off-Campus
Reasons
Ibadan Students
Lagos Students
University regulation/law
42.11
56.41
Financial reasons
26.32
.00
To be with off-campus friends
5.26
.00
To be with parents/relatives
.00
.00
Lack of satisfaction
15.79
12.82
Marriage
5.26
2.56
Other
5.26
28.21
Total
100.00
100.00
The commuter respondents were asked the distance of their
residence from their university campus. Presented in Table 7 are the
percentage distributions of distance to commuters' residences from
their respective college campuses.
At the University of Ibadan, about 35% of the commuters lived
less than 1 mile from their campus and about 43% lived from 3.5
through 5.45 miles away from campus. This was unlike the University
of Lagos commuters where the majority (72.34%) lived from 5.5 through
more than 10 miles away. These commuters also responded to the
question item on their means of transportation to their campuses.
Shown in Table 8 is the percentage breakdown of their responses.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
airman
Hes L. Wattenbarger, Chaii^i
fofessor of Educational Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
eald
essor of Educational Leadership
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
Woodroe M. Parker
Professor of Counselor Education
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree
of Doctor of Philosophy.
C 0^
Carl A. Sandeen
Professor of Educational Leadership


43
found that quality of students' contact with the faculty members was
only related to personal and intellectual development. According to
Terenzini and Pascarella,
frequency of contact to obtain course or academic
information was positively associated with intellectual
development while frequency of contact with faculty to
socialize informally was positively associated with the
personal development scale, (p. 526)
Endo and Harpel (1982) also classified student/faculty contacts
into "mere frequency" and "quality" of interactions. Mere frequency
of contact was reported as not adequate to bring about influence in
students' lives while quality of informal interaction was credited
with the effects on a student's life.
Wilson (1974) not only identified students as those that can
benefit from the student/faculty relationship but also the faculty
members who were more likely to be "very satisfied" with the
stimulation they received from the students. The researcher suggested
"that the out-of-class interaction may also increase faculty's
knowledge about their students' academic strengths, weaknesses,
interests, problems, and perspectives" (p. 88). The benefits of
student/faculty relationships as suggested by Wilson are not for
students only but for both the students and the faculty members.
Residence Location Factors
When resident and commuter students have been compared on
student/faculty interaction, the results have almost always favored


107
Table 52
University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Receiving Informal
Academic Advice from Faculty Members
Students
Very Often
Often Not Often
Not At All
Total
On-Campus
7
36
46
9
98
Off-Campus
6
15
18
9
48
Total
13
51
64
18
146
Chi-square = 4.69 (df=3)
Not significant at .10 prob.
level.
The null
hypothesis was
retained for each of
these areas
of
relationships.
The University of Lagos
on-campus
and off-campus
students were
found to relate
similarly
to faculty
members in
their
informal discussions about social, political, or campus issues;
personal problems; future careers; in informal meetings after
classes; and in frequency of receiving academic advice.
The data of both universities were combined and analyzed with
chi-square test for independent samples on all questionnaire items
related to student/faculty informal associations. No significant
differences (p < .10) were found on items that were focused on the
frequency of student/faculty informal after-class meetings (chi-square
value was 4.6); discussions about class/course problems (chi-square


22
total university programs has been described in this chapter. The
justification for the problem, the general null hypotheses to be
tested in the study, the research methodology, and the procedure for
the data analysis are areas that are covered in Chapter I.
Chapter II contains the review of related literature associated
with students involvement and students' residence factors. Chapter
III contains the description of the site of the study, procedure for
data collection, and statistical analysis of the data.
In Chapter IV, the results of the data analysis on the
test of the null hypotheses and related research questions can be
found. Chapter V contains a discussion and interpretation of the
results. It also includes the implications of the study, the
recommendations, and the conclusions.


7
satisfaction for the commuters when both groups were compared on their
feelings towards the university administration.
Concluding from the three different sets of findings above, one
may note that there appears to be no consensus on the particular
students' living environment that can be associated with the student
outcomes mentioned. However, Flanagan's (1975) conclusion, based on a
review of literature on commuters reported from 1971 through 1975,
would suggest otherwise. According to him "a student's loci of living
seems to have a significant effect on his/her learning experience.
For a commuter student the loci of living tends to be off-campus" (p.
10). If it is true that the students' loci of living do actually
affect the students' learning experiences as claimed by this
researcher, then there should be a relationship between the students'
residence locations and the involvement of students in the learning
process. This relationship has been claimed by Astin and others, but
because the student involvement concept is becoming an important
by-word in the higher educational system it needs further study. The
present study was designed to explore the relationship that exists
between student involvement and student residence.
Astin (1984, 1985) has positively associated dormitory living
with other forms of involvement including relationship with faculty
members, relationship with student peers, participation in student
government and other student organizations, academic achievement, and


70
Table 7
Percentage Distribution of Commuters' Distances to Residences
Distance to Residence
Ibadan Students
Lagos Students
Less than 1 mile
34.78
8.51
1 to 3.45 miles
43.48
14.89
3.5 to 5.45 miles
8.70
4.26
5.5 to 7.45 miles
4.32
12.77
7.5 to 10 miles
8.70
17.02
More than 10 miles
.00
42.55
Total
99.98
100.00
Table 8
Percentage Distribution of
Commuters Means of Transportation
Means of Transportation
Ibadan Students
Lagos Students
Walk
73.91
4.08
Drive personal car
13.04
8.16
Ride bicycle/motorcycle
.00
.00
Ride public transportation
13.04
83.67
Other
.00
4.08
Total
99.99
99.99


47
Feldman and Newcomb (1969) summarized the research on the
influences of faculty and peers on students. The students' peers were
regarded as being more influential than the faculty members in the
areas of social and interpersonal development. Also, Chickering and
McCormic (1973) have expressed views similar to the research findings
in the area of peer relationships. The authors believed that a
"student's personal development in college is influenced by diversity
and frequency of contact between faculty and students" (p. 66).
In spite of the inconclusive evidence of the effect of on-campus
living on certain college impacts, on-campus residence halls have been
shown to be a conducive college environment, fostering facuity/student
and student/peer relationships, and students' involvement in
extracurricular activities (Chickering, 1967, 1974a; Pascarella, 1984,
1985; Welty, 1976). Astin (1973) indicated that dormitory living
"increased the chances that students would be satisfied with their
overall undergraduate experience, particularly in the area of
interpersonal contacts with faculty and other students" (p. 207).
Most researchers who have compared the resident and off-campus
students on their interaction with peers attributed on-campus
residence positively to students' friendships (Astin, 1973, 1975,
1978; Chickering, 1974a; Davis & Caldwell, 1977; Pascarella, 1984,
1985). According to Welty (1976), the dormitory students established


96
For the University of Lagos students, as reflected on Table 37,
66% of the on-campus students were satisfied with their college
experience while 34% were not. About 53% of the off-campus students
were satisfied and about 46% indicated a lack of satisfaction. The
University of Ibadan students indicated a higher percentage of
satisfaction with their college experiences than their counterparts at
the University of Lagos. Almost half of the off-campus (46.7%)
students at the University of Lagos showed that they were not
satisfied with their college experiences.
The students were asked to mention three areas of satisfaction if
they were satisfied and three areas of lack of satisfaction if they
were not satisfied. For the University of Ibadan satisfied students,
the three most often mentioned areas of satisfaction were in
academics and social activities (i.e., social life, extracurricular
activities, religious activities, campus politics, and sports). The
three most mentioned areas of lack of satisfaction in descending order
were in academics, students' accommodations, and lecturers' attitudes
toward students. The University of Lagos satisfied students' most
frequently listed academics, social activities and campus facilities.
The three most mentioned areas of lack of satisfaction in descending
order were in the areas of students' accommodations, academics (i.e.,
over-crowded classrooms, inadequate facilities/equipment, lack of
practical training and course scheduling) and student/faculty
relationships.


116
The off-campus students at each university reported more close
friends living on the campus than those living off-campus. For the
University of Ibadan, 69.2% of off-campus students had their close
friends on the campus. And, almost 65% of the University of Lagos
off-campus students reported on-campus friendships. For the combined
data, 66.2% of off-campus students reported on-campus close
friendships. It seems that students' residence locations were related
to the residence of close friends. The on-campus students tended to
have more of their close friends on the campus than the off-campus
students. Fewer of the on-campus students' close friends lived
off-campus while off-campus students had more close friends living
off-campus than their on-campus counterparts.
The University of Ibadan's student affairs officer indicated that
students had friendships along three main lines: along subject
lines, along ethnic lines, and along associations/social groups lines.
This may be one of the reasons why the off-campus students had a
greater percentage of their close friends living on the campus instead
of off-campus. In spite of this probable influence, the on-campus
students still had a higher number of close friends on the campus
while the off-campus students claimed a higher percentage of
off-campus close friendships.
Nigerian Students' Residence and the General College
Satisfaction of the Students
There were no statistically significant differences in the
general college satisfaction of on-campus and off-campus students at


14
therefore the population sample only included those
students registered during this academic year period.
2. The study sample was drawn from the University of Ibadan
and the University of Lagos. Both universities are
located in the southwestern part of Nigeria.
3. All students living off-campus were classified into one
group for residence location. There was no attempt made
to group them according to the different types of off-
campus housing.
4. Indicators of involvement were limited to self-reported
academic achievement and activities, student/facuity
relationships, students' peer relationships, and
participation in extracurricular activities.
5. Lastly, it should also be noted that the study was not
developed to prove a causal relationship, but only to
determine the presence or absence of a relationship among
the different factors.
Limitations
The research design contained the following limitations:
1. The study was based on the students from the universities
in Oyo and Lagos States of Nigeria; therefore, the
results are generalizable only to those settings.
2. Residence location was used to test the theory of
involvement. Since this is an attribute independent


15 Differences in Study Hours of Students at the University
of Lagos 76
16 Differences in Reported Library Hours of Students at the
University of Lagos 77
17 Differences in Reported Library Hours of Students from
Both Universities 78
18 Differences in Reported Study Hours of Students from Both
Universities 79
19 Students' Study Partners at the University of Ibadan ... 80
20 Students' Study Places at the University of Ibadan .... 80
21 Students' Study Partners at the University of Lagos .... 81
22 Students' Study Places at the University of Lagos .... 81
23 Students' Study Partners at the Combined Universities . 82
24 Students' Study Places at the Combined Universities ... 82
25 Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Ibadan 85
26 Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Lagos 85
27 Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
Combined Universities 86
28 Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities by
Students at the University of Ibadan 88
29 Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities by
Students at the University of Lagos 88
30 Average Number of Hours Spent in Club Activities at the
Combined Universities 89
31 Locations of University of Ibadan Students' Close Friends 90
32 Locations of University of Lagos Students' Close Friends 91
33 Locations of Residence of Students' Close Friends at the
Combined Universities 92
ix


62
students, the specific null hypotheses to be tested, the research
design, and the statistical methods used in analyzing the collected
data.


99
Ho 6f: There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal meetings
to discuss personal problems with faculty members.
Ho 6g: There is no difference between the off-campus and
on-campus students' frequency of informal discussion
about social, political, or campus issues with faculty
members.
These hypotheses were tested with chi-square test for independent
samples. First, the analysis was on an institutional basis and then
on the basis of combined data from both universities. No significant
differences (p < .10) were found between University of Ibadan on-campus
and off-campus students in any of the seven areas of relationships with
faculty members. These analyses are presented in the Tables 39
through 45.
Table 39
Frequency of University of Ibadan Students' Informal After-Class
Meetings with Faculty Members
Students
Very Often
Often
Not Often
Not at all
Total
On-Campus
2
20
76
28
126
Off-Campus
1
4
14
9
23
Total
3
24
'90
37
154
Chi-square 1.00 (df=3)
Not significant at .10 prob. level.


25
The exploration of the relationships between student residence
and other forms of involvement was the focus of this research. Since
student involvement has become an important concept in higher
education, its relationship with an aspect such as student residence
merited further study.
The Study Group on the Condition of Excellence in Higher
Education (National Institute of Education, 1984) considered the ways
to enhance this concept of student involvement as "one of the greatest
challenges to administration and faculty" (p. 23). The reasons are
that the students in higher education institutions are very diverse;
many of them are both commuting and/or part-time students. The group
viewed these two conditions as causing difficulties for active
involvement of students in collegiate activities on both quality and
quantity bases.
The concept of student involvement has been one of the major
findings in Astin's research pertaining to college environment. Astin
(1975) paved the way to the development of the theory of student
involvement in this study. He underscored the importance of
involvement as a crucial factor to student persistence in college.
According to him, "students who are involved in the academic life of
the institution are more likely to expend the effort necessary to get
good grades than are students who are not involved" (p. 100).
Astin used his 1984 and 1985 works to propose and discuss the
theory of student involvement. In both of these research projects, he


105
Table 48
University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions
with Faculty Members on Social, Political, or Campus Issues
Students Regularly Occasionally Rarely Never Total
On-Campus
0
11
34
53
98
Off-Campus
0
2
15
31
48
Total
0
13
49
84
146
Chi-square = 2,
.01
(df=3)
Not significant
at
.10 prob. level.
Table 49
University of Lagos Students' Frequency of Informal Discussions
of Personal Problems with Faculty Members
Students
Regularly Occasionally
Rarely
Never
Total
On-Campus
1
10
20
68
99
Off-Campus
0
7
10
32
49
Total
1
17
30
100
148
Chi-square = 0.3
Not significant at
(df=3)
.10 prob. level.


85
Table 25
Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Ibadan
Membership in Clubs and Organizations
Students
Yes
No
Total
Number %
Number %
Number
%
On-Campus
83 68.6
38 31.4
121
100
Off-Campus
16 59.3
11 40.7
27
100
Total
99
49
148
Chi-square = 0.815
Not significant at
(df-1)
.10 prob. level.
Table 26
Membership in Clubs and Organizations of Students at the
University of Lagos
Membership in Clubs and Organizations
Students
Yes
No
Total
Number %
Number
%
Number
%
On-Campus
60 61.9
37
38.1
97
100
Off-Campus
31 63.3
18
36.7
49
100
Total
91
55
146
Chi-square = 0
Not significant at
(df=l)
.10 prob. level


118
only occasionally met informally with their faculty members; further,
they did not have frequent discussions with them about academic
problems, social/political issues, personal problems, or future
careers (see Tables 39 through 45).
At the University of Lagos, the on-campus and off-campus
students were statistically different (p < .10) in their student/
faculty relationships in the areas of informal class/course problems
and in the reception of academic advice (see Tables 46 and 47). More
than half (56.7%) of the on-campus students received academic advice
from their lecturers, while less than a third (30.8%) of the
off-campus students did (see Table 47). It appears that the on-campus
students of this institution related more to their lecturers in the
reception of academic advice.
The same University of Lagos on-campus and off-campus students
were found not to be statistically different in their student/faculty
relationships in the areas of informal after-class meetings and
informal discussions of social, political, or campus issues; personal
problems; and future careers (see Tables 48 through 52). The resident
and non-resident students were comparable in the ways they related
informally to their lecturers in the above areas.
In the overall data of both universities, the on-campus and off-
campus students were found to relate similarly to their faculty
members in the frequency of informal after-class meetings; discussions


32
were classified into high, average, and low college potential. The
sample included 1,181 male students who entered Indiana University in
1954. The fraternities were grouped into high, average, and low
prestiges, and their levels of academic achievement were compared with
the residence hall and the off-campus groups. Matson reported the
highest academic potential for the students in the high prestige
fraternities. By the third year of college, the residence hall
students were slightly lower in academic potential than those in high
prestige fraternities. The residence hall group was recorded as
having the same overall academic potential as the middle prestige
fraternities. These two groups were above the off-campus and the low
prestige fraternities in academic potential. The researcher reported
no significant differences among all five groups by the time the
students were in their senior year.
In another study of commuter and resident students' achievement,
Stark (1965) divided the students into four groups according to males
and females in the commuter and residence categories. The researcher
reviewed the students' scores on the Cooperative English Test-Reading:
Comprehension and Vocabulary and found higher scores were obtained by
the two resident groups. Furthermore, Hountras and Brandt (1970)
reported similar findings. The researchers investigated the
relationship between student housing and academic achievement in five
colleges at the University of North Dakota. The study involved 270


24
Institute on Education, 1984), Chickering wrote elaborately on
the differences in the behaviors of commuter and resident students.
In his book Commuting Versus Resident Students, he reported on the
differences in the involvement of these two groups in extracurricular
and academic activities. Astin's (1975, 1978) studies also
highlighted the differences in the participation of these two groups
of students in various aspects of college activities. The contention
of both of these researchers was that environmental factors contribute
to the enhancement or deter the involvement of students in their total
undergraduate education. Astin (1984) summed up the relationship
succinctly in the following words: "It is easier to become involved
when one can identify with the college environment" (p. 303).
Astin (1975) also related the importance of environmental factors
to college persistence. According to the researcher, "students'
chances of completing college can be significantly influenced by
environmental circumstances" (p. 107). Moos (1979) further emphasized
the importance of environmental factors on college students. In
commenting on the research in the area, Moos wrote "conclusions about
the influence of different environments vary, but all authors agree
that the social-ecological setting in which students function can
affect their attitudes and moods, their behaviors and performance, and
their self-concept and general sense of well-being" (p. 3). There is
an agreement among these authors about the relationship between the
student residence and other forms of involvement.