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A descriptive survey of personality traits, social characteristics, and stereotype attitudes toward the aged

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A descriptive survey of personality traits, social characteristics, and stereotype attitudes toward the aged in three types of nurses giving care to the aged in nursing homes
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Burge, Janet Marie, 1939-
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xi, 112 leaves : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Geriatrics ( jstor )
Nurses ( jstor )
Nursing ( jstor )
Nursing homes ( jstor )
Personality traits ( jstor )
Practical nursing ( jstor )
Psychological attitudes ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Registered nurses ( jstor )
Stereotypes ( jstor )
Geriatric nursing ( lcsh )
Nurses and nursing -- Psychological aspects -- Florida ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 108-111).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Janet Marie Burge.

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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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A DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY OF PERSONALITY TRAITS, SOCIAL
CHARACTERISTICS, AND STEREOTYPE ATTITUDES TOWARD THE
AGED IN THREE TYPES OF NURSES GIVING
CARE TO THE AGED IN NURSING HOMES












By

JANET MARIE BURGE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFULLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1976




A DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY OF PERSONALITY TRAITS, SOCIAL
CHARACTERISTICS, AND STEREOTYPE ATTITUDES TOWARD THE
AGED IN THREE TYPES OF NURSES GIVING
CARE TO THE AGED IN NURSING HOMES
By
JANET MARIE BURGE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFULLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1976


1976
JANET MARIE BURGE
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The writer expresses sincere appreciation to
Dr. Robert L. Curran, her major advisor, for his guidance
throughout the entire period of doctoral study. His support
will not soon be forgotten nor his ability to keep the
writer "on task.
Appreciation is extended also to Dr. Vynce A Hines
for his support in assisting with the statistical analysis
for the study. Dr. Hines once said, "Doing the dissertation
will do one of two things for you. It will either confirm
your suspicions that you hate statistics or you will find
you have a real liking for it." He will be pleased to
know that the writer experienced the latter.
The writer is especially grateful to Dr. Hal G. Lewis
for the knowledge he shared in the classroom. His ability
to stimulate the deepest of thoughts is reflective of his
being the master teacher.
A very special thank you is sincerely extended to
Dr. Otto von Mering, who exposed the writer to the whole
world of Anthropology. Without the encounter her life
would have been incomplete.
A special mention should be given Miss Jackie Sessions
who gave many hours and frustrating moments to the typing
of this dissertation.
ii


To the author's friend, Miss Sallye Brown, for her
moral support throughout the entire academic development,
a heartfelt thank you.
Finally, deep appreciation and love are expressed to
the writer's parents and sister, without whose under
standing and encouragement, the completion of this
dissertation would not have been possible.
in


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES vi
ABSTRACT ix
CHAPTER
I.INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 1
Need for the Study 2
Questions 4
Definitions 5
Limitations of the Study 7
Conceptual Framework 9
II.REVIEW OF LITERATURE 12
Introduction 12
Old People, Nursing Homes,
and Nurses 13
Geriatrics as a Field of
Specialization 14
Some Personality Characteristics in
Nurse Specialization Groups 15
Variables Related to Attitudes
Toward the Aged 17
Attitudes of Other Geriatrically
Pertinent Professions Toward
the Aged 21
Attitudes of Nurse Groups
Toward the Aged 24
Summary 27
III.METHODOLOGY 29
Sample 29
Instrumentation 34
Gordon Personal Profile 34
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire 36
IV


CHAPTER
Page
Biographical Questionnaire 38
Pilot Administration 39
Design of the Study 39
Collection of the Data 41
Hypotheses 43
Data Analysis 45
IV. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 49
Section I. Analysis for Statistical
Significance 49
Section II. Simple Percentage
Comparisons 71
V. SUMMARY, PROCEDURES, RESULTS,
CONCLUSIONS, SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
STUDY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
FUTURE RESEARCH 75
Summary 75
Procedures 76
Results 77
Conclusions 84
Personality Testing 84
Variables Related to Selection of
Geriatrics as an Area of
Specialization 85
Variables Related to Stereotype
Attitudes 86
Significance of the Study 88
Recommendation for Future Research ... 89
APPENDIX A. GORDON PERSONAL PROFILE 93
APPENDIX B. TUCKMAN-LORGE ATTITUDE
QUESTIONNAIRE 97
APPENDIX C. BIOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRE 104
BIBLIOGRAPHY 108
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 112
v


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE Page
I.Institutions, Number of Subjects
Per Institution in Three Groups Tested
and Percent of Subjects Participating
Per Institution 31
II.Number, Age Range and Mean Age of Three
Groups Tested 31
III.Race of Subjects in Three Groups
Tested 32
IV.Sex of Subjects in Three Groups
Tested 32
V.Religious Preference of Subjects
in Three Groups Tested 32
VI.Terminal Educational Levels of
Subjects in Three Groups Tested 33
VII.Number and Type of Educational Programs
Completed by Registered Nurse Subjects
Tested in the Study 34
VIII.Analysis of Variance for Four Personality
Traits by Type of Nurse 50
IX.Chi Square and Frequency Distribution of
Registered Nurses Scoring "Above Average"
and "Average and Below" on Four
Personality Traits 52
X.Chi Square and Frequency Distribution
of Licensed Practical Nurses Scoring
"Above Average" and "Average and Below"
on Four Personality Traits 53
XI.Chi Square and Frequency Distribution
of Nursing Assistants Scoring "Above
Average" and "Average and Below" on
Four Personality Traits 54
vi


TABLE
Page
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
XX.
XXI .
Correlation of the Number of "Yes"
Responses on the Tuckman-Lorge
Attitude Questionnaire with Mean
Scores on Ascendancy, Responsibility
Emotional Stability, and Sociability. ... 56
Chi Square and Frequency Distribution
for Subjects Living with the Aged and
Selecting Geriatrics and Subjects
Living with the Aged and Selecting
Other Areas of Specialization 57
Chi Square and Frequency Distribution
of Preference for Geriatrics By
Age of Nurses 58
Chi Square and Frequency Distribution
of Preference for Different Age Groupings
of Patients by Age of Registered Nurses . 59
Chi Square and Frequency Distribution
of Preference for Different Age Groupings
of Patients by Age of Licensed
Practical Nurses 60
Chi Square and Frequency Distribution
of Preference for Different Age Groupings
of Patients by Age of Nursing
Assistants 62
t Test for Analysis of Number of "Yes"
Responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire by Race, Sex, and
Religion 63
t Test for Number of "Yes" Responses
on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire by Degree and Nondegree
Educational Programs for Registered
Nurses 65
Analysis of Variance of Mean "Yes"
Responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire by Type of Nurse and
and by Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction
of Working with the Aged 66
Analysis of Variance of Mean "Yes"
Responses on the Tuckman-Lorge
Attitude Questionnaire by Type of Nurse
and by Percent of Time Spent in Working
with the Aged 68
vii


TABLE
Page
XXII. Analysis of Variance of Mean "Yes"
Responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire by Type of Nurse and
by Age of Nurse 69
XXIII. Percent Tabulation of Nurses' Age
When Having Lived with the Aged and the
Rating of the Experience 72
XXIV. Percent Tabulation of Nurses' Age
When Having Lived with the Aged and the
Effect the Living Experience Had on
Selecting Work With the Aged 73
XXV. Percent Tabulation of Nurses' Rating
of the Living Experience with the Aged
and the Effect the Experience Had on
Selecting Work with the Aged 73
XXVI. Percent Tabulation of "No" Responses
To Item 23 of the Biographical
Questionnaire by Type of Nurse 74
XXVII. Type of Responses to Item 25 of the
Biographical Questionnaire and
Percent of Subjects Responding 74


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
Council of the University of Florida in Partial
Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
A DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY OF PERSONALITY TRAITS, SOCIAL
CHARACTERISTICS, AND STEREOTYPE ATTITUDES TOWARD THE
AGED IN THREE TYPES OF NURSES GIVING
CARE TO THE AGED IN NURSING HOMES
By
Janet Marie Burge
August, 1976
Chairman, Dr. Robert L. Curran
Major Department: Foundations of Education
The purpose of this investigation was to determine
(1) the personality traits in three types of nurses working
with the aged in nursing homes; (2) the social character
istics of the nurses; and (3) the stereotype attitudes
toward the aged of the nurses.
The population was composed of 110 nurses working in
nursing homes in Tallahassee and Jacksonville, Florida.
Three types of nurses composed the population and were
(1) 30 registered nurses, (2) 30 licensed practical nurses,
and (3) 50 nursing assistants.
The instruments used for the study were the Gordon
Personal Profile, the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire,
and a Biographical Questionnaire developed by the
investigator.
IX


The study tested twelve null hypotheses through
Pearson product-moment correlations, t-tests, analysis of
variance, and chi squares. All hypotheses were tested at
the .05 level of confidence. The testing of the hypotheses
revealed the following:
1. Each of the three types of nurses (registered
nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing assistants)
varied significantly in scoring "above average" and
"average and below" on the four personality traits of
ascendancy, responsibility, emotional stability, and
sociability. Without exception, each of the three types of
nurses scored significantly "average and below" on ascen
dancy and sociability and "above average" on responsibility.
The scores on emotional stability were not statistically
different among the three types of nurses.
2. There was no statistically significant relationship
between the scores on each of the four personality traits
of ascendancy, responsibility, emotional stability, and
sociability and the degree of stereotype attitudes toward
the aged.
3. The nurses who had lived with the aged selected
geriatrics in preference to surgery and pediatrics to a
significant degree but not in preference to psychiatric,
medical, rehabilitation, maternity, or public health
nursing.
4. Preference for geriatrics did not differ signifi
cantly by age of nurses.
x


5.Preference for working with different age groups
of patients did not differ significantly by age of nurses.
6. Black nurses were more stereotyped in their
attitudes toward the aged than white nurses.
7. The degree of stereotype attitudes toward the aged
in nurses did not vary significantly by nurses' age, sex,
religion, satisfaction or dissatisfaction in working with
the aged, percentage of time estimated in working with the
aged, and number of years worked with the aged.
8. Type of educational programs for registered nurses
was not found to be significantly different when related to
degree of stereotype attitudes toward the aged.
9. Type of nurse was significantly different when
related to degree of stereotype attitudes toward the aged.
Registered nurses held less stereotype attitudes toward the
aged than licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants.
There was no significant difference between licensed
practical nurses and nursing assistants in their stereotype
attitudes toward the aged.
Chairman
xi


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Statement of the Problem
The purpose of this study is to identify significantly
interrelating personality traits, social characteristics,
and stereotype attitudes toward the aged of professional
and nonprofessional nurses who have selected working with
the aged as an occupational choice.
In the last decade, nursing has undergone significant
changes in relation to practitioners going from a generali
zation function to a specialization function. Examples of
some of these new specializations are (1) the neurology
specialist, (2) the oncology specialist, and (3) the inde
pendent practitioner, a nurse who, in some states, may open
a practice independent of a physician, hospital, or
sponsoring organization. With this transition having taken
place within the profession, it becomes easier for the pro
fession to identify areas where nurses are not electing to
go as practitioners. As a result, the profession is also
able partially to explain why the care in some of the
specialization areas may not be meeting the minimum
expections of the general public.
One of the areas where specialization is not occurring
to meet the needs and demands is geriatric nursing.
1


2
Randall (1965) has stated that among health professionals,
nurses should have the keenest interest in nursing home care.
He accounts for this claim by implying that in nursing homes,
nursing care is the primary service, while in hospitals,
nursing is subsidiary. Yet, in spite of this, there are few
nurses actively seeking employment in these types of insti
tutions .
Why are nurses not going into the area of geriatric
specialization? Is it because it takes an individual with
a certain type of personality to work most effectively in
the area of geriatrics? Is it possible that the attitudes
toward the aged are so negatively stereotyped that nurses
do not elect to be associated with that area of nursing?
Are there, to date, still unidentified factors which may
prevent nurses from working with the aged? One way of
finding at least partial answers to some of these questions
is to look at those personality traits, social character
istics, and attitudes of people who do elect to go into the
area of geriatrics. This study, therefore, proposed to
take a closer and more scrutinizing look at the employees
who are currently engaged in geriatric specialization.
Need for the Study
This study was motivated by a recognition of the
growing need for nursing personnel to choose geriatrics as
a field of specialization. The proportion of elderly
people in our population increases steadily, but the


3
proportion of nursing personnel who wish to engage in this
area of practice, and who are prepared to do so, does not.
Prevailing stereotypes of old age are negative and
are often stronger among health personnel who work closely
with older people (Gunter, 1971). In order for those in
academia to assist in promoting more positive attitudes in
student nurses and practitioners of nursing, a precise
identification of these attitudes must assume a higher
priority than it has in the past. To date, only five
studies by nurse researchers have concerned themselves
primarily with attempting to explore the area of attitudes
of nurses toward the aged (Brown, 1967; Campbell, 1971;
Gunter, 1971; Delora and Moses, 1969; Gillis, 1973).
Along with the need for identification of attitudes of
nurses currently working in institutions for the aged, a
profile of personality traits is needed. Personality traits
have been identified in other nurse specialization groups
but not in the area of geriatrics. This type of data would
assist employers in nursing homes to screen for more ef
fective employees, a custom which is currently practiced
by most professions to some degree. Personality testing in
nursing has been essentially limited to students and used
generally as criteria for admission to schools of nursing.
If personality traits have been identified for such nurse
specialization groups as medical, surgical, and psychiatric
nurses as Lentz and Michaels (1959) and Navran and
Stauffacher (1957) have indicated in their research, what


4
prevents the same type of research in the area of
geriatrics?
None of the studies reviewed reflect any personality
testing of nurses who are currently working with the aged in
nursing homes. One of the unique aspects of this study is
to identify four personality traits in the nurses who are
currently working with the aged. The personality traits of
ascendancy, responsibility, emotional stability, and
sociability will be measured in this study. These per
sonality traits were selected for measurement because they
have been identified as significant in the daily functioning
of normal persons.
Questions
The statement of the problem and need for the study
generated the following questions:
1. Are there different personality traits found among
nurses who select working with the aged compared to nurses
working in other areas of specialization?
2. Do these basic personality traits vary signifi
cantly among registered nurses, licensed practical nurses,
and nursing assistants?
3. If the personality traits do vary significantly
among registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and
nursing assistants, which nursing group generally possesses
the traits which could best be utilized in giving care to
the aged in nursing homes?
4. Is there a relationship between a nurse's previous
positive or negative experiences with aged parents, rel
atives, or friends (other than his/her current employment)
and selecting this type of work?
5. What are the satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction
self-reports of professionals and nonprofessionals currently
giving care to the aged?


5
6. Are the satisfaction and/or dissatisfaction self-
reports related to the stereotype attitudes toward the
aged, as measured by the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire?
7. Are the majority of nurses currently working in
nursing homes there by preference for a field of speciali
zation in geriatrics or are they working in nursing homes
but prefer other fields of specialization?
8. Do older nurses hold more positive or negative
attitudes toward the aged as compared with younger nurses?
9. Is there any correlation between the self-reported
amount of time spent in working with the aged and nurses'
stereotype attitudes toward them?
10.What relationship, if any, do sex, race, and
religious preferences of nurses have to stereotype attitudes
toward the aged?
Definitions
1. Professional Nurse: refers to a Registered
Nurse (RN); one who has successfully com
pleted a course of study, ranging from two
to four years in length, and has licensure
to practice as such.
2. Nonprofessional Nurse: refers to nurses in
two distinct categories, namely; (1) the
licensed practical nurse (LPN), and (2) the
nursing assistant (NA).
3. Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN): refers to
nurses who have completed a course of study
ranging from twelve to eighteen months in
length, and has licensure to practice as
such. It refers also to licensed
vocational nurse (LVN).
4. Nursing Assistant (NA): refers to those
individuals who usually have not completed
any type of formal nursing education.
Education for this individual often takes
place in agencies under the guidance of
inservice departments and, therefore, is
variable in quality and quantity of
education required to practice. No
license is required.


6
5. Nursing Home: a facility which provides
some level of nursing care. For purposes
of the study, nursing homes are those
which participate in the Medicare
(Title XVIII) and Medicaid (Title XIX)
programs.
6. Skilled Nursing Facility: refers to those
facilities which provide room, board,
laundry services, some assistance in
personal matters (dressing, feeding, and
ambulating), plus nursing services and
procedures which require training, skill,
and judgment above "those the untrained
person possesses" (Burger and Garvin,
1968).
7. Attitude: the beginning, or potential
initiation of some composite act or other;
a social act in which, along with other
individuals, the individual taking the
given attitude is involved or implicated
(Strauss, 1956).
8. Ascendancy: that personality trait in an
individual which reflects the ability to
be verbally ascendant, who adopts an active
role in the group, who is self-assured and
assertive in relationships with others,
and who tends to make independent decisions
(Gordon, 1963).
9. Responsibility: that personality trait in
an individual which reflects the capabi
lity of sticking to any job assigned them,
who is persevering and determined, and
who can be relied on (Gordon, 1963).
10. Emotional Stability: that personality
trait in an individual which reflects
that they are well-balanced, emotionally
stable, and relatively free from
anxieties and nervous tension (Gordon,
1963).
11. Sociability: that personality trait in
an individual which reflects an interest
to be with and work with people and who is
gregarious and sociable (Gordon, 1963).
12. Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction Scale: a
self-rating scale used by subjects in
the study to classify their feelings


7
in working with the aged. Three categories
were used for the scale: (1) satisfying
(positive), (2) mixed (having both
positive and negative aspects), and
(3) dissatisfying (negative).
13. Stimulus-Group Validity: a variety of
construct validity. For the purposes
of the study the stereotype attitude
scores on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire show a positive correlation
to the age of the group to which the
statements are referred, i.e., to people
past the age of 70 (Axelrod and
Eisdorfer, 1961).
14. Experiences with the Aged: having lived
with, having been reared or cared for by,
or having been responsible for the care
of an aged person.
Limitations of the Study
1. The geographical areas used for the study,
Jacksonville and Tallahassee, Florida, essentially reflected
the more urban rather than rural attitudes toward the aged
and therefore do not provide comparative data which are
sometimes attributed to size of cities, towns, or communities.
At best, these data could only be applied to other cities
of similar size after refinement to fit those cases.
2. Some of the information obtained on the Biographical
Questionnaire was subjective. For example, a subject may
have reported that he lived with an aged grandmother at the
age of eight years but he may not be able to say that this
experience did or did not actually precipitate or inhibit
his selection of his current job of working with the aged.
It was assumed, by the investigator, that the subject's
self-report of this experience can be classified as positive,


8
mixed, or negative, and may have provided some explanation
for the current attitudes toward the aged.
3. A source of error identified was the effects of
history on the results of the study. Because of the current
inflationary situation in the United States, consideration
must be given when interpreting the data to the possibility
that subjects selected this type of agency to work in out
of financial need rather than as a preference for speciali
zation in geriatrics.
4. The mood and/or degree of cooperativeness of the
administrative personnel at the time the study was conducted
must be considered. The data were collected between
November 23, 1975, and January 15, 1976, at a time when the
state of Florida was investigating many of the nursing homes
for violation of standards of care and medicare/medicaid
claims. As a result of this sensitiveness on the part of
nursing home administrators, it was difficult to determine
if any overt suggestions were given to subjects on how the
three instruments were to be answered prior to the actual
testing and to rule out the possibility of such pressure.
5. The study is primarily a descriptive survey. It is
not an experimental study. Accordingly, significance of the
results is associational in nature and is not predictive.
Any attempt to be predictive would be presumptive.
6. Nursing home nursing is only one of several kinds
of geriatric nursing contexts and the results of this


9
study are as much relative to such contextual differences
as to "history".
Conceptual Framework
Several theories were considered for use as a frame
work for the study but were eliminated because of their
strong focus on nonrational behavior in man rather than
rational behavior. Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory
focuses essentially on the development of rational behavior
in man being dependent upon success at various stages of
infancy and childhood. If an infant or child does not
progress satisfactorily to and through various phases, his
behavior is explained away in terms of fixation. Also, his
theory does not take into account the effect of society
upon behavior other than one's immediate family.
The interpersonal theory of Harry Stack Sullivan was
also considered as a framework for the study but eliminated.
Sullivan's theory introduces the idea that society has some
effect on an individual's behavior but this is not a strong
component in the theory. The emphasis, given by Sullivan
is more on explaining the one to one relationships of an
individual with another, rather than the more broad effect
that society might have on behavior.
Neither of the two theories described above gives an
adequate theoretical base for behavior. It is the belief of
the investigator that rational behavior cannot be totally
explained away by what successfully happens to one as an


10
infant or child. Neither can it be explained totally by the
interactions of one individual with another. As a result of
these beliefs, George Herbert Mead's concept of "social
behaviorism" was selected as the framework for the study
because it provides the basis for explaining an individual's
acts (behavior) as being part of the larger communal (society)
acts (Strauss, 1956).
Mead's concept of individual behavior, the Self, which
is composed of a symbolic transaction among the "I", "Me",
and "the Other", is retained in the idea that an individual
is an active agent rather than a passive recipient of ex
ternal stimuli. His central thesis is that the Self is
controlled by the social environment and that man does not
become a self except via symbolic transaction with the en
vironment (Strauss, 1956 and Mead, 1934).
In order to have social behavior, there must be human
communication. This communication must have a common
meaning to a group and to the individuals in that group.
Methods of communication are established within a group
and certain social conduct is then determined and controlled
by the group (Strauss, 1956).
The principle of social control is a strong component
in Mead's theory. The principle presupposes that an indivi
dual assumes the same attitude toward himself that the
community of others assume toward him (Mead, 1934). It
also carried the connotation that a person takes a certain
attitude in each situation and issue (Strauss, 1956). As


11
these attitudes are translated into behavior, they solicit
certain responses from others which one then adjusts his
conduct to. There are many such series of responses in
the community where one lives and they become the "insti
tutions" by which one governs his actions (Strauss, 1956).
Mead's theory of social behaviorism has application to
and for the present study. In relation to stereotype atti
tudes, consideration will be given to identifying the group
or groups of people currently reflecting what the attitudes
are toward the aged within a selected group of nurses.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Introduction
The purposes of this chapter are to review pertinent
studies concerning attitudes of nurses toward the aged, to
identify variables which are related to these attitudes,
and to identify known personality traits found in different
specialization groups of nurses.
In the review of the literature, a large gap was dis
covered in respect to data related to nurses working with
the aged in nursing homes. For the most part, the review
included in this chapter reflects data that only indirectly
are related to the study.
The chapter is divided into seven sections. The first
deals with old people, nursing homes, and nurses. The
second deals with geriatrics as a field of specialization.
The third deals with personality traits in nurse speciali
zation groups. The fourth deals with variables related to
attitudes toward the aged. The fifth deals with attitudes
of other professions toward the aged. The sixth deals with
attitudes of nurse groups toward the aged. Section seven
concludes the chapter with a summary of the findings in the
review of the literature.
12


13
Old People, Nursing Homes, and Nurses
More than 20 million Americans are over 65 years of age,
(U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, 1973).
Currently, this age group represents ten percent of the
total population and is predicted to rise to fifteen percent
by 1980 (Leaf, 1973).
In the United States in the early sixties there were
approximately 29,000 nursing homes, and less than half, or
approximately 14,000 of these facilities offered any kind of
skilled nursing care under the direction of a registered
nurse or licensed practical nurse (Burger and Garvin, 1968).
According to a USPHS survey in 1964, the ratio of registered
nurses to residents in all nursing homes was 1 to 34. The
registered nurse group represented only six percent of the
total full-time employees who were performing nursing duties
in these facilities (USPHS, 1966). Schonfield (1973) esti
mated that in 1969 there were well over 300,000 personnel
employed in work with the aged, of whom no more than 25
percent has received any formal training for doing so. These
figures give strong evidence to the claim that the majority
of care being given to the aged in nursing homes is being
given by nonprofessionals.
Today, the figures have not changed drastically. In
1975, a critical report on the nursing home industry was
issued by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare. Some of the findings were (1) there are more than
three times as many nursing homes (23,000) in the U.S. as


14
hospitals (6,630), and (2) of the 815,000 registered nurses
in the U.S., only 56,235 work in nursing homes (U.S. Dept,
of HEW, 1965).
Nursing homes in the United States are being closely
looked at by the American public. It appears that the
public is no longer willing to let nursing homes remain as
"human dumping grounds" for the unwanted elderly whose only
means of discharge is the death certificate, as Tivin (1971)
has so dramatically indicated.
Geriatrics as a Field of Specialization
Considerable research has been directed at determining
why people select nursing as an occupation per se, but little
has been done to explain their preferences for specialization
within the broad area. Delora and Moses (1969) used a
questionnaire to obtain data from all nursing students in one
school on their nursing specialty preferences. The most
positive interest was expressed for the obstetric and
pediatric areas; the least positive was for nursing in the
geriatric area. As to age, children and young adults were
rated as the most desired patients and those over sixty as
least desired. Further, the adjectives used to describe
geriatric nursing were lowest in plus attributes and highest
in negative attributes as indicated by choice of such words
as depressing, dull, and slow.
A three-year project directed by Brown (1967) con
cerned with "An Exloration of Nurses' Attitudes Toward


15
Caring for the Aged" indicated that nursing personnel prefer
younger persons and younger patients to old people and old
patients. In her study Brown also found that a large per
centage of the nursing personnel associated the idea of
age with the concept of a person with some degree of illness
requiring nursing care. The nursing personnel tested also
revealed that the concept of aged persons carried conno
tations of dependency, inactivity, and isolation. The
results of the study strongly indicated the need for further
study to determine (1) what connotations nursing personnel
associate with the aged patients, and (2) what stereotypes
are held concerning the aged patient. The present study is
confined to identifying the current stereotype attitudes of
nurses currently working with the aged. There is no attempt
to determine the connotations that nursing personnel asso
ciate with the aged.
Some Personality Characteristics
in Nurse Specialization Groups
Personality characteristics which vary among speciali
zations groups in nursing have been partially identified.
Navran and Stauffacher (1957) found, when comparing psychi
atric nurses with college women in general, that the
psychiatric nurses differ significantly on seven variables
of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule. The nurses
scored higher on order, deference, endurance, and aggression
and lower in autonomy, affiliation, and exhibition. It was
clear to these researchers that psychiatric nurses give


16
greater emphasis than college women in general to orderliness,
respect for authority, persistence, and forthright speech,
while playing down unconventionality, exhibitionism, and
tendencies to form strong attachments.
As a follow-up to their first study, Navran and
Stauffacher (1958) then compared personality traits between
psychiatric and nonpsychiatric nurses (general medical and
surgical nurses) and found that the medical and surgical
nurses are much more work-oriented than people-oriented;
they are more impersonal, more timid, and less able to
direct or lead others.
Lentz and Michaels (1959, 1960) also examined basic
personality factors among three categories of nursing
personnel, i.e., medical, surgical, and psychiatric nurses.
The study supported the findings of Navran and Stauffacher
(1958) with respect to the "need for dominance." Psychi
atric nurses proved to be higher in this need than either
medical or surgical nurses. Abasement was also found to be
statistically significant. Psychiatric nurses scored
significantly lower than college women in this quality and
the medical and surgical nurses were significantly higher
than psychiatric nurses. The surgical nurses had the highest
scores. The high scores in abasement by the surgical group
were interpreted to indicate that surgical nurses prefer the
security of action which would result from working under the
orders issued by aggressive men, the physicians.


17
Very little has been researched where the intent has
been to identify the personality traits of nurses desiring to
work with the aged or are currently working with them. The
only study reviewed which has concerned itself with this
aspect of geriatrics was done by Delora and Moses (1969) and
subjects in the study were student nurses. They found that
those students indicating the highest interest in the field
of geriatrics did so on a fulfillment orientation, having
general personality traits involving a strong commitment to
a vocation like that of a missionary. They also found that
they were relatively unsocial, did not seek adventure,
did not desire to advance in their field, were older indivi
duals, and tended to have lower aptitude scores. The
present study will not attempt to verify the personality
traits identified by Delora and Moses but add to that body
of knowledge by testing for additional personality traits.
Variables Related to Attitudes
Toward the Aged
There are several variables which relate to a person's
attitude toward the aged. Although there is not consensus
among the results of the studies included in this section,
there does appear to be some agreement that the variables
identified in the review are worthy of continued research.
There is also some indication that the variable relationship
is not the same from group to group tested.
Age has been identified as one of the variables. In a
study by Kogan and Shelton (1962), older and younger samples


18
were compared with ambivalent results. The older subjects
ranged from 40-70 years of age and came from a population
consisting of people selected at random from the general
public. The younger subjects ranged from 19-35 years of
age and were college students. Neither the older nor the
younger sample could be said to have generally more negative
or positive attitudes toward the aged. Several other studies
found that the greater the age of the subjects, the greater
the decrease found in positiveness of their attitudes to
ward the aged (Merrill and Gunter, 1969; Tuckman and Lorge,
1953; and Gillis, 1972). However, opposite results were
found by Brown (1967), Campbell (1971), and Wolk and Wolk
(1971) when they all reported that the older subjects
demonstrated more positiveness in their attitudes toward the
aged than did the younger subjects.
The second variable identified as having some relation
ship to a person's attitude toward the aged was level of
education. A positive relationship between the level of
education and rejection of stereotyped statements by re
gistered nurses was found by Campbell (1971) and Brown (1967).
This relationship was not confirmed later in a study by
Gillis (1972) of nursing home administrators. Gillis found
that the more education held by administrators, the more stereo
typed were their attitudes toward the aged. Thorson,
Whatley, and Hancock (1974) found within the population of
high school and college students studied that subjects with
more years of education had more positive attitudes than did


19
subjects with fewer years of education. The group with
fewer than 12 years of education was more negative than
the college-educated group.
A third variable, type of nursing education, has been
identified as relating to nurses' attitudes toward the aged.
A second study by Gillis (1973) concerned itself with type
of nursing education. Her study found that degree and
diploma nurses were more positive in their attitudes toward
the aged than licensed practical nurses. With one exception
there appeared to be a distinctive pattern that the higher
level of education achieved by the different nursing per
sonnel, the more positive they became in attitudes toward
the aged. But, based on cell means, in this particular
study, the registered nurses of baccalaureate programs were
less positive than the licensed practical nurses in their
attitudes. Possible explanations for the results, according
to Gillis, were that (1) the baccalaureate curriculum did
not include geriatric nursing theory or clinical experience
with aged patients, (2) the baccalaureate nurses interpreted
their roles according to their individual personalities, and
(3) the interpretations of their roles as baccalaureate
graduates did not include care of the aged.
A fourth variable, length of time, also may relate to
a person's attitude toward the aged. Length of time has
been interpreted differently in each of three studies re
viewed. Time was defined as (1) number of years spent
working with the aged, (2) studying gerontology which


20
included the elements of time and exposure to the subject,
and (3) amount of direct contact in working with the aged.
None of these definitions actually address the qualitative
sense of time, i.e., good, bad, or indifferent but appear
more confined to the quantitative sense of time. Gillis
(1972) found that as the length of time working with the
aged increased, positiveness in attitudes decreased. Gunter
(1971) found that time, interpreted as time spent in studying
gerontology, also decreased positiveness in attitudes.
Gunter's study is significant in that it points out the idea
that simply exposing students to time spent in studying
gerontology will not necessarily increase their positiveness
toward the aged. A study by Tuckman and Lorge (1958) is
similar to the study by Gillis and they found when length of
time was interpreted as the amount of time spent in working
with the aged, positiveness in attitudes toward the aged
increased with the increased time spent in direct contact.
Race and social status have been tested for relation
ship to persons' attitudes toward the aged but not to the
degree that the previous four variables have been. Race,
the fifth variable, may relate to attitudes toward the aged.
Wylie (1971) indicated that the attitudes of blacks in
America are strikingly different from those of whites.
For example, Wylie identified two areas of difference
(1) blacks include the aged in the family structure more so
than whites, and (2) blacks accept old age and look forward
to the rewards of advanced years. Wylie's study is based on


21
a historical perspective and does not include statistics to
support his statements. When testing attitudes of blacks
and whites in an Atlanta, Georgia area, Thorson (1975) found
no significant difference in attitudes toward the aged.
The sixth variable, social status, has received little
attention by researchers when dealing with attitudes toward
the aged. Thorson (1975), along with finding no signifi
cant difference attributable to race, also found no
difference which was attributable to social status. However,
it should be noted that in Thorson's study only low and
middle income groups were tested. His study does not deal
with high income groups. Therefore, the data do not span
all social classes.
Attitudes of Other Geriatrically
Pertinent Professions Toward the Aged
The studies included in this portion of the review were
selected because they represent attitudes held by pro
fessional groups other than nursing. These groups are often
called upon to perform services for the aged. Therefore,
their attitudes may be significant, especially when one con
siders that reinforcement of attitudes often comes from
groups encountered in one's daily activities. Nurses are
no exception to this phenomena. Because of this phenomena,
it is possible to hypothesize that the attitudes held by
nurses toward the aged do not originate with them but may
be the result of association with other professional groups.


22
Mead's theory of social behavior, as discussed in Chapter I,
lends support to this possibility.
Gunter (1971) reports that the majority of people who
are preparing for health careers are young: they are ex
pected to be able to reverse roles dramatically, often
prematurely, and expected to provide emotional support and
care for the old. In the normal course of life, a child is
not expected to assume responsibility for his parents until
he has reared a family and reached middle age himself.
However, because of the selection of a health career, a
student may be confronted early with this responsibility in
relation to his first encounter with a patient or client.
One of the first studies was initiated by Wilensky and
Barmark (1966) where their objective was to assess the
extent of the problem faced by educators in stimulating
young doctoral students in clinical psychology in working
with the aged. The findings showed that, generally, the
subjects preferred to avoid working with the aged. When
surveying psychiatrists, Cyrus-Lutz and Gaitz (1972) found
that younger psychiatrists expressed a willingness or pre
ference for working with older patients more frequently than
did older psychiatrists. Both of these studies reflect very
different findings. The two studies demonstrate how similar
age groups in different psychological professions vary in
their attitudes toward the aged.
A study by Farrar and Bloom (1967) revealed three im
portant findings about social work students: (1) at the


23
time the student began his field placement, he agreed with
nearly 40 percent of the stereotypes about the aged, (2) at
the end of their field placement nearly one-third of the
students for whom data were available had higher stereotype
scores than at the beginning, and (3) when the student's
level of stereotyping was relatively high, intensive
contact with the aged did not significantly reduce the
stereotypes. Although the study by Farrar and Bloom deals
specifically with social work students, the results support
the findings of a similar study done by Gunter (1971) with
nursing students.
Spence (1968) surveyed medical students' preferences
for specialization and found that geriatric medicine ranked
below surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics, psychiatry, and
opthalmology. He also revealed that these students per
ceived the aged as more emotionally ill, disagreeable,
inactive, independent, dull, socially withdrawn, and dis
ruptive of family harmony than youths or adults.
In surveying the research done with geriatrically
involved other professions, it becomes clear that nurses
do not remain the only professional group generally more
negative than positive toward the aged. The groups included
in this portion of the review are all considered professional
and do encounter the aged in the performance of their duties.
If the attitudes toward the aged are generally negative
among students within a profession, it should not be too


24
surprising to find this also apparent among the practitioners
after they have completed their education.
Attitudes of Nurse Groups
Toward the Aged
Even though abundant information concerned with the
psychological, sociological, and physiological aspects of
aging is available, research studies examining the relation
ship between the aged patient and the nurse, and the
attitudes of nursing personnel toward the aged have been
limited. In the past few years nursing homes have made im
provements in the level of care, yet, the elderly patients
continue to receive poor quality care which is not indivi
dualized (Campbell, 1971). Gillis (1973) has hypothesized
that the attitudes of nursing personnel toward the aged
could be used in some explanation for the inadequate and
depersonalized care being experienced by the elderly.
The few studies that have measured attitudes toward
the aged, especially attitudes of nursing personnel,
generally agree in the findings. One of the earliest
studies, a pilot study, conducted by Coe (1967) was con
cerned with how nurses perceived the aged patient's
adjustment to the institutional routine. In several respects,
nurses expressed views similar to physical therapists.
Nurses indicated a belief that aged patients were slow, and
that it was sometimes hard to deal and to communicate with
them. They also indicated annoyances associated with
treating the aged because of their complaining, demanding,


25
incontinence, and inability to feed themselves. Thus, for
nurses, there was apparently a general negative attitude
toward providing care for the aged patient.
Campbell (1971) also found that registered nurses least
preferred working with the aged. Campbell conducted a study
in two teaching institutions in North Carolina in which she
found that no one of the categories of nursing personnel
(registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing
assistants) demonstrated a lack of stereotyped attitudes
toward the aged. In fact, on the average, registered nurses
agreed with half of the statements while the licensed
practical nurses and nursing assistants agreed with more
than 60 percent of the statements. Working with adults was
preferred over children in all three groups. The licensed
practical nurses and the nursing assistants preferred
working with old people more than registered nurses.
Nelson (1973) reports on a study conducted by Felicity
Stockwell where she screened 388 patients and 87 nurses in
12 different London hospitals to find if nursing care
differed between "most liked" and "least liked" patients.
Stockwell found that patients the nurses liked most were
those with four main qualities: (1) they knew their nurse's
name, (2) were able to communicate readily with the nurses,
(3) were able to joke and laugh with nurses, and (4) cooper
ated in being helped to get well and expressed determination
to do so. In addition, nurses reported that bed patients
made more overt complaints than ambulatory ones. Practically


26
all the patients whom the nurses stated they did not enjoy
caring for because they grumbled and complained were con-
finded to bed. Stockwell went further to report that after
conducting this survey, it was evident that aged patients
were the most likely patients to fit the characteristics
which nurses "least liked" and were more likely to receive
negative response from nurses in the study. Negative re
sponses of nurses were reflected by (1) the amount of time
taken to answer the lights or call buttons of patients,
(2) the number of hypodermic injections nurses were willing
to give patients for the relief of pain, and (3) the
amount of time nurses spent in verbal communication with
patients.
Only one study was reviewed that indicated the more
stereotyped the attitudes held toward the aged, the more
likely the subjects were to select work in a nursing home.
Kayser and Minnigerode (1975) used the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire with 311 baccalaureate nursing students and
found such results. Kayser and Minnigerode interpreted
their findings to indicate that students' own negative
attitudes may act as an impetus to cause them to want to
work with the aged, possibly in an attempt to support what
they suspect about the aged and aging process. In addition,
the study also showed that students who have previously
worked in convalescent hospitals and nursing homes reported
that the experiences were satisfying but that they generally
preferred not to continue working in institutions for the


27
aged. This aspect of the study indicated to the researchers
that once actual experience of working with the aged had
occurred, some degree of support for the student's negative
attitudes took place and strengthened the desire not to
return to that kind of work environment.
Summary
The purpose of this review of literature was to learn
the major research findings related to attitudes toward
the aged, variables related to these attitudes, and
personality traits attributed to specific nurse specialization
groups. The following summary identifies the main points
brought out by the review which relate to the present study.
There are no conclusive data to adequately demonstrate
that stereotype attitudes of nurses and other professionals
toward the aged are a major cause in preventing individuals
from entering the field of geriatrics. Studies indicate
that attitudes of most professionals entering the field are

generally more negative than positive and yet, they continue
to work with the aged. The most that can be said regarding
attitudes toward the aged is that they may be only one of
several contributing causes for the small number of nurses
entering the field of geriatrics.
Research testing of variables related to attitudes to
ward the aged such as age, race, education, and social
status is not conclusive when comparing various groups of
health care professionals. Nursing, for example, which has
at least three major groupings (registered nurses, licensed


28
practical nurses, and nursing assistants) reflects a
degree of variation and inconsistency in attitudes toward
the aged.
The methods by which stereotype attitudes toward the
aged are obtained and/or transmitted to professionals is not
clearly understood. There appears to be a tendency for the
negative attitudes found in student groups to remain un
changed after becoming practitioners. The reasons for this
have not been adequately identified, other than the recog
nition that this situation exists.
Identification of personality traits in nurses
currently working with the aged is essentially an unex
plored field of study. There are no reports of research
reviewed which have dealt with this needed area of study.
The trend has been to use personality testing with student
nurses and generally as criteria for admission to schools
of nursing. No evidence has been found in the literature
where personality testing has been used as a screening
mechanism for entrance into the field of geriatrics.
As a result of the statement of the problem in Chapter I
and the present review of the literature, the need for
further study and research in the area of nursing and the
aged has been validated. The following chapter describes
the methodology used for the study.


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
Sample
The population studied was from the metropolitan areas
of Tallahassee and Jacksonville, Florida. The sample con
sisted of seven nursing homes which met the criteria of the
study, i.e., classified as a skilled nursing care facility.
A list of approved institutions having such classifications
was obtained from the Florida Nursing Home Association with
headquarters in Jacksonville, Florida.
Four institutions in the Tallahassee area met the
criteria and three were included in the study. They were
Extended Care of Tallahassee
Goodwood Nursing Center
Miracle Hills Convalescent and Nursing Home
Ten institutions in the Jacksonville area met the criteria
and four were included in the study. They were
Riverside Nursing Home, Inc.
Cheshire's Southside Nursing Home
Hyde Park Nursing Home
Jacksonville Convalescent Center
Four of the institutions in the Jacksonville area elected
not to participate in the study and two institutions were
involved with state accreditation reviews at the time the
29


30
study was conducted and refused to participate. The seven
institutions included in the study represented one half
(50%) of the total institutions in the two geographical
areas which met the criteria for the study.
The study is descriptive and not experimental. Random
sampling of the institutions used in the study and subjects
within the institutions was not done. Because of the
sensitivity of nursing homes to investigation of any kind,
at the time the study was done, it was not possible to obtain
total participation of all agencies which met the criteria.
Therefore, institutional participation was on the obtained
permission basis and subject participation within each of the
institutions was voluntary. The only institution randomly
selected was done so in order to do a pilot study which will
be described later in the chapter.
The information presented in Tables I-VII represents
data regarding the sample in the study. Table I presents
the institutions in order of participation in the study,
the number of subjects participating from each of the three
groups of nurses tested, and the percent of subject parti
cipation from the total population available in each
institution. The total number of subjects was 110 and
represented 52.38 percent of the 210 subjects available in
the seven institutions.


31
TABLE I
INSTITUTIONS, NUMBER OF SUBJECTS PER
INSTITUTION IN THREE GROUPS TESTED
AND PERCENT OF SUBJECTS PARTICIPATING
PER INSTITUTION
Licensed
Registered Practical
Institution Nurse Nurse
Nursing
Assistants
% From Each
Institution
Extended Care
of Tallahassee
7
5
11
56.09%
Goodwood Nsg.
Center
5
6
8
61.29%
Miracle Hills
Convalescent
4
5
10
65.51%
Riverside Nsg.
Home, Inc.
5
4
4
50.29%
Cheshire's
Nsg. Home
3
3
4
39.50%
Hyde Park
Nsg. Home
3
4
5
44.00%
Jacksonville
Convalenscent
3
3
8
50.00%
TOTAL (N=110)
30
30
50
52.38%
Table II presents
the number,
age range,
and mean age
of the three groups tested.
TABLE II
NUMBER, AGE RANGE AND MEAN AGE
OF THREE GROUPS TESTED
Personnel
Number
Age Range
Mean Age
Registered Nurse
30
22-67
41.03 yrs.
Licensed Practical
Nurse
30
21-67
41.73 yrs.
Nursing Assistant
50
19-69
39.30 yrs.
TOTAL (N=110)
110
19-69
40.69 yrs.


32
Table III below presents the racial composition of
subjects in the three groups tested.
TABLE III
RACE OF SUBJECTS IN THREE GROUPS TESTED
Personnel
Whites
Blacks
Registered Nurse
(N=30)
28
2
Licensed Practical Nurse
(N=30)
18
12
Nursing Assistant
(N=50)
13
37
TOTAL
59
51
Table IV presents the
sex of subjects in the
three
groups tested.
TABLE IV
SEX OF SUBJECTS IN THREE GROUPS TESTED
Personnel
Female
Male
Registered Nurse
(N=30)
30
0
Licensed Practical Nurse
(N=30)
29
1
Nursing Assistant
(N=50)
42
8
TOTAL
101
9
Table V presents the
religious preferences
of
subjects
in the three groups tested

TABLE V
RELIGIOUS PREFERENCES OF SUBJECTS
IN THREE GROUPS TESTED
Personnel
Protestant Catholic
Jew
Registered Nurse
(N=30)
19 9
2
(table continued)


33
Personnel
Protestant
Catholic
Jew
Licensed Practical Nurse
(N=30)
22
8
0
Nursing Assistant
(N=50)
47
3
0
TOTAL
88
20
2
Table VI presents the educational levels completed by
subjects in the three groups tested. Five educational levels
were used: (1) sixth grade or below, (2) junior high school,
(3) high school, (4) junior college, and (5) university. Two
subjects had a sixth grade education or less, 14 completed
junior high school, 66 completed high school, 11 completed
junior college, and 17 completed the university.
TABLE VI
TERMINAL EDUCATION LEVELS OF SUBJECTS
IN THREE GROUPS TESTED
Educational Level
Completed
REG. NURSE
LPN
NA
Total
6th Grade or Below
0
0
2
2
Junior High School
0
0
14
14
High School
14
25
27
66
Junior College
4
3
4
11
University
12
2
3
17
TOTAL
30
30
50
110
Table VII presents the number and type of nursing
educational programs of registered nurse subjects tested in
the study.


34
TABLE VII
NUMBER AND TYPE OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS
COMPLETED BY REGISTERED NURSE
SUBJECTS TESTED IN THE STUDY
Type of Education
Number
Diploma Program
19
Associate Degree Program
2
Baccalaureate Program
9
TOTAL
30
Instrumentation
To test the hypotheses posed in the study, three in
struments were used: (1) the Gordon Personal Profile,
(2) the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire, and (3) a
Biographical Questionnaire developed by the investigator
for the study.
Gordon Personal Profile (GPP)
The Gordon Personal Profile was selected for use in the
study because it provided an obtained measure of four as
pects of personality which are significant in the daily
functioning of normal persons, namely: ascendancy, responsi
bility, emotional stability, and sociability. The GPP was
also selected because it utilizes a forced-choice technique
which does not allow the respondent to answer favorably to
all items, as may be done in the conventional self-report
inventories; thus, it is less susceptible to distortion by
individuals who are motivated to make a good impression
(Gordon, 1963, p. 3). The GPP also had an advantage over
other instruments considered. It can be completed in seven


35
to fifteen minutes, a distinct convenience to the study, as
the testing of subjects took place in the institution during
working hours.
The Gordon Personal Profile consists of eighteen sets
of four descriptive phrases, each such set being known as
a tetrad. Each of the four personality traits is repre
sented by one of the descriptive phrases in each tetrad. Of
four, two phrases are of similar high average perference
values; that is, are considered by typical individuals
to be equally complimentary, and two are of similar low
average preference values, equally uncomplimentary (Gordon,
1963, p. 3). In each of the eighteen sets the respondent
is asked to mark one item as being "most" like himself and
one as being "least" like himself. The eighteen items on
which the measurement of each trait is based constitute the
scale for that trait. The four scales are separately
scored, with each item marked "MOST" contributing two
points, each unmarked item one point, and each item marked
"LEAST" no points. With this scoring system, the maximum
possible points or score on each trait is 36. If desired,
the raw score made on each of the four traits may then be
converted to appropriate percentile-rank equivalents
(Gordon, 1963, p. 4).
Norms for the GPP have been established for various
occupational groups, high school and college groups, and
specific industrial and business groups. Standardization of
the instrument was based on data from more than 5,000 subjects


36
of varied regions and populations in the United States
(Gordon, 1963, p. 13).
Reliability coefficients of the GPP, as found for four
different groups, a population of 512, ranged from .74 to
.88 using the Split-Half reliability, the Kuder-Richardson
Case III, and test-retest at one week and three month in
tervals (Gordon, 1963, p. 21). Correlations with other
personality measures appears to be quite reasonable. For
example, the Profiles Ascendancy score is significantly
related to the Leadership value in Gordon's Survey of Inter
personal Values (r=.39), to the need for Dominance as
measured by the Edwards' Personal Preference Schedule
(r=.55), and to the Poise, Ascendancy, and Self-Assurance
cluster of the California Psychological Inventory (r=.69)
(Gordon, 1963, p. 24). (See Appendix A for descriptive
statements contained in the Gordon Personal Profile.)
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire (TLAQ)
The Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire is an objec
tive questionnaire which measures attitudes toward the aged
in terms of stereotypes. Attitudes toward the aged have
been examined with the use of a number of instruments. The
stereotype scale developed by Tuckman-Lorge in 1953 seems
to be one of the more popular questionnaires and has been
used in a variety of studies (Campbell, 1971; Eisdorfer,
1966; Axelrod and Eisdorfer, 1961).
The TLAQ was selected because of the wide range of
stereotype attitudes it is capable of measuring. Only one


37
other instrument was seriously considered for use, the
Kogan's Attitude Toward Old People Scale (Kogan, 1961), and
it was found unacceptable by the investigator because the
major focus appeared to be social stereotyping and included
very little on physiological stereotyping. The TLAQ incor
porates both of these components and best met the purpose of
the study.
Tuckman and Lorge obtained the material for the
questionnaire by (1) a review of the literature, (2) semi-
structured interviews with adults ranging from 21 to 65
years of age, (3) reading case records of older clients
under the care of a family agency or an institution for the
aged, and (4) discussions with social workers and directors
of institutions for the aged. The questionnaire consists
of 137 statements which were classified independently
by each author and then classified into the following:
physical characteristics (27), conservatism (14), activities
and interest (9), financial (6), family (13), personality
traits (14), attitude toward the future (5), best time of
life (5), insecurity (20), mental deterioration (14), sex
(4), interference (3), and cleanliness (3) (Tuckman and
Lorge, 1953, pp. 249-250).
All statements on the questionnaire are stereotypes
about the aged. The mean score, the number of "yes"
responses, indicates the amount of agreement with a state
ment and thus allows for measuring the degree of
stereotyping about the aged by a given group. The statements


38
are not grouped together in the questionnaire. They are
distributed throughout the questionnaire.
Axelrod and Eisdorfer (1961) designed a study to test
the stimulus-group validity of the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire and found that 96 of the 137 items were
significant at the .01 level in terms of their pertinence
to old people, age 70 or older. Consequently, in view of
their findings, they recommended that although the TLAQ
should be administered in its entirety, only the 96 items
significant at the .01 level in discriminating between age
groups should be analyzed. This study followed the
recommendation of Axelrod and Eisdorfer and administered
the entire questionnaire but analyzed only the 96 valid
items. (See Appendix B for items in Tuckman-Lorge
Attitude Questionnaire.)
Biographical Questionnaire BQ
The Biographical Questionnaire used in the study was
developed by the investigator to complement the Gordon
Personal Profile and the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire. The purpose of the questionnaire was to
obtain information about the subjects which was not available
from either of the other two instruments. Additional infor
mation obtained was as follows: (1) religious preference,
(2) educational level completed, (3) basic type of nursing
program completed, (4) preference for a field of speciali
zation, (5) preference for working with various age groups,
(6) shift usually worked, (7) length of time in nursing and


39
current institution, (8) satisfaction or dissatisfaction
with working with the aged, (9) amount of time spent in
giving direct care to patients, (10) previous living ex
periences with the aged and their effect on the person,
(11) current relationships with the aged, and (12) reason
for selecting the current place of employment. (See
Appendix C for items contained in the Biographical
Questionnaire.)
Pilot Administration
Prior to the study a pilot study was conducted to
determine the ability of nurses to follow the directions
and comprehend the intent of the items on the Biographical
Questionnaire. The nursing home selected for the pilot
study was located in Tallahassee, Florida. Although this
agency met the criteria for the study, it had been randomly
selected only for use in the pilot study. Fifteen nurses
representing all three groups (registered nurses, licensed
practical nurses, and nursing assistants) were administered
the instrument in one session.
Following the completion of the Biographical Question
naire, each subject was interviewed. This gave the
investigator an opportunity to clarify and alter items that
were not clearly understood by the subjects.
Design of the Study
Six variables were controlled in the study.


40
1. Only agencies defined as skilled nursing care
facilities were utilized in the study. It was felt that
there would be more consistency among these types of
facilities because of their structure and method of
functioning. Also, there was a greater likelihood that the
facilities would have the subjects representing all three
types of nursing personnel being concerned with in the
study.
2. Only agencies where 75 percent or more of the
patient populations were 70 years of age or older were uti
lized. It was felt that in order to obtain an accurate
profile of the attitudes of personnel toward the aged, the
agency had to have a population consisting essentially of
the aged.
3. Subjects who participated in the study had to have
been employed in the agency for a minimum of two years or
have had an equivalent amount of time in a similar agency.
It was felt that individuals who are relatively new to a
specialized agency will tend to be more positive in their
initial responses regarding that agency and the population.
Since experiences with the aged and amount of time spent in
caring for them were two of the variables being tested in
the study, a subject's time-in-the-agency was controlled.
4. Subjects who participated in the study had to be
proficient in the skills of reading and writing. The
instruments utilized in the study required the use of both
activities. The conducting of oral tests by the investigator


41
could have yielded data reflecting errors attributed to
testing effects.
5. Administering the instruments to subjects was
confined to week days rather than weekends in order to test
as many nursing personnel as possible. Staffing patterns in
nursing homes on weekends is usually decreased and there is
also a higher degree of utilization of part-time employees,
both being situations which would affect the number and
type of subjects tested.
6. Administering the instruments to subjects would
take place within the walls of the agencies. This would
tend to get a higher participation by subjects as compared
to a mail-in questionnaire approach. Also, one of the
instruments, the Gordon Personal Profile, is best admin
istered in a controlled environment because of test security
purposes.
Collection of Data
Three instruments, the Gordon Personal Profile, the
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire, and a Biographical
Questionnaire developed for the study, were administered to
three types of nursing personnel in nursing homes. The
data were collected between November, 1975 and January, 1976
in Tallahassee and Jacksonville, Florida.
On the date of testing, approximately half of the
subjects entered the designated testing room, as space
for testing did not allow all subjects to be tested at one
time, and it was not possible to relieve all personnel from


42
their work responsibilities at the same time. Instructions
were given to subjects and included (1) the general purpose
of the study, (2) the guidelines for completing each of the
three instruments, (3) the assurance of anonymity by parti
cipating in the study, and (4) obtaining assurance from
subjects that discussion of the instruments with other
personnel, not yet tested, would be respected. In addition
to the above instructions, any and all questions were
answered regarding the instruments. After administering the
instruments to the first group, the procedure was repeated
for the second group.
The number of sessions held in each agency was five:
two for the 7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. shift, two for the
3:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. shift, and one for the 11:00 p.m.
to 7:00 a.m. shift. The 11:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. shift had
fewer employees and all were tested in one session.
The instruments were administered in the following
order: (1) the Biographical Questionnaire, (2) the Gordon
Personal Profile, and (3) the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire. The sequence of administering the instru
ments was based on the amount of time for completion of
each. Time needed for each instrument was (1) ten
minutes for the Biographical Questionnaire, (2) fifteen
minutes for the Gordon Personal Profile, and (3) twenty
minutes for the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire. In
addition, approximately ten minutes was needed for


43
instructions and questions. Each testing session took
approximately forty-five minutes.
The instruments used for the study were administered
to 110 subjects in seven institutions. The sample consisted
of subjects from each of the three groups tested and were
30 registered nurses, 30 licensed practical nurses, and 50
nursing assistants.
Hypotheses
Data from the study were subjected to both parametric
and nonparametric techniques for analysis. All data were
analyzed using the Cyber 73 computer, Controlled Data
Corporation, at Florida State University. The Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS series, developed at
the University of Chicago was used in analyzing the data
(Nie, 1975). The study tested the following null hypotheses
through Pearson product-moment correlations, t-tests,
analysis of variance, and chi squares. All null hypotheses
were tested at the .05 level of confidence.
Hoi There will be no statistically significant
difference among three types of nurses in
their mean scores on four personality traits
as measured by the Gordon Personal Profile.
Ho2 There will be no statistically significant
difference among the number of subjects in
three types of nurses scoring "above
average" and "average and below" on each of
the four personality traits of the Gordon
Personal Profile, when the 34-66 percentile
is used as the range for "average".
H03 There will be no statistically significant
relationship between the mean scores on
each of the four personality traits of the


44
Gordon Personal Profile and the number of
"yes" responses on the Tuckman-Lorge
Attitude Questionnaire.
H04 There will be no statistically significant
difference in the number of subjects
having lived with the aged and who prefer
geriatrics as an area of specialization
and those having lived with the aged and
who prefer any one of seven other areas of
specialization.
H05 There will be no statistically significant
relationship between age of nurses and
their preference for geriatrics as an area
of specialization.
Hog There will be no statistically significant
relationship between age in three types of
nurses and choice of age of patients to
work with.
H07 There will be no statistically significant
difference between the number of "yes"
responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire by race, sex, or religion.
Hog There will be no statistically significant
difference between the number of "yes"
responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire of registered nurses from
degree and nondegree educational programs
H09 There will be no statistically significant
difference between the "yes" responses
on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire
by satisfaction or dissatisfaction in working
with the aged in three types of nurses.
H010 There will be no statistically significant
difference in the mean "yes" responses
on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire
of registered nurses and licensed practical
nurses by percent of time estimated in
working with the aged.
H042. There will be no statistically significant
difference in the mean "yes" responses
on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire
by older nurses (45-69 yrs.) and younger
nurses (19-44 yrs.).


45
Hoi2 There will be no statistically significant
relationship between the number of "yes"
responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire of nurses and the number
of years worked with the aged.
Data Analysis
Hypotheses 1, 9, 10, 11
Hypotheses 1, 9, 10, 11 will be tested through analysis
of variance. The anlysis of variance is a method for
dividing the variation observed in data into parts, each
part assignable to a known source, cause, or factor. In its
simplest form the analysis of variance is used to test the
significance of the difference between the means of dif
ferent samples (Ferguson, 1971).
In hypothesis 1 the mean scores of each of four perso
nality traits will be tested for significant difference
among three types of nurses.
In hypothesis 9 the satisfaction (positive) and dis
satisfaction (mixed and negative) rating on the Biographical
Questionnaire will be tested for significant difference in
the number of "yes" responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire among three types of nurses.
In hypothesis 10 the number of "yes" responses on the
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire will be tested for
significant difference in the percent of time estimated in
giving care to the aged by registered nurses and licensed
practical nurses.


46
In hypothesis 11 the number of "yes" responses on
the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire will be tested for
significant difference between young and older nurses.
Hypotheses 2, 4, 5, 6
Hypotheses 2, 4, 5 and 6 will be tested using chi
square. Chi square is defined by Ferguson (1971) as a com
parison of observed with theoretical frequencies. If there
are significant differences between the observed and
theoretical frequencies, this constitutes evidence for the
rejection of the null hypothesis.
A frequent application of chi square occurs when the
data are comprised of paired observations in two nominal
variables. With the use of chi square it is possible to
determine if the variables are independent of each other or
associated. Chi square provides a measure of the discre
pancy between the observed cell frequencies and those
expected on the basis of independence. If the value of
chi square is considered significant at some accepted level
of confidence, we reject the null hypothesis that no
difference exists between the observed and expected values
We then accept the alternative hypothesis that the two
variables are associated.
In hypothesis 2 for each of the three types of nurses,
the number of scores "above average" will be related to the
number of scores "average and below".
In hypothesis 4 the number of subjects having lived
with the aged and who prefer geriatrics as an area of


47
specialization will be compared with those having lived with
the aged but who prefer any one of the seven other areas of
specialization.
In hypothesis 5 age of nurses will be related to their
preference of geriatrics as an area of specialization.
In hypothesis 6 age of nurses will be related to their
preference for working with patients of different age
groupings.
Hypotheses 3, 12
Hypotheses 3 and 12 will be tested in terms of a corre
lation coefficient. According to Ferguson (1971) a
correlation coefficient expresses the degree of corre
spondence or relationship between two sets of scores. The
most common procedure used to compute correlation coeffic
ients is the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient.
This model, designed to test linear data, takes into
account the individual's position in the group and the
amount of his deviation above and below the group mean.
In hypothesis 3 the scores on each of the four per
sonality traits of the Gordon Personal Profile will be
correlated with the number of "yes" responses on the Tuckman-
Lorge Attitude Questionnaire.
In hypothesis 12 the number of "yes" responses on the
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire will be correlated with
the number of years subjects have worked with the aged.


48
Hypotheses 7, 8
Hypotheses 7 and 8 will be tested using the t test of
significance for a difference between two means (Edwards,
1972).
In hypothesis 7 the means of "yes" responses on the
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire will be tested for
difference attributable to race, sex, or religion.
In hypothesis 8 the means of "yes" responses on the
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire will be tested for
difference attributable to type of educational (degree
granting and nondegree granting) programs of registered
nurses.


CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
This chapter is presented in two sections. Section I,
analysis for statistical significance, presents the analysis
of the twelve null hypotheses which were tested statistically.
Section II, simple percentage comparisons, presents data re
lated to the twelve null hypotheses but which could not be
included in the analysis because a sufficient number of
cases was not always available. Although the data in
Section II are not tested for significance, it is felt that
they reflect additional information relating to the hypotheses
and the sample of the study.
SECTION I
Analysis for Statistical Significance
Twelve null hypotheses were tested in the study. This
chapter presents the data and an analysis of each hypothesis.
Parametric and nonparametric tests were used and consisted of
analysis of variance, chi square, Pearson product-moment
correlation, and t test. All null hypotheses were tested
at the .05 level of confidence.
Hypothesis I
Hypothesis I states that there will be no statistically
significant difference among the three types of nurses in
49


50
their mean scores on four personality traits as measured by
the Gordon Personal Profile. Analysis of variance for each
of the four personality traits by type of nurse was used to
test the hypothesis. Table VIII presents the results of the
testing.
TABLE VIII
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR FOUR PERSONALITY
TRAITS BY TYPE OF NURSE
SOURCE
SS
d. f.
MS
F-value
Sig.
ASCENDANCY
Between
Type Nurse
34.631
2
17.315
.989
.999
Total
1908.691
109
17.511
RESPONSIBILITY
Between
Type Nurse
137.000
2
68.500
3.068*
.049
Total
2525.900
109
23.173
EMOTIONAL STABILITY
Between
Type Nurse
17.630
2
8.815
. 388
.999
Total
2449.673
109
22.474
SOCIABILITY
Between
Type Nurse
3.810
2
1.090
. 102
.999
Total
2004.591
109
18.391
Significant at .
05 level of
confidence
The analysis
of variance
1 on
Ascendancy by type
of nurse
yielded an F value of .989.
This
F value
is not significant


51
Therefore, the hypothesis is not rejected. The F value
yielded on Emotional Stability is .388 and is not signifi
cant. Therefore, the hypothesis is not rejected. The F
value yielded on Sociability is .102 and is not significant.
Therefore, the hypothesis is not rejected.
The analysis of variance on Responsibility by type of
nurse yielded an F value of 3.068. The F value is signifi
cant at the .05 level of confidence. Therefore, the
hypothesis is rejected. A Scheffe Test for Multiple
Comparisons (Glass and Stanley, 1970) was used to determine
the specific location of the difference in total mean score
on responsibility among the three types of nurses. The total
mean score for each type of nurse was (1) 29.70 for
registered nurses, (2) 26-. 97 for licensed practical nurses,
and (3) 27.39 for nursing assistants. The Scheffe test
revealed that no significant total mean score difference
occurred between any one pair of nurse types.
Hypothesis II
Hypothesis II states that there will be no statistically
significant difference among the number of subjects in
three types of nurses scoring "above average" and "average
and below" on each of the four personality traits of the
Gordon Personal Profile, when the 34-66 percentile is used
as the range for "average". Chi square was used for each
of the three types of nurses to test the hypothesis. Table
IX presents the results of the testing for the registered
nurse group.


52
TABLE IX
CHI SQUARE AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF
REGISTERED NURSES SCORING "ABOVE AVERAGE" AND
"AVERAGE AND BELOW" ON FOUR PERSONALITY TRAITS
Personality Trait
Scored Above Average
3n Personality Trait
Scored Average and
Below on Person
ality Trait
fo
fe
fo
fe
ASCENDANCY
12
17
18
13
RESPONSIBILITY
29
17
1
13
EMOTIONAL
STABILITY
20
17
10
13
SOCIABILITY
7
17
23
13
OwV^J.Y.D1j1 1 I | /
Chi square=37.738, 3 d.f.
p=.0000, significant
Results obtained for the registered nurse group were
tested using chi square statistic with .05 level of confi
dence and 3 degrees of freedom. The chi square value for
the registered nurse group tested is 37.738. A chi square
this size or larger has a probability of .0000 and indicates
that the number of registered nurses in the observed cells
are significantly different from the number expected if they
had been randomly assigned. Therefore, hypothesis II was
rejected for the registered nurse group.
Using a modified test for testing multiple contrasts
among proportions, the registered nurses are significantly
higher than expectation on responsibility and only apparently
higher on emotional stability. They are significantly
lower than expectation on ascendancy and sociability.
Table X presents the results of the testing for the
licensed practical nurse group.


53
TABLE X
CHI SQUARE AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES SCORING "ABOVE
AVERAGE" AND "AVERAGE AND BELOW"
ON FOUR PERSONALITY TRAITS
Personality Trait
Scored Above Average
on Personality Trait
Scored Average and
Below on Person
ality Trait
fo
fe
fo
fe
ASCENDANCY
8
14
22
16
RESPONSIBILITY
22
14
8
16
EMOTIONAL
STABILITY
19
14
11
16
SOCIABILITY
7
14
23
16
Chi square=23.304
, 3
d. f.
p=.0000, significant
Results obtained for the licensed practical nurse group
were tested using chi square statistic with .05 level of
confidence and 3 degrees of freedom. The chi square value
for the licensed practical nurse group tested is 23.304.
A chi square this size or larger has a probability of .0000
and indicates that the number of licensed practical nurses
in the observed cells are significantly different from the
number expected if they had been randomly assigned. There
fore, hypothesis II was rejected for the licensed practical
nurse group.
Using a modified test for testing multiple contrasts
among proportions, the licensed practical nurses are signi
ficantly higher than expectation on responsibility. They
are significantly lower than expectation on ascendancy


54
and sociability. The contrast on emotional stability is not
significantly different from expectation.
Table XI presents the results of the testing for the
nursing assistant group.
TABLE XI
CHI SQUARE AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF NURSING
ASSISTANTS SCORING "ABOVE AVERAGE" AND
"AVERAGE AN
D BELOW"
ON FOUR PERSONALITY TRAITS
Scored Above Average
Scored
Average and
on Personality Trait
Below
on Person-
ality
Trait
Personality Trait
fo
fe
fo
fe
ASCENDANCY
7
21
43
29
RESPONSIBILITY
39
21
11
29
EMOTIONAL
STABILITY
31
21
19
29
SOCIABILITY
6
21
44
29
Chi square=69.591, 3 d.f.
p=.0000, significant
Results obtained for the nursing assistant group were
tested using a chi square statistic with .05 level of
confidence and 3 degrees of freedom. The chi square value
for the nursing assistant group tested is 69.591. A chi
square this size or larger has a probability of .0000 and
indicates that the number of nursing assistants in the
observed cells are significantly different from the number
expected if they had been randomly assigned. Therefore,
hypothesis II was rejected for the nursing assistant group.
Using a modified test for testing multiple contrasts
among proportions, the nursing assistant group is signifi
cantly higher than expectation on responsibility. They are


55
significantly lower than expectation on ascendancy and
sociability. The contrast on emotional stability is not
significantly different from expectation.
Hypothesis III
Hypothesis III states that there will be no statisti
cally significant relationship between the mean scores on
each of the four personality traits of the Gordon Personal
Profile and the number of "yes" responses on the Tuckman-
Lorge Attitude Questionnaire. The Pearson product-moment
correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship.
Table XII presents the correlations for each of the perso
nality traits with the number of "yes" responses on the
Tuckman-Lorge Attitudes Questionnaire.
TABLE XII
CORRELATION OF THE NUMBER OF "YES" RESPONSES ON
THE TUCKMAN-LORGE ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE WITH MEAN
SCORES ON ASCENDANCY, RESPONSIBILITY, EMOTIONAL
STABILITY, AND SOCIABILITY
SOURCE
r
N
Significance
Personality Trait
ASCENDANCY
-.1181
110
. 110
RESPONSIBILITY
-.1029
110
. 142
EMOTIONAL
STABILITY
-.0508
110
.299
SOCIABILITY
-.0788
110
.207
The intent of hypothesis III was to identify any
correlation between the stereotype attitudes toward the aged
(number of "yes" responses on the TLAQ) and personality


56
traits measured by the Gordon Personal Profile. None of the
correlation coefficients is significant at the .05 level of
confidence. Therefore, hypothesis III is not rejected-.
The mean scores on the four personality traits do not
predict the scores on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Question
naire in the sample of the study. The correlation
coefficients indicate that both the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude
Questionnaire and the Gordon Personal Profile test different
things and that neither can be used to predict the other.
Since no significant correlations were obtained, there is no
evidence that personality traits tested (ascendancy, re
sponsibility, emotional stability, and sociability) will
reflect an individual's attitudes toward the aged or that an
individual's attitudes toward the aged may be the result of
having these personality traits.
Hypothesis IV
Hypothesis IV states that there will be no statistically
significant difference in the number of subjects having
lived with the aged and who prefer geriatrics as an area of
specialization and those having lived with the aged and who
prefer any one of seven other areas of specialization. A
choice of geriatrics or seven other specialization areas
was given to each subject. A pairing of geriatrics with
each of the seven other areas of specialization was done in
order to test the hypothesis. A chi square statistic was
obtained for each pairing. Table XIII presents the results
of the testing for each combination.


57
TABLE XIII
CHI SQUARE AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION FOR SUBJECTS
LIVING WITH THE AGED AND PREFERRING GERIATRICS AND
SUBJECTS LIVING WITH THE AGED AND PREFERRING
OTHER AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION
SOURCE
fo
fe
Chi square
d. f.
Sig.
Specialization
Geriatrics
12
7.5
4.267*
1
.05
Surgery
3
7.5
Geriatrics
12
7.5
4.267*
1
.05
Pediatrics
3
7.5
Geriatrics
12
8
3.062
1
. 10
Rehabilitation
4
8
Geriatrics
12
8.5
2.118
1
.25
Psychiatry
5
8.5

Geriatrics
12
9.5
.842
1
.50
Medical
7
9.5
Geriatrics
12
10
.450
1
.50
Maternity
8
10
Geriatrics
12
10.5
.200
1
.25
Public Health
9
10.5
Significant at the
.05
level
The chi square
results in
Table XIII
show statistically
significant difference :
In three
of the combinations.
A
chi square of 4.267
for
the combination of
geriatrics/surgery
is significant at the .05 level of confidence. Therefore,
the hypothesis is rejected. The chi square of 4.267 for the
combination of geriatrics /pediatrics is significant at the


58
.05 level of confidence. Therefore, the hypothesis is
rejected.
The significant difference found indicates that the
subjects who have lived with the aged will prefer working
in geriatrics more frequently that in surgery and pediatrics.
The five remaining combinations of geriatrics with psychiatry,
medical, rehabilitation, maternity, and public health nursing
are not significant. Therefore, the hypothesis is not
rejected.
Hypothesis V
Hypothesis V states that there will be no statistically
significant relationship in age of nurses and their pre
ference for geriatrics as an area of specialization. Three
age categories were used and consisted of 19-35 years, 36-50
years, and 51-69 years. Chi square was used to test the
hypothesis. Table XIV presents the results of the testing.
TABLE XIV
CHI SQUARE AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF
PREFERENCE FOR GERIATRICS BY AGE OF NURSES
SOURCE
fo
fe
Chi square
d. f.
Sig.
Age of Nurses
19-35 yrs.
11
11
2.354
4
.6709
36-50 yrs.
6
6
51-69 yrs.
15
15
The chi square value of 2.354 is not significant at the
.05 level of confidence. Therefore, hypothesis V is not
rejected. The results reveal that there is no one specific


59
age category of nurses tested which prefer geriatrics more
than nurses in another age category. Previous research
(Brown, 1967) has indicated that younger nurses tend to
prefer not working with the aged. The findings of this
study do not support the previous findings.
Hypothesis VI
Hypothesis VI states that there will be no statistically
significant relationship between age in three types of
nurses and (choice of age of patients to work with. Three
age categories were used for nurses and three age categories
were used for age of patients preferred. Chi square was
used to test the hypothesis for each type of nurse.
Table XV presents the results of the testing for the
registered nurse group.
TABLE XV
CHI SQUARE AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
OF PREFERENCE FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUPINGS OF
PATIENTS BY AGE OF REGISTERED NURSES
SOURCE
fo
f e
Chi square
d. f.
Sig.
Age of Nurses
2.122
4
.7134
19-35 yrs.
Age of Patients
1-17 yrs.
1
1
18-65 yrs.
7
6
65+ yrs.
2
3
(table continued)


60
The chi square value of 2.122 is not significant at the
.05 level of confidence. Therefore, hypothesis VI is not
rejected for the registered nurse group. The results reveal
that there is no specific age group in registered nurses
tested which has a preference for working with a specific
age of patient.
Table XVI presents the results of the testing for the
licensed practical nurse group.
TABLE XVI
CHI SQUARE AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF PREFERENCE FOR
DIFFERENT AGE GROUPINGS OF PATIENTS
BY AGE OF LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES
SOURCE
Age of Nurses
19-35 yrs.
fo fe Chi square d.f. Sig.
4.839 4 .3041
(table continued)


61
SOURCE fo fe Chi square d.f.
Age of Patients
1-17 yrs.
1
1
18-65 yrs.
4
5
65+ yrs.
7
6
Age of Nurses
36-50 yrs.
Age of Patients
1-17 yrs.
1
1
18-65 yrs.
5
3
65+ yrs.
1
4
Age of Nurses
51-69 yrs.
Age of Patients
1-17 yrs.
1
1
18-65 yrs.
3
4
65+ yrs.
7
5
Sig.
The chi square value of 4.839 is not significant at the
.05 level of confidence. Therefore, hypothesis VI is not
rejected for the licensed practical nurse group. The
results reveal that there is no specific age group in
licensed practical nurses tested which has a preference for
working with a specific age of patient.
Table XVII presents the results of the testing for the
nursing assistant group.


62
TABLE XVII
CHI SQUARE AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF PREFERENCE
FOR DIFFERENT AGE GROUPINGS OF
PATIENTS BY AGE OF NURSING ASSISTANTS
SOURCE fo fe Chi square d.f. Sig.
Age of Nurses
19-35 yrs.
Age of Patients
1-17 yrs.
4
3
18-65 yrs.
11
7
65+ yrs.
9
14
Age of Nurses
35-50 yrs.
Age of Patients
1-17 yrs.
2
2
18-65 yrs.
3
5
65+ yrs.
10
8
Age of Nurses
51-69 yrs.
Age of Patients
1-17 yrs.
1
2
18-65 yrs.
1
3
65+ yrs.
9
6
The chi square
value
of
7.506 4 .115
7.506 is not significant at the
.05 level of confidence. Therefore, hypothesis VI is not
rejected for the nursing assistant group. The results reveal
that there is no specific age group in nursing assistants
which has a preference for working with a specific age of
patient.


63
Hypothesis VII
Hypothesis VII states that there will be no statistically
significant difference between the number of "yes" responses
on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire by race, sex,
or religion. The t test of significance for a difference
between two means was used to test the hypothesis. Table
XVIII presents the results of the testing for race, sex,
and religion.
TABLE XVIII
t TEST FOR ANALYSIS OF NUMBER OF "YES" RESPONSES
ON THE TUCKMAN-LORGE ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE
BY RACE, SEX, AND RELIGION
SOURCE
N
MS
SD
t-value
d.f.
2-tail
Prob.
Race
Black
51
62.10
18.12
2.43*
108
.017
White
59
53.80
17.64
Sex
Male
9
58.56
15.33
. 16
108
.877
Female
101
57.56
18.56
Religion
Protestant
88
58.86
18.65
-1.41
108
. 163
Nonprotestant
22
52.77
16.11
^Significant at
the .01 level
As shown in
table
XVIII,
the t test for race yielded a
t value of 2.43.
This
t value is significant
at the
.01
level of confidence. Therefore the hypothesis is rejected
for race. More negative attitudes were expressed by black
subjects than white subjects. This finding does not support
the findings in a previous study conducted by Thorson in


64
1975. At that time, Thorson found no significant difference
in the attitudes of white and black students toward the aged.
The t test for religion yielded a t value of -1.41 and
is not significant at the .05 level of confidence. There
fore, the hypothesis is not rejected for religion. Although
there were three categories of religions reported in Chapter
III (Protestant, Catholic, and Jew) for purposes of analysis
these categories were collapsed into two categories
(Protestant and Nonprotestant). There were only 2 Jewish
subjects in the sample tested and in order to use the t test,
a minimum of five is desirable in each cell. The nonpro
testant category includes both Catholic and Jewish subjects.
The results reveal that stereotype attitudes toward the aged
cannot be attributable to either of the two religion
categories tested in the study.
The t test for sex yeilded a t value of .16 and is not
significant. Therefore, the hypothesis is not rejected. It
should be noted that males constituted only 12 percent
(N=9) of the total sample tested. The results reveal that
the stereotype attitudes toward the aged cannot be attri
butable to sex of the subjects tested in the study.
Hypothesis VIII
Hypothesis VIII states that there will be no statisti
cally significant difference between the number of "yes"
responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire of
registered nurses by degree and nondegree educational
programs. For the purpose of analysis, degree granting


65
programs were categorized as those which grant an Associate
Degree in nursing or a Baccalaureate Degree in nursing. The
nondegree program grants a diploma in nursing.
A t test of significance for a difference between two
means was used to test the hypothesis. Table XIX presents
the results of the testing for degree and nondegree
educational programs for registered nurses.
TABLE XIX
t TEST FOR NUMBER OF "YES" RESPONSES ON THE
TUCKMAN-LORGE ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE OF REGISTERED
NURSES BY DEGREE AND NONDEGREE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS
SOURCE
N
MS
SD t-value d.f.
2-tail
Prob.
Type of Program
Degree
11
40.73
22.36
-.97 28
.342
Nondegree
19
48.05
18.56
The t test for type of educational programs for
registered nurses yielded a t value of -.97. This t value
is not significant. Therefore, the hypothesis is not re
jected. In a previous study (Gillis, 1973), findings
indicated that baccalaureate graduates had more stereotype
attitudes toward the aged than did diploma graduates. The
results of this study do not support these findings.
Hypothesis IX
Hypothesis IX states that there will be no statisti
cally significant difference between the mean "yes"
responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire by
satisfaction or dissatisfaction in working with the aged in


66
three types of nurses. Analysis of variance was used to
test the hypothesis. Table XX presents the results of the
testing.
TABLE XX
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF MEAN "YES" RESPONSES
ON THE TUCKMAN-LORGE ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE BY
TYPE OF NURSE AND BY SATISFACTION OR DISSATISFACTION
OF WORKING WITH THE AGED
SOURCE
SS
d. f.
MS
F-ratio
Sig.
Type of Nurse
6835.24
2
3417.62
12.08*
.001
Satisfaction or
Dissatisfaction
134.22
1
134.22
.47
.999
2-way Interaction
Type of Nursing
by Satisfaction 101.09
or Dissatisfaction
2
50.54
. 179
.999
Residual
29422.24
104
282.91
^Significant at the ,
.001 level
The analysis of
variance
yielded
on F ratio of 12
.08
for type of nurse. This F ratio is significant at the .001
level of confidence. Therefore, the hypothesis is rejected
for type of nurse. A Scheffe Test for Multiple Comparisons
was used to determine the specific location of the difference
in the total mean score on the number of "yes" responses on
the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire among the types of
nurses. The total mean score for each type of nurse was
(1)45.37 for registered nurses, (2) 59.07 for licensed
practical nurses, and (3) 64.16 for nursing assistants. The
Scheffe test reveals that no significant total mean score
difference occurs between licensed practical nurses and


67
nursing assistants. The test reveals that there was
significant difference in the total mean score of both
licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants when
comparing with registered nurses. Registered nurses have
significantly lower number of "yes" responses on the
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire.
The analysis of variance yielded an F ratio of .47 for
satisfaction or dissatisfaction in working with the aged.
This F ratio is not significant at the .05 level of con
fidence. Therefore, the hypothesis is not rejected for
satisfaction or dissatisfaction in working with the aged.
In the 2-way interaction between type of nurse by
satisfaction or dissatisfaction, the F ratio is .179. This
F ratio is not significant at the .05 level of confidence.
Therefore, the hypothesis is not rejected.
Hypothesis X
Hypothesis X states that there will be no statistically
significant difference in the mean "yes" responses on the
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire of registered nurses
and licensed practical nurses by percent of time estimated
in working with the aged. Analysis of variance was used to
test the hypothesis. Table XXI presents the results of the
testing.


68
TABLE XXI
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF MEAN "YES" RESPONSES
ON THE TUCKMAN-LORGE ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE BY TYPE OF
NURSE AND BY PERCENT OF TIME SPENT
IN WORKING WITH THE AGED
SOURCE
SS
d. f.
MS
F-ratio
Sig.
Type of Nurse
2207.56
1
2207.56
6.60*
.012
Percent of Time
146.12
1
146.12
.44
.999
2-way Interaction
Type of Nursing
by Percent of
115.56
1
115.56
. 35
.999
Time
Residual
18751.15
56
334.84
^Significant at the
.01 level
The analysis of
variance
yielded an F ratio of 6.60 for
type of nurse. This
F ratio
is significant at
the .01
level
of confidence and the hypothesis is rejected. A Scheffe
Test for Multiple Comparisons was used to determine the
specific location of the difference in the total mean score
on the number of "yes" responses on the Tuckman-Lorge
Attitude Questionnaire between registered nurses and
licensed practical nurses. The total mean score for
registered nurses on the TLAQ is 45.37. The total mean
score for licensed practical nurses is 59.07. The Scheffe"
Test reveals that a significant total mean score difference
occurs between the two groups of nurses. The total mean
score for licensed practical nurses is significantly higher
in number of "yes" responses on the TLAQ than registered
nurses.


69
The analysis of variance yielded an F ratio of .44 for
percent of time estimated in working with the aged. This F
ratio is not significant at the .05 level of confidence.
Therefore, the hypothesis is not rejected for percent of
time. When time is defined as actual time spent in working
with the aged, there is no significant difference between
registered nurses and licensed practical nurses.
In the 2-way interaction between type of nurse by
percent of time spent in working with the aged, the F ratio
is .35 which is not significant at the .05 level of con
fidence. Therefore, the hypothesis is not rejected.
Hypothesis XI
Hypothesis XI states that there will be no statistically
significant difference in the mean "yes" responses on the
Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire by older nurses (45-
69 yrs.) and younger nurses (19-44 yrs.). Analysis of
variance was used to test the hypothesis. Table XXII
presents the results of the testing.
TABLE XXII
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF MEAN "YES"
RESPONSES ON THE TUCKMAN-LORGE ATTITUDE
QUESTIONNAIRE
BY TYPE OF
NURSE
AND BY AGE OF
NURSE
SOURCE
SS
d. f.
MS F
-ratio
Sig.
Type of Nurse
6712.54
2
3356.27
11.805*
.001
Age of Nurse
45.55
1
45.55
.160
.999
2-way Interaction
Type of Nurse
by Age of Nurse
71.05
2
35.52
. 125
.999
Residual
29567.80
104
284.31
Significant at the .001 level


70
The analysis of variance yielded an F ratio of 11.805
for type of nurse. This F ratio is significant at the .001
level of confidence. Therefore, the hypothesis is rejected.
Scheffe Test for Multiple Comparisons was used to determine
the specific location of the difference in total mean score
on the number of "yes" responses on the TLAQ among the three
types of nurses. The total mean scores for the three types
of nurses are 45.37 for registered nurses, 59.07 for
licensed practical nurses, and 64.16 for nursing assistants.
The Scheffe Test reveals that no significant total mean
score difference occurs between licensed practical nurses
and nursing assistants. The test reveals that a significant
total mean score difference in the number of "yes"
responses on the TLAQ occurs between licensed practical
nurses and registered nurses. There is also a significant
total mean score difference between nursing assistants and
registered nurses. The registered nurse group scores were
significantly lower in the number of "yes" responses on the
TLAQ when compared with licensed practical nurses and
nursing assistants.
The analysis of variance yielded an F ratio of .160 for
age of nurses. This F ratio is not significant at the .05
level of confidence. Therefore, the hypothesis is not
rejected. This finding indicates that older and younger
nurses do not vary significantly in the number of "yes"
responses on the TLAQ.


71
In the 2-way interaction between type of nurse and age
of nurse, the F ratio is .125 which is not significant at
the .05 level of confidence. Therefore, the hypothesis is
not rejected.
Hypothesis XII
Hypothesis XII states that there will be no statisti
cally significant relationship between the number of "yes"
responses on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire of
nurses and the number of years worked with the aged.
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was used to
describe the relationship between the number of "yes re
sponses and number of years worked with the aged.
The analysis yielded a correlation coefficient of .0229
for 110 cases and was not significant at the .05 level of
confidence. Therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected.
When time is defined as the number of years worked with
the aged, there is no significant difference in the stereo
type attitudes toward the aged of nurses.
SECTION II
Simple Percentage Comparisons
The source for the data presented in this part of the
chapter is the Biographical Questionnaire and will be con
fined to five items contained in the questionnaire.
Items 19, 20, 21
Item 19 asks,"Have you ever lived with your grandparents
or any other elderly person?"
Item 20 asks, "How old were


72
you when you lived with these elderly persons?" Item 21
asks, "Do you consider these living experiences with the
elderly to have been positive, neutral, or negative?"
Fifty one of the subjects tested reported having lived with
an elderly person. Table XXIII presents a percent tabulation
of how old the subjects were when they lived with the aged
person and the subjects' rating of the experience as posi
tive, neutral, or negative.
TABLE XXIII
PERCENT TABULATION OF NURSES' AGE V/HEN HAVING
LIVED WITH THE AGED AND THE RATING OF THE EXPERIENCE
Age of Nurse When Lived
With the Aged Individual
N
Percent of
Experience
or Negative
Subjects
Positive,
Rating the
Neutral,
Positive
Neutral
Negative
3-10 yrs.
19
74
21
5
11-20 yrs.
22
55
18
27
21-30 yrs.
7
71
29

31-40 yrs.
1
100


41-50 yrs.
2
100


Table XXIII indicates that subjects generally equate
their previous living experiences with the aged as being
more positive than negative. Subjects who were between 11
and 20 years of age at the time the living experience with
the aged occurred, viewed the experience as more negative.
This finding may be the result of the teen years in which
individuals are more prone to the extreme in reaction
toward authority figures and older persons.


73
TABLE XXIV
PERCENT TABULATION OF NURSES' AGE WHEN HAVING LIVED
WITH THE AGED AND THE EFFECT THE LIVING
EXPERIENCE HAD ON SELECTING WORK WITH THE AGED
Age of Nurse When Lived
With the Aged Individual
N
Percent of Nurses' Rating the
Living Experience as Having
Much or Little Effect on Job
Selection
Much
Little
3-10
yrs.
19
32
68
11-20
yrs.
22
18
82
21-30
yrs.
7
29
71
31-40
yrs.
1
100

41-50
yrs.
2

100
Table XXIV indicates that subjects generally evaluate
their previous living experiences with the aged as having
little to do with selecting their current place of employ
ment, i.e., working with the aged in nursing homes. Table
XXV reflects generally the same results but without a
categorizing by age.
TABLE XXV
PERCENT TABULATION OF NURSES' RATING OF THE
LIVING EXPERIENCE WITH THE AGED AND THE EFFECT
THE EXPERIENCE HAD ON SELECTING WORK WITH THE AGED
Percent of Nurses' Rating
the Living Experience as
Positive or Negative
Percent of Nurses' Rating
the Living Experience as
Having Much or Little
Effect on Job Selection
Positive
Negative
Much
Little
67%
33%
25%
75%
(N=34)
(N=17)
(N=13)
(N=38)
Item 23
Item 23 asks the question, "Do you currently enjoy a
close relationship with any relative, friend, or acquaintance


74
who is over the age of 65?" Eighteen of the 110 subjects
responded with a "no" answer. Table XXVI presents the
percent of "no" responses by type of nurse.
TABLE XXVI
PERCENT TABULATION OF "NO" RESPONSES TO ITEM 23
OF THE BIOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRE BY TYPE OF NURSE
TYPE OF NURSE
N
Percent of "no"
Responses
Registered Nurse
4
22
Licensed Practical Nurse
7
39
Nursing Assistants
7
39
Item 25
Item 25 asks the question, "Does the geographical lo
cation of this agency you are currently employed in have
anything to do with why you work here?" Sixteen subjects
said "yes." Table XXVII presents the type of responses to
the question and percent of subjects responding.
TABLE XXVII
TYPE OF RESPONSES TO ITEM 25 OF THE
BIOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRE AND PERCENT
OF SUBJEC'j
pS R
ESPONDING
Responses to Item 25
N
Percent of Subjects
Responding
Near the University I
attend
3
19
Near the school my children
attend
1
6
Near my home
12
75
TOTAL
16
100


CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, PROCEDURE, RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS,
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY,
AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
The initial sections of this chapter summarize the
review of literature used for the study, the procedures used
in conducting the investigation, and the results obtained.
Following this, the conclusions drawn from these results
are discussed. The significance of the study is discussed
and the chapter will close with recommendations for future
research.
Summary
This study had three primary purposes: first, to
identify the personality traits of nurses currently working
with the aged; second, to identify the social characteristics
of these nurses; and third, to identify the degree of stereo
type attitudes toward the aged of these nurses. These
purposes were generated from the questions presented in
Chapter I and the review of literature in Chapter II.
Upon reviewing the literature pertaining to identifying
the personality traits of nurses working with the aged, it
was found that this is essentially an unexplored area in
research. The one study reviewed dealt only with student
nurses. The study reports that those students desiring to
work with the aged possess personality traits involving a
75


76
strong commitment to a vocation like that of a missionary,
are relatively unsocial, do not seek adventure, do not
desire to advance in their field, are usually older, and
tend to have lower aptitude scores.
The review of literature pertaining to identifying the
social characteristics of nurses working with the aged has
been generally confined to variables relating to stereo
type attitudes toward the aged such as age, race, sex,
religion, and amount of education. There were no studies
reviewed which dealt with such social characteristics as
socioeconomic class or position of birth in a family, both
of which may relate to attitudes toward the aged.
Research findings related to attitudes toward the aged
revealed that attitudes are more negative than positive.
Variables such as age, race, and amount of education have
not been clearly established as having effect in promoting
the negative attitudes toward the aged and appear to vary
from group to group tested.
Procedures
One hundred and ten subjects volunteered from seven
nursing homes for participation in the study. The subjects
were practicing nurses representing three different types:
registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing
assistants.
The data were obtained by use of three instruments,
namely, the Gordon Personal Profile, a standardized


77
personality test; the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire
which measures the degree of stereotype attitudes toward the
aged; and the Biographical Questionnaire developed specifi
cally for use in the study to obtain data not possible with
the administration of the first two instruments.
Results
Twelve null hypotheses concerning personality traits,
social characteristics, and stereotype attitudes toward the
aged were examined for significance at the .05 level of con
fidence. Four statistical methods were used to test the
hypotheses. They were analysis of variance, chi square,
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, and t test.
In addition, hypotheses I, IX, X, and XI were further tested,
using Scheffe Test for Multiple Comparisons, in order to de
termine the specific location of significant difference found.
Hypothesis I sought to determine the statistically
significant difference among three types of nurses on the
four personality traits of ascendancy, responsibility,
emotional stability, and sociability. The analysis of
variance revealed significant difference in the mean scores
on the personality trait of responsibility by types of
nurses. Therefore, the hypothesis was rejected. The
rejection of the hypothesis led to use of Scheffe Test for
Multiple Comparisons to determine the specific location of
the difference in total mean score among the three types of
nurses. The Scheffe test revealed no significant difference
between any one pair of nurse types.


78
Hypothesis II sought to determine the statistically
significant difference among the number of subjects in the
three types of nurses scoring "above average" and "average
and below" on each of the four personality traits. Chi
square for each of the three types of nurses revealed
significant difference for each type of nurse. Therefore,
the hypothesis was rejected.
Using a modified test for testing contrasts among pro
portions, registered nurses were significantly higher than
expectation on responsibility and apparently but not signi
ficantly higher on emotional stability. They were
significantly lower than expectation on ascendancy and
sociability.
Licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants were
significantly higher than expectation on responsibility
and significantly lower than expectation on ascendancy and
sociability. The contrast on emotional stability was not
significantly different from expectation.
Hypothesis III sought to determine the relationship
between the mean scores on each of the four personality
traits and the number of "yes" responses on the Tuckman-
Lorge Attitude Questionnaire. The Pearson product-moment
correlations revealed no significant relationship between
the means. Therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected.
Since no significant correlations were obtained, there is
no evidence that personality traits in the subjects tested


79
can be used to predict stereotype attitudes toward the
aged or vice versa.
Hypothesis IV sought to determine the statistically
significant difference in the number of subjects having
lived with the aged and who prefer geriatrics as an area
of specialization and those having lived with the aged but
who prefer other areas of specialization. Chi square for
seven specialization areas was obtained and significant
difference resulted in two of the seven areas of speciali
zation. Therefore, the hypothesis was rejected for the
areas of surgery and pediatrics. The hypothesis was not
rejected for the areas of psychiatry, rehabilitation,
medical, maternity, and public health nursing. The results
revealed that subjects tested, who have lived with the aged,
more often preferred working in geriatrics than in surgery
or pediatrics.
Hypothesis V sought to determine the relationship
between age of nurses and preference for geriatrics as an
area of specialization. Chi square for three age cate
gories was obtained. The results revealed no significant
difference by age categories. Therefore, the hypothesis
was not rejected. The results did not support previous
findings of difference attributed to age of nurses.
Hypothesis VI sought to determine the relationship
between age in each of the three types of nurses and choice
of age of patients to work with. Chi square for each type
nurse was obtained. The results revealed no significant


80
difference. Therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected.
In nursing circles, it is frequently postulated that younger
nurses will prefer working with pediatric and young adult
patients more than with the aged. The results did not
support such claims.
Hypothesis VII sought to determine the statistically
significant difference in stereotype attitudes toward the
aged which are attributable to race, sex, or religion.
A t test for each of these variables were obtained. The
results revealed no significant difference in attitudes to
ward the aged which were attributable to sex or religion.
Therefore, the hypothesis was not rejected for sex or
religion.
The results revealed statistically significant
difference attributable to race. Therefore, the hypothesis
was rejected for race. Black subjects tested had signifi
cantly more negative attitudes toward the aged than did
white subjects tested. The results did not support previous
findings. It should be noted that the previous findings
dealt with data collected from high school and college
students and not from individuals working with the aged. At
best, these results indicate that the stereotype attitudes
toward the aged in blacks tested, may be changing. Since
no research was reviewed which dealt with nurses currently
working with the aged, these results should not be used
comparatively to indicate that the stereotype attitudes are


81
greater in blacks than they may have been throughout the
previous years.
Hypothesis VIII sought to determine the statistically
significant difference in stereotype attitudes toward the
aged of registered nurses from degree and nondegree granting
ecuational programs. A t test of significance for a
difference between the two means was obtained. The results
revealed no significant difference in nurses from the degree
and nondegree granting programs. Therefore, the hypothesis
was not rejected. The results did not support earlier
findings which indicated that baccalaureate (degree)
graduates had more stereotype attitudes toward the aged
than did diploma (nondegree) graduates. With the focus on
education being what it is today, the results did not indi
cate that type of nursing education made any significant
impact in helping to change the stereotype attitudes of
nurses toward the aged.
Hypothesis IX sought to determine statistically signi
ficant difference between the mean "yes" responses on the
TLAQ by satisfaction or dissatisfaction in working with the
aged in three types of nurses. Analysis of variance was
obtained. The results revealed no significant difference
in satisfaction or dissatisfaction in working with the aged
among the three types of nurses. Therefore, the hypothesis
was not rejected.
The results revealed a statistically significant
difference in satisfaction or dissatisfaction in working


82
with the aged when related to type of nurse. Therefore, the
hypothesis was rejected. The rejection of the hypothesis
led to the use of Scheffe Test for Multiple Comparisons to
determine the specific location of the difference by type
of nurse. The results of the Scheffe Test revealed no
significant difference occurring between licensed practical
nurses and nursing assistants. The test did reveal signifi
cant difference between both licensed practical nurses and
nursing assistants on the one hand and registered nurses
on the other. Registered nurses had significantly lower
scores on the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire, indi
cating that as a group, they held less negative attitudes
toward the aged than did licensed practical nurses and
nursing assistants.
Hypothesis X sought to determine the statistically
significant difference in the mean "yes" responses on the
TLAQ of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses by
percent of time estimated in working with the aged. Analysis
of variance was obtained. The results revealed no signifi
cant difference in percent of time estimated in working
with the aged in two types of nurses. Therefore, the
hypothesis was not rejected.
The results revealed statistically significant dif
ference in stereotype attitudes toward the aged by type of
nurse. Therefore, the hypothesis was rejected. The
rejection of the hypothesis led to the use of Scheffe
Test for Multiple Comparisons to determine the specific
location of the difference by type of nurse. The results


83
of the Scheffe Test revealed a significant difference
occurred in licensed practical nurses, indicating that as a
group, they held more stereotype attitudes toward the aged
than did registered nurses.
Hypothesis XI sought to determine the statistically
significant difference in the stereotype attitudes towards
the aged by older nurses and younger nurses. Analysis of
variance was obtained. The results revealed no significant
difference between older and younger nurses and their stereo
type attitudes toward the aged. Therefore, the hypothesis
was not rejected.
The results revealed statistically significant dif
ference in stereotype attitudes toward the aged by type of
nurse, Scheffe Test for Multiple Comparisons was used to
determine the specific location of the difference by type
of nurse. The Scheffe Test results were identical to those
reported in hypotheses IX and X.
Hypothesis XII sought to determine the relationship
between stereotype attitudes of nurses and the number of
years worked with the aged. A Pearson product-moment
correlation was obtained. The results revealed no signifi
cant relationship. Therefore, the hypothesis was not
rejected. Time, when defined as number of years worked
with the aged, was not statistically significant when re
lated to stereotype attitudes toward the aged.


84
Conclusions
Personality Testing
Personality testing for the traits of ascendancy,
responsibility, emotional stability, and sociability re
vealed the following profile.
1. All three types of nurses tested tended to be more
similar than different in possessing specific personality
traits. Without exception, all groups of nurses scored
significantly lower than expected on the traits of as
cendancy and sociability and significantly higher than
expected on responsibility.
The lower scores on ascendancy may be attributable to
the effect of "history" on the profession. Nurses have not
been encouraged, particularly by physicians, to adopt active
roles in groups or to become assertive in making independent
decisions. This finding leads the investigator to further
speculate about the role of nurses in agencies such as
nursing homes. Much of the care in nursing homes could be
directed effectively by the nursing staff but it is not
likely they would do so, independent of direct orders from
a physician, especially with the low scores of nurses on
the ascendancy trait.
The lower scores on sociability were not expected by
the investigator. Nursing is an "other-oriented" profession
which calls for some expertise in being sociable and re
flecting an interest in working with people. Speculation
regarding this finding is difficult for the investigator.


85
The size and patient capacity in nursing homes is usually
smaller than hospitals. An individual with a low sociability
trait may tend to seek employment in just such an environ
ment, in order that he will not have to interact socially
and to the degree that other environments may require.
Emotional stability, as a personality trait was not
significantly different in the three groups of nurses
tested, although registered nurses scored somewhat higher
than licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants.
Responsibility, as a personality trait, was not signi
ficantly different among the three groups of nurses. All
three groups scored higher than expected on the trait.
2. The personality traits tested in the subjects
had no significant correlation to stereotype attitudes
toward the aged. The degree of stereotype attitudes toward
the aged were not reflective of certain personality traits
or vice versa.
Variables Related to Selection of
Geriatrics as an Area of Specialization
The testing of the hypotheses revealed results which
were not expected by the investigator. Experience in living
with the aged was statistically significant when related to
selecting areas of specialization. The results of the study
revealed that the subjects having lived with the aged pre
ferred working in geriatrics as a field of specialization
more frequently than they preferred working in surgery or
pediatrics.


86
Age of nurses had no statistically significant
relationship to subjects' preference for geriatrics in the
sample tested. This finding was not expected by the in
vestigator. The finding gives some indication to the nursing
profession that recruitment of younger nurses into the field
of geriatrics is not an impossible goal. The investigator
speculates that lack of positive exposure to the aged has
possibly been a major deterrent to young nurses entering
the field of geriatrics, rather than having no desire to
work with the aged. It becomes the responsibility of leaders
in nursing education to present adequate and accurate infor
mation regarding geriatric nursing in order to draw more
graduates into the field. It is the opinion of the investi
gator that too many of today's nursing educators possess
stereotype attitudes toward the aged, and as a result,
do little more than convey these attitudes to students.
Age of nurses had no statistically significant relation
ship to subjects' preference for working with different age
groups of patients.
Variables Related to Stereotype Attitudes
1. Race was found to be statistically significant in
the subjects tested when related to stereotype attitudes
toward the aged. This finding was not expected by the
investigator. The investigator speculates that stereotype
attitudes toward the aged in blacks have been essentially
ignored by researchers. Therefore, the findings of this
study may not indicate that a change is occurring in


87
attitudes of blacks toward the aged, although this is a
possibility. Further research is necessary in order to
support the findings of this study.
2. Stereotype attitudes toward the aged were not
statistically significant when related to type of nursing
education programs of registered nurses. This finding was
expected by the investigator. It is the opinion of the
investigator that "lip service only has been given to the
study of geriatrics in the majority of nursing education
programs. In the opinion of the investigator, clinical
experiences have not been planned to adequately insure
satisfying exposure of student nurses to the aged. As a
result, the profession continues to graduate students who
are left with many of the feelings identified by previous
research which is reported in Chapter II of the study.
3. Type of nurse was statistically significant when
related to the degree of stereotype attitudes toward the
aged. Registered nurses had significantly lower scores on
the Tuckman-Lorge Attitude Questionnaire,indicating less
stereotype attitudes toward the aged. There was no signifi
cant difference in attitudes toward the aged between
licensed practical nurses and nursing assistants.
4. No statistically significant difference resulted
in stereotype attitudes toward the aged when related to
satisfaction or dissatisfaction in working with the aged.
Neither was there statistically significant difference in
stereotype attitudes toward the aged when related to amount


Full Text

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