Correspondence relative to the emigration to Hayti of the free people of colour in the United States

Material Information

Correspondence relative to the emigration to Hayti of the free people of colour in the United States together with the instructions to the agent sent out by President Boyer
Series Title:
Miscellaneous pamphlets
Dewey, Loring Daniel, 1791-1867
Boyer, Jean Pierre, 1776-1850
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Printed by M. Day
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1 online resource (32 p.) : ;


Subjects / Keywords:
African Americans -- Colonization -- Haiti ( lcsh )
Emigration and immigration -- Haiti ( lcsh )
e-books ( aat )
bibliography ( marcgt )
statistics ( marcgt )
Correspondence ( lcgft )
Electronic books ( lcgft )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Attributed to Loring Daniel Dewey.
General Note:
Correspondence of Loring D. Dewey and Jean Pierre Boyer, president of Haiti.
General Note:
Reproduction of original from The American Antiquarian Society.
Statement of Responsibility:
[by Loring Daniel Dewey].

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
733088750 ( OCLC )
AC901 .M5 vol.295 ( lcc )
325.26 .D519 ( ddc )


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IN prosecuting an agency in behalf of the noble objects of the Amedi-
can Colonization Society, I found the public feeling generally \vas very
favourable to the Emigration of the Coloured People to Hayfi. A-
mong the Coloured People themselves, a preference of Hayti over
Africa was frequently expressed, and among the whites, there was not
only an opposition to colonization in Africa manifested by many, but
an assurance given of their ready aid to promote emigration to Hayti.
The present peaceful state of the island, and the fair prospects before
the Haytiens, of having their Independence acknowledged by other
nations, indicated that the great obstacles in the way of emigration
there, which had hitherto existed, were removed, and that the time
had now come to aid our coloured population to plant themselves
under the mild climate of that Island, were it encouraged by the Haytien
government. On inquiry, I found very little was known definitely
in this country, what the views of that government were, on this sub-
ject. There were some favourable reports brought by persons of
colour who had been to Hayti others gave discouraging accounts.
Except some liberal offers, by the Secretary Inginac, which I had seen,
the information obtained, and uncertain. Under these
circumstances, the letter with which the Correspondence, commences,
was addressed through the Secretary General, B. Inginac, to the Presi-
dent of Hayti. The generous reply of the President, together with
the arrival in this country, of his agent, Citizen J. GRANVILLE, with
ample means to carry into effect, the philanthropic overtures of Presi-
dent Boyer, shows what great good may now- be hoped for our unhap-
py countrymen, who are the objects of his generosity.
I will add, that perhaps I did not write so explicitly as to leave no room
for doubt, whether I wrote as the agent, and at the direction of the
American Colonization Society,or not; yet, if more explicitness, (and,
the want of it was unintentional,) had prevented the reply of the Presi-
dent, few, probably will regret that the delinquency occurred, even
though they may not excuse the delinquent.
jew- York, June 15, 1824.


New-York, March 4, 1824.

To His Excellency, the President of Hayti.
THE important and interesting subject on which
I write, is my reason for addressing myself; directly to
the Chief Magiitrate of Hayti. My duty as Agent of
the American Colonization Society, as well as my own
feelings, leads me to desire information on every point
that looks like affording benefit to my unhappy colour-
ed countrymen. The first view would suggest that
mutual- benefit might result to them' and your nation,
by their settlement in your Island. But a moment's
reflection, shows, that, this must depend on the cir-
cumstances under which they shall find themselves
placed, when removed to Hayti. I am not ignorant
that you have made offers of a favourable kind, and
that even late information from an emigrant with you,
shows, that you afford them some strong motives to
migrate to your Island ; yet I am ignorant of many
things, which would be necessary to be known before
their emigration could be aided by the Colonization
S Will you then, Mr. President, furnish me informa-
tion on the following points, for whichI shall be truly
grateful, and which may be very useful to the coloured
people of this country ?

1. Were a number of families to migrate to Hayti,
would your government defray any part of the expen-
ses of the voyage, assign them land to cultivate, and
aid them to stock their farms ?
2. To what extent would your government encour-
age emigration-how much allow to each family for
expense of passage-how much land to each family-
and how much aid to stock each farm-and to how
many families or individuals would all this assistance
be given ?
3. What encouragement would be offered to mecha-
nics and merchants ?
4. Though no assistance were give, would the op-
portunity to come and settle in your Island, to any and
to all who might choose to migrate there, be given in
the same unrestricted manner in which our-govern-
ment gives it to all emigrants from other countries-
what would be the cost of lands to such, and could
they obtain it in large quantities, so that numbers could
settle down in the same neighbourhood ?
5. How far is toleration extended to different re-
ligions ?
6. What are your laws in reference to marriage, and
what is the state of society in this respect ?
7. How far are schools supported ?
8. Would your government allow the Society to
plant a colony in your Island, having its own laws,
courts, and legislature, in all respects like one of the
States of the United States, and connected with and
subject to the government of Hayti, only as each state
is with our general government; and would land be
furnished for such a colony ?
Full information on these points would be esteemed

a great favour, and were the answer in the affirmative
to the 8th inquiry, or to the first part of it, if land
could be purchased in sufficient quantity and at a suit-
able rate, I think something would soon be done to
plant a colony under your government.
You, Sir, are aware of the difficulties to be encoun-
tered, in forwarding such a settlement in the man-
ner the Colonization Society would do it. The
funds to effect it, being voluntary aid, the givers must
be well satisfied, that it will go to benefit those for
whom it is given; they will therefore inquire closely
into the advantages of government, liberty, &c., which
the coloured people are to have, by emigrating; and
the coloured people themselves must be well satisfied,
as to their prospects. Although, their condition here,
is, in most, lamentable; 'yet, being long accustomed
to it, and in a great degree ignorant, uneducated, even
the nominally free, they are not aware how bad it is,
and therefore must have some very obvious advanta-
ges to gain, before they will change it.
There are many whites who truly lament their un-
happy lot, mourn over their wrongs, and would gladly do
any thing to redress them; but they find that such is their
degradation, and public opinion towards the coloured
people, that it is next to impossible to elevate them in
moral character, and to benefit them in this country.
The abolition laws passed in this state and others, have
only tended to diminish their numbers and their means
of support, without giving them any real advantage
in their moral or civil condition. I speak of the mass.
These benevolent men, therefore, are looking for an
asylum for these injured sons of Africa, in some other
country, and they believe, that should the government

of Hayti, be able to unite with them, very much for
the welfare of the descendants of Africans, and the
ultimate benefit of Hayti, might be effected.
I hope, Sir, this will meet with that favourable re-
ception you are accustomed to give to objects of high.
I take the liberty to forward to you a Report, which
will give you some information as to the designs and
operations of the Society.
With high respect, I subscribe myself a sincere
well-wisher to the prosperity of your government,
and an ardent friend to the injured sons of Africa.

Liberty. Equality.
Port-au-Prince, 30th April, 1824.
Jean Pierre Boyer, President of Hayti, to Mr. Loring
D. Dewey, General Agent of the Society for African
Colonization, at New-York.

SIR,-I had the satisfaction to receive the letter of
the 4th of March last, which you addressed to me;
the contents of which breathe the most perfect philan-
thropy. To consecrate our cares to meliorate the lot
of a portion of the human race, sadly borne down by
the weight of misfortune, is to prove the excellence of
one's heart, and to acquire an eternal right to the
gratitude of every living creature that can feel. And
the step which you have taken in reference to me, in

favour of the descendants of the Africans, who are
in the United States, and who are compelled to leave
the country, because that, far from enjoying the rights of
freemen, they have only an existence, precarious and
full of humiliation, entitles you to the gratitude of the
Haytiens, who cannot see with indifference the calami-
ties which afflict their brethren.
As soon as I was informed of the resolution taken in
the United States to transport into Africa our unhappy
brethren, and thus to restore them to their native sky, I
comprehended the policy which had suggested this
measure, and at the same time conceived a high
opinion of those generous men, who were disposed
to make sacrifices, in the hope of preparing for the
unfortunate persons who were its objects, an asylum
where their existence would be supportable. Thence-
forward, by a sympathy very natural, my heart and my
arms have been open to greet, in this land of true
liberty, those men upon whom a fatal destiny rests in
a manner so cruel. I considered the colonization
of barbarous regions with men accustomed to live
in the midst of civilized people, as a thing impractica-
ble, to say nothing more. The experiment made at
Sherbro' and at Messurado, prove that I was not far
from the truth. In fine, sir, although Africa be the
cradle of their fathers, what a frightful prospect is it
to see themselves exiled to insalubrious climes, after
having inhaled the healthful breezes of the land of
their birth!
I have often asked myself, why Hayti, whose climate
is so mild, and whose government is analogous to that
of the United States, was not preferred as their place of
refuge. Fearing that my sentiments would be misin-

terpreted, if I made the first overture, I contented my-
self with having explained to those of them who came
to Hayti, all the guarantees and rights that the consti-
tution of the Republic has established in their favour.
I have aided in freeing those from debt who could not
quite pay for their passage; I have given land to those
who wished to cultivate it; and by my circular, of the
date of the 24th December, 1823, to the officers of
districts, (of which I send you a copy,) you' will con-
vince yourself that I have prepared for the children of
Africa, coming out of the United States, all that can
assure them of an honourable existence in becoming
citizens of the Haytien Republic, But now that you
make overtures, which seem to be authorised by the
respectable Society of which you are the general agent,*
I am about to answer frankly to the eight questions
which you have addressed to me.
1. "If a numberoffamilies," &c. The Government
of the Republic will aid in defraying part of the expen-
ses of the voyage of those who cannot bear them,
provided the Colonization Society will do the rest.
The government will give fertile lands to those who
wish to cultivate them, will advance to them nourish-

It is proper here to state, that in addressing the letter of inquiry
to President Boyer, I did not sign my letter as Agent of the American
Colonization Society, nor write under the direction of the Society,
but atmy own suggestion, to gain information, supposing that it would
be for the benefit of the Society; knowing also that the Society, would
act as it should see best. It was the prosperity of the Society at which
I aimed, and it is with deep regret that I find they will not strengthen
their hands for Africa by this measure, as I have never doubted the
feasibility of effecting the settlement of our Coloured People on that

nent, tools, and other things of indispensable necessity
until they shall be sufficiently established to do without
this assistance.
2. To what extent in number, &c. No matter
what number of emigrants; all those who will come
with the intention to submit themselves to the laws of
the country, shall be well received. The price of pas-
sage and other expenses shall be discussed by agents
to obtain the most advantageous conditions. The
quantity of ground shall be as much as each family can
cultivate. For the rest, the utmost good-will to the
new-comers shall be the basis of the arrangements.
3. What encouragement will be given to Mecha-
nics and Merchants, &c. They shall have perfect
liberty to labour in their respective professions. The
only privilege will be an exemption from the law of
patent for the first year.*
4. Will opportunity be given, &c. All those, I
repeat it, who will come shall be received, no matter
what may be their number, provided they submit
themselves to the laws of the state, which are essen-
tially liberal and protecting, and to the rules of the
Police which tend to repress vagrancy, to maintain
good order, and to confirm the tranquillity of all.
There is no price to stipulate for, as respects the land ;
since the government will give it gratis, in fee simple,
to those who will cultivate it. The emigrants will be
distributed in the most advantageous manner possible,
and those who may desire it, shall be placed in the
neighbourhood of each other.

To practise any profession or pursue any trade, it is necessary in
Mayti to obtain a licence, as Grocers, &c. do in New-York.

They shall not be meddled with in their domestic
habits, nor in their religious belief, provided they do
not seek to make proselytes, or trouble those who pro-
fess another faith than their own.
What precedes, is an answer to your fifth question
uipon the toleration of different religions.
6. What are your laws relative to marriage, &c,
Marriage is encouraged, and good husbands and
wives enjoy the same consideration as in other civilize
ed countries.
7. "How far are schools," &c. ?
Every where, where there is a sufficiently numerous
population, the government supports schools to instruct
youth in literature, and in the principles of morality and
8. "Will your government permit, &c; ?
That cannot be. The laws of the Republic are
general-and no particularlawscan exist. Those who
come, being children of Africa, shall be Haytiens as
soon as they put their feet upon the soil of Hayti: they
will enjoy happiness, security, tranquillity, such as we
ourselves possess, however our defamers declare the
In fine, Sir, to prove to you what I am disposed to
do in favor of our brethren who groan in the United
States of America under the yoke of prejudice, I am
about to send to New-York funds and a confidential
agent, to enter into an understanding with you and the
Colonization Society, with a view to facilitate the emi-
gration to Hayti of the descendants of Africans, who
are disposed to come and partake with us the most
precious blessings which we enjoy under Divine Pro-

It must not be imagined that the want of an increased
population in Hayti, is the motive which determines me
to make this answer with the details into which I have
entered. Views ofa higher order direct me. Animated
with the desire to serve the cause of humanity, I have
thought that a finer occasion could not have presented
itself to offer an agreeable hospitality, a sure asylum, to
the unfortunate men, who have the alternative of going
to the.barbarous shores of Africa, where misery or certain
death may await them. I shall not develop the advan-
tages which will result to the people ofyour country, from
transporting to Hayti, the African population of which
they wish to be delivered. Every one can perceive
perfectly that it will be an infallible means of augment-
ing the commerce of the United States, by multiplying
relations between two people, the similarity of whose
principles of legislation and government ought neces-
sarily to render them friends, although ablind prejudice
seems until now to have put obstacles in the way of
more direct relations between the one and the other.
Light and philanthropy will doubtless cause justice
and reason to triumph.
You will speedily, Sir, see the arrivalin New-York of
the agent I am to send.
I have the honour to salute you with my most dis-
tinguished consideration,

Port-au-Prince, 24th December, 1823,
Jean Pierre Boyer, President of Hayti, to the Com-
mandants of the Districts.
Desirous to increase in the country the number of
agriculturalists, and thus augment its population, I
have decided, my dear General, that emigrants of
colour to Hayti, who may wish to establish themselves
in the mountains or allies to cultivate with their own
hands the public lands, shall be authorized to cultivate
the same for their own profit. These lands, after pay-
ment of the taxes established by the authority of the
place, shall be ceded in fee simple, to those who open
them and enhance their value, dividing them into sui-
table plantations for the produce of coffee and other
productions which may yield a revenue to the state..
You are therefore charged so far as your authority ex-
tends, to settle the people of colour who may arrive, or
who may wish to disembark and establish themselves
in the district which you command, and to send me a
list of the names of all such persons, and a description
of the land given them.
It is understood, that this measure is not to change
that prescribed by my circular of 2d December,-1822,
in favour of the persons, who, anterior to the first of last
January, should be established without title upon the
state lands. Signed,

Liberty. Equality.
Port-au-Prince, 7th May, 1824.
B. Inginac, Brigade General and Secretary General
of His Excellency the President of Hayti, to Mr.
Loring D. Dewy, General Agent of the American
Society of Colonization, &c. &c.
I have had the pleasure to receive the letter
which you wrote me of the 4th March last. The papers
enclosed and the letter have been handed to his Ex-
cellency the President of Hayti; and by this favoura-
ble opportunity, you will receive the answer of the
I have, with the highest consideration, the honour to
salute you.

Liberty. Equality.

Port-au-Prince, 25th of May, 1824.

John Pierre Boyer, President of Hayti, to Mr. Loring
D. Dewy, General Agent of the Society for African
Colonization, at New-York.
Agreeably to a letter which I wrote to you
on the 30th of April last, in reply to that you addressed

to me of the 4th of March preceding, on the subject of
the emigration to Hayti of a portion of the children of
Africa who are in the United States, I now announce
to you that I send to you and the Philanthropic Society
of which you are the agent,the citizen Granville,Substi-
tute of the commissary of Government at the tribunal
of Cassation,* who will deliver you this despatch. He
is the bearer of my particular instructions, and will
communicate them to you, which renders it unneces-
sary to enter at present into the details of his mission.
I shall then, Sir, only entreat you to make every effort
to forward the success of the great object, we both
have in view. You cannot better serve the cause of
humanity, since those 6f our brethren, who drag out
in the United States a painful and degrading existence,
will become, on arriving at Hayti, citizens of the
Republic, and can there labour with security and ad-
vantage to themselves and children. During the
happy days which await them here, they will preserve'
the memory of your devotion to their cause; they will
bless your name, and the happiness they will enjoy will
be your sweetest reward.
I recommend to your care, the citizen Granville,
during his stay in the United States, begging you to
give him all necessary advice, and make known to him
all persons, who can aid him in the success of the mis-
sion with which he is charged.
Isaluteyou with the most distinguished consideration.

The Tribunal of Cassation is the Supreme Court of the Island,
of which citizen Granville, is one of the highest judicial and executive

Liberty. Equality,
Port-au-Prince, May 25th, 1824.
Jean Pierre Boyer, President of Hayti, to Mr. Charles
Collins, New-York.
SIR,-The knowledge that I have obtained of your
philanthropic sentiments, has induced me to direct
the citizen Imbert, Secretary of State to this Republic,
to send you fifty thousand weight of coffee, begging
you to sell this commodity, and, after having reali-
zed the proceeds, to keep them on account of the Hay-
tien government. This fund and others which shall
be added to it, are destined to facilitate the emigration
of such individuals of the African race, who, groaning
in the United States, under the weight of prejudice and
misery, should be disposed to come to Hayti and par-
take with our citizens the benefits of a liberal constitu-
tion, and a paternal government.
After the numerous communications which have been
addressed to me, by several of your most distinguished
compatriots, relative to the emigration to Hayti of these
children ofAfrica,I have determined to send to the United
States,the citizen Granville,Substitute of the Commissa-
ry of the Government at the tribunal of Cassation, who
will deliver you this. He is bearer of a letter ofintroduc-
tion to Mr. Loring D. Dewey,General Agent ofthe Socie-
ty for African Colonization, who has written to me him-
self on this subject, also of my full instructions which
he will communicate to you. I beg that you will as-
sist him with your good advice, and recommend him
to your numerous friends, so that he may attain with

more ease the end that I propose, in taking a step
which will turn so entirely to the promotion of humani-
ty, the cause of which you espouse in so disinterested
a manner. I also beg that you will put at his disposal,
or his order, such part of the funds which you will
receive, on account of the Republic, as shall be judg-
ed necessary to defray the expense of removing
those individuals, who reside in the interior, and
are not possessed of means to convey them to
a place of embarkation, where they may take
advantage of the opportunity that is offered them
to come and gain amongst us an honest liveli-
hood, and leave to their children, a sure inheritance
and the enjoyment of all the political rights that men
in society can reasonably desire..
You have, Sir, for a long time consecrated your wake-
ful hours to the means of alleviating the sufferings
of a portion of the human species, against whom pre-
possession and prejudice act with pitiless rigour, so that
1 do not doubt you will seize the present occasion to
render your past efforts, and those of your friends, suc-
cessful. What joy will it give hearts like yours, to see
these scions of Africa, so abased in the United States,
where they vegetate with no more utility to themselves
than to the soil which nourishes them, transplanted to
Hayti, where they will become no less useful than es-
timable, because the enjoyment of civil and political
rights, ennobling them in their own eyes, cannot fail to
attach them to regular habits, and the acquisition of so-
cial virtues, and to render them worthy by their good
conduct, to enjoy the benefits which their new country
will bestow upon them But the emigrants alone will
not reap the fruit of your exertions. The United States

will find their commerce with Hayti enlarged by the
frequent intercourse which these new Haytiens will na-
turally hold with the country they have left.
If you think it proper to give publicity to this proce-
dure, you are at liberty to do so. I leave it entirely to
your prudence, well convinced, that you will pursue
the best means to interest your friends in the success of
the present enterprise, not only in the State of New-
York, but in the northern States, and in Pennsylvania.
What a claim, Sir, will you and your honourable
friends have to the gratitude of those whose tears you
will wipe away by procuring them a kind reception
among their countrymen, heir brothers, their natural
friends. I conjure you then to neglect nothing, in con-
curring with me to retrieve these unfortunates from the
humiliation and vexation with which they are over-
whelmed. In so laudable an enterprise, God, who is
the father of all men, will assist our efforts.
I salute you with the most distinguished consideration.

NEW-YORK, 6th Mo. (June) 17th, 1824.
The reply of President Boyer was received on the
31st of 5th Mo. (May,) and the 9th of 6th Mo. (June,)
his Official Agent, Citizen J. Granville arrived at Phi-
ladelphia, and in this city the 13th. The following are
his instructions from his government:-

Instructions to the Citizen J. Granville, Substitute of
the Commissary of Government, at the tribunal of
Cassation dispatched to the United States of Ameri-
ca, to confer and act iTi concert with the Philanthro-

pic and Benevolent Societies of said States, and all
others .whom it shall concern, in order to facilitate
the emigration to Hayti, of all persons of African
blood, who, enjoying their freedom, will come volun-
tarily to the Repub.ic, where they may exercise their
civil and political rights, and participate in the bene-
fits of our institutions.
You are not ignorant that there exist in
the United States of America, several hundred thou-
sand individuals of African blood, who, on account of
the dark hue of their complexions, are objects of all
the prejudice and prepossession that can arise from
difference of colour; that under a system so outrageous
to humanity, some of them in their despair have de-
prived themselves of a wretched existence: others de-
based by ignorance, and exasperated by misfortune,
have become turbulent and dangerous, and that a great
number deprived of the means of exercising an ho-
nest industry, either rural or mechanical, are forced to
live in idleness and vagrancy. The lot of these un-
happy victims of prejudice, has moved the compas-
sion of certain philanthropists, who have conceived
the idea of founding societies for the purpose of pro-
curing these children of Africa, an asylum on their
native soil, where, established in colonies, and govern-
ing themselves, they may live free from all vexation.
But experience has proved, that the project of forming
such settlements on the Coast of Africa was impracti-
cable, because the climate being unhealthy, and the
country peopled by nations, yet barbarous, the emi-
grants were exposed to great danger, if not death; and
perished, many of them in spite of the generous sacri-

fices of the honourable society formed in the United
States to carry their colonization into effect.
In this deplorable state of things, men of philanthro-
pic sentiments, and souls truly charitable and benefro-
tent, have turned their thoughts towards Hayti, which
they have rightly consideredes a more proper place
of refuge for these unfortunates than the inhospitable
sands of Africa. Accordingly, numerous communica-
tions were addressed to me, inquiring, if those, so
nearly related to us in blood, could find in our Repub-
lic, that hospitality which their paternal land denied
them. To these inquiries from private individuals, I
have replied in a favourable manner, explaining all the
advantages that our constitution has taken care to as-
sure to those of our brothers who come from other
parts of the globe and establish themselves among us.
My replies did not fail to produce a favourable result.
Already have we seen arrive in our ports, several of
these children of Africa, who have come from the Uni-
ted States, and have fixed themselves here, some of them
in the country, where cultivation repays their toil with
interest, others in our cities, where they are engaged in
a lucrative trade, or pursue with advantage some me-
chanical profession, happy at being delivered from the
degrading yoke of prejudice.
Their great numbers had caused me to conceive, from
the first, a project which by increasing emigration,
would have fulfilled the views of the philanthropists of
the United States, and have meliorated the condition
of these unfortunates. But the fear that the unjust pre-
judices entertained abroad, against the Republic of
Hayti, would misinterpret my intentions, then preven-
ted me from taking any public steps, which I do not

at present hesitate to do, because, I received in the
course of last April, an official communication from
Mr. Loring D. Dewey, General Agent of the Society
forbAfrican Colonization, at New-York, to ascertain
the terms on which the Haytien governmentt would
consent to the emigratiorpof these sons of Africa.
In consequence of this, and of the knowledge that I
have of your patriotism, the liberality of your princi-
ples, and your devw tion to the great cause that ,ve
have constantly defended, and will always maintain
with the same energy, I have chosen and appointed
you, agent of the Government ,f the Republic, so that
you must repair to New-York, or to other places in
the United states where you will be permitted to
travel, and there you will confer with Mr. Loring D.
Dewey in his office of General Agent to the Society
for African Colonization, with the Society itself and
all other persons, qualified to take part in this affair,
as well as with those who being disposed to emigrate,
are at liberty to contract for themselves.
To this effect, I give you the following instructions,
and deliver you a certified translation of the letter of
Mr. Loring D. Dewey on the side A. with a copy of
my answer side B, then a copy C. of the constitution,
finally a copy D. of my circular to the governors of the
provinces, dated 24th of Dec. 1823.
On arriving at New-York, you will confer with
Messrs. Loring D. Dewey and Charles Collins. to
whom you will communicate your present instructions;
you will ask their counsel and advice, which you will
follow as far as they may comport with the end of your
mission. You will also deliver all the letters of in-
troduction of which you are the bearer.

You will inform yourself of the laws, regulations,
and usages of the places through which you pass, so
that you can conform to them and act accordingly.
After the preliminary visit, according to the first
article, you will seek the members of the different
religious and philanthropic societies, to inform them
of the object of )our visit; and as you must always
act with loyalty and good faith, you will not fail to
communicate to those interested in the success of
your mission, the tenor of the instructions and do-
cuments which I have delivered to you.
The constitution having established by the 44th
article, that all individuals of African blood, who will
appear in the Republic, shall, after a years residence,
enjoy the civil and political rights and quality of a
citizen, you must invite yourself, and by the interven-
tion of Mr. Loring D. Dewey, and Mr Charles
Collins, and all other persons with whom you may
confer, such among them as shall be disposed to quit
the United States, to come and establish themselves
in the Republic. and induce them, as soon as possible,
to undertake the voyage, acquainting them with all
the advantages which are insured to them by the
constitution; and more especially those the govern-
ment is ready to grant to them, to relieve them
from the state of humiliation and misery in which
they are plunged.
The advantages which attend emigration are, 1st,
that they shall enjoy in Hayti, all civil and political

rights, (Article 44th of the Constitution ;) 2dly, they
shall have entire liberty of conscience, in their religious
practices; 3rdly, they shall obtain concession of land in
fee simple,when they shall have made settlements on the
said lands, (copy of my circular to the governors of the
provinces;) the whole, provided, they engage to be
faithful to the laws of the Republic, whose children
and citizens they will become, and provided they un-
dertake nothing contrary to its tranquillity and pros-
To regulate better the interests of the emigrants, it
will be proper to let them know in detail, what the
government of the Republic is disposed to do, to as-
sure their future well being, and that of their children,
on the sole condition of their being good and indus-
trious citizens; you are authorized in concert with
the agents of the different societies, and before civil
authority, to make arrangements with heads of fami-
lies, or other emigrants who can unite twelve people
able to work, and also to stipulate that the govern-
ment will give them a portion of land sufficient to
employ twelve persons, and on which may be raised
coffee, cotton, maize, peas, and other vegetables and
provisions, and after they have well improved the
said quantity of land, which will not be less than 36
acres in extent, or 12 carreaux (the carreau being 100
paces, square and the pace three feet and a half,
French,) government will give a perpetual title to the
said land to these twelve people, their heirs and as-

SAs, according to a law of Hayti, a person cannot hold less than five

Those of the emigrants who prefer applying them-
selves individually to the culture of the earth, either by
renting lands already improved, which they will till,
or by working in the field, to share the produce with
the proprietor, must also engage themselves; by a
legal act, that on arriving at Hayti, they will make
the above mentioned arrangements, and this, they
must do before the judges of the peace, so that on
their arrival here,they will be obliged to apply them,
selves to agriculture, and not be liable to become
To all those, and those only, who will engage them-
selves, as it is prescribed according to the 6th Article,
you are authorized, always acting in concert with the
different societies, to contract, that the expense of
their passage and maintenance during the voyage,
shall be paid on their arrival at Hayti, by the govern-
ment, which will give them also the means of subsis-
tence during four months, after their landing and
-settlement on the ground they are to cultivate, which
will be long enough for them to procure by their
labour and settlement, the means of supporting them-
Nothing will be required of them for what may have
been paid for their passage and subsistence, which is
a donation made to them by the Republic.
As for those who wish to come'to Hayti, to engage

carreaux of land, the quantity of land given to the twelve persons will,
as circumstances shall determine, exceed 12 carreaux.-Citizen Gran-

in commercial or mechanical pursuits, you are author-
ized to assure them, that the expense of their passage,
and maintenance during the voyage, shall be paid in
Hayti, provided they bind themselves before civil au-
thority in the United States, to return to the govern-
ment of the Republic. six months after their arrival
here, the advance which shall be made to them. The
same privilege of advance, on condition of reimburse-
ment. shall be granted to those who come to buy,
rent, or till in shares, lands cultivated, or to be cul-
tivated, or who come to engage themselves as ser.-
vants, workmen, -or labourers, the law granting a
ri ht to every Havtien, to exercise his industry as he
pleases, provided he does nothing contrary to the
good order of society.
If there are any families of African blood, disposed
to emigrate to Hayti, whose unfortunate situation
prevents them from defraying the expense of removal
to a place of embarkation, you are authorized, act-
ting with much prudence and discernment, and al-
ways consulting the agency of the different societies, to
make advances to them, provided they do not exceed
six dollars a head for young people and adults; the
advance will be repayable six month, after their
arrival in Hayti, which must be stipulated in the obli-
gatory contracts by those who receive it.
The end which I propose, being to favour the emi-
gration to Hayti, of those who are able to become, by
our laws. citizens of the country, you ought not t0 fail
to consult all persons devoted to the cause of humanity,
who are capable of giving you good advice, and after

obtaining their written and well digested opinion,
you are authorized to consent to little expenses I may
not have foreseen, and of which there is urgent neces-
sity, and such as shall facilitate the execution of the
You will declare to those whom it may concern,
that no other privileges will be granted in Hayti to the
emigrants than those enjoyed by the citizens of the
state; that therefore, they must come among us with
the resolution of conforming to, and obeying our laws,
which are all liberal, and beneficent, and which
guarantee to all liberty of conscience, provided they
do not disturb the public tranquillity.
You will take the most efficacious measures to con-
vey to the peninsula of Samana, forty artizans of
African blood, such as carpenters, wood-sawyers,
blacksmiths, caulkers, rope-makers, sail-makers, &c.,
who would be capable of working in a timber-yard,
at small vessels for cruising on the coasts of the country,
which vessels will be bought from them by Government,
If these workmen have wives and children, Government
will give them land, suited to the cultivation of coffee,
eane, and every other species of food, grain, and vege-
tables which will be to them a very great advantage.
To prevent paying exorbitant prices for their pas-
sage and subsistence during the voyage, it will perhaps
be better not only to provide provisions for them, but
to freight ships, capable of conveying a certain num-
ber of passengers, in case you cannot find opportuni-
ties to transport the emigrants in the ordinary trading-

vessels. (I am of opinion that fourteen dollars a head,
comprising subsistence during the voyage would be a
reasonable price for young persons and men, and half
that sum will suffice for children under twelve years
of age.) It must be well understood that the cost of
provisions, the price of the passage, and the ship's
freight will be paid .only in Hayti, on the arrival of
said passengers.
It will be necessary that the cultivators should
possess farming implements, as far as possible for them-
selves. If the societies for colonization are disposed
to make donations to the emigrants, the amount of
them can be employed by their agents, in the pur-
chase of provisions or farming utensils, such as hoes,
axes, scythes, ploughs, harrows, &c.
Government having caused to be sent toMr. Charles
Collins, merchandize as afund for this purpose, you will
receive from him, on your order, such monies as are ne-
cessary to defray the expense of removals mentioned in
Article 10th, the sum not to exceed 6000 dollars, which
you will account for, in due form, and with proper
vouchers at the end of your mission.
The places, where I desire the emigrants to locate
themselves, at the commencement of the enterprise,
and until the end of the present year, both for their
own advantage and the agricultural interests of the
country are as follows :-

1. Port-au-Prince District, at Mirebalais, culture
of fine cotton, and all kinds of produce, a
fertile quarter, persons,
Idem, for the quarter of Lescaobe, Lamatte,
and Hinche, the culture of Coffee and pro-
visions, -
Idem, for the quarter of Orangers, Crochus,
and Arcahaie, the culture of Coffee, -




Total, 1000
2. Cape Haytien, for Grand Riviere, Dondon,
Marmelade, Limbe, Plaisance, Borgne and
Port Margot,- coffee, 1000
3. Porte Plate, for Altamire, St. Yague, Moca,
Macoris, and Lavega,-coffee, tobacco, and
cocoa, 1000
4. Samana,-coffee and provisions 200
5. St. Domingo, for Seybo, Higoey, Monteplate,
Boya, Bayaguana, Los Llanos, St. Christo-
phe, Bany,-coffee, cocoa, and sugarcane, 1200
6. Jacquemel, for Marigot, Neybe, and Baynet,-
coffee and provisions, 600
7. Les Cayes and Jeremie,-coffee 500
8. Gonaives,-cotton, 500

Total, 6000

You will not fail to observe that this population of
6000 souls, emigrating this year to Hayti, will be placed
in a situation to free themselves by their own industry,
from misery and care; forthey will find cleared lands,
civilized and habitable regions, the resources of life,

and assistance in case of sickness-precious advanta-
ges, of which they would be entirely deprived in
Africa, and could not hope to obtain there in 10 years.
All the places designated in the preceding article,
offer the greatest advantages, both from the fertility
of the soil, and the mildness of the climate, which you
must not fail to make known to the emigrants.
You must not fail to correspond with me, and in-
form me of all your proceedings and undertakings, in
the execution of your mission. You will remain in
the United States to observe the operations of
emigration, until you receive new orders from me, and
you will travel into the interior of the Northern States
wherever you are permitted to go, and where you
think your presence will determine those to emigrate
who are disposed, and at liberty to do so.
Pori-au-Prince, May 25, 1824.
The President

NOTE.-Immediately on the receipt of President Boyer's letter, I in-
formed the active members of the Board of the American Colonization
Society of its contents, and transmitted a translation as soon as possible,
to the Secretary at Washington. Before the letter was made public
in this city, I received an answer from Robert G. Harper, Esq., giving
his opinion, that it was not expedient to blend the two objects of
Africa and Hayti; that the more avenues opened for this population into
places suited to them, the better ; that it was desirable a Society for
Hayti should be formed, distinct from the American Colonization
Society, and that these Societies might be of mutual aid to each other.
Before a public meeting was called, an official letter was received from
the Secretary, signifying that the Society would have nothing to do
with the propositions of President Boyer Having ascertained this,
and Citizen J. Granville having arrived.the course was plain to present
the -generous offers of the President of Hayti to the citizens of New-
York, of which the following is the result.


New-York, June 30, 1824.


At a Meeting of Citizens, held at the room of the Historical Society,
to take into consideration, certain propositions made by the President
of the Republic of Hayti, relative to the Emigration of Persons of
Colour from the United States to the Island of Hayti:
The Rev. Dr. SPRING was called to the Chair, and H. KETCHUM
chosen Secretary.
The business of the Meeting was opened and explained by Mr.
Dewey, and the communications of President Boyer read by the Secretary.
After some general discussion upon the business of the Meeting, a
Resolution was proposed by Dr. Wainwright, which, after some amend-
ments, passed as follows :-
Resolved, That a Committee of Nine be appointed to take into
consideration the documents submitted to this Meeting in relation to
the Emigration of Coloured Persons to Hayti, and that this Committee
be directed to gain information in relation to this subject, and report
to an adjourned meeting, to be held on Friday the 25th inst.-The
following are the names of the Committee :-
The Meeting then adjourned to Friday the 25th inst. at 6 P.M.
June 18th, 1824. H. KETCHUM, SECRETARY.

At an adjourned meeting of citizens convened, to take into conside-
ration the propositions of President Boyer, relative to the emigration
of free persons of colour to Hayti, held in the New- York Institution on
Friday the 25th inst PETER A. JAY, Esquire, was called to the
Chair, and H. KETCHUM chosen Secretary. The Chair was sub-
sequently resumed by Thos. Eddy, who presided at the former meeting.
The Committee previously appointed, of which Mr. Eddy was
Chairman, introduced the following Report, which, after being read
by the Secretary, wjs accepted :-
The Committee appointed at a meeting of citizens, held on the 18th
instant, to take into consideration the documents submitted to the
meeting relative to the emigration of coloured Hayti, to
gain information relative to'this subject, and report thereon, on the
25th instant, respectfully Report:-
That in pursuing the object of their appointment, their attention
was first turned to the number and condition of persons in our own
State, proposed to be benefitted by the propositions of President Boyer.
According to the Census of the United States, made in 1820, there
were in the State of New-York, 29,279 free persons of colour, and
10 088 slaves. Since that time it is known that the number of slaves
has diminished, and the number of free persons of colour increased.
The period fixed by law for the termination of Slavery in this State,
is the 4th of July, 1827.
It is well known that the condition of our coloured population is very,
unfortunate, and when the Committee advert to the means of their in-
troduction among us, and the cause which now.prevents their moral and
intellectual advancement, they cannot doubt that their fellow-citizens,
influenced as well by a sense of justice as the impulses of philanthro-

phy, will cheerfully embrace any opportunity that may present to placo
the descendants of Africa in a situation which will furnish them with
more powerful motives, than are offered them among ourselves, to
respectability of character, and intellectual improvement.
The Island of Hayti is supposed to offer such a situation. The pro-
positions made by the government of that country, have been consid-
ered by the Committee with as much attention as the short time allowed
them to make a report would permit. These propositions appear to
the Committee to be liberal and in their opinion are honourable to the
government whence they emanated. The Committee have also con-
ferred with Citizen Granville, the authorized agent of the Republic of
Hayti in this country, and from information derived from him, as well
as from that before in their possession, they feel assured that the form
of government there insures to the citizens a good degree of civil and
religious liberty-and that the means of improvement at present in
successful operation there, will at no distant period enable Hayti to
hold a respectable rank among Christian nations. Those of our col-
oured population who may think proper to emigrate to that country,
will immediately become citizens, and possessed of all the privileges
and immunities appertaining to that character. It is not however to
be concealed that such emigrants may, by a change of climate, and a
connection with a people speaking a different language from their own,
be subjected for a time to inconveniences and embarrassments. These
may however be surmounted, and the children of the emigrants will be
born to a better inheritance, and brighter prospects, than awaited the na-
tivity of their parents.
Your Committee have received information, that a meeting of a num-
ber of respectable coloured persons in this city has been held, at which
the propositions of President Boyer were read and highly approved.
Without entering more minutely into the subject, your Committee
would briefly express the conclusion at which they have arrived-That
in their opinion, the circumstances and prospects of a large proportion
of our coloured population would be essentially improved by becoming
citizens of Hayti. They therefore think that the emigration of such
persons to that country, ought to be promoted.
As the object proposed to be effected by the preceding remarks, can-
not be compassed by individual exertions, but will require concert of
action, theCommittee would submit the following resolutions for the adop-
tion of their fellow citizens, from whom they derived their appointment.
The resolutions reported by the Committee, after some amendments,
passed as follows:-
Resolved, That it is expedient to form a Society, to be called The
Society for promotingthe Emigration of Free PersonsofColour to Hayti."
Resolved, That a subscription of twenty dollars shall entitle the sub-
scriber to be a member of said Society for life, and an annual subscrip-
tion of three dollars shall entitle the subscriber to the right of member-
ship during the continuance of said subscription.
Resolved, That the business and affairs of said Society shall be con-
.ducted by a Board of Managers, to consist of twenty-five of its members,
and that until the organization of said Society, the following persons
shall compose said Board.
A committee was then appointed to nominate the Managers, who
reported the following names, which were approved by the meeting:-

Citizen Granville, the Agent of President Boyer, who had been pre-
viously introduced by Thomas Eddy, then requested permission to
address a few remarks to the meeting, which was cheerfully granted.
Through the medium of Professor Griscom, who officiated as interpre-
ter, Citizen Granville expressed his warm acknowledgments for the
measures which had been adopted to promote the views of his govern-
ment; and as a private citizen requested permission for himself and
countrymen to make pecuniary contributions to the Society when it
should be formed, in aid of its benevolent views. Whereupon the fol-
lowing resolution was introduced by Dr. Wainwright, and adopted.
Resolved, That this meeting highly appreciate the liberal offer made
by Citizen Granville, and recommend that the Society hereafter to be
formed accede to the proposition made by him in behalf of himself and
A very well written and interesting communication, addressed to
Thomas Eddy and others, from Samuel E. Cornish, Peter Williams,
and others, a committee appointed by a Meeting of Coloured Persons
held in the Presbyterian Church in Elm-street, on the 16th inst. to
deliberate upon the offers made by President Boyer, was then read,
and referred to the Managers of the contemplated Society. The meet-
ing then adjourned.
The Board of Managers met at the Governor's Room in the New-
York Hospital, on Tuesday, the 29th day of June, ult. and organized.
General MATTHEW CLARKSON was chosen President, H.
KETCHUM, Secretary, and ROBERT C. CORNELL, Treasurer.
The Committee to receive donations from the citizens, and to em-
ploy agents to obtain subscriptions is composed of,
A Corresponding Committee was appointed also a Committee to
prepare an address to the public.
The following persons were appointed a Committee to digest a gen-
eral plan of proceedings for the Society, and to cpnfer with a Commit-
tee, appointed at a Meeting of Coloured Persons, who intend forming
an Auxiliary Society.

NoTE.-St. Domingo, Hispaniola, or as it was originally called by the natives, Hayli,
was discovered by Columbus, December 6th, 14l -This Island is in Lat 18 20 North,
and in Lon. 68 40 West; extending 150 miles from North to Soutth, and 480 miles
from East to West-containing 1432 square miles, and is, except Cuba, (from which
it is separated by a strait of 36 miles, called the Windward Passage,) the largest, the
most fertile and pleasant Island in the West Indies. The general salubrity of the
climate-beauty of scenery-comprisimg mountains of gieat altitude, covered with
verdure-magnlificent plains every were well watered, and in consequence spread
over with the most luxuriant vegetation, renders this Island a most inviting and desira-
ble re,ti.lece There are but tw, seasons in the year, and they are equally fine In
the ,ie.ghtful vales of the Island, the sweets of spring are enjoyed without either win-
teror summer,-the ground always laden with fruit, and covered with flowers. From the
situation of this island it might he supposed to suffer from intense heat, but thie is
provided against by frequent refreshing rais, and an alternate East and West wind,
which blows with great regularity. Its salubrity is also in a great degree owing to the
beautiful variety of its surface, exhibiting hills and allies, woods and rivers It
contains forests of palius, elms, oaks. pines, mahogany, and numerous other trees,
and it is generally agreed that the pine apples, grapes. oranges. lemons, limes, citrons,
figs, dates, apricots, peaches, and other fruits, have a peculiarly fine flavour in Hayti.
The Island abounds in wholesome water, but so cold in the interior, that it must be
drank with care, and is dangerous for bathing. It contains several lakes, very nume-
rous rivers, several of which, viz:-Ozama, Macoris, Yaquay, Yuna, La Neyva,
L'Usaque, Artioonite, are large and well stocked with fish.
In 1789. the population was 1,240,000 and is now [1824,] supposed to exceed two
millions, and if well cultivated, this Island is capable of supporting a population of
from eight toten millions.
fn 1791 the value of exports from this Island exceeded 5,370,000 sterling, or
$23,832,000-comprised in-
84,617,328 lbs of Coffee,
217,463 hhds of Sugar,
3,257,610 lbs. of Indigo,
1,526,017 lbs. of Cocoa,
11,317,226 lbs. of Cotton,
34,453,000 lbs. of Syrup,
besides corn, ginger,tobacco. salt, wax, honey, ambergris, a variety ofdrugs, dyers'woods,
mahogany. &c. &c. &c. The number of French vessels employed in 1789, was 710,
and at one period the whole Island employed 1070 vessels, navigated by 7936 seamen.
The chief towns are Port-au-Prince, containing 120,000 inhabitants; AuxCayes,
90,000; Cape Francois 90,000; St. Domingo, 70,000; Jeremie, Petit Goaves, Laogane,
and numerous small towns and villages.
The Independence of Hayti was proclaimed on the 29th of Nov. 1803, and having
obtained in 1821 a session of the Spanish part, by consent of its inhabitants, the whole
of this most extensive, valuable, and interesting Island came under the authority and
protection ofJ. P. BOYER, President of the Republic of Hayti, and now enjoys profound
peace, and is earnestly cultivating a knowledge of the arts and sciences. They have
established Lancasterian schools, academies, colleges, &c., supported at public ex-
Their militia system is somewhat similar to that of the United States. Their stand-
ing army of 200.000 men, cavalry, infantry, and artillery, &c., is as well disciplined,
Officered, armed, and equipped, as that of any regular army of any other country.
Their navy is yet but small, say 16 vessels, and these are chiefly employed in prevent-
ing and detecting pirates and smugglers.

MEMORANDUM.-A Map and a more complete and detailed description of Hayti, will
probably be published as soon as Citizen J.Granville receives the necessary documents
from his government, which he has requested, and now daily expects, containing a
statistical account of its productions, exports, imports, &c. &c., for the last fouryears.




The following well written Letter,from Thomas Paul, a most intel-
ligent and respectable Minister of the Baptist Society in Boston,
is taken from the Columbian Sentinel of July 3, 1824.
In compliance with the request of several very res-
pectable gentlemen of this city, and the solicitations of persons of my
own colour, 1 am induced to publish the following statement in rela-
tion to the country and government of Hayti. I the more cheerfully
comply with these requests, in hopes that those free people of colour
especially, who are disposed to seek an asylum for the enjoyment of
liberty, and the common rights of man in a foreign clime, may be
benefitted by this publication.
Having been a resident for some months in the Island of Hayti, I
am fully persuaded that it is the best and most suitable place of resi-
dence which Providence has hitherto offered to emancipated people
of colour, for the enjoyment of liberty and equality with their atten-
dant blessings. At an interview which 1 had, with President Bovyt,
some months ago, he was pleased to make a verbal statement of the
same offers to me, as an organ of communication to the free people of
colour in the United States, which he has recently made to the Coloni-
zation Society, in answer to several inquiries made by the Rev. Mr.
After having made known to his Excellency the object of my visit,
and having received permission from him to preach, and discharge the
duties of a missionary of the gospel in the Island, I never received the
least molestation from any person ; but on the contrary, was always
treated with the greatest respect by all the officers of the government,
and by all classes of the people.
The Island is delightfully situated, abounding with all,the necessa-
ries and even the luxuries of life. It presents to the eye the must ro-
mantic and beautiful scenery ; and while its verdant mountains recall
to our minds what we have read of ancient Gilboa. Tabor, Lebanon,
Carmel, and Sion, its fertile vallies present us with the rich luxuri.
riance of the vallies of the Israelitish Canaan.
The staple productions are coffee, rice, tobacco, indigo. and indian,
corn. The forests abound with the best of mahogany, logwood, and
fustic; and the pastures are literally covered with flocks and herds.
A yoke of well made oxen, measuring six feet six inches, may be
purchased for 17 or .$18 a handsome cow and calf, for $7 ; and swine
and poultry at the same rate. The markets are supplied with a plenty
of fresh and salt water fish-oysters, lobsters, and turtles. A turtle
weighing 80 or 90 lbs. may be purchased for $2. Through the months
of June, July, August, and September, I resided upon the Island, and'
during this time which is considered the hottest part of year, and the-
most unhealthy to strangers, I enjoyed as good health as at any period
of my life.
The Haytiens have made great progress in the mechanical arts,
which receive liberal encouragement. Goldsmiths, silversmiths, black-
smiths, tailors, bootmakers, painters, cabinetmakers, coopers, tanners,
carriers, house-carpenters, ship-carpenters. turners, wheelwrights, tin-
workers, sugar-manufacturers, and distillers would find constant and
profitable employment.
A country, the local situation of which is favourable to trade and commercial enter-
prise, possessing a free and well regulated government, which encourages the useful and
liberal arts, a country possessing an enterprising population of several hundred thou-
sands of active and brave men, who are determined to live free or die gloriously in the
defence of freedom, must possess advantages highly inviting to men who are sighing for
the enjoyment of the common rights and liberties of mankind The time, I trust is not
far distant, when all wise and good men will use their influence to place the Free
Coloured People of the United States upon the delightful Island of Hayti,
Boston, July 1st, 1824.

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