Citation
Code of fair competition for the saddlery manufacturing industry

Material Information

Title:
Code of fair competition for the saddlery manufacturing industry as approved on October 3, 1933 by President Roosevelt
Creator:
United States -- National Recovery Administration
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
U.S. G.P.O.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, 6 p. : ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Saddlery -- United States ( lcsh )
Genre:
Federal Government Publication ( MARCTGM )

Notes

General Note:
At head of title: National Recovery Administration.
General Note:
Registry no. 915-01.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is a work of the U.S. federal government and not subject to copyright pursuant to 17 U.S.C. §105.
Resource Identifier:
48024113 ( OCLC )
ocm48024113

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Full Text



Registry No. 915-01


NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION



CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION

FOR THE


SADDLERY MANUFACTURING

INDUSTRY


AS APPROVED ON OCTOBER 3, 1933
BY
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT


1. Executive order
2. Letter of Transmittal
3. Code


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1933


Fore by the Superinendent o Doumes, Washington, D.C.Price 5 rent
























This publication is for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C., and by district offices of the Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce.
DISTRICT OFFICES OF THiE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

Atlanta, Ga.: 504 Post Office Building.
Birmingham, Ala.: 257 Federal Building.
Boston, Mass.: 1801 Customhouse.
Buffalo, N.Y.: Chamber of Commerce Building.
Charleston, S.C.: Chamber of Commerce Building.
Chicago, Ill.: Suite 1706, 201 North Wells Street.
Cleveland, Ohio: Chamber of Commerce.
Dallas, Tex,: Chamber of Commerce Building.
Detroit, Mich.: 2213 First National Bank Building.
Houston, Tex.: chamber r of Commerce Building.
u'.liannlplis, Ind.: Chamber of Commerce Building.
Jacksonville, Fla.: Chnmller of Commerce Building.
Kansas City, Mo.: 1028 Baltimore Avenue.
Los Anceles, Calif.: 1163 Southl Broadway.
Louisville, Ky.: Room 405, 421 West Market Street.
i Hupnlhis, Tenn.: 266 South Water Street.
Miunvuc polis. Minn.: 213 Fotleral Building.
New Orleans, La.: Room 225-A, Custonthouse.
New York, N.Y.: 734 Cu.t,,iihouse.
Norfolk, Va.: 406 East Plume Street.
Philadelphia, Pa.: Room 812, 20 South Fifteenth Street.
Pittsburgh, Pa.:. Chamber of Commerce Building.
Portland, Oreg.: 215 New Post Office Building.
St. Louis, Mo.: 506 Olive Street.
San Francisco, Calif.: 310 Customhouse.
Seattle, Wash.: 1406 Vance Building.


















EXECUTIVE ORDER


CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION, SADDLERY MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

An application having been duly made, pursuant to and in full
compliance with the provisions of Title I of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, for my approval of a Code
of Fair Competition for the Saddlery Manufacturing Industry, and
hearings having been held thereon and the Administrator having
rendered his report containing an analysis of the said Code of Fair
Competition together with his recommendations and findings with
respect thereto, and the Administrator having found that the said
Code of Fair Competition complies in all respects with the pertinent
provisions of Title I of said Act and that. the requirements of clauses
(1) and (2) of subsection (a) of Section 3 of the said Act have
been met:
NOW, THEREFORE, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the
United States, pursuant to the authority vested in me by Title I of
the National Industrial Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, and
otherwise, do adopt and approve the report, recommendations, and
findings of the Administrator and do order that the said Code of
Fair Competition be and is hereby approved.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.
THE WHITE HOUSE,
September 1933.
Approval recommended:
HUGH S. JOHNSON,
Administrator.
(III)


14254"-133-17--33













SEPTEMBER 28, 1933.
The PRESIDENT,
The White House, Washington, D.C.
MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: This is a report of the hearing on the
Code of Fair Competition for the Saddlery Manufacturing Industry
in the United States, conducted in Washington on September 19
1933, in accordance with the provisions of the National Industrial
Recovery Act.
The following exhibits are included and attached:
(1) Final Code submitted.
(2) Notice of Hearing.
((3 Statistical Analysis by Research and Planning Division.
4Transcript of the records.
( List of Witnesses.

PROVISIONS OF THIS CODE AS tO WAGES AND HOURS

ARTICLE 111-HoURS

SECTION 1. No employee shall work or be permitted to work in
excess of 40 hours average in any 4-months period nor over 40 hours
in any week except by payment of 11/3 rate for overtime, nor over
8 hours in any 24-hour period except by payment of 11/3 rate for
overtime.
SEC. 2. From the provisions of paragraph one the following
clauses shall be excepted:
(a) Supervisory staff and executives, when working in a super.
visory or minnagerial capacity, watchmen, bookkeepers, and outside
salesmen.
(b) Macline repair men, factory engineers, and firemen who may
be employed in eCii',rgencives for a longer period, but shall not be
permitted to work over 40 hours in any week except by the pay-
ment of 11/3 for overtime.
(c) Office workers, inside salesmen, stock clerks, order clerks, ship-
ping clerks, porters, warehousemen, packers, truckmen, and drivers
who shall not be permitted to work in excess of 40 hours average
in any 26-week period.
SEC. 3. There shall be no evasion of this Code by reclassification
of the function of workers. A worker shall not be included in one
of the above exceptions unless the identical functions which he per-
forms were identically clalnsified on June 16, 1933.
SEc. 4. The maximum hours fixed in the foregoing Sections 1 and 2
shall not apply to employees on emergency maintenance anti repair
work, but in any such special case, at least time and one third shall
be paid for hours worked in excess of the maximum hours herein
provided.
(IV)








SEC. 5. No employee shall work or be permitted to work for a
total number of hours in excess of the number of hours prescribed
for each week and day, whether employed by one or more employers.

ARTICLE V-CHILD LABOR

On and after the effective date employers in the Saddlery Indus-
try shall not employ or retain any minor under the age of sixteen
years.
ARTICLE VIII-WAGES

SECTION 1. Labor in the Saddlerv Industry shall be classified as
consisting of skilled mechanics and unskilled labor. Skilled mechan-
ics shall include the following when working in factories manufac-
turing harness, harness parts, strap work, collars, and saddles, or any
of them, whether made of leather or substitutes for leather; cutters,
sewing-machine operators, fitters, stampers, stuffers, hand collar
facers, bucklers, thong stitchers, whether by hand or machine; op-
erators of clicking machines, dieing-out machines, riveting machines,
finishing machines, punching machines, or other similar machines;
but as there are different degrees of skill within the above opera-
tions, workmen in the above-mentioned operations are entitled to a
differential in wages therein. Unskilled labor shall include all help
other than skilled mechanics.
SEC. 2. The minimum wage shall be thirty-five (35) cents per hour,
save in the States of Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Alabama,
Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Texas,
Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Arizona, where it shall
be thirty-two and one half (321) cents per hour. There shall be
a differential in favor of skilled labor of not less than fifteen (15)
cents per hour, but in no case shall the lowest paid skilled mechanic
receive less than fifteen (15) cents per hour over and above the mini-
mum rate prescribed herein.
As an exception to the foregoing provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of
this Article all women engaged as employees making pads used under
collars, harness, or saddles, or making canvas stitched back bands
or open bottom cotton fibre stuffed cotton collars or flynets or horse
covers, shall receive not less than thirty-two and one half (3212)
cents per hour, save in the States named above, where it shall be
thirty (30) cents per hour.
SEC. 3. Beginners without previous experience in making saddlery
products shall receive not less than 80%c of the minimum wage of un-
skilled labor for a period of not more than ninety days; beginners
with previous experience in making saddlery products who are
classified as skilled mechanics in one department, when transferred
to another department shall receive not less than 80% of the mini-
mum wage for said operation to skilled mechanics, for not more tlian
ninety days, the percentage of all beginners at any one time not to
exceed 5% of the total employees, but any manufacturer may employ
at least two such beginners.
SEC. 4. Special exceptions to Sections 1 and 2 of this Article.
Skilled mechanics who on account of the infirmities of age or some
physical or mental disability, cannot do the work of able-bodied








workers, are exempt from the wage provisions of their class; pro-
vided, however, that such employees shall not exceed in number 5%
of the total workers employed by a manufacturer; but any manu-
facturer may employ at least, two such employees. Their compensa-
tion if on piecework, shall be the regular piece rates; if on a time
basis, they shall be paid what they are worth, measured by the output
of fair average able-bodied workers, but in no case shall this be less
than 80% of the minimum rate for unskilled workers.

ECONOMIC EFFECT OF THE CODE

The 40-hour average maximum for factory employees with pay-
ment for overtime above 8 hours per day, or 40 hours per week, should
tend to level peaks of employment in this Industry and increase em-
ployment by between 15% and 20%. The 40-hour average for office
workers and the like, while uncontrolled as to maximum, will result
in hours following very closely those of the factory and equally will
cause reemployment to the extent of some 15% to 20%.
While the average weekly wage will not be materially increased,
the total of wages paid in the Industry should increase at least to the
extent of reemployment.
The larger number of one-man saddlery and harness shops in this
country do not come under the Code. They represent competition
which already is severe and which will increase to the extent that
wages are increased in the larger shops. The wage rates established
seem to be the highest which can safely be borne by the Industry in
the face of such competition for new material and the possibility of
repairing old material.
As pointed out in the report of the Research and Planning Divi-
sion, the Saddlery Manufacturing Industry has been decreasing for
some time, resulting in an unusual degree of demoralization. In
their desire to correct this situation, the proponents of the Code were
very insistent upon the inclusion of unfair trade practices and mar-
keting provisions, which would insure some degree of price pro-
tection. Such provisions usually were at the expense of the con-
sumer. There still remain a number of such provisions in Article
X, but these provisions are not such as to lead to arbitrary price
fixing.
While at first glance Section 2 of Article X appears to be an
attempt to control wholesalers not members of the Saddlery Manu-
facturing Industry, the provision that the resale rules must receive
the approval of the Administrator should insure coordination and
the absence of injustice to such wholesalers. This provision is de-
sirable because of the fact that many manufacturers are distributors
of their own product, while others use the independent wholesalers
referred to.
This Code is unusual to the extent of attempting to segregate and
define skilled labor as compared with unskilled labor. The defini-
tion of skilled labor has the approval of the Labor Advisory Board.
In spite of some possible disadvantages of such an abrupt jump
in wage,, the 15-cent differential in favor of the skilled classification
seems highly desirable to force a more uniform spread for skill








throughout the Industry and secure a more uniform competitive
situation.
While most of the product of this Industry is of leather, some
considerable volume of harness is made of cotton. Leather harness
is much longer lived and much higher priced than is the cotton
product. The cotton product sold in most part to southern tenant
farmers would, on account of the skilled classification, be increased
in price out of proportion to other products of the Industry. Most
employees engaged on this type of product are female. For this
reason, and for the reason that a female differential does in fact
exist, there is included a provision for a 21. cent lower wage for
females. The resulting level is as good or better than that of the
Cotton Textile Code. The differential is too small to cause any
appreciable displacement of male workers by female workers.
I believe that the Code, as a whole, is a compromise between the
producers of high and low quality goods both in the North and the
South that is an excellent tool with which to approach the goal set
up in the National Industrial Recovery Act.
FINDINGS

The Administrator finds that:
(a) The Code as recommended complies in all respects with the
pertinent provisions of Title I of the Act, including, without limi-
tation, subsection (a) of Section 7 and subsection (b) of Section 10
thereof; and that
(b) The applicant group imposes no inequitable restrictions on
admission to membership therein and is truly representative of the
Saddlery Manufacturing Industry; and that
(c) The Code as recommended is not designed to promote monop-
olies or to eliminate or oppress small enterprises and will not operate
to discriminate against them, and will tend to effectuate the policy
of Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act.
It is recommended, therefore, that this Code be immediately
adopted.
Respectfully submitted.
HUGH S. JOHNSON, Administrator.











































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in 2011 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smalhers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and ile Sioan Foundation


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CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION FOR THE SADDLERY
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

ARTICLE I-PURPOSE

To effectuate the policies of Title I of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, the following provisions are submitted as a Code of
Fair Competition for the Saddlery Industry, and upon approval by
the President shall be the standard of fair competition for this
industry.
ARTICLE II-DEFINITIONS

Wherever used in this Code the terms hereinafter in this article
defined shall, unless the context shall otherwise clearly indicate, have
the respective meanings hereinafter set forth. The definition of any
term in the singular shall apply to such use of the term in the
plural, and vice versa.
SECTION 1. The term "The President means the President of the
United States.
SEC. 2. The term "The Saddlery Industry" or "the industry"
means and includes the business of manufacturing harness, harness
parts, strap work, collars, and saddles, or any of them, and,'or
kindred lines whether made of leather or substitutes for leather, and
selling, by manufacturers, of products of their own manufacture.
Kindred lines include pads, flynets, horse covers, muzzles, and any
other related lines that may from time to time be included under the
provisions of this Code.
SEC. 3. The term Employee as used herein includes any person
engaged in any phase of the industry in any capacity in the nature
of employee irrespective of the method of payment of his compensa-
tion. Helpers paid by employees are employees of the manufacturer.
SEC. 4. The term Employer or manufacturer as used herein
includes anyone for whose benefit such an employee is so engaged.
SEC. 5. The term "Member of the Industry" includes any em-
ployer or manufacturer who shall be subject to this Code.
SEC. 6. Effective Date" as used herein means ten days after this
Code shall have been approved by the President of the United States.
SEC. 7. The term The Saddlery Manufacturers Association" or
"The Association means the Saddlery Manufacturers Association
of the United States of America, a voluntary association of manu-
facturers engaged in the saddlery industry, offices of which associa-
tion now are at 822 Exchange Avenue, Union Stock Yards, Chicago,
Ill.
SEC. 8. The term The Saddlery Industry National Committee"
means the Executive Committee (as from time to time constituted)
of the Saddlery Manufacturers Association, elected by a fair method







of selection, approved by the President, and not more than three
members without vote, appointed by the President.
SEC. 9. The term "The Secretary" means the Secretary of the
Saddlery Manufacturers Association at the time in office.
SEC. 10. The term "Unfair Trade Practice means and includes
any act herein described as an unfair practice.

ARTICLE III-HouRS
SECTION 1. No employee shall'work or be permitted to work in
excess of 40 hours average in any 4-months period nor over 40 hours
in any week except by payment of 11/3 rate for overtime, nor over 8
hours in any 24-hour period except by payment of 113 rate for over-
time.
SEc. 2. From the provisions of paragraph one the following classes
shall be excepted:
(a) Supervisory Staff and executives, when working in a super-
visory or managerial capacity, watchmen, bookkeepers, and outside
salesmen.
(b) Machine repair men, factory engineers, and firemen who may
be employed in emergencies for a longer period, but shall not be per-
mitted to work over 40 hours in any week except by the payment of
11/3 for overtime.
(c) Office workers, inside salesmen, stock clerks, order clerks,
shipping clerks, porters, warehousemen, packers, truckmen, and
drivers who shall not be permitted to work in excess of 40 hours
average in any 26-week period.
SEC. 3. There shall be no evasion of this Code by reclassification
of the function of workers. A worker shall not be, included in one
of the above exceptions unless the identical functions which he per-
forms were identically classified on June 16, 1933.
SEC. 4. The maximum hours fixed in the foregoing Sections 1 and
2 shall not apply to employees on emergency maintenance and repair
work, but in any such special case at least. time and one third shall
be paid for hours worked in excess of the maximum hours herein
provided.
SEC. 5. No employee shall work or be permitted to work for a total
number of hours in excess of the number of hours prescribed for each
week and -day, whether employed by one or more employers.
ARTICLE IV-STATUTORY PROVISIONS

All employers in the industry shall comply with the following
provisions of the National Industrial Recovery-Act.
SECTION 1. That employees shall have the right to organize and
bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing,
and shall be free from the interference, restraint, or coercion of em-
ployers of labor, or their agents, in the designation of such represent-
atives or in self-organization or in other concerted activities for the
purpose of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection;
SEC. 2. That no employee and no one seeking employment shall be
required as a condition of employment to join any company union
or to refrain from joining, organizing, or assisting a labor organiza-
tion of his own choosing; and








SEC. 3. That employers shall comply with the maximum hours of
labor, minimum rates of pay, and other conditions of employment,
approved or prescribed by the President.
ARTICLE V-CHILD LABOR

On and after the effective date employers in the Saddlery Industry
shall not employ or retain any minor under the age of sixteen years.
ARTICLE VI-ADMIN ISTRATION

SECTION 1. To further effectuate the policies of the Act, a Code
Authority is hereby set up to cooperate with the Administrator in
the administration of this Code. It shall consist of the Saddlery
Industry National Committee as defined in Article 2, Section 8, of
this Code, and will be referred to as the Saddlery Industry National
Committee. The Saddlery Industry National Committee shall have
all the powers and duties conferred upon it by the National Indus-
trial Recovery Act and the Code, subject to review by the
Administrator.
The Code Authority shall have among its duties, but without
limitation on the foregoing, that of investigating complaints from
members of the industry respecting prices or practices that are
demoralizing or destructive to the industry, or that tend to create a
monopoly; and if such prices or practices are found to exist, the
Committee shall report the facts to the proper authority.
SEC. 2. The Saddlery Industry National Committee shall have
power from time to time (a) to appoint and remove, and to fix the
reasonable compensation of all officers and employees and all such
accountants, attorneys, and experts as such Saddlery Industry Na-
tional Committee shall deem necessary or proper for the purpose of
administering the Code.
SEC. 3. The expenses of administering the Code shall be borne by
members of the industry. The Saddlery Industry National Com-
mittee may from time to time make such assessments on account of
such expenses against the members of the industry as it shall deem
proper, and such assessments shall be payable as such Committee
shall specify. The assessments above referred to shall be divided
among the members of the industry in the same proportion to each
other as their dues would bear to each other if all were members of
the Association.
ARTICLE VII-STATSTITCS
SECTION 1. The Saddlery Industry through the Saddlery Manu-
facturers Association shall collect and compile all reports required
by the National Industrial Recovery Administration. Every member
of the industry shall furnish such reports as are required pursuant
to the provisions thereof.
In addition to information required to be submitted to the Code
authority, there shall be furnished to government agencies such
statistical information as the Administrator may deem necessary
for the purposes recited in Section 3 (a) of the National Industrial
Recovery Act.








SEC. 2. To the extent that the Saddlery Industry National Com-
mittee may deem that any information furnished in accordance with
the provisions of the Code is of a confidential character, no publi-
cation thereof to anyone except the Administrator shall be made
other than in combination with similar information furnished by
other members of the industry.
ARTICLE VIII-WAGES
SECTION 1. Labor in the Saddlery Industry shall be classified as
consisting of skilled mechanics and unskilled labor. Skilled me-
chanics shall include the following when working in factories manu-
facturing harness, harness parts, strap work, collars, and saddles, or
any of them whether made of leather or substitutes for leather;
cutters, sewing-machine operators, fitters, stampers, stuffers, hand
collar facers, bucklers, thong stitchers, whether by hand or machine,
operators of clicking machines, dieing out machines, riveting ma-
chines, finishing machines, punching machines, or other similar
machines; but, as there are different degrees of skill within the above
operations, workmen in the above-mentioned operations are entitled
to a differential in wages therein. Unskilled labor shall include all
help other than skilled mechanics.
SEC. 2. The minimum wage shall be thirty-five (35) cents per
hour, save in the States of Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Ala-
bama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia,
Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Arizona, where
it shall be thirty-two and one-half (32/2) cents per hour. There
shall be a differential in favor of skilled labor of not less than
fifteen cents per hour, but in no case shall the lowest paid skilled
mechanic receive less than 15 cents per hour over and above the
minimum rate prescribed herein.
As an exception to the foregoing provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of
this Article all women engaged as employees making pads used
under collars, harness, or saddles, or making canvas stitched back
bands or open bottom cotton fibre stuffed cotton collars or flynets or
horse covers, shall receive not less than thirty-two and one half
(321/2) cents per hour, save in the States named above, where it shall
be thirty (30) cents per hour.
SEC, 3. 3Beginners without previous experience in making saddlery
products shall receive not less than 80% of the minimum wage of
unskilled labor for a period of not more than ninety days; beginners
with previous experience in making saddlery products who are
classified as skilled mechanics in one department, when transferred
to another department shall receive not less than 80% of the mini-
mum wage for said operation to skilled mechanics, for not more than
ninety days, the percentage of all beginners at any one time not to
exceed 5% of the total employees, but any manufacturer may employ
at least two such beginners.
SEC. 4. Special exceptions to Sections 1 and 2 of this Article.
Skilled mechanics who, on account of the infirmities of age or some
physical or mental disability, cannot do the work of able-bodied
workers, are exempt from the wage provisions of their class; pro-








vided, however, that such employees shall not exceed in number 5%
of the total workers employed by a manufacturer; but any manu-
facturer may employ at least two such employees. Their compensa-
tion, if on piecework, shall be the regular piece rates; if on a time
basis, they shall be paid what they are worth, measured by the output
of fair average able-bodied workers, but in no case shall this be less
than 80% of the minimum rate for unskilled workers.
ARTICLE IX-ACCOU NiT NT

SECTION 1. The Saddlery Industry National Committee may pre-
pare a practical accounting procedure applicable to saddlery manu-
facturers, which, when approved by the President, shall govern the
determination of cost.
ARTICLE X-UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES

For all purposes of the Code, the following-described Acts shall
constitute unfair practices:
SECTION 1. Selling saddlery products on terms more favorable than
those defined as standard terms for the industry, to wit '2% discount
for cash within 10 days from date of shipment; 30 days net, except
products shipped between July 1st and October 1st may be subject to
2% discount, October 10th, net November 1st, and products shipped
between December 1st and March lst, may be subject to 2% discount
March 10th, and net April Ist, which standard terms apply to har-
ness, harness parts, strap work, collars, and saddles, or any of them,
whether made of leather or substitutes for leather; but in the case of
saddlery products sold to wholesalers on above excepted terms, ship-
ments may be made 30 days earlier.
SEC. 2. Selling saddlery products to wholesalers for resale to
retailers unless and until said wholesalers have agreed to abide by the
standard terms for resale laid down for the Saddlery Industry when
and as approved by the President.
SEC. 3. Shipping Saddlery .products on consignment or on ap-
proval, or on any terms that. are evasive of the established terms
established in this Code.
SEC. 4. Misbranding saddlery products, or selling saddlery prod-
ucts as of good commercial quality, when made from leather known
and sold by tanners as being below standard quality.
SEC. 5. Making direct. shipments of stock pads from the pad manu-
facturer to any other consignee than the actual wholesale purchaser
at his regular place of business, except as jobbers may require
shipments in straight carloads to other points for distribution
therefrom.
SEC. 6. The Saddlerv Industry National Committee shall hold
further trade practice conferences from time to time to determine
and establish other rules of fair trade practices and unfair trade
practices for the entire industry, which, when approved by the
President, shall become a part of this Code.








ARTICLE XI-GENERAL

SECTION 1. No provision in this Code shall be interpreted or applied
in such a manner as to
(a) promote monopolies or monopolistic practices; (b) permit or
encourage unfair competition; (c) eliminate or oppress small enter-
prises; or (d) discriminate against small enterprises.
SEC. 2. This Code and all the provisions thereof are expressly
made subject to the right of the President, in acordance with the
provision of Subsection (b) of Section 10 of the National Industrial
Recovery Act from time to time to cancel or modify any order,
approval, license, rule or regulation issued under Title I of said Act
and specifically, but without limitation, to the right of the Preseident
to cancel or modify his approval of this Code or any conditions
imposed by him upon his approval thereof.
SEC. 3. Within each State, members of the industry shall comply
with any laws of such State imposing more stringent requirements,
regulating the age of employees, wages, hours of work, or health,
fire, or general working conditions, than under this Code.
SEC. 4. The provisions of this Code shall not be binding on a
member to the extent, if at all, that the Code may be in conflict with
the Anti-Trust Laws of a State, where such member operates.
SEC. 5. The bylaws of the association shall not be amended in
any way which will tend to place inequitable restrictions on mem-
bership in the association or which will tend to make the association
not truly representative of the industry.







UNIVERSITY OF FI ORIDA

II3 1262 08850 2645lIIIlI
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Registry No. 915-01 NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION C ODE OF FAIR COMPETITION FOR THE SADDLERY MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY AS APPROVED ON OCTOBER 3, 1933 BY PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT U.I . DlftOMTOIW 1. Executive order 2. Letter of Transmittal 3. Code UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1933 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. -----Price 5 cents V

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This publication is for sale by the Superintendent of Do c uments, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., and by district offices of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. DISTRICT OFFICES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Atlanta, Ga.: 504 Post Office Building. Birmingham, Ala. : 257 Federal Build in g . Boston, Mass . : 1801 Customho u se. Buffalo, N.Y.: Chamber cf Commerce Building. Charleston, S.C . : Chamber of Commerce Building. Chicago, Ill.: Suite 1706, 201 North Wells Str eet. Cleve l and, Ohio: Chamber of Commerce . Dallas, Tex. : Chamber of Commerce Building. Detroit, Mich. : 2213 F irst National Bank Building. Houston, Tex. : Chamber of Commerce Building . Indianapolis, Ind.: Chamber of Commerce Building. Jackso nville, Fla.: Chamber of Commerce Building . Kansas City, Mo.: 10 .28 Baltimore Aven ue. Los Ange les, alif.: 1163 So uth Broadway. Louisville, Ky. : Room 405, 421 West Market Street. Memphis, Tenn.: 266 South Water Street. Minn apolis, Minn. : 213 Federal Building. New Orleans, La.: Room 225-A, Customhouse. New York, N . Y.: 734 Customhouse. Norfolk, Va.: 406 East Plume Street. Philadelphia, Pa. : Room 812, 20 South Fifteenth Street. Pittsburgh, Pa.: C hamber of Commerce Buildin g . Portland, Oreg.: 215 New Pos t Office Building. St. Loui s, Mo.: 506 Olive Street. San Francisco, Calif. : 310 Customhouse. Seattle, Wash.: 1406 Vance Building. (II)

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EXECUTIVE ORDER CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION, SADDLERY MANUFACTURL~ G INDUSTRY An application having be e n duly made, pursuant to and in full compliance with the provisions of Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, for my approval of a Code of Fair Competition for the Saddlery :Manufacturing Industry, and hearings having be en held thereon and the Administrator having rendered his report containing an analysis of the said Code of Fair Competition togeth e r with his recommendations and findings with respect thereto, and the Administrator having found that the aid Code of Fair Competition complies in all r espects with the pertinent provisions of Title I of said Act and that the requirements of clau es (1) and (2) of subsection (a) of Section 3 of the said Act have been met: NOW, THEREFORE, I, Franklin D. Ro osevelt, President of the United States, pursuant to the authority vested in me by Title I of the National Industrial R ecovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, and otherwise, do adopt and approve the r eport, recommendations, and findings of the Administrator and do order that the said Code of Fair Competition be and is hereby approved. THE WHITE HousE, Septeniber 1933. Approval recommended: FRANICLI D. ROOSEVELT. Huarr S. JOHNSON, Administrator. (III) 14254-133-107--33

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The PRESIDENT, SEPTEMBER 28, 1933. The White House, Washington, D.O. MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: This is a report of the hearing on the Code of Fair Competition for the Saddlery Manufacturing Industry in the United States, conducted in Washington on September 19 1933, in accordance with the provisions of the National Industriai Rec overy Act. The following exhibits are included and attached: (1) Final Code submitted. (2) Notice of Hearing. (3l Statistical Analysis by Research and P lanning Divis ion. ( 4 Transcript of the records. ( 5 List of 1Vitnesses. PROVISIONS OF THIS CODE AS TO WAGES AND HOURS ARTICLE IIIHOURS SECTION 1. No employ ee shall work or be permitted to work in exce ss of 40 hours average in any 4-months period nor over 40 hours in nny week except by payment of 11/3 rate for overtime, nor over 8 hours in any 24-hour p eriod except by payment of 11/3 rate for overtime . SE C . 2 . From the provis ions of paragraph one the following classes shall be excepted : (a) Supervisory staff and executives, when working in a super .. visory or managerial capacity, watchmen, bookkeepers, and outs ide salesmen. (b) Machine repair men, factory engineers, and firemen who may b e employed in em e rgencies for a l o nger period, but shall not be permitted to work over 4 0 hours in any we e k except by the payment of 11/3 for ov ertime. ( c) Office work ers, inside sales men, stock clerks, order clerks, shipping clerks , porters, warehousemen, packers, truckme.n, and drivers who shall not b e permitted to work in excess of 40 hou.r s a yerage in any 2G-week period. SEc. 3 . There shall be no evasion of this Code by reclass ific atlo n of the function of workers. A worker shall not be included in one of the above exceptions unle ss the identi ca l functions which he perform were identically classifie l on June 16, 1933. SEc . 4 . The maximum hours fixed in the foregoing Sections 1 and 2 s h all not apply to emplo ye s on emergency maintenance anti repair work, but in any such special ca,se, at least time and one thir d shall b e pail for hours worked in excess of the maximum hours herein provided . (IV)_

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V SEo. 5. No employee shall work or be permitted to work for a total number of hours in excess of the number of hours prescribed for each week and day, whether employed by one or more employers. ARTIOLE V-CmLo L AnOR On and after the effective date employers in the Saddlery Industry shall not em ploy or retain any minor under the age of sixtee n years. ARTICLE VIII-WAGES SECTION 1. Labor in the Saddlery Industry shall be classified as con s isting of skilled mechanics and unskilled l abor . Skilled mechan ics shall include the following when working in factories manufacturing lrn.rness, harnes , s parts, strap work, collars, and saddles, or any of them, whether made of leather or substitutes for leather; cutters, sewingm achine operators, fitters, stampers, stuffer , hand collar f acers, bucklers, thong stitchers, whether b y hand or machine; operators of clicking machines, dieing-out machines, riveting machines, finishing machines, punching machines.., or other similar machines; but as there are different degrees of Sl{ill within the above operations, workmen in the above-mentioned operations are entitled to a differential in wages therein. Unskilled labor shall include all help other than skilled mechanics. SEc. 2. The minimum wage shall be thirty-five ( 35) cents per hour, save in the States of Tennessee, K entucky, Missi ssippi, Alabama, Geor gia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Arizona, where it shall be thirty-two and one half (32 ) cents per hour. There shall be 11 differ ential in favor of skilled labo r of not l ess than fifteen ( 1 5) cents per hour, but in no case shall the lowest paid skilled mechanic rec e ive le ss than fifte e n (15) cents per hour over and above the minimum rate prescribed herein. A s an exception to the foregoing provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Article all women engaged as employees making pads use l under collar s, harness, or saddl es, or making canvas stitch ed back bands or open bottom cotton fibr e stuffed cotton collars or flynets or h orse covers, shall receive not l e s s than thirty-two and one half (32) cents per hour, save in the States named above, where it shall bo thirty (30) cents per hour. SEC. 3. Beginner without previous experience in making saddlery products hall receive not l ess than 80% of the minimum wage of un skilled labor for a period of not more than ninety days beginners with previous ex peri e nce in making sadcllery products who are clas s ifi ed as s kill ed me chanics in one department wh e n tran erred to another department shall receive not l e s than Oo/ of the minimum wage for said operation to skilled m echan i cs, for not more than ninety days, the percentage of all beginner at any one tim not to exceed 5% of the total employees, but any manufacturer may employ at least two such beginners. 'Ee . 4. Special exceptions to Sect ion s 1 and 2 of this Article. Skilled mechanics who on account of the infirmities of ag or ome physical or mental disability, cannot do the work of able-bodied

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VI workers, are exempt from the wage prov1s10ns of their class; provided, however, that s uch employees hall not exceed in number 5% of the total workers employ e d by a manufacturer; but any manufacturer may employ at least two such employees. Their compen sa t ion i.f on piecework, shall be the regular piece rates; if on a time basis, they shall be paid what they are worth, m easured by the output of fair average able-bodied workers, but in no case shall this be less than 80% of the minimum rate for unskilled workers. ECONOMIO EFFECT OF THE CODE The 40-hour average maximum for factory employees with payment for overtime above 8 hours p e r day, or 40 hours per week, should tend to l eve l peaks of employment in this Industry and increase employment by between 15% and 20%. The 40 -h our average for office workers and the like, while uncontrolled as to 1na x imum, will result in h ours following very closely those of the factory and equally will cause reen1ployment to the extent of some 15% to 20% . 1Vhile the average weekly wage will not b e materially increased, the total of wages paid in the Industry should increase at l east to the extent of reemployment. The larger number of one-man saddlery and harness shops in this country do not con1e under the Code. They represent competition which already is seve r e and which will increase to the extent that wages are increased in the large r sho p s . The wage rates estab lish e d seem to be the highest which can safely be borne by the Industry in the ace of such competition for n ew material and the possibility of r epairing old material. As pointed out in the report of the Research and Planning Division, the Saddlery Manufacturing Industry has been decreasing for some time, resulting in an unusual degree of demoralization. In their des ire to correct this situation, the proponents of the Code were very insistent upon the inclus ion of unfair trade practices and marketing provisions, which would insure some degree of price protection . Such prov i s ions u s u a lly were at t he expense of the consumer. There still remain a numbe r of s uch provisions in Article X, but these provisions are not s u ch as to lead to arbitrary price fixing. 1Vhile at firs t glance Section 2 of Article X appears to be an attempt to contro l who l esalers not members of t h e Saddlery Manufacturing Industry, the provision that the resale rules must receive the approval of the Administrator should insure coordination and the absence of injustice to suc h wholesalers. This provision is de sirable because of the fact that many manufacturers are distributors of their own product, while oth ers use the independent wholesalers referred to. This Code i s unusual to the extent of attempting to segregate and define killed labor as compared with unskilled labor. The defini tion of killed labor has the approval of the L abo r Advisory Board. In spite of some possible disadvantages of suc h an abrupt jump in wage, the 1 5 cent differentia l in favor of the skilled classificatio n seems highly desirable to force a m .ore uniform spread for skill

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VII throughout the Industry and secure a more uniform competitive situation. While most of the product of this Indu try is of l eather, some considerable volume of harness is made of cotton. Leather harness is much longer lived and much higher priced than is the cotton product. The cotton product sold in most part to southern tenant armers would, on account of the skilled classification, be increa ed in price out of proportion to otherfroducts of the Industry. Most employees engaged on this type o product are female. For this reason, and for the reason that a female differential does in fact exist, there is included a provision for a 2 cent lower wage for females. The resulting level is as good or better than that of the Cotton Textile Code. The differential is too small to cause any appreciable displacement of male workers by female workers. I believe that the Code, as a whole, is a compromise between the producers of high and low quality goods both in the North and the South that is an excellent tool with which to approach the goal set up in the National Industrial Recovery Act. FINDINGS The Administrator finds that: (a) 1rhe Code as recommended complies in all respects with the pertinent provisions of Title I of the Act, including, without limitation, subsection (a) of Section 7 and subsection ( b) of Section 10 thereof; and that (b) The applicant group imposes no inequitable restrictions on admission to membership therein and is truly representative of the Saddlery Manufacturing Industry; and that ( c) The Code as recommended is not designed to promote monop oli es or to eliminate or oppress small enterprises and will not operate to discriminate against them, and will tend to effectuate the policy of Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act. It is recommended, therefore, that this Code be immediately adopted. Respectfully submitted.

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Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from University of Florida , George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation http ://www . archive.org / details / codeoffaircompet2645unit

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CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION FOR THE SADDLERY MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY ARTICLE I-PURPOSE To effectuate the policies of Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, the following provisions are submitted as a Code of Fair Competition for the Saddlery Industry, and upon approval by the President shall be the standard of fair competition for this industry. ARTICLE II-DEFINITIONS "\Vherever used in this Code the terms hereinafter in this article defined shall, unless the context shall otherwise clearly indicate, have the respective n1eanings hereinafter set forth. The definition of any term in the singular shall apply to such use of the term in the plural, and vice versa. SECTION 1. The term "The President " means the President of the United States. SEc. 2. The term "The Saddlery Industry" or "the industry" m ea ns and includes the business of manufacturing harness, harness parts, strap work, collars, and saddles, or any of them, and/or kindred lines whether made of leather or substitutes for leather, and selling, by manufacturers, of products of their own manufacture. Kindred lines include pads, flynets, horse covers, muzzles~ and any other related lines that may from time to time be included under the provisions of this Code. SEc. 3. The term " Employee " as used herein includes uny perso n engaged in any phase of the industry in any capacity in the nature of employee irrespect ive of the method of payn1ent of his compe nsa tion. Helpers paid by employees are employees o:f the manufacturer. SEc. 4 . The term " Employer " or " manufacturer " as used herein includ es anyone for whose benefit such an employee is so engage d. SEc. 5. The term " Member of the Industry" includes any e mployer or manufacturer who shall be sub ject to this Code. SEc. 6. "Effective Date" as u sed herein means ten days after this Cod e shall have been approved by the Presid0nt of the Unite l States. SEc. 7. The term "The Saddlery Manufacturers Association" or " The A ociation " means the Saddlery Manufacturer A sociatio n of the United States of America, a voluntary a ociation of manufacturers engaged in the saddlery industry, offices of which association now are at 822 Exchange Avenue, Union Stock Yards, Chicago, Ill. SEc. 8 . The term " The Sadcllery Industry N ationa1 Committe " means the Executive Committee (as from tim to time on tituted) of the Saddlery Manufacturers Association, elected by a fair method (1)

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2 of selection, approved by the President, and not more than three members without vote, appointed by the President . SEc. 9. The term " The Secretary " means the Secretary o:f the Saddlery Manufacturers Association at the time in office. SEc. 10. The term "Unfair Trade Practice" means and includes any act herein described as an unfair practice. ARTICLE III-HouRs SECTION 1. No employee shall work or be permitted to work in excess of 40 hours average in any 4-months period nor over 40 hours in any week except by payment of 11/2 rate for overtime, nor over 8 hours in any 24-hour period except by payment of 11/3 rate :for over time. SEc. 2. From the provisions of paragraph one the :following classes shall be excepted : (a) Supervisory Staff and executives, when working in a supervisory or managerial capacity, watchmen, bookkeepers, and outside salesmen. (b) Machine repair men, factory engineers, and firemen who may be employed in emergencies for a longer period, but shall not be permitted to work over 40 hours in any week except by the payment o-f 1 for overtime. ( c) Office workers, inside salesmen, stock clerks, order clerks, shipping clerks, porters, warehousemen, packers, truckmen, and drive r s who shall not be permitted to work in excess of 40 hours average in any 26-week period. SEc. 3. There shall be no evasion of this Code by reclassification o:f the function of workers. A worker shall not be included in one of the above exceptions unless the identical functions which he performs were identically cla ss ified on June 16, 1933. SEc. 4. The maximum hours fixed in the foregoing Sections 1 and 2 shall not apply to employees on emergency maintenance and repair work, but in any such s pecial case at least time and one third shall be paid for hours worked in excess of the maximum hours herein provided. SEc. 5. No e mployee shall work or be permitted to work for a total number of hours in excess of the number of hours prescribed for each week and day, whether employed by one or more employers. ARTICLE IV-STATUTORY PROVISIONS All employers in the industry shall comply with the following provisions of the National Industrial Recovery Act. SECTION 1. That employees shall have the right to organize and bargain collectively through r epresentatives of their own choosing, and shall be free from the interfere nce, restraint, or coercion of em ployers of labor, or their agents, in the designation of such represent atives or in self-organization or in other concerted activities for the purpose of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection; SEC. 2. That no employee and no one seeking employment shall be required as a condition of employment to join any company union or to refrain from joining, organizing, or assisting a labor organization of his own choosing; and

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3 SEc. 3. That employe rs shall comply with the maximum h'-'urs of labor, minimum rates of pay, and other conditions of employment, approved or prescribed by the President. ARTICLE V-CHILD LABOR On and after the effective date employers in the Saddlery Industry shall not employ or retain any minor under the age of sixteen years. ARTICLE VI-ADMINISTRATION SECTION 1. To further effectuate the policies of the Act, a Code Authority is hereby set up to cooperate with the Administrator in the administration of this Code. It shall consist of the Saddlery Industry National Committee as defined in Article 2, Section 8, o:f this Code, and will be referred to as the Sadcllery Industry National Committee. The Saddlery Industry National Committee shall have all the powers and duties conferred upon it by the National Industrial Recovery Act and the Code, subject to review by the Administrator. The Code Authority shall have among its duties, but without limitation on the foregoing, that of investigating complaints from members of the industry respecting prices or practices that are demoralizing or destructive to the industry, or that tend to create a monopoly; and if such prices or practices are found to exist, the Committee shall report the facts to the proper authority. SEc. 2. The Saddlery Industry National Committee shall have power from time to time (a) to appoint and remove, and to fix the reasonable compensation of all officers and employees and all such accountants, attorneys, and experts as such Saddlery Industry National Committee shall deem necessary or proper for the purpose of administering the Code. SEc. 3. The expenses of administering the Code shall be borne by members of the industry. The Saddlery Industry National Com mittee may from time to time make such assessments on account of such expenses against the members of the industry as it shall deem proper, and such assessments shall be payable as such Committee shall specify. The assessments above referred to shall be divided among the members of the industry in the same proportion to each other as their dues would bear to each other if all w ere members of the Association. ARTICLE VII-STATISTICS SECTION 1. The Saddlery Industry through the Saddlery l\ianufacturers Association shall collect and compile all reports required by the National Industrial Recovery Administration. Every member of the industry shall furnish such reports as are required pursuant to the provisions thereof. In addition to information r equired to be submitted to the Code authority, there shall be furnished to government agencies , s uch statistical information as the Administrator may deem n ecessary for the purposes recited in Section 3 (a) of the National Industrial Recovery Act.

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4 8Ec. 2. To the extent that the Saddlery Industry National Committee may deem that any information furnished in accordance with the provisions of the Code is of a confidential character, no publication thereof to anyone except the Ad,ministrator shall be made other than in combination with similar information furnished by other members of the industry. ARTICLFVIII-WAGES SECTION 1. Labor in the Saddlery Industry shall be classified as consisting of skilled mechanics and unskilled labor. Skilled mechanics shall include the following when working in factories manufacturing harness, harness parts, strap work, colla r s, and saddles, or any of them whether made of leather or su bstitutes for leather; cutters, sewing-machin e operators, fitters, stampers, stuffers, hand collar facers, bucklers, thon~ stitchers, whether by hand or ,machine, operators of clicking machines, dieing out machines, riveting machines, fini shing machines, punching machines, or other similar machines; but, as there are different degrees of skill within the above operations, workmen in the above-mentioned operations are entitled to a differential in wages therein. Unskilled labor shall include all help other than skilled mechanics. SE c . 2. The minimum wage shall be thirty-five (35) cents per hour, save in the States of Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Arizona, where it shall be thirty-two and one-half (32) cents per hour. There shall be a differential in favor of skilled labor of not less than fifteen cents per hour, but in no case shall the lowest paid skilled mechanic rocei ve l ess than 15 cents per hour over and above the minimum rate prescribed herein. As an except10 n to the foregoing provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Article all women engaged as employees making pads used under collars, harness, or saddl es, or making canvas stitched back bands or open bottom cotton fibre stuffed cotton collars or flynets or hor e covers, shall rec e i ve not less than thirty-two and one halt (32) cents per hour, s ave in the States named above, where it shall be thirty (30) cents per hour. SEc. 3. Beginners without previous experience in making saddlery products shall receive not l ess than 80% of the minimum wage of unskilled laqor for a period of not m r e tl1an ninety days; beginners with previous experience in making saclcllery products who are class ified as skilled mechanics in one department, when transferred to another department shall rec eive not l ess than 80% of the minimum wage for said operation to skilled mechanics, for not more than ninety days, the percentage of all beginners at any one time not to exceed 5 % of the total employees, but any manufacturer may employ at least two suc h beginners. SEc. 4. Special exceptions to Sections 1 and 2 of this Article. Skilled mechanics who, on account of the infirmities of age or some physical or mental disability, cannot do the work of able-bodied workers, are exempt from the wage provisions of their cla ss ; pro-

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5 vided, however, that such employees shall not exceed in nunib e r 5% of the total workers empl oyed by a manufacturer; but any manufacturer may employ at least two such employ es. Their compensa tion, if on piecework, shall be the regular piece rates; if on a tin1e basis, they shall be paid what they are worth, m easure d by the output of fair average able-bodied workers, but in no case shall this be less than 80% of the minimum rate for uns killed workers. ARTICLE IX-AccouNTING SECTION 1. The Saddlery Industry National Committee may prepare a practical accounting procedure applicable to saddlery manufacturers, which , when approved by the President, shall govern the determination of cost. ARTICLE X--u NF AIR TRADE PRACTICES . For all purposes of the Code, the following-de scribed Acts shall constitute unfair practices: SECTION 1. Selling saddlery products on terms more favorable than those defined as standard terms for the industry, to wit: 2 % discount for cash within 10 days from date of shipment; 30 days net, except products shipped between July 1 t and October 1st may be subject to 2% discount, Octob e r 10th, net November 1st, and products shipped between December 1st and :March 1 s t, may be subject to 2% discount Ma_rch 10th, and net April 1 st, which standard terms apply to harness, harne~s parts, strap work, collars, and saddles, or any of them, whether made of leather or substitutes for leather; but in the case of saddlery products sold to whol esa l ers 011 above excepted terms, shipments may be made 30 days earlier. SEc. 2. Selling saddlery products to wholesalers for resale to retailers unless and until said wholesale.rs have agreed to abide by the standard terms for resale laid down for the Saddlery Industry when and as a pp roved by the Pres ident. SEc. 3. Shipping Saddlery .products on consignment or on approval, or on any terms that are evasive of the established terms establis h e d in this Code. SEc. 4. Misbranding saddlery products, or selling saddlery prod ucts as of good comm ercial quality, when made from leather known and sold by tanners as being below standard quality. SEc. 5. :Making direct shipments of stock pads :from the pad manufacturer to any othe r consignee than the actual whole sa le purchaser at his regular place of busine ss, except as jobbers may require shipments in straight carloads to other points for distribution therefrom. SEc. 6. The Sadcllery Industry National Committee shall hold further trade practice conferences from time to time to determine and e t a bli h other rules of fair trade practices and unfair trade practices for the entire industry, which, when approved by the President, shall become a part of this Code.

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6 ARTICLE X I-GENER A L SECTION 1. No prov i s ion in this Code shall be interpr eted o r appl ied in s uch a manne r a s to (a) promote monopolie s or monopo l istic practices; (b ) permit or encoura ge unfair competition; ( c ) eliminate or oppress small enter• prises ; or ( d) discriminate against small enterprises. SEc . 2 . This Cod e and all the provisio~s thereof are express l y made s ubje c t to the right of the President, in acordance with the provision of Subs ection (b) of Section 1 0 of the National Industrial Reco very Act from time to time to cance l or modify any order, approval, lic en s e, rule or regulation issued under Title I of said Ac t and s p e cifically , but without limitation, to the right of the Pres eident to c ancel or modify his approval of this Code or any conditions impo s ed by him upon his approval thereof. SEc . 3 . Within e a ch State, members of the industry shall comp l y with any law s of su c h State impo sing more stringent r e quirements, regulating the a ge of employee s , wages, hours of work, or health, fire , or g e neral working conditions , than under this Cod e . SEc . 4. The provis ions of this Code shall not he binding on a member to the extent, if at all, that the Code may be in conflict with the Anti-Trust Laws of a State, where such member operates. SEC. 5. The bylaws of the a ss o ciation shall not be amended i n any way which will tend to place inequitable restrictions on membership in the association or which will tend to make the asso ciation not truly representative of the industry. 0

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