Citation
Twenty thousand leagues under the sea

Material Information

Title:
Twenty thousand leagues under the sea
Uniform Title:
Vingt mille lieves sous les mers
Creator:
Verne, Jules, 1828-1905
M.A. Donohue & Co
Place of Publication:
Chicago
Publisher:
M. A. Donohue
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
192 p. : ; 20 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sea stories -- 1895
Bldn -- 1895
Genre:
sea stories ( aat )
fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Translation of Vingt mille lieves sous les mers.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jules Verne.

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University of Florida
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Resource Identifier:
002646171 ( ALEPH )
09913097 ( OCLC )
ANB3074 ( NOTIS )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
University of Florida
Jules Verne

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Full Text


une amtat






Twenty Thousand Leagues
Under the Sea

By

Jules Vern
Author of «Tour of the World in Eighty Days,’ Bec.



CHICAGO:
M. A. DONOHUE & CO,






CONTENTS,

PAR TL:

CHAPTER I.

The mysterious and inexplicable Phenomena of 1866.—A. mon.
ster of the Sea,—Testimony to its Existence.—Facts and In-
cidents.—Accident to the Scotia.—Public Opinion excited.—
Theusands of Ships annually lost.—Ocean Travel becoming
more and more dangerous.—The Sea must be rid of the for-
midable Cetacean . .- : . =n ; .

CHAPTER. ii

My Arrival in New York.—‘‘ Mysteries of the Great Submarine
Grounds.”—-Am consulted on the Phenomena in Question..-
Philosophical Disquisition.—A gigantic Narwhal, or Unicorn
of the Sea.—Public Opinion pronounced.—The United States
Frigate Abraham Lincoln to solve the pease ear en
to sail.—My Invitation 5 :

CHAPTER III.

My Resolution.—Professor Aronnax accepts the offer of the
American Government.—Conseil.—What’s in a Name?—“ As
you please, Sir.”—The Archiotherium, Hyracotherium, Oreo-
dons, Cheropotamus, and live Babiroussa!—A. glorious Life
but a dangerous one.—Brooklyn Quay.—Getting off.—Cheers
from five hundred thousand Throats.--Down the Bay. =anee
bells.—Fire Island Lights.—On the dark Atlantic .

CHAPTER IV.

Commander Farragut.—An enthusiastic Crew.--Two Thousand
Dollars Reward.—Ned Land, the Prince of Harpooners.—His
Opinion.--What Whales can do and what they can’t.—
Science vs. Superstition.—A little figuring, and what comes of
it . 7 7 . . . ‘ : .

15

19



iv CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.

Ned Land at Work.—Doubling Cape Horn.—Hunting the ‘‘ Sea-
Serpent.”--Anxious Hours.—Three Months on the North
Pacific.—Great nervous. Eixcitement.—Reaction.—Shall the
Search be abandoned?—Three decisive Days.—Last Chance to
pocket the Prize.—The Monster appears . . ; 7

CHAPTER VI.

Beating Hearts.--An illuminated Sea.—The Narwhal approach-
es.— We execute a retrogade Movement.—A Night of terrible
Suspense.—Exciting Pursuit of a mysterious and formidable
Enemy.—Ned Land makes another ‘‘Strike.”—A Waste of
Ammunition.—Fearful Shock.—I fall into the Sea . .

CHAPTER VII.
Not alone.—Faithful Conseil—A night-long Struggle with
Death.—Ned and the ‘‘ Monster.”—Development extraordi-

nary.—The Mystery unravelled.—A novel Specimen of naval
Architecture.—We take Passage . 7 ; .

CHAPTER VIII.

Our new Quarters.—Darkness and Light.—The Submarine Boat
and its Commander.—Unsatisfactory Interview.—Clothed and
and fed.—‘‘ Mozriis 1x Mozrit, N.”—Startling Sensations. —
Speculations regarding our Situation.—Dreadful Nightmares
followed by a deep Sleep . . ‘ ‘ 7 7 ; 2

CHAPTER IX.

I awake refreshed.—And inspect my Surroundings.—The Prison
a Prison still.—Ventilation.—A fearful Silence and protracted
Haat Ned Land assaults the Steward.—‘‘ Parlez vous Fran-
gais?” ‘ . : . . . . . : . .

CHAPTER X.

More about the Man of the Seas.—Glimpse of a terrible Past.—
Hints of the Future.—Prospective Visit to the Land of Mar-
vels.—A Submarine Dining-room and Bill of Fare.—Fillet of
Turtle and Dolphin’s Livers.—Free Life under the Sea.—
Captain Nemo’s Library.—Magnificent Drawing-room and
Museum of the Nautilus.—My own Apartment : :

CHAPTER XI.

The Captain’s Room.—A powerful Agent.—The Soul of the
Nautilus—All by Elect«icity.—Fifty milesan Hour. *

2b

31

39

45

5&

70



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XII.

The Captain explains the Mechanism of his Craft.—Atmospheric
Pressure and Compression.—Ingenious Devices.—The ‘‘ Per-
fection of Vessels.”—Secret of ils mysterious Construction.—
t desert Island in the Ocean.—Fabulous Wealth of Captain

ema a : : : ee ee ir @

CHAPTER XIII.

Geological and Geographical.—Arrangements for our first Sub-
marine Voyage.—Ocean Currents.—The Black River.—Ned
and Conseil.—Dissolving Views.—Grand electrical Illumi-
nation.—A Window opens into the unexplored Abyss.—An

immense Aquarium .

CHAPTER XIV. _
A Day in the Museum.—Compensations.—Inexplicable Absence

of the Captain.—Sunrise on the Sea.—‘‘ Nautron respoc lorni
virch.”—A Note of Invitation.—The Rouquarol and Ruhm-
korff Apparatus.—A destructive Arm” .° . .

CHAPTER XY.

A Walk on the Bottom of the Sea.—Realm of the Naiads.—A.
Reality Stranger than Fiction.—Forests of the Island of Crespo

CHAPTER XVI.

Fauna and Flora.—Zodphytes and Hydrophytes.—Curious
Anomaly.—The Arbor of Alarize.—We fall asleep.—A wakened
by an ut expected Apparition.—A monstrous Sea-spider.—
Seventy-rive Fathoms below the Level of the Sea.—Game.—
Reflections.—Hairbreadth Escape.—Return to the Nautilus

CHAPTER XVII.

Fishing extraordinary.—The Life of the Ocean.—Mysteries of
the. Submarine World.—Four Thousand Leagues under the
eo Islands.—Marquessas.— Wreck of the
Florida . ; . . . : . F : .

CHAPTER XVIII.

4, new Continent.—Study of the madreporal System.—How
Islands are made.—Tahiti the Queen of the Pacific.—Vani-
koro.—The Story of La Perouse.—‘‘ A coral Tomb makes a
quiet Grave”. wl, ys oe Re ie

CHAPTER XIX.

A ‘*Happy New Year.”—A dangerous Passage through the
Coral Sea.—Torres Straits——The Nautilus aground.—" Acci-
-dent or Incident?”--Once more on (terra jirma.—Ned Land

75

81

87

94

. 100

. 107

114

jubilant.—Grilled Vension or Loin of Tiger,—which? . « 122



vi : CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XX.

The Island of Gilboa.—A Feast of Cocoa-nuts.—Cannibals.—
Bread-fruit Pie—A Raid upon the Cabbage-palms.—Return
to the Nautilus.—Second Visit to the Island.—A World of
chattering Parrots and grave Cockatoos.—Birds of Paradise.—
A magnificent Specimen.—‘ Intemperance.”—The oer
—Dinner Party on Shore.—A Surprise :

CHAPTER XXII.

Ned Land and his Provisions.—Comical Tableau.—‘‘ To the
Boat!”—A hundred Savages in Pursuit.—A Night in the
Tropics.—Excitement on Shore.—A Swarm of Natives.—
Opening the Hatches. ee oo Thunderbolt.—Re-
lease of the Nautilus : : . 137

CHAPTER XXII.

In Motion.—Taking Observations.—Strange Agitation of Cap-
tain N emo.—An imperious Command. = Unpriesninent —Only
Ship’s Fare.—Total Darkness. eee ee —Com-
Bie Insensibility . ‘ i : . 148

CHAPTER XXIilI.

Wide awake and free!—An impenetrable Mystery.—Consulted
professionally.—Death comes to the Nautilus.—A submarine
Excursion.—The marvelous coral Kingdom.—Transformations
and magical Effects.—Burial Scene under the Sea . - « 185

PART II.

CHAPTER I.

The Indian Ocean.—Birds and Fishes.—A Shoal of Argonauts.
eo the ae nee ne epeciecle: ae a of a
: , . 168

CHAPTER II.

The Island of Ceylon.—A novel Proposal from Captain Nemo.
—Visit to the Banks of Manaar.—A. ‘‘ Tear of the Sea.”—~
Shark-Hunting:—Pearls,—what ne are and how secured.—
Counting the Cost . ; 4 - ‘ : . 178

CHAPTER TIT.

A Visit to the Fisheries.—Oyster extraordinary.—A Pearl of ten
Millions.—The Indian Diver.—Terror-stricken.—A fearful
Combat.—The Rescue.—Munificent Charity from the ae of
the Waters.—‘‘ Revenge.”—Conclusions : . 178



CONTHNTS. vil

CHAPTER IV.

The Laccadive Archipelago.— ‘Domes and Minarets of a
Country of Oman.—Only a Vision——‘‘ The Gate of Tears.”
The Waters of the Red Sea.—An indescribable Spectacle.—
The Home of the Sponges. —M. Lesseps and the Suez Ca-
nal.—Captain Nemo’s Discovery.—The ‘‘ Arabian Tunnel.” - 188

CHAPTER V.

Terrific Encounter with a gigantic oe —A Glimpse of Sinai.
—The Silence of Night.—The floating Light of Suez.—Under
the Isthmus.—Captain Nemo at the Helm.—The Torrent of
the Tunnel.—In the Mediterranean . . 199

CHAPTER VI.

Ned desires a Change.—Planning for the Future.—Captain
Nemo’s Correspondent.—A Chest of Gold.—The Grecian
Archipelago.—Submarine ee: —In a Paw oe _
choking,—broiled! . . 206

CHAPTER VII.

The Mediterranean’ in forty-eight Hours.—Gibraltar.—Ruins of
the Temple of Hercules.—Floating on the Atlantic : . 217

CHAPTER VIIL

Arrangements for Escape from the Nautilus—Conflicting Emo-
tions.—A Chapter in the History of Spain.—Secrets of Vigo
Bay.—An inexhaustible Fishery of Gold and Silver.—Source
of Captain Nemo’s Wealth.—A Heart pening for Emu eNDS
Humanity.—Aid for the Cretans. » 223

CHAPTER IX.

A curious Excursion toa vanished Continent.—The Submarine
Depths in the Darkness of Night.—Rain-shower under the
Waves.—A Copse of petrified aTraes, —Giant Lobsters and
Titanic Crabs. —A. Mountain of Fire.—The Atlantis of Plato.
—Ruins a thousand See old. ee poet the
Waters. F : 232

CHAPTER X.

In the Heart of an extinct Volcano.—Submarine Coal-mines.—
Captain Nemo’s Laboratory.—A Desgon> tree Beehive. aye
Land risks his Life for Game. 241



yili CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XI.

The Sargasso Sea.—A Lake in the open Atlantic.—Dreams of
Liberty.—Melancholy Tones of the Captain’s Organ.—We are
pursued by a Whaler.—Three Leagues under Water.—Below
the Limits of submarine Existence.—An Ocean Photograph.

—‘‘ Primitive Rocks which have never looked upon the Light
of Heaven” A : : : . . . : . 250

CHAPTER XII.

A Troop of Whales.—Pursued by Cachalots,—The Nautilus
enters the Field.—Inhuman Massacre.—A Sea of Blood.—
Ned Land’s Indignation . 7 . : 7 ‘ 3 . 255

CHAPTER XIII.

Journeying South.—‘‘ Ice Blink.”—Crossing the Polar Circle.—
Gorgeous Scenery among the Fields of Ice.—Captain Nemo’s
audacious Project.—To the Antarctic Pole.—Five hundred
Leagues under the Icebergs.—In the open Polar Sea j . 264

CHAPTER XIV.

The Antarctic Continent.—Maury’s Hypothesis.—Evidences of
volcanic Origin.—Life in the Air.—An Introduction to the
interesting Seal Family.—A City of Morses.—Scenes and
Sensations.—-The Vernel Equinox preceding the Polar Night.
—Altitude of the Sun.—At THE Sours PoLE!—Captain
Nemo unfurls the Black Banner and takes Possession . » 273

CHAPTER XY.

Return to the Depths.—A Shock.—Overturning of a Mountain
of Ice.—‘‘ Things God never intended Man to see.”—A fear-

ful Situation. —Blocked fast ‘ * i 284

CHAPTER XVI.

An impenetrable Wall of Ice.—T wo Ways of dying.—A living
Tomb.—Walls closing.in.—One Danger more.— Want of Air.
—Working with a Will.—Dizziness.—Suffocation.—Oppor-
tune Deliverance. . : : 7 . : . . . 291

CHAPTER XVII.

Thankfulness.—The Northern Sun.—Terra del Fuego.—From
Cape Horn to the Equator.—Conseil encounters an Electric
Fish.—A Herd of Sea-Cows.—Novel Expedient.—Turtle-
ane on' the Shores,of the Amazon.—Return to the high Pr

eas. 7 . . . ° . he se : .



CON LHRH S. ix

; CHAPTER XVIII.

The “ Devil Fish.”—Terrible Encounter.—Crushed to Death in
Arms of a Monster.—Ned Land saved by the Captain.—
“‘Only Revenge.” . . . . : : ; . . 809

CHAPTER XIX.

The Gulf Stream.—Phosphorescent Waters.—Longings for

Liberty.—Nostalgia.—‘‘ Whoever enters the Nautilus never

quits it.’—However, Ned resolves to be free.—Terrific Tem-

pest off the Long Island Shore . : . : . : . 318
CHAPTER XX.

A Visit to the Atlantic Cable.—Scene of the Accident in 1868.
—Toward the British Isles.—Land’s End.—The ‘‘ Avenger” . 826

CHAPTER XXI.

Mysterious Existence of Captain Nemo unveiled.—Retaliation.
—Ned Land stricken down with an Iron Hand.—The black
Flag unfurled.—Unwilling Witnesses of a dreadful Drama.—
The Archangel of Hatred in Tears! . : . + . 332

CHAPTER XXII.

Rapid Flight of the Nautilus to Northern Seas.—In Sight of
Land.—Plans for Escape perfected.—Last Words of Captain
Nemo.—The Maelstrom! the Maelstrom!—Into the Midst of
the Whirlpool.—I lose all Consciousness . : . . 841

CHAPTER XXIII.

A Marvelous Escape, and End of the Voracz UNDER THE






TWENTY THOUSAND LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

CHAPTER 'I.
A SHIFTING REEF.

THE year 1866 was signalized bya :emarkable incident, a
mysterious and inexplicable phenomenon, which doubtless
no one has yet forgotten. Not to mention rumors which
agitated the maritime population, and excited the public
mind, even in the interior of continents, seafaring men
were particularly excited. Merchants, common sailors,
captains of vessels, skippers, both of Europe and America,
naval officers of all countries, and the governments of
several States on the two continents, were deeeply inter-
ested in the matter.

For some time past, vessels had been met by ‘‘an enor:
mous thing,” a long object, spindle-shaped, occasionally
phosphorescent, and infinitely larger and more rapid in its
movements than a whale.

The facts relating to this apparition (entered in various
log-books) agreed in most respects as to the shape of the
object or creature in question, the untiring rapidity of its
movements, its surprising power of locomotion, and the
peculiar life with which it seemed endowed. If it was a
cetacean, it surpassed in size all those hitherto classified in



4 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

science. Taking into consideration the mean of obser:
vations made at divers times—rejecting the timid esti«
mate of those who assigned to this object a length of two
hundred feet, equally with the exaggerated opinions which
set it down as a mile in width and three in length—we
might fairly conclude that this mysterious being surpassed
greatly all dimensions admitted by the ichthyologists of
the day, if it existed at all. And that it did exist was ar
undeniable fact; and, with that tendency which disposes
the human mind in favor of the marvellous, we can under-
stand the excitement produced in the entire world by thig
supernatural apparition. As to classing it in the list of
fables, the idea was out of the question. re

On the 20th of July, 1866, the steamer Governor Higgin:
son, of the Calcutta and Burnach Steam Navigation Com-
pany, had met this moving mass five miles off the east
coast of Australia. Captain Baker thought at first that
he was in the presence of an unknown sand-bank; he ever
prepared to determine its exact position, when two col
umns of water, projected by the inexplicable object, shot
with a hissing noise a hundred and fifty feet up into the
air. Now, unless the sand-bank had been submitted to
the intermittent eruption of a geyser, the Governor Hig:
ginson had to do neither more nor less than with an
aquatic mammal, unknown till then, which threw up
from its blow-holes columns of water mixed with air and
vapor.

Similar facts were observed on the 23d of July in the
same year, in the Pacific Ocean, by the Columbus, of the
West India and Pacific Steam Navigation Company. But
this extraordinary cetaceous creature could transport itself
from one place to another with surprising velocity; as, in
an interval of three days, the Governor Higginson and the
Columbus had observed it at two different points of the
chart, separated bv a distance of more than seven hundred
nautical leagues.



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 5

‘fifteen days later, two thousand miles farther off, the
Helvetia, of the Compagnie-Nationale, and the Shannon, of
the Royal Mail Steamship Company, sailing to wind-
ward in that portion of the Atlantic lying between the
United States and Europe, respectively signalled the mon-
ster to each other in 42° 15’ N. lat. and 60° 35’ W. long.
In these simuitaneous observations, they thought them-
selves justified in estimating the minimum length of the
mammal at more than three hundred and fifty feet, as the
Shannon and Helvetia were of smaller dimensions than it,
though they measured three hundred feet over all.

Now, the largest whales, those which frequent those
parts of the sea round the Aleutian, Kulammak, and Um-
gullich Islands, have never exceeded the length of sixty
yards, if they attain that.

These reports arriving one after the other, with fresh ob-
servations made on board ‘the transatlantic ship Pereira, a
collision which occurred between the Hina of the Inman
line and the monster, a procés verbal directed by the officers
of the French frigate Normandie, a very accurate survey
made by the staff of Commodore Fitz-James on board the
Lord Clyde, greatly influenced public opinion. Light-
thinking people jested upon the: phenomenon, but grave
practical countries, such as England, America, and Ger-
many, treated the matter more seriously.

In every place of great resort the monster was the rash-
ion. They sang of it in the cafés, ridiculed it in the
papers, and represented it on the stage. All kinds of
stories were circulated regarding it. There appeared in
the papers caricatures of every gigantic and imaginary
creature, from the white whale, the terrible ‘‘ Moby Dick”
of hyperborean regions, to the immense kraken whose ten-
tacles could entangle a ship of five hundred tons, and
hurry it into the abyss of the ocean. The legends of
ancient times were even resuscitated, and the opinions of
Aristotle and Pliny revived, who admitted the existence of



6 20,000 LHAGUES .UNDER THE SEAS.

these monsters, as well as the Norwegian tales of Bishop
Pontoppidan, the accounts of Paul Heggede, and, last of
all, the reports of Mr. Harrington (whose good faith no
one could suspect), who affirmed that, being on board the
‘Castillan, in 1857, he had seen this enormous serpent,
which had never until that time frequented any other seas
but those of the ancient ‘* Constitutionel.”

Then burst forth the interminable controversy between
the credulous and the incredulous in the societies of sa-
vants and scientific journals. ‘‘The question of the mon-
ster” inflamed all minds. Editors of scientific journals,
quarrelling with believers in the supernatural, spilled seas
of ink during this memorable campaign, some even draw-
ing blood; for, from the sea-serpent, they came to direct
personalities.

For six months war was waged with various fortune in
the leading articles of the Geographical Institution of Bra-
zil, the Royal Academy of Science of Berlin, the British
Association, the Smithsonian Institution of Washington,
in the discussions of the ‘‘ Indian Archipelago,” of the
Cosmos of the Abbé Moigno, in the Mittheilungen of Pe-
termann, in the scientific chronicles of the great journals
of France and other countries. The cheaper journals re-
plied keenly and with inexhaustible zest. These satirical
writers parodied a remark of Linneeus, quoted by the ad-
versaries of the monster, maintaining “that nature did
not make fools,” and adjured their contemporaries not to
give the lie to nature, by admitting the existence of kra-
kens, sea-serpents, ‘‘ Moby Dicks,” and other lucubrations
of delirious sailors. At length an article in a well-known
satirical journal by a favorite contributor, the chief of the
staff, settled the monster, like Hippolytus, giving it the
death-blow amidst a universal burst of laughter. Wit kad
conquered science.

During the first months of the year 1867, the question
seemed buried never to revive, when new facts were



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. q

brought before the public. It was then no longer a scien-
tific problem to be solved, but a real danger seriously to be
avoided. The question took quite another shape. The
monster became a small island, a rock, a reef, but a reef of
indefinite and shifting proportions.

On the 5th of March, 1867, the Moravian, of the Mon-
treal Ocean Company, finding herself during the night in
27° 30’ lat. and 72° 15’ long., struck on her starboard
quarter a rock, marked in no chart for that part of the
sea. Under the combined efforts of the wind and its four
hundred horse-power, it was going at the rate of thirteen
knots. Had it not been for the superior strength of the
hull of the Moravian, she would have been broken by the
shock, and gone down with the 237 passengers she was
bringing home from Canada.

The accident happened about five o’clock in the morn-
ing, as the day was breaking. The officers of the quarter-
deck hurried to the after-part of the vessel. They exam-
ined the sea with the most scrupulous attention. They
saw nothing but a strong eddy about three cables’ length
distant, as if the surface had been violently agitated. The
bearings of the place were taken exactly, and the Moravian
continued its route without apparent damage. Had it
struck on a submerged rock, or on an enormous wreck?
They could not tell; but on examination of the ship’s bot-
tom when undergoing repairs, it was found that part of her
keel was broken.

This fact, so grave in itself, might perhaps have been
forgotten like many others, if, three weeks after, it had
not been re-enacted under similar circumstances. But,
thanks to the nationality of the victim of the shock,
thanks to the reputation of the company to which the
vessel belonged, the circumstance became extensively cir-
culated.

The 18th of April, 1867, the sea being beautiful, the
breeze favorable, the Sco¢va, of the Cunard Company’s line,



8 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

found herself in 15° 12’ long. and 45° 37’ lat. She wag
zoing at the speed of thirteen knots and a half.

_At seventeen minutes past four in the afternoon, whilst
the passengers were assembled at lunch in the great saloon,
a slight shock was felt on the hull of the Scotia, on her
quarter, a little aft of the port paddle.

The Scotia had not struck, but she had been struck, and
seemingly by something rather sharp and penetrating than
blunt. The shock had been so slight that no one had been
alaamed, had it not been for the shouts of the carpenter’s
watch, who rushed on to the bridge, exclaiming, ‘‘ Weare
sinking! we are sinking!” At first the passengers were
much frightened, but Captain Anderson hastened to reas-
sure them. The danger could not be imminent. The
Scotia, divided into seven compartments by strong parti-
tions, could brave with impunity any leak. Captain An-
derson went down immediately into the hold. He found
that the sea was pouring into the fifth compartment; and
the rapidity of the influx proved that the force of the water
was considerable. Fortunately this compartment did not
hold the boilers, or the fires would have been immediately
extinguished. Captain Anderson ordered the engines to be
stopped at once, and one of the men went down to ascertain
the extent of the injury. Some minutes afterwards they
discovered the existence of a large hole, of two yards in di-
ameter, in the ship’s bottom. Such a leak could not be
stopped; and the Scotia, her paddles half submerged, was
obliged to continue her course. She was then three hun-
dred miles from Cape Clear, and after three days’ delay,
which caused great uneasiness in Liverpool, she entered the
basin of the company.

The engineers visited the Scotia, which was put in dry-
flock. They could scarcely believe it possible: at two
yards and a half below water-mark was a regular rent, in
the form of an isosceles triangle. The broken place in the
iron plates was so perfectly defined, that it could not have



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 9

oeen more neatly done by a punch. It was clear, then,
that the instrument producing the perforation was not of
a common stamp; and after having been driven with pro-
digious strength, and piercing an iron plate 13 inches
thick, had withdrawn itself by a retrograde motion, truly
inexplicable.

Such was the last fact, which resulted in exciting once
more the torrent of public opinion. From this moment all
unlucky casualties which could not be otherwise accounted
for were put down to the monster.

Upon this imaginary creature rested the responsibility of
all these shipwrecks, which unfortunately were considera-
ble; for of three thousand ships whose loss was annually
reported at Lloyds’, the number of sailing and steam ships
supposed to be totally lost, from the absence of all news,
amounted to not less than two hundred. ~

Now, it was the ‘‘ monster” who, justly or unjustly, was
accused of their disappearance, and, thanks to it, commu-
nication between the different continents became more and
more dangerous. The public demanded peremptorily that
the seas should at any price be relieved from this formida-
ble cetacean.

CHAPTER II.
PRO AND CON

At the period when these events took place, I had just
returned from a scientific research in the disagreeable
Territory of Nebraska, in the United States. In virtue of
my office as Assistant Professor in the Museum of Natural
History in Paris, the French government had attached me
to that expedition. After six months in Nebraska, I ar-
rived in New York towards the end of March, laden with



10 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

a precious collection. My departure for France was fixed
for the first days in May. Meanwhile, I was occupying
myself in classifying my mineralogical, botanical, and
zoological riches, when the accident happened to the
Scotia. ,

I was perfectly up in the subject which was the question
of the day. How could I be otherwise? J had read and
reread all the American and European papers without
being any nearer a conclusion. This mystery puzzled me.
Under the impossibility of forming an opinion, I jumped
from one extreme to the other. That there really was
something could not be doubted, and the incredulous were
invited to put their finger on the wound of the Scotia.

On my arrival at New York, the question was at its
height. The hypothesis of the floating island, and the un-
approachable sand-bank, supported -by minds little com-
petent to form a judgment, was abandoned. And, indeed,
unless this shoal had a machine in its stomach, how could
it change its position with such astonishing rapidity?

From the same cause, the idea of a floating hull of an
enormous wreck was given up.

There remained then only two possible solutions of the
question, which created two distinct parties: on one side,
those who were for a monster of colossal strength; on the
other, those who were for a submarine vessel of enormous
motive power.

But this last hypothesis, plausible as it was, could not
stand against inquiries made: in both worlds. That a
private gentleman should have such a machine at his com-
mand was not likely. Where, when, and how was it built?
and how could its construction have been kept secret?
Certainly a government might possess such a destructive
machine. And in these disastrous times, when the in-
genuity of man has multiplicd the power of weapons of
war, it was possible that, without the knowledge of others,
a state might try to work such aformidableengine. After



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. it

the chassepots came the torpedoes, after the torpedoes the
gubmarine rams, then—the reaction. At least, I hope so.

But the hypothesis of a war-machine fell before the dec-
laration of governments. As public interest was in
question, and transatlantic communications suffered, their
veracity could not be doubted. But, how admit that the
construction of this submarine boat had escaped the public
eye? For a private gentleman to keep the secret under
such circumstances would be very difficult, and for a State
whose every act is persistently watched by powerful rivals,
certainly imposssible.

After inquiries made in England, France, Russia,
Prussia, Spain, Italy, and America, even in Turkey, the
hypothesis of a submarine monitor was definitely rejected.

Upon my arrival in New York several persons did me
the honor of consulting me on the phenomenon in ques-
tion. I had published in France a work in quarto, in two
volumes, entitled, ‘‘Mysteries of the Great Submarine.
Grounds.” This book, highly approved of in the learned
world, gained for me a special reputation in this rather
obscure branch of Natural History. My advice was asked.
As long as I could deny the reality of the fact, I confined
myself to a decided negative. But soon finding myself
driven into a corner, I was obliged to explain myself cate-
gorically, And even ‘‘the Honorable Pierre Aronnax,
Professor in the Museum of Paris,” was called upon by the
New York Herald to express a definite opinion of some
sort. I did something. I spoke for want of power to hold
my tongue. I discussed the question in all its forms, polit-
ically and scientifically; and I give here an extract from a
carefully studied article which I published in the number
of the 80th of April. It ran as follows: =

“* After examining one by one the different hypotheses,
rejecting all other suggestions, it becomes necessary to
admit the existence of a marine animal of enormous
power.



12 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

“The great depths of the ocean are entirely unknown
to us. Soundings cannot reach them. What passes in
those remote depths—what heings live, or can live, twelve
or fifteen miles beneath the surface of the waters—what is
ithe organization of these animals—we can scarcely con-
jecture. However, the solution of the problem submitted
tome may modify the form of the dilemma. Hither we
do know all the varieties of beings which people our planet,
or wedo not. If we do xot know them all, if Nature has
still secrets in ichthyology for us, nothing is more con-
formable to reason than to admii the existence of fishes, or
cetaceans of other kinds, or even of new species, of an or-
ganization formed to inhabit the strata inaccessible to
soundings, and which an accident of some sort, either fan-
tastical or capricious, has brought at long intervals to the
upper level of the ocean.

“Tf, on the contrary, we do know all living kinds, we
must necessarily seek for the animal in question amongst
those marine beings already classed; and, in that case, I
should be disposed to admit the existence of a gigantic
wnat, dal.

«The common narwhal, or unicorn of the sea, often at-
tainsa length of sixty feet. Increase its size fivefold or
tenfold, give it strength proportionate to its size, lengthen
its destructive weapons, and you obtain the animal re-
quired. It will have the proportions determined by the
officers of the Shannon, the instrument required by the
perforation of the Scotia, and the power necessary to pierce
the hull of the steamer.

“Indeed the narwhal is armed with a sort of ivory sword,
a halberd, according to the expression of certain natural-
ists. The principal tusk has the hardness of steel: Some
of these tusks have been found buried in the bodies of
whales, which the unicorn always attacks with success.
Others have been drawn out, not without trouble, from
the bottoms of ships, which they had pierced through and



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 18

through, as a gimlet pierces a barrel. The Museum of the
Faculty of Medicine-of Paris possesses one of these defen:
sive weapons, two yards and a quarter in length, and fifteen
inches in diameter at the base.

“Very well! suppose this weapon to be six times stronger,
and the animal ten times more powerful; launch it at the
vate of twenty miles an hour, and you obtain a shock
capable of producing the catastrophe required. Until fur-
ther information, therefore, I shall maintain it to be a sea-
unicorn of colossal dimensions, armed, not with a halberd,
but with a real spur,. as the armored frigates, or the
‘rams’ of war, whose massiveness and motive power it
would possess at thesame time. Thus may this inexplicable
phenomenon be explained, unless there be something over
and above all that one has ever conjectured, seen, perceived,
or experienced; which is just within the bounds of possi-
bility.”

These last words were cowardly on my part; but, up to
a certain point, I wished to shelter my dignity as Professor,
and not give too much cause for laughter to the Americans,
who laugh well when they do laugh. I reserved for my-
self a way of escape. In effect, however, I admitted the
existence of the ‘“‘monster.” My article was warmly dis.
cussed, which procured ita high reputation. It rallied round
it a certain number of partisans. The solution it proposed
gave, at least, full liberty tothe imagination, The human.
mind delights in grand conceptions of supernatural beings.
And the sea is precisely their best vehicle, the only medium
through which these giants (against which terrestrial ani-
mals, such as elephants or rhinoceroses, are as nothing)
gan be produced or developed.

The industrial and commercial papers treated the ques-
tion chiefly from this point of view. The Shipping and
Mercantile Gazette, the Lloyds’ List, the Packet-Boat, and
the Maritime and Colonial Review, all papers devoted te
imsurance companies which threatened to raise their rates



14 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

of premium, were unanimous on this point. Public
opinion had been pronounced. The United States were
the first in the field; and in New York they made prepara-
tions for an expedition destined to pursue this narwhal.
A frigate of great speed, the Abraham Lincoln, was put in
commission as soon as possible. The arsenals were opened
to Commander Farragut, who hastened the arming of his
frigate; but, as it alvays happens, the moment it was de-
cided to pursue the monster, the monster did not appear.
For two months no one heard it spoken of. No ship met
with it. It seemed as if this unicorn knew of the plots
weaving around it. It had been so much talked of, even
through the Atlantic cable, that jesters pretended that this
slender fly had stopped a telegram on its passage, and was
making the most of it.

So when the frigate had been armed for a long campaign,
and provided with formidable fishing apparatus, no one
could tell what course to pursue. Impatience grew apace,
when, on the 2d of June, they learned that a steamer of
the line of San Francisco, from California to Shanghai,
had seen the animal three weeks before in the North Pa-
cific Ocean. The excitement caused by this news was ex-
treme. The ship was revictualled and well stocked with
coal.

Three hours before the Adraham Lincoln left Brooklyn
pier, I received a letter worded as follows:

“To M. ARonnax, Professor in the Museum of Parvs,
Firta AVENUE Hotei, New Yorr.

“Srr,—If you will consent to join the Abraham Lincoln in this
expedition, the government of the United States will with pleasure
see France represented in the enterprise.- Commander Farragut hag
® cabin at your disposal. Very cordially yours,

“J. B. Hopson,
“ Secretary of Marine,”



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 15

CHAPTER III.
I FORM MY RESOLUTION.

THREE seconds before the arrival of J. B. Hobson’s let-
ter, [no more thought of pursuing the unicorn than of
attempting the passage of the North Sea. Three seconds
after reading ‘the letter of the Honorable Secretary of Ma-
rine, I felt that my true vocation, the sole end of my life,
was to chase this disturbing monster, and purge it from the
world.

But I had just returned from a fatiguing journey, weary,
and longing for repose. J aspired to nothing more than
again seeing my country, my friends, my little lodging by
the Jardin des Plantes, my dear and precious collections.
But nothing could keep me back! I forgot all—fatigue,
friends, and collections—and accepted without hesitation
the offer of the American government.

“ Besides,” thought I, ‘all roads lead back to Europe;
and the unicorn may be amiable enough to hurry me
towards the coast of France. This worthy animal may
allow itself to be caught in the seas of Europe (for my par-
ticular benefit), and I will not bring back less than half a
yard of his ivory halbred to the Museum of Natural His-
tory.” But in the mean while I must seek this narwhal
in the North Pacific Ocean, which, to return to France,
was taking the road to the antipodes.

“* Conseil,” I called in an impatient voice.

Conseil was my servant, a true, devoted Flemish bov,
who had accompanied me in all my travels. I liked him,
and he returned the liking well. He was phlegmatic by
nature, regular from principle, zealous from habit, evincing
little disturbance at the different surprises of life, very



16 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS,

quick with his hands, and apt at any service required of
him; and, despite his name, never giving advice—even
when asked for it.

Conseil had followed me for the last ten years wherever
science led. Never once did he complain of the length or
fatigue of a journey, never make an objection to pack his
portmanteau for whatever country it might be, or however
far away, whether China or Congo. Besides all this, he
had good health, which defied all sickness, and solid mus-
cles, but no nerves; good morals are understood. This
boy was thirty years old, and his age to that of his master
as fifteen to twenty. May I be excused for saying that I
was forty years old?

But Conseil had one fault, he was ceremonious to a de-
gree, and would never speak to me but in the third person,
which was sometimes provoking.

* Conseil,” said I again, beginning with feverish hands
to make preparations for my departure.

Certainly I was sure of this devoted boy. Asa rule, I
never asked him if it were convenient for him or not to fol-
low me in my travels; but this time the expedition in ques-
tion might be prolonged, and the enterprise might be haz-
ardous in pursuit of an animal capable of sinking a frigate
as easily asa nutshell. Here there was matter for reflec-
tion even to the most impassive man in the world. What
would Conseil say?

“* Conseil,” I called a third time

Conseil appeared.

«Did you call, sir?” said he, entering.

“Yes, my boy; make preparations for me and yourseli
too. We leave in two hours.”

«« As you please, sir,” replied Conseil, quietly.

“¢ Not an instant to lose; lock in my trunk all travelling
utensils, coats, shirts, and stockings—without countine—
as many as you can, and make haste.”

“ And your collections, sir?” observed Conseil.



20,000 LHAGUES UNDER HE SHAS. 17

«We will think of them by and by.”

‘“What! the archiotherium, the hyracotherium, the
oreodons, the cheropotamus, and the other skins?”

“They will keep them at the hotel.”

«¢ And your live Babiroussa, sir?”

“‘ They will feed it during our absence; besides, I will
give orders to forward our menagerie to France.”

“We are not returning to Paris, then?” said Conseil.

“Oh! certainly,” I answered evasively, ‘‘ by making a
curve.”

“Will the curve please you, sir?”

“‘Oh! it will be nothing; not quite so direct a road, that
is all. We take our passage in the Abraham Lincoln.”

‘* As you think proper, sir,” coolly replied Conseil.

“You see, my friend, it has to do with the monster—-
the famous narwhal. We are going to purge it from the
seas. The author of a work in quarto, in two volumes, on
the ‘Mysteries of the Great Submarine Grounds’ cannot
forbear embarking with Commander Farragut. A glorious
mission, but a dangerous one! We cannot tell where we
may go; these animals can be very capricious. But we will
go whether or no; we have got a captain who is pretty wide
awake.”

I opened a credit account for Babiroussa, and, Conseil
following, I jumped into a cab. Our luggage was trans-
ported to the deck of the frigate immediately. I hastened
on board and asked for Commander Farragut. One of the
sailors conducted me to the poop, where I found myself in
the presence of a good-looking officer, who held out his
hand to me.

“Monsieur Pierre Aronnax?” said he.

“* Himself,” replied I; ‘‘ Commander Farragut?”

ery are welcome, Professor; your cabin is ready for
you.”

J bowed, and desired to be conducted to the cabin des-
tined for me.



18 20,000 LHEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

The Abraham Lincoln had been well chosen and equipped
for her new destination. She was a frigate of great speed,
fitted with high-pressure engines which admitted a pressure
of seven atmospheres. Under this the Abraham Lincoln
attained the mean speed of nearly eighteen knots and a
third an hour—a considerable speed, but, nevertheless,
insufficient to grapple with this gigantic cetacean.

The interior arrangements of the frigate corresponded t¢
its nautical qualities. I was well satisfied with my cabin,
which was in the after-part, opening upon the gun-room.

“‘We shall be well off here,” said I to Conseil.

«* As well, by your honov’s leave, as a hermit-crab in the
shell of a whelk,” said Conseil. .

T left Conseil to stow our trunks conveniently away, and
remounted the poop in order to survey the preparations fo1
departure.

At that moment Commander Farragut was ordering the
last moorings to be cast loose which held the Adraham
Lincoln to the pier of Brooklyn. So in a quarter of an
hour, perhaps less, the frigate would have sailed withont
me. «I should have missed this extraordinary, supernatural,
and incredible expedition, the recital of which may wel!
meet with some skepticism.

But Commander Farragut would not lose a day nor an
hour in scouring the seas in which the animal had been
sighted. He sent for the engineer.

“Ts the steam full on?” asked he.

“Yes, sir,” replied the engineer.

“‘Go ahead,” cried Commander Farragut.

The quay of Brooklyn, and all that part of New York
bordering on the East River, was crowded with spectators.
Three cheers burst successively from five hundred thousand
throats; thousands of handkerchiefs were waved above the
heads of the compact mass, saluting the Abraham Lincoln,
until she reached the waters of the Hudson, at the point of
that elongated peninsula which forms the town of New



2,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 19

York. Then the frigate, following the coast of New Jersey
along the right bank of the beautiful river, covered with
villas, passed between the forts, which saluted her with
their heaviest guns. The Abraham Lincoln answered by
hoisting the American colors three times, whose thirty-nine
stars shone resplendent from the mizzen-peak; then modi-
fying its speed to take the narrow channel marked by buoys
placed in the inner bay formed by Sandy Hook Point, it
coasted the long sandy beach, where some thousands of
spectators gave it one final cheer. The escort of boats and
tenders still followed the frigate, and did not leave her
until they came abreast of the light-ship, whose two lights
marked the entrance of New York Channel.

Six bells struck, the pilot got into his boat, and rejoined
the little schooner which was waiting under our lee, the
fires were made up, the screw beat the waves more rapidly,
the frigate skirted the low yellow coast of Long Island; and
at eight bells, after having lost sight in the northwest of
the lights of Fire Island, she ran at full steam on to the
dark waters of the Atlantic.

2 SHAPTER IV.
NED LAND.

CAPTAIN FarRAGUT was a.good seaman, worthy of the
frigate he commanded. THis vessel and he were one. He
was the soul of it. On the question of the cetacean there
was no doubt in his mind, and he would not allow the ex-
istence of the animal to be disputed on board. He believed
in it as certain good women believe in the leviathan—by
faith, not by reason. The monster did exist, and he had
sworn to rid the seas of it. He was a kind of Knight of
Rhodes, asecond Dieudonné de Gozon, going to meet the



26 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDHR THE SHap.

serpent which desolated the island. Hither Captain Farra-
gut would kill the narwhal, or the narwhal would kill the
captain. ‘There was no third course.

The officers on board shared the opinion of their chief.
They were ever chatting, discussing, and calculating the
various chances of a meeting, watching narrowly the vast
surface of the ocean. More than one took up his quarters
voluntarily in the cross-trees, who would have cursed such
a berth under any other circumstances. As long as the sun
described its daily course, the rigging was crowded with
sailors, whose feet were burnt to such an extent by the heat
of the deck as to render it unbearable; still the Abraham
Lincoln had not yet breasted the suspected waters of the
Pacific. - As to the ship’s company, they desired nothing
better than to meet the unicorn, to harpoon it, hoist it on
board, and deepath it. They watched the sea with eager
attention.

Besides, Captain Farragut had spoken of a certain sum of
two thousand dollars, set apart for whoever should first
sight the monster, were he cabin-boy, common seaman, or
officer.

I leave you to judge how eyes were used on board the
Abraham Lincoln.

For my own part, I was not behind the others, and left
to no one my share of daily observations. The frigate
might have been called the Argus, for a hundred reasons.
Only one amongst us, Conseil, seemed to protest by his in-
difference against the question which so interested us all,
and seemed to be out of keeping ae the general enthusiasm
on board.

T have said that Captain Farragut had carefully provided
his ship with every apparatus for catching the gigantic ceta-
cean. No whaler had ever been better armed. We pos-
sessed every known engine, from the harpoon thrown by
the hand to the barbed arrows of the blunderbuss, and the
explosive balls of the duck-gun. On the forecastle lay the



20,000 LEAGUES UNDHR THE SEAS, 91

perfection of a breech-loading gun, very thick at the breech,
and very narrow in the bore, the model of which had been
in the Exhibition of 1867. This precious weapon of Ameri-
can origin could throw with ease a conical projectile of nine
pounds to a mean distance of ten miles.

Thus the Abraham Lincoln wanted for no means of de-
struction; and, what was better still, she had on board Ned
Land, the prince of harpooners.

Ned Land was a Canadian, with an uncommon quickness
of hand, and who knew no equal in his dangerous occupa-
tion. Skill, coolness, audacity, and cunning he possessed
in a superior degree, and it must be a cunning whale ora
singularly ‘‘ cute” cachalot to escape the stroke of his har-
poon.

Ned Land wasabouv ‘orty years of age; he was a tall man
(more than six feet high), strongly built, grave and taciturn,
occasionally violent, and very passionate when contradicted.
His person attracted attention, but above all the boldness
of his look, which gave a singular expression to his face.

Who calls himself Canadian calls himself French; and
little communicative as Ned Land was, I must admit that
he took a certain liking forme. My nationality drew him
to me, no doubt. It was an opportunity for him to talk,
and for me to hear, that old language of Rabelais, which is
still in use in some Canadian provinces. The harpooner’s
family was originally from Quebec, and was already a tribe
of hardy fishermen when this town belonged to France.

Little by little, Ned Land acquired a taste for chatting,
and I loved to hear the recital of his adventures in
the polar seas. He related his fishing, and his combats,
with natural poetry of expression; his recital took the form
of an epic poem, and I seemed to be listening to a Canadian
Homer singing the Iliad of the regions of the North.

Jam portraying this hardy companion as I really knew
him. We are old friends now, united in that unchangeable
friendship which is born and cemented amidst extreme dan-



32 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SHAS.

gers. Ah, brave Ned! I ask no more than to live a hun-
dred years longer, that I may have more time to dwell the
longer on your memory.

Now, what was Ned Land’s opinion upon the question of
the marine monster? I must admit that he did not believe
in the unicorn, and was the only one on board who ‘did not
share that universal conviction. He even avoided the sub-
ject, which I one day thought it my duty to press upon
him. One magnificent evening, the 25th June—that is to
say, three weeks after our departure—the frigate was
abreast of Cape Blanc, thirty miles to leeward of the coast
of Patagonia. We had crossed the tropic of Capricorn, and
the Straits of Magellan opened less than seven hundred
miles to the south. Before eight days were over the Adra-
ham Lincoln would be ploughing the waters of the Pacific.

Seated on the poop, Ned Land and I were chatting of one
thing and another as we looked at this mysterious sea,
whose great depths had up to this time been inaccessible to
the eye of man. I naturally led up the conversation to the
giant unicorn, and examined the various chances of success
or failure of the expedition. But seeing that Ned Land let
me speak without saying too much himself, I pressed him
wore closely.

“‘Well, Ned,” said I, ‘‘is it possible that you are not
convinced of the existence of this cetacean that we are fol-
lowing? Have you any particular reason for being so in-
credulous?” .

The harpooner looked at me fixedly for some moments
before answering, struck his broad forehead with his hand
(a habit of his), as if to collect pees and said at last,
“Perhaps I have, Mr. Aronnax.’

“But, Ned, you, a whaler by profession, familiarized
with all the great marinc mammalia—you, whose imagina-
tion might easily accept the hypothesis of enormous ceta-
ceans—yow ought to be the last to doubt under such cir-
cumstances!”



2u,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 93

‘‘That is just what deceives you, Professor,” replied
Ned. <‘‘That the vulgar should believe in extraordinary
comets traversing space, and in the existence of antedilu-
vian monsters in the heart of the globe, may well be; but
neither astronomers nor geologists believe in such chimeras.
As a whaler, I have followed many a cetacean, harpooned
a great number, and killed several; but, however strong
or well-armed they may have been, neither their tails nor
their weapons would have been able even to scratch the
iron plates of a steamer.”

“But, Ned, they tell of ships which the teeth of the nar-
whal have pierced through and through.”

“‘ Wooden ships—that is possible,” replied the Canadian;
“but I have never seen it done; and, until further proof,
I deny that whales, cetaceans, or sea-unicorns could ever
produce the effect you describe.”

«Well, Ned, I repeat it with a conviction resting on the
logic of facts. I believe in the existence of a mammal
powerfully organized, belonging to the branch of verte-
brata, like the whales, the cachalots, or the dolphins, and
furnished with a horn of defence of great penetrating
power.”

‘‘Hum!” said the harpooner, shaking his head with the
air of a man who would not be convinced,

“Notice one thing, my worthy Canadian,” I resumed.
“Tf such an animal is in existence, if it inhabits the depths
of the ocean, if it frequents the strata lying miles below the
surface of the water, it must necessarily possess an organ-
ization the strength of which would defy all comparison.”

«And why this powerful organization?” demanded Ned.

“Because it requires incalculable strength to keep one’s
self in these strata and resist their pressure. Listen to me.
Let us admit that the pressure of the atmosphere 1s repre-
sented by the weight of a column of water thirty-two feet
high. In reality the column of water would be shorter, as
we are speaking of sea-water, the density of which is greates



24 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

than that of fresh water. Very well, when you dive, Ned,
as many times thirty-two feet of water as there are above
you, so many times does your body bear a pressure equal to
that of the etmosphere, that is to say 15 Ibs. for each square
inch of its surface. It follows, then, that at 320 feet this
pressure = that of 10 atmospheres, of 100 atmospheres at
3200 feet, and of 1000 atmospheres at 32,000 feet, that is,
about 6 miles; which is equivalent to saying that, if you
could attain this depth in the ocean, each square 3 of an
inch of the surface of your body would bear a pressure of
5600 lbs. Ah! my brave Ned, do you know how many
square inches you carry on the surface of your body?”

‘*T have no idea, Mr. Aronnax.” ;

“«* About 6500; and, as in reality the atmospheric press-
ure is about 15 Ibs. to the square inch, your 6500 square
inches bear at this moment a pressure of 97,500 lbs.”

‘‘ Without my perceiving it?”

‘Without your perceiving it. And if you are not
crushed by such a pressure, it is because the air penetrates
the interior of your body with equal pressure. Hence per-
fect equilibrium between the interior and exterior pressure,
which thus neutralize each other, and which allows you to
bear it without inconvenience. But in the water it is
another thing.”

“Yes, I understand,” replied Ned, becoming more atten-
tive; ‘“‘ because the water surrounds me, but does not pene-
trate.”

“Precisely, Ned; so that at 32 feet beneath the surface
of the sea you would undergo a pressure of 97,500 lbs.; at
320 feet, ten times that pressure; at 3200 feet, a hundred
times that pressure; lastly, at 32,000 feet, a thousand times
that pressure would be 97,500,000 lbs.—that is to say,
that you would be flattened as if you had been drawn from
the plates of an hydraulic machine!”

««The devil!” exclaimed Ned.

“Very well, my worthy harpooner, if some vertebrate,



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 98

several hundred yards long, and large in proportion, can
maintain itself in such depths,—of those whose surface is
represented by millions of square inches, that is by tens of
millions of pounds, we must estimate the pressure they
undergo. Consider, then, what must be the resistance of
their bony structure, and the strength of their organization
to withstand such pressure!’’

- Why!’ exclaimed Ned Land, ‘‘they must be made of
iron plates eight inches thick, like the armored frigates.”

** As you say, Ned. And think what destruction such a
mass would cause, if hurled with the speed of an express
train against the hull of a vessel.”

“‘ Yes—certainly—perhaps,” replied the Canadian, shaken
by these figures, but not yet willing to give in.

‘Well, have I convinced you?”

«‘You have convinced me of one thing, sir, which is, that
if such animals do exist at the bottom of the seas, they must
necessarily be as strong as you say.”

«But if they do not exist, mine obstinate harpooner,
how explain the accident to the Scotia?”

CHAPTER V.

AT A VENTURE.

THE voyage of the Abraham Lincoln was for a long time
marked by no special incident. But one circumstance hap-
pened which showed the wonderful dexterity of Ned Land,
and proved what confidence we might place:in him.

The 30th of June, the frigate spoke some American
whalers, from whom we learned that they knew nothing
about-the narwhal. But one of them, the captain of the
Monroe, knowing that Ned Land had shipped on board the
Abraham Lincoln, begged for his help in chasing a whale



26 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

they had in sight. Commander Farragut, desirous of see-
ing Ned Land at work, gave him permission to go on board.
the Monroe. And fate served our Canadian so well that,
instead of one whale, he harpooned two with a double blow,
striking one straight to the heart and catching the other
after some minutes’ pursuit.

Decidedly, if the monster ever had to do with Ned Land’s
harpoon, I would not bet in its favor.

The frigate skirted the southeast coast of America with
great rapidity. The 3d of July we were at the opening of
the Straits of Magellan, level with Cape Vierges. But
Commander Farragut would not take a tortuous passage,
but doubled Cape Horn.

The ship’s crew agreed with him. And certainly it was
possible that they might meet the narwhal in this narrow
pass. Many of the sailors affirmed that the monster could
not pass there, ‘‘ that he was too big for that!”

The 6th of July, about three o’clock in the afternoon,
the Abraham Lincoln, at fifteen miles to the south, doubled
the solitary island, this last rock at the extremity of the
American continent to which some Dutch sailors gave the
name of their native town, Cape Horn. The course was
taken towards the northwest, and the next day the screw of
the frigate was at last beating the waters of the Pacific.

«Keep your eyes open!” called out the sailors.

And they were opened widely. Both eyes and glasses, a
little dazzled, it is true, by the prospect of two thousand
dollars, had not an instant’s repose. Day and night they
watched the surface of the ocean, and even nyctalopes,
whose faculty of seeing in the darkness multiplies their
chances a hundred-fold, vould have had enough to do to
gain the prize.

I myself, for whom money had no charms, was not the
least attentive on board. Giving but few minutes to my
meals, but a few hours to sleep, indifferent to either rain
sr stmshine, I did not leave the poop of the vessel. Now



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAC. Q7

\eaning on the netting of the forecastle, now on the taffrail,
I devoured with eagerness the soft foam which whitened
the sea as far as the eye could reach; and how often have I
shared the emotion of the majority of the crew when some
capricious whale raised its black back above the waves!
The poop of the vessel was crowded in a moment. The
cabins poured forth a torrent of sailors and officers, each
with heaving breast and troubled eye watching the course
of the cetacean. I looked, and looked, till I was nearly
blind, whilst Conseil, always phlegmatic, kept repeating in
a calm voice:

“Tf, sir, you would not squint so much, you would see
better!”

But vain excitement! the Abraham Lincoln checked its
speed. and made for the animal signalled, a simple whale, or
common cachalot, which soon disappeared amidst a storm
of execration.

But the weather was good. The voyage was being ac-
complished under the most favorable auspices. It was then
the bad‘season in Australia, the July of that zone corre-
sponding to our January in Europe; but the sea was beauti-
ful and easily scanned round a vast circumference.

The 20th July, the tropic of Capricorn was cut by 105°
of longitude, and the 27th of the same month we crossed
the equator on the 110th meridian. This passed, the frig-
ate took a more decided westerly direction, and scoured
the central waters of the Pacific. Commander Farragut
thought, and with reason, that it was better to remain in
deep water, and keep clear of continents or islands, which
the beast itself seemed to shun (perhaps because there was
not enough water for him! suggested the greater part of
the crew). The frigate passed ct some distance from the
Marquesas and. the Sandwich Islands, crossed the tropic of
Cancer, and made for the China Seas. We were on the the-
atre of the last diversions of the monster; and to say truth,
we no longer lived on board. Hearts palpitated, fearfully



98 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

preparing themselves for future incurable aneurism. ‘The
entire ship’s crew were undergoing a nervous excitement, of
which I can give no idea; they could not eat, they could
not sleep: twenty times a day, a misconception or an opti-
cal illusion of some sailor seated on the taffrail would cause
dreadful perspirations, and these emotions, twenty times
repeated, kept us in a state of excitement so violent that a
reaction was unavoidable.

And truly, reaction soon showed itself. For three
months, during which a day seemed an age, the Adra.
ham Lincoln furrowed all the waters of the Northern Pa
cific, running at whales, making sharp deviations from her
course, veering suddenly from one tack to another, stop:
ping suddenly, putting on steam, and backing ever and
anon at the risk of deranging her machinery; and not one
point of the Japanese or American coast was left unex-
plored. ;

The warmest partisans of the enterprise now became its
most ardent detractors. Reaction mounted from the crew
to the captain himself, and certainly, had it not been for
resolute determination on the part of Captain Farragut, the
frigate would have headed due southward. This useless
search could not last much longer. The Abraham Lincoln
had nothing to reproach herself with, she had done her
best to succeed. Never had an American ship’s crew shown
more zeal or patience; its failure could not be placed to
their charge—there remained nothing but to return.

This was represented to the commander. The sailors
could not hide their discontent, and the service suffered.
I will not say there was a mutiny on board, but after a
reasonable period of obstinacy, Captain Farragut (as Co-
lumbus did) asked for three days’ patience. If in
three days the monster did not appear, the man at the helm
should give three turns of the wheel, and the Adraham
Lincoln would make for the European seas.

This promise was made on the 2d of November. It had



20,000 LHAGUES UNDER. THE SEAS, 99

the effect of rallying the ship’s crew. The ocean was
watched with renewed attention. Hach one wished for a
last glance in which to sum up hisremembrance. Glasses
were used with feverish activity. It was a grand defiance
given to the giant narwhal, and he could scarcely fail to
answer the summons and ‘ appear.” :

Two days passed, the steam was at half-pressure; a
thousand schemes were tried to attract the attention and
stimulate the apathy of the animal in case it should be
met in those parts. Large quantities of bacon were trailed
in the wake of the ship, to the great satisfaction (I must
say) of the sharks. Small craft radiated in all directions
round the Abraham Lincoln as she lay to, and did not leave
a spot of the sea unexplored. But the night of the 4th of
November arrived without the unveiling of this submarine
mystery.

The next day, the 5th of November, at twelve, the de.
lay would (morally speaking) expire; after that time, Com-
mander Farragug, faithful to his promise, was to turn the
course to the southeast and abandon forever the northern
regions of the Pacific.

The frigate was then in 31° 15’ north latitude and 186°
42’ east longitude. The coast of Japan still remained Jess
than two hundred miles to leeward. Night was approach-
ing. They had just struck cight bells; large clouds veiled
the face of the moon, then in its first quarter. The sea
undulated peaceably under the stern of the vessel.

At that moment I was leaning forward on the starboard
netting. Conseil, standing near me, was looking straight
before him. The crew, perched in the ratlines, examined
the horizon, which contracted and darkened by degrees.
Officers with their night-glasses scoured the growing dark-
ness; sometimes the ocean sparkled under the rays of the
moon, which darted between two clouds, then all trace of
light was lost in the darkness.

In looking at Conseil, I could see he was undergoing a



80 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

little of the general influence. Atleast Jthoughtso. Per-
haps for the first time his nerves vibrated to a sentiment of
curiosity.

“Come, Conseil,” said I, ‘‘this is the last chance of
pocketing the two thousand dollars.”

“May I be permitted to say, sir,” replied Conseil,
“that I never reckoned on getting the prize; and had the
government of the Union offered a hundred thousand dol-
lars, it would have been none the poorer.”

“You are right, Conseil. It is a foolish affair after
all, and one upon which we entered too lightly. What
time lost, what useless emotions! We should have been
back in France six months ago.”

“In your little room, sir,” replied Conseil, ‘‘and in
your museum, sir; and I should have already classed ail
your fossils, sir. And the Babiroussa would have been in-
stalled in its cage in the Jardin des Plantes, and “have
drawn all the curious people of the capital !”

“As you say, Conseil. I fancy we shall run a fair
chance of being langhed at for our pains.”

‘‘That’s tolerably certain,” replied Conseil, quietly; “I
think they will make fun of you, sir. And, must I say
it—?”

“Go on, my good friend.”

“Well, sir, you will only get your deserts.”

“«* Indeed!”

*¢ When one has the honor of being a savant as you are,
sir, one should not expose one’s self to—”

Conseil had not time to finish his compliment. In the
midst of general silence a voice had just been heard. It
was the voice of Ned Land shouting:

‘Look out there! the very thing we are looking for—
on our weather beam!”



20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER WH SHAS,

CHAPTER VI.
AT FULL STEAM.

At this cry the whole ship’s crew hurried towards the
harpooner—commander, officers, masters, sailors. cabin-
boys; even the engineers left their engines, and the
stokers their furnaces.

The order to stop her had been given, and the frigate
now simply went on by her own momentum. The dark-
ness was then profound; and however good the Canadian’s
eyes were, I asked myself how he had managed to see, and
what he had been able to see. My heart beat as if it would
break. But Ned Land was not mistaken, and we all per-
ceived the object he pointed to. At two cables’ lengths
from the Abraham Lincoln, on the starboard quarter, the
sea seemed to be illuminated all over. It was not a mere
phosphoric phenomenon. The monster emerged some
fathoms from the water, and then threw out that very in-
tense but inexplicable light mentioned in the report of
several captains. The magnificent irradiation must have
been produced by an agent of great shining power The
luminous part traced on the sea an immense oval, much
elongated, the centre of which condensed a burning heat,
whose overpowering brilliancy died out by successive gra-
dations. :

“It is only an agglomeration of phosphoric particles,”
cried one of the officers.

‘No, sir, certainly not,” I replied. <‘‘Never did pho-
lades or salps produce such a powerful light. That bright-
ness is of an essentially electrical nature. Besides, see, see!
it moves; it is moving forwards, backwards, it is darting
towards us!”



a2 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS,

A general cry arose from the frigate.

“Silence!” said the captain; “up with the helm, reverse
the engines.”

The steam was shut off, and the Abraham Lincoln, beat-
ing to port, described a semicircle.

‘Right the helm, go ahead,” cried the captain.

‘These orders were executed, and the frigate moved
rapidly from the burning light.

I was mistaken. She tried to sheer off, but ‘the super:
natural animal approached with a velocity double her own.

We gasped for breath. Stupefaction more than fear
made us dumb and motionless. The animal gained on us,
sporting with the waves. It madethe round of the frigate,
which was then making fourteen knots, and enveloped it
with its electric rings like luminous dust. Then it moved
away two or three miles, leaving a phosphorescent track,
like those volumes of steam that the express trains leave
behind. All at once from the dark line of the horizon,
whither it retired to gain its momentum, the monster
rushed suddenly towards the Abraham Lincoln with alarm-
ing rapidity, stopped suddenly about twenty feet from the
hull, and died out—not diving under the water, for its
brilliancy did not abate, but suddenly, and as if the source of
this brilliant emanation was exhausted, Then it reappeared
on the other side of the vessel, as if it had turned and
slid under the hull. Any moment a collision might have
occurred which would have been fatal to us. However, I
was astonished at the manceuvres of the frigate. She fled
and did not attack.

On the captain’s face, generally so impassive, was an ex-
pression of unaccountable astonishment.

“*Mr. Aronnax,” he said, ‘‘I do not know with what
formidable being I have to deal, and I will not imprudently
risk my frigate in the midst of this darkness. Besides,
how attack this unknown thing, how defend one’s self from
it? Wait for daylight, and the scene will change.”



20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 83

--Â¥You have no further doubt, captain, of the nature of
the animal?”

‘No, sir; it is evidently a gigantic narwhal, and an elec-
tric one.”

“* Perhaps,” added I, ¥ one can only approach it with a
gymnotus or a torpedo.”

Undoubtedly,” replied the captain, “if it posseses such
dreadful power, it is the most terrible animal that ever was
created. That is why, sir, I must be on my guard.”

The crew were on their feet all night. No one thought
of sleep. The Abraham Lincoln, not being able to strug-
gle with such velocity, had moderated its pace, and sailed
at half speed. For its part, the narwhal, imitating the
frigate, let the waves rock at it will, and seemed decided not
to leave the scene of the struggle. Towards midnight,
however, it disappeared, or, to use a more appropriate term,
it ‘died out” like a large glow-worm. Had it fledP One
could only fear, not hope it. But at seven minutes to one
o’clock in the morning a deafening whistle was heard, like
that produced by a body of water rushing with great vio-
lence.

The captain, Ned Land, and I were then on the poop,
eagerly peering through the profound darkness.

“Ned Land,” asked the commander, ‘‘you have often
heard the roaring of whales?”

“Often, sir; but never such whales the sight of which
wrought me in two thousand dollars. If I can only ap-
proach within four harpoon lengths of it!”

“But to approach it,” said the commander, “I ought to
put a whaler at your disposal?”

“ Certainly, sir.”

“That will be trifling with the lives of my men.”

** And mine too,” simply said the harpooner.

Towards two o’clock in the morning, the burning light
reappeared, not less intense, about five miles to windward
of the Abraham Lincoln. Notwithstanding the distance,



84 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS,

and the noise of the wind and sea, one heard distinctly the
loud strokes of the animal’s tail, and even its panting
breath. - It seemed that, at the moment that the enormous
narwhal had come to take breath at the surface of the
water, the air was ingulfed in its lungs, like the steam in
the vast cylinders of a machine of two thousand horse-
power.

“Aum!” thought I, ‘“‘a whale with the strength of a
cavalry regiment would be a pretty whale!”

We were on the gui vive till daylight, and prepared for
the combat. The fishing implements were laid along the
hammock nettings. The second lieutanant loaded the
blunderbusses, which could throw harpoons to the distance
of a mile, and long duck-guns, with explosive bullets,
which inflicted mortal wounds even to the most terrible
animals. Ned Land contented himself with sharpening
his harpoon—a terrible weapon in his hands.

At six o’clock, day began to break; and with the first
glimmer of light, the electric light of the narwhal disap-
peared. At seven o’clock the day was sufficiently advanced,
but a very thick sea-fog obscured our view, and the best
spy-glasses could not pierce it. That caused disappoint-
ment and anger.

I climbed the mizzen-mast. Some officers were already
perched on the mast-heads. At eight o’clock the fog lay
heavily on the waves, and its thick scrolls rose little by lit-
tle. The horizon grew wider and clearer at the same time.
Suddenly, just as on the day before, Ned Land’s voice was
heard:

‘The thing itself on the port quarter!” cried the har-
pooner.

Every eye was turned towards the point indicated. There,
a mile and a half from the frigate, a long blackish body
emerged a yard above the waves. Its tail, violently agi-
tated, produced a considerable eddy. Never did a caudal
uppendage beat the sea with such violence. An immense



20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 35

track, of a dazzling whiteness, marked the passage of the
animal, and described a long curve.

The frigate approached the cetacean. I examined it
thoroughly.

The reports of the Shannon and of the Helvetia had
rather exaggerated its size, and I estimated its length at
only two hundred and fifty feet. As to its dimensions, I
could only conjecture them to be admirably proportioned.
While I watched this phenomenon, two jets of steam and
water were ejected. from its vents, and rose to the height
of 120 feet; thus I ascertained its way of breathing. I con-
cluded definitely that it belonged to the vertebrate branch,
class mammalia.

The crew waited impatiently for their chief’s orders.
The latter, after having observed the animal attentively,
called the engineer. The engineer ran to him.

“Sir,” said the commander, ‘‘ you have steam up?”

‘** Yes, sir,” answered the engineer.

“Well, make up your fires and put on all steam.”

Three hurrahs greeted this order. The time for the
struggle had arrived. Some moments after, the two fun-
nels of the frigate vomited torrents of black smoke, and
the bridge quaked under the trembling of the boilers.

The Abraham Lincoln, propelled by her powerful screw,
went straight at the animal. The latter allowed it to come
within half a cable’s length; then, as if disdaining to dive,
it took a little turn, and stopped a short distance off.

This pursuit lasted nearly three quarters of an hour,
without the frigate gaining two yards on the cetacean. It
was quite evident that at that rate we should never come
up with it.

“Well, Mr. Land,” asked the captain, ‘‘do you advise
me to put the boats out to sea?”

“No, sir,” replied Ned Land; “because we shall not
take that beast easily.”

““ What shall we do, then?”



36 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

“Put on more steam if yon can, sir. With your leave,
I mean to post myself under the bowsprit, and if we get
within harpooning distance, I shall throw my harpoon.”

“Go, Ned,” said the captain. ‘‘ Engineer, put on more
pressure.”

Ned Land went to his post.. The fires were increased,
the screw revolved forty-three times a minute, and the
steam poured out of the valves. We heaved the log, and
calculated thatthe Abraham Lincoln was going at the rate
of 184 miles an hour.

But the accursed animal swam too at the rate of 183
miles.

For a whole hour, the frigate kept up this pace, without
gaining six feet. It was humiliating for one of the swiftest
sailers in the American navy. the crew; the sailors abused the monster, who, as before,
disdained to answer them; the captain no longer con-
tented himself with twisting his beard—he gnawed it.

The engineer was again called.

«You have turned full steam on?”

“Yes, sir,” replied the engineer.

The speed of the Abraham Lincoln increased. Its masts
trembled down to their stepping-holes, and the clouds of
smoke could hardly find way out of the narrow. funnels.

They heaved the log a second time.

“‘Well?” asked the captain of the man at the wheel.

“‘Nineteen miles and three tenths, sir.”

‘Clap on more steam.”

The engineer obeyed. The manometer showed ten de-
grees. But the cetacean grew warm itself, no doubt; for,
without straining itself, it made 19,8, miles.

What a pursuit! No, I cannot describe the emotion that
vibrated through me. Ned Land kept his post, harpoon in
hand. Several times the animal let us gain upon it. ‘“‘ We
shall catch it! we shall catch it!” cried the Canadian. But
just as he was going to strike, the cetacean stole away with



20,000 LEAGULS UNDER THE SEAS. 87

a rapidity that could not be estimated at less than thirty
miles an hour, and even during our maximum of speed it
builied the frigate, going round and round it. A ery of
fury broke from every one! ,

At noon we were no further advanced than at eight
Yclock in the morning.

The captain then decided to take more direct means.

“Ah! said he, “that animal goes quicker than the
abraham Lincoln. Very well! we will see whether it will
escape these conical bullets. Send your men to the forecas-
tle, sir.”

The forecastle gun was immediately loaded and slewed
round. But the shot passed some feet above the cetacean,
which was half a mile off.

‘‘ Another more to the right,” cried the commander,
“and five dollars to whoever will hit that infernal
beast.”

An old gunner with a gray peard—that I can see now—
with steady eye and grave face, went up to the gun and
took along aim. A loud report was heard, with which
were mingled the cheers of the crew.

The bullet did its work; it hit the animal, but not fatal-
ly, and, sliding off the rounded surface, was lost in two
miles’ depth of sea.

The chase began again, and the captain, leaning towards
me, said:

“I will pursue that beast till my frigate bursts up.”

“Yes,” answered I; ‘‘and you will be quite right to do
ib.”

I wished the beast would exhaust itself, and not be insen-
sible to fatigue, like a steam-engine! But it was of no
use. Hours passed, without its showing any signs of ex-
haustion.

However, it must be said in praise of the Abraham Lie-
coln, that she struggled on indefatigably. I cannot reckoy
the distance she made under three hundred miles during



88 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

this unlucky day, Novemberthe 6th. But night came on,
and overshadowed the rough ocean.

Now I thought our expedition was at an end, and that
we should never again see the extraordinary animal. I
was mistaken. At ten minutes to eleven in the evening,
the electric light reappeared three miles to windward of
the frigate, as pure, as intense as during the preceding
night.

The narwhal seemed motionless; perhaps, tired with its
day’s work, it slept, letting itself float with the undulation
of the waves. Now was achance of which the captain re-
solved to take advantage.

He gave his orders. The Abraham Lincoln kept up
half-steam, and advanced cautiously so as not to awake
its adversary. It is no rare thing to meet in the middle
of the ocean whales so sound asleep that they can be suc-
cessfully attacked, and Ned Land had harpooned more
than one during its sleep. The Canadian went to take
his place again under the bowsprit.

The frigate approached noiselessly, stopped at two ca-
bles’ length from the animal, and following its track. No
one breathed; a deep silence reigned on the bridge. We
were nota hundred feet from the burning focus, the light
of which increased and dazzled our eyes.

At this moment, leaning on the forecastle bulwark, I
saw below me Ned Land grappling the martingale in one
hand, brandishing his terrible harpoon in the other,
scarcely twenty feet from the motionless animal. Sudden-
ly his arm straightened, and the harpoon was thrown; I
heard the sonorous stroke of the weapon, which seemed to
have struck a hard body. ‘The electric light went out sud-
denly, and two enormous waterspouts broke over the
bridge of the frigate, rushing like a torrent from stem to
stern, overthrowing men, and breaking the lashing of the
spars.
without having time to stop myself, I fell into the sea.



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THs SHAS. 89

CHAPTER VII.
AN UNKNOWN SPECIES OF WHALE.

‘fHIs unexpected fall so stunned me that I have no clear
recollection of my sensations at the time I was at first
drawn down to a depth of about twenty feet. I am a good
swimmer (though without pretending to rival Byron or
Edgar Poe, who were masters of the art), and in that
plunge I did not lose my presence of mind. Two vigorous
strokes brought me to the surface of the water. My first
care was to look for the frigate. Had the crew seen me
disappear? Had the Abraham Lincoln veered round?
Would the captain put out a boat? Might I hope to be
saved? .

The darkness was intense. I caught: a glimpse of a
black mass disappearing in the east, its }eacon-lights dying
out in the distance. It was the frigate. I was lost.

“Help, help!” I shouted, swimming towards the Adra-
ham Lincoln in desperation.

My clothes encumbered me; they seemed glued to ry
body, and paralyzed my movements.

I was sinking! I was suffocating!

“Help!”

This was my last cry. My mouth filled with water; I
struggled against being drawn down the abyss. Suddenly
my clothes were seized by a strong hand, and I felt myself
quickly drawn up to the surface of the sea; and I heard,
yes, I heard these words pronounced in my ear:

“Tf master would be so good as to lean on my shoulder,
master would swim with much greater ease.”

I seized with one hand my fa‘thful Conseil’s arm.

“Ts it you?” said I, “your”



40 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

“¢ Myself,” answered Conseil; ‘‘ and waiting master’s or-
ders.”

“* That shock threw you as well as me into the sea?”

“No, but being in my master’s service, I followed him.”

The worthy fellow thought that was but natural.

“¢ And the frigate?” I asked.

“The frigate?” replied Conseil, turning on his back:
T think that master had better not count too much oz
ner.”

“You think so?”

‘‘T say that, at the time I threw myself into the sea, 1
heard the men at the wheel say, ‘The screw and the rudder
are broken,’ ”

“ Broken ?”

«Yes, broken by the monster’s teeth. It is the only in-
jury the Abraham Lincoln has sustained. But itis a bad
lookout for us—she no longer answers her helm.”

«* Then we are Jost!”

“Perhaps so,” calmly answered Conseil. ‘‘ However,
we have still severgl hours before us, and one can do a good
deal in some hous.”

Conseil’s imperturbable coolness set me up again. I
swam more vigorously; but, cramped by my clothes, which
stuck to me like a leaden weight, I felt great difficulty in
bearing up. Conseil saw this.

“ ‘Will master let me make a slit?” said he; and slipping
an open knife under my clothes, he ripped them up from
top to bottom very rapidly. Then he cleverly slipped them
off me, while I swam for both of us.

Then J did the same for Conseil, and we continued to
swim near to each other.

Nevertheless, our situation was no less terrible. . Per-
haps our disappearance had not been noticed; and if it had
been, the frigate could not tack, being without its helm.
Conseil argued on this supposition, and laid his plans ac-
cordingly. This phlegmatic boy was perfectly self-pos-



20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, 41

sessed. We then decided that, as our only chance of
safety was being picked up by the Abraham Lincoin’s boats,
we ought to manage so as to wait for them as long as pos-

ible. I resolved then to husband our strength, so that
both should not be exhausted at the same time; and this
is how we managed: while one of us lay on our back, quite
still, with arms crossed, and legs stretched out, the other
would swim and push the other on in front. This towing
business did not last more than ten minutes each; and re-
lieving each other thus, we could swim on for some hours,
perhaps till daybreak. Poor chance! but hope is so firmly
rooted in the heart of man! Moreover, there were two of
us. Indeed I declare (though it may seem improbable)
if I sought to destroy all hope, if I wished to despair, I
could not.

The collision of the frigate with the cetacean had oc-
curred about eleven o’clock the evening before. I reckoned
then we should have eight hours to swim before sunrise—
an operation quite practicable if we relieved each other.
The sea, very calm, was in our favor. Sometimes I tried
to pierce the intense darkness that was only dispelled by
the phosphorescence caused by our movements. I watched
the luminous waves that broke over my hand, whose mir-
ror-like surface was spotted with silvery rings. One might
have said that we were in a bath of quicksilver.

Near one o’clock in the morning I was seized with dread-
ful fatigue. My limbs stiffened under the strain of violent
cramp. Conseil was obliged to keep me up, and our pres}
ervation devolved on him alone. I heard the poor boy}
pant; his breathing became short and hurried. I found:
that he could not keep up much longer.

“Leave me! leave me!” I said to him.

“‘Teave my master? never!” replied he. “YF would
drown first.”

Just then the moon appeared through the fringes of a
thick cloud that the wind was driving to the east. The



42 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

surface of the sea glittered with its rays. This kindly light
reanimated us. My head got better again. I looked at all
the points of the horizon. I saw the frigate! She was five
miles from us, and looked like a dark mass, hardly dis-
cernible. But no boats!

I would have cried out. But what good would it have
been at such a distance! My swollen lips could utter no
sounds. Conseil could articulate some words, and I heard
him repeat at intervals, ‘‘ Help! help!”

Our movements were suspended for an instant; we lis-
tened. It might be only a singing in the ear, but it seemed
to me as if a cry answered the cry from Conseil.

“Did you hear?” I murmured.

«Yes! yes!”

And Conseil gave one more despairing call.

This time there was no mistake! A human voice re-
sponded to ours! Was it the voice of another unfortunate
creature, abandoned in the middle of the ocean, some other
victim of the shock sustained by the vessel? Or rather was
it a boat from the frigate, that was hailing us in the dark-
ness? ;

Conseil made a last effort, and leaning on my shoulder,
while I struck out in a despairing effort, he raised himself
half out of the water, then fell back exhausted.

“What did you see?”

“T saw—” murmured he, ‘‘ I saw—but do not talk—re-
serve all your strength!”

What had he seen? Then, I know not why, the thought
of the monster came into my head for the first time! But
that voice? The time is past for Jonahs to take refuge in
whales’ bellies! However, Conseil was towing me again.
He raised his head sometimes, looked before us, and uttered
a cry of recognition, which was responded to by a voice
that came nearer and nearer. I scarcely heard it. My
strength was exhausted; my fingers stiffened; my hand af-
forded me support no longer; my mouth, convulsively open-



20,00 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 43

ing, filled with salt water. Cold crept over me. I raised
my head for the last time, then I sank.

At this moment a hard body struck me. I clung to iv:
then I felt that I was being drawn up, that I was brought
to the surface of the water, that my chest collapsed: I
fainted.

It is certain that I soon came to, thanks to the vigorous
rubbings that I received. I half opened my eyes.

“ Conseil!” I murmured.

** Does master call me?” asked Conseil.

Just then, by the waning light of the moon, which: was
sinking down to the horizon, I saw a face which was not
Conseil’s, and which I immediately recognized.

“Ned!” I cried.

«‘The same, sir, who is seeking his prize!” replied the
Canadian.

‘* Were you thrown into the sea by the shock of the frig-
ate?”

“Yes, Professor; but, more fortunate than you, I was
able to find a footing almost directly upon a floating island.”

“ An island?”

** Or, more correctly speaking, on our gigantic narwhal.”

«Explain yourself, Ned!”

“Only I soon found out why my harpoon had not en-
tered its skin and was blunted.”

“Why, Ned, why?”

‘Because, Professor, that beast is made of sheet-iron.”

The Canadian’s last words produced a sudden revolution
in my brain. I wriggled myself quickly to the top of the
being, or object, half out of the water, which served us for
arefuge. Ikicked it. It was evidently a hard, impene-
trable body, and not the soft substance that forms the
bodies of the great marine mammalia. But this hard body
might be a bony carapace, like that of the antediluvian ani-
mals; and I should be five to class this monster among am-
phibious reptiles, such as tortoises or alligators.



&
44 40,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

Well, no! the blackish back that supported me was
smooth, polished, without scales. The blow produced a
metallic sound; and incredible though it may be, it seemed,
I might say, as if it was made of riveted plates.

There was no doubt about it! this monster, this natural
phenomenon that had puzzled the learned world, and over-
thrown and misled the imagination of seamen of both hem
ispheres, was, it must be owned, a still more astonishing
phenomenon, inasmuch as it was a simply human construc-
ion.

We had no time to lose, however. We were lying upon
the back of a sort of submarine boat, which appeared (as
far as I could judge) like a huge fish of steel. Ned Land’s
mind was made up on this point. Conseil and I could only
agree with him.

Just then a bubbling began at the back ‘of this strange
thing (which was evidently propelled by a screw, and it be-
yan to move. We had only just time to seize hold of the
apper part, which rose about seven feet out of the water,
ind happily its speed was not great,

“ As long as it sails horizontally,” muttered. Ned Land,
“Ido not mind; but if it takes a fancy to dive, I would
not give two straws for my life.” .

The Canadian might have said still less. It became really
necessary to communicate with the beings, whatever they
were, shut up inside the machine. I searched all over the
outside for an aperture, a panel, or a man-hole, to use a tech-
nical expression; but the lines of the iron rivets, solidly
driven into the joints of the iron plates, were clear and
uniform. Besides, the moon disappeared then, and left us
in total darkness.

At last this long night passed. My indistinct remem-
brance prevents my describing all the impressions it made.
I can only recall one circumstance. During some lulls of
the wind and sea, I fancied I heard several times vague
sounds, a sort of fugitive harmony produced by distant



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 45

words of command. What was then the mystery of this
submarine craft of which the whole world vainly sought an
explanation? What kind of beings existed in this strange
boat? What mechanical agent caused its prodigious speed?

Daybreak appeared. The morning mists surrounded us,
but they soon cleared off. Iwas about to examine the hull,
which formed on deck a kind of horizontal platform, when
I felt it gradually sinking.

“‘Oh, confound it!” cried Ned Land, kicking the resound-
ing plate; ‘“‘open, you inhospitable rascals!”

Happily the sinking movement ceased. Suddenly a
noise, like iron works violently pushed aside, came from
the interior of the boat. One iron plate was moved, a
man appeared, uttered an odd cry, and disappeared imme-
diately.

Some moments after, eight strong men with masked
faces appeared noiselessly, and drew us down into their for-
midable machine.

CHAPTER VIII
MOBILIS IN MOBcLI.

Turis forcible abduction, so roughly carried out, was ae-
complished with the rapidity of lightning. I shivered all
over. Whom had we to deal with? No doubt some new
sort of pirates, who explored the sea in their own way.

Hardly had the narrow panel closed upon me, when I was
enveloped in darkness. My eyes, dazzled with the outer
light, could distinguish nothing. I felt my naked feet
cling to the rings of an iron ladder. Ned Land and Oon-
seil, firmly seized, followed me. At the bottom of the lad-
der, 2 door opened, and shut after us immediately with a
bang.



46 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

We were alone. Where, I could not say, hardly imagine,
All-was black, and such a dense black that, after some
minutes, my eyes had not been able to discern even the
faintest glimmer.

Meanwhile, Ned Land, farions at these proceedings, gave
free vent to his indignation.

“‘Confound it!” cried he, ‘‘here are people who come up
to the Scotch for hospitality. They only just miss being
cannibals. I should not be surprised at it, but I declare
that they shall not eat me without my protesting.”

“‘Calm yourself, friend Ned, calm yourself,” replied
Conseil, quietly. ‘Do not cry out before you are hurt.
We are not quite done for yet.”

‘Not quite,” sharply replied the Canadian, ‘‘ but pretty
near, at all events. Thingslook black. Happily my bowie-
knife I have still, and I can always see well enough to use
it. The first of these pirates who lays a hand on me—”

“Do not excite yourself, Ned,” I said to the harpooner,
“‘and- do not compromise us by useless violence. Who
knows that they will Hoe listen tous? Let us rather try to
find out where we are.’

I groped about. In five steps I came to an iron wall,
made of plates bolted together. Then turning back I struck
against a wooden table, near which were ranged several
stools. The boards of this prison were concealed under a
thick mat of phormium, which deadened the noise of the
feet. The bare walls revealed no trace of window or door.
Conseil, going round the reverse way, met me, and we went
back to the middle of the cabin, which measured about
twenty feet by ten. As to its height, Ned Land, in spite
of his own great height, could not measure it.

Half an hour had already passed without our situation
being bettered, when the dense darkness suddenly gave way
to extreme light. Our prison was suddenly lighted, that is
to say, it became filled with a luminous matter, so strong
that I could not bear it at first. In its whiteness and in-



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 44

tensity I recognized that electric light which played round
the submarine boat like a magnificent phenomenon of
phosphoresence. After shutting my eyes involuntarily, ]
opened them and saw that this luminous agent came from
a half-globe, unpolished, placed in the roof of the cabin.

*¢ At last one can see,:’ cried Ned Land, who, knife in
hand,. stood on the defensive.

“Yes,” said I; “‘ but we.are still in the dark about our-
selves.”

“* Let master have patience,” said the imperturbable Con-
seil.

The sudden lighting of the cabin enabled me to examine
it minutely. It only contained a table and five stools. The
invisible door might be hermetically sealed. No noise was
heard. All seemed dead in the interior of this boat. Did
it move, did it float on the surface of the ocean, or did it
dive into its depths? I could not guess.

A noise of bolts was now heard, the door opened, and two
men appeared.

One was short, very muscular, broad-shouldered, with
robust limbs, strong head, an abundance of black hair, thick
mustache, a quick penetrating look, and the vivacity which
characterizes the population of Southern France.

The second stranger merits a more detailed description.
A disciple of Gratiolet or Engel would have read his face
like an open book. I made out his prevailing qualities di-
rectly: self-confidence—because his head was well set on
his shoulders, and his black eyes looked around with cold
assurance; calmness—for his skin, rather pale, showed his
coolness of blood; energy—evinced by the rapid contrac-
tion of his lofty brows; and courage—because his deep
breathing denoted great power of lungs.

Whether this person was thirty-five or fifty years of age,
I could not say. He was tall, had a large forehead, straight
nose, a clearly cut mouth, beautiful teeth, with fine taper
hands, indicative of a highly nervous temperament. This



48 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

man was certainly the most admirable specimen I had ever
met. One particular feature was his eyes, rather far from
each other, and which could take in nearly a quarter of the
horizon at once.

This faculty (I verified it later) gave him a range of
vision far superior to Ned Land’s. When this stranger
fixed upon an object, his eyebrows met, his large eyelids
closed around so as to contract the range of his vision, and
he looked as if he magnified the objects lessened by
distance, as if he pierced those sheets of water so opaque
to our eyes, and as if he read the very depths of the
seas.

The two strangers, with caps made from the fur of the
sea otter and shod with sea boots of seals’ skin, were dressed
in clothes of a particular texture, which allowed free move-
ment of the limbs. The taller of the two, evidently the
chief on board, examined us with great attention, without
saying a word: then turning to his companion, talked with
him in an unknown tongue. It was a sonorous, harmoni-
ous, and flexible dialect, the vowels seeming to admit of
very varied accentuation.

The other replied by a shake of the head, and added two
or three perfectly incomprehensible words. Then heseemed
to question me by a look.

I replied in good French that I did not know his lan
guage; but he seemed not to understand me, and my situa-
tion became more embarrassing.

“Tf master were to tell our story,” said Conseil, ‘‘ per-
haps these gentlemen may understand some words.”

I began to tell our adventures, articulating each syllable
clearly; and without omitting one single detail. I an-
nounced our names and rank, introducing in person Profes-
sor Aronnax, his servant Conseil, and master Ned Land,
the harpooner.

The man with the soft calm eyes listened to me quietly,
even politely, and with extreme attention; but nothing in



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 49

his countenance indicated that he had understood my story.
When I finished he said not a word.

There remained one resource, to speak English. Perhaps
they would know this almost universal language. I knew
it, as well as the German language—well enough to read it
fluently, but not to speak it correctly. But, anyhow, we
must make ourselves understood.

“*Go on in your turn,” I said to the harpooner; ‘speak
your best Anglo-Saxon, and try to do better than I.”

Ned did not beg off, and recommenged our story.

To his great disgust, the harpooner did not seem to have
made himself more intelligible than I had. Our visitors did
not stir. They evidently understood neither the language
of Arago nor of Faraday.

Very much embarrassed, after having vainly exhausted
our philological resources,.I knew not what part to take,
when. Conseil said:

“¢Tf master will permit me, I will relate it in German.”

But in spite of the elegant turns and good accent of the
narrator, the German language had no success. At last,
nonplussed, I tried to remember my first lessons, and to
narrate our adventures in Latin, but with no better success.
This last attempt being of no avail, the two strangers ex-
changed some words in their unknown language, and retired.

The door shut.

‘*Tt is an infamous shame,” cried Ned Land, who broke
out for the twentieth time; ‘‘ we speak to those rogues in
French, English, German, and Latin, and not one of them
has the politeness to answer!”

“Calm yourself,” I said to the impetuous Ned, ‘anger
will do no good.”

‘‘But do you see, Professor,” replied. our irascible com-
panion, ‘‘ that we shall absolutely die of hunger in this iron
cage?”

‘* Bah,” said Conseil philosophically; ‘‘ we can hold out
some time yet.”



50 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

‘* My friends,” I said, ‘‘we must not despair. We have
been worse off than this. Do me the favor to wait a little
before forming an opinion upon the commander and crew
of this boat.”

‘“*My opinion is formed,” replied Ned Land sharply.
«They are rascals.”

“Good! and from what country?”

‘From the land of rogues!”

‘My brave Ned, that country is not clearly indicated on
the map of the world; but I admit that the nationality of
the two strangers is hard to determine. Neither English,
French, nor German, that is quite certain. However, 1
am inclined to think that the commander and his com.
panion were born in low latitudes. ‘There is southern
blood inthem. ButI cannot decide by their appearance
whether they are Spaniards, Turks, Arabians, or Indians.
As to their language, it is quite incomprehensible.”

“« There is the disadvantage of not knowing all languages,”
said Conseil, ‘‘or the disadvantage of not having one uni
versal language.”

As he said these words, the door opened. A steward,
entered. He brought us clothes, coats and trousers, made
of a stuff I did not know. I hastened'to dress myself, and
my companions followed my example. During that time,
the steward—dumb, perhaps deaf—had arranged the table,
and laid three plates.

s¢ This is something like,” said Conseil.

Bah,” said the rancorous harpooner, ‘‘ what do you sup-
pose they eat here? ‘Tortoise liver, filleted shark, and
beefsteaks from sea-dogs.”

‘< We shall see,” said Conseil.

The dishes, of bell metal, were placed on the table, and
we took our places. Undoubtedly we had to do with civil-
ized people, and had it not been for the electric light
which flooded us, I could have fancied I was in the dining-
room of the Adelphi Hotel at Liverpool, or at the Grand



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. ~ 51

Hotel in Paris. I must say, however, that there was
neither bread nor wine. The water was fresh and clear,
but it was water, and did not suit Ned Land’s taste.
Amongst the dishes which were brought to us, I recognized
several fish delicately dressed; but of some, although ex-
cellent, I could give no opinion, neither could I tell to
pean kingdom they belonged, whether animal or vegetable.
As to the dinner service, it was elegant, and in perfect
taste. Hach utensil, spoon, fork, knife, plate, had a letter
engraved on it, with a motto above it, of which this is an
exact fac-simile.

MOBILIS IN MOBILI,
N.

The letter N was no doubt the initial of the name of the
enigmatical person, who commanded at the bottom of the
seas.

Ned and Conseil did not reflect much. They devoured
the food, and I did likewise. I was, besides, assured as to
our fate; and it seemed evident that our hosts would not
let us die of want.

However, everything has an end, everything passes away,
even the hunger of people who have not eaten for fifteen
hours. Our appetites satisfied, we felt overcome with
sleep.

‘Faith! I shall sleep well,” said Conseil.

So shall I,” replied Ned Land.

My two companions stretched themselves on the cabin
carpet, and were soon sound asleep. For my own part,
too many thoughts crowded my brain, too many insoluble
questions pressed upon me, too many fancies kept my eyes
half open. Where were we? What strange power carried
uson? I felt—or rather fancied I felt—the machine sink.
ing down to the lowest beds of the sea. Dreadful night-
mares beset me; I saw in these mysterious asylums a world,



52 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS.

of unknown animals, amongst which this submarine boat
seemed to be of the same kind, living, moving, and for-
midable as they. Then my brain grew calmer, my imagi-
nation wandered into vague unconsciousness, and I soon
fell into a deep sleep.

CHAPTER IX.
NED LAND’S TEMPERS.

How long we slept I do not know; but our sleep mus.
have lasted long, for it rested us completely from ous
fatigues. I woke first. My companions had not moved,
and were still stretched in their corner. -

Hardly roused from my somewhat hard couch, I felt my
brain freed, my mind clear. I then began an attentive ex-
amination of our cell. Nothing waschanged inside. The
prison was still a prison; the prisoners, prisoners. How.
ever, the steward, during our sleep, had cleared the table.
I breathed with difficulty. The heavy air seemed to op-
press my lungs. Although the cell was large, we had
evidently consumed a great part of the oxygen that it con-
tained. Indeed, each man consumes, in one hour, the
oxygen contained in more than 176 pints of air, and this
air, charged (as then) with a nearly equal quantity of car-
bonic acid, becomes unbreathable.

It became necessary to renew the atmosphere of om
prison, and no doubt the whole in the submarine boat,
That gave rise to a question in my mind. How would¢
the commander of this floating dwelling-place proceed ?
Would he obtain air by chemical means, in getting by heat
the oxygen contained in chlorate of potass, and in absorb-
ing carbonic acid by caustic potash? Or, a more con:



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SHAS. 33

venient, economical, and consequently more probable
alternative, would he be satisfied to rise and take breath at
the surface of the water, like a cetacean, and so renew for
twenty-four hours che atmospheric provision?

In fact, I was already obliged to increase my respirations
to eke out of this cell the little oxygen it contained, when
suddenly I was refreshed by a current of pure air, and per-
fumed with saline emanations. It was an invigorating sea
breeze, charged with iodine. I opened my mouth wide,
und my lungs saturated themselves with fresh particles.

At the same time I felt the boat rolling. The iron-plated
monster had evidently just risen to the surface of the ocean
to breathe, after the fashion of whales. I found out from
that the mode of ventilating the boat.

When I had inhaled this air freely, I sought the conduit
pipe, which conveyed to us the beneficial whiff, and I was
not long in finding it. Above the door was a ventilator,
through which volumes of fresh air renewed the impover-
ished atmosphere of the cell.

Iwas making my observations, when Ned and Conseil
awoke almost at the same time, under the influence of this
reviving air. They rubbed their eyes, stretched them.
selves, and were on their feet in an instant.

“Did master sleep well ?” asked Conseil, with his usual
yvoliteness.

‘¢ Very well, my brave boy. And you, Mr. Land?”

«*Soundly, Professor. But I don’t know if I am right
or not; there seems to be a sea-breeze!”’

A seaman could not be mistaken, and I told the Canadian
all that had passed during his sleep.

“Good!” said he; ‘‘that accounts for those‘ roarings we
heard when the supposed narwhal sighted the Abraham
Lincoln.”

“Quite so, Master Land; it was taking breath.”

“Only, Mr. Aronnax, I‘have no idea what o’clock it is,
unless it is dinner-time.”



54 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

* Dinner-time! my good fellow? Say rather breakfast-
time, for we certainly have begun another day.”

“*So,” said Conseil, ‘‘ we have slept twenty-four hours?”

“That is my opinion.”

«J will not contradict you,” replied Ned Land. “But
dinner or breakfast, the steward will be welcome, whichever
he brings.”

“‘ Master Land, we must conform to the rules on board,
and I suppose our appetites are in advance of the dinner-
hour.”

‘‘That is just like you, friend Conseil,” said Ned, im-
patiently. ‘‘ You are never out of temper, always calm;
you would return thanks before grace, and die of hunger
rather than complain!”

Time was getting on, and we were fearfully hungry; and
this time the steward did not appear. It was rather too
long to leave us, if they really had good intentions towards
us. Ned Land, tormented by the cravings of hunger, got
still more angry; and notwithstanding his promise, I
dreaded an explosion when he found himself with one of
the crew.

For two hours more, Ned Land’s temper increased; he
cried, he shouted, but in vain. The walls were deaf.
There was no sound to be heard in the boat: all was still
as death. It did not move, for I should have felt the
trembling motion of the hull under the influence of the
screw. Plunged in the depths of the waters, it belonged
no ionger to earth:—this silence was dreadful..

I felt tervitied, Conseil was calm, Ned Land roared.

Just then a noise was heard outside. Steps sounded on
the metal flags. The locks were turned, the door opened,
and the steward appeared.

Before I could rush forward to stop him, the Canadian
had thrown him down, and held him by the throat. The
steward was choking under the grip of his powerful hand.

Conseil was already trying to unclasp the harpooner’s



20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 55

hand from his half suffocated victim, and I was going to
fly to the rescue, when suddenly I was nailed to the spot
by hearing these words in French:

‘‘Be quiet, Master Land; and you, Professor, will you
be so good as to listen to me?”

CHAPTER X.
THE MAN OF THE SEAS,

Tr was the commander of the vessel who thus spoke.

At these words, Ned Land rose suddenly. The steward,
nearly strangled, tottered out on a sign from his master;
but such was the power of the commander on board, that
not a gesture betrayed the resentment which this man must
have felt towards the Canadian. Conseil interested in
spite of himself, I stupefied, awaited in silence the result
of this scene.

The commander, leaning against a corner of the table
with his arms folded, scanned us with profound attention.
Did he hesitate to speak? Did he regret the words which
he had just spoken in French? One might almost think so.

After some moments of silence, which not one of us
dreamed of breaking, ‘‘ Gentlemen,” said he, in a calm
and penetrating voice, ‘‘I speak French, English, German,
and Latin equally well. I could, therefore, have an-
swered you at our first interview, but I wished to know
you first, then to reflect. The story told by each one, en-
tirely agreeing in the main points, convinced me of your
identity. I know now that chance has brought before me
M. Pierre Aronnax, Professor of Natural History at the
Museum of Paris, intrusted with a scientific mission
abroad: Conseil, his servant; and Ned Land, of Canadian



56 20,000 ZHAGUES UNDER THE SEAB8.

origin, harpooner on board the frigate Abraham Lincoln
of the navy of the United States of America.”

I bowed assent. It was not-a question that the com-
mander put tome. Therefore there was no answer to be
made. This man expressed himself with perfect ease,
without any accent. His sentences were well turned, his
words clear, and his fluency of speech remarkable. Yet,
I did not recognize in him a fellow-countryman.

He continued the conversation in these terms:

«“You have doubtless thought, sir, that I have delayed
long in paying you this second visit. The reason is that,
your identity recognized, I wished to weigh maturely what
part to act towards you. I have hesitated much. Most
annoying circumstances have brought you into the pres-
ence of a man who has broken all the ties of humanity.
You have come to trouble my existence.

“‘Unintentionally!” said I.

“‘Unintentionally?” replied the stranger, raising his
voice a little; ‘‘was it unintentionally that the Adraham
Lincoln pursued me all over the seas? Was it uninten-
tionally that you took passage in this frigate? Was it un-
intentionally that your cannon-balls rebounded off the
plating of my vessel? Was it unintentionally that Mr.
Ned Land struck me with his harpoon?”

I detected a restrained irritation in these words. But te
these recriminations I had a very natural answer to make,
and I made it.

“Sir,” said I, “no doubt you are ignorant of the dis-
cussions which have taken place concerning you in Amer-
ica and Europe. You do not know that divers accidents,
caused by collisions with your submarine machine, have
excited public feeling in the two continents. I omit the
hypotheses without number by which it was sought to ex-
plain the inexplicable phenomenon of which you alone
possess the secret. But you must understand that, in pur-
auing you over the high seas of the Pacific. the Abraham



20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS. 57

Lincoln believed itself to be chasing some powerful sea~
monster, of which it was necessary to rid the ocean at any
price.”

A half-smile curled the lips of the commander: then, in
a calmer tone:

«*M. Aronnax,” he replied, ‘‘ dare you affirm that your
frigate would not as soon have pursued and cannonaded a
submarine boat as a monster?”

This question embarrassed me, for certainly Captain
Farragut might not have hesitated. He might have
thought it his duty to destroy a contrivance of this kind,
as he would a gigantic narwhal.

“You understand then, sir,” continued the stranger,
«that I have the right to treat you as enemies?”

I answered nothing, purposely. For what good would
it be to discuss such a proposition, when force could de-
stroy the best arguments?

“‘T have hesitated for some time,” continued the com-
mander; ‘‘nothing obliged me to show you hospitality.
If I chose to separate myself from you, I should have no
interest in seeing you again; I could place you upon the
deck of this vessel which has served you as a refuge, I
could sink beneath the waters, and forget that you had ever
existed, Would not that be my right?”

“Tt might be the right of a savage,” I answered, “‘ but
not that of a civilized man.”

‘¢ Professor,” replied the commander quickly, “‘ I am not
what you call a civilized man! I have done with society
entirely, for reasons which I alone have the right of appre-
ciating. I do not therefore obey its laws, and I desire you
never to allude to them before me again!”

This was said plainly. A flash of anger and disdain
kindled in the eyes of the Unknown, and I had a glimpse
of a terrible past in the life of this man. Not only had he
put himself beyond the pale of human laws, but he had
made himself independent of them, free in the strictest ac-



58 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

ceptation of the word, qui:v beyond their reach! Who then
would dare to pursue him at the bottom of the sea, when,
on its surface, he defied all attempts made against him?
What vessel could resist the shock of his submarine mon-
itor? What cuirass, however thick, could withstand the
blows of his spur? No man could demand from him an
account of his actions; God, if he believed in one—his con-
science, if he had one—were the sole judges to whom he
was answerable.

These reflections crossed my mind rapidly, whilst the
stranger personage was silent, absorbed, and as if wrapped
up in himself. I regarded him with fear mingled with in-
terest, as, doubtless, Gidipus regarded the Sphinx.

After rather a long silence, the commander resumed the
conversation.

“‘T have hesitated,” said he, ‘* but I have thought that
my interest might be reconciled with that pity to which
every human being has aright. You will remain on board
my vessel, since fate has cast you there. You will be free;
and in exchange for this liberty, I shall only impose one
condition. Your word of honor to submit to it will suffice.”

‘Speak, sir,” I answered. ‘I suppose this condition
is one which a man of honor may accept?”

“Yes, sir; itis this. It is possible that certain events,
unforeseen, may oblige me to consign you to your cabins for
some hours or some days, as the case may be. As I desire
never to use violence, I expect from you, more than all
the others, a passive obedience. In thus acting, I take all
the responsibility: I acquit you entirely, for I make it an
impossibility for you to see what ought not to be seen.
Do you accept this condition?”

Then things took place on board which, to say the least,
were singular, and which ought not to be seen by people
who were not placed beyond the pale of social laws.
Amongst the surprises which the future was preparing for
me, this might not be the least.



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS, 5%

“We accept,” I answered; >‘‘only I will ask your per-
mission, sir, to address one question to you—one only.”

“< Speak, sir.”

«You said that we should be free on board.”

«« Entirely.”

“‘T ask you, then, what you mean by this liberty?”

“‘Just the liberty to go, to come, to see, to observe éven
all that passes here—save under rare circumstances—the
liberty, in short, which we enjoy ourselves, my companions
and I.”

It was evident that we did not understand one another.

‘‘Pardon me, sir,” I resumed, ‘‘but this liberty is only
what every prisoner has of pacing his prison. It cannot
suffice us.”

“Tt must suffice you, however.”

‘‘What! we must renounce forever seeing our country,
our friends, our relations again?”

“Yes, sir. But to renounce that unendurable worldly
yoke which men believe to be liberty is not perhaps so pain-
ful as you think.”

“* Well,” exclaimed Ned Land, ‘never will I give my
word of honor not to try to escape.”

“‘T did not ask you for your word of honor, Master Land,”
answered the commander, coldly.

“Sir,” I replied, beginning to get angry in spite of my-
self, ‘you abuse your situation towards us; it is cruelty.”

““No, sir, it is clemency. You are my prisoners of war.
I keep you, when I could, by a word, plunge you into the
depths of the ocean. You attacked me. You came to
surprise a secret which no man in the world must penetrate
—the secret of my whole existence. And you think that I
am going to send you back to that world which must know
meno more? Never! In retaining you, it isnot you whom
I guard—it is myself.”

These words indicated a resolution taken on the part of
the commander, against which no arguments would prevail



60 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THH SEAS.

“So, sir,” I rejoined, “‘you give us simply the choice
between life and death?”

“Simply.”

“My friends,” said I, ‘‘to a question thus put, there is
nothing to answer. But no word of honor binds us to the
master of this vessel.”

«
Then, in a gentler tone, he continued:

“Now, permit me to finish what I have to say to you.
I know you, M. Aronnax. You and your companions will
not, perhaps, have so much to complain of in the chance
which has bound you to my fate. You will find amongst
the books which are my favorite study the work which you
have published on ‘the depths of the sea.’ 1 have often
read it. You have carried your work as far as terrestrial
science permitted you. But you do not know all—you
have not seen all. Let me tell you then, Professor, that
you will not regret the time passed on board my vessel.
You are going to visit the land of marvels.”

These words of the commander had a great effect upon
me. Icannot deny it. My weak point was touched; and
I forgot, for a moment, that the contemplation of these
sublime subjects was not worth the loss of liberty. Besides,
I trusted to the future to decide this grave question. SoTI
contented myself with saying:

“By what name ought I to address you?” :

“Sir,” replied the commander, ‘“‘I am nothing to you
but Captain Nemo; and you and your companions are noth-
ing to me but the passengers of the Nautilus.”

Captain Nemo called. A steward appeared. The cap-
tain gave him his orders in that strange language which I
did not understand. ‘Chen, turning towards the Canadian
and Conseil:

“
good as to follow this man.”



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 61

«And now, M. Aronnax, our breakfast is ready. Permit
me to lead the way.”

“T am at your service, Captain.”

I followed Captain Nemo; and as soon as I had passed
through the door, I found myself in a kind of passage
lighted by electricity, similar to the waist of a ship. After
we had proceeded a dozen yards, a second door opened
before me.

I then entered a dining-room, decorated and furnished
in severe taste. High oaken sideboards, inlaid with ebony,
stood at the two extremities of the room, and upon their
shelves glittered china, porcelain and glass of inestimable
value. The plate on the table sparkled in the rays which
the luminous ceiling shed around, while the light was tem-
pered and softened by exquisite paintings.

In the centre of the room was a table richly laid out.
Captain Nemo indicated the place I was to occupy.

The breakfast consisted of a certain number of dishes,
the contents of which were furnished by the sea alone;
and I was ignorant of the nature and mode of preparation
of some of them. I acknowledged that they were good,
but they had a peculiar flavor, which I easily became ac-
customed to. These different: aliments appeared to me to
be rich in phosphorus, and 1 thought they must have a
mariné origin.

Captain Nemo looked at me. I asked him no questions,
but he guessed my thoughts, and answered of his own ac-
cord the questions which I was burning to address to him.

“The greater part of these dishes are unknown to you,”
he said to me. ‘‘ However, you may partake of them with-
out fear. They are wholesome and nourishing. For a
long time I have renounced the food of the earth, and I am
never ill now. My crew, who are healthy, are fed on the
same food.”

“So,” said I, ‘all these eatables are the produce of the
sea?”



62 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS,

‘*-Yes, Professor, the sea supplies all my wants. Some.
times I cast my nets in tow, and I draw them in ready to
break. Sometimes I hunt in the midst of this element,
which appears to be inaccessible to man, and quarry the
game which dwells in my submarine forests. My flocks,
like those of Neptune’s old shepherds, graze fearlessly in
she immense prairies of the ocean. I have a vast property
there, which I cultivate myself, and which is always sown
by the hand of the Creator of all things.”

“*T can understand perfectly, sir, that your nets furnish
excellent fish for your table; I can understand also that
you hunt aquatic game in your submarine forests; but I
cannot understand at all how a particle of meat, no matter
how small, can figure in your bill of fare.”

‘‘This, which you believe to be meat, Professor, is noth-
ing else than fillet of turtle. Here are also some dolphins’
livers, which you take to be ragout of pork. My cook isa
clever fellow, who excels in dressing these various products
of the ocean. Taste all these dishes, Here is a preserve of
holothuria, which a Malay would declare to be unrivalled
in the world; here is a cream, of which the milk has been
furnished by the cetacea, and the sugar by the great fucus
of the North Sea; and lastly, permit me to offer you some
preserve of anemones, which is equal to that of the most
delicious fruits.”

I tasted, more from curiosity than as a connoisseur, whilst
Captain Nemo enchanted me with his extraordinary stories.

“You like the sea, Captain?”

** Yes; I love it! The sea is everything. It covers seven
tenths of the terrestrial globe. Its breath is pure and
healthy. It is an immense desert, where man is never
lonely, for he feels life stirring on all sides. The sea is
only the embodiment of a supernatural and wonderful ex-
istence. It is nothing but love and emotion; it is the
‘Living Infinite,’ as one of your poets has said. In fact,
Protessor, Nature manifests herself in it by her three king



20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, 63

doms, mineral, vegetable, and animal. The sea is the vast
reservoir of Nature. The globe began with sea, so to
speak; ani who knows if it will not end with it? In it is
supreme tranquillity. ‘The sea does not belong to despots.
Upon its surface men can still exercise unjust laws, fight,
tear one another to picces, and be carried away with ter-
restrial horrors. But at thirty feet below its level, their
reign ceases, their influence is quenched, and their power
disappears. Ah! sir, live—live in the bosom of the waters!
There only isindependence! There I recognize no masters!
There I am free!”

Captain Nemo suddenly became silent in the aide of
this enthusiasm, by which he was quite carried away. For
a few moments he paced up and down, much agitated.
Then he became more calm, regained his accustomed.cold-
ness of expression, and turning towards me:

“‘Now, Professor,” said he, ‘‘if you wish to go over the
Nautilus, I am at your service.”

Captain Nemo rose. I followed him.
contrived at the back of the dining-room, opened, and I
entered a room equal in dimensions to that which I had
just quitted.

It was a library. High pieces of furniture, of black vio-
let ebony inlaid with brass, supported upon their wide
shelves a great number of books uniformly bound. They
followed the shape of the room, terminating at the lower
part in huge divans, covered with brown leather, which
were eared: to afford the greatest comfort. Light mova-
ble desks, made to slide in and out at will, allowed one to
rest one’s book while reading. In the centre stood an im-
mense table, covered with pani philets, amongst which were
some newspapers, already of old date. The electric light
flooded everything; it was shed from four unpolished
globes half sunk in the volutes of the ceiling. I looked
with real admiration at this room, so ingeniously fitted up,
and I could scarcely believe my eyes.



e4 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

“* Captain Nemo,” said Ito my host, who had just thrown
himself on one of the divans, “this is a library which
would do honor to more than one of the continental palaces,
and I am absolutely astounded when I consider that it can
follow you to the bottom of the seas.”

«‘ Where could one find greater sclitude or silence, Pro-
fessor?” replied Captain Nemo. ‘Did your study in the
Museum afford you such perfect quiet?”

“No, sir; and I must confess that it is a very poor one
after yours. You must have six or seven thousand volumes
here.”

«Twelve thousand, M. Aronnax. These are the only
ties which bind me to the earth. But I had done with the
world on the day when my Nautilus plunged for the first
time beneath the waters. That day I bought my last vol-
umes, my last pamphlets, my Jast papers, and from that
time I wish to think that men no longer think or write.
These books, Professor, are at your service besides, and‘you
can make use of them freely.”

I thanked Captain Nemo, and went up to the shelves
of the library. Works on science, morals, and literature
abounded in every language; but I did not see one single
work on political economy; that subject appeared to be
strictly proscribed. Strange to say, all these books were ir-
regularly arranged, in whatever language they were written;
and this medley proved that the captain of the Nautilus
must have read indiscriminately the books which he took
up by chance.

“Sir,” said I to the captain, ‘‘I thank you for having
placed this library at my disposal. It contains treasures of
science, and I shall profit by them.” :

«This room is not only a library,” said Captain Nemo,
‘it is alsc a smoking-room.”

«A smoking-room!” I cried. ‘‘ Then one may smoke on
board ?”

“ Certainly.”



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 65

«Then, sir, Iam forced to believe that you have kept up
a communication with Havana.”

“Not any,” answered the captain. ‘‘ Accept this cigar,
M. Aronnax; and though it does not come from Havana,
you will be pleased with it, if you are a connoisseur.”

I took the cigar which was offered me; its shape recalled
the London ones, but it seemed to be made of leaves of
gold. I lighted it at a little brazier, which was supported
upon an elegant bronze stem, and drew the first whifts with
the delight of a lover of smoking who has not smoked for
two days.

“‘ Tt is excellent,” said I, ‘‘ but it is not tobacco.”

“No!” answered the captain, ‘‘ this tobacco comes neither
from Havannah nor from the East. Itis a kind of sea
weed, rich in nicotine, with which the sea provides me, but
somewhat sparingly.”

At that moment Captain Nemo opened a door which stood
opposite to that by which I had entered the library, and I
passed into an immense drawing-room splendidly lighted.

It was a vast four-sided room, thirty feet long, eighteen
wide, and fifteen high. A luminous ceiling, decorated
with light arabesques, shed a soft clear light over all the
marvels accumulated in thismuseum. For it was in fact a
museum, in which an intelligent and prodigal hand had
gathered all the treasures of nature and art, with the artis-
tic confusion which distinguishes a painter’sstudio. Thirty
first-rate pictures, uniformly framed, separated by bright
drapery, ornamented the walls, which were hung with tap-
estry of severe design. I saw works of great value, the
greater part of which I had admired in the special collec-
tions of Europe, and in the exhibitions of paintings. The
several schools of the old masters were represented by a
Madonna of Raphael, a Virgin of Leonardo da Vinci, a
nymph of Correggio, a woman of Titian, an Adoration of
Veronese, an Assumption of Murillo, a portrait of Hol-
bein, a monk of Velasquez, a martyr of Ribeira, a fair of



66 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

Rubens, two Flemish landscapes of Teniers, three little
‘‘ genre” pictures of Gérard Dow, Metsu, and Paul Potter,
two specimens of Géricault and Prudhon, and some seas
pieces of Backhuysen and Vernet. Amongst the works of
modern painters were pictures with the signatures of Dela-
croix, Ingres, Decamp, Troyon, Meissonier, Daubigny, etc. ;
and some admirable statues in marbleand bronze, after the
finest antique models, stood upon pedestals in the corners
of this magnificent museum. Amazement, as the captain
of the Nautilus had predicted, had already begun to take
possession of me.

‘* Professor,” said this strange man, ‘‘ you must excuse
the unceremonious way in which I receive you, and the
disorder of this room.”

“Sir,” I answered, “without seeking to know who you
are, I recognize in you an artist.”

“‘An amateur, nothing more, sir. Formerly I loved te
collect these beautiful works created by the hand of man.
I sought them greedily and ferreted them out indefatigably,
and I have been able to bring together some objects of great
value. ‘These are my last souvenirs of that world which is
dead to me. In my eyes, your modern artists are already
old: they have two or three thousand years of existence; I
confound them in my own mind. Masters have no age.”

“ And these musicians?” said I, pointing out some works
of Weber, Rossini, Mozart, Beethoven, Haydn, Meyerbeevr,
Hérold, Wagner, Auber, Gounod, and a number of others
scattered over a large model piano organ which occupier
one of the panels of the drawing-room.

«These musicians,” replied Captain Nemo, ‘‘are the con-
temporaries of Orpheus; for in the memory of the dead all
chronological differences are effaced; and I am dead, Pro:
fessor; as much dead as those of your friends who are sleep
ing six feet under the earth!”

Captain Nemo was silent, and seemed lost in a profound
revery. I contemplated him with deep interest, analyzing



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 87

hx silence the strange expression of his countenance. Lean-
ing on his elbow against an angle of a costly mosaic table,
he no longer saw me—he had forgotten my presence.

I did not disturb this revery, and continued my observa-
tion of the curiosities which enriched this drawing-room.

Under elegant glass cases, fixed by copper rivets, were
elussed and labelled the most precious productions of the
sea which had ever been presented to the eye of a naturalist.
My delight as a professor may be conceived.

The division containing the zoophytes presented the most
curious'specimens of the two groups of polypi and echino-
dermes. In the first group, the tubipores, were gorgones
arranged like a fan, soft sponges of Syria, ises of the Moluc-
eas, pennatules, an admirable virgularia of the Norwegian
seas, variegated umbellulaire, alcyonarie, a whole series of
madrepores, which my master Milne-Edwards has so cleverly
classified, amongst which I remarked some wonderful flabel-
line, oculine: of the island of Bourbon, the ‘‘ Neptune’s
car” of the Antilles, superb varieties of corals—in short,
every species of those curious polypi of which entire islands
are formed, which will one day become continents. Of the
echinodermes, remarkable for their coating of spines, asteri,
sea-stars, pantacrine, comatules, astérophons, echini, holo-
thuri, etc., represented individually a complete collection of
this group.

A somewhat nervous conchyliologist would certainly have
fainted before other more numerous cases, in which were
classified the specimens of mollusks. It was a collection of
inestimable value, which time fails me to describe minutely.
Amongst these specimens, I will quote from memory only
the elegant royal hammer-fish of the Indian Ocean, whose
regular white spots stood out brightly on a red and brown
ground, an imperial spondyle, bright colored, bristiing with
spines, a rare specimen in the Huropean museums (I esti-
mated its value at not less than £1000); a common hammer-
fish of the seas of New Holland, which is only precured



68 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

with difficulty; exotic buccardia of Senegal; fragile white
bivalve shells, which a breath might shatter like a soap-
bubble; several varieties of the aspirgillum of Java, a kind
of calcareous tube, edged with leafy folds, and much de-
bated by amateurs; a whole series of trochi, some a green-
ish-yellow, found in the American seas, others a reddish-
brown, natives of Australian waters; others from the Gulf
of Mexico, remarkable for their imbricated shell; stellari
found in the Southern Seas; and last, the rarest of all, the
magnificent spur of New Zealand; and every description of
delicate and fragile shells to which science has given appro-
priate names.

Apart, in separate compartments, were spread out chap-
lets of pearls of the greatest beauty, which reflected the
electric light in little sparks of fire; pink pearls, torn from
the pinna-marina of the Red Sea; green pearls of the
haliotyde iris; yellow, blue, and black pearls, the curious
productions of the divers mollusks of every ocean, and
certain mussels of the watercourses of the North; lastly,
several specimens of inestimable value which had been
gathered from the rarest pintadines. Some of these pearls
were larger than a pigeon’s egg, and were worth as much,
and more than that which the traveller Tavernier sold to
the Shah of Persia for three millions, and surpassed the
one in the possession of the Imaum of Muscat, which I had
believed to be unrivalled in the world.

Therefore, to estimate the value of this collection was
simply impossible. Captain Nemo must have expended
millions in the acquirement of these various specimens, and
I was thinking what source he could have drawn from, to
have been able thus to gratify his fancy for collecting,
when I was interrupted by these words:

“You are exumining my shells, Professor? Unques-
tionably they must be interesting to a naturalist; but for
me they have a far greater charm. for â„¢ have collected



20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 69

them all with my own hand, and there is not a sea on the
face of the globe which has escaped my researches.”

“‘T can understand, Captain, the delight of wandering
about in the midst of such riches, You are one of those
who have collected their treasures themselves. No museum
in Europe possesses such a collection of the produce of the
ocean. Butif I exhaust all my admiration upon it, I shall
have none left for the vessel which carries it. I do not
wish to pry into your secrets; but I must confess that this
Nautilus, with the motive power which is confined in it,
the contrivances which enable it to be worked, the power-
fui agent which propels it, all excite my curiosity to the
highest pitch. I see suspended on the walls of this room
instruments of whose use I am ignorant.”

‘*You will find these same instruments in my own room,
Professor, where I shall have much pleasure in explaining
their use to you. But first come and inspect the cabin
which is set apart for your own use. You musi see how
you will be accommodated on board the Nautilus.” |

I followed Captain Nemo, who, by one of the doors open-~
ing from each panel of the drawing-room, regained the
waist. He conducted me towards the bow, and there I
found, not acabin, but an elegant room, with a bed, dress-
ing-table, and several other pieces of furniture.

T could only thank my host.

“Your room adjoins mine,” said he, opening a door,
“and mine opens into the drawing-room that we have just
quitted.”

I entered the captain’s room: it had a severe, almost a
monkish, aspect. A small iron bedstead, a table, some
articles for the toilet; the whole lighted by a skylight
No comforts, the strictest necessaries only.

Captain Nemo pointed to a seat.

“* Be so good as to sit down,” he said. I seated myself,
and he began thus:



20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

OHAPTER XL
ALL BY ELECTRICITY.

“Srp,” said Captain Nemo, showing me the instruments
hanging on the walls of his room, ‘here are the contri-
vances required for the navigation of the Nautilus. Here,
as in the drawing-room, I have them always under my eyes,
and they indicate my position and exact direction in the
middle of the ocean. Some are known to you, such as the
thermometer, which gives the internal temperature of the
Nautilus; the barometer, which indicates the weight of
the air and foretells the changes of the weather; the hy-
grometer, which marks the dryness of the atmosphere; the
storm-glass, the contents of which, by decomposing, an-
nounce the approach of tempests; the compass, which
guides my course; the sextant, which shows the latitude
by the altitude of the sun; chronometers, by which I cal-
culate the longitude; and glasses for day and night, which
I use to examine the points of the horizon, when the Vau-
tilus rises to the surface of the waves.”

“These are the usual nautical instruments,” I replied,
‘‘and I know the use of them. But these others, no
doubt, answer to the particular requirements of the Nau-
tilus. This dial with the movable needle is a manometer,
is it not?”

“Tt is actually a manometer. But by communication
with the water, whose external pressure it indicates, it
gives our depth at the same time.”

‘* And these other instruments, the use of which I can-
not guess?”

“Here, Professor, I ought to give you some explana
tions. Will you be kind enough to listen to me?”



~ 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THH SEAS, val

xfe was silent for a few moments, then he said

«There is a powerful agent, obedient, rapid, easy, which
conforms to every use, and reigns supreme on board my
vessel. Everything is done by means of it. It lights it,
warms it, and is the soul of my mechanical apparatus.
This agent is electricity.”

“ Hlectricity?” I cried in surprise.

“Yes, sir.”

“* Nevertheless, Captain, you possess an extreme rapidity
of movement, which does not agree well with the power of
electricity. Until now its dynamic force has remained
under restraint, and has only been able to produce a small
amount of power.”

“« Professor,” said Captain Nemo, ‘‘ my electricity is not
everybody’s. You know what sea-water is composed of.
In a thousand grammes are found 964 per cent of water,
and about 2% per cent of chloride of sodium; then, in a
smaller quantity, chlorides of magnesium and of potassium,
bromide of magnesium, sulphate of magnesia, sulphate and
carbonate of lime. You see, then, that chloride of sodium
forms a large part of it. So it is this sodium that I ex-
tract from sea-water, and of which I compose my ingredi-
ents. I owe all to the ocean; it produces electricity, and
electricity gives heat, light, motion, and, in a word, life te
the Mautilus.”

“But not the air you breathe?”

«Oh, I could manufacture the air necessary for my con-
sumption, but it is useless, because I go up to the surface
of the water when I please. However, if electricity does
not furnish me with air to breathe, it works at least the
powerful pumps that are stored in spacious reservoirs, and
which enable me to prolong at need, and as long as I will,
my stay in the depths of the sea. It gives a uniform and
unintermittent light, which the sun does not. Now look
at this clock; it is electrical, and goes with a regularity
that defies the best chronometers. I have divided it into



72 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

twenty-four hours, like the Italian clocks, because for me
there is neither night nor day, sun nor moon, but only that
factitious light that I take with me to the bottom of the
sea. Look! just now, it is ten o’clock in the morning.”

“ Fixactly.”

<¢ Another application of electricity. This dial hanging
in front of us indicates the speed of the Nautilus. An
electric thread puts it in communication with the screw,
and the needle indicates the real speed. Look! now wa
are spinning along with a uniform speed of fifteen miles
an hour.”

“Tt is marvellous! and I see, Captain, you were right
to make use of this agent that takes the place of wind,
water, and steam.” ;

‘“We have not finished, M. Aronnax,” said Captain
Nemo, rising; ‘‘ if you will follow me, we will examine the
stern of the Nautilus.”

Really, I knew already the anterior part of this sub-
marine boat, of which this is the exact division, starting
from the ship’s head: the dining-room, five yards long,
separated from the library by a water-tight partition; the
library, five yards long; the large drawing-room, ten yards
long, separated from the captain’s room by a second water-
tight partition; the said room, five yards inlength; mine,
two anda half yards; and lastly, a reservoir of air, seven
and a half yards, that extended to the bows. Total length
thirty-five yards, or one hundred and five feet. The par-
titions had doors that were shut hermetically by means of
india-rubber instruments, and they insured the safety of
the Nautilus in case of a leak.

I followed Captain‘Nemo through the waist, and arrived
at the centre of the boat. There was a sort of well that
opened between two partitions. An iron ladder, fastened
with an iron hook to the partition, led to the upper end.
I asked the captain what the ladder was used for.

«It leads to the small boat,” he said



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 73

«¢ What! have you a boat?” I exclaimed in surprise.

“Of course, an excellent vessel, light and insubmersible,
that serves either as a fishing or as a pleasure boat.”

“But then, when you wish to embark, you are obliged
to come to the surface of the water?”

“Not at all. This boat is attached to the upper part of
the hull of the Nautilus, and occupies a cavity made for it.
It is decked, quite water-tight, and held together by solid
bolts. This ladder leads to a man-hole made in the hull
of the Nautilus, that corresponds with a similar hole made
in the side of the boat. By this double opening I get into
the small vessel. They shut the one belonging to the
Nautilus, I shut the other by means of screw pressure. I
undo the bolts, and the little boat goes up to the surface of
the sea with prodigious rapidity. I then open the panel of
the bridge, carefully shut till then; I mast it, hoist my
sail, take my oars, and I’m off.”

“‘But how do you get back on board?”

“‘T do not come back, M. Aronnax; the Nautilus comes
to me.”

“* By your orders?”

“By my orders. An electric thread connects us. I
telegraph to it, and that is enough.” :

“ Really,” I said, astonished at these marvels, ‘‘ nothing
can be more simple.”

After having passed by the cage of the staircase that led
to the platform, I saw a cabin six feet long, in which Con-
seil and Ned Land, enchanted with their repast, were de-
youring it with avidity. Then a door opened into a kitchen
nine feet long, situated between the large store-rooms.
There electricity, better than gas itself, did all the cook-
ing. ‘The streams under the furnaces gave out to the
sponges of platina a heat which was regularly kept up and
distributed. They also heated a distilling apparatus,
which, by evaporation, furnished excellent drinkable



G4. 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. i

water. Near this kitchen was a bath-room comfortably
furnished, with hot and cold water taps.

Next to the kitchen was the berth-room of the vessel,
sixteen feet long. But the door was shut, and I could not
see the management of it, which might have given me an
idea of the number of men employed on board the Naw-
iedus.

At the bottom was a fourth partition, that separateu
this office from the engine-room. A door opened, and I
found myself in the compartment where Captain Nemo—
certainly an engineer of a very high order—had arranged
his locomotive machinery. ‘This engine-room, clearly
lighted, did not measure less than sixty-five feet in length.
It was divided into two parts; the first contained the ma-
terials for producing electricity, and the second the
machinery that connected it with the screw. I examined
it with great interest, in order to understand the machin-
ery of the Nautilus.

«You see,” said' the captain, “‘I use Bunsen’s con-
trivances, not Ruhmkorff’s. Those would not have been
powerful enough. Bunsen’s are fewer in number, but
strong and large, which experience proves to be the best.
The electricity produced passes forward, where it works,
by electro-magnets of great size, on a system of levers and
cog-wheels that transmit the movement to the axle of the
screw. ‘This one, the diameter of which is nineteen feet,
and the thread twenty-three feet, performs about a hun-
dred and twenty revolutions in a second.”

“ And you get then?”

“A speed of fifty miles an hour.” ‘

“‘T have seen the Nautilus mancuvre before the Abra-
ham Lincoln, and I have my own ideas as to its speed,
But this is not enough. We must sce where we go. We
must be able to direct it to the right, to the left, above,
below. How do you get to the great depths, where you
find an increasing resistance, which is rated by hundreds



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 5

of atmospheres? How do you return to the surface of the
ocean? And how do you maintain yourselves in the req-
uisite medium? Am I asking too much?”

“Not at all, Professor,” replied the captain, with some
hesitation; ‘‘since you.may never leave this submarine
boat. Come into the saloon, it is our usual study, and
there you will learn all you want to know about the Nau-
tis.

CHAPTER XII.
SOME FIGURES.

A MOMENT after we were seated on a divan in the saloon
smoking. The captain showed me a sketch that gave the
plan, section, and elevation of the Nautilus. Then: he
began his description in these words:

‘* Here, M. Aronnax, are the several dimensions of the
boat you are in. It is an elongated cylinder with conical
ends. It is very like a cigar in shape, a shape already
adopted in London in several constructions of the same
sort, The length of this cylinder, from stem to stern, is
exactly 232 feet, and its maximum breadth is twenty-six
feet. It is not built quite like your long-voyage steamers,
but its lines are sufficiently long, and its curves prolonged
encugh, to allow the water to slide off easily, and oppose
no obstacle to its passage. These two dimensions enable
you to obtain by asimple calculation the surface and cubic
contents of the Wautilus. Its area measures 6032 feet;
and its contents about 1500 cubic yards; that is to say,
when completely immersed it displaces 50,000 feet of water,
or weighs 1500 tons.

‘When I made the plans for this submarine vessel, I
meant that nine tenths should be submerged; consequently,



76 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

it ought only te displace nine tenths of its bulk, that is to
say, only to weigh that number of tons. I ought not,
therefore, to have exceeded that weight, constructing it on
the aforesaid dimensions.

«The Nautilus is composed of two hulls, one inside, the
other outside, joined by T-shaped irons, which render it
yery strong. Indeed, owing to this cellular arrangement
it resists like a block, as if it were solid. Its sides cannot
yield; it coheres spontaneously, and not by the closeness of
its rivets; and the homogeneity of its construction, due to
the perfect union of the materials, enables it to defy the
roughest seas.

‘‘These two hulls are composed of steel plates, whose
density is from .7 to.8 that of water. The first is not less
than two inches and a half thick, and weighs 394 tons.
The second envelope, the keel, twenty inches high and ten
thick, weighs alone sixty-twotons. Theengine, the ballast,
the several accessories and apparatus appendages, the par-
titions and bulkheads, weigh 961.62 tons. Do you follow
all this?”

“T do.”

“*Then, when the Nautilus is afloat under these circum-
stances, one tenth is out of the water. Now, if I have
made reservoirs of a size equal to this tenth, or capable of
holding 150 tons, and if I fill them with water, the boat,
weighing then 1507 tons, will be completely immersed.
That would happen, Professor. These reservoirs are in the
lower parts of the Nautilus. I turn on taps and they fill,
and the vessel sinks that had just been level with the sur-
face.”

“Well, Captain, but now we come to the real difficulty.
T can understand your rising to the surface; but diving be-
low the surface, does not your submarine contrivance en-
counter a pressure, and consequently undergo an upward
thrust of one atmosphere for every thirty feet of water,
just about fifteen pounds per square inch?”



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. TT

“Just so, sir.”

‘Then unless you quite fill the Nautilus, I do not see
how you can draw it down to those depths.”

“Professor, you must not confound statics with dy-
namics, or you will be exposed to grave errors. There is
very little labor spent in attaining the lower regions of the
ocean, for all bodies have a tendency to sink. WhenI
wanted to find out the necessary increase of weight required
to sink the Nautilus, I had only to calculate the reduction
of volume that sea-water acquires according to the depth.”

«That is evident.”

“‘Now, if water is not absolutely incompressible, it is at
least capable of very slight compression. Indeed, after the
most recent calculations this reduction is only .000436 of
an atmosphere for each thirty feet of depth. If we want
to sink 3000 feet, I should keep. account of the reduction
of bulk under a pressure equal to that of a column of water
of a thousand feet. The calculation is easily verified.
Now, I have supplementary reservoirs capable of holding a
hundred tons. ‘Therefore I can sink to a considerable
depth. When I wish to rise to the level of the sea, I only
let off the water, and empty all the reservoirs if I want the
Nautilus to emerge from the tenth part of her total ca-
pacity.” .

I had nothing to object to these reasonings.

“‘T admit your calculations, Captain,” I replied; ‘I
should be wrong to dispute them since daily experience
confirms them; but I foresee a real difficulty in the way.”

‘¢ What, sir?”

‘*When you are about 1000 feet deep, the walls of the
Nautilus bear a pressure of 100 atmospheres. If, then,
just now you were to empty the supplementary reservoirs,
to lighten the vessel, and to go up to the surface, the
pumps must overcome the pressure of 100 atmospheres,
which is 1500 lbs. per square inch. From that a power—”

«That electricity alone can give,” said the captain,



1B 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, .
hastily. ‘I repeat, sir, that the dynamic power of my
engines is almost infinite. The pumps of the Nautilus
have an enormous power, as you must have observed when
their jets of water burst like a torrent upon the Abraham
Lincoln. Besides, I use subsidiary reservoirs only to attain
a mean depth of 750 to 1000 fathoms, and that with a view
of managing my machines. Also, when I have a mind to
visit the depths of the ocean five or six miles below the
surface, I make use of slower but not less infallible means.”

«What are they, Captain?”

“That involves my telling you how the Nautilus is
worked.”

“‘T am impatient to learn.”

“To steer this boat to starboard or port, to turn, in a
word, following a horizontal plan, I use an ordinary rudder
fixed on the back of the stern-post, and with one wheel and
some tackle to steer by. ButIcan also make the Nautilus
rise and sink, and sink and rise, by a vertical movement by
means of two inclined planes fastened to its sides, opposite
the centre of flotation, planes that move in every direction,
and that are worked by powerful levers from the interior.
If the planes are kept parallel with the boat, it moves hor-
izontally. If slanted, the Mautilus, according to this in-
clination, and under the influence of the screw, either sinks
diagonally or rises diagonally as it suits me. And even if
I wish to rise more quickly to the surface, I ship the screw,
and the pressure of the water causes the Nautilus to rise
vertically like a balloon filled with hydrogen.”

“Bravo, Captain! But how can the steersman follow
the route in the middle of the waters?”

«The steersman is placed in a glazed box, that is raised
above the hull of the Nautilus, and furnished with lenses.”

** Are these lenses capable of resisting such pressure?”

“Perfectly. Glass, which breaks at a blow, is, never-
theless, capable of offering considerable resistance. During
some experiments of fishing by electric light in 1864 in the



20,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 7
Northern Seas, we saw plates less than a third of an inch
thick resist a pressure of sixteen atmospheres. Now, the
glass that I use is not less than thirty times thicker.”

“Granted. But, after all, in order to see, the light must
exceed the darkness, and in the midst of the darkness in
the water, how can you see?”

“Behind the steersman’s cage is placed a powerful elec-
tric reflector, the rays from which light up the sea for hali
a mile in front.”

“* Ah! bravo, bravo, Captain! Now I can account for
this phosphorescence in the supposed narwhal that puzzled
usso. I now ask you if the boarding of the Nautilus and
of the Scotia, that has made such a noise, has been the
result of a chance rencontre?”

“Quite accidental, sir. I was sailing only one fathom
helow the surface of the water when the shock came. It
had no bad result.”

“‘None, sir. But now, about your rencontre with the
Abraham Lincoln ??

“¢ Professor, I am sorry for one of the best vessels in the
American navy; but they attacked me, and I was bound to.
flefend myself. I contented myself, however, with putting
the frigate hors de combat: she will not have any difficulty
in getting repaired at the next port.”

“Ah, Commander! your Nautilus is certainly a mar
rellous boat.”

“Yes, Professor; and I love it as if it were part of my-
self. If danger threatens one of your vessels on the ocean,
the first impression is the feeling of an abyss above and
below. On the Wawtilus men’s hearts never fail them. No
defects to be afraid of, for the double shell is as firm as
iron; no rigging to attend to; no sails for the wind to carry
away; no boilers to burst; no fire to fear, for the vessel is
made of iron, not of wood; no coal to run short, for elec-
tricity is the only mechanical agent; no collision to fear,
fe~ \t alone swims in deep water; no tempest to brave, for



80 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

whew tt dives below the water, it reaches absolute tranquil-
lity. There, sir! that is the perfection of vessels! And if
it is true that the engineer has more confidence in the ves-
sel than the builder, and the builder than the captain him-
self, you understand the trust I repose in my Nautilus;
for I am at once captain, builder, and engineer.”

«‘ But how could you construct this wonderful Nautilus
in secret ?”

*¢ Hach separate portion, M. Aronnax, was brought from
different parts of the globe. The keel was forged at
Creusot, the shaft of the screw at Penn & Co.’s, London,
the iron plates of the hull at Laird’s of Liverpool, the screw
itself at Scott’s at Glasgow. The reservoirs were made by
Cail & Co. at Paris, the engine by Krupp in Prussia, its
beak in Motala’s workshop in Sweden, its mathematical
instruments by Hart Brothers, of New York, etc.; and
each of these people had my orders under different names.”

*« But these parts had to be put together and arranged?”

“¢ Professor, I had set up my workshops upon a desert
island in the ocean. There my workmen, that is to say,
the brave men that I instructed and educated, and myself
have put together our Nautilus. Then, when the work
was finished, fire destroyed all trace of our proceedings on
this island, that I could have jumped over if I had liked.”

“Then the cost of this vessel is great?”

«‘M. Aronnax, an iron vessel costs £45 per ton. Now
the Nautilus weighed 1500. It came therefore to £67,500.
and £80,000 more for fitting it up, and abont £200,000
with the works of art and the collections it contains.”

“One last question, Captain Neme.”

** Ask it, Professor.”

«You are rich?”

“‘Immensely rich, sir; and I could, without missing 11,
pay the national debt of France.”

Istared at the singular person who spoke thus. Was he
playing upon mycredulity? The future would decide that,



~ 20.000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, 81

CHAPTER XIIf.
THE BUACK ZUVER.

Tue portion of the terrestrial globe which is covered by
water is estimated at upwards of eighty millions of acres.
This fluid mass comprises two billions two hundred and
fifty millions of cubic miles, forming a spherical body of a
diameter of sixty leagues, the weight of which would be
three quintillions of tons. To comprehend the meaning
of these figures, it is necessary to observe that a quintillion
is to a billion as a billion is to unity; in other words, there
are as many billions in a quintillion as there are units in a
billion. This mass of fluid is equal to about the quantity
of water which would be discharged by all the rivers of the
earth in forty thousand years.

During the geological epochs, the igneous period suc-
ceeded to the aqueous. The ocean originally prevailed
everywhere. Then by degrees, in the silurian period, the
tops of the mountains began to appear, the islands emerged,
then disappeared in partial deluges, reappeared, became
settled, formed continents, till at length the earth became
geographically arranged, as we see in the present day.
The solid had wrested from the liquid thirty-seven million
six hundred and fifty-seven square miles, equal to twelve
billions nine hundred and sixty millions of acres. ;

The shape of continents allows us to divide the waters
into five great portions: the Arctic or Frozen Ocean, the
Antarctic or Frozen Ocean, the Indian, the Atlantic. and
the Pacific Oceans.

The Pacific Ocean extends from north to south between
the two polar circles, and from east to west between Asia
and America, over an extent of 145 degrees of longitude.



82 20,000 LHAGULS UNDER THE SEAS.

Ii is the quietest of seas; its currents are broad and slow,
it has medium tides and abundant rain. Such was the
ocean that my fate destined me first to travel over under
these strange conditions.

“Sir,” said Captain Nemo, “ we will, if you please, take
our bearings and fix the starting-point of this voyage. It
is a quarter to twelve: I will go up again to the surface.”

The captain pressed an electric clock three times. The
pumps began to drive the water from the tanks; the needle
of the manometer marked: by a different pressure the ascent
of the Nautilus, then it stopped.

“We have arrived,” said the captain.

I went to the central staircase which opened on to the
platform, clambered up the iron steps, and found myself
on the upper part of the Nautilus.

The platform was only three feet out of water. The
front and back of the Nautilus was of that spindle-shape
which caused it justly to be compared to a cigar. I noticed
that its iron plates, slightly overlaying each other, resem:
bled the shell which clothes the bodies of our large terres:
trial reptiles. It explained to me how natural it was, in
spite of all glasses, that this boat should have been taken
for a marine animal.

Towards the middle of the platform the long-boat, hall
buried in the hull of the vessel, formed a slight excrescence.
Fore and aft rose two cages of medium height with inclined
sides, and partly closed by thick lenticular glasses; one des-‘
tined for che steersman who directed the Nautilus, the
other containing a brilliant lantern to give light on the
road.

The sea was beautiful, the sky pure. Scarcely could the
long vehicle feel the broad undulations of the ocean. A
light breeze from the east rippled the surface of the waters.
The horizon, free from fog, made observation easy. Noth-
ing was in sight. Not a quicksand, not an isiand. A
vast desert.



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 83

Captain Nemo, by the help of his sextant, took the alti-
tude of the sun, which ought also to give the latitude. He
waited for some moments till its disk touched the horizon,
Whilst taking observations not a muscle moved, the instru-
ment could not have been more motionless in a hand of
marble. /

«Twelve o’clock, sir,” said he. ‘When you like—”

I casi a last look upon the sea, slightly yellowed by the
Japanese coast, and descended to the saloon.

“And now, sir, I leave you to your studies,” added the

captain; ‘‘our course is H.N.H., our depth is twenty-six
fathoms. Here are maps on a large scale by which you
may follow it. The saloon is at your disposal, and with
your permission I will retire.” Captain Nemo bowed, and
TI remained alone, lost in thoughts all bearing on the com-
mander of the Nautilus.
« For a whole hour was I deep in these reflections, seeking
to pierce this mystery so interesting tome. Then my eyes
fell upon the vast planisphere spread upon the table, and I
placed my finger on the very spot where the given latitude
and longitude crossed.

The sea has its large rivers like the continents. They
are special currents known by their temperature and their
color. The most remarkable of these is known by the name
of the Gulf Stream. Science has decided on the globe the
direction of five principal currents: one in the North At-
lantic, a second in the South, a third in the North Pacific,
a fourth in the South, and a fifth in the Southern Indian
Ocean. It is even probable that a sixth current existed at
one time or another in the Northern Indian Ocean, when
the Caspian and Aral Seas formed but one vast sheet of
water.

At this point indicated on the planisphere one of these
currents was rolling, the Kuro-Scivo of the Japanese, the
Black River, which, leaving the Gulf of Bengal where it
is warmed by the perpendicular rays of a tropical sun,



84 20.000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAE.

crosses the Straits of Malacca along the coast of Asia, turns
into the North Pacific to the Aleutian Islands, carrying
with it trunks of camphor-trees and other indigenous pro-
ductions, and edging the waves of the ocean with the pure
indigo of its warm water. It was this current that the
Nautilus was to follow. I followed it with my eye; saw it
lose itself in the vastness of the Pacific, and felt myself
drawn with it, when Ned Land and Conseil appeared at the
door of the saloon.

My two brave companions remained petrified at the sight
of the wonders spread before them.

‘‘ Where are we, where are we?” exclaimed the Canadian.
“
“‘My friends,” I answered, making a sign for them to
enter, ‘‘ you are not in Canada, but on board the Nautilus,
fifty yards below the level of the sea.”

“But, M. Aronnax,” said Ned Land, “can you tell me
how many men there are on board? ‘Ten, twenty, fifty, a
hundred?” :

“‘T cannot answer you, Mr. Land; it is better to abandon
for a time all idea of seizing the Nautilus or escaping from
it. This ship is a masterpiece of modern industry, and I
should be sorry not to have seen it. Many people would
accept the situation forced upon us, if only to move amongst
such wonders. So be quiet and let us try and see what
passes around us.”

“* See!’ exclaimed the harpooner, ‘but we can see noth-
ing in this iron prison! We are walking—we are sailing—
blindly.”

Ned Land had scarcely pronounced these words when all
was suddenly darkness. ‘The luminous ceiling was gone,
and so rapidly that my eyes received a painful impression.

We remained mute, not stirring, and not knowing what
surprise awaited us, whether agreeable or disagreeable. A
sliding noise was heard: one would have said that panels
were working at the sides of the Nautilus.



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAB,

It is the end of the end!” said Ned Land.

Suddenly light broke at each side of the saloon, through
two oblong openings. The liquid mass appeared vividly
lit up by the electric gleam. ‘Two crystal plates separated
us from the sea. At first I trembled at the thought that
this frail partition might break, but strong bands of cop
per bound them, giving an almost infinite power of resistance.

The sea was distinctly visible for a mile all round the
Nautilus. Whata spectacle! What pen can describe it?
Who could paint the effects of the light through those
transparent sheets of water, and the softness of the succes-
sive gradations from the lower to the superior strata of the
ocean ?

We know the transparency of the sea, and that its clear-
ness is far beyond that of rock water. The mineral and
organic substances which it holds in suspension heighten
its transparency. In certain parts of the ocean at the An-
tilles, under seventy-five fathoms of water, can be seen with
surprising clearness a bed of sand. The penetrating power
of the solar rays does not seem to cease for a depth of one
hundred and fifty fathoms. But in this middle fluid trav-
elled over by the Wauttlus the electric brightness was pro-
duced even in the bosom of the waves. It was no longer
luminous water, but liquid light.

On each side a window opened into this unexplored
abyss. ‘The obscurity of the saloon showed to advantage
the brightness outside, and we looked out as if this pure
crystal had been the glass of an immense aquarium.

“You wished to see, friend Ned; well, you see now.”

“‘ Curious! curious!’ muttered the Canadian, who, for-
getting his ill-temper, seemed to submit to some irresistible
attraction; ‘and one would come farther than this to ad-
mire such a sight!”

*‘ Ah!’ thought I to myself, “‘I understand the life of
this man; he has made a world apart for himself, in which
he treasures all his greatest wonders.”



86 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

For two whole hours an aquatic army escorted the Wau-
tilus. During their games, their bounds, while rivalling
each other in beauty, brightness, and velocity, I distin-
guished the green labre; the banded mullet, marked by a
double line of black; the round-tailed goby, of a white color,
with violet spots on the back; the Japanese scombrus, a
beautiful mackerel of these seas, with a blue body and sil-
very head; the brilliant azurors, whose name alone defies
description; some banded spares, with variegated fins of’
blue and yellow; some aclostones, the woodcocks of the
seas, some specimens of which attain a yard in length;
Japanese salamanders, spider lampreys, serpents six feet
long, with eyes small and lively, and a huge mouth brist-
ling with teeth; with many other species.

Our imagination was kept at its height, interjections
followed: quickly on each other. Ned named the fish, and
Conseil classed them. I was in ecstasies with the vivacity
of their movements and the beauty of their forms. Never
had it been given to me to surprise these animals, alive and
at liberty, in their natural element. I will not mention all
the varieties which passed before my dazzled eyes, all the
collection of the seas of China and Japan. These fish,
more numerous than the birds of the air, came, attracted,
no doubt, by the brilliant focus of the electric light.

Suddenly there was daylight in the saloon, the iron panels
closed again, and the enchanting vision disappeared. But
for a long time I dreamt on till my eyes fell on the instru-
ments hanging on the partition. ‘The compass still showed
the course to be H.N.E., the manometer indicated a pres-
sure of five atmospheres, equivalent to a depth of twenty-
five fathoms, and the electric log gave a speed of fifteen
miles an hour. I expected Captain Nemo, but he did not
appear. The clock marked the hour of five.

Ned Land and Conseil returned to their cabin, and I re-
tired tomy chamber. My dinner was ready. It was com-
posed of turtle-soup made of the most delicate hawksbills,



20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SHAS, 87

or a surmullet served with puff paste (the liver of which, pre-
pared by itself, was most delicious), and fillets of the em-
peror-holocanthus, the savor of which seemed to me su-
perior even to salmon.

I passed the evening reading, writing, and thinking.
Then sleep overpowered me, and I stretched myself on my
couch of,zostera, and slept} profoundly, whilst the Wavw-
tilus was gliding rapidly through the current of the Black
River.

CHAPTER XIV.
A NOTE OF INVITATION.

THE next day was the 9th of November. I awoke after
a long sleep of twelve hours. Conseil came, according to
custom, to know ‘‘ how I had passed the night,” and to offer
his services. He had left his friend the Canadian sleeping
like a man who had never done anything else all his life.
IT let the worthy fellow chatter as he pleased, without car-
ing to answer him. I was preoccupied by the absence of
the captain during our sitting of the day before, and hoping
to see him to-day.

As soon as I was dressed I went into the saloon. It was
deserted.

I plunged into the study of the conchological treasures
hidden behind the glasses. I revelled also in great herbals
filled with the rarest marine plants, which, although dried
up, retained their lovely colors. Amongst these precious
hydrophytes I remarked some vorticelle, pavonarie, deli-
cate ceramies with scarlet tints, some fan-shaped agari, and
some natabuli like flat mushrooms, which at one time used
to ve classed as zoophytes; in short, a perfect series of
alges.



88 20,000 LHAGUES UNDHE THH SHAS.

The whole day passed without my being honored by &
visit from Captain Nemo. The panels of the saloon did
not open. Perhaps they did not wish us to tire of these
beautiful things.

The course of the Wauéilus was H.N.H., her speed twelve
knots, the depth below the snrface between twenty-five and
thirty fathoms.

The next day, 10th of November, the same desertion,
the same solitude. I did not see one of the ship’s crew:
Ned and Conseil spent the greater part of the day with me.
They were astonished at the inexplicable absence of the
captain. Was this singular man ill? had he altered his ine
tentions with regard to us?

After all, as Conseil said, we enjoyed: perfect liberty, we
were delicately and abundantly fed. Our host kept to his
terms of the treaty. We could not complain, and, indeed,
the singularity of our fate reserved such wonderful com-
pensation for us, that we had no right to accuse it as yet.

That day I commenced the journal of these adventures
which has enabled me to relate them with more scrupulous
exactitude and minute detail.. I wrote it on paper made
from the zostera marina.

llth November, early in the morning. Tlie fresh air
spreading over the interior of the Nautilus told me that
we had come to the surface of the ocean to renew our
supply of oxygen. I directed my steps to the central stair-
case, and mounted the platform.

It was six o clock, the weather was cloudy, the sea gray
but calm. Scarcely a billow. Captain Nemo, whom I
hoped to meet, would he be there? I saw no one but the
steersman imprisoned in his glass cage. Seated upon the
projection formed by the hull of the pinnace, I inhaled the
salt breeze with delight.

By degrees the fog disappeared under the action of the sun’s
rays, the radiant orb rose from behind the eastern horizon.
The sea flamed under its glance like a train of gunpowder.



20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAB. - 89

The clouds scattered in the heights were colored with lively
tints of beautiful shades, and numerous ‘“‘ mare’s tails,”
which betokened wind for that day. But what was wind
to this Vewtilus, which tempests could not frighten!

I was admiring this joyous rising of the sun, so gay, and
so life-giving, when I heard steps approaching the platform.
I was prepared to salute Captain Nemo, but it was his
second (whom I had already seen on the captain’s first
visit) who appeared. He advanced on the platform, not
seeming to see me. With his powerful glass to his eye,
he scanned every point of the horizon with great attention.
This examination over, he approached the panel and pro-
nounced a sentence in exactly these terms. I have remem-
bered it, for every morning it was repeated under exactly
the same conditions. It was thus worded:

“¢ Nautron respoc lorni virch.”

What it mean I could not say. *

These words pronounced, the second descended. I
thought that the Nautilus was about to return to its subs
marine navigation. I regained the panel and returned to
my chamber.

Five days sped thus, without any change in our situa-
tion. Every morning I mounted the platform. The same
phrase was pronounced by the same individual. But Cap-
tain Nemo did not appear.

I had made up my mind that I should never see him
again, when, on the 16tn November, on returning to my
room with Ned and Conseii, i found upon my table a note
addressed to me. I opened it impatiently. 14 was written
in a bold, clear hand, the characters rather pointed, recall.
ing the German type. The note was worded as follows:

“To Proressor ARONNAX, on board the Nautilus,
“16th of November, 186'7,
‘* Captain Nemo invites Professor Aronnax to a hunting
party, which wi' ‘ake place to-morzovw morning in the forest:



90 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

of the island of Crespo. He hopes that nothing will pre-
vent the Professor from being present, and he will with
pleasure see him joined by his companions.

“Captain Nemo, Commander of the Nautilus.”


«* And in the forests of the island of Crespo!” added Com
seil.

‘Oh, then the gentleman is going on terra firma?” ree
plied Ned Land.

«That seems to me to be clearly indicated,” said I, read.
ing the letter once more.

‘‘ Well, we must accept,” said the Canadian. ‘But
once more on dry ground, we shall know what to do.
Indeed, I shall not be sorry to eat a piece of fresh venison.”

Without seeking to reconcile what was contradictory be-
tween Captain Nemo’s manifest aversion to islands and
continents, and his invitation to hunt i in a forest, I con:
tented myself with replying—

‘* Let us first see where the island of Crespo is.”

I consulted the planisphere, and in 32° 40’ north lat.,
and 157° 50’ west long., I found a small island, recognized
in 1801 by Captain Crespo, and marked in the ancient
Spanish maps as Rocca de la Plata, the meaning of which
is ‘‘ The Silver Rock.” We'were then about eighteen hun-
dred milesfrom our starting-point, and the course of the
Nautilus, a little changed, was bringing it back towards
the southeast.

I showed this little rock lost in the midst of the North
Pacific to my companions.

“Tf Captain Nemo does sometimes go on dry ground,”
said I, ““he at least chooses desert islands.”

Ned Land shrugged his shoulders without speaking, and
Conseil and he left me.

After supper, which was served by the steward, mute —
and impassible, I went to bed, not without some anxiety,



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une amtat
Twenty Thousand Leagues
Under the Sea

By

Jules Vern
Author of «Tour of the World in Eighty Days,’ Bec.



CHICAGO:
M. A. DONOHUE & CO,
CONTENTS,

PAR TL:

CHAPTER I.

The mysterious and inexplicable Phenomena of 1866.—A. mon.
ster of the Sea,—Testimony to its Existence.—Facts and In-
cidents.—Accident to the Scotia.—Public Opinion excited.—
Theusands of Ships annually lost.—Ocean Travel becoming
more and more dangerous.—The Sea must be rid of the for-
midable Cetacean . .- : . =n ; .

CHAPTER. ii

My Arrival in New York.—‘‘ Mysteries of the Great Submarine
Grounds.”—-Am consulted on the Phenomena in Question..-
Philosophical Disquisition.—A gigantic Narwhal, or Unicorn
of the Sea.—Public Opinion pronounced.—The United States
Frigate Abraham Lincoln to solve the pease ear en
to sail.—My Invitation 5 :

CHAPTER III.

My Resolution.—Professor Aronnax accepts the offer of the
American Government.—Conseil.—What’s in a Name?—“ As
you please, Sir.”—The Archiotherium, Hyracotherium, Oreo-
dons, Cheropotamus, and live Babiroussa!—A. glorious Life
but a dangerous one.—Brooklyn Quay.—Getting off.—Cheers
from five hundred thousand Throats.--Down the Bay. =anee
bells.—Fire Island Lights.—On the dark Atlantic .

CHAPTER IV.

Commander Farragut.—An enthusiastic Crew.--Two Thousand
Dollars Reward.—Ned Land, the Prince of Harpooners.—His
Opinion.--What Whales can do and what they can’t.—
Science vs. Superstition.—A little figuring, and what comes of
it . 7 7 . . . ‘ : .

15

19
iv CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.

Ned Land at Work.—Doubling Cape Horn.—Hunting the ‘‘ Sea-
Serpent.”--Anxious Hours.—Three Months on the North
Pacific.—Great nervous. Eixcitement.—Reaction.—Shall the
Search be abandoned?—Three decisive Days.—Last Chance to
pocket the Prize.—The Monster appears . . ; 7

CHAPTER VI.

Beating Hearts.--An illuminated Sea.—The Narwhal approach-
es.— We execute a retrogade Movement.—A Night of terrible
Suspense.—Exciting Pursuit of a mysterious and formidable
Enemy.—Ned Land makes another ‘‘Strike.”—A Waste of
Ammunition.—Fearful Shock.—I fall into the Sea . .

CHAPTER VII.
Not alone.—Faithful Conseil—A night-long Struggle with
Death.—Ned and the ‘‘ Monster.”—Development extraordi-

nary.—The Mystery unravelled.—A novel Specimen of naval
Architecture.—We take Passage . 7 ; .

CHAPTER VIII.

Our new Quarters.—Darkness and Light.—The Submarine Boat
and its Commander.—Unsatisfactory Interview.—Clothed and
and fed.—‘‘ Mozriis 1x Mozrit, N.”—Startling Sensations. —
Speculations regarding our Situation.—Dreadful Nightmares
followed by a deep Sleep . . ‘ ‘ 7 7 ; 2

CHAPTER IX.

I awake refreshed.—And inspect my Surroundings.—The Prison
a Prison still.—Ventilation.—A fearful Silence and protracted
Haat Ned Land assaults the Steward.—‘‘ Parlez vous Fran-
gais?” ‘ . : . . . . . : . .

CHAPTER X.

More about the Man of the Seas.—Glimpse of a terrible Past.—
Hints of the Future.—Prospective Visit to the Land of Mar-
vels.—A Submarine Dining-room and Bill of Fare.—Fillet of
Turtle and Dolphin’s Livers.—Free Life under the Sea.—
Captain Nemo’s Library.—Magnificent Drawing-room and
Museum of the Nautilus.—My own Apartment : :

CHAPTER XI.

The Captain’s Room.—A powerful Agent.—The Soul of the
Nautilus—All by Elect«icity.—Fifty milesan Hour. *

2b

31

39

45

5&

70
CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XII.

The Captain explains the Mechanism of his Craft.—Atmospheric
Pressure and Compression.—Ingenious Devices.—The ‘‘ Per-
fection of Vessels.”—Secret of ils mysterious Construction.—
t desert Island in the Ocean.—Fabulous Wealth of Captain

ema a : : : ee ee ir @

CHAPTER XIII.

Geological and Geographical.—Arrangements for our first Sub-
marine Voyage.—Ocean Currents.—The Black River.—Ned
and Conseil.—Dissolving Views.—Grand electrical Illumi-
nation.—A Window opens into the unexplored Abyss.—An

immense Aquarium .

CHAPTER XIV. _
A Day in the Museum.—Compensations.—Inexplicable Absence

of the Captain.—Sunrise on the Sea.—‘‘ Nautron respoc lorni
virch.”—A Note of Invitation.—The Rouquarol and Ruhm-
korff Apparatus.—A destructive Arm” .° . .

CHAPTER XY.

A Walk on the Bottom of the Sea.—Realm of the Naiads.—A.
Reality Stranger than Fiction.—Forests of the Island of Crespo

CHAPTER XVI.

Fauna and Flora.—Zodphytes and Hydrophytes.—Curious
Anomaly.—The Arbor of Alarize.—We fall asleep.—A wakened
by an ut expected Apparition.—A monstrous Sea-spider.—
Seventy-rive Fathoms below the Level of the Sea.—Game.—
Reflections.—Hairbreadth Escape.—Return to the Nautilus

CHAPTER XVII.

Fishing extraordinary.—The Life of the Ocean.—Mysteries of
the. Submarine World.—Four Thousand Leagues under the
eo Islands.—Marquessas.— Wreck of the
Florida . ; . . . : . F : .

CHAPTER XVIII.

4, new Continent.—Study of the madreporal System.—How
Islands are made.—Tahiti the Queen of the Pacific.—Vani-
koro.—The Story of La Perouse.—‘‘ A coral Tomb makes a
quiet Grave”. wl, ys oe Re ie

CHAPTER XIX.

A ‘*Happy New Year.”—A dangerous Passage through the
Coral Sea.—Torres Straits——The Nautilus aground.—" Acci-
-dent or Incident?”--Once more on (terra jirma.—Ned Land

75

81

87

94

. 100

. 107

114

jubilant.—Grilled Vension or Loin of Tiger,—which? . « 122
vi : CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XX.

The Island of Gilboa.—A Feast of Cocoa-nuts.—Cannibals.—
Bread-fruit Pie—A Raid upon the Cabbage-palms.—Return
to the Nautilus.—Second Visit to the Island.—A World of
chattering Parrots and grave Cockatoos.—Birds of Paradise.—
A magnificent Specimen.—‘ Intemperance.”—The oer
—Dinner Party on Shore.—A Surprise :

CHAPTER XXII.

Ned Land and his Provisions.—Comical Tableau.—‘‘ To the
Boat!”—A hundred Savages in Pursuit.—A Night in the
Tropics.—Excitement on Shore.—A Swarm of Natives.—
Opening the Hatches. ee oo Thunderbolt.—Re-
lease of the Nautilus : : . 137

CHAPTER XXII.

In Motion.—Taking Observations.—Strange Agitation of Cap-
tain N emo.—An imperious Command. = Unpriesninent —Only
Ship’s Fare.—Total Darkness. eee ee —Com-
Bie Insensibility . ‘ i : . 148

CHAPTER XXIilI.

Wide awake and free!—An impenetrable Mystery.—Consulted
professionally.—Death comes to the Nautilus.—A submarine
Excursion.—The marvelous coral Kingdom.—Transformations
and magical Effects.—Burial Scene under the Sea . - « 185

PART II.

CHAPTER I.

The Indian Ocean.—Birds and Fishes.—A Shoal of Argonauts.
eo the ae nee ne epeciecle: ae a of a
: , . 168

CHAPTER II.

The Island of Ceylon.—A novel Proposal from Captain Nemo.
—Visit to the Banks of Manaar.—A. ‘‘ Tear of the Sea.”—~
Shark-Hunting:—Pearls,—what ne are and how secured.—
Counting the Cost . ; 4 - ‘ : . 178

CHAPTER TIT.

A Visit to the Fisheries.—Oyster extraordinary.—A Pearl of ten
Millions.—The Indian Diver.—Terror-stricken.—A fearful
Combat.—The Rescue.—Munificent Charity from the ae of
the Waters.—‘‘ Revenge.”—Conclusions : . 178
CONTHNTS. vil

CHAPTER IV.

The Laccadive Archipelago.— ‘Domes and Minarets of a
Country of Oman.—Only a Vision——‘‘ The Gate of Tears.”
The Waters of the Red Sea.—An indescribable Spectacle.—
The Home of the Sponges. —M. Lesseps and the Suez Ca-
nal.—Captain Nemo’s Discovery.—The ‘‘ Arabian Tunnel.” - 188

CHAPTER V.

Terrific Encounter with a gigantic oe —A Glimpse of Sinai.
—The Silence of Night.—The floating Light of Suez.—Under
the Isthmus.—Captain Nemo at the Helm.—The Torrent of
the Tunnel.—In the Mediterranean . . 199

CHAPTER VI.

Ned desires a Change.—Planning for the Future.—Captain
Nemo’s Correspondent.—A Chest of Gold.—The Grecian
Archipelago.—Submarine ee: —In a Paw oe _
choking,—broiled! . . 206

CHAPTER VII.

The Mediterranean’ in forty-eight Hours.—Gibraltar.—Ruins of
the Temple of Hercules.—Floating on the Atlantic : . 217

CHAPTER VIIL

Arrangements for Escape from the Nautilus—Conflicting Emo-
tions.—A Chapter in the History of Spain.—Secrets of Vigo
Bay.—An inexhaustible Fishery of Gold and Silver.—Source
of Captain Nemo’s Wealth.—A Heart pening for Emu eNDS
Humanity.—Aid for the Cretans. » 223

CHAPTER IX.

A curious Excursion toa vanished Continent.—The Submarine
Depths in the Darkness of Night.—Rain-shower under the
Waves.—A Copse of petrified aTraes, —Giant Lobsters and
Titanic Crabs. —A. Mountain of Fire.—The Atlantis of Plato.
—Ruins a thousand See old. ee poet the
Waters. F : 232

CHAPTER X.

In the Heart of an extinct Volcano.—Submarine Coal-mines.—
Captain Nemo’s Laboratory.—A Desgon> tree Beehive. aye
Land risks his Life for Game. 241
yili CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XI.

The Sargasso Sea.—A Lake in the open Atlantic.—Dreams of
Liberty.—Melancholy Tones of the Captain’s Organ.—We are
pursued by a Whaler.—Three Leagues under Water.—Below
the Limits of submarine Existence.—An Ocean Photograph.

—‘‘ Primitive Rocks which have never looked upon the Light
of Heaven” A : : : . . . : . 250

CHAPTER XII.

A Troop of Whales.—Pursued by Cachalots,—The Nautilus
enters the Field.—Inhuman Massacre.—A Sea of Blood.—
Ned Land’s Indignation . 7 . : 7 ‘ 3 . 255

CHAPTER XIII.

Journeying South.—‘‘ Ice Blink.”—Crossing the Polar Circle.—
Gorgeous Scenery among the Fields of Ice.—Captain Nemo’s
audacious Project.—To the Antarctic Pole.—Five hundred
Leagues under the Icebergs.—In the open Polar Sea j . 264

CHAPTER XIV.

The Antarctic Continent.—Maury’s Hypothesis.—Evidences of
volcanic Origin.—Life in the Air.—An Introduction to the
interesting Seal Family.—A City of Morses.—Scenes and
Sensations.—-The Vernel Equinox preceding the Polar Night.
—Altitude of the Sun.—At THE Sours PoLE!—Captain
Nemo unfurls the Black Banner and takes Possession . » 273

CHAPTER XY.

Return to the Depths.—A Shock.—Overturning of a Mountain
of Ice.—‘‘ Things God never intended Man to see.”—A fear-

ful Situation. —Blocked fast ‘ * i 284

CHAPTER XVI.

An impenetrable Wall of Ice.—T wo Ways of dying.—A living
Tomb.—Walls closing.in.—One Danger more.— Want of Air.
—Working with a Will.—Dizziness.—Suffocation.—Oppor-
tune Deliverance. . : : 7 . : . . . 291

CHAPTER XVII.

Thankfulness.—The Northern Sun.—Terra del Fuego.—From
Cape Horn to the Equator.—Conseil encounters an Electric
Fish.—A Herd of Sea-Cows.—Novel Expedient.—Turtle-
ane on' the Shores,of the Amazon.—Return to the high Pr

eas. 7 . . . ° . he se : .
CON LHRH S. ix

; CHAPTER XVIII.

The “ Devil Fish.”—Terrible Encounter.—Crushed to Death in
Arms of a Monster.—Ned Land saved by the Captain.—
“‘Only Revenge.” . . . . : : ; . . 809

CHAPTER XIX.

The Gulf Stream.—Phosphorescent Waters.—Longings for

Liberty.—Nostalgia.—‘‘ Whoever enters the Nautilus never

quits it.’—However, Ned resolves to be free.—Terrific Tem-

pest off the Long Island Shore . : . : . : . 318
CHAPTER XX.

A Visit to the Atlantic Cable.—Scene of the Accident in 1868.
—Toward the British Isles.—Land’s End.—The ‘‘ Avenger” . 826

CHAPTER XXI.

Mysterious Existence of Captain Nemo unveiled.—Retaliation.
—Ned Land stricken down with an Iron Hand.—The black
Flag unfurled.—Unwilling Witnesses of a dreadful Drama.—
The Archangel of Hatred in Tears! . : . + . 332

CHAPTER XXII.

Rapid Flight of the Nautilus to Northern Seas.—In Sight of
Land.—Plans for Escape perfected.—Last Words of Captain
Nemo.—The Maelstrom! the Maelstrom!—Into the Midst of
the Whirlpool.—I lose all Consciousness . : . . 841

CHAPTER XXIII.

A Marvelous Escape, and End of the Voracz UNDER THE
TWENTY THOUSAND LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

CHAPTER 'I.
A SHIFTING REEF.

THE year 1866 was signalized bya :emarkable incident, a
mysterious and inexplicable phenomenon, which doubtless
no one has yet forgotten. Not to mention rumors which
agitated the maritime population, and excited the public
mind, even in the interior of continents, seafaring men
were particularly excited. Merchants, common sailors,
captains of vessels, skippers, both of Europe and America,
naval officers of all countries, and the governments of
several States on the two continents, were deeeply inter-
ested in the matter.

For some time past, vessels had been met by ‘‘an enor:
mous thing,” a long object, spindle-shaped, occasionally
phosphorescent, and infinitely larger and more rapid in its
movements than a whale.

The facts relating to this apparition (entered in various
log-books) agreed in most respects as to the shape of the
object or creature in question, the untiring rapidity of its
movements, its surprising power of locomotion, and the
peculiar life with which it seemed endowed. If it was a
cetacean, it surpassed in size all those hitherto classified in
4 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

science. Taking into consideration the mean of obser:
vations made at divers times—rejecting the timid esti«
mate of those who assigned to this object a length of two
hundred feet, equally with the exaggerated opinions which
set it down as a mile in width and three in length—we
might fairly conclude that this mysterious being surpassed
greatly all dimensions admitted by the ichthyologists of
the day, if it existed at all. And that it did exist was ar
undeniable fact; and, with that tendency which disposes
the human mind in favor of the marvellous, we can under-
stand the excitement produced in the entire world by thig
supernatural apparition. As to classing it in the list of
fables, the idea was out of the question. re

On the 20th of July, 1866, the steamer Governor Higgin:
son, of the Calcutta and Burnach Steam Navigation Com-
pany, had met this moving mass five miles off the east
coast of Australia. Captain Baker thought at first that
he was in the presence of an unknown sand-bank; he ever
prepared to determine its exact position, when two col
umns of water, projected by the inexplicable object, shot
with a hissing noise a hundred and fifty feet up into the
air. Now, unless the sand-bank had been submitted to
the intermittent eruption of a geyser, the Governor Hig:
ginson had to do neither more nor less than with an
aquatic mammal, unknown till then, which threw up
from its blow-holes columns of water mixed with air and
vapor.

Similar facts were observed on the 23d of July in the
same year, in the Pacific Ocean, by the Columbus, of the
West India and Pacific Steam Navigation Company. But
this extraordinary cetaceous creature could transport itself
from one place to another with surprising velocity; as, in
an interval of three days, the Governor Higginson and the
Columbus had observed it at two different points of the
chart, separated bv a distance of more than seven hundred
nautical leagues.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 5

‘fifteen days later, two thousand miles farther off, the
Helvetia, of the Compagnie-Nationale, and the Shannon, of
the Royal Mail Steamship Company, sailing to wind-
ward in that portion of the Atlantic lying between the
United States and Europe, respectively signalled the mon-
ster to each other in 42° 15’ N. lat. and 60° 35’ W. long.
In these simuitaneous observations, they thought them-
selves justified in estimating the minimum length of the
mammal at more than three hundred and fifty feet, as the
Shannon and Helvetia were of smaller dimensions than it,
though they measured three hundred feet over all.

Now, the largest whales, those which frequent those
parts of the sea round the Aleutian, Kulammak, and Um-
gullich Islands, have never exceeded the length of sixty
yards, if they attain that.

These reports arriving one after the other, with fresh ob-
servations made on board ‘the transatlantic ship Pereira, a
collision which occurred between the Hina of the Inman
line and the monster, a procés verbal directed by the officers
of the French frigate Normandie, a very accurate survey
made by the staff of Commodore Fitz-James on board the
Lord Clyde, greatly influenced public opinion. Light-
thinking people jested upon the: phenomenon, but grave
practical countries, such as England, America, and Ger-
many, treated the matter more seriously.

In every place of great resort the monster was the rash-
ion. They sang of it in the cafés, ridiculed it in the
papers, and represented it on the stage. All kinds of
stories were circulated regarding it. There appeared in
the papers caricatures of every gigantic and imaginary
creature, from the white whale, the terrible ‘‘ Moby Dick”
of hyperborean regions, to the immense kraken whose ten-
tacles could entangle a ship of five hundred tons, and
hurry it into the abyss of the ocean. The legends of
ancient times were even resuscitated, and the opinions of
Aristotle and Pliny revived, who admitted the existence of
6 20,000 LHAGUES .UNDER THE SEAS.

these monsters, as well as the Norwegian tales of Bishop
Pontoppidan, the accounts of Paul Heggede, and, last of
all, the reports of Mr. Harrington (whose good faith no
one could suspect), who affirmed that, being on board the
‘Castillan, in 1857, he had seen this enormous serpent,
which had never until that time frequented any other seas
but those of the ancient ‘* Constitutionel.”

Then burst forth the interminable controversy between
the credulous and the incredulous in the societies of sa-
vants and scientific journals. ‘‘The question of the mon-
ster” inflamed all minds. Editors of scientific journals,
quarrelling with believers in the supernatural, spilled seas
of ink during this memorable campaign, some even draw-
ing blood; for, from the sea-serpent, they came to direct
personalities.

For six months war was waged with various fortune in
the leading articles of the Geographical Institution of Bra-
zil, the Royal Academy of Science of Berlin, the British
Association, the Smithsonian Institution of Washington,
in the discussions of the ‘‘ Indian Archipelago,” of the
Cosmos of the Abbé Moigno, in the Mittheilungen of Pe-
termann, in the scientific chronicles of the great journals
of France and other countries. The cheaper journals re-
plied keenly and with inexhaustible zest. These satirical
writers parodied a remark of Linneeus, quoted by the ad-
versaries of the monster, maintaining “that nature did
not make fools,” and adjured their contemporaries not to
give the lie to nature, by admitting the existence of kra-
kens, sea-serpents, ‘‘ Moby Dicks,” and other lucubrations
of delirious sailors. At length an article in a well-known
satirical journal by a favorite contributor, the chief of the
staff, settled the monster, like Hippolytus, giving it the
death-blow amidst a universal burst of laughter. Wit kad
conquered science.

During the first months of the year 1867, the question
seemed buried never to revive, when new facts were
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. q

brought before the public. It was then no longer a scien-
tific problem to be solved, but a real danger seriously to be
avoided. The question took quite another shape. The
monster became a small island, a rock, a reef, but a reef of
indefinite and shifting proportions.

On the 5th of March, 1867, the Moravian, of the Mon-
treal Ocean Company, finding herself during the night in
27° 30’ lat. and 72° 15’ long., struck on her starboard
quarter a rock, marked in no chart for that part of the
sea. Under the combined efforts of the wind and its four
hundred horse-power, it was going at the rate of thirteen
knots. Had it not been for the superior strength of the
hull of the Moravian, she would have been broken by the
shock, and gone down with the 237 passengers she was
bringing home from Canada.

The accident happened about five o’clock in the morn-
ing, as the day was breaking. The officers of the quarter-
deck hurried to the after-part of the vessel. They exam-
ined the sea with the most scrupulous attention. They
saw nothing but a strong eddy about three cables’ length
distant, as if the surface had been violently agitated. The
bearings of the place were taken exactly, and the Moravian
continued its route without apparent damage. Had it
struck on a submerged rock, or on an enormous wreck?
They could not tell; but on examination of the ship’s bot-
tom when undergoing repairs, it was found that part of her
keel was broken.

This fact, so grave in itself, might perhaps have been
forgotten like many others, if, three weeks after, it had
not been re-enacted under similar circumstances. But,
thanks to the nationality of the victim of the shock,
thanks to the reputation of the company to which the
vessel belonged, the circumstance became extensively cir-
culated.

The 18th of April, 1867, the sea being beautiful, the
breeze favorable, the Sco¢va, of the Cunard Company’s line,
8 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

found herself in 15° 12’ long. and 45° 37’ lat. She wag
zoing at the speed of thirteen knots and a half.

_At seventeen minutes past four in the afternoon, whilst
the passengers were assembled at lunch in the great saloon,
a slight shock was felt on the hull of the Scotia, on her
quarter, a little aft of the port paddle.

The Scotia had not struck, but she had been struck, and
seemingly by something rather sharp and penetrating than
blunt. The shock had been so slight that no one had been
alaamed, had it not been for the shouts of the carpenter’s
watch, who rushed on to the bridge, exclaiming, ‘‘ Weare
sinking! we are sinking!” At first the passengers were
much frightened, but Captain Anderson hastened to reas-
sure them. The danger could not be imminent. The
Scotia, divided into seven compartments by strong parti-
tions, could brave with impunity any leak. Captain An-
derson went down immediately into the hold. He found
that the sea was pouring into the fifth compartment; and
the rapidity of the influx proved that the force of the water
was considerable. Fortunately this compartment did not
hold the boilers, or the fires would have been immediately
extinguished. Captain Anderson ordered the engines to be
stopped at once, and one of the men went down to ascertain
the extent of the injury. Some minutes afterwards they
discovered the existence of a large hole, of two yards in di-
ameter, in the ship’s bottom. Such a leak could not be
stopped; and the Scotia, her paddles half submerged, was
obliged to continue her course. She was then three hun-
dred miles from Cape Clear, and after three days’ delay,
which caused great uneasiness in Liverpool, she entered the
basin of the company.

The engineers visited the Scotia, which was put in dry-
flock. They could scarcely believe it possible: at two
yards and a half below water-mark was a regular rent, in
the form of an isosceles triangle. The broken place in the
iron plates was so perfectly defined, that it could not have
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 9

oeen more neatly done by a punch. It was clear, then,
that the instrument producing the perforation was not of
a common stamp; and after having been driven with pro-
digious strength, and piercing an iron plate 13 inches
thick, had withdrawn itself by a retrograde motion, truly
inexplicable.

Such was the last fact, which resulted in exciting once
more the torrent of public opinion. From this moment all
unlucky casualties which could not be otherwise accounted
for were put down to the monster.

Upon this imaginary creature rested the responsibility of
all these shipwrecks, which unfortunately were considera-
ble; for of three thousand ships whose loss was annually
reported at Lloyds’, the number of sailing and steam ships
supposed to be totally lost, from the absence of all news,
amounted to not less than two hundred. ~

Now, it was the ‘‘ monster” who, justly or unjustly, was
accused of their disappearance, and, thanks to it, commu-
nication between the different continents became more and
more dangerous. The public demanded peremptorily that
the seas should at any price be relieved from this formida-
ble cetacean.

CHAPTER II.
PRO AND CON

At the period when these events took place, I had just
returned from a scientific research in the disagreeable
Territory of Nebraska, in the United States. In virtue of
my office as Assistant Professor in the Museum of Natural
History in Paris, the French government had attached me
to that expedition. After six months in Nebraska, I ar-
rived in New York towards the end of March, laden with
10 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

a precious collection. My departure for France was fixed
for the first days in May. Meanwhile, I was occupying
myself in classifying my mineralogical, botanical, and
zoological riches, when the accident happened to the
Scotia. ,

I was perfectly up in the subject which was the question
of the day. How could I be otherwise? J had read and
reread all the American and European papers without
being any nearer a conclusion. This mystery puzzled me.
Under the impossibility of forming an opinion, I jumped
from one extreme to the other. That there really was
something could not be doubted, and the incredulous were
invited to put their finger on the wound of the Scotia.

On my arrival at New York, the question was at its
height. The hypothesis of the floating island, and the un-
approachable sand-bank, supported -by minds little com-
petent to form a judgment, was abandoned. And, indeed,
unless this shoal had a machine in its stomach, how could
it change its position with such astonishing rapidity?

From the same cause, the idea of a floating hull of an
enormous wreck was given up.

There remained then only two possible solutions of the
question, which created two distinct parties: on one side,
those who were for a monster of colossal strength; on the
other, those who were for a submarine vessel of enormous
motive power.

But this last hypothesis, plausible as it was, could not
stand against inquiries made: in both worlds. That a
private gentleman should have such a machine at his com-
mand was not likely. Where, when, and how was it built?
and how could its construction have been kept secret?
Certainly a government might possess such a destructive
machine. And in these disastrous times, when the in-
genuity of man has multiplicd the power of weapons of
war, it was possible that, without the knowledge of others,
a state might try to work such aformidableengine. After
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. it

the chassepots came the torpedoes, after the torpedoes the
gubmarine rams, then—the reaction. At least, I hope so.

But the hypothesis of a war-machine fell before the dec-
laration of governments. As public interest was in
question, and transatlantic communications suffered, their
veracity could not be doubted. But, how admit that the
construction of this submarine boat had escaped the public
eye? For a private gentleman to keep the secret under
such circumstances would be very difficult, and for a State
whose every act is persistently watched by powerful rivals,
certainly imposssible.

After inquiries made in England, France, Russia,
Prussia, Spain, Italy, and America, even in Turkey, the
hypothesis of a submarine monitor was definitely rejected.

Upon my arrival in New York several persons did me
the honor of consulting me on the phenomenon in ques-
tion. I had published in France a work in quarto, in two
volumes, entitled, ‘‘Mysteries of the Great Submarine.
Grounds.” This book, highly approved of in the learned
world, gained for me a special reputation in this rather
obscure branch of Natural History. My advice was asked.
As long as I could deny the reality of the fact, I confined
myself to a decided negative. But soon finding myself
driven into a corner, I was obliged to explain myself cate-
gorically, And even ‘‘the Honorable Pierre Aronnax,
Professor in the Museum of Paris,” was called upon by the
New York Herald to express a definite opinion of some
sort. I did something. I spoke for want of power to hold
my tongue. I discussed the question in all its forms, polit-
ically and scientifically; and I give here an extract from a
carefully studied article which I published in the number
of the 80th of April. It ran as follows: =

“* After examining one by one the different hypotheses,
rejecting all other suggestions, it becomes necessary to
admit the existence of a marine animal of enormous
power.
12 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

“The great depths of the ocean are entirely unknown
to us. Soundings cannot reach them. What passes in
those remote depths—what heings live, or can live, twelve
or fifteen miles beneath the surface of the waters—what is
ithe organization of these animals—we can scarcely con-
jecture. However, the solution of the problem submitted
tome may modify the form of the dilemma. Hither we
do know all the varieties of beings which people our planet,
or wedo not. If we do xot know them all, if Nature has
still secrets in ichthyology for us, nothing is more con-
formable to reason than to admii the existence of fishes, or
cetaceans of other kinds, or even of new species, of an or-
ganization formed to inhabit the strata inaccessible to
soundings, and which an accident of some sort, either fan-
tastical or capricious, has brought at long intervals to the
upper level of the ocean.

“Tf, on the contrary, we do know all living kinds, we
must necessarily seek for the animal in question amongst
those marine beings already classed; and, in that case, I
should be disposed to admit the existence of a gigantic
wnat, dal.

«The common narwhal, or unicorn of the sea, often at-
tainsa length of sixty feet. Increase its size fivefold or
tenfold, give it strength proportionate to its size, lengthen
its destructive weapons, and you obtain the animal re-
quired. It will have the proportions determined by the
officers of the Shannon, the instrument required by the
perforation of the Scotia, and the power necessary to pierce
the hull of the steamer.

“Indeed the narwhal is armed with a sort of ivory sword,
a halberd, according to the expression of certain natural-
ists. The principal tusk has the hardness of steel: Some
of these tusks have been found buried in the bodies of
whales, which the unicorn always attacks with success.
Others have been drawn out, not without trouble, from
the bottoms of ships, which they had pierced through and
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 18

through, as a gimlet pierces a barrel. The Museum of the
Faculty of Medicine-of Paris possesses one of these defen:
sive weapons, two yards and a quarter in length, and fifteen
inches in diameter at the base.

“Very well! suppose this weapon to be six times stronger,
and the animal ten times more powerful; launch it at the
vate of twenty miles an hour, and you obtain a shock
capable of producing the catastrophe required. Until fur-
ther information, therefore, I shall maintain it to be a sea-
unicorn of colossal dimensions, armed, not with a halberd,
but with a real spur,. as the armored frigates, or the
‘rams’ of war, whose massiveness and motive power it
would possess at thesame time. Thus may this inexplicable
phenomenon be explained, unless there be something over
and above all that one has ever conjectured, seen, perceived,
or experienced; which is just within the bounds of possi-
bility.”

These last words were cowardly on my part; but, up to
a certain point, I wished to shelter my dignity as Professor,
and not give too much cause for laughter to the Americans,
who laugh well when they do laugh. I reserved for my-
self a way of escape. In effect, however, I admitted the
existence of the ‘“‘monster.” My article was warmly dis.
cussed, which procured ita high reputation. It rallied round
it a certain number of partisans. The solution it proposed
gave, at least, full liberty tothe imagination, The human.
mind delights in grand conceptions of supernatural beings.
And the sea is precisely their best vehicle, the only medium
through which these giants (against which terrestrial ani-
mals, such as elephants or rhinoceroses, are as nothing)
gan be produced or developed.

The industrial and commercial papers treated the ques-
tion chiefly from this point of view. The Shipping and
Mercantile Gazette, the Lloyds’ List, the Packet-Boat, and
the Maritime and Colonial Review, all papers devoted te
imsurance companies which threatened to raise their rates
14 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

of premium, were unanimous on this point. Public
opinion had been pronounced. The United States were
the first in the field; and in New York they made prepara-
tions for an expedition destined to pursue this narwhal.
A frigate of great speed, the Abraham Lincoln, was put in
commission as soon as possible. The arsenals were opened
to Commander Farragut, who hastened the arming of his
frigate; but, as it alvays happens, the moment it was de-
cided to pursue the monster, the monster did not appear.
For two months no one heard it spoken of. No ship met
with it. It seemed as if this unicorn knew of the plots
weaving around it. It had been so much talked of, even
through the Atlantic cable, that jesters pretended that this
slender fly had stopped a telegram on its passage, and was
making the most of it.

So when the frigate had been armed for a long campaign,
and provided with formidable fishing apparatus, no one
could tell what course to pursue. Impatience grew apace,
when, on the 2d of June, they learned that a steamer of
the line of San Francisco, from California to Shanghai,
had seen the animal three weeks before in the North Pa-
cific Ocean. The excitement caused by this news was ex-
treme. The ship was revictualled and well stocked with
coal.

Three hours before the Adraham Lincoln left Brooklyn
pier, I received a letter worded as follows:

“To M. ARonnax, Professor in the Museum of Parvs,
Firta AVENUE Hotei, New Yorr.

“Srr,—If you will consent to join the Abraham Lincoln in this
expedition, the government of the United States will with pleasure
see France represented in the enterprise.- Commander Farragut hag
® cabin at your disposal. Very cordially yours,

“J. B. Hopson,
“ Secretary of Marine,”
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 15

CHAPTER III.
I FORM MY RESOLUTION.

THREE seconds before the arrival of J. B. Hobson’s let-
ter, [no more thought of pursuing the unicorn than of
attempting the passage of the North Sea. Three seconds
after reading ‘the letter of the Honorable Secretary of Ma-
rine, I felt that my true vocation, the sole end of my life,
was to chase this disturbing monster, and purge it from the
world.

But I had just returned from a fatiguing journey, weary,
and longing for repose. J aspired to nothing more than
again seeing my country, my friends, my little lodging by
the Jardin des Plantes, my dear and precious collections.
But nothing could keep me back! I forgot all—fatigue,
friends, and collections—and accepted without hesitation
the offer of the American government.

“ Besides,” thought I, ‘all roads lead back to Europe;
and the unicorn may be amiable enough to hurry me
towards the coast of France. This worthy animal may
allow itself to be caught in the seas of Europe (for my par-
ticular benefit), and I will not bring back less than half a
yard of his ivory halbred to the Museum of Natural His-
tory.” But in the mean while I must seek this narwhal
in the North Pacific Ocean, which, to return to France,
was taking the road to the antipodes.

“* Conseil,” I called in an impatient voice.

Conseil was my servant, a true, devoted Flemish bov,
who had accompanied me in all my travels. I liked him,
and he returned the liking well. He was phlegmatic by
nature, regular from principle, zealous from habit, evincing
little disturbance at the different surprises of life, very
16 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS,

quick with his hands, and apt at any service required of
him; and, despite his name, never giving advice—even
when asked for it.

Conseil had followed me for the last ten years wherever
science led. Never once did he complain of the length or
fatigue of a journey, never make an objection to pack his
portmanteau for whatever country it might be, or however
far away, whether China or Congo. Besides all this, he
had good health, which defied all sickness, and solid mus-
cles, but no nerves; good morals are understood. This
boy was thirty years old, and his age to that of his master
as fifteen to twenty. May I be excused for saying that I
was forty years old?

But Conseil had one fault, he was ceremonious to a de-
gree, and would never speak to me but in the third person,
which was sometimes provoking.

* Conseil,” said I again, beginning with feverish hands
to make preparations for my departure.

Certainly I was sure of this devoted boy. Asa rule, I
never asked him if it were convenient for him or not to fol-
low me in my travels; but this time the expedition in ques-
tion might be prolonged, and the enterprise might be haz-
ardous in pursuit of an animal capable of sinking a frigate
as easily asa nutshell. Here there was matter for reflec-
tion even to the most impassive man in the world. What
would Conseil say?

“* Conseil,” I called a third time

Conseil appeared.

«Did you call, sir?” said he, entering.

“Yes, my boy; make preparations for me and yourseli
too. We leave in two hours.”

«« As you please, sir,” replied Conseil, quietly.

“¢ Not an instant to lose; lock in my trunk all travelling
utensils, coats, shirts, and stockings—without countine—
as many as you can, and make haste.”

“ And your collections, sir?” observed Conseil.
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER HE SHAS. 17

«We will think of them by and by.”

‘“What! the archiotherium, the hyracotherium, the
oreodons, the cheropotamus, and the other skins?”

“They will keep them at the hotel.”

«¢ And your live Babiroussa, sir?”

“‘ They will feed it during our absence; besides, I will
give orders to forward our menagerie to France.”

“We are not returning to Paris, then?” said Conseil.

“Oh! certainly,” I answered evasively, ‘‘ by making a
curve.”

“Will the curve please you, sir?”

“‘Oh! it will be nothing; not quite so direct a road, that
is all. We take our passage in the Abraham Lincoln.”

‘* As you think proper, sir,” coolly replied Conseil.

“You see, my friend, it has to do with the monster—-
the famous narwhal. We are going to purge it from the
seas. The author of a work in quarto, in two volumes, on
the ‘Mysteries of the Great Submarine Grounds’ cannot
forbear embarking with Commander Farragut. A glorious
mission, but a dangerous one! We cannot tell where we
may go; these animals can be very capricious. But we will
go whether or no; we have got a captain who is pretty wide
awake.”

I opened a credit account for Babiroussa, and, Conseil
following, I jumped into a cab. Our luggage was trans-
ported to the deck of the frigate immediately. I hastened
on board and asked for Commander Farragut. One of the
sailors conducted me to the poop, where I found myself in
the presence of a good-looking officer, who held out his
hand to me.

“Monsieur Pierre Aronnax?” said he.

“* Himself,” replied I; ‘‘ Commander Farragut?”

ery are welcome, Professor; your cabin is ready for
you.”

J bowed, and desired to be conducted to the cabin des-
tined for me.
18 20,000 LHEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

The Abraham Lincoln had been well chosen and equipped
for her new destination. She was a frigate of great speed,
fitted with high-pressure engines which admitted a pressure
of seven atmospheres. Under this the Abraham Lincoln
attained the mean speed of nearly eighteen knots and a
third an hour—a considerable speed, but, nevertheless,
insufficient to grapple with this gigantic cetacean.

The interior arrangements of the frigate corresponded t¢
its nautical qualities. I was well satisfied with my cabin,
which was in the after-part, opening upon the gun-room.

“‘We shall be well off here,” said I to Conseil.

«* As well, by your honov’s leave, as a hermit-crab in the
shell of a whelk,” said Conseil. .

T left Conseil to stow our trunks conveniently away, and
remounted the poop in order to survey the preparations fo1
departure.

At that moment Commander Farragut was ordering the
last moorings to be cast loose which held the Adraham
Lincoln to the pier of Brooklyn. So in a quarter of an
hour, perhaps less, the frigate would have sailed withont
me. «I should have missed this extraordinary, supernatural,
and incredible expedition, the recital of which may wel!
meet with some skepticism.

But Commander Farragut would not lose a day nor an
hour in scouring the seas in which the animal had been
sighted. He sent for the engineer.

“Ts the steam full on?” asked he.

“Yes, sir,” replied the engineer.

“‘Go ahead,” cried Commander Farragut.

The quay of Brooklyn, and all that part of New York
bordering on the East River, was crowded with spectators.
Three cheers burst successively from five hundred thousand
throats; thousands of handkerchiefs were waved above the
heads of the compact mass, saluting the Abraham Lincoln,
until she reached the waters of the Hudson, at the point of
that elongated peninsula which forms the town of New
2,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 19

York. Then the frigate, following the coast of New Jersey
along the right bank of the beautiful river, covered with
villas, passed between the forts, which saluted her with
their heaviest guns. The Abraham Lincoln answered by
hoisting the American colors three times, whose thirty-nine
stars shone resplendent from the mizzen-peak; then modi-
fying its speed to take the narrow channel marked by buoys
placed in the inner bay formed by Sandy Hook Point, it
coasted the long sandy beach, where some thousands of
spectators gave it one final cheer. The escort of boats and
tenders still followed the frigate, and did not leave her
until they came abreast of the light-ship, whose two lights
marked the entrance of New York Channel.

Six bells struck, the pilot got into his boat, and rejoined
the little schooner which was waiting under our lee, the
fires were made up, the screw beat the waves more rapidly,
the frigate skirted the low yellow coast of Long Island; and
at eight bells, after having lost sight in the northwest of
the lights of Fire Island, she ran at full steam on to the
dark waters of the Atlantic.

2 SHAPTER IV.
NED LAND.

CAPTAIN FarRAGUT was a.good seaman, worthy of the
frigate he commanded. THis vessel and he were one. He
was the soul of it. On the question of the cetacean there
was no doubt in his mind, and he would not allow the ex-
istence of the animal to be disputed on board. He believed
in it as certain good women believe in the leviathan—by
faith, not by reason. The monster did exist, and he had
sworn to rid the seas of it. He was a kind of Knight of
Rhodes, asecond Dieudonné de Gozon, going to meet the
26 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDHR THE SHap.

serpent which desolated the island. Hither Captain Farra-
gut would kill the narwhal, or the narwhal would kill the
captain. ‘There was no third course.

The officers on board shared the opinion of their chief.
They were ever chatting, discussing, and calculating the
various chances of a meeting, watching narrowly the vast
surface of the ocean. More than one took up his quarters
voluntarily in the cross-trees, who would have cursed such
a berth under any other circumstances. As long as the sun
described its daily course, the rigging was crowded with
sailors, whose feet were burnt to such an extent by the heat
of the deck as to render it unbearable; still the Abraham
Lincoln had not yet breasted the suspected waters of the
Pacific. - As to the ship’s company, they desired nothing
better than to meet the unicorn, to harpoon it, hoist it on
board, and deepath it. They watched the sea with eager
attention.

Besides, Captain Farragut had spoken of a certain sum of
two thousand dollars, set apart for whoever should first
sight the monster, were he cabin-boy, common seaman, or
officer.

I leave you to judge how eyes were used on board the
Abraham Lincoln.

For my own part, I was not behind the others, and left
to no one my share of daily observations. The frigate
might have been called the Argus, for a hundred reasons.
Only one amongst us, Conseil, seemed to protest by his in-
difference against the question which so interested us all,
and seemed to be out of keeping ae the general enthusiasm
on board.

T have said that Captain Farragut had carefully provided
his ship with every apparatus for catching the gigantic ceta-
cean. No whaler had ever been better armed. We pos-
sessed every known engine, from the harpoon thrown by
the hand to the barbed arrows of the blunderbuss, and the
explosive balls of the duck-gun. On the forecastle lay the
20,000 LEAGUES UNDHR THE SEAS, 91

perfection of a breech-loading gun, very thick at the breech,
and very narrow in the bore, the model of which had been
in the Exhibition of 1867. This precious weapon of Ameri-
can origin could throw with ease a conical projectile of nine
pounds to a mean distance of ten miles.

Thus the Abraham Lincoln wanted for no means of de-
struction; and, what was better still, she had on board Ned
Land, the prince of harpooners.

Ned Land was a Canadian, with an uncommon quickness
of hand, and who knew no equal in his dangerous occupa-
tion. Skill, coolness, audacity, and cunning he possessed
in a superior degree, and it must be a cunning whale ora
singularly ‘‘ cute” cachalot to escape the stroke of his har-
poon.

Ned Land wasabouv ‘orty years of age; he was a tall man
(more than six feet high), strongly built, grave and taciturn,
occasionally violent, and very passionate when contradicted.
His person attracted attention, but above all the boldness
of his look, which gave a singular expression to his face.

Who calls himself Canadian calls himself French; and
little communicative as Ned Land was, I must admit that
he took a certain liking forme. My nationality drew him
to me, no doubt. It was an opportunity for him to talk,
and for me to hear, that old language of Rabelais, which is
still in use in some Canadian provinces. The harpooner’s
family was originally from Quebec, and was already a tribe
of hardy fishermen when this town belonged to France.

Little by little, Ned Land acquired a taste for chatting,
and I loved to hear the recital of his adventures in
the polar seas. He related his fishing, and his combats,
with natural poetry of expression; his recital took the form
of an epic poem, and I seemed to be listening to a Canadian
Homer singing the Iliad of the regions of the North.

Jam portraying this hardy companion as I really knew
him. We are old friends now, united in that unchangeable
friendship which is born and cemented amidst extreme dan-
32 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SHAS.

gers. Ah, brave Ned! I ask no more than to live a hun-
dred years longer, that I may have more time to dwell the
longer on your memory.

Now, what was Ned Land’s opinion upon the question of
the marine monster? I must admit that he did not believe
in the unicorn, and was the only one on board who ‘did not
share that universal conviction. He even avoided the sub-
ject, which I one day thought it my duty to press upon
him. One magnificent evening, the 25th June—that is to
say, three weeks after our departure—the frigate was
abreast of Cape Blanc, thirty miles to leeward of the coast
of Patagonia. We had crossed the tropic of Capricorn, and
the Straits of Magellan opened less than seven hundred
miles to the south. Before eight days were over the Adra-
ham Lincoln would be ploughing the waters of the Pacific.

Seated on the poop, Ned Land and I were chatting of one
thing and another as we looked at this mysterious sea,
whose great depths had up to this time been inaccessible to
the eye of man. I naturally led up the conversation to the
giant unicorn, and examined the various chances of success
or failure of the expedition. But seeing that Ned Land let
me speak without saying too much himself, I pressed him
wore closely.

“‘Well, Ned,” said I, ‘‘is it possible that you are not
convinced of the existence of this cetacean that we are fol-
lowing? Have you any particular reason for being so in-
credulous?” .

The harpooner looked at me fixedly for some moments
before answering, struck his broad forehead with his hand
(a habit of his), as if to collect pees and said at last,
“Perhaps I have, Mr. Aronnax.’

“But, Ned, you, a whaler by profession, familiarized
with all the great marinc mammalia—you, whose imagina-
tion might easily accept the hypothesis of enormous ceta-
ceans—yow ought to be the last to doubt under such cir-
cumstances!”
2u,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 93

‘‘That is just what deceives you, Professor,” replied
Ned. <‘‘That the vulgar should believe in extraordinary
comets traversing space, and in the existence of antedilu-
vian monsters in the heart of the globe, may well be; but
neither astronomers nor geologists believe in such chimeras.
As a whaler, I have followed many a cetacean, harpooned
a great number, and killed several; but, however strong
or well-armed they may have been, neither their tails nor
their weapons would have been able even to scratch the
iron plates of a steamer.”

“But, Ned, they tell of ships which the teeth of the nar-
whal have pierced through and through.”

“‘ Wooden ships—that is possible,” replied the Canadian;
“but I have never seen it done; and, until further proof,
I deny that whales, cetaceans, or sea-unicorns could ever
produce the effect you describe.”

«Well, Ned, I repeat it with a conviction resting on the
logic of facts. I believe in the existence of a mammal
powerfully organized, belonging to the branch of verte-
brata, like the whales, the cachalots, or the dolphins, and
furnished with a horn of defence of great penetrating
power.”

‘‘Hum!” said the harpooner, shaking his head with the
air of a man who would not be convinced,

“Notice one thing, my worthy Canadian,” I resumed.
“Tf such an animal is in existence, if it inhabits the depths
of the ocean, if it frequents the strata lying miles below the
surface of the water, it must necessarily possess an organ-
ization the strength of which would defy all comparison.”

«And why this powerful organization?” demanded Ned.

“Because it requires incalculable strength to keep one’s
self in these strata and resist their pressure. Listen to me.
Let us admit that the pressure of the atmosphere 1s repre-
sented by the weight of a column of water thirty-two feet
high. In reality the column of water would be shorter, as
we are speaking of sea-water, the density of which is greates
24 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

than that of fresh water. Very well, when you dive, Ned,
as many times thirty-two feet of water as there are above
you, so many times does your body bear a pressure equal to
that of the etmosphere, that is to say 15 Ibs. for each square
inch of its surface. It follows, then, that at 320 feet this
pressure = that of 10 atmospheres, of 100 atmospheres at
3200 feet, and of 1000 atmospheres at 32,000 feet, that is,
about 6 miles; which is equivalent to saying that, if you
could attain this depth in the ocean, each square 3 of an
inch of the surface of your body would bear a pressure of
5600 lbs. Ah! my brave Ned, do you know how many
square inches you carry on the surface of your body?”

‘*T have no idea, Mr. Aronnax.” ;

“«* About 6500; and, as in reality the atmospheric press-
ure is about 15 Ibs. to the square inch, your 6500 square
inches bear at this moment a pressure of 97,500 lbs.”

‘‘ Without my perceiving it?”

‘Without your perceiving it. And if you are not
crushed by such a pressure, it is because the air penetrates
the interior of your body with equal pressure. Hence per-
fect equilibrium between the interior and exterior pressure,
which thus neutralize each other, and which allows you to
bear it without inconvenience. But in the water it is
another thing.”

“Yes, I understand,” replied Ned, becoming more atten-
tive; ‘“‘ because the water surrounds me, but does not pene-
trate.”

“Precisely, Ned; so that at 32 feet beneath the surface
of the sea you would undergo a pressure of 97,500 lbs.; at
320 feet, ten times that pressure; at 3200 feet, a hundred
times that pressure; lastly, at 32,000 feet, a thousand times
that pressure would be 97,500,000 lbs.—that is to say,
that you would be flattened as if you had been drawn from
the plates of an hydraulic machine!”

««The devil!” exclaimed Ned.

“Very well, my worthy harpooner, if some vertebrate,
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 98

several hundred yards long, and large in proportion, can
maintain itself in such depths,—of those whose surface is
represented by millions of square inches, that is by tens of
millions of pounds, we must estimate the pressure they
undergo. Consider, then, what must be the resistance of
their bony structure, and the strength of their organization
to withstand such pressure!’’

- Why!’ exclaimed Ned Land, ‘‘they must be made of
iron plates eight inches thick, like the armored frigates.”

** As you say, Ned. And think what destruction such a
mass would cause, if hurled with the speed of an express
train against the hull of a vessel.”

“‘ Yes—certainly—perhaps,” replied the Canadian, shaken
by these figures, but not yet willing to give in.

‘Well, have I convinced you?”

«‘You have convinced me of one thing, sir, which is, that
if such animals do exist at the bottom of the seas, they must
necessarily be as strong as you say.”

«But if they do not exist, mine obstinate harpooner,
how explain the accident to the Scotia?”

CHAPTER V.

AT A VENTURE.

THE voyage of the Abraham Lincoln was for a long time
marked by no special incident. But one circumstance hap-
pened which showed the wonderful dexterity of Ned Land,
and proved what confidence we might place:in him.

The 30th of June, the frigate spoke some American
whalers, from whom we learned that they knew nothing
about-the narwhal. But one of them, the captain of the
Monroe, knowing that Ned Land had shipped on board the
Abraham Lincoln, begged for his help in chasing a whale
26 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

they had in sight. Commander Farragut, desirous of see-
ing Ned Land at work, gave him permission to go on board.
the Monroe. And fate served our Canadian so well that,
instead of one whale, he harpooned two with a double blow,
striking one straight to the heart and catching the other
after some minutes’ pursuit.

Decidedly, if the monster ever had to do with Ned Land’s
harpoon, I would not bet in its favor.

The frigate skirted the southeast coast of America with
great rapidity. The 3d of July we were at the opening of
the Straits of Magellan, level with Cape Vierges. But
Commander Farragut would not take a tortuous passage,
but doubled Cape Horn.

The ship’s crew agreed with him. And certainly it was
possible that they might meet the narwhal in this narrow
pass. Many of the sailors affirmed that the monster could
not pass there, ‘‘ that he was too big for that!”

The 6th of July, about three o’clock in the afternoon,
the Abraham Lincoln, at fifteen miles to the south, doubled
the solitary island, this last rock at the extremity of the
American continent to which some Dutch sailors gave the
name of their native town, Cape Horn. The course was
taken towards the northwest, and the next day the screw of
the frigate was at last beating the waters of the Pacific.

«Keep your eyes open!” called out the sailors.

And they were opened widely. Both eyes and glasses, a
little dazzled, it is true, by the prospect of two thousand
dollars, had not an instant’s repose. Day and night they
watched the surface of the ocean, and even nyctalopes,
whose faculty of seeing in the darkness multiplies their
chances a hundred-fold, vould have had enough to do to
gain the prize.

I myself, for whom money had no charms, was not the
least attentive on board. Giving but few minutes to my
meals, but a few hours to sleep, indifferent to either rain
sr stmshine, I did not leave the poop of the vessel. Now
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAC. Q7

\eaning on the netting of the forecastle, now on the taffrail,
I devoured with eagerness the soft foam which whitened
the sea as far as the eye could reach; and how often have I
shared the emotion of the majority of the crew when some
capricious whale raised its black back above the waves!
The poop of the vessel was crowded in a moment. The
cabins poured forth a torrent of sailors and officers, each
with heaving breast and troubled eye watching the course
of the cetacean. I looked, and looked, till I was nearly
blind, whilst Conseil, always phlegmatic, kept repeating in
a calm voice:

“Tf, sir, you would not squint so much, you would see
better!”

But vain excitement! the Abraham Lincoln checked its
speed. and made for the animal signalled, a simple whale, or
common cachalot, which soon disappeared amidst a storm
of execration.

But the weather was good. The voyage was being ac-
complished under the most favorable auspices. It was then
the bad‘season in Australia, the July of that zone corre-
sponding to our January in Europe; but the sea was beauti-
ful and easily scanned round a vast circumference.

The 20th July, the tropic of Capricorn was cut by 105°
of longitude, and the 27th of the same month we crossed
the equator on the 110th meridian. This passed, the frig-
ate took a more decided westerly direction, and scoured
the central waters of the Pacific. Commander Farragut
thought, and with reason, that it was better to remain in
deep water, and keep clear of continents or islands, which
the beast itself seemed to shun (perhaps because there was
not enough water for him! suggested the greater part of
the crew). The frigate passed ct some distance from the
Marquesas and. the Sandwich Islands, crossed the tropic of
Cancer, and made for the China Seas. We were on the the-
atre of the last diversions of the monster; and to say truth,
we no longer lived on board. Hearts palpitated, fearfully
98 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

preparing themselves for future incurable aneurism. ‘The
entire ship’s crew were undergoing a nervous excitement, of
which I can give no idea; they could not eat, they could
not sleep: twenty times a day, a misconception or an opti-
cal illusion of some sailor seated on the taffrail would cause
dreadful perspirations, and these emotions, twenty times
repeated, kept us in a state of excitement so violent that a
reaction was unavoidable.

And truly, reaction soon showed itself. For three
months, during which a day seemed an age, the Adra.
ham Lincoln furrowed all the waters of the Northern Pa
cific, running at whales, making sharp deviations from her
course, veering suddenly from one tack to another, stop:
ping suddenly, putting on steam, and backing ever and
anon at the risk of deranging her machinery; and not one
point of the Japanese or American coast was left unex-
plored. ;

The warmest partisans of the enterprise now became its
most ardent detractors. Reaction mounted from the crew
to the captain himself, and certainly, had it not been for
resolute determination on the part of Captain Farragut, the
frigate would have headed due southward. This useless
search could not last much longer. The Abraham Lincoln
had nothing to reproach herself with, she had done her
best to succeed. Never had an American ship’s crew shown
more zeal or patience; its failure could not be placed to
their charge—there remained nothing but to return.

This was represented to the commander. The sailors
could not hide their discontent, and the service suffered.
I will not say there was a mutiny on board, but after a
reasonable period of obstinacy, Captain Farragut (as Co-
lumbus did) asked for three days’ patience. If in
three days the monster did not appear, the man at the helm
should give three turns of the wheel, and the Adraham
Lincoln would make for the European seas.

This promise was made on the 2d of November. It had
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER. THE SEAS, 99

the effect of rallying the ship’s crew. The ocean was
watched with renewed attention. Hach one wished for a
last glance in which to sum up hisremembrance. Glasses
were used with feverish activity. It was a grand defiance
given to the giant narwhal, and he could scarcely fail to
answer the summons and ‘ appear.” :

Two days passed, the steam was at half-pressure; a
thousand schemes were tried to attract the attention and
stimulate the apathy of the animal in case it should be
met in those parts. Large quantities of bacon were trailed
in the wake of the ship, to the great satisfaction (I must
say) of the sharks. Small craft radiated in all directions
round the Abraham Lincoln as she lay to, and did not leave
a spot of the sea unexplored. But the night of the 4th of
November arrived without the unveiling of this submarine
mystery.

The next day, the 5th of November, at twelve, the de.
lay would (morally speaking) expire; after that time, Com-
mander Farragug, faithful to his promise, was to turn the
course to the southeast and abandon forever the northern
regions of the Pacific.

The frigate was then in 31° 15’ north latitude and 186°
42’ east longitude. The coast of Japan still remained Jess
than two hundred miles to leeward. Night was approach-
ing. They had just struck cight bells; large clouds veiled
the face of the moon, then in its first quarter. The sea
undulated peaceably under the stern of the vessel.

At that moment I was leaning forward on the starboard
netting. Conseil, standing near me, was looking straight
before him. The crew, perched in the ratlines, examined
the horizon, which contracted and darkened by degrees.
Officers with their night-glasses scoured the growing dark-
ness; sometimes the ocean sparkled under the rays of the
moon, which darted between two clouds, then all trace of
light was lost in the darkness.

In looking at Conseil, I could see he was undergoing a
80 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

little of the general influence. Atleast Jthoughtso. Per-
haps for the first time his nerves vibrated to a sentiment of
curiosity.

“Come, Conseil,” said I, ‘‘this is the last chance of
pocketing the two thousand dollars.”

“May I be permitted to say, sir,” replied Conseil,
“that I never reckoned on getting the prize; and had the
government of the Union offered a hundred thousand dol-
lars, it would have been none the poorer.”

“You are right, Conseil. It is a foolish affair after
all, and one upon which we entered too lightly. What
time lost, what useless emotions! We should have been
back in France six months ago.”

“In your little room, sir,” replied Conseil, ‘‘and in
your museum, sir; and I should have already classed ail
your fossils, sir. And the Babiroussa would have been in-
stalled in its cage in the Jardin des Plantes, and “have
drawn all the curious people of the capital !”

“As you say, Conseil. I fancy we shall run a fair
chance of being langhed at for our pains.”

‘‘That’s tolerably certain,” replied Conseil, quietly; “I
think they will make fun of you, sir. And, must I say
it—?”

“Go on, my good friend.”

“Well, sir, you will only get your deserts.”

“«* Indeed!”

*¢ When one has the honor of being a savant as you are,
sir, one should not expose one’s self to—”

Conseil had not time to finish his compliment. In the
midst of general silence a voice had just been heard. It
was the voice of Ned Land shouting:

‘Look out there! the very thing we are looking for—
on our weather beam!”
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER WH SHAS,

CHAPTER VI.
AT FULL STEAM.

At this cry the whole ship’s crew hurried towards the
harpooner—commander, officers, masters, sailors. cabin-
boys; even the engineers left their engines, and the
stokers their furnaces.

The order to stop her had been given, and the frigate
now simply went on by her own momentum. The dark-
ness was then profound; and however good the Canadian’s
eyes were, I asked myself how he had managed to see, and
what he had been able to see. My heart beat as if it would
break. But Ned Land was not mistaken, and we all per-
ceived the object he pointed to. At two cables’ lengths
from the Abraham Lincoln, on the starboard quarter, the
sea seemed to be illuminated all over. It was not a mere
phosphoric phenomenon. The monster emerged some
fathoms from the water, and then threw out that very in-
tense but inexplicable light mentioned in the report of
several captains. The magnificent irradiation must have
been produced by an agent of great shining power The
luminous part traced on the sea an immense oval, much
elongated, the centre of which condensed a burning heat,
whose overpowering brilliancy died out by successive gra-
dations. :

“It is only an agglomeration of phosphoric particles,”
cried one of the officers.

‘No, sir, certainly not,” I replied. <‘‘Never did pho-
lades or salps produce such a powerful light. That bright-
ness is of an essentially electrical nature. Besides, see, see!
it moves; it is moving forwards, backwards, it is darting
towards us!”
a2 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS,

A general cry arose from the frigate.

“Silence!” said the captain; “up with the helm, reverse
the engines.”

The steam was shut off, and the Abraham Lincoln, beat-
ing to port, described a semicircle.

‘Right the helm, go ahead,” cried the captain.

‘These orders were executed, and the frigate moved
rapidly from the burning light.

I was mistaken. She tried to sheer off, but ‘the super:
natural animal approached with a velocity double her own.

We gasped for breath. Stupefaction more than fear
made us dumb and motionless. The animal gained on us,
sporting with the waves. It madethe round of the frigate,
which was then making fourteen knots, and enveloped it
with its electric rings like luminous dust. Then it moved
away two or three miles, leaving a phosphorescent track,
like those volumes of steam that the express trains leave
behind. All at once from the dark line of the horizon,
whither it retired to gain its momentum, the monster
rushed suddenly towards the Abraham Lincoln with alarm-
ing rapidity, stopped suddenly about twenty feet from the
hull, and died out—not diving under the water, for its
brilliancy did not abate, but suddenly, and as if the source of
this brilliant emanation was exhausted, Then it reappeared
on the other side of the vessel, as if it had turned and
slid under the hull. Any moment a collision might have
occurred which would have been fatal to us. However, I
was astonished at the manceuvres of the frigate. She fled
and did not attack.

On the captain’s face, generally so impassive, was an ex-
pression of unaccountable astonishment.

“*Mr. Aronnax,” he said, ‘‘I do not know with what
formidable being I have to deal, and I will not imprudently
risk my frigate in the midst of this darkness. Besides,
how attack this unknown thing, how defend one’s self from
it? Wait for daylight, and the scene will change.”
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 83

--Â¥You have no further doubt, captain, of the nature of
the animal?”

‘No, sir; it is evidently a gigantic narwhal, and an elec-
tric one.”

“* Perhaps,” added I, ¥ one can only approach it with a
gymnotus or a torpedo.”

Undoubtedly,” replied the captain, “if it posseses such
dreadful power, it is the most terrible animal that ever was
created. That is why, sir, I must be on my guard.”

The crew were on their feet all night. No one thought
of sleep. The Abraham Lincoln, not being able to strug-
gle with such velocity, had moderated its pace, and sailed
at half speed. For its part, the narwhal, imitating the
frigate, let the waves rock at it will, and seemed decided not
to leave the scene of the struggle. Towards midnight,
however, it disappeared, or, to use a more appropriate term,
it ‘died out” like a large glow-worm. Had it fledP One
could only fear, not hope it. But at seven minutes to one
o’clock in the morning a deafening whistle was heard, like
that produced by a body of water rushing with great vio-
lence.

The captain, Ned Land, and I were then on the poop,
eagerly peering through the profound darkness.

“Ned Land,” asked the commander, ‘‘you have often
heard the roaring of whales?”

“Often, sir; but never such whales the sight of which
wrought me in two thousand dollars. If I can only ap-
proach within four harpoon lengths of it!”

“But to approach it,” said the commander, “I ought to
put a whaler at your disposal?”

“ Certainly, sir.”

“That will be trifling with the lives of my men.”

** And mine too,” simply said the harpooner.

Towards two o’clock in the morning, the burning light
reappeared, not less intense, about five miles to windward
of the Abraham Lincoln. Notwithstanding the distance,
84 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS,

and the noise of the wind and sea, one heard distinctly the
loud strokes of the animal’s tail, and even its panting
breath. - It seemed that, at the moment that the enormous
narwhal had come to take breath at the surface of the
water, the air was ingulfed in its lungs, like the steam in
the vast cylinders of a machine of two thousand horse-
power.

“Aum!” thought I, ‘“‘a whale with the strength of a
cavalry regiment would be a pretty whale!”

We were on the gui vive till daylight, and prepared for
the combat. The fishing implements were laid along the
hammock nettings. The second lieutanant loaded the
blunderbusses, which could throw harpoons to the distance
of a mile, and long duck-guns, with explosive bullets,
which inflicted mortal wounds even to the most terrible
animals. Ned Land contented himself with sharpening
his harpoon—a terrible weapon in his hands.

At six o’clock, day began to break; and with the first
glimmer of light, the electric light of the narwhal disap-
peared. At seven o’clock the day was sufficiently advanced,
but a very thick sea-fog obscured our view, and the best
spy-glasses could not pierce it. That caused disappoint-
ment and anger.

I climbed the mizzen-mast. Some officers were already
perched on the mast-heads. At eight o’clock the fog lay
heavily on the waves, and its thick scrolls rose little by lit-
tle. The horizon grew wider and clearer at the same time.
Suddenly, just as on the day before, Ned Land’s voice was
heard:

‘The thing itself on the port quarter!” cried the har-
pooner.

Every eye was turned towards the point indicated. There,
a mile and a half from the frigate, a long blackish body
emerged a yard above the waves. Its tail, violently agi-
tated, produced a considerable eddy. Never did a caudal
uppendage beat the sea with such violence. An immense
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 35

track, of a dazzling whiteness, marked the passage of the
animal, and described a long curve.

The frigate approached the cetacean. I examined it
thoroughly.

The reports of the Shannon and of the Helvetia had
rather exaggerated its size, and I estimated its length at
only two hundred and fifty feet. As to its dimensions, I
could only conjecture them to be admirably proportioned.
While I watched this phenomenon, two jets of steam and
water were ejected. from its vents, and rose to the height
of 120 feet; thus I ascertained its way of breathing. I con-
cluded definitely that it belonged to the vertebrate branch,
class mammalia.

The crew waited impatiently for their chief’s orders.
The latter, after having observed the animal attentively,
called the engineer. The engineer ran to him.

“Sir,” said the commander, ‘‘ you have steam up?”

‘** Yes, sir,” answered the engineer.

“Well, make up your fires and put on all steam.”

Three hurrahs greeted this order. The time for the
struggle had arrived. Some moments after, the two fun-
nels of the frigate vomited torrents of black smoke, and
the bridge quaked under the trembling of the boilers.

The Abraham Lincoln, propelled by her powerful screw,
went straight at the animal. The latter allowed it to come
within half a cable’s length; then, as if disdaining to dive,
it took a little turn, and stopped a short distance off.

This pursuit lasted nearly three quarters of an hour,
without the frigate gaining two yards on the cetacean. It
was quite evident that at that rate we should never come
up with it.

“Well, Mr. Land,” asked the captain, ‘‘do you advise
me to put the boats out to sea?”

“No, sir,” replied Ned Land; “because we shall not
take that beast easily.”

““ What shall we do, then?”
36 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

“Put on more steam if yon can, sir. With your leave,
I mean to post myself under the bowsprit, and if we get
within harpooning distance, I shall throw my harpoon.”

“Go, Ned,” said the captain. ‘‘ Engineer, put on more
pressure.”

Ned Land went to his post.. The fires were increased,
the screw revolved forty-three times a minute, and the
steam poured out of the valves. We heaved the log, and
calculated thatthe Abraham Lincoln was going at the rate
of 184 miles an hour.

But the accursed animal swam too at the rate of 183
miles.

For a whole hour, the frigate kept up this pace, without
gaining six feet. It was humiliating for one of the swiftest
sailers in the American navy. the crew; the sailors abused the monster, who, as before,
disdained to answer them; the captain no longer con-
tented himself with twisting his beard—he gnawed it.

The engineer was again called.

«You have turned full steam on?”

“Yes, sir,” replied the engineer.

The speed of the Abraham Lincoln increased. Its masts
trembled down to their stepping-holes, and the clouds of
smoke could hardly find way out of the narrow. funnels.

They heaved the log a second time.

“‘Well?” asked the captain of the man at the wheel.

“‘Nineteen miles and three tenths, sir.”

‘Clap on more steam.”

The engineer obeyed. The manometer showed ten de-
grees. But the cetacean grew warm itself, no doubt; for,
without straining itself, it made 19,8, miles.

What a pursuit! No, I cannot describe the emotion that
vibrated through me. Ned Land kept his post, harpoon in
hand. Several times the animal let us gain upon it. ‘“‘ We
shall catch it! we shall catch it!” cried the Canadian. But
just as he was going to strike, the cetacean stole away with
20,000 LEAGULS UNDER THE SEAS. 87

a rapidity that could not be estimated at less than thirty
miles an hour, and even during our maximum of speed it
builied the frigate, going round and round it. A ery of
fury broke from every one! ,

At noon we were no further advanced than at eight
Yclock in the morning.

The captain then decided to take more direct means.

“Ah! said he, “that animal goes quicker than the
abraham Lincoln. Very well! we will see whether it will
escape these conical bullets. Send your men to the forecas-
tle, sir.”

The forecastle gun was immediately loaded and slewed
round. But the shot passed some feet above the cetacean,
which was half a mile off.

‘‘ Another more to the right,” cried the commander,
“and five dollars to whoever will hit that infernal
beast.”

An old gunner with a gray peard—that I can see now—
with steady eye and grave face, went up to the gun and
took along aim. A loud report was heard, with which
were mingled the cheers of the crew.

The bullet did its work; it hit the animal, but not fatal-
ly, and, sliding off the rounded surface, was lost in two
miles’ depth of sea.

The chase began again, and the captain, leaning towards
me, said:

“I will pursue that beast till my frigate bursts up.”

“Yes,” answered I; ‘‘and you will be quite right to do
ib.”

I wished the beast would exhaust itself, and not be insen-
sible to fatigue, like a steam-engine! But it was of no
use. Hours passed, without its showing any signs of ex-
haustion.

However, it must be said in praise of the Abraham Lie-
coln, that she struggled on indefatigably. I cannot reckoy
the distance she made under three hundred miles during
88 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

this unlucky day, Novemberthe 6th. But night came on,
and overshadowed the rough ocean.

Now I thought our expedition was at an end, and that
we should never again see the extraordinary animal. I
was mistaken. At ten minutes to eleven in the evening,
the electric light reappeared three miles to windward of
the frigate, as pure, as intense as during the preceding
night.

The narwhal seemed motionless; perhaps, tired with its
day’s work, it slept, letting itself float with the undulation
of the waves. Now was achance of which the captain re-
solved to take advantage.

He gave his orders. The Abraham Lincoln kept up
half-steam, and advanced cautiously so as not to awake
its adversary. It is no rare thing to meet in the middle
of the ocean whales so sound asleep that they can be suc-
cessfully attacked, and Ned Land had harpooned more
than one during its sleep. The Canadian went to take
his place again under the bowsprit.

The frigate approached noiselessly, stopped at two ca-
bles’ length from the animal, and following its track. No
one breathed; a deep silence reigned on the bridge. We
were nota hundred feet from the burning focus, the light
of which increased and dazzled our eyes.

At this moment, leaning on the forecastle bulwark, I
saw below me Ned Land grappling the martingale in one
hand, brandishing his terrible harpoon in the other,
scarcely twenty feet from the motionless animal. Sudden-
ly his arm straightened, and the harpoon was thrown; I
heard the sonorous stroke of the weapon, which seemed to
have struck a hard body. ‘The electric light went out sud-
denly, and two enormous waterspouts broke over the
bridge of the frigate, rushing like a torrent from stem to
stern, overthrowing men, and breaking the lashing of the
spars.
without having time to stop myself, I fell into the sea.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THs SHAS. 89

CHAPTER VII.
AN UNKNOWN SPECIES OF WHALE.

‘fHIs unexpected fall so stunned me that I have no clear
recollection of my sensations at the time I was at first
drawn down to a depth of about twenty feet. I am a good
swimmer (though without pretending to rival Byron or
Edgar Poe, who were masters of the art), and in that
plunge I did not lose my presence of mind. Two vigorous
strokes brought me to the surface of the water. My first
care was to look for the frigate. Had the crew seen me
disappear? Had the Abraham Lincoln veered round?
Would the captain put out a boat? Might I hope to be
saved? .

The darkness was intense. I caught: a glimpse of a
black mass disappearing in the east, its }eacon-lights dying
out in the distance. It was the frigate. I was lost.

“Help, help!” I shouted, swimming towards the Adra-
ham Lincoln in desperation.

My clothes encumbered me; they seemed glued to ry
body, and paralyzed my movements.

I was sinking! I was suffocating!

“Help!”

This was my last cry. My mouth filled with water; I
struggled against being drawn down the abyss. Suddenly
my clothes were seized by a strong hand, and I felt myself
quickly drawn up to the surface of the sea; and I heard,
yes, I heard these words pronounced in my ear:

“Tf master would be so good as to lean on my shoulder,
master would swim with much greater ease.”

I seized with one hand my fa‘thful Conseil’s arm.

“Ts it you?” said I, “your”
40 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

“¢ Myself,” answered Conseil; ‘‘ and waiting master’s or-
ders.”

“* That shock threw you as well as me into the sea?”

“No, but being in my master’s service, I followed him.”

The worthy fellow thought that was but natural.

“¢ And the frigate?” I asked.

“The frigate?” replied Conseil, turning on his back:
T think that master had better not count too much oz
ner.”

“You think so?”

‘‘T say that, at the time I threw myself into the sea, 1
heard the men at the wheel say, ‘The screw and the rudder
are broken,’ ”

“ Broken ?”

«Yes, broken by the monster’s teeth. It is the only in-
jury the Abraham Lincoln has sustained. But itis a bad
lookout for us—she no longer answers her helm.”

«* Then we are Jost!”

“Perhaps so,” calmly answered Conseil. ‘‘ However,
we have still severgl hours before us, and one can do a good
deal in some hous.”

Conseil’s imperturbable coolness set me up again. I
swam more vigorously; but, cramped by my clothes, which
stuck to me like a leaden weight, I felt great difficulty in
bearing up. Conseil saw this.

“ ‘Will master let me make a slit?” said he; and slipping
an open knife under my clothes, he ripped them up from
top to bottom very rapidly. Then he cleverly slipped them
off me, while I swam for both of us.

Then J did the same for Conseil, and we continued to
swim near to each other.

Nevertheless, our situation was no less terrible. . Per-
haps our disappearance had not been noticed; and if it had
been, the frigate could not tack, being without its helm.
Conseil argued on this supposition, and laid his plans ac-
cordingly. This phlegmatic boy was perfectly self-pos-
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, 41

sessed. We then decided that, as our only chance of
safety was being picked up by the Abraham Lincoin’s boats,
we ought to manage so as to wait for them as long as pos-

ible. I resolved then to husband our strength, so that
both should not be exhausted at the same time; and this
is how we managed: while one of us lay on our back, quite
still, with arms crossed, and legs stretched out, the other
would swim and push the other on in front. This towing
business did not last more than ten minutes each; and re-
lieving each other thus, we could swim on for some hours,
perhaps till daybreak. Poor chance! but hope is so firmly
rooted in the heart of man! Moreover, there were two of
us. Indeed I declare (though it may seem improbable)
if I sought to destroy all hope, if I wished to despair, I
could not.

The collision of the frigate with the cetacean had oc-
curred about eleven o’clock the evening before. I reckoned
then we should have eight hours to swim before sunrise—
an operation quite practicable if we relieved each other.
The sea, very calm, was in our favor. Sometimes I tried
to pierce the intense darkness that was only dispelled by
the phosphorescence caused by our movements. I watched
the luminous waves that broke over my hand, whose mir-
ror-like surface was spotted with silvery rings. One might
have said that we were in a bath of quicksilver.

Near one o’clock in the morning I was seized with dread-
ful fatigue. My limbs stiffened under the strain of violent
cramp. Conseil was obliged to keep me up, and our pres}
ervation devolved on him alone. I heard the poor boy}
pant; his breathing became short and hurried. I found:
that he could not keep up much longer.

“Leave me! leave me!” I said to him.

“‘Teave my master? never!” replied he. “YF would
drown first.”

Just then the moon appeared through the fringes of a
thick cloud that the wind was driving to the east. The
42 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

surface of the sea glittered with its rays. This kindly light
reanimated us. My head got better again. I looked at all
the points of the horizon. I saw the frigate! She was five
miles from us, and looked like a dark mass, hardly dis-
cernible. But no boats!

I would have cried out. But what good would it have
been at such a distance! My swollen lips could utter no
sounds. Conseil could articulate some words, and I heard
him repeat at intervals, ‘‘ Help! help!”

Our movements were suspended for an instant; we lis-
tened. It might be only a singing in the ear, but it seemed
to me as if a cry answered the cry from Conseil.

“Did you hear?” I murmured.

«Yes! yes!”

And Conseil gave one more despairing call.

This time there was no mistake! A human voice re-
sponded to ours! Was it the voice of another unfortunate
creature, abandoned in the middle of the ocean, some other
victim of the shock sustained by the vessel? Or rather was
it a boat from the frigate, that was hailing us in the dark-
ness? ;

Conseil made a last effort, and leaning on my shoulder,
while I struck out in a despairing effort, he raised himself
half out of the water, then fell back exhausted.

“What did you see?”

“T saw—” murmured he, ‘‘ I saw—but do not talk—re-
serve all your strength!”

What had he seen? Then, I know not why, the thought
of the monster came into my head for the first time! But
that voice? The time is past for Jonahs to take refuge in
whales’ bellies! However, Conseil was towing me again.
He raised his head sometimes, looked before us, and uttered
a cry of recognition, which was responded to by a voice
that came nearer and nearer. I scarcely heard it. My
strength was exhausted; my fingers stiffened; my hand af-
forded me support no longer; my mouth, convulsively open-
20,00 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 43

ing, filled with salt water. Cold crept over me. I raised
my head for the last time, then I sank.

At this moment a hard body struck me. I clung to iv:
then I felt that I was being drawn up, that I was brought
to the surface of the water, that my chest collapsed: I
fainted.

It is certain that I soon came to, thanks to the vigorous
rubbings that I received. I half opened my eyes.

“ Conseil!” I murmured.

** Does master call me?” asked Conseil.

Just then, by the waning light of the moon, which: was
sinking down to the horizon, I saw a face which was not
Conseil’s, and which I immediately recognized.

“Ned!” I cried.

«‘The same, sir, who is seeking his prize!” replied the
Canadian.

‘* Were you thrown into the sea by the shock of the frig-
ate?”

“Yes, Professor; but, more fortunate than you, I was
able to find a footing almost directly upon a floating island.”

“ An island?”

** Or, more correctly speaking, on our gigantic narwhal.”

«Explain yourself, Ned!”

“Only I soon found out why my harpoon had not en-
tered its skin and was blunted.”

“Why, Ned, why?”

‘Because, Professor, that beast is made of sheet-iron.”

The Canadian’s last words produced a sudden revolution
in my brain. I wriggled myself quickly to the top of the
being, or object, half out of the water, which served us for
arefuge. Ikicked it. It was evidently a hard, impene-
trable body, and not the soft substance that forms the
bodies of the great marine mammalia. But this hard body
might be a bony carapace, like that of the antediluvian ani-
mals; and I should be five to class this monster among am-
phibious reptiles, such as tortoises or alligators.
&
44 40,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

Well, no! the blackish back that supported me was
smooth, polished, without scales. The blow produced a
metallic sound; and incredible though it may be, it seemed,
I might say, as if it was made of riveted plates.

There was no doubt about it! this monster, this natural
phenomenon that had puzzled the learned world, and over-
thrown and misled the imagination of seamen of both hem
ispheres, was, it must be owned, a still more astonishing
phenomenon, inasmuch as it was a simply human construc-
ion.

We had no time to lose, however. We were lying upon
the back of a sort of submarine boat, which appeared (as
far as I could judge) like a huge fish of steel. Ned Land’s
mind was made up on this point. Conseil and I could only
agree with him.

Just then a bubbling began at the back ‘of this strange
thing (which was evidently propelled by a screw, and it be-
yan to move. We had only just time to seize hold of the
apper part, which rose about seven feet out of the water,
ind happily its speed was not great,

“ As long as it sails horizontally,” muttered. Ned Land,
“Ido not mind; but if it takes a fancy to dive, I would
not give two straws for my life.” .

The Canadian might have said still less. It became really
necessary to communicate with the beings, whatever they
were, shut up inside the machine. I searched all over the
outside for an aperture, a panel, or a man-hole, to use a tech-
nical expression; but the lines of the iron rivets, solidly
driven into the joints of the iron plates, were clear and
uniform. Besides, the moon disappeared then, and left us
in total darkness.

At last this long night passed. My indistinct remem-
brance prevents my describing all the impressions it made.
I can only recall one circumstance. During some lulls of
the wind and sea, I fancied I heard several times vague
sounds, a sort of fugitive harmony produced by distant
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 45

words of command. What was then the mystery of this
submarine craft of which the whole world vainly sought an
explanation? What kind of beings existed in this strange
boat? What mechanical agent caused its prodigious speed?

Daybreak appeared. The morning mists surrounded us,
but they soon cleared off. Iwas about to examine the hull,
which formed on deck a kind of horizontal platform, when
I felt it gradually sinking.

“‘Oh, confound it!” cried Ned Land, kicking the resound-
ing plate; ‘“‘open, you inhospitable rascals!”

Happily the sinking movement ceased. Suddenly a
noise, like iron works violently pushed aside, came from
the interior of the boat. One iron plate was moved, a
man appeared, uttered an odd cry, and disappeared imme-
diately.

Some moments after, eight strong men with masked
faces appeared noiselessly, and drew us down into their for-
midable machine.

CHAPTER VIII
MOBILIS IN MOBcLI.

Turis forcible abduction, so roughly carried out, was ae-
complished with the rapidity of lightning. I shivered all
over. Whom had we to deal with? No doubt some new
sort of pirates, who explored the sea in their own way.

Hardly had the narrow panel closed upon me, when I was
enveloped in darkness. My eyes, dazzled with the outer
light, could distinguish nothing. I felt my naked feet
cling to the rings of an iron ladder. Ned Land and Oon-
seil, firmly seized, followed me. At the bottom of the lad-
der, 2 door opened, and shut after us immediately with a
bang.
46 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

We were alone. Where, I could not say, hardly imagine,
All-was black, and such a dense black that, after some
minutes, my eyes had not been able to discern even the
faintest glimmer.

Meanwhile, Ned Land, farions at these proceedings, gave
free vent to his indignation.

“‘Confound it!” cried he, ‘‘here are people who come up
to the Scotch for hospitality. They only just miss being
cannibals. I should not be surprised at it, but I declare
that they shall not eat me without my protesting.”

“‘Calm yourself, friend Ned, calm yourself,” replied
Conseil, quietly. ‘Do not cry out before you are hurt.
We are not quite done for yet.”

‘Not quite,” sharply replied the Canadian, ‘‘ but pretty
near, at all events. Thingslook black. Happily my bowie-
knife I have still, and I can always see well enough to use
it. The first of these pirates who lays a hand on me—”

“Do not excite yourself, Ned,” I said to the harpooner,
“‘and- do not compromise us by useless violence. Who
knows that they will Hoe listen tous? Let us rather try to
find out where we are.’

I groped about. In five steps I came to an iron wall,
made of plates bolted together. Then turning back I struck
against a wooden table, near which were ranged several
stools. The boards of this prison were concealed under a
thick mat of phormium, which deadened the noise of the
feet. The bare walls revealed no trace of window or door.
Conseil, going round the reverse way, met me, and we went
back to the middle of the cabin, which measured about
twenty feet by ten. As to its height, Ned Land, in spite
of his own great height, could not measure it.

Half an hour had already passed without our situation
being bettered, when the dense darkness suddenly gave way
to extreme light. Our prison was suddenly lighted, that is
to say, it became filled with a luminous matter, so strong
that I could not bear it at first. In its whiteness and in-
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 44

tensity I recognized that electric light which played round
the submarine boat like a magnificent phenomenon of
phosphoresence. After shutting my eyes involuntarily, ]
opened them and saw that this luminous agent came from
a half-globe, unpolished, placed in the roof of the cabin.

*¢ At last one can see,:’ cried Ned Land, who, knife in
hand,. stood on the defensive.

“Yes,” said I; “‘ but we.are still in the dark about our-
selves.”

“* Let master have patience,” said the imperturbable Con-
seil.

The sudden lighting of the cabin enabled me to examine
it minutely. It only contained a table and five stools. The
invisible door might be hermetically sealed. No noise was
heard. All seemed dead in the interior of this boat. Did
it move, did it float on the surface of the ocean, or did it
dive into its depths? I could not guess.

A noise of bolts was now heard, the door opened, and two
men appeared.

One was short, very muscular, broad-shouldered, with
robust limbs, strong head, an abundance of black hair, thick
mustache, a quick penetrating look, and the vivacity which
characterizes the population of Southern France.

The second stranger merits a more detailed description.
A disciple of Gratiolet or Engel would have read his face
like an open book. I made out his prevailing qualities di-
rectly: self-confidence—because his head was well set on
his shoulders, and his black eyes looked around with cold
assurance; calmness—for his skin, rather pale, showed his
coolness of blood; energy—evinced by the rapid contrac-
tion of his lofty brows; and courage—because his deep
breathing denoted great power of lungs.

Whether this person was thirty-five or fifty years of age,
I could not say. He was tall, had a large forehead, straight
nose, a clearly cut mouth, beautiful teeth, with fine taper
hands, indicative of a highly nervous temperament. This
48 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

man was certainly the most admirable specimen I had ever
met. One particular feature was his eyes, rather far from
each other, and which could take in nearly a quarter of the
horizon at once.

This faculty (I verified it later) gave him a range of
vision far superior to Ned Land’s. When this stranger
fixed upon an object, his eyebrows met, his large eyelids
closed around so as to contract the range of his vision, and
he looked as if he magnified the objects lessened by
distance, as if he pierced those sheets of water so opaque
to our eyes, and as if he read the very depths of the
seas.

The two strangers, with caps made from the fur of the
sea otter and shod with sea boots of seals’ skin, were dressed
in clothes of a particular texture, which allowed free move-
ment of the limbs. The taller of the two, evidently the
chief on board, examined us with great attention, without
saying a word: then turning to his companion, talked with
him in an unknown tongue. It was a sonorous, harmoni-
ous, and flexible dialect, the vowels seeming to admit of
very varied accentuation.

The other replied by a shake of the head, and added two
or three perfectly incomprehensible words. Then heseemed
to question me by a look.

I replied in good French that I did not know his lan
guage; but he seemed not to understand me, and my situa-
tion became more embarrassing.

“Tf master were to tell our story,” said Conseil, ‘‘ per-
haps these gentlemen may understand some words.”

I began to tell our adventures, articulating each syllable
clearly; and without omitting one single detail. I an-
nounced our names and rank, introducing in person Profes-
sor Aronnax, his servant Conseil, and master Ned Land,
the harpooner.

The man with the soft calm eyes listened to me quietly,
even politely, and with extreme attention; but nothing in
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 49

his countenance indicated that he had understood my story.
When I finished he said not a word.

There remained one resource, to speak English. Perhaps
they would know this almost universal language. I knew
it, as well as the German language—well enough to read it
fluently, but not to speak it correctly. But, anyhow, we
must make ourselves understood.

“*Go on in your turn,” I said to the harpooner; ‘speak
your best Anglo-Saxon, and try to do better than I.”

Ned did not beg off, and recommenged our story.

To his great disgust, the harpooner did not seem to have
made himself more intelligible than I had. Our visitors did
not stir. They evidently understood neither the language
of Arago nor of Faraday.

Very much embarrassed, after having vainly exhausted
our philological resources,.I knew not what part to take,
when. Conseil said:

“¢Tf master will permit me, I will relate it in German.”

But in spite of the elegant turns and good accent of the
narrator, the German language had no success. At last,
nonplussed, I tried to remember my first lessons, and to
narrate our adventures in Latin, but with no better success.
This last attempt being of no avail, the two strangers ex-
changed some words in their unknown language, and retired.

The door shut.

‘*Tt is an infamous shame,” cried Ned Land, who broke
out for the twentieth time; ‘‘ we speak to those rogues in
French, English, German, and Latin, and not one of them
has the politeness to answer!”

“Calm yourself,” I said to the impetuous Ned, ‘anger
will do no good.”

‘‘But do you see, Professor,” replied. our irascible com-
panion, ‘‘ that we shall absolutely die of hunger in this iron
cage?”

‘* Bah,” said Conseil philosophically; ‘‘ we can hold out
some time yet.”
50 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

‘* My friends,” I said, ‘‘we must not despair. We have
been worse off than this. Do me the favor to wait a little
before forming an opinion upon the commander and crew
of this boat.”

‘“*My opinion is formed,” replied Ned Land sharply.
«They are rascals.”

“Good! and from what country?”

‘From the land of rogues!”

‘My brave Ned, that country is not clearly indicated on
the map of the world; but I admit that the nationality of
the two strangers is hard to determine. Neither English,
French, nor German, that is quite certain. However, 1
am inclined to think that the commander and his com.
panion were born in low latitudes. ‘There is southern
blood inthem. ButI cannot decide by their appearance
whether they are Spaniards, Turks, Arabians, or Indians.
As to their language, it is quite incomprehensible.”

“« There is the disadvantage of not knowing all languages,”
said Conseil, ‘‘or the disadvantage of not having one uni
versal language.”

As he said these words, the door opened. A steward,
entered. He brought us clothes, coats and trousers, made
of a stuff I did not know. I hastened'to dress myself, and
my companions followed my example. During that time,
the steward—dumb, perhaps deaf—had arranged the table,
and laid three plates.

s¢ This is something like,” said Conseil.

Bah,” said the rancorous harpooner, ‘‘ what do you sup-
pose they eat here? ‘Tortoise liver, filleted shark, and
beefsteaks from sea-dogs.”

‘< We shall see,” said Conseil.

The dishes, of bell metal, were placed on the table, and
we took our places. Undoubtedly we had to do with civil-
ized people, and had it not been for the electric light
which flooded us, I could have fancied I was in the dining-
room of the Adelphi Hotel at Liverpool, or at the Grand
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. ~ 51

Hotel in Paris. I must say, however, that there was
neither bread nor wine. The water was fresh and clear,
but it was water, and did not suit Ned Land’s taste.
Amongst the dishes which were brought to us, I recognized
several fish delicately dressed; but of some, although ex-
cellent, I could give no opinion, neither could I tell to
pean kingdom they belonged, whether animal or vegetable.
As to the dinner service, it was elegant, and in perfect
taste. Hach utensil, spoon, fork, knife, plate, had a letter
engraved on it, with a motto above it, of which this is an
exact fac-simile.

MOBILIS IN MOBILI,
N.

The letter N was no doubt the initial of the name of the
enigmatical person, who commanded at the bottom of the
seas.

Ned and Conseil did not reflect much. They devoured
the food, and I did likewise. I was, besides, assured as to
our fate; and it seemed evident that our hosts would not
let us die of want.

However, everything has an end, everything passes away,
even the hunger of people who have not eaten for fifteen
hours. Our appetites satisfied, we felt overcome with
sleep.

‘Faith! I shall sleep well,” said Conseil.

So shall I,” replied Ned Land.

My two companions stretched themselves on the cabin
carpet, and were soon sound asleep. For my own part,
too many thoughts crowded my brain, too many insoluble
questions pressed upon me, too many fancies kept my eyes
half open. Where were we? What strange power carried
uson? I felt—or rather fancied I felt—the machine sink.
ing down to the lowest beds of the sea. Dreadful night-
mares beset me; I saw in these mysterious asylums a world,
52 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS.

of unknown animals, amongst which this submarine boat
seemed to be of the same kind, living, moving, and for-
midable as they. Then my brain grew calmer, my imagi-
nation wandered into vague unconsciousness, and I soon
fell into a deep sleep.

CHAPTER IX.
NED LAND’S TEMPERS.

How long we slept I do not know; but our sleep mus.
have lasted long, for it rested us completely from ous
fatigues. I woke first. My companions had not moved,
and were still stretched in their corner. -

Hardly roused from my somewhat hard couch, I felt my
brain freed, my mind clear. I then began an attentive ex-
amination of our cell. Nothing waschanged inside. The
prison was still a prison; the prisoners, prisoners. How.
ever, the steward, during our sleep, had cleared the table.
I breathed with difficulty. The heavy air seemed to op-
press my lungs. Although the cell was large, we had
evidently consumed a great part of the oxygen that it con-
tained. Indeed, each man consumes, in one hour, the
oxygen contained in more than 176 pints of air, and this
air, charged (as then) with a nearly equal quantity of car-
bonic acid, becomes unbreathable.

It became necessary to renew the atmosphere of om
prison, and no doubt the whole in the submarine boat,
That gave rise to a question in my mind. How would¢
the commander of this floating dwelling-place proceed ?
Would he obtain air by chemical means, in getting by heat
the oxygen contained in chlorate of potass, and in absorb-
ing carbonic acid by caustic potash? Or, a more con:
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SHAS. 33

venient, economical, and consequently more probable
alternative, would he be satisfied to rise and take breath at
the surface of the water, like a cetacean, and so renew for
twenty-four hours che atmospheric provision?

In fact, I was already obliged to increase my respirations
to eke out of this cell the little oxygen it contained, when
suddenly I was refreshed by a current of pure air, and per-
fumed with saline emanations. It was an invigorating sea
breeze, charged with iodine. I opened my mouth wide,
und my lungs saturated themselves with fresh particles.

At the same time I felt the boat rolling. The iron-plated
monster had evidently just risen to the surface of the ocean
to breathe, after the fashion of whales. I found out from
that the mode of ventilating the boat.

When I had inhaled this air freely, I sought the conduit
pipe, which conveyed to us the beneficial whiff, and I was
not long in finding it. Above the door was a ventilator,
through which volumes of fresh air renewed the impover-
ished atmosphere of the cell.

Iwas making my observations, when Ned and Conseil
awoke almost at the same time, under the influence of this
reviving air. They rubbed their eyes, stretched them.
selves, and were on their feet in an instant.

“Did master sleep well ?” asked Conseil, with his usual
yvoliteness.

‘¢ Very well, my brave boy. And you, Mr. Land?”

«*Soundly, Professor. But I don’t know if I am right
or not; there seems to be a sea-breeze!”’

A seaman could not be mistaken, and I told the Canadian
all that had passed during his sleep.

“Good!” said he; ‘‘that accounts for those‘ roarings we
heard when the supposed narwhal sighted the Abraham
Lincoln.”

“Quite so, Master Land; it was taking breath.”

“Only, Mr. Aronnax, I‘have no idea what o’clock it is,
unless it is dinner-time.”
54 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

* Dinner-time! my good fellow? Say rather breakfast-
time, for we certainly have begun another day.”

“*So,” said Conseil, ‘‘ we have slept twenty-four hours?”

“That is my opinion.”

«J will not contradict you,” replied Ned Land. “But
dinner or breakfast, the steward will be welcome, whichever
he brings.”

“‘ Master Land, we must conform to the rules on board,
and I suppose our appetites are in advance of the dinner-
hour.”

‘‘That is just like you, friend Conseil,” said Ned, im-
patiently. ‘‘ You are never out of temper, always calm;
you would return thanks before grace, and die of hunger
rather than complain!”

Time was getting on, and we were fearfully hungry; and
this time the steward did not appear. It was rather too
long to leave us, if they really had good intentions towards
us. Ned Land, tormented by the cravings of hunger, got
still more angry; and notwithstanding his promise, I
dreaded an explosion when he found himself with one of
the crew.

For two hours more, Ned Land’s temper increased; he
cried, he shouted, but in vain. The walls were deaf.
There was no sound to be heard in the boat: all was still
as death. It did not move, for I should have felt the
trembling motion of the hull under the influence of the
screw. Plunged in the depths of the waters, it belonged
no ionger to earth:—this silence was dreadful..

I felt tervitied, Conseil was calm, Ned Land roared.

Just then a noise was heard outside. Steps sounded on
the metal flags. The locks were turned, the door opened,
and the steward appeared.

Before I could rush forward to stop him, the Canadian
had thrown him down, and held him by the throat. The
steward was choking under the grip of his powerful hand.

Conseil was already trying to unclasp the harpooner’s
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 55

hand from his half suffocated victim, and I was going to
fly to the rescue, when suddenly I was nailed to the spot
by hearing these words in French:

‘‘Be quiet, Master Land; and you, Professor, will you
be so good as to listen to me?”

CHAPTER X.
THE MAN OF THE SEAS,

Tr was the commander of the vessel who thus spoke.

At these words, Ned Land rose suddenly. The steward,
nearly strangled, tottered out on a sign from his master;
but such was the power of the commander on board, that
not a gesture betrayed the resentment which this man must
have felt towards the Canadian. Conseil interested in
spite of himself, I stupefied, awaited in silence the result
of this scene.

The commander, leaning against a corner of the table
with his arms folded, scanned us with profound attention.
Did he hesitate to speak? Did he regret the words which
he had just spoken in French? One might almost think so.

After some moments of silence, which not one of us
dreamed of breaking, ‘‘ Gentlemen,” said he, in a calm
and penetrating voice, ‘‘I speak French, English, German,
and Latin equally well. I could, therefore, have an-
swered you at our first interview, but I wished to know
you first, then to reflect. The story told by each one, en-
tirely agreeing in the main points, convinced me of your
identity. I know now that chance has brought before me
M. Pierre Aronnax, Professor of Natural History at the
Museum of Paris, intrusted with a scientific mission
abroad: Conseil, his servant; and Ned Land, of Canadian
56 20,000 ZHAGUES UNDER THE SEAB8.

origin, harpooner on board the frigate Abraham Lincoln
of the navy of the United States of America.”

I bowed assent. It was not-a question that the com-
mander put tome. Therefore there was no answer to be
made. This man expressed himself with perfect ease,
without any accent. His sentences were well turned, his
words clear, and his fluency of speech remarkable. Yet,
I did not recognize in him a fellow-countryman.

He continued the conversation in these terms:

«“You have doubtless thought, sir, that I have delayed
long in paying you this second visit. The reason is that,
your identity recognized, I wished to weigh maturely what
part to act towards you. I have hesitated much. Most
annoying circumstances have brought you into the pres-
ence of a man who has broken all the ties of humanity.
You have come to trouble my existence.

“‘Unintentionally!” said I.

“‘Unintentionally?” replied the stranger, raising his
voice a little; ‘‘was it unintentionally that the Adraham
Lincoln pursued me all over the seas? Was it uninten-
tionally that you took passage in this frigate? Was it un-
intentionally that your cannon-balls rebounded off the
plating of my vessel? Was it unintentionally that Mr.
Ned Land struck me with his harpoon?”

I detected a restrained irritation in these words. But te
these recriminations I had a very natural answer to make,
and I made it.

“Sir,” said I, “no doubt you are ignorant of the dis-
cussions which have taken place concerning you in Amer-
ica and Europe. You do not know that divers accidents,
caused by collisions with your submarine machine, have
excited public feeling in the two continents. I omit the
hypotheses without number by which it was sought to ex-
plain the inexplicable phenomenon of which you alone
possess the secret. But you must understand that, in pur-
auing you over the high seas of the Pacific. the Abraham
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS. 57

Lincoln believed itself to be chasing some powerful sea~
monster, of which it was necessary to rid the ocean at any
price.”

A half-smile curled the lips of the commander: then, in
a calmer tone:

«*M. Aronnax,” he replied, ‘‘ dare you affirm that your
frigate would not as soon have pursued and cannonaded a
submarine boat as a monster?”

This question embarrassed me, for certainly Captain
Farragut might not have hesitated. He might have
thought it his duty to destroy a contrivance of this kind,
as he would a gigantic narwhal.

“You understand then, sir,” continued the stranger,
«that I have the right to treat you as enemies?”

I answered nothing, purposely. For what good would
it be to discuss such a proposition, when force could de-
stroy the best arguments?

“‘T have hesitated for some time,” continued the com-
mander; ‘‘nothing obliged me to show you hospitality.
If I chose to separate myself from you, I should have no
interest in seeing you again; I could place you upon the
deck of this vessel which has served you as a refuge, I
could sink beneath the waters, and forget that you had ever
existed, Would not that be my right?”

“Tt might be the right of a savage,” I answered, “‘ but
not that of a civilized man.”

‘¢ Professor,” replied the commander quickly, “‘ I am not
what you call a civilized man! I have done with society
entirely, for reasons which I alone have the right of appre-
ciating. I do not therefore obey its laws, and I desire you
never to allude to them before me again!”

This was said plainly. A flash of anger and disdain
kindled in the eyes of the Unknown, and I had a glimpse
of a terrible past in the life of this man. Not only had he
put himself beyond the pale of human laws, but he had
made himself independent of them, free in the strictest ac-
58 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

ceptation of the word, qui:v beyond their reach! Who then
would dare to pursue him at the bottom of the sea, when,
on its surface, he defied all attempts made against him?
What vessel could resist the shock of his submarine mon-
itor? What cuirass, however thick, could withstand the
blows of his spur? No man could demand from him an
account of his actions; God, if he believed in one—his con-
science, if he had one—were the sole judges to whom he
was answerable.

These reflections crossed my mind rapidly, whilst the
stranger personage was silent, absorbed, and as if wrapped
up in himself. I regarded him with fear mingled with in-
terest, as, doubtless, Gidipus regarded the Sphinx.

After rather a long silence, the commander resumed the
conversation.

“‘T have hesitated,” said he, ‘* but I have thought that
my interest might be reconciled with that pity to which
every human being has aright. You will remain on board
my vessel, since fate has cast you there. You will be free;
and in exchange for this liberty, I shall only impose one
condition. Your word of honor to submit to it will suffice.”

‘Speak, sir,” I answered. ‘I suppose this condition
is one which a man of honor may accept?”

“Yes, sir; itis this. It is possible that certain events,
unforeseen, may oblige me to consign you to your cabins for
some hours or some days, as the case may be. As I desire
never to use violence, I expect from you, more than all
the others, a passive obedience. In thus acting, I take all
the responsibility: I acquit you entirely, for I make it an
impossibility for you to see what ought not to be seen.
Do you accept this condition?”

Then things took place on board which, to say the least,
were singular, and which ought not to be seen by people
who were not placed beyond the pale of social laws.
Amongst the surprises which the future was preparing for
me, this might not be the least.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS, 5%

“We accept,” I answered; >‘‘only I will ask your per-
mission, sir, to address one question to you—one only.”

“< Speak, sir.”

«You said that we should be free on board.”

«« Entirely.”

“‘T ask you, then, what you mean by this liberty?”

“‘Just the liberty to go, to come, to see, to observe éven
all that passes here—save under rare circumstances—the
liberty, in short, which we enjoy ourselves, my companions
and I.”

It was evident that we did not understand one another.

‘‘Pardon me, sir,” I resumed, ‘‘but this liberty is only
what every prisoner has of pacing his prison. It cannot
suffice us.”

“Tt must suffice you, however.”

‘‘What! we must renounce forever seeing our country,
our friends, our relations again?”

“Yes, sir. But to renounce that unendurable worldly
yoke which men believe to be liberty is not perhaps so pain-
ful as you think.”

“* Well,” exclaimed Ned Land, ‘never will I give my
word of honor not to try to escape.”

“‘T did not ask you for your word of honor, Master Land,”
answered the commander, coldly.

“Sir,” I replied, beginning to get angry in spite of my-
self, ‘you abuse your situation towards us; it is cruelty.”

““No, sir, it is clemency. You are my prisoners of war.
I keep you, when I could, by a word, plunge you into the
depths of the ocean. You attacked me. You came to
surprise a secret which no man in the world must penetrate
—the secret of my whole existence. And you think that I
am going to send you back to that world which must know
meno more? Never! In retaining you, it isnot you whom
I guard—it is myself.”

These words indicated a resolution taken on the part of
the commander, against which no arguments would prevail
60 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THH SEAS.

“So, sir,” I rejoined, “‘you give us simply the choice
between life and death?”

“Simply.”

“My friends,” said I, ‘‘to a question thus put, there is
nothing to answer. But no word of honor binds us to the
master of this vessel.”

«
Then, in a gentler tone, he continued:

“Now, permit me to finish what I have to say to you.
I know you, M. Aronnax. You and your companions will
not, perhaps, have so much to complain of in the chance
which has bound you to my fate. You will find amongst
the books which are my favorite study the work which you
have published on ‘the depths of the sea.’ 1 have often
read it. You have carried your work as far as terrestrial
science permitted you. But you do not know all—you
have not seen all. Let me tell you then, Professor, that
you will not regret the time passed on board my vessel.
You are going to visit the land of marvels.”

These words of the commander had a great effect upon
me. Icannot deny it. My weak point was touched; and
I forgot, for a moment, that the contemplation of these
sublime subjects was not worth the loss of liberty. Besides,
I trusted to the future to decide this grave question. SoTI
contented myself with saying:

“By what name ought I to address you?” :

“Sir,” replied the commander, ‘“‘I am nothing to you
but Captain Nemo; and you and your companions are noth-
ing to me but the passengers of the Nautilus.”

Captain Nemo called. A steward appeared. The cap-
tain gave him his orders in that strange language which I
did not understand. ‘Chen, turning towards the Canadian
and Conseil:

“
good as to follow this man.”
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 61

«And now, M. Aronnax, our breakfast is ready. Permit
me to lead the way.”

“T am at your service, Captain.”

I followed Captain Nemo; and as soon as I had passed
through the door, I found myself in a kind of passage
lighted by electricity, similar to the waist of a ship. After
we had proceeded a dozen yards, a second door opened
before me.

I then entered a dining-room, decorated and furnished
in severe taste. High oaken sideboards, inlaid with ebony,
stood at the two extremities of the room, and upon their
shelves glittered china, porcelain and glass of inestimable
value. The plate on the table sparkled in the rays which
the luminous ceiling shed around, while the light was tem-
pered and softened by exquisite paintings.

In the centre of the room was a table richly laid out.
Captain Nemo indicated the place I was to occupy.

The breakfast consisted of a certain number of dishes,
the contents of which were furnished by the sea alone;
and I was ignorant of the nature and mode of preparation
of some of them. I acknowledged that they were good,
but they had a peculiar flavor, which I easily became ac-
customed to. These different: aliments appeared to me to
be rich in phosphorus, and 1 thought they must have a
mariné origin.

Captain Nemo looked at me. I asked him no questions,
but he guessed my thoughts, and answered of his own ac-
cord the questions which I was burning to address to him.

“The greater part of these dishes are unknown to you,”
he said to me. ‘‘ However, you may partake of them with-
out fear. They are wholesome and nourishing. For a
long time I have renounced the food of the earth, and I am
never ill now. My crew, who are healthy, are fed on the
same food.”

“So,” said I, ‘all these eatables are the produce of the
sea?”
62 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS,

‘*-Yes, Professor, the sea supplies all my wants. Some.
times I cast my nets in tow, and I draw them in ready to
break. Sometimes I hunt in the midst of this element,
which appears to be inaccessible to man, and quarry the
game which dwells in my submarine forests. My flocks,
like those of Neptune’s old shepherds, graze fearlessly in
she immense prairies of the ocean. I have a vast property
there, which I cultivate myself, and which is always sown
by the hand of the Creator of all things.”

“*T can understand perfectly, sir, that your nets furnish
excellent fish for your table; I can understand also that
you hunt aquatic game in your submarine forests; but I
cannot understand at all how a particle of meat, no matter
how small, can figure in your bill of fare.”

‘‘This, which you believe to be meat, Professor, is noth-
ing else than fillet of turtle. Here are also some dolphins’
livers, which you take to be ragout of pork. My cook isa
clever fellow, who excels in dressing these various products
of the ocean. Taste all these dishes, Here is a preserve of
holothuria, which a Malay would declare to be unrivalled
in the world; here is a cream, of which the milk has been
furnished by the cetacea, and the sugar by the great fucus
of the North Sea; and lastly, permit me to offer you some
preserve of anemones, which is equal to that of the most
delicious fruits.”

I tasted, more from curiosity than as a connoisseur, whilst
Captain Nemo enchanted me with his extraordinary stories.

“You like the sea, Captain?”

** Yes; I love it! The sea is everything. It covers seven
tenths of the terrestrial globe. Its breath is pure and
healthy. It is an immense desert, where man is never
lonely, for he feels life stirring on all sides. The sea is
only the embodiment of a supernatural and wonderful ex-
istence. It is nothing but love and emotion; it is the
‘Living Infinite,’ as one of your poets has said. In fact,
Protessor, Nature manifests herself in it by her three king
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, 63

doms, mineral, vegetable, and animal. The sea is the vast
reservoir of Nature. The globe began with sea, so to
speak; ani who knows if it will not end with it? In it is
supreme tranquillity. ‘The sea does not belong to despots.
Upon its surface men can still exercise unjust laws, fight,
tear one another to picces, and be carried away with ter-
restrial horrors. But at thirty feet below its level, their
reign ceases, their influence is quenched, and their power
disappears. Ah! sir, live—live in the bosom of the waters!
There only isindependence! There I recognize no masters!
There I am free!”

Captain Nemo suddenly became silent in the aide of
this enthusiasm, by which he was quite carried away. For
a few moments he paced up and down, much agitated.
Then he became more calm, regained his accustomed.cold-
ness of expression, and turning towards me:

“‘Now, Professor,” said he, ‘‘if you wish to go over the
Nautilus, I am at your service.”

Captain Nemo rose. I followed him.
contrived at the back of the dining-room, opened, and I
entered a room equal in dimensions to that which I had
just quitted.

It was a library. High pieces of furniture, of black vio-
let ebony inlaid with brass, supported upon their wide
shelves a great number of books uniformly bound. They
followed the shape of the room, terminating at the lower
part in huge divans, covered with brown leather, which
were eared: to afford the greatest comfort. Light mova-
ble desks, made to slide in and out at will, allowed one to
rest one’s book while reading. In the centre stood an im-
mense table, covered with pani philets, amongst which were
some newspapers, already of old date. The electric light
flooded everything; it was shed from four unpolished
globes half sunk in the volutes of the ceiling. I looked
with real admiration at this room, so ingeniously fitted up,
and I could scarcely believe my eyes.
e4 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

“* Captain Nemo,” said Ito my host, who had just thrown
himself on one of the divans, “this is a library which
would do honor to more than one of the continental palaces,
and I am absolutely astounded when I consider that it can
follow you to the bottom of the seas.”

«‘ Where could one find greater sclitude or silence, Pro-
fessor?” replied Captain Nemo. ‘Did your study in the
Museum afford you such perfect quiet?”

“No, sir; and I must confess that it is a very poor one
after yours. You must have six or seven thousand volumes
here.”

«Twelve thousand, M. Aronnax. These are the only
ties which bind me to the earth. But I had done with the
world on the day when my Nautilus plunged for the first
time beneath the waters. That day I bought my last vol-
umes, my last pamphlets, my Jast papers, and from that
time I wish to think that men no longer think or write.
These books, Professor, are at your service besides, and‘you
can make use of them freely.”

I thanked Captain Nemo, and went up to the shelves
of the library. Works on science, morals, and literature
abounded in every language; but I did not see one single
work on political economy; that subject appeared to be
strictly proscribed. Strange to say, all these books were ir-
regularly arranged, in whatever language they were written;
and this medley proved that the captain of the Nautilus
must have read indiscriminately the books which he took
up by chance.

“Sir,” said I to the captain, ‘‘I thank you for having
placed this library at my disposal. It contains treasures of
science, and I shall profit by them.” :

«This room is not only a library,” said Captain Nemo,
‘it is alsc a smoking-room.”

«A smoking-room!” I cried. ‘‘ Then one may smoke on
board ?”

“ Certainly.”
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 65

«Then, sir, Iam forced to believe that you have kept up
a communication with Havana.”

“Not any,” answered the captain. ‘‘ Accept this cigar,
M. Aronnax; and though it does not come from Havana,
you will be pleased with it, if you are a connoisseur.”

I took the cigar which was offered me; its shape recalled
the London ones, but it seemed to be made of leaves of
gold. I lighted it at a little brazier, which was supported
upon an elegant bronze stem, and drew the first whifts with
the delight of a lover of smoking who has not smoked for
two days.

“‘ Tt is excellent,” said I, ‘‘ but it is not tobacco.”

“No!” answered the captain, ‘‘ this tobacco comes neither
from Havannah nor from the East. Itis a kind of sea
weed, rich in nicotine, with which the sea provides me, but
somewhat sparingly.”

At that moment Captain Nemo opened a door which stood
opposite to that by which I had entered the library, and I
passed into an immense drawing-room splendidly lighted.

It was a vast four-sided room, thirty feet long, eighteen
wide, and fifteen high. A luminous ceiling, decorated
with light arabesques, shed a soft clear light over all the
marvels accumulated in thismuseum. For it was in fact a
museum, in which an intelligent and prodigal hand had
gathered all the treasures of nature and art, with the artis-
tic confusion which distinguishes a painter’sstudio. Thirty
first-rate pictures, uniformly framed, separated by bright
drapery, ornamented the walls, which were hung with tap-
estry of severe design. I saw works of great value, the
greater part of which I had admired in the special collec-
tions of Europe, and in the exhibitions of paintings. The
several schools of the old masters were represented by a
Madonna of Raphael, a Virgin of Leonardo da Vinci, a
nymph of Correggio, a woman of Titian, an Adoration of
Veronese, an Assumption of Murillo, a portrait of Hol-
bein, a monk of Velasquez, a martyr of Ribeira, a fair of
66 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

Rubens, two Flemish landscapes of Teniers, three little
‘‘ genre” pictures of Gérard Dow, Metsu, and Paul Potter,
two specimens of Géricault and Prudhon, and some seas
pieces of Backhuysen and Vernet. Amongst the works of
modern painters were pictures with the signatures of Dela-
croix, Ingres, Decamp, Troyon, Meissonier, Daubigny, etc. ;
and some admirable statues in marbleand bronze, after the
finest antique models, stood upon pedestals in the corners
of this magnificent museum. Amazement, as the captain
of the Nautilus had predicted, had already begun to take
possession of me.

‘* Professor,” said this strange man, ‘‘ you must excuse
the unceremonious way in which I receive you, and the
disorder of this room.”

“Sir,” I answered, “without seeking to know who you
are, I recognize in you an artist.”

“‘An amateur, nothing more, sir. Formerly I loved te
collect these beautiful works created by the hand of man.
I sought them greedily and ferreted them out indefatigably,
and I have been able to bring together some objects of great
value. ‘These are my last souvenirs of that world which is
dead to me. In my eyes, your modern artists are already
old: they have two or three thousand years of existence; I
confound them in my own mind. Masters have no age.”

“ And these musicians?” said I, pointing out some works
of Weber, Rossini, Mozart, Beethoven, Haydn, Meyerbeevr,
Hérold, Wagner, Auber, Gounod, and a number of others
scattered over a large model piano organ which occupier
one of the panels of the drawing-room.

«These musicians,” replied Captain Nemo, ‘‘are the con-
temporaries of Orpheus; for in the memory of the dead all
chronological differences are effaced; and I am dead, Pro:
fessor; as much dead as those of your friends who are sleep
ing six feet under the earth!”

Captain Nemo was silent, and seemed lost in a profound
revery. I contemplated him with deep interest, analyzing
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 87

hx silence the strange expression of his countenance. Lean-
ing on his elbow against an angle of a costly mosaic table,
he no longer saw me—he had forgotten my presence.

I did not disturb this revery, and continued my observa-
tion of the curiosities which enriched this drawing-room.

Under elegant glass cases, fixed by copper rivets, were
elussed and labelled the most precious productions of the
sea which had ever been presented to the eye of a naturalist.
My delight as a professor may be conceived.

The division containing the zoophytes presented the most
curious'specimens of the two groups of polypi and echino-
dermes. In the first group, the tubipores, were gorgones
arranged like a fan, soft sponges of Syria, ises of the Moluc-
eas, pennatules, an admirable virgularia of the Norwegian
seas, variegated umbellulaire, alcyonarie, a whole series of
madrepores, which my master Milne-Edwards has so cleverly
classified, amongst which I remarked some wonderful flabel-
line, oculine: of the island of Bourbon, the ‘‘ Neptune’s
car” of the Antilles, superb varieties of corals—in short,
every species of those curious polypi of which entire islands
are formed, which will one day become continents. Of the
echinodermes, remarkable for their coating of spines, asteri,
sea-stars, pantacrine, comatules, astérophons, echini, holo-
thuri, etc., represented individually a complete collection of
this group.

A somewhat nervous conchyliologist would certainly have
fainted before other more numerous cases, in which were
classified the specimens of mollusks. It was a collection of
inestimable value, which time fails me to describe minutely.
Amongst these specimens, I will quote from memory only
the elegant royal hammer-fish of the Indian Ocean, whose
regular white spots stood out brightly on a red and brown
ground, an imperial spondyle, bright colored, bristiing with
spines, a rare specimen in the Huropean museums (I esti-
mated its value at not less than £1000); a common hammer-
fish of the seas of New Holland, which is only precured
68 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

with difficulty; exotic buccardia of Senegal; fragile white
bivalve shells, which a breath might shatter like a soap-
bubble; several varieties of the aspirgillum of Java, a kind
of calcareous tube, edged with leafy folds, and much de-
bated by amateurs; a whole series of trochi, some a green-
ish-yellow, found in the American seas, others a reddish-
brown, natives of Australian waters; others from the Gulf
of Mexico, remarkable for their imbricated shell; stellari
found in the Southern Seas; and last, the rarest of all, the
magnificent spur of New Zealand; and every description of
delicate and fragile shells to which science has given appro-
priate names.

Apart, in separate compartments, were spread out chap-
lets of pearls of the greatest beauty, which reflected the
electric light in little sparks of fire; pink pearls, torn from
the pinna-marina of the Red Sea; green pearls of the
haliotyde iris; yellow, blue, and black pearls, the curious
productions of the divers mollusks of every ocean, and
certain mussels of the watercourses of the North; lastly,
several specimens of inestimable value which had been
gathered from the rarest pintadines. Some of these pearls
were larger than a pigeon’s egg, and were worth as much,
and more than that which the traveller Tavernier sold to
the Shah of Persia for three millions, and surpassed the
one in the possession of the Imaum of Muscat, which I had
believed to be unrivalled in the world.

Therefore, to estimate the value of this collection was
simply impossible. Captain Nemo must have expended
millions in the acquirement of these various specimens, and
I was thinking what source he could have drawn from, to
have been able thus to gratify his fancy for collecting,
when I was interrupted by these words:

“You are exumining my shells, Professor? Unques-
tionably they must be interesting to a naturalist; but for
me they have a far greater charm. for â„¢ have collected
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 69

them all with my own hand, and there is not a sea on the
face of the globe which has escaped my researches.”

“‘T can understand, Captain, the delight of wandering
about in the midst of such riches, You are one of those
who have collected their treasures themselves. No museum
in Europe possesses such a collection of the produce of the
ocean. Butif I exhaust all my admiration upon it, I shall
have none left for the vessel which carries it. I do not
wish to pry into your secrets; but I must confess that this
Nautilus, with the motive power which is confined in it,
the contrivances which enable it to be worked, the power-
fui agent which propels it, all excite my curiosity to the
highest pitch. I see suspended on the walls of this room
instruments of whose use I am ignorant.”

‘*You will find these same instruments in my own room,
Professor, where I shall have much pleasure in explaining
their use to you. But first come and inspect the cabin
which is set apart for your own use. You musi see how
you will be accommodated on board the Nautilus.” |

I followed Captain Nemo, who, by one of the doors open-~
ing from each panel of the drawing-room, regained the
waist. He conducted me towards the bow, and there I
found, not acabin, but an elegant room, with a bed, dress-
ing-table, and several other pieces of furniture.

T could only thank my host.

“Your room adjoins mine,” said he, opening a door,
“and mine opens into the drawing-room that we have just
quitted.”

I entered the captain’s room: it had a severe, almost a
monkish, aspect. A small iron bedstead, a table, some
articles for the toilet; the whole lighted by a skylight
No comforts, the strictest necessaries only.

Captain Nemo pointed to a seat.

“* Be so good as to sit down,” he said. I seated myself,
and he began thus:
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

OHAPTER XL
ALL BY ELECTRICITY.

“Srp,” said Captain Nemo, showing me the instruments
hanging on the walls of his room, ‘here are the contri-
vances required for the navigation of the Nautilus. Here,
as in the drawing-room, I have them always under my eyes,
and they indicate my position and exact direction in the
middle of the ocean. Some are known to you, such as the
thermometer, which gives the internal temperature of the
Nautilus; the barometer, which indicates the weight of
the air and foretells the changes of the weather; the hy-
grometer, which marks the dryness of the atmosphere; the
storm-glass, the contents of which, by decomposing, an-
nounce the approach of tempests; the compass, which
guides my course; the sextant, which shows the latitude
by the altitude of the sun; chronometers, by which I cal-
culate the longitude; and glasses for day and night, which
I use to examine the points of the horizon, when the Vau-
tilus rises to the surface of the waves.”

“These are the usual nautical instruments,” I replied,
‘‘and I know the use of them. But these others, no
doubt, answer to the particular requirements of the Nau-
tilus. This dial with the movable needle is a manometer,
is it not?”

“Tt is actually a manometer. But by communication
with the water, whose external pressure it indicates, it
gives our depth at the same time.”

‘* And these other instruments, the use of which I can-
not guess?”

“Here, Professor, I ought to give you some explana
tions. Will you be kind enough to listen to me?”
~ 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THH SEAS, val

xfe was silent for a few moments, then he said

«There is a powerful agent, obedient, rapid, easy, which
conforms to every use, and reigns supreme on board my
vessel. Everything is done by means of it. It lights it,
warms it, and is the soul of my mechanical apparatus.
This agent is electricity.”

“ Hlectricity?” I cried in surprise.

“Yes, sir.”

“* Nevertheless, Captain, you possess an extreme rapidity
of movement, which does not agree well with the power of
electricity. Until now its dynamic force has remained
under restraint, and has only been able to produce a small
amount of power.”

“« Professor,” said Captain Nemo, ‘‘ my electricity is not
everybody’s. You know what sea-water is composed of.
In a thousand grammes are found 964 per cent of water,
and about 2% per cent of chloride of sodium; then, in a
smaller quantity, chlorides of magnesium and of potassium,
bromide of magnesium, sulphate of magnesia, sulphate and
carbonate of lime. You see, then, that chloride of sodium
forms a large part of it. So it is this sodium that I ex-
tract from sea-water, and of which I compose my ingredi-
ents. I owe all to the ocean; it produces electricity, and
electricity gives heat, light, motion, and, in a word, life te
the Mautilus.”

“But not the air you breathe?”

«Oh, I could manufacture the air necessary for my con-
sumption, but it is useless, because I go up to the surface
of the water when I please. However, if electricity does
not furnish me with air to breathe, it works at least the
powerful pumps that are stored in spacious reservoirs, and
which enable me to prolong at need, and as long as I will,
my stay in the depths of the sea. It gives a uniform and
unintermittent light, which the sun does not. Now look
at this clock; it is electrical, and goes with a regularity
that defies the best chronometers. I have divided it into
72 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

twenty-four hours, like the Italian clocks, because for me
there is neither night nor day, sun nor moon, but only that
factitious light that I take with me to the bottom of the
sea. Look! just now, it is ten o’clock in the morning.”

“ Fixactly.”

<¢ Another application of electricity. This dial hanging
in front of us indicates the speed of the Nautilus. An
electric thread puts it in communication with the screw,
and the needle indicates the real speed. Look! now wa
are spinning along with a uniform speed of fifteen miles
an hour.”

“Tt is marvellous! and I see, Captain, you were right
to make use of this agent that takes the place of wind,
water, and steam.” ;

‘“We have not finished, M. Aronnax,” said Captain
Nemo, rising; ‘‘ if you will follow me, we will examine the
stern of the Nautilus.”

Really, I knew already the anterior part of this sub-
marine boat, of which this is the exact division, starting
from the ship’s head: the dining-room, five yards long,
separated from the library by a water-tight partition; the
library, five yards long; the large drawing-room, ten yards
long, separated from the captain’s room by a second water-
tight partition; the said room, five yards inlength; mine,
two anda half yards; and lastly, a reservoir of air, seven
and a half yards, that extended to the bows. Total length
thirty-five yards, or one hundred and five feet. The par-
titions had doors that were shut hermetically by means of
india-rubber instruments, and they insured the safety of
the Nautilus in case of a leak.

I followed Captain‘Nemo through the waist, and arrived
at the centre of the boat. There was a sort of well that
opened between two partitions. An iron ladder, fastened
with an iron hook to the partition, led to the upper end.
I asked the captain what the ladder was used for.

«It leads to the small boat,” he said
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 73

«¢ What! have you a boat?” I exclaimed in surprise.

“Of course, an excellent vessel, light and insubmersible,
that serves either as a fishing or as a pleasure boat.”

“But then, when you wish to embark, you are obliged
to come to the surface of the water?”

“Not at all. This boat is attached to the upper part of
the hull of the Nautilus, and occupies a cavity made for it.
It is decked, quite water-tight, and held together by solid
bolts. This ladder leads to a man-hole made in the hull
of the Nautilus, that corresponds with a similar hole made
in the side of the boat. By this double opening I get into
the small vessel. They shut the one belonging to the
Nautilus, I shut the other by means of screw pressure. I
undo the bolts, and the little boat goes up to the surface of
the sea with prodigious rapidity. I then open the panel of
the bridge, carefully shut till then; I mast it, hoist my
sail, take my oars, and I’m off.”

“‘But how do you get back on board?”

“‘T do not come back, M. Aronnax; the Nautilus comes
to me.”

“* By your orders?”

“By my orders. An electric thread connects us. I
telegraph to it, and that is enough.” :

“ Really,” I said, astonished at these marvels, ‘‘ nothing
can be more simple.”

After having passed by the cage of the staircase that led
to the platform, I saw a cabin six feet long, in which Con-
seil and Ned Land, enchanted with their repast, were de-
youring it with avidity. Then a door opened into a kitchen
nine feet long, situated between the large store-rooms.
There electricity, better than gas itself, did all the cook-
ing. ‘The streams under the furnaces gave out to the
sponges of platina a heat which was regularly kept up and
distributed. They also heated a distilling apparatus,
which, by evaporation, furnished excellent drinkable
G4. 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. i

water. Near this kitchen was a bath-room comfortably
furnished, with hot and cold water taps.

Next to the kitchen was the berth-room of the vessel,
sixteen feet long. But the door was shut, and I could not
see the management of it, which might have given me an
idea of the number of men employed on board the Naw-
iedus.

At the bottom was a fourth partition, that separateu
this office from the engine-room. A door opened, and I
found myself in the compartment where Captain Nemo—
certainly an engineer of a very high order—had arranged
his locomotive machinery. ‘This engine-room, clearly
lighted, did not measure less than sixty-five feet in length.
It was divided into two parts; the first contained the ma-
terials for producing electricity, and the second the
machinery that connected it with the screw. I examined
it with great interest, in order to understand the machin-
ery of the Nautilus.

«You see,” said' the captain, “‘I use Bunsen’s con-
trivances, not Ruhmkorff’s. Those would not have been
powerful enough. Bunsen’s are fewer in number, but
strong and large, which experience proves to be the best.
The electricity produced passes forward, where it works,
by electro-magnets of great size, on a system of levers and
cog-wheels that transmit the movement to the axle of the
screw. ‘This one, the diameter of which is nineteen feet,
and the thread twenty-three feet, performs about a hun-
dred and twenty revolutions in a second.”

“ And you get then?”

“A speed of fifty miles an hour.” ‘

“‘T have seen the Nautilus mancuvre before the Abra-
ham Lincoln, and I have my own ideas as to its speed,
But this is not enough. We must sce where we go. We
must be able to direct it to the right, to the left, above,
below. How do you get to the great depths, where you
find an increasing resistance, which is rated by hundreds
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 5

of atmospheres? How do you return to the surface of the
ocean? And how do you maintain yourselves in the req-
uisite medium? Am I asking too much?”

“Not at all, Professor,” replied the captain, with some
hesitation; ‘‘since you.may never leave this submarine
boat. Come into the saloon, it is our usual study, and
there you will learn all you want to know about the Nau-
tis.

CHAPTER XII.
SOME FIGURES.

A MOMENT after we were seated on a divan in the saloon
smoking. The captain showed me a sketch that gave the
plan, section, and elevation of the Nautilus. Then: he
began his description in these words:

‘* Here, M. Aronnax, are the several dimensions of the
boat you are in. It is an elongated cylinder with conical
ends. It is very like a cigar in shape, a shape already
adopted in London in several constructions of the same
sort, The length of this cylinder, from stem to stern, is
exactly 232 feet, and its maximum breadth is twenty-six
feet. It is not built quite like your long-voyage steamers,
but its lines are sufficiently long, and its curves prolonged
encugh, to allow the water to slide off easily, and oppose
no obstacle to its passage. These two dimensions enable
you to obtain by asimple calculation the surface and cubic
contents of the Wautilus. Its area measures 6032 feet;
and its contents about 1500 cubic yards; that is to say,
when completely immersed it displaces 50,000 feet of water,
or weighs 1500 tons.

‘When I made the plans for this submarine vessel, I
meant that nine tenths should be submerged; consequently,
76 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

it ought only te displace nine tenths of its bulk, that is to
say, only to weigh that number of tons. I ought not,
therefore, to have exceeded that weight, constructing it on
the aforesaid dimensions.

«The Nautilus is composed of two hulls, one inside, the
other outside, joined by T-shaped irons, which render it
yery strong. Indeed, owing to this cellular arrangement
it resists like a block, as if it were solid. Its sides cannot
yield; it coheres spontaneously, and not by the closeness of
its rivets; and the homogeneity of its construction, due to
the perfect union of the materials, enables it to defy the
roughest seas.

‘‘These two hulls are composed of steel plates, whose
density is from .7 to.8 that of water. The first is not less
than two inches and a half thick, and weighs 394 tons.
The second envelope, the keel, twenty inches high and ten
thick, weighs alone sixty-twotons. Theengine, the ballast,
the several accessories and apparatus appendages, the par-
titions and bulkheads, weigh 961.62 tons. Do you follow
all this?”

“T do.”

“*Then, when the Nautilus is afloat under these circum-
stances, one tenth is out of the water. Now, if I have
made reservoirs of a size equal to this tenth, or capable of
holding 150 tons, and if I fill them with water, the boat,
weighing then 1507 tons, will be completely immersed.
That would happen, Professor. These reservoirs are in the
lower parts of the Nautilus. I turn on taps and they fill,
and the vessel sinks that had just been level with the sur-
face.”

“Well, Captain, but now we come to the real difficulty.
T can understand your rising to the surface; but diving be-
low the surface, does not your submarine contrivance en-
counter a pressure, and consequently undergo an upward
thrust of one atmosphere for every thirty feet of water,
just about fifteen pounds per square inch?”
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. TT

“Just so, sir.”

‘Then unless you quite fill the Nautilus, I do not see
how you can draw it down to those depths.”

“Professor, you must not confound statics with dy-
namics, or you will be exposed to grave errors. There is
very little labor spent in attaining the lower regions of the
ocean, for all bodies have a tendency to sink. WhenI
wanted to find out the necessary increase of weight required
to sink the Nautilus, I had only to calculate the reduction
of volume that sea-water acquires according to the depth.”

«That is evident.”

“‘Now, if water is not absolutely incompressible, it is at
least capable of very slight compression. Indeed, after the
most recent calculations this reduction is only .000436 of
an atmosphere for each thirty feet of depth. If we want
to sink 3000 feet, I should keep. account of the reduction
of bulk under a pressure equal to that of a column of water
of a thousand feet. The calculation is easily verified.
Now, I have supplementary reservoirs capable of holding a
hundred tons. ‘Therefore I can sink to a considerable
depth. When I wish to rise to the level of the sea, I only
let off the water, and empty all the reservoirs if I want the
Nautilus to emerge from the tenth part of her total ca-
pacity.” .

I had nothing to object to these reasonings.

“‘T admit your calculations, Captain,” I replied; ‘I
should be wrong to dispute them since daily experience
confirms them; but I foresee a real difficulty in the way.”

‘¢ What, sir?”

‘*When you are about 1000 feet deep, the walls of the
Nautilus bear a pressure of 100 atmospheres. If, then,
just now you were to empty the supplementary reservoirs,
to lighten the vessel, and to go up to the surface, the
pumps must overcome the pressure of 100 atmospheres,
which is 1500 lbs. per square inch. From that a power—”

«That electricity alone can give,” said the captain,
1B 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, .
hastily. ‘I repeat, sir, that the dynamic power of my
engines is almost infinite. The pumps of the Nautilus
have an enormous power, as you must have observed when
their jets of water burst like a torrent upon the Abraham
Lincoln. Besides, I use subsidiary reservoirs only to attain
a mean depth of 750 to 1000 fathoms, and that with a view
of managing my machines. Also, when I have a mind to
visit the depths of the ocean five or six miles below the
surface, I make use of slower but not less infallible means.”

«What are they, Captain?”

“That involves my telling you how the Nautilus is
worked.”

“‘T am impatient to learn.”

“To steer this boat to starboard or port, to turn, in a
word, following a horizontal plan, I use an ordinary rudder
fixed on the back of the stern-post, and with one wheel and
some tackle to steer by. ButIcan also make the Nautilus
rise and sink, and sink and rise, by a vertical movement by
means of two inclined planes fastened to its sides, opposite
the centre of flotation, planes that move in every direction,
and that are worked by powerful levers from the interior.
If the planes are kept parallel with the boat, it moves hor-
izontally. If slanted, the Mautilus, according to this in-
clination, and under the influence of the screw, either sinks
diagonally or rises diagonally as it suits me. And even if
I wish to rise more quickly to the surface, I ship the screw,
and the pressure of the water causes the Nautilus to rise
vertically like a balloon filled with hydrogen.”

“Bravo, Captain! But how can the steersman follow
the route in the middle of the waters?”

«The steersman is placed in a glazed box, that is raised
above the hull of the Nautilus, and furnished with lenses.”

** Are these lenses capable of resisting such pressure?”

“Perfectly. Glass, which breaks at a blow, is, never-
theless, capable of offering considerable resistance. During
some experiments of fishing by electric light in 1864 in the
20,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 7
Northern Seas, we saw plates less than a third of an inch
thick resist a pressure of sixteen atmospheres. Now, the
glass that I use is not less than thirty times thicker.”

“Granted. But, after all, in order to see, the light must
exceed the darkness, and in the midst of the darkness in
the water, how can you see?”

“Behind the steersman’s cage is placed a powerful elec-
tric reflector, the rays from which light up the sea for hali
a mile in front.”

“* Ah! bravo, bravo, Captain! Now I can account for
this phosphorescence in the supposed narwhal that puzzled
usso. I now ask you if the boarding of the Nautilus and
of the Scotia, that has made such a noise, has been the
result of a chance rencontre?”

“Quite accidental, sir. I was sailing only one fathom
helow the surface of the water when the shock came. It
had no bad result.”

“‘None, sir. But now, about your rencontre with the
Abraham Lincoln ??

“¢ Professor, I am sorry for one of the best vessels in the
American navy; but they attacked me, and I was bound to.
flefend myself. I contented myself, however, with putting
the frigate hors de combat: she will not have any difficulty
in getting repaired at the next port.”

“Ah, Commander! your Nautilus is certainly a mar
rellous boat.”

“Yes, Professor; and I love it as if it were part of my-
self. If danger threatens one of your vessels on the ocean,
the first impression is the feeling of an abyss above and
below. On the Wawtilus men’s hearts never fail them. No
defects to be afraid of, for the double shell is as firm as
iron; no rigging to attend to; no sails for the wind to carry
away; no boilers to burst; no fire to fear, for the vessel is
made of iron, not of wood; no coal to run short, for elec-
tricity is the only mechanical agent; no collision to fear,
fe~ \t alone swims in deep water; no tempest to brave, for
80 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

whew tt dives below the water, it reaches absolute tranquil-
lity. There, sir! that is the perfection of vessels! And if
it is true that the engineer has more confidence in the ves-
sel than the builder, and the builder than the captain him-
self, you understand the trust I repose in my Nautilus;
for I am at once captain, builder, and engineer.”

«‘ But how could you construct this wonderful Nautilus
in secret ?”

*¢ Hach separate portion, M. Aronnax, was brought from
different parts of the globe. The keel was forged at
Creusot, the shaft of the screw at Penn & Co.’s, London,
the iron plates of the hull at Laird’s of Liverpool, the screw
itself at Scott’s at Glasgow. The reservoirs were made by
Cail & Co. at Paris, the engine by Krupp in Prussia, its
beak in Motala’s workshop in Sweden, its mathematical
instruments by Hart Brothers, of New York, etc.; and
each of these people had my orders under different names.”

*« But these parts had to be put together and arranged?”

“¢ Professor, I had set up my workshops upon a desert
island in the ocean. There my workmen, that is to say,
the brave men that I instructed and educated, and myself
have put together our Nautilus. Then, when the work
was finished, fire destroyed all trace of our proceedings on
this island, that I could have jumped over if I had liked.”

“Then the cost of this vessel is great?”

«‘M. Aronnax, an iron vessel costs £45 per ton. Now
the Nautilus weighed 1500. It came therefore to £67,500.
and £80,000 more for fitting it up, and abont £200,000
with the works of art and the collections it contains.”

“One last question, Captain Neme.”

** Ask it, Professor.”

«You are rich?”

“‘Immensely rich, sir; and I could, without missing 11,
pay the national debt of France.”

Istared at the singular person who spoke thus. Was he
playing upon mycredulity? The future would decide that,
~ 20.000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, 81

CHAPTER XIIf.
THE BUACK ZUVER.

Tue portion of the terrestrial globe which is covered by
water is estimated at upwards of eighty millions of acres.
This fluid mass comprises two billions two hundred and
fifty millions of cubic miles, forming a spherical body of a
diameter of sixty leagues, the weight of which would be
three quintillions of tons. To comprehend the meaning
of these figures, it is necessary to observe that a quintillion
is to a billion as a billion is to unity; in other words, there
are as many billions in a quintillion as there are units in a
billion. This mass of fluid is equal to about the quantity
of water which would be discharged by all the rivers of the
earth in forty thousand years.

During the geological epochs, the igneous period suc-
ceeded to the aqueous. The ocean originally prevailed
everywhere. Then by degrees, in the silurian period, the
tops of the mountains began to appear, the islands emerged,
then disappeared in partial deluges, reappeared, became
settled, formed continents, till at length the earth became
geographically arranged, as we see in the present day.
The solid had wrested from the liquid thirty-seven million
six hundred and fifty-seven square miles, equal to twelve
billions nine hundred and sixty millions of acres. ;

The shape of continents allows us to divide the waters
into five great portions: the Arctic or Frozen Ocean, the
Antarctic or Frozen Ocean, the Indian, the Atlantic. and
the Pacific Oceans.

The Pacific Ocean extends from north to south between
the two polar circles, and from east to west between Asia
and America, over an extent of 145 degrees of longitude.
82 20,000 LHAGULS UNDER THE SEAS.

Ii is the quietest of seas; its currents are broad and slow,
it has medium tides and abundant rain. Such was the
ocean that my fate destined me first to travel over under
these strange conditions.

“Sir,” said Captain Nemo, “ we will, if you please, take
our bearings and fix the starting-point of this voyage. It
is a quarter to twelve: I will go up again to the surface.”

The captain pressed an electric clock three times. The
pumps began to drive the water from the tanks; the needle
of the manometer marked: by a different pressure the ascent
of the Nautilus, then it stopped.

“We have arrived,” said the captain.

I went to the central staircase which opened on to the
platform, clambered up the iron steps, and found myself
on the upper part of the Nautilus.

The platform was only three feet out of water. The
front and back of the Nautilus was of that spindle-shape
which caused it justly to be compared to a cigar. I noticed
that its iron plates, slightly overlaying each other, resem:
bled the shell which clothes the bodies of our large terres:
trial reptiles. It explained to me how natural it was, in
spite of all glasses, that this boat should have been taken
for a marine animal.

Towards the middle of the platform the long-boat, hall
buried in the hull of the vessel, formed a slight excrescence.
Fore and aft rose two cages of medium height with inclined
sides, and partly closed by thick lenticular glasses; one des-‘
tined for che steersman who directed the Nautilus, the
other containing a brilliant lantern to give light on the
road.

The sea was beautiful, the sky pure. Scarcely could the
long vehicle feel the broad undulations of the ocean. A
light breeze from the east rippled the surface of the waters.
The horizon, free from fog, made observation easy. Noth-
ing was in sight. Not a quicksand, not an isiand. A
vast desert.
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 83

Captain Nemo, by the help of his sextant, took the alti-
tude of the sun, which ought also to give the latitude. He
waited for some moments till its disk touched the horizon,
Whilst taking observations not a muscle moved, the instru-
ment could not have been more motionless in a hand of
marble. /

«Twelve o’clock, sir,” said he. ‘When you like—”

I casi a last look upon the sea, slightly yellowed by the
Japanese coast, and descended to the saloon.

“And now, sir, I leave you to your studies,” added the

captain; ‘‘our course is H.N.H., our depth is twenty-six
fathoms. Here are maps on a large scale by which you
may follow it. The saloon is at your disposal, and with
your permission I will retire.” Captain Nemo bowed, and
TI remained alone, lost in thoughts all bearing on the com-
mander of the Nautilus.
« For a whole hour was I deep in these reflections, seeking
to pierce this mystery so interesting tome. Then my eyes
fell upon the vast planisphere spread upon the table, and I
placed my finger on the very spot where the given latitude
and longitude crossed.

The sea has its large rivers like the continents. They
are special currents known by their temperature and their
color. The most remarkable of these is known by the name
of the Gulf Stream. Science has decided on the globe the
direction of five principal currents: one in the North At-
lantic, a second in the South, a third in the North Pacific,
a fourth in the South, and a fifth in the Southern Indian
Ocean. It is even probable that a sixth current existed at
one time or another in the Northern Indian Ocean, when
the Caspian and Aral Seas formed but one vast sheet of
water.

At this point indicated on the planisphere one of these
currents was rolling, the Kuro-Scivo of the Japanese, the
Black River, which, leaving the Gulf of Bengal where it
is warmed by the perpendicular rays of a tropical sun,
84 20.000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAE.

crosses the Straits of Malacca along the coast of Asia, turns
into the North Pacific to the Aleutian Islands, carrying
with it trunks of camphor-trees and other indigenous pro-
ductions, and edging the waves of the ocean with the pure
indigo of its warm water. It was this current that the
Nautilus was to follow. I followed it with my eye; saw it
lose itself in the vastness of the Pacific, and felt myself
drawn with it, when Ned Land and Conseil appeared at the
door of the saloon.

My two brave companions remained petrified at the sight
of the wonders spread before them.

‘‘ Where are we, where are we?” exclaimed the Canadian.
“
“‘My friends,” I answered, making a sign for them to
enter, ‘‘ you are not in Canada, but on board the Nautilus,
fifty yards below the level of the sea.”

“But, M. Aronnax,” said Ned Land, “can you tell me
how many men there are on board? ‘Ten, twenty, fifty, a
hundred?” :

“‘T cannot answer you, Mr. Land; it is better to abandon
for a time all idea of seizing the Nautilus or escaping from
it. This ship is a masterpiece of modern industry, and I
should be sorry not to have seen it. Many people would
accept the situation forced upon us, if only to move amongst
such wonders. So be quiet and let us try and see what
passes around us.”

“* See!’ exclaimed the harpooner, ‘but we can see noth-
ing in this iron prison! We are walking—we are sailing—
blindly.”

Ned Land had scarcely pronounced these words when all
was suddenly darkness. ‘The luminous ceiling was gone,
and so rapidly that my eyes received a painful impression.

We remained mute, not stirring, and not knowing what
surprise awaited us, whether agreeable or disagreeable. A
sliding noise was heard: one would have said that panels
were working at the sides of the Nautilus.
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAB,

It is the end of the end!” said Ned Land.

Suddenly light broke at each side of the saloon, through
two oblong openings. The liquid mass appeared vividly
lit up by the electric gleam. ‘Two crystal plates separated
us from the sea. At first I trembled at the thought that
this frail partition might break, but strong bands of cop
per bound them, giving an almost infinite power of resistance.

The sea was distinctly visible for a mile all round the
Nautilus. Whata spectacle! What pen can describe it?
Who could paint the effects of the light through those
transparent sheets of water, and the softness of the succes-
sive gradations from the lower to the superior strata of the
ocean ?

We know the transparency of the sea, and that its clear-
ness is far beyond that of rock water. The mineral and
organic substances which it holds in suspension heighten
its transparency. In certain parts of the ocean at the An-
tilles, under seventy-five fathoms of water, can be seen with
surprising clearness a bed of sand. The penetrating power
of the solar rays does not seem to cease for a depth of one
hundred and fifty fathoms. But in this middle fluid trav-
elled over by the Wauttlus the electric brightness was pro-
duced even in the bosom of the waves. It was no longer
luminous water, but liquid light.

On each side a window opened into this unexplored
abyss. ‘The obscurity of the saloon showed to advantage
the brightness outside, and we looked out as if this pure
crystal had been the glass of an immense aquarium.

“You wished to see, friend Ned; well, you see now.”

“‘ Curious! curious!’ muttered the Canadian, who, for-
getting his ill-temper, seemed to submit to some irresistible
attraction; ‘and one would come farther than this to ad-
mire such a sight!”

*‘ Ah!’ thought I to myself, “‘I understand the life of
this man; he has made a world apart for himself, in which
he treasures all his greatest wonders.”
86 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

For two whole hours an aquatic army escorted the Wau-
tilus. During their games, their bounds, while rivalling
each other in beauty, brightness, and velocity, I distin-
guished the green labre; the banded mullet, marked by a
double line of black; the round-tailed goby, of a white color,
with violet spots on the back; the Japanese scombrus, a
beautiful mackerel of these seas, with a blue body and sil-
very head; the brilliant azurors, whose name alone defies
description; some banded spares, with variegated fins of’
blue and yellow; some aclostones, the woodcocks of the
seas, some specimens of which attain a yard in length;
Japanese salamanders, spider lampreys, serpents six feet
long, with eyes small and lively, and a huge mouth brist-
ling with teeth; with many other species.

Our imagination was kept at its height, interjections
followed: quickly on each other. Ned named the fish, and
Conseil classed them. I was in ecstasies with the vivacity
of their movements and the beauty of their forms. Never
had it been given to me to surprise these animals, alive and
at liberty, in their natural element. I will not mention all
the varieties which passed before my dazzled eyes, all the
collection of the seas of China and Japan. These fish,
more numerous than the birds of the air, came, attracted,
no doubt, by the brilliant focus of the electric light.

Suddenly there was daylight in the saloon, the iron panels
closed again, and the enchanting vision disappeared. But
for a long time I dreamt on till my eyes fell on the instru-
ments hanging on the partition. ‘The compass still showed
the course to be H.N.E., the manometer indicated a pres-
sure of five atmospheres, equivalent to a depth of twenty-
five fathoms, and the electric log gave a speed of fifteen
miles an hour. I expected Captain Nemo, but he did not
appear. The clock marked the hour of five.

Ned Land and Conseil returned to their cabin, and I re-
tired tomy chamber. My dinner was ready. It was com-
posed of turtle-soup made of the most delicate hawksbills,
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SHAS, 87

or a surmullet served with puff paste (the liver of which, pre-
pared by itself, was most delicious), and fillets of the em-
peror-holocanthus, the savor of which seemed to me su-
perior even to salmon.

I passed the evening reading, writing, and thinking.
Then sleep overpowered me, and I stretched myself on my
couch of,zostera, and slept} profoundly, whilst the Wavw-
tilus was gliding rapidly through the current of the Black
River.

CHAPTER XIV.
A NOTE OF INVITATION.

THE next day was the 9th of November. I awoke after
a long sleep of twelve hours. Conseil came, according to
custom, to know ‘‘ how I had passed the night,” and to offer
his services. He had left his friend the Canadian sleeping
like a man who had never done anything else all his life.
IT let the worthy fellow chatter as he pleased, without car-
ing to answer him. I was preoccupied by the absence of
the captain during our sitting of the day before, and hoping
to see him to-day.

As soon as I was dressed I went into the saloon. It was
deserted.

I plunged into the study of the conchological treasures
hidden behind the glasses. I revelled also in great herbals
filled with the rarest marine plants, which, although dried
up, retained their lovely colors. Amongst these precious
hydrophytes I remarked some vorticelle, pavonarie, deli-
cate ceramies with scarlet tints, some fan-shaped agari, and
some natabuli like flat mushrooms, which at one time used
to ve classed as zoophytes; in short, a perfect series of
alges.
88 20,000 LHAGUES UNDHE THH SHAS.

The whole day passed without my being honored by &
visit from Captain Nemo. The panels of the saloon did
not open. Perhaps they did not wish us to tire of these
beautiful things.

The course of the Wauéilus was H.N.H., her speed twelve
knots, the depth below the snrface between twenty-five and
thirty fathoms.

The next day, 10th of November, the same desertion,
the same solitude. I did not see one of the ship’s crew:
Ned and Conseil spent the greater part of the day with me.
They were astonished at the inexplicable absence of the
captain. Was this singular man ill? had he altered his ine
tentions with regard to us?

After all, as Conseil said, we enjoyed: perfect liberty, we
were delicately and abundantly fed. Our host kept to his
terms of the treaty. We could not complain, and, indeed,
the singularity of our fate reserved such wonderful com-
pensation for us, that we had no right to accuse it as yet.

That day I commenced the journal of these adventures
which has enabled me to relate them with more scrupulous
exactitude and minute detail.. I wrote it on paper made
from the zostera marina.

llth November, early in the morning. Tlie fresh air
spreading over the interior of the Nautilus told me that
we had come to the surface of the ocean to renew our
supply of oxygen. I directed my steps to the central stair-
case, and mounted the platform.

It was six o clock, the weather was cloudy, the sea gray
but calm. Scarcely a billow. Captain Nemo, whom I
hoped to meet, would he be there? I saw no one but the
steersman imprisoned in his glass cage. Seated upon the
projection formed by the hull of the pinnace, I inhaled the
salt breeze with delight.

By degrees the fog disappeared under the action of the sun’s
rays, the radiant orb rose from behind the eastern horizon.
The sea flamed under its glance like a train of gunpowder.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAB. - 89

The clouds scattered in the heights were colored with lively
tints of beautiful shades, and numerous ‘“‘ mare’s tails,”
which betokened wind for that day. But what was wind
to this Vewtilus, which tempests could not frighten!

I was admiring this joyous rising of the sun, so gay, and
so life-giving, when I heard steps approaching the platform.
I was prepared to salute Captain Nemo, but it was his
second (whom I had already seen on the captain’s first
visit) who appeared. He advanced on the platform, not
seeming to see me. With his powerful glass to his eye,
he scanned every point of the horizon with great attention.
This examination over, he approached the panel and pro-
nounced a sentence in exactly these terms. I have remem-
bered it, for every morning it was repeated under exactly
the same conditions. It was thus worded:

“¢ Nautron respoc lorni virch.”

What it mean I could not say. *

These words pronounced, the second descended. I
thought that the Nautilus was about to return to its subs
marine navigation. I regained the panel and returned to
my chamber.

Five days sped thus, without any change in our situa-
tion. Every morning I mounted the platform. The same
phrase was pronounced by the same individual. But Cap-
tain Nemo did not appear.

I had made up my mind that I should never see him
again, when, on the 16tn November, on returning to my
room with Ned and Conseii, i found upon my table a note
addressed to me. I opened it impatiently. 14 was written
in a bold, clear hand, the characters rather pointed, recall.
ing the German type. The note was worded as follows:

“To Proressor ARONNAX, on board the Nautilus,
“16th of November, 186'7,
‘* Captain Nemo invites Professor Aronnax to a hunting
party, which wi' ‘ake place to-morzovw morning in the forest:
90 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

of the island of Crespo. He hopes that nothing will pre-
vent the Professor from being present, and he will with
pleasure see him joined by his companions.

“Captain Nemo, Commander of the Nautilus.”


«* And in the forests of the island of Crespo!” added Com
seil.

‘Oh, then the gentleman is going on terra firma?” ree
plied Ned Land.

«That seems to me to be clearly indicated,” said I, read.
ing the letter once more.

‘‘ Well, we must accept,” said the Canadian. ‘But
once more on dry ground, we shall know what to do.
Indeed, I shall not be sorry to eat a piece of fresh venison.”

Without seeking to reconcile what was contradictory be-
tween Captain Nemo’s manifest aversion to islands and
continents, and his invitation to hunt i in a forest, I con:
tented myself with replying—

‘* Let us first see where the island of Crespo is.”

I consulted the planisphere, and in 32° 40’ north lat.,
and 157° 50’ west long., I found a small island, recognized
in 1801 by Captain Crespo, and marked in the ancient
Spanish maps as Rocca de la Plata, the meaning of which
is ‘‘ The Silver Rock.” We'were then about eighteen hun-
dred milesfrom our starting-point, and the course of the
Nautilus, a little changed, was bringing it back towards
the southeast.

I showed this little rock lost in the midst of the North
Pacific to my companions.

“Tf Captain Nemo does sometimes go on dry ground,”
said I, ““he at least chooses desert islands.”

Ned Land shrugged his shoulders without speaking, and
Conseil and he left me.

After supper, which was served by the steward, mute —
and impassible, I went to bed, not without some anxiety,
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 91

The next morning, the 17th of November, on awakening
I felt that the Nautilus was perfectly still. I dressed
quickly and entered the saloon.

Captain Nemo was there, waiting for me. He rose.
bowed, and asked me if it was convenient for me to accom-
pany him. As he made no allusion to his absence during
the last eight days, I did not mention it, and simply an-
swered that my companions and myself were ready to fol-
low him.

We entered the dining-room, where breakfast was served.

“‘M. Aronnax,” said the captain, ‘‘ pray share my break-
fast without ceremony; we will chat as we eat. For though
I promised you a walk in the forest, I did not undertake
to find hotels there. So breakfast as a man who will most
likely not have his dinner till very late.”

I did honor to the repast. It was composed of several
kinds of fish, and slices of holothuride (excellent zodphytes),
and different sorts of sea-weed. Our drink consisted of
pure water, to which the Captain added some drops of a
fermented liquor, extracted by the Kamschatcha method
from a sea-weed known under the name of Rhodomenta
palmata. Captain Nemo ate at first without saying a word.
Then he began—

“¢Sir, when I proposed to you to hunt in my submmarine
forest of Crespo, you evidently thought me mad. Sir, you
should never judge lightly of any man.”

“But, Captain, believe me—”

“Be kind enough to listen, and you will then see whether
you have any cause to accuse me of folly and contradiction.”

**T listen.”

“*You know as well as I do, Professor, that man can
live under water, providing he carries with him a sufficient
supply of breathable air. In submarine works, the work-
man, clad in an impervious dress, with his head in a metal
helmet, receives air from above by means of forcing-pumps
and regulators.”
92 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. ~

«That is a diving apparatus,” said I.

s¢ Just so; but under these conditions the man is not at
liberty; he is attached to the pump which sends him air
through an india-rubber tube, and if we were obliged to be
thus held to the Nautilus, we could not go far.”

«And the means of getting free?” I asked.

“Tt is to use the Rouquayrol apparatus, invented by two
of your own countrymen, which J have brought to perfec-
tion for my own use, and which will allow you to risk your-
self under these new physiological conditions, without any
organ whatever suffering. It consists of a reservoir of
thick iron plates, in which I store the air under a pressure
of fifty atmospheres. This reservoir is fixed on the back
by means of braces, like a soldier’s knapsack. Its upper
part forms a box in which the air is kept by means of a
bellows, and therefore cannot escape unless at its normal
tension. In the Rouquayrol apparatus such as we use, two
india-rubber pipes leave this box and join a sort of tent
which holds the nose and mouth; one is to introduce fresh
air, the other to let out the foul, and the tongue closes one
or the other according to the wants of the respirator. But
I, in encountering great pressures at the bottom of the sea,
was obliged to shut my head, like that of a diver, in a ball
of copper; and itis to this ball of copper that the two pipes,
the inspirator and the expirator, open.”

“¢ Perfectly, Captain Nemo; but the air that you carry
with you must soon be used; when it only contains fifteen
per cent of oxygen, it is no longer fit to breathe.”

“Right! but I told you, M. Aronnax, that the pumps of
the Nautilus allow me to store the air under considerable
pressure; and on those conditions, the reservoir of the ap-
paratus can furnish breathable air for nine or ten hours.”

“‘T have no further objections to make,” I answered; ‘I
will only ask you one thing, Captain—how can you light
your road at the bottom of the sea?”

“With the Ruhmkorff apparatus, M. Aronnax; one ja
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAK. 93

carried on the back, the other is fastened to the waist. It
is composed of a Bunsen pile, which I do not work with
bichromate of potash, but with sodium. A wire is intro-
duced which collects the electricity produced, and directs it
towards a particularly made lantern. In this lantern is a
spiral glass which contains a small quantity of carbonic gas.
When the apparatus is at work, this gas becomes Inminous,
giving out a white and continuous light. Thus provided,
I can breathe and I can see.”

**Captain Nemo, to all-my objections you make such
crushing answers, that I dare no longer doubt. But itl
am forced to admit the Rouquayrol and Ruhmkorff appa-
ratus, I must be allowed some reservations with regard te
the gun I am to carry.”

‘But it is not a gun for powder,” answered the captain.

«Then it is an air-gun.”

“‘Doubtless! How would you have me manufacture gun-
powder on board, without either saltpetre, sulphur, or
charcoal?”

“‘ Besides,” I added, “‘ to fire under water in a medium
eight hundred and fifty-five times denser than the air, we
must conquer very considerable resistance.”

“‘That would be no difficulty. There exist guns, ac-
cording to Fulton, perfected in England by Philip Coles
and Burley, in France by Furcy, and in Italy by Landi,
which are furnished with a peculiar system of closing,
which can fire under these conditions. But I repeat, hay-
ing no powder, I use air under great pressure, which the
pumps of the Nautilus furnish abundantly.”

“ But this air must be rapidly used?”

“‘ Well, have I not my Rouquayrol reservoir, which can
furnish it at need? A tap is all that is required. Besides,
M. Aronnax, you must sce yourself that, during our sub-
marine hunt, we can spend but little air and but few
balls.”

«*But it seems to me that in this twilight, and in the
94 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

midst of this fluid, which is very dense compared with the
atmosphere, shots could not go far, nor easily prove mor-
tal.”

“Sir, on the contrary, with this gun every blow is mor-
tal; and however lightly the animal is touched, it falls as
if struck by a thunderbolt.”

“Why?”

“Because the balls sent by this gun are not ordinary
balls, but little cases of glass (invented by Leniebroek, an
Austrian chemist), of which I have a large supply. These
glass cases are covered with a case of steel, and weighted
with a pellet of lead; they are real Leyden bottles, into
which the electricity is forced to a very high tension.
With the slightest shock they are discharged, and the ani-
mal, however strong it may be, falls dead. I must tell you
that these cases are size number four, and that the charge
for an ordinary gun would be ten.”

“«J will argue no longer,” I replied, rising from the ta-
ble; ‘‘I have nothing left me but to take my gun. At all
events, I will go where you go.”

Captain Nemo then led me aft; and in passing before Ned
and Conseil’s cabin, I called my two companions, who foi-
lowed immediately. We then came to a kind of cell near
the machinery-room, in which we were to put on our walk-
ing-dress.

i

CHAPTER XV.
A WALK ON THE BOTTOM OF THE SEA.

Tuts cell was, to speak correctly, the arsenal and ward:
robe of the Nautilus. A dozen diving apparatuses hung
from the partition, waiting our use.

Ned Land, on seeing them, showed evident repugnance
So dress himself in one.
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 95

“But, my worthy Ned, the forests of the Island of Cres-
po are nothing but submarine forests.”

“Good!” said the disappointed harpooner, who saw his
dreams of fresh meat fade away. ‘‘And you, M. Aronnax,
are you going to dress yourself in those clothes?”

‘‘There is no alternative, Master Ned.”

“‘As you please, sir,” replied the harpooner, shrugging
his shoulders; veut as for me, unless I am forced, I will
never get into one.’

“*No one will force you, Master Ned,” eu Captain
Nemo.

‘*TIs Conseil going to risk it?” asked Ned.

“‘T follow my master wherever he goes,” replied Conseil.

At the captain’s call two of the ship’s crew came to help
us to dress in these heavy and impervious clothes, made of
india-rubber without seam, and constructed expressly to
resist considerable pressure. One would have thought
it a suit of armor, both supple and resisting. This suit
formed trousers and waistcoat. The trousers were finished
off with thick boots, weighted with heavy leaden soles.
The texture of the waistcoat was held together by bands of
copper, which crossed the chest, protecting it from the
great pressure of the water, and leaving the lungs free to
act; the sleeves ended in gloves, which in no way restrained
the movement of the hands. ‘There was a vast difference
noticeable between these consummate apparatuses and the
oid cork breastplates, jackets, and other contrivances in
vogue during the eighteenth century.

Captain Nemo and one of his companions (a sort of Her-
cules, who must have possessed great strength), Conseil
and myself, were soon enveloped in the dresses. There re-
mained nothing more to be done but to enclose our heads
in the metal box. But before proceeding to this operation
I asked the captain’s permission to examine the guns we
were to carry. ,

One of the Nautilus men gave me asimple gua, the butt
96 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

end of which, made of steel hollow in the centre, was
rather large. It served as a reservoir for compressed air,
which a valve, worked by a spring, allowed to escape into
a metal tube.
thickness of the butt-end, contained about twenty of these
electric bails, which by means of a spring were forced into
the barrel of the gun. As soon as one shot was fired an-
other was ready.

‘Captain Nemo,” said I, “this arm is perfect and easily
handled; I only ask to be allowed to try it. But how
shall we gain the bottom of the sea?”

““At this moment, Professor, the Nauttlus is stranded
in five fathoms and we have nothing to do but to start.”

<*But how shall we get off?”

“You shall see.”

Captain Nemo thrust his: head into the helmet, Conseil
and I did the same, not without hearing an ironical ‘“‘ Good
sport!” from the Canadian. The upper part of our dress
terminated in a copper collar, upon which was screwed the
metal helmet. Three holes, protected by thick glass, al-
lowed us to see in all directions, by simply turning our
heads in the interior of the head-dress. As soon as it was
in position, the -Rouquayrol apparatus on our backs began
to act; and, for my part, I could breathe with ease.

With the Ruhmkorff lamp hanging from my belt, and
the gun in my hand, I was ready to set out. But to speak
the truth, imprisoned in these heavy garments, and glued
to the deck by my leaden soles, it was impossible for me to
take a step.

But this state of things was provided for. I felt myself
being pushed into a little room contiguous to the wardrobe-
room. My companions followed, towed along in the same
way. I heard a water-tight door, furnished with stopper-
plates, close upon us, and we were wrapped in profound
darkness.

After some minutes a loud hissing was heard. 1 felt the
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 97

cold mount from my feet to my chest. Evidently from
some part of the vessel they had by means of atap given
entrance to the water, which was invading us, and with
which the room was soon filled. A second door cut in
the side of the Nautilus then opened. We saw a faint
light. In another instant our feet trod the bottom of the
sea.

And now, how can I retrace the impression left upon me
by that walk under the waters? Words arre impotent to
relate such wonders! Captain Nemo walked in front, his
companion followed some steps behind. Conseil and I re-
mained near each other, as if an exchange of words had
been possible through our metallic cases. I no longer felt
the weight of my clothing or of my shoes, of my reservoir
of air, or my thick helmet, in the midst of which my head
rattled like an almond in its shell.

The light, which lit the soil thirty feet below the surface
of the ocean, astonished me by its power. ‘The solar rays
shone through the watery mass easily, and dissipated all
color, and I clearly distinguished objects at a distance of a
hundred and fifty yards. Beyond that the tints darkened
into fine gradations of ultra-marine, and faded into vague
obscurity. Truly this water which surrounded me was
but another air denser than the terrestrial atmosphere,
but almost as transparent. Above me was the calm sur-
face of the sea. We were walking on fine, even sand, not
wrinkled, as on a flat shore, which retains the impression
of the billows. The dazzling carpet, really a reflector, re-
pelled the rays of the sun with wonderful intensity, which
accounted for the vibration which penetrated every atom
of liquid. Shall I be believed when I say that, at the
depth of thirty feet, I could see as if I was in broad day-
light?

For a quarter of an hour J trod on this sand, sown with
the impalpable dust of shells. The hull of the Nautilus,
resembling a long shoal, aisappeared by degrees; pws 6
98 » #0,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

lantern, when darkness should overtake us in the waters,
would help to guide us on board by its distinct rays.

Soon forms of objects outlined in the distance were dis-
cernible. I recognized magnificent rocks, hung with a
‘apestry of zodphytes of the most beautiful kind, and I
was at first struck by the peculiar effect of this medium.

It was then ten in the morning; the rays of the sun struck
the surface of the waves at rather an oblique angle, and
at the touch of their light, decomposed by refraction as
through a prism, flowers, rocks, plants, shells, and polypi
were shaded at the edges by the seven solar colors. It was
marvellous, afeast for the eyes, this complication of colored.
tints, a perfect kaleidoscope of green, yellow, orange, violet,
indigo, and blue; in one word the whole palette of an en-
thusiastic colorist! Why could I not communicate to Con-
seil the lively sensations which were mounting to my brain,
and rival him in expressions of admiration? For aught I
knew, Captain Nemo and his companion might be able to
exchange thoughts by means of signs previously agreed
upon. So for want of better I talked to myself; I de-
claimed in the copper box which covered my head, thereby
expending more air in vain words than was, perhaps, expe-
dient.

Various kinds of isis, clusters of pure tuft-coral, prickly
fungi, and anemones, formed a brilliant garden of flowers,
enamelled with porphitz, decked with their collarettes of
blue tentacles, sea-stars studding the sandy bottom, to-
gether with asterophytons like fine lace embroidered by
the hands of naiads, whose festoons were waved by the
gentle undulations caused by our walk. It was a real grief
to me to crush under my feet the brilliant specimens of
mollusks which strewed the ground by thousands of ham-
merheads, donaciz (veritable bounding shells), of stair-
cases, and red helmet-shells, angel-wings, and many others
produced by this inexhaustible ocean. But we were bound
to walk, so we went on, whilst above our heads waved shoals
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 99

of physalides, leaving their tentacles to float in their train,
medusx, whose umbrellas of opal or rose-pink, escalloped
with a band of blue, sheltered us from the rays of the sun
and fiery pelagiv, which, in the darkness, would have
strewn our path with phosphorescent light,

Ali these wonders I saw in the space of a quarter of a
mile, scarcely stopping, and following Captain Nemo, who
beckoned me on by signs. Soon the nature of the soil
changed; to the sandy plain succeeded an extent of slimy
mud, which the Americans call ‘‘ ooze,” composed of equal
parts of silicious and calcareous shells. We then travelled
over a plain of sea-weed of wild and luxuriant vegetation.
This sward was of close texture, and soft to the feet, and
rivalled the softest carpet woven by the hand of man.
But whilst verdure was spread at our feet, it did not aban-
don our heads. A light network of marine plants, of that
inexhaustible family of sea-weeds, of which more than two
thousand kinds are known, grew on the surface of the
water. I saw long ribbons of fucus floating, some globu-
lar, others tuberous; laurencie and cladostephi of most
delicate foliage, and some rhodomenise palmate, resem-
bling the fan of a cactus. I noticed that the green plants
kept nearer the top of the sea, whilst the red were ata
greater depth, leaving to the black or brown hydrophytes
the care of forming gardens and parterres in the remote
beds of the ocean.

We had quitted the Nauftlus about an hour and a half.
It was near noon; I knew by the perpendicularity of tha
sun’s rays, which were no longer refracted. The magical
colors disappeared by degrees, and the shades of emerald
and sapphire were effaced. We walked with a regular step,
which rang upon the ground with astonishing intensity;
the slightest noise was transmitted with a quickness to
which the ear is unaccustomed on the earth; indeed, water
is a better conductor of sound than air, in the ratio of four
toone. At this period the earth sloped dewnwards: the
100 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

light took a uniform tint. We were at a depth of a hun-
dred and five yards and twenty inches, undergoing a pres-
sure of six atmospheres.

At this depth I could still see the rays of the sun, though
feebly; to their intense brilliancy had succeeded a reddish
twilight, the lowest state between day and night; but we
could still see well enough; it was not necessary to resort
to the Ruhmkorff apparatus as yet. At this moment Cap-
tain Nemo stopped; he waited till I joined him, and then
pointed to an obscure mass, looming in the shadow, at a
short distance.

“Tt is the forest of the Island of Crespo,” thought {—
and I was not mistaken.

CHAPTER XVI.
A SUBMARINE FOREST.

We had at last arrived on the borders of this forest,
doubtless one of the finest of Captain Nemo’s immense do-
mains. He looked upon it his own, and considered he
had the same right over it that the first men had in the first
days of the world. And, indeed, who would have disputed
with him the possession of this submarine property? What
other hardier pioneer would come, hatchet in hand, to cut
down the dark copses?

This forest was composed of large tree-plants; and the
moment we penetrated under its vast arcades, I was struck
by the singular position of their branches—a position I had
not yet observed.

Not an herb which carpeted the ground, not a branch
which clothed the trees, was either broken or bent, nor did
they extend horizontally; all stretched up to the surface ot
the ocean. Nota filament, not a ribbon, however thin they
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS. 101

aight be, but kept as straight asa rod of iron. The fuci
and Ilianas grew in rigid perpendicular lines, due to the
density of the element which had produced them. Motion-
less, yet, when bent to one side by the hand, they directly
resumed their former position. Truly it was the region of
perpendicularity!

I soon accustomed myself to this fantastic position, as
well as to the comparative darkness which surrounded us.
The soil of the forest seemed covered with sharp blocks,
difficult to avoid. The submarine flora struck me as being
very perfect, and richer even than it would have been in
the arctic or tropical zones, where these productions are not
so plentiful. But for some minutes I involuntarily con-
founded the genera, taking zoéphytes for hydrophytes, ani-
mals for plants; and who would not have been mistaken?
The fauna and the flora are too closely allied in this subma-
rine world.

These plants are self-propagated, and the principle of
their existence is in the water, which upholds and nourishes
them. The greater number, instead of leaves, shoot forth
blades of capricious shapes comprised within a scale fof
colors—pink, carmine, green, olive, fawn, and brown. I
saw there (but not dried up, as our specimens of the Vau-
tilus are) pavonari spread like a fan as if to catch the
breeze; scarlet ceramies, whose laminaries extended their
edible shoots of fern-shaped nereocysti, which grow toa
height of fifteen feet; clusters of acetabuli, whose stems in-
crease in size upwards; and numbers of other marine plants,
all devoid of flowers!

“Curious anomaly! fantastic element!” said. an ingenious
naturalist, “‘in which the animal kingdom blossoms, and
the vegetable does not!”

Under these numerous shrubs (as large as trees of the
temperate zone), and under their damp shadow, were
massed together real bushes of living flowers, hedges of z06-
phytes, on which blossomed some zebra-meandrines, with
102 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

crooked grooves; some yellow caryophylliz; and to complete
the illusion, the fish-flies flew from branch to branch like a
swarm of humming-birds, whilst yellow lepisacomthi, with
bristling jaws, dactylopteri, and monocentrides rose at our
feet like a flight of snipes.

In about an hour Captain Nemo gave the signal to halt.
I, for my part, was not sorry, and we stretched ourselves
under an arbor of alariz, the long thin blades of which
stood up like arrows.

This short rest seemed delictous tc me; there was nothing
wanting but the charm of conversation; but, impossible to
speak, impossible to answer, I only put my great copper head
to Conseil’s. J saw the worthy fellow’s eyes glistening with
delight, and to show his satisfaction he shook himself in
his breastplate of air, in the most comical way in the world.

After four hours of this walking I was surprised not to
find myself dreadfully hungry. How to account for this
state of the stomach I could not tell. But instead I felt an
insurmountable desire to sleep, which happens to all divers.
And my eyes soon closed behind the thick glasses, and I
fell into a heavy slumber, which the movement alone had
prevented before. Captain Nemo and his robust compan-
ion, stretched in the clear crystal, set us the example.

How long I remained buried in this drowsiness, I cannot
judge; but, when I woke, the sun seemed sinking towards
the horizon. Captain Nemo had already risen, and I was
beginning to stretch my limbs, when an unexpected appari-
tion brought me briskly to my feet.

A few steps off, a monster sea-spider, about thirty-eight
inches high, was watching me with squinting eyes, ready
to spring upon me. Though my diver’s dress was thick
enough to defend me from the bite of this animal, I could
not help shuddering with horror. Conseil and the sailor
of the Nautilus awoke at this moment. Captain Nemo
pointed out the hideous crustacean, which a blow from the
butt-end of the gun knocked over, and I saw the horrible
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 103

claws of the monster writhe in terrible convulsions. This
accident reminded me that other animals more to be feared
might haunt these obscure depths, against whose attacks
my diving-dress would not protect me. I had never thought
of it before, but I now resolved to be upon my guard. In-
deed, I thought that this halt would mark the termination
of our walk; but I was mistaken, for, instead of returning
to the Nautilus, Captain Nemo continued his bold excur-
sion. The ground was still on the incline, its declivity
seemed to be getting greater, and to be leading us to greater
depths. It must have been about three o’clock when we
reached a narrow valley, between high perpendicular walls,
situated about seventy-five fathoms deep. Thanks to the
perfection of our apparatus, we were forty-five fathoms be-
low the limit which nature seems to have imposed on man
as to his submarine excursions.

I say seventy-five fathoms, though I had no instrument
by which to judge the distance. But I knew that even in
the clearest waters the solar rays could not penetrate further.
And accordingly the darkness deepened. At ten paces not
an object was visible. I was groping my way, when I sud-
denly saw a brilliant white light. Captain Nemo had just
put his electric apparatus into use; his companion did the
sare, and Conseil and I followed their example. By turn-
ing a screw I established a communication between the
wire and the spiral glass, and the sea, lit by our four lan-
terns, was illuminated for a circle of thirty-six yards.

Captain Nemo was still plunging into the dark depths of
the forest, whose trees were getting scarcer at every step.
I noticed that vegetable life disappeared sooner than ani-
mal life. The meduse had already abandoned the arid soil,
from which a great number of animals, zodphytes, articulata,
mollusks, and fishes, still obtained sustenance.

As we walked, I thought the light of ow Ruhmkorff ap-
paratus could not fail to draw some inhabitant from its
dark couch. But if they did approach us, they at least
104 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

kept at a respectful distance from the hunters. Several
times I saw Captain Nemo stop, put his gun to his shoul-
der, and after some moments drop it and walk on. At last,
after about four hours, this marvellous excursion came to
anend. A wall of superb rocks, in an imposing mass, rose
before us, a heap of gigantic blocks, an enormous steep
granite shore, forming dark grottos, but which presented
no practicable slope; it was the prop of the Island of Crespo.
It was the earth! Captain Nemo stopped suddenly. A
gesture of his brought us all to a halt; and however desirous
I might be to scale the wall, I was obliged to stop. Here
euded Captain Nemo’s domains, and he would not go be-
yond them. Further on was a portion of the globe he
might not trample upon.

The return began. Captain Nemo had returned to the
head of his little band, directing their course without hesi-
tation. I thought we were not following the same road to
return to the Nautilus: The new road was very steep, and
consequently very painful. We approached the surface of
the sea rapidly. But this return to the upper strata was
not so sudden as to cause relief from the pressure too
rapidly, which might have produced serious disorder in our
organization, and brought on internal lesions, so fatal to
divers. Very soon light reappeared and grew, and the sun
being low on the horizon, the refraction edged the different
objects with a spectral ring, At ten yardsand a half deep,
we walked amidst a shoal of little fishes of all kinds, more
numerous than the birds of the air, and also more agile;
but no aquatic game worthy of a shot had as yet met our
gaze, when at that moment I saw the captain shoulder his
gun quickly,.and follow a moving object into the shrubs.
He fired. I heard a slight hissing, and a creature fell
stunned at some distance from us. It was a magnificent
sea-otter, an enhydrus, the only exclusively marine quadru-
ped. This otter was five feet long, and must have been
very valuable. Its skin, chestnut-brown above and silvery
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 105

anderneath, would have made one of those beautiful furs so
sought after in the Russian and Chinese markets; the fine-
ness and the lustre of its coat would certainly fetch £80. I
admired this curious mammal, with its rounded héad orna-
mented with short ears, its round eyes, and white whiskers
like those of a cat, with webbed feet and nails, and tufted
tail. This precious animal, hunted and tracked by fisher-
men, has now become very rare, and taken refuge chiefly in
the northern parts of the Pacific, or probably its race
would soon become extinct.

Captain Nemo’s companion took the beast, threw it
over his shoulder, and we continued our journey. For
one hour a plain of sand lay stretched before us. Some-
times it rose to within two yards and some inches of the
surface of the water. I then saw our image clearly re-
flected, drawn inversely, and above us appeared an iden-
tical group reflecting our movements and our actions; in a
word, like us in every point, except that they walked with
their heads downward and their feet in the air.

Another effect I noticed, which was the passage of thick
clouds which formed and vanished rapidly; but on reflec-
tion I understood that these seeming clouds were due to
the varying thickness of the reeds at the bottom, and I
could even see the fleecy foam which their broken tops
multiplied on the water, and the shadows of large birds
passing above our heads, whose rapid flight I could discern
on the surface of the sea.

On this occasion I was witness to one of the finest gun-
shots which ever made the nerves of a hunter thrill. A
large bird of great breadth of wing, clearly visible, ap-
proached, hovering over us. Captain Nemo’s companion
shouldered his gun and fired, when it was only a few yards
above the waves. The creature fell stunned, and the force
of its fall brought it within the reach of the dexterous
hunter’s grasp. It was an albatross of the finest kind.

Our march had not been interrupted by this incident,
106 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

For two hours we followed these sandy plains, then field.
of alge very disagreable to cross. Candidly, I could do no
more when I saw a glimmer of light, which for a half-
mile broke the darkness of the waters. It was the lantern
of the Nautilus. Before twenty minutes were over we
should be on board, and I should be able to breathe with
ease; for it seemed that my reservoir supplied air very
deficient in oxygen. But I did not reckon on an accidental
meeting which delayed our arrival for some time. |

T had remained some steps behind, when I presently saw
Captain Nemo coming hurriedly towards me. With his
strong hand he bent me to the ground, his companion
doing the same to Conseil. At first I knew not what to
think of this sudden attack, but I was soon reassured by
seeing the captain lie down beside me, and remain immoy-
able.

I was stretched on the ground, just under shelter of a
bush of alge, when, raising my head, I saw some enormous
mass, casting phosphorescent gleams, pass blusteringly
by.
My blood froze in my veins as I recognized two formida-
ble sharks which threatened us. It was a couple of,tinto-
reas, terrible creatures, with enormous tails and a dull
glassy stare, the phosphorescent matter ejected from holes
pierced around the muzzle. Monstrous brutes! which
would crush a whole man in their iron jaws. I did not
know whether Conseil stopped to classify them; for my
part, I noticed their silver bellies, and their huge mouths
bristling with teeth, from a very unscientific point of view,
and more as a possible victim than as a naturalist.

Tappily the voracious creatures do not see well. They
passed without seeing us, brushing us with their brownish
fins, and we escaped by a miracle from a danger certainly
greater than meeting a tiger full-face in the forest. Half
an hour after, guided by the electric light, we reached the
Nautilus. The outside door had been left onen, and Cap-
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THH SEAS. 107

tain Nemo closed it as soon as we had entered the first
cell. He then pressed a knob. I heard the pumps work-
ing in the midst of the vessel, I felt the water sinking
from around me, and in a few moments the cell was cntirely
empty. The inside door then opened, and we entered the
vestry. :

There our diving-dress was taken off, not without some
trouble; and, fairly worn out from want of food and sleep,
I returned to my room, in great wonder at this surprising
excursion at the bottom of the sea.

CHAPTER XVII.
FOUR THOUSAND LEAGUES UNDER THE PACIFIC,

THE next morning, the 18th of November, I had quite
recovered from my fatigues of the day before, and I went
up on to the platform, just as the second lieutenant was
uttering his daily phrase.

I was admiring the magnificent aspect of the ocean
when Captain Nemo appeared. He did not seem to be
aware of my presence, and began a series of astronomical
observations. ‘Then, when he had finished, he went and
leant on the cage of the watch-light, and gazed abstractedly
on the ocean. In the mean time, a number of the sailors
of the Nautilus, all strong and healthy men, had come up
on to the platform. They came to draw up the nets that
had been laid all night. These sailors were evidently of
different nations, although the European type was visible
in all of them. I recognized some unmistakable Irishmen,
Frenchmen, some Sclaves, and a Greek or a Candiote,
They were civil, and only used that odd language among
themselves, the origin of which I could not guess, neither
could I question them.
108 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, \

The nets were hauled in. They were a large kind of
*‘chaluts,” like those on the Normandy coasts, great
pockets that the waves and a chain fixed in the smaller
meshes kept open. These pockets, drawn by iron poles,
swept through the water, and gathered in everything in
their way. That day they brought up curious specimens
from those productive coasts—fishing-frogs that, from
their comical movements, have acquired the name of buf-
foons; black commersons, furnished with antenne; trig-
ger-fish, encircled withred bands; orthragorisci, with very
subtle venom; some olive-colored lampreys; macrorhynci,
covered with silvery scales; trichiuri, the electric power of
which is equal to that of the gymnotus and cramp-fish;
scaly notopteri, with transverse brown bands; greenish
cod; several varieties of gobies, etc.; also some larger fish;
a caranx with a prominent head a yard long; several fine
bonitos, streaked with blue and silver; and three splendid
tunnies, which, spite of the swiftness of thei motion, had
not escaped the net.

I reckoned that the haul had brought in more than nine
hundred-weight of fish. It was a fine haul, but not to be
wondered at. Indeed, the nets are let down for several
hours, and inclose in their meshes an infinite variety.
We had no lack of excellent food, and the rapidity of the
Nautilus and the attraction of the electric light could
always renew our supply. These several productions of
the sea were immediately lowered through the panel to
the steward’s room, some to be eaten fresh, and others
pickled.

The fishing ended, the provision of air renewed, I
thought that the Nautilus was about to continue its sub-
marine excursion, and was preparing to return to my
room, when, without further preamble, the captain turned
to me, saying:

‘¢ Professor, is not this ocean gifted with real life? It has
its tempers and its gentle moods. Yesterday it slept as
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 108

we did, and now it has woke after a quiet night. Look !*
he continued, “it wakes under the caresses of the sun. It
is going to renew its diurnal existence. It is an interest-
ing study to watch the play of its organization. It hag
a pulse, arteries, spasms; and I agree with the learned
Maury, who discovered in it a circulation as real as the
circulation of blood in animals.

“Yes, the ocean has indeed circulation, and to promote
it, the Creator has caused things to multiply in it—
caloric, salt, and animalcule.”

When Captain Nemo spoke thus, he seemed altogether
changed, and aroused an extraordinary emotion in me.

*‘ Also,” he added, “‘ true existence is there; and I can
imagine the foundations of nautical towns, clusters of
submarine houses, which, like the Nautilus, would ascend
every morning to breathe at the surface of the water—
free towns, independent cities. Yet who knows whether
some despot—”

Captain Nemo finished his sentence with a violent ges-
ture. Then, addressing me as if to chase away some sor-
rowful thought—

“‘M. Aronnax,” he asked, ‘‘do you know the depth of
the ocean ?”

**T only know, Captain, what the principal soundings
have taught us.”

‘Could you tell me them, so that I can suit them to my
purpose?”

“These are some,” I replied, ‘that I remember. If I
am not mistaken, a depth of 8000 yards has been found in
the North Atlantic, and 2500 yards in the Mediterranean.
The most remarkable soundings have been made in the
South Atlantic, near the 35th parallel, and they gave
12,000 yards, 14,000 yards, and 15,000 yards: To sum up
all, it is reckoned that if the bottom of the sea were levelled,
its mean depth would be about one and three-quarter
leagues.”
110 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

“‘ Well, Professor,” replied the captain, ‘“‘we shall show
you better than that, [hope. As to the mean depth of
this part of the Pacific, I tell you it is only 4000 yards.”

Having said this, Captain Nemo went towards the panel,
and disappeared down the ladder. I followed him, and
went into the large drawing-room. The screw was imme-
diately put in motion, and the log gave twenty miles an
hour.

During the days and weeks that passed, Captain Nema
was very sparing of his visits. I seldom saw him. The
lieutenant pricked the ship’s course regularly on the chart,
so I could always tell exactly the route of the Nautilus.

Nearly every. day, for some time, the panels of the draw-
ing-room were opened, and we were never tired of EGpe?
trating the mysteries of the submarine world.

The general direction of the Nautilus was southeast, and
it kept between 100 and 150 yards of depth. One day,
however, I do not know why, being drawn diagonally by
means of the inclined planes, it touched the bed of the sea.
The thermometer indicated a temperature of 4.25 (Cent.):
a temperature that at this depth seemed common to all
latitudes.

At three o’clock on the morning of the 26th of Novem-
ber, the Nautilus crossed the tropic of Cancer at 172°
longitude. On the 27th instant it sighted the Sandwich
Islands, where Cook died, February 14, 1779. We had
then gone 4860 leagues from our starting-point. In the
morning, when I went on the platform, I saw, two miles
to windward, Hawaii, the largest of the seven islands that
form the group. I saw clearly the cultivated ranges, and
the several mountain-chains that sun parallel with the side,
and the volcanoes that overtop Mouna-Rea, which rise
5000 yards above the level of the sea. Besides other things
the nets brought up, were several flabellarie and graceful
polypi, that are peculiar to that part of the ocean. The
flirection of the Nautilus was still to the southeast. I
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 441

crossed the equator December 1, in 142° longitude, and on
the 4th of the same month, after crossing rapidly and
without anything particular occurring, we sighted the
Marquesas group. I saw, three miles off, at 8° 57’ latitude
south, and 139° 32’ west longitude, Martin’s peak in Nouka-
Hiva, the largest of the group that belongs to France. I
only saw the woody mountains against the horizon, be-
cause Captain Nemo did not wish to bring the ship to the
wind. ‘There the nets’brought up beautiful specimens of
fish: choryphenes, with azure fins and tails like gold, the
flesh of which is unrivalled; hologymnoses, nearly destitute
of scales, but of exquisite flavor; ostorhyncs, with bony
jaws, and yellow-tinged thasards, as good as bonitos; all
fish that would be of use tous. After leaving these charm-
ing islands protected by the French flag, from the 4th to
the 11th of December the Wautilus sailed over about 2000
miles. This navigation was remarkable for the meeting
with an immense shoal of calmars, near neighbors to the
cuttle. The French fishermen call them hornets; they
belong to the cephalopod class, and to the dibranchial
family, that comprehends the cuttles and the argonauts.
These animals were particularly studied by students of
antiquity, and they furnished numerous metaphors to the
popular orators, as well as excellent dishes for the tables of
the rich citizens, if one can believe Athenxwus, a Greek
doctor, who lived before Galen. It was during the night
of the 9th or 10th of December that the Nautilus came
across this shoal of mollusks, that are peculiarly nocturnal.
One could count them by millions. They emigrate from
the temperate to the warmer zones, following the track of
herrings and sardines. We watched them through the
thick crystal panes, swimming down the wind with great.
rapidity, moving by means of their locomotive tube, pur-
suing fish and mollusks, eating the little ones, eaten by the
big ones, and tossing about in indescribable confusion the
ten arms that nature has placed on their heads like a crest
4112 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

of pneumatic serpents. The Nawétlus, in spite of its speed,
sailed for several hours in the midst of these animals, and
its nets brought in an enormous quantity, among which I
recognized the nine species that D’Orbigny classed for the
Pacific. One saw, while crossing, that the sea displays the
most wonderful sights. They were in endless variety. The
scene changed continually, and we were called upon not
only to contemplate the works of the Creator in the midst
of the liquid element, but +o penetrate the awful mysteries
of the ocean.

During the daytime of the 11th of December, I was busy
reading in the large drawing-room. Ned Land and Conseil
watched the luminous water through the half-open panels.
The Nautilus was immovable. While its reservoirs were
filled, it kept at a depth of 1000 yards, a region rarely
visited in the ocean, and in which large fish were seldom
seen. .

I was then reading a charming book by Jean Macé,
“The Slaves of the Stomach,” and I was learning some
valuabie lessons from it, when Conseil interrupted me.

‘* Will master come here a moment?” he said, in a curi-
ous voice.

‘* What is the matter, Conseil?”

“TY want master to look.”

I rose, went and leaned on my elbows before the panes,
and watched.

In a full eiectric light, an enormous black mass, quite
immovable, was suspended in the midst of the waters. I
watched it attentively, seeking to find out the nature of
this gigantic cetacean. Bui asudden thought crossed my
mind. ‘A vessel!” I said, half aloud.

“Yes,” replied the Canadian, ‘‘a disabled ship that has
sunk perpendicularly.”

Ned Land was right; we were close to a vessel of which
the tattered shrouds still hung from their chains. The
keel seemed to be in good order, and it had been wrecked
30,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAB. 118

at most some few hours. Three stumps of masts, broken
off about two feet above the bridge, showed that the vessel
had had to sacrifice its masts. But, lying on its side, it
had filled, and it was heeling over to port. This skeleton
of what it had once been was a sad spectacle as it lay lost
under the waves; but sadder still was the sight of the
bridge, where some corpses, bound with ropes, were still
lying. I counted five—four men, one of whom was stand-
ing at the helm, and a woman standing by the poop hold-
ing an infant in her arms. She was quite young. I could
distinguish her features, which the water had not decom-
posed, by the brilliant light from the Nautilus. In one
despairing effort, she had raised her infant above her head,
poor little thing! whose arms encircled its mother’s neck.
Yhe attitude of the four sailors was frightful, distorted as
they were by their convulsive movements, whilst making a
last effort to free themselves from the cords that bound
them to the vessel. The steersman alone, calm, with a
grave, clear face, his gray hair glued to his forehead, and
his hand clutching the wheel of the helm, seemed even
then to be guiding the three broken masts through the
depths of the ocean.

What a scene! We were dumb; our hearts beat fast
before this shipwreck, taken as it were from life, and pho-
tographed in its last moments. And I saw already, coming
towards it with hungry eyes, enormous sharks, attractea
by the human flesh.

However, the Nautiivs, turning, went rovnd the sus-
merged vessel, and in one imsiani 1 read on the stera,—
Tre Florida, Sunderland,”
114 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER TH SHAS,

CHAPTER XVIII.
VANIKORO.

Tuts terrible spectacle was the forerunner of the series
of maritime catastrophes that the Nautilus was destined to
meet with in its route. As long asit went through more
frequented waters, we often saw the hulls of shipwreckec!
vessels that were rotting in the depths, and, deeper down,.
cannons, bullets, anchors, chains, and a thousand other
iron materials eaten up by rust. However, on the 11th of
December, we sighted the Pomotou Islands, the old ‘‘dan:
gerous group” of Bougainville, that extend over a space ol
500 leagues at E.S.H. to W.N.W., from the Island Ducie
to that of Lazareff. This group covers an area of 376
square leagues, and it is formed of sixty groups of islands,
among which the Gambier group is remarkable, ove
which France exercises sway. ‘These are coral islands,
slowly raised, but continuous, created by the daily work of
polypi. Then this new island will be joined later on to
the neighboring groups, and a fifth continent will stretch
from New Zealand and New Caledonia, and from thence to
the Marquesas.

One day, when I was suggesting this theory to Captain
Nemo, he replied coldly:

“¢The earth does not want new continents, but new men.”

Chance had conducted the Nautilus towards the island of
Clermont-Tonnerre, one of the most curious of the group
that was discovered in 1822 by Captain Bell of the Minerva.
I could study now the madreporal system, to which are due
the islands in this ocean.

Madrepores (which must not be mistaken for coral) have
a tissue lined with a calcareous crust, and the modifica
20.000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEA. 115

tions of its structure have induced M. Milne-Hdwards, my
worthy master, to class them into five sections. The ani-
malcule that the marine polypus secretes live by millions at
the bottom of their cells. Their calcareous deposits become
‘rocks, reefs, and large and small islands. Here they forma
ring, surrounding a little inland lake, that communicates
with the sea by means of gaps. There they make barriers
of reefs like those on the coasts of New Caledonia and the
various Pomotou islands. In other places like those at
Reunion and at Maurice, they raise fringed reefs, high,
straight walls, near which the depth of the ocean is consid-
erable.

Some cable-lengths off the shores of the island of Cler-
mont, I admired the gigantic work accomplished by these
microscopical workers. These walls are specially the work
of those madrepores known as milleporas, porites, madre-
pores, and astreeas. These polypi are found particularly in
the rough beds of the sea, near the surface; and conse-
quently it is from the upper part that they begin their op-
erations in which they bury themselves by degrees with the
débris of the secretions that support them. Such is, at
least, Darwin’s theory, who thus explains the formation of
the atolls, a superior theory (to my mind) to that given of the
foundation of the madreporical works, summits of moun-
tains or voleanoes, uhat are submerged some feet below the
level of the sea.

I could observe closely these curious wails, for perpendic-
ularly they were more than 300 yards deep, and our electric
sheets lighted up this calcareous matter brilliantly. Re-
plying to a question Conseil asked me as to the time these
colossal barriers took to be raised, I astonished him much
by telling him that learned men reckoned it about the eighth
of an inch in a hundred years.

Towards evening Clermont-Tonnerre was lost in the dis-
tance, and the route of the Nautilus was sensibly changed.
After having crossed the tropic of Cavricorn in 135° longi-
116 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

tude, it sailed W.N.W., making again for the tropical zone.
Although the summer sun was very strong, we did not suf-
fer from heat, for at fifteen or twenty fathoms below the
surface the temperature did not rise above from ten to
twelve degrees.

On December 15, we left to the east the bewitching group
of the Societies and the graceful Tahiti, queen of the Pa-
cific. I saw in the morning, some miles to the windward,
the elevated summits of the island. These waters fur-
nished our table with excellent fish, mackerel, bonitos, and
albicores, and some varieties of a sea-serpent called muuniro-
phis.

On the 25th of December the Nautilus sailed into the
midst of the New Hebrides, discovered by Quiros in 1606,
and that Bougainville explored in 1768, and to which Cook
gave its present name in 1773. This group is composed
principally of nine large islands, that form a band of 120
leagues N.N.S. to 8.S.W., between 15° and 2° south lati-
tude, and 164° and 168° longitude. We passed tolerably
near to the Island of Aurou, that at noon looked like a
mass of green woods surmounted by a peak of great
height.

That day being Christmas Day, Ned Land seemed to re-
gret sorely the non-celebration of ‘‘ Christmas,” the family
féte of which Protestants are so fond. I had not seen Cap-
tain Nemo for a week when, on the morning of the 27th,
he came into the large drawing-room, always seeming as if
he had seen you five minutes before. I was busily tracing
the route of the Nautilus on the planisphere. The cap-
tain came up to me, put his finger on one spot on the
chart, and said this single word:

6 Vanikoro.”

The effect was magical! It was the name of the islands
on which La Perouse had been lost! I rose suddenly.

“The Nautilus has brought us to Vanikoro?” I asked.

*s Yes, Professor, said the captain.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 1147

«And I can visit the celebrated islands where the Bousa
sole and the Astrolabe struck?”

“Tf you like, Professor.”

“When shall we be there?”

«‘ Weare there now.”

Followed by Captain Nemo, I went up on to the platform,
and greedily scanned the horizon.

To the N.E. two volcanic islands emerged, of unequal
size, surrounded by a coral reef that measured forty miles
in circumference.

We were close to Vanikoro, really the one to which Du-
mont d’Urville gave the name of Isle de la Recherche, and
exactly facing the little harbor of Vanou, situated in 16° 4’
south latitude, and 164° 82’ east longitude. The earth
seemed covered with verdure from the shore to the sum:
mits in the interior, that were crowned by Mount Kapogo,
476 feet high. The Nautilus, having passed the outex
bel’ of rocks by a narrow strait, found itself among break:
ers where the sea was from thirty to forty fathoms deep,
Under the verdant shade of some mangroves I perceived
some savages, who appeared greatly surprised at our ap-
proach. In the long black body, moving between wind
and water, did they not see some formidable cetacean that
they regarded with suspicion?

Just then Captain Nemo asked me what I knew about.
the wreck of La Perouse.

«¢ Only what every one knows, Captain,” I replied.

**And could you tell me what every one knows about
it?” he inquired ironically.

«¢ Hasily.”

I related to him all that the last words of Dumont d’Ur-
ville had made known,—works from which the following
is a brief account:

La Perouse, and his second, Captain de Langle, were
seut by Louis XVI., in 1785, on a voyage of circumnavigar
tion. They embarked in the corvettes the Bowssole and
118 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS,

the Astrolabe, neither of which were again heard of. fn
1791 the French government, justly uneasy as to the fate
of these two sloops, manned two large merchantmen, the
Recherche and the Esperance, which left Brest the 28th
of September, under the command of Bruni d’Entve-
casteaux.

Two months after, they learned from Bowen, comman:
der of the Aldemarie, that the debris of shipwrecked ves.
sels had been seen on the coasts of New Georgia. But
D’Entrecasteaux, ignoring this communication,—rather
uncertain, besides,—directed his course towards the Admi.
ralty Isles, mentioned in a report of Captain Hunter’s as
being the place where La Perouse was wrecked.

They sought in vain. The Hsperance and the Recherche
passed before Vanicoro without stopping there, and in fact
this voyage was most disastrous, as it cost D’Entrecasteaax
his life, and those of two of his lieutenants, besides several
of his crew.

Captain Dillon, a shrewd old Pacific sailor, was the first
to find unmistakable traces of the wrecks. On the 15th of
May, 1824, his vessel, the St. Patrick, passed close to Tik-
opia, one of the New Hebrides. There a Lascar came
alongside in a canoe, sold him the handle of a sword in
silver, that bore the print of characters engraved on the
hilt. The Lascar pretended that six years before, during a
stay at Vanicoro, he had seen two Europeans that belonged
to some vessels that had run aground on the reefs some
years ago.

Dillon guessed that he meant La Perouse, whose disap-
pearance had troubled the whole world. He tried to get
on to Vanikoro, where, according to the Lascar, he would
find numerous débris of the wreck, but winds and tide pre-
vented him. ;

Dillon returned to Calcutta. There he interested the
Asiatic Society and the Indian Company in his discovery.
A vessel, to which was given the name of the Recherche,
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 119

sas put at his disposal, and he set out, JROUATY 23, 1827,
accompanied by a French agent.

The Recherche, after touching at several points in the
Pacific, cast anchor before Vanikoro, July 7, 1827, in this
same harbor of Vanou where the Nautilus was at this
time.

There it collected numerous relics of the wreck,—iron
utensils, anchors, pulley-strops, swivel-guns, an 18 Ib. shot,
fragments of astronomical instruments, a piece of crown-
work, anda bronze clock, bearing this inscription,—“‘ Bazin
wa fait,” the mark of the foundry of the arsenal at Brest
about 1785. There could be no further doubt.

Dillon, having made all inquiries, stayed in the unlucky
place till October. Then he quitted Vanikoro, and directed
his course towards New Zealand; put into Calcutta, April
%, 1828, and returned to France, where he was warmly wel-
comed by Charles X.

But at the same time, without knowing Dillon’s move-
ments, Dumont d’Urville had already set out te find the
scene of the wreck. And they had learned from a whaler
that some medals and a cross of St. Louis had been found
in the hands of some savages of Louisiade and New Caledo-
aia.‘ Dumont d’Urville, commander of the Astrolabe, had
then sailed, and two months after Dillon had left Vanikoro,
he put into Hobart Town. There he learned the results of
Dillon’s inquiries, and found that a certain James Hobbs,
second lieutenant of the Union of Calcutta, after landing
on an island situated 8° 18’ south latitude, and 156° 30’
east longitude, had seen some iron bars and red stuffs used
by the natives of these parts. Dumont d’Urville, much
perplexed, and not knowing how to credit the reports of
low-class journals, decided to follow Dillon’s track. —

On the 10th of February, 1828, the Astrolabe appeared
off Tikopia, and took as guide and interpreter a deserter
found on the island; made his way to Vanikoro, sighted it
on the 12th inst., lay among the reefs until the 14th,
120 20.000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

not until the 20th did he cast anchor within the barrier in
the harbor of Venou.

On the 23d, several officers went round the island, and
brought back some unimportant trifles. The natives,
adopting a system of denials and evasions, refused to take
them to the unlucky place. This ambiguous conduct led
them to believe that the natives had ill-treated the casta-
ways, and indeed they seemed to fear that Dumont d’Ur-
ville had come to avenge La Perouse and his unfortunate
crew.

However, on the 26th, appeased by some presents, and
understanding that they had no reprisals to fear, they led
M. Jacquireot to the scene of the wreck.

There, in three or four fathoms of water, between the
reefs of Pacou and Vanou, lay anchors, cannons, pigs of
lead and iron, embedded in the limy concretions. The
large boat and the whaler belonging to the Astrolabe were
sent to this place, and, not without some difficulty, their
crews hauled up an anchor weighing 1800 ibs., a brass gun,
some pigs of iron, and two copper swivel-guns.

Dumont d’Urville, questioning the natives, learned, too,
that La Perouse, after losing both his vessels on the reefs
of this island, had constructed a smaller boat, only to be
lost a second time. Where?—no one knew.

But the French government, fearing that Dumont d’Ur-
ville was not acquainted with Dillon’s movements, had sent
the sloop Bayonnaise, commanded by Legoarant de Trome-
lin, to Vanikoro, which had been stationed on the west
coast of America. The Bayonnatse cast her anchor before
Vanikoro some months after the departure of the Astrolabe,
but found no new document; but stated that the savages
had respected the monument to La Perouse. That is the
substance of what I told to Captain Nemo,

**So,” he said, ‘no one knows now where the third ves-
gel pezished that was constructed by the castaways on the
island of Vanikoro?”
20,000 ZZAGUHS UNDER LRM SHAS, 121

*¢ No one knows.”

Captain Nemo said nothing, but signed to me to follow
him into the large saloon, The Nautilus sank several
yards below the waves, and the panels were opened.

I hastened to the aperture, and under the crustations of
coral, covered with fungi, syphonules, aleyovs, madrepores,
through myriads of charming fish,—girelles, glyphisidri,
pompherides, diacopes, and holocentres,—I recognized cer-
tain débris that the drags had not been able to tear up: iron
stirrups, anchors, cannons, bullets, capstan-fittings, the
stem of a ship,—all objects clearly proving the wreck of
some vessel, and now carpeted with living flowers. While
I was looking on this desolate scene, Captain Nemo said, in
a sad voice:

**Commander La Perouse set out December 7, 1785, with
his vessels Za Bousolle and the Astrolabe. He first cast
anchor at Botany Bay, visited the Friendly Isles, New Cale-
donia, then directed his course towards Santa Cruz, and
put into Namouka, one of the Hapai group. Then his
vessels struck on the unknown reefs of Vanikoro. The
Bousolle, which went first, ran aground on the southerly
coast. The Astrolabe went. to its help, and ran aground too.
The first vessel was destroyed almost immediately. The
second, stranded under the wind, resisted some days. The
natives made the castaways welcome. They installed them-
selves in the island, and constructed a smaller boat with
the débris of the two large ones. Some sailors stayed
willingly at Vanikoro; the others, weak and ill, set out
with La Perouse. They directed their course towards the
Solomon Isles, and there perished, with everything, on the
westerly coast of the chief island of the group, between
Capes Deception and Satisfaction.”

** How do you know that?”

<¢ By this, that I found on the spot where was the last
‘wreck,”

Captain Nemo showed me a tin-plate box, stamped with
122 £9,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

the French arms, and corroded by the salt water. He
opened it, and I saw a bundle of papers, yellow but still
readable.

They were the instructions of the naval minister to Com«
mander La Perouse, annotated in the margin in Louis
XVI.’s handwriting.

«‘Ah! it is a fine death for a sailor!” said Captain Nemo,
at last. ‘A coral tomb makes a quiet grave; and I trust
that I and my comrades will find no other.”

CHAPTER XIX,
TORRES STRAITS,

Dourine the night of the 27th or 28th of December, the
Nautilus left the shores of Vanikoro with great speed.
Her course was southwesterly, and in three days she had
gone over the 750 leagues that separated it from La Pe
rouse’s group and the southeast point of Papua.

Early on the Ist of January, 1863, Conseil joined me on
the platform.

“‘Master, will you permit me to wish you a happy new
year?”

“‘What! Conseil; exactly as if I was at Paris in my
study at the Jardin des Plantes? Well, Laccept your good
wishes, and thank you for them. Only, I will ask you
what you mean by a ‘ Happy new year,’ under our circum-
stances? Do you mean the year that will bring us to the
end of our imprisonment, or the year that sees us continue
this strange voyage?”

“« Really, I do not know how to answer, master. Weare
sure to see curious things, and for the last two months we
have not had time forennui. The last marvel is always the
most astonishing; and if we continue this progression, }
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS, 125

do not know how it will end. It is my opinion that we
shall never again see the like. I think, then, with no of-
fence to master, that a happy year would be one in which
we could see everything.”

On January 2d, we had made 11,340 miles, or 5250 French
leagues, since our starting-point in the Japan seas. Before
the ship’s head stretched the dangerous shores of the coral
sea, on the northeast coast of Australia. Our boat lay
along some miles from the redoubtable bank on which
Cook’s vessel was lost, June 10, 1770. The boat in which
Cook was struck on a rock, and if it did not sink, it was
owing to a piece of the cora! that was broken by the shock,
and fixed itself in the broken keel.

I had wished to visit the reef, 360 leagues long, against
which the sea, always rough, broke with great violence,
with a noise like thunder. But just then the inclined
planes drew the Nautilus down to a great depth, and I
could see nothing of the high coral walls. Ihadtocontent
myself with the different specimens of fish brought up by
the nets. I remarked, among others, some germons, @
species of mackerel as large as a tunny, with bluish sides,
and striped with transverse bands, that disappear with the
animal’s life. These fish followed us in shoals, and fur-
nished us with very delicate food. We took also a large
number of giltheads, about one anda half inches long, tast-
ing like dorys; and flying pyrapeds like submarine swallows,
which, in dark nights, light alternately the air and water
with their phosphorescent light. Among the mollusks and
zoéphytes, I found in the meshes of the net several species
of alcyonarians, echini, hammers, spurs, dials, cerites, and
hyallew. The flora was represented by beautiful floating
sea-weeds, laminariz, and macrocystes, impregnated with
the mucilage that transudes through their pores; and
among which I gathered an admirable Vemastoma Gelinia-
rots, that was classed among the natural curiosities of the
muserm.
124 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THH SHAS

Two days after crossing the coral sea, January 4, we
sighted the Papuan coasts. On this occasion, Captain
Nemo informed me that his intention was to get into the
Indian Ocean by the Strait of Torres. His communication
ended there.

The Torres Straits are nearly thirty-four leagues wide;
but they are obstructed by av. innumerable quantity of isl-
ands, islets, breakers, and rocks, that make its navigation
almost impracticable; so that Captain Nemo took all need-
ful precautions to cross them. The Nautilus, floating
betwixt wind and water, went at a moderate pace. Her
screw, like a cetacean’s tail, beat the waves slowly.

Profiting by this, I and my two companions went up on
to the deserted platform. Before us was the steersman’s
cage, and I expected that Captain Nemo was there direct-
ing the course of the Nautilus. Ihad before me the ex-
cellent charts of the Strait of Torres, made out by the
hodrographical engineer Vincendon Dumoulin. These and
Captain King’s are the best charts that clear the intricacies
of this strait, and I consulted them attentively. Round
the Nautilus the sea dashed furiously. The course of the
waves, that went from southeast to northwest at the rate of
two and a half miles, broke on the coral that showed itself
here and there.

“This is a bad sea!” remarked Ned Land.

“‘Detestable, indeed, and one that does not suit a boat
like the Nautilus.”

“‘The captain must be very sure of his route, for I see
there pieces of coral that would do for its keel if it only
touched them stightly.”

Indeed the situation was dangerous, but the Wautilus
seemed to slide like magic off these rocks. It did not fol-
low the routes of the Astrolabe and the Zélée exactly, for
they proved fatal to Dumont d’Urville. It bore more
northwards, coasted the Island of Murray, and came back
to the southwest towards Cumberland Passage. I thought
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THH SHAS8. 195

{t was going to pass it by, when, going back to northwest,
it went through a large quantity of islands and islets little
known, towards the Island Sound and Canal Mauvais.

I wondered if Captain Nemo, foolishly imprudent, would
steer his vessel into that pass where Dument d’Urville’s
two corvettes touched; when, swerving again, and cutting
straight through to the west, he steered for the Island of
Gilboa. a2

it was then three in the afternoon. The tide began to
recede, being quite full. The Nautilus approached the
island, that I still.saw, with its remarkable border of screw-
pines. He stood off it at about two miles distant. Sud-
denly a shock overthrew me. The Nautilus just touched
a rock, and stayed immovable, laying lightly to port
side.

When I rose, I perceived Captain Nemo and his lieuten-
ant on the platform. They were examining the situation
of the vessel, and exchanging words in their incomprehen-
sible dialect.

She was situated thus: two miles, on the starboard side,
appeared Gilboa, stretching from north to west like an im-
mense arm; towards the south and east some coral showed
itself, left by the ebb. We had run aground, and in one
of those seas where the tides are middling—a sorry matter
for the floating of the Nautilus. However, the vessel had
not suffered, for her keel was solidly joined. But if she
could neither glide off nor move, she ran the risk of being
forever fastened to these rocks, and then Captain Nemo’s
submarine vessel would be done for.

I was reflecting thus, when the captain, cool and calm,
always master of himself, approached me.

«An accident?” I asked.

**No; an incident.”

«* But an incident that will oblige you perhaps to become
an inhabitant of this land from which you flee?”

Captain Nemo looked at me curiously, and made a neg:
126 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. .

ative gesture, as much as to say that nothing would force
him to set foot on ¢erra firma again. Then he said:

“< Besides, M. Aronnax, the Nautilus is not lost; it will
carry you yet into the midst of the marvels of the ocean.
Our voyage is only begun, and I do not wish to be deprived
so soon of the honor of your company.”

“However, Captain Nemo,” I replied, without noticing
the ironical turn of his phrase, ‘‘ the Nautilus ran aground
in open sea. ‘Now the tides are not strong in the Pacific;
and if you cannot lighten the Nautilus, Ido not see how
it will be reinflated.”

“The tides are not strong in the Pacific: you are right
there, Professor; but in Torres Straits, one finds still a dif-
ference of a yard and a half between the level of high and
low seas. To-day is January 4, and in five days the moon
will be full. Now, I shall be very much astonished if that
complaisant satellite does not raise these masses of water
sufficiently, and render me a service that I should be in-
debted to her for.”

Having said this, Captain Nemo, followed by his lieuten-
ant, re-descended to the interior of the Nautilus. As to
the vessel, it moved not, and was immovable, as if the cor-
alline polypi had already walled it up with their indestruc-
tible cement.

«Well, sir?” said Ned Land, who came up to me after
the departure of the captain.

«Well, friend Ned, we will wait patiently for the tide
on the 9th instant; for it appears that the moon will have
the goodness to put it off again.”

“ Really?”

“ Really.”

‘* And this captain is not going to cast anchor at all,
since the tide will suffice?”-said Conseil, simply.

The Canadian looked at Conseil, then shrugged his shoul.
ders.

“Sir, you may believe me when I tell you that this piece
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 197

of iron will navigate neither on nor under the sea again; it
is only fit to be sold for its weight. I think, therefore,
that the time has come to part company with Captain
Nemo.”

“Friend Ned, I do not despair of this stout Nautilus, as
you do; and in four days we shall know what to hold to on
the Pacific tides. Besides, flight might be possible if we
were in sight of the English or Provengal coasts; but on
the Papuan shores, it is another thing; and it will be time
enough to come to that extremity if the Nautilus does not
recover itself again, which I look upon as a grave event.”

“But do they know, at least, how to act circumspectly?
There is an island; on that island there are trees; under
those trees, terrestrial animals, bearers of cutlets and roast-
beef, to which I would willingly give a trial.”

“In this, friend Ned is right,” said Conseil, ‘‘and I
agree with him. Could not master obtain permission from
his friend Captain Nemo to put us on land, if only so as
not to lose the habit of treading on the solid parts of our
planet?”

“*T can ask him, but he will refuse.”

‘Will master risk it?” asked Conseil, ‘‘and we shall
know how to rely upon the captain’s amiability.”

To my great surprise Captain Nemo gave me the permis-
sion I asked for, and he gave it very agreeably, without
even exacting from me a promise to return to the vessel;
but flight across New Guinea might be very perilous, and I
should not have counselled Ned Land to attempt it. Bet-
ter to be a prisoner on board the Nautilus than to fall into
the hands of the natives.

At eight o’clock, armed with guns and hatchets; we got
off the Nautilus. The sea was pretty calm; a slight breeze
blew on land. Conseil and I rowing, we sped along quickly,
and Ned steered in the straight passage that the breakers
left between them. ‘The boat was well handled, and moved
rapidly. ,
128 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

Ned Land could not restrain his joy. He was like a
prisoner. that had escaped from prison, and knew not that
it was necessary to re-enter it.

“Meat! We are going to eat some meat; and what
meat!” he replied. ‘‘ Real game! no, bread, indeed.”

“T do not say that fish is not good; we must not abuse
it; but a piece of fresh venison grilled on live coals will
agreeably vary our ordinary course.”

“Gourmand!” said Conseil; “he make’ my mouth
water.” :

« of game, and if the game is not such as will hunt the hunt-
er himself.”

‘Well said, M. Aronnax,” replied the Canadian, whose
teeth seemed sharpened like the edge of a hatchet; “but I
will eat tiger—loin of tiger—if there is no other quadruped
on this island.”

“‘Friend Ned is uneasy about it,” said Conseil.

«Whatever it may be,” continued Ned Land, ‘every
animal with four paws without feathers, or with two paws
without feathers, will be saluted by my first shot.”

“Very well! Master Land’s imprudences are begin-
ning.” :

“* Never fear, M. Arronax,” replied the Canadian; I do
not want twenty-five minutes to offer you a dish of my
sort.”

“At half past cight the Nawtilus’s boat ran softly
aground in a heavy sand, after having happily passed the
coral reef that surrounds the Island of Gilboa.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 129

CHAPTER XX.

!

A FEW DAYS ON LAND.

I wax much impressed on touching land. Ned Land
tried the soil with his feet, as if to take possession of it.
However, it was only two months before that we had be-
come, according to Captain Nemo, “ passengers on board
the Wautslus,” but in reality, prisoners of its commander.

In a few minutes we were within musket-shot of the
coast. The soil was almost entirely madreporical, but cer-
tain beds of dried up torrents strewn with débris of gran-
ite showed that this island was of the primary formation.
The whole horizon was hidden behind a beautiful curtain
forests. Enormous trees the trunks of which attained a
height of 200 feet, were tied to each other by garlands of
bindweed, real natural hammocks, which a light breeze
rocked. They were mimosas, ficuses, casuarine, teks,
hibisci, and palm-trees, mingled together in profusion;
and under the shelter of their verdant vault grew orchids,
leguminous plants, and ferns.

But without noticing all these beautiful specimens of
Papuan flora, the Canadian abandoned the agreeable for
the useful. He discovered a cocoa-tree, beat down some of
the fruit, broke them, and we drunk the milk and ate the
nut with a satisfaction that protested against the ordinary
food on the Nautilus.

“Excellent !” said Ned Land.

«Exquisite !” replied Conseil.

“And I do not think,” said the Canadian, that he
would object to our introducing a cargo of cocoanuts on
board.”
130 20,060 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

**T do not think he would, but he would not taste
them.” ;

*¢So much the worse for him,” said Conseil. .

‘* And so much the better for us,” replied Ned Land.
“There will be more for us.”

“One word only, Master Land,” I said. to the har-
peoner, who was beginning to ravage another cocoanut-
tree. ‘‘Cocoanuts are good things, but before filling the
canoe with them, it would be wise to reconnoitre and see
if the island does not produce some substance not less
useful. Fresh vegetables would be welcome on board the
Nautilus.”

‘* Master is right,” replied Conseil; ‘‘and I propose to
reserve three places in our vessel: one for fruit, the other
for vegetables, and the third for venison, of which I have
not seen the smallest specimen.”

Conseil, we must not despair,” said the Canadian.

“‘ Let us continue,” I returned, ‘‘ and lie in wait. Al-
though the island seems uninhabited, it might still con-
tain some individuals that would be less hard than we on
the nature of game.”

‘Ho! ho!’ said Ned Land, moving his jaws signifi-
cantly. :

‘© Well, Ned !” cried Conseil.

“My word !” returned the Canadian, ‘I begin to un-
derstand the charms of anthropophagy.”

“Ned! Ned! what are you saying? You, a man-eater ?
Ushould not feel safe with you, especially as I share your
cabin. I might perhaps wake one day to find myself
half devoured.”

“ Friend Conseil, I like you much, but not enough to
eat you unnecessarily.”

“T would not trust you,” replied Conseil. <‘‘ But
enough. We must absolutely bring down some game to
satisfy this cannibal, or else, one of these fine mornings,
master will find only pieces of his servant to serve him.”
, %,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 131

While we were talking thus, we were penetrating the
sombre arches of the forest, and for two hours we surveyed
it in all directions.

Chance rewarded our search for eatable vegetables, and
one of the most useful products of the tropical zones
furnished us with precious food that we missed on board.
I would speak of the bread-fruit tree, very abundant in the
Island of Gilboa; and I remarked chiefly the variety des-
titute of seeds, which bears in Malaya the name of ‘‘ rima.”

Ned Land knew these fruits well.. He had already eaten
many during his numerous voyages, and he knew how to
prepare the eatable substance. Moreover, the sight of
them excited him, and he could contain himself no
longer.

“* Master,” he said, ‘“‘I shall die if I do not taste a little
of this bread-fruit pie.”

“Taste it, friend Ned, taste it as you want. We are
here to make experiments,—make them.”

“Tt won’t take long,” said the Canadian.

And provided’ with a lentil, he lighted a fire of dead
wood, that crackled joyously. During this time, Conseil
and I chose the best fruits of the artocarpus. Some had
not then attained a sufficient state of maturity, and their
thick skin covered a white but rather fibrous pulp.
Others, the greater number yellow and gelatinous, waited
only to be picked.

These fruits inclose no kernel. Conseil brought a
dozen to-Ned Land, who placed them on a coal fire, after
having cut them in thick slices, and while doing this re-
peating:

“You will see, master, how good this bread is. More
so when one has been deprived of it solong. It is not
even bread,” added he, “but a delicate pastry. You have
eaten none, master ?”

“No, Ned.”

“‘Very well, prepare yourself for a juicy thing. If you
182 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS,

”
do not come for more, I am no longer the king of har.
pooners.”

After some minutes, the part of the fruits that was ex-
posed to the fire was completely roasted. The interior
looked like a white pasty, a sort of soft crumb, the flavor
of which was like that of an artichoke.

It must be confessed this bread was excellent, and I ate
of it with great relish.

‘* What time is it now ?” asked the Canadian.

“Two o’clock at least,” replied Conseil.

“«« How time flies on firm ground!” sighed Ned Land.

“* Let us be off,” replied Conseil.

We returned through the forest, and completed our col-
lection by a raid upon the cabbage-palms, that we gathered
from the tops of the trees, little beans that I recognized
as the ‘“‘abrou” of the Malays, and yams of a superior qual-
ity. :

We were loaded when we reached the boat. But Ned
Land did not find his provisions sufficient. Fate, how-
ever, favored us. Just as we were pushing off, he per-
ceived several trees, from twenty-five to thirty feet high,
a species of palm-tree. These trees, as valuable as the
artocarpus, justly are reckoned among the most useful
products of Malaya.

At last, at five o’clock in the evening, loaded with our
riches, we quitted the shore, and half an hour after we
hailed the Nautilus. No one appeared on our arrival.
The enormons iron-plated cylinder seemed deserted. The
provisions embarked, I descended to my chamber, and
after supper slept soundly. |

The next day, January 6th, nothing new on board. Not
a sound inside, not a sign of life. The boat rested along
the edge, in the same place in which we had left it. We
resolved to return to the island. Ned Land hoped to be
more fortunate than on the day before with regard to the
hunt, and wished to visit another part of the forest.
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 133

At dawn we set off. The boat, carried on by the waves
that flowed to shore, reached the island in a few minutes.

We landed, and thinking that it was better to give in to
the Canadian, we followed Ned Land, whose long limbs
threatened to distance us. He wound. up the coast to-
wards the west; then, fording some torrents, he gained.
the high plain that was bordered with admirable forests.
Some kingfishers were rambling along the water-courses,
but they would not let themselves be approached. Their
circumspection proved to me that these birds knew what to
expect from bipeds of our species, and I concluded that, if
the island was not inhabited, at least human beings occa-
sionally frequented it.

After crossing a rather large prairie, we arrived at the
skirts of a little wood that was enlivened by the songs and
flight af a large number of birds.

‘‘There are only ‘birds!” said Conseil.

“But they are eatable,” replied the harpooner.

“J do not agree with you, friend Ned, for I see only
parrots there.”

“Friend Conseil,” said Ned, gravely, ‘‘ the parrot is like
pheasant to those who have nothing else.”

«‘ And,” I added, ‘‘ this bird, suitably prepared, is worth
knife and fork.”

Indeed, under the thick foliage of this wood, a world of
parrots were flying from branch to branch, only needing a
careful education to speak the human language. For the
moment, they were chattering with parrots of all colors,
and grave cockatoos, who seemed to meditate upon some
philosophical problem, whilst brilliant red lories passed like
a piece of bunting carried away by the breeze; papuans,
with the finest azure colors, and in all a variety of winged
things most charming to behold, but few eatable.

However, a bird peculiar to these lands, and which has
never passed the limits of the Arrow and Papuan islands,
134 29,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

was wanting in this collection. But fortune reserved it for
me before long.

After passing through a moderately thick copse, we
found a plain obstructed with bushes. I saw then those
magnificent birds, the disposition of whose long feathers
obliges them to fly against the wind. Their undulating
flight, graceful aerial curves, and the shading of their col-
ors, attracted and charmed one’s looks. I had no trouble
im recognizing them.

‘Birds of Paradise!” I exclaimed.

These Malays, who carry on a great trade in these birds
with the Chinese, have several means that we could not
employ for taking them. Sometimes they put snares at
the top of high trees that the birds of Paradise prefer to
frequent. Sometimes they catch them with a viscous bird-
lime that paralyzes their movements. They even go so far
as to poison the fountains that the birds generally drink
from. But we were obliged to fire at them during flight,
which gave us few chances to bring them down; and indeed,
we vainly exhausted one half of our ammunition.

About eleven o’clock in the morning, the first range of
mountains that form the centre of the island was traversed,
and we had killed nothing. Hunger drove us on. The
hunters had relied on the products of the chase, and they
were wrong. Happily, Conseil, to his great surprise, made
a double shot and secured breakfast. He brought down a
white pigeon and a wood-pigeon, which, cleverly plucked
and suspended from a skewer, were roasted before a red
fire of dead wood. Whilst these interesting birds were
cooking, Ned prepared the fruit of the artocarpus. Then
the wood-pigeons were devoured to the bones, and declared
excellent. The nutmeg, with which they are in the habit
of stuffing their crops, flavors their flesh and renders it do
licious eating.

“ Now, Ned, what do you miss now?”

‘Some four-footed game, M. Aronnax. All these pig-
* 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER TRE SEAS. 1385
gons are only side-dishes, and trifles; and until I have killed
an animal with cutlets, I shall not be content.”

“Nor I, Ned, if I do not catch a bird of Paradise.”

“Let us continue hunting,” replied Conseil. ‘‘ Let us go
towards the sea. We have arrived at the first declivities of
‘the mountains, and I think we had better regain the region
‘of forests.”

That was sensible advice, and was followed out. After
walking for one hour, we had attained a forest of sago-trees.
Some inoffensive serpents glided away from us. The birds
of Paradise fled at our approach, and truly I despaired of
getting near one, when Conseil, who was walking in front,
suddenly bent down, uttered a triumphal cry, and came
back to me bringing a magnificent specimen.

“‘ Ah! bravo, Conseil!”

“¢ Master is very good.”

“«No, my boy; you have made an excellent stroke, Take
one of these living birds, and carry it in your hand.”

“‘Tf master will examine it, he will see that I have not
deserved great merit.”

“Why, Conseil?”

“¢ Because this bird is as drunk as a quail.”

« Drunk!”

“Yes, sir; drunk with the nutmegs that it devoured
under the nutmeg-tree, under which I found it. See,
friend Ned, see the monstrous effects of intemperance!”

“By Jove!” exclaimed the Canadian, ‘‘because I have
drunk gin for two months, you must needs reproach me!”

However, I examined the curious bird. Conseil was
yight. The bird, drunk with the juice, was quite power-
less. It could not fly; it could hardly walk.

This bird belonged to the most beautiful of the eight
species that are found in Papua and in the neghboring isl-
ands. It was the ‘large emerald bird, the most rare kind ”

It measured three feet in length. Its head was compar-
atively small, its eyes placed near the opening of the beak.
136 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THH SHAS. ©

and also small. But the shades of color were beautiful,
having a yellow beak, brown feet and claws, nut-colored
wings with purple tips, pale yellow at the back of the neck
and head, and emerald color at the throat, chestnut on the
breast and belly. Two horned downy nets rose from below
the tail, that prolonged the long light feathers of admirable
fineness, and they completed the whole of this marvellous
bird, that the natives have poetically named the “ bird of
the sun.”

But if my wishes were satisfied by the possession of the
bird of Paradise, the Canadian’s were not yet. Happily
about:two o’clock Ned Land brought down a magnificent
hog, from the brood of those the natives call ‘‘ bari-outang.”
The animal came in time for us to procure real quadruped
meat, and he was well-received. Ned Land was very proud
of his shot. The hog, hit by the electric ball, fell stone
dead. The Canadian skinned and cleaned it properly, after
having taken half a dozen cutlets, destined to furnish us
with a grilled repast in the evening. Then the hunt was
resumed, which was still more marked by Ned and Conseil’s
exploits. ,

Indeed, the two friends, beating the bushes, roused a
herd of kangaroos, that fled and bounded along on their
elastic paws. But these animals did not take flight so rap-
idly but what the electric capsule could stop their course.

“Ah, Professor!” cried Ned Land, who was carried away
by the delights of the chase, ‘‘ what excellent game! and
stewed, too! What a supply for the Vauwtilus! two! three!
five down! And to think that we shall eat that flesh, and
that the idiots on board shall not have a crumb!”

I think that, in the excess of his joy, the Canadian, if he
had not talked so much, would have killed them all. But
he contented himself with a single dozen of these interest-
ing marsupians. These animals were small. They were a
species of those ‘‘ kangaroo rabbits” that live habitually in
the hollows of trees, and whose speed is extreme; but they
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 137

are moderately fat, and furnish, at least, estimable food.
We were very satisfied with the results of the hunt. Hap.
py Ned proposed to return to this enchanting island the
next day, for he wished to depopulate it of all the eatable
quadrupeds. But he reckoned without his host.

At six o’clock in the evening we had regained the shore;
our boat was moored to the usual place. The Nautilus,
like a long rock, emerged from the waves two miles from
the beach. Ned Land, without waiting, occupied himself
about the important dinner business. He understood all
about cooking well. The “‘ bari-outang,” grilled on the
coals, soon scented the air with a delicious odor.

Indeed, the dinner was excellent. ‘Two wood-pigeons
completed this extraordinary menu. The sago pasty, the
artocarpus bread, some mangoes, half a dozen pineapples,
and the liquor fermented from some cocoanuts, overjoyed
us. I even think that my worthy companions’ ideas had
not all the plainness desirable.

“Suppose we do not return to the Nautilus this even-
ing?” said Conseil.

“¢ Suppose we never return?” added Ned Land.

Just then a stone fell at our feet, and cut short the har-
pooner’s proposition.

CHAPTER XXI.
CAPTAIN NEMO’S THUNDERBOLT.

We looked at the edge of the forest without rising, my
hand stopping in the action of putting it to my mouth, Ned
Land’s completing its office.

“Stones do not fall from the sky,” remarked Conseil,
‘or they would merit the name of aerolites.”

- A second stone, carefully aimed, that made a savory pig
138 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. |

eon’s leg fall from Conseil’s hand, gave still more weight te
his observation. We all three arose, shouldered our guns,
and were ready to reply to any attack.
_ Are they apes?” cried Ned Land.

‘¢ Very nearly—they are savages.”

“*To the boat!” I said, hurrying to the sea.

It was indeed necessary to beat a retreat, for about twen-
ty natives, armed with bows and slings, appeared on the
skirts of a copse that masked the horizon to the right,
hardly a hundred steps from us.

Our boat was moored about sixty feet from us. The
sayages approached us, not running, but making hostile
demonstrations. Stones and arrows fell thickly.

Ned Land had not wished to leave his provisions; and,
in spite of his imminent danger, his pig on one side, and
kangaroos on the other, he went tolerably fast. In two
minutes we were on the shore. To load the boat with pro-
visions and arms, to push it out to sea, and ship the oars,
was the work of an instant. We had not gone two cable-
lengths when a hundred savages, howling and gesticulating,
entered the water up to their waists. I watched to see if
‘heir apparition would attract some men from the Nautilus
on to the platform. But no. The enormous machine,
lying off, was absolutely deserted.

Twenty minutes later we were on board. The panels
were open. After making the boat fast, we entered into
the interior of the Wautilus.

I descended to the drawing-raom, from whence I heard
some chords. Captain Nemo was there, bending over his
organ, and plunged in a musical ecstasy.

“ Captain!” |

He did not hear me,

“* Captain!” I said again, touching his hand.

- “We shuddered, and, turning round, said, ‘‘ Ah! it is
you, Professor? ‘Well, have you had a good hunt? Have
you botanized successfully?”
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 139

“Yes, Captain; but we have unfortunately brought a
troop of bipeds, whose vicinity troubles me.”

‘«* What bipeds?”

« Savages.”

‘“Savages!” he echoed ironically. ‘So you are astons
ished, Professor, at having set foot on a strange land and
finding savages? Savages! where are there not any? Be-
sides, are they worse than others, these whom you call
savages?” ,

“ But, Captain—”

“‘How many have you counted?”

«A hundred, at least.”

“‘M. Aronnax,” replied Captain Nemo, placing his fin-
gers on the organ stops, ‘“‘ when all the natives of Papua
are assembled on this shore, the Vautilus will have nothing
to fear from their attacks.”

The captain’s fingers were then running over the keys of
the instrument, and I remarked that he touched only the
black keys, which gave to his melodies an essentially Scotch
character. Soon he had forgotten my presence, and had
plunged into a reverie that I did not disturb. I went up
again on to the platform—night had already fallen; for, in
this low latitude, the sun sets rapidly and without twi-
light. I could only see the island indistinctly; but the
numerous fires lighted on the beach showed that the natives
did not think of leaving it. I was alone for several hours,
sometimes thinking of the natives—but without any dread
of them, for the imperturbable confidence of the captain
was catching—sometimes forgetting them to admire the
splendors of the night in the tropics. My remembrances
went to France, in the train of those zodiacal stars that
would shine in some hours’ time. The moon shone in the
midst of the constellations of the zenith.

The night slipped away without any mischance, the isl-
anders frightened, no doubt, at the sight of a monster
aground in the bay. The panels were open, and would
140 20,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS,

have offered an easy access to the interior of the Naw:
ftlus.

At six o’clock in the morning of the 8th of January, I
went up on to the platform. The dawn was breaking.
The island soon showed itself through the dissipating fogs
—first the shore, then the summits.

The natives were there, more numerous than on the day
before—500 or 600, perhaps—some of them, profiting by
the low water, had come on to the coral, at less than two
cable-lengths from the Nautilus. I distinguished them
easily; they were true Papuans, with athletic figures; men
of good race, large high foreheads—large, but not broad,
and flat—and white teeth. Their woolly hair, with a red-
dish tinge, showed off on their black, shining bodies like
those of the Nubians. From the lobes of their ears, cut
and distended, hung chaplets of bones. Most of these sav-
ages were naked. Amongst them I reckoned some women
dressed from the hips to the knees in quite a crinoline of
herbs, that sustained a vegetable waistband. Some chiefs
had ornamented their necks with a crescent and collars of
glass beads, red and white; nearly all were armed with
bows, arrows, and shields, and carried on their shoulders a
sort of net containing those round stones which they cast
from their slings with great skill. One of these chiefs,
rather near to the Nautilus, examined it attentively. He
was, perhaps, s ‘‘mado” of high rank, for he was draped
in a mat of banana leaves notched round the edges, and set
off with brilliant colors.

I could easily have knocked down this native, who was
within a short length; but I thought that it was better to
wait for real hostile demonstrations. Between Europeans
and savages, it is proper for the Europeans to parry sharply,
not to attack.

During low water the natives roamed about near the Vau-
tilus, but were not troublesome; I heard then frequently
repeat the word “ Assai,” and by their gestures I under:
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SHAS, 14]

stood that they invited me to go on land, an invitation that
I declined.

So that, on that day, the boat did not push off, to the
great displeasure of Master Land, who could not complete
his provisions,

This adroit Canadian employed his time in preparing the
viands and meat that he had brought off the island. As
for the savages, they returned to the shore about eleven
o’clock in the morning, as scon as the coral tops began to
disappear under the rising tide; but I saw their numbers
had increased considerably on the shore. Probably they
came from the neighboring islands, or very likely from
Papua. However, I had not seen asingle native canoe.
Having nothing better to do, I thought of dragging these
beautiful limpid waters, under which I saw a profusion of
shells, zoéphytes, and marine plants. Moreover, it was
the last day that the Nautilus would pass in these parts,
if it float in open sea the next day, according to Captain
Nemo’s promise.

I therefore called Conseil, who brought me a little light
drag, very like those for the oyster-fishery. Now to work!
For two hours we fished unceasingly, but without bring-
ing up any rarities. The drag was filled with midas-ears,
harps, melames, and particularly the most beautiful ham-
mers I have ever seen. We also brought up some holoth-
arias, pearl-oysters, and a dozen little turtles, that were
reserved for the pantry on board.

But just when I expected it least, I put my hand ona
wonder, I might say a natural deformity, very rarely met
with. Conseil was just dragging, and his net came up
filled with divers ordinary shells, when, all at once, he saw
me plunge my arm quickly into the net, to draw out a
shell, and heard me utter a conchological ery, that is to
say, the most piercing cry that human throat can utter.

“‘What is the matter, sir?” he asked, in surprise; ‘“‘ has
master been bitten?”
142 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS,

“No, my boy; but I would willingly have given a finger
for my discovery.”

“¢ What discovery?”

“This shell,” I said, holding up the object of my tri-
umph.

“It is simply an olive porphyry, genus olive, order of
the pectinibranchide, class of ppeverenode, sub-class of
mollusca.”

«‘ Yes, Conseil; but instead of being rolled from right to
left, this olive turns from left to right.”

“Ts it possible?”

** Yes, my boy; it is a left shell.”

Shells are all right-handed, with rare exceptions; and
when by chance their spiral is left, amateurs are ready te
pay their weight in gold.

Conseil and I were absorbed in the contemplation of our
treasure, and I was promising myself to enrich the museum
with it, when a stone, unfortunately thrown by a native,
struck against and broke the precious object in Conseil’s
hand. I uttered a cry of despair! Conseil took up his
gun, and aimed at a savage who was poising his sling at ten
yards from him. I would have stopped him, but his blow
took effect, and broke the bracelet of amulets which encir-
eled the arm of the savage.

** Conseil!’ cried I; ‘* Conseil!”

“‘ Well, sir! do you not see that the cannibal has com-
menced the attack?”

‘© A shell is not worth the life of a man,” said I.

“Ah! the scoundrel!” cried Conseil; ‘*I would rather
he had broken my shoulder.”

Conseil was in earnest, but I was not of his opinion.
However, the situation had changed some minutes before,
and we had not perceived. A score of canoes surrounded
the Nautilus. These canoes, scooped out of the trunk of
a tree, long, narrow, well adapted for speed, were balanced
by means ofa long bamboo pole, which floated on the
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS, 143

water. They were managed by skilful, half-naked pad-
dlers, and I watched their advance with some uneasiness.
It was evident that these Papuans had already had dealings
with the Europeans, and knew their ships. But this long
iron cylinder anchored in the bay, without masts or chim-
ney, what could they think of it ? Nothing good, for at
first they kept at a respectful distance. However, seeing
it motionless, by degrees they took courage, and sought to
familiarize themselves with it. Now this familiarity was
precisely what it was necessary to avoid. Our arms, which
were noiseless, could only produce a moderate effect on the
savages, who have little respect for aught but biustering
things. The thunderbolt without the reverberations of
thunder would frighten man but little, though the danger
lies in the lightning, not in the noise.

At this moment the canoes approached the Nautilus, and
a shower of arrows alighted on her.

I went down to the saloon, but found no one there. I
ventured to knock at the door that opened into the cap-
tain’s room. ‘‘Come in,” was the answer.

I entered, and found Captain Nemo deep in algebraical
calculations of z and other quantities.

“‘T am disturbing you,” said I, for courtesy’s sake.

«*That is true, M. Arronax,” replied the captain; ‘ but
I think you have serious reasons for wishing to see me?”

*‘Very grave ones; the natives are surrounding us in
their canoes, and in a few minutes we shall certainly be at-
tacked by many hundreds of savages.”

‘““Ah!” said Captain Nemo, quietly; ‘“‘they are coma
with their canoes?”

“ Yes, sir.”

** Well, sir, we must close the hatches.”

“¢ Hixactly, and I came to say to you—”

“‘Nothing can be more simple,” said Captain Nemo.
And pressing an electric button, he transmitted an order
ta the ship’s crew.
144 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

*‘Tr 1s all done, sir,” said he, after some moments,
‘The pinnace is ready, and the hatches are closed. You
do not fear, I imagine, that these gentlemen could stave
in walls on which the balls of your frigate have had no
effect?”

“‘No, Captain; but a danger still exists.”

6¢ What is that, sir?”

“Tt is that to-morrow, at about this hour, we must open
the hatches to renew the air of the Nautilus. Now, if at
this moment, the Papuans should occupy the platform, I
do not see how you could prevent them from entering.”

«Then, sir, you suppose that they will board us?”

“‘T am certain of it.”

*¢ Well, sir, let them come. I see no reason for hinder-
ing them. After all, these Papuans are poor creatures, and
I am unwilling that my visit to the Island of Gueberoan
should cost the life of a single one of these wretches.”

Upon that I was going away; but Captain Nemo de:
tained me, and asked me to sit down by him. He ques-
tioned me with interest about our excursions on shore, and
our hunting, and seemed not to understand the craving
for meat that possessed the Canadian. Then the conversa-
tion turned on various subjects, and without being more
communicative, Captain Nemeshowed himself more amia-
ble.

Among other things, we happened to speak of the situa-
tion of the Nautilus, run aground in exactly the same spot
in this strait where Dumont D’Urville was nearly lost.
Apropos of this—

“This D’Urville was one of your great sailors,” said
the captain to me; ‘“‘one of your most intelligent naviga-
tors. He is the Captain Cook of you Frenchmen. Unfor-
tunate man of science, after having braved the icebergs of
the south pole, the coral reefs of Occania, the cannibals
of the Pacific, to perish miserably in a railway train! If
this energetic man could have reflected during the last mo-
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 145

ments of his life, what must have been uppermost in his
last thoughts, do you suppose?”

So speaking, Captain Nemo seemed moved, and his emo-
tion gave me a better opinion of him. ‘Then, chart in
hand, we reviewed the travels of the French navigator,
his voyages of circumnavigation, his double detention at the
south pole, which led to the discovery of Adelaide and ~
Louis Philippe, and fixing the hydrographical bearings of
the principal islands of Oceania.

“That which your D’Urville has done on the surface of
the seas,” said Captain Nemo, ‘“‘that have I done under
them, and more easily, more completely than he. The As-
trolabe and the Zelia, incessantly tossed about by the hur-
ricanes, could not be worth the Nautilus, quiet repository
of labor that she is, truly motionless in the midst of the
waters.”

«¢To-morrow,” added the captain, rising, ‘to morrow,
at twenty minutes to three, p.m., the Nautilus shall float,
and leave the Strait of Torres uninjured.”

Having curtly pronounced these words, Captain Nemo
bowed slightly. This was to dismiss me, and I went back
to my room.

There I found Conseil, who wished to know the result
of my interview with the captain.

‘‘My boy,” said I, “‘ when I feigned to believe that his
Nautilus was threatened by the natives of Papua, the cap-
tain answered me very sarcastically. Ihave but one thing
to say to you: Have confidence in him, and go to sleep in
peace.”

‘¢ Have you no need of my services, sir?”

“‘No, my friend. What is Ned Land doing?”

“ Ned is busy making a kangaroo-pie, which will be a mar-
vel.”

I remained alone, and went to bed, but slept indifferent-
ly. I heard the noise of the savages, who stamped on the
146 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.”

platform, uttering deafening cries. Thenight passed thus,
without disturbing the ordinary repose of the crew. The
presence of these cannibals affected them no more than the
soldiers of a masked battery care for the ants that crawl
over its front.

At six in the morning I rose. The hatches had not been
opened. ‘T'he inner air was not renewed, but the reser-
voirs, filled ready for any emergency, were now resorted
to, and discharged several cubic feet of oxygen into the ex:
hausted atmosphere of the Nautilus.

I worked in my room till noon, without having seer
Captain Nemo, even for an instant. On board no prepara
tions for departure were visible.

.I waited stili some time, then went into the large saloon.
The clock marked hal? past two. In ten minutes it would
be high tide, and if Captain Nemo had not made a rash
promise, the Nautilus would be immediately detached.
not, many months would pass ere she could leave her ded
of coral.

However, some warning vibrations began to be felt in
the vessel. I heard the keel grating against the rough cal:
careous bottom of the coral reef,

At five-and-twenty minutes to three, Captain Nemo ap-
peared in the saloon.

“We are going to start,” said he.

“ Ah!” replied I.

“J have given the order to open the hatches.”

« And the Papuans?”

“‘The Papuans?” answered Captain Nemo, slightly
shrugging his shoulders.

«Will they not come inside the Nautilus 2”

“How?”

“* Only by leaping over the hatches you have opened.”

“‘M. Aronnax,” quietly answered Captain Nemo, “ they
will not enter the hatches of the Nautilus in that way
even if they were open.”
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 147

{ looked at the captain.

‘You do not understand?” said he.

“ Hardly.”

* Well, come and you will see.”

I directed my steps toward the central staircase. There
stud Land and Conseil were slily watching some of the
ship’s crew, who were opening the hatches, while cries of
raze and fearful vociferations resounded outside.

The port lids were pulled down outside. Twenty horri-
ble faces appeared. But the first native who placed his
hand on the stair-rail, struck from behind by some invisi-
ble force, I know not what, fled, uttering the most fearful
cries, and making the wildest contortions.

Ten of his companions followed him. They met with
the same fate.

Conseil was in ecstasy. Ned Land, carried away by his
violent instincts, rushed on to the staircase. But the mo-
ment he seized the rail with both hands, he, in his turn,
was overthrown.

“‘T am struck by a thunderbolt,” cried he, with an oath.

This explained all. It was no rail, but a metallic cable,
charged with electricity from the deck, communicating
with the platform. Whoever touched it felt a powerful
shock—and this shock would have been mortal, if Captain
Nemo had discharged into the conductor the whole force
of the current. It might truly be said that between his
assailants and himself he had stretched a network of elec-
tricity which none could pass with impunity.

Meanwhite, the exasperated Papuans had beaten a retréat,
paralyzed with terror. As for us, half laughing, we con-
soled and rubbed the unfortunate Ned Land, who swore
like one possessed.

But, at this moment, the Nautilus, raised by the last
waves of the tide, quitted her coral bed exactly at the for-
tieth minute fixed by the captain. Her screw swept the
waters slowly and majestically. Her speed increased grad-
148 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAB.

aally, and sailing on the surface of the ocean, she quitted
safe and sound the dangerous passes of the Straits of Torres.

CHAPTER XXIII.
‘6 HGRI SOMNIA.”

THE following day, 10th January, the Vautilus continuea
her course between two seas, but with such remarkable
speed that I could not estimate it at less than thirty-five
miles an hour. The rapidity of her screw was such that
I could neither follow nor count its evolutions. When I
reflected that this marvellous electric agent, after having
afforded motion, heat, and light to the Nautilus, still pro-
tected her from outward attack, and transformed her inte
an ark of safety which no profane hand might touch with-
out being thunderstricken, my admiration was unbounded,
and from the structure it extended to the engineer who had
called it into existence.

Our course was directed to the west, and on the 11th of
January we doubled Cape Wessel, situated in 135° longi-
tude and 10° north latitude, which forms the east point of
the Gulf of Carpentaria. The reefs were still numerous,
but more equalized, and marked on the chart with extreme
precision. The Nautilus easily avoided the breakers of
Money to port, and the Victoria reefs to starboard, placed
at 130° longitude, and on the tenth parallel which we
strictly followed.

On the 13th of January, Captain Nemo arrived in the
Sea of Timor, and recognized the island of that name in
122° longitude.

From this point the direction of the Nautilus inclined
towards ths southwest. Her head was set for the Indian
Ocean. Where would the fancy of Captain Nemo carry ug
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 149

next? Would he return to the coast of Asia? or would he
approach again the shores of Eurepe? Improbable conject-
ures both, for a man who fled from inhabited continents.
Then, would he descend to the south? Was he going to
double the Cape of Good Hope, then Cape Horn, and
finally go as far as the antarctic pole? Would he come
back at iast to the Pacific, where his Nautilus could sail
free and independently? Time would show.

After having skirted the sands of Cartier, of Hibernia,
Seringapatam, and Scott, last efforts of the solid against
the liquid element, on the 14th of January we lost sight of
land altogether. The speed of the Nautilus was consider-
ably abated, and with irregular course, she sometimes swam.
in the bosom of the waters, sometimes floated on the sur.
face.

During this period of the voyage, Captain Nemo made
some interesting experiments on the varied temperature of
the sea, in different beds. Under ordinary conditions,
these observations are made by means of rather complicated
instruments, and with somewhat doubtful results, by meang
of thermometrical sounding-leads, the glasses often break-
ing under the pressure of the water, or an apparatus
grounded on the variations of the resistance of metals to
the electric currents. Results so obtained could not be
correctly calculated. On the contrary, Captain Nemo went
himself to test the temperature in the depths of the sea,
and his thermometer, placed in communication with the
different sheets of water, gave him the required degree im-
mediately and accurately.

It was thus that, either by overloading her reservoirs, or
by descending obliquely by means of her inclined planes,
the Nautilus successively attained the depth of three, four,
five, seven, nine, and ten thousand yards, and the definite
result of this experience was, that the sea preserved am
average temperature of four degrees and a half, at a depth
of five thousand fathoms, under all latitudes.
150 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

On the 16th January, the Nautilus seemed becalmed,
only a few yards beneath the surface of the waves. Her
electric apparatus remained inactive, and her motionless
screw left her to drift at the mercy of the currents. I
supposed that the screw was occupied with interior repairs,
rendered necessary by the violence of the mechanical move-
ments of the machine.

My companions and I then witnessed a curious spectacle.
The hatches of the saloon were open, and as the beacon-
light of the Nautilus was not in action, .a dim obscurity
reigned in the midst of the waters. I observed the state of
the sea under these conditions, and the largest fish appeared
to me no more than scarcely defined shadows, when the
Nautilus found herself suddenly transported into full light.
I thought at first that the beacon had been lighted, and
was casting its electric radiance into the liquid mass. I
was mistaken, and after a rapid survey peceived my error.

The Nautilus floated in the midst of a phosphorescent
bed, which, in this obscurity, became quite dazzling. It
was produced by myriads of luminous animalcule, whose
brilliancy was increased as they glided over the metallic
hull of the vessel. I was surprised by lightning in the
midst of these luminous sheets, 23 taough they had been riv-
ulets of lead melted in an ardent furnace, or metallic masses
brought to a white heat, so that, by force of contrast, cer-
tain portions of light appeared to cast a shade in tue midst
of the general ignition, from which all shades seemed ban-
ished. No; this was not the calm irradiation of our ordi-
nary lightning. There was unusual life and vigor; this
was truly living light!

In reality, it was an infinite agglomeration of colored
infusoria, of veritable globules of diaphanous jelly, provided
with a threadlike tentacle, and of which as many as twenty-
five thousand have been counted in less than two cubic
half-inches of water; and their light was increased by the
glimmering peculiar to the meduse, starfish, aurelia, and
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 151

other phosphorescent zoéphytes, impregnated by the grease
of the organic matter decomposed by the sea, and, perhaps,
the mucus secreted by the fish.

During several hours the Nautilus floated in these bril-
liant waves, and our admiratiom increased as we watched
the marine monsters disporting themselves like salaman-
ders. I saw there, in the midst of this fire that burns not,
the swift and elegant porpoise (the indefatigable clown of
the ocean), and some swordfish ten feet long, those pro-
phetic heralds of the hurricane, whose formidable sword
would now and then strike the glass of the saloon. Then
appeared the smaller fish, the variegated balista, the leaping
mackerel, wolf-thorntails, and a hundred others which
striped the luminous atmosphere as they swam. This daz-
aling spectacle was enchanting! Perhaps some atmospheric
condition increased the intensity of this phenomenon.
Perhaps some storm agitated the surface of the waves.
But, at this depth of some yards, the Nautilus was unmoved
by its fury, and reposed peacefully in still water.

So we progressed, incessantly charmed by some new mar-
vel, Conseil arranged and classed his zoéphytes, his artic-
ulata, his mollusks, his fishes. The days passed rapidly
away, and I took no aceount of them. Ned, according to
habit, tried to vary the diet on board. Like snails, we
were fixed to our shells, and I declare it is easy to lead a
snail’s life.

Thus this life seemed easy and natural, and we thought
no longer of the life we led on land; but something hap-
pened to recall us to the strangeness of our situation.

On the 18th of January, the Nautilus was in 105° longi-
tude and 15° south Jatitude. The weather was threaten-
ing, the sea rough and rolling. There was a strong east
wind. The barometer, which had been going down for
some days, foreboded a coming storm. I went up on to
the platform just as the second lieutenant was taking the
measure of tlie horary angles. ard waited, according to
152 20,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

nabit, till the daily phrase was said. But, on this day, it
was exchanged for another phrase not less incemprehensi-
ble. Almost directly, I saw Captain Nemo appear, with a
glass, looking towards the horizon.

For some minutes he was immovable, without taking his
eye off the point of observation. Then he lowered his
glass, and exchanged a few words with his lieutenant. The
latter seemed to be a victim to some emotion that he tried
in vain to repress. Captain Nemo, having more command
over himself, was cool. He seemed, too, to be making
some objections, to which the lieutenant replied by formal
assurances; at least I concluded so by the difference of
their tones and gestures. For myself, I had looked care-
fully in the direction indicated without seeing anything.
The sky and water were lost in the clear line of the hori-
zon.

However, Captain Nemo walked from one end of the
platform to the other, without looking at me, perhaps with-
out seeing me. His step was firm, but less regular than
usual. He stopped sometimes, crossed his arms, and ob-
served the sea. What could he be looking for on that im-
mense expanse?

The Nautilus was then some hundreds of miles from
the nearest coast.

The lieutenant had taken up the glass, and examined
the horizon steadfastly, going and coming, stamping his
foot and showing more nervous agitation than his superior
officer. Besides, this mystery must necessarily be solved,
and before long; for, upon an order from Captain Nemo,
the engine, increasing its propelling power, made the screw
turn more rapidly.

Just then the lieutenant drew the captain’s attention
again. The latter stopped walking and directed his glass
towards the place indicated. He looked long. I felt very
much puzzled, and descended to the drawing-room and
took out an excellent telescope that I generally used.
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 153

Then, leaning on the cage of the watch-light that jutted
out from the front of the platform, set myself to look over
all the line of the sky and sea.

But my eye was no sooner applied to the glass, than it
was quickly snatched out of my hands.

I turned round. Oaptain Nemo was before me, but I
did not know him. His face was transfigured. His eyes
flashed sullenly; his teeth were set; his stiff body, clenched
fists, and head shrunk between his shoulders, betrayed the
violent agitation that pervaded his whole frame. He did
not move. My glass, fallen from his hands, had rolled at
his feet.

Had I unwittingly provoked this fit of anger? Did this
incomprehensible person imagine that I had discovered
some forbidden secret? No; I was not the object of this
hatred, for he was not looking at me, his eye was steadily
fixed upon the impenetrable point of the horizon. At last
Captain Nemo recovered himself. His agitation subsided.
He addressed some words in a foreign language to his lieu-
tenant, then turned to me.. ‘‘ M. Aronnax,” he said, in
rather an imperious tone, ‘‘I require you to keep one of
the conditions that bind you to me”

‘‘What is it, Captain?”

“You must be confined, with your companions, until I
think fit to release you.”

“You are the master,” I replied, looking steading at
him. ‘‘But may I ask you one question ?”

“‘ None, sir.”

There was no resisting this imperious command; it
would have been useless. I went down to the cabin occu-
pied by Ned Land and Conseil, and told them the captain’s
determination. You may judge how this communication
was reccived by the Canadian.

But there was no time for altercation. Four of the
crew waited at the door, and conducted us to that cell
where we had passed our first night on board the Nautilus.
154: «20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

Ned Land would have remonstrated, but the door was
shut upon him.

«¢ Will master tell me what this means ?” asked Conseil.

I told my companions what had passed. They were as
much astonished as I, and equally at a loss how to account
for it.

Meanwhile, I was absorbed in my own reflections, and
could think of nothing but the strange fear depicted in
the captain’s countenance. I was utterly at 2 loss to ac-
count for it, when my cogitations were disturbed by these
words from Ned Land:

‘Hallo! breakfast is ready!”

And indeed the table waslaid. Evidently Captain Neme
had given this order at the same time that he had has
tened the speed of the Nautilus.

“Will master permit me to make a recommendation ?
asked Conseil.

“Yes, my boy.”

‘‘ Well, it is that master breakfasts. It is prudent, for
we do not know what may happen.” ;

“You are right, Conseil.”

‘‘Unfortunately,” said Ned Land, “‘they have only
given us the ship’s fare.”

‘‘Friend Ned,” asked Conseil, ‘‘ what would you have
said if the breakfast had been entirely forgotten ?”

This argument cut short the harpooner’s recriminations,

We sat down to table. The meal was eaten in silence.

Just then, the luminous globe that lighted the cell went
out, and left us in total darkness. Ned Land was soon
asleep, and what astonished me was that Conseil went off
into a heavy sleep. I was thinking what could have
caused his irresistible drowsiness, when I felt my brain be-
coming stupefied. In spite of my efforts to keep my eyes
open, they would close. A painful suspicion seized me.
Evidently soporific substances had been mixed with the
food we had just taken. Imprisonment was not enough te
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS. 155

conceal Captain Nemo’s projects from us; sleep was more
necessary.

I then heard the panels shut. The undulations of the
sea, which caused a slight rolling motion, ceased. Had the
Nautilus quitted the surface of the ocean? Had it gone
back to the motionless bed of water? I tried to resist
sleep. It was impossible. My breathing grew weak. I
felt a mortal cold freeze my stiffened and half-paralyzed
limbs. My eyelids, like leaden caps, fell over my eyes. I
could not raise them; a morbid sleep, full of hallucinations,
bereft me of my being. Then the visions disappeared, and
left me in complete insensibility.

CHAPTER XXIV.
THE CORAL KINGDOM.

Tue next day I woke with my head singularly clear.
To my great surprise I was in my own room. My compan-
ions, no doubt, had been reinstated in their cabin, without
having perceived it any more than I. Of what had passed
during the night they were as ignorant as I] was, and to
penetrate this mystery I only reckoned upon the chances
of the future.

I then thought of quitting my room. Was I free again,
ora prisoner? Quite free. I opened the door, went to
the half-deck, went up the central stairs. The panels,
shut the evening before, were open. I went on to the
platform.

Ned Land and Conseil waited there for me. I ques-
tioned them; they knew nothing. Lost in a heavy sleep in
which they had been totally unconscious, they had been as-
tonished at finding themselves in their cabin.

As for the Nautilus, it seemed quiet-and mysterious as
156 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

ever. It floated on the surface of the waves at a moderate
pace. Nothing seemed changed on board.

The second lieutenant then came on to the platform, and
gave the usual order below.

As for Captain Nemo, he did not appear.

Of the people on board I only saw the impassive steward,
who served me with his usual dumb regularity.

About two o’clock, I was in the drawing-room, busied
in arranging my notes, when the captain opened the door
and appeared. I bowed. He made a slight inclination in
return, without speaking. I resumed my work, hoping
that he would perhaps give me some explanation of the
events of the preceding night. He made none. I looked
at him. He seemed fatigued ; his heavy eyes had not been
refreshed by sleep; his face looked very sorrowful. He
walked to and fro, sat down and got up again, took up a
chance book, put it down, consulted his instruments with-
out taking his habitual notes, and seemed restless and un-
easy. At last, he came up to me, and said :

“¢ Are you a doctor, M. Aronnax?”

Iso little expected such a question, that I stared some
time at him without answering.

“‘ Are you a doctor?” he repeated. ‘‘ Several of your
colleagues have studied medicine.”

“Well,” said I, ‘‘I am a doctor and resident surgeon to
the hospital. I practiced several years before entering the
museum.”

“Very well, sir.”

My answer had evidently satisfied the captain. But not
knowing what he would say next, I waited for other ques-
tions, reserving my answers according to circumstances.

**M. Aronnax, will you consent to prescribe for one of
my men?” he asked.

“Ts he ill?”

ce Yes. eed

“‘T am ready to follow you.”
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, - 157

“*Come then.”

I own my heart beat, I do not know why. I saw acer-
fain connection between the illness of one of the crew and
the events of the day before; und this mystery interested
me at least as much as the sick man.

Captain Nemo conducted me to the poop of the Nautilus,
and took me into a cabin situated near the sailors’ quarters.

There, on a bed, lay a man about forty years of age, with
a resolute expression of countenance, a true type of an
Anglo-Saxon.

Tleant over him. He was not only ill, he was wounded.
His head, swathed in bandages covered with blood, lay on
a pillow. I undid the bandages, and the wounded man
looked at me with his large eyes and gave no sign of pain
asI didit. Itwasahorrible wound. The skull, shattered
by some deadly weapon, left the brain exposed, which was
muchinjured. Clots of blood had formed in the bruised
and broken mass, in color like the dregs of wine.

There was both contusion and suffusion of the brain.
His breathing was slow, and some spasmodic movements of
the muscles agitated his face. I felt his pulse. It was in-
termittent. The extremities of the body were growing
cold already, and I saw death must inevitably ensue. After
dressing the unfortunate man’s wounds, I readjusted the
bandages on his head, and turned to Captain Nemo.

«* What caused this wound?” I asked.

«‘ What does it signify?’ he replied, evasively. ‘A
ghock has broken one of the levers of the engine, which
struck myself. But your opinion as to his state?”

I hesitated before giving it.

«¢ You may speak,” said the captain. ‘‘ This man does
not understand French.”

I gave a last look at the wounded man.

“* He will be dead in two hours.”

“Can nothing save him?”

6‘ Nothing.”
3158 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS.

Captain Nemo’s hand contracted, and some tears glis-
tened in his eyes, which I thought incapable of shedding
any.

For some moments I still watched the dying man, whose
life ebbed slowly. Huis pallor increased under the electric
light that was shed over his death-bed. I looked at his in-
telligent forehead, furrowed with premature wrinkles, pro-
duced probably by misfortune and sorrow. I tried to learn
the secret of his life from the last words that escaped his
lips.
‘You can go now, M. Aronnax,” said the captain.

T left him in the dying man’s cabin, and returned to my
room, much affected by this scene. During the whole day,
I was haunted by uncomfortable suspicions, and at night I
slept badly, and, between my broken dreams, I fancied I
heard distant sighs like the notes of afuneral psalm. Were
they the prayers of the dead, murmured in that language
that I could not understand?

The next morning I went on to the bridge Captain
Nemo was there before me. As soon as he perceived me he
came to me.

“* Professor, will it be convenient to you to make a sub-
marine excursion to-day?”

«* With my companions?” I asked.

“Tf they like.”

“¢ We obey your orders, Captain.”

«Will you be so good then as to put on your cork-jackets?”

It was not a question of dead or dying. I rejoined Ned
Land and Conseil, and told them of Captain Nemo’s propo-
sition. Conseil hastened to accept it, and this time the
Canadian seemed quite willing to follow our example.

It was eight o’clock in the morning. At half past eight
we were equipped for this new excursion, and provided with
two contrivances for light and breathing. The double door
was open; and accompanied by Captain Nemo, who was
followed by a dozen of the crew, we set foot, at a depth of
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS. 159

about thirty feet, on the solid bottom on which the Nauti-
lus rested.

A slight declivity ended in an uneven bottom, at fifteen
fathoms depth. This bottom differed entirely from the one
I had visited on my first excursion under the waters of the
Pacific Ocean. Here, there was no fine sand, no subma-
rine prairies, no sea-forest. I immediately recognized that
marvellous region in which, on that day, the captain did
the honors to us. It was the coral kingdom. In the zo6-
phyte branch and in the alcyon class I noticed the gorgonex,
the isidize, and the corollarie.

The light produced a thousand charming varieties, play-
ing in the midst of the branches that were so vividly colored.
I seemed to see the membraneous and cylindrical tubes
tremble beneath the undulation of the waters. I was
tempted to gather their fresh petals, ornamented with deli-
cate tentacles, some just blown, the others budding, while
small fish, swimming swiftly, touched them slightly, like
flights of birds. But if my hand approached these living
flowers, these animated sensitive plants, the whole colony
took alarm. The white petals re-entered their red cases,
the flowers faded as I looked, and the bush changed into a
block of stony knobs.

Chance had thrown me just by the most precious speci-
mens of this zodphyte. This coral was more valuable than
that found in the Mediterranean, on the coasts of France,
Italy, and Barbary. Its tints justified the poetical names of
** Flower of Blood,” and ‘‘ Froth of Blood,” that trade has
given to its most beautiful productions. Coral is sold for
£20 per ounce; and in this place, the watery beds would
make the fortunes of a company of coral-divers. This pre-
cious matter, often confused with other polypi, formed then
the inextricable plots called ‘‘macciota,” and on which I
noticed several beautiful specimens of pink coral.

But soon the bushes contract, and the arborizations in-
crease. Real petrified thickets, long joists of fantastic ar-
160 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS,

chitecture, were disclosed before us. Captain Nemo placed
himself under a dark gallery, where by a slight declivity
we reached a depth of 100 yards. The light from our
lamps produced sometimes magical effects, following the
rough outlines of the natural arches, and pendants disposed
like iustres, that were tipped with points of fire. Betweea
the coraline shrubs I noticed other polypi not Jess curious,
—melites, and irises with articulated ramifications; also
some tufts of coral, some green, others red, like sea-weed
incrusted in their calcareous salts, that naturalists, after
long discussion, have definitely classed in the vegetable
kingdom. But following the remark of a thinking man,
“there is perhaps the real point where life rises obscurely
from the sleep of a stone, without detaching itself from the
rough point of departure.”

At last, after walking two hours, we had attained a depth
of about 300 yards, that is to say, the extreme limit on
which coral begins to form. But there was no isolated
bush, nor modest brushwood, at the bottom of lofty trees.
It was an immense forest, of large mineral vegetations,
enormous petrified trees, united by garlands of elegant plu-
marias, sea bindweed, all adorned with clouds and reflec-
tions. We passed freely under their high branches, lost in
the shade of the waves, while at our feet, tubipores, mean-
drines, stars, fungi, and caryophyllide formed a carpet of
flowers sown with dazzling gems. What an indescribable
spectacle!

Captain Nemo had stopped. I and my companions
halted, and turning round, I saw his men were forming a
semicircle round their. chief. Watching attentively, I ob-
served that four ef them carried on their shoulders an object
of an oblong shape.

We occupied, in this place, the centre of avast glade sur-
sounded by the lofty foliage of the submarine forest-~ Our
lamps threw over this place a sort of clear twilight that sin-
gularly elongated the shadows on the ground. At the end
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 161

of the glade the darkness increased, and was only relieved
by little sparks reflected by the points of coral.

Ned Land and Conseil were near me. We watched, and
I thought I was going to witness a strange scene. On ob-
serving the ground, I saw that it was raised in certain
places by slight excrescences encrusted with limy deposits,
and disposed with a regularity that betrayed the hand of
man.

In the midst of the glade, on a pedestal of rocks roughly
piled up, stood a cross of coral, that extended its long arms,
that one might have thought were made of petrified blood.

Upon a sign from Captain Nemo, one of the men ad-
vanced ; and at some feet from the cross, he began to dig
a hole with a pickaxe that he took from his belt. I under-
stood all! This glade was a cemetery, this hole a tomb,
this oblong object the body of the man who had died in the
night! The captain and his men had come to bury their
companion in this general resting-place, at the bottom of
this inaccessible ocean!

The grave was being dug slowly; the fish fled on all sides
while their retreat was being thus disturbed; I heard the
strokes of the pickaxe, which sparkled when it hit upon
some flint lost at the bottom of the waters. The hole was
soon large and deep enough to receive the body. Then the
bearers approached; the body, enveloped in a tissue of
white byssus, was lowered into the damp grave. Captain
Nemo, with his arms crossed on his breast, and all the
friends of him who had loved them, knelt in prayer.

The grave was then filled in with the rubbish taken from
the ground, which formed a slight mound. When this was
done, Captain Nemo and his men rose; then, approaching
the grave, they knelt again, and all extended their hands
in sign of a last adieu. Then the funeral procession re-
turned to the Wautilus, passing under the arches of the
forest, in the midst of thickets, along the coral bushes, and
still on the ascent. At last the fires on board appeared,
162 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS.

and their luminous track guided us to the Nautilus. At
one o’clock we had returned.

As soon as I had changed my clothes, I went up on to
the platform, and, a prey to conflicting emotions, I sat
down near the binnacle. Captain Nemo joined me. I
rose and said to him,—

“So, as I said he would, this man died in the night?” -

“Yes, M. Aronnax.”

«‘And he rests now, near his companions, in the coral
cemetery?”

“Yes, forgotten by all else, but not by us. We dug the
grave, and the polypi undertake to seal our dead for eter-
nity.” And burying his face quickly in his hands, he tried
in vain to suppress a sob. Then he added—‘‘ Our peaceful
cemetery is there, some hundred feet below the surface of
the waves.”

““Your dead sleep quietly, at least, Captain, out of the
reach of sharks.”

“Yes, sir, of sharks and men,” gravely replied the cap-
tain.
PART IL
”

CHAPTER I.
THE INDIAN OCEAN. °

WE now come to the second part of our journey under
the sea. The first ended with the moving scene in the
coral cemetery, which left such a deep impression on my
mind. Thus, in the midst of this great sea, Captain
Nemo’s life was passing even to his grave, which he had
prepared in one of its deepest abysses. There, not one of
the ocean’s monsters could trouble the last sleep of the crew
of the Nautilus, of those friends riveted to each other in
death as in life. ‘‘Nor any man either,” had added the
captain. Still the same fierce, implacable defiance towards
human society!

I could no longer content myself with the hypothesis
which satisfied Conseil.

That worthy fellow persisted in seeing in the commander
of the Nautilus one of those unknown savants who return
mankind contempt for indifference. For him, he was a
misunderstood genius, who, tired of earth’s deceptions, had
taken refuge in this inaccessible medium, where he might
follow his instincts freely. To my mind, this hypothesis
explained but one side of Captain Nemo’s character.

Indeed, the mystery of that last night, during which we
had been chained in prison, the sleep, and the precaution
so Violently taken by the captain of snatching from my eyes
the glass I had raised to sweep the horizon, the mortal
wound of the man, due to an unaccountable shock of the
Nautilus, all put me on a new track. No; Captain Nemo
was not satisfied with shunning man. His formidable ap-
166 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

paratus: not only suited his instinct of freedom, but, per.
haps, also the design of some terrible retaliation.

At this moment nothing is clear to me; I catch buta
glimpse of light amidst all the darkness, and I must confine
myself to writing as events shall dictate.

That day, the 24th of January, 1868, at noon, the second
officer came to take the altitude of the sun. I mounted
the platform, lit a cigar, and watched the operation. It
seemed to me that the man did not understand French;
for several times I made remarks in a loud voice, which
must have drawn from him some involuntary sign of atten-
tion, if he had understood them; but he remained undis-
turbed and dumb.

As he was taking observations with the sextant, one of
the sailors of the Nautilus (the strong man who had ae-
companied us on our first submarine excursion to the
Island of Crespo), came to clean the glasses of the lantern.
I examined the fittings of the apparatus, the strength of
which was increased a hundred-fold by lenticular rings,
placed similar to those in a lighthouse, and which projected
their brilliance in a horizontal plane. The electric lamp
was combined in such a way as to give its most powerful
light. Indeed it was produced in vacuo, which insured
both its steadiness and its intensity. This vacuum econo-
mized the graphite points, between which the luminous
arc was developed—an important point of economy for
Captain Nemo, who could not easily have replaced them
and under these conditions their waste was imperceptible.
When the Nautilus was ready to continue its submarine
journey, I went down to the saloon. The panels were
closed and the course marked direct west.

We were furrowing the waters of the Indian Ocean, a
vast liquid plain, with a surface of 1,200,000,000 of acres,
and whose waters are so clear and transparent, that any
one Jeaning over them would turn giddy. The Nautilus
usually floated between fifty and a hundred fathoms deep.
20,000 ZHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. . 167

We went on so for some days. To any one but myself,
who had a great love for the sea, the hours would have
seemed long and monotonous; but the daily walks on the
platform, when I steeped myself in the reviving air of the
ocean, the sight of the rich waters through the windows of
the saloon, the books in the library, the compiling of my
memoirs, took up all my time, and left me not a moment
of ennui or weariness.

For some days we saw a great number of aquatic birds,
sea-mews or gulls. Some were cleverly killed, and, pre-
pared in a certain way, made very acceptable water-game.
Amongst large winged birds, carried a long distance from
all lands, and resting upon the waves from the fatigue of
their flight, I saw some magnificent albatrosses, uttering
discordant cries like the braying of an ass, and birds be-
longing to the family of the longipennates. The family
of the totipalmates was represented by the seal-swallows,
which caught the fish from the surface, and by numerous
phaetons, or lepturi; amongst others the phaeton with red
lines, as large asa pigeon, whose white plumage, tinted with
pink, shows off to advantage the blackness of its wings.

As to the fish, they always provoked our admiration
when we surprised the secrets of their aquatic life through
the open panels. I saw many kinds which I never before
had a chance of observing.

I shall notice chiefly ostracions: peculiar to the Red Sea,
the Indian Ocean, and that part which washes the coast
of tropical America. These fishes, like the tortoise, the
armadillo, the sea hedgehog, and the crustacea, are pro-
tected by a breastplate which is neither chalky nor stony,
but real bone. In some it takes the form of a solid tri-
angle, in others of a solid quadrangle. Amongst the tri-
angular I saw some an inch and a half in length, with
wholesome flesh and a delicious flavor; they are brown at
the tail and yellow at the fins, and I recommend their in-
troduction into fresh water, to which a certain number of
168 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS,

sea-fish easily accustom themselves. I would also mention
yuadrangular ostracions, having on the back four large
tubercles; some dotted over with white spots on the lower
part of the body, and which may be tamed like birds;
trigons provided with spikes formed by the lengthening of
their bony shell, and which from their strange gruntings
are called ‘‘sea-pigs’” ; also dromedaries with large humps
in the shape of a cone, whose flesh is very tough and
leathery.

I now borrow from the daily notes of Master Conseil.
** Certain fish of the genus petrodon peculiar to those seas,
with red backs and white chests, which are distinguished
by three rows of longitudinal filaments; and some electrical,
seven inches long, decked in the liveliest colors. Then, as
specimens of other kinds, some ovoides, resembling an egg
of a dark brown color, marked with white bands, and
without tails; diodons, real sea~porcupines, furnished with
spikes, and capable of swelling in such a way as to look
ike cushions bristling with darts; hippocampi, common to
every ocean; some pegasi with lengthened snouts, which
their pectoral fins, being much elongated and formed in
the shape of wings, allow, if not to fly, at least to shoot
into the air; pigeon spatule, with tails covered with many
rings of shell; macrognathi with long jaws, an excellent
fish, nine inches long, and bright with most agreeable col.
ors; pale-colored calliomores, with rugged heads; and plenty
of chestodons, with long and tubular muzzles, which kill
insects by shooting them, as from an air-gun, with a single
drop of water. These we may call the fly-catchers of the
seas.

“In the eighty-ninth genus of fishs, classed by Lacépéde,
belonging to the second lower class of bony, characterized
by opercules and bronchial membranes, I remarked the
scorpeena, the head of which is furnished with spikes, and
which has but one dorsal fin; these creatures are covered,
or not, with little shells, according to the sub-class to
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS 169

whisk they belong. The second sub-class gives us speci
mens of didactyles fourteen or fifteen inches in length,
with yellow rays, and heads of a most fantastic appearance.
As to the first sub-class, it gives several specimens of that
singular-looking fish appropriately called a ‘‘sea-frog,”
with large head, sometimes pierced with holes, sometimes
swollen with protuberances, bristling with spikes, and coy-
ered with tubercles; it has irregular and hideous horns; its
body and tuil are covered with callousities; its sting makes
a dangerous wound; it is both repugnant and horrible to
look at. :
From the 21st to the 23d of January, the Nautilus went
at the rate af two hundred and fifty leagues in twenty-four
hours, being five hundred and forty miles, or twenty-two
miles an hour. If we recognized so many different varie-
ties of fish, it was because, attracted by the electric light,
they tried to follow us; the greater part, however, were
soon distanced by our speed, though some kept their place
in the waters of the Nautilus for a time. The morning of
the 24th, in 12° 5’ south latitude, and 94° 33’ longitude, we
observed Keeling Island, a madrepore formation, planted
with magnificent cocoas, and which had been visited by
Mr. Darwin and Captain Fitzroy. The Nautilus skirted
the shores of this desert island for a little distance. Its
nets brought up numerous specimens of polypi, and curious
shells of mollusca Some precious productions of the spe-
cies of delphinule enriched the treasures of Captain Nemo,
to which I added an astreea punctifera, a kind of parasite
polypus, often found fixed toashell. Soon Keeling Island
disappeared from the horizon and our course was directed
to the north-west, in the direction of the Indian Penin-
sula,
From Keeling Island our course was slower and more
roviable, often taking us into great depths. Several times
y made use of the inclined planes, which certain inter-
, levers placed obliquely to the water-line. In that way
170 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

we went about two miles, but without ever obtaining the
greatest depths of the Indian Sea, which soundings of
seven thousand fathoms have never reached. As to the
temperature of the lower strata, the thermometer invari-
ably indicated 4° above zero. I only observed that in the
upper regions, the water was always colder in the high
levels than at the surface of the sea.

On the 25th of January, the ocean was entirely deserted;
the Nautilus passed the day on the surface, beating the
waves with its powerful screw, and making them rebound
to a great height. Who, under such cirsumstances, would
not have taken it for a gigantic cetacean? Three parts of
this day I spent on the platform. I watched the~sea.
Nothing on the horizon, till about four o’clock a steamer
running west on our counter. Her masts were visible for
an instant, but she could not see the Nautilus, being too
low in the water. I fancied this steamboat belonged to
the P. O. Company, which runs from Ceylon to Sydney,
touching at King George’s Point and Melbourne.

At five o’clock in the evening, before that fleeting twi-
light which binds night to day in tropical zones, Conseil
and I were astonished by a curious spectacle.

It was a shoal of argonauts travelling along. on the
surface of the ocean. We could count several hundreds.
They belonged to the tubercle kind which are peculiar to
the Indian seas.

These graceful molluscs moved backwards by means of
their locomotive tube, through which they propelled the
water already drawn in. Of their eight tentacles, six were
elongated, and stretched out floating on the water, whilst
the other two, rolled up flat, were spread to the wind like
alight sail. I saw their spiral-shaped and fluted shells,
which Cuvier justly compares to an elegant skiff. A boat
indeed! It bears the creature which secretes it without its
adhering to it.

Bor nearly an hour the Nautilus floated in the midst of
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 171

this shoal of molluscs. Then I know not what sudden
fright they took; but as if at a signal every sail was furled,
the arms folded, the body drawn in, the shells turned over,
changing their centre of gravity, and the whole fleet disap-
peared under the waves. Never did the ships of a squade
yon mancuvre with more unity.

At that moment night fell suddenly, and the reeds,
scarcely raised by the breeze, lay peaceably under the sides
of the Nautilus. :

The next day, 26th of January, we cut the equator at
the 82d meridan, and entered the northern hemisphere.
During the day a formidable troop of sharks accompanied
us, terrible creatures, which multiply in these seas, and
make them very dangerous. They were “cestracio phil-
ippi’ sharks, with brown backs and whitish’ bellies, armed
with eleven rows of teeth—eyed sharks—their throat being
marked with a large black spot surrounded with white like
aneye. ‘There were also some Isabella sharks, with rounded
snouts marked with dark spots. These powerful creatures
often hurled themselves at the windows of the saloon with
such violence as to make us feel very insecure. At such
times Ned Land was no longer master of himself. He
wanted to go to the surface and harpoon the monsters,
particularly certain smooth-hound sharks, whose mouth is
studded with teeth like a mosaic; and large tiger-sharks,
nearly six yards long, the last-named of which seemed to
excite him more particularly. But the Nautilus acceler-
ating her speed, easily left the most rapid of them behind.

The 27th of January, at the entrance of the vast Bay of
Bengal, we met repeatedly a forbidding spectacle,—dead
bodies floating on the surface of the water. They were the
dead of the Indian villages, carried by the Ganges to the
level of the sea, and which the vultures, the only under-
takers of the country, had not been able to devour, But
the sharks did not fail to help them at their funereal work.

About seven o’clock in the evening, the Vawtilus, half
172 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. ~

immersed, was sailing in a sea of milk. At first sight the
ocean seemed lactified. Was it the effect of the lunar
rays? No; for the moon, scarcely two days old, was still
lying hidden under the horizon in the rays of the sun.
The whole sky, though lit by the sidereal rays, seemed
black by contrast with the whiteness of the waters.

Conseil could not believe his eyes, and questioned me as to
the cause of this strange phenomenon. Happily I was able
to answer him.

‘Tt is called a milk sea,” I explained; ‘‘a large extent
of white wavelets often to be seen on the coasts of Amboy-
na, and in these parts of the sea.”

“But, sir,” said Conseil, ‘‘ can you tell me what causeg
such an effect? for I suppose the water is not really turned
into milk.”

“*No, my boy; and the whiteness which surprises you is
caused only by the presence of myriads of infasoria, a sort
of luminous little worm, gelatinous and without color, of
the thickness of a hair, and whose length is not more than
the zy4y of an inch. These insects adhere to one another
sometimes for several leagues.”

“‘ Several leagues!” exclaimed Conseil.

«Yes, my boy; and you need not try to compute the
number of these infusoria. You will not be able; for if I
am not mistaken, ships have floated on these milk seas for
more than forty miles.”

Towards midnight the sea suddenly resumed its usual
color; but behind us, even to the limits of horizon, the
sky reflected the whitened waves, and for a long time
seemed impregnated with the vague glimmerings of an au-
rora borealis.
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER 1HH SHAS, 173

CHAPTER IT.
A NOVEL PROPOSAL OF CAPTAIN NEMO’S.

On the 28th of February, when at noon the Nautilus
came to the surface of the sea, in 9° 4’ north latitude, there
was land in sight about eight miles to westward. The first
thing I noticed was a range of mountains about two thou-
sand feet high, the shapes of which were most capricious.
On taking the bearings, I knew that we were nearing the
Island of Ceylon, the pear] which hangs from the lobe of
the Indian Peninsula.

Captain Nemo and his second appeared at this moment.
The captain glanced at the map. Then, turning to me,
said:

“The Island of Ceylon, noted for its pearl-fisheries.
Would you like to visit one of them, M. Aronnax?”

« Certainly, Captain.”

‘‘ Well, the thing is easy. Though if we see the fish-
eries, we shall not see the fishermen. The annual exporta-
tion has not yet begun. Never mind, I will give orders
to make for the Gulf of Manaar, where we shall arrive in
the night.” .

The captain said something to his second, who immedi-
ately went out. Soon the Wawtilus returned to her native
element, and the manometer showed that she was about
thirty feet deep.

“Well, sir,” said Captain Nemo, ‘‘you and your com-
panions shall visit the Bank of Manaar, and if by chance
some fisherman should be there, we shall see him at
work.”

“ Aoreed, captain!”

«¢ By the by, M. Aronnax, you are not afraid of sharks?”
174 20,000 ZHAGUES UNDER THE SEAB,

*¢ Sharks!” exclaimed I.

This question seemed a very hard one.

«¢ Well?” continued Captain Nemo.

“T admit, Captain, that I am not yet very familiar with
that kind of fish.”

«* We are accustomed to them,” replied Captain Nemo,
sand in time you will be too. However, we shall be
armed, and on the road we may be able to hunt some of
the tribe. It is interesting. So, till to-morrow, sir, and
early.”

This said in a careless tone, Captain Nemo left the saloon.
Now, if you were invited to hunt the bear in the mountaing
of Switzerland, what would you say? Very well! to-mor-
row we will go and hunt the bear.” If you were.asked to
hunt the lion in the plains of Atlas, or the tiger in the In-
dian jungles, what would you say? ‘‘Ha! ha! it seems
we are going to hunt the tiger or the lion!” But when you
are invited to hunt the shark in its natural element, you
would perhaps reflect before accepting the invitation. As
for myself, I passed my hand over my forehead, on which
stood large drops of cold perspiration. ‘‘ Let us reflect,”
said I, ‘and take our time. Hunting otters in submarine
forests, as we did in the Island of Crespo, will pass; but
going up and down at the bottom of the sea, where one is
almost certain to meet sharks, is quite another thing! I
know well that in certain countries, particularly in the An-
daman Islands, the negroes hever hesitate to attack them
with a dagger in one hand, and a running noose in the
other; but I also know that few who affront those crea-
tures ever return alive. However, I am not a negro, and,
if I were, I think a little hesitation in this case would not
be ill-timed.”

At this moment, Conseil and the Canadian entered,
quite composed, and even joyous. They knew not what
awaited them.

‘ Faith, sir,” said Ned Land, ‘‘ your Captain Nemo—
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 175

vho devil take him—has just made us a very pleasant
offer.”

“Ah!” said I, “* you know?”

“Tf agreeable to you, sir,” interrupted Conseil, ‘‘ the
commander of the Nautilus has invited us to visit the
magnificent Ceylon fisheries to-morrow, in your company;
he did it kindly, and behaved like a real gentleman.”

‘He said nothing more?”

‘Nothing more, sir, except that he had already spoken
to you of this little walk.”

“Sir,” said Conseil, ‘‘ would you give us some aetails of
the pearl-fishery?”

“As to the fishing itself,” 1 asked, ‘or the incidents,
which?”

‘Qn the fishing,” replied the Canadian; ‘‘ before enter-
jng upon the ground, it is as well to know something
about it.”

“Very well; sit down, my friends, and I will teach
you.”

Ned and Conseil seated themselves on an ottoman, and
the first thing the Canadian asked was:

“Sir, what is a pearl?”

“My worthy Ned,” I answered, ‘‘ to the poet, a pearl is
a tear of the sea; to the Orientals, it isa drop of dew solidi-
fied; to the ladies, it isa jewel of an oblong shape, of a
brilliancy of mother-of-pearl substance, which they wear
on their fingers, their necks, or their ears; for the chemist,
it is a mixture of phosphate and carbonate of lime, with a
little gelatine; and lastly, for naturalists, it is simply a
morbid secretion of the organ that produces the mother-of-
pearl amongst certain bivalves.”

‘‘Branch of mollusca,” said: Conseil, ‘‘ class of acephali,
order of testacea.”

“* Precisely so, my learned Conseil; and, amongst these
testacea, the earshell, the tridacne, the turbots,—in a
word, all those which secrete mother-of-pearl, that is, the
176 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

sIue, bluish, violet, or white substance which lines the
‘nterior of their shells are capable of producing pearls.”

‘Mussels too?” asked the Canadian.

“Yes, mussels of certain waters in Scotland, Wales, Ire-
land, Saxony, Bohemia, and France.”

“Good! For the future I shall pay attention,” replied
the Canadian.

«« But,” I continued, ‘‘ the particular mollusc which se-
cretes the pearl is the pearl-oyster, the Meleagrina margari-
tifera, that precious pintadine. The pearl is nothing but
u nacerous formation, deposited in a globular form, either
adhering to the oyster-shell, or buried in the folds of the
creature. On the shell it is fast; in the flesh it is loose; but
always has for a kernel, a small, hard substance, may be a
barren egg, may be a grain of sand, around which the
pearly matter deposits itself a after year successively,
and by thin concentric layers.”

«‘ Are many pearls found in the same oyster?” asked
Conseil

“‘Yes, my boy. There are some pintadines a perfect
casket. One oyster has been mentioned, though I allow
myself to doubt it, as having contained no less than a hun-
dred and fifty sharks.”-

«* A hundred and fifty sharks!’’ exclaimed Ned Land.

“Did I say sharks?” said I, hurriedly. “I meant
to say a hundred and fifty pearls. Sharks would not be
sense.”

“* Certainly not,” said Conseil; ‘‘ but will you tell us now
by what means they extract these pearls?”

‘¢ They proceed in various ways. When they adhere to
the shell, the fishermen often pull them off with pincers;
but the most common way is to lay the pintadines on mats
of the sea-weed which covers the banks. ‘Thus they die in
the open air; and at the end of ten days they are in a for-
ward state of decomposition. They are then plunged into
large reservoirs of sea-water; then they are opened and
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 177

washed. Now begins the double work of the sorters.
first they separate the layers of pearl, known in commerce
by the name of bastard whites and bastard blacks, which
are delivered in boxes of two hundred and fifty and three
hundred pounds each. Then they take the parenchyma
of the oyster, boil it, and pass it through a sieve, in order
to extract the very smallest pearls.”

«The price of these pearls varies according to their
size?” asked Conseil.

“Not only according to their size,” I answered, ‘ but
aiso according to their shape, their water (that is, their
color), and their lustre; that is, that bright and diapered
sparkle which makes them so charming to the eye. The
most beautiful are called virgin pearls or paragons. They
are formed alone in the tissue of the mollusc, are white,
often opaque, and sometimes have the transparency of an
opal; they are generally round or oval. The round are
made into bracelets; the oval into pendants; and, being
more precious, are sold singly. Those adhering to the
shell of the oyster are more irregular in shape, and are
sold by weight. Lastly, in a lower order are classed those
small pearls known under the name of seed pearls; they
are sold by measure, and are especially used in embroidery
for church ornaments.”

“But,” said Conseil, ‘is this pearl-fishery dangerous?”

“No,” I answered, quickly; ‘‘ particularly if certain
precautions are taken.”

*¢ What does one risk in such a calling?” said Ned Land;
‘the swallowing of some mouthfuls of.sea water?”

““As you say, Ned. By the by,” said I, trying to take
Captain Nemo’s careless tone, “are you afraid of sharks,
brave Ned?”

“Tl” replied the Canadian; ‘‘a harpooner by profession?
It is my trade to make light of them.”

“But,” said I, ‘it is not a question of fishing for them
with an iron swivel, hoisting them into the vessel, cutting
178 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

off their tails with a blow of a chopper, ripping them up,
and throwing their heart into the sea!”

«Then, it is a question of—”

** Precisely.”

-* In the water?”

“*In the water.”

‘Faith, with a good harpoon! You know, sir, these
sharks are ill-fashioned beasts. They must turn on their
backs to seize you, and in that time—”

Ned Land had a way of saying ‘‘ seize,” which made my’
blood run cold.

“‘Well, and you, Conseil, what do you think of
sharks?”

-: © Me!” said Conseil. ‘I will be frank, sir.”

“‘So much the better,” thought I.

“Tf you, sir, mean to face the sharks, I do not see why
your faithful servant should not face them with you.”

CHAPTER III.
A PEARL OF TEN MILLIONS.

THE next morning at four o’clock I was awakened by the
steward, whom Captain Nemo had placed at my service,
I rose hurriedly, dressed, and went into the saloon.

Captain Nemo was awaiting me.

««M. Arronax,” said he, ‘‘ are you ready to start?”

‘Tam ready.”

“Then please to follow me.”

«‘ And my companions, Captain?”

“They have been told, and are waiting.”

** Are we not to put on our divers’ dresses?” asked I.

Not yet. I have not allowed the Nautilus to come too
aear this coast, and we are some distance from the Manaar
20,000 LHAGUAS UNDER THE SEAS. 179

Bank; but the boat is ready, and will take us to the exact
point of disembarking, which will save us a long way. It
carries our diving apparatus, which we will put on when
we begin our submarine journey.”

Captain Nemo conducted me to the central staircase
which led on to the platform. Ned and Conseil were al-
ready there, delighted at the idea of the ‘‘ pleasure party”
which was preparing. Five sailors from the Nautilus,
with their oars, waited in the beat, which had been made
fast against the side.

The night was still dark. Layers of clouds covered the
sky, allowing but few stars to be seen. I looked on the
side where the land lay, and saw nothing but a dark line
enclosing three parts of the horizon, from southwest to
northwest. The Nautilus, having returned during the
night up the western coast of Ceylon, was now west of the
bay, or rather gulf, formed by the mainland and the island
of Manaar. There, under the dark waters, stretched the
pintadine bank, an inexhaustible field of pearls, the length
of which is more than twenty miles.

Captain Nemo, Ned Land, Conseil and I, took our
places in the stern of the boat. The master went to the
tiller; hisfour companions leaned on their oars, the painter
was cast off, and we sheered off.

The boat went towards the south; the oarsmen did not
hurry. I noticed that their strokes, strong in the water,
only followed each other every ten seconds, according to
the method generally adopted in the navy. Whilst the
craft was running by its own velocity, the liquid drops
struck the dark depths of the waves crisply like spats of
melted lead. A little billow, spreading wide, gave a slight
roll to the boat, and some samphire reeds flapped before it.

We were silent. What was Captain Nemo thinking of?
Perhaps of the land he was approaching, and which he
found too near to him, contrary to the Canadian’s opinion,
180 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

who thought it too far off. As to Conseil, he was merely
there from curiosity. :

About half past five, the first tints on the horizon
showed the upper line of coast more distinctly. Flat
enough in the east, it rose a little to the south. Five
miles still lay between us, and it was indistinct, owing to
the mist on the water. At six o’clock it became suddenly
daylight, with that rapidity peculiar to tropical regions,
which know neither dawn nor twilight. The solar rays
pierced the curtain of clouds piled up on the eastern hori-
zon, and the radiant orb rose rapidly. Isaw land distinct-
ly, with a few trees scattered here and there. The boat
neared Manaar Island, which was rounded to the south.
Captain Nemo rose from his seat and watched the sea.

At a sign from him the anchor was dropped, but the
chain scarcely ran, for it was little more than a yard deep,
and this spot was one of the highest points of the bank of
pintadines.

‘“‘Here we are, M. Arronax,” said Oaptain Nemo.
‘You see that enclosed bay? Here, in a month, will be
assembled the numerous fishing-boats of the exporters, and
these are the waters their divers will ransack so boldly.
Happily, this bay is well situated for that kind of fishing.
It is sheltered from the strongest winds; the sea is never
very rough here, which makes it favorable for the diver’s
work. We will now put on our dresses, and begin our walk.”

I did not answer, and while watching the suspected
waves, began with the help of the sailors to put on my
heavy sea-dress. Captain Nemo and my companions were
also dressing. None of the Nautilus men were to accom-
pany us on this new excursion.

Soon we were enveloped to the throat in india-rubber
clothing; the air apparatus fixed to our backs by braces.
As to the Ruhmkorff apparatus, there wz3 no necessity for
it. Before putting my head into the copper cap, I had
asked the question of the captain.
20.000 ZHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 181

** They would be useless,” he replied. ‘‘ We are going
to no great depth, and the solar rays will be enough te
Night our walk. Besides, it would not be prudent to carry
the electric light in these waters; its brilliancy might at-
tract some of the dangerous inhabitants of the coast most
inopportunely.”

As Captain Nemo pronounced these words, I turned to
Conseil and Ned Land, But my two friends had already
encased their heads in the metal cap, and they could neither
hear nor answer.

One last question remained to ask of Captain Nemo.

«‘ And our arms?” asked I; ‘‘ our guns?”

“Guns! what for? Do not mountaineers attack the bear
with a dagger, and is not steel surer than lead? Here is
a strong blade; put it in your belt, and we start.”

I looked at my companions; they were armed like us,
and, more than that, Ned Land was brandishing an enor-
mous harpoon, which he had placed in the boat before leav-
ing the Nautilus.

Then, following the captain’s example, I allowed myself
to be dressed in the heavy copper helmet, and our reservoirs
of air were at once in activity. An instant after, we were
landed, one after the other, in about two feet of water upon.
an even sand. Captain Nemo made a sign with his hand,
and we followed him bya gentle declivity, till we disap-
peared under the waves.

Over our feet, like coveys of snipe in a bog, rose shoals of
fish, of the genus monoptera, which have no other fins but
their tail. I recognized the Javanese, a real serpent, two
and a half feet long, of a livid color underneath, and which
might easily be mistaken for a conger eel if it was not for
the golden stripes on its sides. In the genus stromateus,
whose bodies are very flat and oval, I saw some of the most
brilliant colors, carrying their dorsal fin like a scythe; an
excellent eating fish, which, dried and pickled, is known
by the name of Karawade; then some tranquebars, belong«
182 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

ing to the genus apsiphoroides, whose body is covered with
a shell cuirass of eight longitudinal plates.

The heightening sun lit the mass of waters more and
more. The soil changed by degrees. ‘To the fine sand suc-
ceeded a perfect causeway of boulders, covered with a car-
pet of molluscs and zodphytes. Amongst the specimens
of these branches I noticed some placene, with thin, une-
qual shells, a kind of ostracion peculiar to the Red Sea and
the Indian Ocean; some orange lucine with rounded shells;
rock-fish, three feet and a halflong, which raised themselves
under the waves like hands ready toseize one. There were
also some panopyres, slightly luminous; and lastly, some
oculines, like magnificent fans, forming one of the richest
vegetations of these seas.

In the midst of these living plants, and under the arbors
of the hydrophytes, were layers of clumsy articulates, par-
ticularly some ranine, whose carapace formed a slightly
rounded triangle; and some horrible-looking parthenopes.

At about seven o’clock we found ourselves at last sur-
veying the oyster-banks, on which the pearl-oysters are re-
produced by millions.

Captain Nemo pointed with his hand to the enormous
heap of oysters; and I could well understand that this mine
was inexhaustible, for nature’s creative power is far beyond
man’s instinct of destruction. Ned Land, faithful to his
instinct, hastened to fill a net which he carried by his side
with some of the finest specimens. But we could not stop.
We must follow the captain, who seemed to guide himself
by paths known only to himself. The ground was sensibly
rising, and sometimes, on holding up my arm, it was above
the surface of the sea. Then the level of the bank would
sink capriciously. Often we rounded high rocks scarped
into pyramids, In their dark fracture, huge crustacea,
perched upon their high claws like some war-machine,
watched us with fixed eyes, and under our feet crawled
various kinds of annelides.
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 183

At this moment there opened before us a large grotto,
dug in a picturesque heap of rocks, and carpeted with al!
the thick warp of the submarine flora. At first it seemed
very dark tome. ‘The solar rays seemed to be extinguished
by successive gradations, until its vague transparency be-~
came nothing more than drowned light. Captain Nemo
entered; we followed. My eyes soon accustomed themselves
to this relative state of darkness. I could distinguish the
arches springing capriciously from natural pillars, standing
broad upon their granite base, like the heavy columns of
Tuscan architecture. Why had our incomprehensible guide
jed us to the bottom of this submarine crypt? I was soon
to know. After descending a rather sharp declivity, our
feet trod the bottom of a kind of circular pit. There Cap
tain Nemo stopped, and with his hand indicated an object
I had not yet perceived. It was an oyster of extraordinary
dimensions, a gigantic tridacne, a goblet which could have
contained a whole lake of holy water, a basin the breadth
of which was more than two yards and a half, and conse-
quently larger than that ornamenting the saloon of the
Nautilus. I approached this extraordinary mollusc. It
adhered by its byssus to a table of granite, and there, iso-
lated, it ‘developed itself in the calm waters of the grotto,
I estimated the weight of this tridacne at 600 pounds.
Such an oyster would contain thirty pounds of meat; and
one must have the stomach of a Gargantua, to deniolish
some dozens of them.

Captain Nemo was evidently acquainted with the exist-
ence of this bivalve, and seemed to have a particular mo-
tive in verifying the actual state of this tridacne. The
shells were a little open; the captain came near, and put his
dagger between to prevent them from closing; then with
his hand he raised the membrane with its fringed edges,
which formed a cloak for the creature. There, between
the folded plaits, I saw a loose pearl, whose size equalled
that of a cocoanut. Its globular shape, perfect clearness,
184 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

and admirable lustre, made it altogether a jewel of inesti-
mable value. Carried away by my curiosity Istretched out
my hand to seize it, weigh it, and touch it; but the captain
stopped me, made a sign of refusal, and quickly withdrew
his dagger, and the two shells closed suddenly. I then un-
derstood Captain Nemo’s mtention. In leaving this pearl
hidden in the mantle of the tridacne, he was allowing it to
grow slowly. Hach year thesecretions of the mollusk would
add new concentric circles. I estimated its value at £500,-
000 at least.

After ten minutes Captain Nemo stopped suddenly. I
thought he had halted previously to returning. No; bya
gesture he bade us crouch beside him in a deep fracture. of
the rock, his hand pointed to one part of the liquid mass,
which I watched attentively.

About five yards from me a shadow appeared, and sank
tothe ground. The disquieting idea of sharks shot through
my mind, but I was mistaken; and once again it was nota
monster of the ocean that we had anything to do with.

It was a man, a living man, an Indian, a fisherman, a
poor devil, who, I suppose, had come to glean before the
harvest. I could see the bottom of his canoe anchored
some feet above his head. He dived and went up success-
ively. A stone held between his feet, cut in the shape of
a sugar-loaf, whilst a rope fastened him to his boat, helped
him to descend more rapidly. This was all his apparatus.
Reaching the bottom about five yards deep, he went on hia
knees and filled his bag with oysters picked up at random.
Then he went up, emptied it, pulled up his stone, and be.
gan the operation once more, which lasted thirty seconds.

The diver did not see us. The shadow of the rock hid us
from sight. And how should this poor Indian ever dream
that men, beings like himself, should be there under the
water watching his movements, and losing no detail of the
fishing? Several times he went up in this way, and dived
again, He did not carry away more than ten at each
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. ‘. 185

plunge, for he was obliged to pull them from the bank to
which they adhered by means of their strong byssus. And
how many of those oysters, for which he risked his life, had
no pearl in them! I watched him closely; his manceuvres
were regular, and, for the space of half an hour, no danger
appeared to threaten him.

I was beginning to accustom myself to the sight of this
interesting fishing, when suddenly, as the Indian was on
the ground, I saw him make a gesture of terror, rise, and
make a spring to return to the surface of the sea.

I understood his dread. A gigantic shadow appeared
just above the unfortunate diver. It was a shark of enor-
mous size advancing diagonally, his eyes on fire, and his
jaws open. I was mute with horror, and unable to move.

The voracious creature shot towards the Indian, who
threw himself on one side in order to avoid the shark’s fins;
but not its tail, for it struck his chest, and stretched him
on the ground.

This scene lasted but a few seconds; the shark returned,
and, turning on his back, prepared himself for cutting the
Indian in two, when I saw Captain Nemo rise suddenly,
and then, dagger in hand, walk straight to the monster,
ready to fight face to face with him. The very moment the
shark was going to snap the unhappy fisherman in two, he
perceived his new adversary, and, turning over, made
straight towards him.

I can still see Captain Nemo’s position. Holding him-
self well together, he waited for the shark with admirable
coolness; and, when it rushed at him, threw himself on one
side with wonderful quickness, avoiding the shock, and
burying his dagger deep into its side. But it was not all
over. A terrible combat ensued.

The shark had seemed to roar, if I might say so. The
blood rushed in torrents from its wound. The sea was dyed
red, and through the opaque liquid I could distinguish
uothing more. Nothing morc, until the moment when,
286 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

like lightning, I saw the undaunted captain hanging on te
one of the creature’s fins, struggling, as it were, hand te
hand with the monster, and dealing successive blows at his
enemy, yet still unable to give a decisive one.

The shark’s struggles agitated the water with such fury
that the rocking threatened to upset me-

I wanted to go to the captain’s assistance, but, nailed te
the spot with horror, I could not stir.

I saw the haggard eye; I saw the different phases of the
fight. The captain fell to the earth, upset by the enormous
mass which leant upon him. The shark’s jaws opened
wide, like a pair of factory shears, and it would have been
all over with the captain; but, quick as thought, harpoor
in hand, Ned Land rushed towards the shark and struck
it with its sharp point.

The waves were impregnated with amassof blood. They
rocked under the shark’s movements, which beat them with
indescribable fury. Ned Land had not missed hisaim. It
was the monster’s death-rattle.. Struck to the heart, it
strugeled in dreadful convulsions, the shock of which over
threw Conseil.

But Ned Land had disentangled the captain, who, get-
ting up without any wound, went straight to the Indian,
quickly cut the cord which held him to his stone, took him
in his arms, and, with a sharp blow of his heel, mounted te
the surface.

We all three followed in a few seconds, saved by a mira-
cle, and reached the fisherman’s boat.

Captain Nemo’s fixst care was to reeall the unfortunate
man to life again. I did not think he could succeed. I
hoped so, for the poor creature’s immersion was not long;
but the blow from the shark’s tail might have been his
death-blow.

Happily, with the captain’s and Conseil’s sharp friction,
I saw consciousness return by degrees. He opened his
eyes. What was his surprise, his terror even, at seeing four
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 187

great copper heads leaning over him! And, above all, what
must he have thought when Captain Nemo, drawing from
the pocket of his dress abag of pearls, placed it in his hand!
This munificent charity from the man of the waters to the
poor Cingalese was accepted with a trembling hand. His
wondering eyes showed that he knew not to what super-
human beings he owed both fortune and life,

Ata sign from the captain we regained the bank, and
following the road already traversed, came in about half an
hour to the anchor which held the canoe of the Nautilus
to the earth.

Once on board, we each, with the help of the sailors, got
rid of the heavy copper helmet.

Captain Nemo’s first word was to the Canadian.

«‘Thank you, Master Land,” said he.

“‘It was in revenge, Captain,” replied Ned Land. “I
owed you that.”

A ghastly smile passed across the captain’s lips, and that
was all.

“To the Nautilus,” said he.

The boat flew over the waves. Some minutes after, we
met the shark’s dead body floating. By the black marking
of the extremity of its fins, I recognized the terrible melan-
opteron of the Indian Seas, of the species of shark properly
so called. It was more than twenty-five feet long; its enor-
mous mouth occupied one third of its body. It was an
adult, as was known by its six rows of teeth placed in an
isosceles triangle in the upper jaw.

Conseil looked at it with scientific interest, and I am sure
that le placed it, and not without reason, in the cartilagi-
nous class, of the chondropterygian order, with fixed gills,
of the selacian family, in the genus of the sharks.

Whilst I was contemplating this inert mass, a dozen of
these voracicus beasts appeared round the boat; and, with-
out noticing us, threw theniselves upon the dead body and
fought with one another for the piesss.
188 20,000 LEAGUES YNDER THE SEAN.

At half past eight we were again on board the Nauttins
There I reflected on the incidents which had taken placs
in our excursion to the Manaar Bank.

Two conclusions I must inevitably draw from it,—one
bearing upon the unparalleled courage of Captain Nemo,
the other upon his devotion to a human being, a represent-
ative of that race from which he fled beneath the sea,
Whatever he might say, this strange man had not yet suc-
ceeded in entirely crushing his heart.

When I made this observation to him, he answered in &
slightly moved tone:

‘* That Indian, sir, is an inhabitant of an oppressed coun-
try; and I am still, and shall be, to my last breath, one of
them!”



CHAPTER IV,
THE RED SEA.

in the course of the day of the 29th of January, the
Island of Ceylon disappeared under the horizon, and the
Nautilus, at a speed of twenty miles an hour, slid into the
labyrinth of canals which separate the Maldives from the
Laccadives. It coasted even the Island of Kiltan, a land
originally madreporic, discovered by Vasco de Gama in
1499, and one of the nineteen principal islands of the Lac-
cadive Archipelago, situated between 10° and 14° 30’ north
latitude, and 69° 50’ 72” east longitude.

We had made 16,220 miles, or 7500 (French) leagues
from our starting-point in the Japanese Seas.

The next day (30th January), when: the Nautilus went
to the surface of the ocean, there was no land in sight. Its
course was N.N.H., in the direction of the Sea of Oman,
between Arabia and the Indian Peninsula, which serves as
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEA. 189

a. outlet to the Persian Gulf. It was evidently a block
without any possible egress. Where was Captain Nemo
taking us to? I could not say. This, however, did not
satisfy the Canadian, who that day came to me asking where
we were going.

«We are going where our captain’s fancy takes us, Mas-
ter Ned.”

‘His fancy cannot take us far, then,” said the Canadian.
“The Persian Gulf has no outlet; and if we do go in, it
will not be long before we are out again.”

“Very well, then, we will come out again, Master Land;
and if after the Persian Gulf the Nautilus would like to
visit the Red Sea, the Straits of Bab-el-mandeb are there to
give us entrance.”

“‘T need not tell you, sir,” said Ned Land, “that the
Red Sea is as much closed as the Gulf, as the Isthmus of
Suez is not yet cut; and if it was, a boat as mysterious as
ours would not risk itself in a canal cut with sluices. And
again, the Red Sea is not the road to take us back to
Europe.”

“* But I never said we were going back to Europe.”

«* What do you suppose, then?” /

“‘T suppose that, after visiting the curious coasts of
Arabia and Egypt, the Nawéi7us will go down the Indian
Ocean again, perhaps cross the Channel of Mozambique,
perhaps off the Mascarenhas, so as te gain the Cape of Good
Hope.”

« And once at the Cape of Good Hope?” asked the Cana-
dian, with peculiar emphasis.

“Well, we shall penetrate into that Atlantic which we
do not yet knew. Ah! friend Ned, you are getting tired
of this journey’ under the sea: you are surfeited with the
incessantly varying spectacle of submarine wonders. For
my part, I shall be sorry to see the end of a voyage which
it is given to so few men to make.”

Four days, till the 8d of February, the Nautilus scoured
190 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

the Sea of Oman, st various speeds and at various depths.
It seemed to go at random, as if hesitating as to which road
it should follow, but we never passed the Tropic of Cancer.

In quitting this sea we sighted Muscat for an instant,
one of the most important towns of the country of Oman.
I admired its strange aspect, surrounded by black rocks
upon which its white houses and forts stood in relief. I
saw the rounded domes of its mosques, the elegant points
of its minarets, its fresh and verdant terraces. But it was
only a vision! the Wauéilus soon sank under the waves of
that part of the sea.

We passed along the Arabian coast of Mahrah and
Hadramaut, for a distance of six miles, its undulating line
of mountains being occasionally relieved by some ancient
ruin. The 5th of February we at last entered the Gulf of
Aden, a perfect funnel introduced into the neck of Bab-el-.
mandeb, through which the Indian waters entered the Red
Sea.

The 6th of February, the Nautilus floated in sight of
Aden, perched upon a promontory which a narrow isthmus
joins to the mainland, a kind of inaccessible Gibraltar, the
fortifications of which were rebuilt by the English after
taking possession in 1839, I caught a glimpse of the octa-
gon minarets of this town, which was at one time, accord-
ing to the historian Edrisi, the richest commercial maga-
zine on the coast.

T vertainly thought that Captain Nemo, arrived at this
point, would back out again; but { was mistaken, for he
did no such thing, much to my surprise.

The next day, the 7th of February, we entered the
Straits of Bab-el-mandeb, the name of which, in the Arab
tongue, means ‘‘ The gate of tears.”

To twenty miles in breadth, it is only thirty-two in
length. And for the Nautilus, starting at full speed, the
crossing was scarcely the work of an hour. But I saw
nothing, not even the island of Petim, with which the
xu;vu0 LHAGUES UND#k THH SHAS. 191

British government has fortified the position of Aden.
There were too many English or French steamers of the
line of Suez to Bombay, Calcutta to Melbourne, and from
Bourbon to the Mauritius, furrowing this narrow passage,
the Nautilus to venture to show itself. So it remained
prudently below. At last, about noon, we were in the
waters of the Red Sea.

I would not even seek to understand the caprice which
had decided Captain Nemo upon entering the gulf. But I
quite approved of the Nautilus entering it. Its speed was
lessened: sometimes it kept on the surface, sometimes it
dived to avoid a vessel, and thus I was able to observe the
upper and lower parts of this curious sea.

The 8th of February, from the first dawn of day, Mocha
came in sight, nowa ruined town, whose walls would fall
at a gun-shot, yet which shelters here and there some ver-
dant date-trees; once an important city, containing six
public markets, and twenty-six mosques, and whose walls,
defended by fourteen forts, formed a girdle of two miles
in circumference.

The Nautilus then approached the African shore, where
the depth of the sea was greater. There, between two
waters clear as crystal, through the open panels we were
allowed to contemplate the beautiful bushes of brilliant
coral, and large blocks of rock clothed with a splendid fur
of green alge and fuci. What an indescribable spectacle,
and what variety of sites and landscapes along these sand-
banks and volcanic islands which bound the Lybian coast!
But where these shrubs appeared in all their beauty was on
the eastern coast, which the Nautilus soon gained. It was
on the coast of Tehama, for there not only did this display
of zoéphytes flourish beneath the level of the sea, but they
also formed picturesque interlacings which unfolded them-
selves about sixty feet above the surface, more capricious
but less highly colored than those whose freshness was kept
up by the vital power of the waters.
192 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

What charming hours I passed thus at the window of the
saloon! What new specimens of submarine flora and fauna
did I admire under the brightness of our electric lantern!

There grew sponges of all shapes, pediculated, foliated,
globular, and digital. They certainly justified the names
of baskets, cups, distaffs, elk’s-horns, lion’s-feet, peacock’s-
tails, and Neptune’s-gloves, which have been given to them
by the fishermen, greater poets than the savants.

Other zoéphytes which multiply near the sponges con-
sist principally of medusz of a most elegant kind. The
molluscs were represented by varieties of the calmar
(which, according to Orbigny, are peculiar to the Red
Sea); and reptiles by the virgata turtle, of the genus of
cheloniz, which furnished a wholesome and delicate food
for our table.

As to the fish, they were abundant, and often remark-
able. The following are those which the nets of the Nau-
tilus brought more freqnently on board:

Rays of a red-brick color, with bodies marked with blue
spots, and easily recognizable by their double spikes; some
superb caranxes, marked with seven transverse bands of
jet-black, blue and yellow fins, and gold and silver scales;
mullets with yellow heads; gobies, and a thousand other
species, common to the ocean which we had just traversed.

The 9th of February, the Nautilus floated in the broad-
est part of the Red Sea, which is comprised between Soua-
kin on the west coast, and Koomfidah, on the east coast,
with a diameter of ninety miles.

That day at noon, after the bearings were taken, Captain
Nemo mounted the platform, where I happened to be, and
I was determined not to let him go down again without at
least pressing him regarding his ulterior projects. As soon
as he saw me he approached, and graciously offered me. a
cigar.

“Well, sir, does this Red Sea please you? Have you
sufficiently observed the wonders it covers, its fishes, its
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEABS. 193

-zodphytes, its parterres of sponges, and its forests of coral?
Did you catch a glimpse of the towns on its borders?”

“Yes, Captain Nemo,” I replied; ‘‘and the Nautilus is
wonderfully fitted for such a study. Ah! it is an in-
telligent boat!”

“Yes, sir, intelligent andinvulnerable. It fears neither
the terrible tempests of the Red Sea, nor its currents, nor
its sand-banks.” :

* Certainly,” said I, “this sea is quoted as one of the
‘worst, and in the time of the ancients, if I am not mis-
taken, its reputation was detestable.’ ’

‘* Detestable, M. Aronnax. The Greek and Latin his-
sorians do not speak favorably of it, and Strabo says it is
very dangerous during the Etesian winds, and in the rainy
‘season. The Arabian Edrisi portrays it under the name of
‘Gulf of Colzoum, and relates that vessels perished there in
yreat numbers on the sandbanks, and that no one would
tisk sailing in the night. It is, he pretends, a sea subject
to fearful hurricanes, strewn with inhospitable islands, and
‘which offers nothing good either on its surface or in its
‘depths.’ Such, too, is the opinion of Arrian, Agathar-
cides, and Artemidorus.”

“One may see,” I replied, ‘‘ that these historians never
sailed on board the Nautilus.”

“¢ Just so,” replied the captain, smiling; ‘‘and in that
‘cespect moderns are not more advanced than the ancients.
It required many ages to find out the mechanical power of
steam. Who knows if, in another hundred years, we may
not see a second Nautilus? Progress is slow, M. Aron-
nax.”

“Tt is true,” I answered; ‘‘ your boat is at least a cen-
tury before its time, perhaps an era, What a misfortune
that the secret of such an invention should die with its in-
ventor!”

Captain Nemo did not ~eply. After some minutes’
‘silence he continned:
194 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

«¢ You were speaking of the opinions of ancient historians
upon the dangerous navigation of the Red Sea.”

“Tt is true,” said I; “but were not their fears exag-
gerated?”

“*Yes and no, M. Aronnax,” replied Captain Nemo, who
seemed to know the Red Sea by heart. ‘‘ That which is
no longer dangerous for a modern vessel, well rigged,
strongly built, and master of its own course, thanks to
obedient steam, offered all sorts of perils to the ships of the
ancients. Pictute to yourself those first navigators ven-
turing in ships made of planks sewn with the cords of the
palm-tree, saturated with the grease of the sea-dog, and
covered with powdered resin! They had not even instru-
ments wherewith to take their bearings, and they went by
guess among currents of which they scarcely knew any-
thing. Under such conditions shipwrecks were, and must
have been, numerous. But in our time, steamers running
between Suez and the South Seas have nothing more to
fear from the fury of this gulf, in spite of contrary trade-
winds. The captain and passengers do not prepare for
their departure by offering propitiatory sacrifices; and, on
their return, they no longer go ornamented with wreaths
and gilt fillets to thank God in the neighboring tem-
ple.

“‘T agree with you,” said I; ‘‘and steam seems to have
killed all gratitude in the hearts of sailors. But, captain,
since you seem to have especially studied this sea, can you
tell me the origin of its name?”

‘‘There exist several explanations on the subject, M.
Aronnax. Would you like to know the opinion of a
chronicler of the fourteen century?”

« Willingly.” :

“‘This fanciful writer pretends that its name was given
to it after the passage of the Israelites, when Pharaoh
perished in the waves which closed at the voice of Moses.”

«A poet’s explanation, Captain Nemo,” I replied; ‘but
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 195

i cannot content myself with that. I ask you for your per-
sonal opinion.”

“Here it is, M. Aronnax. According to my idea, we
must see in this appellation of the Red Sea a translation of
the Hebrew word ‘ Edom;’ and if the ancients gave it that
name, it was on account of the particular color of its wa-
ters.”

“But up to this time I have seen nothing but transpar-
ent waves and without any particular color.”

“Very likely; but as we advance to the bottom of the
gulf, you will see this singular appearance. I remember
secing the Bay of Tor entirely red, like a sea of blood.”

“And you attribute this color to the presence of a micro-
scopic sea-weed ?”

“Yes; it is a mucilaginous purple matter, produced by
the restless little plants known by the name of trichodes-
mia, and of which it requires 40,000 to occupy the space of
a square .04 of an inch. Perhaps we shall meet some when
we get to Tor.”

“So, Captain Nemo, it is not the first time you have
overrun the Red Sea on board the Nautilus?”

“No, sir.”

‘* As you spoke a while ago of the passage of the Israel-
ites, and of the catastrophe to the Egyptians, I will ask
whether you have met with traces under the water of this
great historical fact?”

‘‘No, sir; and for a very good reason.”

“What is it?”

“Tt is, that the spot where Moses and his people passed.
is now so blocked up with sand, that the camels can barely
bathe their legs there. You can well understand that
there would not be water enough for my Nautilus.”

‘And the spot?” I asked.

“©The spot is situated a little above the Isthmus of Suez,
in the arm which formerly made a deep estuary, when the
Red Sea extended to the Salt Lakes. Now, whether this
196 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THH SHAS,

passage were miraculous or not, the Israelites, nevertheless,
crossed there to reach the Promised Land, and Pharaoh’s
army perished precisely on that spot; and I think that ex-
cayations made in the middle of the sand would bring to
light a large number of arms and instruments of Egyptian
origin.”

“‘That is evident,” I replied; ‘‘and for the sake of
archeologists let us hope that these excavations will be
made sooner or later, when new towns are established on
the isthmus, after the construction of the Suez Canal; a
canal, however, very useless to a vessel like the Nautilus.”

“Very likely; but useful to the whole world,” said Cap-
tain Nemo. ‘‘ The ancients well understood the utility of
a communication between the Red Sea and the Mediter-
ranean for their commercial affairs; but they did not think
of digging a canal direct, and took the Nile as an intermedi-
ate. Very probably the canal which united the Nile to the
Red Sea was begun by Sesostris, if we may believe tradi-
tion. One thing is certain, that in the year 615 before
Jesus Christ, Necos undertook the works of an alimentary
canal to the waters of the Nile, across the plain of Egypt,
looking towards Arabia. It took four days to go up this
canal, and it was so wide that two triremes could go abreast.
It was carried on by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, and
probably finished by Ptolemy II. Strabo sawit navigated;
but its decline from the point of departure, near Bubastes,
to the Red Sea was so slight, that it was only navigable for
a few months in the year. This canal answered all com-
mercial purposes to the age of Antoninus, when it was
abandoned and blocked up with sand. Restored by order
of the Caliph Omar, it was definitively destroyed in 761 or
762 by Caliph Al-Mansor, who wished to prevent the
arrival of provisions to Mohammed-ben-Abdallah, who had
revolted against him. During the expedition into Egypt,
your General Bonaparte discovered traces of the works in
the Desert of Suez; and, surprised by the tide, he nearly
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER TH 8HAS, 197

perished before regaining Hadjaroth, at the very place
where Moses had encamped three thousand years before
him.”

“Well, Captain, what the ancients dared not undertake,
this junction between the two seas, which will shorien the
road from Cadiz to India, M. Lesseps has succeeded in do-
ing; and before long he will have changed Africa into an
immense island.”

‘*Yes, M. Aronnax; you have the right to be proud of
your countryman. Such a man brings more honor to a
nation than great captains. He began, like so many others,
with disgust and rebuffs; but he has triumphed, for he has
the genius of will. And it is sad to think that a work like
that, which ought to have been an international work, and
which would have sufficed to make a reign illustrious, should
have succeeded by the energy of one man. All honor to M.
Lesseps!”

‘Yes, honor to the great citizen!” I replied, surprised
by the manner in which Captain Nemo had just spoken.

“Unfortunately,” he continued, “I cannot take you
through the Suez Canal; but you will be able to see the
long jetty of Port Said after to-morrow, when we shall be
in the Mediterranean.”

** The Mediterranean!’ I exclaimed.

“Yes, sir; does that astonish you?”

"What astonishes me is to think that we shall be there
the day after to-morrow.”

** Indeed?”

“Yes, Captain, although by this time J ought to have
accustomed myself to be surprised at nothing since I have
been on board your boat.”

«But the cause of this surprise?”

“Well! it is the fearful speed you will have to put on
the Wautilus, if the day after to-morrow she is to be in
the Mediterranean, having made the round of Africa, and
douvied the Cape of Good Hope!”
198 / 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAB,

“Who told you that she would make the round of Africa,
and double the Cape of Good Hope, sir?”

‘¢ Well, unless the Nautilus sails on dry land, and passes
above the isthmus—”

“‘Or beneath it, M. Aronnax.”

“Beneath it??

“Certainly,” replied Captain Nemo, quietly. A long
time ago nature made under this tongue of land what man
has this day made on its surface.”

«‘ What! such a passage exists?”

“‘Yes; a subterranean passage, which I have named the
Arabian Tunnel. It takes us beneath Suez, and opens into
the Gulf of Pelusium.” ;

“But this isthmus is composed of nothing but quick-
sands?”

“‘To a certain depth. But at fifty-five yards only, there
is a solid layer of rock.”

“Did you discover this passage by chance?” I asked,
more and more surprised.

*¢ Chance and reasoning, sir; and by reasoning even more
than by chance. Not only does this passage exist, but ]
have profited by it several times. Without that I should
not have ventured this day into the impassable Red Sea.
I noticed that in the Red Sea and in the Mediterranean
there existed a certain number of fishes of a kind perfectly
identical,—ophidia, fiatoles, girelles, and exoceti. Cer-
tain of that fact, I asked myself was it possible that there
was no communication between the two seas?” If there
was, the subterranean current must necessarily run from
the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, from the sole cause of
difference of level. I caught a large number of fishes in
the neighborhood of Suez. I passed a copper ring through
their tails,,and threw them back inte the sea. some
months later, on the coast of Syria, I caught some of mv
fish ornamented with the ring. Thus the communication
between the two was proved. I then soughi, for it with
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THH SEAS, 19%

my Nautilus ; I discovered it, ventured into it, and be-
Yore long, sir, you too will have passed through my Ara-
bian tunnel!”

CHAPTER V.
THE ARABIAN TUNNEL

THAT same evening, in 21° 30’ north latitude, the
Nautilus floated on the surface of the sea, approaching
the Arabian coast. I saw Djeddah, the most important
counting-house of Egyp, tSyria, Turkey, and India. I
distinguished clearly enough its buildings, the vessels
anchored at the quays, and those whose draught of water
obliged them to anchor in the roads. The sun, rather low
on the horizon, struck full on the houses of the town,
bringing out their whiteness. Outside, some wooden
cabins, and some made of reeds, showed the quarter in-
habited by the Bedouins. Soon Djeddah was shut out
from view by the shadows of night, and the Nautilus found
herself under water slightly phosphorescent.

The next day, the 10th of February, we sighted several
ships running to windward. The Nautilus returned to its
aubmarine navigation; but at noon, when her bearings
were taken, the sea being deserted, she rose again to her
water-line. ,

Accompanied by Ned and Conseil, I seated myself on the
platform. The coast on the eastern side looked like a mass
faintly printed upon a damp fog.

We were leaning on the sides of the pinnace, talking of
one thing and another, when Ned Land, stretching out his
hand towards a spot on the sea, said :

«‘Do you see anything there, sir ?”

“No, Ned,” I replied; ‘“‘but I have not your eyes, you
know.”
200 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

“Look well,” said Ned, ‘‘there, on the starboard beam,
abought the height of the lantern! Do you not see a mass
which scems to move ?”

“Certainly,” said I, after close attention; ‘‘I see some-
thing like a long black body on the top of the water.”

And certainly before long the black object was not more
than w mile from us. It looked like a great sand-bank de-
posited in the open sea. It wag a gigantic dugong!

Ned Land looked eagerly. His eyes shone with covet-
ousness at the sight of the animal. His hand seemed ready
to harpoon it. One would have thought he was awaiting
the moment to throw himself into the sea, and attack it in,
its element.

At this instant Captain Nemo appeared on the platform.
He saw the dugong, understood the Canadian’s attitude,
and addressing him, said :

“Tf you held a harpoon just now, Master Land, would
it not burn your hand ?”

“Just so, sir.”

«And you would not be sorry to go back, for one day,
to your trade of a fisherman, and to add this cetacean to
the list of those you have already killed ?”

“*T should not, sir.”

“Well, you can try.”

“Thank you, sir,” said Ned Land, his eyes flaming.

“Only,” continued the captain, “‘I advise you for your
own sake not to miss the creature.”

“Is the dugong dangercus to attack ?” 1 asked, in spite
of the Canadian’s shrug of the shoulders.

“Yes,” replied the captain; ‘‘sometimes the animal
turns upon its assailants and overturns their boat. But
for Master Land, this danger is not to be feared. His eye
is prompt, his arm sure.”

At this moment séven men of the crew, mute and im-
movable as ever, mounted the platform.’ One carried a
harpoon anda line similar to those employed in catching
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 901

whales. The pinnace was lifted from the bridge, pulled
from its socket, and let down into the sea. Six oarsmen
took their seats, and the coxswain went to the tiller. Ned,
Conseil, and I went to the back of the boat.

“You are not coming, Captain ?” I asked.

“No, sir; but I wish you good sport.”

The boat put off, and lifted by the six rowers, drew
rapidly towards the dugong, which floated about two miles
from the Nautilus.

Arrived some cables’ length from the cetacean, the speed
slackened, and the oars dipped noiselessly in the quiet
waters. Ned Land, harpoon in hand, stood in the fore
part of the boat. The harpoon used for striking the whale
is generally attached to a very long cord, which runs out
rapidly as the wounded creature draws it after him. But
here the cord was not more than ten fathoms long, and
the extremity was attached to a small barrel, which, by
floating, was to show the course the dugong took under
the water.

T stood, and carefully watched the Canadian’s adversary.
This dugong, which also bears the name of the halicore,
closely resembles the manatee; its oblong body terminated
in a lengthened tail, and its lateral fins in perfect fingers.
Tis difference from the manatee consisted in its upper jaw,
which was armed with two long and pointed teeth, which
formed on each side diverging tusks.

This dugong, which Ned Land was preparing to attack,
was of colossal dimensions: it was more than seven yards
long. . It did not move, and seemed to be sleeping on the
waves, which circumstance made it easier to capture.

The boat approached within six yards of the animal.
The oars rested on the rowlocks. I half rose. Ned Land,
his body thrown a little back, brandished the harpoon in
ais experienced hand.

Suddenly a hissing noise was heard, and the dugong dis-
202 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

appeared. The harpoon, although thrown with great
force, had apparently only struck the water.

‘Curse it!” exclaimed the Canadian furiously; ‘I have
missed it !”

“No,” said I; *‘the creature is wounded,—look at the
blood; but your weapon has not stuck in his body.”

“*My harpoon! my harpoon !” cried Ned Land.

The sailors rowed on, and the coxswain made for the
floating barrel. The harpoon regained, we followed in
pursuit of the animal.

’ The latter came now and then to the surface to breathe.
Its wound had not weakened it, for it shot onwards with
great rapidity.

The boat, rowed by strong arms, flew on its track.
Several times it approached within some few yards, and
the Canadian was ready to strike, but the dugong made off
with a sudden plunge, and it. was impossible to reach it.

Imagine the passion which excited impatient Ned Land !
He hurled at the unfortunate creature the most energetic
expletives in the English tongue. For my part I was only
vexed to see the dugong escape all our attacks.

We pursued it without relaxation for an hour, and I be-
gan to think it would prove difficult to capture, when the
animal, possessed with the perverse idea of vengeance, of
which he had cause to repent, turned upon the pinnace
and assailed us in its turn.

This manceuvre did not escape the Canadian.

“Look out !” he cried.

The coxswain said some words in his outlandish tongue,
doubtless warning the men to keep on their guard.

The dugong came within twenty feet of the boat,
stopped, sniffed the air briskly with its large nostrils (not
pierced at the extremity, but in the upper part of its
muzzle). Then taking a spring he threw himself upon
us.

The pinnace could not avoid the shock, and half upset,
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 908

shipped at least two tons of water, which had to be
emptied; but thanks to the coxswain, we caught it side-
ways, not full front, so we were not quite overturned.
While Ned Land, clinging to the bows, belabored the
gigantic animal with blows from his harpoon, the creature’s
teeth were buried in the gunwale, and it lifted the whole
thing out of the water, as a lion does a roebuck. We were
upset over one another, and I know not how the adventure
would have ended, if the Canadian, still enraged with the
beast, had not struck it to the heart.

Theard its teeth grind on the iron plate, and the dugong
disappeared, carrying the harpoon with him. But the
barrel soon returned to the surface, and shortly after the
body of the animal, turned on its back. The boat came
up with it, took it in tow, and made straight for the Nau-
tilus.

It required tackle of enormous strength to hoist the du-
gong on to the platform. It weighed 10,000 lbs.

The next day, February 11th, the larder of the Nautilus
was enriched by some more delicate game. A flight of sea-
swallows rested on the Nautilus. 1t was a species of the
Sterna nilotica, peculiar to Egypt; its beak is black, head
gray and pointed, the eye surrounded by white spots, the
back, wings, and tail of a grayish color, the belly and
throat white, and claws red. They also took some dozen
of Nile ducks, a wild bird of high flavor, its throat and
upper part of the head white with black spots.

About five o’clock in the evening we sighted to the north
the Cape of Ras-Mohamnied. This cape forms the extrem-
ity of Arabia Petra, comprised between the Gulf of Suez
and the Gulf of Acabah.

The Nawiilus penetrated into the Straits of Jubal, which
leads to the Gulf of Suez. I distinctly saw a high moun-
tain, towering between the two gulfs of Ras-Mohammed.
It was Mount Horeb, that Sinai at the top of which Moses
saw God face to face.
904." 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

At six o’clock the Nautilus, sometimes floating, some-
times immersed, passed some distance from Tor, situated at
the end of the bay, the waters of which seemed tinted with
red, an observation already made by Captain Nemo, Then
night fell in the midst of a heavy silence, sometimes broken
by the cries of the pelican and other night-birds, and the
noise of the waves breaking upon the shore, chafing against
the rocks, or the panting of some far-off steamer beating
the waters of the gulf with its noisy paddles,

From eight to nine o’clock the Wautilus remained some
fathoms under the water. According to my calculation
we must have been very near Suez. Through the panel of
the saloon I saw the bottom of the rocks brilliantly lit up
by our electric lamp. We seemed to be leaving the straits
behind us more and more.

At a quarter past nine, the vessel having returned to the
surface, I mounted the platform. Most impatient to pass
through Captain Nemo’s tunnel, I could not stay in one
place, so came to breathe the fresh night-air.

Soon in the shadow I saw a pale light, half discolored by
the fog, shining about a mile from us.

“A floating lighthouse!” said some one near me.

I turned, and saw the captain.

“Tt is the floating light of Suez,” he continued. ‘It
will not be long before we gain the entrance of the tunnel.”

“‘The entrance cannot be easy?”

“No, sir; and for that season I am accustomed to go
into the steersman’s cage, and myself direct our course.
And now if you will go down, M. Aronnax, the Nautilus
‘is going under the waves, and will not return to the sur-
face until we have passed through the Arabian Tunnel.”

Captain Nemo led me towards the central staircase; half-
way down he opened a door, traversed the upper deck, and
landed in the pilot’s cage, which it may be remembered
rose at the extremity of the platform. It was a cabin
measuring six feet square, very much like that occupied
7
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 205

by the pilot on the steamboats of the Mississippi or Hudson.
In the midst worked a wheel, placed vertically, and caught to
the tiller-rope, which ran to the back of the Nautilus. Four
light-ports with lenticular glasses, let in a groove in the
partition of the cabin, allowed the man at the wheel to see
in all directions.

This cabin was dark, but scon my eyes accustomed them-
selves to the obscurity, and I perceived the pilot, a strong
man, with his hands resting on the spokes of the wheel.
Outside, the sea appeared vividly lit up by the lantern,
which shed its rays from the back of the cabin to the other
extremity of the platform.

“Now,” said Captain Nemo, “let us try to make our
passage.”

Electric wires connected the pilot’s cage with the ma
chinery-room, and from there the captain could communi-
cate simultaneously to his Nautilus the direction and the
speed. He pressed a metal knob, and at once the speed of
the screw diminished.

I looked in silence at the high straight wall we were run-
ning by at this moment, the immovable base of a massive
sandy coast. We followed it thus for an hour only some
few yards off.

Captain Nemo did not take his eye from the knob, sus-
pended by its two concentric circles in the cabin. At a
single gesture, the pilot modified the course of the Nautilus
every instant.

I had placed myself at the port-scuttle, and saw some
magnificent substructures of coral, zodphytes, sea-weed,
and fucus, agitating their enormous claws, which stretched
out from the fissures of the rock.

At a quarter past ten, the captain himself took the helm.
A large gallery, black and deep, opened before us. The
Nautilus went boldly into it. A strange roaring was heard
round its sides. It was the waters of the Red Sea, which
the incline of the tunnel precipitated violently towards
206 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS,

the Mediterranean. The Nautilus went with the torrent,
rapid as an arrow, in spite of the efforts of the machinery,
which, in order to offer more effective resistance, beat the
wares with reversed screw.

On the walls of the narrow passage I could see nothing
but brilliant rays, straight lines, furrows of fire, traced by
the great speed, under the brilliant electric light. My
heart beat fast.

At thirty-five minutes past ten, Captain Nemo quitted
the helm; and, turning to me, said:

«The Mediterranean!”

In less than twenty minutes, the Nautilus, carried along
by the torrent, had passed through the Isthmus of Suez.

1

CHAPTER VI.
THE GRECIAN ARCHIPELAGO.

Tue next day, the 12th of February, at the dawn of day,
the Nautilus rose to the surface. I hastened on to the
platform. Three miles to the south the dim outline of
Pelusium was to be seen. A torrent had carried us from
one sea to the other. About seven o’clock Ned and Conseil
joined me.

‘‘ Well, Sir Naturalist,” said the Canadian, in a slightly
jovial tone, “and the Mediterranean?”

‘* Weare iloating on its surface, friend Ned.”

<‘ What!” said Conseil, ‘‘ this very night.”

«Yes, this very night; in a few minutes we have passed
this impassable isthmus.”

““T do not believe it,” replied the Canadian.

«Then you are wrong, Master Land,” I continued; ‘this
iow coast which rounds off to the south is the Egyptian
20,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 20%

coast.. And you, who have such good eyes, Ned, yon can
see the jetty of Port Said stretching into the sea.”

The Canadian looked attentively.

“* Certainly you are right, sir, and your captain is a first-
rate man. We are in the Mediterianenns Good! Now,
if you please, let us tallx of our own little affair, but so that
no one hears us.”

I saw what the Canadian wanted, and, in any case, I
thought it better to let him talk, as he wished it; so we all
three went and sat down near the lantern, where we were
less exposed to the spray of the blades.

“‘ Now, Ned, we listen; what have you to tell us?”

“What I have to tell youis very simple. We are in Eu-
rope; and before Captain Nemo’s caprices drag us once more
to the bottom of the Polar Seas, or lead us into Oceania, I
ask to leave the Nautilus.”

I wished in no way to shackle the liberty of my compan-
ions, but I certainly felt no desire to leave Captain Nemo.

Thanks to him, and thanks to his apparatus, I was each
day nearer the completion of my submarine studies; and I
was re-writing my book of submarine depths in its very
element. Should I ever again have such an opportunity
of observing the wonders of the ocean? No, certainly not!
And I could not bring myself to the idea of abandoning the
Nautilus before the cycle of investigation was accomplished.

“Friend Ned, answer me frankly, are you tired of being
on board? Are you sorry that destiny has thrown us inte
Captain Nemo’s hands?”

The Canadian remained some moments without answer-
ing. Then crossing his arms, he said:

© Frankly, I do not regret this. journey under the seas.
I shall be glad to have made it; but now that it is made,
let us have done with it. That is my idea.”

“Tt will come to an end, Ned.”

“* Where and when?”

‘Where I do not know, when I cannot say; or, rather,
208 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

I suppose it will end when these seas have nothing more to
teach us.”

«Then what do you hope for?” demanded the Canadian.

«That circumstances may occur as well six months
hence as now by which we may and ought to profit.”

«©Q,” said Ned Land, ‘‘and where shall we be in six
months, if you please, Sir Naturalist?”

‘Perhaps in China; you know the Nautilus is a rapid
traveller. It goes through water as swallows through the
air, or as an express on the Jand. It does not fear fre-
quented seas; who can say that it may not beat the coasts
of France, England, or America, on which flight may be
attempted as advantageously as here.”

“*M. Aronnax,” replied the Canadian, “‘ your arguments
are rotten at the foundation. You speak in the future,
‘We shall be there! we shall be here!’ I speak in the
present, ‘ We are here, and we must profit by it.’ ”

Ned Land’s logic pressed me hard, and I felt myself
beaten on that ground. , I knew not what argument would
now tell in my favor.

“Sir,” continued Ned, ‘let us suppose an impossibility;
if Captain Nemo should this day offer you your liberty,
would you accept it?”

**T do not know,” I answered.

«‘And if,” he added, ‘‘the offer he made you this day
was never to be renewed, would you accept it?”

“‘Friend Ned, this is my answer. Your reasoning is
against me. We must not rely on Captain Nemo’s good-
will. Common prudence forbids him to set us at liberty.
On the other side, prudence bids us profit by the first op-
portunity to leave the Nautilus.”

«Well, M. Aronnax, that is wisely said.”

“Only one observation,—just one. The occasion must
pe serious, and our first attempt must succeed; if it fails,
we shall never find another, and Captain Nemo will never
forgive us.”
20,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS, 909

‘All that is true,” replied the Canadian. ‘But your
observation applies equally to all attempts at flight, whether
in two years’ time, or in two days. But the question is
still this: if a favorable opportunity presents itself, it must
be seized.”
~ “Agreed! and now, Ned, will you tell me what you mean
by a favorable opportunity?”

“Tt will be that which, on a dark night, will bring the
Nautilus a short distance from some European coast.”

“And you will try and save yourself by swimming?”

“Yes, if we were near enough to the bank, and if the
vessel was floating at the time. Notif the bank was far
away, and the boat was under the water.”

«And in that case?”

“In that case, I should seek to make myself master of
the pinnace. I know how itis worked. We must get in-
side, and the bolts once drawn, we shall come to the surface
of the water, without even the pilot, who is in the bows,
perceiving our flight.”

«‘ Well, Ned, watch for the opportunity; but do not for-
get that a hitch will ruin us.”

“J will not forget, sir.”

‘© And now, Ned, would you like to know what I think
of your project?”

“Certainly, M. Aronnax.”

‘‘ Well, I think—I do not say I hope—I think that this
favorable opportunity will never present itself.”

‘Why not?”

“Because Captain Nemo cannot hide from himself that
we have not given up all hope of regaining our liberty, and
he will be on his guard, above all, in the seas, and in the
sight of European coasts.”

‘*We shall see,” replied Ned Land, shaking his head de-
terminedly.

“And now, Ned Land,” I added, ‘‘let us stop here.
Not another word on the subject. The day that you are
210 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

ready, come and let us know, and we will follow you. 1
rely entirely upon you.”

Thus. ended a conversation which, at no very distant
time, léd to such grave results, I must say here that facts
seemed to confirm my foresight, to the Canadian’s great
despair. Did Captain Nemo distrust us in these frequented
seas? or did he only wish to hide himself from the numer.
ous vessels, of all nations, which ploughed the Mediter.
rannean? I could not tell; but we were oftener betwecu
waters, and far from the coast. Or, if the Nautilus did
emerge, nothing was to be seen but the pilot’s cage; and
sometimes it went to great depths, for, between the Grecian
Archipelago and Asia Minor, we could not touch the bot:
tom by more than a thousand fathoms.

Thus I only knew we were near the island of Carpathos,
one of the Sporades, by Captain Nemo reciting these lines
from Virgil:

‘« Est in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite vates,
Ceeruleus Proteus,”

as he pointed to a spot on the planisphere.

It was indeed the ancient abode of Proteus, the old shep-
herd of Neptune’s flocks, now the island of Scarpanto,
situated between Rhodes and Crete. I saw nothing but
the granite base through the glass panels of the saloon.

The next day, the 14th of February, I resolved to em-
ploy some hours in studying the fishes of the Archipelago;
but for some reason vr other, the panels remained hermet-
ically sealed. Upon taking the course of the Nautilus I
found that we were going towards Candia, the ancient Isle
of Crete. At the time I embarked on the Abraham Lin-
coln, the whole of this island had risen in insurrection
against the despotism of the Turks. But how the insur-
gents had fared since that time I was absolutely ignorant,
and it was not Captain Nemo, deprived of all land com-
munications, who could tell me. |
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 914

I made no allusion to this event when that night I found
mysclf alone with him in the saloon. Besides, he seemed
to be taciturn and preoceupied. Then, contrary to his
custom, he ordered both panels to be opened, and going
from one to the other, observed the mass of waters at-
tentively. To what end I could not guess; so, on my side,
Temployed my time in studying the fish passing before my
eyes.

Amongst others, I remarked some gobies, mentioned by
Aristotle, and commonly known by the name of sea-braches,
which are more particularly met with in the salt waters
lying near the Delta of the Nile. Near them rolled some
sea-bream, half phosphorescent, a kind of sparus, which
the Egyptians ranked amongst their sacred animals, whose
arrival in the waters of their river announced a fertile over-
flow, and was celebrated by religious ceremonies. I also
noticed some cheilines about nine inches long, a bony fish
with transparent shell, whose livid color is mixed with red
spots; they are great eaters of marine vegetation, which
gives them an exquisite flavor. These cheilines were much
sought after by the epicures of ancient Rome; the inside,
dressed with the soft roe of the lamprey, peacocks’ brains,
and tongues of the phenicoptera, composed that divine dish
of which Vitellius was so enamored.

Another inhabitant of these seas drew my attention, and
led my mind back to recollections of antiquity. It was the
remora, that fastens on to the shark’s belly. This little
fish, according to the ancients, hooking on to the ship’s
bottom, could stop its movements; and one of them, by
keeping back Antony’s ship during the battle of Actium,
helped Augustus to gain the victory. On how little hangs
the destiny of nations! I observed some fine anthiew, which
belong to the order of Iutjans, a fish held sacred by the
Greeks, who attributed to them the power of hunting the
marine monsters from waters they frequented. Their name
signifies flower, and they justify their appellation by their
912 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

shaded colors, their shades comprising the whole gamut oy
reds, from the paleness of the rose to the brightness of the
ruby, and the fugitive tints that clouded their dorsal fin
My eyes could not leave these wonders of the sea, when
they were suddenly struck by an unexpected apparition.

In the midst of the waters a man appeared, a diver,
carrying at his belt a leathern purse. It was not a body
abandoned to the waves; it was a living man, swimming
with a strong hand, disappearing occasionally to take
breath at the surface.

I turned towards Captain Nemo, and in an agitated voice
exclaimed:

‘‘A man shipwrecked! He must be saved at any price!”

The captain did not answer me, but came and leaned
against the panel.

The man had approached, and with his face flattened
against the glass, was looking at us.

To my great amazement, Captain Nemo signed to him,
The diver answered with his hand, mounted immediately
to the surface of the water, and did not appear again.

““Do not be uncomfortable,” said Captain Nemo. ‘It
is Nicholas of Cape Matapan, surnamed Pesca. He is well
known in all the Cyclades. A bold diver! water is his
element, and he lives more in it than on land, going con.
tinually from one island to another, even as far as Crete.”

“You know him, Captain?”

«Why not, M. Aronnax?”

Saying which, Captain Nemo went towards a piece of
furniture standing near the left panelof the saloon. Near
this piece of furniture, I saw a chest bound with iron, on
the cover of which was a copper plate, bearing the cipher
of the Nautilus, with its device.

At that moment, the captain, without noticing my pres-
ence, opened the piece of furniture, a sort of strong hox,
which held a great many ingots.

They were ingots of gold. From whence came this
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 213

precious metal, which represented an enormous sum?
Where did the captain gather this gold from? And what
was he going to do with it?

I did not say one word. I looked. Captain Nemo took
the ingots one by one, and arranged them methodically in
the chest, which he filled entirely. I estimated the con-
tents at more than 4000 Ibs. weight of gold, that is to say,
nearly £200,000.

The chest was securely fastened, and the captain wrote
an address on the lid in characters which must have be-
longed to to Modern Greece.

This done, Captain Nemo pressed a knob, the wire of
which communicated with the quarters of the crew. Four
men appeared, and, not without some trouble, pushed the
chest out of the saloon. Then I heard them hoisting it
up the iron staircase by means of pulleys.

At that moment Captain Nemo turned to me.

“And you were saying, sir?” said he.

“7 was saying nothing, Captain.”

«Then, sir, if you will allow me, I will wish you good
night.”

Whereupon he turned and left the saloon.

I returned to my room much troubled, as one may be-
lieve. I vainly tried to sleep,—I sought the connecting
link between the apparition of the diver and the chest
filled with gold. Soon, I felt by certain movements of
pitching and tossing, that the Nautilus was leaving the
depths and returning to the surface.

Then I heard steps upon the platform; and I knew they
were unfastening the pinnace, and launching it upon the
waves. For one instant it struck the side of the Vautilus,
then all noise ceased.

Two hours after the same noise, the same going and
coming was renewed; the boat was hoisted on board, re-
places in its socket, and the Vautilus again plunged under
the waves.
214 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS,

So these millions had been transported to their address.
To what point of the Continent? Who was Captain Nemo’s
correspondent?

The next day I related to Conseil and the Canadian the
events of the night, which had excited my curiosity to the
highest degree. My companions were not less surprised
than myself.

“But where does he take his millions to?” asked Ned
Land.

To that there was no possible answer. I returned to the
saloon after having breakfast, and set to work. Till five
o’clock in the evening, I employed myself in arranging my
notes. At that moment (ought I to attribute it to sume
peculiar idiosyncrasy?) I felt so great alheat that I was
obliged to take off my coat of byssus! It was strange, for
we were not under low latitudes, and even then, the Vaw-
tilus, submerged as it was, ought to experience no change
of temperature. I looked at the manometer; it showed a
depth of sixty feet, to which atmospheric heat could never
attain.

I continued my work, but the temperature rose to such
a pitch as to be intolerable.

“Could there be fire on board?” I asked myself.

I was leaving the saloon, when Captain Nemo entered;
he approached the thermometer, consulted it, and turning
to me, said:

“« Forty-two degrees.”

“‘T have noticed it Captain,” I replied; and if it gets
much hotter, we cannot bear it.”

“QO, sir, it will not get hotter if we do not wish it.”

°* You can reduce it as-you please, then?”

*“No; but I can go farther from the stove which pro-
duces it.”

“Tt is outward, then!” ;

“* Certainly; we are floating in acurrent of boiling water.”

“Ts it possible!” I exclaimed.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER HE SHAS. 215

** Look.”

The panels opened, and I saw the sea entirely white all
round. A sulphurous smoke was curling amid the waves,
which boiled like water in a copper. I placed my hand
on one of the panes of glass, but the heat was so great that
I quickly took it off again.

“Where are we?” I asked.

‘Near the Island of Santorin,” sir,” replied the captain,
“and just in the canal which separate Nea Kamenni from
Pali Kamenni. I wished to give you a sight of the curi-
ous spectacle of a submarine eruption.”

**T thought, said I, “‘that the formation of these new
islands was ended.”

“‘Nothing is ever ended in the volcanic parts of the
sea,” replied Captain Nemo; “and the globe is always being
worked by subterranean fires. Already, in the nineteenth
year of our era, according to Cassidorus and Pliny, a new
island, Theia (the divine), appeared in the very place
islets have recently been formed. Then they sank under
the waves, to rise again in the year 69, when they again
subsided. Since that time to our days the Plutonian work
has been suspended. But, on the 3d of February, 1866,
a new island, which they named George Island, emerged
from the midst of the sulphurous vapor near Nea Kamenni,
and settled again the 6th of the same month. Seven
days after, the 13th of February, the Island of Aphroessa
appeared, leaving between Nea Kamenni and itself a canal
ten yards broad. J was in these seas when the phenome-
non occurred, and I was able therefore to observe all the
different phases. The Island of Aphroessa, of round form,
measured 300 feet in diameter, and thirty feet in height.
It was composed of black and vitreous lava, mixed with
fragments of felspar.’ And lastly, on the 10th of March,
a smaller island, called Reka, showed itself near Nea Kam-
enni, and since then these three have joined together,
forming but one and the same island.”
216 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

«And the canal in which we are at this moment?” I
asked.

“* Here it is,” replied Captain Nemo, showing me a map
of the Archipelago. ‘‘ You see I have marked the new
islands.”

Treturned to the glass. The Nautilus was no longer
moving, the heat was becoming unbearable. The sea,
which till now had been white, was red, owing to the pres-
ence of salts of iron. In spite of the ship’s being hermeti
cally sealed, an insupportable smell of sulphur filled the
saloon, and the brilliancy of the electricity was entirely ex-
tinguished by bright scarlet flames. I was in a bath, I was
choking, I was broiled.

““We can remain no longer in this boiling water,” said
I to the captain.

“Tt would not be prudent,” replied the impassive Cap-
rain Nemo, ;

An order was given; the Nautilus tacked about and left
the furnace it could not brave with impunity. A quarter
of an hour after we were breathing fresh air on the sur-
face. The thought then struck me that, if Ned Land had
chosen this part of the sea for our flight, we should never
have come alive out of this sea of fire.

The next day, the 16th of February, we left the basin
which, between Rhodes and Alexandria, isreckoned about
1500 fathoms in depth, and the Nautilus, passing some
distance from Cerigo, quitted the Grecian Archipelago,
after having doubled Cape Matapan.
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 7

CHAPTER VII.
THE MEDITERRANEAN IN FORTY-EIGHT HOURS.

THE Mediterranean, the blue sea par eacellence, ‘‘the
great sea” of the Hebrews, ‘‘the sea” of the Greeks, the
“mare nostrum” of the Romans, bordered by orange-trees,
aloes, cacti, and sea-pines; embalmed with the perfume of
the myrtle, surrounded by rude mountains, saturated with
pure and transparent air, but incessantly worked by under-
ground fires; a perfect battlefield, in which Neptune and
Pluto still dispute the empire of the world!

Itis upon these banks, and on these waters, says Mich-
elet, that man is renewed in one of the most’ powerful cli-
mates of the globe. But, beautiful as it was, I could only
take a rapid glance at the basin whose superficial area is
two millions of square yards. Even Captain Nemo’s
knowledge was lost to me, for this enigmatical person did
not appear once during our passage at full speed. I esti-
mated the course which the Nautilus took under the waves
of the sea at about six hundred Jeagues, and it was accom-
plished in forty-eight hours. Starting on the morning of
the 16th of February from the shores of Greece, we had
crossed the Straits of Gibraltar by sunrise on the 18th.

It was plain to me that this Mediterranean, enclosed in
the midst of those countries which he wished to avoid, was
distasteful to Captain Nemo. Those waves and those
breezes brought back too many remembrances, if not too
many regrets. Here he had no longer that independence
and that liberty of gait which he had when in the open
seas, and his Nawéilus felt itself cramped between the close
shores of Africa and Europe.

VUur speed was now twenty-five miles an hour. It may
218 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

be well understood that Ned Land, to his great disgust
was obliged to renounce his intended flight. He could
not launch the pinnace, going at the rate of twelve or
thirteen yards every second. To quit the Nautilus under
such conditions would be as bad as jumping from a train
going at full speed—an imprudent thing, to say the least
of it. Besides, our vessel only mounted to the surface of
the waves at night to renew its stock of air; it was steered
entirely by the compass and the log.

I saw-no more of the interior of this Mediterranean than
a traveller by express train perceives of the landscape
which flies before his eyes; that is to say, the distant hori-
zon, and not the nearer objects which pass like a flash of
lightning.

In the midst of the mass of waters brightly lit up by the
electric light glided some of those lampreys, more than a
yard long, common to almost every climate. Some of the
oxyrhynchi, a kind of ray, five feet broad, with white belly
and gray spotted back, spread ott like a large shawl car-
ried along by the current. Other rays passed so guickly
that I could not see if they deserved the name of eagles,
which was given to them by the ancient Greeks, or the
qualification of rats, toads, and bats, with which modern
fishermen have loaded them. A few milander sharks,
twelve feet long, and much feared by divers, struggled
amongst them. Sea-foxes, eight feet long, endowed with
wonderful fineness of scent, appeared like large blue
shadows. Some dorades of the shark kind, some of which
measured seven feet and a half, showed themselves in their
dress of blue and silver, encircled by small bands which
struck sharply against the sombre tints of their fins, a fish
consecrated to Venus, the eyes of which are encased in a
socket of gold, a precious species, friend of all waters,
fresh or salt, an inhabitant of rivers, lakes, and oceans,
living in all climates and bearing all temperatures; a race
belonging to the geological era of the earth, and which has
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THH SHAS. 219

preserved all the beauty of its first days. Magnificent
sturgeons, nine or ten yards long, creatures of great speed,
striking the panes of glass with their strong tails, displayed
their bluish backs with small brown spots; they resembled
the sharks, but are not equal to them in strength, and are
to be met with in all seas. But of all the diverse inhabi-
tants of the Mediterranean, those I observed to the greatest
advantage, when the Nautilus approached the surface, be-
longed to the sixty-third genus of bony fish. They were
a kind of tunny, with bluish black backs, and silvery
breast-plates, whose dorsal fins threw out sparkles of gold.
They are said to follow in the wake of vessels, whose re-
freshing shade they seek from the fire of a tropical sky,
and they did not belie the saying, for they accompanied
Nautilus as they did in former times the vessel of La Pe-
rouse. For many a long hour they struggled to keep up
with our vessel. I was never tired of admiring these
creatures, really built for speed—their small heads, their
bodies lithe and cigar-shaped, which in some were more
than three yards long, their pectoral fins, and forked tail
endowed with remarkable strength. They swam in a tri-
angle, like certain flocks of birds, whose rapidity they
equalled, and of which the ancients used to say that they
understood geometry and strategy. But still they do not
escape the pursuit of the provengals, who esteem them as
highly as the inhabitants of the Propontis and of Italy
used to do; and these precious, but blind and foolhardy
creatures perish by millions in the nets of the Marseillaise.

With regard,to the species of fish common to the Atlan-
tic and the Mediterranean the giddy speed of the Nautilus
prevented me from observing them with any degree of ac-
curacy.

As to marine mammals, I thought, in passing the en-
trance of the Adriatic, that I saw two or three cachalots,
furnished with one dorsal fin, of the genus physctera, some
dolphins of the genus globicephali, peculiar to the Medi-
920 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

terranean, the back part of the head being marked like a,
zebra with small lines; also, a dozen of seals, with white
bellies and black hair, known by the name of monks, and
which really have the air of a Dominican; they are about
three yards in length.

As to zoéphytes, for some instants I was able to admire
a beautiful orange galeolaria, which had fastened itself to
the port panel; it held on by a long filament, and was
divided into an infinity of branches, terminated by the
finest lace which could ever have been woven by the rivals
of Arachne herself. Unfortunately, I could not take this
admirable specimen; and doubtless no other Mediterranean
zoophyte would have offered itself to my observation, if, on
the night of the 16th, the Nautilus had not, singularly
enough, slackened its speed under the following circum-
stances.

We were then passing between Sicily and the coast of
Tunis. In the narrow space between Cape Bon and the
Straits of Messina, the bottom of the sea rose almost sud-
denly. There was a perfect bank, on which there was
not more than nine fathoms of water, whilst on either side
the depth was ninety fathoms.

The Nautilus had to manceuvre very carefully so as not
to strike against this submarine barrier.

I showed Conseil on the map of the Mediterranean the
spot occupied by this reef.

“But if you please, sir,” observed Conseil, “ it is like a
real isthmus joining Europe to Africa.”

“Yes, my boy, it forms a perfect bar to the Straits of
Lybia, and the soundings of Smith have proved that in
former times the continents between Cape Boco and Cape
Furina were joined.”

“J can well believe it,” said Conseil.

“JT will add,” I continued, ‘‘that a similiar barrier exists
between Gibraltar and Ceuta, which in geological times
formed the entire Mediterranean.”
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 221

“What if some volcanic burst should some day raise
these two barriers above the waves?”

“Tt is not probable, Conseil.”

‘* Well, but allow me to finish, please, sir; if this phe-
nomenon should take place, it will be troublesome for M.
Lesseps, who has taken so much pains to pierce the
isthmus.”

“‘T agree with you; but, I repeat, Conseil, this phenom.
enon will never happen. ‘The violence of subterranean
force is ever diminishing. Volcanoes, so plentiful in the
first days of the world, are being extinguished by degrees;
the internal heat is weakened, the temperature of the lower
strata of the globe is lowered by a perceptible quantity
every century to the detriment of our globe, for its heat is
its life.”

“ But the sun?”

«The sun is not sufficient, Conseil. Can it give heat to
4 dead body?”

“Not that I know of.”

‘* Well, my friend, this earth will one day be that cold
corpse; it will become uninhabitable and uninhabited like
the moon, which has long since lost all its vital heat.”

“In how many centuries?”

“‘In some hundreds of thousands of years, my boy.”

“«“Then,” said Conseil, ‘‘we shall have time to finish
our journey, that is, if Ned Land does not interfere with it.”

And Conseil, reassured, returned to the study of the
bank, which the Nautilus was skirting at a moderate
speed.

There, beneath the rocky and volcanic bottom, lay out-
spread a living flora of sponges and reddish cydippes, which
emitted a slight phosphorescent light, commonly known
by the name of sea-cucumbers; and walking comatule, more
than a yard long, the purple of which completely colored
the water around. ,

The Nautilus, having now passed the his bank in the
yoy 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS

Lybian Straits, returned to the deep waters and its accus-
tomed speed.

From that time no more mollusks, no more articulates,
no more zoéphytes; barely a few large fish paging like
shadows.

During the night of the 16th and 17th February, we had
entered the second Mediterranean basin, the greatest depth
of which was 1450 fathoms. The Nautilus, by the action,
of its screw, slid down the inclined planes, and buried
itself in the lowest depths of the sea.

On the 18th of February, about three o’clock in the
morning, we were at the entrance of the Straits of Gibral-
tar. There once existed two currents,—an upper one,
long. since recognized, which conveys the waters of the
ocean into the basin of the Mediterranean; and a lower
counter-current, which reasoning has now shown to exist.
Indeed, the volume of water in the Mediterranean, inces-
santly added to by the waves of the Atlantic, and by rivers
falling into it, would each year raise the level of this sea,
for its evaporation is not sufficient to restore the equili-
brium. As it is not so, we must necessarily admit the
existence of an under-current, which empties into the
basin of the Atlantic, through the Straits of Gibraltar, the
surplus waters of the Mediterranean. A fact, indeed; and
it was this counter-current by which the Wautilus profited.
It advanced rapidly by the narrow pass. For one instant
I caught a glimpse of the beautiful ruins of the temple of
Hercules, buried in the ground, according to Pliny, and
with the low island which supports it; and a few minutes
latter we were floating on the Atlantic.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 993

CHAPTER VIII.
VIGO BAY.

Tuy Atlantic! a vast sheet of water, whose superficial
area covers twenty-five millions of square miles, the length
of which is nine thousand miles, with a mean breadth of
two thousand seven hundred,—an ocean whose parallel
winding shores embraced an immense circumference,
watered by the largest rivers of the world, the St. Law-
rence, the Mississippi, the Amazon, the Plata, the Orinoco.
the Niger, the Senegal, the Elbe, the Loire, and the Rhine,
which carry water from the most civilized, as well as from
the most savage countries! Magnificent field of water, in.
cessantly ploughed by vessels of every nation, sheltered by
the flags of every nation, and which terminates in those
two terrible points so dreaded by mariners, Cape Horn, and
the Cape of Tempests!

The Nautilus was piercing the water with its sharp
spur, after having accomplished nearly ten thousand
leagues in three months and a half, a distance greater than
the great circle of the earth. Where were we going now?
and what was reserved for the future? The Nautilus,
leaving the Straits of Gibraltar, had gone far out. It re
turned to the surface of the waves, and our daily walks on
the platform were restored to us. :

I mounted at once, accompanied by Ned Land and Con-
seil. Ata distance of about twelve miles, Cape St. Vin-
cent was dimly to be seen, forming the southwestern point
of the Spanish peninsula. A strong southerly gale was
blowing. The sea was swollen and billowy; it made the
Nautilus rock violently. It was almost impossible to keep
one’s footing on the platform, which the heavy rolls of the
994. ‘ 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

sea beat over every instant. So we descended after in-
haling some mouthfuls of fresh air.

I returned to my room, Conseil to his cabin; but the
Canadian, with a preoccupied air, followed me. Our rapid
passage across the Mediterranean had not allowed him te
put his project into execution, and he could not help show
ing his disappointment. When the door of my room was
shut, he sat down and looked at me silently.

“Friend Ned,” said I, ‘I understand you; but you
cannot reproach yourself. To have attempted to leave the
Nautilus under the circumstances would have been folly.”

Ned Land did not answer; his compressed lips and.
frowning brow showed with him the violent possession this
fixed idea had taken of his mind.

‘Let us see,” I continued; ‘‘we need not despair yet.
We are going up the coast of Portugal again; France and
England are not far off, where we can easily find refuge.
Now, if the Nautilus, on leaving the Straits of Gibraltar,
had gone to the south, if it had carried us towards regions
where there were no continents, I should share your un-
easiness. But we know now that Captain Nemo does not
fly from civilized seas, and in some days I think you can
act with security.”

Ned Land still looked at me fixedly; at length his fixed
lips parted, and he said, ‘It is for to-night.”

I drew myself up suddenly. I was, I admit, little pre-
pared for this communication. I wanted to answer the
Canadian, but words would not come.

«We agreed to wait for an opportunity,” continued Ned
Land, ‘‘ and the opportunity has arrived. This night we
shall be but a few miles from the Spanish coast. It is
cloudy. The wind blows freely. I have your word, M.
Aronnax, and I rely upon you.”

As I was still silent, the Canadian approached me.

**To-night, at nine o’clock,” said he. ‘I have warned
Conseil. At that moment, Captain Nemo will be shut up
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. ~ 995

in his room, probably in bed. Neither the engineers nor
the ship’s crew can see us. Conseil and I will gain the
central staircase, and you, M. Aronnax, will remain in the
library, two steps from us, waiting my signal. The oars,
the mast, and the sail are in the canoe. I have even suc-
ceeded in getting in some provisions. I have procured an
English wrench, to unfasten the bolts which attach it to
the shell of the Nauéilus. So all is ready, till to-night.”

{* The sea is bad.”

“That I allow,” replied the Canadian; “‘but we must
risk that. Liberty is worth paying for; besides, the boat
is strong, and a few miles with a fair wind to carry us is
no great thing. Who knows but by to-morrow we may be
a hundred leagues away? Let circumstances only favor us,
and by ten or eleven o’clock we shall have landed on some
spot of terra firma, alive or dead. But adieu now till to-
night.”

With these words the Canadian withdrew, leaving me
almost dumb. ‘ I had imagined that, the chance gone, I
should have time to reflect and discuss the matter. My
obstinate companion had given me no time; and, after all,
what could I have said to him? Ned Land was perfectly
right. There was almost the opportunity to profit by.
Could I retract my word, and take upon myself the re-
sponsibility of compromising the future of my companions?
To-morrow Captain Nemo might take us far from all land.

At that moment a rather loud hissing told me that the
yeservoirs were filling, and that the Nautilus was sinking
under the waves of the Atlantic.

A sad day I passed, between the desire of regaining my
liberty of action, and of abandoning the wonderful Nauti-
lus, and leaving my submarine studies incomplete.

What dreadful hours I passed thus! sometimes seeing
myself and companions safely landed, sometimes wishing,
in spite of my reason, that some unforeseen circumstances
would prevent the realization of Ned Land’s project.
926 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

Twice I went to the saloon. I wished to consult the
conipass. I wished to see if the direction the Nautilus
was taking was bringing us nearer or taking us farther
from the coast. But no; the Nautilus kept in Portuguese
waters.

I must therefore take my part, and prepare for flight.
My luggage was not heavy; my notes, nothing more.

As to Captain Nemo, I asked myself what he would
think of our escape; what trouble, what wrong it might
cause him, and what he might do in case of its discovery
or failure. Certainly I had no cause to complain of him;
on the contrary, never was hospitality freer than his. In
leaving him I could not be taxed with ingratitude. No
oath bound us to him. It was on the strength of circum-
stances he relied, and not upon our word, to fix us for-
ever.

T had not seen the captain since our visit to the Island
of Santorin. Would chance bring me to his prescuce be-
fore our departure ? I wished it, and Ifeared it.at the same
time. I listened if I could hear him walking in the room
contiguous to mine. No sound reached my ear. I felt
an unbearable uneasiness. This day of waiting seemed
eternal. Hours struck too slowly to keep pace with my
impatience. :

My dinner was served in my room as usual. I ate but
little. I was too preoccupied. I left the table at seven
o'clock. A hundred and twenty minutes (I counted them)
still separated me from the moment in which I was to join
Ned Land. My agitation redoubled. My pulse beat
violently. I could not remain quiet. I went and came,
hoping to calm my troubled spirit by constant movement.
The idea of failure in our bold enterprise was the least
painful of my anxieties; but the thought of seeing our
project discovered before leaving the Nautilus, of being
brought before Captain Nemo, irritated, or (what was
worse) saddened at my desertion, made my heart beat.
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 297

1 wanted to see the saloon for the last time. I descended
the stairs, and arrived in the museum where I had passed
so many useful and agreeable hours, I looked at all its
riches, all its treasures, like a man on the eve of an eternal
exile, who was leaving never to return. ‘These wonders of
nature, these masterpieces of art, amongst which, for so
many days, my life had been concentrated, I was going to
abandon them forever! I should like to have taken a last
100k through the windows of the saloon into the waters of
the Atlantic; but the panels were hermetically closed, and
a cloak of steel separated me from that ocean which I had
not yet explored.

In passing through the saloon, I came near the door, let
into the angle, which opened into the captain’s room. To
my great surprise, this door was ajar. I drew back, invol-
untarily. If Captain Nemo should be in his room, he
could see me. But, hearing no noise, I drew nearer. The
room was deserted. I pushed open the door, and took
some steps forward. Still the same monk-like severity of
aspect. :

Suddenly the clock struck eight. The first beat of the
hammer on the bell awoke me from my dreams. I trem-
bled as if an invisible eye had plunged into my most secret
thoughts, and I hurried from the room.

There my eye fell upon the compass. Our course was
still north. The log indicated moderate speed, the ma
nometer a depth of about sixty feet.

I returned to my room, clothed myself warmly,—sea-
boots, an otterskin cap, a great-coat of byssus, lined with
sealskin; I was ready, I was waiting. The vibration of the
serew alone broke the deep silence which reigned on board.
Ulistened attentively. Would no loud voice suddenly in-
corm me that Ned Land had been surprised in his projected
ight? A mortal dread hung over me, and I vainly tried
*y regain my accustomed coolness.

Ata few minutes to nine, I put my ear to the captain’s
228 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

door. No noise. I left my room and returned to the sa-
loon, which was half in security, but deserted. -

I opened the door communicating with the library. The
same insufficient light, the same solitude. I placed myself
near the door leading to the central staircase, and there
waited for Ned Land’s signal.

At that moment the trembling of the screw sensibly
diminished, then it stopped entirely. The silence was now
only disturbed by the beatings of my‘own heart. Suddenly
a slight shock was felt; and I knew that the Nautilus had
stopped at the bottom of the ocean. My uneasiness in-
creased. The Canadian’s signal did not come. I felt in-
clined to join Ned Land and beg of him to put off his
attempt. I felt that we were not sailing under our usual
conditions.

At this moment the door of the large saloon opened, and
Captain Nemo appeared. He saw me, and, without fur-
ther preamble, began in an amiable tone of voice: :

“Ah, sir! I have been looking for you. Do you know
the history of Spain?”

Now, one might know the history of one’s own country
by heart; but in the condition I was at the time, with
troubled mind and head quite lost, I could not have said a
word of it.

“Well,” continued Captain Nemo, ‘‘you heard my
question? Do you know the history of Spain?”

“Very slightly,” I answered.

«* Well, here are learned men having to learn,” said the
captain. ‘‘Come, sit down, and I will tell you a curious
episode in this history. Sir, listen well,” said he; ‘this
history will interest you on one side, for it will answer a
question which doubtless you have not been able to
solve.”

“T listen, Captain,” said I, not knowing what my inter-
locutor was driving at, and asking myself if this incidens
was bearing on our projected flight. ,
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 999

** Sir, if you have no objection, we will go back to 1'702,
You cannot be ignorant that your king, Louis XIV., think-
ing that the gesture of a potentate was sufficient to bring
the Pyrenees under his yoke, had imposed the Duke of An-
jou, his grandson, on the Spaniards. This prince reigned
more or less badly under the name of Philip V., and had a
strong party against him abroad. Indeed, the preceding
year, the royal houses of Holland, Austria, and England
had concluded a treaty of alliance at the Hague, with the
intention of plucking the crown of Spain from the head of
Philip V., and placing it on that of an archduke to whom
they prematurely gave the title of Charles III. .

. Spain must resist this coalition; but she was almost
entirely unprovided with either soldiers or sailors. How-
ever, money would not fail them, provided that their gal-
leons, laden with gold and silver from America, once en-
tered their ports.© And about the end of 1702 they
expected a rich convoy, which France was escorting with a
fleet of twenty-three vessels, commanded by Admiral Cha-
teau-Renaud, for the ships of the coalition were already
beating the Atlantic. This convoy was to go to Cadiz, but
the admiral, hearing that an English fleet was cruising in
those waters, resolved to make for a French port.

“The Spanish commanders of the convoy objected to
this decision. They wanted to be taken to a Spanish port,
and if not to Cadiz, into Vigo Bay, situated on the north-
west coast of Spain, and which was not blocked.

«* Admiral Chaétezu-Renaud had the rashness to obey this
injunction, and the galleons entered Vigo Bay.

‘‘ Unfortunately, it formed an open road whick could
not be defended in any way. They must therefere hasten
to unload the galleons before the arrival of the combined
fleet; and time would not have failed them had ucc a miser.
able question of rivalry suddenly arisen.

“‘You are following the chain of events?” asked Captaix
Nemo.
230 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SHAS.

“¢ Perfectly,” said I, not knowing the end proposed by
this historical lesson.

**T will continue. Thisis what passed. The merchants
of Cadiz had a privilege by which they had the right of
receiving all merchandise coming from the West Indies,
Now, to disembark these ingots at the port of Vigo was
depriving them of their rights. They complained at Ma-
drid, and obtained the consent of the weak-minded Philip
that the convoy, without discharging its cargo, should re«
main sequestered in the roads of Vigo until the enemy had
disappeared.

“But whilst coming to this decision, on the 22d of Oce«
tober, 1702, the English vessels arrived in Vigo Bay, when
Admiral Chateau-Renaud, in spite of inferior forces, fought
bravely. But seeing that the treasure must fall into the
enemy’s hands, he burnt and scuttled every galleon, which
went to the bottom with their immense riches.”

Captain Nemo stopped. I admit I could not yet see
why this history should interest me.

«¢ Well?” I asked.

«‘Well, M. Aronnax,” replied Captain Nemo, ‘‘we are
in that Vigo Bay; and it rests with yourself whether you
will penetrate its mysteries,”

The captain rose, telling'me to follow him. I had had
time to recover. I obeyed. The saloon was dark, but
through the transparent glass the waves were sparkling. I
looked.

For half a mile around the Wauttlus the waters seemed
bathed in electric light. The sandy bottom was clean and
bright. Some of the ship’s crew in their diving. dresses
were clearing away half-rotten barrels and empty cases from
the midst of the blackened wrecks. From these cases and
from these barrels escaped ingots of gold and silver, cas-
cades of piastres and jewels. ‘The sand was heaped up
with them. Laden with their precious booty the men re-
turned to the Nautilus, disposed of their burden, and
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 231

went back to this inexhaustible fishery of gold and
silver.

{understood now. This was the scene of the battle of
the 22d of October, 1702. Here on this very spot the gal-
leons laden for the Spanish government had sunk. Here
Captain Nemo came, according to his wants, to pack up
those miilions with which he burdened the Nautilus. It
was for him and him alone America had given up her pre-
cious metals. He was heir direct, without any one to share
in those treasures torn from the Incas and from the con-
quered of Ferdinand Cortez.

* Did you know, sir,” he asked, smiling, ‘‘ that the sea
contained such riches?”

“T knew,” I answered, “‘that they value the money
held in suspension in these waters at two millions.”

*‘Doubtless; but to extract this money the expense
would be greater than the profit. Here, on the contrary, I
have but to pick up what man has lost; and not only in
Vigo Bay, but in a thousand other spots where shipwrecks
have happened, and which are marked on my submarine
map. Can you understand now, the source of the millions
J am worth?”

‘I understand, Captain. But allow me to tell you that
in exploring Vigo Bay you have only been beforehand with
a rival society.”

“« And which?”

«A society which has received from the Spanish govern-
ment the privilege of seeking these buried galleons. The
shareholders are led on by the allurement of an enormous
bounty; for they value these rich shipwrecks at five hun-
dred millions.”

** Five hundred millions they were,” answered Captain
Nemo, ‘‘ but they are so no longer.”

* Just so,” said I; ‘and a warning to those sharehold-
are would be an act of charity. But who knows if it would
»* vell received? What gamblers usually regret above all

\
232 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

is less the loss of their money, than of their foolish hopes.
After all, I pity them less than the thousands of unfortu-
nates to whom so much riches well distributed would have
been profitable, whilst for them they will be forever bar-
ren.” =

I had no sooner expressed this regret, than I felt that ii
must have’ wounded Captain Nemo.

“Barren!” he exclaimed with animation. ‘‘Do you
think then, sir, that these riches are lost because I gathei
them? Is it for myself alone, according to your idea, that
{ take the trouble to collect these treasures? Who told
you that I did not make a good use of it? Do you think
Tam ignorant that there are suffering beings and oppressed
races on this earth, miserable creatures to console, victims
toavenge? Do you not understand?”

Captain Nemo stopped at these last words, regretting
perhaps that he had spoken so much. But I had guessed
that whatever the motive which had forced him to seek in-
dependence under the sea, it had left him still a man, that
his heart still beat for the sufferings of humanity, and tnat
his immense charity was for oppressed races as well as in-
dividuals. And I then understood for whom those mil-
lions were destined, which were forwarded by Captain
Nemo, when the Nautilus was cruising in the waters of
Crete.

CHAPTER IX.
A VANISHED CONTINENT.

Tne next morning, the 19th of February, I saw the Ca.
nadian enter my room. I expected this visit. He looked
very disappointed.

* Well, sir?” said he.
“Well, Ned, fortune was against us yesterday.”
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 938

«Yes; that captain must needs stop exactly at the hour
we intended leaving his vessel.”

*< Yes, Ned, he had business at his banker’s.”

“ His banker’s |”

“Or rather his banking-house; by that I mean the
ocean, where his riches are safer than in the chests of the
state.”

I then related to the Canadian the incidents of the pre-
ceding night, hoping to bring him back to the idea of not
abandoning the Captain; but my recital had no other re-
sult than an energetically expressed regret from Ned, that
he had not been able to take a walk on the battle-field of
Vigo on his own account.

“‘ However,” said he, “all is not ended. It is only a
blow of the harpoon lost. pucine: time we must suc-
ceed; and to-night, if necessary—”

sf In what direction is the Nautilus going?” I asked.

“‘T do not know,” replied Ned. ‘

«‘ Well, at noon we shall see the point.”

The Canadian returned to Conseil. As soon as I was
dressed, I went into the saloon. The compass was not re-
assuring. The course of the Nautilus was 8.8.W. We
were turning our backs on Europe.

I waited with some impatience till the ship’s place was
pricked on the chart. At about half past eleven the reser-
voirs were emptied, and our vessel rose to the surface of
the ocean. I rushed towards the platform. Ned Land
had preceded me. No more land in sight. Nothing but
an immense sea. Some sails on the horizon, doubtless
those going to San Roque in search of favorable winds for
doubling the Cape of Good Hope. The weather was
cloudy. A gale of wind was preparing. Ned raved, and
tried to pierce the cloudy horizon. He still hoped that be-
hind all that fog stretched the land he so longed for.

At noon the sun showed itself for an instant.. The
second profited by tuis brightness to take its height. Then
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

sea becoming more billowy, we descended, and the
pane: closed.

An hour after, upon consulting the chart, I saw the po:
sition of the Nautilus was marked at 16° 17’ longitude,
and 33° 22’ latitude, at 150 leagues from the nearest coast.
There was no means of flight, and I leave you to imagine
the rage of the Canadian, when I informed him of our
situation. ,

For myself, I was not particularly sorry. I felt light-
ened of the load which had oppressed me, and was able to
yeturn with some degree of calmness to my accustomed
work,

That night, about eleven o’clock, I received a most un-
expected visit from Captain Nemo. He asked me very
graciously if I felt fatigued from my watch of the preced-
ing night. I answered in the negative.

*«Then, M. Arronax, I propose a curious excursion.”

*« Propose, Captain.”

‘You have hitherto only visited the submarine depths by
daylight, under'the brightness of the sun. Would it suit
yow to see them in the darkness of the night?”

**Most willingly.”

« to walk, and must climb a mountain. The roads are not
well kept.”

“What you say, Captain, only heightens my curiosity;
am ready to follow you.”

«Come then, sir, we will put on our diving-dresses.”

Arrived at the robing-room, I saw that neither of my
companions nor any of the ship’s crew were to follow us on
this excursion. Captain Nemo had not even proposed my
taking with me either Ned or Conseil.

Yn a few moments we had put on our diving-dresses;
they placed on our backs the reservoirs, abundantly filled
with air, but no electric lamps were prepared. Icalled the
captain’s attention to the fact.
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS. 935

“« They will be useless,” he replied.

I thought I had not heard aright, but I could not repeat
my observation, for the captain’s head had already disap-
peared in its metal case. I finished harnessing myself, I
felt them put an iron-pointed stick into my hand, and
some minutes later, after going through the usual form,
we set foot on the bottom of the Atlantic, at a depth of
150 fathoms. Midnight was near. The waters were pro-
foundly dark, but Captain Nemo pointed out in the dis-
tance a reddish spot, a sort of large light, shining brilliant-
ly, about two miles from the Nautilus. What this fire
might be, what could feed it, why and how it lit up the
liquid mass, I could not say. In any case, it did light our
way, vaguely, it is true, but I soon accustomed myself to
the peculiar darkness, and I understood, under such cir-
cumstances, the ueelessness of the Ruhmkorff apparatus.

As we advanced, I beard a kind of pattering above my
head. The noise redo iiing, sometimes producing a con-
tinual shower, I soon understood the cause. It was rain
falling violently, and crisping the surface of the waves.
Instinctively the thought flashed across my mind that I
should be wet through! By the water! in the midst of the
water! Icould not help laughing at the odd idea. But
indeed, in the thick diving-dress, the liquid element is no
longer felt, and one only seems to be in an atmosphere
somewhat denser than the terrestrial atmosphere. Nothing
more.

After half an hour’s walk the soil became stony. Me-
use, microscopic crustacea, and pennatules lit it slightly
with their phosphorescent gleam. I caught a glimpse oi
pieces of stone covered with millions of zodphytes and
masses of sea-weed. My feet often slipped upon this vis-
cous carpet of sea-weed, and without my iron-tipped stick
{ should have fallen more than once. In turning round, I
could still see the whitish lantern of the Wautilws ber
ning to'pale in the distance.
936 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. ~

But the rosy light which guided us increased and lit up
the horizon. The presence of this fire under water puzzled
me in the highest degree. Was it some electric effulgence?
Was I going towards anatural phenomenon as yet unknown
to the savants of the earth? Or even (for this thought
crossed my brain) had the hand of man aught to do with
this conflagration? Had he fanned this flame? Was I to
meet in these depths companions and friends of Captain
Nemo, whom he was going to visit, and who, like him, led
this strange existence? Should I find down there a whole
colony of exiles, who, weary of the miseries of this earth, had
sough and found independence inthe deep ocean? All
these foolish and unreasonable ideas pursued me. And in
this condition of mind, overexcited by the succession of
wonders continually passing before my eyes, I should not
have been surprised to meet at the botton of the sea one
of those submarine towns of which Captain Nemo dreamed.

Our road grew lighter and lighter. The white glimmer
came in rays from the summit of a mountain about 806
feet high. But what I saw was simply a reflection, dee
veloped by the clearness of the waters. The source of this
inexplicable light was a fire on the opposite side of the
mountain.

In the midst of this stony maze, furrowing the bottom
of the Atlantic, Captain Nemo advanced without hesitation.
He knew this dreary road. Doubtless he had often tray-
elled over it, and could not lose himself. I followed him
with unshaken confidence. He seemed to me like a genie
of the sea; and, as he walked before me, I could not help
admiring his stature, which was outlined in black on the
luminous horizon.

It was one in the morning when we arrived at the first
slopes of the mountain; but to gain access to them we must
venture through the difficult paths of a vast copse.

Yes; a copse of dead trees, without leaves, without sap,
trees petrified by the action of the water, and here and
20,000 LHAGULHS UNDER THE SEAS, 937

there overtopped by gigantic pines. It was like a coal pit,
still standing, holding by the roots to the broken soil, and
whose branches, like fine black paper cuttings, showed dis-
tinctly on the watery ceiling. Picture to yourself a forest
in the Hartz, hanging on to the sides of the mountain, but
aforest swallowed up. The paths were encumbered with
sea-weed and fucus, between which grovelled a whole world
of crustacea. I went along, climbing the rocks, striding
over extended trunks, breaking the sea bind-weed, which
hung from one tree to the other; and frightening the fishes,
which flew from branch to branch. Pressing onward, I
felt nofatigue. Ifoliowed my guide, who was never tired.
What a spectacle! how can I express it? how paint the as-
pect of those woods and rocks in this medium, —their under
parts dark and wild, the upper colored with red tints, by
that light which the reflecting powers of the waters doubled?
We climbed rocks, which fell directly after with gigantic
bounds, and the low growling of an avalanche. To right
and left ran long, dark galleries, where sight was lost.
Here opened vast glades which the hand of man seemed to
have worked; and I sometimes asked myself if some inhabi-
tant of these submarine regions would not suddenly appear
to me.

But Captain Nemo was still mounting. I could not stay
behind. I followed boldly. My stick gave me good help.
A false step would have been dangerous on the narrow
passes sloping down to the sides of the gulfs; but I walked
with firm step, without feeling any giddiness. Now I
jumped a crevice the depth of which would have made me
hesitate had it been among the glaciers on the land; now I
ventured on the unsteady trunk of a tree, thrown across
from one abyss to the other, without looking under my feet,
having only eyes to admire the wild sites of this region.

There, monumental rocks, leaning on their regularly cut
bases, seemed to defy all laws of equilibrium. From be-
tween their stony knees, trees sprang, like a jet under
238 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS,

heavy pressure, and upheld others which upheld them,
Natural towers, large scarps, cut perpendicularly, like a
“‘eurtain,” inclined at an angle which the laws of gravita-
tion could never have tolerated in terrestial regions.

Two hours after quitting the Nautilus, we had crossed
the line of trees, and a hundred feet above our heads
rose the top of the mountain, which cast a shadow on the
brilliant irradiation of the opposite slope. Some petrified
shrubs ran fantastically here and there. Fishes got up
under our feet like birds in the long grass, The massive
rocks were rent with impenetrable fractures, deep grottos,
and unfathomable holes, at the bottom of which formida-
ble creatures might be heard moving. My blood curdled
when I saw enormous antenne blocking my road, or some
frightful claw closing with a noise in the shadow of some
cavity. Millions of luminous spots shone brightly in the
midst of the darkness. They were the eyes of giant crus-
tacea crouched in their holes; giant lobsters setting them-
selves up like halberdiers, and moving their claws with the
clicking sound of pincers; titanic crabs, pointed like a gun
on its carriage; and frightful-looking poulps, interweaving
their tentacles like a living nest of serpents.

We had now arrived on the first platform, where other
surprises awaited me. Before us lay some picturesque
ruins, which betrayed the hand of man, and not that of
the Creator. There were vast heaps of stone, amongst
which might be traced the vague and shadowy forms of
castles and temples, clothed with a world of blossoming
zodphytes, and over which, instead of ivy, sea-weed and
fucus threw a thick vegetable mantle. But what was this
portion of the globe which had been swallowed by cata
clysms? Who had placed those rocks and stones like crom:
lechs of prehistoric times? Where was I? Whither had
Captain Nemo’s fancy hurried me?

I would fain have asked him; not being able to, I stopped
him,—I seized his arm. But shaking his head, and point.
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, 939

ing to the highest point of the mountain, he seemed to
say:

“Come, come along; come higher!”

I followed, and in. a few minutes I had climbed to the
top, which for a circle of ten yards commanded the whole
mass of rock.

I looked down the side we had just climbed. The moun-
tain did not rise more than seven or eight hundred feet
above the level of the plain; but on the opposite side it
commanded from twice that height the depths of this part
of the Atlantic. My eyes ranged far over a large space lit
by a violent fulguration. In fact, the mountain was a vol-
cano.

At fifty feet above the peak, in the midst of a rain of
stones and scorix, a large crater was vomiting forth torrents
of lava which fell in a cascade of fire into the bosom of the
liquid mass. Thus situated, this voleano lit the lower plain
like an immense torch, even to the extreme limits of the
horizon. I said that the submarine crater threw up lava,
but no flames. Flames require the oxygen of the air to feed
apon, and cannot be developed under water; but streams
of lava, having in themselves the principles of their incan-
descence, can attain a white heat, fight vigorously against
the liquid element, and turn it to vapor by contact.

Rapid currents bearing all these gases in diffusion, and
torrents of lava, slid to the bottom of the mountain like an
eruption of Vesuvius on another Terra del Greco.

There, indeed, under my eyes, ruined, destroyed, lay a
town,—its roofs open to the sky, its temples fallen, its
arches dislocated, its columns lying on the ground, from
which one could still recognize the massive character of
Tuscan architecture. Farther on, some remains of a gigan-
tic aqueduct; here the high base of an Acropolis, with the
floating outline of a Parthenon; there traces of a quay, as
if an ancient port had formerly abutted on the borders of
the ocean, and disappeared with its merchant-vessels and
240 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

its war-galleys. Farther on again, long lines of sunken
walls and broad deserted streets,—a perfect Pompei escaped
beneath the waters. Such was thesight that Captain Nemo
brought before my eyes.

Where was I? Where was I? I must know at any cost.
\I tried to speak, but Captain Nemo stopped me by a gest-
ure, and picking up a piece of chalk stone, advanced to &
rock of black basalt, and traced the one word,

ATLANTIS.

What a light shot through my mind! Atlantis, the
ancient Neropis of Theopompus, the Atlantis of Plato,
that continent denied by Origen, Jamblichus, D’Anville,
Malte-Brun, and Humboldt, who placed its disappearance
amongst the legendary tales admitted by Posidonius, Pliny,
Ammianus Marcellinus, Tertullian, Engel, Buffon, and
D’Avezac. Ihad it there now before my eyes, bearing
upon it the unexceptionable testimony of its catastrophe.
The region thus engulfed was beyond Europe, Asia, and
Lybia, beyond the columns of Hercules, where those power-
ful people, the Atlantides, lived, against whom the first
wars of ancient Greece were waged.

Thus, led by the strangest destiny, I was treading under
foot the mountains of this continent, touching with my
hand those ruins a thousand generations old, and contem-
porary with the geological epochs. I was walking on the
very spot where the contemporaries of the first man had
walked.

Whilst I was trying to fix in my mind every detail of this
grand landscape, Captain Nemo remained motionless, as if
petrified in mute ecstasy, leaning on a mossy stone. Was
he dreaming of those generations long since disappeared?
Was he asking them the secret of human destiny ? Was it
here this strange man came to steep himself in historical
recollections, and live again this ancient life——he who
wanted no modern one? What would I not have given to
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS, 941

know his thoughts, to share them, to understand them!
We remained for an hour at this place, contemplating the
vast plain under the brightness of the lava, which was
sometimes wonderfully intense. Rapid tremblings ran
along the mountain caused by internal bubblings, deep
noises distinctly transmitted through the liquid medium
were echoed with majestic grandeur. At this moment the
moon appeared through the mass of waters, and threw her
pale rays on the buried continent. It was but a gleam,
but what an indescribable effect! The captain rose, cast
one look on the immense plain, and then bade me follow
him. ;

We descended the mountain rapidly, and the mineral
forest once passed, I saw the lantern of the Nautilus shin-
ing like a star. The captain walked straight to it, and we
got on board as the first rays of light whitened the surface
of the ocean.

CHAPTER X.
THE SUBMARINE COAL-MINES.

Tue next day, the 20th of February, I awoke very late;
the fatigues of the previous night had prolonged my sleep
until eleven o’clock. I dressed quickly and hastened to
find the course the Nautilus was taking. The instru-
ments showed it to be still towards the south, with a speed
of twenty miles an hour, and a depth of fifty fathoms.

The species of fishes here did not differ much from those
already noticed. There were rays of giant size, five yards
long, and endowed with great muscular strength, which
enabled them to shoot above the waves; sharks of many
kinds, amongst others a glaucus, fifteen feet long, with
triangular sharp teeth, and whose transparency rendered it
almost invisible in the *vater; brown sagre; humantins,
949 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

prism-shaped and clad with a tuberculous hide; sturgeons,
resembling their congeners of the Mediterranean; trum-
pet syngnathes, a foot and a half long, furnished with
grayish bladders, without teeth or tongue, and as supple aa
snakes.

Amongst bony fish, Conseil noticed some blackish mx.
kairas, about three yards long, armed at the upper jaw with
@ piercing sword; other bright-colored creatures, known ir
the time of Aristotle by the name of the sea-dragon, which
are dangerous to capture on account of the spikes on their
back; also some corypheenes with brown backs marked with
little blue stripes, and surrounded with a gold border; some
beautiful dorades; and swordfish, four-and-twenty feet long,
swimming in troops, fierce animals, but rather herbivorous
than carnivoreus.

About four o’clock, the soil, generally composed of a
thick mud mixed with petrified wood, changed by degrees,
and it became more stony, and seemed strewn with con-
glomerate and pieces of basalt, with a sprinkling of lava
and sulphurous obsidian. I thought that a mountainous
region was succeeding the long plains; and accordingly,
after a few evolutions of the Nautilus, I saw the southerly
horizon blocked by a high wall which seemed to close all
exit. Its summit evidently passed the level of the ocean.
It must be a continent, or at least an island,—one of the
Carnaries, or of the Cape Verd Islands. The bearings not
being yet taken, perhaps designedly, I was ignorant of our
exact position. In any case, such a wall seemed to me to
mark the limits of that Atlantis, of which we had in reali-
ty passed over only the smallest part.

Much longer should I have remained at the window, ad-
miring the beauties of sea and sky, but the panels closed.
At this moment the Nautilus arrived at the side of this
high perpendicular wall. What it would do, I could not
guess. I returned to my room; it no longer moved. I
laid myself down with the full intention of waking after a
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. ~ 943

few hours’ sleep; but it was eight o’clock the next day
when I entered the saloon. I looked at the manometer.
It told me that the Nautdlus was floating on the surface of
the ocean. Besides, I heard steps on the platform. I
went to the panel. It was open; but instead of broad day-
light, as I expected, I was surrounded by profound darkness.
{Where were we?’ Was I mistaken? Was it still night?
No; not a star was shining, and night has not that utter
Carkness.

I knew not what to think, when a voice near me said:

“Ts that you, Professor?”

** Ah! Captain,” I answered, ‘‘ where are we?”

“Under ground, sir.”

“Under ground!” I exclaimed. ‘(And the Nautilus
fsating still?”

“Tt always floats.”

‘* But I do not understand.”

“Wait a few minutes, our lantern will be lit, and if you
like light places, you will be satisfied.”

I stood on the platform and waited. The darkness was
so complete that I could not even see Captain Nemo; but
looking to the zenith, exactly above my head, I seemed to
catch an undecided gleam, a kind of twilight filling a cir-
cular hole. At this instant the lantern was lit, and its
vividness dispelled the faint light. I closed my dazzled
eyes for an instant, and then looked again. The Nautilus
was stationary, floating near a mountain which formed a
sort of quay. The lake then supporting it was a lake im-
prisoned by a circle of walls, measuring two miles in diame-
ter, and six in circumference. Its level (the manometer
showed) could only be the same as the outside level, for
there must necessarily be a communication between the
lake and the sea. The high partitions, leaning forward on
their base, grew into a vaulted roof bearing the shape of an
immense funnel turned upside down, the height being
about five or six hundred yards. At the summit was a cir-
y44 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

cular orifice, by which I had caught the slight gleam of
light, evidently daylight.

«¢ Where are we?” I asked.

“In the very heart of an extinct volcano, the interior of
which has been invaded by the sea, after some great con-
vulsion of the earth. Whilst you were sleeping, Professor,
the Wawtilus penetrated to this lagoon by a natural canal,
which opens about ten yards beneath the surface of the
ocean. This is its harbor of refuge, a sure, commodious,
and mysterious one, sheltered from .all gales. Show me,
if you can, on the coasts of any of your continents or
islands, a road which can give such perfect refuge from all
storms.” ;

“¢ Certainly,” I replied, ‘‘ you are in safety here, Captain
Nemo. Who could reach you in the heart of a volcano?
But did Inot see an opening at its summit?”

“Yes; its crater, formerly filled with lava, vapor, and
flames, and which now gives entrance to the life-giving air
we breathe.”

“But what is this volcanic mountain?”

“Tt belongs to one of the numerous islands with which
this sea is strewn,—to vessels a simple sand-bank,—to us
an immense cavern. Chance led me to discover it, and
chance served me well.”

“But of what use is this refuge, Captain? The Nauti-
lus wants no port.”

“No, sir; but it wants electricity to make it move, and
the wherewithal to make the electricity,—sodium to feed
the elements, coal from which to get the sodium, and a
coal-mine to supply the coal. And exactly on this spot the
sea covers entire forests embedded during the geological
periods, now mineralized, and transformed into coal; for
me they are an inexhaustible mine.”

“Your men follow the trade of miners here, then, Cap-
iain?”

«Hixactly so. These mines extend under the waves like
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, 948
the mives of Newcastle. Here, in their diving-dresses,
pickaxe and shovel in hand, my men extract the coal, which
Ido not even ask from the mines of the earth, When i
burn this combustible for the manufacture of sodium, the
smoke, escaping from the crater of the mountain, gives it
the appearance of a still active volcano.”

“« And we shall see your companions at work?”

‘No; not this time, at least; for I am in a hurry to con-
tinue our submarine tour of the earth. So I shall content
myself with drawing from the reserve of sodium I already
possess. ‘The time for loading is one day only, and we con.
tinue our voyage. So if you wish to go over the cavern,
and make the round of the lagoon, you must take advan-
tage of to-day, M. Aronnax.”

I thanked the captain, and went to look for my com-
panions, who had not yet left their cabin.. I invited them
to follow me without saying where we were. They moun-
ted the platform Conseil, who was astonished at nothing,
seemed to look upon it as quite natural that he should
wake under a mountain, after having fallen asleep under
under the waves. But Ned Land thought of nothing but
finding whether the cavern had any exit. After break-
fast, about ten o’clock, we went down on to the mount-
ain.

“‘ Here we are, once more on land,” said Conseil.

“JT do not call this land,” said the Canadian. ‘And
besides, we are not on it, but beneath it.”

Between the walls of the mountain and the waters of the
lake lay a sandy shore, which, at its greatest breadth,
measured five hundred feet. On this soil one might easily
make the tour of the lake. But the base of the high par:
titions was stony ground, with volcanic blocks ‘and enor.
mous pumice-stones lying in picturesque heaps. All these
detached masses, covered with enamel, polished by the
action of the subterraneous fires, shone resplendent by
light of our electric lantern. The mica-dust from the the
246 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS,

shore, rising under our feet, flew like a cloud of sparks,
The bottom now rose sensibly, and we soon arrived at long
circuitous slopes, or inclined planes, which took us higher
by degrees; but we were obliged to walk carefully among
these conglomerates, bound by no cement, the feet slipping
on the glassy trachyte, composed of crystal, felspar, and
quartz.

The volcanic nature of this enormous excavation was
confirmed on all sides, and I pointed it out to my com-
panions. *

“Picture to yourselves,” said I, ‘“‘ what this crater must
have been when filled with boiling lava, and when the level
of the incandescent liquid rose to the orifice of the moun-
tain, as though melted on the top of a hot plate.”

“‘T can picture it perfectly,” said Conseil. <‘‘ But, sir,
will you tell me why the Great Architect has suspended
operations, and how it is that the furnace is replaced by
the quiet waters of the lake?”

“‘Most probably, Conseil, because some convulsion be-
neath the ocean produced that very opening which has
served as a passage for the Nautilus. Then the waters of
the Atlantic rushed into the interior of the mountain.
There must have been a terrible struggle between the two
elements, astruggle which ended in the victory of Neptune.
But many ages have run out since then, and the sub-
merged volcano is now a peaceable grotto.”

“Very well,” replied Ned Land; ‘‘I accept the ex-
planation, sir; but, in our own interests, I regret that the
opening of which you speak was not made above the level
of the sea.”

«But, friend Ned,” said Conseil, ‘‘ if the passage had
not been under the sea, the Nautilus could not have gone
through it.”

We continued ascending. The steps became more and
more perpendicular and narrow. Deep exzavations, which
we were obliged to cross, cut them here and there; sloping
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 947

masses had to be turned. We slid upon our knees and
crawled along. But Conseil’s dexterity and the Canadian’s
strength surmounted all obstacles. At a height of about
thirty-one feet, the nature of the ground changed without
becoming more practicable. To the conglomerate and
trachyte succeeded black basalt, the first dispread in layers
full of bubbles, the latter forming regular prisms, placed
like a colonnade supporting the spring of the immense
vault, an admirable specimen of natural architecture. Be-
tween the blocks of basalt wound long streams of lava,
long since grown cold, encrusted with bituminous rays;
and in some places there were spread large carpets of sul-
phur. A more powerful light shone through the upper
crater, shedding a vague glimmer over these volcanic de-
pressions forever buried in the bosom of this extinguished
mountain. But our upward march was soon stopped at a
height of about two hundred and fifty feet by impassable
obstacles. There was a complete vaulted arch overhanging
us, and our ascent was changed to a circular walk. At
the last change vegetable life began to struggle with the
mineral. Some shrubs, and even some trees, grew from
the fractures of the walls. I recognized some euphorbias,
with the caustic sugar coming from them; heliotropes,
quite incapable of justifying their name, sadly drooped
their clusters of flowers, both their color and perfume half
gone. Here and: there some chrysanthemums grew timidly
at the foot of an aloe with long sickly-looking leaves. But
between the streams of lava, I saw some little violets still
slightly perfumed, and I admit that I smelt them with de-
light. Perfume is the soul of the flower, and sea-flowers,
those splendid hydrophytes, have no soul.

We had arrived at the foot of some sturdy dragon-trees,
which had pushed aside the rocks with their strong roots,
when Ned Land exclaimed:

“‘ Ah! sir, a hive! a hive!’

“A hive!” I replied. with a gesture of incredulity.
248 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

«Yes, a hive,” repeated the Canadian, ‘‘and bees hum.
ming round it.” ;

I approached, and was bound to believe my own eyes.
There, at a hole bored in one of the dragon-trees, were
some thousands of these ingenious insects, so common in
all the Canaries, and whose produce is so much esteemed.
Naiurally enough, the Canadian wished to gather the
honey, and I could not well oppose his wish. A quantity
of dry leaves, mixed with sulphur, he lit with a spark from
his flint, and he began to smoke out the bees. The hum-
ming ceased by degrees, and the hive eventually yielded
several pounds of the sweetest honey, with which Ned Land
filled his haversack.

*‘ When I have mixed this honey with the paste of the
urtocarpus,” said he, ‘‘I shall be able to offer you a suc-
culent cake.”

“Upon my word,” said Conseil, ‘‘it will be ginger-
bread.” ;

“‘Never mind the gingerbread,” said I; ‘‘let us con-
tinue our interesting walk.”

At every turn of the path we were following, the lake
appeared in all its length'and breadth. The lantern lit up
the whole of its peaceable surface which knew neither rip-
ple nor wave. The Nautilus remained perfectly immova-
ble. On the platform, and on the mountain, the ship’s
crew were working, like black shadows clearly carved
against the luminous atmosphere. We were now going
round the highest crest of the first layers of rock which
upheld the roof. I then saw that bees weré not the only
representatives of the animal kingdom in the interior of
this volcano. Birds of prey hovered here and there in the
shadows, or fled frem their nests on the top of the rocks.
There were sparrow-hawks with white breasts, and kestrels,
and down the slopes scampered, with their long legs,
several fine fat bustards. I leave any one to imagine the
covetousness of the Canadian at the sight of this savory
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAN. 949

game, and whether he did not regret having no gun. But
he did his best to replace the lead by stones, and after
several fruitless attempts, he succeeded in wounding a
magnificent bird. To say that he risked his life twenty
times before reaching it, is but the truth; but he managed
so well, that the creature joined the honeycakes in his bag.
We were now obliged to descend towards the shore, the
crest becoming impracticable. Above us the crater seemed
to gape like the mouth of a well. From this place the sky
could be clearly seen, and clouds, dissipated by the west
wind, leaving behind them, even on the summit of the
mountain, their misty remnanis,—certain proof that they
were only moderately high, for the volcano did not rise
more than eight hundred feet above the level of the ocean.
Half an hour after the Canadian’s last exploit we had re-
gained the inner shore. Here the flora was represented by
large carpets of marine crystal, a little umbelliferous plant,
very good to pickle, which also bears the name of pierce-
stone, and sea-fennel. Conseil gathered some bundles
of it. As to the fauna, it might be counted by thousands
of crustacea of all sorts, lobsters, crabs, paleemons, spider-
crabs, chameleon shrimps, and a large number of shells,
rockfish, and limpets. Three quarters of an hour later
we had finished our circuitous walk, and were on board.
The crew had just finished loading the sodium, and the
Nautilus could have left that instant. But Captain Neme
gave no order. Did he wish to wait until night, and leave
the submarine passage secretly? Perhaps so. Whatever
it might be, the next day, the Nautilus, having left its
port, steered clear of all land at a few yards beneath the
waves of the Atlantic.
250 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

CHAPTER XI.
THE SARGASSO SEA.

Tuat day the Nautilus crossed a singular part of the
Atlantic Ocean. No one can be ignorant of the existence
of a current of warm water known by the name of the
Gulf Stream. After leaving the Gulf of Mexico, about the
twenty-fifth degree of north latitude, this current divides
into two arms, the principal one going towards the coast of
Ireland and Norway, whilst the second bends to the south
about the height of the Azores; then, touching the African
shore, and describing a lengthened oval, returns to the An-
tilles. This second arm—it is rather a collar than an arm
—surrounds with its circles of warm water that portion of
the cold, quiet, immovable ocean called the Sargasso Sea, a
perfect Jake in the open Atlantic: it takes no less than
three years for the great current to pass round it. Such
was the region the Nautilus was now visiting, a perfect
meadow, a close carpet of sea-weed, fucus, and tropical ber-
ries, so thick and so compact that the stem of a vessei
could hardly tear its way through it. And Captain Nemo,
not wishing to entangle his screw in this herbaceous mass,
kept some yards beneath the surface of the waves. The
name Sargasso comes from the Spanish word ‘‘ sargazzo,”
which signifies kelp. This kelp or varech, or berry-plant,
is the principal formation of this immense bank. And this
is the reason, according to the learned Maury, the author
of ‘‘The Physical Geography of the Globe,” why these hy-
drophytes unite in the peaceful basin of the Atlantic. The
only explanation which can be given, he says, seems to me
to result from the experience known to all the world.
Place in a vase some fragments of cork or other floating
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS, O51

body, and give to the water in the vase a circular move-
ment, the scattered zragments will unite in a group in the
centre of the liquid surface, that is to say, in the part least
agitated. In the phenomenon we are considering, the
Allantic is the vase, the Gulf Stream the circular current,
and the Sargasso Sea the central point at which the floating
bodies unite.

I share Maury’s opinion, and I was able to study the phe-
nomenon in the very midst, where vessels rarely penetrate.
Above us floated products of all kinds, heaped up among
these brownish plants; trunks of trees torn from the Andes
or the Rocky Mountains, and floated by the Amazon or the
Mississippi; numerous wrecks, remains of keels, or ships’
bottoms, side planks stove in, and so weighted with shells
and barnacles that they could not rise again to the surface.
And time will one day justify Maury’s other opinion, that
these substances thus accumulated for ages will become
petrified by the action of the water, and will then form in-
exhaustible coal-mines—a precious reserve prepared by far-
seeing nature for the moment when men shall have exhausted
the mines of continents.

In the midst of this inextricable mass of plants and sea-
weed, I noticed some charming pink halcyons actinic, with
their long tentacles trailing after them; meduse, green,
red, and blue, and the great rhyostoms of Cuvier, the large
umbrella of which was bordered and festooned with violet.

All the day of the 22d of February we passed in the Sar-
gasso Sea, where such fish as are partial to marine plants
and fuci find abundant nourishment. The next, the ocean
had returned to its accustomed aspect. From this time
for nineteen days, from the 23d of February to the 12th of
March, the Nautilus kept in the middle of the Atlantic,
carrying us ata constant speed of a hundred leagues in
twenty-four hours. Captain Nemo evidently intended ac-
complishing his submarine programme, and I imagined
that he intended, after doubling Cape Horn, to return to
to

52 20,000 LEAGULS UNDER THE SEAS.

the Australian seas of the Pacific. Ned Land had cause
for fear. In these large seas, void of islands, we could not
attempt to leave the boat. Nor had we any means of op-
posing Captain Nemo’s will, Our only course wus to submit;
but what we could neither gain by force nor cunning, I liked
to think might be obtaimed by persuasion. This voyage
ended, would he not consent to restore our liberty, under
an oath never to reveal his existence?—an oath of honor
which we should have religiously kept. But we must con-
sider that delicate question with the captain. But was i
free to claim this liberty? Wad he not himself said from
the beginning, in the firmest manner, that the secret of his
life exacted from him our lasting imprisonment on board
the Nautilus? And would not my four months’ silence
appear to him a-tacit acceptance of our situation? And
would not a return to the subject result in raising suspi-
cions which might be hurtful to our projects if at same fu-
ture time a favorable opportunity offered to return to them?

During the nineteen days mentioned above, no incident of
any note happened to signalize our voyage. I saw little of
the captain; he was at work. In the library I often found
his books left open, especially those on Natural History.
My work on submarine depths, conned over by him, was
covered with marginal notes, often contradicting my theo-
ries and systems; but the captain contented himself with
thus purging my work; it was very rare for him to discuss
it with me. Sometimes I heard the melancholy tones of
his organ; but only at night, in the midst of the deepest
obscurity, when the Nautilus slept upon the deserted
ocean. During this part of our voyage we sailed whole
days on the surface of the waves. ‘I'he sca scemed aban-
doned. A few sailing-vessels, on the road to India, were
making for the Cape of Good Hope. One day we were fol-
lowed by the boats of a whaler, who, no doubt, took us for
some enormons whale of great price; but Captain Nemo did
not wish the worthy fellows to lose their time and trouble,
20,000 LHA@UES UNDER THE SHAS. 253

so ended the chase by plunging under the water. Our nayi-
gation continued until the 18th of March; that day the
Nuutilus was employed in taking soundings, which greatly
interested me. We hud then made about 13,000 leagues
since our departure from the high seas of the Pacific. The
bearings gave us 45° 37” south latitude, and 37° 53’ west
longitude. It was the same water in which Captain Denham
of the Herald sounded 7,000- fathoms without finding the
bottom. There, too, Lieutenant Parker, of the American
frigate Congress, could not touch the bottom with 15,140
yards. Captain Nemo intended seeking the bottom of the
ocean by a diagonal sufficiently lengthened by means of
lateral planes placed at an angle of forty-five degrees with
the water-line of the Nautilus. Then the screw set to work
at its maximrm speed, its four blades beating the waves with
indescribable force. Under this powerful pressure the hull
of the Nautilus quivered like a sonorous chord, and sank
regulsxly under the water. .

At %,000 fathoms I saw some blackish tops rising from
the neidst of the waters; but these summits might belong
to high mountains like the Himalayas or Mount Blanc,
even higher; and the depth of the abyss remained incalcu-
lable. he Vautilus descended still lower, in spite of the
great pressure. I felt the steel plates tremble at the fasten-
ings of the bolts; its bars bent, its partitions groaned; the
windows of the saloon seemed to curve under the pressure
of the waters. And this firm structure would doubtless
have yielded, if, as its captain had said, ithad not been
capal.le of resistance like a solid block. In skirting the de-
clivity of these rocks, lost under the water, I still saw some
shells, some serpule and spinorbes, still living, and some
specimens of asteriads. But soon this last representative
of snimal life disappeared; and at the depth of more than
theee leagues, the Nautilus had passed the limits of sub-
marine existence, even as a balloon does when it rises above
the :espirable atmosphere. We had attained a depth of
254 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS,

16,000 yards (four leagues), and the sides of the Nautilus
then bore a pressure of 1600 atmospheres, that is to say, 3200
pounds to each square two fifths of an inch of its surface.

‘‘What a situation to bein!” Iexclaimed. ‘To overrun
these deep regions where man has never trod! Look, Cap-
tain, at these magnificent rocks, these uninhabited grottos,
these lowest receptacles of the globe, where life is no longer
possible! What unknown sights are here! Why should
we be unable to preserve a remembrance of them?”

“‘ Would you like to carry away more than the remem-
brance?” said Captain Nemo.

«‘ What do you mean by those words?”

“*T mean to say that nothing is easier than to take a pho-
tographic view of this submarine region.”

I had not time to express my surprise at this new propo-
sition, when, at Captain Nemo’s call, an objective was
brought into the saloon. Through the widely-opened panel,
the liquid mass was bright with electricity, which was dis-
tributed with such uniformity, that not a shadow, not a
gradation, was to be seen in our manufactured light. The
Nautilus remained motionless, the force of its screw sub-
dued by the inclination of its planes: the instrument was
propped on the bottom of the occanic site, and in a few
seconds we had obtained a perfect negative. I here give
the positive, from which may be seen those primitive rocks,
which have never looked upon the light of heaven; that
lowest granite which forms the foundation of the globe;
those deep grottos, woven in the stony mass whose outlines
were of such sharpness, and the border lines of which are
marked in black, as if done by the brush of some Flemish
artist. Beyond that again a horizon of mountains, an ad-
mirable undulating line, forming the prospective of the
landscape. I cannot describe the effect of these smooth,
black, polished rocks, without moss, without a spot, and of
strange forms, standing solidly on the sandy carpet, which
sparkled under the jets of our electric light.
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 955

ut the operation being over, Captain Nemo said, ‘‘ Let
us go up; we must not abuse our position, nor expose the
Nautilus too long to such great pressure.”

**Go up again !” I exclaimed.

“* Hold well on.”

Thad not time to understand why the captain cautioned
me thus, when I was thrown forward on to the carpet. At
a signal from the captain, its crew was shipped, and its
blades raised vertically; the Nautilus shot into the air like
a. balloon, rising with stunning rapidity, and cutting the
mass of waters with a sonorous agitation. Nothing was
visible; and in four minutes it had shot through the four
leagues which separated it from the ocean, and, after
emerging like a flying-fish, fell, making the waves rebound
to an enormous height.

CHAPTER XII.
CACHALOTS AND WHALES.

Durine the nights of the 13th and 14th of March, the
Nautilus returned to its southerly course. I fancied that,
when on a level with Cape Horn, he would turn the helm
westward, in order to beat the Pacific seas, and so complete
the tour of the world. He did nothing of the kind, but
continued on his way to the southern regions. Where was
he going to? To the pole? It was madness! I began to
think that the captain’s temerity justified Ned Land’s
fears. For some time past the Canadian had not spoken
to me of his projects of flight; he was less communicative,
almost silent. I could sce that this lengthened imprison-
ment was weighing upon him, and I felt that rage was
burning within him. When he met the captain, his eyes
lit up with suppressed anger; and I feared that his natural
956 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS,

violence would lead him into some extreme. That day,
the 14th of March, Conseil and he came to me in my room.
I inquired the cause of their visit.

«A simple question to ask you, sir,” replied the Cana-
dian.

“Speak, Ned.”

“*How many men are there on board the WV autilus,
do you think?”

“‘T cannot tell, my friend.”

“JT should say that its working does not require a large
crew.”

‘Certainly, under existing conditions, ten men, at the
most, ought to be enough.”

‘* Well, why should there’be any more?”

“Why?” I replied, looking fixedly at Ned Land, whose
meaning was easy to guess. ‘‘ Because,” I added, “if my
surmises are correct, and if I have well understood the
captain’s existence, the Nautilus is not only a vessel, it is
also a place of refuge for those who, like its*commander,
have broken every tie upon earth.”

“« Perhaps so,” said Conseil; ‘‘ but, in any case, the Vau-
tilus can only contain a certain number of men. ‘Could
not you, sir, estimate their maximum?”

‘¢ How, Conseil?”

‘« By calculation; given the size of the vessel, which you
know, sir, and consequently the quantity of air it contains,
knowing also how much each man expends at a breath,
and comparing these results with the fact that the Mawtv-
lus is obliged to go to the surface every twenty-four
hours.”

Conseil had not finished the sentence before I saw what
he was driving at.

“T understand,” said I; ‘‘ but that calculation, though
simple enough, can give but a very uncertain result.”

“Never mind,” said Ned Land, urgently.

‘* Here it is, then,” said I. ‘‘In one hour each man
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. O5%
consumes the oxygen contained in twenty gallons of air;
and in twenty-four, that contained in 480 gallons. We
must, therefore, find how many times 480 gallons of air
the Nautilus contains.”

“* Just so,” said Conseil.

“Or,” I continued, “the size of the Nautilus being
1500 tons, and one ton holding 200 gallons, it contains
300,000 gallons of air, which, divided by 480, gives a quo-
tient of 625. Which means to say, strictly speaking, that
the air contained in the Nautilus would suffice for 625:men
for twenty-four hours.”

“Six hundred and twenty-five !” repeated Ned.

“But remember, that all of us, passengers, sailors, and
officers included, would not form a tenth part of that num-
ber.”

“Still too many for three men,” murmured Conseil.

The Canadian shook his head, passed his hand across his
forehead, and left the room without answering.

“© Will you allow me to make one observation, sir?” said
Conseil. <‘‘ Poor Ned is longing for everything that he
cannot have. His past life is alvays present to him; every-
thing that we are forbidden he regrets. His head is full of
old recollections. And we must understand him. Whut
has he to do here? Nothing; he is not learned like you,
sir; and has not the same taste for the beauties of the sea
that we have. He would risk everything to be able to go
once more into a tavern in his own country.”

Certainly the monotony on board must seem intolerable
to the Canadian, accustomed as he was to a life of liberty
and activity. Events were rare which could rouse him to
any show of spirit; but that day an event did happen which
recalled the bright days of the harpooner. About eleven
in the morning, being on the surface of the ocean, the
Nautilus fell in with a troop of whales,—an encounter
which did not astonish me, knowing that these creatures,
hunted to the death, had taken refuge in high latitudes.
258 90,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

We were seated on the platform, with a quiet sea. The
month of October in those latitudes gave us some lovely
autumnal days. It was the Canadian—he could not be
mistaken—who signalled a whale on the eastern horizon.
Looking attentively one might see its black back rise and
fall with the waves five miles from the Nautilus.

‘* Ah!” exclaimed Ned Land, ‘‘if I was on board a
whaler now, such a meeting would give me pleasure It is
one of large size. See with what strength its blow-holes
throw up columns of air and steam! Confound it, why am
I bound to these steel plates?”

“What, Ned,” said I, ‘‘ you have not forgotten your old
ideas of fishing?”

“‘Can a whale-fisher ever forget his old trade, sir? Can
he ever tire of the emotions caused by such a chase?”

«* You have never fished in these seas, Ned?”

“< Never, sir; in the northern only, and as much in Beh
ring as in Davis Straits.” - .

«‘Then the southern whale is still unknown to you. Ii
is the Greenland whale you have hunted up to this time,
and that would not risk passing through the warm waters
of the equator. Whales are localized according to their
kinds, in certain seas which they never leave. And if one
of these creatures went from Behring to Davis Straits, it
must be simply because there is a passage from one sea to
the other, either on the American or the Asiatic side.”

“Tn that case, as I have never fished in these seas, I do
not know the kind of whale frequenting thena.”

“T have told you, Ned.”

‘* A greater reason for making their acquaintance,” said
Conseil.

“‘Look! look!” exclaimed the Canadian, ‘‘they ap-
proach; they aggravate me; they know that I cannot get
at them!”

Ned stamped his feet. His hand trembled, as he gzrasned
an imaginary harpoon.
20,000, LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 95S

«‘ Are these cetacea as large as those of the northerp
seas?” asked he.

«Very nearly, Ned.”

“* Because I have seen large whales, sir, whales measuring
a hundred feet. I have even been told that those of Hui-
lamoch and Umgallick, of the Aleutian Islands, are some-
times a hundred and fifty feet long.”

«“That seems to me exaggeration. These creatures are
only balenopterons, provided with dorsal fins; and, like
the cachalots, are generally much smaller than the Green-
land whale.”

“Ah! exclaimed the Canadian, whose eyes had never
left the ocean, ‘‘they are coming nearer; they are in the
same water as the Nautilus!”

Then returning to the conversation, he said:

“You spoke of the cachalot as a small creature. I have
heard of gigantic ones. They are intelligent cetacea. It
is said of some that they cover themselves with sea-weed
and fucus, and then are taken for islands. People encamp
upon them, and settle there; light a fire—” .

*¢ And build houses,” said Conseil.

“Yes, joker,” said Ned Land. ‘And one fine day the
creature plunges, carrying with it all the inhabitants to the
bottom of the sea.”

“Something like the travels of Sinbad the Sailor,” I re-
plied, laughing.

“Ah!” suddenly exclaimed Ned Land, ‘‘it is not one
whale; there are ten—there are twenty—it is a whole
troop! And I not able to do anything! hands and feet
tied!”

‘But, friend Ned,” said Conseil, ‘‘why do you not ask

Captain Nemo’s permission to chase them?”
' Conseil had not finished his sentence when Ned Land
had lowered himself through the panel to seek the captain.
A few minutes afterwards the two appeared together on the
platform.
266 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER TIE SEAS.

Captain Nemo watched the troop of cetacea playing ov
the waters about a mile from the Vautilus.

«They are southern whales,” said he; ‘‘there goes the
fortune of a whole fleet of whalers.”

‘Well, sir,” asked the Canadian, ‘‘ can I not chase them,
if only to remind me of my old trade of harpooner?”

«And to what purpose?” replied Captain Nemo; “‘ only
to destroy! We have nothing to do with whale-oil on
board.”

“But, sir,” continued the Canadian, “‘in the Red Sea
you allowed us to follow the dugong.”

“Then it was to procure fresh meat for my crew. Here
it would be killing for killing’s sake. I know that is a
privilege reserved for man, but I do not approve of such
murderous pastime. In destroying the southern whale
(like the Greenland whale, an inoffensive creature), your
traders do a culpable action, Master Land. They have
already depopulated the whole of Buffin’s Bay, and are an-
nihilating a class of useful animals. Leave the unfortunate
cetacea alone. They have plenty of natural enemies—
cachalots, swordfish, and sawfish—without your troubling
them.”

The captain was right, The barbarous and inconsiderate
greed of these fishermen will one day cause the disappear-
ance of the last whale in the ocean. Ned Land whistled
“Yankee Doodle” between his teeth, thrust his hands into
his pockets, and turned his back upon us. But Captain
Nemo watched the troop of cetacea, and addressing me
said:

“T was right in saying that whales had natural enemies
enough, without counting man. These will have plenty
to do before long. Do you see, M. Aronnax, about eight
miles to leeward, those blackish moving points?”

“‘Yes, Captain,” I replied.

“Those are cachalots—terrible animals, which I have
sometimes met in troops of two or three hundred. As to
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 961

tnose, they are cruel, mischievous creatures; they would be
right in exterminating them.”

The Canadian turned quickly at the last words.

‘‘ Well, Captain,” said he, ‘‘it is still time, in the interest
of the whales.”

“Tt is useless to expose one’s self, Professor. The Vau-
tilus will disperse them. It is armed with a steel spur as
good as Master Land’s harpoon, I imagine.”

The Canadian did not put himself out enough to shrug
his shoulders. Attack cetacea with blows of a spur!’ Who
had ever heard of such a thing?

«Wait, M. Aronnax,” said Captain Nemo. ‘We will
show you something you have never yet seen. We have no
pity for these ferocious creatures. They are nothing but
mouth and teeth.” :

Mouth and teeth! No one could better cescribe the
macrocephalous cachalot, which is sometimes more than
seventy-five feet long. Its enormous head occupies one
third of its entire body. Better armed than the whale,
whose upper jaw is furnished only with whalebone, it is
supplied with twenty-five large tusks, about cight inches
long, cylindrical and conical at the top, each weighing two
pounds. It is in the upper part of this enormous head, in
great cavities divided by cartilages, that is to be found from
six to eight hundred pounds of that precious oil called
spermaceti. The cachalot is a disagreeable creature, more
tadpole than fish, according to Fredol’s description. It is
badly formed, the whole of its left side being (if we may
say it) a “failure,” and being only able to see with its right
cye. But the formidable troop was nearing us. They had
seen the whales and were preparing to attack them. One
could. judge beforehand that the cachalots would be victori-
ous, not only because they were better built for attack than
their inoffensive adversaries, but also because they could
remain longer under water without coming to tho surface.
There was only just time to go to the help of the whales.
262 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS.

The Nautilus went under water. Conseil, Ned Land, and
I took our places before the window in the saloon, and Cap-
tain Nemo joined the pilot in his cage to work his apparu-
tus as an engine of destruction. Soon I felt the beatings
of the screw quicken, and our speed increased. The battle
between the cachalots and the whales had already begun
when the Vautilus arrived. They did not at first show any
fear at the sight of this new monster joining in the conflict.
But they soon had to guard against its blows. What a
battle! The Nautilus was nothing but a formidable har-
poon, brandished by the hand of its captain. It hurled
itself against the fleshy mass, passing through from one
part to the other, leaving behind it two quivering halves of
the animal. It could not feel the formidable blows from
their tails upon its sides, nor the shock which it produced
itself, much more. One cachalot killed, it ran at the next,
tacked on the spot that it might not miss its’ prey, going
forwards and backwards, answering to its helm, plunging
when the cetacean dived into the deep waters, coming up
with it when it returned to the surface, striking it front or
sideways, cutting or tearing in all directions, and at any
pace, piercing it with its terrible spur. What carnage!
What a noise on the surface of the waves! What sharp
hissing, and what snorting peculiar to these enraged
animals! In the midst of these waters generally so peace-
ful their tails made perfect billows. For one-hour this
wholesale massacre continued, from which the cachalots
could not escape. Several times ten or twelve united tried
to crush the Mautilus by their weight. From the window
we could see their enormous mouths studded with tusks,
and their formidable eyes. Ned Land could not contain
himself, he threatened and swore at them. We could feel
them clinging to our vessel like dogs worrying a wild boar
inacopse. But the Nautilus, working its screw, carried
them here and there, or to the upper levels of the ocean,
without caring for their enormous weight, nor the power-
-20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 262

Yul strain on the vessel. At length, the mass of cacha-
lots broke up, the waves became quiet, and I felt that we
were rising to the surface. The panel opened, and we
hurried on to the platform. The sea was covered with
mutilated bodies. A. formidable explosion could not have
divided and torn this fleshy mass with more violence. We
were floating amid gigantic bodies, bluish on the back and
white underneath, covered with enormous protuberances.
some terrified cachalots were flying towards the horizon.
The waves were dyed red for several miles, and the Nawtt-
lus floated in a sea of blood. Captain Nemo joined us.

“* Well, Master Land ?” said he.

‘Well, sir,” replied the Canadian, whose enthusiasm
had somewhat calmed; ‘‘it isa terrible spectacle, certainly.
But I am not a butcher. J am a hunter, and I call this a
butchery.”

“It is a massacre of mischievous creatures,” replied the
taptain; ‘and the Nautilus is not a butcher’s knife.”

“‘T like my harpoon better,” said the Canadian.

“« Every one to his own,” answered the captain, looking
fixedly at Ned Land.

I feared he would committ some act of violence, which
would end insad consequences. But his anger was turned
by the sight of a whale which the Nautilus had just come
up with. The creature had not quite escaped from the
cachalot’s teeth. I recognized the southern whale by its
flat head, which is entirely black. Anatomically, it is dis-
tinguished from the white whale and the North Cape
whale by the seven cervical vertebra, and it has two more
ribs than its congeners. The unfortunate cetacean was
lying on its side, riddled with holes from the bites, and
quite dead. From its mutilated fin still hung a young
whaie which it could not save from the massacre. Its open
mouth let the water flow in and out, murmuring like the
waves breaking on the shore. Captain Nemo steered close
ta th garpse of the creature. ‘wo of his men mounted
264 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS,

its side, and I saw, not without surprise, that they were
drawing from its breasts all the milk which they contained,
that is to say, about two or three tons. The captain cf-
fered me a cup of milk, which was still warm. I could
not help showing my repugnance to the drink; but he
assured me that it was excellent, and’ not to be distin-
guished from cow’s milk. I tasted it, and was of his opin-
ion. It was a useful reserve to us, for in the shape of salt
butter or cheese it would form an agreeable variety from
our ordinary food. From that day I noticed with uneasi-
ness that Ned Land’s ill-will towards Captain Nemo in-
creased, and I resolved to watch the Canadian’s gestures
closely.

CHAPTER XIII.
THE ICEBERG.

THE Nav.tilus was steadily pursuing its southerly cuurse,
following the fiftieth meridian with considerable speed.
Did he wish to reach the pole? I did not think so, for
every attempt to reach that point had hitherto failed,
again the season was far advanced; for in the antartic
regions the 13th of March corresponds with the 13th of
September of northern regions, which begin at the equi-
noctial season. On the 14th of March I saw floating ice in
latitude 55°, merely pale bits of débris, from twenty to
twenty-five teet long, forming banks over which the sea
curled. The Nawéilus. remained on the surface of the
ocean. Ned Land, who had fished in the arctic seas, was
familiar with its icebergs; but Conseil and I admired them
for the first time. In the atmosphere towards the southeru
horizon stretched a white dazzling band. English whalers
have given it the name of ‘‘ice blink.” However thick
the clouds may be, :! is always visible, and announces the
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 965

presence of an ice pack or bank. Accordingly, larger blocks
soon appeared, whose brilliancy changed with the caprices
of the fog. Some of these masses showed green veins, as
if long undulating lines had been traced with sulphaie of
copper; others resembled enormous amethysts with the
light shining through them. Some reflected the light of
day upon a thousand crystal facets. Oihers shaded with
vivid calcareous reflections resembled a perfect town of
marble. ‘The more we neared the south, the more these
flowing islands increased both in number and import-
ance.

At the sixtieth degree of latitude, every pass had disap-
peared. But seeking carefully, Captain Nemo soon found
a narrow opening, through which he boldly slipped, know-
ing, however, that it would close behind him. Thus,
guided by this clever hand, the Nawtiius passed through
all the ice with a precision which quite charmed Conseil;
icebergs or mountains, ice-fields or smooth plains, seeming
to have no limits, drift ice or floating ice packs, or plains
broken up, called palchs when they are circular, and streams
when they are made up of long strips. The temperature
was very low; the thermometer exposed to the air marked
two or three degrees below zero, but we were warmly clad
with fur, at the expense of the sea-bear and seal. The in-
terior of the Nautilus, warmed regularly by its electric
apparatus, defied the most intense cold. Besides, it would
only have been necessary to go some yards beneath the
waves to find a more bearable temperature. Two months
earlier we should have had perpetual daylight in these lati-
tudes; but already we had three or four hours night, and
by and by there would be six months of darkness in these
circumpolar regions. On the 15th of March-we were in
the latitude of New Shetland and South Orkney. The
captain tola me that formerly numerous tribes of seals in-
habited them; but that English and American whalers, in
their rage for destruction, massacred boih old and young;
266 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. ‘

thus, where there was once life and animation, they had
left silence and death.

About eight o’clock on the morning of the 16th of March,
the Nautilus, folowing the fifty-fifth meridian, cut the an-
tarctic polar circle. Ice surrounded us on all sides, and
closed the horizon. But Captain Nemo went from one
opening to another, still going higher. I cannot express
my astonishment at the beauties of these new regions. The
ice took most surprising forms. Here the grouping formed
an Oriental town, with innumerable mosques and minarets;
there a fallen city thrown to the earth, as it were, by some
convulsion of nature. The whole aspect was constantly
changed by the oblique rays of the sun, or lost in the
grayish fog amidst hurricanes of snow. Detonations and
falls were heard on all sides, great overthrows of icebergs,
which altered the whole landscape like a diorama. Often
seeing no exit I thought we were definitively prisoners; but
instinct guided him at the slighest indication, Captain
Nemo would discover a new pass. He was never mistaken
when he saw the thin threads of bluish water trickling
along the ice-fields; and I had no doubt that he had already
ventured into the midst of these antarctic seas before. On
the 16th of March, however, the ice-fields absolutely blocked
our road. Jt was not the iceberg itself, as yet, but vast
fields cemented by the cold. But this obstacle could not
stop Captain Nemo: he hurled himself against it with
frightful violence. The Nautilus entered the brittle mass
like a wedge, and split it with frightful crackings. It was
the battering ram of the ancients hurled by infinite strength.
The ice, thrown high in the air, fell like hail around us.
By its own power of impulsion our apparatus made a canal
for itself; sometimes carried away by its own impetus it
lodged on the ice-field, crushing it with its weight, and
sometimes buried beneath it, dividing it by a simple pitch-
ing movement, producing large rents in it. Violent gales
“assailed us at this time, accompanied by thick fogs, through
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 267

which, from one end of the platform to the other, we coulé
see nothing. The wind blew sharply from all points of the
compass, and the snow lay in such hard heaps that we had
io break it with blows of a pickaxe. The temperature wag
wlways at five degrees below zero; every outward part of,
the Wautilus was covered with ice.
uever have worked its way there, for all the rigging would
have been entangled in the blocked up gorges. A vessel
without sails, with electricity for its motive power, and
wanting no coal, could alone brave such high latitudes.
At length, on the 18th of March, after many useless as-
saults, the Mautilus was positively blocked. It was no.
longer either streams, packs, or ice-fields, but an intermin-
able and immovable barrier, formed by mountains soldered
together.

** An iceberg!” said the Canadian to me.

Iknew that to Ned Land, as well as to all other navigators.
who had preceded us, this was an inevitable obstacle. The
sun appearing for an instant at noon, Captain Nemo took
an observation as near as possible, which gave our situation
at 51° 80’ longtitude and 67° 39’ of south latitude. We
had advanced one degree more in this antarctic region. Of
the liquid surface of the sea there was no longer a glimpse.
Under the spur of the Wautilus lay stretched a vast plain,
entangled with confused blocks. Here and there sharp
points, and slender needles rising to a height of 200 feet;
farther on a steep shore, hewn as it were with an axe, and
clothed with grayish tints, huge mirrors reflecting a few
rays of sunshine, half drowned in the fog. And over this
desolate face of nature a stern silence reigned, scarcely
broken by the flapping of the wings of petrels and puffins,
everything was frozen—even the noise. The Nautilus was
then obliged to stop in its adventurous course amid these
fields of ice. In spite of our efforts, in spite of the pow-
erful means employed to break up the ice, the Nautilus
remained immovable. Generally, when we can proceed neo
268 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

farther, we have return still open to us; but here return
was as impossible as advance, for every pass had closed be
hind us; and for the few moments when we were station:
ary, we were likely to be entirely blocked, which did, in-
deed, happen about two o’clock in the afternoon, the fresh
ice forming around its sides with astonishing rapidity.. I
was obliged to admit that Captain Nemo was more than
imprudent. I was on the platform at that moment. The
captain had been observing our situation for some time
time past when he said to me:

“Well, sir; what do you think of this?”

«7 think that we are caught, Captain.”

“‘So M. Aronnax, you really think the Mawtilus cannot
disengage itself?”

“With difficulty, Captain; for the season is already too
far advanced for you to reckon on the breaking up of the
ice.”

“Ah! sir,” said Captain Nemo, in an ironical tone, ‘‘ you
will always be the same. You see nothing but difficulties
and obstacles. I affirm that not only can the Nautilus
disengage itself, but also that it can go farther still.”

“‘Farther to the south?” I asked, looking at the cap-
tain.

“Yes, sir; it shall go to the pole.”

“To the pole!” I exclaimed, unable to repress a gesture
of incredulity.

“Yes,” replied the captain, coldly, ‘‘to the antarctic
pole, to that unknown point from whence springs every
meridian of the globe. Yow know whether I can do as [
please with the Wautilus !”

Yes, I knew that. I knew that this man was bold, even
to rashness. But to conquer those obstacles which bristled
round the south pole, rendering it more inaccessible than
the north, which had not yet been reached by the boldest
navigators—was it not a mad enterprise, one which only a
maniac would have conceived? Itthen came into my head
2,000 LHAGUES UNDER THH SHAS. 269

to ask Captain Nemo if he had ever discovered that pole
which had never yet been trodden by a human creature.

‘* No, sir,” he replied; ‘‘ but we will discover it together.
Where others have failed, J will not fail. Ihave never yet
led my Nautilus so far into southern BONES but, I repeat, it
shall go farther yet.”

“‘T can well believe you, Captain,” said I, in a slightly
ironical tone. ‘‘I believe you! Let us go ahead! There
are no obstacles for us! Let us smash thisiceberg! Letus
blow it up; and if it resists, let us give the Nessie wings
to fly over it!”

“Over it, sir!” said Captain Nemo, quietly; “no, not
over it, but wrde it!”

‘Under it!” I exclaimed, a sudden idea of the captain’s
"vojects flashing upon my mind. I understood the won-
Jerful qualities of the Mautilus were going to serve us 74
this superhuman enterprise.

“‘T see we are beginning to understand one another,
sir,” said the captain, half-smiling. ‘‘ You begin to see
the possibility—I should say the success—of this attempt.
That which is impossible for an ordinary vessel, is easy to
the Nautilus. If a continent les before the pole, it must
stop before tne continent; but if, on the contrary, the pole
is washed by open sea, it will go even to the pole.”

“Certainly,” said I, carried away by the captain’s rea-
soning; ‘‘if the surface of the sea is solidified by the ice,
the lower depths are free by the providential law which has
placed the maximum of density of the waters of the ocean
one degree higher than freezing-point; and, if I am not
mistaken, the portion of this iceberg which is above the
water is as oue to four to that which is below.”

“Very nearly, sir; for one foot of iceberg above the sea
there are three below it. If these ice mountains are not
more than 800 feet xbove the surface, they are not more
chan 900 beneath. .And what are 900 feet to the Nawitd-
dus ?”
270 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHA&

**Nothing, sir.”

“It could even seek at greater depths that uniform
temperature of sea-water, and there brave with impunity
the thirty or forty degrees of surface cold.”

«¢ Just so, sir—just so,” I replied, getting animated.

“‘The only difficulty,” continued Captain Nemo, “is
that of remaining several days without renewing our pro-
vision of air.”

“Ts that all? The WMawtilws has vast reservoirs; we can
fill them, and they will supply us with all the oxygen we
want.”

‘Well thought of, M. Aronnax,” replied the captain,
smiling, ‘‘But not wishing you to accuse me of rashness,
J will first give you all my objections.”

“‘ Have you any more to make?”

<‘Only one. It is possible, if the sea exists at the south
pole, that it may be covered; and, consequently, we shail
be unable to come to the surface.”

“Good, sir! but do you forget that the Nautilus is
armed with a powerful spur, and could we not send it di-
agonally against these fields of ice, which would open at
the shock?”

«Ah, sir! you are full of ideas to-day.”

“* Besides, Captain,” I added, enthusiastically, ‘‘ why
should we not find the sea open at the south pole as well
as at the north? ‘The frozen poles and the poles of
the earth do not coincide, either in the southern or in the
northern regions; and, until it is proved to the contrary,
we may suppose either a continent or an ocean free fram
ice at these two points of the globe.”

“T think so, too, M. Aronnax,” replied Captain Nevo.
**T only wish you to observe that, after having made so
many objections to my project, you are now crushing ‘ne
with arguments in its favor!”

The preparations for this audacious attempt now began.
he powerful pumps of the Vautilus were working air irt's
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. Q7t

she reservoirs and storing it at high pressure. About four
yclock, Captain Nemo announced the closing of the pan-
als on the platform. I threw one last look at the massive
iceberg which we were going to cross, The weather was
clear, the atmosphere pure enough, the cold very great,
being twelve degrees below zero; but the wind having gone
down this temperature was not so unbearable. About ten
men mounted the sides of the Nautilus, armed with pick-
axes to break the ice round the vessel, which was soon free.
This operation was quickly performed, for the fresh ice
was still very thin. We all went below, The usual reser-
voirs were filled with the newly-liberated water, and the
Nautilus soon descended. 1 had taken my place with
Conseil in the saloon; through the open window we could
see the lower beds of the Southern Ocean. The thermom-
eter went up, the needle of the compass deviated on the
dial. At about 900 feet, as Captain Nemo had fore-
seen, we were floating beneath the undulating surface of
theiceberg. But the Nautilus went lower still—it went to
the depth of four hundred fathoms. ‘The temperature of
the water showed twelve degrees, it was now only ten; we
had gained two. Ineed not say the temperature of the Nau-
tilus was raised by its heating apparatus toa much higher
degree. Hvery manoeuvre was accomplished with wonder-
ful precision.

‘‘We shall pass it, if you please, sir;” said Conseil.

‘““T believe we shall,” I said, in a tone of firm convic-
tion.

In this open sea, tae Nautilus had taken its course direct.
to the pole, without leaving the fifty-second meridian.
From 67° 30’ to 90°, twenty-two degrees and a half of lati-
tude remained to travel; that is, about five hundred
leagues. The Mautilus kept up a mean speed of twenty-
six miles an hour—the speed of an express train. If that
was kept up, in forty hours we should reach the pole.

For a part of the night the novelty of the situation kept
272 20,000 LEAGUES UNDI’R THE SEAS.

us at the window. ‘The sea was lit with the elestric lan-
tern; but it was deserted; fishes did not sojourn in these
imprisoned waters; they only found there a passage to take
them from the antarctic ocean tu the open polar sea. Our
progress was rapid; we could feel it by the quivering of the
long steel body. About two in the morning, I took some
hours’ repose, ani] Conseil did the same. In crossing the
waist I did not meet Captain Nemo: I supposed him to be
in the pilot’s cage. The next morning, the 19th of March,
I took my post once more in the saloon. The electric log
told me that the speed of the Nautilus had been slackened.
It was then going towards the surface, but prudently
emptying its reservoirs very slowly. My heart beat fast.
Were we going to emerge and regain the open polar at-
mosphere! No! A shock told me that the Nautilus had
struck the bottom of the iceberg, still very thick, judging
from the deadened sound. We had indeed “struck,” to
use a sea expression, but in an inverse sense, and at a thou-
sand feet deep. This would give three thousand feet of
ice above us; one thousand being above the water-mark.
The iceberg was then higher than at its borders—not a very
reassuring fact. Several times that day the Wawttlus tried
again, and every time it struck the wall which lay like a
ceiling above it. Sometimes it met with but 900 yards,
only 200 of which rose above the surface. It was twice the
height it was when the Nautilus had gone under the waves.
I carefully noted the different depths, and thus obtained a
submarine profile of the chain as it was developed under the
water. That nightno change had taken place in our situ-
ation. Still ice between four and five hundred yards in
depth! It was evidently diminishing, but still what a
thickness between us and the surface of the ocean! It was
then eight. According to the daily custom on board the
Nautilus, itsair should hare been renewed four hours ago;
but I did not suffer much, alihough Captain Nemo had not
yet made any demand upon his reserve of oxygen. My
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS. 273

sleep was painful that night; hope and fear besieged me
by turns: I rose several times. The groping of the Nau-
tilus continued. About three in the morning I noticed
that the lower surface of the iceberg was only about. fifty
feet deep. One hundred and fifty feet now separated us
from the surface of the waters. The iceberg was by de-
grees becoming an ice-field, the mountain a plain. My
eyes never left the manometer. We were still rising diag-
onally to the surface, which sparkled under the electric
rays. The iceberg was stretching both above and beneath
into lengthening slopes; mile after mile it was getting
thinner. At length, at sixin the morning of that memora-
able day, the 19th of March, the door of the saloon opened,
and Captain Nemo appeared.
«The sea is open!” was all he said.

CHAPTER XIV.
THE SOUTH POLE.

I nusHED on to the platform. Yes! the open sea, with
but a few scattered pieces of ice and moving icebergs;—a
long stretch of sea; a world of birds in the air, and myriads
of fishes under those waters, which varied from intense blue
to olive green, according to the bottom. The thermometer
marked three degrees centigrade above zero. It was com-
paratively spring, shut up as we were behind this iceberg,
whose lengthened mass was dimly scen on our northern
horizon.

“¢ Are we at the pole?” I asked the captain, with a beat-
ing heart.

“T do not know,” he replied. ‘‘ At noon‘I will take our
bearings.”

« But will the sun show himself through this fog?” said
I, looking at the leaden sky.
274 20,000 LEAu JES UNDER THE SEAS.

“¢ However little it shows, it will,be enough,” replied the
captain.

About ten miles south, @ solitary island rose to a height
of one hundred and four yards. We made for it, but care-
fully, for the sea might be strewn with banks. One hour
afterwards we had reached it, two hours later we had made
the round of it. It measured four or five miles in cireum-
ference. A narrow canal separated it from a considerable
stretch of land, perhaps a continent, for we could not see
its limits. The existence of this land seemed to give some
color to Maury’s hypothesis. The ingenious American hag
remarked, that between the south pole and the sixtieth
parallel, the sea is covered with floating ice cf enormous
size, which is never met with in the North Atlantic. From
this fact he has drawn the conclusion that the antarctic cir-
cle encloses considerable continents, as icebergs cannot form
in open sea, but only on the coasts. According to these
calculations, the mass of ice surrounding the southern pole
forms a vast cap, the circumference of which must be, at
least, 2500 miles. But the Nawtilus, for fear of running
aground, had stopped about three cables’ length from a
strand over which reared asuperb heap of rocks. The boat
was launched; the captain, two of his men bearing instru-
ments, Conseil, and myself were init. It was ten in the
morning. I had not seen Ned Land. Doubtless the Canadian
did not wish to admit the presence of the south pole. A
few strokes of the oar brought us to the sand, where we ran
ashore. Conseil was going to jump on to the land, when IJ
held him back.

“Sir,” said I to Captain Nemo, “to you belongs the
honor of first setting foot on this land.”

“Yes, sir,” said the captain; ‘‘and if I do not hesitate
to tread this south pole, it is because, up to this time, no
human being has left a trace there.”

Saying this, he jumped lightly on to the sand. His
heart beat with emotion. He climbed a rock, sloping to a
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. O75

little promontory; and there, with his arms crossed, mute
and motionless, and with an eager look, he seemed to take
possession of these southern regions. After five minutes
passed in this ecstasy, he turned to us.

<‘When you like, sir.”

I landed, followed by Conseil, leaving the two men in
the boat. For a long way the soil was composed of a red-
dish, sandy stone, something like crushed brick, scorie,
streams of lava, and pumice-stones. One could not mistake
its volcanic origin. In some parts, slight curls of smoke
emitted a sulphurous smell, proving that the internal fires
had lost nothing of their expansive powers, though, having
climbed a high acclivity, I could see no volcano for a radius
of several miles. We know that in those antarctic countries,
James Ross found two craters, the Erebus and Terror, in
full activity, on the 167th meridian, latitude 77° 32’. The
vegetation of this desolate continent seemed to me much
restricted. Some lichens of the species usnea melanoxan-
tha lay upon the black rocks; some microscopic plants, ru-
dimentary diatomas, a kind of cells, placed between two
quartz shells; long purple and scarlet fucus, supported on
little swimming bladders, which the breaking of the waves
brought to the shore. These constituted the meagre flora
of this region. The shore was strewn with molluscs, little
mussels, limpets, smooth bucards, in the shape of a heart,
and particularly some clios, with oblong membraneous
bodies, the head of which was formed of two rounded lobes.
I also saw myriads of northern clios, one and a quarter
inches long, of which a whale would swallow a whole world
at a mouthful; and some charming pteropods, perfect sea-
butterflies, animating the waters on the skirts of the shore.

Amongst other zoéphytes, there appeared on the high
bottoms some coral shrubs, of that kind which, according
to James Ross, live in the antarctic seas to the depth of
more than 1000 yards. Then there were little kingfishers,
belonging to the species procellaria pelagica, as well as a
270 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SHAS.

large number of asteriads, peculiar to these climates, and
starfish studding the soil. But where life abounded most
was in the air. There thousands of birds fluttered and
flew, of all kinds, deafening us with their cries; others
crowded the rocks, looking at us as we passed by without
fear, and pressing familiarly close by our feet. There were
penguins, so agile in the water that they have been taken
for the rapid bonitos, heavy and awkward as they are
on the ground; they were uttering harsh cries, a large
assembly, sober in gesture, but extravagant in clamor.
Amongst the birds I noticed the chionis, of the long-legged
family, as large as pigeons, white, with a short conical beak,
and the eye framed in ared circle. Conseil laid in a stock
of them, for these winged creatures, properly prepared,
make an agreeable meat. Albatrosses passed in the air
(the expanse of their wings being at least four yards and a
half), and justly called the vultures of the ocean; some gi-
gantic petrels, and some damiers, a kind of small duck, the
under part of whose body is black and white; then there
were a whole series of petrels, some whitish with brown-
bordered wings, others blue, peculiar to the antarctic seas,
and so oily, as I told Conseil, that the inhabitants of the
Ferroe Islands had nothing to do before lighting them, but
to put a wick in.

«A little more,” said Conseil, ‘‘and they would be per-
fect lamps! After that, we cannot expect nature to have
previously furnished them with wicks.

About half a mile farther on, the soil was riddled with
ruff’s nests, a sort of laying ground, out of which many
birds were issuing. Captain Nemo had some hundreds
hunted. They uttered a cry like the braying of an ass,
were about the size of a goose, slate color on, tlie body,
white beneath, with a yellow line round their throats; they
allowed themselves to be killed with a stone, never trying
to escape. But the fog did not lift, and at eleven the sun
had not yet shown itself. Its absence made me uneasy.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 277

Without it no observations were possible. How then could
we decide whether we had reached the pole? When I re-
joined Captain Nemo, I found him leaning on a piece of
rock, silently watching the sky. He seemed impatient and
vexed. But what was to be done? This rash and power-
ful man could not command ,the sun as he did the sea.
Noon arrived without the orb of day showing itself for an
instant. We could not even tell its position behind the
curtain of fog; and soon the fog turned to snow.

‘Till to-morrow,” said the captain quietly, and we re-
turned to the Nautilus amid these atmospheric disturb-
ances.

The tempest of snow continued till the nextday. It was
impossible to remain on the platform. From the saloon,
where I was taking notes of incidents happening during
this excursion to the polar continent, I could hear the cries
of petrels and albatrosses sporting in the midst of this vio-
lent storm. The Nautilus did not remain motionless, but
skirted the coast, advancing ten miles more to the south in
the half-light left by the sun as it skirted the edge of the
horizon. The next day, the 20th of March, the snow had
ceased. The cold was a little greater, the thermometer
showing two'degrees below zero. The fog was rising, and
T hoped that that day our observations might be taken.
Captain Nemo not having yet appeared, the boat took Con-
seil and myself to land. The soil was still of the same
volcanic nature; everywhere were traces of lava, scorie, and
basalt; but the crater which had vomited them I could not
sec. Here, as lower down, this continent was alive with
myriads of birds; but their rule was now divided with large
troops of sea-mammals, looking at us with their soft eyes.
There were several kinds of seals, some stretched on the
earth, some on flakes of ice, many going in and out of the
sea. They did not flee at our approach, never having had
anything to do with man; and I reckoned that there were
provisions there for hundreds of vessels.
278 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

“*Sir,” said Conseil, ‘will you tell me the names of
these creatures?”

«¢ They are seals and morses.”

It was now eight in the morning. Four hours remained
to us before the sun could be observed with advantage. I
directed our steps towards a vast bay cut in ihe steep
granite shore. There, I can aver, that earth and ice were
lost to sight by the numbers of searmammals covering them,
and I involuntarily sought for old Proteus, the mytho-
logical shepherd who watched these immense flocks of
Neptune. There were more seals than anything else,
forming distinct groups, male and female, the father
watching over his family, the mother suckling her little
ones, some already strong enough to go afew steps. When
they wished to change their place, they took little jumps,
made by the contraction of their bodies, and helped awk-
wardly enough by their imperfect fin, which, as with the
lamantin, their congener, forms » perfect forearm. I
should say that, in the water, which is their element,—the
spine of these creatures is flexible,—with smooth and close
skin and webbed feet, they swim admirably. In resting on
the earth they take the most graceful attitudes. Thus the
ancients, observing their soft and expressive looks, which
cannot be surpassed by the most beautiful look a woman
can give, their clear voluptuous eyes, their charming posi-
tions, and the poetry of their manners, metamorphosed
them, the male into a triton and the female into a mermaid.
J made Conseil notice the considerable development of the
lobes of the brain in these interesting cetaceans. No mam-
mal, except man, has such a quantity of cerebral matter;
they are also capable of receiving a certain amount of
education, are easily domesticated, and I think, with other
naturalists, that, if properly taught, they would be of
great service as fishing-dogs. The greater part of them
slept on the rocks or on the sand. Amongst these seals,
properly so called, which have no external ears (in which
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 279

they differ from the otter, whose ears are prominent), I
noticed severai varicties of stenorhynchi about three yards
loug, with a white coat, bulldog heads, armed with teeth
in both jaws, four incisors at the top and four at the bot-
tom, and two large canine teeth in the shape of a “ fleur
delis.” Amongst them glided sea-elephants, a kind of seal,
with short flexible trunks. The giants of this species
measured twenty feet round, and ten yards ande half in
length; but they did not move as we approached.

“These creatures are not dangerous?” asked Conseil.

“No; not unless you attack them. When they have to
defend their young, their rage is terrible, and it is not un-
common for them to break the fishing-boats to pieces.”

“They are quite right,” said Conseil.

“TY do not say they are not.”

Two miles farther on we were stopped by the pro-
montory which shelters the bay from the southerly winds.
Beyond it we heard loud bellowings such as a troop of
ruminants would produce. : :

“* Good!” said Conseil; ‘‘a concert of bulls!”

““No; a concert of morses.”

«They are fighting!”

«They are either fighting or playing.”

We now began to climb the blackish rocks, amid unfore
secn stumbles, and over stones which the ice made slippery.
More than once I rolled over, at the expense of my loins,
Conseil, more prudent or more steady, did not stumble,
and helped me up, saying:

“Tf, sir, you would have the kindness to take wider
steps, you would preserve you equilibrium better.”

Arrived at the upper ridge of the promontory, I saw a
vast white plain covered with morses. They were playing
amongst themselves, and what we heard were bellowirgs of
pleasure, not of anger.

As I passed near these curious animals, I could examine
them leisurely, for they did not move. Their skins were
280 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

thick and rugged, of a yellowish tint. approaching to red;
their hair was short and scant. Some of them were four
yards and a quarter long. Quieter and less timid than
their congeners of the north, they did not, like them,
place sentinels round the outskiris of their encampment.
After examining this city of morses, I began to think of
returning. It was eleven o’clock, and if Captain Nemo
found the conditions favorable for observations, I wished
to be present at the operation. We followed a narrow
pathway running along the summit of the steep shore. At
half past eleven we had reached the place where we landed.
The boat had run aground bringing the captain. I saw
him standing on a block of basalt, his instruments near
him, his eyes fixed on the northern horizon, near which the
sun was then describing a lengthened curve. 1 took my
place beside him, and waited without speaking. Noon
arrived, and, as before, the sun did not appear. It was a
fatality. Observations were still wanting. If not accom-
plished to-morrow, we must give up all idea of taking any.
We were indeed exactly at the 20th of March. To-morrow,
the 21st, would be the equinox; the sun would disappear
behind the horizon for six months, and with its disappear-
ance the long polar night would begin. Since the Septem-
ber equinox it had emerged from the northern horizon,
rising by lengthened spirals up to the 21st of December.
At this period, the summer solstice of the northern regions,
it had begun to descend, and to-morrow was to shed its last
rays upon them. J communicated my fears and observa-
tions to Captain Nemo.

“You are right, M. Aronnax,” said he; “if to-morrow
I cannot take the altitude of the sun, I shall not be able to
do it for six months. But precisely because chance has
led me into these seas on the 21st of March, my bearings
will be easy to take, if at twelve we can see the sun?”

“Why, Captain ?”

*¢ Because then the orb of day describes such lengthened
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS. 984

curves, that it is difficult to measure exactly its height
above the horigan, and grave errors may be made with in-
struments,”

“* What will you do then?” :

“T shall only use my chronometer,” replied Captain
Nemo. ‘ If to-morrow, the 21st of March, the disc of the
sun, allowing for refraction, is exactly cut by the northern
horizon, it will show that I am at the south pole.”

“ Just so,” said I. ‘* But this statement is not mathe-
matically pprrect, because the equinox does not neceeeuy
begin at noon.’

“Very likely, sir; but the error will not bea hundred
yards, and we do not want more. ‘Till to-morrow, then!”

Captain Nemo returned on board. Conseil and I re-
mained to survey the shore, observing and studying until
five o’clock. Then I went to bed, not however, without
invoking, like the Indian, the favor of the radiant orb.
The next day, the 21st of March, at five in the morning,
I mounted the platform. I found Captain Nemo there.

<‘The weather is lightening a little,” said he. “I have
some hope. After breakfast we will go on shore, and
“roose a post for observation.”

That point settled, I sought Ned Land. I wanted to
take him with me. But the obstinate Canadian refused,
and I saw that his taciturnity and his bad humor grew day
by day. After all I was not sorry for his obstinacy under
the circumstances. Indeed, there were too many seals on
shore, and we ought not lay such temptation in this un-
reflecting fisherman’s way. Breakfast over, we went on
shore. The Nautilus had gone some miles farther up in
the night. It was a whole league from the coast, above
which reared a sharp peak about five hundred yards high.
The boat, took with me, Captain Nemo, two men of the
crew, and the instruments, which consisted of a chrono-
meter, a telescope, and a barometer. While crossing, 1
saw numerous whales belonging to the three kinds peculiar
289 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS,

to the southern seas: the whale, or the English “right
whale,” which has no dorsal fin; the ‘‘ humpback,” or
balenopteron, with reeved chest, and large whitish fins,
which, in spite of its name, do not form wings; and the
fin-back, of a yellowish brown, the liveliest of all the
cetacea. This powerful creature is heard a long way off
when he throws to a great height columns of air and vapor,
which look like whirlwinds of smoke. These different
mammals were disporting themselves in troops in the
quiet waters; and I could see that this basin éf the antarc-
tic pole served as a place of refuge to the cetacea too
closely tracked by the hunters. I also noticed long whit-
ish lines of salpe, a kind of gregarious mollusc, and large
meduse floating between the reeds.

At nine we landed; the sky was brightening, the clouds
were flying to the south, and the fog seemed to be leaving
the cold surface of the waters. Captain Nemo went to-
wards the peak, which he doubtless meant to be his ob-
servatory. It was a painful ascent over the sharp lava and
the pumice-stones, in an atmosphere often impregnated
with a sulphurous smell from the smoking cracks. For a
man unaccustomed to walk on land, the captain climbed
the steep slopes with an agility I never saw equalled, and
which a hunter would have envied. We were two hours
getting to the summit of this peak, which was half por.
phyry and half basalt. From thence we looked upon a
vast sea, which towards the notth, distinctly traced its
boundary line upon the sky, At our feet lay fields of daz-
zling whiteness. Over our headsa pale azure, free from
fog. To the north the disc of the sun seemed like a bali
of fire, already horned by the cutting of the horizon, From
the bosom of the water rose sheaves of liquid jets by hun-
dreds. In the distance lay the Vauwtilus like a cetacean
asleep on the water. Behind us, to the south and east, an
immense country, and a chaotic heap of rocks and ice, the
limits of which were not visible. On arriving at the sum-
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 988

mut, Captain Nemo carefully took the mean height of the
barometer, for he would have to consider that in taking his
observations. Ata quarter to twelve, the sun, then seen
only by refraction, looked like a golden disc shedding its
last rays upon this deserted continent, and seas which never
man had yet ploughed. Captain Nemo, furnished with a
lenticular glass, which, by means of a mirror, corrected the
refraction, watched the orb sinking below the horizon by
degrees, following a lengthened diagonal. I held the
chronometer. My heart beat fast. If the disappearance
of the half-disc of the sun coincided with twelve o’clock on
the chronometer, we were at the pole itself

“Twelve!” I exclaimed.

“The South Pole!” replied Captain Nemo, in a grave
voice, handing me the glass, which showed the orb cut in
exactly equal parts by the horizon.

I looked at the last rays crowning the peak, and the
shadows mounting by degrees up its slopes. At that mo-
ment Captain Nemo, resting with his hand on my shoulder,
said:

“‘T, Captain Nemo, on this 21st day of March, 1868, have
reached the south pole on the-ninetieth degree; and I take
possession of this part of the globe, equal to one sixth of the
known continents.”

“‘In whose name, Captain?”

“In my own, sir!”

Saying which, Captain Nemo unfurled a black banner,
bearing an N in gold quartered on its bunting. Then
turning towards the orb of day, whose last rays lapped the
horizon‘of the sea, he exclaimed:

«Adieu, sun! Disappear, thou radiant orb! rest beneath
this open sea, and let a night of six months spread its
shadows over my new domains!”
284 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

CHAPTER XV.
ACCIDENT OR INCIDENT.

Tue next day, the 22d of March, at six in the morning,
preparations for departure were begun. The last gleams
of twilight were melting into night. The cold was great;
the constellations shone with wonderful intensity. In
the zenith glittered that wondrous Southern Cross,—the
polar bear of antarctic regions. The thermometer showed
twelve degrees below zero, and when the wind freshened,
it was most biting. Flakes of ice increased on the open
water. The sea seemed everywhere alike. Numerous
blackish patches spread on the surface, showing the forma-
tion of fresh ice. Evidently the southern basin, frozen
during the six winter months, was absolutely inaccessible.
What became of the whales in that time? Doubtless they
went beneath the icebergs, seeking more practicable seas,
As to the seals and morses, accustomed to live in a hard
climate, they remained on these icy shores. These crea
tures have the instinct to break holes in the ice-fields, and
to keep them open. ‘To these holes they come for breath;
when the birds, driven away by the cold, have emigrated
to the north, these sea mammals remain sole masters of
the polar continent. But the reservoirs were filling with
water, and the Nautilus was slowly descending. At 1000
feet deep it stopped; its screw beat the waves, and it ad-
vanced straight towards the north at a speed of fifteen
miles an hour. Towards night it was already floating
under the immense body of the iceberg. At three in the
morning I was awakened by a violent shock Isat up in
my bed and listened in the darkness, when I was thrown
into the middle of the room. The Nautilus, after having
20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 985.

struck, had rebounded violently. I groped along the par-
tition, and by the staircase to the saloon, which was lit by
the luminous ceiling. The furniture was upset. Fortu-
nately the windows were firmly set, and had held fast.
The pictures on the starboard-side, from being no longer
vertical, were clinging to the paper, whilst those of the
port-side were hanging at least a foot from the wall. The
Nautilus was lying on its starboard-side perfectly motion-
less. I heard footsteps, and a confusion of voices; but
Captain Nemo did not appear. As I was leaving the sa-
loon, Ned Land and Conseil entered.

‘* What is the matter?” said I, at once.

“T came to ask you, sir,” said Conseil.

“¢Confound it!’ exclaimed the Canadian, ‘‘I know well
enought The Nautdlus has struck; and judging by the
way she lies, I not. think she will right herself as she did
the first time in Torres Straits.”

“But,” I asked, ‘‘ has she at least come to the surface of
the sea?”

*¢ We do not know,” said Conseil.

“It is easy to decide,” I answered. I consulted the
manometer. To my great surprise it showed a depth of
more than 180 fathoms. ‘‘ What does that mean?” I ex-
claimed.

“*We must ask Captain Nemo,” said Conseil.

“¢ But where shall we find him?” said Ned Land.

“Follow me,” said I to my companions.

We left the saloon. There was no one in the library.
At the centre staircase, by the births of the ship’s crew,
there was no one. I thought that Captain Nemo must be
in the pilot’s cage. It was best to wait. We all returned
to the saloon. For twenty minutes we remained thus, try-
ing to hear the slightest noise which might be made on
board the Nawtilus, when Captain Nemo entered. He
seemed not to see us; his face, generally so impassive,
showed signs of uneasiness. He watched the compass
286 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

silently, then the manometer; and going to the plany
sphere, placed his finger on a spot representing the south.
ern seas. I would not interrupt him; but, some minutes
later, when he turned towards me, I said, using one of his
own expressions in the Torres Straits:

- An incident, Captain?”

“‘No, sir; an accident this time.”

“* Serious?”

“* Perhaps.”

“Ts the danger immediate?”

“No.”

“The Nautilus has stranded?”

«* Yes.”

« And this has happened—how?”

‘‘Hrom a caprice of nature, not from the ignorance of
man. Nota mistake has been made in the working. But
we cannot prevent equilibrium from producing its effects.
We may brave human laws, but we cannot resist natural
ones.”

Captain Nemo had chosen a strange moment for utter-
ing this philosophical reflection. On the whole, his answer
helped me little.

“* May I ask, sir, the cause of this accident?”

‘*An enormous block of ice, a whole mountain, has
turned over,” he replied. ‘‘When icebergs are under-
mined at their base by warmer water or reiterated shocks,
their centre of gravity rises, and the whole thing turns
over. This is what has happened; one of these blocks, as
it fell, struck the Nautilus, then, gliding under its hull,
raised it with irresistible force, bringing it into beds which
are not so thick, where it is lying on its side.”

«But can we not get the Nautilus off by emptying its
reservoirs, that it may regain its equilibrium?”

“That, sir, is being done at this moment. You car
hear the pump working. Look at the needle of the mano-
meter: it shows that the Nautilus is rising, but the block
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS, 987

of ice is rising with it; and, until some obstacle stops its
ascending motion, our position cannot be altered.”

Indeed, the Nautilus still held the same position to star-
board; doubtlessit would right itself when the block stopped.
But at this moment who knows if we may not sirike the
upper part of the iceberg, and if we may not be fright-
fully crushed between the two glassy surfaces? I reflected.
on all the consequences of our position. Captain Nemo
never took his eyes off the manometer. Since the fall of
the iceberg, the Wautilus had risen about a hundred and
fifty feet, but it still made the same angle with the per-
pendicular. Suddenly a slight movement was felt in the
hold. Hvidently it was righting a little. Things hang-
ing in the saloon were sensibly returning to their normal
position. The partitions were nearing the upright. No
one spoke. With beating hearts we watched and felt the
straightening. The boards became horizontal under our
feet. Ten minutes passed.

“* At last we have righted!” I exclaimed.

“Yes,” said Captain Nemo, going to the door of the
saloon.

«But are we floating?” I asked.

‘* Certainly,” he replied; ‘‘ since the reservoirs are not
empty; and, when empty, the Nautilus must rise to the
surface of the sea.”

We were in open sea; but at a distance of about ten
yards, on either side of the Mautilus, rose a dazzling wall
of ice. Above and beneath the same wall. Above, because
the lower surface of the iceberg stretched over us like an
immense ceiling. Beneath, because the overturned block,
having slid by degrees, had found a resting-place on the
lateral walls, which kept it in that position. The Navwti-
dws was really imprisoned in a perfect tunnel of ice more
than twenty yards in breadth, filled with quiet water. It
was easy to get out of it by going either forward or back-
ward, and then make a free passage under the iceberg.
288 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

some hundreds of yards deeper. The luminous ceiling had
been extinguished, but the saloon was still resplendent
with intense light. It was the powerful reflection from
the glass partition sent violently back to the shects of the
lantern. I cannot describe the effect of the voltaic rays
upon the great blocks so capriciously cut; upon every
angle, every ridge, every facet, was thrown a different
light, according to the nature of the veins running through
the ice; a dazzling mine of gems, particularly of sapphires,
their blue rays crossing with the green of the emerald.
Here and there were opal shades of wonderful softness,
running through bright spots like diamonds of fire, the
brilliancy of which the eye could not bear. The power of
the lantern seemed increased a hundred-fold, like a lamp
through the ienticular plates of a first-class lighthouse.

** How beautiful! how beautiful!’ cried Conseil.

“Yes,” I said, “‘it is a wonderful sight. Is it not,
Ned?”

“‘Yes, confound it! Yes,” answered Ned Land, “it is
superb! Iam mad at being obliged to admit it. “No one
has ever seen anything like it; but the sight may cost us
dear. And if I must say all, I think we are secing here
things which God never intended man to see.”

Ned was right, it was too beautiful. Suddenly acry from
Conseil made me turn.

“What is it?” I asked.

«Shut your eyes, sir! do not look, sir!” Saying which,
Conseil clapped his hands over his eyes,

“But what is the matter, my boy?”

“¢T am dazzled, blinded.”

My eyes turned involuntarily towards the glass, but I
could not stand the fire which seemed to devour them. I
understood what had happened. The Nautilus had put
on full speed. All the quiet lustre of the ice-walls was at
once changed into flashes of lightning. The fire from
these myriads of diamonds was blinding. It required some
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 289

time to calm our troubled looks. At last the hands were
taken down.

*¢ Faith, I should never have believed it,” said Conseil.

It was then five in the morning; and at that moment a
shock was felt at the bows of the Nautilus. I knew that
its spur had struck a block of ice. It must have been a
false manceuvre, for this submarine tunnel, obstructed by
blocks, was not very easy navigation. I thought that Cap-
tain Nemo, by changing his course, would either turn
these obstacles, or else follow the windings of the tunnel.
In any case, the road before us could not be entirely
blocked. But, contrary to my expectations, the Nautilus
took a decided retrograde motion.

“We are going backwards?” said Conseil.

“Yes,” I replied. ‘This end of the tunnel can have
no egress.”

“* And then?”

“Then,” said I, ‘‘the working is easy. We must go
back again, and go out at the southern opening. That is
all.”

In speaking thus, I wished to appear more confident
than I really was. But the retrograde motion of the Nau-
tilus was increasing; and, reversing the screw, it carried
us at great specd.

«Tt will be a hindrance,” said Ned.

«* What does it matter, some hours more or less, provided
we get out at last?”

“Yes,” repeated Ned Land, ‘‘ provided we do get out
at last!”

For a short time I walked from the saloon to the library.
My companions were silent. I soon threw myself on an
ottoman, and took a book, which my eyes overran mechan-
ically. A quarter of an hour after, Conseil, approaching
me, said, “‘Is what you are reading very interesting,
sir?”

“Very interesting!” I replied.
290 20,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

*‘T should think so, sir. It is your own book you are
reading.”

“¢ My book?”

And indeed I was holding in my hand the work on the
“Great Submarine Depths.” I did not even dream of it.
I closed the book, and returned to my walk. Ned and
Conseil rose to go.

‘* Stay here, my friends,” said I, detaining them. ‘‘ Let
us remain together until we are out of this block.”

“* As you please, sir,” Conseil replied.

Some hours passed. I often looked at the instruments
fanging from the partition. The manometer showed that
the Nautilus kept at a constant depth of more than three
hundred yards; the compass still pointed to the south; the
log indicated a speed of twenty miles an hour, which, in
such a cramped space, was very great. But Captain Nemo
knew that he could not hasten too much, and that minutes
were worth ages to us. At twenty-five minutes past eight
a second shock took place, this time from behind. I turned
pale. My companions were close by my side. I seized
Conseil’s hand. Our looks expressed our feelings better
than words. At this moment the captain entered the
saloon. I went up to him. >

“Our course is barred southward?” I asked.

“Yes, sir. The iceberg has shifted, and closed every
outlet.”

“We are blocked up, then?”

“Yes.”
e
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS, 991

CHAPTER XVI.
WANT OF AIR.

Tus, around the Nautilus, above and below, was an
impenetrable wall of ice. We were prisoners to the ice-
berg. I watched the captain. His countenance had re-
sumed its habitual imperturbability.

“Gentlemen,” he said, calmly, ‘‘ there are two ways of
dying in the circumstances in which we are placed.” (This
inexplicable person had the air of a mathematical professor
lecturing to his pupils.) ‘‘ Tne first is to be crushed; the
second is to die of suffocation. Ido not speak of the pos-
sibility of dying of hunger, for the supply of provisions in
the Nautilus will certainly last longer than we shall. Let
us then calculate our chances.”

“* As to suffocation, Captain,’ I replied, ‘‘ that is not to
be feared, because our reservoirs are full.”

“Just so; but they will only yield two days’ supply of
air. Now, for thirty-six hours we have been hidden under
the water, and already the heavy atmosphere of the Nauwt?-
lus requires renewal. In forty-eight hours our reserve will
be exhausted.”

‘Well, Captain, can we delivered before forty-eight
hours?”

“We will attempt it, at least, by piercing the wall that
surrounds us.”

“On which side?”

“‘ Sound will tell us. I am going to run the Nautilus
aground on the lower bank, and my men will attack the
iceberg on the side that is least thick.”

Captain Nemo went out. Soon I discovered by a hissing
992 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

noise that the water was entering the reservoirs. The
Nautilus sank slowly, and rested on the ice at a depth of
850 yards, the depth at which the lower bank was im-
mersed.

“‘My friends,” I said, ‘“‘our situation is serious, but I
rely on your courage and energy.”

“« Sir,” replied the Canadian, ‘I am ready to do any-
thing for the general safety.”

“© Good! Ned,” and I held out my hand to the Canadian,

“*T will add,” he continued, ‘‘ that being as handy with
the pickaxe as with the harpoon, if I can be useful to the
captain, he can command my services.”

«He will not refuse your help. Come, Ned!”

I led him to the room where the crew of the Nautilus
were putting on their cork-jackets. I told the captain of
Ned’s proposal, which he accepted. ‘The Canadian put on
his sea-costume, and was ready as soon as his companions.
When Ned was dressed, I re-entered the drawing-room,
where the panes of glass were open, and, posted near Con-
seil, I examined the ambient beds that supported the Vau-
tilus. Some instants after, we saw a dozen of the crew set
foot on the bank of ice, and among them Ned Land, easily
known by his stature. Captain Nemo was with them.
Before proceeding to dig the walls, he took the soundings,
to be sure of working in the right direction. Long sound-
ing lines were sunk in the side walls, but after fifteen yards
they were again stopped by the thick wall. It was useless
to attack it on the ceiling-like surface, since the iceberg
itself measured more than 400 yards in height. Captain
Nemo then sounded the lower surface. There ten yards of
wall separated us from the water, so great was the thick-
ness of the ice-field. It was necessary, therefore, to cut
from it a piece equal in extent to the water-line of the
Nautilus. There were about 6,000 cubic yards to detach,
so as to dig a hole by which we could descend to the ice-
field. The work was begun immediately, and carried on
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 293.

with indefatigable energy. Instead of digging round the
Nautilus, which would have involved greater difficulty,
Captain Nemo had an immense trench made at eight yards
from the port quarter. Then the men set to work simul-
taneously with their screws, on several points of its cireum-
ference. Presently the pickaxe attacked this compact
matter vigorously, and large biocks were detached from
the mass. By a curious effect of specific gravity, these
blocks, lighter than water, fled, so to speak, to the vault
of the tunnel, that increased in thickness at the top in pro-
portion as it, diminished at the base. But that mattered
little, so long as the lower part grew thinner. After
two hours’ hard work, Ned Land came in exhausted.
He and his comrades were replaced by new workers,
whom Conseil and I joined. The second lieutenant
of the Nautilus superintended us. The water seemed
singularly cold, but I soon got warm handling the pickaxe.
My movements were free enough, although they were made
under a pressure of thirty atmospheres. When I re-entered,
after working two hours, to take some food and rest, I found
a perceptible difference between the pure fluid with which
the Rouquayrol engine supplied me, and the atmosphere of
the Nautilus, already charged with carbonic acid. The
air had not been renewed for forty-eight hours, and its
vivifying qualities were considerably enfeebled. However,
after a lapse of twelve hours, we had only raised a block of
ice one yard thick, on the marked surface, which was about
600 cubic yards! Reckoning that it took twelve hours to
accomplish this much, it would take five nights and four
days to bring this enterprise to a satisfactory conclusion.
Five nights and four days! And we have only air enough
for two days in the reservoirs! ‘‘ Without taking into
account,” said Ned, ‘that, even if we get out of this in-
fernal prison, we shall also be imprisoned under the ice-
berg, shut out from all possible communication with the
atmosphere.” True enough! Who could then foresee tho
204 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

minimum of time necessary for our deliverance? We
might be suffocated before the Nautilus could regain the
surface of the waves!- Was it destined to perish in this ice-
tomb, with all those it enclosed! The situation was ter-
rible. But every one had looked the danger in the face,
and each was determined to do his duty to the last.

AsI expected, during the night a new block a yard
square was carried away, and still further sank the im-
mense hollow. But in the morning when, dressed in my
cork-jacket, I traversed the slushy mass at a temperature
of six or seven degrees below zero, I remarked that the side
walls were gradually closing in. The beds of water farthest
from the trench, that were not warmed by the men’s mere
work, showed a tendency to solidification. In presence of
this new and imminent danger, what would become of our
chances of safety, and how hinder the solidification of this
liquid medium, that would burst the partitions of the
Nautilus like glass?

I did not tell my companions of this new danger. What
was the good of damping the energy they displayed in the
painful work of escape? But when FE went on board again,
I told Captain Nemo of this grave complication.

‘7 know it,” he said, in that calm tone which could
counteract the most terrible apprehensions. ‘‘It is one
danger more; but I see no way of escaping it; the only
chance of safety is to go quicker than solidification. We
must be beforehand with it, that is all.”

On this day for several hours I used my pickaxe vigor.
ously. The work kept me up. Besides, to work was to
quit the Nautilus, and breathe directly the pure air drawn
from the reservoirs, and supplied by our apparatus, and to
quit the impoverished and vitiated atmosphere. Towards
evening the trench was dug one yard deeper. When I re-
turned on board, I was nearly suffocated by the carbonic
acid with which the air was filled—ah! if we had only the
chemical means to drive away this deleterious gas. We
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 995

had plenty of oxygen; all this water contained a consider-
able quantity, and by dissolving it with our powerful piles,
it would restore the vivifying fluid. I had thought well
over it; but of what good was that, since the carbonic acid
produced by our respiration had invaded every part of the
vessel? To absorb it, it was necessary to fill some jars with
‘caustic potash, and to shake them incessantly. Now this
substance was wanting on board, and nothing could re-
place it. On that evening, Captain Nemo ought to open
the taps of his reservoirs, and let some pure air into the in-
terior of the Nautilus ; without this precaution, we could
not get rid of the sense of suffocation. The next dav,
March 26, I resumed my miner’s work in beginning the
fifth yard. The side walls and the lower surface of the ice-
berg thickened visibly. It was evident that they would
meet before the Nautilus was able to disengage itself.
Despair seized me for an instant, my pickaxe nearly fell
from my hands. What was the good of digging if I must
be suffocated, crushed by the water that was turning into
stone?—a punishment that the ferocity of the savages even
would not have invented! Just then Captain Nemo passed
near me. {touched his hand and showed him the walls of
our prison. ‘The wall to port had advanced to at least four
yards from the hull of the Nautilus. The captain under-
stood me, and signed to me to follow him. We went on
board. J took off my cork-jacket, and accompanied him
into the drawing-room.

“*M. Aronnax, we must attempt some desperate means,
or we shall be sealed up in this solidified water as in
cement.”

“‘Yes; but what is to be done?”

“Ah! if my Wautilus were strong enough to bear this
pressure without being crushed!”

_“ Well?” Lasked, not catching the captain’s idea.
- J)o you not understand,” he replied, “that this con-
gelation of water will help us? Do you not see that, by its
296 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

solidification, it would burst through this field of ice that
imprisons us, as, when it freezes, it bursts the hardest
stones? Do you not perceive that it would be an agent of
safety instead of destruction?”

“Yes, Captain, perhaps. But whatever resistance to
crushing the Nautilus possesses, it could not support this
terrible pressure, and would be flattened like an iron plate.”

“‘T know it, sir. Therefore we must not reckon on the
aid of nature, but on our own exertions. We must stop
this solidification. Not only will the side walls be pressed
together; but there is not ten feet of water before or be-
hind the Nautilus. The congelation gains on us on all
sides.”

‘How long will the air in the reservoirs last for us to
breathe on board?”

The Captain looked in my face. ‘‘ After to-morrow
they will be empty!”

A cold sweat came over me. However, ought I to have
been astonished at the answer? On March 22, the Nauti-
lus was in the open polar seas. We were at 26°. For five
days we had lived on the reserve on board. And what was
left of the respirable air must be kept for the workers.
Even now, as I write, my recollection is still so vivid, that
an involuntary terror seizes me, and my lungs seem to
be withoutair. Meanwhile Captain Nemo reflected silently,
and evidently an idea had struck him; but he seemed to
reject it. At last, these words escaped his lips:

“ Boiling water!” he muttered.

“ Boiling water?” I cried.

“Yes, sir. We are enclosed in a space that is relatively
confined. Would not jets of boiling water, constantly in-
jected by the pumps, raise the temperature in this part,
and stay the congelation?”

“‘ Let us try it,” I said, resolutely.

“ Let us try, Professor.”

The thermometer then stood at seven degrees outside.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 99%

vaptain Nemo took me to the galleys, where the vast
distillatory machines stood that furnished the drinkable
water by evaporation. ‘They filled these with water, and
all the electric heat from the piles was thrown through the
worms bathed in the liquid. Ina few minutes this water
reached a hundred degrees. It was directed towards the
pumps, while fresh water replaced it in proportion, The.
heat developed by the troughs was such that cold water,
drawn up from the sea, after only having gone through the
machines, came boiling into the body of the pump. The
injection was begun, and three hours after the thermometer
marked six degrees below zero outside. One degree was
gained. Two hours later, the thermometer only marked
four degrees.

“* We shall succeed,” I said to the captain, after having
anxiously watched the result of the operation.

“T think,” he answered, ‘‘ that we shall not be crushed.
We have no more suffocation to fear.”

During the night the temperature of the water rose to
one degree below zero. The injections could not carry it
to a higher point. But as the congelation of the sea-water
produces at least two degrees, I was at last reassured against
the dangers of solidification.

The next day, March 2%, six yards of ice had been
cleared, four yards only remaining to be cleared away.
There was yet forty-eight hours’ work. The air could not
be renewed in the interior of the Nautilus. And this day
would make it worse. An intolerable weight oppressed
me. ‘Towards three o’clock in the evening, this feeling
rose to a violent degree. Yawns dislocated my jaws. My
lungs panted as they inhaled this burning fluid, which be-
came rarefied more and more. A moral torpor took hold
of me. I was powerless, almost unconscious. My brave
Conseil, though exhibiting the same symptoms and suffer-
ing in the same manner, never left me. He took my hand
and encouraged me, and I heard him murmur, “0. if }
998 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

could only not breathe, so as to leave more air for my
master!”

Tears came into my eyes on hearing him speak thus. 1
our situation to all was intolerable in the interior, with
what haste and gladness would we put on our cork-jackets
to work in our turn! Pickaxes sounded on the frozen ice-
beds. Our arms ached, the skin was torn off our hands.
But what were these fatigues, what did the wounds matter?
Vital air came to the lungs! we breathed! we breathed!

All this time no one prolonged his voluntary task beyond
the prescribed time. His task accomplished, each one
handed in turn to his panting companions the apparatus
that supplied him with life. Captain Nemo set the exam-
ple, and submitted first to this severe discipline. When
the-time came he gave up his apparatus to another, and
returned to the vitiated air on board, calm, unflinching,
unmurmuring.

On that day the ordinary work was accomplished with
unusual vigor. Only two yards remained to be raised
from the surface. Two yards only separated us from the
open sea. But the,reservoirs were nearly emptied of air.
The little that remained ought to be kept for the workers;
not a particle for the Nautilus. When I went back on
board I was half suffocated. Whatanight! I know not
how to describe it. The next day my breathing was op-
pressed. Dizziness accompanied the pain in my head, and
made me like a drunken man. My companions showed
the same symptoms. Some of the crew had rattling in the
throat.

On: that day, the sixth of our imprisonment, Captain
Nemo, finding the pickaxes worked too slowly, resolved to
crush the ice bed that still separated us from the liquid
sheet. This man’s coolness and energy never forsook him.
He subdued his physical pains by moral force.

By his orders the vessel was lightened, that is to say,
raised from the ice-bed by a change of specific gravity.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 998

When it floated they towed it so as to bring it above the
immense trench made on the level of the water-line. Then
filling his reservoirs of water, he descended and shut him-
self up in the hole.

Just then all the crew came on board and the double
door of communication was shut. The Nawtilus then
rested on the bed of ice, which was not one yard thick, and
which the sounding leads had perforated in a thousand
places. ‘The taps of the reservoirs were then opened, and
a hundred cubic yards of water was let in, increasing
the weight of the Nautilus to 1800 tons. We waited, we
iistened, forgetting our sufferings in hope. Our safety
depended on this last chance. Notwithstanding the buz-
zing in my head, I soon heard the humming sound under
the hull of the Nautilus. The ice cracked with a singular
noise, like tearing paper, and the Nautilus sank.

“We are off!” murmured Conseil in my ear.

I could not answer him. I seized his hand, and pressed
.t convulsively. All at once, carried away by its frightful
wvercharge, the Nautilus sank like a bullet under the
‘waters, that is to say, it fellasifit wasin a vacuum. Then
ull the electric force was put on the pumps, that soon
began to let the water out of the reservoirs. After some
minutes our fall was stopped. Soon, too, the manometer
indicated an ascending movement. The screw, going at
full speed, made the iron hull tremble to its very bolts,
and drew ustowards the north. But if this floating under
the iceberg is to last another day before we reach the open
sea, I shall be dead first.

Half stretched upon a divan in the library, I was suffo.
cating. My face was purple, my lips blue, my faculties
suspended. I neither saw nor heard. All notion of time
had gone from my mind. My muscles could not contract.
I do not know how many hours passed thus, but I was
conscious of the agony that was coming overme. I felt as
if I was going to die. Suddenly I came to. Some brestis
300 20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS.

of air penetrated my lungs. Had we risen to the surface
of the waves? Were we free of the iceberg? No; Ned
and Conseil, my two brave friends, were sacrificing them-
selves to save me. Some particles of air still remained
at the bottom of one apparatus. Instead of using it, they
had kept it for me, and while they were being +1ffocated
they gave me life drop by drop. I wanted to push back
the thing, they held my hands, and for some moments I
breathed freely. I looked at the clock, it was eleven in
the morning. It ought to be the 28th of March. The
Nautilus wert at a frightful pace, forty miles an hour. It
literally tore through the water. Where was Captain Nemo?
Had he succumbed? Were his companions dead with him?
At the moment the manometer indicated that we were not
more than twenty feet from the surface. A mere plate of
ice separated us from the atmosphere; could we not break
it? Perhaps. In any case the Nautilus was going to at-
tempt it. I felt that it was in an oblique position, lower-
ing the stern, and raising the bows. The introduction of
water had been the means of disturbing its equilibrium.
Then, impelled by its powerful screw, it attacked the ice-
field from beneath like a formidable battering-ram. It
broke it by backing and then rushing forward against the
field, which gradually gave way; and at last, dashing sud-
denly against it, shot forward on the icy field, that crushed
beneath its weight. The panel was opened—one might
say torn off—and the pure air came in in abundance to
all parts of the Wautilus.
2,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SEAB8, 863

CHAPTER XVII.
FROM CAPE HORN TO THE AMAZON.

How I got on to the platform I have no idea; perhaps the
Canadian had carried me there. But I breathed, I in-
haled the vivifying sea-air. My two companions were get-
‘ting drunk with the fresh particles. The other unhappy
men had been so long without food, that they could not
with impunity indulge in the simplest aliments that were
given them. We, on the contrary, had no need to restrain,
ourselves; we could draw this air freely into our lungs,
and it was the breeze, the breeze alone, that filled us with
this keen enjoyment.

“Ah!” said Conseil, “‘how delightful this oxygen is!
Master need not fear to breathe it. There is enough for
everybody.”

Ned Land did not speak, but he opened his jaws wide
enough to frighten a shark. Our strength soon returned,
and when I looked around me, I saw we were alone on the
platform. The foreign seamen in the Nautilus were con-
tented with the air that circulated in the interior; none
of them had come to drink in the open air.

The first words I spoke were words of gratitude and
thankfulness to my two companions. Ned and Conseil
had prolonged my life during the last hours of this long
agony. All my gratitude could not repay such devotion.

“* My friends,” said I, ‘‘we are bound one to the other
forever, and J am under infinite obligations to you.”

“*Which I shall take advantage of,” said the Canadian.

«© What do you mean?” said Conseil.”

“‘T mean that I shall take you with me when T leave this
infernal Nautilus.”
303 20,000 LEAGUHS UNDER THE SEA&.

“Well,” said Conseil, ‘after all this, are we going right?”

«< Yes,” I replied, ‘‘for we are going the way of the sun,
and here the sun is in the north.”

“‘No doubt,” said Ned Land; ‘‘ but it remains to be seen
whether he will bring the ship into the Pacific or the
Atlantic Ocean, that is, into frequented or deserted seas.”

I could not answer that question, and I feared that
Captain Nemo would rather take us to the vast occan that
touches the coasts of Asia and America at the same time.
He would thus complete the tour round the submarine
world, and return to those waters in which the Nautiles
could sail frecly. We ought, before long, to settle this
important point. The Nautilus went at a rapid pace.
The polar circle was soon passed, and the course shaped for
Cape Horn. We were off the American point, March 31, at
seven o’clock in the evening. Then all our past sufferings
were forgotten. The remembrance of that imprisonment
in the ice was effaced from our minds. We only thought
of the future. Captain Nemo did not appear again either
in the drawing-room or on the platform. The point
shown each day on the planisphere, and marked by the
lientenant, showed me the exact direction of the Nautilus.
Now, on that evening, it was evident, to my great satisfac-
tion, that we were going back to the north by the Atlantic.
The next day, April 1, when the Nautilus ascended to the
surface, some minutes before noon, we sighted land to the
west. It was Terra del Fuego, which the first navigators
named thus from seeing the quantity of smoke that rose
from the native’s huts. The coast seemed low to me, but
in the distance rose high mountains. I even thought I had
a glimpse of Mount Sarmiento, that rises 2070 yards above
the ievel of the sea, with a very pointed summit, which,
according as it is misty or clear, is a sign of fine or of wet
weather. At this moment, the peak was clearly defined
against the sky. Tne Nautilus, diving again under the
water, approached the coast, which was onlv some few miler
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 303

aff. From the glass windows in the drawing-room, I saw
long sea-weeds, and gigantic fuci, and varech, of which the
open polar sea contains so many specimens, with their
sharp polished filaments; they measured about 300 yards in
length, real cables, thicker than one’s thumb; and having
great tenacity, they are often used as ropes for vessels.
Another weed known as velp, with leaves four feet long,
buried in the coral concretions, hung at the bottom. It
served as nest and food for myriads of crustacea and mol-
lusks, crabs and cuttle-fish. There seals and otters had
splendid repasts, eating the flesh of fish with sea-vegetables,
according to the English fashion. Over this fertile and
luxuriant ground the Nautilus passed with great rapidity.
Towards evening, it approached the Falkland group, th«
rough summits of which I recognized the following day
The depth of the sea was moderate. On the shores, ew
nets brought in beautiful specimens of sea-weed, and par-
ticularly a certain fucus, the roots of which were filled with
the best mussels in the world. Geese and ducks fell by
dozens on the platform, and soon took their places in the
pantry on board. With regard to fish, I observed espe-
esially specimens of the goby species, some two feet long, all
pver white and yellow spots. I admired also numerous
medusew, and the finest of the sort, the crysaora, peculiar
to the sea about the Falkland Isles. I should have liked
40 preserve some specimens of these delicate zoéphytes; but
they are only like clouds, shadows, apparitions, that sink
and evaporate, when out of their native element.

When the last heights of the Falklands had disappeared
from the horizon, the Nautilus sank to between twenty and
twenty-five yards, and followed the American coast. Captain
Nemo did not show himself. Until the 3d of April we did
not quit the shores of Patagonia, sometimes under the
ocean, sometimes at the surface. The Nautilus passed be-
yond the large estuary formed by the mouth of the Plata,
and was, on the 4th of April, fifty-six miles off Uruguay
B04 20,vu LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

Its direction was northwards, and followed the long wind-
ings of the coast of South America. We had then made
16,000 miles since our embarkation in the seas of Japan.
About eleven o’clock in the morning the Tropic of Capricorn
was crossed on the thirty-seventh meridian, and we passed
Cape Frio standing out to sea. Captain Nemo, to Ned
Land’s great displeasure, did not like the neighborhood of
the inhabited coasts of Brazil, for we went at a giddy speed.
Not a fish, not a bird of the swiftest, kind could follow us,
and the natural curiosities of these seas escaped all obser-
vation.

This speed was kept up for several days, and in the
evening of the 9th of April we sighted the most easterly
point of South America that forms Cape San Roque. But
then the Nautilus swerved again, end sought the lowest
‘depth of a submarine valley which is between this cape and
Sierra Leone on the African coast. This valley bifurcates
to the parallel of the Antilles, and terminates at the north
by the enormous depression of 9000 yards. In this place,
the geological basin of the ocean forms, as far as the Lesser
Antilles, a cliff of three and a half miles perpendicular in
height, and at the parallel of the Cape Verd Islands, another
wall not less considerable, that encloses thus all the sunk
continent of the Atlantic. The bottom of this immense
valley is dotted with some mountains, that give to these
submarine places a picturesque aspect. I speak, moreover,
from the manuscript charts that were in the library of the
Nautiius,—charts evidently due to Captain Nemo’s hand,
and made after his personal observations. For two days
the desert and deep waters were visited by means of the
inclined planes. The Nautilus was furnished with long
diagonal broadsides which carried it to all elevations. But,
on the 11th of April, it rose suddenly, and land appeared at
the mouth of the Amazon River, a vast estuary, the em-
bouchure of which is so considerable that it freshens the
sea-water for the distance of several leagues.
20,000 LHAGUES UNDHR THE SHAS, 805

The equator was crossed. Twenty miles to the west
were the Guianas, a French territory, on which we could
have found an easy refuge; but a stiff breeze was blowing,
and the furious waves would not have allowed a single boat
to face them. Wed Land understood that, no doubt, for
he spoke not a word about it. Jor my part, I made no
allusion to his schemes of flight, for I would not urge him
to make an attempt that must inevitably fail. I made the
time pass pleasantly by interesting studies. During the
days of April 11th and 12th, the Nautilus did not leave
the surface of the sea, and the net brought in a marvellous
haul of zodphytes, fish and reptiles. Some zodphytes had
been fished up by the chain of the nets; they were for the
most part beautiful phyctallines, belonging to the actinidian,
family, and among other species the phyctalis protexta,
peculiar to that part of the ocean, with a little cylindrical
trunk, yrnamented with vertical lines, speckled with red
dots, crowning a marvellous blossoming of tentacles. As
to the mollusks, the consisted of some I had already
observed,—turritellas, olive porphyras, with regular, lines
intercrossed, with red spots standing out plainly against
the flesh; odd peteroceras, like petrified scorpions; trans-
lucid hyaleas, argonauts, cuttle-fish (excellent eating), and
certain species of calmars that naturalists of antiquity hava
classed amongst the flying-fish, and that serve principally
for bait for cod fishing. I had not an opportunity of
studying several species of fish on these shores. Amongst
the cartilaginous ones, petromyzons-pricka, a sort of eel,
fifteen inches long, with a greenish head, violet fins, gray-
blue back, brown belly, silvered and sown with bright
spots, the pupil of the eye encircled with gold,—a curious
animal, that the current of the Amazon had drawn to the
sea, for they inhabit fresh water,—tuberculated streaks,
with pointed snouts, and along loose tail, armed with a
long jagged sting, little sharks, a yard long, gray and
whitish skin, end several rows of teeth, bent back, that are
806 20,000 LEAGUES UNDEK THE SEAS.

generally knowh by the name of pantoufiles; vespertilios,
a kind of red isosceles triangle, half a yard long, to which
pectorals are attached by fleshy prolongations that make
‘hem look like bats, but that their horny appendage, situ-
ated near the nostrils, has given them the name of sea-
unicorns; lastly, some species of baliste, the curassavian,
whose spots were of a brilliant gold color,.and the capriscus
of clear violet, and with varying shades like a pigeon’s
throat.

Tend here this catalogue, which is somewhat dry, perhaps,
but very exact, with a series of bony fish that I observed in
passing belonging to the apteronotes, and whose snout is
white as snow, the body of a beautiful black, marked with
a very long loose fleshy strip; odontognathes, armed with
spikes; sardines, nine inches long, glittering with a bright
silver light; a species of mackerel provided with two anal
fins; centronotes of a blackish tint, that are fished for with
torches, long fish, two yards in length, with fat flesh,
white and firm, which, when they are fresh, taste like eel,
and when dry, like smoked saimon; labres, half red, covered
with scales only at the bottom of the dorsal and anal fins:
chrysoptera, on which gold and silver blend their brightness
with that of the ruby and topaz; golden-tailed spares, the
flesh of which is extremely delicate, and whose phosphores-
cent properties betray them in the midst of the waters;
orange-colored spares with a long tongue; maigres, with
gold caudal fins, dark thorn-tails, anableps of Surinam,
etc.

Notwithstanding this ‘‘ etcetera,” I must not omit to
mention fish that Conseil will long remember, and with
good reason. One of our nets had hauled up a sort of very
flat rayfish, which, with the tail cut off, formed a perfect
disk, and weighed twenty ounces. It was white under-
heath, red above, with large round spots of dark blue en-
circled with black, very glossy skin, terminating in a
bilobed fin. Laid out on the platform, it struggled, tried
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 307

to turn itself by convulsive movements, and made so many
efforts, that one last turn had nearly sent it into the sea.
But Conseil, not wishing to let the fish go, rushed to it,
and, before I could prevent him, had seized it with both
hands. In a moment he was overthrown, his legs in the
air, and half his body paralyzed, crying:

““O master, master! come to me!”

It was the first time the poor boy had not spoken to me
in the third person. The Canadian and I took him up
and rubbed his contracted arms till he became sensible.
Tbe unfortunate Conseil had attacked a crampfish of the
most dangerous kind, the cumana. This odd animal,.in a
medium conductor like water, strikes fish at several yards’
distance, so great is the power of its electric organ, the two
principal surfaces of which do not measure less than twen-
ty-seven square feet. The next day, April 12th, the Nau-
tilus approached the Dutch coast, near the mouth of the
Maroni. There several groups of sea-cows herded together;
they were manatees, that, like the dugong and the stellera,
helong to the sirenian order. These beautiful animals,
peaceable and inoffensive, from eighteen to twenty-one feet
in length, weigh at least sixteen hundredweight. I told Ned
Land and Conseil that provident nature had assigned an
important réle to these mammalia. Indeed, they, like the
seals, are designed to graze on the submarine prairies, and
thus destroy the accumulation of weed that obstructs the
tropical rivers.

«And do you know,” I added, ‘‘ what has been the re.
sult since men have almost entirely annihilated this usefuk
race? That the putrified weeds have poisoned the air, and
the poisoned air causes the yellow fever, that desolates
these beautiful countries. Enormous vegetations are mul-
tiplied under the torrid seas, and the evil is irresistibly de-
veloped from the mouth of the Rio de la Plata to Florida,
If we are to believe Toussenel, this plague is nothing to
what it would be if the seas were cleared of whales and
308 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

seals. Then, infested with poulps, medusx, and cuttle-
fish, they would become immense centres of infection,
since their waves would not possess ‘these vast stomachs
that God had charged to infest the surface of the seas.’ ”

However, without disputing these theories, the crew of
the Nautilus took possession of half a dozen manatees.
They provided the larders with excellent flesh, superior to
beef and veal. This sport was not interesting. The man-
atees allowed themselves to be hit without defending them-
selves. Several thousand pounds of meat were stored up
on board to be dried. On this day, asuccessful haul of fish
increased the stores of the Nautilus, so full of game were
these seas. ‘They were echeneides, belonging to the third
family of the malacopterygiens; their flattened disks were
composed of transverse movable cartilaginous plates, by
which the animal was enabled to create a vacuum, and so
to adhere to any object like a cupping-glass. ‘The remora
that I observed in the Mediterranean belongs to this spe-
cies. But the one of which we are speaking was the eche-
neis osteochera, peculiar to this sea.

The fishing over, the Wautilus neared the coast. About
here a number of sea-turtles were sleeping on the surface
of the water. It would have been difficult to capture these
precious reptiles, for the least noise awakens them, and
their solid skull is proof against the harpoon. But the
echeneis effects their capture with extraordinary precision
and certainty. This animal is, indeed, a living fishhook,
which would make the fortune of an inexperienced fisher-
man. The crew of the Nautilus tied a ring to the tail of
these fish, so large as not to encumber their movements,
and to this ring along cord, lashed to the ship’s side by the
otherend. Theecheneids, thrown into the sea, directly be-
gan their game, and fixed themselves to the breastplate of
the turtles. Their tenacity was such, that they were torn
rather than let go their hold. The men hauled them on
board, and with them the turtles to which they adhered.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 809

They took also several cacouannes, a yard long, which
weighed 400 lbs. Theircarapace covered with large horny
plates, thin, transparent, brown, with white and yellow
spots, fetch a good price in the market. Besides, they
were excellent in an edible point of view, as well as the
fresh turtles, which have an excellent flavor. This day’s
fishing brought to aclose our stay on the shores of the Am-
azon, and by nightfall the Nautilus had regained the high
Seas.

CHAPTER XVIII.
' THE POULPS. :

For several days the Nautilus kept off from the Ameri-
can coast. Evidently it did not wish to risk the tides of
the Gulf of Mexico, or of the sea of the Antilles. April
16th we sighted Martinique and Guadaloupe from a dis-
tance of about thirty miles. I saw their tall peaks for an
instant. The Canadian, who counted on carrying out his
projects in the Gulf, by either landing, or hailing one of
the numerous boats that coast from one island to another,
was quite disheartened. Flight would have been quite
practicable, if Ned Land had been able to take possession.
of the boat without the captain’s knowledge. But in the
open sea it could not be thought of. The Canadian, Con-
seil, and I, had a long conversation on this subject. For
six months we had been prisoners on board the Nautilus.
We had travelled 17,000 leagues; and, as Ned Land said,
there was no reason why it should not come to an end. We
could hope nothing from the captain of the Nautilus, but
only from ourselves. Besides, for some time past he had
become graver, more retired, less sociable. He seemed ta
shun me. I met him rarely. Formerly, he was pleased
to explain the submarine marvels to me; now, he left ma
810 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS,

to my studies, and came no more tothe saloon. What
change had come over him? For what cause? For my
part, I did not wish to bury with me my curious and novel
studies. I had now the power to write the true book of
the sea; and this book, sooner or later, I wished to see day-
light. Then again,'in the water by the Antilles, ten yards
below the surface of the waters by the open panels, what in-
teresting products I had to enter on my daily notes! There
were, among other zoéphytes, those known under the name
of physalis pelagica, a sort of large oblong bladder with
mother-of-pearl rays, holding out their membranes to the
wind, and letting their blue tentacles float like threads of
silk: charming medusw to the eye, real nettles to the
touch; that distil a corrosive fluid. There were also an-
nelides, a yard and a half long, furnished with a pink horn,
and with 1700. locomotive organs, that wind through the
waters, and throw out in passing all the light of the solar
spectrum. There were, in the fish category, some Malabar
rays, enormous gristly things, ten feet long, weighing 600
pounds, the pectoral fin triangular in the midst of a slight-
ly humped back, the eyes fixed in the extremities of the
face, beyond the head, and which floated like weft, and
looked sometimes like an opaque shutter on our glass win-
dow. There were American baliste, which nature has only
dressed in black and white; gobies, with yellow fins and
prominent jaw; mackerel, sixteen feet long, with short-
pointed teeth, covered with small scales, belonging to the
albicore species. Then, in swarms, appeared gray mullet,
covered with stripes of gold from the head to the tail, beat-
ing their resplendent fins, like masterpieces of jewelry,
consecrated formerly to Diana, particularly sought after by
vich Romans, and of which the proverb says, “‘ Whoever
takes them does not eat them.” Lastly, pomavanthe do-
yees, ornamented with emerald bands, dressed in velvet and
silk, passed before our eyes like Veronese lords; spurred
spari passed with their pectoral fins; clupanodons, fifteen.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. B1L

fnches long, enveloped in their phosphorescent light; mul-
let beat the sea with their large jagged tail; red vendaceg
seemed to mow the waves with their showy pectoral fins;
and silvery selenes, worthy of their name, rose on the hori-
zon of the waters like so many moons with whitish rays.
April 20th, we had risen to a mean height of 1500 yards.
The land nearest us then was the archipelago of the Baha-
mas. There rose high submarine cliffs covered with large
weeds, giant laminarise and fuci, a perfect espalier of hy-
drophytes worthy of a Titan world. It was about eleven
o’clock when Ned Land drew my attention to a formidable
pricking, like the sting of an ant, which was produced by
means of large sea-weeds.

‘* Well,” I said, ‘“‘these are proper caverns for poulps,
and I should not be astonished to see some of these mon-
sters.”

“What!” said Conseil; ‘‘ cuttle-fish, real cuttle-fish, of
the cephalopod class?”

“*No,” I said; ‘‘poulps of huge dimensions.”

«
‘¢ Well,” said Conseil, with the most serious air in the
world, ‘“‘I remember perfectly to have seen a large vessel.
drawn under the waves by a cephalopod’s arm.”

“You saw that?” said the Canadian. ~

** Yes, Ned.”

«« With your own eyes?”

“With my own eyes.”

‘< Where, pray, might that be?”

*« At St. Malo,” answered Conseil.

«In the port?” said Ned, ironically.

**No; in a church,” replied Conseil.

‘In a church!” cried the Canadian.

“Yes; friend Ned. Ina picture representing the pouty
im question.”

“* Good!” said Ned Land, bursting out laughing.

“ He is quite right,” I said. ‘I have heard of this pice

\
812 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

ture; but the subject represented is taken from a legend,
and you know what to think of legends in the matter of
natural history. Besider, when it is a question of mon-
sters, the imagination is apt to run wild. Not only is it
supposed that these poulps can draw down vessels, but a
certain Olaitis Magnus speaks of a cephalopod a mile long,
that is more like an island than an animal. Ib is also said
that the Bishop of Nidros was building an altar on an im-
mense rock. Mass finished, the rock began to walk, and
returned to the sea. The rock was a poulp. Another
bishop, Pontoppidan, speaks also of a poulp on which a
regiment of cavalry could mancuvre. Lastly, the ancient
naturalists speak of monsters whose mouths were like gulfs,
and which were too large to pass through the Straits of
Gibraltar.”

“‘ But how much is true of these stories?” asked Con-
seil.

‘‘Nothing, my friends; at least of that which passes the
limit of truth to get to fable or legend. Nevertheless,
there must be some ground for the imagination of the
story-tellers. One cannot deny that poulps and cuttle-fish
exist of a large species, inferior, however, to the cetaceans.
Aristotle has stated the dimensions of a cuttle-fish as five
cubits, or nine feet two inches. Our fishermen frequently
see some that are more than four feet long. Some skele-
tons of poulps are preserved in the museums of Trieste
and Montpelier, that measure two yards in length. Be-
sides, according to the calculations of some naturalists, one
of these animals, only six feet long, would have tentacles
twenty-seven feet long. That would suffice to make a for-
midable monster.”

“Do they fish for them in these days?” asked Ned.

*« Tf they do not fish for them, sailors see them, at least.
One of my friends, Captain Paul Bos of Havre, has often
affirmed that he met one of these monsters, of colossal di-
mensions, in the Indian seas. But the most astonishing
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 313

fact, and which does not permit of the denial of the exist-
ence of these gigantic animals, happened some years ago,
in 1861.”

“‘ What is the fact?” asked Ned Land.

«This is it. In 1861, to the northeast of Teneriffe,
very nearly in the same latitude we are in now, the crew of
the despatch-boat lector perceived a monstrous cuttle-fish
swimming in the waters. Captain Bouguer went near to
the animal, and attacked it with harpoons and guns, with-
out much success, for balls and harpoons glided over the
soft flesh. After several fruitless attempts, the crew tried
to pass a slip-knot round the body of the mollusk. The
noose slipped as far as the caudal fins, and there stopped.
They tried then to haul it on board, but its weight was so
considerable that the tightness of the cord separated the
tail from the body, and, deprived of this ornament, he dis.
appeared under the water.”

“Indeed! is that a fact?”

‘‘ An indisputable fact, my good Ned. They proposed
to name this poulp ‘ Bouguer’s cuttle-fish.’ ”

«* What length was it?” asked the Canadian.

“‘Did it not measure about six yards?” said Conseil,
who, posted at the window, was examining again the irreg-
ular windings of the cliff.

“¢ Precisely,” I replied.

“¢Tts head,” rejoined Conseil, ‘‘ was it not crowned with
eight tentacles, that beat the water like a nest of serpents?”

“* Precisely.”

“* Had not its eyes, placed the back of its head, cons
siderable development?”

’ «Yes, Conseil.”

«¢ And was not its mouth like a parrot’s beak?”

“¢ Hxactly, Conseil.”

“Very well! no offence to master,” he replied, quietly;
‘if this is not Bouguer’s cuttle-fish, it is, at least, one of
its brothers.”
314 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS.

T looked at Conseil. Ned Land hurried to the window.

<¢ What a horrible beast!” he cried.

I looked in my turn, and could not repress a gesture of
disgust. Before my eyes was a horrible monster, worthy to
figure in the legends of the marvellous. It was an immense
cuttle-fish, being eight yards long. It swam crossways in
the direction of the Nautilus with great speed, watching
us with its enormous staring green eyes. Its eight arms, or
rather feet, fixed to its head, that have given the name of
cephalopod to these animals, were twice as long as its body,
and were twisted like the Furies’ hair. One could see the
250 air-holes on the inner side of the tentacles. The mon-
ster’s mouth, a horned beak like a parrot’s, opened and
shut vertically. Its tongue, a horned substance, furnished
with several rows of pointed teeth, came out quivering
from this veritable pair of shears. What a freak of nature,
a bird’s beak on a mollusk! Its spindle-like body formed a
fleshy mass that might weigh 4600 to 5000 Ibs.; the vary-
ing color changing with great rapidity, according to the
irritation of the animal, passed successively from livid gray
to reddish brown. What irritated this mollusk? No doubt
the presence of the Wautilus, more formidable than itself,
and on which its suckers or its jaws had no hold. Yet,
what monsters these poulps are! what vitality the Creator
has given them! what vigor in their movements! and they
possess three hearts! Chance had brought us in presence
of this cuttle-fish, and I did not wish to lose the opportu-
nity of carefully studying this specimen of cephalopods. I
overcame the horror that inspired me; and, taking a pen-
cil, began to draw it.

‘¢ Perhaps this is the same which the Alector saw,” said
Conseil.

No,” replied the Canadian; ‘‘ for this ‘is whole, and
the other had lost its tail.”

«That is no reason,” I replied. ‘‘ Thearms and tails of
these animals are reformed by redintegration; and, in
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SEAS. 315

seven years, the tail of Bouguer’s cuttle-fish has no doubt
had time to grow.”

By this time other poulps appeared at the port light. @
counted seven. ‘They formed a procession after the Vau-
tidus, and I heard their beaks gnashing against the iron
hull. Icontinued my work. These monsters kept in the
water with such precision, that they seemed immovable.
Suddenly the Nautilus stopped. A shock made it tremble
in every plate.

“* Have we struck anything?” I asked.

“In any case,” replied the Canadian, ‘‘ we shall be free,
for we are floating.”

The Nautilus was floating, no doubt, but it did not
move. A minute passed. Captain Nemo, followed by his
lieutenant, entered the drawing-room. I had not seen him
for some time. He seemed dull. Without noticing or
speaking to us, he went to the panel, looked at the poulps,
and said something to his lieutenant. The latter went
out. Soon the panels were shut. The ceiling was Benet:
T went towards the captain.

“* A curious collection of poulps?” I said.

‘Yes, indeed, Mr. Naturalist,” he replied; ‘‘and we are
Sing to fight them, man to beast.”

T looked at him. I thought I had not heard aright,

‘‘Man to beast?” I repeated.

‘*'Yes, sir. The screw is stopped. I think that the
horny jaw of one of the cuttle-fish is entangled in the
blades. That is what prevents our moving.”

“‘ What are you going to do?”

* Rise to the surface, and slaughter this vermin.”

“ A difficult enterprise.”

*¢Yes, indeed. The electric bullets are powerless against
che soft flesh, where they do not find resistance enough to
go off. But we shall attack them with the hatchet.”

‘«¢ And the harpoon, sir,” said the Canadian, ‘‘if you do
not refuse my help.”
316 20,000 LHAGULS UNDHR THE SEAS.

“T will accept it, Master Land.”

‘*We will follow you,” I said; and following Captain
Nemo, we went towards the central staircase.

There, about ten men with boarding hatchets were ready
for the attack. Conseil and I took two hatchets; Ned
Land seized a harpoon. The Nawéilus had then risen to
the surface. One of the sailors, posted on the top ladder-
step, unscrewed the bolts of the panels. But hardly were
the screws loosed, when the panel rose with creat violence,
evidently drawn by the suckers of a poulp’sarm. Immedi-
ately one of these arms slid like a serpent down the open-
ing, and twenty others were above. With one blow of the
axe, Captain Nemo cut this formidable tentacle, that slid
wriggling down the ladder. Just as we were pressing one
on the other to reach the platform, two other arms, lash-
ing the air, came down on the seaman placed -before Cap-
tain Nemo, and lifted him up with irresistible power.
Captain Nemo uttered a cry, and rushed out. We hurried
after him.

What ascene! The unhappy man, seized by the tenta-
cle, and fixed to the suckers, was balanced in the air at the
caprice of this enormous trunk. He rattled in his throat,
he was stifled, he cried, “Help! help!” These words,
spoken in French, startled me! I had a fellow-country-
man on board, perhaps several! That heart-rending cry!
I shall hear it all my life. The unfortunate man was lost.
Who could rescue him from that powerful pressure? How-
ever, Captain Nemo had rushed to the poulp, and with one
blow of the axe had cut through one arm. His lieutenant
struggled furiously against other monsters that crept on the
flanks of the Nautilus. The crew fought with their axes.
The Canadian, Conseil, and I buried our weapons in the
fleshy masses; a strong smell of musk penetrated the at-
mosphere. It was horrible!

For one instant, I thought the unhappy man entangled
with the poulp would be torn from its powerful suction.
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. ~ 817

Seven of the eight arms had been cut off. One only wrig-
gled in the air, brandishing the victim like a feather. But
just as Captain Nemo and his lieutenant threw themselves
on it, the animal ejected a stream of black liquid. We
were blinded with it. When the cloud dispersed, the cuttle-
fish had disappeared, and my unfortunate countryman with
it. Ten or twelve poulps now invaded the platform and sides
of the Nautilus. We rolled pell-mell into the midst of this
nest of serpents, that wriggled on the platform in the waves
of blood and ink. It seemed as though these slimy tentacles
sprang up like the hydra’s heads. Ned Land’s harpoon,
at each stroke, was plunged into the staring eyes of the
cuttle-fish. But my bold companion was suddenly over-
turned by the tentacles of a monster he had not been able
to avoid.

Ah! how my heart beat with emotion and horror! The
formidable beak of a cuttle-fish was open over Ned Land.
The unhappy man would be cut intwo. Irushed to his
succor. But Captain Nemo was before me; his axe disap-
peared between the two enormous jaws, and, miraculously
saved, the Canadian, rising, plunged his harpoon deep into
the triple heart of the poulp.

“‘T owed myself this revenge!” said the captain to the
Canadian.

Ned bowed without replying. The combat had lasted a
quarter of an hour. The monsters, vanquished and muti-
lated, left us at last, and disappeared under the waves.
Captain Nemo, covered with blood, nearly exhausted, gazed
upon the sea that had swallowed up one of his companions,
and great tears gathered in his eyes.
312 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

CHAPTER XIX.

THE GULF STREAM.

Tuts terrible scene of the 20th of April none of us can
ever forget. I have written it under the influence of vio-
lent emotion. Since then I have revised the recital; I
have read it to Conseil and to the Canadian. They found
it exact as to facts, but insufficient as to effect. To paint
such pictures, one must have the pen of the most illus-
trious of our poets, the author of ‘The Toilers of the
Deep.”

T have said that Captain Nemo wept while watching the
waves; his grief was great. It was the second companion
he had lost since our arrival on board, and what a death!
That friend, crushed, stifled, bruised by the dreadful arms
of a poulp, pounded by his iron jaws, would not rest with
his comrades in the peaceful coral cemetery! In the midst
of the struggle, it was the despairing cry uttered by the
unfortunate man that had torn my heart. The poor
Frenchman, forgetting his conventional language, had
taken to his own mother-tongue, to utter a last appeal!
Amongst the crew of the Mautilus, associated with the
body and soul of the captain, recoiling like him from all
contact with men, I had a fellow-countryman. Did he
alone represent France in this mysterious association, evi-
dently composed of individuals of divers nationalities? It
was one of these insoluble problems that rose up unceasing-
ly before my mind!

Captain Nemo entered his room, and I saw him no more
for some time. But that he was sad and irresolute I could
see by the vessel, of which he was the soul, and which re-
ceived all his impressions. The Wautzlus did not keep on
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 319

in its settled course; it floated about like a corpse at the
will of the waves. It went at random. He could not tear
himself away from the scene of the last struggle, from this
sea that had devoured one of his men. Ten days passed
thus. It was not till the 1st of May that the Nautilus
resumed its northerly course, after having sighted the
Bahamas at the mouth of the Bahama Canal. We were
then following the current from the largest river to the
sea, that has its banks, it fish, and its proper temperatures.
I mean the Gulf Stream. It is really a river, that flows
freely to the middle of the Atlantic, and whose waters do
not mix with the ocean waters. It is a salt river, salter
than the surrounding sea. Its mean depth is 1500
fathoms, its mean breadth ten miles. In certain places
the current flows with the speed of two miles and a half
an hour. The body of its waters is more considerable than
that of all the rivers in the globe. It was on this ocean
river that the Nautilus then sailed.

This current carried with it all kinds of living things.
Argonauts, so common in the Mediterranean, were there
in quantities. Of the gristly sort, the most remarkable
were the turbot, whose slender tails form nearly the third
part of the body, and that looked like large lozenges
twenty-five feet long; also, small sharks a yard long, with
large heads, short rounded muzzles, pointed teeth in sev-
eral rows, and whose bodies seemed covered with scales.
Among the bony fish I noticed some gray gobies, peculiar
to these waters; black giltheads, whose iris shone like fire;
sirenes a yard long, with large snouts thickly set with little
teeth, that uttered little cries; blue coryphnes, in gold
and silver; parrots, like the rainbows of the ocean, that
could rival in color the most beautiful tropical birds; blen-
nies with triangular heads; bluish rhombs destitute of
scales; batrachoides covered with yellow transversal bands
like a Greek 7; heaps of little gobies spotted with yellow;
dipterodons with silvery heads and yellow tails; several
390 20,000 LHAGUES UNDwR THE SEAS.

specimens of salmon, mugilomores slender in shape, shin-
ing with a soft light that Iacépéde consecrated to the
service of his wife; and lastly, a beautiful fish, the Ameri-
can-knight, that, decorated with all the orders and ribbons,
frequents the shores of this great nation, that esteems orders
and ribbons so little.

I must add that, during the night, the phosphorescent
waters of the Gulf Stream rivalled the electric power of
our watch-light, especially in the stormy weather that
threatened us so frequently. May 8th, we were still cross-
ing Cape Hatteras, at the height of the North Caroline.
The width of the Gulf Stream there is seventy-five miles,
and its depth 210 yards. The Nautilus still went at ran-
dom; all supervision seemed abandoned. I thought that,
under these circumstances, escape would be possible. In-
deed, the inhabited shores offered anywhere an easy refuge.
The sea was incessantly ploughed by the steamers that ply
between New York or Boston and the Gulf of Mexico, and
overrun day and night by the little schooners coasting
about the several parts of the American coast. We could
hope to be picked up. It was a favorable opportunity,
notwithstanding the thirty miles that separated the Vawti-
dus from the coasts of the Union. One unfortunate cir-
cumstance thwarted the Canadian’s plans. The weather
was very bad. We were nearing those shores where tem-
pests are so frequent, that country of waterspouts and
cyclones actually engendered by the current of the Gulf
Stream. To tempt the sea in a frail boat was certain de- '
struction. Ned Land owned this himself. He fretted,
seized with nostalgia that flight only could cure.

‘* Master,” he said that day to me, “‘this must come to
anend. I must make aclean breast of it. This Nemo is
leaving land and going up to the north. But I declare to,
you, Ihave had enough of the South Pole, and J will not
follow him to the North.”
20,000 LHAGUEHS UNDER THE SHAS. 391

‘‘What is to be done, Ned, since flight is impracticable
just now?”

“We must speak to the captain,” said he; “you said
nothing when we were in your native seas. I will speak,
now we are in mine. When I think that before long the
Nautilus will be by Nova Scotia, and that there near New-
foundland is a large bay, and into that bay the St. Law-
rence empties itself, and that the St. Lawrence is my river,
the river by Quebec, my native town,—when I think of
this I feel furious, it makes my hair stand on end: Sir, I
would rather throw myself into the sea! I will not stay
here! Iam stifled!”

The Canadian was evidently losing all patience. His
vigorous nature could not stand this prolonged imprison-
ment. His face altered daily; his temper became more
surly. I knew what he must suffer, for I was seized with
nostalgia myself. Nearly seven months had passed with-
out our having had any news from land; Captain Nemo’s
isolation, his altered spirits, especially since the fight with
the poulps, his taciturnity, all made me view things in a
different light.

“Well, sir?” said Ned, seeing I did not reply.

*‘ Well, Ned! do you wish me to ask Captain Nemo his
intentions concerning us?”

“Yes, sir.”

“«¢ Although he hasalready made them known?”

‘Yes; I wish it settled finally. Speak for me, in my
name only, if you like.”

“But Iso seldom meet him. He avoids me.”

‘‘ That is all the more reason for you to go to see him.”

I went to my room. From thence I meant to go to
Captain Nemo’s.. It would not do to let this opportunity
of meeting him slip. I knocked at the door. No answer.
I knocked again, then turned the handle. The door
opened, I went in. The captain was there. Bending over
his work-table, be had not heard me. Resolved not to go
399 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS,

without having spoken, I approached him. He raised his
head quickly, frowned, and said roughly, ‘‘ You here!
What do you want?”

«To speak to you, Captain.”

“But I am busy, sir; I am working. I leave you at
liberty to shut yourself up; cannot I be allowed the same?”

This reception was not encouraging; but I was deter.
mined to hear and answer everything.

“Sir,” I said, coldly, ‘‘ I have to speak to you ona mat-
ter that admits of no delay.”

“‘What is that, sir?” he replied, ironically. ‘‘ Have you
discovered something that has escaped me, or has the sea
delivered any new secrets?”

We were at cross-purposes. But before I could reply,
he showed me an open manuscript on his table, and said,
in a more serious tone, ‘‘ Here, M. Aronnax, is a manu-
script written in several languages. It contains the sum
of my studies of the sea; and, if it please God, it shali not
perish with me. This manuscript, signed with my name,
completed with the history of my life, will be shut up in a
little insubmersible case. The last survivor of all of us on
board the Nautilus will throw this case into the sea, and it
will go whither it is borne by the waves.”

This man’s name! his history written by himself! His
mystery would then be revealed some day.

“ Captain,” I said, ‘‘I can but approve of the idea that
makes you act thus. The result of your studies must not
be lost. But the means you employ seem to me to be
primitive. Who knows where the winds will carry this
case, and in whose hands it will fall? Could you not use
some other means? Could not you, or one of yours—”

“Never, sir!” he said, hastily interrupting me.

‘But I and my companions are ready to keep this manu-
script in store; and, if you will put us at liberty—”

“« At liberty?” said the captain, rising.

“Yes, sir; that is the subject on which I wish to ques-
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 823

tion you. For seven months we have been here on board,
and I ask you to-day, in the name of my companions, and
in my own, if your intention is to keep us here always?”

““M. Aronnax, I will answer you to-day as I did seven
months ago; whoever enters the Nautilus must never quit
it.”

“You impose actual slavery on us!”

“Give it what name you please.”

«* But everywhere the slave has the right to regain his
liberty.”

«‘Who denies you this right? Have I ever tried to chain
you with an oath?”

He looked at me with his arms crossed.

“Sir,” I said, “to return a second time to this subject
will be neither to your nor to my taste; but as we have
entered upon it, let us go through with it. I repeat, it is
not only myself whom it concerns. Study is to me a re-
lief, a diversion, a passion that could make me forget
everything. Like you, I am willing to live obscure in the
frail hope of bequeathing one day, to future time, the re-
sult of my labors. But it is otherwise with Ned Land.
Every man, worthy of the name, deserves some consider-
ation, Have you thought that love of liberty, hatred of
slavery, can give rise to schemes of revenge ina nature like
the Canadian’s; that he could think, attempt, and try—”

I was silenced; Captain Nemo rose.

“Whatever Ned Land thinks of, attempts, or tries,
what does it matter to me? I did not seek him! It is
not for my pleasure that I keep him on board! As for you,
M. Aronnax, you are one of those who can understand
everything, even silence. J have nothing more to say to
you. Let this first time you have come to treat of this
subject be the last; for a second time I will not listen to
you.”

I retired. Onr situation was critical. I related my
conversation to my two companions.
324. 20,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. —

“We know now,” said Ned, ‘‘ that we can expect nothing
from this man. The Wawtilus is nearing Long Island.
We will escape, whatever the weather may be.”

But the sky became more and more threatening, Symp-
toms of a hurricane became manifest. The atmosphere
was becoming white and misty. On the horizon fine
streaks of cirrhous clouds were succeeded by masses of
cumuli. Other low clouds passed swiftly by. The swollen
sea rose in huge billows. The birds disappeared, with the
exception of the petrels, those friends of the storm. The
barometer fell sensibly, and indicated an extreme tension
of the vapors, The mixture of the storm-glass was de-
composed under the influence of the electricity that per-
vaded the atmosphere. The tempest burst on the 18th of
May, just as the Nautilus was floating off Long Island,
some miles from the port of New York. I can describe
this strife of the elements! for, instead of fleeing to the
depths of the sea, Captain Nemo, by an unaccountable
caprice, would brave it at the surface. The wind blew from
the southwest at first. Captain Nemo, during the squalls,
had taken his place.on the platform. He had made him-
self fast, to prevent being washed overboard by the mon-
strous waves. I had hoisted myself up, and made myself
fast also, dividing my admiration between the tempest and
this extraordinary man who was coping with it. The rag:
ing sea was swept by huge cloud-drifts, which were actually
saturated with the waves. The Nautilus, sometimes lying
on its side, sometimes standing up like a mast, rolled and
pitched terribly. About five o’clock a torrent of rain fell,
that lulled neither sea nor wind. The hurricane blew nearly
forty leagues an hour. It is under these conditions that it
overturns houses, breaks iron gates, displaces twenty-four
pounders. However, the Wautilus, in the midst of the
tempest, confirmed the words of a clever engineer, ‘‘ There
is no well-constructed hull that cannot defy the sea.” This
was not a vesisting rock; it was a steel spindle, obedient
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 825

and movable, without rigging or masts, that braved its fury
with impunity. However, I watched these raging waves
attentively. They measured fifteen feet in height, and 156
to 175 yards long, and their speed of propagation was thirty
feet per second. Their bulk and power increased with the
depth of the water. Such wayes as these at the Hebrides
have displaced a mass weighing 8,400 lbs. They are they
which, in the tempest of December 23, 1864, after destroy-
ing the town of Yeddo, in Japan, broke the same day on
the shores of America. The intensity of the tempest in-
creased with the night. The barometer, as in 1860 at Re-
union during a cyclone, fell seven tenths at the close of
day. I saw a large vessel pass the horizon struggling pain-
fully. She was trying to lie tounder half steam, to keep up
above the waves. It was probably one of the steamers of
the line from New York to Liverpool, or Havre. It soon
disappeared in the gloom. At ten o’clock in the evening
the sky was on fire. The atmosphere was streaked with
vivid lightning. Icould not bear the brightness of it;
while the captain, looking at it, seemed to envy the spirit
of the tempest.
noise, made up of the howls of the crushed waves, the roar-
ing of the wind, and the claps of thunder. The wind
veered suddenly to all points of the horizon; and the
cyclone, rising in the east, returned after passing by the
north, west, and south, in the inverse course pursued by
the circular storms of the southern hemisphere. Ah, that
Gulf Stream! It deserves its name of the King of Tem-
pests. It isthat which causes those formidable cyclones,
by the difference of temperature between its air and its
currents. A shower of fire had succeeded the rain. The
drops of water were changed to sharp spikes. One would
have thought that Captain Nemo was courting a death
worthy of himself, a death by lightning. As the Nautilus,
pitching dreadfully, raised its steel spur in the air, it
seemed to act as a conductor, and I saw long sparks burst
3826 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS.

from it. Crushed and without strength, I crawlea rs the
panel, opened it, and descended to the saloon. The storm
was then at its height. It was impossible to stand upright
in the interior of the Nautilus. Captain Nemo came down
about twelve. I heard the reservoirs filling by degrees,
and the Nautilus sank slowly beneath the waves. Through
the open windows in the saloon I saw large fish, terrified,
passing like phantoms in the water. Some were struck
before my eyes. The Nautilus was, still descending. I
thought that at about eight fathoms deep we should find a
calm. But no! the upper beds were too violently agitated
for that. We had to seek repose at more than twenty-five
fathoms in the bowels of the deep. But there, what quiet,
what silence, what peace! Who could have told that such
a hurricane had been let loose on the surface of that: ocean?

CHAPTER XX. /
FROM LATITUDE 47° 24’ TO LONGITUDE 17° 28’.

In cousequence of the storm, we had been thrown east-
ward once more. All hope of escape on the shores of New
York or St. Lawrence had faded away; and poor Ned, in
despait, had isolated himself like Captain Nemo. Conseil
and I, however, never left each other. I said that the
Nautilus had gone aside to the east. I should have said
(to be more exact), the northeast. For some days it wan-
dered, first on the surface, and then beneath it, amid those
fogs so dreaded by sailors. What accidents are due to these
thick fogs! What shocks upon these reefs when the wind
drowns the breaking of the waves! What collisions between
vessels, in spite of their warning lights, whistles, and
alarm-bells! And the bottoms of ‘hese seas look like a field
of battle, where still lie all the conquered of the ocean:
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SHAS. 397

some old and already incrusted, others fresh and reflecting
from their iron bands and copper plates the brilliancy of
our lantern.

On the 15th of May we were at the extreme south of the
Bank of Newfoundland. This bank consists of alluvia, or
large heaps of organic matter, brought either from the
Equator by the Gulf Stream, or from the North Pole by
the counter-current of cold water which skirts the Amer-
ican coast. There also are heaped up those erratic blocks
which are carried along by the broken ice; and close by, a
vast charnel-house of mollusks or zoéphytes, which perish
here by millions. The depth of the sea is not great at New-
foundland,—not more than some hundreds of fathoms;
but towards the south is a depression of 1,500 fathoms.
There the Gulf Stream widens. It loses some of its speed
and some of its temperature, but it becomes a sea.

It was on the 17th of May, about 500 miles from Heart’s
Content, af a depth of more than 1,400 fathoms, that J
vaw the electric cable lying on the bottom. Conseil, tc
whom I had not mentioned it, thought at first that it wa:
a gigantic sea-serpent. But I undeceived the worthy fel.
low, and by way of consolation related several particulars
in the laying of this cable. The first one was laid in the
years 1857 and 1858; but, after transmitting about 406
telegrams, would not actanylonger. In 1863, the engineers
constructed another one, measuring 2,000 miles in length,
and weighing 4,500 tons, which was embarked on the Great
Eastern. ‘This attempt also failed.

On the 25th of May the Wawtilus, being at a depth of
more than 1,918 fathoms, was on the precise spot where
the rupture occurred which ruined the enterprise. It was
within 638 miles of the coast of Ireland; and at half past
two in the afternoon they discovered that communication
with Europe had ceased. The electricians on board re-
solved to cut the cable before fishing it up, and at eleven
o’clock at night they had recovered the damaged part. They
328 20,000 LLAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.
made another point and spliced it, and it was once more
submerged. But some days after it broke again, and in
the depths of the ocean could not be recaptured. The
Americans, however, were not discouraged. Cyrus Field,
the bold promoter of the enterprise, as he had sunk all his
own fortune, sect a new subscription on foot, which was at
once answered, and another cable was constructed on bet-
ter principles. The bundles of conducting wires were each
enveloped in gutta-percha, and protected by a wadding of
hemp, contained in a metallic covering. The Great Last-
ern sailed on the 13th of July, 1866. The operation worked
well. But one incident occurred. Several times in un-
rolling the cable they observed that nails had been recently
forced into it, evidently with the motive of destroying fit.
Captain Anderson, the officers and engineers, consulted
together, and had it posted up that if the offender was
surprised on board, he would be thrown without further
trial into the sea. From that time the criminal attempt
was never repeated.

On the 23d of July the Great Zastern was not more than
500 miles from Newfoundland, when they telegraphed
from Ireland news of the armistice concluded between
Prussia and Austria after Sadowa. On the 27th, in the
midst of heavy fogs, they reached the port of Heart’s Con-
tent. The enterprise was successfully terminated; and for
its first despatch young America addressed old Europe in
these words of wisdom so rarely understood,—‘‘ Glory to
God in the highest, and on earth peace, good-will towards
men.”

I did not expect to find the electric cable in its primitive
state, such as it was on leaving the manufactory. The
long serpent, covered with the remains of shells, bristling
with foraminifere, was incrusted with a strong coating
which served as a protection against all boring mollusks.
It lay quietly sheltered from the motions of the sea, and
under a favorable pressure for the transmission of the
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SEAS. 829

electric spark which passes from Europe to America in .32
of a second. Doubtless this cable will last for a great
length of time, for they find that the gutta-percha covering
is improved by the sea-water. Besides, on this level, so
well chosen, the cable is never so deeply submerged as to
cause it to break. The Nautilus followed it to the lowest
depth, which was more than 2,212 fathoms, and there it lay
without any anchorage; and then we reached the spot where
the accident had taken place in 1863. The bottom of the
ocean then formed a valley about 100 miles broad, in which
Mont-Blanc might have been placed without its summit
appearing above the waves. This valley is closed at the
east by a perpendicular wall more than 2,000 yards high.
We arrived there on the 28th of May, and the Nautilus was
then not more than 120 miles from Ireland.

Was Captain Nemo going to land on the British Isles?
No. To my great surprise he made for the south, once
more coming back towards European seas. In rounding
the Emerald Isle, for one instant I caught sight of Cape
Clear, and the light which guides the thousands of vessels
leaving Glasgow or Liverpool. An important question
then arose in my mind. Did the Nautilus dare entangle
itself in the Mauch? Ned Land, who had reappeared
since we had been nearing land, did not cease to question
me. How could I answer? Captain Nemo remained in-
visible. After having shown the Canadian a glimpse of
American .shores, was he going to show me the coast of
France?

But the Nautilus was still going southward. On the
30th of May, it passed in sight of the Land’s End, between
the extreme point of England and the Scilly Isies, which
were left to starboard. If he wished to enter the Mauch
he must go straight to the east. He did not do so.

During the whole of the 31st of May, the Mawtilus de-
scribed a series of circles on the water, which greatly inter-
ezted me. It seemed to be seeking a spot it had some
330 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS.

trouble in finding, At noon, Captain Nemo himself
came to work the ship’s log. He spoke no word to me,
but seemed gloomier than ever. What could sadden him
thus? Wasit his proximity to European shores? Had he
some recollections of his abandoned country? If not, what
did he feel? Remorse or regret? For a long while this
thought haunted my mind, and I had a kind of presenti-
ment that before long chance would betray the: captain’s
secrets.

The next day, the 1st of June, the Nautilus continued
the same process. It was evidently seeking some particu-
lar spot in the ocean. Captain Nemo took the sun’s alti-
tude as he had done the day before. The sea was beautiful,
the sky clear. About eight miles to the east, a large steam-
vessel could be discerned on the horizon. No flag flut-
tered from its mast, and I could not discover its nationality.
Some minutes before the sun passed the meridian, Captain
Nemo took his sextant, and watched with great attention.
The perfect rest of the water greatly helped the operation.
The Nautilus was motionless; it neither rolled nor pitched.

I was on the platform when the altitude was taken, and
the captain pronounced these words—‘‘ It is here.”

He turned and went below. Had he seen the vessel
which was changing its course and seemed to be nearing
us? I could not tell. I returned to the saloon. The
panels closed, I heard the hissing of the water in the reser-
voirs. The Nautilus began to sink, following a vertical
line, for its-screw communicated no motion to it. Some
minutes later it stopped at a depth of more than 420
fathoms, resting on the ground. The luminous ceiling
was darkened, then the panels were opened, and through
the glass I saw the sea brilliantly illuminated by the rays
of our lantern for at least half a mile round us.

T looked to the port side, and saw nothing but an im-
mensity of quiet waters. But to starboard, on the bottom
appeared a large protuberance, which at once attracted my
20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THH SILAS, 831

attention. One would have thought it a ruin buried under
a coating of white shells, much resembling a covering of
snow. Upon examining the mass attentively, I could rec-
ognize the ever-thickening form, of a vessel bare of its
masts, which must have sunk. I certainly belonged to
past times. This wreck, to be thus incrusted with the
lime of the watcr, must already be able to count many
years passed at the bottom of the ocean.

‘What was this vessel? Why did the Nautilus visit its
tomb? Could it have been aught but a shipwreck which
had drawn it under the water? I knew not what to think,
when near me in aslow voice I heard Captain Nemo say,—

** At one time this ship was called the Marsetllais. It
carried seventy-four guns, and was launched in 1762. In
1778, the 13th of August, commanded by La Poype-Ver-
trieux, it fought boldly against the Preston. In 1779, on
the 4th of July, it was at the taking of Grenada, with
the squadron of Admiral Estaing. In 1781, on the dth of
September, it took part in the battle of Comte de Grasse,
in Chesapeake Bay. In 1794 the French Republic changed
its name. On the 16th of April, in the same year, it joined
the squadron of Villaret Joycuse, at Brest, being intrusted
with the escort of a cargo of corn coming from America,
under the command of Admiral Van Stabel. On the 11th
and 12th Prairal of the second year, this squadron fell in
with an English vessel. Sir, to-day is the 13th Prairal,
the 1st of June, 1868. It is now 74 years ago, day for day
on this very spot, in latitude 47° 24’, longitude 17° 28’,
jthat this vessel, after fighting heroically, losing its three
masts, with the water in its hold, and the third of its crew
disabled, preferred sinking with ifs 356 sailors to surren-
dering; and nailing its colors to the poop, disappeared
under the waves to the cry of ‘ Long live the Republic !? ”

“The Avenger!” I exclaimed.

“Yes, sir, the Avenger: A good name!” muttered Cap-
tain Nemo, crossing his arms.
332 - 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEAS,

CHAPTER XXIL
A HECATOMB.

Tux way of describing this unlooked-for scene, the his-'
tory of the patriot ship, told at first so coldly, and the
emotion with which this strange man pronounced the last
words, the name of the Avenger, the significance of which
could not escape me, all impressed itself deeply on my
mind. My eyes did not leave the captain; who, with his
hand stretched out to sea, was watching with a glowing eye
the glorious wreck. Perhaps I was:never to know who he
was, from whence he came, or where he was going to, but
I saw the man move, and apart from the savant. It was
no common misanthropy which had shut Captain Nemo
and his companions within the Nautilus, but a hatred,
either monstrous or sublime, which time could never
weaken. Did this hatred still seek for vengeance? The
future would soon teach me that. But the Nautilus was
rising slowly to the surface of the sea, and the form of the
Avenger disappeared by degrees from my sight. Soona
slight rolling told me that we were in the open air. At
that moment a dull boom was heard. I looked at the cap-
tain, he did not move.

“* Captain?” said I.

He did not answer, Ileft him and mounted the plat-
form. Conseil and the Canadian were already there.

“‘Where did that sound come from?” I asked.

“Tt was a gunshot,” replied Ned Land. ©

I looked in the direction of the vessel I had already seen.
It was nearing the Wawtilus, and we could see that it was
putting on steam. It was within six miles of us,

* What is that ship, Ned?” Ee
20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS. 882

‘¢ By its rigging and the height of its lower masts,” said
the Canadian, ‘‘I bet she isa ship of war. May it reach
us; and, if necessary, sink this cursed Nautilus.”

~«Priend Ned,” replied Conseil, “ what harm can it do
to the Nautilus? Can it attack it beneath the waves?
Can it cannonade us at the bottom of the sea?”

“Tell me, Ned,” said I, ‘can you recognize what coun-
try she belongs to?”

The Canadian knitted his eyebrows, dropped his eyelids,
and screwed up the corners of his eyes, and for a few mo-
ments fixed a piercing look upon the vessel.

‘No, sir,” he replied; ‘‘I cannot tell what nation she
belongs to, for she shows no colors. But I can declare she
is a man-of-war, for a long pennant flutters from her main-~
mast.”

For a quarter of an hour we watched the ship which was
steaming towards us. I could not, however, believe that
she could see the Nautilus from that distance, and stils
less that she could know what this submarine engine was.
Soon the Canadian informed me that she was a large ar-
mored two-decker ram. A thick black smoke was pour-
ing from her two funnels. Her closely furled sails were
stopped to her yards. She hoisted no flag at her mizzen-
peak. The distance prevented us from distinguishing the
colors of her pennant, which floated like a thin ribbon.
She advanced rapidly. If Captain Nemo allowed her to
approach, there was a chance of salvation for us.

“Sir,” said Ned Land, ‘‘if that vessel passes within a
mile of us, I shall throw myself into the sea, and I should
advise you to do the same.”

I did not reply to the Canadian’s suggestion, but con-
tinued watching the ship. Whether English, French,
American, or Russian, she would be sure to take us in if
we could only reach her. Presently a white smoke burst
from the fore part of the vessel; some seconds after the
water, agitated by the fall of a heavy body, splashed the
834 20,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

stern of the Mauztdlus, and shortly afterwards a loud ex-
plosion struck my ear.

‘What! they are firing at us!’ I exclaimed.

“So please you, sir,” said Ned, “‘they have recognized
the unicorn, and they are firing at us.”

“‘ But,” I exclaimed, ‘‘surely they can see that there are
men in the case?”

“Tt is, perhaps, because of that,” replied Ned Land,
looking at me.

A whole flood of light burst wpon my mind. Doubtless
they knew now how to believe the stories of the pretended
monster. No doubt, on board the Abraham Lincoln,
when the Canadian struck it with the harpoon, Com-
mander Farragut had recognized in the supposed narwhal
a submarine vessel, more dangerous than a supernatural
cetacean. Yes, it must have been so; and on every sea
they were now seeking this engine of destruction. Terri-
ble indeed! if, as we supposed, Captain Nemo employed
the Naucilus in works of vengeance. On the night when
we were imprisoned in that cell, in the midst of the Indian
Ocean, had he not attacked some vessel? The man buried
in the coral cemetery, had he not been a victim to the
shock caused by the Nautilus. Yes, I repeat it, it must
be so. Une part of the mysterious existence of Captain
Nemo had been unveiled; and, if his identity had not been
recognized, at least, the nations united against him were no
longer hunting a chimerical creature, but a man who had
vowed e deadly hatred against them. All the formidable
past rose before me. Instead of meeting friends on board
the approaching ship, we could only expect pitiless enemies.
But the shot rattled about us. Some of them struck the
sea and ricochetted, losing themselves in the distance. But
none touched the Nautilus. The vessel was not more than
three miles from us. In spite of the serious cannonade,
Captain Nemo did not appear on the platform; but, if one
of the conical projectiles had struck the shell of the Wau-
£0,000 LHAGUES UNDER THE SEAS. 335.

tilus, it would have been fatal. The Canadian then said,
“Sir, we must do all we can to get out of this dilemma.
Let us signal them. They will then, perhaps, understand
that we are honest folks.”

Ned Land took his handkerchief to wave in the air; but
he had scarcely displayed it, when he was struck down by
an iron hand, and fell, in spite of his great strength, upon
the deck.

“*Fool!” exclaimed the captain, “‘do you wish to be
pierced by the spur of the Nautilus before it is hurled at
this vessel ?”

Captain Nemo was terrible to hear; he was still more ter-
ible to see. His face was deadly pale, with a spasm at his
heart. For an instant it must have ceased to beat. His
‘pupils were fearfully contracted. He did not speak, he
roared, a8, with his body thrown forward, he wrung the
Canadian’s shoulders. Then, leaving him, and turning to
the ship of war, whose shot was still raining around him,
he exclaimed, with a powerful voice, ‘“‘Ah, ship of an ac-
cursed nation, you know whol am! I do not want your
colors to know you by! Look! and I will show you mine!”

And on the fore part of the platform Captain Nemo
unfurled a black flag, similar to the one he had placed at
the South Pole. At that moment a shot struck the shell
of the Nautilus obliquely, without piercing it, and, re-
bounding near the captain, was lost in the sea. He
shrugged his shoulders; and addressing me, said shortly,
“Go down, you and your companions, go down!”

‘Sir,’ I exclaimed, “are you going to attack this
vessel ?”

“Sir, Iam going to sink it.”

«You will not do that ?”

‘*T shall do it,” he replied, coldly. ‘‘And I advise you
not to judge me, sir. Fate has shown you what you ought
not to have seen. The attack has begun; go down.”

“What is this vessel ?”
836 0,000 LHAGUHS UNDER THE SHAS.

“You do not know? Very well! so much the better!
its nationality to, you, at least, will be a secret. Go down!”

We could but obey. About fifteen of the sailors sur-
rounded the captain, looking vith implacable hatred at the
vessel nearing them. One could feel that the same desire
of veugeance animated every soul. I went down at the
moment another projectile struck the Nautilus, and I
heard the captain exclaim,—

‘¢ Strike, mad vessel! Shower your useless shot! And
then, you will not escape the spur of the Nautilus. But
it is not here that youshall perish! Iwould not have your
ruins mingle with those of the Avenger!”

I reached my room. The captain and his second had
remained on the platform. The screw was set in motion,
and the Wautilus, moving with speed, was soon beyond
the reach of the ship’s guns. But the pursuit continued,
and Captain Nemo contented himself with keeping his
distance.

About four in the afternoon, being no longer able to
contain my impatience, I went to the central staircase.
The panel was open, and I ventured on to the platform.
The captain was still walking up and down with an agitated
step. He was looking at the ship, which was five or six
miles to leeward.

He was going round it like a wild beast, and teawine it
eastward, he allowed them to pursue. But he did not
attack. Perhaps he still hesitated ? I wished to mediate
once more. But I had scarcely spoken, when Captain
Nemo imposed silence, saying,—

“T ara the law, and Iam the judge! Iam the oppressed,
and there is the oppressor! Through him I have lost all
that I loved, cherished, and venerated,—country, wife,
vhildren, father, and mother. I saw all perish! All that
{hate is there! Say no more!”

I cast a last look at the man-of-war, which was putting
on steam, and rejoined Ned and Conseil.
20,000 LEAGUNS UNDER THE SHAS. 337

“We will fly!” I exclaimed.

“Good!” said Ned. ‘‘ What is this vessel?”

“T donot know; but whatever itis, it will be sunk before
night. In any case, it is better to perish with it, than be
made accomplices in a retaliation, the justice of which we
eannot judge.”

«That is my opinion too,” said Ned Land, coolly. ‘Let
us wait for night.”

Night arrived. Deep silence reigned on board. The
compass showed that the Wautilus had not altered its
course. It was on the surface, rolling slightly. My com-
panions and I resolved to fly when the vessel should be
near enough either to hear us or to see us; for the moon,
which would be full in two or three days, shone brightly.
Once on board the ship, if we could not prevent the blow
which threatened it, we could, at least we would, do all
that circumstances would allow. Several times I thought
the Nautilus was preparing for attack; but Captain Nemo
contented himself with allowing his adversary to approach,
and then fled once more before it.

Part of the night passed without any incident. We
vatched the opportunity for action, We spoke little, for
we were too much moved. Ned Land would have thrown
himself into the sea, but I forced him to wait. According
to my idea, the Na