S. A.--P. M. A. 172 IO Issued September 1952
..... M.... ..A .... U.S. D IP -O -
? United Sates Department of Agriculture
PRODUCTION AND MARKETING ADMINISTRATION
SERVICE AND REGULATORY ANNOUNCEMENTS NO. 172
OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF
SLAUGHTER SWINE (BARROWS AND GILTS)
(Title 7, Ch. I, Pt. 53, Sections 53.150-53.153 of the Code of Federal Regulations)
The following is a reprint of the oltivi;:l United States standards for the
grades of slaughter harrows and gilts lpr.-111 it.'l.d by the Secretary of Agriculture
under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087; 7 U. S. C. 1621
et seq.) and the item for Marketing Services re'rrriii in the annual appropria-
tion act for the United States Department of Agriculture and currently found
in the Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1953 (Pub. Law 451,
DEVELOPMENT OF THE STANDARDS
"-*-, A system of classifying and grading market h. s was formulated by the United
STites Department of Agriculture in 1918 for use in the livestock market reporting
service. The system was developed with the cooperation and assistance of many
Interested agencies and represented the most generally accepted market groupings
of the time. After meetings with producers, animal lih-ml;uiiidijn. market repre-
sentatives, and l;iin.hterLrs in l!'., and 1I',I, revisions were made, consistent
with changes in production and marketing conditions, and tentative standards
were issued in 1930. Further revisions were incorporated into the tentative
standards in 1940 when they were published in Circular Ni. 5ii;1.
The United States Department of Ag-rii1dtu'r proposed new standards for
gradles of slaiilcitr barrows and gilts in 1i4'.-i. Field testing, discussion, and
demonstration of the standards resulted in slight revisions before pri.llniilgl;tion,
by the Secretary of A-ri-i.lture, as the official United States standards for grades
of slaughter barrows and gilts, effective September 12, 1952.
BASES FOR SWINE STANDARDS
The market standards for swine developed by the United States Department of
Agriculture provide for segregation according to (a) intended use, as slaughter
or feelder and stocker animals, (b) class, as determined by seC condition, and (c)
grade, or degree of excellence and suitability for a particular purpose.
SLAUGHTER SWINE CLASSES
There are five classes of lan ulhit-.r swine-barro ,s, gilts, sows, stags, and boars.
A barrow is a male swine castrated when y.iIung and before development of the
secondary physical characteristics of a boar.
A gilt is a female swine that has not produced young and has not reached an
evident stage of pregnancy.
A sow is a female swine that shows evidence of having reproduced or has
reached an evident stage of pregnancy.
A stag is a male swine castrated after development or beginning of development
of the secondary physical characteristics of a boar.
A boar is an uncastrated male swine.
APPLICATION OF STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF SLAUGHTER BARROWS
In the barrow and gilt classes, sex condition has exerted little effect on
secondary physical characteristics, and barrows and gilts are treated as a single
class in marketing and for standardization purposes. Therefore, the grade
standards are equally applicable to both slaughter harrows and gilts.
The standards are based on the standards for grades of harrow and gilt
carcasses. The two major factors forming the bases for the grades are (1) dif-
ferences in yield of lean cuts and of fat cuts, and (2) differences in quality
of cuts. There are rather consistent variations in these characteristics from
one grade of barrows and gilts to another. The grade standards identify the hogs
which produce pork of each of the three grades-Choice, Medium, and Cull.
Choice grade barrows and gilts have at least the minimum finish required to
produce Choice grade pork cuts in which the lean is firm and has sufficient mar-
bling, or fat interspersed within the lean, to result in the tenderness, juiciness, and ..
flavor associated with acceptable palatability. Hogs of Choice grade produce
coinplaraillp quality lean cuts, but may differ widely in the degree of fatness.
Hence, this grade is further divided into three srninents-No. 1, No. 2, and No..
3-to reflect the decreased yields of lean cuts and increased yields of fat cuts as
finish exceeds the minimum required for the Choice grade. Medium grade bar-
rows and gilts are sli'-ltly to moderately underfinished and have higher ratios
of lean to fat than Choice grade hogs, but they produce Medium grade pork
cuts in which the lean is slightly soft and has little or no marbling. Cull grade
hogs are decidedly undertinished r-",ultilL, in higher lean to fat ratios than
in any other ,ralh-, but they produce Cull grade pork cuts which are soft and
watery and have no visible marbling in the lean.
Application of the standards ri'luirez- an accurate appraisal of the live
animal characteristics which indicate the grade. The standards describe the
characteristics of typical animals having the minimum degree of finish for each
grade. No attempt is made to describe the numerous combinations of charac-
teristics that may indicate the qualifications for a specific grade, and milkin~
appropriate compensations for varying combinations requires the use of sound
judild-.' w l t.
The general limits of grades for barrows and gilts are determined by du-.r_,e
of finish, but other factors are considered in certain cases to accomplish further
refinement of the grades. Animals at the borderlines between the divisions of
the Choice grade with respect to dt"-'rPtl of finish are ;r.',h.l1 by consideration
of length in relation to weight and other body proportions, conformation of hams,
loins, bellies, and shoulders, and uniformity of width, depth, and fat c\nv'ring
of the animal. The application of these compensating factors is limited pri-
marily to borderline cases within the Choice grade, and the final grade division
of an animal is in no case more than one-half the width of a grade division
different than that indicated by ia ipa ir'it degree of finish.
SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR
GRADES OF SLAUGHTER BARROWS AND GILTS
CHOICE NO. 1
S ;ihiht,.r barrows and gilts of this division of Cll,'ie grade have an inter-
mediate dturL', of finish as indicated by body Iprl'ii'rtions and other evidences
of fatness. Hogs of the minimum finish for Choice No. 1 tend to be moderately
wid, over the top, and width of body over the top appears iinerly 'qiual to that
at the underline. The bi;rk. from side to side, is moderately full and thick and
usually appears well-rounded and blends smoothly into the sides. Width tllroullh
the hams is uu;-illy nearly equal to that through the shoulders. The *ides
appear moderately long and thick and are usually smooth; the flanks are
slightly thick and full. Depth at the rear flank nm;y be slightly less than
depth at the fore flank. Hams tend to be moderately thick and full with a
slightly thick coverin-l of fat. Jowls are usually trim but moderately full and
thick. Barrows and gilts in this grade division produce ('Clce No. 1 carcasses.
CHOICE NO. 2
Slaughter barrows and .ills of this gr;ide division have a high degree of finish
as indicated by body proportions and other evidences of fatness. Ihi'.s of the
minimum finish for Choice No. 2 tend to be wide over the top, and width of body
app'lirs slightly greater over the top than at the underline. 'I he back, from side
to side, is full and thick and often alie:,rs lightly flat with a noticeable break
into the sides. Width may be slilltly greater through the shoulders than
through the hams. The sides appear sliulitly short, thick, and smooth; the
flanks are moderately thick and full. Depth at the rear flank is nearly equal to
that at the fore flank. Hams tend to be thick and full with a moderately thick
covering of fat, especially over the lower part. Jowls are usually full and thick,
and the neck -appears short. Barrows and gilts in this grade division produce
Choice No. 2 carcasses.
CHOICE NO. 3
Sllaughtr barrows and gilts of this grade division have a very high degree of
finish as indicated by body lrnlcrtions and other evidences of fatness. H'gs
possessing the minimum finish for Choice No. 3 tend to be very wide over the top,
and width of body appears somewhat greater over the top than at the underline.
The back, from side to side, is very full and thick and often appears nearly flat
with a ipri'n',ul-4edl break into the sides. Width may be greater tlhriugi the
shoulders than through the hams. The sides appear short, thick, and smooth; the
flanks are thick and full. Depth at the rear flank is equal to depth at the fore
flank. Hams tend to be very thick and full with a thick covering of fat, especially
over the lower part. Jowls are very thick and full, and the neck appears very
short. Barrows and gilts in this grade divisionii produce Choice No. 3 carcasses.
Slaughter barrows and gilts of this grade have a slightly low degree of finish
as indicated by body proportions and other evidences of fatness. Hogs pii-.'w.-:img
the minimum finish for the grade tend to be narrow over the top, and width over
the top appears slightly less than that at the underline. The back, from side to
side, is slightly thin and appears peaked at the center, especially at and immed-
iately behind the shoulders, with a distinct slope toward the sides. Hips may
appear slightly prominent. Width may be slightly less through the shoulders than
through the hams. The sides ;ille;r long and -liigtly thin and wrinkled, with
thin flanks. Depth at the rear flank is less than that at the fore flank. Hams
tend to be thin and flat with a liLlit taper toward the shanks. Jowls are usually
slightly thin and flat, and the neck appears rather long. Barrows and gilts in this
grade produce Medium grade carcasses.
Slaughter barrows and gilts of this grade are decidedly l;ihkiiig in finish. Hogs
with the fle,-lIin.- typical of the grade are narrow over the top, and width of body
appears somewhat less over the top than at the underline. The back, from side
to side, is thin, lacks fullness, and appears peaked at the center with a decided
slope toward the sides. Hips are prominent. Width may be somewhat less
thrli1gh the shoulders than through the hams. The sides appear very long, thin,
and wrinkled, and the flanks are very thin. Depth at the rear flank is consider-
ably less than depth at the fore flank. Hams are very thin and flat with a decided
taper toward the shanks. Jowls are usually very thin and flat, and the neck
appears very long. Barrows and gilts in this grade produce Cull igraile carcasses.
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1952
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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