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National Advisory Committee For Aeronautics
Re Sear ch Aibstracts ,,
NO. 51 OCT BOR-~2,3 1953
The method employs an adj tme ta th p bee~---- eleme gryy
beam theory to account for h f
angular root portion of a swept wing on the deformla-
tIon ofthe outboard section of the wlng. II as shown
that, for calculating angles of attack due to loading.
the unmodified elementary theory alone suffices.
NACA TN 3010
COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF
CONVECTION-, TRANSPIRATION-, AND FILM-
COOLING METHODS W]TH AnR AS COOL.ANT.
E. R. G. Eckert and John N. B. Livingood.
October 1953. 52p. diagrs. (NACA TN 3010)
Material necessary for a comparison of the cooling
requirements of film and tran~pti ing with
conventional convection cooling ilp Both
laminar and turbulent flow, with and wi~ ia-
tion, are considered for a flpt plate. The s m~ir-
tty of transpiration cooling is clearly st
laminar and turbulent flow, L3
NACA TN 3013
A NOTE ON SECONDARY FLOW I R(YTAT G
RADIAL CHANNELB. James .h r andeEin John D.
Stanitz. October 1953. 33p. diagrs. (NACA
A general vector dlfferentral equation for the vor-
ticity component parallel to a streamline Is derived
for steady, -nonvascous and Incompressible flow In a
rotating system. This equallon Is then simplified by
restricting It to rotating radial channels and by
making further simphflyng assumptions. This sim-
phfied equation Is used to solve for the secondary
vorticity, the vortlraty component parallel to the
streamline, in three special cases involving different
streamtube geometries; the results are presented In
a series of figures. The secondary vorticity Is
shown to decrease with decreased absolute angular
velocity of the flurd, decreased inlet total-pressure
nrcadet teddr~eased IIgt of relative flow path, and
NACA TN 3018
A THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF FOR-
WARD SPEED ON THE FREE-SPACE SOUND-
PRESSURE FIELD AROUND PROPELLERS. I. E.
Garrick and C E. Watkins. October 1953. 39p.
diagrs., tab. (NACA TN 3018)
The sound -pressure fIeld due to thrust and torque of
a propeller in flight at umfiorm sublsonic speed is
analyzed by use of a dlst ributlon of acoustic doublets
located at the propeller disk. The results can be
regarded as an extension of the work for the static
" AVAILABLE ON LOAN ONLY
ADDRESS REQUESTS FOR DOCUMENTS TO NACA, 1724 F ST., NW.
THE REPORT TITLE AND AUTHOR
WASHINGTON Is. D C.CITING CODE NUMBER ABOVE EACH TILnE;
CURRENT NACA REPORTS
NACA Repl. 1108
EXPERIMENTAL AERODYNAMIC DERTVATIVES OF
A SINUSOIDALLY OSCILLATING AIRFOIL IN TWO-
DIMENSIONAL FLOW. Robert L. Halfman,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1952. 11,
44p.dlagrs., photo., 19tlabs. (NACA Rept. 1108.
Formerly TN 2465)
Experimental measurements of the aerodynamic re-
actions on a symmetrical airfoil oscilIlating ha rmon -
ically in a two-dimensional flow are presented nid
analyzed. Harmonie motions Include pure patch and
pure translation, for several amplitudes and super-
imposed on an initial angle of attack, as well as
combined patch and translation. Considerable con-
slstent data for pure pitch were obtained froml a
search of available reference material, and several
definite Reynolds number effects are evident.
NACA Rept. 1120
RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF VARIOUS SOURCES
OF DE FECT -PRODUCING HYDROGEN INTRO-
DUCED INTO STEEL DURING APPLICATION OF
VITREOUS COATINGS. Dwight G. Moore, Mlary A.
Mason and William N. Harrison. 1953. 12p.
photos., diagrs., 5 tabs. (NACA Rept. 1120.
Formerly TN 2617)
The purpose of this investigation was to study and to
determine experimentally the relative importance of
various sources of defect-producmng hydrogen Intro-
duced into steel during the application of vitreous-
type ceramic coatings. Under the conditions inveslt-
gated, the principal source of defect-producing
hydrogen was the dissolved water present in the
enamel frit of the coating. Acid pickling, milling
water, chemically combined water in the elay, and
quenching water were all minor sources. Test re-
sults indicate that fashscallng, reboil, and possibly
primary boat may be eliminated by using a coaling
prepared with a water-free frlt.
NACA TN 2978
AN APPROXIMATE METHOD OF CALCULATING
THE DE FORMATIONS OF WINGS HAVING SWEPT,
M OR W, ri, AND SWEPT-TIP PLAN FORMS.
George W. Zender and William A. Brooks, Jr.
October 1953. 28p. digrs., photo. (NACA
An approximate method of calculating the deforma-
Irons of wings of uniform thickness having swrept,
M or W, I,, and swept-lip plan forms Is presented.
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO~.51
losses. It was concluded that little or no evapora-
tive loss occurs from droplets approaching small
obstacles such as liquad-wvater-content measurement
cylinders, Whereas losses may be as high as several
percent in the case of larger obstacles such as
wings, or 50 percent in the case of ducts at high
ram pressure. Losses In ducts in general, Pqwever,
will usually be about 10 to 20 percent.
NACA ITN 3025
AN INVESTIGATION 'UTILIZING AN ELECTRICAL
ANALOGUE OF CYCLIC DE-ICING OF HOLLOW
STEEL PROELLERS WITH INTERNAL ELECTRIC
HEATERS. Carr B. Neel. Jr. October 1953. 31p.
diagrs., photo., 3 tabs (NACA TN 3025)
An analytical study, unit~zlng an elect rrcal analogue,
of the heat requirements for rycllc de-icing of hollow
steel propellers fitted *ith two types of internal
electric heaters showed the Impracticaballst of usrng
an internal tubular heater, and illustrated the
advantages of employing an Internal shoe-type heater
to distribute the heat more evenly to the blade sur-
face. The importance of manmmizing the thermal
inertia of the system wias demonstrated, and the
magnitude of reductions In the total energy require-
ment made possible through redualions In heating
period was indicated.
NACA TN 3031
PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
OF LOW-SPEED TURBiULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS
IN ADVERSE PRESSURE GRADIENTS. Virgil A.
Sandborn. October 1953. 37p dlagrs., photos.
(NACA TN 3031)
Measurements of velocity profiles and skin friction In
subsonic turbulent boundary layers with adverse
steadily with distance to a value approach ng zero for
puted arccordngwr eae to the seienprifa mtho ad mof
Mselhaeben compared witho the measured eol pfis
qubsantities.i From heareeen wit i ocue thatqutono
the method (wicexoisheLde-Tllmann for-ulhcnes a n
mula for skin friction) gives results, for the flows
investigated, well within a range of engineering
accuracy for the predictions of p rofile pa ramneters,
local skin friction, and the point of flow separation;
required data for the calculation are the profile
parameters at a starting point and the pressure
NACA TN 3033
APPLICATION OF AN ELECTRO-OPTICAL TWO-
COLOR PYROMETER TO MEASUREMENT OF
FLAME: TEMPERATURE FOR LIQUIID OXYGEN -
HYDROCARBON PROPELLANT COMBINATION.
MV. F. Heidmann and R. J. Prlem. October 1953.
39p. diagrs., photos. (NACA TN 3033)
propeller given by Gutin (NACA TM 1195) for the
far pressure field and given by Hubbard and Regrer
(NACA Rep 996)l for the field near the tips of the
rotating propeller. The extended formulas are used
to calculate the sound field for a speclise two-blade
propeller operating at constant torqu for various
forward-speed M~ach nubers.
NACA TN 3020
DETERMINATION OF BOUNDARY-LAYER TRANSI-
TION REYNO~LDS NUMBERS BY SURFACE-
TI'EMPERAURE MEASUhREMEN OF A 10]0 CONE
IN VARIOUS NACA SUPERSONIC WIN TUNNELS'
Albert O. Ross. October 1953. 26ip.diagrs., tab'
(NACA TN 3020)
An investigation was conducted in the Ames and
Lewlis supersonic tunnels to determine transition
Reynolds numbers on a 100 cone at zero angle of
attack. Measurements of surface temperature at
knon increments along the cone were made for the
case of negligible heat transfer and negllgib~le wind-
tunnel pressure gradients. The trends of transition
Reynolds nuber with stream Reynolds number and
wiith Mach number are not consistent for the various
tunnls. The inconsistencies are attributed to
effects of free-stream turbulence, flow irregulari-
ties introduced by the rcompressor systems, and
other air-streami disturbances.
NJACA TN 3021
A METHOD OF DERIVNG FREQUENCY-RESPONSE
DATA FOR MOTION OF THE CENTER OF GRAVITY
FROM DATA MEASURED ON AN AIRCRAFT AT
LOCATIONS OTHER THAN THE CENTER OF
GRAVTITY. John M. Eggleston. October 1953.
25p. diagrs. (NACA TN 3021)
when the pitching velocity is not recorded. The
obtained from drop tests of a freely falling model.
NACA TN 3024
MAXIMUM EVAPORATION RATES OF WATER
DROPLET~S APPROACHING OBSTACLES IN THE
ATMOSPHERE UNDER ICING CONDITIONS.
Herman H. Lowell. October 1953. 56p. diagrs.,
3 tabs. (NACA TN 3024)
Maximum possible evaporation rates of water
droplets approaching obstacles in the atmosphere
along stagnation lines or moving within intake ducts
of airplanes under icing conditions were calculated
for a wide variety of ambient conditions, flight Mach
numbers, degrees of stagnaion of the incident rela-
tive air stream, and droplet diameters. Droplet
diameter, body size, and flight Mach number effects
were found to predominate, whereas wide variation
in ambient conditions had little effect on evaporative
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO.51
The developments of an erlero-optical two-color
pyrameter and Its application to the measurement of
temperature and emissiasty In the exhaust gases of an
open-tube combustor during normal and osedllatory
combustion are described Temperature variations
up to 10000 R and emilsslvlty variations of 10 to 1
were measured; the vanlatlons were sporadic and
periodic during normal and asclllatory) operation,
respectively. The results of simultaneous measure-
ments of sound Intensllty and temperature by the two-
color mletho.d and by a ma~crowave absorption
techniqlue are also presented
NACA RM L53G20ia
CHARTS FOR ESTIMATION OF THE PROFILE
F. B. Gustaison October 1953. 18p. diagrs.
(NACA RM L53G20al
Theoretically derived charts ar~e presented for pre-
diction~ of profile drag-llat ratios of helicopter rotors
having rectangular blades wnth -Bo twist. Condi-
isons for onset of blade-section suldling are shown in
NACA TM 1361
CONCERNING THE FLOW ON RING-SHAPED
COWLINGS. PART Xtfl. THE INFLUENCE OF A
PROJECTING HUIB. (Uebe~r die Stromung an
ringicirmigen Verkleidungen XYIII M attellung:
Der Einfluss elner v'orgrezog~enen Nabe). D'
Kiichemann October 1953 19p diagrs. (NACA
TM 1361. Trans. from Zentrale fur
wissenschaflliches Berrchtswesen ler
Lutfahrtforsenung, Berlin. UM1 3144)
The Influence of thicktnessr and length of.a hub pro-
jecting from an inlet opening was investigated on one
of the two new classes of circular cowls reported in
NACA TM 1360.
Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit. )
NOTE ON THE EFFECT OF VARIABLE WALL
TEMPERATURE ON HEAT TRANSFER. H. B.
Square. IAddendumr to ARC R &M 1986). 1953.
2p. tan. IARC R M I2753; ARC 13, 475)
This report records the extension of the method
given In R M 1986 on the heat-transfer calculation
for airloils to the case of variable surface tempera-
Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
EXPERIMENTS ON CONICAL DIF FUSERS. H. B.
Square. 1953. 18p. diagrs.. tab. (ARC R M
2751; ARC 12,838. Formlerly RAE Aero 2216;
ARC 13,499; TP 320)
Measurements of the characteristics of conical
diffusers of area ratio 4 between entry and exit and
of total cone angle 4o, 50, 60, go, and 100 were
made to determine the effect of Reynolds number on
efficiency for uniform entry flowr. A rarpe of entry
Reynolds number between 5 x 104 and 10D was
covered. The pressure distributions along the walls
and the veloclty distributions at the end of the conical
sections were measured. Further measurements of
velocity distribution were made with conical diffusers
of area ratio 16 between entry and exit and with pipe
flow at the entry, to determine the velocity distri-
butions which finally develop.
Frest P dut BReseac a a.(t Br UFAC-
TURE. BAPELE (ENTANDROPHRAGMAM
CYLINDRICUMI -SPRAGUE) GOLD COAS. (40
POUNDS PER CUBIC FOOT AT 15 PER CENT
MOISTURE CONTENT) PROGRESS REPORT
TWENTY. July 1953. 13p. 6tabs. (Forest
Products Research Lab. )
Four logs of Sapele that had been stored under water
from December 1951 March 1953 were treated
with steam and peeled into veneer. Characteristics
of the green veneer are given. The veneer wvas
dried and cut into squares and glued together.
Different treatment was given several loots Results
for each are given.
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
TENSOR TRANSFORMATIONS FOR DESCRIBING
SUCCESSIVE CHANGES IN THEF ATTITUDE OF AN
AIRCRAFT. E. H. Bateman. July 1953. 11p.
(RAE Tech. Note structures 121)
The methods of elementary vector and tensor
analysis are applied to the problem, of finding the
attitude of an aircraft after successive applications of
roll, pitch or yaw, or of rotations about any axes8.
General transformations are tabulated for the six
second order combinations of roll, pitch, and yaw;
and examles are given of a third order and a fifth
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit. )
SOME N(7fES ON IRREVERSILE MACHINES. D.
Rendel and J. Rudman. M~ay 1953. 27p. diagrs.,
photo., tab. (RAE Tech. Note Me~ch. Eng. 144)
A mathematical analysis has been made of the simple
type of irreversible machine without lost motion in
which the internal frictional forces can be expressed
in terms of the external loading. TIhe analysis
emphasises that the most efficient type of machine
would be one in which, when operating against an
opposing load, the input force gradually releases a
brake which holds the output load. A Imodel machine
of this type, which can theoretically be made over
50-percent efficient, has been tested and found to be
usable and irreversible up to an efficiency of 80 per-
cent. A description of this machine and the tests
i RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO.51
made on it is given in the appendix which may be
read without reference to the main text. Other forms
of irreversible machines are more generally sur-
veyed and their probable defects pointed out.
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
ESTIMATION OF THE FAIGUE LIFE OF A
TRANSPORT AIRCRAFTr. P. B.Walker. July
1953. 9p. (RAE Structures 149)
A simple formula is presented for the safe life of an
aircraft under reasonably good operating conditions
from the standpoint of wing fatigue~. Gusts are
treated as the main factor in determination of fatigue
life, though other factors are allowed for as being
secondary. Before the formula can be used a
simple fallgue test is required on critical compo-
nents, and repeated several times to establish vari-
ation of nominal identical specimens. The loading
cycle for this test corresponds to a sequence of up
and do~wngusts of 8 ft/see equivalent velocity. The
life obtained is termed the "Standard ~Life" and
corresponds to normal operating conditions on
European Air Lines. Reservations in the use of the
formula and correction for other operating conditions
are discussed in general terms.
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit. )
A REVIEW OF HEAT RESISTANCE OF LAMINATED
PLASTICS. W. W. Wright June 1953. 10p.
(RAE Tech. Note Chem. 1200)
The results of recent investigations of the heat
resistance of laminated plastics are reviewed.
Structural factors which influence thermal stability
are listed and possible research developments indi-
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
LEAKAGE. TESTxS ON SOLID AND INF5LAT AB LE
RUBBER SEALS DESIGNED FOR USE IN WIND
TUNNELS. D. I. T. P. Llewelyn-Davies and M. T.
Caiger. January 1953. 24p. diagrs., tab. (RAE
Tech. Note Aero 2219)
Tests have been made on two types of rubber seals
designed for use in a variable pressure wind tunnel.
A solid seal was designed which would satisfactorily
seal gaps of up to 0.04 inch against pressure differ-
ences of C1 atmosphere from atmospheric pressure
and which required a minimum sealing force of
5 lb Inch run of seal. It is essential to keep to a
minimum the number of joints in the seal and also
it is important that the! seal should be a loose fit in
its groove. A minimum inflation pressure of
30 Il/sq in. gage was required to ensure satis-
factory sealing when an inflatable seal was used to
seal gaps of up to 0.128 inch against the same range
of pressure! differences. When sealing against
pressures higher than atmospheric, the performance
deteriorated rapidly due to the decrease of the
effective seal pressure. Care was necessary to en-
sure that, the seal d'id not roll out of its groove when
the joint surfaces were slid apart.
NACA-Langley 10-23-53 4000
UIVRITY OF FLORIDAe
Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn. r
THE CALCULATION OF BOUNDARY LAYER STA-
BILITY ON A FLAT SURFACE W'ITH HEAT TRANS-
FER USING AN INTEGRAL SOLUTION FOR THE
MEAN FLOW. Martmn Bloom. June 1951. 35p.
diagrs., 2 tabs. (Polyrechnic Inst. of Brooklyn.
PlBAL Rept. 179)
The compressible lamana~r boundary layer over a flat
surface with heat transfer at the surface, a unit
Prandtl number, and a linear temperature viscosity
relation, Is considered. The one-parameter Karman
.Pohlhausen integral method is apphied with a sixth-
degree polynomial assumed for the velocity profile.
The method is shown to predict accurately the veloc-
Ity proflde slopes and curvatures. It is also shown to
gav~e good stability estimates as compared with
mathematically exact solutions. The procedure for
estimating the minimum critical Reynolds number
for instability is modified to extend Its applicability
somewhat for extreme amounts of heat transfer and
lugh Mach numbers.
TEST APPARATUS FOR PRODUCTION OF THICK
LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYERS. (Vlersuchseinrich-
:ung rur erzeugung dicker laminarschichten). K.
Wieghardt. April 1953. 9p. dlagrs. (Trans. from
Zentrale fur wissenschaftisches Berlchtswesen der
Luiiahrtforschung, Berlin. UM 6610)
According to a suggestion by Professor Betz, very
thick lamilnar layers may be produced for test pur-
poses by blowing arr out of a wang-nose model in an
air flow as continuously as possible, for instance
through a perforated sheet. Preliminary measure-
ments on such a test apparatus resulted, for an
approach flow of 20 m s air velocaty and 0.4 m
starting distance, already In boundary layers sever-
al cm thlcck. Therewrth one has a test arrangement
withr which the behavior of laminar boundary layers
may be investigated extperimentally in all detaads,
'ruthout great expense.
N -25353 *
BEHAVIOR OF THE AIRPLANE TIRE [N A LANDING
WITH LARGE ANGLE OF SIDESLIP. (Das
verhalten des flugzeugreatens bet der landung mrt
grossem schiebeuinkell. E. Mater and W
Rhelnwald. September 1953. 9p. photos. (Trans.
from Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt Gottingen
E. V. Technisebe Beractate, v;. 11, no 8, 1944.
Landings with large angles of sideslip were simu-
:ated on the road on airplane wheels rigidly mounted
in a test trailer. These landings show that the
airplane Irre Is capable of wlthsrandlng these loads
without being pulled off the wheel ram.
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