Citation
The permeability of red corpuscles to various salts of gluconic acid

Material Information

Title:
The permeability of red corpuscles to various salts of gluconic acid
Creator:
Ansel, Howard C., 1933-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v, 181 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Bees ( jstor )
Betting ( jstor )
Blood ( jstor )
Chlorides ( jstor )
Cobalt ( jstor )
Cots ( jstor )
Oats ( jstor )
Open reading frames ( jstor )
Rabbits ( jstor )
Tin ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- pharmacy -- UF ( mesh )
Erythrocytes ( mesh )
Gluconates ( mesh )
Hemolysis ( mesh )
Permeability ( mesh )
Pharmacy thesis Ph.D ( mesh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 1959.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 171-180.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Howard Carl Ansel.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
000886140 ( ALEPH )
24516715 ( OCLC )
AEJ4290 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text











THE PERMEABILITY OF RED CORPUSCLES

TO VARIOUS SALTS OF GLUCONIC ACID












By
HOWARD CARL ANSEL


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
June, 1959















he writer vabes to eNMress his deep ut p-reeta to
Cbhatl of his Suparvlaory COa ttae, tr. WIUa 1. th under wose

attattie ti~tse this lavmstlstia -us m eo sbt. ULm umber-
staMae ad em a thra mtut hsve ben lavalUambl and ut In-

astrinas
amtitubb as extada d to r. Mar M. I mhwltm* for s

teim at it.oo so mmraoul atvma. Is adsistam Is the qplmatta
of carttsin ~elael **mim bea baon eqpeally helpt al d is
afnwiy -qoaa HtoA.

Ms fataest d bo y 1e other mbers of 0 citwe's

SqiWrmay Coamttee, tes. D Vme M Xlatear, HMo I. XMeKtt* st
Imbl B. tinker, has laded b na slatag.
S writer tois Sbted to both the Qauate Couael mA t*a

Amica Iuadbtlxm for -ba-mutmi Muosttn fot tSbr aeuagmt
mat fmiimaL asidstmes.













TAcx w cOsuW


bhw


L fTAEs .W. .. .. .



Sagrf V S J..SASgu. *,

mU ... ..* ..*..
Wa0msantes .
telsttiug Aility *

ftrue Sanflt ComBlltAtt99 .*.....
frsee o ..

Cobalt ..* 4 .
eOOmr *..99999.t*C.9


tal tions ad ood .
p esmm ty ot rytroqtas .
aitaAtiasea wit ProWes .

P abmenlity of S Aed CeU IMadane

Effbact a of a en lysa .

BBER'DAis ********* *****



t.fAR. ** 94999999*9 **9
CoIectisn of Blooa *


9999999


9999..,
999999.


Pltep tion of abolutias .w *
Qaw1titattive etmdmit m atia of CP ant leatlysts
fltmztastsia of Oar Ccat umalysis Mbs AMaling

t1mastion of iWm Or Ouse In Plarsmtc of
lotOsle sn na 9 9 .
35 spewtaets 999499999999*****
teamtntata of Metal*ProteIs Pralpitatsn .
leeuing Poaint btsxmtnaUhas .

iil


* au
S. 30
30




.* 35
99 S
99 1











patsp


bwab
Vtr

result

mmxlt



$0AM2ll
RMULI
hteault
hlMn~
heM~f
-.4ORM

-SSS EO


V asLo.t... Poin .. .. ....... 150
4it of BIda .a .... .** 15
flueat meef .i* ZOB p tctt O* Biool 193
rEat c*It Iand Zen.stam a Umais 153
a 3 Dm4t Ptala nokttas XEirit *.. 155
Sixth oda sad seata ausasatae 156
s wit Oslain m eat u eatnct ...... 157
a vith cadat(n) a Maiame(zn) mmaatm 199
s wit Zrc(n) giants 160
Svitt Co (n) lumates e 163
Svith a tuta 9l

* P O C 9 171

i M .*.. e.g.... ... .. .. .. *.. 171
LiSm @**********99*****1**












WEX OF TABMS

amles


Ch.dte.1. Uwsd ft Praparg SolnttUna

Nm-lyIs hta wtiaMSag too
sodium cwtom te

Soaluc Calarid


M~amasI Gbmmate
Ratsaln Glumenate
wamnt Glmuqafte
O"sMm WANKatm

Mamamee(ZZ) Wnniast.
MOSMO(U) &==at$
arm(n) sluacate
Coblat(ZZ) GlnUcmts
steR GUManate

Coneti2vA Ibiysis WhLes
hDNtm orafaingto pB

rwesiags tt Ofate

ammuy SALe


1.


6 19


34 *-


6 -79
80 *97
98 105
106 111

112 115
U6 118
139 122a

ins


29




ha 4 59

60 69

70 79
80 .89

90 *99
100 -0 1"


U38 133


136 141
12 *1459
146 -148

149














I* adjustment of solutions Intended for tat s adaistratia
to the propr taaicity I of vital ooane. Te value of eqfomlag the
hebmoal a method In the dete ntmatiao ot values has been poLated out Wr
Ba at co-worters (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7T 8). Tar s-tuehmixd att e
omioti efttft of a fiateee a M erthroyte etped n not ahly aM te
monoentvatla o th s bstance but also a wther aor oat ate compom

pmfetabtew the cell m ame or ftets ite proprStie bs otion$
aileutated to be isomotie vith blood according to 'jyt oaah esla dtas
are not necessarily eotante to the red blood cell.
a.ixseir at MaNS (5) reported that lase asetate aWO MilUy
* bonaLytfe & ralums, ah beymad those oalulated ftom nollitin
pr*p ty aftason. uWir wvok w Bmt4 that of SWrtM d IMaI

(O), th foudA e"larly hi hmlytie aL "u for lao aulfate.
bs paurs. of the pramest wrE as to ImaR= o tte S.IMatOs
eloml related to ia cn e poaoic table to deteaans dter or not
their action pwalleled that of mine. ASd interest ia this savestlWtla
Sstimslated by the fact that these elements, i.e., co~e oeotlt, irom,
i a an, a tsa a are so calle "tmce el uto*, eammtal to hus
nutrition. To obtain a eapative %ture of the activities of these five
eatses, they wre all eNayed a salts of SLunale aeida. ats pertaining
to their effects =a a red b]o, ell it oef nmeatus value sisee lsea
MaeaLs ay W oo be accapanmted into vitamin Inajeotables. Boduma,






a



potassim, mieslm, Md oMaila glu ea U te oee also studled NA their
hoIoi values A e tetuland th- eattloi are nacmlly pment In larva
mnm t In thb Ismom body, being hnoMI a major a mlnta,' ad an widly
udea Is m.4icia.












M oit W m LUI.IRAUW


uaslA said to a ntahbiraeaquproite awid, aBm(C )hCows,
ditovered Ia 1870 as a proa&ut oft o4tm at ogluess vioth ehlorIa
by Mtnts at -a hso an (9). utreoum (10), ia 187", ae="a me la.
vwetl o n at laotse sold fteamm tiim, firt lestates .us*1 aeit.
It we not att the 1930's, however, stlt glueaite s lA beeM


At 0A prosmt time, gsUmic aei Is puaeroi cmmerusvae l by
the vtsMotaive d ofd tsm o th ashya de otf glueo (31). Iis
oazdtion NOy lso to ecarri out Is aiullao msat with the utilUatiom
oat husbiattes (12), or %LstarolytlanU y 1o11 aginS am obes Imo iso
the resme of at ter eluble itoftd (13). Althou& 2mL, aeid m ay
be prepM as a wt Ua product (34), th hi* cosw at e oMla procedure
has asseuitated th promtiao of a 50 per cant aq&ioMB wLautio to
represent B asiL at oamere.
h a Wus solution stuemi aei exists In equiltu with its
easnysmaltn vm anad salte-lat-U ess, th eoemostratias ofat vary
Ith orgiaBl glieaai asia os caeanttima mA the tmntwe.tu qo.
aIsfottia of It i aqnmos alutltm, gLuocalo aed pas se Satet amreIMtaly
aartint mgtLusoa]tone (15).
axum (16) fomI that ftree glo0ie olad -M aMU tolerated Asaa
takn Vith te daily fbod ftr yeam 1y hmans an Ilasm protela










aetor Jury nor isturbeanse to the dptlve aorma. OI twssis of

stuAtes oamated vitha 0.25 M. lA soltutitms .bawwterd IAntwmouly,

it we reported tnt m nic aselms wa the last toxi of *6 follwsas
aelds listed ta od. orlf tee easda todaity onlte, m.alot pIashoborWe,
tartrtuo, gnmioBs h, hiiroahlawrlo, lactte, 1orie, proiplrae, suelnia ,

aatie, =A lmaMie (17). BiAts re bMen tratetd dAily with beth sub-
utMmmous mn = tawmnus saJeetU ns oat s5nmane foil wileut Oay aUL-
catio of 11 fAfets &fter ame wek (18). a 19-oo, O&mitt ofat
tods of the AMriom 4Almel A- oelatian prmou.e d purified aIta.
lactM of lacimoe Ael to bo aft or us Isn foods (19). a3n paro.
portions of lusamie asi Ld e t to ftta md oils produelt prolet a i

waMe 1 Ibth to beom ro aid. (So).
Lumamfte acld hM beun tmIstNtetl to be uMft3. la the olwutia

oat existase shohte stams iS the bom a kley (16) u wveU asa th*
pmvtirn of tair fa=mtimn (21). Bth gluesamle asA el A gluouro-
ts-3aotme ahe bern use .fftetlively to a1dify uaris (2, 23).

It ba be n rmprte (a2) *ttt gLum el odv p3m'tmble3 to um.. Ue
acid si est 0t blts to tramtmt plan riti d r-ative bsllU .

aB tm rnate *ffeatts w repwarted to hem b eqally efteotive vitb
nu,p homwmr met pltiants .], neumd uffret4 lese uatrotateti al a

rwal ditreme isn treated vith gLuoade weit thn fea mastllo said
wa used.



3 lme .e gumomate amian is without awhrked ~us.xMo_...

activity wA toae ity, ttallie gluoamfte m ay be ~ s e tive









aoens oat the stimi vthout many caLntias arifla fro the pjeos
of ta glxmSUate mlal (25). Mka metallo salt of CaluoaL eit b*e
te prgIraa .' pe lftlea, soh as the gm L of stlram, Mam,
autt y bull=$ sau. cadmiums, caldim, cobalt, oaOperS Iron, IMM,
mga lm, OMn potasamlo d, om, and slas (96, t, 29 3D).
Alisoui mot of te mlts are not eurratly bto tesma netalto,
the possibility atf utilsing swem of tb for tsae iIemNt astt
ticn bas bam wumsmt. (2a).
samnto ait hasb also ben epsoe is a prpesti of malts
of drus- ibhc are arcade bases. Thae balue brAus Cbolae,
aWAtoalnl, clanI ., v rlxw, pwosaoe oeds, gflnimae, 0gdals ,
stamymop tal, A t str ia. gluaantes (31, 32, 33). A good My ofat
the ma lts hwe bem ftnm otw wy aad ins =u m with rsprts or less
tootaltyr tm A= a orole base wve MLe L at aiM d
with inWarlte assos. Ar Instanse., eerflae smltte =a Ipartet to
be -o irltaia tin apeanra gnwc ws injeted lIt- Iamularly vlt little Irritatioa sM aly aiLA tolte
effects tns stmilAr tajeotlas with psaoota. SBdd Ise usually nr
sulted In bWotaN sB sat a ocaswaal fttllty (3V).
trivlalt soft. antimamy gluonate bw baa ALoed isn ateive
twr.a. -t of wlary .astowdd-ia (35). Presott 6a (u) zwprtd
teat p*esrattve for ham aod wmin blaoesd uemA r t-.ItMlaes bas
beea ju mat a gLucasia acidt o a=antia with tetiary atlfatie


00 Utszmture is replte Ii uses ftm calelm g -osate, nrylag
tfte a eountmestic at emarl at local Miasitivitis to steptaeWda









(36) to es aBamac eltntsm of ,vl ald qal aseo atet with
drug a tiaem (37). o alt hbw be umd by atwuaes fttlatMtam
to Mitoe paMents Ufftag strim cateastial tubntcufla (3). It ba
bea une sa eaStatc with 5I4 muortato I* U*s fatmt oC xae.
toAL wrtitt () a wl as vita a alt oC d-tuboua rsae in t
taatmt ofr qstie dltera (40). oleam gLuo mte as ealasos with
pitoeia h be e & aa sA $ ov w osod auaia t o atbor wit aty amt
efforts (41).
A"thmeu n ta s wl&te of alal=l toeity with sesum
gcan.t (be), s al hbe ben 4 wry U1 te s Mea to
ate. ae levels of ehtortntoyouii wea reported to bwo bew
Inraset two to oan ftlt by staitmas ea tsiatIata or seotm
uaoate (43).
h mStaiLms, poestus gusoaste ta ftmad Umats use Io -a
oa hlasmoaews.da, tan t 2anhMu, Sn -wt MargiatS e qwatI.M ("A).
IZthu alsi be suemfuy a04oyS, anly (4) a" pIafnsury (h6),
ls "W teamat at aflcuW 1rgicJ34 a1 be bm faow to be a"
better talan thm pottesi- a 0hlarl.
mesim & g lant as al3 tolarte by -a se atal 0n *ta&
Sautstred wily pugstmlUy (4T). It hb been aincsthun wlqFe
it Gan at lmmorf lh (48) a to OWetaBa sa ow atpwlrtitam.llty
heWrtofr ubeafta by otber hnmam Va (46).
Ammonm pLamaste be be lajetedt Iatmamsy r Inateo a at
vith s apreulable austatad Injury I dotese .gim tant to a lajeotion
ot 30 ak. Ao a af on the beis of rmass body wf at (149). It w a*
,AoPa ft istur of the lom.rUeg oa tb p3 Twa r O ifw, wvith xalts










inamtting its effoetivemne t 10 Go. doses.

Clating Ability
M term "ahelate" wa proposed Ia 1925 y Magan 1 j. (90)

to de aste those cyclic structures aristing tc the iion of metallic

atoms with orgpainc ad inorgmle wolA.ules. aehl (51), ia 1937,
1ammited opoudm epable atof fonsing chalates with metallie oatioms.

6 4atitngiuhsA ehnemical group that uilte with metals 1 the repl-te-

mnt of a hydrogen atom, as carboay1 ead oale hydroil groups, f *m

those tht chabine with metals by simple coordination or addition without

th Fe r la t of ahydrogn, sa earbotyl ead alachdUei groue.

h ghsmal, the ability of the supr aelds to fam mwter soluble
lea vith metallic las art es fro the capacity of their earbomal

aia hydray1 roaups to bat these oatioas In ri frm by musm of o-ee
ordiamte and comlnt boans (52). 1he oblating ability of thae sur

actds has ben found to be, as the awnag, more proamnced la aieklt.
solution than either neutral or aei media due to increased toisation
of the hydrogs of the hyirAr l groups.

Glualaeo acid ad Ita derivatives are capq l eo ftonmag ater

s*bAlt chelates with certain metallic lton. Although h soMiu gluemate

ad neutralind glucoale seld are, ia thBselves, relatively ineffetive

seqaestramt for alelum, they have been homn to be superior to *seiun
citrate, soditm tetroqbophate ad the tetrasodium salt of ethylm.iin.a

tetaeacetle eold, Am Ima strongly a&aLte solutions. odiim glueonate
me found to be uperlr to the three aftrmetioned segestrate i

eomle nag ire, over a rangs of pH 6 through pa 11. a Sl.uommate mw










inferior, hwmver, I thl ohe lat.tmn aindim, cobalt, imn ., ma
sine (11).
Xemtly, psesok an JWret (53) shdin that ueami aid om
vrY stwr8 rOl m- with WMt of th tramAitis eOnmWnt, 4ontraWy
4 ea0 ier opiala of otrw lareAtipgtori (50). ?mgoh a04 Awat (53, 95)
"tNeia soer le s gsuantA stsme polaruqiaoslrl, meaeobshoto.
uetrissUy, porn imtrially, an deeramtrially to order to postulate

possablte bat riag structures for theW uBterals md to tetmine
eglitbta eoastainta at various tnia strengths. Pmok at and&r

(27v, 2) oedHAoted stailm 9xpelaeWtu fr oadia 4A lrm(MI)


MIior I t MabVe (56, 57) hma aerm that th stblAity of iam
bivlBt metal emwleu dxeaased in lA* follovia g tars palladlua,
oprq malelp, lmd, cobalt sL aAl m, m ma m-
neIim. tl wa e oapmrs co, ble at fofna ta aquae plaar
badss, teamd the troUmgwt wealate. She stabUity of ta oaqL-M

@pnoae to dereamm with laemsaig bsoiolty atof the mwtal, w.mpliftd
b7 the weak abelate fomdt with maestum.

Tem Ewme t Casitdmtios
WrIan Pe past emtur7, a epeaslaUy wvitn te last thirty

yews, a steadily lncrentg auboer of el1mtn hwre bem fuand to be
Inavariably parent In living tissue. Definite biologil aseuations

have bee dleoored for ewratin elimnts preamt tIn vwry iute mmts,
relative to the umtities of the mnt cooutitumts tIn tiasnes.
Me*e elsMents have beem termed "tnoe elmnts ."










buteat d Z Diadm (58), tI 1989, *mne h b a bWood spectro-
grphieally -t reputed that alumdnau, ealai=, iron, mmestni, am-n

pnaesa, lsophu, potasslun a.l]eap eUver, tit lkmia, ad qeo we
presMt to Ll sawmes studied mad that hraioum, oeebalt, g pmim ,
lead, SaIbeO Stratui ial t wm re maiftet In m of thm. Toady,
further imelants a ben addd to the growlag list ud within this

grop awe a I.itd au er of elements for ubidh essential bytaolog1al
raes have been -mfivocally esrtablitaid. bse awe cobalt, eoprw,
ldi4ae, ,rmam e M nN, and Bno. Other elmnts as bartmB, t Lorlme,
.olbdoDm, at strcat1i are gra&aSUlly *aquirag Justifl2stit In_
olusimt i this V of esseatia elments (59).
Senae raiotaotive lotopes of *thse elmats Sm be edlnlstered
In mnal sytiaoloioal doses, mA yet measure aeauately, 1 study at
them ma other admbtas hs beem neatly f tidltted mad st liflt (60).

2mn
Mamwai (61) wus lnftumttl Ia placTin the mdietaml use of

ira a a sound bals through his disa ery Iny, 17146, tat Irm Is a
Lharaterhstio eat esuntial emstitumt of blood. 2S 1886, Zsuottffky

(69) usmt tohat pua crystals atof borse bmgloobn eantalated 0.335 per
cmnt aor irm. MWay tm emtsltaS mmees bwe boew reogmsli, In-
cudla8 two nm re eamtly disouved favoprotein n1s-C, eytom
siuntams (63) mnx amthlA a ois. (64).

ZIrm osaurs I the zd bloot ells as hig*lobln. AML mm.ian
hmolobimas M cop. ose of four ferrous tron porphrim (h m) attftd
to e- globla. siogldbin vrertaibly fose a red mtleamtar oapoMnd










wlth ogn that ealiidts a definite absorpta speetrt IUa between
tme hme me m st Obs.a l au .ues It belU ved to be ooi..pid4 through
eletirostatio sttctimon betimen imiXed proploalc a lA goulp sms
aurftoe basio grois otf bm, ma" coordination ot te Lo vm with a
nit2o.a-ontalaing ro of the aglobn, pem 4e to be th0e bseuol.e

srpm at histialn (65).
IOm Is the s.m done ot *esmrlay oew In the free state, bet
riemar Is oampttsly boua to a spee fic protein, anom as tinsifarri

(66) or sluvrwgqlla (67), the saole function of wheh peaws to be te
trm portation of OIrn. It bu bee suasted (68) that a s L mammt
of Irea eists to the imleto e Io equilibr1f with si oihbilla aet
amcovmts for he ls tr&ms au aes mo mbrmes, vweas same se to

thin thbt a ame cMplesz uepatge fottor lavalvng feritat aeoouts
for te treaftfr (69).
alme thae ltem bladibg property of slider hiiUa 1* speolfle -t
sIame irm camot exist the e te the free state for extended

period of tie, the Oqagaty t of ermu to transport iren ie believed to
be govern by the sitdaupihln eastent. Noasly, about le-thrda of
the sideuhillsn is actively tIampartins Im, with the rom ln
siaeraghill coprlisntg the latet lir-bndlng eosaity of the aesam.
An totaesouMs SaiJeatloa of irem producese as aereae la a proporties
of lrm-eastuated a derophilla, with my amess of tre learTng the
blood stue ad entering the times (65).
owr nmy years investlgtam hwre searched tfr as Im oumA
uitable for paeteral adeirnsetima (70). As early as 1896, ier
ctrate eatA Irs propiesate were Injerted subutmreouly In the










trib'et t of ohlaorosi (71). P rYieimIm mammniWLt ag ra r ta Gmi MA

ira. amod.ate vwe eisemwd with the pan following their Injatioa

(7t, 73). Hmeth !&-. (74) onoducted the first earful study of to
utilatiaL. of am taijeotlia mW comluded that "emapt ia ram
n taecs t Ua sdiainistrtia of ir a by the uyteanI rmote smald be
avo4de4.*
h 1936, Helleyer (75) Iajeoted Iron aseoarbate itIw ously
vith eouI remlts. & the falling ye a, Iroam A4 m ime
aittte (76) a4 ferrous glucumate (77) ro mafAnistwea paueetwealy.
urem gluemuato wv r'orted to be voa of protein pjaIpitatiag
aUti as vill as coming as losl or meral reactim an Injection
Into h m.

& 19"5, the anetin of ta e etliaumI Mulary ComItte (78)
stated that atramulmar lneotao of tron w th usly pwmimulble
par intal route. It wu furthew cantaded that snae as salt Atf Ir
vith protein aroieitating properties sabould be useA, as dhote@ of
Iroa prnsUations we liaited to two rpam -iem mand maltm eitrte
at ftraouM luaacate. h latter, iwbel free tree irrtatlan a Sn.a-
Jeetimon, s matied as the drug fat aboloe.
MaMsive doses of Iroa as loll.a l ferria hArooidemm d as
acnlntal ftrte amXds w ltas aeste intranmmaouly In 1946 vith aod
retieulyte I---veLopmt (79). aI the follawelg ynri, mi.a (60) di-.
comered tat relatively larug m wtas of Msoeoaated ron axide oaul
be talemated Iantravously. Sevensl peare later, bowrer, a fttalIty
ns reported after aa Injetima of abautst irL a O I a (8L).
h 1954, ao irna. etrm oamapomd oamntainig 5 pNr eoat af tIM










I .afed ( s). it wS rWrted to be extremely statb la lar

a a vith low td e 1 oue aty l teUmt4 wil t d
stSantlag tryropoIss2i.

Cobalt
So occurrence of cobalt to Min1 tissue, speillly tm aw-o s,

s dwau mstte oMnTlu (8ely ) 198 (83)-. SI S ly s saw e as
deflalte tmS atiam as to the bIlol20osaa funetict of etbalt. four
yers e Iter, amer, sea ~ uO t at sth sen tattaU of obalt
A^ relativJly large but subletbal dees stgmalateld hitop.4esias -A
afneas poleOthmia ian rats (8t).
S1948, the pure antienatious mmae tetar "a disomInt to
be a otbatt eotalatag ocqoomA (85, 06) soa after 4dsstee as vitmia

Bi ad lAter termed uwaooblnmla. It me isolated ftrm lmSin
Uvr as a aed erystaliae om empouA iaftainng 4.0 per oat eabelt.
s Interest tl cobalt saitde fr01 Its iFmrsm to eyIooamimLn
rests a its vauei as a am.peatiflo e7ythrpoietio ettalatbat to the
teteuM t of variou types of mais (87, M).
Althou I preSee etemdaatims of the cobalt centmnt of to
blood are a xtrmly difficult to pertim, du$ to the vwy lee MasM-
tratimms Gmnly presat, Ieparord (89) bag estimate t eobalt It *e

pam a the petked "ea elns of 16 bma sjesats. 1s fmund the aum
eoAmtratle to range fom 0.28 to 1.T70 og. per 100 AL. of blood with
the peaelt sels ceetalalft fee 0.60 to 2.3s meg. of obalt pew 100 at.
It has bum reported (o90) that cobalt does not atffet te nature of
hNL.Obt a r its oWa7I aerrn capacity, nor does It WprouOe a










oabaMc1n pthaifg metblolowbna otfe worker, bomwer, be observed
the pramoe of mt ie-olobi a MB norm l bfn blood w tlaubsated at
3o trw tmaty-fwur biourl In te p.re.eoe of 0.2 Psr omt obalt
blwde (91).



e pressue otf opp a Imo M tisouse bus been kt m sesm
t0e vk of 4'BmtUa7 (91) in 1833. ?t VM0 not until 1981, howwm ,
to te t"i frt evil e of a uhdolole.l timutim otf t element was
Iatt"itsd tarsa lveetlptcsa. 2h t*t ywr, N3atu*y (93) diesovore
the Wsewoe ot esppe a is M lhm brain and In 195, MBrmU (94)
presmtsd rlenez ofr th coper aomtet of blood WnA tisms, o.oasstsg
tto riudma at lihet a tha elemait.
A 190, be% =A oM6extee (95) S aOM. med taint eopW in
dditim to se is oU amntll a the ftemttin orf I-bms1.in ti 10ts.
Mks diiswry w- oca her.ater f vwriesd by aunm er umaIM (96) Ao
futeer estdbliMed that cooper Is esse trial ftr hur topoiesfs i a vide
MrA of mlimL opeIses. 2 1940j, Sahultse (97) stated tat th evidwee
Iammted that oWaer fotlitates both the mob1mimati of Irom twro the
tissmes d te utili atiam of Umt by te blood fbolag roms.
A number of oppr.-proteta eapou bae been isolated from bot
mtfom mg plit sinues, severl of ieRb were dom to be auses with
onum. tuatklisu. a ently, tse aqm bautyryl CA 'eb; iimgsee vas
identified a a uprofvroprotesa to idtch eoer oaours as part of the
prosathetio group (98).
Soe oopSr sn te blood to geerally *quayr distributed between










the cells ad the plasam (99). 21e co0 er coateat of ery6thruotes h

been dmou to be of the harder at O.0O0075 per omat. Mh oem e wr can t

of the laukocytes ad platelets Is osldaerbly w ss, bout me-fourth
of that the rse blood seU (IoM). h bt blood pal go, 90 per

sent or mo of the cowepr tsts I th ftium of a blue eoger-protela
coontad teHMed fsrulna3den (101). 110 rmanIng plam eOwer is
thought to bto loosely boaA to a proteia slace It to ainaly namitalyn.
abne (Ice).
msw aL nvwtimtias with adlometlTe orner e hwe ben msd of
its sabeoptin, dIstributimon a eamretio far various species of mdama,
all tenaAag to ,!astMate te por absorption of aally aStataAtved

eCoper 0ouread to aInjeted eOqw (10B).



BartaiA am A Iaedil, aon (103), Ia 1913, m mg the earliest
workers to d r that mw e is I comstatly presmat in *t tissus and
mar s of ma am mlial. It has been soem by dalyiLs of livr emt

ki&y hm-ates, tht appre able momts of -ui- we loosely
halA It these issues although s me at It is magr fiamly bomd (M10).

S e amhmtao of attdmat Is belUeved to be pretwrtial afflaity of
nmsm er ft ll U l proteIn. flasently, mmmsne has beern shmm to
be as essemtal oarmt of arstmasse, man m~em of ltver, emosmble
atof sptttng arglaie to fem uris. and owrthine (105).
las uhmutmeous latro&aatIm of nrem s- Matt lnto "bbits
bhe ltA to their comWitoian An an wMs, mdaly the klt&L liver,
bwalp, md a espea y the blood (106). It has bheo da thO mMnnsme

Is moe refAlly abeorbed Am abAlmastered paraterally Vm *m tola









oaily (107, ta).
Uft a fe --m comtent of te Wbood me SMeGOn.y meaer,
e to l diffttrully coo ateed a ti detea m ata at thme low oue-
ttiaUs mam y present. roe mad coo-waers (109) stated tat whole
bhum ble d astats 0.12 to 0.18 mg. of mau per aL*. about
tioftld at of htif p reset ta the corpcles.



t presmacsoft tie as te anal.e ad ltver of m wa tirst
naua&bL d lfa 1877 (nO). Sines the, Sala bee beeI fmA il al oft
the tusmis aed cams of thm body that b e bmee a m e orw it, sme
lavnest tors believing it to sour It all living sells (11).
Bavefri erly attwpt e w e wriedt out without aucsse to dGoa-
stte a essetial foatics of lsoe I m im abuatlog (a1, 14
114). h 1939, asset .ercmaetal evlae hod this eament to be
preset 1In prosthtic roup or the e z que avbaoe ayte (115).
CaatOe osyesr.o eatalyss te reticm, I v + C0o "gOO
therefore plaaig a lmapartet role in the eid-basse equiltbrtis of the
bodo by eastabaysin the conversis ofa caurbso dioxide tram t tUassue to
esantse ad la Id s tde vl ch is sbeequeatly Ian Lam to release
eta atl isa tI e bus= (In)*
Vtlle. ad Gibsoa (a6) studied he aaes ceoott atof b b blood
ad fenud 8.8 2.0 aS. tof sa per lof tal et blood. 31cu1ations
hod that 7 per eat of ta total s in tIe blood aM situated i
at ytaeroeyte sU per Gt lt the ploua ad 3 per eat Ia th
le maytes. he iaSriaual tlukoayte, bowe w, coatamised tin.










mauh am as the sndivythla ryroetm. ater nomI coaditms, the
who1 of the aS a Ia erythrooytes em be amconted ar as aboa
ahys. (117).

e omcetrsatim oat gue In the peridphemral lu oo s at
patiemt with crtaft types or eaRla bas been sh6m to be gremtly
redued below ama levels. ljectimes of iAne glueo be have tailed
to rtise the as" level in uch cases (u18).
aSies oe c arboie asbdrame activity las yet bam sham ar the
pleam the Mh present In the plaa is thouaa t to exit la other
mmwr (119). It semo possible that Asos may oeuw ra 19eb.imtia with
oe or prota i, seone patlmst with albaidauria eraete,
ma the amgp, serm tbme as mao atae ls their wtae daily as do
amml laiyvtldual (M10). It has bees omanwtateA that after atm-
eaoiusly aInjecting a ame salt into a rabbit, the alass oatet of to
erythroeytes risem aly as long as ths plaim level ramanes elevated (121).

anIus ct1s yaA wd looda

Frgn ility of Urythocytes
ae pemmabiUnty of t e red cell aona to vario, eleetrolytes
has been ta roumuiy rw-ewed b previous warkera (li2, 123). a this
seetiam, madtimal iatmatimn w zu the heamlytie ffeeto
i ime penetrating by matallie catimsa will be prseseated.
Sthe earlier literature, the erythrocyte was treated as a
atiea-saeszernb eell (IA). With the advent of the iseotopie tramer
te'aaiqws., the ability of certain oastms to penatmte the red sell am*

bne w- Iastasted (las, ia6, ar7).










Potauism at rubt1aum hlorid 6 (wom sItrtud to be loe
offestive Ot sa a odi hlaride to prwevmtig omotle b~u sols of amt a
Wi od iheress nceim and lithlm dUloriss was aom to be -m
afftetve (i28). Although the re. cell meta s iaBmmmsl to Isum-

oMmr noaml ocoodtins', potausim is able to sloky t sverse Itt.
stuaml a*n* ofm Intraoelular potassilm is alvalmt to aorotd.
astely 1 par ouat pr bour at boWy t-mp tur (109).
BquMem and Croe (130) ound that ltAel earth astUms tn-
hibteld hatolysIs by both Mtatnin a bypotecie solutem a the
ftelMIBg Oa" of Iasamuag etTvity s sImeit, tSaiU stmratisu,
barst Aiamls earth lmes were id to thIeoan lb e7rthote ram*
tbmm by ftenmin Insoluhe mits vlth the VoqshtIte cids priest In
theS eSl al.
Croes (131) later foum that aloll earth eaten IamsMse the
rte of hbmlyass iloa^d by smeatf in t*h f llowAISa orers g myoIs
eoletua > stamtSum >bertsm. Althoui misulm mat emluin InenMse4
the rate oft hmisis aNed bry sae im Onwtyl sul4 te and 923n la,0uy
salttsA, they7 ha so effect as bo alias lams by oeolotrimarthy-
ammino m c r d.
& th preseme atof lA (132), wrythuots lost potaseia. mA
aomme loes resistmat to hmotlyus by sysotlodc soltL*MU a eaffet fa-
rowiing with m Saem.ne. la the aem tati~t of laL. Ih efftoet mas
att butedo to a sactian oI thea sell mlamen. At ocastt lIa eoaem*-
tratiSn, eM set pK ladoated potassMim lss.
)NM s-ttl (133) state th t tVo aotlon of mvtaUe set at
rythrosytes aepmds a both the moaentratana a ativt of teitr









eatieas. B boew tt ew treay mal, amomta of mtaes muffeied to
probene humlye"a us haeytis e ativity increassi is S fleowlag
oed stane< oamalu< irc, oabat < nickel, e tlmtin < < weoger,
erew,, s naiMum< P esm awt etitler (134) aoted hat sodium e hloreb solutions ASL
wame ia Otet with stale bt a hbaoyt efets. Soe taere of
hmSmates deopMt a he tId, fe tOeratur, Se sonentata et
the ret Mood erpasuwI, an ta tm durstlam of eastm bet a n he
frtal a" ti eslutan. sM Iholytie activity eeme to dcsem Sa
te fbonlwlaa oar owner > lead > slvw > iaetl > .ull3b -mB>
natimoW >ta >Ma&l=ma. e hbmlyolsts seme to Iaresse wv the
lutin of the ryteriocyte saupasas ad a Intbitd iftan aim am
sewbituttd fr the amUse s1lutins.
It h a bee dm (135) *at 1in, pepper, l ea, 4a Sae sits
*I affAted hbm4wis, with asI salts dmonat B Wa te bist hem.
lytie activity. rvlaenoe state r at mstal sesemA to be ristUS to
thme wuyte poer of t.s smt, fts lvre u valatnse state te pasrter
Us limelyti pme.
b6 a study ot th boWiatlyt actcla o epsr ite a reabit
U7rUtneure,, nUAs a* Omflrw (136) suXspa" aSdd eNA celIs La
itotalo eUea or mearos salut s. 2hy uW A efl per *etts,
citate, tear&te, bensate, bsaBwrogtate, at s leylbatvate ali
ateS siUtairl teyr hnmlyme the eythca yt. Is caatntratsse aboe
1.3 x 10"5 Uoa/lUterA, msued ealututstia Is eaactRatms Io tlr
.1 -04 to 1 x 10-5 al/Lt Iter m wvre amL-umlyti s co ansnttlimaM
or 6.6 a 1O- mNol/liter or iss. BSAy OaluA tet *s0 aimn -w ast










a t tor ia th effect of cwmw nlt. am wythroc~ts treted la suab
a *mw. Say at reported tt a t e s cometimat1ans lower
than 1.3 xz o mle/Alte bad no efftet t h reisatsm of wd R lood
sell to hkyptmnc wolutwns (137).
BamLyt t ha bmolgtie method for the Nteamaattin of vlies,
wtmaa d MiB (4) mapsted that slac sAulmte wm Ow v ed bHood
eUl mase resiutat to bomalysts It bypotaic saolutims byr stothMnag

t0 ary.eoyt merm. L7t I.a e d ma Ua (5) omatly moteA me-
usmal bdwrlar In hnmalyte sq a Mta lmavalving saa metates lao
Iombntllum ofat tse sIM =mit seem to protest s erythroqtes
apaust oimote bmlylss. Extrfmly hMa L values on obtatud for
both dlas ametate sad Sla sulftte tr t h lutwti at'r.

khtersotims with Protelas

mItallis cattme a saA wsntaimtely associated wita proteias
ethrou ut bi oiAC1ml sPtms. Ourd md Mlo= (13) enu aAud that
,t motum of Tarius a talpprotesa oaqmI difftt" wrstly absdpnas
am the 12-steristies of U two iadIvihMal oimamts. 0 stated
ott protel. ith their my remotive side *.t hare the *poential
oqSpwty to bbed mot metals ery lt*tly, so that ma metaWLs eatim
tht nateri a livla arpam SmPOs fa m prtnt pwrt atts time bmoUd
to potelas.
a metl-pWroten e sqln, sa. asa p ro~u as auzboayL, mid-
amole, w alaftryl are wus1y at a mw e lgartame I* bliMaAn the
metal ims tVm n ae te tuwtl minmo eat cutoxyl proae. Cha es la
0te eatfartim of a speaifc protein may armte mr site, as ta te









- Osf at ~ anu.t W*" W-- a law laese it ts btdalas epmiety
~e Em e A It to w eMd ft W9 to 37o (139).
almlioproteiu ae r...oi4ioa as a stretuMal twpe a tiek a
speufi metal atoem takes a Iantegral port Ian t structure of the pro*-
tea. he metal In such eases eamiot be mwe wiftaot destoOylag thew
proteia etrutae. s0 ature of bmtallfrotuas h remmt.y be. rxe*
viewed 3r T le (11)).
A t- omeal proisa icniplM ths mtal S is bo~ R urwauibly,
In m i f e abai l Weola supMop as se olu6 4MitU t am g E lpft1 m
Ub affect. L te aditim of metal Salts bose motal Sei sateret
Maggpmwaby ith th prote usually loaw twe saolubity ft ths
protein (1)1).
2seM are two ianl types of mtel-potean aCO Ms, simple
jl- Inmta h moh metal m ead o w with a s*a Itlgd gra1p
ad shelfat epl em In bifch Mna metal iea Mombes with *a ar mar
ad groups. Aew tye Sy attest the Molublllty tof h pratetal Ar
emalets, ialeetria hbua hMowLobla at 1K 6.6 a" 00 Is ak lesw
8*.OUe after the additim of SaIe state 0N0 In a s6mlal0r maIIe *Q-
talaag only aoi saIts (l4). the other b00, trea.(r h(),
Sa olate metal proteasu O sM i fee awb So limis V t metal
ftree pretein udSr eortaln caldtioe (Ma).
agme" i t eo M utbitUty atof etlprotea -pms- with o ns
la s* are fll fetn. At 0 i, to t preease tof 0.01 to 0.05 N. oaw
ustantims of l)aA m tlase s ts, it me found that Vi soluMllty of
serum "tua e greatly aees Ovor p 3 manes at 2 to 8 ftr te
maltes of lS sad 5 to 8 ftr thUs sa salts (141). ] th *Ma stWV,










the effeettvesa of cmse trastioal elments In precipitating him

mram albumin In the tI renos of 6 to 7 -w found to be as follows in

doeresag orr of effeetivaessu cpuer, casta, sae, ad nidel.

Ih mual, the aditim of mall proportion of metal .lts to

protein solutius results i the rapid fbmtia of very bul y preepi-

tate (143, 1 .4).

A on and W y (14) have stated that theo bIn Is typical
ccmaolable proteai, the proomessae do mtu t m n lng tho e of

other proteins. hey have MflaS that hmogobi Ist depoalyserid

into hobraon. these woreras stated that te damturatin of
him abin Is a reverable procedure buat tat the floculatia of te
datured protein eaks it appear to be irrerereiLe. They fouis biMn-

globia to be deatured ty est, aeid, anall, lea]lc mhnaleal shaking,

otasaba iodIdeb, potessim thiocyonate, o0IUa eallVate, ad eean-

trated us ealutionas.

Smad co.workers (146) htra me tisto d that rreible m tgl ie.
enmatutian, caled pseudoam$tuxstan, affects Ur proethtic group

oaly ternfar being fianatally differat froa ls datnstia of

other proteinsl. SThey found that hmoglobin deatuwed by flaking could
not be reverted beck to its artigal fxm.
eaiiiaso (147), In 1938, stualed tbhe effect of the ditvalat ias

of copper, siae, ad aercury a the protein of rabbit blod pigumet. be
determined the rma of pi within tich globin at oysbmolaDtiua ew

precipitated by it mounts of inc sulftte, eoggewr sulftte, ead
mourwie seetate. BLobSn wa evaqletely precipitated by sine Im at p1

7.5 to 9.6, by iupric io at pB 7.0 to 8.2, amm by mrcueite is at pR 6,3










to 9.0. Oholobin Wvas moitelry paispitated by 1so t on at p1 7.0
to 8.X, w eqwrc lo at Ip 7.0 to 8.3, and Bmswuri n at a 7.0 to

o0.O. prtpate orf th sainc-m mo6xiO own o ud ms ot a
nesdi color, remae~ nstd b far aths, asd vs redily solAe In

sitMr ilute acetic mi or dilute nmoI&. th protate t Meared to aee
suffered no piament .boM as a reslat of its pspitatioa. It faoWd

the amormi spectrum for oxyamO nA the MsI a es Gol be r-omed by

repeated syu brlatiaa with pure Iydrogemi. I* eavuri e-nsmLobus
compoaA precpltatted vith the minll inmot of muroMuie state e-
maimd garmntly mnohKwam fr ame time ere that peclptated vith

a iargm erse ot the salt omued the pi uat to uaep a *cneMp *aliU=
to the ftorasuta of pSiah-mtI. he aop..r-oji.mlubtda s alnost
i oeattay ohnpmd to a romiAh subwt nmo rw urdleM of a proporti

of tw eoer emalt used to precipltate it. he brooatoi uaotnmm Ia
a.kalln soluti ad a peotrum semmwat asiilar to that of a*llale

bhmtan oad oa rdnetim with sodim hydGallt th Spetruam m that
of amodiamogenm.




th epmembility of the red ell. mbimm to varlm s arpiao utd
smargale mopom bas been reviewed by roernt wmioer. (8, 18, 123).
Te purpose of this seetia is to briefly easidw th* p]amwmlity of the
erythroyte inmbwr to oargae ni sa so that a better udeMrstinalug of
s possible activity of the glamate o myu be reuahed.
Ow red a toi recopawed as being suite pemr nbi to m ter mao
to sOm amians, but only ihouly psoomble to eatimm the permu.abulity of










mthe m iome to aulon is estimated a being about 10 tms that to

potassim (I18). Pbuaer (IM8) o. azlsd that rapid volm eabames, ia-
med by bmgaig t eeamtmtmra a of salts or of amistrolytea In
the supmapin mdim, tad to be brought about by the mmaIt of umter
alami let s, I& eell Utds to behave as an omoa-tsr.
sBber (1A9) recogi-ea the -ameetuinm of our -muntn4las
of ey throeyt perme.bility to arALc easim. IU pWmgated several
eMctrs tOat wat W e cmealdred sa epsnina* omaotie ucmas of
Mel volume sit imolys4 these fta's mea ea a) wdther the oarolo
mels are surfse active, b) lwhtler the orem'o asida falmng the salt.
are strg or wemk, e) whether the orguiae aids ar 1pold soluble, A)
whether th la s an strategy hi$kmted, *) whether te toe bt e b oro
twrce or bW Amlimatita prperties, and f) hbather the es are pomisonous,
-etta either On th surtuas or ei th tire protopast.
anll1a ar a an m (6) recently reported tht the order ia whlch

sow orgaie aicus apeared to protect rabbit erythimy-es nLfast ao
otice molysi m tartrate, sucmiate >oitite > >.miniointse>

aoetate, miea yleate, mlD benmate. flr huma bood, the arr of pro*
tetila appeared to be tartrate > aast p...a.miaalio te+ > p.ema-n
beizoate > s.lUylate ) >bnuate, vtt t eitrte falli betan sueinate
Sod p-mni b deaste, pediAag aw caaoantratlon. VBy noticed tht Us
protective action at the orWp I auimo seized to Inureme with = In-
ease of polar roups presemtj iaeaeased hyatla, with slU r diflaNat
mad imarea.itnLy diff4 elt t wa uag of ibamm parew, ws offered as
a possible epanation. Nfdmtio of the wiaa eouLd. idtndly ia-
eremse the aefttiv ean omatratio of a solute by I'eaesiag the mount










at samilable tatr fIan a particular soalutim. Suah a msoaatin oulan he
Ia Iamreafed t1untWiy.



1emiao s of erythroqytes a hnspotmia mmdia must be dmtnamteas
fa Ut owneu ly wa e a JRe the a eqialbim i a tbood eosetitmats
wtl reject to it. B mettle fmnlityg of Me red blood smls w bet
Uereasead at aolr pembity to Varisa ins altaNed 1th a obamg ts

IB*
tIksm (150) ftouBd tat tim restsos at erytrmoqteeO to 0e8
hyaroa sm varied with the almla species. AS -m VAU eroytqa tes
om ae pretestt resiUteSm, )molftLi at $ 3*7m iamons ythe*
heart fto uwaftmts holdyo at $ 6.0. STa vrlatica t roes"tate
we asmried to tbe btet tht 7rAqtesof various Specte oteatn
nms eomss" at, prostaa vi ditffar tc oet i tic Paoist. *e em
%amcb sae mow prme to aggnstmatta are mIN strmaX erqasbcl aN
aoneyaetfl -o boelesis.
CArstibiers (1.51) elated that as bmoaytUo atst. of mdot sA
baRes SigmaA ae sme eritIAl lmnta e4 subse t ly tbe smlla 4A t0
which ostat aciAd csA la wemamds ls with *a eall proteasu.
AsOerstng to bArris (152), ienom Slsu plned a a mmt eam*
tafa etr miatmass which do not pasetate implSy w a r eaaaes
tate oft electrolf, there isa abmwg la tb. IatMcslualo 5 11tb
a pgatadl dLftnam develinas aronss a* seol Sa0m I eaqaeo-
jtes ra Intaotaed Inato much mda iam r to a mboSwM t iatemal
diwlide .U fsr extfmlt bvywl Ias ma the osf latertar albUnm










amA t extemal solutti altd. So al ianity, if 5afrva9p, am e6a
bmoly4il for this ree cells keep better I& modia sat bufftre
the Ian wtawl or ikalis sluUmias. Am cells beeaa mbemitely
alnkiU., Ote laiimata of etlr bhumagnHob it laresd amnisimltatilf
fewer aSsa to alataea ele tricl mutralty vita- the ael. Also
reulttag S a secrs ia tS Intal o motic M r..u of tuV aUll,
a de rsew las ta ce vaolel, a a increase La t resiatemme ofa tha
cel to lAs by hyrpotcale solauti s (153).
Rtam red blood cells ta smlUns misa omxtaliiu es tte buffers
begsa to rwmte ast p 7.0, a th rIete td ta S We ismemsetric
point of b-mot'ia, p1 6.6 to 6.8, ma ts cretimas pearst u mt
about i 6.0, below Vilah te sells -e aosits mUL they ft~s to
halyse at ,1 5.4 Crmatioa dar these cadittelUs appes to tobe


also morso n aoe p 0 at the eslls assme a prfectly soSb qaeriml
ftcm at p1 9.2 (15l).
It has bea .mstrats (1") that the Vl e f *ot wryooyt
gfafnlay laernas with tie attan of l nLfture sol ntA h bwlyais
results. amoti hbmaolya, bosgebitan ws out of e the ela
teas s amlt lUfeemt hnoLyjts a pmorton o bwe mao. n omuls
fix e in toE stms.
hSaksy (136) oftua E order of sffetimeve. of lacomaic aids
Is podelmsd bheialysi of bimam ad dog erpyhrocyte to betI floqhario,
Wl o, Ihyvalr-ie, o d aitric eael, listed i dr atof 4deenag
efteettrmmes. tomd hIsmun red aopryules to be les resistat ma
semUm ret eesl to hemlyta ceased by acidity. Me oaemtsmtilms










oAeGin i4iA bmolysSi, i.e., VE 1.0 to 2.8, thez a injury to the eUll

milmme, b aumd at which could oewur i owotle bm utels. *e KOa a
that Ia b@ioly~. lwmed b Imaoremie aeidc a reastim betmwm t* celU
cmatltuents mlA ti me a we eaqplet befwe hbmly la iVrt moribed to th mlpd pietratin of the *eat isnto te ll,.
A 1931, Ja&obs aA tWprt (157) mevid that s*nss ito s as
little U O.OL of a wit; mA tametume Taristlan ll as 0.5 ofat a
despee auldd brw a mismubl alefftse a t obsere degr oaf amat lts.
h a later pewr, paerwt f (158) dmmutated but by lowriag te
3p fram 6.79 to 6.59, a salt eaidntmstla t of 0.2 per aet ws neede&
to protest 50 per cent of te suAspndaed erythrocytes ftram bh yimag
wbwuas only 0.500 per eat salt oaeeiatratima WA btoa stead prior to
lowrfat h e n.*
gamIe 7ryetooytes hre be"U domU to beoms psmenbls to lithim
a iA modtm tas at pB 6.67, to potesaim iom at pa 6.8, to nibtMi ieBs
at p1 6.92, to 0s1IU io at 1 T7.06, mad to lUw oNam mtastimn of
amentmiu Lieu at pB 7.48 (159). SWe eagm of abhlride mad ailflt Imea
thram the elU mWem hasb bee aibomm to be lomnd by lomwrtag thO
o f selutim Isa hiMch tW e I a* sw pulnded to batel ]p 7.k (160).
rman Se Ilseur (161) foud that te cat red blood ol hbs a
huap p1f optlms (p1 7.2) far *eouim pmeM 1 a ty te effects otf an
petesbmi peu- iUty w~ere smU la oceariso. ow eat rytheoete
Uamily eaital a Ma mtrtla ot sadum as its mAf Ibtr.aelulaw
metiin In ematrut to the hium ew7thrUoyte whieb estelsa mnaly
potaetLm.






2T



B$ aoaeaantxmis of bzdzoin Ios or bprvexrl io. re
alable of proa&Udng iwrrable abanmws In tbe arythaoyte thmlvesw,

a1thouds over R considaabei part of the VX rmo the affats re

rvrmaoble.



















dmWe m1oils usmd i this Iv stiptmi vwe obtained ftra aem-

mereaal sources. 2e abhlaals are listed In bl* I a long with their

mauress, fonmiA, Sades, and lot tmbers. Th abbwvlatin.s usd and

their meaning are "s ftllomws

A MA Wg a sd Chmieal Co., am.

C chm Po ua m eturs Corp.

M uhlmiackrdft Chuemil Works

M Imerok ~d Co., h2.

P Chas. Pfiser mid Co., ae.

Vethods

Colleetiau of Mood

Oe rabbit blood used mw obtained froa healthy mlie ad fmle

rabbits by heart puactor. A 17-sw m, 2-inak sterile dipoemble needle

atta eed, to a 10-1. sterile syrtna ms mployed to abe a4tznae Into

the heart. eM cardi.e puacture was adl v throui the left later.

oostal eeos as meai to the sterum me possible In order to avoid

lajury to the plural cavity. A rs =tely 10 al. of blood Wa with-

drMm and imeadilately dafibrinated by gatle rotatica with 10 to 15

Lass beads contained l a 50.*. Floarence flask. After suirilag the










U 8 IH
UMD 15 PUFARI SOIMS


Cmlx Souras Punam, oane. zot No.

Calelu. Muecate A Ca(C611O). UMP W 0,1716
Cobalt umuseato a Co(CbOU ),2hago efnined 8380
Omar Oluamte P Cu(C00100 Bltiand 5996
ZIrn mlam te A e(cOguo07)2 o X n53797
abawetim lumcate P Mg(C,)g2*2O %0 flnd 5208
tmameue MWueaste P e(C Oq )3HtO Iefined 48
Potassium Olueamate P t Rtaefined 51368
tiod Carboaate a %tCO3 we t CJ
Sotim aloraides Mw Nam Iedst 51587
bodium 0ueamate P 1x, nBetan l 0a1118
ZaS G beat te G(C6 ac O7)QgO Meflted 7te

a soanim chloride for biological wrtk.

flask far sprodmtely five minute, thea defibriasted blood w ecanated
into a Xo-Wl. rlsmmwr fltak sea malted by entle rotatian of te
flak tar about five minutes.
fte hum blood w obtained chiefly trm the veias of the arms
of a twiety-five year old hiate mae. Several e iMtm ts wea conducted
aqplagys blood damated by mie. volunteers. Ot blood w drman f9* the
am of tbe daar w ith ahypodewmic yiesg and needle and treated s the
am. mener as the rabbit blood.
Presh blood aples wre used througAout this lavestigticn.










Prpratim of Solut1is

8alutiene th micl subs tens wm p srud br vwiSM a

Mft proper awots aof t ehicals Ad placing tIb in vaolmtric flasks
uhiak wae brought to volam with triple dat1l1d water. AU of te

delamesm oaemBtstion wens os tutd In teus of tM omdgLrous salt.

AS OW9ndmte 4dilution oag k a g- teuume for sesh sIlt by
comdotvag a pr3lQalry eprtamt In whihob the eco tBtixt o at of beleal
suffleist to PWre t bhmlysls alnltd m V VSI m m conntratan WMr t

without preventing bmlysia coustltuteA the ls ta of the a asired roua.

Various iStems4mst ate aomtatams vese i n prared "A the qpsllmtnt

earriet out.

2I eerimate .VloyIlg soluticas eoatalalag both sotdius bloarde
man tM Chiol uatr Iave t Aittlca, tUh am proed.re wse followed

quMtatitatve etelunaatico of
Par Cot BIAlysls

se ithod uned to detemiue the & e* of boly7ss saa @essen-

tlly that of uater (162). It Is bseds m the ftnt that the guatity

of wed, FytmfglbIan *eoed f*= the .rythroot7s by ha7pot=ai alum

tim tI a di ect fuawtloi of the proportIca of ira es paseles hmnlys.
s ainat ofr ogqa. ol n llerated an oepltate baum slo, by tie

lahag of mrythroeytes ti 0.1 pr cent oadim earboakste oluttc, repre

seat unity ft preaing the dtarw oa hmolyits ocurig In a given

strength of Msalt solutli. fite amtitative atnmmtie of t Pro.*
psrtia of bweolyas t a salt salutima of owy Stragth la aiateved

by dntriftglag damm ay -utmnlyise ells Just prior to dtsumniag to
about atof oaM iobin preset a the yupmuatat solution by anw oft










a photoelectric colorlamter.
OM method espure a e Ssriaats eamisted of volsatreatm y
t oerftg dplleate 5 al. portions of standard sodium ahlride molutiao,
rsmgIg a oeaseetatioa fro 0.32 to 0.h4 per eat *for ao=u=as blood,
0.94 to 0.U per cent for Ngro blood and 0.32 to 0.58 per ent for rabbit
bloot into colorlster tubes. to the e soluticas, 0.05 Al. of fresh d
fit eatA, amteSd blood was tda at the tubs em crefullyt inverteS
Mnal taime to obtain oalqte mbding. ae blooda-ast m wtures wre
thea paced to a watr both at r for forty-ftive iautem. At the ead of
this pwrtod Mt ixtures weo estrifugset or three aautes at amrcia
lately 2000 r.p.m. A ettamreaa botoelectrte olarmeter with a
No. 5g eam filter w usd to measure e amount oat 1 t absobed by
bm spummawt lItid.
Coaplte hbmoolyis of hbma mt rabbit blood w .ftfetetd by
plains 5 *. of a 0.1 per cant sodiua GeN ate solution ina calortimter
tube, admtla to it 0.05 al* of blood Mat iang. After allUtag th tube
to stand for the pr sted fortyefive aantes at 3*, tem preM astia
wus on itrfted for three falntes at the mount tof lit absoited d-
teaUnedt olorimalrially. ive such tubes were prepat Owr seam blood
aeqis, two being rat at the begiantng atd three at the ad of the ex*
peraistal rn. Se sverae of the five resdingW repreaated se 100 per
aot hmalyats value atd us ssematly emloped In i aleuinatg the
degree of haslyis atof the blood t the various salt -oB-intatios.
A bank vas prepared by playing O.OS Am. of bloodt I 5 al. of
0.89 per aont salsn earidse solutida, allowing to stand hr forty-five
anteis at natdifuging. The aolorlater -ms calibrated to mero by










utItt a g tm ruah s rpaed l .nk.

ow per cet hmilysis oomuring Io dilinete tbe ofat each
atrngth at salt salutim wa calculated by ditflaM the ar rei eAtn
obtalain tr the two readlAa ot each alit 'eNseateatia by t the a.era
rising obtainS tr a the eoplete hmalypis obtained vtT softies ouawhate

e autta. tee ealeulatis m.ltliied by 100 ea rersentd the per
cent ot total bmlysti to seem a strt of msnt molutia.
ItrIatims sto erytbwrsyt aOeotie tfxilty mto solutos of the

m- alt eoim tratis with 4Lff rea t snqts of huma bAd has been
aotea (2). AMy Mr due to this variatian Vas uinmtmd by detawtzfag
th Saigrs at bemlysis for each blodt mple ta sodtim Sloride esluticas
ofat varylg eaemntratL. tem a diaet ocaprisam bet... tb dertee of

bho mOt oceurrtng An a certat. o amentxsta of soim ablata saolutlan
ad san olution of eme other malt was obtaldA.

Deteinatie. of Pr Cent Nmlysia
enb dealing with Caloen St lutime
21 soutams atof weral gluate statust d a t this wk wh r
oClalret. or the qatitative dotxnatolfa the per oeat hamlysts
Ito dealing with .u soluteans, -e of tw mahods aM Gw luGSd do5

peata a uwthtr w or t the color of the solution proetnd a am1tive
eamlrlw=to reading with oqba gl rMo a.s
3h the first imthat a!t=iml* salSutia prqeast by making
erythrotes toI triple stilled water was ad&t to lie amnts to two
colotasirn tuem, a eaitaning 5 Al. of triple distilled water mad

00 other oitaMing 5 at. ot the colored Slumaate olutia. o a third

tube, coatatsin 5 a&. of the colored solutia, a poartiam of triple










distilled nter equal is voles to the oyhgmlobtea slucb planned
eo s ofr St firt to tubee wa ened. as colarsntwr rnela of this

tir t*eA added to the readne of Oe tube oRtalStle mly war and
aqlhLroe. a we. -e .omared to nhe o ft of t taOse eia St g ae

sa a. atS m almed gluoate solution t m tf th eanelaw e4

within es taomtal err w the tw colors wre odenreid to be atitiven
If thie re o md to be te can, olarhetaer readings of gi st.eaa t
sab lutin e uade before the ad tlam of blood ad served as Mb ts.

MBwr vslas WTan btatcted fr the colrtnlastri readlag obtaitnd

after te blood vas added to pezuit a aeurate de te Aation of mo
amuat tof lt being borbeted only by the oq, obtan pwresmt is t

supentffit 11quid.
If S. colors of ;osbamBglobn uad teS guw ste saoltite were not

foud to be adittive, the smood of ta two methods erised a-e lqaoyd.
& V1. .mt aod s per eat bc rlysls as detIeumad by trso"es, that
1s, from he Sauat of o;temglobn ma lait Ins the S .ryt-tr ybes aot
yt bawllyus. Uh stBaderd procedure sloqep Om emisuu with ola-
I" snoution as carried out until t point ftLloalug 4triftgticm of
*S tubees, just prior to tS tis hat S. oolarmlmre rndlag wea to
be takon. autead of -lx the reingsB, th supsatest caution of
tas colored gsbu to d an xtcon frCMa labed ells w asmtienlasly
deasted frtam eah tube, beang careful not to disturt t ut imx lyed
"sl* elitgtg tan"foualy to the bottom. Ohe w hne yd ealls wMre ten
wiMed with 0.85 per ont sodalum aoride saolutioA, r*oeetriftaged at d-
catd, the process betag repeated until S.e mipestant liquid free
of color. he supezatat lipad of the last vahwamg was demted et










0.1 per omst so twe mobomate solutima adde to a ok st ndd ot VW

eLoa to tu me, MaOotngs avO of 5t.0s al. Ia tb was 4ently
1averted to Bnuame emaqpst beaoiLrys, th *ost *oels aMnttfted dom,
mat tas remati eolr read os *a coLmrlter. m timo aeg the
m mmage ria of tuo pintleaw t b* ftre the readtag at 100 per at
bhmilyss, ash coaoratrio value of the I o mol*My ex amd ftre Ob
cells aOrgInally bvolye x wa obtatmed. Prea this, the per omst boMi-
lyis was camulated i the usuAl a r.

alMUleatim r of Vlues forb Vas a pswe tm
of Lootuie Solutlons
& acor to etenuise the vablue ofat the giemastes used Is this
studj, the per oat booml7es of a blood as le Io ryla o m tiM saa
Of odiu hlorid sb 003V ONtoas wVll sf vryla Iaestns of
gLu4mts solution a etesmined. y plottlag thoe pewr seeot bamlyis

asnst the stmtb of t *he olutoa, a sigBoid tMpe of curm iaor1ably
resulted wih soaim eablmde soLutimns, and usmally ftr solutlus of
~thew elt.. "riee thea abobrio the degree of heolysi Sa bet
*t goalm ehiari mad th gLunanate s olutlse, asthe a etatinu lta

Oni/100 M.o at so&=m caLorid md 0s glaiate (emuaiag 9, sO, ead
71 per cent homlymia) ween obtled.
lntag the eoam tratlam of sodn aharsie may other ma-

ponud gibiag es -am bsree of at molys, the bmoljt1 L value fr the
compound balm avestigated way be alculated aeooarttas to i follotag
e9"tions










(1vale on. u ofB stl mwa or or other
Na m A toI &. atr om-u oae a I1 o
( --.algauuw = N> vs1 ..- __.__MaJ2.S2at5
(ak. -nd iar v8Ltt Of seCt) (02. -OU2eauar VOeWt o mpoumnd)

Sh uina th abov *qmutim U s vatu. at L ft~er sm otim d ie me take
a 1.86s, th mompted vai e for 0.9 pe c nt (0.15 X) sotum olrwft
soluta. ni 1 value of *ott= hlarids s w almA1m1te fsm sactivity
oosfearts. s 1 vilue. of t nmateoa uaed ta tbHu eMIm tr
w l ulted ftom onm ane'tma aiulag s50 90 a, 75 paw' emt
bMolySia Of bm MA XsVit Xtaroesytos.
a olaulmtatisa r v fa- or Opna- stes lmtulnSa ea p pe mme
atof 0.2 pw omt, ou chlaride4, 0.2 a. pae 100 Al. of sedi, dlstried
wa wftrtfrme, tha eosatitrau s of egaodm 'hiarid oamd" s, 50,
mat 5 par mat hamNlreA. s waronsa of these three vase me em.
siagmd to be a rpesmtastve value. A mltala of two ah r snp
vabums wm otaidme for bet himn ea nebitt blood for eam enemsa
astemta L



h prelataiwy hmoliias eeimati emplejyla -on l asats,
a dbtmlalg of s ood sw dbMervemd a several osoulam.. It we oug
gsted that me possible esm at ach drtaBna Mas Ow saidity of the
oblutioms bMas tested (163, 16). Oase the atire hbulm I menthod
1e da a1 the 0 omunte toioArtutric Atestauktimn of taberpet oQI-
blomWSAo -7 ete woulW soe aub dbtasmxnitati warthLss.
As qamrimMt ma carried ouut to detenxuniae tha mas asMeiity that a
solutica mwy bmo vlthout alterlag the olar atof the a-h e-mna









1b rated air m holyned wrytroytes.

t volwetrasfly adding equal quantiteS of bealrness d reait
blood to test tube oatainian triple ditilled d mter Ma to aeoter
tube fntatia g a equal voue of aidifned triple di ed water,
ootoarisrst oaarisoms of tSe liberated ovabimo lei w possible.
Svarying t degree of acidity of the ter ise sriee of tubes, te
S t aich the lood e e to produe the m eelarlttot reading
as *m tube contatlfl malted triple ditllled water enaly


2 other eaerimt, the flaet of incree g the hiba gm iso
Sce atratla on ha emlysi wa m dete.u t. Me p mw aoveret we teat
ahlo woult salude the O value oat thn sta ate solutis Cle were
mare aidie ta the retrane eteia chloride solutAis mpLos thi
rap vas I 3.5 to 6.a. 2w method lLod coamnstite ofrc volimetrIay
treastferring tpllate 59 al. partions of standard sodium abladte *sle-
tiaus, rawnI n to an ttMtatm froma 0.38 to 0.58 pP oeUt, na t otolo-
rimeer tebe. B2 pf values of these solutions wre detamlned with a
battery qpoAmte een IN metwer. Zibs portions of modiv dslaride
solutions atof the -m caGOtatians but acidified with eomotrated
hyaroahloari aid to varloua degree ofat aidity re voLvatxlaluly
taeftwd to eoloriMtmr tubea. Ib each of the tubee 0.05 IL. ea fresh
fibrtanated flbit blood wm addd a to tubes carewftay Iavrted to
obtaa oaplete S a. ahe tubes we then placed in a mate bath at

3 r fwrtW y-five amiutes after vbt h they are treated i to e usal
mearn for the detenulnation of per cenot hemolysis of t es blood isa soeab
tube. JB plotting the per cent hmoelysis asust the oamoetratias of









t4e eolutias, lgootd curves resulted for both te date btalae4 tfr

Us aidflfed as vll as the mddifled sodir ohlrwld solutml A

dieet ocopart at ofa tes of the ourves an tber relative po

sitios prodded a meas of attributAng f portion of the hbmolyss oo
eurrftg Sa s bloot-glueamats ulztumws to the hydrog toUs omm-

tnwfca.

Dhtaindmtl of Ietal-4hvotin PrelttSlm

satmre B =att~t w1 wae to deteamine hmla te value, a

pr.amterr test we am to abtemdne iethor or maot pr-elaWtt *oa *e

euma *m a &n lUtMt of wqe mcd*n me ad"t to a solution of te

luaomte. fto per set saolutis of s&i glhamate are sqpst.ly

mixed wit equal portias of oaqlmoxgobin solution prexpue by laklag

wmeabt .r7th0ytMt, allowed to stod in a wtw bath ftr forty-tfive

=ttWts at yy3, omtritapd, mA obaearvM for einme atf p'ssipltatla.

Darflag M couWe of a bumlystlc sa, muh prelpttatiom aouIA mae

the oljarlMtric reaifnp to be ppro .aimmnafly lar tbam tgo Uihh
woulA result tem th prqporticm of nOqhowalm actuaLly reLemsat

fram thM 3.aM erythrosytes.

diitimal *mp'rt1mets ur om rrieid out to btestlae dutesr or

sot sm- protelas are pan4ptattd tr *b* gluemate molutim.* spr

we m.pawted Omr blood e.1a by entritfgttp a t wad eA St lihe
poirtls to 1 per cut malutims of amh aluoansat. S mixture wom
obearvs rmpeatM ly fr fmrty-flve mlutoe. &artig b tim they *W

Sn a tar bath at 37.
nureng each stamainatla of a umlysta valu., tha g auoatoo

blood mixtures wre observ for avidnoe of preoelpittscm.










freslng Point -etminatmas
fte aqpatus used to detaarm ts freesiag paints of saouticas
at various salt ofat global acid me that of Bftal (165) a. mootfied

by ftm and Adm (1). The modfication of the o r nal aopRtus w
merely thea *aatin of the toy uotor employed to run the atlrrzi


ha uwau tus, in pu t, coasisbe of a vaomUa DmRa tUo, aU B.
hi atd 6 mn. Insidea dlter, beld upriAt by a rag ad rltamd.
TSe b*e s fitted vith a nrezr stoner bmrtg a alvp bo*te sn th
Meter mA thee smiler holes weoams the ed. A baMry gLas tet twe,

about 2 an. o=4 Mad 3 Ma. Iastud diamtwr s fitted Into th.e lri

bole -ad passed oIB into the DomR tube. ato two of the *atler hol
wwm fitted aer tubes, ae tesinmtiag jut below t uMder arte

of the stober. S othwiar o wper t* xa to the bottan orf u amr
tube adlMa Itn eoll, the eoa beltg psifsrated with a s mxe of Mull
hoaes. Ihsde me test tbe wa a seemd sgss trbe of allatly miner
dim -im a wad wported by a atof rubber tibsin hpla between he
lis of the two tubs. ere wi a very =U11 ye bete tahe msurftmes
of the two tubs. Al ortnary labomstoy thIammter u snMwt%& into
t fourth boU In the staoer mad ws used to observe t- itp Iture of

the outer bt darlns ftwesiag point etersnatlmcas. A salomn dit.
ftewmtial thmmter with a platim view stirmer looped loosely rouod
Its bulb ws placed In the inemost tabe ad hold by meam of at a rbbwer


Prior to opwstlas m0 agpmuts, twe eUled enoer tdb us eam.
oeated to ta sit lain by of rubber tubing. s at oaqw toe










Mas fitted ith a section of rubbe tubing wbich tweaIted out of doors,

thus rvita s the exit for vaporland ether. About 50 al. of the soLu-

tien to te tested ua played in te Iieimost tube this .aatity es
aftilelat to cower the b of tho Saman th -minm te. A quntity at
ethyl aleo a as ade to the sddle tube unti Its this w rv to
a leel jut above that of the m iutna ln the ta tube. f the asr
tu*e im a libeoal su19 ay o there, its eurtse* qaeoesmeatay lvwal ith
the Oether liquids. Barig th4 dot!iIBtious, sir MS psed trou the

ether casulag it to evonmste at a rate strolled by the Iateinty of
afmatio, s rporu.tima of eter betai th bauis tr the OwooUag We*


9he t-*e ture at ther basth wus lowered to wuo aINmStely
*] bef tha e us evidiae of .armat of the Zri Oy elbmn 1t w

wkn fibE- Mmetor. Jk order to frees tUs solvent porktiU of te test
solvitam, It vw neiesswry to reOSe te tV arttuZ a sther b6th to
aOnAt 4.0o. NY caefutly controlling thIe sat of asta t, I t C oolna

proess s paremt at a lIr stad4 po*e. Sr=ng tie ooAUng apeustioan,

ewb -wIpe ws stirred vigroualy eA ooatumaly bat at so a to
stribe the tmmter Vblb or U earry was air don Iate to UA4d4a
AMB the solvmt beWA to free sad separate fra the slautiaa, the

stirring ats m a eInMreased a ntiaA until a tatiomery trantufre
uws reaeLaL aeuronlIng oceurod In eaeh cases I**., the t-,___tu-e
ftell below te freesing point of the aoluta O th ni roce suely to a
fsend ponlat sad rmiad ther for sevnma se ais before felIling ome
apn.* Te teMeutuiwe of b athis pibItr point isr 1ssorbea as *
freesia point atof the solutiotan.










nve hundred attI11lit of triple distilled wter m ued i
the prwparmti of e46h of te 0.025 #a0 0.010 a03a noltiLonMa to be
teute. a ftemslag points of tea 95 0l. Magmes of 00& malutn we
!.I-% =a rowedm. S VoAt t a R I es or "as emm ait-
feamtila thnam ter wahi r mres ted the ftrefds Pift at 'vter we

obtained frw th0e mw. of A5 prste amtSesmafttlms. Bat t bmanur
waus eu~ntely reat to 0.0L of a depgre sad etlmated to 0.001 at a
degr-. Sa Dwje= temmMur- eu fitted vwti a madrifyl g los to

a1i the a pestar. Iw ftlsag polat deqr"easat of te v sriou .elutlarn
wer askB dtems 2sd by merly MIbtractI a the ftreutas paftt taw=-Mtiwn
of mter ftm te ftreassa point tawwmtume of emeh solution teste.
*0 rrosasi point data obtained were emayed in the -m-leinams
atof L vtalM mm nsg to M tram"la




where AEt is as abg In tM fretreas point of wfter after th elm

ditise of Solaute, K t& e Mal ftweesIa poIat conatit aur Mter (1.86),

Lie tme vw't wJrr ftttor, Ma K the mialfty of the solution.
ats at oA various bmalytic adL ftu*sig point tnalatl
s- prewmted to the fOallowRug tbles.









II







i
ii


M

f~b
I;;


I
^ t


4










At B ^I

i ttI
s eVtlf> t a~ wy


j att 5 I
I
j* IIA 5^5


a & a a ss
ses ^ ^












~I







Il I
" )v) if p| ^| pP p
hu l l^a^Pf(aW
sa % %%









Si
II

i!
Si

i~i


*


as|
'1'
p|

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V.S


I










* *s




^S S S[

Sil i s I
^ $ S 9


9s 5









1*


5





*




I


* *





* *


VA
I *
p



p




II,


p


I




47






y a ^ $




J I s a (a s





I
as- Ok


sess AM







I. o 0 ,'4 ~4i L M o
: A : b U
o w. m .0 *o

e < W M Q 4


I


Si-





I

II

I
'U


BJ




I!
II
Ig

I
2


10
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i404
* .4f tf t oi c
;~ gR W 8 t
*~ N i^ '^
MA *R<1^*a t


: SS t I ta :
S*SS 8 g ag
aR i s g gi a a p

"awman as
Qo o eQ do oo


* di -*

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l

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* *
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* 0
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a

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00
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4

v~ a
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00 00


a *O
R : cs a





g a u*?





g aS a *a


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'4. 04:
































II


o t~ ~
* 6f*
* art tw, 0
a a a I

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a
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p9 S

on.

g gu1


mmO 4
0 8 0



R 5'








8 5 I

aA f

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as 8
die j


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0
4

5


a
s


V% W .4


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d o oo 6 dd


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0
0
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a

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p.
fv~*
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Sat

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: M

St ^

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o wt en us f
a ti: JS


SR ^^ ^


S MS :

f0 t- NO q
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r4 d % V%\0 Q
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4i

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1I


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* 9
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0000 *OO~OOdO a


,.* a
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U


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Iv'

t- 0
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lA


4 9 A 0: 1 9s t 5







0'O0 0


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1^ Go 0A


t co
* 4 4
v0 0
000


I


I



ii

ii
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g
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ji







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s : s
9 9 t

Ia A 'A
J a *I


000
dd f


a 5 ^
3 S $ Y)


1X :


0 f~b
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% '*4
'4
ft .
as
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0 0

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o.
0

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a
0




0
a

*.
0


3 41 3
C 0 S












o l .. A 0 N .% 0
'0 ;* 05 w a

r : : 0 :




|: + .. |

, + : : A Ma a i s ie i
S S 5 5 % I 5 .9












*

00000000000 ,+: m
















0 O~
0 0


* .-











W :e





0



0 *
m *


o
0
0


'0


COO 000









0* '0 E
I^ 4 M

S 01 0





* 9 9

^ 9 9

01 @h W1
* 9 *


Ii
J!













I



I


* *~ *
\ MW 40
VmW ,40

oQ o o o







0 0 o 0 0
w *
* *0




00 O *
e- so fr- r U

^ | ^ 40I

000001 <( P

101


00~ 0~ 00 00


* 4


5 8 s


9 5 9lga
0 96



i : ^ ys
4 6


4.

II


aa *

* l- e


J? |
0 6 o


m X
O 0*









% t V%. 'O % 0 v M










o o
&i : : "< 4 4

fl I
j 4 O Qi a O QQ
8 j i a a '1















Is



I1




a

B

s




i'U


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At
a




8




01
st



I

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g

q

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0

1~i4


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SA


Ao
& 9




%0


^ 0O
9j 9
*m 0


0 a '
* *

o

a a


0 0


- *

a *


0S0
d 6 6










U'

Lw
0
4
0
0
4


'I8


8
Ii














'


0 0


0 0 0


* 4
* 4 ,
* 4


I


I



I


a
!t

J

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1$1 s 1 a A A
0 0 t ; 0 4t 0 0 0 0


I I I I A~ I I I


sA A a I d










uma 6
YSO GO WEAZ3IS OFW RABW ERCEOCI EB1 V 0W e AMMa
Bouswma w VARIOUS cImIF nEL s




s1 amt N Mse I a m a amA 9 1m1l, 1


A. 99.7 100.0
0.90 333 36e
Av. 96.6 100.0
1.00 337 36
A. 96.3 98.6
1.10 a89 290
A8. 2 85.0 90.0


6.6 7o.o
1.30 130 154
V. 36.o 40.4
1.40 a 641
Ar. "T 11.1 3$07
1.50 11.1 u.7

-. 0.8 2.7
1.60 0 0
Ar. T 0.0 0.0










SmU 7
C1-1IASBIM = G.L/AOO KL O ODIM MM AMD X-am UaUm3S
Cm 815, 50, AND 75 TM CaM mUmrI m
OW mIItR I21-OC"IP,


Sol Chlarlde



o.18 o.1,Q

0.391 0.4180
0.o39 O.U02


b1m Wadte



1.36, 1.36

1.g5 1.87

1.16 1.18


xar 8

TAUM OF L MR M r A T zm ArmnTMg A cnmRAM
CAWBM 25, 90, AD 75 PR CME =MOT=B OF
RUM mnclTml


9w Cmt n~l

25

50

75


mAot sMle. 1I

B.17
2.25


2.29


aoo6 nEmte a

2.19




2.28


So
50

75


---- v


I










TABLE 9


o CmR aimozas a cABI sacmxa ranw
0.4 r CMW SO==a Cmrm M VARIOUS M
8083m arUsvwaSe


8aaUX's


mmu Om


tlmaef ChlorAa 3a 3 iiE 4 !M 3 epl. 4


406


400
*r.

3m5




Av*
hr.."t
960


130
1*

48
Ar. "
0
0
AV*


*^
3aOL


360


365


30

a






87

4
Io
O


100.5


96.5


95.5


85.4


3,.7


11.6


0.0


100.0


100.3


100.3


96.4


89.3


67.9


23.9


4.9


0.00


0.50


0.60


0.70


0.00


0.80


0.20


0.90


1.00


1.10


0.80










TABM 10
Ca ATIBs GM WL/iaoo ML. or SODIUMl acmu
CABMS 25,50, AMD 75 Mm CET maUSIB
w main KmanoIIrn


Mlood S1e 3
0.4"99
0.437
0.A17


uooaamou 4
0.183

0.472
o.AW


-muB


SS, 50o AI 5 M cm ma= Sr nun WA 11mr cOTS
u ilplm or 0 o.a mR Cmw amZl m


95
50
7,


Lo.0 s Im* 3


0.848
o.760


am&s al. 4
0.998
0.947
0.878


25
50


mw.!



















-ma la
VAZL W I% SL 'U a GLUMU At 91gA P g
CAaI I, 90, A= 75 NS aE nweamsma F
omia aBImeo aa gw jame
0.2 m am fn CrRAm


Am M aiotda Load amdsLw 3 ,oot NeoLv s

aw 01.94 1.97
50 1.9 1.
m? e2A. .2.. ..01











wE 13


pia Ol aMUNs r a Om I magXcE3 SODU som wmC
10WICB Qy VAIEOB COiMl1R ABM



puer o t __________ m__ m____

_mme _.. -. amene -1, .. l 3. ir Amela M
Soo Wood d Mood Moo

0.80 4 91
AT. W"1 97.6 96.
0.90 478 475
AV. 974" 94.8
1.00 49 69
AV. 88.8 O.4
1.10 0 20
9-.9 39.5
1.90 1417 89
A. 27.7 17-8


AV. 3.7 8.0
1.40 0 0.
Av0 0.0 2.2
1.50 ... 0
Ar ...* 0.0











c MM iOL/100 M.S W SUM rW D saa -A l a GUm==
C-M 50, AND 75 MB C3 ROM==
0w Bma SSSSCSSS


P O.N0 0.1t 1. .f6

*5 o.awel o.,8 lom..us

50 0.34 0.373 1.13 1100
7T 0.371 0.365 1.06 1.05


SMUS 15


VAUtNBs aW L s W a Km a A COma S
cuajm sO50, AD 75 PO CMan msBia w
-m 11 1 I'M=


Per mat samlyts RLoo 3ample 30 meBod MgLe. 31


50 2.36 2.3

75 .13 a.4
kAwm 2.37 2.36










Mnas a

0.1 UR M AIMN= CIMACI AMD VSAMTOA F



Per coat Oat %Mooa!aine
locate a.m. !I. a.! 33 !..vMIq 3 Iu. 33
0.00 0.80 49w6 4.
*.' 100.0 Io0.o
0.0.40 467 399
hr* 0 93-8 93.6
0.50 0.80 o 380


0.A 0.a0 3M6 22
L. 77.6 9.8
O.to 0.20 o 1


0.80 o.ao 6o


1* o1 0.0

.o00 0.80 0 0
O 0.30 .'.... I0.0 0.0











auS 17
Mammm au WM./oo Ms. or am acmanZ
CAom 95m0, 50, 7A5 r am P
p -m Im aroBrsn


Pw Coaftt Rmou is

25
50

75


lood sM~a 3

0.43
0.410o3
0.38t


0oa. a e 33
0.396
0. 3B

0.368


O 50D i m am= 18w am
9, 50, Am m mg cm ]amau s ar umm II.-nn
v us moms (w 0.2 m cm on= On=


1T rcns mmoStd a*ae 3B stM 33

o5 0.757 0.660

50 0.689 0.60,
750.595 .550


b


. ..,. .



















TfAl 19
VAUX= jrI6S R BOMGUMXAT'
QCMBgg %j 50o AN 75 M CMH HMOLUUX Mr
Iwo*~ IBKHINV 1E Ill." plBI jmU m to
0.2 PAR CM BOOM CXamm


Pr oamt smdds Mbaood 004 l32 M.on ameDl 33

85 1.96 2.06
90 2.05 2.013
oa ao3

2.O0 2O0
7, 4 .. .d .
bw...e. a3s .0












PM OW m an OF A a1 1 1Vm VR YOm


1owant5 9 mptls 60 3 flW 6


A.. ,,, 98.0 101.5
1.10 2 295
A. r .o ,9.T
1.20 191 274
Ar. 64.7 83.9
1.30o 2 24
A-. 45. 61.9
1.4o 3 110


1.50 90


1.6o 30 0
Ar. 8.9 0.0
1.7o 9 0
Ar. -0 31o o.0
.80 0 0
Ar. 0.0 0.0










TAaX sM


-m0WtWSiOM


to W./100 ML W soIM C=U0o=R MA=D OSUmU oJMUhAn
CA, MMI 550a, AIM 7" IM CM IMnS
omr RAM sm ivy=


Sodium Chlorie Ptesal GLusat

.ps 5 a~~mt 6 Jal il 6
a5 o.iy 0.412i 1.43 i.ka
50 0.388 0.39 l.aB 1.35

05 0.364 0.386 1.1 1.25









VADM OFr FR PomAsRW nGLUMA3 At c RM B
.i. T25, $0, AM 7 M OWI mIcBIa Or



m oent waaly i leood aMaW 5 mroso asts 6

S5 2.22 8.16
90 2.26 2.21


Avups a.tss 2.22











TARE 23


0* W HM 9 80OMF CAMI A VAR0000 M 3 IM NO
NgBgf aMnfl EYraw
o, M W = M = = T n C -I Iifl m


Pu mit M Omt eolsmE 2amt wP at
potaats1 seuLm UA Moo o0o oo
gueaimte 2awsb Q 7 go 8 pl 7 A B


0.80


0.0O


0.ao0


0.20


0.20


0.-20


4o6
A.*


Ao.




350




AV*
169


79
AV. -


-ov
366





351
351





a98


179


83
-+-


101.0


96.3


a7.6


71.5


100.0


100.6


97.5


97.3


95.S


4e.6


19.6


1.2


48.4


6.0


0.50


0.60


0.70


0.80


0.90


1.00


1.10










waasA
CrormnATuS wLAwO ML. or -mum mrom
CAUBM 25, 50, AN T5 M CBT COT BIS
W RAMR Mr1cmaY


wr Oat Bo.is

a5
50
75


ELood. iLm 7l


0.3T1


mlood sau 8

0.483
0.472
OAWT


as po, 95 m -- Lmjia r sia uase
u -mea n or 0.a om amor soZ mzm


Phr Omet Nmlysls

e
50
75


3Lkd 8sLe 7

0.973
0.883
0*780


aloot Hlto 8t

1.05

0.996
0.9ge


Im


mm


Ill I I II 1 TIllfTI I I1 I



















ms6
VAIa L lF POAUSITm UCOcAS AT c a-l1AIm
CAMu= 25, Af50 lM 7 MI A NOmmUN W
A0.2U H -S M M MOR CSAM
o.a m am SGarm assJA


Or, t Bm ly m ls Bloo S0 pXl T7 Snood Hli 8$

a5 1.96 2.01
50 2.05 2.08

?5 a 2E.0 2.02
Av.gMs 2.03 2.06










um g Nz1t sT
B a aamrUsza o af sRAmocas a oossa
0UfU2MM OF YAlIVUS acipWSlSSSI


otae Nami 35Out __ aMU_ 3_

0.0 449 478
Av. ** 98.0 "06
1.00 439 aRS
A. 95.9 89.5
1.10 418 366
Ar. 91. 777.
1.80 316 315
Ar. 71. 66.8
1.30 158 91
Ar. .3-5 40.1


Av. 9 2.5 1,51
1.50 11 12


1.60 0 0
0 0
-"r" 0.0 0.0











TAE SB28
SSM./100 ML. or 80mM cML3E A=D POmiUSI SGMan
CAUIwM 25, 50, AD 75 PE CWEM"? B
o s-aw aamanas


Sodium Chloride


0.39o.
0.398 0.399
0.35 0.382
0.372 0.363


Camuitvation


1.- 1.36
1.25 1.7
1.19 1.14


VAIMS O 9 MZOkSSIM GLIDMAU ATC AAEB
CA 25, SO, AND 75 IU caM MaaU Or
NMS 11 M-Iovim


Nr Camt alyiadm Mood ~lpl 3om fLtal 35

25 2.23 2.18
50 2.30 02.5


MaVM 2.29 2.27


ur Oaft
BNOMOljn











TA 30

0.2 ER CMT T02A CSS ZMI AMD VAB1OO
MPouuma GEDmMUa"


Am-Gnt -oCmt
lOMM0.00 i
0.00 0.2O


o.Ao


0.50


0.60


0.70


0.80


0.20


0.20




0.20
0.20


1.00


ep as36 ai s37


ad.p a"


AV'*

475
Ar. *

471
AT.*


Ar. *
Atoo
A. W

250
AV. 2W
105


19
AV*

0
Ar. -


CCWIBASM 01


100.0


95.0


96.2






67.2


21.0


m


)Io


292


89



-I-

0
0
-0-
0

-


3.6


0.0


0.0


0.0


;1.2











Wara 31
MrASIs .OL/Loo ML.. of SmO C~azU
C l 25 50, AD 75 PER CMrT Emans
W NmLi z


Emood ample 36

o.41o3

0.303
0.304


mooo ame8la 37

0.396
0.31

0.368


"BMB 3B
Oan mnRAMsB V OM./IO ML.. OF POmSOm GWCA!M CAJM=s
29, 50, AM 75 JIM OW UaraXa W m I 1ss aanevalM
a MB RpmKlCor 0.2 m eam asoam cawmm


.... .. N. ..O W i


1Mw Coat HMolyia

25

90

7W


SLoo amqle 36

0.783


0.628


n ooa ae.g. 37

0.690
0.637

0.578


har Cent nemoysi

25

50

75


m


-


INIIIoI IIHI[ IN go,



















as 33
VAzm jima NAmaS1B= EMEs M At
CAP 5 30, AND 75 M OffT 3MH W
maW -R 61 inmIs ri aum ini I
0.2 m cm soam UARM


wr Cot BKMImOjSs XLood Smpl 36 Mood e pae ST?

29 2.0o4 .Ia
o0 2.l 2.12

75 .Lf, .22..
Aramgi 2.12 2.14















US 34
V-t c MmJ W PUAM AAIgocim n lA mmm aGZccagMM
SOWMES (X VARICU CCPRIB



PW M .r.
*O" 0.sto Road Mosoood
aqnOmte !m!T! 9 ateule 10o glaw" 9 am^U to
1.00 366 37
A. 100.6 10o.2
1.50 346 3S6
Ar. 95.3 99.7


Av. *.. **** 86.0
2.oo00 193 153
Av. 15 52.9 48.9
2.25 109


2.50 80 15
Ar. 76 IS 0.9 1.7










TAM 35
comcrHAn1 W o./100 ML. or we=M CmmxIB AnD ammmns LWom
Ca-M 25, 50,AID 7 If CT UEMhBIS
OW PARM mRmcs


odio Chloride gMl ua GhueateN
wt Cent Coettmtirattan Stan
aue9 p sne uo apaM 9 emrr t
a5 0.416 o0.l9 2.32 .-14
o 0.399 0.-03 2a.0 1.99
75 0.,0 0.386 1.8.4 1A.







UMS 36
VAUUS Or 1 TO M RflIM O)OCB AT CO2 rMAZDU
CmMn 95, 50, AND 20 =N W l U 3L 5 Or



Ae Cwnt Hsulyruet mood aMRA. 9 m &loo mple 10
a5 2.37 2.58
50 2.61 2.67


.. .. ..ll 2*57 2.67.
2.57sssa 2.67










Mr 37


0.2 ma C2T 0 Csrim AM VARI S caa = OF




W COwt w Cut Clormr eer Ot aL
m-uL te =al lse a.e f t 12 L a 11 p..e 12
0.000 0.20 aT3 299
o..o o.m 27
A. "S 100.0 99.0
0.250 0.20 276 300
Av. -W w 101.5 99.0
0.500 0.20 265 296
Aw. 96.0 98.7
0.750 0.20 217 erT
AV. ;M "0 79.4 93.14
0.87" 0.20 226
..e .226 7..3

1.000 0.20 76 I83
Ar. 17.9 4g.0
1.125 0.20 .. 89
+V *.. ... 29o.0
1.250 0.20 9 T
Ar. 2.6 2.3
1.500 0.20 0 0
0 0
Ar. 0 0 0.0 0.0













mmamsIa v a./ioo -. ow msm =uarm
Caomm 0S, 50, MA 75 M am mm=wa
OW MDIBW


P. comt sIa-'n .


mlood amla 11


0.415

0.39*


0.41,

0.1.8


TAa 39

oM201mas a m./Ioo M.. 0 nasm aimas cam=
25, so# An 75 P- CUTi wamnorIB C9 BA py al It BI
1 umeze CR ( 0.2 E OW SO=1 Camum


ser Cent Iamlys
25
50

75


1.03
0.889

0.775


M am fte" u

1.07
0.975
0.878


-


*



















TAM 10
VATas t KB IMOBmZBm GZUCA3UM AtB
Cmff 25#, 90, MD 75 mO OW BmaXZ a
Raun j1l sCI1 m ul ma wB
0.l2 m B SO3M camum


mr oCat 3aolyes
25
a,
90
75
knaUM


eLOOG mpWl 11
a2.96
3.19


3.15


m3ood fale ]a

3.10
3.19


3.3$
jLuL
3-3










MMES 41
PER CEOT HmmaLISIm of UMM EBRngCES m= YaaS3m G CWM
SOUPS O VARIUS CC MZA S


Per Cat CaLorltan r am.nom Per COt Bmolyws
maealum of Iood no a d at
Qunawate 39 340 3' 9 40
0.50 406 445 47o
kA. "q VS" 100.3 99O- 95.1
0.75 39 435 458
Ar. 1m 1 96.8 97.3 92B3
1.00 307 34o 38
A*. 3% 78.7 77.4 7.7
1.25 192 244 233
A*r. 47.6 54.1 47.a
1.50 133 160 150
A*. "T 4 32.5 36.9 30.8
1.75 65 7 44
Ar. 15.6 16.6 9.1
2.00 0 5 7
A*. 0.0 1.1 1.4
2.15 0 0 0
0 0 0
A". 0-- 0 0.0 0.0 0.0










sm he
9 M./100 w.. w OB=M cZrirm A= mw1 MaMAW
CMAtaJa 25, 50, AND 75 P cUrT HaLIss
0F EAWA ERYROCTE5S


Per Cent
SMax2ys.


0.39

0,38
0.3"


Sodium Chlrid
Ca0Mttmtni
.A Blood sMpt.

0.393 o
L 0.380 0

S 0.363 0


40
.405

.398

.381


Coame*L amate
.pA mBooa smu

1.55 1.63 1.51
.8i 1.30 1.18
1.05 1.05 1.03


AWA 43
VAL=S Wn Lm M WsA M GUlCORMA At ORA s
MOMrs 5, 2 0, AMD 75,MC a OmLlg Omc
IIg arocls


Per Cnt ma7ala1s Xoo ample* 38 Mood Smle 39 Mood amse O40
25 3.36 3.18 3.53
50 3-92 3.86 4.03

75 -T 3.8 4.07
rm 3.97 3.87 4.14


[.cC DHMXB










TAME 44


PER COET BENUMB OF IMIO RmrOCTP 2= S0U1MO3 CW32SI
0.2 M OUT sOM CiIaXC AD VARof1 CnMMam Or
iMnBXM Buemm


wer Cat
mweussa


48S


462
AV*
446


Ar .

398
389
Aw. 393
144


69
A.


&*
T
Arl -j+
0
0
Av. "I


Rin,,


100.0


96.1


0.0 0.8


Im Cut
stcadm
OAXOrld


0.0O


seaOU 42


*e

48

481


0.375


0.500


o.6e5


0.750


0.875


9-.3


0.0lO


0.20


o.ao


0.20


0.20


0.20


0.0o


96.6


73.4


29.7


366


241


79


48.6


1.0


15.3


il


amolm 42


aemas 41
"t^rIMa
e.S l ra


amma. A1











rars 45
oa m MONI T a v /LOO wL. ow oom c=am
CaM 25, 5O, 5VAn 75 P MaiuSa
Wf IF" IsIIFF.Bi


13' ceot NatnsL 0


50

75


Mood afple 41

0.403

0.390

0.378


Blood $Lw4 ae

0.447

0.47
0.4W6


Ws1m 46

2o 50o, amTm m am Cm3ms Hw mm Hs mXul
.. .. 2 a E 0.2 .m m CHT I aTO I R mjuX


25

50

75


blood anpUe 41
0.819

0.750
0.669


*ood *wast te
0.950
0.864

0.750


*


Ow



















UMx 47
VALA OF 4 IM S OWCOM ASt
Caaf 9, 50, ad Tg aR agHf mAa=a7 M O
0.2 MnB CmmT B sm1 CEamiM


tr Cwt ontyas MMBood amplen 4 EM&s ample Am
2 3.46 3.43
0 3.3 3.46
75 3.1 3.60
Auu*sy 3.37 3.50





90




IuR carp muM5ZS MwAXW ms1eMc! s a Cza3m e rAna mCCW
Bou = OF VARIOUS P I




,ci m 9Mo ELoo.o

rw .5 T 100.0


A. 8.6 960
2.00 259 185
A. 8 .6 81.3
2.10 236 156
ir. 7T7. 69.2
2.2D 22k 1SO
Ar. I72.6 54.9
2.30 194 4
A. 6.4 40o.6
2.4o 183 54
4 1 58.8 26.3
2.50 140 52
140 44
k*. 18 45.8 a.4



2.80 63 0
Av. f19.9 0.0












CAM= 25, 50, AND 75 PEI CBr m=Mas
If I I W i I3 ...O. III I IIIII


PMW out
Bilymirs


Soium Chlaride

suspe 13 sftn.U 14
0.466 o.410
O.a5 0o.395
0.3" 0.378


CaLcbm GLuomato



2.7 2a.43

2.16 2.06


TABLE 50
2mu 30
VAsM o i Pa CAZCzW M At C'As ICoaAnT
CAmM 9, 50o, AND 75 MM CMT merB OFW
ABI 'IlROCly S


1r omit siyi.
95
50
75


ood aO pl" 13
2.34
2.38


8.41


mbost MEW* 14
2.31



2.41











wu am51
0.4 Pr cOR 8SUJXM MM= AM TAUDOMO C1MCWIA=MB p
CAtCmJM (BIomAm



Nr Cat Pr Cmt Colaufr fMIs phratt b InuII
ll~dL Bd388


300


ec1


388 aph


340
* *frl
*W


0.20 299 00 o10
,.1- -4-


*49
Ce.


160
IfiD


100.3 100.8 100.0


**... 8.0 87.4


101.4 71.T 83.1


**.. *.,* 63.0


79.3 29.6 46.1


41.o0 10.4 1o.


4 A2
444"" """S"


S144


19.3


3.6


0.8


7.3 e.6 0.0


0.00


0.20


0.20


0.70


o.80


0.90


e...
&* ***
eei
al
tf*e se*e


0.20 S 119 10
**


1.00


1.20


1.40


1.60


0.20


Lv


0.20


0.20


UP 11 WIN










wam 52

CmBo~aSzIx = QLzAi ML. at iPm um
CAM=B 9, 50, As T7 PER CMT MOROMrZ



S mt BeBnoLY ]a ood saaW 15 footd a3.Bl 16 mood saapl 17
25 0.473 o.ea o.0eB
50 0.5o 0.399 0.410
750 .4 0.30 0.39o











ABan 53


a.~ as mL. r "Mm mmm oaozo
MO M CUT.0 M CII IAU I Ch1 1 CAPBI I
50, P375 0. ca W OM8 Vr WIa



Pwr 0Mt SXmtlystu Umo 0 aig 15 loodt atl 16 MoM apto 17I
5 1.32 1.03 1.09
50 1.16 0.905 0.990
75 1.0B 0.785 0.860




















VAWas W j CA7eXM s aBXm3X aS Maumm
atmazalT, So, a0 vE CAN 75 M =


2-8
0.2 uma ca amzamm


S". ..t nain l.s Uoe. a.a 15 I Ioo4 aIt 16 loo i I ..

S2.8 a.95 .87r
$0a.96 3.M 2.91


Avg g."95 3.05 2.97









TABBU c5

SOCTYMBS Or VAKB00 COMH3AEMAZB




tWombft a e 3 3ee MMaple 43 aumm _
1.50 443 4oo
At. 94.0 91.a
1.60 o 372
A. 90" .6 79.T
i.70 4w 320
Ar* 4 .5 70..
1.80 3 ago
-. "3 70.8 &A.4
1-90 300 23
a. i- --] a.o ,.9






2.o oo 74


am30 56 17


2.40 30 0
A, 6.0o o.o
So 103 ,IIII I [ IIIII




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PAGE 1

THE PERMEABILITY OF RED CORPUSCLES TO VARIOUS SALTS OF GLUCONIC ACID By HOW ARD CARL ANSEL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA June, 1959

PAGE 2

, Dr. 6ttientlve gut W.s 1nva t:!aatl~ ,.. ~-~-!DVatuable aQ4 fl)8t tn-;tit\i&t t ext.. to UJlle Kl. ,Vt:al ma ..-11Jtallce 1zl fll-.;pj .. ttul or ~~~;14 mecben1 especu.11 beli,M l 1111*1-est 8hOlill t,y Qthel' .ni ot t1le ter ~ ~~'lil'Ate ,. ~QW' Udee ~tel"; ~--t). --.~""t, Cld iltl1l~:tltlg .. .aumr;1;.e11111 rcnmc1attco tot Pbul'IJ&~:tl, ~tscn 8'ld ~lal datance. ::tt

PAGE 3

j .. ,!, .. :. ll 11' .., u USl' ., .. I! . .. . V . .. .. II . t t 1 0,1!11 t1'SBA1'URI .. ) !l i f . 11 t 3 if . ,,, ,. ,. .. f . .. AMUtT Ji fK .. ., . .. 7 ,. .. 8 . t + .. 9 Cobl.l.t . . 'II' ,., .. 12 .., . .. 13 .. !I ., . .. 1\ ,. ... "' ,. .. 15 .. .. 16 11 . .. .. 16 i t ... l.9 ,. .. 22 .. at. .. .. -28 .. .. .. e8 .. ij ,.. *: . .. .. ee .. .. a8 .., 30 .. 30 lo ., 32 toisa ~tf.(a ot ., . ,. .. . '" ,j 34 .. "' .. ... "' 11 .. 35 .tt .. I& w.

PAGE 4

. . . . . . .. . .. 4 i ,. .. . .. .. trattm ca --1,J :t;iCD~ Olucoaatee Gluc tea (D) V,11.W~:tea . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, l t. . . . . . . . . . -. . .. \.it t 150 1,0 151 153 155 156 157 159 l1io 163 1Q 166 171

PAGE 5

t,OCJ1Ul1J ~te So41Cblor1 SOdlUl.!l Glu.caiate f'OtaPl.laQl.ucQD&te M118P08&\D Gl.UCCD& Cal.ell Gluearaate JIIIO,E~a&( I?) CU.um lratl(D) .Gl~te 0 t(U) 41.. ta Z1r:lo GlUCJXlate Qlta to pH Jl'e"11*8 Po1Dt 8'.IJ'lll.-r6!Dlble V 2-3 .. s 6 19 ao 33 3ft .47 61 6e 79 80 97 98 105 1()6 l1l U2 115 U6-U8 U9 l.21 122 Pap 29 41 47 48 59 oo 69 70 79 8o. 89 90-. 99 100 U3 U4 127 128 ll3 l]lt. 137 138 ... 141 142 1 .. 5 146 li.8 149

PAGE 6

to ( ), to their ettec of i va.lues blood cell. po1nted out by that <,> rt!D0!'1'.IM'l U.t td.Dc aceta ~UIIU8lly so call e&1cui.tec1 coll1aative lartmai1 -d ... el te emet:Lt8, 1.e., CO.I.Pr--,._.t, tron, -u,U?eel.ement1,"essim~2a.1.tohllllm tiv1t1 s Of' theM t.lve l

PAGE 7

a pot68t.l tlltlPl1\IB1 -4 oeldum Sl~tea wre al.SQ itl_ ldited -.4 their bealo17t1c Y&l.uea detel'lll1lldJ theH1 eatf.QU tN pn.-t tn larp IIIIO\OltlJ Ill tbe hl_,, bo4Y, beiq ~ u *'tllaJor e1--.
PAGE 8

~<, Acid Glucaoic act4 1 a ~protc ~14, ~
PAGE 9

n 1t.bei' SnJ\U'1 nor 41~e to 41aeettv orpu, ,-.1. ot tu41 cCD4u.c Vit.b 0.25 M -14 solut.tQ:lt tdndnS m.~1, it ~~WI t.bat ucante tbe leut toxtc ot toUanng .U4e Ua' m 01't1er ot tcad.cttyt o..U.c, maJmSll, pioqbm1.c, ~c; ~f.c, ~artc, et1c, gl.-=cm.c (17).. Rabbttes o, tozm.c, ~c, euccWc, been. t:reated. daUy vlth 'bot.h tub-IAtrannou, 1nJ ct1 QIal cmtc acid 1dthotlt MY 10.41 eaticm ot ill ettecta &ftel' (18). tn l.940, \,\,!11111111,1,t ot 1oodl o~ Amertcan cal aocia'U p:rclM:NDCe4 tbe p&JUie4 G<.a l&ctale ot gluca:\lc acicl to be sate foi' UH 1D too4a (19). ~..,. pro porttcna of UCC01c act4 aaa.~ to ftta -4 oil pro4llc DrOQUC1ta llblch 1 88 lJJcel.7 to 'bec
PAGE 10

be t 5 tbout ,ry c~l,MJ,'l.;c:lluons Q,1;.&,,Q~io (25). (e.6, z.r, 29, 30}. &tr.~~ S,l..Ui::m.t~~ (31, 3'!, 33). A M'01'1alll.Y alll~~[Q 1A Jllel~LIM' or c'IDb1n.l ibQl'Gl,1~c. irJtoc,e~ Pmt Db441'1De sul.tate -.a nport-e4 ta .TatUUZ tbeD. el)peQl"iM &LUCQJ&W (~). Pl'OC?a.'Ule U sluccm&te 1.rllllllU&4~1J'iy -lit taxi.a yith roca,r,. -),. CIIIJilW;J,wQ. in mteuive (U) re,arte4 for traosfwd,cma '4th 1.AT"HE"'V' &'li;batlc litei-ature le replete 'wi uaea calet COUQ1:es.'9cttcn ot l'&1. local NGalUvi

PAGE 11

( ) to (37). ate to (t.3). l:t1 me4lo ot It 1&1.t 6 tM~'1 a,Bft1':t'MIJI N80C1a Yitb by Sn~ adldn1'1!.ft.UU1 tiDal (~) It bu aaltotd~-IU. U :eODate SD oeobSM+.t.<11 th Ulll 11111.:LetE~ atlllly 0%" ~llllTAftl,:LY (47). It bu 8UO)lt88tully opd tit \iQQll;.IQ of a.ffDmOffba (i.8) m ~l'A'lft ll ~t.Mlity tNNIIM~LB into a t eau.1'Val.mt to m Uljeet1cn aveJ:'&a (~). t ... -pB ftlwt of' ur1ne, vltb neul:t,

PAGE 12

1ts e~t1veneaa1D 1 0 (h 4os Chalatili Ability 1be tertn "chelate" vu propos-4 in 1925 bJ Maram !1 !! (50) to 4e81ar-t.e tboM cyclic atnictur.-artaiq fl'CGl the union of metalllc atau with orpn!c and 1Dor@llll1c moleculea. Dllthl. (51), 1n 19!7, cl.Uai1'1 C0IIP)UD4a c~e of tOl'llllrJ.g c!W.ate11'1tb ta111c cattcu. Be 41.atil'lgu1tbec1 cbemieal grc,upa that \alte vttb metat. by tb replacement ot & h,vopD atm, u c~l -4 enollc ~l ll"CUPe, those tbat caabiu Vitb t&l by etniple coor41nat1m or ad41t1Cll vitbout the rep]aceMD+; of hytl'O.-n, N c:arbcmyl alcobolic groups .. JD pberal, tbe ab1lit7 O't the lfU&U ac1cla to fOl"II ter aolu'ble cam,plxes Vltb Mtall1c 1011a &rise fl'0II the cai-ct t7 ot thelr carbmrJl and ~l groupe to 'b1n4 t.heae oatitna 1D r1n8 bf mNDa ot co orcUnat.e an4 coval..ent bm4a (52)w 'lbe cbelattng al>1Uty ot the aupr acida bas been toun4 to be, OG t.be vereee, 110ft pr0QOl.l1Ce4 1n &JkaUn 80.1.utiexl than 1n ei neutral 01:' acl me41a 4119 to 1Dcnaae4 101llttc& ot tbe ot tile ~ql 6l"OUP Gl.uccn1c acid an4 1te derivUvea an CQ&bl.e ot tOl'lldn& wter aolubl ~tea Wltb certain t&J.Uc lCllla. Altb,ougb eodlum g1.uccmate ad neutraa-4 &1,UCGQic acid are,, in themaelve1, relatively t.netfec:tive aequeatrarit.e tor a.lcim, y have ahollD to be to aodim 7 cttnte, aodtUlll tettapboapbate IID4 tb4t tetruoclium aeJ.t of e~ tetrwetic .-c14, vben 1n a~ aJJca]:lne 80l.ut1Clll8. Sodium gl.UCCD&te 11&9 tQmld. to be wt,erior to thlt' three efONIDCltimec1 seque.atrar&ta in caaplmng U'CXl, over a nnp o~ pl 6 through pB u. 1hia gl.uccx,ate aa

PAGE 13

interior, ~; &tnc (U). ~111tl.7, hcsok an.cl Juvet (53) aboved t.bat gl.ucCllic acl4 torme4 very tMras ,.aapl Vi th moet of tbe tiui tioo eltaete, cuatrar-t to 8 ea:rll. o.nl$ ot other to.veat1 ~ ('4)tt fall. -4 .Junt (53, 55) atu41e4 copper 4 lea4 &l'IIIC~te mt.ea polarogra;blcally, epectropbotometdC&l.lF, :potet!,aaetricallf, -4 in o1dP' to potulate poaaibl obelate n.ng etructu.re tor theae tertal -.cl to detemiJ:t.e equW.brt ccnatanta at vwtous Scw.c etzrenat.u. eok -4 &mdera (27, 28) cmduct-4 ,.1_,,,n.,. ~ta m cadmlum and 1rca(m) g1.uconiltea. Mall.Cl' -14 Maley ('61 57) bt,ve obaenect that tbe ,tA1MUt7 ot acme bivat t met&l. eCllpl.uea 4ecreue4 1n tbe to1l.av1q OJ.'der: paJJad1UII, copper, Dickel, lead, co1-l.t, .dnc, udmlua, 1rcm, ... ._ ... 1114111118 neat_ Ptlllllltvm and. c~, ~bl ot tondn.g ~ aque,re p.t.,_ btll48, troD.ae .'t ~t.ea. 'ae t.abilitJ ot t.be caapl.ua Bl~ P!e14erat1ana l>urtng the put cent\U.7; aD4 e,peetalJ.7 vit.b!D tbe 1ut thirty 'teed11y ~irla nll!lber 01 el1111mta havtt bee trm4 to be preaent 1n 11T1ng tls,ue., Deftnite b1ol.og1. -.;;,otattma ban 4tsc0'W'ffe4 tor ~-rl't.a1rn ta pnaent 1D. ve:17 ld.nute aic>UDta, Nlatt to the quant1ttea ot Uie ...u cc:mtltumta lA tbe ttsue

PAGE 14

lJldm (58), tQ. 15)29., ftWll1De
PAGE 15

.t *1b1t a nni'tie at>oon, and tbe slobiD moUCUl 8 l ~.~.ect to lectro4tat1c ttractim be'tiwe.EID ioni lU,'OPiQlde .. aU1'face C ll'OU.P of by oord.1nat1CG 0 td'UOam~tasn,na src,up ot group ot !Wlti&e ( 65) 10 tra:i tn tbfJ ee!'\D not geQeta:U 1 occUI' 1b. tree tate, wt re.t.2-r 1 COIIIPl,etel.7 boun4 to a ~oi,.,.tJ.c protet.111 la\Olll M tnutefflD (66) st~ (67), the 801 t1clD ot tlbtcb PPN,ra to be the t1'10SlkU"t -~:ttm ot trcn. tt ot 11'QQ ela 1n the tmtc S11111w4 < 68 > that .... "-amount 1D quW.1br1Ullt wt.th ti~ ali4 ac~cun.te toithe ircn tnma-tv aero i-eae to tll1Dk tbat a mo;re cmp.1.ex en.,_t1c factor involving territ1D accO\lD.tJ tar tbe fer (69 ). CUJ11:1t t1Mt 1J'Qb blnd11'1g or el4-roJlbilin ts speotn.e an4 .~ U'C mat 1n t11e aeNn m me state tor ~4e4 "rtod ot u.me,; tbe C&JJ&OltJ o, RA:i.!'ln to tNIUpo!'t boP 1 Wteve4 to be b7 tbe cteropbU1n cotltent. KOrml!ll1, about cm tb1r4 ot the a1~11:a ia ~vt11 tnnapatttns ircn, wttb tbe nmatn1n1 etde~in ccapriams tbe .latent U'Cllbindthg ca~ty of An totravenoua lnJectlm of ba'l pi'04ucee an tncreaae sa lJl'OPC)~cz of ll"Oll-atuta: aide~u1 wt.tb tQ7 (ml ot 1~ the blood. tream cl t.eriDc tts ( 65}. 1or 1DIID1 J1U8 UlYUtlQa' bave --.Nbe4 foJ-Cl 1raa ~4 suit@l.e tor pu-ente1'1 adldD1ttraUQQ (70). I.a early U 1898, trm ctuate ad. b-cm prop10P&te __ sn~a eu~ tn

PAGE 16

tNatmmt cbloroaia (71). fb19i~J1J ----.. -.. .. .r.ll.,l;UI. iron c:ttrate 1l"
PAGE 17

12 aaacribed ( 82) It ported to table 1n ~o -end. m yttro, Y1 lov to~ctty er,thropoi 1a. Co'balt vaa ~ted concluaf.vely 1n l9a5 (83). Date euly tucl1' save no deftnlte tn41cat1ao u to t.!Ws phJB101.og1cal tun.etlm of cobal:t. Pour years later, laollWu-., re~s f0Ull4 that tbe n1u1etn.tian .of eobalt 1n relatively larp 'but aublethal atlm11la .. .ed 1-Datopoieaia -4 1duce4 Sn rat, (Sit.). be cqbal.t e
PAGE 18

13 ~obtn. otbN voners, bOll,.,,..ar,. have obaenwc1 tbe ,re~ ot ~ot>tn vhea n--1 hmlillr 'bl ,~tea.t > 1n tbe -:_ ot 0.2 l)eJ' ceot cobalt (91). preNOce ot ~ in anf. tia,ue1 .. aiue k Of Bc,u~ (92) bl l8J3 It -.. not until 1921, bonver, U.t the ftnt evt&m.ce ot a r1olo8S,-1 tmcttte ot tbe lanent,.. tndtca tnve tlaatt<:11.. ta tb&'t ,ear, (93) MIICOYuedi tb.e pJ'el~-of caner 1n the :rrw.m bJ1d.b *141111925; McDaraua (94) i,N.Nllt'.recl ~ ot tbe oopper edl t ot blood -4 ttHUQ, laing the rtci.aea ot tlkt u.vv 1tl tbi .i t. 1928, Bart -4 co...-iren (95) tbat m .ad.ltie to ta eaffbtal ln toi,atl ot hmogloMQ u,. rat,. ~ -4t' IICb1.liattQQ U'OD fr0II\ tbe tl l!il4 tM. uU111at1ca ol bf the bl.004 tond.118 orptus. A ma'ber ol COP.Pff~-~4a llave bee il0lat4tcl h'cm both ao1_ ,., l,a:Dt ~, ot ,ch "" thOl!ll to be .... vttb cttou. -~, but1l'Yl CoA ~- 14-tut..cS a cupn~IJ:J 11b1cb CoPPl' OOCUl'8 ;art ot the

PAGE 19

of platel of :t m the red b1oocl c~ termed~ (1.01) 1119 "'1Jt:1ntn1 plaana copper 1 thou8':lt to loeuly bound to aiQce tt 1 Saly non4Sal71 .ebl (1oa) 14 Several 1Dvuti :tiClll& VS.tb ra41oaotiv coper bave beeo made ot ita &bSOJ."pt1.c:a, 41atributimJ. -.nd dm"etioo tor vartoua-epecl ot e1wJ,, all teo41ng to wcaatrate the poor ~ttm ot orally Mlda1ten4 cop,per cClliplre4 to 1n.1ecte4 copper (l:.02) .. -~ tbe -lit tisa a .ai4 lbOIID b;y ,.._-.;ir,_ ot 11 r m4 k1 y J1C11110amate tbat &JPNeiabl.e 811l0\12.ta ot 1111111&1Qeae looeely 4 iA Q it 1 aechani O't ~t i ---~-tor cell vaU pro r1n. to be pre~ :tt&l. ottSoity ot J.ec.1m't1J, IIIIIUIODeM abom to Uver, cape.ble omitbine (105) 1r acc\lllUlatlcn tn .U OZ"91GI, matnJ 7 the dbeya, liver, ffPeCiall.1 the l)lood 106). It bu t.hat MDprt'We

PAGE 20

1, o%'1lll.f {107, 108). to co the 1Qall811DM& coa:tect of dittl~t, eD,O!Qlm~r.e~!t
PAGE 21

~ceri. tratim ot 11n 1n peripbenl v.lth eert.a.111 t1Pea l'eGl.1CeC1 bel 1.v JnJ~t! to l't,1ee drle left1 SA 8\JCh CU4~1 (ll8). ce no ct,rb(l11e anbydr-ue aet1vtty hae ,et be4IJll .8hcND tor tbe pl ... siM pNMDt ill 1a thc111ght to t 1n _.. 0tMr t dnc OCC\11" 1it caaldD&ticn wt tb ce or more p1..,. proteine, ss.n.c. pa.t1ct1 vitb albtamurta a:;cnt4, oe tbe :vuep, aevc time much dnc in t.lM;:lr urtzua ddl.7 aa do DOl'lllll. 1n4ifl4wll (l.20) .. It baa been amoaatftl.ted tMt after tntn.~,aly JnJecting a c1l.lc aal:t in.to a n.bb1t, the .&Inc ccm.ten~ ot tbe ~)1'.e rl4U cnly,.. as la-. level ~n .ievaw (121). Pe~b1Ut7 0 ~1'6 pe!IDeabtltty Of the red ell MIIM'IIM to VU'iOU. elecvol.)'tea -. been tbarougblf revift94 bf p:ravi~ vorkera (122, 123). J)l tbi uet1e11., ad41 tica&l. 1rltonat.1ai CClQCU'lliQg tile bellolytic ettect. an4 ~-p!IIMU.tion by metalUc -u~. vUl be pz,1N11tec1. l'Q -.rUer U i.rature., rytbroc,te aa 't:te&ted u a catim-1mpe~e cell (1.24). With~advtnt ot 180t01dc tncv tec:blllQUe; the ab1lt ty ot c'1"t.1Ltn C.U0U to peeir.te the bftne. llU &ao:n1+.;z,atec1 (125, 1.26, 127). cell .....

PAGE 22

8114 rubldl chlor1 a ~ted leg \ID cblortde iJi Uft!!Vtm:ting OaotiC hlmolnt Of bnz, l,l,I.Ul,AI, 1i11rw!m1111U1 c l\11 Utbt cblo.r14e were .auuia1 to mon 17 ettects.ve (128). AltnoU81l l"ed ell 11111!!11ib1'11111! 1.s 11DJ)!P!D~Le to ao4tllll D.Ol'!ma.L ~~ttcna, PotM\ID 1 to al.owly traver it. 1'be acitua.t UCltllllal!J ot fntncellular ~.a 1 evalellt to ~idt411 l cent el' bouJ' t tal'rpll"a~ (1.29). an4 Croes (130) touad tbat aluUne iflillith .cattc:m in b1btte4 ~ by tb. 4igS:tm1n bypotmtc aoluUau m t.MOl"der ot wreu1Dg ectivlty; -.,.ea1\II, eal.cf etrant1um, wt.m, A1W1M ..-rtll tea, -.td to tbican tbe ._. b1 Uieoluble Ml.ta 1dtb tbe phoapb&ttae e,cl.4$ P2'e :t 1n -11. cro.la (131) later tO\lld t aJ)aJt -.rth caticm.a tbe Nte Of ~yell ln4uce4 111' ~1D 1n tbe tol.lodn8 or4ffl Dlll8Mt11 1 ea1.e11.111 > atrcaiti\lD > bN'lum, Al~ IINJlm ad cal.cf.um 1Dcreued tbe raw o~ ~1 b7 IO(li'lJII} eet11 IUl.fate eoat.im i.ar,J. hltate, tbe7 w no eneot bSW>l~ia Snauce4 b7 ~tyltrio.111-.-ce ot an4 l:MtC .. lea resistant t,o .1111:Ui~ t lJ1 bn,otmlc aolutlaDa, tbe ettect ill CNU11~ witb 111 1nc1W.ae bl ttr11Nte4 to act1Cm m llellt.etti (133) that tbe actiao. o~ metaU1c salt.a an deeD,4a an botb OQle trats.011 U4 activity ot fJleir

PAGE 23

1 to P1'(K1UC:e Dl!IDOlnU, the ~Jl,l,,//,,J"4V 4IINl'cllv1'ty 1DCfte~Ulta t < ti1 l'CUl"J', p,,U dum < < U Beea 9DCl ltler (13'l) DO~!t(l that od.S.um cblQd -,l.ut1ou vbich the Nd~~ CQllpUeClea, to ta.1 8D4 uU 1be lWIDQJ.YtlC $Ct1v1t7 -.N4 tbe._tou.ovsna __ ,._ ... ordu: oopper > 1 > t1tl ) a.lrmml,ftl!ll"M,J )Dickel >fllnl_,mn.m1m) Set!IMG. to tbe 4Uut1Cll of the Jll\Sl-.S .a --iDhlb t1tute4 for the Ml1M fOlutiCO abcM1 (135) all .n' ~-, vltb d,Qe i,tie Uvtt7. val. e at.a o bclmolyttc power ot ._,_~wcponi?A GI t.he 1A:ticn of cowt' al GD. ~., ... t c1 te, tartrate, btmlQIIW1 :t.t# beaJ'lbUtyrate all 1tdlar4'J balOlY the ~:,tq 1n mcea ttt:Ga abcwe 1.3 10 /11:tar, cauHC1 ut Um in CClllCtm-tl fJ'QD 1 10 to 10-S #IDle/U ad nan~c .a.cen:taUcDa

PAGE 24

19 cell$ to ~c aol.uticn (137). ~t.be~ as. (4) a"'ll!i,IIIJ9ted t .u.l.ftte _, n4 blood u more t to bmol.181 ~cilQ).uti '.bJ~ (5) t17 DQt1 ua-uwa1 ~*""'or 111 IMlmolytlc almilll':tllMln J low tbe &inc aat.t to protect ~-1 val a vere obt&11le4 tor Metal J:tc catlca are tcun4. mU..tel.J uaociatecl vita protdila tbrouQbo\lt bioloslcal ,,._.~ Our4 an Wilcox (138) Qle1oe4 tbat oa. tbe characterie'tica ot tbe tvo in41rl4ual C
PAGE 25

a, ton (139) qteif:l.e 1il araJ. pan iii tbe true tbe PJ'O~ teta. 1be ma!rt.a!U. tn ~Ul atruatmie., !he na &'Dl:lll'AC~vi (1.41). (llt<>). ot 1IIWIIIW'!lrawl Vi t.bollt the re OCMIA Z'fffflJJbl.1', AmzlN9tot1CIG~ 1.ben ue two .-nJ, tY,Pti of talP"Qtein "~"""' ~-,.-. tn,blcb MCb 11111:111<11 combtnfl vltb a e1ng1le USIIDd a:raup ... :te "'Ollp1 1n llblch -= tat lcn canhtQea th two or aore U-4 gcUpa. ~:,pe e.ttect tbe IIO.b;abf.U:t7 ot tile protdaj t~ eaiapl.e, laoelectric bUlDID ol>:SA at pl 6.6 -14 00 t lllucb '41:llbl. .tteithe .W.ticn ot dtlc eta.te tban 1n ,,,,.,,,v media ccnt&fn:tns tal.7 8041. ..ita (141.). .flt tb,e otbe1' haa4, ~-(,.tn)e, Cbalate --1 ~ill *lex, .IIQN ltOl.ubl.e tbe tal tree protdn dltr et~ CCl14tt!.Qll8 (l!ta) .. Cban:p1 ~. A't r/J, in NDce ot 0.01 too. M, CC111-, Ce!D'trati of 1-4 8114 s1nc .:Lt., it we tCQld tbat IQ1ubWt7 oz MNll -1.'buldn ,.. sree.UJ Gaczaeaae4 ovw nD8ltl of a to 8 ft:lr the 1111.ta ot 1M4 81'4 5 to 8 :tor t.be -.tta (141). tht tulf,

PAGE 26

the ettecu:v u ot sc:ae trans4t1aw.l eltlllell'ta 1n pne'ipttating b\llilD eeJ"\all alblmliJ:l m the pH rlllllilB ot 6 to 7 was f0\1114 to be tol.J.awe in *l'9Uina order ot ttect1 e : copper, cadil1Ulll1 dnc t and niclrel. lb pceral; the a441.t1m of -.U. proportiaa.a 01 tal salt to P10tein aolutima reeulta in tbe ~d t0ftl&t1CD of Ver' 'bullq prectp1-t&tea (143, 144). Ansc:ll end Mtraq (1.45) have stated t.bat baDogl.<>btD te a tn,ical coagulable protein, tb.e procea of other p-oteSDe. 'lbq !lave t.beorizecl that haog].0\\1tL 1 ~-,. into ~. 'l!Mtse kers stated tbat the denatu:rat1an ot 21 hemogl.obir.\ ls e. rever ibl pl'QC dure but tllat the tlocculattcm ot t.be 4eDatUred pioote1n .makff :l:t &~ to be 1"'1WU81bl.e !DMJJ tO\md bemo globin to be deaatured b7 ~, aci4, ll'aU., alcohol, meebaD!cal lbaJr:lna, potualum 1o414e, potuelm tbloc,-.t., aodta -1.ic!Yl&te, -4 ccncentrated ure& oJ.u.tlme. Wl.l eo~mrti (l.a.6} bave 1*lt1med that ~ble btmostobin &matuMttcn, called peeudodeQatuaticn, att-.cta the proatbettc group 0Dl,7 therefore beiDS tun4amerlta111 4ltti rent trail tbe denaturatlcm ot other protein 1be;y found. t.b&t ~bin dmatured b7 lbufns could not be reveried back to it orisSAal tOl'lll. Bavl1n.an (147), in 1938, stw11ed the effect or the 41valct lcna ot cop.per, dnc, and 118l'C\ll'1 the protein ot rabbit blood p1fpent. Be 4-'t*l'lllined. the range of pH vttbiD 'Wb!eh glob1D ancl ~ob111 wen pNeipitatecl by ..U amounts or dnc tultate.., copper aUU.te, and merc\lric acetate. Gl.obin-.. ccmpletel.7 pnc1p1tatecl b7 elDc ice at pB 7.5 to 9.6, b)* cupric ion at pH 7.0 to 8.2, eel b7 mercune 1m at pH 6,3

PAGE 27

to 9,0. OJqbemoglobtn vu ccapletelf prec1p1ta by zme id:l at pl 7 0 to .l., by cuprlo ton at pH 7 ~o 10. 0 1!le :onctp1tate o ot a tor mc:m; 11 al14 WU aol.uble SA e1't'Mr 4Uute acetic acf.4 or dUute IU!IICllfa. Die proteili to bave tuftered no ;pel'llllllmt cbUge u a result ot 1ta preclplt&ti011. lt abon4 the nOftllll epac tor ~Obin and the oqpn couJ.4 NIICWe4 by repeat.e4 IUili ri&UCD vttb pure hydrogen 'lbe mercurtc~obin c0111pO!lD4 otpita vitb the m:tn:lmel uaomt ot Ml'CUric ace :te re ma1Ded ~tly un'-illllltlS4 tor time vbeNu that precipitated vltb a larp es ot the ealt caused the pipent to Cthanp eN]fl&DWI, to torme.t1011 ot panbem&ttn 1be copper-o~glob1n ""' alaoet ~tel.7 CD111111Prf.lto a browo.tah aubatlmce rep.rdl.ea o proportim ot tbe cower t uae4 to prec1ptt&te it. '!be brolm1 aubatence 1D aJkeJ1ne IIOlutioD bad a apacu,a 80l1N!91bat 41Jdlar to tllat ot aJll:aJ1ne b pumeabtl1 ty of the red c ...brane to var1ou8 ci-pm.c an4 illorpDiQ pOUD4a bu bee renewecl bJ" recent wonen (8, 122 123). 'lhe ot tht aect1~ la to britly cctLalcler-. pmDeab1!1+-7 ot the 1Delllbru.e to OJ'811111C anions ao that a better undentaad1ng ot the poaaible a.ctivt ty ot the gl.uccmate im may be reached. 1bit N4 cell 1e :ncofJlised M betuc quite pcmueable to va,te.r an4 to

PAGE 28

23 tlMt membl'lllie to ecdcna ts stiated 1ns about 1o6 t a tbat to potud.la (148) PmcSer (148) elrl)lafn. ed that n.ptd voluae C1NIAP, in 4Uc:!d bf cbenSSns the cC11CeDtntion. ot te or ot ncrael~ 1n tbe aua-a1Cl'l ., ten to W:OWll t :boutb7 tar al.~, ttat 1a; the cell tccla to heave aa an oaometer. Hober (llf.9) ncopi-4 the klcCIISlpletmesa ot Oil.!' Ullderat/11\cHng of ~ neabWtJ to o -2,cma. Re ~Mnte4 MTeral tacto:ta t llll1't caia14aed tat. e i,p1a1ntns t.be ~c Chene,, o~ cell vL&L.rdet' tn 11hich 101Da ~c antma appearea to protect abb1t ~yte 11aafn1-t oamotic ~1a ,.. tal"trate, euco~te > citrate )~soaw > utate, ..U.cylate, an4 bensoate. for buman bl004, tbe order c,t J'l'O teott-cn to be t&rtN.te > sucoiile.te > p 1w1ne qlate > p...,,,.,,,_ l:Mte10&te ) saU.cylate > ben&0&te, tb citrate t&lUng betwec ~t.At Md p11dQobello6te. depen4.iQS on.oetraticm. Ibey noticecl tat tbe protective e.cttca ot the oraantc d ffeme4 to tncreue v:ltb In ottere4 .. a poplbl.e ell;'Plenatt.011. 11Jclr&t1ca of tbe 1n:!on eoui.d 1ll1d.er tedllbl.Y-1ncreue the --ttve cmcentatiCb ot ,olute by

PAGE 29

4Ul'etu.t.e4 b1004ccmU~ta blo04 ~.. _, tb cai, SJi 6,.o. 1etimce el".'t~oeYt.es. ot vari. QeC1e8 CQllta1n .tDNll\ 110el.ectdc t,JJ tile trca& ~~~u-4 ~ ( 151) t tbe ~c a-r1teta: ~Q2Y't1C 4oae ,&baarbe4 lJ1' t'M ,at ,,...._._~SaJ,],.e C!ClqD~la lflU!ir'i.ll (152) Sirtll"OClll~Ulto vlt.h t.he ceU ~-~Il a.l'9 plaCed 1n a 41o.ra1.ow~--11l~~t~tlN'Jll111 c.11.-~ u~ em~ .or mt-=' 'chlo:rl&t iaia to1' utema:L lV4ro01 1Gll8 ---~ cell Snterior ftlgJ tne

PAGE 30

tb1t NUCll cell$ keef tt.e 1n ...U\111 ad 'ht~P'ft4 t.bail in aeutriLl. or eJJcel 1ne .-oluti~. When ceU.a bitCGlae Jll0Clantel7 ri "IJU1.t.1Dg &K!NYIJM 1D t.be i.Qte OSIIIOtiC F988ll:!r'B of tbe cell, ce11 vol I l,ncrease in Of tbe cw. t.o 11s1 by bypotadc solut1Q.l (153). Hulan red bloo4 c.U. ln. Al.toe cUa ccm:ata1na beglA to t pH 7.0, u p8 1 Nduc WlfN'd9 polDt of 1 pH 6.6 6 .8, tbe cNDattans ~F;l!ILILet until about pa 6 .o, below wbicb cell, U1eot4 llltil tbq to l\tmOlyle tt 5.4 CrtllDllti un.~"" $e COl141t1cu to uaoeu Cl')'8ta.Ulat.101l ot Dell~ LOl)::ln. CnDat101l .:Lao allOire a.o t.be eel.ls ... a peri'ectl.7 ,-ootb epban.cal tom at p1I 9.2 (1$4). deCDcllet.rate4 (1S5) that the ~--~ 1.DcNUe VS.th tbe ti o~ sul.hrlo i untU b81ol.7u reeul l'n oamot1c ~, 1lfllll!QSJ.ob1n fl.ova O\lt ot ceUa Vl:lalt'M.11 1D cl 1nctuce4 he,lJ$ ftadin JbOIDJIJb' (156) tom4 tbe ordill" o'l etteotivcieias ot 1Dorem,1c act4a 10 praaucsoa hemol.y81 ot eytbroc,tee to 1 ~c, Aitnc Uate4 l.rl f -,nae!q a.BetOI.Cld!r alatlr&t than cells to maolyau ~~bJ ac141ty. JD CQDcmtn.ttcma

PAGE 31

Clo\18 l'G bealol711ia, t e .. 1.0 to 2 .S, tblflJ to C.U --~-~ te,QD4 that llibidh Uld. HCW:-in olal0t1o ~11J tib ebOWd tbat U1 ~ 1rld11ce4 by aclb., t.be o.U coo1Utuel:lts 04 f.be .-14 vu ,e~ tON ~pt \Ml 1 ttd.a wae m putt to tbe r,,.pt4 penetaUcc ot t.11$ -1c1a uto tbe .. 13. 1931, Si obal : (l'7) ~d t.u't equ:apa io, JS aa ..... eQUl.4 wau.rable t.b4 o~ 4e o~ haol,19te In a ,..._. ~, farputt !& 11. (158) ~atfllt.4 t.h&t b:r lovering t.1I ftall 6.79 to 6.59 a ilalt :ttatlao ot o.,a, c&t. _. nee4et to ~t 50 i,u cent ot f.be e~ ~,tea ~g 0.500 .Pd ~t G&l.t ~tNtttco ha4 been neeae<1 P'l to 10tftrln8 --end t a.t pa 6.67 i to ~1 iOll* t pll 6~8, to rubiti icu at p,11 6.gs, to -.l t
PAGE 32

C<*l.C'en tt0t1 o~ l:Wd~m t or ~ql. :1! an C&JMIJ:>:Le 01 ~r ib al.'ttlQ~ revereibl..,

PAGE 33

1be cbcle&la uaecl 1n tb1 invat1pt1c:n obte.ine4. frail aom-merc:lal ~ 1he chemicals are l1ai.d m '!Ible 1 alcq "1th tbeizt source,,,_ ronaulu, gl'ad.ea, and 10t nll!Sbers. 'Dle abbNViatiorut uee4 an4 their meen1n81 are ae tollova; A Amend !>.rug Cbmdcal Co.,, IAe. C Cbel!lo Pura ut'Acturtng COl"p M Mal U.nck:roclt Cbemaical orka MIC Merck ilD4 Co.~ Jna P Chu. fflaer end Co., IAc. Collect10t1 ot 81.ood 'lhe rabbit blood u.ae4 -.a Qbtame tr0ill healthy -1.e ad f..:l.e :rabbit& by heart puncture, A 17sau81, 2nCh swrUe d1Q08&bl.e n"41.e ttac:bed. to a 1041.. ateJ'ile rln8e ,.. employed to make m.tnnee into the heart. '1be card1ac pmcture WM acb1ne4 tbe lett tottJreoetel spaces u near to the~ possible 1n Ol'QU' to avoid. 1nJu:ry to the pleural cavi t)'i. App.roxlme.t.i~ 10 al. or bl.004 vu wt thdraWn end !mmed1ate11 detibrs.n.ted by gentle rotatl~ WS.th 10 to 15 glaa beade cmtained 1n a 5()-ml.. J'lQNDCe tlukt After swirlina the

PAGE 34

u: l CHDaCALS USED II l'DPARD'G sown Chmcal 8otJ.lice fol'IIIUla Lot lo. Calcium 01.uccmate A Ca(C6ffu0.,)2 xv 051716 Cob&l. t Glucc:mate. C eo(C6Bu'7>a Beftned 8320 Copper 01 :te p eu(c6llu'7>a t1Jie4 5998 tlU1 Oluccaate A ( C6lfu 0,. )2 '21feO DU E5Y797 aim 01.ucoaate p (061\J.O. ) B 0 72 2 Reftae4 5208 MIDsmeae Olucanate p Ml(0~)2"2,0 Ret1r.t.ed 5W Potual\11'1 Gl.uconate p 1D6~< Retinecl 51368 aod.l\11 Carbcrtate M ~C03 Rea,pnt CJR So4i\lll Chl.orit. MIC laCl Reeemt 51587 So41um Gluc:anate p tfaC68iJ.07 e&e4 G5lll8 Z1nc Gl\lCCll&te C ( ClJl.u 'r >2. 11ao Retilu,4 7704 a SocUla chloride tor bicl<>gtcal 'WOJ:'k. tlu.k tor approxlmately t1ve mlnutef, the ci.t1brlnated. bloocl _. c1ieallte4 into a 50 Erleameywr tl.uk and aente4 by 81Dtl.e rotatlm ot tbe nau ~or about nve mnute. 'lbe humlln blood. YU Obta1ne4 Qhietl.7 trail tbe vema ot U'IIII of a twntytive old vldte male. Several ~ts Wl'9 ccm.4ucte4 apl.OJing blood bate4 l>'1 maie vc:u.ateer 1be bl.oo4 waa dra1ID hall the arm ot the 4m07 with a hypodenlic a,riDp an4 neecue -.c1 treated 1D the ._. manne!' aa the rabbit blood. Preah blood aampl.e wre us throughout tble tnveat1pt1011.

PAGE 35

~ucii ot Soluttou Solo.tima ,of t.be cbfmd.Cl&l. Gl4,at1Dcea 1Nl1"tt b7 tatdns vblch vwe 'brouaht to vol\llle "1th trl,l 41at1lle4 :ter-. AU o~ tbe chlad.cal Q;c.ic: trat1cu wn ca:J.culeted '*' tene ot tbe .it. Atl -PN)draate 4Uut10il ranp .. detemtnftd. ff# each ..i.t by ccai~ a pre1Sm1nu,-..-ftllt*l'lt in -ob tbe c$cmti'att4rl ot cbea:lca1 nttlcict to pnvct beila17Wts an. tbie---. cCllCel1tl.'at1i p-Nteent without pteftnting bemol."1 IDStitu 1:M lJ.m1ts 0~ tJ1e Cltl1N4 na.p .. Variowi 1ntl:tmecUate cmomtratiaua wen --. pNpaN4. .a tbe QPtrtment rn, ~ts -lo1!Da 801ltt&a.a, contasiasna 1'oth 8041\a chlortcle ID4 tbe CMlll1cal under inna'tipU~, tbe eame procetlure ._. ~. Quut1tat1'e Detem1Dat1011 ot lv-Cent~1 tllethOd used to cSeteJ'mt,rJ.e the c!lqne ot flemolpia vu esaeti tjUv tbat ot Hunter (162). It 1-. <:ll t.be tact t.lMJt. tbe ..,.ut,ot red ~o 1D uua.ct tn:. tbe ~Jte, bJ & ~c aol\l ttm a a cl1rect tunct1m ot tbe propox;tim ot NA coi,,uaclu beaalyut .. Ju1n1 of ~ytea in 0.1 per cent aodlum carbQQA.te ~ttm, repreaentlJ UD1t71n e~ea1ng tbe d,ePff of hemolyela occurrin& Sn a. s,tve ot eal.t oJ.utiqa. 9-.e Cl'*ltitativ de'tetldnatic or tbe p,ro p0l't1m ot bemo:t,..1e 1n a salt aol.uticm of e,q atreJlgt.b ta acldevecl by centrlfUSSna any unbemo.t)'Mel cells Ju.et prior to 'tbe amouot ot o~obin preMDt 1D tbe supuaatant mution bJ meua of

PAGE 36

a pl\O~c colorllletff. 11-metlaocl arpl.oyed ta tbe: ~t oQ181tJte4 ot volumetn.~7 tnufentns 411pl1cate, ml. port!~ ot stllDJ.ooc1 ,_. aao.. t'UbM ~7 ..u-4 ..... 1 t1JDe to obtAin cCIIIJi)letb m-1DB 'lhe blooa~t.1:t were the p.l.acd. 1D a ter :th at 11 tor tort7-ft 1ll1nuW At t.ba -4 ot W ~.......... m.txtw.-es lltea a'b appro:d. .. ttl.J a)OO r.p. A 11.it~~ piOtoel.atrlc ~-with a llo. areftlter vu us-4 tc tb 8IIICftlllt ot Ugbt b7 1:11e eupematant l1pbl, Cdlllplat.e ~1 ot l\\,.. d n.bb1 t bloo4 ,.. eftectecl by p.i.cs.ns 5 ml.. ot o 1 per ccmt tube, ad41ns to it 0.05 111. of bl -4 mtwJn.a... Attff &UOldl,g the tube to tor pnecribed fOJ't.f..,ftve l.ltea at n, ~Uon ._. centrttuaea tor thNe JU.DU s tbe eioun-t ot Usbt de. tel'll1De4 cal.011.JlletrioaJl.7 ft audl tubea WN to1' .-ch l)J.004: per1m11>.t41 rm. !be averNe ot the tlv MM'1np repreatnted a. 100 er t beruoJrta ffl m4 w.a '8Ul:f1Mtpiatl7 empl.ojll ill cul.at!q the gree, of ~ta ot tbe bl to. tbe nriaua aalt eccceotn.tiQDs. A bl.-k vu 'bJ plac!!Qg 0.05 ml. ot h1.oo4 1A 5 ml. ot o.a, PP' c:ent o4i cbl.Oricle aoJ.uttr:a, &U.ov1Q8 to a"'-4 ft1r toz,ty-ftve adn\ltet C trlfual.ne. 1b cQlotS.tv ,_. ca,Um,ite4 t.o UJ'O by

PAGE 37

, t eQll.ltim -t1'0 ""~19 o.f eadl. salt CQG.OelltiaUQQ tlle &VU'al!De 1'M4f.1JS o~ ~~,.-CJ "1 tll CU'baaat. eolutf 11 'DaelM alcui.Uons dtlJU 'bf 100 tl1'eQ ft!IJNal!ni:ed tba S:U.ane m att c:cmcieat1'ttex1 wt t.b wre,:,e= IIIJll;pl. ot nc..a blood Datri. (a). Jrq nw 41.ae to W.. 1*riat1m ,.. 1111'1/SIIS b7 n1u1WH1t __ ot bel'ool7$1s -.oh '\,lc,o4 --- 1D. i-04t atl.-ondt aolutlme ot-ccocet1tret1Clii~ ~t cClmplLl4.aca tJae esev-ot 1n c~ttaU or"*'* cblortte aolutton 1114 e01.ut1Cll ot ecae t obta1necl. Ol~ttce of Pe Ceilt iallolpia -r..11n, v.l u,ti(u b aoluttcs. ot 8,l.,._~ tuUe ta tbl& vorit -.reN :tltatt ;1t.mtll1Nllitlta Of~ JU cLt t\em01,-te Qttvo181ttboda-WN, e~a Sn triple Ull.e4 'tidr wu --4 1n U. emtMlt. to two co).orimeter tu.bee, cant.adr,tng S ~ of tri:Pl .11t11J-4 _. -4 t.h6 cont,alntns 111.. of th$ ctOlore4 gl.~t. aolutim. a tb1r4

PAGE 38

41 llllt'A!li" "11!~1-.. tn. vol taeh~ tJdr4 ~gl.ob!A O.X:,Del!IO&JLObS.n 1114 vltbln ~ll!l'.le:r1DM!!ntal en-or ti to be tbe '9Ql.ut!Ql tore l!MJir Y .... Ull::11 subtnc to oxpe1110gl.ob1o JJCl:utiari pl.acec11n M.l..iDfllM. 1'41' retlOUt.a t Wa l'OII.U.Ut.a ot tu UCQl.:t.e eolut1CllJ 1f .Gtm~ to se,, colortmetei--retld.11:ap .. timO~bl.ood Col01'1metriQ:.IUJl4PObWD.ed ~!Kl to pet 0.112& alt>llapbf!!llflcal.7 accurate :tl0D ot t.hi ~b1n ct.in 33 It U. colore o~ ~obtn 11114 the gJ..ucQm IJQl\ttf.cm 1Mft not tomd to t1Y NCCDCl two c1ev18e4 -, -l,01ft rn t.h1e met.hod tbe Pff cct lu;,'llllu.J.J _. by 4itteND. tba~ 11 tbe -,unto OlQm.DORLOb ~asil111& 1n the erJthroc)'tea Dot ,-t bal1,-4. Dl'OeeGl.e o1'J4 'Wbel1 dHl tns vitb cQl.or -aol.uticm ca.med out until po:lnt tollow.tng tri.t\lef.U01.L ot e T.Ju .. ,u., .just prior to tile tbat the colorimetric "911Wl4111 to -ta1r,rin, uu1:'l".AIU'I o ....,..;uag ,wad1np, tbe eupel'D&tan.t 80lut1c.i ot tbe cdJ.oNc1 sl: te 4 ~emogl.obiJi t'rall 1 ekitd cell8 vu mettculbwdy dtlcute4 nan tube, iz)g, tul not to 41aturb cell.a CUJ~lg T .. IIPll_,.1~ t.o tbe bottan, ~Iott ftl'e tbeD .. nt,4 td o.a, per cent \.a cbl.od aolutlCJQ, recmtrttup4 48-emted, the pi-oceu be1nc nDtARl untU tM auptnm Up.cl wa tree ot coJ.or. RJ:el'lli&tant Uqu14 () the laat wullll.l:aa atlQ!lll'ted acl

PAGE 39

0 1 color color.tmeter Bi anlftai11& i-.itaa:Ullit of two cll2pl1 te 1!:'li~'IA trcm tbe NNMlfns r,'f 100 'Pt!' cct col.orSlNtrtc v-1 cell ortgh\lll 1 1711 ca1c:ula 111 ~, the Of D\Ni,l;.J.. U chl.or1. aolut10D CGate sol.uticn ,.. teJllldn .. n~te4 1J1 aocum cl.alori #Olutl o~lrl emlJ.84 trcm tile Prall tbls; ce1.1t baDO uaed 111 tld.a ,-ple 1r1 coo~traucu ccmcea uane ot pl.otUDg t.he per cea.t r.o1,-ta otbar_ :ta. tbe C'UJ9V'el IIIM.l'WA6l~ tm aaaree ot Ullll~, ia ill botb the. tbe ./100 al aodl\11 cbl.or1 obtlll ~cl 1111.a1.v::a..u.M aearee o hemol~t, the ~UI.Jf c1 :t.lefWtbe btdl:lS 1JiYeettpte4 be cal,.cul&ted acco,:ra.:;u::uz to tol.l.ov1ng

PAGE 40

( ,-aoleo\ll&r wtabt 0~ llaCl) Jll1mtng .aa l..86, acJ.utiCD. coefflc abO'Y'te :ttcn ot t !Qr -fOl' 0.9 t (0.15 1'1 1 v-1 of locU oblbride .. ma ot gt ixas 25, 50, 4ftibblt~ onatea oatU'lltUMd ill tbo prHlllLC JU' 100 ml ot ~+\IW cbloride t~-pl~ta Di~~ ~ti -,oJS,ilg 1l"0D aalt, a ot tbe blood vaa m .-venl. OCCMS~. It ,,.. ,US pete4 :t CGe .,_.1bl cause ot uch darJamDa-.. the ac141ty-qt the soluttcu being te,tea (163, 164). tnce tba ctire halo.lrb:tc metbo4 48,pell4s en the aceurate calorl.metrt.c ~tim ot cbeft7...S oq-.An t vu carried out to tb4I ...,..,_ acid1t7 t.b&t aolutico bM'e vttbout al~ ool.or ot tbe

PAGE 41

IJIIIII'--~-tr vol 7 e.QQJ.Da q;uel. u ties o tn.bnna bl teat tu c00tatn1ns ..... -..... 41atllle4 ,._., tube ~CIJLUU.Dllt,g col.0r.1.1m1:tt1 'IRil""'-vol ft tri w..a..~ ter, nAJZrae ot ac141t7 ot bl.004 faU -to l)l'(J each ct the tubee 0.05 mL. o:t h'e.tl 4eftb:r1Datecl rabbit 'blOOd vae added $114 tbe tube caretul.17 btverte4 to obtain cmplete mixing. 2be tubes then place4 in ter ba.tb at ;f' tor tort7'1Ve minute after wbidl they ve.re treated 1D tbe u.ual. Jl8l'lM,. tor tbe 4etena1Dat1oe of per ~t bemolya1s ot tbe, bloocl 1D ea.ch tube, Bt :Plott1Da the per cent beaolysts ep1na. t the o
PAGE 42

wll CClllll*J~:m. ot t. Sllfll:>es ot curve al U proviaed a meia1t1s ot. attri~tinj portlcm o~ bemol.yda 00-. currms 1n blooa-gl:uciate mu:t\11.'lles h,lf'lblclUIMl 1. CQbC8Q-. tn;ti(G. Dtte1'1dnat1m ot MetalProtelrl Prfftpt t&tlon 'Befort attallJt _. made to determine bemolyt1c !. 'fi.1.uea, a teat ,.. l'\'ll to 4etel!ID1ue whetb.er or not prec1Jdtat1cm oc-. vblli a 901 ttcn ot tn. vu to aollarl of tile gJ.uccmatt. One per cat aoluUQU ot -glucan&te Wl"e MPIJ'&.t411.7 1l1D4 vltb equal p)l"tt.OD ot ~btD. ,ol.ut.t.cm by l&\1ng "91be4 ~, allowed to in ta bath tor torty-ftve ldmltea at n; centritqltd aD4 obaerve4 tor ffidmc ot prec1p1t&Ucm. Dluila.l tbl course ot a ~c Z"Qll1 such pi"Hip1 t&t1ca. vow.d cauae the colorimetric rea41n8* to ~-tcx,eJJy lonr tbliil. t.boM vb:lch wuld retul.t traa tbe pl'Op0rt1cn ot ~slobin _..,ll7 ~~aa ftm the i.u.4 ~--Addit.1.cmal e,perlmcta were carried out to detez,id,u or Mt eerum proteina WN JINC1p1t(t4 by the gluccaate solutleoa. aerm vu eeiarate4 1'rGll blood ceU, by celltrUuel,t1cm ed. ad4e4 Sn like porUcma to 1 pa.r cent aolut1Cll8 gl:u~cnate. 'D)e. mixture wre obeerved. niaeatecny tor f'orty-n.ve minutee 4ur1ng *1.cb ti. U-7 vve Sn a tu bath at n Dur1DS -.ell d.eterm1naticn of bemolytic !. 'Yal.uea, the gluccoateblood m.1xtl.lres wre obaened. for ev14-c of pncip1~t1cn ..

PAGE 43

t p()Snts t soluUcna (165) moditie4 (l.). ~vu ttm to, rtor to -... ewt ya fitte
PAGE 44

vu tit thua ea:lt.. tor u to be 'te$'.'Cff .. plac 1n $.\\fflCi t to OVd bulb of a,e:-,z~ tJ:_,,ICIDI!!~. A qumttty of QLI.QQ.&.u tu.be ite thin~ rose to .t.bJ'l &1mol. ... t.(Wt(J a 1"1 Juet aboY tliat of tbe ..>J.,uttc;m._ m tu IDrlu-tu1*, 111. the Dnai' .ua.nu. d\lPP1+1 of ntm,l!i'l' l1Q.U4. lm1n8 the cSer tel'llW:Ja ;ttoru,., au Plallt,G t1u:'Oup u.e tbw *~1& 1t to ev,mo3 l'a:te at a. cxatroU.a. b1 mteuiv ot aemtlco, C to f:teetae tbe eolv t o1 the teat ol.uU 1 it ,,.. neceqaq to tbe ._,_ntun ol tbe tJI to al>Out .;.icP. 81 carelull.1 CQDtrollJ.h tbe 3te ot aeM cool 1ng 'Dtc"*Ul was :~u.& ope,attcn, Mob tlffed rt~ 804 can~ wt not to a tM ~.r bulb or .-,:q vam au c1tND Snto t.be l1CJJ14.-eQt bellU 1 bee. em1l HPl!l,l'll'te uttca., tbe at1 2'&-W ln.CHNe4 until WU n.QM11b ~ to uch _..t t.e.; tlle Wlll)ilNt"'" eU bel.OIJ treez1Z1a potn ot aolutim tbell. to n..a. pata.t 8114 1WDaSned t.ben tor aevfl'll1 r, NUna cace NlliA 1be ~t\ll'e ot t.bt ~Wium poillt vu .. the tnesiq p:>1nt o-t tl)e 801ut1

PAGE 45

,ca.le Of ... &ce\1ft.tel3 to 0;.01
PAGE 46

'-80IIIERSClf COLOBDll"JZB 10B 100 P'IR. Cll'T JDll>L!StS =~:+ ~ : i.:~ O.l PIR ca? S01>lll( CAKJDIN1'E SOWTIOB l a 3 4 5 0 7 a -9 10 3'0 361. 399 35) 292 337 373 321 36t 404 m 291. 332 405 371 36lt 32]. 352 3(,8 40S 371 302 325 39') 3S5 3(i8 31,8 354 365 m 361. a82 331. 399 361. 356 321! ,360 4lt. ~ It l22 t.l ... 363 ...m Averap 350 4ot. 36ll 292 329 39l 363 321 (!able cmtmue4 cm tol.l.ovSq pap)

PAGE 47

1!ABm 2 ( ccatSnueA) ; 11 -12 13 14' l5 1 "' 16 A. i:7' ."' l.B 19 8) -300 es& 306 1n Z'fO m 311 all 296 ]SJ 2S4, 339 362 341 26a 300 29') ~ 288 J78 256 I 2Q 303 300 220 3(S 382 34-9 .3lf1r 369 3 m.. 399 ,3\8 I ~O, m,~ i25, -l'!2 :..m Avenge z,a 300 306 30() jtf 254 342 (~ble c!Ollt!lmied -g

PAGE 48

TABI.B 2 (ccat!nned) 2l 367 ]61. 339 334 316 3(a J'[O 340 321 324 371 353 329 323 m.. n,. $3 _33! l s 366 366 3'9 332 329 3)9 3Sl 346 3\3 3'16 386 390 31)6 390 ...JCA '388 392 V' w

PAGE 49

. J .~' $;; j :t J iili ........, .., "' I .. J~. .,. ... ~ i t .lt ;;s 8 ii j~' I .. Ji )jjJ: f J ~it &~f f

PAGE 50

TA1ttB 3 ( CCllt1nuecl) Ji) -41 G~ BJtfE"R '5 ~, pr _4 7 li9 -454 465 475 -t.1 501. 467 S.56 45() 4:S5 4 ta83 ~3 4~5 461 459 453 479 ,sa 490 476 490 t.76 4.53 4 _461 eraae 49' 1'81. 496 469 -453 1'55. 457 481 462 ( 'Dible ~-m f'oUolr'Jn8 paae )

PAGE 51

TABT.1 3 (c0Dt1miecl) f f ( -5J i : ---! i --~-' ff 56 50 S1 52 341 416 438 48} "~ 52a 468 .38-J 432 1'89 m 4el. WS7 ~3, ~ 478 l'lJ. i.34 419 430 48; 457 5,18 473--432 .34't Id.' a.1.a 492 '15 ltBo .Juo i,.31 ';1.1. !ii 41~ ,W, '8e "-Y 4'l!; -342 417 '28 aer t.52 sa 473 392 ,IJ32 (~~mt~

PAGE 52

I st iJ!l~~ ~ j s :f!fJJjj :si~i i

PAGE 53

1?ABLB 4 SODllJM CBLORllB Col.orflletelo AIIM,_,-!'er Oct~-Per Cent ~Blood.! B&Cl i 2 3 -~b 5 6 I aooa-~! J .. . 6 0.32 352 363 .... _,_ .... 292 326 1()0.,_6 99.9 ......... 100.0 99. o.36 346 3\1 366 290 320 93.3 93._7 10() .. 0 1.00. : 6 9'>,l 97~3 --~. ~ -....... 391 351 ........ .... . ... .. ~ 96,.8 98.J. .. .. ..... 0.38 334 318 -l.13 263 95.-4 87.4 ~1 91.3 59-3 86.o o 3'J m sYl ..-..... .... ~ 141 215 77.7 . ..... .. .. / ... ~3 65.J.. o.i.o 216 29() 3(Q 31,.9 125 155 61..7 79 .. 7 8(). 6 95.9 42~8 la-7 .1 0 .41 128 3 103 99 36. 6 @..3 ... :e 35.3 30..l o.Jaa 79 156 289 346 80 so 2a .. 6 ~-9 11.s 9'.6 27.4 15-2 o.ll3 35 so 232 ,;.1 66 at. 1.0.0 22.C) 57.4 95.3 22-6 7 .. 3 o.JM 19 43 188 342 56 u 5.4 u~a 46,.5 ~ 0 19.2 3-3 o.lf6 ... J.(12 ,271 .... .. ... ,. 25.3 7At..5 ..... ,. e : 0.52 o 0 0 2 0 0 0.0 o.,.o o.o o.6 o o o .. o (We ccat1uued ai ~Oldna aaet) 5>

PAGE 54

, ( coottnnea) Pel'C.t i ~--. p . -.... 11 -n: Di 7,., .is~ Iii 's} i ~1ill Ii.I' m lilCl. Ill l3 II -. -_ ,.,32 .. , ... 3$ 32S 1 ..... .-. .. ,~,---101..6 l.CL3 ..._ . 0 .. 36 404 366 316 267 300 100.0 l~6 99 2 98. ~ 98. 2 100. 0 .'S'{ 39l 357 ... ii.: .... 96 6 98. 1 ... ..... ... _.-.. .... 0.38 384 354 a6a 221 296. 95-l. 97. 3 70.0 &..-6 83:. 5 98.7 0 .39 .., ;,,e ...... 223 222' 212 '.~ ... ~ Q'tt'tr $.~ r,. 9 97,.3, e.,i.o 3'2 3'9 173 17.4 J.87 2'/4 $-6 95 9 47 7 ,-..2 6&.8 9.1,..ff 0.41 .... ..... a,. 123 l.~ ~ If'-, 32*& 3fJ. 3 '.ff:_Jt. 83.3 o .... lia 289 3'8, 86 74 U4 218 71.5 97. 6 23.7 23-J. i.1 9 72. 7 Q.Jt-3 232 3irt 50 38 68 ...... 57.r.. 95.3 13.8 U 8 25.0 ......... o.~ 188 ~ 19 16 l,A; 128 46. 9'.. 0 5.2 ,.o l.6.2 ~-"l o.46 1oa m .... ...... l5 3f:&, 25.3 74' 5 ...... l .... . 5 ~ 5 11--3 o .. -.a 3l 112 ., .. 6 7 .. 7 ~.8 ,.)ill ~. l,S 2~0 0.52 0 2 0 0 ~ -..... o ... o C ~ 6 o o o.o 1.~ ... ..... -. {1'&bl.e ccnt:blue4 en 1!881) $

PAGE 55

~k (~) Perc.t~ or m,004 !3 1, . -13 .ml7 18 "7 7 100~ 99,.7 100 2 10.1..2 1~. 1 0 .35 283 e.23- a43 92~ 5 99~ 6 . ... 95~7 ..... o ]6 ... ... 338 3l2 ... .. ..... 100.0, ' tn-3 97. 1 o,38 26';) 154 2<)lJ 295 232 33) a,. o 68..S 98. 0 76. 2 91.3 96 .. 0 .. 39 J.26. 290 252 a,; 3)lf n 57.1. 96~7 (>SJ. ao. 1 88 9 o .1'0 :210 86 284) 167 155 ffl 68 6 ~ :'*' 9:3:~J -"8~ 3 Q.. o ~ o .41 190 j6 263 154 126 62. l 25~0 87. 7 39. 8 49. 6 & 9 o .te J.64. 3'1250 Ill. 8.'L l.6o ,3. 6 -1.5. a 63 .. 3 28 7 31. 9 46.,8 0 .113 J.38 19 202 73 (io 109 l&.$. 1 s .15 67. 4 18 9 23~6 31. 9 U6 9 1.78 42 Zl 66 17. 9 i.. o 59. 3 ~0. 9 1.0 6 19.3 o.lf6 i, i t. U7 12 9 l.1 ~ --~ 0 1 1 3 5 5 0 0 52 1,6 0 0 0 () 0 l.j O o o o_.o o o o o o .. o (91bl.e ccat.1maed m 1'o1.l.oldDs pap)

PAGE 56

(~uea.) C.t -.cl. 0.32 367 3'9 370 ]168 3Z( 100.3 lOQ...:t 1,00.J .,36 3}!l. 332 32t :, ~ ~ 312. ~ a[.7 97.l. 87~7 ... 89.);. 97.0 f.38 3~ 202 JlO 252 313. ,,-.2 :96 .. 5, ;5.2 lQl.O 72 2 9', .. .\ 0.39 3.g_ 151 369 S?O 4L3 $ .. 9 '1 . 3 1()0.6 63.0 o.~ 1.03 103 165 163 m 23.l. Bo..:4 aBA ~-S i.6., a,., 0 ,1 14ae2 ,, 3bl -139 239 20.a 8J.,9 20.a 98"' 39'-8 ~() 0-42 32 160 32 ...... 95 a>5 L7 lt6~8-a.1 ...... ,t :n.o a.a OA3 23 -1.09 2.3 3'3 6:l 132 6.3 31-.9 6.3 96.; 1.7.5 39.a o.44 12 66 l2 3SO S1. 1.03 3~3 1,1;3 3--3 95."1 15.-2 31-.0 o.46 5 17 2'(8 1t i.1 J.,4 J .. o w. 16-0 4~9 ].\.-.2 ,JaS a l a 162 a s -0.6 e.9 .()..6 ..... .0.5 1. o .. se; 1 0 1 .3 0 0 0.3 o .. o 0.3 o.s o.o o.o ~.: (~1 c~ 011. ~ol].0141:tg J118r} )!l

PAGE 57

, ( c.tt.mN!Jcl} '0~3? 331 3Jl.5 366 381 1.00 .. 1 98.JJ 99,.7 99.;. 0.35 --"'" i_, i ~ ... . ....... o .36 318 ) ..... . ~ 383, 96.7 .. .. .. ..... 99.5 97 7 o.,s $5 1.t.1 298 3fl6 y;.7 &;.7 ~s. 6 86J. 99-S 91,., 0-.. 39 a&; 14 281 366 36). 86,.6 zt..o 81.. a 94 3 92 1 ,QA() a,o lfll al6 361 355 76.l !4.a 66.2 93-0 90. 6 0.41 232-198 338 7(1.., e .. 7 51.2 9().2 86.2 o.'2 ace ll 1.61 310 'YT[ 61.-4 3:.6, "'' 79 ... 9 78.3 0-43 l.66 5 122 262 ..... ,n.~ 1.6 3'.1 m., .. ._, .. 0--"-u7 0 67 2,-> 11a ac;,.6 0.0 19.t. 59.3 4].9 o .'6 ,a ., .. l ~ ;~.A-126 e, is.a ~ ~ 1 ...... $3-5 18_.5 o."8 11 .... 61 ~, .. ... .. -...... : x1~1 6 .i 0 :52 1 0 u lO ,, 0.3. o .. o 3~2 -~,.6 1. .. 3 a .... l'llch 1*4!11a 1a tile ~ 0.t t1lt>: dlq,l trete t.'ubrla. ~ -

PAGE 58

TAm.85 m:R>t.18IS OF. J1tJWI JCRHDOCm:& Ill SODDI CBLORIII!: IJVl'IQlfS o, :VABIOUS ~S Color11Deter Beecunaaa ~r Cen t Bemol.pia Per C.at of 81.0bd :3!!'e1 !. _ot~ood.~ yi. 34'. --~,35 Ba.Cl. 30 31 32 33_ 35 30 31 32 3 3 0 .32 4.75 46a .475 96-.7 93 4 100. 4 99.8 ~-.... ... ..... 0-~ . ..... 482 'Bl 456 ..... .. ... 97..2 93.6 99 6 97 .. 0 0.36 414 lt63 439 371 456 4'52 96. 5 92J1, 88 .. 5 &7 .. 5 93 .. 9 95 .. 0 o.n 383 287 409 278 ,._ ... 317 78. 0 ;7. 3 Qa .. 5 65. 6 .... ~ 6 0.38 274 1~ 371 .241 310 257 55 .. a )S .. 7 74.8 56 .. 8 67. 7 54. 0 .. 0 .. 39 l.96 124 ~3 139 177 181 lto. o 24. 8 69. 2 32.8 38. 6 38. 0 o .lto 135 76 28o 89 10'; 112 :t7.5 J.S. 2 5 6 .. 5 21 0 22.9 23 6 o .41 83 39 144 4o 57 56 16.9 7 8 29 0 10. 9 12.t. u a o .42 29 23 9 1 26 16 30 5 9 4 6 18.4 6.1 3.5 6 3 o 44 0 0 20 0 0 o.o o.o AJ. o o o o ... o o 8 (~e cmtlnue4 cm toUovm&pap) VI ~

PAGE 59

( coa:ttnued) Pet" Cant 1itllOJ.1'ale I 1t 3 :1: :@ .l! I 36 :11 or mooc1 'if= 39 . !4 0~32 ..... t.00 418 482 ,. : . ..... . .,.,. 99.3 93 3 97.6 ,.. (.9, 0 .34 482 m 1).1. ..... 447 97. 2 93 6 'Y( O 89.9 .. .. ; 0.35 ..... ,,~~ 4,56 ... ie . ... .. ... 9a.3 ........ o .36 439 371 137 ~ 446 88.; 87.5 94~8 75.s 92~7 O.l'( 4QC) ,278 296 2<)8 lt-12 359 82 .. 5 65.6 73~4 66.7 83. 4 74.6 0~38 ?71 .21f.l ao 224 3'Z1' 316 74 .. 8 ;(5.8 52~1 50.1 66.2 65. 7 o.E 3'13 139 14-7 139 210 240 69. 2 32.8 36. 5 31. 1 44. 3 ~ 9 o.4o 280 89 79 52 159 1" 56.5 21 0 19~~ u.6 32.2 29~1 0 41 144 46 39 24 l.13 75 29 0 10.9 9.7 5.4 ~-9 15.6 o .4 2 91 26 6 10 47 26 18.4 6 1 1 5 2.2 9~5 5 .ll o.44 ,QO 0 0 0 14 0 4.o o .o o o o o 2 a o o ( 'Dlbl.e ccnt1nued cm ta1.l.mdq p1,p} VJ f:"

PAGE 60

TABLE 5 ( ccnt!nued) C~tteaMnpl& .t 1faCl. }fa ..... ot mood .,e 43 ,Iii -~ iz "116. . 7 1i2 0.32 ,__. .. 4;8 JJ26 446 45, 1'58 ~ o.]4 466 . . -439 41} 449 94,. 4 o.36 467 .44() 360 ~3~ 9 JT3 94.1 (} .. lf 452 424 310 323 m a-:;3 91.1 o.38 430 390 l.82 178 315 86.7 0.39 42'1 273 91 112 210 73 86 1 o.40 417 1a,. S8 14 l,S '55 &.~1 o .41 353 106 ,2() 23 83 30 71. 2 o.42 290 52 12 le 1,8 16 58.5 o.i.4 169 6 0 2 l2 2 y..o o.46 50 .... . ; ~ -i ... . 10.1 ('lable~. m~ Per Cerrt ,3 ot r s.m4e 91. 1 94. 0 98 .. 0 ..... . ..... 96.5 918 79.5 aa..,4 90Jt. 68. i. 71,...0 63-. 2 40..2 39.1 5&..2 20.0 2S...6 39 .. 2 12 8 16.3 22~, 4,4 5 1 U.J. 2.7 2.6 1.3 o.o o.t. lb .. ; ..... ... ~ qe 99 6 95,.2 9]..'( 52.,9 68., t.G.o 33-9 18. 2 i.o.s a.,6 . .... -47 99.1 97.2 80 7 63. 4 29 .. 0 15. 8 11.9 6.5 3 5 o .. .. ... V, Vl

PAGE 61

1Dt2 5 (ean:tmue4} Pere.it QJ 4 --50-~1717 -55--;? lfaCl 52 ; li8 1. 52 5 3 o.24 ... ... 4.10 ..... I .... .... ... ... 98 4 .... o.26 .. . 268 378 ... ~ ... .... . ~ 78. 4 90.7 0 .30 1,-. ,-. .. 330 ~ , .. ,, .... . 79.1. 0 .32 458 458 4S8 200 239 354 95. 2 9'). 1 95. 2 58. 5 57+3 82. a o .Jti 423, "9 kt23 1$2 (,6 211 87.9 91~2 87~9 ,S.6 1;. 8 49. \ o .36 324 m 12 6T 67. 2 80 7 67. 2 z. ~ o 1 2 15. 6 o .n 245 293 245 ..a 0 27 50119 63 t. ,0 .. 9 1tt .-0 o o 6.3 o .. J8 U9 lY. ll9 32 0 .23 ~ 7 29.0 ~ 7 9 --' o .o ; 4 o .3() 51 73 51 22 0 10 10:. 6 1.5. 6 10 6 6 .. o .o 2 3 0 10 32 55 32 18 0 6 7 11,...9 6 7 5 3 o.o 1 .2 0 .42 7 1 6 1 2 0 l 1 5 3 .5-i.. s o 6 o o 0 2 o .tl,4 .2 2 2 0 o 0 o.~ o ~ o .i., o o o .. o o o ( ~ ccetm'U84 011 ...-)

PAGE 62

Ti\1U 5 (ccat1m:ted) . '' 5g ')' ,a J9 0 .32 465 449 '10 Jt72 48<) 1126 -95. ,;-91 3 97 9 9(). 8 ~ 9 96. 6 o .34-461. .. .. -. 4(,o ~ 4ot. ']4 .. 7 ..... .. .... 97. 3 .. ~ ; : 9 3.5 o.36 403 IJ24 450 '*70 403 82.a 93 8 92.5 95 .. 1 95~9 9 3. 3 0 3'f 2{12 -. ..... 321 402 53~ 8 ...... . . -. 81..a 65S 93.1. o ;s 159 ll-10 i.39 254 243 :m 32.7 90.7 at.. 3 53 7 t.9 6 78.,5 0 .39 83 ?70 295 143 J.61! 1.7.0 81. 9 56. 6 30 2 33 5 47 2 o .40 49 359 l-90 58 98 44 10.J. 79.4 36. 5 .12. .. 3 .eo. o 10 o i.1 30 2'15 33 53 l2 6 2 60. 8 16 1 7 0 '10;8 2 a o .1'2 1.4 139 31 ZT 32 0 a 9 30. 8 5 6 5.7 6 5 o o o .44 Q S6 3 () 16 0 o .. o 14. 4 o 6 o o 3 3 o o (!able CCD'tUlued CD "follow;lng ~ )

PAGE 63

u.u (cai_~) mr gr -~ ~ --*63~-. lii . I 3 :. .gr; -b5 96,o 100.0 98-.7 98.3 99~ 0 99~t.. o.,26 '3'/0 4IJ8 ~6 393 ~ 510 92~7 t7,.8 93-1 !)!.A ~-9 96-. 4 0"'28 342 t,a5 IJ08 :f14. 3ES 5'81 85.7 90 .. 6 91~9 93,6 94.4 94.7 0 .. 3& 302 39' tJoo m 388 500 15 ... 7 ~3 ,OJ. B!Mi ;94 .. ,.. .. o ."'32 263 360 351 -365 Sol $ .. _9 18.6 79~1 77.0 88.8 94-.7 o~3lf. l~ as &6 24, 3111, 456 la6J.. ~.2 48~7 58.2 77.4 86.2 o_.3,6 ~ TS 56 v.e J.ll ui.5 16.4 12.6 33.7 33--3 T~8 0.38 is 1 14 61+ 53 16o 3-.a 1 ... 6 3.2 1,:.2 12.9 30,,2 o.Jw a 0, 0 a6 16 55 0.5 o.o o.:o 6.2 l-9 10.4 o.JJ2 0 () 0 6 a 21 a.o 0.0 o.o 1.., 0.5-t..o (~~QI) toll~ ieee)

PAGE 64

11. .. .. .. \A (A, t\l (() . . IO 8 ., ., .. \I\ (\I, .. () t\l ii\ ct\ 4t (\I, t:O . I> i .. I?'--,,. ., f. ti\, t'f'l "" 0 0 .,\ 1R It ?? ;::, s Q 0 U'\ # t-,., (Ji, 4; Ct 0 0 .. .. d Q .--l a i ........ Q'\ ., jl 1 ; '6 .... J.) j ~ -: .. ffl ..;t, ;;'f a Q C 3 J1 a a 0 0 I f j J I d .. d d . <> 0 o o 0 Q 0 0

PAGE 65

6o u.o11:1. Im. a o.eo 362 Av. 99.7 100.0 0,90 rJ Av. 96.6 100.0 1.00 YI 969"3 98.6 1.10 m a30 /N. .. a,.o 90.0 lJO 226 $ 226 Jo,. 82b 64.6 70.0 1.30 130 154 IN. 36.0 4Q.4 1.JtO 41 64 .37 ~ 39 -f-u.1 1;.7 1.,0 3 l1 Av. j o.a 2.7 a..60 0 0 0 O X I 01 0 o.o ,o.o

PAGE 66

;o 7' 25 ;o 75 o. o. 'TABlti 7 o. 11.6 o. l.7 2. a.e5 .25 1.zr 1. 2 2l9 2.aa 2, .. :e.26

PAGE 67

Ql o.oo .., .. 100.s 100.0 0.50 o.ao 360 Jot. -5 100.3 o.60 0 .20 365 Av. 95.5 100 J O,TO 0 20 34, J,3 * S,.4 96.4 o .. 80 0.20 26o 326 .4 6').3 0.90 o .20 lJ) 2W3 67,9 1.00 0 I.IS &r -471 4 u.6 23,9 1.10 0.2() 0 20 Av. 1" 0 16 o.o i..9

PAGE 68

G --Per C $~ 3 0,459 0~483 fO J.3' o .41t 75 0-iu.1 o .t.60 fA'B!&U _ __ /1rxJ >tJ.,,. GmmA!m CAD$llD 11S~ ' :AID 7S ,. 0-., . ft Jllf.llk00'Hl8 8 ftllSBl31 OI o., ,aR SODm4 CILOllDS J1l1 3 ~-4 e, o.928 0 .. 99$ SQ ,o.Sba o .. r;.1 o~.1@ 0 .878

PAGE 69

'fA1Qt la VAWISOltf(Bsomtllom:oJ.IAmA'R --. .. m-25. ,0.. 7'dlftlDIDl.!S!SOP $0Dlltll CBU>llmC ,-cct~le 3 .. .. es 1.94 l.~97 So i, ... l.~99 7' ,a:a1. a.Pr Ave 1,.97 ~.01

PAGE 70

o.oo 474 '91 A8fl 119 ~.6 96~i. 0 90 475 A.V 97.4 9lh8 1.00 ~"9 4'9 Av. 88! ... ltlO aoa 5-9._9 39.5 l,. 147 J.j 7 11 .. a 1.30 !8 40 ,Av ;.7 8.o 40 O 10 0 0 o.o a . 2 .. 50 0 t .. 0 Av. 3 '{1.1 ~. 00

PAGE 71

1 c J a t t J es o.403 ,o 75 25 $0 75 Z ; I !!!I! 31 o .. ,sa 0.373, 0~ a.33 a.,s g.43 a.r, BlOOcl' 1.10 1 .. 05 31 2.32 a.3' 2.41 2.36

PAGE 72

67 Gl:uocat.1:4 ,3 I j o.oo .20 496 oo.o ioo .. o o.Jto 0 20 rt Av 93. a 93 6 0.50 o .. eo 435 Av 87. 7 88. ~ o .60 0 20 220 AY. T(.6 sa~ a 0.10 0 S9 Av, w.. 13. e o .eo o ao 0 JII gi u.1 o.o 0.90 0..-7 0 -.+ --3-1 4 0 0 l o .ao 0 0 0 g o o o.o

PAGE 73

Per Ctllt 25 ,0 r; o.414 Q 3 o. 0 .396 0 .381 o HDWms o, IDNAI' .ar~raa Clft SODIIJ( CB1DBDB 81.ood 0.757 o .660 0.685 o.c,o, Q '95 0.550 68 33

PAGE 74

3a aLOOd &llple 33 2' l. '6 .o6 e.o, 2.08 7' Sal e,,. 2.or; e.OCJ

PAGE 75

70 6 Av 98.0 101.5 1., :lI 2&5 239 ~-0 89.7 19l. Av. 64.7 83-9 1.,:) 124 ,204 m 21.0 Ay. ii 45.a 6{a.9 1.4o 92 ,:,.8 .9 1.50 eo k(. '1 19 16""1. J.8 1.(0 )'.) 0 ... 0 0 8 9 o.o 1.70 9 0 Av. -+ 0 3.1 o .. o 0 () 0 0 0 B o.o o.o

PAGE 76

TABfl:21 ~S 11 GN./100 ML. 07 ,SOlttUM a f01ISSIUM CADSDI> 25 SG, AD 1 car IDfOtD ;. BAl1BD -ms Pe t I ill I ti. .,!'!!9R-, 0 -,!!,!: 6 ,, 0 .. 421 o.412 l,43 0 J88 1,28 '1.35 0,364 o-.... J.J.4. 1.25 Tlmet YAWBS OP 1 fOlt fflASStfll t~ A'l CAtlSai a,, '' AID 75 er.rt'! lDN) BA'BBlT .. u a~ras -e.t~i Blood. 6 e a.22 a .. 16 ,o e.eG a.a 75 ,~ii ,~.-&, 2 .. ae-e

PAGE 77

0.50 0.70 o 80 1. O.QO 0.20 ,20 Av. "' 1$ m 1:72 79, ~ e~ao Av. -+ a98 302 JOO 119 -i-23 21 ii 72 ~mt1fmol.m s.,1 1 8-.Pl a Ji 1 t 100.5 l.'00 0 100.6 6.o

PAGE 78

25 ~o 75 o.459 o.lt.37 o.417 COJIClan,rM.'J:CJIS D GM./JJ:XJ ML. DI~ CAU8JIO 25, 50, AID 75 PD BDlOLlSIS GI lW91!l' Sail'lilROOl'J9S D PR&BltQ: 801>l1IC cmattill C.t 1811olye1a m SUI.Pl 7 B1 oo4 8-pl. 8 25 0.973 1.0, 0.883 0.996 75 0.780 Q.928 7

PAGE 79

'l!ABtB 26 \'AUXIIS a, !. 10R MASS ~CltAn AT ~ CAUSDG a,, SO, Mn 7' Ca'1' Blll>L1SlS OP lWIBlf D~ D' ml PRISl;IICI fJI o. 2 PIR ClllT somllM Clll'.mUm ~7 Bloocl 8a11Jl 8 25 1 .. 98 2 Ql. a.o, a.oe 1, .iMPZ a.OS a .0 3 2.o6

PAGE 80

75 ,_ 01~ ~e a & ._t,S', h 34! Sim.Pl I r l _~\ % lt t Yt'f l ; )$ L f o.ao W.9 'f8 '1 Av. .. o 99.6 1,00 t,. .. 418, ~ AV. 'liG'* 9'~9 99., 1.10 418 ... 366 'tii iii' Av. '3161 91.0 Tf,1 1 3).6 ., Av 11.e 66.6 1,30 152 J.91 k. .. ti;! 32.; i.o .1 1~ ,1 1, Av -tr + ia,., 1., .. 1 1 .. ,tl 11 u Av. ll n 2.4 2 .5 1 68 0 0 0 0 Q @1l _ ,a o .. o o o

PAGE 81

.' r 3S !'!e!~ n ti!!!!: 3 ~ 2' o_.398 .399 1. 3 1..36 50 o.~ .382 1.25 1.27 75 0.372 o,.. 3 1.19 1.1~ a 35 25 2 ,23 e.1a so a.$0 a.as 1, EiJl) ,a.~ a.29 2.er

PAGE 82

77 -e t Perce -Pote.I SQcU e Cbl~da 31 o .. ao fl Av. 100 .. 0 100~0 0. -00 0.20 i 410 t,o6 -i.m9'.o 96 .. 2 Q. o.ao k71 1{0 1 -* .. 6 ea.. :0-.tio 0.-20 40 2.92 Av. J. 61.e 0.70 o.ao 2jQ 69 + I. ,. 54.a 21.0. 0+8o 0 .20 10$ J.8- 20 21.2 4-.1 o o.eo l9 0 + G AV.-0 36 o*o 1.00 0~20 Q 0 & 0 Av, 0 0 o.o o.o

PAGE 83

a, ,o 75 o.w. ~3 0 783, o ... ,oa ().(ia ; 36 o m a.JI. 0.-Ji& ., 0 .690 0 .. 637 0 :~7 78 37

PAGE 84

19 .a,npi.a:.33 V-WJ.U 0:, !. Kl C 'CAUSllll 25, 50, AD 7' Clft-..BJ _D_Dl _r.YSJCS at llllfA1I IRtmROC~ llf 9 PUSl1ICB 0, o.-ti Per Cct llea,ol.p1a ll.oo4 Quip) J6 m.oc,4 -.i n s, ,2.oll. e .. ia 50 a.14 2.12 7S 8 2 '.17 a:.i.a 2.14

PAGE 85

.Pu C.t .... CD. _,e 10 .Selaple 10 '. I zcr Jt~ l ; ) [ Ii lb i It, I ( t: '; 0 l @ 51 @1 b JI C r l 1~00 Av .. 100 6 1.02 .. 2 150 346 #\"f:. 9'.3 99 .. 7 li.?, ~" S7P Av .. ~ 11.4!., 86.o ,GhOO 193 l 1 Av.., ~.g .a., a .. e, lOlt -i-I~ ... 100 '17.S a~a a.so a.; Av. + + ao.9 Jt..T

PAGE 86

So41 Cbl.or1 Oluacmate C t ~tlm I m.:el\\l!~oocl ~1 10 SallJp1. 9 Qulpl.e 10 25 o 41 0.419 2 2.1Ja. 50 o. o.40 a.oa 1.99 75 o.j80 o.)86 1.8b. 1.84 c.t lfemAlyat m.oo4,~ 9 !ll.oocl 10 a, a 37 a.59 50 2-61. a.67 I 75 3 72. _2.:a: an 2-61

PAGE 87

.!5!}"!; .U' x,~ "2!! u S8llpl.e 12 0.000 0.20 273 m m 100.0 99.0 0 .. 250 0.20 276 300 A v -~ 101 .. s 99.0 0~500 o .. 265 296 .,, 96 0 98. 7 0.150 0.20 217 287 Av. ~* 79. 4 93.4 0 .875 0 .20 226 226 IN,- 75.3 1 .000 0 .20 7 6 12 ~-Av. i$ 27. 9 i.e.o 1.125 -.20 ... 89 4 A: 4 4 ..... 29.0 1.250 0 20 9 7 ~. I y-. 7 2 6 2.3 1.500 0.20 0 0 0 0 Av. 0 0 o.o o.o

PAGE 88

,.. w J I ~ i,13. qf(:Elftl. aN M 1ll t!Mr./lflJ ML.. 0'1 S01>1lUM. cAUSDG e,, so~ v, maocnr.s it,~. 11004 11 a, o.Jt;o 0~41; ... 3' 1, 0 .. 39' o .4.18 I t' IP J m tJ I l i 5 3 at:_ -P w1.i:1;; : : : : .: ' [; ,: ,.] 3 I I 3 mm .39 itf "4.,/JJ'JQ I& tr f. CAUS.Jm a,, ;o, -, 7' 1lll cat~ (!fl MIS~ JI S PBIISIID -
PAGE 89

. Fer C.t eU SUl,ple la 25 i4Si6 3.10 so 3.19 ,-.~, 1, i& (;.:,; 3-fJt 3 .J.f 3.11

PAGE 90

5 Colorimeter of Blood 39 0.50 406 44; 470 441 Av. 4'3 100.3 99.1 95.1 0 .75 435 4;8 Av. 390 96.8 97.3 92.3 .. 340 Av. -ft- 78.7 77.t. 77.7 1.25 192 244 2'33 ll ai.o 2J3 Av 2li2 833 lf.7.6 '4-1 ~7.a 1.50 133 J.6o 150 -II-f'~ .. 131 5 32.5 36.9 ]0.8 1.75 65 72 44 61 4 ~ /(ti. 63 15.6 16.6 9.1 2 00 0 5 7 0 -t I Jw. 0 7 o.o 1.1 1.4 2.25 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 6 o.o o.__o o.o ---

PAGE 91

. Cdlc t1. 8ll Blood @!!1;9 e 38 ii 43 lio as 0.395 o. 3 o.~ 1.s5 1.63 1.51 50 o. 0.380 0.392 1.28 1.3() 1.28 15 0.370 O 0 1.0, 1.0, 1.03 Blood Seall 39 m. -~ 25 3.36 3 18 3.53 50 3.92 3.86 4.03 75 It..@. I 4.56 4-!Z 3.97 3.87 4.14

PAGE 92

0.000 100.0 ')'7.8 o.m o. 462 w. 96.1 9?~8 o.;oo 0.20 446 481 Av-. 92.3 96,6 ().62$ 0.20 3'}8 389 "7 AY .. 393 c,; ai.1 90.1 0,..7'0 0.20 1.44 366 ;ti.a .. y. 143, 29.7 73.4 0.875 0.20 69 241 .. 14, 2'8.6 1.000 o 7 79 Av. IF l 5 -ffl..O 15.3 1.a,o 0 .. 20 0 a.. 0 ': t Av. a o.o 0-8

PAGE 93

'9r Cea,.t. la Bl.ood ,41 J+2 a, o.&9 0,9'0 so 0 .. 750 o .. 1' 0,669 o._ 50

PAGE 94

. Ctllllt U.01181 ~ Bl.ood -25 3.eo 3 .~3 50 3.31f. 3.46 75 ~ a 3.62 3.!7, 3.50

PAGE 95

~~. 48. PSR CUl'l' Qlll,N,,IM,.fi'.IS 07 !WJ3l'l' Ilf CAClUM OUDIIUB soumars v. mus CCll:Bl'lBA!fl[(lf.S 1 .. 70 94.a l.00.0 1.80 276 217 @f!6 I 271 el 88.6 96. 0 2 00 a59 185 a52 l Av .. 259 ar.. 6 2.10 -236 1.,6 TIl 69.a a.so l.a> J 1a6 72.6 ,i./19 2 .30 1~ t~ Av. 62.4 t.o.6 a.160 183 1 58-a6.3 2.;o 140 ,e 1!(() 44, Av. Ilia 45. 8 21.4 a.oo l~ 26 Z"( 34. 3 12.1 a.ao 63 0 + :O Av. d 19 9 o.o

PAGE 96

,, f Q }i: lt t:zlt. u tl-t I '>ff-l g i I Q S, o*~ o .h.lO a"73 ,.~3_ !it) o. o ~ a~4' a.. ~ 7$ 0 .395 ,,31$ QJ. 6 ~o6 1"1 2' 2~31 f}O a.,t ~-42 1, ,.1~io.. ~~, ,.,,.._. a ,41 41

PAGE 97

7 -o.oo 100 3 00.2 100.0 0-.. 70 0.20 220 .... .o 87.lt o.ao 0.20 m 210 Av. il.2 m 101.4 71,7 83.1 o 9() o.,eo 16o i!. ,~ Av. .. .. 63.0 1.00 0.20 lee> 19 .. 3 29.6 46.l 1.20 0.20 lil5 28 Av. -1-41..0 10.4 10.2 1. 0.20 14 a k.,-J-4 2 2 1 3 3.6 o.a 1.60 0 -20 ao 9 0 e4 + 0 J 0 7 2.6 o.o ':ff 22

PAGE 98

9 3 17 e, o.473 o.t.2a 50 o.i.50 0.399 o.i.10 7S 0.427 0.382 0.394 -t~ lU.oo4 Sampl.e 16 m.oo -a, 1.32 1. .. 03 1..09 so 1.16 0.905 0.990 75 1,02 o.78, o.a,o

PAGE 99

VAUSS8'1. C.Ate ~ NI CAlJSllG-e,; ,0. All) .,, -CJlfl -.. --~--...... 0.2 . . . -~~-m.004 ,, a; Jb9' ,o a.96 1~01. 7' i:l:elt,. ;1,~,, a~g; 3 0, : i tr .1u: l ILi 1 t I J I I 11 ilf I I I I ( I l!i ll I&. AM v11: I r: ,lf 11 ~.tr( 2,91 J l.J tl'' rim .gr 1 $ It' --: '. J

PAGE 100

Av' S)b..o 91.2 1.00 425 Av~ 6 79~7 1,.70 tioo 31() kt. .; 10~2 1.ao -i a8o 6 Av. 70. 8 61.4 1.90 300 l,!t .. I -~--0 ,a.1 2.00 140 9.3 31,.8 a.10 181 10-3 4 aao l.00 7t. Av. m. v..1 2-t30 '6 4 ia~o 2 .. 9 e~4o -i-() R: "" 0 6 o ().()

PAGE 101

o. ,1 VALUES !. CI.UJtUf,I A't 0 CAl>'SllG 25, ,O, AID -r; . ,_ 04'0~ ~ 3 Blood 2' a*,ti ,e.,a 50 8t'D. a.73 75 2~ 2 .. 73 2 .,..

PAGE 102

o ao ~3 W-4' o. o.ao .. ... ~. :i_ii~ ~.4 "" .. . .. . o.,o oiiao ,w,. fe, 9 0 o.ao 0.-20 3 Av-. 73. 4 J. 1,.oe> o. .; AY-. 39_.s 1 1.,10 (); ).,0 1 tt . . 3 .... 33 .. 5 l,.a, O 33 69 ... + 61 kt 1.s 1 .... a 1 o., 0 a 11. + ---a o .. --~ ~-60 o.,o 0 0 i -+ )# Q.O 0110

PAGE 103

46 es o.,;o ,o om 0 7' o .. 0 .376

PAGE 104

I "'' 4' 1 t q ft I en e ! I Jd lff as a c+lt.3 s 39' so . ,, a.;s 75 aif2&, a .. 61 a .6\

PAGE 105

-U) Q)lM (U) fy !9:le!+ict, f' I t;a-10 Jr !!f!M!!!I! p 5 I C 1.6o .. 349 ~~s, IN., 1 99 1 9() 327 -~ If .. -:a;' 93~3 ' e .. oo 312 309 I --300 tr.7 '.2-.-10 198, ..,. "' 83~9 2~20 !6, Av. ,I1 .1 2.i.o 147 "" 38.6 a.60 ~o so Av. -~u 33 9.7 e.ao 3ll 3). 12A: :.ffAV. 31. 3.8 3.00 28 28 28 4 Av. 1.a

PAGE 106

101 fl f:I ID Y J l 1 1 s C I HI I. I ii t! : .Iii I ,., ;jg' L.90 32() 32.0 a :v ~ 00 -l. -., a~i 220 a, . ;I-'7 .. 1 Cl~.2.() .151 151 kl-1!~ 9 a. 78 14 lS-6 2.60 3' ')l -1-1 , 11 3 a .. al. a -.. .al l 0 3 3 00 a4 =-+ -t-0.3

PAGE 107

141'1141 ''ti __ -Of I .. : Ul} ~ : NI ..,.,_Nl't(llfS ~Irle, .o-, _,-,,.~ - fAD!J: \ 1q_ g 11t.tJFJVl8Ul rat1 1 ... t.tv/ ;$j,ft &61 a.s6 102

PAGE 108

l.Ol o.oo 0.20 343 J e i I .... 99.7 o~eo 356 1 101.s 1.00 (), 1 314 kl, ;i89.2 1.10 o. 299 ... . 83,.3 1,e<) o. 263 =ai7t..3 1.,. o. 231 =al-J,.(,O 0.20 uo l.08 91 .r. l.. o. 6J 4 .. iju 12.3 oo ,, 2.6

PAGE 109

o--QO o. '"' .. t st-',~": a .; ',.. -99 ol!eo Oi J8l. 0 Av. 1 3.. .. oo o~ 301 Av. 79.0 J...1() 0.20 $ a,6 ;tr 6',4 i ... ao 0 .20 20lS ., so~, t~liO 0 ~ -.11.-2 l,.60 63 .. u . i..80 0:.20 ,, ~ - ,.a 2 00 0 .. 20 St II!' Av. a .. e . f j' IT nr s I '@f !II. rt j j I 1 I j it J. tl I 1 IJi . l 1, .1p I r 3 1 ..

PAGE 110

o., o .. 0.366

PAGE 111

.. t moos a.m,i. el as a o, so a 19 e .17 15 e11~ 1 I 2,. 1,7

PAGE 112

6 ., Q .. o 21.-1 l~!:' : '[/ ;;r ; ;;1? di u ., f f f ; 1 -J ( \ P } JI ~

PAGE 113

l. 100.-4 469 0 91., 12 7 e67 -, ,, .. 3 1'7 .. ,S 1-0 - 2,ao aJJO 1 p H f 6 f q l t 6 JI 7t L t [ I () J [ i ] . It r ,', i ; ;u : J I J P e

PAGE 114

o o 1. ,.., -1 !!} 6$ e.e. a.10 .70 75 ~1,.73 e 71 .. 6!)

PAGE 115

u o Cent r-tent (It) $041\0 Cole J.htAe;,,neae( n) Cent UClcaB.I !!!tllM! st Gl)!$ete !!!'!JC! !!E1e! t c a f 3 t ; t t mB r o.oo o .. eo "- ,. .. t; Ir. 100 .. 6 o.so o .ao 47 475 !I 0 C7s' 102.8 o~SQ o.eo lJ,60 t.56 Jill-. id 96.7 1.00 o.a<> 300 Av. "It 2 i 300 614,;9 1 .ao ().20 ,. 92-J,.V. -1,t. 19 3 1.1ft) o.a 26 'If{ 4 111. ~ f~., ,.o, 1.EiO o.,o ,l.E) 16 + 7 C ,: a o 1 .. 0,20 u 9 1(:r 9 4 Ch$

PAGE 116

Ul r ----,~ o.eo 99.8 o .,o Q.,2() 487 484 ;d-100~6 ,t) o~ 394 0 ep 81,.9 0.90. o .J!& Av .. z a 68 .. a 1 o., Q11.1 aft.I 0 Ii. -iQ-,o., 1_._1e o .. ao 130 0 ~-,ff301 zr,.o 1.. () 20 C ..a T lt! C 9.4 0-.20 la ;, + i.6 l,.fK) e .. ao -4 73 . t ft,i Av,, o.e u r .:J.!L![t! -J! f ; 2 : t H r c d E ; ; I I rlf, ii J k ;:r JIU!~' 9 t' 'JC IJ _ :, r r h 1 re j 1!'<. 1,_1,r :c: t

PAGE 117

o. MABIAlmS. (U) CAUSJIO 8Dt.18%S 0, lltMMI iltftiildiiiS S0Dm CBIDRim ~ as 1-16 t~U ,o 11.00 75 0.970 o_.860

PAGE 118

a.as e.34 2;,..L-n ;;::;f7 2 .30 e .i.o 1 2 a .ta ua

PAGE 119

llJ Av. 92. 1 3 so 425 4 . A.v. 19 90. a 3 70 IJ26 89. 7 4.()0 3' J,35 Av, =I-89.6 i..20 428 Av, it a, 6 4-60 417 -w lU S, 4 ... ao 426 Av. 79.3 .oo 38a ~,. AV. 6lf. a .so 266 a{Q Av. e6.

PAGE 120

C ~(n) t s ; ) JI F 1 J 2.;o !87 =i-90.6 50 5 4U \13 88.3 S,.J. 4.,00 420 ~-9 .ao i.oa 1'00 Av. QI 76. 4,. 1(6 '110 Av 110 aft 6o 3 327 A,r. 49.3 4. 316 316 -1 ~.7 ,.oo .26a )) Av 31.6 '5 236 m 15.2

PAGE 121

,. .., WT

PAGE 122

U7 1\QU 84 ft$ Cl.lt1 llk)US% OJ Mal!~. D SOWIJO?f o.a Clift! SODmt em:tmzm v..-:i-4---eonca~rmrs o, DQl(U) .' -hr c-.t 'JI it ot ~tu> kQ1(U) Soit\111 c~ Cent Ol9S"Mte ( ~ ,., . Iii I,;;;... l!!JalSe I i t lffll91!~, 0 a.so 1.Yf .... .. ,. "" "" 100.a o.,o 0.20 264 e62 0 Av. 78.9 1,.00 0,20 m ~, !U Av, 21, 79.6 1.so o.ao atl-S 242 -~ 67.2 1.75 o.ao 238 -~ 64,.5 ,f,,QO o.ao e68 a1l -~ =.71.1 2.50 o.ao :JI)() 301. ,s -Av. 3$1 3 79.3 3.00 0.20 e46 1~1 Av. a S9~t. 1311Av. ,.oo o.ao 12.3 q I l ~i. I. L ti'aw..(;Ki.

PAGE 123

118 hi' Cent kt.n(ll) Col.OJ"~ Cesn Gl.U.C~ I t tr C -. fffl!!!SS!, 10 I 11' .. }'!!:!!l!!, o .oo 0 .,20 330 .... .JJt .. 100.,9 332 .... 1:,0 0.20 179 ~1~ l,fr .. ,7.4 1,. 75. o.ao ~8 17 ~-Avp-i -46.9 a .. oo o.ao 171 1$ Av. 111 41.4 a.a, o.ao 1'4 193 ,..,_ _lfi ;f-~-9 a~,o o.ao .as .. 22 )fo Av. ,,.1. a.75 o.ao 2~ ii-Av. 61..e J.QO o.eo M /W,. ;f-53.2 400 o.,ao 121 130 Av-. 4 16.* .. oo o ... 113 121 ... Av. 121 a.,

PAGE 124

ll9 ~5 25 50 o .. 42, o.4 7' 0.409 0 .. 4.<>5 WABJ[,E87 D OM./100 Mt,_. Qr DOl(ll) CA0sD0 25, 50, MID 75 o, lWIBff ZR1'JBBOC'l'1'18 m m Pnam:m o.a f.lB CBI'> Dilll <:IILQ8IJB 75 .. ~Ira -tor thU ood, lm'ftl sectA4 tbe pomt 0~ 75 pa eent b.emolpte 3 time ll ... O\U."Ve Mil far W blood ~-tn~ potnt Qt 50 ptl" .t~2 -c -cuwe 4Nlll tor tb1 bl.oQd ~w-v 414 not to the :po1.tlt ot 75"1" thealalyel.e

PAGE 125

0 .89 e ,:: .. (tt) ccmc. tff.U
PAGE 126

~(ff) 1.00 297 @RA . 295: 1 .. ,0 Yf1 :2'120 Av 303 2.00 299 .. a.fO 292 a86 3 .00 213 3,~ 133 ~. 3.15 98 4 Av 4.00 ea 86 Ii ,.so 100 2 lcf,.,. 99 ,~no 1(1( Av-,, -it-(tt) GmDUD COICD'.t~tafS ffl ,,. &5. s !Q3 U '"" ~l a,.1 m -'f!f9 81.6 71t,,9 a,3 ;!-;o.o 1 2Q,.S _.Q 10.a &r -66 21 6 1 99 12 t J ao ,.9 106 -w '1911 ,.,

PAGE 127

& 1-.00 .. 0 e3.,s 1,0 If 7.9.a 2-.00 m 331- l A 3)1 ~.a 2.,0 31, JN. 31 70.0 J .<)O aoo 1!17 i 39.6 J.,O ?3 73 . 13 al o 3.75 71 il + ,., ~. 2 .J+ 00 73 71 + 66 s J..a ,SO e, ; Av, + 4 1-2 ,.oo 96 9Ci 88 J,J-,. 1.9

PAGE 128

l.23 a e, 50 (). Q;]22 3 00 2 .88 75 0.298 o.,:,6 e ~ 2. hr '*1t ~JI lll0Qds.mp1l a5 l J.,.44 so l,;6 1 .6Q 75 _1, 1& Av: 1 .,S 1 .64

PAGE 129

o.oo o .. ao "' \U t ~ i!lt, 96-.3 o.,o 0 _-20 302 Av. 70.0 1.00 O,s> Sjl. 1 lSo ,e_., 1.;a o.eo 204 .. Av. 46.2 1-7' o .. a.1 21.1 kl. 47,s Q,.QO 0. ,20 'JZ1 Avt ~i?i 4,.o t 50 .ao f!i3, Av. istro '6A3 3.,go ().QO 167 .,,. l 33.8 t..oo 19 \.9 s,co o,ao 10J ~-4,,o

PAGE 130

'"*' t ~(tt) OtOO ., "'~' 1-00.1 o~,o 0 $.5) 1.00 0.-20 362 7,i.g-1 .. ,e o. 291 Q91 .. Av. 1,r.r E ,,~, 1 ... 1,, o. e,17
PAGE 131

i( J tit II .I! 'In! ti I 1 1S 0- 3.zr ,.t:tt i . b . .... 3.z, a .. ,., a 1 1,.64 e . 894,

PAGE 132

s es ,o 15 T.mr:B 'J1 (u), omxum m cc IICll!l'l'Ma'IQrs 7S PIR aft BllllUBJts BRmD>Cl'J!IS 53 0 ,61 o .eo 1.05" 1 1 b a.g r $r o ~51. (n>

PAGE 133

Cea :t(Il} te o.a, e 30') 0 l Av 1 .7 1 ,,10 14 YJ9 + .1 ... .5 1. IN, _. 87 7 1-. $9 309 AY. + .9 l. 90 70 .. 66 ... 3 7 6 .15 101 -i-... 86 53 y2.e a. 309 1 '30,,7 a.6$ 3(X) ,. 90 3()1. 309 \0 J,.v. l 0.3

PAGE 134

t ~, =-M~fn> fer Cet1t ~(a> ~-. 10 ~ -4 T ~-0 1 .10 37 J ... 89.10) 71 -1 a.,,s &r . 74:.9 1M) 100 tw. 10.tS Q ; ~o a.90 34 ~ ; 3. 3'37 ,., "'ii' Av. 13 ,.a

PAGE 135

l a.._, 2.88 ,,0 o .. m e.,s a.64 75 o. 0.393 2 10 a 26 as a.gr a~i, 2 $ .a, 75 @ :D:. a. ~ -30

PAGE 136

l3l ,.. ;t Per Cent eoi.tt(n) G.1.ua(:aate I I 2.~ -f--Av-. 914 -6' 1ll t.sa Av. 75.7 .2 .. 90 452 Av. 37.4 3. 370 1ll.o 3.45 ~, Av' 2.2 & .. ul.tSng ft.all ;fb 0.1 *1cb tau.eo ~tn te IIOl.utlcea.

PAGE 137

132 2~4() ~3 521 '1. 50 2,65 S2l Av,; 53. a.go sa i 391 1 ai., 9 3.20 521. ... Av. 1111 3.45 523 521 119 w '21-0 o ... o

PAGE 138

I 25 50 75 A'V'eft81t o.i.1 o ~ o. o. a.oo a.J.O .;a,_ 2 .09 133 2 .67 e SS '6 1 .97 2..01 2 18 a .err

PAGE 139

0 t UDc 0.0055 350 131. NI, 3'l ,0--7 83.7 o~oo60 :w,, 262 Av. l@2 330 .1 65 6 .()() 23S co 53"Q 00'(0 .210 ~i ,&li ,2J.a 54 7 45.0 Q .. 007S .... .... -~ .... ..... . 38:t o e.ooao. uo 188 11 29~ 31.6 0,0090 .67 7a Il ,. 70 18.0 19,4 0.0.100 50 .. ----+ 4 19.1 u.;

PAGE 140

c -25 o 00855 50 0 o.436 o.0tf66S 75 o.~ 0.423 o.cx,:>73 26 29 a, 8.16 770 50 5 951 75 l9I2 930

PAGE 141

. . ,.. C :t etim O"'ffO AV 86.o .. a 0~ 410 -406 . ~ -. s 3.7 OiQ(.)SQ ; .. ... 81 .. Q aa., o.ooe; 384 ~ .. A,v. 80.7 '9 a e.0090, 326 Av. 61,~ 70.0 0.0100 262 3,1J. -~ S~h~ 63., o.al.20 206 264 l ,.3 ;3.3 l.SZ 19$ -~ 38,Jl 40.8 o.o,.ao lBS Av"' fi ... .. ...... ~-4 0 .. 0000 .... 198 . ... Av . .. .. ,. 40..:2

PAGE 142

C~JIGM./100 CAJ~.-50 TABLBUO OP RIJMitU.'l m~Rocnrms 0.680 I' Celt llemcl.Jai '7 ,0 541 75 6:t, 6':17 Q.
PAGE 143

T:,~~ ll2 Bltln.ta:IS 0, BABBH 1:1 0.1 leW Cllft') IN -AID 0.,05 Jl)UR II at () 0 o.o o.o 0 0 o .. o o.o c.lctlln 0 0 0 o.o ae(JI)b 3 6 1.0 1.5 IJ-cn(U)b 1 0.3 1.3 (n)c ,. ... .. ., fl" Cobatt(ll)b () a o.o o.s ztnc 0 l o.o 0-3 a .. allOMAtet.h Q~ cate tuba .. b-by t.!18 metbod8 tor oo10N4 ,ol\tt1(1t.8. e Qbtain.bl ue.to t Q'ttlle

PAGE 144

0 () <.l.O o.o ---0 0 O.Q 0.:0 0 0 01"0 OiO (ti) 23 16 ~6 ., trai(n) 1~0 134c J,e,.7 a<;. o (JI)b 76 15.2 s (U)d ,, .. .. .. .. fAAc 23 4 4 6 e . a la ()f two 4np:U te~ b .Oit.uti
PAGE 145

SOC11-.01~~te 2.18 SQdtum 01.UCCMte l, 96 l'QliUS~ Glue
PAGE 146

141 ;te e .. 11 So4tllll (U~te .. 01 Q .. (11 a .14. e.crr tin Gl'UCQW.te 2.20 i.ae a .36 2 .ae sba Gl.'1Ccmate 2 .oe ~11 a.is 2~13 tll.l 0 ; ~te 3,36 ,..~ 4 -69 i..oo Gl:ueOQ&teb 3.~ 3.4() 3 ;6 J~4J c.:te:t 2.,54 2,i:1a .. 9' 2.74 e.i~, Gl~i.b i.41 .. $6 a . 89, a .~62 (U) Gluccoate 2.64 a.70 2,.76 2~10 (U) Gluocr.at.J> 2 JT i .S.7 :a~rr ~(11) ~t,e 1.t.; 1~.ss. 1.19 1~Q h-co( .U) au?aoateb 0.74 1 .. 11 2.;
PAGE 147

Cl; -pa 4S Btnutee Atte AtS&U.ttccQf Mdl'td 4.55 4.SO,,. ... .. ,1 ,~.,. Cob$1.t(ll) 5.15 13. 5-.. 1, ~-20 (i:z) 3.95 ;~.as 3.95 J.88 zinc 6.4() 6.W> 6.52 6.44 9f !Jhe. V
PAGE 148

TAJ1Bll1 a, llllBtt :w ~:r,, .iii::..: D SODDt -CB'.LOBlm f1t VaIOUS C .4, 110 350 43.3 4 -10 4 00 194 366 76.5 3.50 3 .6() 2'J6 379 96., 9 (~ .tsnue (D to1.l.ov1lls paae) .... $

PAGE 149

._U7(em~ llaCl Soluttc:mt. Ann&e Per Cent ~ ~ ~Med ~ ... So41m ma = mood m'.004. -Cblorlde 1.7 !ft'!! 28 f 991 !. 17 2 St.l! 28 J 9 -o.1t1 6.05 ...... -60 .... .:.:J U . -.. 5.\8 ......... 71 4 .. 27.i .. 4.,98 -88 ~.e ......... ... ..,; 4 .i.5 ,,.I 101 ... "KJ, ,.7 ,,,. ~' 11 ..... 168 ~ 66.J .. ... 3.S9 ... 1! 243 .,., ,s.5, ~ '-,, o .. lJ.4 Q .. 12 ~~30 ~ 230 10 ... 6 '9~3 5.82 5.0,0 t.o 256 15.9 65, .9 t.'*.95 4.,53 8 3 ,289 12~6 "14.6 4.48 331 31-J. S, .. 1'. 11,l.S i.-'5 ll9 318 t,,7,0 '1~6 3.92 .. :aoo ... 81 .. o .. 3 .. j6 .. ,. . 96.9 ,-.. o .. :46 6 .. oo : ~ .-, 126 ...... 32-~ .. . 5.50 . ,, l.~ ,11- ~.o -J/t~ 4.70 ... .. ue ....... 47.0 ...... 4-.,0() .. ... 29'- ff J 76~0 ,I . 3.70 Jle ... ,., 90 .. 0 o.Jta ~~-..,. 6:22 ... ... ~l ...... 1y.3 ~ _'!!' I ~-20 ... 7 20.0 . ff-_'-#,, .52 126 1 32,.4 ~ 3.98 .el,& 63:9 ~ ... ,_. 3~52 ... 366 9'.2 ,,... j:

PAGE 150

p1I of 1laC1 Soluttcms -.oob 5 ,75 5.50 5.25 5 00 t..75 ~ -50 4 .25 4 00 3 .50 ~us PIRCJJf'lfAOF,S 07 S0D1tJM QJUJBIJB GIVIID UIB SIME tBlBIE OP 01 M'BBJ!r BU>OJ) A'R VARIOOS pB VAIJJIJ:# I rs: cit Soc1laa, 9?:le!1t4! 0.390 o.~ o .410 o."20 o .4~. o .. 4-tK> 0.-450 0 393 o .a.oi o .4u o.422 o .431 o ltl.2 o .453 0 .396 o .i.oa o .412 o.4$ 0.432 o."114 o .. 4,5 0.398 o .. 405 o .. 4lj o.t:.26 0 434 o.446 o.Jt.57 0 .399 o_.ftoa o.418 0 .427 o.436 o lt47 0 458 o ~IKl5 0.4U o .. Jte2 0.1'31 o .t.41 0:.451 o.~ o .,.1.0 0 .. 414 G.~ O lt-3' o .446 o.4,s 0 470 o .41.5 0 .1-22 o .433 o .li44 o .458 o .470 o ~ -. o .4(,o o.ino o .463 o .t..73 o .~r: o .t.65 o .475 o ..a,c o.~ o .477 o.lf87C o.470 o .47(/! o.~ 0 ,75 o ~ o--~ o .i.aoc o .49()0 0 .500 o.~~ 0.504c o.51~ o ~ o.4~ o .440 o.453 o.a.70 o .. 482 o .491l0 o .':,Of:, o.51SC o.53J ea 17 and 28 b 1he pll-val.uea tbe mact.dttted socl1m cbl.ort.de eoluti.cns Wff all 6 .oo .. c 'Die value were obtained ft"OIB ~ticn ot the curvea, fJ'ICD vb1ch the other 'W&luea t.aun 41ftctly. Vt

PAGE 151

il f{i ij l'ABlt\8U9 ~Dl!RJS Clf S RCIMAII SCWll . r.a1zm 10m or ~~W41JR ~ BWtUag 1 2.-190 14 e.182 a a.~ :i., 2,175 3 2.170, 16 a.180 .. 2,18' 17 2.182 2,l.7fl .ta a.185 6 a.188 19 2. 1 e.181 20 2.184 8 2.1.ao 21. 2.195 e.1.7t+ 22. a.1 l.O 2,l 3 a, .18; u ei,1ao 2 94 l2 a.lJ39 2S a.as.. 13 a,1a, Ave-.se~.S a.1at. C'II t I i f t -1e:r1.r t e~:r1 t u; i. ; fs d :111:: ) 'Id ;,;r; i P. :r l 1: 7 t ..

PAGE 152

tm.B!:SSX(J(S :AUOOSSALTS QtJJXlltc ACID I ia Bal. t ~ Gl.'UCCllle Acid : :Mg 1 Ih(IIj 1Pefll) Co(II) cuiul : 2b $ I l o .. o81 o .. :086 0.1.32 0.()50 Q.].44 o.no o.U6 o.066 0.J.2.2 2 o,086 o~OCR OJ.42 o .ot68 o.1ot. O.l.20 0..106 o.ooa 0.120 3 0 .. 094 o._086 0.132 0.: 052 0.100 o.ui. o.iaa o.azi 0~ 4 o~oaa o.086 0~36 o.osa o.0'}6 0.120 0.112 o.ooa o.11.6 s 0 .. (1)0 o.088 0 .. 108 0--046 o.096 OJ.26 OJ.18 o.oao OJJ.6 o.Q'36 o.ar6 o.126 o~046 o~OJEi o.u.6 o.108 O-o65 0-.11.6 7 o.088 o.-086 0.136 o._045 o.ui. O.J.01. O.l..04 0.J:r/2. o.JJ.8 a o .oaa o.088 OJ.36 0.0,.1 0..092 o.ll.6 OJ.10 0-066 0.120 9 o ... 086 0.074 0-126 0.056 .0.100 o.io6 0.J.20 O..o6; o.u 10 o.~_ o.~ 0.1J! o .e,g O.lerl o.i06 0.1.oa. o .. m <>-U2 "1 0.085 0.1~ 0.050 0.102 0-.Jl.4 o...u.e 0.069 o.u9 to its 10V' soluld.Ut7., Ca.lcltu Gl.UC
PAGE 153

1 :,,.n.Q,1,/R 181 GimClffC ACID .o,..,.~~ A 8a.ll't-! Value \Ill G:hlc uconate o.oa, 0.1~ 2.19 bai(ll) m., o.oas o.U4 2.a., Cobf&l.t(n) en te 0, o.ua 2.i..1 Copper( II) Ul.1l'lcut. 0 CR5 0.069 1.,a.e ztno Gl.uccmate Oto.at o.u9 e.57 Di.ta !abl 120.

PAGE 154

Gl.una QJ.ucma b Potustun Glucmata $1\ID 01 b $1\lll Gluc -Gluc :te cSmfll. Gl: (II) Gluccmate {:a) 01.uet:aateb l,ai(XI) (II) UC0l'.la Co t(II) cnuccna Copper( II) at ;-te Zinc GlJICQla J..9C) e.26 2.05 2.63 3.17 a l e .. cy/' 2.5, e.19 l-~ 1.84 e-~ 918. 2.37 2.07 2.as 2.13 !t.~ 3.43 a.14 2. 2.70 a.'3'f. 1.61. 1.4 7 a oa. 4 .,, ,ae. 1. 3 ..... .. ,. 2.19 ~. a.45 ..... e,.41 1.48 14 a Qll.etas otbervS. &veJ-. of two blood~;u.eB b -va1ua detendJMld a tbe poe ot 0.2 per cet adt ch1ortcte.

PAGE 155

:ta, t 1Dr-cxr.,xati<11 m t.bie la~ ~~-loA UDarALal>JLa :In t;he l1't.e1."la1tWl"8 All li'VOl.W..U Of the y-.... ~ c,al~t.e(l ~lft'l:~t.i VS.th aoa.:IL'UII. l>01illtwl s.nt Gan!l'l!S. 2*~ re t1m1lu to tt there no ta.ts.en ca1;1 b7 gluea:lic -.,y .... t(n), trcb(n>~ tbtU 1 y.,._wir,;~ -aoc 1, 2.4,5, l'IIAl!lneJM(II) UC tie t.o be t 1 :ue ot e .. 19 v!ie:J~. -

PAGE 156

I bOlllmfll!fr,, t.bat -, e,ee,,. of Sl,UCO!U.e &cl4 ,'tlm'miit!~ t.alD8 .... "'6,lllllii 1 vat to Ulm!IA' b;r ~o f.bod, 1 m1n4 t tbe . ti.ca ot the blood ~~ta '11111. aa&OCUt1$ tbe tellJ.c &l.\lteorit4tl: t $~ 01"i pnal pH Vcil~~; o-r 11~ aoluttcma 414 cot CQIIQBllt ~:NIQ:tal>JLY ..rteJ." Ucnot blood ("14. e 116) U$neG to 37 l Vf:!1!f!)!!I; Qt. ll.oq4 o,motic ~t, of~-Y"11"'MJQ.. &oal\C. cblori aa, to --1111111.J tlim!IDY:IDa bl004 clcnor dallt VB.:lr:.... ob ed u tlle' s,,aeot tocU cb.1.0114 eol.utim. ~mNftecl tor uur~ tenlfJ'Jatl.Ql by hell:IOJ:1/$'U ill both tbe s,tfeNIIJ.ee the stU0<11Ja IOl: :ttcu Jbral ~l!,A atf!lftM*-Ll two eaeni-.1~ taUed to l)ee, .. 6o I go 'bloo4 l;:IQlllj~ll';:,a Sl ezut 52) ctirltso4S\lldil.ort fNMflllle(l to

PAGE 157

152 .,..........,.bloo4 tb,e OBDINC *~1,f.,1-1,V ~1:m-OCYtu de1:eit!@fi!t4 111 Y&\'1 ~-l,illll~;jl~ 60 67), 4 IJDt Offl!'llr ~csi t~ ab0119d le ~~.1e . - ,o eet ~ In 8041 ~t101iJ tbe -CMta~ of til t()(l;l\llllm.l.JM!".t.(M~~- AU ot tbe caucus. bloocl NP11Pl tnvffti.~ ~~Ml to a C C11J111--Sn o .t.a cet <:blor1 c~Utat Nl9.I a47 four ot tbe a.aro bl.004 -.rgjU.Clt &llbi'bt '1A tbS. -1.t ~t\"atlt:o. Ill.a~ Of' tM ~,al, Otl.Mft' Jf.~oglcal CCDdltiCIJS ba"8 ClQlm. to eauiae .. -..:-; .. ts.011 tbe QelQOti.ct tN81JJ.'t7 ot (166). cell .-em.a 4l oe~ a'.IJII08t m Sl'O reoe, @&N.c!teri b7 dc14e...ebQe4 red 'b1oo4 ceU. iD4 mctNa11e 1A ne.wemc,e ot U. t;eU tcMt.r4a ~c ....
PAGE 158

t1l PX'fl,verJltll:~ ~~"1,,Z-fif..lJ"; by lllC:Nll!li:;~~ ~-3 8 ( 163) not Olme?'V4!a mlllilll".lllllll!lllt calTI,flKl c)Ln t.Q a.tt-,a:me blmo1191$J ~, '.MJQ,J(,.O at 6 oo a 0 .390 ut ot IJQtl~l,1111. cb1ori.ae 153 J a

PAGE 159

tQl.1#0.1~ t ,.. ai!'llff.:Mfl ut.t.a bl a1UC~4te, urrin& ereia.ee ~.:S.."tAU cblortde Caen=-M. -EG4 "1'l -(tt) gl.UCdl&te PlU" 1t : i of l>l.oGd ta. ~ ~Si --~ ) at J.20.--ttm 5.19 t .U. U. 8,t'e9 of J:temo-i,.1,s oe_cum~. o rr t -chl.on ao1.utt.m. -rlill 0 Jn) &b~ c,ixrox:~ '"'5 c _. no). -~4~:et'-1. o1 ~ -ua, tt t u~ 0 .496 per' at. -to U u -1.t ao1utlcu 0 .477 _,-. e.et . tat ua,.(ll) gl,.UCQIUO in -enor N n.it of~ -to twa~m t<11 : t1l1 A ~ti of. ~ ~: by pi.:~ tluJ cent t .oat ~--fOUl:14 to p~t ,o pu, emt : :t ,o~tt!Xl vldcb the v __ .__,._ ot 1 36 .. BeCII~ of ~UM> pit at tlat asnc~ tb.e ~ tn tM -~-WQ to ,,.,..\.a;;,~~ O~tJld b

PAGE 160

eobl.l:t(U) gl.1JCCaatee 414 aot to .,.ctl)it.at. -.yo~' the NlWI protelna ot et.bu hmilll or 1'8.bW.t 'l>l.oo4, Ireo-. upm tbe ucn ot h1lllllll cw 1'Ul>it bloocl __,._ AftU .. tei-bath :t Yr re;,,, i'Ot'ty ftve m1uu MA etm'trl~t p.ncipltatu 1-ccdorect bulkN nu-tns lta a4dit1cai, tM ..,. d1 t ..,... to O()IISIJlAte :it touched tbe au:rJ~e of tbe lrc:o(tt) 8l,ucaate utiCQJ Nft1ID. ~'l+J.Qll ,,.. tu~ m both c,pper(n) -.a atiac glucoa&te ,olutieu Ire.it .,iuttcu o'f 1l'Oll( .U) &lueon&te e,1eU' Qll the aM!t1i <4 bloocl MJ"UID n.o prect; .U.Clll _. O~llilln-v'llla atter .UU!lCWlS period m4 trtf\ap~ COJl,p82'(II) Sl~...aeIIILD milk..vhl 2A ~-1be ad41.t1ce ot 1 tot.be C.08b!!lt'(Sl) gJ.uc .. te... ~, talJ\1114S "418ao1Ye4 HNI, ,. __ ....,.._4 ill vol.\lldAOlla blwt~te ~pl.ta '!be *1nc gl.UCODa "'"1'llll protein mtlk-vhite SA col.or, vot,mnou. to be ttable.

PAGE 161

if to COJJP*r(U) 156 _,,,np ot ce: that tvo put1cleaJ XU ble 121. ave]l"IMf8 1 ..,.:a., 2.z-t wwaa .-.. ,_:t a: ibit l:llood .-nd 2.(1'{ v1t.h bl.., bloocl 0.2 per cec.t sodtl.11\ Chlor:l DUIZIIIID bldOd?' 1he84!J Wi,t low!mt4 to 2 b10ocl, the ~t1au 'nN

PAGE 162

.u).(. U5 adluti-. 0 lrtt u -~, ~~1.1. OSQOtie a c:< 1"'1"t1QQ1S1W1S u~ea-ua u e to bfJIB~ata (.2, 1.68,. ur:,a1110.ats d (;b *JlUt.1 .. ttm of ~J,.,&, ~tlo&111 at'ICl't c14.ic1e (a, 169 ). A1"1~T.'ffl"ll.)'te, ~-~..:t:-' ..,.._; C 1, It ~~tel tor 80CJ:l'Ul!t el be to ~-Jd -rd ---~ -~. \1ae1 ~ i ,t1tnot*'41: ~UCA ot t.lU! cw:tro1.-tt. ao...i itotht, bl. c.u. l!!!l1ta.lfW.!_9le&\R,d-ND l\ _ l,M!llllrl,l,JW.C: t ~,-$1:~te., ~::'QUl'WG tl"OI ~ of i1:1a '151; ,o, tD 1$ d In~ dl. ~~il'OerY'te tac1Milili4. _, r o-... a (a eao,~ 0.2 (a.72 to II ) &01*18 A #i.bQltt,tt ~g\l. -. ; Cllc .. -lrt'.IIM_Y: U4~ ue tor, c4Ctum .st~am ~--~ m ~rai. ~l,IJR dllor-1 !!!II; ~/ us t : ~ oal.olte *._._ -mbb1t hlooa ~--la z to 50 pa-.-C t Dea:~1.8

PAGE 163

7; cent ?Mllllll01.JHa,. IncNaNS at -='r SP1ttlde vezie note4 "'*1 tlMt llfB.cle tn ti. pi-eNDCe o,t o.~ per cent UJD cb:Lori. aerie of o.a cct 8Nlae
PAGE 164

159 (l ). IDllflbl'llie (l.89 ). eft'eetlJ of -101 cOtW1 cell ) ,J,Ja," .. m caqpeti tl IKll::Lm.:tY-Ul& ~ta, m4 (173, 17 ) . Altbat.10 on,111111'J(,e of m-o,cem tams ot 1 o~tbe lt ts ibJMlltl~tn tnAJ!18 fl.1kal1ne a.rT.DA idtb prolMlli~-.W:ID at e1U (17' ), fr,. -T .. ,~ at D&l."cot:lca 1'.AftU, of 1.Qbib tJ.m ), _...,,"w.. t ftl&SilN
PAGE 165

b1 vitb :t QJG1-.0Sltll : IOl.uti tbua the 08Kre8' ut1 ot alternate mtbOd lor colon4 f..~"""t(ll) ~c:aa ut1Clll8 UN!:afib:'ted. ,wv:u!ill,lo111(ll ) Al,U=-t.'te to 34. 1 v ;14141,-at a~ . 2 o8 141:b IWIIIII&\ el~U'.'OC:Y'te 1 'Value ot a .. 4. ~-~~~UI, Of tbe ......__. ....... l'UUlt Y,-- ot a.5; 70 1'1tb htllllll tbe DrellDC:O t ua t 61met,bo4, ?JI. a,19. ~l"ll. .. lit> eridence Qt PNl(Sipi-~ b1' tbff cob<(ll) m8CilUMJM. (U) gl.~te aolutial4-. 1~JJ.7 vitb bn l)J'e8'1Q.i)e ot 0.2

PAGE 166

161 c ~Hn~~~taem~sa tllo4 e cli.etille4 tor, -(tt) glue~ colorecl 8441t1v vtth inve,ttp.tion, tt1e.1N!t 7 to doubtful ot 1rm(II) gl.. ucellate aal\ltlcna~ MT.t:ll'U't (l 76) t,ated 'fAOug&). (n) s).ucona table in alut h,are prcne to oX11 :tt~, with ircrl( n) el)lll~IB t.o 1rcn(lllh rate t 'II> ln8 QOIDOAl!ID cola.rf.lrletric UD;~""'1~ Ni. (m) C:cmQiJOlEd of unJm.owA CCIIJ~1attiCll beta. uti
PAGE 167

-.....a..v B'l.lDPIIDQIHI. p$.rticlJ 8 ;t, be C . tldn ti. J tbe po a1bil1ty of 1-.k:f.Q the UD!itm0;Lw.i,d cella by ii).. n (T7/78, 176) (Il) u-m'iO!oarty tbat 1!1111.mea it va,t.uao.U! f.n fll, t.ranteral ll(lll;Ul11n.l'a Ul4tcate4 thatr bt' -.rJ. y n"elm J.tca(II), st solut1 y not dblf attect.l ~~IIU. b.Y solut1 at .-..~-ilM,,l.,Y ~~!Id &lllf.YB satl.U"&ted to eanltt!itf vU:b ~tQ to cell ml!ltllb1'mll8 !!. "lfltro (17 ). :Ucm, voul Y .... ,llolla'lf obtaJ.n lfDU.h\ 10.,.-than DO:rmal., o 11'\Xl(II) ue IOlutlcms .,-.~ l,..55 eD4 llUl:t., ct

PAGE 168

163 .e~~ oa S9am:Ln) SM:ssQDa ' } sL eoate 1n ~tt(m.S eawiae ~r hle ND~!!'ft. (179) ;t CQI!~ ""1J. I I nitff.lie1 @rut,-tQ pwc::1 :te.te ot ~lt) stmo W X-.I.UJ12!1S tably thrQugbout the 4u3U
PAGE 169

164 Reaal.er _ti\. (l ), 1n tuctYv1th t Jf, t.bat eopper (ll tW ot (llS. ot not :D:I. C'eYlmtAKl out j.D t.he 1>Jle8$'1itse t I tbat the catuma cells bt.aSDable -ty Vitb 1A i !. vaLue ot l. .48 burtee4 ot QUla'r.c 1 b1at,1y ... 0-uaual. 2.70 ti a com P.eg\te -.tt:111 Gl~ce&t oalcu1ate4 tar smc siucoaate trcm cawsJQs ,o 75 per cent 1*Jolya1 of human J7t.m'OC7tn abow4 value o~ 1'99 an4 666 Napectlvely. Val.uea t at 2'" per t ot entm"Oc,.t.a V9ft UDObtaSDMle. the coune t.&1 Snve"lt1a&~, \IIUWll bebanor -.. l10t1ced betwm blood IID4 dne &luea'Jate dOl.uticntf. cod. appM,re4 to assJ,.utilML1'.e u t.t -.e added to c~ tube CCllta ,n:tn s aol.utlCDS

PAGE 170

ot t t a.-y,,olftd 'tf)Dts) bOtt(lll 4hite .t'rllll!LtlCO 'm'f!Ml'l't.ed tube.$ ( tbeb C(Gtt Ob9~'4 tbe COlltcte b.came un1totmly 0Jf4\le A aectl~ tube ..... .JI ... ceotntl)pttcc IDW,ll~ bottan ot ellCb. Mlfll&T.l!!P--COJl.4 -~ .......... D'll'ODl~II.Xl of b1.oo4 --Hilt~ mbafallee .. acim'11110\laWLc1C'tta. a nd41ab C01or (re..,,,J1ng c.o.~e ~ ->llM) a4 delll9il"'IIIMMN Sza ut1 ~f'&; t~-v.~-tb7dl')C1'Ulh; ot aDCl'la.C&e1 1 ll0lft. UQY;r..~~ solubtllty. ''-'> -~~tblll ting ..,.,.._u ot ) aQ.\lahl. lQ 4UutA 81ldtll -tat tbe O'l v.1.tb 18 -~of~S.nbf otbeJ' metA.ll.1o 1* -bomdto trlJdzlg ea of vol; t)lat~ ))IJ.lJdllesa ta.41oat.4t. ot platlca tbatl ot tbtt ~leftlaT,,IIIQt d,..\t1,a. re.~94 1n Ude v lak1na t ~ytea ill ple ,till.e4 :ter,

PAGE 171

l<>-OJ 1t ~ -mes~ UDIM!I .. DO. s\obUl _, ,,,.,.. M"~~ l :t SOllltll o-f stnc ;., --~t-e4. 1b, .me.ioi,1t.tecl ,. $Ui0 ~~-'Ce., 5 0 white, pnta im'fA'.~M A -~Wt!4' s~ Of tan '<:# sii Dm mi~ alb1:ab to c
PAGE 172

aoum, .. in the pJ'Ote~ )\-.,.
PAGE 173

1, )~ lt 1 et t of Utll bl.~ T.An4-Qfn:,en:W) not a,ly it o 1c <:Q thel" or not 1t ~yte rnemln'9:I~ or attecta t t propert1 aJ thUs tl.ot ,~~ teotantc to t1 tl g.tucc;r,:1a m i,rectp11iattnQ -A4 ~U18.. tor aes:ree 0~ ~~-~i;;, at a;;i,,l'tl\,l"nn'\rt.,,,S, ~DeCQeC:1 cOl.bl"ed ts by ffl"illrU'f.lllo'!1m 1i1'1M-Jllen. ot QSID(:>t:te f'ragilt't1 ot eAd,legro4o'C,or$j th ~--~ge tlealolyti.C Ulod ~~~-c l.68 ,. s slttc0na'tea pve .,..IV\,_ o'bta.1ne.

PAGE 174

bJ.ood .. (ll) gl~ a p - 2 ct ot -(ll) g1: 1 !. V: lytic to bl.ood ~-n~1::1DA Ulelilel\t;e(l ao111:ree :tiOD m (D) gluccm. -'.-UU,(l)f ..

PAGE 175

170 mtic :te eJ.t.ibi'ted -bi -~'ta1)10ll of' tba ()l_ ~-~ta,

PAGE 176

-1.1, w. '!~t !3,. 750 (1954). . 4. Ba:l"tllllllnr C. V., -au.., f,., J.. ~!'ID.. Aaa,oc." Sc1. N., 4 (1 ). 5. 1. D. ., I 1., J. !I, 703 {l.958). 6.. cadla.11ede1"1 D. I., "'14 ~ay. W, J ,,,, J. Ala. ~!I, m Cl.958). a. SQl, c. L.~ !at, 711 (1958}-~Olf:IA~ . f f I Pf.A'ertatiCflJ 11 e ., fl $CC., t ... , ., ~ "91.e Mera Di deS. ot ebllmd.c-.la an4. 10 .. u. ., MaPC~ Ca-, i Si Y, 9S2, BOU:tftJt.11, t., Caqpt. Nnd,, 2 (188o)., ac:ott,. ,. s .. !l, 114. m.., !J, 3J3 (1953). 12. Stall, A., 8ll4 IOie.--.1:., W tr. teD; 1,648,368 (1927). 13. lle1w1 E. L .. U. S. fatelt 1,:9l7,a73 (1933). 1i.. IebeU., a. s., u. s Jtnt 1,985,255 (1934). 15. 'tAJiDaCk, R., eDJ GU R U S. Pat.ct 1,~16(i0 (1934). 16. ~. s ., MuQcb. mect. WOClfl8dQ!'' -,, a, 540 (1935), l.7l ,,

PAGE 177

17. llel'll:at.m, l 143 (1930 ); ci 1eott, ,. J., ,.1 !!, ID.4. laa Cbea, ~ l39 (19'3). 18.. Bodm, G., OrvoeJ. Betilap, 84, (1936)J c1 by sCQtt, P. J., et _., ., 339 (1953). 19. J. 20 21.. (l ) , 3)3 (1957) 699 (l ), 23. Gold, ., ., ll (1939). (19llo). 2 ). .. l (1955) 2 ., (1957). ?, a73 (1950). 31, I --~...... . J)rUSI h 6tb a'IOl:U:i.V o, 167 2'47' .,. l.45 (1952). 1tm4, H. A. ., ~. JloJ 36. 112 (1949 >, 1serpt.a lfe4.; Sect. nu, C. A., 4193 (1955) CJWIL1l"t.,, 005 (1951) ., v. v., . ~IIM!'C., :::., S71 (1939).

PAGE 178

,,, 49 ... so-51. 52. 53. ~. 5S 173 ,_ V*1l-l.emMam> a.. . t 268 (1953)1 t.hrl:JUdi eun,,,Qt Ltfft Ut., 473 (J.954J. Jurltce, J. c., lur.lat, A U.. tea.t 2 76,082 (191,,9). ~. ape,,., !i., 98 (1939). a1:1.a,g,~ &. J,,, !1 -, J ftem&OQ.l.. ~"'4 T!mn.tJ., 108, (1953h Pee. W, 751 (l9'1). J 1:,)1. (i~). 'l:lllRl"""'C , I, 268-$ (1950) 1 w.. 'biol 3, 61 (1949) ., CUI?. 1574 (l ). :,. ., ~ t9l7 <1m). 39 (1937). ., I~ (l-9'3). ., Cbem. Soc., I/.J 202 (1955). . .. =,, 2~ (1938). Soc., 7, 39(,7 (1956). 56 Uoi', ., JJatuN, 770 (1947) atu:,e. !:il., 435 (1 ). 51. ., ead.....-Q 6o. (1929),. ,., "Tl'ace Bt..emarita ill m.!1111~ An1mal tll~tiQra," ACGOllll:LC F"I-; lnc., 1956, e. 4 ....... -.!!MI:., V. WOZ-2.J., A., "~ '.l'l'I!~~, fttei;ls, tooaoo, l.~, ,. 212 Bf. t., ::, 1Q3 (1936).

PAGE 179

66. 1a. 79 .. ao .. 174 o ,. 57'9 {1953}. w ., > iQ2, 179 Bdlmblll'L .. ..., Wti~, c.. ., ~DQ.., l:, (19'7). 5011Mea A, L .. a.\.~ Arc:b, -f i2, 170 (l~). IAU!Ml.l.1 c . Bloo4, f3 (1951 ). a 503 (l .). MOal:'91 C~ Beate~t.v,. => 22 (1956). J., =1 ( 893). ~""ll, lJ77 ( ) aoc., II, 1435 .t., l!,. 1293 (1932). m, 2l.6 (1937) Jnt.emal ,. fQ, 961 (1937 ). ,n,;;lll....,.""-AI "J Goe t W ,., 3.-~. aa- ~-, (1937)-w., lkdl. llatl. ., U, 178 (l~5)lt nrw11~.At"n, A. t., !:l, -~., !., U!9 (l.~) .. w., J., l. J79 (l.9'3) 11., ::;, (1951,.).

PAGE 180

175 (1948). (l ) ..... t., g,.; 385 ( 9 ) Ol\1~tr, 'I, B J. Lab-. OlJn ., !!., 56 (1953). I 91, 68Q (J.952),J c1 by "~!!lee' ---tJJ iia'lblml Aft1M) ~tiClll, ; 1956, 73 ~~L"U, M c., and.,__...,.. ----~ 395 (1949) o.,_.9:1.., ,. CliQ. : 1560 (J954). ol.. # ;::;:> 361. (l ) .. o1., m, '83 (1925) ; t J ., TJ., m (1926) , .12, 71 (l.935). a., gg, 37 (1940} J 22, (1953) .. 99. C.Der -t@OUalll," a HIU..'MD!m'!'III, 1950. -100,. Ia1MW,, ll DtVe P; Ji, 322~ 329 (1953) ll\1t.1:.':l,1:.1JO!b., '-2, 395 (1951). 101.. 1oi... 105. ., 11.!!, 905 (1948). lbY'i~ B. _.,. 11\C)QQ(3'1. J.t 21, 594 l,952). :t.eri~~, 1).. l3,. 1 .m.clCllll!llll J i I ad

PAGE 181

.108~ lO(J .. uo. m. 4,. u,. G. u7. us. 119, 120. 121. 122 ~ # 1'--, I D., A., B., t.,, 10, ( ~} lU.DQt, A. --t 133 (1920) ,. as.QCbeal. , rm <1941>-B\11,1~~~, !2, m < > (l.8'rl). .,, . ., ll; '67 (l.9Sf7) J. ~ 11:, (l; ), I --1 ~", (1 9 39). _., 116, '(l ). (l9'i0). lle ., Bl ~1'4a(l 9). $2 (19112). t., b,: 369 {l.95a)J ~ a <195e).

PAGE 182

'. 1 1 :::::, 111-7 (!~). J ',.., .21-. ~-1a, (~) .. Yl.mm w Acaa .. tJIDltmdl A.i !I, fJ'I m V(rt;d.\S~,IJ, , ~-1'.lt'P
PAGE 183

178 on, M. L., and J. Gen.. . o1., 1,-16':r79 (1925)J J., Gen. Pbystol., U, la ( 9e9) a., !! !!, Cbme J. Ph1vio1., !, 219, m (1m>, tm-ou&b c. A., !i, .. -37, 1987 (l~). PalfUQSGO,, w. A,, :uet~ J ,J:l&UIIM,. tioL' Ma4. 303 (1938). M'm.~r, , ~1 8114 York, 1948, P 236. Bob11r ,. a., l'bYale&\ \dlCll~aiey e~ an Tissue co.,~, 19'1-S, e.47. 150. bikov, /l. ., ezpti. .. C. A., f&, 2 (1928h ., e, l5l. Cbrtar.obeJl':s, S. R., .Irldl I. ~-:aea., ll, 'f44-.63 (1929)-. 152. ACQl'*1l)Ylt1Cll 10, ologtcal ~tema," ~1,14QU,, 14\&n 1956, J) 94. 157,. l~. 15,. 16o. ran.OR!!", "Hemalyale Tork, l.9218, P 93 t -4 Boac:no, s., Ja.pll). l~ Gl.stroen:tel'Ol.., 17~ (l93a)J th:tougb C g, 435() (1932 ). ~~,-,, M., 8. ., 12, 229..,39 (l928)t1 ol,. ., {e., 95U9 (1931),. Pa,rJ~_rt, A. , A!.,., J Clio. t., g_, 636-4() (1~7). R+..,.,ll1i'h 1 ., an4 *ier, 1 J.lt z., .2, ,, (1919}. Hnnr-~, r. T., J. CUtl lhV t., f.2, 691 (l.9lt,O) ~~::.1.; ., 0C.D.8Cllt.r., !, l~le-3 (1923).

PAGE 184

166 .. 179 1 c., Acta Beazl.d., 22; 52-7~ (1923). e, 300-(1913).J tll.ftnli:lb c. A., ma~lltt"A o the m. 1950, PP 9-22 1/J 169 Bd r, R.,. ~teal Cella : 1\S8Ull11 Co., PhUa.-... ..,.,...,. 94,5, B 2'37 ,. 170, 171 174. 175~ 176 .. 177~ 178~ 179. 1eo. 767-75. (1953). Qtl!NlllUOll oJ.og$.cal tems, tlals, ta,4ta, 1956, p. 111. !be PesnoMUtf at tua.1. York, 1943, P 157 11;,.\ol~!lY-and ~, tt Y01"k1 1950, 97 I 1. ., J!, 16 (1950). sur.fitet.M:>r, ic., n !:l, :s Clbl. Jnv ~-, 13-;a c1949 >. .a..1=~ M., ~!!., CClll.1:lt ..... __., @411 U~-68 (195S) ; J., "mooa Cella fl J1R-t:2-, Tull.ta, J. L 195 ,- 49. 1&.: al -1 _., J. Colloid. .1., 2, 122-ll (1954).

PAGE 185

iJClOJ J-, G,, nJQ..Oi04 Ml.. la.l ,1' 1\dlJ. J. L., 1953, p.. 202. ., J.. , l . ., n., .. ,., eel--,

PAGE 186

1933. Pboen1,z, Arlacxaa, encl vu gradUat.e,4 from Ji Adam8 l1sll Scbool Sil ci.velen4 12:l 1951. lli uw.,erg:l."ad\aate i;lwl.&l.~u IlUrl'IUftl'l cariNJJ.J. lb1 at ~DeJJOl' ot -. .. ~e 1D fllfi~:M'.!'Y,. :tb b1cno:r11, in June. 1955. int.be tJutee seaieste:rs f'ellOWBbl by 1n 1958 .. tbf sity un,aua:te -COUACU .trtante,ltup prior tQ Mlll.rdlltd tor Hlarmaceu~1eal .-.... .... tlm wri.~r 1 a stere4 ~tat 1D tbe at4tee ot
PAGE 187

It Jun 6, 1959

PAGE 188

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