Citation
Music programs in year-round schools in Florida

Material Information

Title:
Music programs in year-round schools in Florida current status and implications for future development
Creator:
Haworth, Janice Lee, 1959-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiii, 243 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Counties ( jstor )
Elementary schools ( jstor )
Music education ( jstor )
Music teachers ( jstor )
Musical performance ( jstor )
Musical rudiments ( jstor )
Schools ( jstor )
Students ( jstor )
Teachers ( jstor )
Year round schools ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Music -- UF
Music -- Instruction and study -- Florida ( lcsh )
Music thesis, Ph. D
Year-round schools -- Florida ( lcsh )
Orange County ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1995.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 231-242).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Janice Lee Haworth.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
021933517 ( ALEPH )
33662117 ( OCLC )
AKP4317 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text








MUSIC PROGRAMS IN YEAR-ROUND SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA:
CURRENT STATUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR
FUTURE DEVELOPMENT












by

JANICE LEE HAWORTH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1995




TI >
MUSIC PROGRAMS IN YEAR-ROUND SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA:
CURRENT STATUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR
FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
by
JANICE LEE HAWORTH
DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1995


Copyright 1995
by
Janice Lee Haworth


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
As I have finally reached the end of this goal, I realize that I could
not have accomplished any of these steps on my own. There are many
people who have been very helpful along the way.
I would like to thank the chair of my supervisory committee, Dr.
Charles Hoffer, whose guidance, patience, and encouragement have
resulted in the completion of this project and my degree. I would also like
to thank the members of my supervisory committee, Drs. Phyllis Dorman,
Russell Robinson, Budd Udell, Arthur Jennings, and Panos Livadas, for the
practicality of their help and support in this research project.
There are several friends whom I would like to acknowledge and
thank for their encouragement and support throughout this degree process:
Mary Jeanette Howie, Ronald Howard, Debra Hess, Jill Hooper, Joanne
Engel, Evelyn Williams, and Jerri Goffe. I am also indebted to the many
year-round music teachers who took the time to complete the
questionnaire. It was my goal to write a dissertation that would make a
difference in the music education profession. Without their help none of
this would have been possible.
Most of all, I would like to thank my parents and my brother for
their unending interest and encouragement. Their maps, news clippings,
and video tapes have kept me informed, up-to-date, and constantly aware of
their love and support. To God be the glory.
in


TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES xi
ABSTRACT xii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 1
Music Teachers in YRE 4
Factors in Music in YRE 5
Statement of Purpose 7
Overview of the Study 7
Delimitations 8
Limitations 9
Definitions 9
General Calendars 9
Year-Round Calendars 10
Calendar Designs 11
Teacher Contracts 12
2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13
Introduction 13
Historical Overview 13
Needs of an Agrarian Society 14
Early History: 1904 to 1938 14
The Quiet Years: 1940 to 1970 16
Calendar Reform: 1970 17
NCYRE: 1972 to 1986 18
NAYRE: 1987 to the Present 20
Current (1993-94) Status of Year-Round Education 22
IV


Popular Calendar Designs 23
1993-94 Statistics for the United States 30
1993-94 Statistics for Florida 32
Relevant Studies on Year-Round Education 34
Does YRE Save Money? 34
Does YRE Improve Student Achievement? 39
Does YRE Improve the Quality of Education? 43
Public Response to YRE 48
Sources on Music and Year-Round Education 53
References by Music Teachers 54
References from Music Conferences 56
Music as a Subtopic 57
3 A BRIEF HISTORY OF YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION
IN FLORIDA 59
Earliest Beginnings 60
Innovative Governmental Leadership 61
Enhancing Curriculum 61
Improving Overcrowding 61
Legislative Acts 62
Early Calendar Innovations 63
Looking Ahead and Preparing for the Future 64
Polk County Feasibility Study 64
Orange County Planning 65
The Early 1970s 65
The Dade County Quinmester Plan 65
NCYRE Conference in Florida 66
45-15 Comes to Florida 67
Jupiters Concept Six 69
The Silent Years 70
Marion County Begins It All Again 71
Banner Growth in the 1990s 72
Orange County Goes Year-Round 72
FAYRE 73
Brevard County Parents Vote 73
Duval County Dual Tracks 73
Lake County Pilot Program 74
Osceola County Rapid Growth 74
Seminole County Goes Year-Round 75
Volusia County 76
Charlotte, Polk, and Clay Counties Join In 76
v


Sarasota and Broward Counties 77
Future of YRE in Florida 78
Return to Traditional Calendars 78
New Year-Round Programs 78
Investigating for the Future 78
Growing on Track 79
Conclusion 80
4 METHODOLOGY 81
Introduction 81
Grounded Theory 81
Four-Step Process 82
Grounded Theory as a Research Tool 82
The First Phase: The Exploratory Study 82
The Second Phase: Surveying the Teachers 84
Developing the Questionnaire 84
Sample for the Study 85
Music Teacher Names 85
Procedures 86
Teacher Contact 86
Instrumentation 87
Data Analysis 88
5 RESULTS OF THE EXPLORATORY STUDY 91
Introduction 91
Results of the First-Phase Exploratory Study 91
Contract Options for Music Teachers 91
Does YRE Benefit the Music Program? YES 95
Does YRE Benefit the Music Program? NO 96
Complex Issues and Simplistic Answers 97
The Future of Music in Year-Round Education 103
6 RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 105
Introduction 105
School Calendar 106
Teacher Contracts 107
Contract Design 107
Extended Contracts 110
Track Contracts 112
vi


Music Teacher Views and Opinions 114
Community/School Relations 114
Single-Track Schools 118
Multi-Track Schools 119
Personal Views 121
Elementary Music Programs in Year-Round Schools 131
Elementary General Music Classes 132
Effect on Music Teaching 135
Effect on the Music Classroom Environment 141
Elementary Performing Groups 143
Secondary Music Programs in Year-Round Schools 150
Secondary General Music Classes 150
Secondary School Performing Groups 150
Classroom Environment 153
Year-Round Preparation 155
Teacher Demographics 157
Suggestions 159
7 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS,
AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER
RESEARCH 164
Summary 164
Conclusions 167
Implications for Administrators and Music Teachers in
Year-Round Schools 170
Multi-Track is the Future 170
General Music Classes That Easily Adapt 170
Performing Groups and YRE 171
Concerns for Administrators to Address 174
College Responses 176
The Future of the Implications 176
Recommendations for Further Research 177
Coda 178
APPENDICES
A STATEMENT ON YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION 179
B NATIONAL AND FLORIDA ASSOCIATIONS FOR
YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION 183
C ELEMENTARY MUSIC TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE 185
vii


D SECONDARY MUSIC TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE 196
E PRELIMINARY CONTACT 206
F APPROVAL FROM THE INSTITUTIONAL
REVIEW BOARD 208
G COVER LETTER 210
H FOLLOW-UP MATERIALS 213
I LIST OF SCHOOLS THAT RESPONDED 217
J 1993-94 FLORIDA YEAR-ROUND SCHOOLS
BY COUNTY 226
REFERENCES 231
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 243
Vlll


LIST OF TABLES
Table page
1 Increases in Building Capacity by Calendar Design 36
2 Calendar Design 107
3 Responses Regarding Choice in the Selection of
Teaching Schedules 108
4 Open-Responses Regarding Recommendations on Track or
Extended Contracts 109
5 Extended Contract Teachers on Teacher Burn-Out 111
6 Use of Certified Music Substitute Teachers 113
7 Changes Seen in the Needs of YR Families 114
8 Teachers Enrolling in College Courses Over Last
Five Years 116
9 Needs to be Addressed by School Districts 117
10 Effects of Single-Track Scheduling on Music Programs 119
11 Effects of Multi-Track Scheduling on Music Programs 120
12 Perceived Advantages to YRE 122
13 Perceived Disadvantages to YRE 124
14 Disadvantages of YRE Grouped by Teacher Categories 125
15 Future Plans on Teaching in YRS 126
16 Continue Teaching in Year-Round Schools 128
17 Elementary General Music Class Schedules 132
ix


18 Personnel Involved in Scheduling Elementary
General Music Classes 134
19 Effect of Year-Round Education on Sequencing 136
20 Effect of Year-Round Education on Curriculum Content/
Concept Development 137
21 Effect of Year-Round Education on Student
Understanding 138
22 Raw Data Comparing Student Understanding and
Years of YRE 139
23 Effect of Year-Round Education on Material Retention 140
24 Effect of Year-Round Education on Teacher Burn-Out 142
25 Performing Groups in Year-Round Schools 144
26 Effect of Year-Round Education on Quality of
Performances 145
27 Dealing With Off-Track Students and Multi-Track
Performing Groups 148
28 Off-Track Students Coming On Campus for Rehearsals 149
29 Secondary Music Students and Music Tracks 154
30 Year-Round Music Teacher Demographics 158
31 Non-Workshop College Courses Taken Over the
Last Five Summers 159
32 Music Teacher Suggestions for a Successful Year-Round
Music Program 160
x


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure gage
1 Basic schedule format for a traditional school calendar 24
2 Basic format for block scheduling in a single-track
year-round design 24
3 Basic format for a multi-track year-round calendar
(5-tracks) 26
4 Basic format for a four-quarter year-round calenddar 29
5 Florida counties and the number of 1993-94 year-
round schools in each district 33
xi


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University
of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
MUSIC PROGRAMS IN YEAR-ROUND SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA:
CURRENT STATUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR
FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
By
Janice Lee Haworth
May 1995
Chairman: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer
Major Department: Music
The focus of this study was the effect of year-round education on
music teachers and music programs in Florida. Year-round calendars
create particular problems for music teachers and their programs. In
order to investigate the nature of these problems and to determine what
solutions had been tried, or were needed, a history of Florida year-round
education was compiled, and a two-phased study was designed.
The first phase consisted of preliminary interviews that focused on
designs of teaching contracts, year-round effects on music instruction, the
complex issues involved, and the future of music in year-round education.
Based on the findings from these interviews, a questionnaire was developed
and distributed to all the year-round music teachers in Florida.
From the results of the music teacher questionnaire, several
conclusions were drawn: (1) Multi-track calendars create more problems
for music programs and music teachers than do single-track calendars;
(2) Most music teachers feel unprepared to begin teaching in year-round
schoolsboth in general and also specifically with regard to music;
Xll


(3) The conflict between teacher-needs (track-contracts) and student-needs
(extended-contracts) have created a problem in teaching contract options
for multi-track music teachers. A new contract design is needed so that
music teacher concerns about teacher burn-out and program consistency
can both be addressed; (4) General music programs experience problems
with the timing and use of holiday music in lessons, and the problem of
keeping track of individual classes in the curricular sequence; (5) Multi
track performing groups, on both the elementary and secondary levels,
have difficulties with students rotating in and out of ensembles and never
having the entire ensemble together.
Innovative solutions to reduce the negative effects of year-round
education on music programs include (1) new teaching contract options for
music teachers, (2) sequencing general music lessons numerically and
lessening the role of holiday music in general music plans, and (3)
organizing performing ensembles by tracks. Other suggestions from the
teachers themselves were offered to help lower the stress level of music
teachers in year-round situations.
xiii


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
In an age of shrinking educational funding and growing numbers of
students, many school systems have been forced to look for new ways to
deal with the problem of providing sufficient space for students to learn.
One solution that has received a great deal of interest in recent years is the
year-round school calendar.
Statement of the Problem
The focus of this study is year-round education, with a particular
emphasis on its effect on music teachers and music programs in the state of
Florida. Historically, year-round education (YRE) is not a new idea;
neither has it been easily accepted by the American public. Although there
are dozens of variations in the format and school calendar, the basic
principle of YRE is that the long summer vacation is divided into several
shorter holidays throughout the school year. This calendar shift is viewed
as an asset to learning because there is less time for students to forget and
less time spent in review of previously learned material.
By having different groups of students on vacation at different times,
an economic benefit has been realized by the proponents of YRE: more
students can be accommodated in the same amount of classroom space.
Different schedules reflect different gains, but an increase of 20 to 50
percent in the number of students using a building is not uncommon.
1


2
The first year-round school program was created in 1904 by
William Wirt of Bluffton, Indiana, as a four-quarter plan in which students
attended three of the four quarters and 25 percent of them were on
vacation at any given time (National Education Association [NEA], 1987).
By 1993-94, the National Association for Year-Round Education (NAYRE)
reported that there were 32 states involved with year-round schools, with
1,905 schools serving 1.4 million students (1994a).
Throughout the twentieth-century educational innovators have
claimed that they were drawn to this concept, both as a financial panacea,
but more often in an effort to improve the quality of education for their
students. In spite of the beneficial possibilities of YRE, it has not been
easily accepted by the public. Parents tend to object to the fact that it is
difficult to schedule family vacations when their children are split into
different tracks at school. In addition, they express concern about child
care for their children when they are out of school during the traditional
school year.
Although there are many variations to the traditional school
calendar, Shepard (cited in NEA, 1987) groups them into three categories:
summer school, extended school year, and year-round school. All of these
are often considered to be year-round education, but there are actually
some clear differences that are important to this study.
Summer school is a short-term program offered in the summer
months as either enrichment (generally voluntary) or remediation (often
required attendance). It is usually set up as a supplement to the regular
school year rather than an extension or continuation. The four-quarter


3
YRE schedule uses summer school as an additional term within the school
year.
The extended school year is an attempt to improve the quality of
education by increasing the number of days that students are in class. Most
school districts in the United States follow a 180-day school year.
Year-round school is a change in the way the calendar is organized
without adding any days to the schedule. Instead of a three-month vacation
in the summer, shorter vacation periods are scattered throughout the year.
In over-crowded school situations it is possible to increase the capacity of
the school by staggering the vacation periods so that one group, or track,
is always off campus. This definition of year-round education, 180-, or
fewer, days with shortened vacation periods, is the focus of this study.
Since 1980 the number of schools using modified year-round
calendars has been increasing (NEA, 1987). Since 1990 the number of
schools involved has mushroomed. As more states and districts suffer
from under-funding, over-crowding, and a public mandate to raise
educational standards, year-round scheduling is being seen as an innovation
with great possibilities.
Florida, the focus of this study, is the third largest state in the
country in terms of YRE enrollment. Only California and Texas exceed it
(NAYRE, 1994a). Since its beginning in the early 1970s until the 1993-94
school year, YRE in Florida has grown to 105 schools in 12 districts.
Several districts in Florida have incorporated extensive planning
time prior to the opening of their first year-round school. Generally that
planning is more geared to the school as a whole rather than to specific
programs within the school. Most members of the school staff deal with


4
one fixed group of students (i.e. five periods of a particular subject or a
single classroom of children). Other than the shifting of the vacation
schedules, most school staff in a modified calendar situation experience
little change in their actual curricular offerings or teaching style. This is
because they either follow the same track-schedule as their students or
incoming students are grouped with other like students to form new classes.
Teachers and administrators who deal with the entire student body
face a different set of problems than do those who deal with one fixed
group of students. These problems are often overlooked in the planning
and preparation for the implementation of year-round scheduling in a
school or district. In addition to the problem of needing to be concerned
with the entire student body, music teachers also face the challenge shared
by athletic coaches: their work is, by its nature, publicly critiqued.
Music Teachers in YRE
Year-round education creates some specific problems for the music
teachers involved. Although there are many different kinds of resources
available to districts, schools, and teachers considering a change to YRE,
there are no resources, other than private contacts, available to help the
music teacher. Access to information about music and YRE would allow
for more informed decision making on the part of music teachers and
administrators. Because of the growing number of year-round schools in
the state of Florida, an in-depth study and analysis of the existing music
programs in such schools is needed.


5
Factors in Music in YRE
A fundamental factor for both elementary and secondary schools is
the design of the school calendar. The group of modified calendars
included under the heading of year-round education are designed to be
flexible to meet the needs of the community. These flexible calendars, part
of the strength of YRE, have a significant effect on certain aspects of the
school teaching and learning environment, like the music classroom, while
affecting others very little.
Another area for investigation is the type of contract received by the
music teacher. Some districts allow the individual teachers to choose the
length of their contract, either following a specific track, or working under
some form of an extended contract. Other districts unilaterally require
that all music teachers work extended contracts.
Certain aspects of YRE have more import for some age groups than
others. An important area of interest for elementary music teachers is the
question of how to schedule multi-track general music classes and still
provide a sequential curriculum for all students. Under the traditional
calendar, most elementary music programs are designed around a five- to
ten-day rotation of classes. Under a year-round calendar, with classes and
teachers coming on- and off-track, it is not unusual for scheduling
difficulties to create blocks of four or more weeks when particular classes
do not have music instruction.
Another problem at the elementary level is the extracurricular
performing group and how to implement and maintain it when the entire
group is never together at any one time. One music teacher in central
Florida, director of an after-school Orff instrument ensemble, had all the


6
students and parents involved sign contracts stipulating that they would
attend rehearsals even when they were off-track and on vacation. Many
other schools have simply stopped their elementary choruses and
instrumental ensembles due to the problems incurred under YRE.
The problems faced by intermediate and secondary year-round music
teachers tend to be more visible to the community. The bands and choruses
that dominate these music programs suffer because the students are never
together at the same time. The solution, often mentioned in the literature,
is to invite off-track music students to come on campus for rehearsals.
This is problematic and short-sighted. Public performances, festivals,
contests, parades, and ball games still require presentations by these
performing groups, with little regard for the missing voices or
instrumentation.
In support of the music education philosophy of Music for every
child, most multi-track music teachers have been hesitant to institute a
music track that all band or chorus prospects would be required to enroll
in. The result, combined with the fact that it is difficult to find a qualified
substitute music teacher for extended periods of time, is that intermediate
and secondary music teachers generally have to work all year to keep their
programs from suffering. Although as of this writing there are no high
schools on year-round calendars in Florida, there are several middle
schools facing this problem.
A final area of investigation is to gather information from the music
teachers themselves about how to make year-round scheduling function
more effectively. Much of the current literature is written by curriculum
specialists and others who are not actually in the classroom. Many creative


7
music teachers have found ways to succeed. Their ideas can be an
important resource for other music teachers.
Statement of Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate, describe, and provide
information with regard to the music programs in year-round schools in
Florida. The existing literature on the subject does little more than point
out that there can be problems and encourages music teachers to be
flexible. The overall goal is to provide a source of help and information
for future music educators and administrators planning to implement YRE
regarding the specific problems facing the music program.
Overview of the Study
The main goal of this study was to expand the knowledge about
music education in year-round schools and to provide assistance for current
and future music educators and administrators involved in YRE. The
method of inquiry used to gather this information was preliminary
interviews, and questionnaires sent to the year-round music teachers in
Florida.
The first step in this process was to create a roster of year-round
music teachers from information available through the National
Association of Year-Round Education, the Florida Department of
Education, Florida Music Educators Association, and the counties/districts
themselves. The questionnaire was then field tested among a small
sampling of teachers. Since the elementary and middle school music
situations were so different, two separate forms were used, including a
common section that was included in both forms.


8
The questionnaire was a combination of both open- and closed-
format questions. Much of the demographic information could be solicited
through check-list answers. Other information, in particularly the
specifics on each situation and the creative measures that that particular
teacher found effective, was more appropriately gleaned through open-
format questions.
There were several specific goals behind the choice of questions and
topics on the questionnaire. The first goal was to create a picture of year-
round music education in Florida through information about the calendars
used, teacher contracts, and scheduling. The second goal was to identify the
specific problems that these teachers had encountered under modified
calendars. The third goal was to collect their ideas, solutions, and
recommendations on what had proved to be effective in helping their music
programs succeed.
The decision to preface the questionnaire with personal interviews of
year-round music teachers was based on the fact that there is almost no
literature on this topic. Rather than enter the field with preconceived
ideas, this methodology, similar to that of grounded theory developed by
Glaser and Strauss (1967), seeks to collect data and develop theory that is
grounded in the core problems and processes themselves.
Delimitations
In the 1993-94 school year, the state of Florida had 105 schools
using some form of year-round calendar. These schools were found in
twelve counties and included 95 elementary schools and 10 middle schools.
At this time there were no high schools on year-round calendars in
Florida.


9
Limitations
The focus of this study was limited to year-round schools, that are
neither summer schools nor extended year schools, that were in operation
during the 1993-94 school year, and that had certified music teachers.
Both single- and multi-track schools were investigated.
This study was limited to the year-round schools in Florida. It was
chosen for its proximity and availability for access to the actual music
classrooms. It was also selected due to the variety of programs, plans, and
reasons behind the different calendar implementations.
Due to the fact that there were no high schools on year-round
calendars in Florida, this study was limited to the elementary and middle
schools that fit these criteria.
Definitions
The following definitions of terms are applicable to this study.
General Calendars
The traditional calendar. Traditional School Calendar, or TSC,
refers to the standard 180-day, September-to-June, calendar.
The school year runs from July 1 to June 30.
Secondary schools will include both middle and high schools.
Modified calendars include any variation from the traditional
calendar, including all forms of year-round education.


10
Year-Round Calendars
Year-Round Education is a change from the traditional school
calendar in order to use the school plant and facilities in a more efficient
manner and respond to the educational needs of the students. Instead of a
three-month vacation in the summer, shorter vacation periods are scattered
throughout the entire year.
Tracks are the particular schedules each group of students and
teachers follows. In Florida they are often referred to by a color, e.g.
Yellow Track or Orange Track in multi-track situations.
Single-track or Block-track scheduling is the simplest form of YRE.
The entire school follows one calendar, with everyone in school at the same
time and on vacation at the same time. Typical single-track schedules
include a short winter and/or summer vacation in addition to the scattered
vacation periods.
Multi-track scheduling houses more students on a campus without
overcrowding by rotating the vacation periods so that one group, or track,
is always off campus. Typical multi-tracks schedules include from two to
five tracks on a single campus.
Off-track students or teachers are those who are on vacation between
the shortened regular terms. Those who are in school at any given time
are referred to as on-track.
Intersessions refer to the blocks of time between terms.
Mesters is a term coined by some year-round administrators to
distinguish the change from the traditional semester calendar terms.
Cross-tracking allows students to participate in courses that are not
in their particular track. For example, if band were only offered on one


11
track, it is possible that students from other tracks could participate during
that class period in their schedule.
Singleton classes are courses which, generally due to small
enrollments, are only offered once, rather than on every track, in multi
track schools.
Rainbowing refers to multi-track music classes and ensembles where
students from all the tracks go in and out of the same groups.
Retention is used to identify the quantity of material that students
have learned, remembered, and can build on at a later date.
Calendar Designs
45-15 is a popular form of YRE. Students, either single- or multi
track, attend school on a repeating cycle of 45 days (9 weeks) on and then
15 days (3 weeks) off. This cycle is repeated four times each year.
60-20 is a variation of the 45-15 in situations in which districts
prefer a longer teaching block and fewer restarts during the year.
60-15 is the most widely-used design in Florida. It is similar to the
60-20 except that the entire campus has a four- to five-week vacation in the
summer.
Four-quarter is the oldest variation of YRE and has, historically,
been the least successful. Students are divided into four equal groups and
attend school for three of the four quarters each year.
Concept 6 is a relatively new alternative to the 45-15 plan. The
students are divided into three groups with one group always off-track
resulting in up to a 50 percent increase in student capacity. Concept 6
schools have longer but fewer days than the other variations.


12
Double sessions were a frequently used, and still occasionally
threatened, way to deal with over-crowding by having two groups of
students and teachers use the same facilities each day.
Teacher Contracts
Extended-contracts enable teachers in multi-track schools to work up
to 240 days a year, generally with commensurate pay scales, benefits, and
retirement.
Track-contracts enable teachers to teach the same number of days as
one particular track of students. In multi-track situations, teachers on
track-contracts follow the particular on- and off-track times of a specific
track.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Introduction
This chapter contains an overview of the existing literature and
research on year-round education in general and on music in year-round
education. It is organized into an historical overview of year-round
education, a review of the current status and studies on year-round schools,
and an overview of the references to music in year-round education. The
review on the current studies focuses on the main concerns of year-round
education:
1. Does it save money?
2. Does it improve student achievement?
3. Does it improve the quality of education? and,
4. How do the families, communities, and school personnel respond?
The National Association for Year-Round Education was particularly
helpful as a source for historical information and a current list of the
individual schools and districts involved in year-round education. The
history and impact of this organization will be presented during the
discussion of the historical overview of year-round education.
Historical Overview
Although year-round education is often viewed as a recent
innovation in school reform, the idea of molding the school calendar to fit
the needs of the community is a long-standing tradition in American
13


14
society. The concept of a generally uniform nine-month, 180-day school
year was not common until after World War II. Prior to that time many
of the major urban areas operated calendars of up to eleven or twelve
months a year (Hermansen & Gove, 1971). In the mid-nineteenth-century,
the large numbers of foreign-born immigrants benefited from
culturization, educational, and language opportunities that lasted all year.
New York City held classes for 245 days; Chicago 240; Buffalo 250;
Cleveland 215; Detroit 259; and Philadelphia 252 (Glines & Bingle, 1993,
P- 3).
Needs of an Agrarian Society
At the same time, many rural schools were only meeting for a few
months each year because the students were needed at home to help on the
farm. As the country became more unified, the rural and urban school
calendars grew closer together in design and compromised through a
longer school year and a substantial summer break so the students were still
free to help with the crops.
Early History: 1904 to 1938
1904: Bluffton, Indiana. Dr. William Wirt, Superintendent of
Schools in Bluffton, Indiana, is generally considered the father of year-
round education. In 1904 he developed a rotating four-quarter calendar in
which students could choose to attend any three quarters each year (Wirt,
1906). The purpose of their program was not only to create more space,
but also to improve the quality of education (Glines, 1992). After four
years the calendar was dropped because they were unable to maintain an
equal distribution of students in the four quarters, which limited their


15
ability to plan for space and budget needs (National Education Association
[NEAJ, 1987).
1912: Newark. New Jersey. In 1912 the Newark, New Jersey,
schools implemented a similar program to the Bluffton experiment with a
four-quarter school year designed to benefit the many immigrants in that
area. Rather than have the summer term as an enrichment or remediation
time, their fourth quarter was a continuation of the regular school year.
Corson (1918), superintendent of schools at that time, identified the
objectives of their calendar reform as (a) saving time by having students
complete their schooling in fewer years, (b) proving that students are not
injured as previously feared by summer study, and (c) reducing waste in
time and in building use. As a result, the immigrant students accelerated
through the program, and it was determined that many of them graduated
at too early an age to function successfully in society (Shepard & Baker,
1977). This calendar ran for nineteen years until 1931.
1922: Nashville, Tennessee. Nashville, Tennessee, began a similar
continuous four-quarter plan in 1922 which ran for ten years. George
Peabody College for Teachers evaluated the Nashville program and found
that students attending the summer quarter did no better than those not
attending. Possibly this was a result of high attendance by disadvantaged
blacks (Hermansen & Gove, 1971, p. 12). It was felt, however, that many
of the participating students advanced further in their education than they
would have without the summer quarter plan.
It is interesting to note that, up to this point in history, all the year-
round or extended-year programs were designed to benefit the
disadvantaged immigrant students. These programs were not popular with


16
taxpayers and were all abandoned during the Depression years of the early
1930s. The public was not ready to pay for enrichment with tax money
(Hermansen & Gove, 1971, p.12).
1928: Aliquippa and Ambridge, Pennsylvania. A dramatic change in
year-round education began in 1928 in the towns of Aliquippa and
Ambridge, Pennsylvania, with the advent of the first mandated K-12
program designed to provide space for more students. The Aliquippa
experiment was considered to be very successful, saving over five years an
estimated $200,000 annually in debt service and teachers salaries
(Hermansen & Gove, 1971) and increasing the high school population from
1600 to 2200 without adding extra buildings (Glines & Bingle, 1993). The
neighboring town of Ambridge was less enthusiastic with the program,
citing problems with family vacations and increased drop-out rates for
students. When opportunities were provided to build more school
facilities, the year-round calendars in both towns were abandoned.
The Quiet Years: 1940 to 1970
Widespread interest in school calendar reform lagged during the
years following World War II except in scattered pockets across the
country. Omaha, Nebraska instituted a voluntary four-quarter plan in
1953. The Florida State University Laboratory School tried a seventy-five
day trimester plan from 1962 to 1967 (Shepard & Baker, 1977). In 1963
Nova High School in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, began a 220-day,
nongraded, trimester program. This experiment was stopped three years
later (Neal, 1978) citing problems with strain on teachers and students
from a lack of vacation time, and a psychological let-down for students


17
who had to stay in school for seven weeks while their playmates were on
vacation (Hermansen & Gove, 1971, p.31).
The money that was available for educational reform during the
1960s kept the innovations of year-round education going and many
feasibility studies were done by school districts looking for ways to
improve their programs. Few of these feasibility results were actually
implemented, however, due to the basic problem that the American public
just did not like the four-quarter concept that had prevailed thus far.
The interest in the concept was still there, however. The first
national conference on year-round schools was held in Fayetteville,
Arkansas, in 1969 and was attended by 150 educators, school board
members, and other personnel from more than thirty states (Glines &
Bingle, 1993). The stage was set for a simple innovation that would
revolutionize year-round education.
Calendar Reform: 1970
Valley View: 45-15. The Valley View School District in
Romeoville, Illinois, under a situation of severe overcrowding and newly
mandated kindergarten, developed a year-round calendar that they called
the 45-15 Continuous School Plan (Thomas, 1973). Rather than the old
four-quarter system, each student attended school for forty-five days and
then had fifteen days off. By running four tracks of students and having
three groups in school at any given time, the Valley View School District
was able to increase their school capacity by one-third without having to
build any additional school facilities.
What made this plan more palatable to the community was the fact
that every student had a three-week vacation period in every season in


18
addition to the week at Christmas and a week in the summer when the
entire school was closed down. This quickly became a very popular
design for a year-round calendar, and it was an important milestone in the
development and popularity of year-round education.
Miami Quinmester. In 1970 the Dade County (Florida) Public
Schools began an influential experiment that they called the Quinmester
Plan (McLain, 1973). The school year was divided into five nine-week
terms and the student body was divided into five groups. Each group then
attended four of the Five quins (with an option of attending the fifth).
This involved some radical revising of the school curriculum (Todd, 1973)
but it brought some immediate advantages: it would theoretically increase
the school capacity by 25% (Christian, 1970) and it was not dramatically
different from the traditional school calendar (TSC).
NCYRE: 1972 to 1986
In 1972 the National Council on Year-Round Education (NCYRE)
was formed to provide direction for the growing interest in year-round
programs. The wording in their title was carefully chosen because this was
to be a council for the study, support, and dissemination of information on
year-round education (Glines & Bingle, 1993). The term education
rather than school was chosen because the group viewed year-round
education as a philosophy, whereas year-round school is simply a
mechanical scheduling system designed to house more students (Glines,
1987, p. 14) with little regard for the educational needs of the individual.
The original NCYRE quickly developed into an annual meeting held
in different parts of the country and attended by those interested in school
calendar reform.


19
The 2nd National Conference, in 1970, was held in Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania. Many of the innovations, including the brand-new Valley
View 45-15 plan, were eagerly discussed. A statement on year-round
education (see Appendix A) was drafted and unanimously adopted by those
in attendance (McLain, 1973).
Brevard County (Florida) was the site of the 3rd National
Conference in 1971, hosted by the Brevard County School District (Wayne
White, Superintendent), Florida Technological University, and the Florida
Department of Education (Glines & Bingle, 1993). The focus of that
meeting was the different operational calendars that were currently being
utilized across the country.
The 4rd National Conference was held in San Diego, California, in
1972 and sponsored by the San Diego County Department of Education.
Many of the 982 registered participants were able to visit actual year-round
school sites and see the programs in operation. At this meeting the
National Council on Year-Round Education was officially formed with
Wayne White as its first president (Glines & Bingle, 1993). A quarterly
newsletter entitled the Year-Rounder was begun and published in
conjunction with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute in Blacksburg, Virginia
(Glines & Bingle, 1993).
The next three National Conferences (1973 in Virginia Beach,
Virginia; 1974 at the Valley View School District, Illinois; 1975 in Denver,
Colorado) suffered from sinking attendance numbers but the ideas and
innovations that were being created and discussed kept the interest level
high.


20
The 8th National Conference in 1976 was held on board a one-week
cruise on the Queen Mary out of Long Beach, California and set an
attendance record that was unmatched for thirteen years. Eleven-hundred
people spent the week studying, discussing, and getting excited about
year-round education.
The 9th National Conference (1977) was the beginning of a serious
time of decline in the interest and support of year-round education. That
conference, the first to be solely sponsored by the NCYRE, was postponed
from its original date and poorly attended.
The next three National Conferences were all held in California
districts (1979 in San Diego; 1980 in San Francisco; 1981 in Anaheim) and
their budgets and attendance numbers all reflected the sluggish turn in the
development of year-round schools in the country. The San Diego County
School District offered office space in their School Board building for the
NCYRE and allowed Dr. Charles Ballinger, then the San Diego County
YRE coordinator, to assume the part-time job as Executive Secretary of the
NCYRE (Glines & Bingle, 1993).
Beginning in 1982, at the 13th National Conference in Los Angeles,
California, national interest, conference attendance, and innovations in
year-round education started again to rise. This trend continued through
1986 with the 17th National Conference held again in Anaheim.
NAYRE: 1987 to the Present
In 1987 a new organization was formed that incorporated all of the
history and structure of the old NCYRE and emerged with a shift in focus
as a new National Association for Year-Round Education. The major
change was one of position, to that of an association for YRE, rather than a


21
council studying the concept (Glines & Bingle, 1993, p.2). Dr. Charles
Ballinger was retained as the Executive Secretary of the new organization.
Their statement of purpose was as follows:
1. To encourage objective study and research of continuous
education programs and the effects of these programs on all aspects
of the education endeavor.
2. To foster the concept of year-round education as a possible way to
improve educational programs in terms of:
a. providing quality education
b. adapting the school calendar to the community and living
patterns, and
3. To provide an organized channel for disseminating information
about year-round education (NAYRE, 1994b, p.3).
Since the 1987 meeting in Anaheim, enrollment has continued
to rise, and, reflecting the preponderance of California schools involved in
year-round calendars, it was decided to keep the national conferences in
California until such a time as a more national interest would warrant a
more national location.
The Queen Mary attendance record was finally broken at the 21st
National Conference in San Diego in 1990, overflowing the hotel and
meeting rooms (Glines & Bingle, 1993) with more than 1700 participants.
This record-breaking trend continued in 1991, with 2100 attending and
1992 with 2600 registered.
The 24th National Conference in 1993 represented a major
breakthrough for year-round education, because the meeting was held in
Las Vegas, Nevada and year-round education was recognized as an
educational reform with national implications. The Silver Anniversary
25th Conference was held at the national headquarters in San Diego in
February 1994 (Glines & Bingle, 1993). The 26th Conference will be held


22
in February, 1995 in San Diego, California. The 27th Conference will
return to the east coast, meeting in Orlando, Florida, in 1996.
Although the flexibility inherent in year-round scheduling makes it
difficult to institute a national movement, the primary momentum, since
the mid-1970s, has come via the National Council on Year-Round
Education and the later National Association for Year-Round Education.
These organizations have been a clearinghouse for information, and have
provided a clear voice for the future and potential of year-round education
through their publications and national conferences.
Membership in the National Association for Year-Round Education
is available on the individual, institutional, and commercial level (see
Appendix B), and it includes a copy of their annually updated reference
directory of year-round education programs in the United States. Other
publications that are available include resources for parents, information
on the history of the YRE movement, and a review of research on student
achievement and financial costs. A directory of individual schools on year-
round calendars is also available.
Current (1993-94) Status of Year-Round Education
At the time of this study, interest in and support of year-round
education has never been greater. The National Association for Year-
Round Education has been instrumental in developing much of that
support. Many districts and schools are turning to modified school
calendars as a means of best meeting the needs of their communities and
students. This section, a look at the current status of year-round education,
focuses on three topics: calendar designs that are widely used, the 1993-94
statistics for the nation, and the 1993-94 statistics for the state of Florida.


23
Popular Calendar Designs
45-15: Single-track. Since its development by the Valley View
School District in Romeoville, Illinois in 1970, the 45-15 plan has been the
most popular and widely used design in year-round calendars (Shepard &
Baker, 1977). The premise of the design is that each student attends school
for 45 days and then has 15 days off. The fifteen days are referred to as an
intersession and can include such services by the school as remediation,
enrichment, or day-care classes. Figure 1 demonstrates the traditional
school calendar with a long summer break. Figure 2 is a single-track 45-
15 calendar in which the summer holiday is divided into 15-day
intersessions. The single-track aspect of this design is important. Schools
that use a single-track calendar do not gain any benefit from increased
population capacity. The main reason that this design is used is as an
educational benefit, with no savings in costs (Quinlan & George, 1987).
The advantages of the 45-15 plan over the traditional calendar
include the following:
1. Provides consistent pacing of instruction.
2. Breaks up long three-month summer vacation, thus reducing
learning loss.
3. Costs approximately the same as the September-June calendar.
4. Provides vacation in each season of the year.
5. Allows flexible time for substituting if a teacher wants to work a
longer contract year (Ballinger, Kirschenbaum & Poimbeauf, 1987,
p. 18).
The main disadvantage of the design is that it requires more starting
and stopping times than many of the other designs.
45-15: Multi-track. Schools and districts suffering from
overcrowding often modify the single-track 45-15 by adding tracks of


24
School in session
Summer vacation
Winter vacation (entire school)
Figure 1. Basic schedule format for a traditional school calendar (TSC).
School in session
Intersession break
Winter vacation (entire school)
Figure 2. Basic format for block scheduling in a single-track year-round
design.


25
students and creating a multi-track design. By off-setting the intersession
times, school capacity can theoretically be increased by 33 percent in a
four-track calendar and 25 percent in a five-track calendar. This is a
theoretical increase because it requires that all tracks be equal and this is
rarely possible without mandating track assignments (something most
districts are hesitant to do). Figure 3 is a five-track design with a
staggered intersession or vacation period. The entire school is generally
closed for a winter break and often a short summer break as well.
The advantages of a multi-track 45-15 plan include all those
mentioned for single-track and, in addition, enable student population
increases of up to 50 percent (in a two-track design) without building
additional facilities. As a frequent reason for districts to consider year-
round education is overcrowding, the multi-track plans are quite common.
Multi-track problems. The disadvantages of a multi-track 45-15 plan
are quite complicated. On the elementary level, multi-track scheduling
often means that some teachers and classes are rovers, meaning that they
change classrooms every three weeks (Utah State Office of Education
[Utah], 1989; King, 1994c). It also means that teachers have to pack up
their classrooms completely when they go off-track, which creates a need
for secure storage space (Quinlan & George, 1987).
Communications between teachers and administration also become
much more difficult on multi-track calendars because there is no time when
every teacher is on campus at the same time. Scheduling is more
complicated, especially for teachers and administrators who deal with the
entire student body rather than just one classroom of students.


26
Track A
Track B
Track C
Track D
Track E
School in session
Intersession break
Winter holiday (entire school)
Figure 3. Basic format for a multi-track year-round calendar (5-tracks).
June 30


27
Multi-track calendars are a particular problem for elementary music
teachers, who can either work one track (leaving the rest of the school to
either have no music class or to have a substitute teacher when the music
teacher is away) or work all year (giving the teacher extra pay but no time
off). Elementary music ensembles such as chorus, recorders, and bells
suffer in that there are students entering and leaving every three weeks,
and the entire ensemble is never together.
On the secondary level, multi-track calendars create problems with
scheduling in general and with singleton classes in particular. Singleton
classes are courses which, due to low enrollment, are generally only
offered once each year. If a secondary school is operating with five tracks,
it is not always possible to offer French IV, Advanced Band, or Theory I
in every track. If these classes are not offered on every track, then one of
two problematic possibilities occurs: either students are grouped into tracks
by their interest or ability level or one section is offered of each and
students come and go every three weeks.
60-20: Single- and multi-track. 60-20 is a variation of 45-15 in
which students attend school for three sixty-day periods with three twenty-
day intersessions. This schedule is preferable for many schools because
there are fewer starting and stopping times.
60-15: Single- and multi-track. The 60-15 calendar is by far the
most popular design in Florida year-round schools. It is similar to the
other designs in that students attend class for sixty days and then have a
fifteen-day holiday. An advantage of this calendar is that a common three-
to four-week summer vacation can be given to the whole school (Ballinger
et al., 1987; Nelson, Morell, & Howard, 1993).


28
Four-quarter. The four-quarter design is the oldest of the year-
round schedules. The school year is divided into four 60-day periods
where students choose or are assigned to attend three of the four quarters.
In situations where overcrowding is not a problem, students can attend all
four quarters for remediation, enrichment, or acceleration (Shepard &
Baker, 1977). Figure 4 is a basic four-quarter design.
Concept Six. Concept Six is a relatively new design in which the
school year is divided into six periods of approximately 43 days each.
Students then choose or are assigned to attend four of the six terms. This
design is popular for high schools because it creates two long vacation
periods when students can participate in outside employment. When
overcrowding is not a problem, Concept Six schools often have a few
overlapping days when the entire student body is on campus. In schools
where space is critical, the students attend approximately six fewer days
per year, but each day is a few minutes longer than in a traditional
calendar. Some of the advantages of the Concept Six schedule include
fewer beginning and ending times, two extended periods of classes and two
vacation periods in opposite seasons. This design requires the least amount
of curricular revision in that it follows the basic idea of the traditional
calendar. Palm Beach County (Florida) implemented a Concept Six
schedule in the town of Jupiter in the mid-1970s (Neal, 1978).
Quinmester plan. Dade County (Florida) developed and
implemented the Quinmester Plan in the early 1970s in which the school
year is divided into five forty-five day quins and students attend four of
the five. This plan entails a great deal of curricular revision (Todd, 1973),
because the length of each term lends itself to shorter, more intensive non-


29
Track A
Track B
Track C
Track D
-H
o
4
o
o
c
a,
<
School in session
Intersession break
Winter vacation (entire
school)
Figure 4. Basic format for a four-quarter year-round calendar


30
sequential courses than the usual longer semester (Rothstein & Adams,
1971). Although this plan requires much work in creating new courses, it
allows for a richer curriculum, encourages experimentation, and reduces
long-term failure (Christian, 1970).
Orchard plan. Although most year-round multi-track plans have a
goal of increasing the campus population capacity, the only plan which
attempts to lower the number of students in each class is the Orchard Plan
(Gandara & Fish, 1991). This is similar to the five-track 60-15 except that
students in all five tracks are found in each class and 20 percent of the
students in each class rotate out every three weeks. Thus, a classroom with
35 students would only have 28 students at any given time (Glines, 1990a).
The problems that this creates for the teacher in that classroom are similar
to the problems faced by music teachers who have ensemble members
rotating in and out every three weeks. One big difference, however, is that
classroom achievement is based on the individual student, while ensemble
achievement is based on the group effort.
1993-94 Statistics for the United States
The 1993-94 statistics reveal a fifteenth straight year of increased
year-round activity (NAYRE, 1994d). More than 1.4 million students in
366 districts in 32 states now take classes on a year-round basis, without the
traditional 10-week summer break (Year-Round School Enrollment,
1994, p. B-7).
The 1993-94 school year saw a total of 1,949 public and private
year-round schools in this country. Of that total, 1634 (83.8%) are
elementary schools, 172 (8.8%) are junior high/middle schools, 89 (4.5%)
are high schools, and 54 (2.7%) are special/atypical schools (NAYRE,


31
1994a). In spite of the fact that most people view year-round education as
a means of dealing with overcrowding, it is interesting to note that only
1,143 (59%) of these schools have multi-track schedules. The other 806
(41%) are single-track schools that gain no benefit in student capacity or in
cost-savings.
The Twentieth Reference Directory (1994d) lists the 53 designs of
modified calendars that were being used during the 1993-94 school year.
The 45-15 format that revolutionized the public perception of year-round
education was being used in some form in 507 (26%) schools. The 60-15
design so popular in Florida was found in 193 (9.9%) schools. The most
widely used plan was the 60-20 design with 684 (35%) schools; 502
(73.4%) of these 60-20 schools were built on a four-track schedule. Only
two schools followed the Orchard Plan (60-15, 5-track), in which 20
percent of the students rotate out of each classroom every three weeks.
California is the state with the largest number of year-round schools
at 1,212 for the 1993-94 year. Texas is next with 222, Florida has 105,
and Utah and North Carolina finish the top five with 90 and 71,
respectively (NAYRE, 1994d). In terms of year-round student enrollment,
California is again in the lead with 1,029,553. Texas is next with 92,184,
Florida has 82,196, and Utah follows with 74,051. Number five in this list
is Nevada with 26,642 students.
The largest district in terms of year-round enrollment is Los Angeles
Unified School District (California) with 208 schools and 201,400 students.
Three of the top fifteen districts are located in Florida: Orange County is
fourth with 42 schools and 30,000 students, Duval County is eighth with 20


32
schools and 18,650 students, and Seminole County is thirteenth with 17
schools and 16,361 students.
1993-94 Statistics for Florida
Florida had 105 schools on year-round calendars during the 1993-94
year.1 These schools were located in twelve counties, generally in the
center of the state. (Florida school districts are organized by counties.)
The number of schools in each county were as follows: Brevard 2;
Broward 1; Charlotte 1; Clay 4; Duval 20; Lake 1; Orange 42; Osceola 5;
Polk 1; Sarasota 1; Seminole 17; and Volusia 10 (Florida Department of
Education [FDOE], 1994, with the Polk County information corrected.)
Figure 5 is a map of Florida divided into counties with the number of year-
round schools in each county indicated. Based on information obtained
from the NAYRE (1994c) there were 95 elementary schools, and 10
middle schools in Florida on year-round calendars. In 1993-94 there were
no high schools on modified calendars.
Overall, 97 (92.4%) of the Florida year-round schools follow a 60-
15 design (in either one, two, or five tracks). One schools calendar
(Sarasota County Schools) was simply described as modified. The other
seven schools (6.7%) follow a 45-15 calendar (in either one, three, or five
tracks) (NAYRE, 1994c).
There were only ten middle schools in the state on year-round
calendars during 1993-94. Of these ten, 80 percent of them were single-
1 Florida State Department of Education records indicate that there
were 106 schools, with the difference being found in Polk County.
Correspondence with the Polk County Director of Fine Arts indicate
that the 105 total was correct.


33
Figure 5. Florida counties and the number of 1993-1994 year-round
schools in each district


34
track (one was 45-15; seven were 60-15). The two Duval County middle
schools operated on a 60-15 design with five tracks in each.
Year-round enrollment by counties was as follows: Brevard 1,302;
Broward 822; Charlotte 587; Clay 3,086; Duval 18,650; Lake 780; Orange
30,000; Osceola 3,986; Polk 786; Sarasota 900; Seminole 16,361; and
Volusia 4,936. The total year-round enrollment in Florida during 1993-94
was 82,196 (NAYRE, 1994d).
Relevant Studies on Year-Round Education
The overview on the relevant studies that have been done on year-
round education focuses on four main questions:
1. Does YRE save money?
2. Does it improve or increase student achievement?
3. Does it improve the quality of education for the student? and
4. What kind of response does YRE elicit from the families, the
communities, the administrators and the teachers involved?
Does YRE Save Money?
The question of whether or not year-round schools can save money
is one of primary interest to many school districts and communities.
Unfortunately, the answer is not clear. The costs involved in YRE are
centered in three areas: capital outlay, operational costs, and transitional
expenses (Zykowski, Mitchell, Hough, & Gavin, 1991).2
^The California legislature has additionally implemented a financial
incentive program to encourage schools and districts to implement year-
round calendars.


35
Capital outlay. The public perception of school buildings sitting
empty and unused for three months each summer is often an impetus for
year-round education. If, theoretically, the building were used to its
capacity, then fewer new school buildings would be needed and classrooms
would no longer be overcrowded. This is the reasoning behind the
development of the multi-track calendar: by staggering the vacation periods
of groups of students, more students can use the same school facilities over
the course of the year (Brekke, 1990).
There are many different designs of year-round calendars. In
addition to the specific needs of the community, the amount of increased
capacity that each design enables is often an important consideration in
selecting a calendar. Glines (1990b) reports that building capacity can be
increased by 25 to 50 percent, depending on the multi-track calendar used.
Table 1 demonstrates some typical calendars used in Florida schools and
the benefit they bring in terms of building use.
If more students can be housed in the same school facilities, then
theoretically fewer new buildings are needed and costs are lowered. The
actual cost savings only occur in situations where the tracks are equally
divided by population and in situations of overcrowding (Brekke, 1984;
Rasberry, 1992). Otherwise, year-round programs can sometimes appear
to cost more than traditional calendars, especially if attendance by track is
not mandated and the program is voluntary (Thomas, 1970).
Operating costs. Many school administrators are disappointed when
they discover that operating costs for the school do not appear to decrease
with the implementation of year-round calendars. Often these
administrators seem to have failed to realize that the actual per student cost


36
Table 1
Increases in Building Capacity by Calendar Design
Calendar
45-15 (3-track)
45-15 (5-track)
60-15 (2-track)
60-15 (5-track)
Concept Six
Quinmester
Four Quarter
Percent Increase
50
25
No increase3
25
50
25
25
has gone down, but that far more students are being housed within the same
facility.
Reports vary on per student savings. Jefferson County, Colorado,
found a per pupil per year cost savings of 74 cents in sick and personal
leave costs (White, 1987). Virginia Beach, Virginia, calculated an $8 per
student savingsand later abandoned the year-round program due to the
minimal savings (Sincoff & Reid, cited in Merino, 1983). McLain (1973),
preparing an economic analysis based on national average expenditures,
^Unless they operate on a double-shift schedule, two-track schools do not
increase school capacity, because there are many days when both tracks are
on campus at the same time. The main reason for having a two-track
calendar is in preparation for future overcrowding when more tracks
would be implemented.


37
estimated a possible per pupil savings of $3.83 to a possible per pupil
increase of $26.05. Gove, Assistant Superintendent of the Valley View
School District (Illinois), speaking at the House of Representatives before
the General Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education
and Labor, reported that his district expected to save from 2 to 4 percent
on the total educational cost per child (House Committee on Education and
Labor, 1972). Palm Beach County (Florida) estimated a savings of
$645,000 a year even with slightly higher operating costs (Gienger,
1994, p. IB). Clay County (Florida) abandoned their year-round program
in 1994 and cited a savings of $90,000 in eliminating the modified
calendar (Fields, 1994, p. 1).
Some specific cost changes that are involved include more for
janitorial and clerical help (unless those positions were already 12-month
allocations) and less for textbooks and nonconsumables. Theoretically
teacher salaries would remain constant, although the availability of
certified teachers to serve as substitutes would create an increase in
substitute pay. In addition, multi-track year-round schools are often
associated with lower socioeconomic level neighborhoods because these
neighborhoods also tend to be overcrowded. Such schools should have
greater than average representation of resource personnel (Quinlan &
George, 1987, p. 55).
McLain (1973) reports that no additional administrative costs would
be involved as administrators generally work all year anyway. Many
Florida situations, however, have found that assigning one Assistant
Principal to each track is much more successful than having the entire
administrative staff attempt to manage all the tracks.


38
Obviously there is no easy way to predict cost increases or savings
because accurate records are not always kept on new programs in view of
the many hidden costs involved. After Jefferson County (Colorado)
ended their year-round program, district leaders were dismayed to
discover unreported savings in operating costs that were not apparent until
the district built new schools and went back to the traditional calendar
(White, 1991). Another study (Hough, Zykowski & Dick, 1990) found that
the school district could always expect to save money by using a year-
round calendar, but that the state and taxpayer could either get savings or
extra costs.
Transitional expenses. Although changes in operating costs can be
difficult to trace, the expenses involved in changing from the traditional
calendar to a year-round calendar are easier to identify. Some areas have
found it difficult to operate in the summer without adding air conditioners
to the school plant (Perry, 1991). Many districts spend large sums of
money in polling parents and community leaders (Gienger, 1994) and later
in keeping them involved in the development process. Palm Beach County
voted to hire an independent consultant to conduct a public survey on the
popularity of year-round education. The cost of such a poll has been
estimated to be as high as $25,000 (King, 1994a). Some calendar designs
involve massive curricular restructuring and have many expenses involved
in hiring teachers and other specialists to create the new courses that will
be used (Todd, 1973).
Synthesis on cost savings. Although it is not always easy to identify
the exact dollars being saved or spent, it is clear that in most situations
year-round calendars can save moneyat least at the district level. Cost


39
savings alone are not a sufficient reason to implement a modified calendar,
although there is evidence that year-round schools do save more money
after the first year (Fardig, 1992). If schools are dramatically
overcrowded, year-round scheduling does save money by eliminating the
need for additional schools to be built. No studies have been conducted on
whether or not this increased usage causes the buildings to wear out faster,
and most, if not all, studies have failed to consider... the greatly increased
cost factors of inflation in construction costs and rising interest rates
(Young & Berger, 1983, p. 54).
Does YRE Improve Student Achievement?
The National Association for Year-Round Education publication, A
Review of Recent Studies Relating to the Achievement of Students Enrolled
in Year-Round Education Programs (1993), outlines the results of thirteen
studies published since 1985 and noted that there hasnt been a great deal
of research activity in this area and attributes that to shrinking educational
budgets and the fact that there may not be a felt need for the information
if school districts are satisfied that year-round programs generally are
accomplishing the purposes for which they were implemented (p. 4).
The data on student achievement in year-round schools are actually
as inconclusive as the results on cost saving. Many teachers and
administrators believe that by breaking up the long summer holiday into
short vacation periods throughout the year, students should learn better,
learn more easily, and retain more. The results from standardized tests do
not fully support that belief.
Positive results. Some research studies have produced statistically
significant results that year-round calendars aid student achievement. The


40
San Diego Unified School District completed in 1990 (cited in NAYRE,
1993) an 8-year study of students in grades 3, 5, and 6 that demonstrated a
higher percentage of year-round schools maintained or improved the
percent of students who scored above the 50th percentile on the
Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills than did their traditional calendar
counterparts. A study was conducted comparing the achievement results of
students in traditional and Orchard Plan schools in California (cited in
NAYRE, 1993) with a focus on both regular and disadvantaged students.
In 16 of 34 comparisons, the year-round schools outperformed the
traditional schools; one comparison favored the traditional schools (p. 13).
Marr (1990) found a positive effect on second grade students from a low
socioeconomic situation in reading that was not seen in students from a
higher socioeconomic situation.
No difference or inconclusive. Not all the test results have indicated
a positive result of statistical significance. An internal evaluation for the
California State Department of Education comparing multi-track, single-
track, and traditional calendar schools found that the single-track schools
did better than the traditional, but the multi-track did worse (cited in
NAYRE, 1993). Fardig (1992) reported that student achievement was not
negatively affected in the Orange County (Florida) year-round schools. A
similar first year evaluation on the year-round schools of Provo City,
Utah, revealed no clear-cut gain in standardized test scores, but they did
not reveal any loss either (Van Mondfrans, Quinn, Moody & Aslott, 1985).
Negative results. Overall, year-round education has not been seen to
have a negative impact on student achievement in complete studies, but
there is some evidence of problems for certain subgroups. Two doctoral


41
research projects (Johnson, 1985; Kuner-Roth, 1986) have found evidence
indicating that females score higher than males in traditional calendar
schools, but that they scored significantly lower in year-round schools.
Research conducted by Quinlan, George, and Emmett has revealed
that students in multi-track schools perform below traditional calendar
schools in reading and mathematics (cited in NAYRE, 1993). Stimson
(1992) attributes part of this problem to the urban culture that most multi
track schools are found in and the large number of combination classes of
more than one grade level in a classroom that uneven scheduling often
creates.
Disadvantaged students. Speaking before the National Council on
Year-Round Education, Ballinger (1985) reported that year-round schools
are particularly effective for disadvantaged students. Many of the earliest
year-round and extended year schools had been established to benefit the
immigrant students needing to learn a new language and culture. The
situation in some areas of the country is similar today.
Doctoral research by Miranda (1993) found that year-round limited
English proficient (LEP) students had significantly better attendance, grade
point averages, and oral language acquisition than LEP students in
traditional schools. Bishop (cited in Alcorn, 1992) notes that the pace of
learning drops off considerably during the summer months and that this is
particularly hard on disadvantaged students who go home to an often
unstimulating home environment (Oxnard School District, 1992). By
breaking up the long summer vacation, the students lose less ground before
picking up their studies again.


42
Year-round calendars offer another benefit to schools with large
migrant populations. States with unusually warm climates often have
harvest seasons in months other than summer. Oxnard School District
(1992) found that 3-5% of the Districts student populationprimarily
children of migrant farm-workerswill leave Oxnard ... for a period of
four to six weeks during the months of December and January (p. 31).
Year-round education not only met the immediate needs of these families,
but it also enabled many of these students to remain in school.
Gifted and talented students. The effects of year-round scheduling
on gifted and talented students showed that the scores for these high
achieving students remained constant throughout the year in year-round
situations, as opposed to the sharp rise at mid-term and dramatic drop in
scores at the end of the year for similar students in traditional schools
(Ritter, 1992). At the end of the year the difference in the scores between
the groups was not significant.
Dropouts and failures. One often unanticipated result of year-round
calendars is a lowering of the dropout and failure rate. Jefferson County
(Colorado), found that many students returned during their vacation terms
to take extra classes. This virtually eliminated the dropout problem at the
high school (White, 1988, p. 106) as the dropout rate was reduced from 5
percent to 2 percent of the official enrollment after they went to a year-
round schedule (White, 1987). The Newark, New Jersey, experiment in
1912 found that these schoolsin an industrial, low-income area
graduated 22 percent more students than their nine-month counterparts
(Engh, 1966, p. 142).


43
Retention. Research evidence to support the belief that students
retain more during shorter, more frequent vacation periods is not clear.
The gut reaction of teachers, however, is that students come back ready to
learn and generally pick up right where they left off, with much less time
spent reviewing.
Synopsis on student achievement. An interesting correlation between
year-round education and student achievement is the fact that those who
benefit most from modified calendars are often those who need the most
help. YRE does not appear to be beneficial for girls, but there is no clear
evidence as to why that is true. In spite of the inconclusive evidence,
educational reasoning supports the principle of spaced practice that is
demonstrated in many year-round calendars.
Does YRE Improve the Quality of Education?
In examining the components of a quality experience in education,
four factors, each influenced by the year-round calendar, were chosen:
attendance, morale, discipline, and the intersession experiences, as well as a
look at some unexpected benefits.
Attendance. As with most research on year-round schools, the
results are not always clear on the question of whether or not attendance by
students and teachers is improved by the year-round calendar design. Most
research indicates that attendance is better (Ballinger, 1987; Loyd, 1992).
White (1987) reported that attendance at the elementary and senior high
level improved the first year of the new calendar and that the difference
was due to the flexible possibilities of the scheduling. Brekke (1984) found
a 1.1 percent drop in excused absence rate and a 0.1 percent drop in the


44
unexcused absences when comparing traditional calendars and year-round
schools.
Teacher attendance is also improved because the frequent breaks ease
the perceived need for mental health days. Observers have noticed much
less teacher fatigue and burnout and that when people can see the light at
the end of the tunnel, they tend to keep going to the end of the term
(Quinlan & George, 1987, p. 84). The savings created solely by these
teachers being in school and not having to hire substitute teachers was
found to be a per pupil cost savings of 74 cents (White, 1987).
Not all the research supports this increase in attendance, however.
Starr-Hearn (1982) found that the implementation of a year-round schedule
did not significantly affect the absences of teachers or students. Both were
still more often absent on Mondays and Fridays. A Duval County multi
track music teacher reported that attendance had not improved and that
parents took their students out for extended trips at will, with little regard
for the planned holiday weeks.
Morale. Although little research has been conducted on the question
of improved morale, many teachers report that the increased vacation
frequency and the reduction of overcrowding in the classrooms has
resulted in an improved sense of teacher and student morale (Webster &
Nyberg, 1992). Studies on the year-round programs in California cite
high satisfaction with both the duration and frequency of vacations. Many
felt that the year-round calendar provided relief from stress and that year-
round teachers were not as subject to burnout as their counterparts in
traditional programs (Quinlan & George, 1987, p. 88).


45
A Florida district music supervisor stated that if the teachers say they
come back to more enthusiastic and refreshed classes, that that says a lot.
Anything that improves teacher fatigue improves academics. Those who
were less enthusiastic with the new vacation schedule cited problems such
as the inability to take extended vacations, or attend summer school, and
found the frequent starting and stopping to be disruptive.
Another important factor in teacher morale provided for by year-
round education is the possibility of longer teaching contracts and
opportunities for substitute work during the intersessions and other off
track times. For most teachers, this is viewed as an easy opportunity to
increase their salary without taking an out-of-field summer job. For
teachers (including many music teachers) who do not have a choice in the
matter, and who are required to teach the full year (with extra pay), the
lack of freedom and the lack of choice can make this problematic.
Discipline. The few sources that mention research on student
discipline report that discipline is improved in year-round schools (Loyd,
1991; Webster & Nyberg, 1992). This is probably due, at least to some
extent, to an improved sense of morale on the part of the teachers and
students. School vandalism and burglary is reduced (Brekke, 1984;
Oxnard School District, 1990) and juvenile crime is lessened (Richmond,
1977) partly by the absence of long periods with little to do, and partly by
splitting up the numbers of students that are out of school at any given
time.
Intersession opportunities. According to some educators, the
strength of the year-round school concept is the tremendous possibility of
the intersession opportunities. Schools operating with shorter periods


46
between school terms (generally three weeks) are often able to offer one-
to two-week intersessions for remediation and/or enrichment. As of this
writing no research has been found that focuses on these intersession
opportunities. The flexibility germane to year-round education means that
schools have the freedom to offer whatever best meets the needs of that
community. Because these short holidays are actually the students
vacations, many schools set up programs designed for fun and enrichment.
A Duval County elementary school offered a fun track at the school that
included such activities as crafts, folk dancing, puppet shows, making
commercials, field trips, and other opportunities for students to be
refreshed during their vacation time while still meeting a child-care need
for the parents.
For students needing remediation, the intersessions are a good
opportunity for problems to be handled before they cost the student an
entire years work. Students who are having trouble can be held back one
term without losing an entire year (Engh, 1966). Many times, however, by
addressing the need right then with some concentrated remedial work, as
opposed to waiting until summer school at the end of the traditional year,
the student can be put back on track and continue on with their class.
Unexpected benefits. Hermansen and Gove, both pioneers in the
development of the 45-15 Valley View Year-Round School Plan, suggest
some unexpected benefits to year-round calendars:
1. Expect to reduce teacher turnover. Your better paid teachers, in
particular, will stick with you.
2. Expect learning retention to improve. Thats the opinion of 70
percent of the teachers in the first three grades of the Valley View
schools, after five months of experience with the 45-15 plan.


47
3. Expect more flexibility in individualized instruction. Teachers
will be willing to hold up slow learners for 45 days, when they
might be unwilling to set children back a full year. Likewise,
teachers will be willing to accelerate rapid learners by 45 to 90 days,
when they might be unwilling to move children ahead by a full year.
The time gained can always be devoted to further enrichment of the
gifted students.
4. Dont expect to save money on teachers salaries. Teachers will
expect that they get paid at the same daily rate for winter and
summer.
5. Dont expect spectacular savings in year-round operating costs.
Some costs will go up; some down. The big saving, of course, is the
cost of building and financing the new school buildings you will not
need. Also expect to make savings in the salaries of the extra
administrators, secretaries, nurses, and custodians to staff the
buildings you do not build.
6. Expect that teachers may at first mistrust your motives in
considering calendar revision. Level with them. Let them know that
they will be paid at their full daily rate during the summer months,
and that their retirement-pension benefits will be increased
proportionately to their extra earnings.
7. Iron out any differences you may have with your teachers
organizations before you undertake a calendar revision program.
Dont let any old grievances muddy the waters.
8. Expect better utilization of libraries, books and equipment; but
expect greater wear on books. Most of them will be outdated before
they are worn out, anyhow.
9. Expect total transportation costs, including maintenance costs, to
increase. But busing costs per pupil may decline. Bus drivers will
generally be paid one third more money each year. Depreciation of
vehicles is a factor of age, not mileage.
10. Expect no serious difficulties with maintaining school buildings
under a year-round program. After all, hospitals stay open 24 hours
a day, seven days a week, 52 weeks out of the year. And theyre
generally cleaner than schools. In addition to afternoons and
evenings for scheduled maintenance work, there are still three
significant periods of time when no children or teachers will be
present (Christmas, Easter, and the end of June) in which major
maintenance work can be performed.
11. Make your year-round school plan compulsory; but make minor
concessions in scheduling to fit the vacation plan of individual


48
families. Only 24 families out of 6,000 requested a change in group
calendar assignments at Valley View.
12. Be sure that all of the children in one family belong to the same
group and that they attend school on the same days. Do the same for
all of the children in a single neighborhood. It keeps schoolmates
together, and it makes it easier for parents to trade off baby sitting
chores.
13. Finally, let the school calendar revision plan stand on its own
feet. Even though you may foresee some curriculum changes, dont
tie the school calendar change up to teacher negotiations, a new
education program, tax referendums, or school board elections.
(pp. 145-146) [Reprinted with permission of the copyright holder]
Public Response to YRE
The response of the families, communities, administrators, and
teachers involved is an important consideration in regard to implementing
and succeeding with year-round education. The change to a year-round
calendar is a change that can impact every aspect of that community.
Those who are closest to the situation and those who are loudest tend to
have their needs addressed in planning and providing for year-round
schools.
Administrators and YRE. Several doctoral research projects have
been conducted on the changes that year-round education brings to school
administrators, principals in particular. Lawson (1981) found that year-
round principals feel that they have more work required, and they view
their year-round roles as more managerial than as an instructional leader.
Although a majority of the principals in this study supported the idea of
year-round education, half said they would be willing to return to a
traditional calendar. Winger (1992) also found principals concerned about
the managerial role they had been moved into, but also found that the


49
principals were aware of the benefits year-round education had for students
and teachers and considered these benefits to be worth their extra efforts.
Mussatti (1981) polled principals and found that their greatest area
of concern about year-round education was administration and scheduling.
McBryde (1989) studied the comparative burnout factors between year-
round and traditional principals and found that year-round administrators
had significantly lower burnout scores than their counterparts in traditional
schools. Another study by French (1992) found similar results: year-round
calendars do not lead to higher principal burnout.
Other states have been less successful. Jefferson County (Colorado)
Schools abandoned their 14 years in year-round education, citing
administrator burnout as one of the key factors (White, 1992). The title of
a study by Goldman (1990), perhaps best describes principals working with
modified calendars. His study, entitled Lifes a Non-Stop Carousel for
Year-Round Principals, profiles administrators and points out the problem
of having no time for any long-term planning.
Classroom teachers. Studies on the attitudes and responses of
classroom teachers to year-round education are relatively uniform in their
results: teachers do not usually like the idea of changing to a year-round
calendar (Hoffman, Wallace & Reglin, 1991), but once they have made the
change they prefer the modified calendar to the traditional September-to-
June system (Smith, 1986).
From a professional perspective, teachers recognize that the students
learned more and were less fatigued and more enthusiastic about school
(Christie, 1989). The evaluation report on the Wake County Public School
System (Serow, 1992) found that 97 percent of teachers viewed YRE as a


50
better means of meeting the needs of children than traditional calendars.
After one year of year-round education, 100 percent of the teachers
involved in the Provo City School District (Utah) thought that YRE should
be continued (Van Mondfrans et al., 1985).
On the personal level, teachers who work on specific tracks like the
frequent breaks (Sturdy, 1993); extended contract teachers like the extra
pay. Sturdy also found that the specific track assignment made a difference
in the perceived benefit for the teacher.
Families: Parents and students. One of the surest ways to kill a year-
round program before it has even begun is to send out a survey and ask the
community if they want a year-round school (Hermansen & Gove, 1971).
In those school systems that proceed with the plan, however, the parents
and students involved tend to be very pleased and supportive of the year-
round calendar (Quinlan & George, 1987; Smith, 1986; Utah, 1989) on the
condition that family and neighborhood groups are tracked together (Hill,
1980). Most concerns on the part of parents include the fear of change,
inability to have a family vacation, sufficient child-care, and what to do
with off-track children (Hawkins, 1992).
Community response. Many unsuccessful year-round programs had
their demise guaranteed by a lack of response on the part of the community
surrounding the schools. Changing the school calendar has a fundamental
affect on the life of the community. Those communities who fail to adjust
to meet the new needs create undue hardship for the families involved.
Many districts require teachers to take college courses every few
years for continued certification. A 1966 study (Engh) cited that only 10
to 15 percent of teachers use the summer to go back to college but a year-


51
round calendar would probably complicate that possibility. Obviously
colleges and universities will need to make changes in their course
offerings and schedules to meet the needs of their perspective clientele.
The American Camping Association held a symposium on year-
round school lamenting the loss of the great American summer camp
(Popkin, 1990). Trotter (1990) spoke at the same conference on how not
to be a victim of change and find opportunity in the future (p. 49).
Sending children off for three months of summer camp may no longer be
an option with year-round calendars but shorter camping opportunities
scattered throughout the year may make the experience assessable to even
more children than before.
One parent involved in the Palm Beach County (Florida) Concept Six
experiment (four-months on/two-months off) in the mid-1970s reported
that her children had the months of January and February off (after a
several-week Christmas holiday) and there was nothing that she could do
with them during those months. The school provided no child-care and
nothing extra was planned for the students. She felt that her children could
not even participate in school activities because they were off-track
students.
Child-care for off-track students is a major concern for parents.
Even with schools that provide intersession child-care activities, teachers
report that children need to get away from the school buildings for at least
part of the year.
A study was done in Virginia Beach, Virginia, on the community
services affected by a change to year-round calendars (MacDonald &
Anderson, 1974) found that most of the community agencies had modified


52
their programs to meet the needs of the year-round students. Few
provisions, however, had been made for organized or supervised
playground activities for off-track students. Society is used to students
being off and playing in the summer. Changing that perspective to see and
provide for students all year long may be a difficult but not insurmountable
task.
Helping YRE succeed with the public. Districts considering the
change to year-round education are well advised to consider the reports of
those who have tried and failed as well as those who have succeeded. Most
studies suggest involving all parties, including parents, in every step of the
process (Hermansen & Gove, 1971; Oxnard School District, 1990; Peltier,
1991).
Another suggestion is to keep the program flexible enough to truly
meet the needs of the students, teachers, and community. E. Trimis, a band
director in California, wrote I believe the major contributing factors to
the success of the program have been strong administrative support,
successful working of the year-round schedule, and freedom to design the
program the way I want to (personal communication, February 9, 1994).
After watching the successful 14-year year-round program
abandoned in Jefferson County, Colorado, White made the following
suggestions to help make YRE work: preserve neighborhood schools,
decide what YRE means to your district, assign administrators carefully,
beware of the appeal of new construction, develop the district calendar
around instruction, and evaluate carefully (1992).


53
How to kill a year-round program. Hermansen and Gove (1971)
offered a (somewhat) tongue-in-cheek list of suggestions entitled how to
kill a year-round school plan,
1. Send out a community questionnaire, asking the people, Do you
want a year-round school? Theyll tell you, No!
2. Form a large study committee of lay people, and study the
problem to death. (This was the experience of Jefferson County
schools, in the suburbs of Louisville, Kentucky.)
3. Attempt calendar revision with a board that is strongly divided
some for the year-round school; some against it; and some with no
commitment. Batter the problem to death in open school board
meetings.
4. Go to Atlanta, Georgia, and come back with the finding, Year-
round school cost $2 million a year to operate, and our district cant
afford it! (Atlanta schools and Fulton County schools, in Georgia,
offer an extended school year, with fifteen extra weeks of classes,
which are attended by about one third of the students. The Atlanta
plan has little chance of adoption in any areas where the public is not
committed to spending more money on schools, not less.) (p. 144-
145) [Reprinted with permission of the copyright holder]
Although intended to be humorous, this list probably accurately describes
the experiences of many unsuccessful year-round programs.
Sources on Music and Year-Round Education
Although there is much literature available on the topic of year-
round education in general, there is very little on music in year-round
education. This paucity of references can perhaps be attributed to the
following: music teachers are a tiny minority in the big picture of
education, the problems facing music teachers are not the same as those in
other subjects, and, due to the public performance nature of their subject,
music teachers tend to do whatever it takes to make their programs


54
succeed. Therefore, they are generally too busy to write articles about
what is happening in their classrooms.
The few sources that are available can be grouped into three
categories: articles by and about music teachers, handouts and references
from music conferences, and sources that mention music in passing. This
section is an overview of these references. Further information from these
music sources is included in Chapter V in conjunction with the exploratory
investigations and interviews.
References by Music Teachers
Campbell: Jefferson County, CO. Three articles have been written
on the topic of music in year-round education by actual music educators.
Campbell, music coordinator for the Jefferson County School District
(Colorado), wrote an article in 1975 published in the Music Educators
Journal (MEJ) entitled The Year-Round School: Implications for the
Music Program. The Jefferson County Concept Six calendar was
described as having affected the music programs both positively and
negatively. The non-performance music classes fit very well into the
quarterized curriculum approach (p. 54). The performance classes did
not fare as well. Specific problems faced by ensemble directors as well as
suggestions on how to help the programs succeed were presented.
Trimis: Los Angeles, CA. Trimis, a multi-track high school band
and choral director in California, wrote an article for MEJ in 1990 entitled
Can Year-Round Scheduling Work for Your Program? Trimis, a
member of the California Music Educators Association Task Force on
Year-Round Education, is an outspoken proponent for the possibilities of
music in year-round education. His article is a description of his program


55
with advice on rainbowing students into classes and ensembles by ability
level rather than simply by track. In 1991 he was transferred to
Huntington Park High School and faced a music program on the brink of
extinction (Berg, 1993). His enthusiasm has resulted in growth from 30
to 470 singers and musicians (Berg 1994) and the development of a
music major for students anticipating studying music in college.
Steuart: Zephvrhills, FL. Steuart, band director at Zephyrhills High
School, wrote an article for the Florida Music Director, in 1993, entitled
The Band and the Year-Round School. This is a report on the Pasco
County, FL, 45-15 calendar and lists the advantages and disadvantages of
year-round scheduling for bands. The advantages that Steuart mentions
include: increased pay, the opportunity to play all year, and summer band
trips. The disadvantages include not having the entire band together,
performances, calling extra rehearsals, and teacher burn-out. He concludes
his article with a list of five recommendations for success in music in year-
round schools:
1. Develop dedicated students who are willing to give up a part of
their vacation time for the good of the organization.
2. Allow students access to the band room at any time during the
school day for those on vacation to come in and practice and
rehearse. There will be a few who will almost live in the band
room. They can be of real assistance in helping the younger players.
3. Hold at least one rehearsal in the evening before a scheduled
event, to allow students who work during vacation to participate.
Maintain a positive reward system to give those students who come
during vacation extra incentive. This reward could take a variety of
forms such as a bonus grade when they return to class.
4. Assess your enrollment according to tracks and try to schedule
your concerts when the largest number of students are available.
This suggestion also applies to fund-raising and other events that you
may schedule.


56
5. Be understanding of students who are caught in a bind when their
parents insist they go out of town while on vacation. It doesnt
improve matters to penalize the students for a situation they cannot
avoid, even if it goes against the principle of everybody-must-be-
present-or-else. As long as the students are treated fairly about
their vacation times, they are willing to try to meet the needs of the
band. (p. 39)
CMEA Task Force. The California Music Educators Task Force on
Year-Round Education is made up of music teachers and supervisors who
are actively involved in helping music education in Californias year-round
schools. In 1991 they published a resource packet that included a section
on definitions and sample schedules, interviews with five successful year-
round music teachers, reprints of two articles, as well as an in-depth report
on the music programs in two California school districts.
References from Music Conferences
Often in response to the practical needs of local music teachers,
many districts and state associations have begun sponsoring support
sessions or seminars for year-round music teachers at conferences.
Handouts from several of these sessions were obtained and used as
references in this study.
NAYRE: 1990. In 1990 a group of teachers from Duval County,
FL, attended the national conference of the NAYRE in San Diego, CA. S.
G. Teachey, a Duval elementary music teacher, prepared a report from the
conference sessions and included reprints of two articles on Florida year-
round education.
FMEA: 1991. The 1991 meeting of the Florida Music Educators
Association in Tampa, FL, included several sessions on music in year-
round education presented by D. Locker, Program Consultant for Year-


57
Round Education, and A. L. Willett, Department of Education, Program
Development and Analysis. Handouts from these presentations included
reports on successful music programs in other states, sample schedules, and
suggestions for teachers in special areas (music, art, P.E., and gifted).
CMEA: 1994. The California Music Educators Association
Conference in Santa Clara, CA, in March, 1994 (D. Doyle, conference
coordinator), distributed a handout that included the pros and cons of
different year-round calendars for music, as well as the results of an
interview with two year-round music teachers. The interviews included
questions on scheduling, problems faced, facilities and equipment, stress,
and changes in teaching strategies.
Music as a Subtopic
Several articles and books have made passing references to music in
their discussion of year-round education. A report by the California
Department of Education (Quinlan & George, 1987) mentions that
instrumental students are often invited to come back while they are off
track to attend rehearsals and performances. The same advice is given in
Thomas (1973). Webster and Nyberg (1992) say the same thing, although
they admit that this can be problematic at times because off-track students
can be out of town during an important performance (p. 24). Schmieder
and Townley (1992) advocate the possibility of students involved in team
activities while off-track so that they do not have the distractions of regular
school work. This article does not cite music specifically, but it does
mention other co-curricular activities such as athletics, Spanish club, and
the yearbook staff.


58
Haney (1990), superintendent of the Hesperia Unified School District
(CA), wrote an article on some of the extra-curricular concerns of teachers
and families facing year-round education entitled What About My
Summer Vacation? Ultimately his advice for music teachers was to look
at music programs in non-traditional ways and to do more concerts a year
to reflect the new calendar design (p. 56).
V. F. Neal, a Florida teacher, wrote a doctoral dissertation (1978) on
Jupiter (Palm Beach County, Florida) High Schools Concept Six
experiment in which one of her focuses was student attendance in extra
curricular activities. She found that there was a significant improvement in
the percentage of students participating in school clubs but that there were
some distinct problems with operating the music program on the Concept
Six calendar.


CHAPTER III
A BRIEF HISTORY OF YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION IN FLORIDA
Florida has had a special place in the history of the year-round
education movement. Although California has both the largest number of
students and schools on year-round calendars, Florida has consistently been
involved in the leadership of the movement, and later in the formal
organization of a Council and then an Association for year-round
education. The first president of the National Conference on Year-Round
Education (NCYRE), Wayne White, was a Florida educator. One of the
first NCYRE conferences was held in Brevard County, Florida. In 1996
the group plans to return to Orlando for their national conference.
One of the reasons for Floridas strong connection with year-round
education is the balmy Florida weather. Not only is the climate an
enticement to many new residents, thereby creating overcrowding
problems in many Florida school districts, but the lack of cold winter
weather means that parents tend to be less negative about winter holidays
for their children.1
The early experiments in year-round scheduling focused on a four-quarter
design where, theoretically, one-fourth of the students would always be
off-campus. In reality, the four-quarter design was not successful because
parents in the cold weather states where this was first being implemented
objected to their children being home on vacation during the entire winter.
Because of the parental objections, it was never possible to divide the
school population evenly over the four quarters. The cost savings were
never realized and the educational offerings were uneven.
59


60
Earliest Beginnings
The concept of a year around school program in Florida began in
1947, with a legislative act that provided for the employment of one of
every eight teachers during the eleventh and twelfth months. These teacher
units were to be used almost entirely for enriching educational experiences
for young people (Williamson, 1969, p. 12). These voluntary programs
offered such courses as swimming, crafts, music, camping, reading, typing,
science, and sports. In 1957 more than 45% of Floridas school children
participated in summer enrichment programs (Bailey & Maynard, 1958),
which was the first in the nation to be offered on a statewide basis.
At the same time (1957), the Florida Department of Education
(FDOE) conducted a feasibility study on the possibility of running Florida
schools on a four-quarter, twelve-month program (Early Study, 1969;
Crenshaw, 1969). The study determined that no money would be saved
and that additional problems would be created with regard to school
upkeep, disruption of family lifestyles, and difficulty in scheduling. The
FDOE concluded that year-round use as a means of avoiding the cost of
constructing new schools is a delusion. The plan just doesnt work well.
Significantly, every school system that has tried it has abandoned it (p.
15). T. D. Bailey, Superintendent of Education for Florida, also reported
that year-round education was a poor choice because different grade levels
would have to be combined within classrooms, in addition to many
increased costs (Florida Says No, 1957).


61
Innovative Governmental Leadership
Enhancing Curriculum
In spite of the lack of support for the four-quarter calendar,
educational leaders in Florida were still interested in improving the
curriculum and educational opportunities through calendar improvement
(Christian, 1970). The legislature enacted permissive legislation to allow
districts to develop year-round educational programs. The intent of this
legislation was to encourage innovation (Neal, 1978, p. 47).
Improving Overcrowding
The Florida legislature was also interested in alternative ways to deal
with the overcrowding that was anticipated in the public schools. The
major source of funding for new school construction in Florida is the
Public Education Capital Outlay, better known as PECO. A 1990 study by
the Florida Department of Education (cited in Nelson, Morrell, & Howard,
1993, p. 9) estimated that Florida would need the equivalent of 9 new high
schools, 74 new middle schools, and 397 new elementary school by 1992-
93. Over the next 20 years, Florida will need more than 600 new schools
at todays cost of $9 billion. The PECO funds, at that time, were only
expected to be able to provide 8 percent of the need in K-12 by 1992-93
(P-9).
During his 1990 gubernatorial campaign, Florida Governor Lawton
Chiles was an outspoken proponent for year-round education in Florida.
He was quoted in the St. Petersburg Times (cited in Nelson et al., 1993, p.
45) as saying, Were not doing this to save money; were doing it because
we can save up to 25 percent of classroom space and we can provide a
better education, which is the important thing.


62
Legislative Acts
Blueprint 2000. Blueprint 2000, the 1991 Florida legislative
response to the national educational plan, America 2000, was also
encouraging to year-round education. This plan called for individual
school accountability and offered new stimulus to districts to bring
innovative practices to their school improvement plans (cited in Nelson et
al., 1993, p. 45).
Increased Utilization Account. Two additional 1990 legislative acts
provided financial incentive programs for Florida schools to use year-
round calendars. The Increased Utilization Account (s. 235.435(5),
Florida Statutes), begun in 1992, rewarded schools that increased their
school usage without overcrowding or double sessions. To receive funds
from the account, a school must increase its FTE student capacity by at
least 20 percent as a result of using a modified school calendar (Nelson et
al., 1993, p. 46). In 1992-93, the first year of the program, each school
district qualifying for funding under the account may be paid up to
$100.00 per FTE student per eligible school site for a maximum of five
years for each eligible school provided the funds are available (Nelson et
al., 1993, p. 111).
Maximum Utilization Fund. The 1990 legislature also created the
Maximum Utilization Fund by earmarking $1.5 million for renovations
for existing schools that need remodeling in order to make the transition to
a year-round program (Nelson et al., 1993, p.46). Schools that received


63
money from this fund had to have the renovation work completed by the
first day of the year-round schedule.2
Early Calendar Innovations
Two innovative programs were developed during the early 1960s
that incorporated modified calendars to improve educational opportunities,
and, in one case, increase enrollment capacity. Each of these programs
used extended year calendars that increased the number of days that
students were in school.
Nova Schools. In 1962 the Nova Schools in Ft. Lauderdale
(Broward County) created a non-graded trimester calendar in which
students could work at their own rate (Neal, 1978). The school year was
extended to 200 days for elementary students, and 210 days for secondary
students (Smith, 1969) enabling them to take more classes at a slower pace
over the course of the year. The Nova program only ran for three years
and was unsuccessful in increasing building use, because the schools were
unable to get reasonably balanced tracks through voluntary sign-ups
(Neal, 1978, p. 24). The Nova administrators concluded that mandated
attendance tracks were the only way to make a significant increase in
building capacity.
Florida State University School. Also in 1962, the Florida State
Universitys Department of Education University School conducted a five-
year pilot study with a similar 225-day school year organized into
^The legislative funds cited here are very similar to the incentive monies
allocated by the California lawmakers to schools operating on year-round
calendars. Unfortunately the funding was stopped in 1994.


64
trimesters. The extended school year enabled students to take enrichment
classes and/or accelerate their course work and graduate earlier.
Looking Ahead and Preparing for the Future
Polk County Feasibility Study
In 1965, S. Boone, Superintendent on Public Instruction of Polk
County, contacted the Florida Educational Research and Development
Council (FERDC) to ask them to conduct a feasibility study of year-round
schools for Polk County (Lakeland). The study was completed and
published in 1966, and included a brief survey of the available literature, a
study of the attitudes of all those involved, particulars on the Polk County
school situation, and a summary and recommendation on each of the
feasible plans (White, Johns, Kimbrough, & Myers, 1966). The Council
concluded that
No plan of staggering the school term will save money, and such
plans are likely to lower the quality of education. Parental
opposition is inevitable.
The only feasible all-year school plans developed for reducing costs
involve all pupils attending for an extended school year, and
acceleration of pupils to reduce enrollment.
Any type of all-year operation of schools would require air-
conditioning of all schools.
Any type of all-year school or summer program must be provided
by taxation, not fees (FERDC Study, 1969, p. 15).
In recommending a year-round calendar to the Polk County
administrators, the Council also concluded that, if the county did not wish
to make major changes in their curriculum or administration, the
recommended plan would be to add either a voluntary or compulsory (for
failed courses) summer school program. If, on the other hand, the county
was willing to make major changes to improve the quality of education,


65
with some additional costs, the recommended plan would be an extended
year of 210 days for all students (White et all., 1966). Ultimately, Polk
County chose to try none of the plans at that time.
Orange County Planning
Orange County realized that it too would be unprepared for the
rapid growth of the Orlando area and the barrage of students expected to
enter their school system within the next few years (Higginbotham, 1969).
Their long-range planning, done in 1969, identified the possibility of
double sessions, staggered year-round tracks, or summer terms for
acceleration with teachers and students strongly encouraged to participate.
No actions were taken at that time.
The Early 1970s
The Dade County Quinmester Plan
Calendar revision. In June, 1971, Dade County (Miami) began an
innovative and influential calendar plan, which became known as the Dade
County Quinmester Plan. The school year was divided into five nine-week
terms, or quins, and the student body was divided into five groups
(Todd, 1973). Each group attended four of the five quins with the option
of attended the fifth for remediation, enrichment, or acceleration. The
advantages of this calendar were that it would, theoretically, increase the
school capacity by 25%, and the calendar was not dramatically different
from the traditional school calendar (Neal, 1978).
Curricular revision. Perhaps the most striking aspect of the
Quinmester Plan was the need for a complete revision of the curricular
offerings (Christian 1970). To accomplish the curricular revision, Dade


66
County teachers spent a year preparing short-term, highly specialized
courses such as Practical Statistics, The Power of Words, Living
Shakespeare, Bull and Bear: The Stock Market, and Eco-politics
(Todd, 1973).
Teacher and state support. Two strengths of the program were the
fact that the teachers were highly involved in the entire process, and there
was state and local legislative funding to support the program. It is unclear
how long the program lasted, although the Dade School Board funded it
with $250,000 annually for three years (Christian, 1970).
Design problems. Among parents and teachers in Dade County,
there was a perception that the curriculum was too fragmented; there was
also a problem with track-jumpingstudents attending courses when they
were supposed to be off-trackwhich resulted in further overcrowding
rather than relieving that problem. Ultimately it was determined that,
although the voluntary nature of a year-round program is necessary for
public acceptance, ... if a year-round program remains only voluntary,
then it cannot meet its goal of cost-effectiveness (Nelson et al., 1993, p.
50).
NCYRE Conference in Florida
In 1971, the third annual conference of the National Council on
Year-Round Education was held in Florida, hosted by the Brevard County
School District, Florida Technological University and the Florida
Department of Education (Glines & Bingle, 1993). Wayne White, a leader
in the NCYRE, and a powerful advocate for year-round education, was
superintendent of schools in Brevard County at that time.


67
45-15 Comes to Florida
In the fall of 1973, Pasco County (Zephyrhills) became the first
district in the south and the largest district in the nation to adopt the 45-15
calendar plan (Ellena, 1974). It was also the only time in Florida history
when an entire school district went year-round at one time. This drastic
move was made to avoid double and triple sessions in some of the most
overcrowded schools, reduce the number of new schools needed, and
encourage curricular reform (Malone, 1974).
Insufficient preparation. There were 24 schools in Pasco County
(five high schools, two middle schools, three junior highs, and 14
elementary schools) at that time. In spite of the successes of the Dade
County teacher involvement, Pasco County apparently made the mistake of
not involving all those teachers in the planning process and insufficient
time in preparation (Berger, 1975; Nelson et al., 1993). As a result, the
disgruntled teachers were powerful and hostile antagonists against the
reform. A teacher survey released by Pasco County Schools
Superintendent... shows that 88% of the responding teachers expressed
significant dissatisfaction with the 45-15 extended school year plan....
Over half the teachers (58%) favored scrapping the 45-15 program as
educationally unsound (Berger, 1975, p. 421). They also ran into
problems with transportation, building upkeep, and scheduling.
Class designs. Classes were in one of three designs: (1) lock-in
classes in which the teachers stay with the students; (2) dual-track classes in
which the teachers teach two of the four tracks; and (3) multi-track classes
in which the teachers teach classes with all four tracks in them. Multi
track classes in the high schools are necessary because of the needed


68
flexibility for scheduling, the number of classes offered, and the number of
teachers allocated to a high school (Malone, 1974). Although these multi
track problems were all significant issues for the music teachers involved,
they were also problems for other sequential, skill-based subjects (such as
foreign languages, typing, and mathematics). W. C. Malone, principal of
Pasco Comprehensive Senior High School in Dade City, concluded
Teachers in these areas have substantial reasons to be concerned
about multi-group classes. A more refined method of
individualization, lower class loads, and hard- and software support
such as individual language labs, do offer promise in correcting the
situation. To remove the frustration, doubts, and difficulties of
teachers who teach multi-group classes will not be easy. We do owe
it to the profession to try before we say it cannot be done (1974, p.
540).
The Pasco County teachers also objected to the fact that, since the tracks
were unevenly distributed, the teaching loads were very inequitable
between teachers and from semester to semester (Berger, 1975).
Debilitating problems. The program in Pasco County was
terminated in 1977. Some unexpected problems were cited: scheduling
multi-track classes, budgets for supplies and other consumables were
exhausted before the end of the year, and counselors were spending all
their time scheduling. An additional problem encountered that is not
usually seen in research on year-round education: increased absenteeism.
In this situation absenteeism was due to parents taking their children out of
school for family vacations, off-track students encouraging their on-track
peers to skip school, and the first and last weeks of each 45-day term
being viewed as a waste of time (Neal, 1978). Additionally, participation
in extra-curricular activities declined, and no difference in student
academic achievement was observed.


69
In 1976 a vote was put to the public on whether or not to continue
the year-round calendar. Fifty-one percent voted to return to the
traditional calendar (Nelson et al., 1993).
Jupiters Concept Six
In 1975, Palm Beach County began a year-round program in Jupiter,
a geographically separated town in the north end of the county. Jupiters
four schools (Nelson et ah, 1993) were grossly overcrowded, and a bond
issue in 1974 had been defeated by the voters. A Joint Advisory
Committee made up of Jupiter parents, teachers and administrators was
charged with finding a solution. Their mandate was to develop a plan that
would house more students, would be an improvement educationally,
would be sound, and valid enough to last for a long period (Neal, 1978).
Calendar design. The Concept Six calendar was chosen to be used
for all the schools in Jupiter: one high school, one middle school and two
elementary schools.3 One of the considerations that led to the choice of
that calendar design was the music program. Music activities are a
problem with any year-round model. But Concept Six presents the least
problems with that of any because students can come back an extra mester
to participate (Neal, 1978, p. 49).
The Committee chose Concept Six with the following provisions: all
the classrooms had to be air-conditioned, a curriculum had to be developed
that was equal or superior to that used before, all standards had to be met,
3 A doctoral dissertation from Florida Atlantic University (Neal, 1978)
cites the start date of Jupiters Concept 6 experiment as January 1976 and
lists only three schools involved: Jupiter Elementary, Jupiter Middle and
Jupiter High School.


70
new school construction was still a top priority, tracks were to be assigned
geographically, the program was to begin no earlier than January 1976,
and buses were to be provided for off-track students to participate in
school activities. The Committee additionally recommended the following
contract provisions for teachers: no teacher had to teach more than 196
days and no one could be required to work on an extended contract, pre-
and post-planning days were still provided, locked storage cabinets were
assigned for each teacher, off-track teachers could not be required to come
back to school, and teachers could be involved in the development,
implementation, and evaluation of the Concept Six program (Neal, 1978).
Program demise. In spite of the long-term objectives and intentions
of the original Committee, the Jupiter program was terminated in 1981
(Nelson et al., 1993). Many of the teachers and students (King, 1994c)
involved liked the year-round calendar, but the community as a whole did
not support it. As money became available to build a new high school and
to add an additional elementary school, the year-round program was
dropped.4
The Silent Years
The mid-1980s were a period of growth across the nation in both
interest and enrollment in year-round programs following a decade of
decline. In Florida, however, between the years of 1981 and 1987 there
were no year-round schools in the state. It is difficult to determine exactly
why Florida was so out of sync with the rest of the nation, except to
^Jupiter High School was the last year-round high school in the state of
Florida to date.


71
speculate that the negative experiences encountered in these few Florida
districts had a profound effect on the thinking of other district leaders.
Marion County Begins It All Again
In 1985 Marion County (Ocala) was faced with extreme
overcrowding and an inability to fund the building of more schools. The
Marion County school board liked the idea of using the existing facilities
more efficiently and began to try and sell the concept of a year-round
calendar to the community. Initially there was much antagonism toward
the plan and the school board members became known as the Notorious
Five (Parrish, 1989).
The plan continued, however, and, in 1987, Wyomina Park
Elementary went on a five-track, 60-15 calendar (Nelson et al., 1993).
The program was successful and in 1991 two other elementary schools
went to a multi-track, 60-15 calendar.
Marion County was a leader in the rebirth of Florida year-round
education. Teachers and administrators from several other Florida
districts sent representatives to visit and observe the Marion County year-
round schools (Parrish, 1989).
Overall, the responses of the parents, teachers, and administrators to
the Marion County program were very positive: morale was higher,
parents felt that children had no difficulty in readjusting to school after
three-week vacations, the system of reporting grades was favorably
received, communication was good, and discipline referrals were down
(Nelson et al., 1993). On the negative side, there was some concern about
family vacation schedules, school unity when a certain percentage of


72
teachers were always off-track, and scheduling music, art, and physical
education classes.
The Marion County year-round program was ended in 1993. The
reasons behind this demise are unclear. Just as many districts of the state
were renewing their interest in modified school calendars, Marion County
ended its seemingly successful program.
Banner Growth in the 1990s
Orange County Goes Year-Round
In February 1989, the Orange County school board decided that
year-round calendars were the only way to deal with their overcrowding
problem. Anticipating a negative public response, school board Vice
Chairman B. Barnes was quoted in The Orlando Sentinel (Meehan, 1990, p.
A-l) as saying, This is where we are going, folks. The best thing you can
do is help us be successful.
In July 1990, the first three elementary schools began their modified
calendars: two on a multi-track calendar, and the third on a single-track
calendar. A year later two more schools opened with modified calendars,
with an additional five in 1992 (Nelson et al., 1993). By the 1993-94
school year there were 42 Orange County year-round schools; all of the
elementary schools in the county are expected to be year-round by 1995.
Part of the strength of the Orange County experience was the
extensive preparation and planning that was conducted prior to the actual
implementation. Great care was given to involve the parents, teachers, and
administrators in the early planning, as well as other community agencies
that were involved with child care services (Nelson et al., 1993).


73
FAYRE
In 1990 the Florida Association for Year-Round Education
(FAYRE) (see Appendix B) was formed in affiliation with the National
Association for Year-Round Education. Dr. R. S. (Skip) Archibald, then
school superintendent of Marion County, was elected president of the new
organization (Nelson et al., 1993).
Brevard County Parents Vote
An interesting regulation in the Brevard County (Melbourne) school
district requires that individual schools ratify the decision of whether or
not to go to a year-round calendar. Seventy-five percent of each schools
staff and parents must agree, via a telephone vote, to implement a plan. In
1991, two schools elected to begin the calendar. A third school was
selected but was unable to garner the necessary votes and support (Nelson
et al., 1993).
Duval County Dual Tracks
Year-round education began in Duval County (Jacksonville) in July
1991 with three elementary schools. All three used a dual-track
approach, offering both the traditional and a modified calendar in the same
school, and allowed parents to choose (Nelson et al., 1993, p. 51).
The traditional school calendar is referred to as red track in Duval
County. Although more and more families have been switching over to
non-red tracks, and more schools go year-round each year, the district is
still strongly divided in its support. An article in The Florida Times-Union
(Hennessy, 1994) quoted Duval County school board members complaining


74
about the costs for 16 teachers and administrators to attend the national
conference of the NAYRE.
Lake County Pilot Program
In 1991 Lake County began a pilot program with one elementary
school, Tavares Elementary. Their preparation had begun two years
earlier with extensive studies, reviews, and visits to other counties and
programs. P. Campbell, curriculum specialist at Tavares Elementary
School, stated (cited in Nelson et al., 1993, p. 52),
Communication with parents and the community began immediately.
Parents accompanied us when we visited year-round schools in other
counties, and we had guests come in from those counties to talk to
parent and faculty groups. Then last year, we set up parent/faculty
committees to work on all the different issues involved in switching
to year-roundcalendars, track selection, child care, etc.
We opened July 22, 1991, and have had absolutely no parental
conflicts. No one switched schools, and we have had nothing but
positive remarks. Thats been a real surprise to us and to our
superintendent. We attribute that to the fact that we did our
homework, took things gradually, and involved parents right from
the beginning.
Osceola County Rapid Growth
Osceola County (Kissimmee), one of the most rapidly growing
counties in the state (Nelson et al., 1993), saw year-round schools as a
viable alternative to building more schools. The county
has been building one or two elementary schools every year and
increasing the capacity of each school by 28%, which also meant
redrawing the lines of school attendance zones. Parents were
concerned that their children were having to switch schools almost
every year, and administrators were concerned about keeping up
with the population growth (Nelson et al., 1993, p. 52).


75
Plans for the calendar change began in 1990; the first school,
Deerwood Elementary, began a single-track year-round schedule in July
1991. The following year three more elementary schools and one middle
school began single-track calendars.
Other than three Florida districts that only have one year-round
school each in them, Osceola County is one of only two districts in Florida
in which all the year-round schools operate on the same calendar.5 All five
of the year-round schools in Osceola County are single-track, 60-15
calendars.6 In order to eliminate some of negative public perception that
has plagued some of the surrounding districts year-round attempts,
Osceola County uses the term modified calendar as opposed to year-round
school. County administrators anticipate that the entire district will be
year-round, and probably multi-track, within the next few years, because
of the growth in the area (Nelson et al., 1993).
Seminole County Goes Year-Round
Seminole County, part of the greater Orlando population explosion,
began their first year-round elementary school in 1991. 'At Lawton
Elementary in Oviedo, Seminole Countys first year-round school, three
portable buildings have been removed and several classrooms are vacant,
even though enrollment jumped this year from 875 to 930 (Nelson et al.,
1993, p. 53).
^The other being Clay County.
6The 60-15, single-track model is the most popular design in Florida year-
round schools. Of the 105 year-round schools in the state (1993-94), 59 of
them are 60-15, single-track.


76
In their original planning, Seminole County officials planned for
both elementary and middle schools to go on year-round calendars. Their
first year-round middle school began in 1993. In 1993-94, Florida only
had ten year-round middle schools in the state. Of these ten, four of them
are located in Seminole County (NAYRE, 1994c).
Volusia County
Volusia County (Daytona Beach) began its year-round experience
with five elementary schools in 1991. S. Isbell, the Modified School
Coordinator for the county, attributed much of their success to the support
of the district leadership. The district gave us a lot of leeway in school-
based administration. Thats been a real plus in this whole transition
(cited in Nelson et al., 1993, p. 53).
Charlotte, Polk, and Clay Counties Join In
In 1992 three additional Florida school districts joined the state
interest in year-round education: Charlotte, Polk, and Clay Counties. Both
the Charlotte (Punta Gorda) and the Polk (Lakeland) districts had only one
year-round school at the time of this study. The Charlotte County school
was a single-track, 60-15 design; the Polk County school was described as a
modified 45-15, three-track design (FDOE, 1994).
Clay County, home of Green Cove Springs, and much of the
southern overflow of Jacksonville growth, had four elementary schools on
year-round calendars beginning in 1992. All four schools operated, unlike
neighboring Duval County, on a single-track, 45-15 calendar. The teachers
there felt that the single-track design was particularly helpful for


77
disadvantaged students, especially in conjunction with a well-planned
remedial intersession program such as they had.
Clay County had planned a three-year experiment with the schools
on year-round calendars. One year into the program, however, a new
superintendent, Dr. Phyllis May, was elected who was not a supporter of
the year-round plan, and who chose to cut it from the 1994-95 budget.
This budget cut created a savings of $90,000 in eliminating the modified
calendar (Fields, 1994).7 The four Clay County programs lasted two
years and then returned to the traditional calendars.
Sarasota and Broward Counties
In 1993 Sarasota and Broward Counties joined the Florida year-
round school districts. Sarasota, on the west coast below Tampa, had one
year-round school on a calendar that was simply described as modified
(NAYRE, 1994c).
Broward County also had one year-round school in the town of
Hallandale, south of Fort Lauderdale. This elementary school operated on
a 60-15, five-track calendar. A new superintendent was recently elected in
Broward County who was committed to building new schools.
Philosophically the district supported the idea of year-round calendars in
elementary schools, but viewed this as a five-year, temporary solution at
best.
^Although, historically, most districts who have tried the year-round
calendar design have ultimately returned to the traditional calendar, it is
rare that that is done to save money. On the contrary, most districts who
try year-round school do so with a specific interest in saving money.


78
Future of YRE in Florida
It is difficult to characterize the present and future trends in Florida
year-round education. On one hand, more districts are beginning year-
round schools; others are investigating or planning towards that goal. At
the same time, other districts are canceling their programs and returning to
traditional, nine-month calendars.
Return to Traditional Calendars
Two districts, each leaders in the year-round education movement in
Florida, have ended their programs in the last few years. Although it is
sometimes difficult to discover the real reasons behind a decision of that
nature, the loss of these counties has dealt a blow to the year-round
momentum that has been building in this state.
New Year-Round Programs
Several years ago year-round schools were proposed in the
northwest, panhandle section of Florida. At that time the parents were not
receptive. Today, in the face of overcrowding and rapid population
growth, the prospect has been viewed more favorably and will, in fact, be
implemented in Escambia County (Pensacola) for the 1994-95 school year
(Banks, 1994).
Investigating for the Future
Palm Beach County (West Palm Beach) is investigating the
possibility of implementing year-round schools to deal specifically with
massive overcrowding in some areas of the district. School
Superintendent Monica Uhlhorn has made it clear that year-round


79
schooling would not be done to boost student achievement, but rather to
accommodate the stream of new students (King, 1994a, p. 5B). With
5,000 new students expected each year, district leaders are looking to
drastic measures to ease the overcrowding. Most of the target area schools
are already 25 to 40 percent over capacity. One of the worst is Sandpiper
Shores Elementary which has 1,500 students but with a building capacity of
only 750 (King, 1994a).
In almost a classic script, the local newspapers and the school board
have attempted to present the year-round alternative as a best of the worst
solution: better than double-sessions, better than another bond issue or
borrowing $100 million in certificates of participation (King, 1994b), and
better than overcrowding. In an effort to measure the community support
of such an idea (Gienger, 1994), the Palm Beach County school board
voted to hire an independent consultant to conduct a public survey on the
popularity of year-round education. The cost of such a poll has been
estimated to be as high as $25,000 (King, 1994a).
Growing on Track
In spite of the uncertainty facing other districts, several Florida
school districts, all facing rapid population increases, have continued to
embrace the year-round concept and are on-track with their original
designs.
Two counties, Orange and Seminole, expect to have all the
elementary and most, if not all, of the middle schools on year-round
calendars by the 1995-96 school year. Although the majority of Orange
County year-round schools are still single-track, the district is facing


80
financial problems and many of the music teacher positions have been cut
in the elementary schools.
Seminole County expects to move to multi-track calendars and will
require all music teachers to work on extended contracts by 1995-96.
Osceola County plans to decide at the end of 1994-95 if the entire county
will go year-round or if the entire county will return to the traditional
calendar.
Conclusion
The history of a long-term educational movement is difficult to
trace. Often much publicity is given to the beginning of a process while
almost none if given to its ending. This is typical behavior with all
innovative programs in education. Although many hours have been spent
looking through area newspapers, issues which seem to be local issues
tend to not be publicized outside of the immediate locale, and it becomes
difficult to find beginning and ending dates and to find uncontradicted
information. Such has been the problem in tracing this history of the year-
round education movement in Florida.
It would be pointless to speculate on where Florida schools will be
20-, 50-, or 100-years from now. Obviously, overcrowding will be a
severe problem. Some areas are already inundated with immigration
problems; others are experiencing the influx of thousands of new students
every year from the north. Sufficient school buildings to house these
numbers cannot be built in this state. Drastic measures will be needed.
Those involved in year-round education at this time may sometime be
viewed and respected as prophets.


CHAPTER IV
METHODOLOGY
Introduction
The overall purpose of the study was to determine what effect, if
any, year-round education had on music teachers and music programs. As
has been evident from the literature review, this is a new area of study. Not
only is there little literature on music in year-round education, there also
has been no prior systematic research performed to date. To pursue the
information needed, a two-phase, qualitative design was developed around
preliminary focus interviews and a questionnaire sent to all the year-round
music teachers in the state of Florida.
This methodology is similar to the design developed by Glaser and
Strauss (1967) which they termed grounded theory. A brief summary of
grounded theory is included, as well as a report on the exploratory study,
the criteria used for the selection of the sample, the instrumentation, and
the data analysis used.
Grounded Theory
Grounded Theory is based on the systematic generating of theory
from data (Glaser, 1978, p. 2). This approach was useful in this study
because of its support of the idea that problems are not inherent in people
and the idea that the data are defined by the participants themselves (Cline
& Freeman, 1988). Rather than begin with a preconceived ground,
grounded theory enables the researcher to discover the groundin this
81


82
case theories on the problems/challenges of year-round education on music
teachers and programs (Cline, Engel, & Johnson, 1989; Rudestam &
Newton, 1992).
Four-step process
Grounded theory is a four-step process that enables qualitative data
to be collected in a systematic and rigorous fashion (Glaser & Strauss,
1967). The four steps are: (1) focus group interviews; (2) identification of
the salient issues; (3) surveying the sample; and (4) generating theory based
solely on the data collected. It is important to enter the research setting
with as few predetermined ideas as possible: the researchers mandate is to
remain open to what is actually happening (Glaser, 1978, p. 3).
Grounded theory as a research tool
Grounded theory is an improvement over the traditional view of
qualitative research consisting of detailed descriptions reflecting little
systematic or rigorous study. It is a basic change from the old view of the
data fitting the theory, to one in which the theory is designed to fit the data
(Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The research questions in this study necessitated
a qualitative study of this nature, because it was an initial study in a field.
The First Phase: The Exploratory Study
In the initial stages of this study, when it became evident that there
was little literature available on music in year-round education,
information was pursued through interviews with music teachers in year-
round schools.


83
Focus interviews. Initially a convenience sample (Smith, 1988) of
14 year-round music teachers and supervisors were contacted. These
contacts were selected on the basis of their accessibility to the researcher.
Because it was not possible to conduct a group interview with these
teachers, they were interviewed independently, seven by telephone and
seven through on-site interviews in their school teaching situations.
The telephone interviews generally followed an open-format outline,
with the emphasis being to pursue any topics that the teacher felt important
in their year-round situation. The on-site interviews were more
ethnographic in nature, additionally providing the opportunity to observe
what was actually happening within a year-round music classroom. The
on-site aspect enabled the researcher to note different aspects of the
teaching and classroom climate that appeared to be effected by the year-
round schedule. The results of this exploratory phase of the research on
music and year-round education are included in Chapter V.
Identify salient issues. Based on the information gleaned from these
interviews and visits, several general topics were determined to be of
interest for the second phase of this study: teacher contracts (including paid
leave and substitute teachers), school calendars, teaching schedules, and
performing ensembles. At this point it was determined that the focus of
this research should center on the teachers themselves and whether or not
they were being affected by year-round scheduling. Any changes that
occurred in the classroom or student learning were viewed in terms of how
they were created or affected by the music teacher and the scheduling.
(For example, whether or not steady beat was taught was not a concern


84
unless the year-round scheduling limited the experiences received so that
there was not time or opportunity to cover that aspect of music.)
The Second Phase: Surveying the Teachers
The second phase of the research project consisted of interviewing,
via a questionnaire, each year-round music teacher in Florida.
Developing The Questionnaire
Two versions of a questionnaire (see Appendices C and D), one for
elementary music teachers, the other for secondary music teachers, were
designed by the researcher to obtain information from the teachers being
studied. The salient issues identified by the exploratory studycontracts,
calendars, schedules, and performing ensembleswere explored in both
open- and closed-format questions. As much of the basic information as
possible was presented in a check-list format in which the teacher could
simply identify the answer appropriate for their situation. Topics that
required more thought and reflection were presented in an open-format
with space for the teacher to use for response.
A pilot study was conducted to assess the strengths and weaknesses of
the questionnaires before they were sent to the sample population. Five
year-round music teachers were selected to participate in the pilot study.
The teachers were selected on the basis of their availability, representation
of a cross-section of the teaching situations to be studied, and willingness to
participate. These teachers taught in three different school districts, both
elementary and middle school, both single- and multi-track calendars, and
both band and choral. The responses from the pilot study indicated some
problems with terminology, clarity of some of the questions, and the length


85
of the survey. These problems were corrected for the final forms that
were mailed to the teachers.
Sample for the Study
In 1993-94, the National Association for Year-Round Education
listed 105 schools in Florida using year-round calendars. To obtain further
information and the national directory, the researcher joined the NAYRE
as an individual member. The listing that was obtained included a list of
the Florida schools with their address and principals name and phone
number.
Because of the small total population, the entire list of Florida year-
round schools was chosen for the survey (Rainbow & Froehlich, 1987).
This decision allowed the maximum amount of information to be gathered.
In addition, it was found that some of the schools in the list did not, in fact,
meet the criteria for this study: Florida public schools on year-round
calendars with functioning music programs and certified music teachers
during the 1993-94 school year.
Since the music teachers of only one state were being studied, it
would be difficult to infer any generalizations about music teachers in
other states. As a qualitative study, however, it represents base-line,
beginning research on music in year-round education. Future studies can
then be designed to test the theories and ideas generated.
Music Teacher Names
In order to improve the potential survey response rate, it was
decided to obtain a current list of the names of the music teachers in these
105 schools. Several state-wide agencies were contacted, including the


f
86
FDOE, the office of the state Arts Education Specialist (June Hinckley),
and the Florida Music Educators Association (FMEA). No current list was
available.
Through the FMEA a list of music supervisors was obtained and a
list of year-round coordinators was received from the NAYRE. Eight of
the twelve districts involved had music supervisors. These supervisors
and/or coordinators were contacted to request an accurate list of the
schools in their districts and the names of the music teachers at those
schools.
Prior to the original mailing, lists of music teacher names and
schools were received from seven of the 12 districts. It was determined
from this information that three schools of the 105 involved had no
certified music teacher. These schools were excluded from the study. Of
the remaining 102 schools, two had two music teachers each (Crown Point
Elementary and Mandarin Middle Schools, both in Duval County). At the
start of the second phase, 104 questionnaires were sent out: 93 to
elementary music teachers, 11 to middle school music teachers.
Unfortunately it was not possible to determine prior to the mailing which
teachers were off-track at that time, and which, if any, of the 102
remaining schools had no music teacher.
Procedures
Teacher Contact
Approximately one week before the mailing of the survey
instrument, a postcard (see Appendix E) was sent to each music teacher on
the list telling them about the project, the intended use of the information,
and inviting their subsequent participation and response.


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TI >
MUSIC PROGRAMS IN YEAR-ROUND SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA:
CURRENT STATUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR
FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
by
JANICE LEE HAWORTH
DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1995

Copyright 1995
by
Janice Lee Haworth

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
As I have finally reached the end of this goal, I realize that I could
not have accomplished any of these steps on my own. There are many
people who have been very helpful along the way.
I would like to thank the chair of my supervisory committee, Dr.
Charles Hoffer, whose guidance, patience, and encouragement have
resulted in the completion of this project and my degree. I would also like
to thank the members of my supervisory committee, Drs. Phyllis Dorman,
Russell Robinson, Budd Udell, Arthur Jennings, and Panos Livadas, for the
practicality of their help and support in this research project.
There are several friends whom I would like to acknowledge and
thank for their encouragement and support throughout this degree process:
Mary Jeanette Howie, Ronald Howard, Debra Hess, Jill Hooper, Joanne
Engel, Evelyn Williams, and Jerri Goffe. I am also indebted to the many
year-round music teachers who took the time to complete the
questionnaire. It was my goal to write a dissertation that would make a
difference in the music education profession. Without their help none of
this would have been possible.
Most of all, I would like to thank my parents and my brother for
their unending interest and encouragement. Their maps, news clippings,
and video tapes have kept me informed, up-to-date, and constantly aware of
their love and support. To God be the glory.
in

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES xi
ABSTRACT xii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Statement of the Problem 1
Music Teachers in YRE 4
Factors in Music in YRE 5
Statement of Purpose 7
Overview of the Study 7
Delimitations 8
Limitations 9
Definitions 9
General Calendars 9
Year-Round Calendars 10
Calendar Designs 11
Teacher Contracts 12
2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13
Introduction 13
Historical Overview 13
Needs of an Agrarian Society 14
Early History: 1904 to 1938 14
The Quiet Years: 1940 to 1970 16
Calendar Reform: 1970 17
NCYRE: 1972 to 1986 18
NAYRE: 1987 to the Present 20
Current (1993-94) Status of Year-Round Education 22
IV

Popular Calendar Designs 23
1993-94 Statistics for the United States 30
1993-94 Statistics for Florida 32
Relevant Studies on Year-Round Education 34
Does YRE Save Money? 34
Does YRE Improve Student Achievement? 39
Does YRE Improve the Quality of Education? 43
Public Response to YRE 48
Sources on Music and Year-Round Education 53
References by Music Teachers 54
References from Music Conferences 56
Music as a Subtopic 57
3 A BRIEF HISTORY OF YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION
IN FLORIDA 59
Earliest Beginnings 60
Innovative Governmental Leadership 61
Enhancing Curriculum 61
Improving Overcrowding 61
Legislative Acts 62
Early Calendar Innovations 63
Looking Ahead and Preparing for the Future 64
Polk County Feasibility Study 64
Orange County Planning 65
The Early 1970s 65
The Dade County Quinmester Plan 65
NCYRE Conference in Florida 66
45-15 Comes to Florida 67
Jupiter’s Concept Six 69
The Silent Years 70
Marion County Begins It All Again 71
Banner Growth in the 1990s 72
Orange County Goes Year-Round 72
FAYRE 73
Brevard County Parents Vote 73
Duval County Dual Tracks 73
Lake County Pilot Program 74
Osceola County Rapid Growth 74
Seminole County Goes Year-Round 75
Volusia County 76
Charlotte, Polk, and Clay Counties Join In 76
v

Sarasota and Broward Counties 77
Future of YRE in Florida 78
Return to Traditional Calendars 78
New Year-Round Programs 78
Investigating for the Future 78
Growing on Track 79
Conclusion 80
4 METHODOLOGY 81
Introduction 81
Grounded Theory 81
Four-Step Process 82
Grounded Theory as a Research Tool 82
The First Phase: The Exploratory Study 82
The Second Phase: Surveying the Teachers 84
Developing the Questionnaire 84
Sample for the Study 85
Music Teacher Names 85
Procedures 86
Teacher Contact 86
Instrumentation 87
Data Analysis 88
5 RESULTS OF THE EXPLORATORY STUDY 91
Introduction 91
Results of the First-Phase Exploratory Study 91
Contract Options for Music Teachers 91
Does YRE Benefit the Music Program? YES 95
Does YRE Benefit the Music Program? NO 96
Complex Issues and Simplistic Answers 97
The Future of Music in Year-Round Education 103
6 RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 105
Introduction 105
School Calendar 106
Teacher Contracts 107
Contract Design 107
Extended Contracts 110
Track Contracts 112
vi

Music Teacher Views and Opinions 114
Community/School Relations 114
Single-Track Schools 118
Multi-Track Schools 119
Personal Views 121
Elementary Music Programs in Year-Round Schools 131
Elementary General Music Classes 132
Effect on Music Teaching 135
Effect on the Music Classroom Environment 141
Elementary Performing Groups 143
Secondary Music Programs in Year-Round Schools 150
Secondary General Music Classes 150
Secondary School Performing Groups 150
Classroom Environment 153
Year-Round Preparation 155
Teacher Demographics 157
Suggestions 159
7 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS,
AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER
RESEARCH 164
Summary 164
Conclusions 167
Implications for Administrators and Music Teachers in
Year-Round Schools 170
Multi-Track is the Future 170
General Music Classes That Easily Adapt 170
Performing Groups and YRE 171
Concerns for Administrators to Address 174
College Responses 176
The Future of the Implications 176
Recommendations for Further Research 177
Coda 178
APPENDICES
A STATEMENT ON YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION 179
B NATIONAL AND FLORIDA ASSOCIATIONS FOR
YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION 183
C ELEMENTARY MUSIC TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE 185
vii

D SECONDARY MUSIC TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE 196
E PRELIMINARY CONTACT 206
F APPROVAL FROM THE INSTITUTIONAL
REVIEW BOARD 208
G COVER LETTER 210
H FOLLOW-UP MATERIALS 213
I LIST OF SCHOOLS THAT RESPONDED 217
J 1993-94 FLORIDA YEAR-ROUND SCHOOLS
BY COUNTY 226
REFERENCES 231
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 243
Vlll

LIST OF TABLES
Table page
1 Increases in Building Capacity by Calendar Design 36
2 Calendar Design 107
3 Responses Regarding Choice in the Selection of
Teaching Schedules 108
4 Open-Responses Regarding Recommendations on Track or
Extended Contracts 109
5 Extended Contract Teachers on Teacher Burn-Out 111
6 Use of Certified Music Substitute Teachers 113
7 Changes Seen in the Needs of YR Families 114
8 Teachers Enrolling in College Courses Over Last
Five Years 116
9 Needs to be Addressed by School Districts 117
10 Effects of Single-Track Scheduling on Music Programs 119
11 Effects of Multi-Track Scheduling on Music Programs 120
12 Perceived Advantages to YRE 122
13 Perceived Disadvantages to YRE 124
14 Disadvantages of YRE Grouped by Teacher Categories 125
15 Future Plans on Teaching in YRS 126
16 Continue Teaching in Year-Round Schools 128
17 Elementary General Music Class Schedules 132
ix

18 Personnel Involved in Scheduling Elementary
General Music Classes 134
19 Effect of Year-Round Education on Sequencing 136
20 Effect of Year-Round Education on Curriculum Content/
Concept Development 137
21 Effect of Year-Round Education on Student
Understanding 138
22 Raw Data Comparing Student Understanding and
Years of YRE 139
23 Effect of Year-Round Education on Material Retention 140
24 Effect of Year-Round Education on Teacher Burn-Out 142
25 Performing Groups in Year-Round Schools 144
26 Effect of Year-Round Education on Quality of
Performances 145
27 Dealing With Off-Track Students and Multi-Track
Performing Groups 148
28 Off-Track Students Coming On Campus for Rehearsals 149
29 Secondary Music Students and Music Tracks 154
30 Year-Round Music Teacher Demographics 158
31 Non-Workshop College Courses Taken Over the
Last Five Summers 159
32 Music Teacher Suggestions for a Successful Year-Round
Music Program 160
x

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure gage
1 Basic schedule format for a traditional school calendar 24
2 Basic format for block scheduling in a single-track
year-round design 24
3 Basic format for a multi-track year-round calendar
(5-tracks) 26
4 Basic format for a four-quarter year-round calenddar 29
5 Florida counties and the number of 1993-94 year-
round schools in each district 33
xi

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University
of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
MUSIC PROGRAMS IN YEAR-ROUND SCHOOLS IN FLORIDA:
CURRENT STATUS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR
FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
By
Janice Lee Haworth
May 1995
Chairman: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer
Major Department: Music
The focus of this study was the effect of year-round education on
music teachers and music programs in Florida. Year-round calendars
create particular problems for music teachers and their programs. In
order to investigate the nature of these problems and to determine what
solutions had been tried, or were needed, a history of Florida year-round
education was compiled, and a two-phased study was designed.
The first phase consisted of preliminary interviews that focused on
designs of teaching contracts, year-round effects on music instruction, the
complex issues involved, and the future of music in year-round education.
Based on the findings from these interviews, a questionnaire was developed
and distributed to all the year-round music teachers in Florida.
From the results of the music teacher questionnaire, several
conclusions were drawn: (1) Multi-track calendars create more problems
for music programs and music teachers than do single-track calendars;
(2) Most music teachers feel unprepared to begin teaching in year-round
schools—both in general and also specifically with regard to music;
Xll

(3) The conflict between teacher-needs (track-contracts) and student-needs
(extended-contracts) have created a problem in teaching contract options
for multi-track music teachers. A new contract design is needed so that
music teacher concerns about teacher burn-out and program consistency
can both be addressed; (4) General music programs experience problems
with the timing and use of holiday music in lessons, and the problem of
keeping track of individual classes in the curricular sequence; (5) Multi¬
track performing groups, on both the elementary and secondary levels,
have difficulties with students rotating in and out of ensembles and never
having the entire ensemble together.
Innovative solutions to reduce the negative effects of year-round
education on music programs include (1) new teaching contract options for
music teachers, (2) sequencing general music lessons numerically and
lessening the role of holiday music in general music plans, and (3)
organizing performing ensembles by tracks. Other suggestions from the
teachers themselves were offered to help lower the stress level of music
teachers in year-round situations.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
In an age of shrinking educational funding and growing numbers of
students, many school systems have been forced to look for new ways to
deal with the problem of providing sufficient space for students to learn.
One solution that has received a great deal of interest in recent years is the
year-round school calendar.
Statement of the Problem
The focus of this study is year-round education, with a particular
emphasis on its effect on music teachers and music programs in the state of
Florida. Historically, year-round education (YRE) is not a new idea;
neither has it been easily accepted by the American public. Although there
are dozens of variations in the format and school calendar, the basic
principle of YRE is that the long summer vacation is divided into several
shorter holidays throughout the school year. This calendar shift is viewed
as an asset to learning because there is less time for students to forget and
less time spent in review of previously learned material.
By having different groups of students on vacation at different times,
an economic benefit has been realized by the proponents of YRE: more
students can be accommodated in the same amount of classroom space.
Different schedules reflect different gains, but an increase of 20 to 50
percent in the number of students using a building is not uncommon.
1

2
The first year-round school program was created in 1904 by
William Wirt of Bluffton, Indiana, as a four-quarter plan in which students
attended three of the four quarters and 25 percent of them were on
vacation at any given time (National Education Association [NEA], 1987).
By 1993-94, the National Association for Year-Round Education (NAYRE)
reported that there were 32 states involved with year-round schools, with
1,905 schools serving 1.4 million students (1994a).
Throughout the twentieth-century educational innovators have
claimed that they were drawn to this concept, both as a financial panacea,
but more often in an effort to improve the quality of education for their
students. In spite of the beneficial possibilities of YRE, it has not been
easily accepted by the public. Parents tend to object to the fact that it is
difficult to schedule family vacations when their children are split into
different tracks at school. In addition, they express concern about child¬
care for their children when they are out of school during the traditional
school year.
Although there are many variations to the traditional school
calendar, Shepard (cited in NEA, 1987) groups them into three categories:
summer school, extended school year, and year-round school. All of these
are often considered to be “year-round education,” but there are actually
some clear differences that are important to this study.
Summer school is a short-term program offered in the summer
months as either enrichment (generally voluntary) or remediation (often
required attendance). It is usually set up as a supplement to the regular
school year rather than an extension or continuation. The four-quarter

3
YRE schedule uses summer school as an additional term within the school
year.
The extended school year is an attempt to improve the quality of
education by increasing the number of days that students are in class. Most
school districts in the United States follow a 180-day school year.
Year-round school is a change in the way the calendar is organized
without adding any days to the schedule. Instead of a three-month vacation
in the summer, shorter vacation periods are scattered throughout the year.
In over-crowded school situations it is possible to increase the capacity of
the school by staggering the vacation periods so that one group, or “track,”
is always off campus. This definition of year-round education, 180-, or
fewer, days with shortened vacation periods, is the focus of this study.
Since 1980 the number of schools using modified year-round
calendars has been increasing (NEA, 1987). Since 1990 the number of
schools involved has mushroomed. As more states and districts suffer
from under-funding, over-crowding, and a public mandate to raise
educational standards, year-round scheduling is being seen as an innovation
with great possibilities.
Florida, the focus of this study, is the third largest state in the
country in terms of YRE enrollment. Only California and Texas exceed it
(NAYRE, 1994a). Since its beginning in the early 1970s until the 1993-94
school year, YRE in Florida has grown to 105 schools in 12 districts.
Several districts in Florida have incorporated extensive planning
time prior to the opening of their first year-round school. Generally that
planning is more geared to the school as a whole rather than to specific
programs within the school. Most members of the school staff deal with

4
one fixed group of students (i.e. five periods of a particular subject or a
single classroom of children). Other than the shifting of the vacation
schedules, most school staff in a modified calendar situation experience
little change in their actual curricular offerings or teaching style. This is
because they either follow the same track-schedule as their students or
incoming students are grouped with other like students to form new classes.
Teachers and administrators who deal with the entire student body
face a different set of problems than do those who deal with one fixed
group of students. These problems are often overlooked in the planning
and preparation for the implementation of year-round scheduling in a
school or district. In addition to the problem of needing to be concerned
with the entire student body, music teachers also face the challenge shared
by athletic coaches: their work is, by its nature, publicly critiqued.
Music Teachers in YRE
Year-round education creates some specific problems for the music
teachers involved. Although there are many different kinds of resources
available to districts, schools, and teachers considering a change to YRE,
there are no resources, other than private contacts, available to help the
music teacher. Access to information about music and YRE would allow
for more informed decision making on the part of music teachers and
administrators. Because of the growing number of year-round schools in
the state of Florida, an in-depth study and analysis of the existing music
programs in such schools is needed.

5
Factors in Music in YRE
A fundamental factor for both elementary and secondary schools is
the design of the school calendar. The group of modified calendars
included under the heading of “year-round education” are designed to be
flexible to meet the needs of the community. These flexible calendars, part
of the strength of YRE, have a significant effect on certain aspects of the
school teaching and learning environment, like the music classroom, while
affecting others very little.
Another area for investigation is the type of contract received by the
music teacher. Some districts allow the individual teachers to choose the
length of their contract, either following a specific track, or working under
some form of an extended contract. Other districts unilaterally require
that all music teachers work extended contracts.
Certain aspects of YRE have more import for some age groups than
others. An important area of interest for elementary music teachers is the
question of how to schedule multi-track general music classes and still
provide a sequential curriculum for all students. Under the traditional
calendar, most elementary music programs are designed around a five- to
ten-day rotation of classes. Under a year-round calendar, with classes and
teachers coming on- and off-track, it is not unusual for scheduling
difficulties to create blocks of four or more weeks when particular classes
do not have music instruction.
Another problem at the elementary level is the extracurricular
performing group and how to implement and maintain it when the entire
group is never together at any one time. One music teacher in central
Florida, director of an after-school Orff instrument ensemble, had all the

6
students and parents involved sign contracts stipulating that they would
attend rehearsals even when they were “off-track” and on vacation. Many
other schools have simply stopped their elementary choruses and
instrumental ensembles due to the problems incurred under YRE.
The problems faced by intermediate and secondary year-round music
teachers tend to be more visible to the community. The bands and choruses
that dominate these music programs suffer because the students are never
together at the same time. The solution, often mentioned in the literature,
is to “invite” off-track music students to come on campus for rehearsals.
This is problematic and short-sighted. Public performances, festivals,
contests, parades, and ball games still require presentations by these
performing groups, with little regard for the missing voices or
instrumentation.
In support of the music education philosophy of “Music for every
child,” most multi-track music teachers have been hesitant to institute a
“music track” that all band or chorus prospects would be required to enroll
in. The result, combined with the fact that it is difficult to find a qualified
substitute music teacher for extended periods of time, is that intermediate
and secondary music teachers generally have to work all year to keep their
programs from suffering. Although as of this writing there are no high
schools on year-round calendars in Florida, there are several middle
schools facing this problem.
A final area of investigation is to gather information from the music
teachers themselves about how to make year-round scheduling function
more effectively. Much of the current literature is written by curriculum
specialists and others who are not actually in the classroom. Many creative

7
music teachers have found ways to succeed. Their ideas can be an
important resource for other music teachers.
Statement of Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate, describe, and provide
information with regard to the music programs in year-round schools in
Florida. The existing literature on the subject does little more than point
out that there can be problems and encourages music teachers to “be
flexible.” The overall goal is to provide a source of help and information
for future music educators and administrators planning to implement YRE
regarding the specific problems facing the music program.
Overview of the Study
The main goal of this study was to expand the knowledge about
music education in year-round schools and to provide assistance for current
and future music educators and administrators involved in YRE. The
method of inquiry used to gather this information was preliminary
interviews, and questionnaires sent to the year-round music teachers in
Florida.
The first step in this process was to create a roster of year-round
music teachers from information available through the National
Association of Year-Round Education, the Florida Department of
Education, Florida Music Educators Association, and the counties/districts
themselves. The questionnaire was then field tested among a small
sampling of teachers. Since the elementary and middle school music
situations were so different, two separate forms were used, including a
common section that was included in both forms.

8
The questionnaire was a combination of both open- and closed-
format questions. Much of the demographic information could be solicited
through ‘check-list’ answers. Other information, in particularly the
specifics on each situation and the creative measures that that particular
teacher found effective, was more appropriately gleaned through open-
format questions.
There were several specific goals behind the choice of questions and
topics on the questionnaire. The first goal was to create a picture of year-
round music education in Florida through information about the calendars
used, teacher contracts, and scheduling. The second goal was to identify the
specific problems that these teachers had encountered under modified
calendars. The third goal was to collect their ideas, solutions, and
recommendations on what had proved to be effective in helping their music
programs succeed.
The decision to preface the questionnaire with personal interviews of
year-round music teachers was based on the fact that there is almost no
literature on this topic. Rather than enter the field with preconceived
ideas, this methodology, similar to that of ‘grounded theory’ developed by
Glaser and Strauss (1967), seeks to collect data and develop theory that is
‘grounded’ in the core problems and processes themselves.
Delimitations
In the 1993-94 school year, the state of Florida had 105 schools
using some form of year-round calendar. These schools were found in
twelve counties and included 95 elementary schools and 10 middle schools.
At this time there were no high schools on year-round calendars in
Florida.

9
Limitations
The focus of this study was limited to year-round schools, that are
neither summer schools nor extended year schools, that were in operation
during the 1993-94 school year, and that had certified music teachers.
Both single- and multi-track schools were investigated.
This study was limited to the year-round schools in Florida. It was
chosen for its proximity and availability for access to the actual music
classrooms. It was also selected due to the variety of programs, plans, and
reasons behind the different calendar implementations.
Due to the fact that there were no high schools on year-round
calendars in Florida, this study was limited to the elementary and middle
schools that fit these criteria.
Definitions
The following definitions of terms are applicable to this study.
General Calendars
The traditional calendar. Traditional School Calendar, or TSC,
refers to the standard 180-day, September-to-June, calendar.
The school year runs from July 1 to June 30.
Secondary schools will include both middle and high schools.
Modified calendars include any variation from the traditional
calendar, including all forms of year-round education.

10
Year-Round Calendars
Year-Round Education is a change from the traditional school
calendar in order to use the school plant and facilities in a more efficient
manner and respond to the educational needs of the students. Instead of a
three-month vacation in the summer, shorter vacation periods are scattered
throughout the entire year.
Tracks are the particular schedules each group of students and
teachers follows. In Florida they are often referred to by a color, e.g.
Yellow Track or Orange Track in multi-track situations.
Single-track or Block-track scheduling is the simplest form of YRE.
The entire school follows one calendar, with everyone in school at the same
time and on vacation at the same time. Typical single-track schedules
include a short winter and/or summer vacation in addition to the scattered
vacation periods.
Multi-track scheduling houses more students on a campus without
overcrowding by rotating the vacation periods so that one group, or track,
is always off campus. Typical multi-tracks schedules include from two to
five tracks on a single campus.
Off-track students or teachers are those who are on vacation between
the shortened regular terms. Those who are in school at any given time
are referred to as on-track.
Intersessions refer to the blocks of time between terms.
Mesters is a term coined by some year-round administrators to
distinguish the change from the traditional semester calendar terms.
Cross-tracking allows students to participate in courses that are not
in their particular track. For example, if band were only offered on one

11
track, it is possible that students from other tracks could participate during
that class period in their schedule.
Singleton classes are courses which, generally due to small
enrollments, are only offered once, rather than on every track, in multi¬
track schools.
Rainbowing refers to multi-track music classes and ensembles where
students from all the tracks go in and out of the same groups.
Retention is used to identify the quantity of material that students
have learned, remembered, and can build on at a later date.
Calendar Designs
45-15 is a popular form of YRE. Students, either single- or multi¬
track, attend school on a repeating cycle of 45 days (9 weeks) on and then
15 days (3 weeks) off. This cycle is repeated four times each year.
60-20 is a variation of the 45-15 in situations in which districts
prefer a longer teaching block and fewer ‘restarts’ during the year.
60-15 is the most widely-used design in Florida. It is similar to the
60-20 except that the entire campus has a four- to five-week vacation in the
summer.
Four-quarter is the oldest variation of YRE and has, historically,
been the least successful. Students are divided into four equal groups and
attend school for three of the four quarters each year.
Concept 6 is a relatively new alternative to the 45-15 plan. The
students are divided into three groups with one group always off-track
resulting in up to a 50 percent increase in student capacity. Concept 6
schools have longer but fewer days than the other variations.

12
Double sessions were a frequently used, and still occasionally
threatened, way to deal with over-crowding by having two groups of
students and teachers use the same facilities each day.
Teacher Contracts
Extended-contracts enable teachers in multi-track schools to work up
to 240 days a year, generally with commensurate pay scales, benefits, and
retirement.
Track-contracts enable teachers to teach the same number of days as
one particular track of students. In multi-track situations, teachers on
track-contracts follow the particular on- and off-track times of a specific
track.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Introduction
This chapter contains an overview of the existing literature and
research on year-round education in general and on music in year-round
education. It is organized into an historical overview of year-round
education, a review of the current status and studies on year-round schools,
and an overview of the references to music in year-round education. The
review on the current studies focuses on the main concerns of year-round
education:
1. Does it save money?
2. Does it improve student achievement?
3. Does it improve the quality of education? and,
4. How do the families, communities, and school personnel respond?
The National Association for Year-Round Education was particularly
helpful as a source for historical information and a current list of the
individual schools and districts involved in year-round education. The
history and impact of this organization will be presented during the
discussion of the historical overview of year-round education.
Historical Overview
Although year-round education is often viewed as a recent
innovation in school reform, the idea of molding the school calendar to fit
the needs of the community is a long-standing tradition in American
13

14
society. The concept of a generally uniform nine-month, 180-day school
year was not common until after World War II. Prior to that time many
of the major urban areas operated calendars of up to eleven or twelve
months a year (Hermansen & Gove, 1971). In the mid-nineteenth-century,
the large numbers of foreign-born immigrants benefited from
culturization, educational, and language opportunities that lasted all year.
“New York City held classes for 245 days; Chicago 240; Buffalo 250;
Cleveland 215; Detroit 259; and Philadelphia 252” (Glines & Bingle, 1993,
P- 3).
Needs of an Agrarian Society
At the same time, many rural schools were only meeting for a few
months each year because the students were needed at home to help on the
farm. As the country became more unified, the rural and urban school
calendars grew closer together in design and compromised through a
longer school year and a substantial summer break so the students were still
free to help with the crops.
Early History: 1904 to 1938
1904: Bluffton, Indiana. Dr. William Wirt, Superintendent of
Schools in Bluffton, Indiana, is generally considered the ‘father’ of year-
round education. In 1904 he developed a rotating four-quarter calendar in
which students could choose to attend any three quarters each year (Wirt,
1906). The purpose of their program was not only to create more space,
but also to improve the quality of education (Glines, 1992). After four
years the calendar was dropped because they were unable to maintain an
equal distribution of students in the four quarters, which limited their

15
ability to plan for space and budget needs (National Education Association
[NEAJ, 1987).
1912: Newark. New Jersey. In 1912 the Newark, New Jersey,
schools implemented a similar program to the Bluffton experiment with a
four-quarter school year designed to benefit the many immigrants in that
area. Rather than have the summer term as an enrichment or remediation
time, their fourth quarter was a continuation of the regular school year.
Corson (1918), superintendent of schools at that time, identified the
objectives of their calendar reform as (a) saving time by having students
complete their schooling in fewer years, (b) proving that students are not
injured as previously feared by summer study, and (c) reducing waste in
time and in building use. As a result, the immigrant students accelerated
through the program, and it was determined that many of them graduated
at too early an age to function successfully in society (Shepard & Baker,
1977). This calendar ran for nineteen years until 1931.
1922: Nashville, Tennessee. Nashville, Tennessee, began a similar
continuous four-quarter plan in 1922 which ran for ten years. George
Peabody College for Teachers evaluated the Nashville program and found
that “students attending the summer quarter did no better than those not
attending. Possibly this was a result of high attendance by disadvantaged
blacks” (Hermansen & Gove, 1971, p. 12). It was felt, however, that many
of the participating students advanced further in their education than they
would have without the summer quarter plan.
It is interesting to note that, up to this point in history, all the year-
round or extended-year programs were designed to benefit the
disadvantaged immigrant students. These programs were not popular with

16
taxpayers and were all abandoned during the Depression years of the early
1930s. “The public was not ready to pay for ‘enrichment’ with tax money”
(Hermansen & Gove, 1971, p.12).
1928: Aliquippa and Ambridge, Pennsylvania. A dramatic change in
year-round education began in 1928 in the towns of Aliquippa and
Ambridge, Pennsylvania, with the advent of the first mandated K-12
program designed to provide space for more students. The Aliquippa
experiment was considered to be very successful, saving over five years an
estimated $200,000 annually in debt service and teachers salaries
(Hermansen & Gove, 1971) and increasing the high school population from
1600 to 2200 without adding extra buildings (Glines & Bingle, 1993). The
neighboring town of Ambridge was less enthusiastic with the program,
citing problems with family vacations and increased drop-out rates for
students. When opportunities were provided to build more school
facilities, the year-round calendars in both towns were abandoned.
The Quiet Years: 1940 to 1970
Widespread interest in school calendar reform lagged during the
years following World War II except in scattered pockets across the
country. Omaha, Nebraska instituted a voluntary four-quarter plan in
1953. The Florida State University Laboratory School tried a seventy-five
day trimester plan from 1962 to 1967 (Shepard & Baker, 1977). In 1963
Nova High School in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, began a 220-day,
nongraded, trimester program. This experiment was stopped three years
later (Neal, 1978) citing problems with strain on teachers and students
from a lack of vacation time, and a psychological ‘let-down’ for students

17
“who had to stay in school for seven weeks while their playmates were on
vacation” (Hermansen & Gove, 1971, p.31).
The money that was available for educational reform during the
1960s kept the innovations of year-round education going and many
feasibility studies were done by school districts looking for ways to
improve their programs. Few of these feasibility results were actually
implemented, however, due to the basic problem that the American public
just did not like the four-quarter concept that had prevailed thus far.
The interest in the concept was still there, however. The first
national conference on year-round schools was held in Fayetteville,
Arkansas, in 1969 and was attended by 150 educators, school board
members, and other personnel from more than thirty states (Glines &
Bingle, 1993). The stage was set for a simple innovation that would
revolutionize year-round education.
Calendar Reform: 1970
Valley View: 45-15. The Valley View School District in
Romeoville, Illinois, under a situation of severe overcrowding and newly
mandated kindergarten, developed a year-round calendar that they called
the 45-15 Continuous School Plan (Thomas, 1973). Rather than the old
four-quarter system, each student attended school for forty-five days and
then had fifteen days off. By running four tracks of students and having
three groups in school at any given time, the Valley View School District
was able to increase their school capacity by one-third without having to
build any additional school facilities.
What made this plan more palatable to the community was the fact
that every student had a three-week vacation period in every season in

18
addition to the week at Christmas and a week in the summer when the
entire school was closed down. This quickly became a very popular
design for a year-round calendar, and it was an important milestone in the
development and popularity of year-round education.
Miami Quinmester. In 1970 the Dade County (Florida) Public
Schools began an influential experiment that they called the Quinmester
Plan (McLain, 1973). The school year was divided into five nine-week
terms and the student body was divided into five groups. Each group then
attended four of the Five ‘quins’ (with an option of attending the fifth).
This involved some radical revising of the school curriculum (Todd, 1973)
but it brought some immediate advantages: it would theoretically increase
the school capacity by 25% (Christian, 1970) and it was not dramatically
different from the traditional school calendar (TSC).
NCYRE: 1972 to 1986
In 1972 the National Council on Year-Round Education (NCYRE)
was formed to provide direction for the growing interest in year-round
programs. The wording in their title was carefully chosen because this was
to be a council for the study, support, and dissemination of information on
year-round education (Glines & Bingle, 1993). The term ‘education’
rather than ‘school’ was chosen because the group viewed year-round
education as a philosophy, whereas year-round school is simply a
“mechanical scheduling system designed to house more students” (Glines,
1987, p. 14) with little regard for the educational needs of the individual.
The original NCYRE quickly developed into an annual meeting held
in different parts of the country and attended by those interested in school
calendar reform.

19
The 2nd National Conference, in 1970, was held in Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania. Many of the innovations, including the brand-new Valley
View 45-15 plan, were eagerly discussed. A statement on year-round
education (see Appendix A) was drafted and unanimously adopted by those
in attendance (McLain, 1973).
Brevard County (Florida) was the site of the 3rd National
Conference in 1971, hosted by the Brevard County School District (Wayne
White, Superintendent), Florida Technological University, and the Florida
Department of Education (Glines & Bingle, 1993). The focus of that
meeting was the different operational calendars that were currently being
utilized across the country.
The 4rd National Conference was held in San Diego, California, in
1972 and sponsored by the San Diego County Department of Education.
Many of the 982 registered participants were able to visit actual year-round
school sites and see the programs in operation. At this meeting the
National Council on Year-Round Education was officially formed with
Wayne White as its first president (Glines & Bingle, 1993). A quarterly
newsletter entitled the Year-Rounder was begun and published in
conjunction with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute in Blacksburg, Virginia
(Glines & Bingle, 1993).
The next three National Conferences (1973 in Virginia Beach,
Virginia; 1974 at the Valley View School District, Illinois; 1975 in Denver,
Colorado) suffered from sinking attendance numbers but the ideas and
innovations that were being created and discussed kept the interest level
high.

20
The 8th National Conference in 1976 was held on board a one-week
cruise on the Queen Mary out of Long Beach, California and set an
attendance record that was unmatched for thirteen years. Eleven-hundred
people spent the week studying, discussing, and ‘getting excited’ about
year-round education.
The 9th National Conference (1977) was the beginning of a serious
time of decline in the interest and support of year-round education. That
conference, the first to be solely sponsored by the NCYRE, was postponed
from its original date and poorly attended.
The next three National Conferences were all held in California
districts (1979 in San Diego; 1980 in San Francisco; 1981 in Anaheim) and
their budgets and attendance numbers all reflected the sluggish turn in the
development of year-round schools in the country. The San Diego County
School District offered office space in their School Board building for the
NCYRE and allowed Dr. Charles Ballinger, then the San Diego County
YRE coordinator, to assume the part-time job as Executive Secretary of the
NCYRE (Glines & Bingle, 1993).
Beginning in 1982, at the 13th National Conference in Los Angeles,
California, national interest, conference attendance, and innovations in
year-round education started again to rise. This trend continued through
1986 with the 17th National Conference held again in Anaheim.
NAYRE: 1987 to the Present
In 1987 a new organization was formed that incorporated all of the
history and structure of the old NCYRE and emerged with a shift in focus
as a new National Association for Year-Round Education. “The major
change was one of position, to that of an association for YRE, rather than a

21
council studying the concept” (Glines & Bingle, 1993, p.2). Dr. Charles
Ballinger was retained as the Executive Secretary of the new organization.
Their statement of purpose was as follows:
1. To encourage objective study and research of continuous
education programs and the effects of these programs on all aspects
of the education endeavor.
2. To foster the concept of year-round education as a possible way to
improve educational programs in terms of:
a. providing quality education
b. adapting the school calendar to the community and living
patterns, and
3. To provide an organized channel for disseminating information
about year-round education (NAYRE, 1994b, p.3).
Since the 1987 meeting in Anaheim, enrollment has continued
to rise, and, reflecting the preponderance of California schools involved in
year-round calendars, it was decided to keep the national conferences in
California until such a time as a more national interest would warrant a
more national location.
The Queen Mary attendance record was finally broken at the 21st
National Conference in San Diego in 1990, overflowing the hotel and
meeting rooms (Glines & Bingle, 1993) with more than 1700 participants.
This record-breaking trend continued in 1991, with 2100 attending and
1992 with 2600 registered.
The 24th National Conference in 1993 represented a major
breakthrough for year-round education, because the meeting was held in
Las Vegas, Nevada and year-round education was recognized as an
educational reform with national implications. The Silver Anniversary
25th Conference was held at the national headquarters in San Diego in
February 1994 (Glines & Bingle, 1993). The 26th Conference will be held

22
in February, 1995 in San Diego, California. The 27th Conference will
return to the east coast, meeting in Orlando, Florida, in 1996.
Although the flexibility inherent in year-round scheduling makes it
difficult to institute a national movement, the primary momentum, since
the mid-1970s, has come via the National Council on Year-Round
Education and the later National Association for Year-Round Education.
These organizations have been a clearinghouse for information, and have
provided a clear voice for the future and potential of year-round education
through their publications and national conferences.
Membership in the National Association for Year-Round Education
is available on the individual, institutional, and commercial level (see
Appendix B), and it includes a copy of their annually updated reference
directory of year-round education programs in the United States. Other
publications that are available include resources for parents, information
on the history of the YRE movement, and a review of research on student
achievement and financial costs. A directory of individual schools on year-
round calendars is also available.
Current (1993-94) Status of Year-Round Education
At the time of this study, interest in and support of year-round
education has never been greater. The National Association for Year-
Round Education has been instrumental in developing much of that
support. Many districts and schools are turning to modified school
calendars as a means of best meeting the needs of their communities and
students. This section, a look at the current status of year-round education,
focuses on three topics: calendar designs that are widely used, the 1993-94
statistics for the nation, and the 1993-94 statistics for the state of Florida.

23
Popular Calendar Designs
45-15: Single-track. Since its development by the Valley View
School District in Romeoville, Illinois in 1970, the 45-15 plan has been the
most popular and widely used design in year-round calendars (Shepard &
Baker, 1977). The premise of the design is that each student attends school
for 45 days and then has 15 days off. The fifteen days are referred to as an
‘intersession’ and can include such services by the school as remediation,
enrichment, or day-care classes. Figure 1 demonstrates the traditional
school calendar with a long summer break. Figure 2 is a single-track 45-
15 calendar in which the summer holiday is divided into 15-day
intersessions. The single-track aspect of this design is important. Schools
that use a single-track calendar do not gain any benefit from increased
population capacity. The main reason that this design is used is as an
educational benefit, with no savings in costs (Quinlan & George, 1987).
The advantages of the 45-15 plan over the traditional calendar
include the following:
1. Provides consistent pacing of instruction.
2. Breaks up long three-month summer vacation, thus reducing
learning loss.
3. Costs approximately the same as the September-June calendar.
4. Provides vacation in each season of the year.
5. Allows flexible time for substituting if a teacher wants to work a
longer contract year (Ballinger, Kirschenbaum & Poimbeauf, 1987,
p. 18).
The main disadvantage of the design is that it requires more starting
and stopping times than many of the other designs.
45-15: Multi-track. Schools and districts suffering from
overcrowding often modify the single-track 45-15 by adding tracks of

Figure
Figure
design.
24
3
3
3
3
ü
I
â–¡
School in session
Summer vacation
Winter vacation (entire school)
l. Basic schedule format for a traditional school calendar (TSC).
o
CO
3
3
3
3
3
3
1 I
I
â–¡
School in session
Intersession break
Winter vacation (entire school)
o
CO
u
3
3
I I
l. Basic format for block scheduling in a single-track year-round

25
students and creating a multi-track design. By off-setting the intersession
times, school capacity can theoretically be increased by 33 percent in a
four-track calendar and 25 percent in a five-track calendar. This is a
theoretical increase because it requires that all tracks be equal and this is
rarely possible without mandating track assignments (something most
districts are hesitant to do). Figure 3 is a five-track design with a
staggered intersession or vacation period. The entire school is generally
closed for a winter break and often a short summer break as well.
The advantages of a multi-track 45-15 plan include all those
mentioned for single-track and, in addition, enable student population
increases of up to 50 percent (in a two-track design) without building
additional facilities. As a frequent reason for districts to consider year-
round education is overcrowding, the multi-track plans are quite common.
Multi-track problems. The disadvantages of a multi-track 45-15 plan
are quite complicated. On the elementary level, multi-track scheduling
often means that some teachers and classes are ‘rovers,’ meaning that they
change classrooms every three weeks (Utah State Office of Education
[Utah], 1989; King, 1994c). It also means that teachers have to pack up
their classrooms completely when they go off-track, which creates a need
for secure storage space (Quinlan & George, 1987).
Communications between teachers and administration also become
much more difficult on multi-track calendars because there is no time when
every teacher is on campus at the same time. Scheduling is more
complicated, especially for teachers and administrators who deal with the
entire student body rather than just one classroom of students.

26
Track A
Track B
Track C
Track D
Track E
School in session
Intersession break
Winter holiday (entire school)
Figure 3. Basic format for a multi-track year-round calendar (5-tracks).
June 30

27
Multi-track calendars are a particular problem for elementary music
teachers, who can either work one track (leaving the rest of the school to
either have no music class or to have a substitute teacher when the music
teacher is away) or work all year (giving the teacher extra pay but no time
off). Elementary music ensembles such as chorus, recorders, and bells
suffer in that there are students entering and leaving every three weeks,
and the entire ensemble is never together.
On the secondary level, multi-track calendars create problems with
scheduling in general and with ‘singleton’ classes in particular. Singleton
classes are courses which, due to low enrollment, are generally only
offered once each year. If a secondary school is operating with five tracks,
it is not always possible to offer French IV, Advanced Band, or Theory I
in every track. If these classes are not offered on every track, then one of
two problematic possibilities occurs: either students are grouped into tracks
by their interest or ability level or one section is offered of each and
students come and go every three weeks.
60-20: Single- and multi-track. 60-20 is a variation of 45-15 in
which students attend school for three sixty-day periods with three twenty-
day intersessions. This schedule is preferable for many schools because
there are fewer starting and stopping times.
60-15: Single- and multi-track. The 60-15 calendar is by far the
most popular design in Florida year-round schools. It is similar to the
other designs in that students attend class for sixty days and then have a
fifteen-day holiday. An advantage of this calendar is that a common three-
to four-week summer vacation can be given to the whole school (Ballinger
et al., 1987; Nelson, Morell, & Howard, 1993).

28
Four-quarter. The four-quarter design is the oldest of the year-
round schedules. The school year is divided into four 60-day periods
where students choose or are assigned to attend three of the four quarters.
In situations where overcrowding is not a problem, students can attend all
four quarters for remediation, enrichment, or acceleration (Shepard &
Baker, 1977). Figure 4 is a basic four-quarter design.
Concept Six. Concept Six is a relatively new design in which the
school year is divided into six periods of approximately 43 days each.
Students then choose or are assigned to attend four of the six terms. This
design is popular for high schools because it creates two long vacation
periods when students can participate in outside employment. When
overcrowding is not a problem, Concept Six schools often have a few
overlapping days when the entire student body is on campus. In schools
where space is critical, the students attend approximately six fewer days
per year, but each day is a few minutes longer than in a traditional
calendar. Some of the advantages of the Concept Six schedule include
fewer beginning and ending times, two extended periods of classes and two
vacation periods in opposite seasons. This design requires the least amount
of curricular revision in that it follows the basic idea of the traditional
calendar. Palm Beach County (Florida) implemented a Concept Six
schedule in the town of Jupiter in the mid-1970s (Neal, 1978).
Quinmester plan. Dade County (Florida) developed and
implemented the Quinmester Plan in the early 1970s in which the school
year is divided into five forty-five day ‘quins’ and students attend four of
the five. This plan entails a great deal of curricular revision (Todd, 1973),
because the length of each term lends itself to shorter, more intensive non-

29
Track A
Track B
Track C
Track D
Í-H
J8
o
•4—*
o
o
â– c
cx
<
School in session
Intersession break
Winter vacation (entire
school)
Figure 4. Basic format for a four-quarter year-round calendar

30
sequential courses than the usual longer semester (Rothstein & Adams,
1971). Although this plan requires much work in creating new courses, it
allows for a richer curriculum, encourages experimentation, and reduces
long-term failure (Christian, 1970).
Orchard plan. Although most year-round multi-track plans have a
goal of increasing the campus population capacity, the only plan which
attempts to lower the number of students in each class is the Orchard Plan
(Gandara & Fish, 1991). This is similar to the five-track 60-15 except that
students in all five tracks are found in each class and 20 percent of the
students in each class rotate out every three weeks. Thus, a classroom with
35 students would only have 28 students at any given time (Glines, 1990a).
The problems that this creates for the teacher in that classroom are similar
to the problems faced by music teachers who have ensemble members
rotating in and out every three weeks. One big difference, however, is that
classroom achievement is based on the individual student, while ensemble
achievement is based on the group effort.
1993-94 Statistics for the United States
The 1993-94 statistics reveal a fifteenth straight year of increased
year-round activity (NAYRE, 1994d). “More than 1.4 million students in
366 districts in 32 states now take classes on a year-round basis, without the
traditional 10-week summer break” (“Year-Round School Enrollment,”
1994, p. B-7).
The 1993-94 school year saw a total of 1,949 public and private
year-round schools in this country. Of that total, 1634 (83.8%) are
elementary schools, 172 (8.8%) are junior high/middle schools, 89 (4.5%)
are high schools, and 54 (2.7%) are special/atypical schools (NAYRE,

31
1994a). In spite of the fact that most people view year-round education as
a means of dealing with overcrowding, it is interesting to note that only
1,143 (59%) of these schools have multi-track schedules. The other 806
(41%) are single-track schools that gain no benefit in student capacity or in
cost-savings.
The Twentieth Reference Directory (1994d) lists the 53 designs of
modified calendars that were being used during the 1993-94 school year.
The 45-15 format that revolutionized the public perception of year-round
education was being used in some form in 507 (26%) schools. The 60-15
design so popular in Florida was found in 193 (9.9%) schools. The most
widely used plan was the 60-20 design with 684 (35%) schools; 502
(73.4%) of these 60-20 schools were built on a four-track schedule. Only
two schools followed the Orchard Plan (60-15, 5-track), in which 20
percent of the students rotate out of each classroom every three weeks.
California is the state with the largest number of year-round schools
at 1,212 for the 1993-94 year. Texas is next with 222, Florida has 105,
and Utah and North Carolina finish the top five with 90 and 71,
respectively (NAYRE, 1994d). In terms of year-round student enrollment,
California is again in the lead with 1,029,553. Texas is next with 92,184,
Florida has 82,196, and Utah follows with 74,051. Number five in this list
is Nevada with 26,642 students.
The largest district in terms of year-round enrollment is Los Angeles
Unified School District (California) with 208 schools and 201,400 students.
Three of the top fifteen districts are located in Florida: Orange County is
fourth with 42 schools and 30,000 students, Duval County is eighth with 20

32
schools and 18,650 students, and Seminole County is thirteenth with 17
schools and 16,361 students.
1993-94 Statistics for Florida
Florida had 105 schools on year-round calendars during the 1993-94
year.1 These schools were located in twelve counties, generally in the
center of the state. (Florida school districts are organized by counties.)
The number of schools in each county were as follows: Brevard 2;
Broward 1; Charlotte 1; Clay 4; Duval 20; Lake 1; Orange 42; Osceola 5;
Polk 1; Sarasota 1; Seminole 17; and Volusia 10 (Florida Department of
Education [FDOE], 1994, with the Polk County information corrected.)
Figure 5 is a map of Florida divided into counties with the number of year-
round schools in each county indicated. Based on information obtained
from the NAYRE (1994c) there were 95 elementary schools, and 10
middle schools in Florida on year-round calendars. In 1993-94 there were
no high schools on modified calendars.
Overall, 97 (92.4%) of the Florida year-round schools follow a 60-
15 design (in either one, two, or five tracks). One school’s calendar
(Sarasota County Schools) was simply described as ‘modified.’ The other
seven schools (6.7%) follow a 45-15 calendar (in either one, three, or five
tracks) (NAYRE, 1994c).
There were only ten middle schools in the state on year-round
calendars during 1993-94. Of these ten, 80 percent of them were single-
1 Florida State Department of Education records indicate that there
were 106 schools, with the difference being found in Polk County.
Correspondence with the Polk County Director of Fine Arts indicate
that the 105 total was correct.

33
Figure 5. Florida counties and the number of 1993-1994 year-round
schools in each district

34
track (one was 45-15; seven were 60-15). The two Duval County middle
schools operated on a 60-15 design with five tracks in each.
Year-round enrollment by counties was as follows: Brevard 1,302;
Broward 822; Charlotte 587; Clay 3,086; Duval 18,650; Lake 780; Orange
30,000; Osceola 3,986; Polk 786; Sarasota 900; Seminole 16,361; and
Volusia 4,936. The total year-round enrollment in Florida during 1993-94
was 82,196 (NAYRE, 1994d).
Relevant Studies on Year-Round Education
The overview on the relevant studies that have been done on year-
round education focuses on four main questions:
1. Does YRE save money?
2. Does it improve or increase student achievement?
3. Does it improve the quality of education for the student? and
4. What kind of response does YRE elicit from the families, the
communities, the administrators and the teachers involved?
Does YRE Save Money?
The question of whether or not year-round schools can save money
is one of primary interest to many school districts and communities.
Unfortunately, the answer is not clear. The costs involved in YRE are
centered in three areas: capital outlay, operational costs, and transitional
expenses (Zykowski, Mitchell, Hough, & Gavin, 1991).2
^The California legislature has additionally implemented a financial
incentive program to encourage schools and districts to implement year-
round calendars.

35
Capital outlay. The public perception of school buildings sitting
empty and unused for three months each summer is often an impetus for
year-round education. If, theoretically, the building were used to its
capacity, then fewer new school buildings would be needed and classrooms
would no longer be overcrowded. This is the reasoning behind the
development of the multi-track calendar: by staggering the vacation periods
of groups of students, more students can use the same school facilities over
the course of the year (Brekke, 1990).
There are many different designs of year-round calendars. In
addition to the specific needs of the community, the amount of increased
capacity that each design enables is often an important consideration in
selecting a calendar. Glines (1990b) reports that building capacity can be
increased by 25 to 50 percent, depending on the multi-track calendar used.
Table 1 demonstrates some typical calendars used in Florida schools and
the benefit they bring in terms of building use.
If more students can be housed in the same school facilities, then
theoretically fewer new buildings are needed and costs are lowered. The
actual cost savings only occur in situations where the tracks are equally
divided by population and in situations of overcrowding (Brekke, 1984;
Rasberry, 1992). Otherwise, year-round programs can sometimes appear
to cost more than traditional calendars, especially if attendance by track is
not mandated and the program is voluntary (Thomas, 1970).
Operating costs. Many school administrators are disappointed when
they discover that operating costs for the school do not appear to decrease
with the implementation of year-round calendars. Often these
administrators seem to have failed to realize that the actual per student cost

36
Table 1
Increases in Building Capacity by Calendar Design
Calendar
45-15 (3-track)
45-15 (5-track)
60-15 (2-track)
60-15 (5-track)
Concept Six
Quinmester
Four Quarter
Percent Increase
50
25
No increase3
25
50
25
25
has gone down, but that far more students are being housed within the same
facility.
Reports vary on per student savings. Jefferson County, Colorado,
found a per pupil per year cost savings of 74 cents in sick and personal
leave costs (White, 1987). Virginia Beach, Virginia, calculated an $8 per
student savings—and later abandoned the year-round program due to the
minimal savings (Sincoff & Reid, cited in Merino, 1983). McLain (1973),
preparing an economic analysis based on national average expenditures,
^Unless they operate on a double-shift schedule, two-track schools do not
increase school capacity, because there are many days when both tracks are
on campus at the same time. The main reason for having a two-track
calendar is in preparation for future overcrowding when more tracks
would be implemented.

37
estimated a possible per pupil savings of $3.83 to a possible per pupil
increase of $26.05. Gove, Assistant Superintendent of the Valley View
School District (Illinois), speaking at the House of Representatives before
the General Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education
and Labor, reported that his district expected to save from 2 to 4 percent
on the total educational cost per child (House Committee on Education and
Labor, 1972). Palm Beach County (Florida) estimated a savings of
$645,000 a year “even with slightly higher operating costs” (Gienger,
1994, p. IB). Clay County (Florida) abandoned their year-round program
in 1994 and cited a savings of “$90,000 in eliminating the modified
calendar” (Fields, 1994, p. 1).
Some specific cost changes that are involved include more for
janitorial and clerical help (unless those positions were already 12-month
allocations) and less for textbooks and nonconsumables. Theoretically
teacher salaries would remain constant, although the availability of
certified teachers to serve as substitutes would create an increase in
substitute pay. In addition, “multi-track year-round schools are often
associated with lower socioeconomic level neighborhoods because these
neighborhoods also tend to be overcrowded. Such schools should have
greater than average representation of resource personnel” (Quinlan &
George, 1987, p. 55).
McLain (1973) reports that no additional administrative costs would
be involved as administrators generally work all year anyway. Many
Florida situations, however, have found that assigning one Assistant
Principal to each track is much more successful than having the entire
administrative staff attempt to manage all the tracks.

38
Obviously there is no easy way to predict cost increases or savings
because accurate records are not always kept on new programs in view of
the many ‘hidden’ costs involved. After Jefferson County (Colorado)
ended their year-round program, district leaders were dismayed to
discover unreported savings in operating costs that were not apparent until
the district built new schools and went back to the traditional calendar
(White, 1991). Another study (Hough, Zykowski & Dick, 1990) found that
the school district could always expect to save money by using a year-
round calendar, but that the state and taxpayer could either get savings or
extra costs.
Transitional expenses. Although changes in operating costs can be
difficult to trace, the expenses involved in changing from the traditional
calendar to a year-round calendar are easier to identify. Some areas have
found it difficult to operate in the summer without adding air conditioners
to the school plant (Perry, 1991). Many districts spend large sums of
money in polling parents and community leaders (Gienger, 1994) and later
in keeping them involved in the development process. Palm Beach County
“voted to hire an independent consultant to conduct a public survey on the
popularity of year-round education. The cost of such a poll has been
estimated to be as high as $25,000” (King, 1994a). Some calendar designs
involve massive curricular restructuring and have many expenses involved
in hiring teachers and other specialists to create the new courses that will
be used (Todd, 1973).
Synthesis on cost savings. Although it is not always easy to identify
the exact dollars being saved or spent, it is clear that in most situations
year-round calendars can save money—at least at the district level. Cost

39
savings alone are not a sufficient reason to implement a modified calendar,
although there is evidence that year-round schools do save more money
after the first year (Fardig, 1992). If schools are dramatically
overcrowded, year-round scheduling does save money by eliminating the
need for additional schools to be built. No studies have been conducted on
whether or not this increased usage causes the buildings to wear out faster,
and “most, if not all, studies have failed to consider... the greatly increased
cost factors of inflation in construction costs and rising interest rates”
(Young & Berger, 1983, p. 54).
Does YRE Improve Student Achievement?
The National Association for Year-Round Education publication, A
Review of Recent Studies Relating to the Achievement of Students Enrolled
in Year-Round Education Programs (1993), outlines the results of thirteen
studies published since 1985 and noted that “there hasn’t been a great deal
of research activity in this area” and attributes that to shrinking educational
budgets and the fact that “there may not be a felt need for the information
if school districts are satisfied that year-round programs generally are
accomplishing the purposes for which they were implemented” (p. 4).
The data on student achievement in year-round schools are actually
as inconclusive as the results on cost saving. Many teachers and
administrators believe that by breaking up the long summer holiday into
short vacation periods throughout the year, students should learn better,
learn more easily, and retain more. The results from standardized tests do
not fully support that belief.
Positive results. Some research studies have produced statistically
significant results that year-round calendars aid student achievement. The

40
San Diego Unified School District completed in 1990 (cited in NAYRE,
1993) an 8-year study of students in grades 3, 5, and 6 that demonstrated a
higher percentage of year-round schools maintained or improved the
percent of students who scored above the 50th percentile on the
Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills than did their traditional calendar
counterparts. A study was conducted comparing the achievement results of
students in traditional and Orchard Plan schools in California (cited in
NAYRE, 1993) with a focus on both regular and disadvantaged students.
“In 16 of 34 comparisons, the year-round schools outperformed the
traditional schools; one comparison favored the traditional schools” (p. 13).
Marr (1990) found a positive effect on second grade students from a low
socioeconomic situation in reading that was not seen in students from a
higher socioeconomic situation.
No difference or inconclusive. Not all the test results have indicated
a positive result of statistical significance. An internal evaluation for the
California State Department of Education comparing multi-track, single-
track, and traditional calendar schools found that the single-track schools
did better than the traditional, but the multi-track did worse (cited in
NAYRE, 1993). Fardig (1992) reported that student achievement was not
negatively affected in the Orange County (Florida) year-round schools. A
similar first year evaluation on the year-round schools of Provo City,
Utah, revealed no clear-cut gain in standardized test scores, but they did
not reveal any loss either (Van Mondfrans, Quinn, Moody & Aslott, 1985).
Negative results. Overall, year-round education has not been seen to
have a negative impact on student achievement in complete studies, but
there is some evidence of problems for certain subgroups. Two doctoral

41
research projects (Johnson, 1985; Kuner-Roth, 1986) have found evidence
indicating that females score higher than males in traditional calendar
schools, but that they scored significantly lower in year-round schools.
Research conducted by Quinlan, George, and Emmett has revealed
that students in multi-track schools perform below traditional calendar
schools in reading and mathematics (cited in NAYRE, 1993). Stimson
(1992) attributes part of this problem to the urban culture that most multi¬
track schools are found in and the large number of ‘combination’ classes of
more than one grade level in a classroom that uneven scheduling often
creates.
Disadvantaged students. Speaking before the National Council on
Year-Round Education, Ballinger (1985) reported that year-round schools
are particularly effective for disadvantaged students. Many of the earliest
year-round and extended year schools had been established to benefit the
immigrant students needing to learn a new language and culture. The
situation in some areas of the country is similar today.
Doctoral research by Miranda (1993) found that year-round limited
English proficient (LEP) students had significantly better attendance, grade
point averages, and oral language acquisition than LEP students in
traditional schools. Bishop (cited in Alcorn, 1992) notes that the pace of
learning drops off considerably during the summer months and that this is
particularly hard on disadvantaged students who go home to an often
unstimulating home environment (Oxnard School District, 1992). By
breaking up the long summer vacation, the students lose less ground before
picking up their studies again.

42
Year-round calendars offer another benefit to schools with large
migrant populations. States with unusually warm climates often have
harvest seasons in months other than summer. Oxnard School District
(1992) found that “3-5% of the District’s student population—primarily
children of migrant farm-workers—will leave Oxnard ... for a period of
four to six weeks” during the months of December and January (p. 31).
Year-round education not only met the immediate needs of these families,
but it also enabled many of these students to remain in school.
Gifted and talented students. The effects of year-round scheduling
on gifted and talented students showed that the scores for these high
achieving students remained constant throughout the year in year-round
situations, as opposed to the sharp rise at mid-term and dramatic drop in
scores at the end of the year for similar students in traditional schools
(Ritter, 1992). At the end of the year the difference in the scores between
the groups was not significant.
Dropouts and failures. One often unanticipated result of year-round
calendars is a lowering of the dropout and failure rate. Jefferson County
(Colorado), found that many students returned during their vacation terms
to take extra classes. “This virtually eliminated the dropout problem at the
high school” (White, 1988, p. 106) as the dropout rate was reduced from 5
percent to 2 percent of the official enrollment after they went to a year-
round schedule (White, 1987). The Newark, New Jersey, experiment in
1912 “found that these schools—in an industrial, low-income area—
graduated 22 percent more students than their nine-month counterparts”
(Engh, 1966, p. 142).

43
Retention. Research evidence to support the belief that students
retain more during shorter, more frequent vacation periods is not clear.
The ‘gut reaction’ of teachers, however, is that students come back ready to
learn and generally pick up right where they left off, with much less time
spent reviewing.
Synopsis on student achievement. An interesting correlation between
year-round education and student achievement is the fact that those who
benefit most from modified calendars are often those who need the most
help. YRE does not appear to be beneficial for girls, but there is no clear
evidence as to why that is true. In spite of the inconclusive evidence,
educational reasoning supports the principle of ‘spaced practice’ that is
demonstrated in many year-round calendars.
Does YRE Improve the Quality of Education?
In examining the components of a quality experience in education,
four factors, each influenced by the year-round calendar, were chosen:
attendance, morale, discipline, and the intersession experiences, as well as a
look at some unexpected benefits.
Attendance. As with most research on year-round schools, the
results are not always clear on the question of whether or not attendance by
students and teachers is improved by the year-round calendar design. Most
research indicates that attendance is better (Ballinger, 1987; Loyd, 1992).
White (1987) reported that attendance at the elementary and senior high
level improved the first year of the new calendar and that the difference
was due to the flexible possibilities of the scheduling. Brekke (1984) found
a 1.1 percent drop in excused absence rate and a 0.1 percent drop in the

44
unexcused absences when comparing traditional calendars and year-round
schools.
Teacher attendance is also improved because the frequent breaks ease
the perceived need for ‘mental health days.’ Observers have noticed “much
less teacher fatigue and burnout and that when people can see the ‘light at
the end of the tunnel,’ they tend to keep going to the end of the term”
(Quinlan & George, 1987, p. 84). The savings created solely by these
teachers being in school and not having to hire substitute teachers was
found to be a per pupil cost savings of 74 cents (White, 1987).
Not all the research supports this increase in attendance, however.
Starr-Hearn (1982) found that the implementation of a year-round schedule
did not significantly affect the absences of teachers or students. Both were
still more often absent on Mondays and Fridays. A Duval County multi¬
track music teacher reported that attendance had not improved and that
parents took their students out for extended trips at will, with little regard
for the planned holiday weeks.
Morale. Although little research has been conducted on the question
of improved morale, many teachers report that the increased vacation
frequency and the reduction of overcrowding in the classrooms has
resulted in an improved sense of teacher and student morale (Webster &
Nyberg, 1992). Studies on the year-round programs in California cite
“high satisfaction with both the duration and frequency of vacations. Many
felt that the year-round calendar provided relief from stress and that year-
round teachers were not as subject to burnout as their counterparts in
traditional programs” (Quinlan & George, 1987, p. 88).

45
A Florida district music supervisor stated that if the teachers say they
come back to more enthusiastic and refreshed classes, that that ‘says a lot.’
“Anything that improves teacher fatigue improves academics.” Those who
were less enthusiastic with the new vacation schedule cited problems such
as the inability to take extended vacations, or attend summer school, and
found the frequent starting and stopping to be disruptive.
Another important factor in teacher morale provided for by year-
round education is the possibility of longer teaching contracts and
opportunities for substitute work during the intersessions and other off¬
track times. For most teachers, this is viewed as an easy opportunity to
increase their salary without taking an out-of-field summer job. For
teachers (including many music teachers) who do not have a choice in the
matter, and who are required to teach the full year (with extra pay), the
lack of freedom and the lack of choice can make this problematic.
Discipline. The few sources that mention research on student
discipline report that discipline is improved in year-round schools (Loyd,
1991; Webster & Nyberg, 1992). This is probably due, at least to some
extent, to an improved sense of morale on the part of the teachers and
students. School vandalism and burglary is reduced (Brekke, 1984;
Oxnard School District, 1990) and juvenile crime is lessened (Richmond,
1977) partly by the absence of long periods with little to do, and partly by
splitting up the numbers of students that are out of school at any given
time.
Intersession opportunities. According to some educators, the
strength of the year-round school concept is the tremendous possibility of
the intersession opportunities. Schools operating with shorter periods

46
between school terms (generally three weeks) are often able to offer one-
to two-week intersessions for remediation and/or enrichment. As of this
writing no research has been found that focuses on these intersession
opportunities. The flexibility germane to year-round education means that
schools have the freedom to offer whatever best meets the needs of that
community. Because these short ‘holidays’ are actually the students’
vacations, many schools set up programs designed for fun and enrichment.
A Duval County elementary school offered a ‘fun track’ at the school that
included such activities as crafts, folk dancing, puppet shows, making
commercials, field trips, and other opportunities for students to be
refreshed during their vacation time while still meeting a child-care need
for the parents.
For students needing remediation, the intersessions are a good
opportunity for problems to be handled before they cost the student an
entire year’s work. Students who are having trouble can be held back one
term without losing an entire year (Engh, 1966). Many times, however, by
addressing the need right then with some concentrated remedial work, as
opposed to waiting until summer school at the end of the traditional year,
the student can be put back on track and continue on with their class.
Unexpected benefits. Hermansen and Gove, both pioneers in the
development of the 45-15 Valley View Year-Round School Plan, suggest
some ‘unexpected benefits’ to year-round calendars:
1. Expect to reduce teacher turnover. Your better paid teachers, in
particular, will stick with you.
2. Expect learning retention to improve. That’s the opinion of 70
percent of the teachers in the first three grades of the Valley View
schools, after five months of experience with the 45-15 plan.

47
3. Expect more flexibility in individualized instruction. Teachers
will be willing to hold up slow learners for 45 days, when they
might be unwilling to set children back a full year. Likewise,
teachers will be willing to accelerate rapid learners by 45 to 90 days,
when they might be unwilling to move children ahead by a full year.
The time gained can always be devoted to further enrichment of the
‘gifted’ students.
4. Don’t expect to save money on teachers’ salaries. Teachers will
expect that they get paid at the same daily rate for winter and
summer.
5. Don’t expect spectacular savings in year-round operating costs.
Some costs will go up; some down. The big saving, of course, is the
cost of building and financing the new school buildings you will not
need. Also expect to make savings in the salaries of the extra
administrators, secretaries, nurses, and custodians to staff the
buildings you do not build.
6. Expect that teachers may at first mistrust your motives in
considering calendar revision. Level with them. Let them know that
they will be paid at their full daily rate during the summer months,
and that their retirement-pension benefits will be increased
proportionately to their extra earnings.
7. Iron out any differences you may have with your teachers’
organizations before you undertake a calendar revision program.
Don’t let any old grievances muddy the waters.
8. Expect better utilization of libraries, books and equipment; but
expect greater wear on books. Most of them will be outdated before
they are worn out, anyhow.
9. Expect total transportation costs, including maintenance costs, to
increase. But busing costs per pupil may decline. Bus drivers will
generally be paid one third more money each year. Depreciation of
vehicles is a factor of age, not mileage.
10. Expect no serious difficulties with maintaining school buildings
under a year-round program. After all, hospitals stay open 24 hours
a day, seven days a week, 52 weeks out of the year. And they’re
generally cleaner than schools. In addition to afternoons and
evenings for scheduled maintenance work, there are still three
significant periods of time when no children or teachers will be
present (Christmas, Easter, and the end of June) in which major
maintenance work can be performed.
11. Make your year-round school plan compulsory; but make minor
concessions in scheduling to fit the vacation plan of individual

48
families. Only 24 families out of 6,000 requested a change in group
calendar assignments at Valley View.
12. Be sure that all of the children in one family belong to the same
group and that they attend school on the same days. Do the same for
all of the children in a single neighborhood. It keeps schoolmates
together, and it makes it easier for parents to trade off baby sitting
chores.
13. Finally, let the school calendar revision plan stand on its own
feet. Even though you may foresee some curriculum changes, don’t
tie the school calendar change up to teacher negotiations, a new
education program, tax referendums, or school board elections.
(pp. 145-146) [Reprinted with permission of the copyright holder]
Public Response to YRE
The response of the families, communities, administrators, and
teachers involved is an important consideration in regard to implementing
and succeeding with year-round education. The change to a year-round
calendar is a change that can impact every aspect of that community.
Those who are closest to the situation and those who are ‘loudest’ tend to
have their needs addressed in planning and providing for year-round
schools.
Administrators and YRE. Several doctoral research projects have
been conducted on the changes that year-round education brings to school
administrators, principals in particular. Lawson (1981) found that year-
round principals feel that they have more work required, and they view
their year-round roles as more managerial than as an instructional leader.
Although a majority of the principals in this study supported the idea of
year-round education, half said they would be willing to return to a
traditional calendar. Winger (1992) also found principals concerned about
the managerial role they had been moved into, but also found that the

49
principals were aware of the benefits year-round education had for students
and teachers and considered these benefits to be worth their extra efforts.
Mussatti (1981) polled principals and found that their greatest area
of concern about year-round education was administration and scheduling.
McBryde (1989) studied the comparative burnout factors between year-
round and traditional principals and found that year-round administrators
had significantly lower burnout scores than their counterparts in traditional
schools. Another study by French (1992) found similar results: year-round
calendars do not lead to higher principal burnout.
Other states have been less successful. Jefferson County (Colorado)
Schools abandoned their 14 years in year-round education, citing
administrator burnout as one of the key factors (White, 1992). The title of
a study by Goldman (1990), perhaps best describes principals working with
modified calendars. His study, entitled “Life’s a Non-Stop Carousel for
Year-Round Principals,” profiles administrators and points out the problem
of having no time for any long-term planning.
Classroom teachers. Studies on the attitudes and responses of
classroom teachers to year-round education are relatively uniform in their
results: teachers do not usually like the idea of changing to a year-round
calendar (Hoffman, Wallace & Reglin, 1991), but once they have made the
change they prefer the modified calendar to the traditional September-to-
June system (Smith, 1986).
From a professional perspective, teachers recognize that the students
learned more and were less fatigued and more enthusiastic about school
(Christie, 1989). The evaluation report on the Wake County Public School
System (Serow, 1992) found that 97 percent of teachers viewed YRE as a

50
better means of meeting the needs of children than traditional calendars.
After one year of year-round education, 100 percent of the teachers
involved in the Provo City School District (Utah) thought that YRE should
be continued (Van Mondfrans et al., 1985).
On the personal level, teachers who work on specific tracks like the
frequent breaks (Sturdy, 1993); extended contract teachers like the extra
pay. Sturdy also found that the specific track assignment made a difference
in the perceived benefit for the teacher.
Families: Parents and students. One of the surest ways to kill a year-
round program before it has even begun is to send out a survey and ask the
community if they want a year-round school (Hermansen & Gove, 1971).
In those school systems that proceed with the plan, however, the parents
and students involved tend to be very pleased and supportive of the year-
round calendar (Quinlan & George, 1987; Smith, 1986; Utah, 1989) on the
condition that family and neighborhood groups are tracked together (Hill,
1980). Most concerns on the part of parents include the fear of change,
inability to have a family vacation, sufficient child-care, and what to do
with off-track children (Hawkins, 1992).
Community response. Many unsuccessful year-round programs had
their demise guaranteed by a lack of response on the part of the community
surrounding the schools. Changing the school calendar has a fundamental
affect on the life of the community. Those communities who fail to adjust
to meet the new needs create undue hardship for the families involved.
Many districts require teachers to take college courses every few
years for continued certification. A 1966 study (Engh) cited that only 10
to 15 percent of teachers use the summer to go back to college but a year-

51
round calendar would probably complicate that possibility. Obviously
colleges and universities will need to make changes in their course
offerings and schedules to meet the needs of their perspective clientele.
The American Camping Association held a symposium on year-
round school lamenting the loss of the ‘great American summer camp’
(Popkin, 1990). Trotter (1990) spoke at the same conference on “how not
to be a victim of change and find opportunity in the future” (p. 49).
Sending children off for three months of summer camp may no longer be
an option with year-round calendars but shorter camping opportunities
scattered throughout the year may make the experience assessable to even
more children than before.
One parent involved in the Palm Beach County (Florida) Concept Six
experiment (four-months on/two-months off) in the mid-1970s reported
that her children had the months of January and February off (after a
several-week Christmas holiday) and there was nothing that she could do
with them during those months. The school provided no child-care and
nothing extra was planned for the students. She felt that her children could
not even participate in school activities because they were ‘off-track’
students.
Child-care for off-track students is a major concern for parents.
Even with schools that provide intersession child-care activities, teachers
report that children need to get away from the school buildings for at least
part of the year.
A study was done in Virginia Beach, Virginia, on the community
services affected by a change to year-round calendars (MacDonald &
Anderson, 1974) found that most of the community agencies had modified

52
their programs to meet the needs of the year-round students. Few
provisions, however, had been made for organized or supervised
playground activities for off-track students. Society is ‘used’ to students
being off and playing in the summer. Changing that perspective to see and
provide for students all year long may be a difficult but not insurmountable
task.
Helping YRE succeed with the public. Districts considering the
change to year-round education are well advised to consider the reports of
those who have tried and failed as well as those who have succeeded. Most
studies suggest involving all parties, including parents, in every step of the
process (Hermansen & Gove, 1971; Oxnard School District, 1990; Peltier,
1991).
Another suggestion is to keep the program flexible enough to truly
meet the needs of the students, teachers, and community. E. Trimis, a band
director in California, wrote “I believe the major contributing factors to
the success of the program have been strong administrative support,
successful working of the year-round schedule, and freedom to design the
program the way I want to” (personal communication, February 9, 1994).
After watching the successful 14-year year-round program
abandoned in Jefferson County, Colorado, White made the following
suggestions to help make YRE work: preserve neighborhood schools,
decide what YRE means to your district, assign administrators carefully,
beware of the appeal of new construction, develop the district calendar
around instruction, and evaluate carefully (1992).

53
How to kill a year-round program. Hermansen and Gove (1971)
offered a (somewhat) tongue-in-cheek list of suggestions entitled “how to
kill a year-round school plan,”
1. Send out a community questionnaire, asking the people, “Do you
want a year-round school?” They’ll tell you, “No!”
2. Form a large study committee of lay people, and study the
problem to death. (This was the experience of Jefferson County
schools, in the suburbs of Louisville, Kentucky.)
3. Attempt calendar revision with a board that is strongly divided—
some for the year-round school; some against it; and some with no
commitment. Batter the problem to death in open school board
meetings.
4. Go to Atlanta, Georgia, and come back with the finding, “Year-
round school cost $2 million a year to operate, and our district can’t
afford it!” (Atlanta schools and Fulton County schools, in Georgia,
offer an extended school year, with fifteen extra weeks of classes,
which are attended by about one third of the students. The Atlanta
plan has little chance of adoption in any areas where the public is not
committed to spending “more money” on schools, not less.) (p. 144-
145) [Reprinted with permission of the copyright holder]
Although intended to be humorous, this list probably accurately describes
the experiences of many unsuccessful year-round programs.
Sources on Music and Year-Round Education
Although there is much literature available on the topic of year-
round education in general, there is very little on music in year-round
education. This paucity of references can perhaps be attributed to the
following: music teachers are a tiny minority in the big picture of
education, the problems facing music teachers are not the same as those in
other subjects, and, due to the ‘public performance’ nature of their subject,
music teachers tend to do whatever it takes to make their programs

54
succeed. Therefore, they are generally too busy to write articles about
what is happening in their classrooms.
The few sources that are available can be grouped into three
categories: articles by and about music teachers, handouts and references
from music conferences, and sources that mention music in passing. This
section is an overview of these references. Further information from these
music sources is included in Chapter V in conjunction with the exploratory
investigations and interviews.
References by Music Teachers
Campbell: Jefferson County, CO. Three articles have been written
on the topic of music in year-round education by actual music educators.
Campbell, music coordinator for the Jefferson County School District
(Colorado), wrote an article in 1975 published in the Music Educators
Journal (MEJ) entitled “The Year-Round School: Implications for the
Music Program.” The Jefferson County Concept Six calendar was
described as having affected the music programs both positively and
negatively. The non-performance music classes fit very well into the
“quarterized curriculum approach” (p. 54). The performance classes did
not fare as well. Specific problems faced by ensemble directors as well as
suggestions on how to help the programs succeed were presented.
Trimis: Los Angeles. CA. Trimis, a multi-track high school band
and choral director in California, wrote an article for MEJ in 1990 entitled
“Can Year-Round Scheduling Work for Your Program?” Trimis, a
member of the California Music Educators Association Task Force on
Year-Round Education, is an outspoken proponent for the possibilities of
music in year-round education. His article is a description of his program

55
with advice on ‘rainbowing’ students into classes and ensembles by ability
level rather than simply by track. In 1991 he was transferred to
Huntington Park High School and faced a music program “on the brink of
extinction” (Berg, 1993). His enthusiasm has resulted in growth from “30
to 470 singers and musicians” (Berg 1994) and the development of a
“music major” for students anticipating studying music in college.
Steuart: Zephyrhills, FL. Steuart, band director at Zephyrhills High
School, wrote an article for the Florida Music Director, in 1993, entitled
“The Band and the Year-Round School.” This is a report on the Pasco
County, FL, 45-15 calendar and lists the advantages and disadvantages of
year-round scheduling for bands. The advantages that Steuart mentions
include: increased pay, the opportunity to play all year, and summer band
trips. The disadvantages include not having the entire band together,
performances, calling extra rehearsals, and teacher burn-out. He concludes
his article with a list of five recommendations for success in music in year-
round schools:
1. Develop dedicated students who are willing to give up a part of
their vacation time for the good of the organization.
2. Allow students access to the band room at any time during the
school day for those on vacation to come in and practice and
rehearse. There will be a few who will almost live in the band
room. They can be of real assistance in helping the younger players.
3. Hold at least one rehearsal in the evening before a scheduled
event, to allow students who work during vacation to participate.
Maintain a positive reward system to give those students who come
during vacation extra incentive. This reward could take a variety of
forms such as a bonus grade when they return to class.
4. Assess your enrollment according to tracks and try to schedule
your concerts when the largest number of students are available.
This suggestion also applies to fund-raising and other events that you
may schedule.

56
5. Be understanding of students who are caught in a bind when their
parents insist they go out of town while on vacation. It doesn’t
improve matters to penalize the students for a situation they cannot
avoid, even if it goes against the principle of “everybody-must-be-
present-or-else.” As long as the students are treated fairly about
their vacation times, they are willing to try to meet the needs of the
band. (p. 39)
CMEA Task Force. The California Music Educators Task Force on
Year-Round Education is made up of music teachers and supervisors who
are actively involved in helping music education in California’s year-round
schools. In 1991 they published a resource packet that included a section
on definitions and sample schedules, interviews with five successful year-
round music teachers, reprints of two articles, as well as an in-depth report
on the music programs in two California school districts.
References from Music Conferences
Often in response to the practical needs of local music teachers,
many districts and state associations have begun sponsoring ‘support
sessions’ or seminars for year-round music teachers at conferences.
Handouts from several of these sessions were obtained and used as
references in this study.
NAYRE: 1990. In 1990 a group of teachers from Duval County,
FL, attended the national conference of the NAYRE in San Diego, CA. S.
G. Teachey, a Duval elementary music teacher, prepared a report from the
conference sessions and included reprints of two articles on Florida year-
round education.
FMEA: 1991. The 1991 meeting of the Florida Music Educators
Association in Tampa, FL, included several sessions on music in year-
round education presented by D. Locker, Program Consultant for Year-

57
Round Education, and A. L. Willett, Department of Education, Program
Development and Analysis. Handouts from these presentations included
reports on successful music programs in other states, sample schedules, and
suggestions for teachers in special areas (music, art, P.E., and gifted).
CMEA: 1994. The California Music Educators Association
Conference in Santa Clara, CA, in March, 1994 (D. Doyle, conference
coordinator), distributed a handout that included the pros and cons of
different year-round calendars for music, as well as the results of an
interview with two year-round music teachers. The interviews included
questions on scheduling, problems faced, facilities and equipment, stress,
and changes in teaching strategies.
Music as a Subtopic
Several articles and books have made passing references to music in
their discussion of year-round education. A report by the California
Department of Education (Quinlan & George, 1987) mentions that
instrumental students are often invited to come back while they are off¬
track to attend rehearsals and performances. The same advice is given in
Thomas (1973). Webster and Nyberg (1992) say the same thing, although
they admit that this can be problematic at times because “off-track students
can be out of town during an important performance” (p. 24). Schmieder
and Townley (1992) advocate the possibility of students involved in team
activities while off-track so that they do not have the distractions of regular
school work. This article does not cite music specifically, but it does
mention other co-curricular activities such as athletics, Spanish club, and
the yearbook staff.

58
Haney (1990), superintendent of the Hesperia Unified School District
(CA), wrote an article on some of the extra-curricular concerns of teachers
and families facing year-round education entitled “What About My
Summer Vacation?” Ultimately his advice for music teachers was “to look
at music programs in non-traditional ways” and to do more concerts a year
to reflect the new calendar design (p. 56).
V. F. Neal, a Florida teacher, wrote a doctoral dissertation (1978) on
Jupiter (Palm Beach County, Florida) High School’s Concept Six
experiment in which one of her focuses was student attendance in extra¬
curricular activities. She found that there was a significant improvement in
the percentage of students participating in school clubs but that there were
some distinct problems with operating the music program on the Concept
Six calendar.

CHAPTER III
A BRIEF HISTORY OF YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION IN FLORIDA
Florida has had a special place in the history of the year-round
education movement. Although California has both the largest number of
students and schools on year-round calendars, Florida has consistently been
involved in the leadership of the movement, and later in the formal
organization of a Council and then an Association for year-round
education. The first president of the National Conference on Year-Round
Education (NCYRE), Wayne White, was a Florida educator. One of the
first NCYRE conferences was held in Brevard County, Florida. In 1996
the group plans to return to Orlando for their national conference.
One of the reasons for Florida’s strong connection with year-round
education is the balmy Florida weather. Not only is the climate an
enticement to many new residents, thereby creating overcrowding
problems in many Florida school districts, but the lack of cold winter
weather means that parents tend to be less negative about ‘winter holidays’
for their children.1
*The early experiments in year-round scheduling focused on a four-quarter
design where, theoretically, one-fourth of the students would always be
off-campus. In reality, the four-quarter design was not successful because
parents in the cold weather states where this was first being implemented
objected to their children being home on vacation during the entire winter.
Because of the parental objections, it was never possible to divide the
school population evenly over the four quarters. The cost savings were
never realized and the educational offerings were uneven.
59

60
Earliest Beginnings
The concept of a year around school program in Florida began in
1947, with a legislative act “that provided for the employment of one of
every eight teachers during the eleventh and twelfth months. These teacher
units were to be used almost entirely for enriching educational experiences
for young people” (Williamson, 1969, p. 12). These voluntary programs
offered such courses as swimming, crafts, music, camping, reading, typing,
science, and sports. In 1957 more than 45% of Florida’s school children
participated in summer enrichment programs (Bailey & Maynard, 1958),
which was the first in the nation to be offered on a statewide basis.
At the same time (1957), the Florida Department of Education
(FDOE) conducted a feasibility study on the possibility of running Florida
schools on a four-quarter, twelve-month program (“Early Study,” 1969;
Crenshaw, 1969). The study determined that no money would be saved
and that additional problems would be created with regard to school
upkeep, disruption of family lifestyles, and difficulty in scheduling. The
FDOE concluded that “year-round use as a means of avoiding the cost of
constructing new schools is a delusion. The plan just doesn’t work well.
Significantly, every school system that has tried it has abandoned it” (p.
15). T. D. Bailey, Superintendent of Education for Florida, also reported
that year-round education was a poor choice because different grade levels
would have to be combined within classrooms, in addition to many
increased costs (“Florida Says ‘No,’” 1957).

61
Innovative Governmental Leadership
Enhancing Curriculum
In spite of the lack of support for the four-quarter calendar,
educational leaders in Florida were still interested in improving the
curriculum and educational opportunities through calendar improvement
(Christian, 1970). “The legislature enacted permissive legislation to allow
districts to develop year-round educational programs. The intent of this
legislation was to encourage innovation” (Neal, 1978, p. 47).
Improving Overcrowding
The Florida legislature was also interested in alternative ways to deal
with the overcrowding that was anticipated in the public schools. The
major source of funding for new school construction in Florida is the
Public Education Capital Outlay, better known as PECO. A 1990 study by
the Florida Department of Education (cited in Nelson, Morrell, & Howard,
1993, p. 9) estimated that “Florida would need the equivalent of 9 new high
schools, 74 new middle schools, and 397 new elementary school by 1992-
93. Over the next 20 years, Florida will need more than 600 new schools
at today’s cost of $9 billion.” The PECO funds, at that time, were only
expected to be able to provide “8 percent of the need in K-12 by 1992-93”
(P-9).
During his 1990 gubernatorial campaign, Florida Governor Lawton
Chiles was an outspoken proponent for year-round education in Florida.
He was quoted in the St. Petersburg Times (cited in Nelson et al., 1993, p.
45) as saying, “We’re not doing this to save money; we’re doing it because
we can save up to 25 percent of classroom space and we can provide a
better education, which is the important thing.”

62
Legislative Acts
Blueprint 2000. Blueprint 2000, the 1991 Florida legislative
response to the national educational plan, America 2000, was also
encouraging to year-round education. This plan called for individual
school accountability and offered “new stimulus to districts to bring
innovative practices to their school improvement plans” (cited in Nelson et
al., 1993, p. 45).
Increased Utilization Account. Two additional 1990 legislative acts
provided financial incentive programs for Florida schools to use year-
round calendars. The Increased Utilization Account (s. 235.435(5),
Florida Statutes), begun in 1992, rewarded schools that increased their
school usage without overcrowding or double sessions. “To receive funds
from the account, a school must increase its FTE student capacity by at
least 20 percent as a result of using a modified school calendar” (Nelson et
al., 1993, p. 46). In 1992-93, the first year of the program, “each school
district qualifying for funding under the account may be paid up to
$100.00 per FTE student per eligible school site for a maximum of five
years for each eligible school provided the funds are available” (Nelson et
al., 1993, p. 111).
Maximum Utilization Fund. The 1990 legislature also created the
Maximum Utilization Fund by earmarking $1.5 million for “renovations
for existing schools that need remodeling in order to make the transition to
a year-round program” (Nelson et al., 1993, p.46). Schools that received

63
money from this fund had to have the renovation work completed by the
first day of the year-round schedule.2
Early Calendar Innovations
Two innovative programs were developed during the early 1960s
that incorporated modified calendars to improve educational opportunities,
and, in one case, increase enrollment capacity. Each of these programs
used extended year calendars that increased the number of days that
students were in school.
Nova Schools. In 1962 the Nova Schools in Ft. Lauderdale
(Broward County) created a non-graded trimester calendar in which
students could work at their own rate (Neal, 1978). The school year was
extended to 200 days for elementary students, and 210 days for secondary
students (Smith, 1969) enabling them to take more classes at a slower pace
over the course of the year. The Nova program only ran for three years
and was unsuccessful in increasing building use, because the schools were
unable “to get reasonably balanced tracks through voluntary sign-ups”
(Neal, 1978, p. 24). The Nova administrators concluded that mandated
attendance tracks were the only way to make a significant increase in
building capacity.
Florida State University School. Also in 1962, the Florida State
University’s Department of Education University School conducted a five-
year pilot study with a similar 225-day school year organized into
^The legislative funds cited here are very similar to the incentive monies
allocated by the California lawmakers to schools operating on year-round
calendars. Unfortunately the funding was stopped in 1994.

64
trimesters. The extended school year enabled students to take enrichment
classes and/or accelerate their course work and graduate earlier.
Looking Ahead and Preparing for the Future
Polk County Feasibility Study
In 1965, S. Boone, Superintendent on Public Instruction of Polk
County, contacted the Florida Educational Research and Development
Council (FERDC) to ask them to conduct a feasibility study of year-round
schools for Polk County (Lakeland). The study was completed and
published in 1966, and included a brief survey of the available literature, a
study of the attitudes of all those involved, particulars on the Polk County
school situation, and a summary and recommendation on each of the
feasible plans (White, Johns, Kimbrough, & Myers, 1966). The Council
concluded that
• No plan of staggering the school term will save money, and such
plans are likely to lower the quality of education. Parental
opposition is inevitable.
• The only feasible all-year school plans developed for reducing costs
involve all pupils attending for an extended school year, and
acceleration of pupils to reduce enrollment.
• Any type of all-year operation of schools would require air-
conditioning of all schools.
• Any type of all-year school or summer program must be provided
by taxation, not fees (FERDC Study, 1969, p. 15).
In recommending a year-round calendar to the Polk County
administrators, the Council also concluded that, if the county did not wish
to make major changes in their curriculum or administration, the
recommended plan would be to add either a voluntary or compulsory (for
failed courses) summer school program. If, on the other hand, the county
was willing to make major changes to improve the quality of education,

65
with some additional costs, the recommended plan would be an extended
year of 210 days for all students (White et all., 1966). Ultimately, Polk
County chose to try none of the plans at that time.
Orange County Planning
Orange County realized that it too would be unprepared for the
rapid growth of the Orlando area and the barrage of students expected to
enter their school system within the next few years (Higginbotham, 1969).
Their long-range planning, done in 1969, identified the possibility of
double sessions, staggered year-round tracks, or summer terms for
acceleration with teachers and students strongly encouraged to participate.
No actions were taken at that time.
The Early 1970s
The Dade County Quinmester Plan
Calendar revision. In June, 1971, Dade County (Miami) began an
innovative and influential calendar plan, which became known as the “Dade
County Quinmester Plan.” The school year was divided into five nine-week
terms, or “quins,” and the student body was divided into five groups
(Todd, 1973). Each group attended four of the five quins with the option
of attended the fifth for remediation, enrichment, or acceleration. The
advantages of this calendar were that it would, theoretically, increase the
school capacity by 25%, and the calendar was not dramatically different
from the traditional school calendar (Neal, 1978).
Curricular revision. Perhaps the most striking aspect of the
Quinmester Plan was the need for a complete revision of the curricular
offerings (Christian 1970). To accomplish the curricular revision, Dade

66
County teachers spent a year preparing short-term, highly specialized
courses such as “Practical Statistics,” “The Power of Words,” “Living
Shakespeare,” “Bull and Bear: The Stock Market,” and “Eco-politics”
(Todd, 1973).
Teacher and state support. Two strengths of the program were the
fact that the teachers were highly involved in the entire process, and there
was state and local legislative funding to support the program. It is unclear
how long the program lasted, although the Dade School Board funded it
with $250,000 annually for three years (Christian, 1970).
Design problems. Among parents and teachers in Dade County,
there was a perception that the curriculum was too fragmented; there was
also a problem with ‘track-jumping’—students attending courses when they
were supposed to be off-track—which resulted in further overcrowding
rather than relieving that problem. Ultimately it was determined that,
although “the voluntary nature of a year-round program is necessary for
public acceptance, ... if a year-round program remains only voluntary,
then it cannot meet its goal of cost-effectiveness” (Nelson et al., 1993, p.
50).
NCYRE Conference in Florida
In 1971, the third annual conference of the National Council on
Year-Round Education was held in Florida, hosted by the Brevard County
School District, Florida Technological University and the Florida
Department of Education (Glines & Bingle, 1993). Wayne White, a leader
in the NCYRE, and a powerful advocate for year-round education, was
superintendent of schools in Brevard County at that time.

67
45-15 Comes to Florida
In the fall of 1973, Pasco County (Zephyrhills) became the first
district in the south and the largest district in the nation to adopt the 45-15
calendar plan (Ellena, 1974). It was also the only time in Florida history
when an entire school district went year-round at one time. This drastic
move was made to avoid double and triple sessions in some of the most
overcrowded schools, reduce the number of new schools needed, and
encourage curricular reform (Malone, 1974).
Insufficient preparation. There were 24 schools in Pasco County
(five high schools, two middle schools, three junior highs, and 14
elementary schools) at that time. In spite of the successes of the Dade
County teacher involvement, Pasco County apparently made the mistake of
not involving all those teachers in the planning process and insufficient
time in preparation (Berger, 1975; Nelson et al., 1993). As a result, the
disgruntled teachers were powerful and hostile antagonists against the
reform. “A teacher survey released by Pasco County Schools
Superintendent... shows that 88% of the responding teachers expressed
‘significant dissatisfaction’ with the 45-15 extended school year plan....
Over half the teachers (58%) favored scrapping the 45-15 program as
‘educationally unsound”’ (Berger, 1975, p. 421). They also ran into
problems with transportation, building upkeep, and scheduling.
Class designs. Classes were in one of three designs: (1) lock-in
classes in which the teachers stay with the students; (2) dual-track classes in
which the teachers teach two of the four tracks; and (3) multi-track classes
in which the teachers teach classes with all four tracks in them. “Multi¬
track classes in the high schools are necessary because of the needed

68
flexibility for scheduling, the number of classes offered, and the number of
teachers allocated to a high school” (Malone, 1974). Although these multi¬
track problems were all significant issues for the music teachers involved,
they were also problems for other sequential, skill-based subjects (such as
foreign languages, typing, and mathematics). W. C. Malone, principal of
Pasco Comprehensive Senior High School in Dade City, concluded
Teachers in these areas have substantial reasons to be concerned
about multi-group classes. A more refined method of
individualization, lower class loads, and hard- and software support
such as individual language labs, do offer promise in correcting the
situation. To remove the frustration, doubts, and difficulties of
teachers who teach multi-group classes will not be easy. We do owe
it to the profession to try before we say it cannot be done (1974, p.
540).
The Pasco County teachers also objected to the fact that, since the tracks
were unevenly distributed, the teaching loads were very inequitable
between teachers and from semester to semester (Berger, 1975).
Debilitating problems. The program in Pasco County was
terminated in 1977. Some unexpected problems were cited: scheduling
multi-track classes, budgets for supplies and other consumables were
exhausted before the end of the year, and counselors were spending all
their time scheduling. An additional problem encountered that is not
usually seen in research on year-round education: increased absenteeism.
In this situation absenteeism was due to parents taking their children out of
school for family vacations, off-track students encouraging their on-track
peers to ‘skip school,’ and the first and last weeks of each 45-day term
being viewed as a waste of time (Neal, 1978). Additionally, participation
in extra-curricular activities declined, and no difference in student
academic achievement was observed.

69
In 1976 a vote was put to the public on whether or not to continue
the year-round calendar. Fifty-one percent voted to return to the
traditional calendar (Nelson et al., 1993).
Jupiter’s Concept Six
In 1975, Palm Beach County began a year-round program in Jupiter,
a geographically separated town in the north end of the county. Jupiter’s
four schools (Nelson et ah, 1993) were grossly overcrowded, and a bond
issue in 1974 had been defeated by the voters. A Joint Advisory
Committee made up of Jupiter parents, teachers and administrators was
charged with finding a solution. Their mandate was to develop a plan that
would house more students, would be an improvement educationally,
would be sound, and valid enough to last for a long period (Neal, 1978).
Calendar design. The Concept Six calendar was chosen to be used
for all the schools in Jupiter: one high school, one middle school and two
elementary schools.3 One of the considerations that led to the choice of
that calendar design was the music program. “Music activities are a
problem with any year-round model. But Concept Six presents the least
problems with that of any because students can come back an extra mester
to participate” (Neal, 1978, p. 49).
The Committee chose Concept Six with the following provisions: all
the classrooms had to be air-conditioned, a curriculum had to be developed
that was equal or superior to that used before, all standards had to be met,
3 A doctoral dissertation from Florida Atlantic University (Neal, 1978)
cites the start date of Jupiter’s Concept 6 experiment as January 1976 and
lists only three schools involved: Jupiter Elementary, Jupiter Middle and
Jupiter High School.

70
new school construction was still a top priority, tracks were to be assigned
geographically, the program was to begin no earlier than January 1976,
and buses were to be provided for off-track students to participate in
school activities. The Committee additionally recommended the following
contract provisions for teachers: no teacher had to teach more than 196
days and no one could be required to work on an extended contract, pre-
and post-planning days were still provided, locked storage cabinets were
assigned for each teacher, off-track teachers could not be required to come
back to school, and teachers could be involved in the development,
implementation, and evaluation of the Concept Six program (Neal, 1978).
Program demise. In spite of the long-term objectives and intentions
of the original Committee, the Jupiter program was terminated in 1981
(Nelson et al., 1993). Many of the teachers and students (King, 1994c)
involved liked the year-round calendar, but the community as a whole did
not support it. As money became available to build a new high school and
to add an additional elementary school, the year-round program was
dropped.4
The Silent Years
The mid-1980s were a period of growth across the nation in both
interest and enrollment in year-round programs following a decade of
decline. In Florida, however, between the years of 1981 and 1987 there
were no year-round schools in the state. It is difficult to determine exactly
why Florida was so out of sync with the rest of the nation, except to
^Jupiter High School was the last year-round high school in the state of
Florida to date.

71
speculate that the negative experiences encountered in these few Florida
districts had a profound effect on the thinking of other district leaders.
Marion County Begins It All Again
In 1985 Marion County (Ocala) was faced with extreme
overcrowding and an inability to fund the building of more schools. The
Marion County school board liked the idea of using the existing facilities
more efficiently and began to try and sell the concept of a year-round
calendar to the community. Initially there was much antagonism toward
the plan and the school board members became known as the ‘Notorious
Five’ (Parrish, 1989).
The plan continued, however, and, in 1987, Wyomina Park
Elementary went on a five-track, 60-15 calendar (Nelson et al., 1993).
The program was successful and in 1991 two other elementary schools
went to a multi-track, 60-15 calendar.
Marion County was a leader in the rebirth of Florida year-round
education. Teachers and administrators from several other Florida
districts sent representatives to visit and observe the Marion County year-
round schools (Parrish, 1989).
Overall, the responses of the parents, teachers, and administrators to
the Marion County program were very positive: morale was higher,
parents felt that children had no difficulty in readjusting to school after
three-week vacations, the system of reporting grades was favorably
received, communication was good, and discipline referrals were down
(Nelson et al., 1993). On the negative side, there was some concern about
family vacation schedules, school unity when a certain percentage of

72
teachers were always off-track, and scheduling music, art, and physical
education classes.
The Marion County year-round program was ended in 1993. The
reasons behind this demise are unclear. Just as many districts of the state
were renewing their interest in modified school calendars, Marion County
ended its seemingly successful program.
Banner Growth in the 1990s
Orange County Goes Year-Round
In February 1989, the Orange County school board decided that
year-round calendars were the only way to deal with their overcrowding
problem. Anticipating a negative public response, school board Vice
Chairman B. Barnes was quoted in The Orlando Sentinel (Meehan, 1990, p.
A-l) as saying, “This is where we are going, folks. The best thing you can
do is help us be successful.”
In July 1990, the first three elementary schools began their modified
calendars: two on a multi-track calendar, and the third on a single-track
calendar. A year later two more schools opened with modified calendars,
with an additional five in 1992 (Nelson et al., 1993). By the 1993-94
school year there were 42 Orange County year-round schools; all of the
elementary schools in the county are expected to be year-round by 1995.
Part of the strength of the Orange County experience was the
extensive preparation and planning that was conducted prior to the actual
implementation. Great care was given to involve the parents, teachers, and
administrators in the early planning, as well as other community agencies
that were involved with child care services (Nelson et al., 1993).

73
FAYRE
In 1990 the Florida Association for Year-Round Education
(FAYRE) (see Appendix B) was formed in affiliation with the National
Association for Year-Round Education. Dr. R. S. (Skip) Archibald, then
school superintendent of Marion County, was elected president of the new
organization (Nelson et al., 1993).
Brevard County Parents Vote
An interesting regulation in the Brevard County (Melbourne) school
district requires that individual schools ratify the decision of whether or
not to go to a year-round calendar. Seventy-five percent of each school’s
staff and parents must agree, via a telephone vote, to implement a plan. In
1991, two schools elected to begin the calendar. A third school was
selected but was unable to garner the necessary votes and support (Nelson
et al., 1993).
Duval County Dual Tracks
Year-round education began in Duval County (Jacksonville) in July
1991 with three elementary schools. “All three used a ‘dual-track’
approach, offering both the traditional and a modified calendar in the same
school, and allowed parents to choose” (Nelson et al., 1993, p. 51).
The traditional school calendar is referred to as ‘red track’ in Duval
County. Although more and more families have been switching over to
non-red tracks, and more schools go year-round each year, the district is
still strongly divided in its support. An article in The Florida Times-Union
(Hennessy, 1994) quoted Duval County school board members complaining

74
about the costs for 16 teachers and administrators to attend the national
conference of the NAYRE.
Lake County Pilot Program
In 1991 Lake County began a pilot program with one elementary
school, Tavares Elementary. Their preparation had begun two years
earlier with extensive studies, reviews, and visits to other counties and
programs. P. Campbell, curriculum specialist at Tavares Elementary
School, stated (cited in Nelson et al., 1993, p. 52),
Communication with parents and the community began immediately.
Parents accompanied us when we visited year-round schools in other
counties, and we had guests come in from those counties to talk to
parent and faculty groups. Then last year, we set up parent/faculty
committees to work on all the different issues involved in switching
to year-round—calendars, track selection, child care, etc.
We opened July 22, 1991, and have had absolutely no parental
conflicts. No one switched schools, and we have had nothing but
positive remarks. That’s been a real surprise to us and to our
superintendent. We attribute that to the fact that we did our
homework, took things gradually, and involved parents right from
the beginning.
Osceola County Rapid Growth
Osceola County (Kissimmee), one of the most rapidly growing
counties in the state (Nelson et al., 1993), saw year-round schools as a
viable alternative to building more schools. The county
has been building one or two elementary schools every year and
increasing the capacity of each school by 28%, which also meant
redrawing the lines of school attendance zones. Parents were
concerned that their children were having to switch schools almost
every year, and administrators were concerned about keeping up
with the population growth (Nelson et al., 1993, p. 52).

75
Plans for the calendar change began in 1990; the first school,
Deerwood Elementary, began a single-track year-round schedule in July
1991. The following year three more elementary schools and one middle
school began single-track calendars.
Other than three Florida districts that only have one year-round
school each in them, Osceola County is one of only two districts in Florida
in which all the year-round schools operate on the same calendar.5 All five
of the year-round schools in Osceola County are single-track, 60-15
calendars.6 In order to eliminate some of negative public perception that
has plagued some of the surrounding districts’ year-round attempts,
Osceola County uses the term ‘modified calendar’ as opposed to year-round
school. County administrators anticipate that the entire district will be
year-round, and probably multi-track, within the next few years, because
of the growth in the area (Nelson et al., 1993).
Seminole County Goes Year-Round
Seminole County, part of the greater Orlando population explosion,
began their first year-round elementary school in 1991. ‘'At Lawton
Elementary in Oviedo, Seminole County’s first year-round school, three
portable buildings have been removed and several classrooms are vacant,
even though enrollment jumped this year from 875 to 930” (Nelson et al.,
1993, p. 53).
^The other being Clay County.
6The 60-15, single-track model is the most popular design in Florida year-
round schools. Of the 105 year-round schools in the state (1993-94), 59 of
them are 60-15, single-track.

76
In their original planning, Seminole County officials planned for
both elementary and middle schools to go on year-round calendars. Their
first year-round middle school began in 1993. In 1993-94, Florida only
had ten year-round middle schools in the state. Of these ten, four of them
are located in Seminole County (NAYRE, 1994c).
Volusia County
Volusia County (Daytona Beach) began its year-round experience
with five elementary schools in 1991. S. Isbell, the Modified School
Coordinator for the county, attributed much of their success to the support
of the district leadership. “The district gave us a lot of leeway in school-
based administration. That’s been a real plus in this whole transition”
(cited in Nelson et al., 1993, p. 53).
Charlotte, Polk, and Clay Counties Join In
In 1992 three additional Florida school districts joined the state
interest in year-round education: Charlotte, Polk, and Clay Counties. Both
the Charlotte (Punta Gorda) and the Polk (Lakeland) districts had only one
year-round school at the time of this study. The Charlotte County school
was a single-track, 60-15 design; the Polk County school was described as a
‘modified’ 45-15, three-track design (FDOE, 1994).
Clay County, home of Green Cove Springs, and much of the
southern overflow of Jacksonville growth, had four elementary schools on
year-round calendars beginning in 1992. All four schools operated, unlike
neighboring Duval County, on a single-track, 45-15 calendar. The teachers
there felt that the single-track design was particularly helpful for

77
disadvantaged students, especially in conjunction with a well-planned
remedial intersession program such as they had.
Clay County had planned a three-year experiment with the schools
on year-round calendars. One year into the program, however, a new
superintendent, Dr. Phyllis May, was elected who was not a supporter of
the year-round plan, and who chose to cut it from the 1994-95 budget.
This budget cut created a “savings of $90,000 in eliminating the modified
calendar” (Fields, 1994).7 The four Clay County programs lasted two
years and then returned to the traditional calendars.
Sarasota and Broward Counties
In 1993 Sarasota and Broward Counties joined the Florida year-
round school districts. Sarasota, on the west coast below Tampa, had one
year-round school on a calendar that was simply described as ‘modified’
(NAYRE, 1994c).
Broward County also had one year-round school in the town of
Hallandale, south of Fort Lauderdale. This elementary school operated on
a 60-15, five-track calendar. A new superintendent was recently elected in
Broward County who was committed to building new schools.
Philosophically the district supported the idea of year-round calendars in
elementary schools, but viewed this as a five-year, temporary solution at
best.
^Although, historically, most districts who have tried the year-round
calendar design have ultimately returned to the traditional calendar, it is
rare that that is done to save money. On the contrary, most districts who
try year-round school do so with a specific interest in saving money.

78
Future of YRE in Florida
It is difficult to characterize the present and future trends in Florida
year-round education. On one hand, more districts are beginning year-
round schools; others are investigating or planning towards that goal. At
the same time, other districts are canceling their programs and returning to
traditional, nine-month calendars.
Return to Traditional Calendars
Two districts, each leaders in the year-round education movement in
Florida, have ended their programs in the last few years. Although it is
sometimes difficult to discover the real reasons behind a decision of that
nature, the loss of these counties has dealt a blow to the year-round
momentum that has been building in this state.
New Year-Round Programs
Several years ago year-round schools were proposed in the
northwest, panhandle section of Florida. At that time the parents were not
receptive. Today, in the face of overcrowding and rapid population
growth, the prospect has been viewed more favorably and will, in fact, be
implemented in Escambia County (Pensacola) for the 1994-95 school year
(Banks, 1994).
Investigating for the Future
Palm Beach County (West Palm Beach) is investigating the
possibility of implementing year-round schools to deal specifically with
massive overcrowding in some areas of the district. “School
Superintendent Monica Uhlhorn has made it clear that year-round

79
schooling would not be done to boost student achievement, but rather to
accommodate the stream of new students” (King, 1994a, p. 5B). With
5,000 new students expected each year, district leaders are looking to
drastic measures to ease the overcrowding. Most of the target area schools
are already 25 to 40 percent over capacity. One of the worst is Sandpiper
Shores Elementary which has 1,500 students but with a building capacity of
only 750 (King, 1994a).
In almost a classic script, the local newspapers and the school board
have attempted to present the year-round alternative as a ‘best of the worst’
solution: better than double-sessions, better than another bond issue or
borrowing $100 million in certificates of participation (King, 1994b), and
better than overcrowding. In an effort to measure the community support
of such an idea (Gienger, 1994), the Palm Beach County school board
voted to “hire an independent consultant to conduct a public survey on the
popularity of year-round education. The cost of such a poll has been
estimated to be as high as $25,000” (King, 1994a).
Growing on Track
In spite of the uncertainty facing other districts, several Florida
school districts, all facing rapid population increases, have continued to
embrace the year-round concept and are ‘on-track’ with their original
designs.
Two counties, Orange and Seminole, expect to have all the
elementary and most, if not all, of the middle schools on year-round
calendars by the 1995-96 school year. Although the majority of Orange
County year-round schools are still single-track, the district is facing

80
financial problems and many of the music teacher positions have been cut
in the elementary schools.
Seminole County expects to move to multi-track calendars and will
require all music teachers to work on extended contracts by 1995-96.
Osceola County plans to decide at the end of 1994-95 if the entire county
will go year-round or if the entire county will return to the traditional
calendar.
Conclusion
The history of a long-term educational movement is difficult to
trace. Often much publicity is given to the beginning of a process while
almost none if given to its ending. This is typical behavior with all
innovative programs in education. Although many hours have been spent
looking through area newspapers, issues which seem to be ‘local issues’
tend to not be publicized outside of the immediate locale, and it becomes
difficult to find beginning and ending dates and to find uncontradicted
information. Such has been the problem in tracing this history of the year-
round education movement in Florida.
It would be pointless to speculate on where Florida schools will be
20-, 50-, or 100-years from now. Obviously, overcrowding will be a
severe problem. Some areas are already inundated with immigration
problems; others are experiencing the influx of thousands of new students
every year from the north. Sufficient school buildings to house these
numbers cannot be built in this state. Drastic measures will be needed.
Those involved in year-round education at this time may sometime be
viewed and respected as prophets.

CHAPTER IV
METHODOLOGY
Introduction
The overall purpose of the study was to determine what effect, if
any, year-round education had on music teachers and music programs. As
has been evident from the literature review, this is a new area of study. Not
only is there little literature on music in year-round education, there also
has been no prior systematic research performed to date. To pursue the
information needed, a two-phase, qualitative design was developed around
preliminary focus interviews and a questionnaire sent to all the year-round
music teachers in the state of Florida.
This methodology is similar to the design developed by Glaser and
Strauss (1967) which they termed “grounded theory.” A brief summary of
grounded theory is included, as well as a report on the exploratory study,
the criteria used for the selection of the sample, the instrumentation, and
the data analysis used.
Grounded Theory
“Grounded Theory is based on the systematic generating of theory
from data” (Glaser, 1978, p. 2). This approach was useful in this study
because of its support of the idea that problems are not inherent in people
and the idea that the data are defined by the participants themselves (Cline
& Freeman, 1988). Rather than begin with a preconceived ground,
grounded theory enables the researcher to discover the ‘ground’—in this
81

82
case theories on the problems/challenges of year-round education on music
teachers and programs (Cline, Engel, & Johnson, 1989; Rudestam &
Newton, 1992).
Four-step process
Grounded theory is a four-step process that enables qualitative data
to be collected in a systematic and rigorous fashion (Glaser & Strauss,
1967). The four steps are: (1) focus group interviews; (2) identification of
the salient issues; (3) surveying the sample; and (4) generating theory based
solely on the data collected. It is important to enter the research setting
with as few predetermined ideas as possible: the researcher’s “mandate is to
remain open to what is actually happening” (Glaser, 1978, p. 3).
Grounded theory as a research tool
Grounded theory is an improvement over the traditional view of
qualitative research consisting of detailed descriptions reflecting little
systematic or rigorous study. It is a basic change from the old view of the
data fitting the theory, to one in which the theory is designed to fit the data
(Glaser & Strauss, 1967). The research questions in this study necessitated
a qualitative study of this nature, because it was an initial study in a field.
The First Phase: The Exploratory Study
In the initial stages of this study, when it became evident that there
was little literature available on music in year-round education,
information was pursued through interviews with music teachers in year-
round schools.

83
Focus interviews. Initially a ‘convenience sample’ (Smith, 1988) of
14 year-round music teachers and supervisors were contacted. These
contacts were selected on the basis of their accessibility to the researcher.
Because it was not possible to conduct a group interview with these
teachers, they were interviewed independently, seven by telephone and
seven through on-site interviews in their school teaching situations.
The telephone interviews generally followed an open-format outline,
with the emphasis being to pursue any topics that the teacher felt important
in their year-round situation. The on-site interviews were more
ethnographic in nature, additionally providing the opportunity to observe
what was actually happening within a year-round music classroom. The
on-site aspect enabled the researcher to note different aspects of the
teaching and classroom climate that appeared to be effected by the year-
round schedule. The results of this exploratory phase of the research on
music and year-round education are included in Chapter V.
Identify salient issues. Based on the information gleaned from these
interviews and visits, several general topics were determined to be of
interest for the second phase of this study: teacher contracts (including paid
leave and substitute teachers), school calendars, teaching schedules, and
performing ensembles. At this point it was determined that the focus of
this research should center on the teachers themselves and whether or not
they were being affected by year-round scheduling. Any changes that
occurred in the classroom or student learning were viewed in terms of how
they were created or affected by the music teacher and the scheduling.
(For example, whether or not ‘steady beat’ was taught was not a concern

84
unless the year-round scheduling limited the experiences received so that
there was not time or opportunity to cover that aspect of music.)
The Second Phase: Surveying the Teachers
The second phase of the research project consisted of interviewing,
via a questionnaire, each year-round music teacher in Florida.
Developing The Questionnaire
Two versions of a questionnaire (see Appendices C and D), one for
elementary music teachers, the other for secondary music teachers, were
designed by the researcher to obtain information from the teachers being
studied. The salient issues identified by the exploratory study—contracts,
calendars, schedules, and performing ensembles—were explored in both
open- and closed-format questions. As much of the basic information as
possible was presented in a check-list format in which the teacher could
simply identify the answer appropriate for their situation. Topics that
required more thought and reflection were presented in an open-format
with space for the teacher to use for response.
A pilot study was conducted to assess the strengths and weaknesses of
the questionnaires before they were sent to the sample population. Five
year-round music teachers were selected to participate in the pilot study.
The teachers were selected on the basis of their availability, representation
of a cross-section of the teaching situations to be studied, and willingness to
participate. These teachers taught in three different school districts, both
elementary and middle school, both single- and multi-track calendars, and
both band and choral. The responses from the pilot study indicated some
problems with terminology, clarity of some of the questions, and the length

85
of the survey. These problems were corrected for the final forms that
were mailed to the teachers.
Sample for the Study
In 1993-94, the National Association for Year-Round Education
listed 105 schools in Florida using year-round calendars. To obtain further
information and the national directory, the researcher joined the NAYRE
as an individual member. The listing that was obtained included a list of
the Florida schools with their address and principal’s name and phone
number.
Because of the small total population, the entire list of Florida year-
round schools was chosen for the survey (Rainbow & Froehlich, 1987).
This decision allowed the maximum amount of information to be gathered.
In addition, it was found that some of the schools in the list did not, in fact,
meet the criteria for this study: Florida public schools on year-round
calendars with functioning music programs and certified music teachers
during the 1993-94 school year.
Since the music teachers of only one state were being studied, it
would be difficult to infer any generalizations about music teachers in
other states. As a qualitative study, however, it represents base-line,
beginning research on music in year-round education. Future studies can
then be designed to test the theories and ideas generated.
Music Teacher Names
In order to improve the potential survey response rate, it was
decided to obtain a current list of the names of the music teachers in these
105 schools. Several state-wide agencies were contacted, including the

f
86
FDOE, the office of the state Arts Education Specialist (June Hinckley),
and the Florida Music Educators Association (FMEA). No current list was
available.
Through the FMEA a list of music supervisors was obtained and a
list of year-round coordinators was received from the NAYRE. Eight of
the twelve districts involved had music supervisors. These supervisors
and/or coordinators were contacted to request an accurate list of the
schools in their districts and the names of the music teachers at those
schools.
Prior to the original mailing, lists of music teacher names and
schools were received from seven of the 12 districts. It was determined
from this information that three schools of the 105 involved had no
certified music teacher. These schools were excluded from the study. Of
the remaining 102 schools, two had two music teachers each (Crown Point
Elementary and Mandarin Middle Schools, both in Duval County). At the
start of the second phase, 104 questionnaires were sent out: 93 to
elementary music teachers, 11 to middle school music teachers.
Unfortunately it was not possible to determine prior to the mailing which
teachers were off-track at that time, and which, if any, of the 102
remaining schools had no music teacher.
Procedures
Teacher Contact
Approximately one week before the mailing of the survey
instrument, a postcard (see Appendix E) was sent to each music teacher on
the list telling them about the project, the intended use of the information,
and inviting their subsequent participation and response.

87
The questionnaire packet, approved by the University of Florida
Institutional Review Board (see Appendix F), was mailed the following
week to the school addresses addressed to the music teachers by name, if
known. (The others were marked for the attention of the music teacher.)
The packet included a cover letter (Appendix G) explaining the purpose of
the study and instructions for completing the questionnaire, a copy of the
questionnaire (either the elementary or the secondary version), and a self-
addressed, stamped return envelope.
As one of the primary problems with survey research is the
percentage of responses, two incentives which have been found by Fuqua,
Hartman, and Brown (1982) to be significant in improving response rate
were used: preliminary contact and follow-up contacts. Reminder
postcards, and phone calls/messages were used to encourage teachers to
respond. All of the follow-up materials used are included in Appendix H.
Instrumentation
The survey instrument used in this study utilized both open- and
closed-format questions. Questions that could be answered by checking a
response were used to obtain demographic data about the teacher and the
school program. Although more difficult to codify and tabulate, the basic
information was gained through the open-format questions.
In an attempt to reduce the length of the questionnaire, those topics
and questions pertaining solely to either the elementary level or the
secondary level were grouped together into separate forms. Each teacher
received a copy of either the elementary or the secondary version,
depending on the level at which they taught. Both forms contained a

88
general section that pertained to both elementary and secondary music
teachers.
The general section included the demographic information about the
teacher and the school, and information on teacher contracts, and school
scheduling. A request for their advice and suggestions for music teachers
and administrators moving into year-round education was also included in
the general form.
The elementary section focused on the specific situations found in
elementary general music classes and elementary performing groups.
Several focus interview comments were made about the difficulty in
scheduling general music classes and in getting children to attend rehearsals
for performing groups. The secondary section had less of a focus on
general music classes but more on the specifics found in secondary
performing groups.
Although research has failed to demonstrated any link between the
length of a survey and the response rate (Adams & Gale, 1982), the pilot
survey results indicated that busy music teachers were hesitant to complete
and return a survey instrument that appeared that it would take a long time
to complete. Since it was difficult to contact personally many of these
teachers at school, especially on the elementary level, making the
instrument aesthetically pleasing, concise, and organized was a priority. It
was determined that a return rate of at least 50% would be satisfactory for
the purposes of this study (Babbie, 1973).
Data Analysis
Because of the length of the questionnaires (both forms were six
pages), as many closed-format, check-off questions were included as

89
appropriate. The rest of the questions followed an open-format design
with space for the teacher to respond in their own words and reflective of
their own situation.
The two types of questions required entirely different modes of data
analysis. The closed-format responses were the simplest to record. Each
answer was coded numerically and then recorded on the spreadsheet. The
open-format responses were categorized for trends, coded numerically, and
then recorded on the spreadsheet.
The coding process, for both the closed- and open-format questions,
was checked for coder error and reliability. A complete check was done
on the numeric tables to see that the information was coded, recorded, and
then input correctly into the computer. Checking for intra-coder
reliability on the open-format responses involved training another person
in content analysis and then having them re-categorize a random sample of
the data to see if the categorical organization remained constant. All
differences found were re-examined and, if necessary, corrected. The
intent of these reliability checks was to eliminate researcher bias.
All of the information was recorded in a numerical format by
computer on the spreadsheet program, Microsoft Excel. Excel was chosen
because of the ease of design and the accessibility of the data. Statistical
measures, such as frequencies, percentages, Chi-Square, and the Fisher
Exact Test of Probability, were conducted using Excel.
The Fisher Exact Test was used because it is not bound by many of
the limitations of the Chi-Square “goodness-of-fit” test through small
numbers and the size of the matrix. The only limitations to the Fisher

90
Exact Test are that it is generally limited to a 2-by-2 matrix and it works
best with smaller numbers.
The goal of the whole process, the development of the questions, the
coding procedure, and the statistical testing, was to obtain accurate and
reportable information on the status of music in year-round education in
Florida.

CHAPTER V
RESULTS OF THE EXPLORATORY STUDY
Introduction
The concept and philosophy of year-round education does not
necessarily create problems for the music program or the music teacher.
Music programs in single-track year-round schools function in much the
same way as they do in a traditional-calendar program. Problems often
begin with the addition of the multi-track calendar, because the music
teacher is still responsible to teach all of the students—even when they are
on vacation at different times.
Results of the First Phase Exploratory Study
The first phase of this research consisted of the preliminary
interviews with 14 year-round music teachers and a study of the existing
literature on music in year-round schools. The results of the first phase
exploratory study were centered on several specific topics: different
contract options available, the question of whether or not year-round
education can benefit music education, some of the complex issues
involved, and the future of music in year-round education.
Contract Options for Music Teachers
Not all music teachers have a choice in the kind of contract they
receive. Some districts specify that all music teachers will work extended
91

92
contracts; in Duval County (Florida) no elementary music teacher works
more than the standard 196 days. Some principals allow a great deal of
freedom and flexibility in creating a contract/calendar that can work for
that particular teacher; other principals focus on ‘the good of the school’
and specify the schedule the teacher will work.
Follow one track: hire a sub. The simplest contract for a music
teacher is to be assigned to one track and to report to school only on the
days that that track is in session. On days that the teacher is off-track, a
substitute teacher is generally hired to cover the music classes. Finding
qualified substitutes to cover the music classes for three weeks at a time can
be very difficult, and it is a major concern for music teachers (California
Music Educators Association [CMEA], 1991). Unless another off-track
music teacher is available, it is difficult to find a certified music teacher
and difficult to enable music teaching to continue while the teacher is off¬
track. An excellent suggestion from the CMEA, which reflects a
commitment to both music education and quality teaching, is to hire
“roving, utility music teachers on a ratio of one roving teacher for each
three regular teachers.... This plan offers a stable, organized way of
dealing with the staffing situation for our music program in year-round
schools” (p. 58).
Follow one track: no music while the teacher is off-track. One
Duval County (Florida) music teacher in a five-track school is a ‘one-track’
teacher. During the weeks when she is off-track, there is no music taught
in that school. Although this sounds easier than trying to secure certified
substitutes, the scheduling ‘mess’ is serious. At the start of the school year
the resource teachers sit down and prepare the entire year’s calendar,

93
working around the track assignments of each teacher and of each class,
observing all holidays, and trying to factor in as many concerts, field trips,
and festivals as much as are known at that early date. The music teacher’s
one goal in scheduling is that every class has music the same number of
times over the year. What results is an extremely complicated music
schedule based on the year rather than a repeating sequence by week or
month. Each class is scheduled to have approximately only seventeen
music classes over the course of an entire year.
Different teachers for each track. If the school enrollment is large
enough, hiring a separate music teacher to cover the music classes for each
track is an interesting prospect. In many ways, each track is a separate
school (Teachey, 1990), but it is rarely cost effective to try and staff them
as separate schools. In addition, the logical goal of having the different
music teachers work together on plans and concert programs is contrary to
the original purpose of the separate track/separate school idea.
Music track. An option that is becoming more common in high
school YRE situations is the development of what is termed a “music
track.” All students who wish to take special classes or perform in certain
groups are assigned to this particular track (Webster & Nyberg, 1992).
The plan works well in athletics, where coaches make sure that their team
goes through the school calendar together. One innovative coach in
California arranged to get his football team on the track that had off during
September and October. His reasoning was that the students could then
concentrate on their playing without being bothered by homework and
classes (Haney, 1990).

94
One problem with this schedule is that no one else can then
participate in the teams or performing groups (or specialized music
courses). In a profession in which the motto was “Music for every child;
Every child for music,” this is a less than satisfactory plan. Another
problem is that a music track limits the concert schedule. It also creates
competition with other programs and other tracks.
Extended contracts. Many teachers, intrigued by the prospect of
what is generally a 20% pay increase, agree to work on an extended
contract so that they teach all of the tracks all year (Trimis, 1990).
(Generally the entire school closes for two weeks at Christmas and two
weeks in the summer.) There are some problems with this concept,
however. In particular there is a problem with burnout (Campbell, 1975),
and the fact that there is no block time available for music teacher to take
summer classes, workshops, and other opportunities for personal and
musical growth.
Contracts to meet specific school needs. Some principals and
teachers create contracts to meet a particular need within the school. One
Florida elementary music teacher teaches four days a week all year long.
One elementary school band director in California teaches at five schools a
week—three on the traditional calendar and two on year-round. Every
four weeks he changes rooms (or meets outside if there is no available
room) and has taught the last two years straight through.
Another elementary music teacher in Duval County teaches on a
three-track schedule. Due to budget cuts, he is the only music teacher in a
1300-student school. Music is done on a ten-day rotation with 45-minute
classes twice a month. Through some creative scheduling the different

95
tracks in this school were assigned to separate days of resource instruction.
The result is that on days when that particular track is off-campus this
music teacher has the day off. Since the school is not yet overcrowded,
everyone is scheduled to be on campus at the same time for a three- to six-
week period. Those weeks are the only ones when he works a five-day
week.
From the perspective of the administration and efficient use of
teacher time, this plan works wonderfully. Unfortunately, from the
perspective of this music teacher, he has no blocks of vacation time, and
child-care for his own children is a problem.
Does YRE Benefit the Music Program? YES
A few music teachers and administrators are very supportive of the
idea that year-round calendars benefit music education. E. Trimis
(personal communication, February 9, 1994) has built a “large,
comprehensive music program with two full-time music teachers and two
teaching assistants.” He works an extended contract in order to reach as
many students as he can (Trimis, 1990). The Los Angeles Times printed
an article on his program calling him a ‘pied piper’ and complimenting the
sense of pride, self-esteem, and confidence that his music program has
brought to the community (Berg, 1993).
Not only does Trimis view music and YRE as feasible, but he sees
this as a good opportunity to get more students involved. By allowing off¬
track students to come back and attend rehearsals and concerts, they are
offered much more than they could ever get from a traditional calendar.
With careful communication between the different music teachers involved,

96
students can participate in a “truly sequential music program” (Trimis,
1990, p. 51).
Does YRE Benefit the Music Program? NO
Many other music teachers view year-round education in a different
light. In investigating this topic, phone calls were made to various year-
round elementary music teachers in Florida. Each teacher was asked,
“What changes has YRE made in your teaching?” The answers were quite
consistent that the teachers had moved to more self-contained lessons, that
little information was being retained, and that more and more repetition
was needed. One teacher, on the promise of anonymity, said that
sequencing was ‘out the window,’ that there was no longer any
development and no testing to see if the material had been learned.
In spite of their best efforts to make music part of the core
curriculum and a vital part of each child’s education, year-round
scheduling forces many music teachers to act on survival instincts and do
‘whatever it takes’ just to get through the week.
Due to scheduling problems, some elementary music teachers stop
sponsoring performing groups. Others require signed contracts
guaranteeing that the students would come back for rehearsals and
concerts. Some teachers were forced to have performances much more
often to coincide with the end of each track (CMEA, 1991). In spite of the
fact that the goal of music education is to teach students about music, and
not merely to just prepare them for the next concert (Mercer, 1972), many
music educators were squeezed into the position in which their curriculum
consists of whatever is programmed for the next performance.

97
Complex Issues and Simplistic Answers
The concept of music and year-round education raises some complex
issues and questions. To ignore the complexity is to shortchange the
students involved, music as a subject, and the value of music and other
resource teachers. Unfortunately, at the present time, most of what
information is available in response is in the form of overly simple
answers.
Will music go on as before? Many parents, faced with the prospect
of year-round scheduling, ask the question, “What will happen to the music
program?” Administrators and teachers are quick to reply that everything
will be fine, that students will be invited to come to music classes while
they are off-track (Hawkins, 1992; Schmieder & Townley, 1992), and that
there will be even more concerts than before (Haney, 1990).
However, inviting students to come back on-campus while they are
on vacation is problematic at best. When students are required to be in
school, students (and teachers) have certain rights as well as obligations for
behavior and safety (Simpson, 1993). When students are off-track and yet
invited to come back and participate in different activities, a legal ‘can-of-
worms’ is opened that should not be ignored.
A related situation can be foreseen by any teacher who has had the
opportunity to see how many students hang around the school during the
summer vacation. If school is still in session for other tracks, and if ‘fun’
activities are taking place, one can be assured that students will be hanging
around who legally have no place on the grounds at that time. It seems
likely that the first time an off-track student is hurt on campus or causes a
severe problem, the legal ruling could well come down that off-track

98
students will be required to remain off campus. Such a decision would
effectively wipe out many music programs and athletic teams.
Although the problem of off-track students creating problems while
on campus may not have happened yet, the groundwork is being laid for it.
One Florida middle school music teacher, when asked if her students were
invited to come back for rehearsals, commented, “It’s tough on the music
director because they are with you all day—lunch and planning period
included!” Another elementary music teacher from the same district
invites her students, but tries to require that they be picked up and taken
home after rehearsal.
The question of how many students actually do come back during
their vacation times is interesting. Some estimate that more than 50%
attend at least part of the rehearsals or concerts (CMEA, 1991). One
middle school band director was asked what he would do “if his tuba player
(on vacation) did not come back to play, he replied such a problem had
never occurred. He reasoned that it was fun to come back to school to play
music while not having to attend classes” (Quinlan & George, 1987, p. 74).
It is very likely that these stories are exceptions, and that the realistic
numbers of students who regularly return to rehearsals while on vacation
are much lower.
Research on exactly who does return for music classes is conflicting.
Some report that the best attendance comes from students from a low
socioeconomic background (CMEA, 1991). Others report that students
from the low socioeconomic strata often have to work to help support their
families while they are off-track (Webster & Nyberg, 1992).

99
What is clear is that members of small special ensembles tend to
come back much more frequently than do members of large groups
(especially beginning ensembles) (CMEA, 1991). One Florida band
director tried to require attendance at the evening rehearsal for all students
who were not going to be out of town. “Immediately, one parent decided
to check the school board to see if I could enforce this policy. The school
board ruled that I could not” (Steuart, 1993, p. 39).
“The individual director’s persuasive powers, the additional credit
provided, and the sense of belonging to the group” tend to help outside
attendance at rehearsals (Campbell, 1975, p. 55). Requiring—or even
rewarding—attendance at rehearsals can be awkward because it ends up
being a conflict between the parents and the teacher, with the student
caught in the middle.
Typical advice is to ‘be flexible’ and that “provisions can be made to
get key individuals to the school for practice” (Thomas, 1973, p. 225). It
is not clear, however, if the flexibility that is seemingly so crucial to the
success of music in year-round education is a flexibility on standards and
goals in performance, or if it is because there are no firm solutions that can
be given.
In spite of the best efforts for music to be viewed as part of the core
curriculum of a student’s education, the advent of year-round education has
often quietly shifted music into the role of an extracurricular or co-
curricular subject.
There are not enough students to have ensembles on each track. This
is a complex issue that usually receives one of two overly simple responses:
only allow students on certain select tracks to participate; or, have all of the

100
students feed in and out of one main ensemble. A middle school band
director in Florida was interviewed who runs a five-track band program in
which students rotate in and out every three weeks. He said that his grade
book looked more like a telephone book because of the complications of the
attendance situations. One out of every three weeks is spent reviewing old
material in an attempt to get the ‘new’ students caught back up with the
group.
Other directors have had more trouble in getting students caught up
when they come back on track. Many teachers say that the attrition rate of
beginning band students in particular is high due to the fact that the
students always feel as if they are behind. Some schools hire an additional
part-time music teacher. “This teacher will teach all students who have just
returned to school. The teacher will work with the returning students for a
four-week period, at which time the returning students will join the regular
music class” (CMEA, 1991, p. 53).
Another elementary music teacher in Florida had a slightly different
problem. Since members of her elementary handbell choir were on two
different tracks, she assigned each member one bell and assumed that, if the
person standing next to them were away during a rehearsal, it would be a
simple matter to pick up and play two bells rather than just one. This was
not successful because the students could not read music well enough to
look at two notes, and the motor coordination of ringing two bells instead
of just one was beyond the students’ ability.
The community and administration still expect the same quality
music. Although music teachers rarely enjoy being compared with athletic
coaches, one major point that they have in common is the fact that both

101
have the results of their work publicly displayed. The fact that a certain
percentage of the ensemble is off-track does not change the “continued
expectation from the community and your administration that your
program can function at the same level they are accustomed to on a
traditional schedule” (CMEA, 1991, p. 22).
Many music teachers have experienced problems with selecting
music to be performed for state and district festivals. Since the music
difficulty level has traditionally been assigned based on the population of
the school, the directors were no longer free to select music suitable for the
size and capabilities of the particular mix of students in attendance at that
time. A proposal was submitted to the Florida Bandmasters Association
requesting that they consider a new rating of ‘Y’ for ‘year-round’ with an
additional ‘M’ for ‘multi-track.’ The purpose of this would be to allow
those schools with a ‘YM’ rating to perform music one grade level lower
than their school population might normally require.
Scheduling complications. On the elementary school level, the
efforts involved in scheduling a multi-track music program are enormous.
Hints for success from music teachers at a YRE inservice presentation
included: using a seating chart for classes, use a pencil; school maps and
rotation/rover charts are important for planning; color code everything
(Locker, 1991). Some elementary music teachers have tried numbering
their lessons and teaching them in numerical order—no matter when they
occur in the year; others write individual lesson plans for each class on
each grade level each time they come for music.
On the secondary level, the scheduling seems to be even more
complicated. Some secondary music teachers feel as if they can never take

102
a day off because the daily schedule is so complex that a substitute could
never succeed (Steuart, 1993). Some directors claim that a full-time
secretary is needed to keep up with the constant changes in the class roster.
Another complication is that, even though one-third of the school
population might be off-track at any given time, members of performing
groups tend to cluster around a couple of tracks. “That means that when
this track is off (four months of the year) the band is not close to its
performing potential” (CMEA, 1991, p. 21-22). “It has been our initial
experience that at the high school level most of the members of a particular
group are on the same track so they can work together” (Campbell, 1975,
p. 55).
Scheduling complications are not limited to simply personnel
problems. A music teacher in California was told by the site administrator
to “teach under a tree instead of her room. When the teacher got to the
tree, the tree was being watered” (CMEA, 1991, p. 68).
More kids should mean more teachers. Although the attraction of
multi-track scheduling is that fewer new buildings need to be built, most
year-round administrators also try to get by with fewer teachers as well.
“For districts to maintain an equitable music program for all students, they
may need to consider an increase in music staff. (This) may produce the
desired continuity and may also maintain student access by allowing
adequate course offerings on all tracks” (CMEA, 1991, p. 26). The extra
staff can be useful in covering for a music teacher going off-track, dealing
with the group of students just coming back on-track, or even simply
providing stability for a music program.

103
The Future of Music in Year-Round Education
One thing seems to be clear: if the scenarios described above were
happening across the board to regular classroom teachers, there is little
doubt that either the concept of YRE would be dropped, or, at the very
least, viable options would be developed to help teachers to be successful.
Several specific needs for music instruction need to be addressed.
Diminishing of the role of music in the curriculum. It is a constant
battle (especially in elementary schools) for the music class to be seen as an
integral part of the educational process. One unfortunate result that often
comes with YRE is a return to the old view that music is nothing more than
a ‘fun time’ for the students and a break for the teacher. Schools running
with multiple tracks often get into scheduling that is so complicated the
only feasible goal for the resource teachers is to make sure they have
provided an equal number of sessions for each class.
Focus on performance rather than education. Mercer wrote an
article for the Music Educators Journal (1972) in which he expressed great
concern that the curriculum of most of the music classes across the country
consisted of little more than whatever music was scheduled for the next
concert. His question, “Is performance total music education?” might well
be asked here.
In a situation where students are entering and leaving the performing
group at odd intervals, it seems likely that students who will not be there
for the scheduled performance would quickly lose interest in working hard
toward that goal. The logical answer would be to do more performances at
shorter intervals so that groups could work towards a goal, accomplish that
goal, and then move on to vacation or wherever the next goal lies.

104
Unfortunately this supports Mercer’s findings that our goals are so short¬
term that, in the end, our students are able to play or sing some music, but
know little about the subject of music.
District and community sensitivity. Within the confines of one
school, it is relatively easy to schedule everything at least twice so that all
students get to participate in school activities. On the district level,
however, many students have missed out on district-level music activities,
because they were not carefully scheduled to meet the needs of the year-
round students as well as in the traditional schools.
One Florida elementary school’s ‘yellow’ track had missed the annual
trip to the symphony for the last several years because the event was always
scheduled at the same time. The district-wide music festival was held on
only one day which meant that students who wanted to participate had to
work out means for themselves to participate. Many year-round music
teachers were unable to attend the district inservice meetings because they
were held on days when those teachers were needed to teach.
The problem of community and district sensitivity to the needs of
year-round schools is accentuated in areas where only part of the schools
go on modified calendars and the remainder stay on the traditional
schedule. Many districts view year-round education as a ‘stop gap
measure’ to tide them over until more money can be found for more
buildings. As long as districts attempt to ‘straddle the fence’ by having
both traditional and year-round calendars within one district, year-round
teachers and their students will probably continue to be short-changed by
the district leaders there to serve them.

CHAPTER VI
RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE
Introduction
The second phase of this research consisted of a questionnaire that
was sent to all the year-round music teachers in Florida. The purpose of
the questionnaire was to follow-up on the results of the exploratory
interviews. The topics covered included: (1) school calendar, (2) teacher
contracts, (3) community/school relations, (4) personal views, (5) general
music classes for elementary and middle school, (6) performing groups for
elementary and middle school, (7) preparation, (8) teacher demographics,
and (9) suggestions.
Originally 104 questionnaires were mailed to the year-round music
teachers. Later conversations with area supervisors and school secretaries
uncovered the fact that six of the elementary schools in the original year-
round list did not qualify to participate in the study because no certified
music teacher was employed during the 1993-94 school year. Four
schools, two elementary and two middle schools, employed two music
teachers each, and extra questionnaires were sent to those schools so that
each teacher had the opportunity to participate in the study. Ultimately the
total number of possible responses was 102.
A total of 60 questionnaires were returned, for a response rate of
58.8%. Of the 13 questionnaires sent to middle school music teachers, 10
were returned (77%); of the 89 questionnaires sent to elementary music
105

106
teachers, 50 were returned (56.2%). Due to the specificity of many of the
topics, no one respondent answered all of the questions.
During the 1993-94 school year, 12 counties in Florida had year-
round schools. All 12 counties, including the five counties that had only
one year-round school each, were represented by returned questionnaires.
A list of schools completing the questionnaire is found in Appendix I. A
list of all the year-round schools in Florida is included as Appendix J.
School Calendar
In comparison with the designs and experiences of other states using
year-round or modified calendars, the calendars used by Florida schools
tend to be quite similar to each other. Florida districts have all chosen
year-round calendars based on the 60-15 or 45-15 design, or a variation of
one of these designs.
The main question in Florida year-round calendar design is whether
the school is on a single-track or multi-track design. Table 2 reflects the
data relating to this question. It should be noted that nine of the
responding schools have both year-round and traditional school calendars
(TSC) on the same campus. In the School by School Listing of Year-
Round Education Programs for the 1993-94 School Year, published by the
NAYRE (1994c), Duval County schools that had one year-round track and
TSC were listed as ‘single-track.’ That designation was changed for the
purposes of this study. Where more than one calendar co-existed on a
campus, that school was identified as ‘multi-track,’ since the music teacher
was responsible for teaching more than one track of students. Based on the
(adjusted) data from the NAYRE, 57.1% of all Florida year-round schools
were single-track.

107
Table 2
Calendar Design
Design (N=57)
Single-track
Multi-track
Frequency
35
22
Percentage
38.6%
61.4%
Of those respondents who indicated they were in multi-track schools,
the majority of them (81.8%) were in five-track schools. Usually five
tracks is as many tracks as can fit onto a campus, although one school in
Lake County indicated that they had six tracks, including TSC on their
campus. Another school in Seminole County operated with five-tracks, but
two of them were replicated so that there were seven classes per grade
level.
Teacher Contracts
Contract Design
The issue of teacher contracts is of particular interest to music
teachers in Florida. Of the 56 respondents, 36 (64.3%) said they had no
choice in the length of their contract. When asked if they had a choice in
the selection of their track or schedule, the responses were evenly divided
between yes and no. Table 3 shows the distribution of the open-ended

108
responses from those who indicated they had had a choice in their
track/schedule selection.
Many of those who are included in the “Other” category were
teaching in single-track schools and felt that the question was not
appropriate to their teaching situation. The large number of people who
selected their schedules based on school/community/family needs reflects
one of the strengths of year-round education—the flexibility of scheduling
in meeting the needs of a particular school family.
Table 3
Responses Regarding Choice in the Selection of Teaching Schedules
Response (N=28) Frequency
Closest to traditional calendar 5
School/Community/Family needs 14
Tried extended contracts before 2
Other 7
Percentage
17.9%
50.0%
7.1%
25.0%
Several districts are considering or planning to implement
mandatory extended contracts for music teachers. At the time of this
survey, 80% of those responding were not working on extended contracts.
In situations in which the teacher is employed on a standard contract, but
the school is operating on a multi-track calendar, arrangements have to be

109
made either toward not scheduling music when the music teacher is off¬
track or to provide substitute coverage for the music classes.
When asked if these teachers would recommend track or extended
contracts for other music teachers, 65.9% recommended track contracts
for music teachers to be most effective. No statistical significance was
found regarding present contracts and teacher recommendations
(P=0.23789) although the open-responses explaining their
recommendations (see Table 4) demonstrated a distinct relationship
between their recommendations and their reasoning: those who
recommended track contracts did so to prevent teacher burn-out; those who
recommended extended contracts did so to provide consistency and
continuity in the music classroom.
Table 4
Teacher Recommendations On Track or Extended Contracts
Response (N=48)
Frequency
Percentage
Track: Prevent teacher burn-out
21
43.8%
Extended: Consistency
11
22.9%
Other
16
33.3%
Several of the responses included in “Other” cited extended contracts
to be the preferred choice due to the increase in pay potential. Others
chose neither response but added comments to the effect that music teachers

110
should be able to plan their individual calendars around the demands of
their own programs.
Extended Contracts
The traditional calendar for Florida teachers consists of 180 days of
student contact and an additional 16 planning days. The music teachers
working on extended contracts in year-round schools teach between 200
and 241 days a year, depending on their particular district and school. All
teachers have a break at the end of December and some form of a summer
vacation—although it is often only one or two weeks.
Teachers who are working less than 241 days often have the
flexibility to plan their own vacation times. One teacher wrote:
I get to choose 21 days off during the year but not more than a week
at a time and I must choose my days off in advance. On my days off
I’m responsible for sub plans. (Brevard County)
Another teacher was given 10 sick/personal days a year and an additional
10 ‘no-pay’ days.
When asked about any increase in pay or benefits, most of the
extended contract teachers who responded indicated that their pay increase
was based on the teacher’s per diem pay times the extra days teaching. One
teacher, however, wrote:
They lower your hourly rate in comparison to a teacher with the
same experience on a traditional calendar. Last year I lost 22# per
hour. (Brevard County)
The benefits increase appeared to be approximately one extra sick
day per 20 extra days on extended contract. This is not necessarily true for

Ill
the entire state as five (56%) of those who responded indicated that they
received no increase in benefits.
One complaint that is heard from extended contract teachers is the
lack of planning days in which to plan, meet with other teachers, or even
do grades. Those teachers who ‘rainbow’ their classes have no opportunity
to meet with other music teachers and report feelings of isolation and
stress. This is clearly seen in the responses from extended contract
teachers about teacher burn-out. Table 5 demonstrates these data.
Table 5
Extended Contract Teachers on Teacher Burn-Out
Response (N=10)
Frequency
Percentage
More teacher burn-out
8
80%
Other
2
20%
The two responses that were classified as “Other” were both
comments that the teachers did not know yet the extent of their burn-out.
Other teachers responded:
I find myself trying to leave soon after school is out each day to pace
myself and not overwork. The schedule rotation becomes very
draining to keep up with, planning for units and events becomes a
challenge. I am more fatigued over all. (Volusia County)
I’m tired. I do take some extended days off without penalty. (Duval
County)

112
Children ‘starting over’ 3 times per year necessitates constant
review. Kids seem to learn less. Professional rewards (the sense
that you are helping kids) are few. (Orange County)
Track Contracts
Since many of the track contract music teachers are teaching in
single-track schools, they do not experience many of the complications that
teachers in multi-track situations have. Among the track teachers in multi¬
track schools, half of those who responded said that substitute teachers
were hired to cover their classes when they were off-track. The other half
said that music classes were not scheduled when they were gone. This
question demonstrated a problem with terminology. There was some
debate in the responses on the distinction between teachers being ‘off-track’
because they were not scheduled to work, and those who were ‘off-track’
because they were out sick or on personal leave.
When asked if there was any district provision for a ‘floating’
certified music teacher to cover music teacher absences, or if that would be
helpful to those teachers (see Table 6), most said that there was not any
provision, and that it would be helpful.
Most of the comments accompanying these responses centered on the
fact that, with certified music substitute teachers, the teaching and learning
process would be able to continue. Teachers wrote:
They could teach rather than baby-sit. (Orange County)
It would be nice to have a certified music teacher to continue lesson
plans. Regular teachers often have little understanding of music.
(Orange County)

113
This would be helpful, especially a ‘real’ music teacher.
Unfortunately my school sometimes ‘cannot’ find a sub at all to take
my place when I’m out sick or take a personal day. Music is just
canceled for that day. (Orange County)
Table 6
Use of Certified Music Substitute Teachers
Certified Subs Provided? (N=36)
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
3
8.3%
No
33
91.7%
Helpful to program? (N=30)
Yes
23
76.7%
No
7
23.3%
Those teachers who responded ‘no, providing certified substitutes
would not be helpful,’ expressed concern that they would not be able to
‘choose’ their own replacement, or that they already had substitutes with
whom they were happy.
Although the question and the responses might seem obvious and
predictable, the suggestion of hiring and providing certified music
substitutes to ‘float’ wherever needed in the county comes from the
California Music Educators Association (1991). This was a simple yet
effective way to help meet some of the needs of multi-track music teachers.

114
Music Teacher Views and Opinions
Communitv/School Relations
Many of the past experiments with year-round education in other
states have ended due to a lack of preparation and support on the part of
the surrounding community. Several questions were asked about the
cooperation and response of the community to year-round educational
needs.
Needs of families. When asked to identify the changes in the needs
of families, 78% of the teachers mentioned one or both of two topics:
child-care needs, and problems with the entire family not being on the
same schedule. Table 7 shows these data.
A few other topics were mentioned which were grouped into the
“Other” category: loss of band camps, children never getting a break from
schools, and the problem of families simply removing their children from
the year-round school.
Table 7
Changes Seen in the Needs of YR Families
Response (N=50)
Child-care needs
Schedules conflict
Child-care and Schedules conflict
Other
Frequency
22
7
10
Percentage
44%
14%
20%
22%
11

115
Community responses. The follow-up question of whether or not the
community has responded to these needs produced a 70.6% ‘yes’ from the
music teachers. Child-care, after-school programs, YMCA activities, and
intersession classes at school were the primary responses. One teacher
wrote: “We have now got 2 YRE schools in our county, both within 10
miles of each other. The area between the schools is patrolled more
regularly by police and community involvement in YRE is very strong and
supportive.”
College responses. The question of area colleges and their response
to the changing needs of YRE produced some interesting answers. Most
teachers (76%) responded that the colleges and universities in their areas
had not responded to their YR needs and suggested class schedules that
worked around intersessions, evenings, and weekends. Surprisingly, some
area colleges have responded by providing intersession opportunities for
children through short-term classes for fun and enrichment.
When asked how many non-workshop college courses each teacher
had taken over the last five years, 47% had taken one or fewer (see Table
8). Most of the responding teachers indicated that the year-round calendar
had affected their plans to take future college courses.
In the literature on year-round education, the lack of opportunity to
take summer courses is often mentioned in opposition to changing the
calendar. The question about how many non-workshop college courses
each teacher had taken over the last five years, was deliberately asked over
a longer time period than any of these districts had been involved in year-
round calendars. Several teachers mentioned that they had planned to

116
begin or continue work on graduate degrees but were unable to fit the
classes into their off-track times. Apparently the University of Central
Florida has attempted to create short, 3-week classes but it is difficult to
meet the needs of teachers constantly going on- and off-track. Comments
from teachers include the following:
Offer a 2-3 week class instead of a whole semester length. But UCF
is trying to do this but they draw from 3-4 different districts, each
having different YRE schedules. (Orange County)
It’s probably impossible to offer term dates that would meet YRE
needs, due to breaks falling at all different times. They never
attempted to schedule around us before YRE either. (Volusia
County)
Table 8
Teachers Enrolling in College Courses Over Last Five Years
Non-workshop classes (N=51)
Frequency
Percentage
0 to 1 College Class
24
47.0%
2 to 4 College Classes
21
41.2%
5 or More College Classes
6
11.8%
Affected plans to take classes (N=54)
Yes
36
66.7%
No
18
33.3%

117
School district responses. Many teachers felt that school districts
have not been proactive in meeting the needs of music teachers in YRE.
Table 9 demonstrates the types of problems and needs that teachers felt
should be addressed.
Many of the comments from responding teachers reflected on-going
problems including the following:
Table 9
Needs to be Addressed by School Districts
Response (N=39)
Certified substitute teachers
Meetings/Calendars/In-services
More money
Curricular needs
Other
Frequency
Percentage
10
25.6%
12
30.8%
4
10.3%
2
5.1%
11
28.2%
The need for a floating music teacher for multi-track teachers. Also,
principals should not be allowed to force their music teachers to
work extended contracts. (Orange County)
We have several county-wide music programs. If my students are
off-track during these scheduled events, they just luck out. Also,
preparation for programs are not given out in advance so that I can
prepare all tracks. Everything is geared to the traditional calendar.
(Brevard County)

118
Someone needs to look at a calendar that would better suit the needs
of holiday programs—or have another concert season (not a
traditional Christmas program). (Osceola County)
When can county-wide planning day workshops be held? Some
multi-track teachers are always working when traditional planning
days occur. (Duval County)
YRE takes more money. Especially for instruments and new music.
(Charlotte County)
Our county has not given us an opportunity to voice our concerns. It
is very difficult to articulate with the high schools. (Seminole
County)
Single-Track Schools
Music teachers from single-track schools were asked if single-track
scheduling created more negative consequences for music teachers as
opposed to regular teachers in other subjects. A full 80% replied that it
did not. Among the few that indicated that music teachers had more
problems in single-track schools, the main reason indicated was program
planning.
Program planning and preparation more difficult; field trips more
difficult. I hate being off-track during March (Music In Our Schools
month). (Orange County)
Only relating to planning programs in the course of the school year.
Now we have more interrupted time, interruptions which make it
more difficult for students to retain songs, etc., for plays/shows.
(Orange County)
When asked how single-track year-round scheduling affected their
music programs, the answers (see Table 10) were quite diverse.
Open-format questions are designed to give a great deal of latitude to
the respondent, however, it was interesting to note the wide span of their

119
answers. Some changes, like more advanced planning, are difficult to
categorize as either positive or negative.
Table 10
Effects of Single-Track Scheduling on Music Programs
Response (N=33)
Frequency
Percentage
Calendar/schedule problems
5
15.2%
Program/performance problems
7
21.2%
More advanced planning
7
21.2%
Improved learning/retention
2
6.0%
It makes it worse
2
6.0%
It makes it better
3
9.1%
It doesn’t affect the music program
7
21.2%
Multi-Track Schools
A similar question was asked of the multi-track teachers: Do you feel
as if multi-track year-round scheduling creates more negative consequences
for music teachers as opposed to regular teachers in other subjects? The
answers were skewed in the opposite direction (see Table 11). The follow¬
up questions led to answers that were much more focused with fewer topic
directions than those collected from the single-track teachers.

120
It should be noted that one teacher has viewed multi-track scheduling
in an extremely positive light.
My choral groups have never sounded better! We get to work on
All-State repertoire so much sooner! I had 7 students go last year.
More response, large choral groups. Students come to Saturday
rehearsals and come back to school during break sessions. (Duval
County)
Table 11
Effects of Multi-Track Scheduling on Music Programs
More negative for music? (N=22)
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
21
95.5%
No
1
0.5%
Whv is this true? (N=21)
Sequential teaching
6
28.6%
Performance problems
5
23.8%
Sequential teaching and Performance
7
33.3%
Other
3
14.3%
How does it affect music? (N=21)
More advanced planning
3
14.2%
Continuity
9
42.9%
Program/performance problems
9
42.9%

121
Unfortunately, all of the other responding multi-track teachers have
had a less-than-positive experience.
Having to change lesson units every three weeks is crazy. Usually it
takes more than 3 times seeing a student to finish that unit.
(Seminole County)
The music program must continue even when the music teacher is
off-track. Extra planning and interruptions in program. (Broward
County)
In terms of performance, there is always one track of students who
are absent. This makes it very difficult. You always have to re¬
teach because students were not at school. (Polk County)
Personal Views
In investigating the teacher perspectives on year-round teaching,
four questions were asked regarding their own professional involvement in
the process: the advantages and disadvantages of YRE, their plans to
continue, and whether or not student teachers/interns should be placed in
YR schools.
Advantages to YRE. When asked about the biggest advantages to
year-round calendars, respondents were given an opportunity to rank their
answers with ‘1’ as high. Table 12 shows the spread of the categories that
were mentioned by the respondents. Only those who actually numerically
ranked their responses were tallied in the list of ‘number one advantage.’
The most frequent response for both all advantages and the number one
advantage was the opportunity for shorter, more frequent breaks.
The Fisher Exact Test of Probability was run to see if there was any
correlation between the advantages and single-track/multi-track,
track/extended contracts, and elementary/secondary, but no significance

122
Table 12
Perceived Advantages to YRE
Biggest Advantages of YRE (N=50)
Frequency
Percentage
There are no advantages to YRE/
7
14%
Single-Track only
Frequent breaks/vacations
21
42%
Money/More or more frequent
4
8%
Less burn-out
8
16%
Improved student learning/retention
18
36%
Intersession classes
5
10%
Other
18
36%
#1 Biggest Advantage of YRE (N=32)
Less burn-out
5
15.6%
Frequent breaks/vacations
11
34.4%
Improved student learning/retention
6
18.8%
Other
10
31.2%
Note. The percentages total more than 100% because many respondents
included more than one of these topics in their comments.
was found. Perhaps the most interesting responses were those that simply
said there were no advantages to year-round education or those that said
‘single-track only.’

123
After only one year working with it, I’m not sure if there are any.
(Duval County)
I do not see an advantage. (Polk County)
A single-track should provide opportunities for remediation and
enrichment during off-track times. No advantages to multi-track.
(Duval County)
Disadvantages to YRE. The responses to the question, “What do you
see as the biggest disadvantages of year-round school calendars?” tended to
be longer and more respondents ranked their response than did for the
‘advantages’ question. Table 13 tabulates the responses by topic and then
by the answer ranked as number one. As was done with the previous table,
only those respondents who numerically ranked their answers were tallied
in the list of ‘number one disadvantage.’
The comments that were combined into “Not all schools are
involved” were generally geared in two directions: problems because not
all elementary schools were YR and the administration still tended to work
around the traditional calendar, and, problems because the high schools and
middle schools generally operated on different calendars. Families with
children in two or more schools had difficulties finding time when the
entire family was free.
The category of “Other” was unusually large for this question. This
was because there was a large range of disadvantages that were mentioned
by too few respondents to be able to categorize them together. Some of the
topics included: summer camps, too hot in summer, test scores decreased,
pressured into working intersession, and children have no time to grow up.

124
Table 13
Perceived Disadvantages to YRE
Biggest Disadvantages of YRE (N=52)
Frequency
Percentage
Increased burn-out
12
23.1%
Vacations are too short
9
17.3%
Lack of preparation time
5
9.6%
Not all schools are involved
12
23.1%
Curriculum/Learning problems
15
28.9%
Other
29
55.8%
#1 Biggest Disadvantage of YRE (N=35)
Increased burn-out
6
17.1%
Not all schools are involved
6
17.1%
Vacations are too short
5
14.3%
Curriculum/Learning problems
9
25.7%
Other
9
25.7%
Note. The percentages total more than 100% because many respondents
included more than one of these topics in their comments.
The Fisher Exact Test was again run to determine if there was any
correlation between the disadvantages mentioned and single-track/multi¬
track, track/extended contracts, and elementary/secondary, but no
significance was found. There were, however, some interesting trends in

125
the responses. Table 14 shows some of the raw data divided into categories
of teacher.
Some of the responses that might have been expected from certain
categories of teachers, were not necessarily evident. ‘Not all schools are
involved,’ for example, was only mentioned by track contract teachers in
single-track schools (see Table 14). The seeming anomalies that these raw
data demonstrate were not enough to create a statistical difference. It was
interesting, however, to note that teachers on track-oriented contracts and
teachers in single-track schools seemed to responded so differently in their
assessments of the disadvantages of year-round education.
Table 14
Disadvantages of YRE Grouped by Teacher Categories
Responses Single-track Multi-track
Increased burn-out 9 3
Not all schools are 12 0
involved
Curriculum/Learning 8 10
problems
Track
9
12
12
Extended
3
0
3
Note. “Track” refers to teachers, in both single- and multi-track schools,
employed on track contracts; “Extended” refers to teachers employed on
extended contracts

126
Plan to continue. Perhaps the most telling responses came from the
question “Do you personally want to continue to teach in year-round
schools?” Table 15 shows the frequencies and percentages of the responses,
and then the results of statistical analysis using Fisher’s Exact Test of
Probability.
The following assumptions were used for all the Fisher tests run:
Ct = .05; and Ho=There is no statistically significant difference between the
distributions of the subgroups and the total group.
Table 15
Future Plans on Teaching in YRS
Responses (N=51)
Frequency
Percentage
Yes
29
56.9%
No
22
43.1%
Continue
Not Continue
Totals
S-T
21
9
30
P(Ho is true)=
M-T
8
13
21
0.01865
Totals
29
22
N=51
Continue
Not Continue
Totals
on Ext
4
7
11
P(Ho is true)=
on Tr
24
15
39
0.09348
Totals
28
22
N=50
Note. “S-T”=Single-track; “M-T”=Multi-track; “on Ext”=On Extended
Contract; “on Tr”=On Track Contract

127
From the Fisher tests it is interesting to note that, although the type
of contract that the teachers work on is close, what is statistically
significant in the question of whether or not teachers want to continue
teaching in a year-round school is the school calendar: single-track or
multi-track. Although this does not necessarily mean that all those teachers
will resign if their school goes multi-track, it is something to consider.
Seminole County has already announced that all music teachers will be
required to work extended contracts (multi-track calendars) by the 1995-96
school year, and many of the current single-track schools plan to change to
multi-track when the enrollments create an overcrowded situation.
Many teachers followed-up with comments explaining their position.
Table 16 shows their categorized responses.
The personal and professional reasons cited for not wanting to
continue teaching in year-round schools included:
I need my long summers to relax and pull myself back together.
(Osceola County)
I valued my summer time with my family and also the opportunity to
take classes. (Orange County)
I don’t think it has saved money. I think it’s more trouble than it’s
worth. (Orange County)
Other teachers felt that the burn-out level was less, and they liked the
flexibility and the vacation and contract possibilities.
I love the October break for vacations and the long spring break for
house cleaning when it’s not hot weather. (Orange County)
It affords me the luxury of working a 4-day work week if I want to.
(Duval County)

128
I had less burn-out. I saw my students progress more. (Clay County)
Those teachers that said they wanted to continue but only in a single-
track setting were surprisingly vehement in their comments:
If I can stay on 1 track — I do not want extended. I think I’ll burn¬
out and my voice needs a rest. (Seminole County)
Table 16
Continue Teaching in Year-Round Schools
Responses (N=38) Frequency Percentage
No: Personal reasons 8 21.0%
No: Professional reasons 5 13.2%
Yes: Single-track only 6 15.8%
Yes: Vacations 7 18.4%
Yes: Personalized 5 13.1%
contracts
Yes: Less burn-out 2 5.3%
Other 5 13.2%
Several differences between music teachers and the rest of the
teaching faculty have already been mentioned (e.g. teaching the whole
student body, and public performances) but this response brings to light an
important factor that music teachers—especially elementary and choral—

129
must deal with: vocal fatigue. Vocal nodules and persistent laryngitis are
serious threats to teachers who sing for hours each day. Extended periods
of vocal rest may possibly be an occupational necessity.
Student teachers in year-round schools. Many Florida colleges and
universities have been slow to place student teachers in year-round schools.
Their reasons often include the difficulty in funding summer supervision,
spreading student teacher numbers too thin, and the fact that many schools
view YRE as somewhat of a fad and are taking a “wait-and-see” attitude for
the present. Of the music teachers surveyed, 91.5% said that student
teachers should be placed in year-round schools. Their predominant
reason (65.1%) was simply ‘reality.’
If schools are going to be on year-round schedules, new teachers
need the experience of what problems are created and how to
manage them. (Orange County)
It’s what is happening and they need to experience it. (Volusia
County)
There are situations unique to year-round. (Duval County)
Others got more to the crux of the situation:
It’s the experience of teaching that’s needed, not the experience of
schedule. Also, the schools they might teach in might be traditional
schedule. (Orange County)
It really doesn’t change the day-to-day teaching, it is only a matter of
arranging the schedule. (Volusia County)
One teacher cited the added responsibilities of supervising a student
teacher and suggested that they already had enough to do without adding
more.

130
The teacher/student-teacher relationship is complex. It has been
suggested that music teachers in difficult, lonely teaching positions might
look forward to having another musical colleague on campus. The
overwhelming positive vote for having student teachers in year-round
schools might be little more than that except for one fact: most of these
present music teachers have had to create their year-round music programs
“from scratch.” Any student teacher who has the opportunity to see a year-
round music program in action and successfully run can only benefit from
the trials and experiences of their supervisor. In addition, it is the only
calendar that can allow student teachers to witness a ‘first day of class,’
possibly the most traumatic day of any young teacher’s life.
High Schools on YRE. The last question of the section was addressed
only to the middle school (secondary) music teachers. “Currently there are
no high schools in Florida on year-round schedules. Do you think that
YRE would work with a high school music program?” Of the nine that
responded, four (44.4%) said yes but all of them qualified their answer
with further comments.
Yes: Only if all related activities were on similar schedules.
(Seminole County)
Yes: Only if the whole state were on year-round. Scheduling extra¬
curricular activities could be a problem. (Clay County)
No: Not unless every high school in Florida were on year-round.
(Band programs, football, marching schedules would be a mess.)
(Seminole County)
One teacher mentioned problems with summer school and another
teacher summed up the majority feeling:

131
Yes: But, as we know athletics is the tail that wags the dog. (Volusia
County)
One thing is clear: the traditional understanding of high schools
revolving around extra-curricular football games, marching bands, and
district/state activities in not easily compatible with the year-round
philosophy. The trend in YRE is towards school autonomy in which the
local school makes decisions, creates schedules, and develops plans best
suited to the needs of that particular neighborhood. There is no reason to
think that any of these complications could not be adapted but it would take
a wide-spread commitment to put an entire district or state on year-round
calendars. The current method of gradually easing in one school at a time
is difficult on the teachers and families involved, and it is rarely viewed as
a serious educational commitment on the part of the district administration
and the community.
Elementary Music Programs in Year-Round Schools
Music programs in elementary schools tend to be fundamentally
different than those found in middle or high schools. Secondary music
programs in Florida usually focus on performance groups and the public
presentation of their work. They consist of elective classes where those
that participate tend to be personally motivated to perform. Elementary
music programs, on the other hand, are often largely built around a
general music curriculum that is taught to the entire student body.
Performance groups in the elementary school are also often elective but
they are generally a lesser status in the overall music program.

132
Elementary General Music Classes
The core of the elementary music curriculum is the general music
class. Traditionally it has consisted of one (or sometimes two) 30- to 45-
minute music class per week. Progress and student development is
generally slow due to the limited time available, but it is consistent
throughout the year.
Scheduling music classes. When asked about the scheduling of their
general music classes, more than half (see Table 17) responded that their
students had a music class one time per week (when they are on-track).
What was interesting was the number of teachers who were operating on a
variable schedule that was not repeated on a weekly basis.
Table 17
Elementary General Music Class Schedules
Class times per month (N=46)
Frequency
Percentage
2 times (every other week)
2
4.3%
4 times (every week)
29
63.0%
8 times (twice a week)
2
4.3%
12 times (three times a week)
Ia
2.2%
Variable
12
26.1%
aThe one school that schedules music for three times a week is an
Elementary Performing Arts Magnet School with 2 music teachers and a
high focus on performance.

133
The variable schedules are especially prevalent in multi-track schools
in which the music teacher is hired to teach 180-days a year on a track
contract. Multi-track schools where the teacher works on an extended
contract often have a more stable class schedule.
All classes have a fixed 40-minute period once a week. The track
coming on takes the time slot of the track that’s leaving. (Volusia
County)
In order to meet the scheduling needs of a particular school/
community, and to provide as equitable a music exposure for the students
(and break times for the classroom teachers), some teachers have developed
variable schedules that rotate on a pattern other than weekly; others do a
yearly schedule where the only goal is to make sure every class has the
same number of music times per year.
Classes meet for 45-minutes. Gr. 2-5 are on a 5-day rotation; Gr. 1
and Family Groups are on a 7-day rotation; Kindergarten is on a 6-
day rotation. (Osceola County)
One time every 7 work days. (Orange County)
One time per week for 2/3rds of the year.
15 weeks: K, 1, 4, 5 for once a week;
15 weeks: K, 1, 2, 3 for once a week;
15 weeks: 2, 3, 4, 5 for once a week.
Kindergarten and 1st = 40 min.; 2nd and 3rd = 45 min.; 4th and
5th = 50 min. (Orange County)
All classes rotate every 4 school days. Grade levels with 5 classes
split the 5th class into 4 groups to send to ‘specials’ with the other 4
classes making them all larger. (Seminole County)
In situations in which each of the fine arts teachers is working on a
different track, often the only way to schedule equitably is to sit down at

134
the beginning of the year, color in all of the track changes, holidays, field
trips, conferences, festivals, and other school activities, and when each fine
arts teacher will be off-track, and then try to schedule the classes on a year¬
long calendar.
Scheduling responsibilities. With so much of the music teachers’
schedules and welfare at stake, the respondents were asked who did the
general music scheduling for their school. The majority of those
responding said that the administration did the scheduling. Table 18
presents these data.
Table 18
Personnel Involved in Scheduling Elementary General Music Classes
Which personnel are involved? (N=44)
Frequency
Percentage
Music teacher
14
31.8%
All fine arts teachers
21
47.7%
Administration
24
54.6%
Other
6
13.6%
Note: The percentages equal more than 100% because many of the
respondents identified more than one person responsible for scheduling.
In a few cases the classroom teachers were involved in the scheduling
process. Those answers were tallied under ‘Other.’

135
Ninety-six percent of those responding said that they had a planning
time/break built into their schedule; 70% indicated that they had a planning
time every day. There was some debate as to whether or not ‘before’ and
‘after’ school counted as a planning time.
Effect on music teaching
Several open-format questions asked the elementary general music
teachers about their impressions on the effect that year-round scheduling
had had on their teaching with regard to sequencing, curriculum content
and development, student understanding, and material retention. These
have traditionally been the ‘hot’ topics of year-round education but always
from the standpoint of the classroom teacher. Unfortunately, the numbers
involved in this survey were too few to be able to make any far-reaching
statements about the effect of year-round education on music learning and
teaching. Still, some interesting trends can be seen in their responses.
Sequencing. Sequencing, the art of succession and teaching concepts
that build upon each other, has led some teachers to try numbering their
lessons and then presenting them, in order, no matter when that particular
class got to that number. Table 19 is a synopsis of these data.
The main reasons indicated by those who felt that sequencing was
getting worse were the fact that it was difficult to keep track of where the
different classes were musically and the need for more review.
It’s difficult to keep track of who is on/off track and where we left
off. (Brevard County)
Difficult to remember what concepts have been introduced to the
children. When children return to school, reviewing must occur.
(Polk County)

136
Table 19
Effect of Year-Round Education on Sequencing
Effect on sequencing (N=45)
No Change
Frequency
14
15
10
6
Percentage
31.1%
Worse
Better
Other3
33.3%
22.2%
13.3%
aSeveral of the respondents answered simply, ‘yes,’ which was categorized
under “Other” since it was impossible to determine if it was a positive or
negative effect.
Among those who felt that sequencing was improved, one teacher
wrote:
Sequencing and curriculum content have been easier than ever! I
take a copy of the YRE calendar (one for each grade level) and I
write in my concepts (musical and integrated ones with classroom)
on little yellow stickers throughout the year. It maps out my whole
year! (Seminole County, single-track school)
Curriculum content/concept development. Since the typical amount
of time each child receives music instruction, especially in the elementary
grades, is so short, the question of whether or not year-round scheduling is
affecting what can be taught is important. Table 20 is a categorical
representation of the responses.

137
Although the largest response was that there had been no effect, half
of the teachers responded that there had been an effect, either positive or
negative, on what they were teaching in their classes. Those that felt the
effect had been positive generally based their responses on the fact that
year-round scheduling had forced them to be more organized and
structured. Those that felt the effect was a negative one cited changes in
their holiday emphasis, the need to teach by units, and the need for more
review.
Table 20
Effect of Year-Round education on Curriculum Content/Concept
Development
Response (N=40)
Frequencv
Percentage
Better
8
20%
Worse
12
30%
No Change
16
40%
Other
4
10%
We are not in session for Halloween or Valentine’s Day so I don’t do
those holidays with primary like I used to. (Orange County)
I try my best in all of these areas to meet the needs of each class.
Obviously when a track is out, we must review. The same concepts
are taught to each class on a grade level, but the activities/songs may
change based on the time of year. (Duval County)

138
I teach by concept—I repeat the same concept in a variety of ways,
so that students are bound to understand the concept because of the
repetition of ideas. 1 very rarely go all the way back to square one
each time a class comes back on rack. There is no way to keep up
with all the materials, instruments, and visuals if you go back to the
beginning for each class. (Orange County)
Student understanding. More teachers indicated that there was no
change in the amount or level of student understanding than had indicated
so in the related questions. Table 21 presents these data. Some of the
accompanying comments, however, gave the impression that there might be
a relationship between the length of time that the students/teachers had been
on a year-round calendar and their impression on whether or not student
understanding had been changed.
Comments from some of the teachers included:
We’ve been on YRE for 3 years now and my students do seem to
remember what I’ve taught them a little better than before on the
traditional calendar. (Seminole County)
Better from close of year to beginning of next. (Orange County)
Table 21
Effect of Year-Round Education on Student Understanding
Responses (N=38)
Better
Worse
No Change/Don’t Know
Frequency
9
6
Percentage
23.7%
15.8%
60.5%
23

139
None of the responding teachers had had more than four years of
year-round music education in their schools. A Chi-Square test was run to
see if there was any relationship between the number of years and the
teachers’ responses. The raw data indicated that that was a possibility (see
Table 22), however, the numbers received were too small for the test to be
effective, even with the Yates correction, as the average number of
expected frequencies per cell was less than five (Sterling & Pollack, 1968).
Table 22
Raw Data Comparing Student Understanding and Years of YRE
Better
1 vear
2
2 vears
4
3 vears
3
4 vears
0
Total
9
Worse
3
3
0
0
6
No Change
3
10
6
4
23
Totals
8
17
9
4
38
Material retention. One of the main educational selling points of
year-round education is that teachers have claimed that their students retain
more of what is taught by avoiding the long summer vacation. That
question, when put to elementary music teachers, produced some
interesting responses (see Table 23).

140
Many of these teachers appear to still be thinking in a “September-to-
June” pattern. Comments included:
I think they retain more over the summer break than on traditional
calendar. (Orange County)
Students seem to retain more from June/end of May when restarting
end of July. (Orange County)
Students retain better without the 3-month break in summer.
(Broward County)
Others viewed retention from a different perspective:
The frequent breaks are annoying. I feel as if I have less time and
must spend more time reviewing after intersessions. (Orange
County)
Table 23
Effect of Year-Round Education on Material Retention
Responses (N= 42)
Frequency
Percentage
Better
13
31.0%
Worse
12
28.5%
No Change
13
31.0%
Other
4
9.5%
Most of the Florida schools that are on year-round calendars are too
new to the experience to be able to see long-term changes in teaching or
learning. Several districts have begun comparing test scores and other

141
measures to see if there is any discernible change in student responses. At
best all of these studies, including this research project, can be viewed as
base-line studies, with more research being needed as more long-term data
becomes available.
Effect on the music classroom environment
The classroom environment is a complex issue that is often affected
by every change, disruption, personality, and decoration that is on the wall.
Realizing that the change in vacation patterns would most likely be
evidenced in the individual reactions of students and teachers, two aspects
of the classroom environment were studied: student discipline and teacher
burn-out.
Student discipline. More than half (54.6%) of those surveyed
indicated that there was no change in student discipline. Among the other
responses, some found that students were less restless due to the more
frequent breaks; others found the children to be more excited before and
after each break. This, again, is a topic that will benefit from a longer
perspective. As students are more experienced with year-round school,
their responses will be less likely to reflect the ‘newness’ of the year-round
calendar.
Teacher burn-out. If the music teacher is feeling tired and stressed,
it is likely that the music classroom environment will be effected. When
asked if year-round scheduling had affected their perceived level of burn¬
out, 77% indicated that it had. Table 24 reflects these data.

142
Table 24
Effect of Year-Round Education on Teacher Burn-Out
Responses (N=44)
Frequency
Percentage
More burn-out
15
34.1%
Less burn-out
19
43.2%
Same/Don’t Know Yet
8
18.2%
Other
2
4.5%
Chi-Square tests were run to see if there was any relationship
between the perceived burn-out and single-track/multi-track school
calendars (P=.2332), and track/extended contracts (P=. 1218). In neither
case was there found any statistically significant differences at the CC=.05
level.
The comments from the teachers seem to indicate a stronger
relationship:
I have not felt so overwhelmed or tired as I have had these past 3-4
years. The years seem to run into each other. There is never a
break where I am not responsible for lessons. (Brevard County,
extended contract)
Definitely increased in special areas on extended contract. (Lake
County, extended contract)
On single-track school I believe it to be much lower! I did not have
to spend Christmas holidays recovering from the long fall semester
because I had a 3-week break at the end of Oct., came back for 6

143
weeks, then out for Christmas. It was the first time in 16 years of
teaching I was not sick (from exhaustion) for Christmas. (Orange
County, track contract)
The two responses categorized as “Other” were interesting:
Teachers get tired of saying the same old things to the same old kids.
(Orange County, track contract)
Terminal. (Orange County, track contract)
In the end, when asked if year-round education had made a
difference in their teaching, 71% said that it had. Those teachers who
added a comment mentioned being more rested, needing to be more
organized, record-keeping, and adjusting to a new flow of learning.
Elementary Performing Groups
In addition to teaching the entire school general music, most music
teachers sponsor performing groups to give special opportunities to
talented and/or interested students. The nature of the different performing
groups tends to reflect the interests and talents of the individual teacher as
well as the resources of that particular school. Unfortunately, many
teachers have found that year-round calendars affect different aspects of
their performance program.
Performing groups. Although only five (10.6%) of the 47
respondents indicated that they did not have performing groups in their
school, 30% of the teachers said that YRE had played a role in their
decision to have or not have performing groups. Some of their comments
included:
No time during day—due to overcrowding. (Orange County)

144
Too much erratic changing in tracks off/on. I really think it is easier
for the music teacher (to not have performing groups). I have
considered selecting a chorus that doesn’t include tracks that are off
in December/November. Seems too much to worry about plus
teaching. (Volusia County)
Among those teachers who did have performing groups, Table 25
demonstrates the distribution of their nature.
Table 25
Performing Groups in Year-Round Schools
Response (N=45)
Frequency
Percentage
Orff ensemble
15
33.3%
Chorus
47
104.4%a
Recorder ensemble
16
35.6%
Instrumental groups
15
33.3%
Other*5
6
13.3%
Note: Percentages total more than 100% because most schools had more
than one performing group.
Chorus is over 100% because nine schools had more than one choral
group.
^Most of the performing groups that were grouped into ‘Other’ were dance
or drama groups sponsored by the music teacher.

145
Quality of performance. When asked if they felt that year-round
scheduling had affected the quality of their performances, 52.4% said that
it had. All of those that said that their performances were affected
indicated in their comments that this was a negative effect. Table 26
categorizes the written responses describing this impact.
Table 26
Effect of Year-Round Education on Quality of Performances
Response (N=28)
Frequency
Percentage
Disrupts learning/performances
8
28.6%
Extra rehearsals
3
10.7%
Planning ahead
4
14.3%
Missing students
6
21.4%
Other
7
25%
Some of the teacher comments include:
One track is always off, so the children are always playing catch up.
There are “3 week holes” in the instruction received. (Volusia
County)
It hasn’t affected it drastically, because I try to do enough make-up
rehearsals (after-school) to compensate for the absences. It is more
difficult, however, to present a quality program. (Orange County)
It’s very difficult to prepare your groups for performances when
your students are coming and going off-track. You never know who

146
will show up the night of the performances. And if they show up, do
they know all the pieces? (Brevard County)
Statistical tests were run to see if there was any relationship between
a change in the quality of the performances and single-track/multi-track
calendars (P=.1702) and track/extended contracts for teachers (P=.2916).
No statistical significance was found.
Scheduling concerts. Basically there are two kinds of elementary
performing group teachers: those that do two concerts a year (Winter and
Spring), and those that do many concerts a year. Year-round calendars
potentially play havoc with performing schedules because of the unusual
timing of some of the intersession breaks.
The teachers were asked how they scheduled their concerts in
conjunction with YRE. Of those that responded, 25% indicated that they
continued, as they had done before, with two concerts per year. Even
though most single-track schools in Florida have a vacation period during
late October/early November, 91.3% of all the teachers responding said
that they still had a Christmas/Winter Holiday concert in December.
Those teachers that do more than two performances per year had
some interesting comments about how they try to schedule their concerts:
We have to schedule around the intersessions. We have to turn down
many opportunities if we are just back from a break. (Osceola
County)
My December concert happens when green is off so I make sure
green is on in the spring. (Volusia County)
We just pick dates. It doesn’t matter, someone will always be off¬
track. (Brevard County)

147
A date is scheduled and then I have to call parents of the children
who are absent or ‘off-track.’ Some parents will bring their child to
rehearsals and performances even when the child is off-track. (Polk
County)
The off-track students must commit to attend during their time off.
(Vacations, family emergencies are excused!) (Seminole County)
Whoever is off-track misses the performance. (Orange County)
Some schools do more with grade-level performances than special
performing ensembles. In schools where entire grade levels are never on
campus at the same time, some teachers have implemented ‘track’
performances/pageants where, rather than all the fourth-graders perform,
all the students on Yellow track might perform.
Performing groups in multi-track schools. Since, by definition, all
tracks are not on campus at the same time in multi-track schools1,
performing groups in these schools have particular problems. Table 27
shows the answers that the multi-track teachers gave in response to the
question of how they handled the problem of performing group members
coming on- and off-track at different times.
The idea of “different ensembles for different tracks” was only
indicated by two of the responding music teachers. Although this initially
sounds like a lot more work, it is perhaps the least stressful of the indicated
options.
!The only exception to that is a situation where there is fewer than five
tracks and, because the school is not overcrowded, all tracks are scheduled
to ‘overlap’ and be on campus at the same time. The two-track schools that
have both YRE and TSC on the same campus would have occasions where
both tracks are on campus at the same time.

148
When asked what percentage of invited-off-track students returned
on-campus for rehearsals, the answers ranged from 2% to 95%, with the
average being 28.9%.
Table 27
Dealing With Off-Track Students and Multi-Track Performing Groups
Response (N=18)
Frequency
Percentage
Contracts: on- and off-track students must
attend all rehearsals
3
16.7%
Off-track students are invited to attend
rehearsals
16
88.9%
Different ensembles for different tracks
2
11.1%
“Catch-up” rehearsals for students just coming
back on-track
7
38.9%
I just do the best I can; I never know who will
be in rehearsal
6
33.3%
Note. Percentages total more than 100% because most teachers indicated
more than one response.
The idea of inviting off-track students to come back on campus for
rehearsals or performances can be problematic. Table 28 presents the data
received about problems with off-track students and attendance, discipline,
permission, transportation, and record-keeping.

149
Performing groups in the elementary school are extra work for the
music teacher in any situation. Year-round calendars, however, have made
them particularly difficult. It is interesting to note that most of the music
teachers surveyed still made the effort to continue their performing
programs. These teachers often adapted their ensembles, their
performances, and sometimes even their expectations, in order to enable
their students to have the best opportunity possible.
Table 28
Off-track students coming on campus for rehearsals
Have you had problems with regard to off- Yes
track students coming on campus for
rehearsals?
Attendance 12
Discipline while in rehearsal 3
Discipline on campus but not in rehearsal 3
Parent permission 4
Administrative support 3
Transportation 10
Off-campus concerts 6
Record-keeping 9
No
5
13
13
12
14
6
9
8
Note. Not all respondents answered all the questions.

150
Secondary Music Programs in Year-Round Schools
Even though 77% of the questionnaires sent to secondary music
teachers were returned, as there were only 13 teachers in that population,
the numbers received were too small to be of any long-term significance.
The comments, however, reflect the hard work being performed by music
teachers in difficult situations.
Secondary General Music Classes
Only three Florida year-round middle schools indicated that they had
any general music classes in their curriculum: two of them were part of a
“wheel” opportunity for sixth-grade students. Two of the schools were
single-track, and the third school offered general music on all tracks by
‘rainbowing’ students in and out as they come back on-track.
The general music curriculum was generally based on short units.
Some of the units mentioned included: basic theory, composer projects,
recorder, composing, baritone ukulele, and old musicals. When asked if
YRE had made a difference in their general music teaching, two of the
respondents answered ‘yes,’ and the third said, “12-weeks is cut short due
to due date of grades. So last week is somewhat ineffective and
unproductive.”
Secondary School Performing Groups
The focus of most of the middle school music programs in Florida is
the performing groups. The problems faced by elementary performance
group directors tend to be magnified in middle schools.
No year-round middle schools in Florida have chosen to institute a
‘music track’ for those interested in participating in performing groups.

151
Those schools that are multi-track have performing ensembles available for
students from all tracks.
Performing schedules. When asked if year-round calendars had
affected their performance schedules, 77.8% said ‘yes.’
Performances must come during second half of each 60 days. This
makes certain seasonal (Christmas) concerts difficult. (Seminole
County)
Breaks interfere with performances. Many concerts are scheduled
(if they can be) during each 12-week session. (Seminole County)
Some teachers indicated that the early start (July rather than
September) allowed for an extra fall concert; another teacher indicated that
they did fewer performances.
Performing groups in year-round schools. The performing
ensembles identified by those who responded included a wide variety of
bands and choruses (and one ‘All-State Ensemble’) but no orchestras or
string programs.
Quality of performances. When asked if YRE had affected the
performance quality of their ensembles, more than half of the teachers felt
that it had. The effect was identified as positive from two of the teachers,
negative by one, and both positive and negative by one.
Positive: Quick recall, cassette tapes used at home, and students
coming back to school for rehearsals. (Duval County)
Positive: More retention, due to shorter breaks, though more
frequent. (Seminole County)
Negative: Lack of communication from the school board and
superintendent; we have no input; we’re just given a schedule.
(Seminole County)

152
Positive and Negative: Groups are stronger earlier in year, but
burned-out by April due to longer year. (Seminole County)
Only two teachers responded to the question of “How do you
maintain musical balance and/or instrumentation when some students are
off-track?”
Students come back (off intersession) when they have special parts or
I record on cassette tapes and they rehearse at home at their leisure.
(Choral director)
You don’t. (Band director)
Recruiting. In spite of the small number of responses, the direction
of the responses regarding recruitment and how it is affected by YRE was
interesting. Some teachers viewed it as an opportunity to reach more
students; other teachers felt it necessary to limit the size of their programs.
Done carefully and well ahead of time. (Duval County)
Must be done very early—like February. (Seminole County)
We’ve been lucky, I guess. We have large groups here. (Duval
County)
I must limit the size of program, though school is allowed to become
bigger. (Seminole County)
Curriculum sequence/teaching. With regard to curriculum
sequencing and teaching, several teachers mentioned student boredom as
being a problem due to the constant need for review and repetition.
Must accomplish more early in the year. (Seminole County)
Difficult to maintain interest at 12-week rotation. (Seminole
County)
Many students are bored by the repetition of reteaching material to
missing track [that just came back on-track]. (Duval County)

153
Uniforms and instruments. No concerns, specific to YRE, were
identified by respondents with regard to uniforms, robes, instruments, or
repairs.
Classroom environment
As was discussed in the elementary section, two aspects of the
classroom environment were discussed to see if there was any effect on the
part of the year-round calendar: student discipline and teacher burn-out.
Student discipline. Middle school teachers generally have to have
good discipline structures in order to survive. Several teachers mentioned
that the addition of the year-round calendar added difficulties because of
the added start- and stop-times.
Problems the last 2-3 weeks of each 12-week session. (Seminole
County)
Have 3 distinct school beginnings and endings where students are
harder to manage. (Seminole County)
You experience the first week and last week of school three times a
year. (Seminole County)
Teacher burn-out. An overwhelming sense of fatigue came through
most of the words of those who considered teacher burn-out in their year-
round schools.
I am more tired than usual in August-September due to long stretch
from March to October with 3 weeks off in June. (Seminole
County)
Very tired — especially the last 2 weeks before break. (Seminole
County)
Sometimes I do not get a true ‘break’ during intersession because I’m
catching up and planning ahead. (Seminole County)

154
Music tracks. An interesting response, that probably reflected the
feeling of fatigue, came in response to the following questions: “In a multi¬
track school, should music students be scheduled on one track? Two tracks?
All available tracks?” Table 29 reflects their responses.
Table 29
Secondary Music Students and Music Tracks
Music tracks
Yes
No
Music students on one track?
6
1
Music students on two tracks?
2
3
Music students on all tracks?
2
3
One teacher added the comment:
I would prefer one-track scheduling but I think you would hurt the
program. Too many students would be forced to choose track time
over having band. (Duval County)
Another liked the idea of two-tracks,
If beginning band could be on one and advanced band on the other.
(Volusia County)
Catching-up off-track students. A problem for ‘rainbowed’
performing ensembles in multi-track schools is the need to get returning
students caught-up with the rest of the ensemble who have been
playing/singing for three-weeks without them. Suggestions included:

155
Private lessons or master classes. (Seminole County)
There should be another music teacher to assist with this. (Seminole
County)
Review of technical work is never bad for the rest of the group.
Work on selections is more difficult to review. Many of the
problems noted here would or could be handled by an assistant but
budgets rarely allow that. (Duval County)
This would be an intolerable situation! (Seminole County)
Conclusion. There are so few middle school music teachers in
Florida that it is difficult to create an accurate picture of what the overall
situation is like. In addition, the teaching situations that they are working
under are so different that it is difficult to classify them in one category.
The other side of that statement, however, is that these teachers are each
having to create, from the ground up, means to adapt their traditional
music programs into year-round music programs. Many of their problems
would be helped by the addition of other middle schools into the year-
round ranks.
Year-Round Preparation
After learning some of the lessons from Pasco County and Jupiter,
most school districts take at least a full year to prepare for the change to
year-round calendars. That preparation time and effort does not always
reach down to the level of the classroom and music teachers.
General preparation. When asked what kind of general preparation
specific to YRE did they receive prior to teaching on a year-round
calendar, most of the responding music teachers (54.5%) said ‘none.’

156
Several teachers did identify formal and/or informal preparation that they
had had access to:
Visited several YRE schools. Research on possible problems and
solutions. (Orange County)
We spent a year planning. It was a tremendous amount of extra
work, meetings, planning. (Orange County)
Just an explanation of how it would work. (Duval County)
Workshops presented from administrators who already were on the
YRE schedule. (Orange County)
Music preparation. Preparation specific to music teaching in year-
round schools was apparently harder to find. Of those responding, 84.2%
simply wrote in the word ‘none.’ The music teachers of Orange County,
under the supervision of Carolyn Minear, appeared to have fared better
than many of the other districts.
We had several county-level meetings with other music teachers to
exchange ideas. (Orange County)
Meeting with other music teachers who were on year-round.
(Orange County)
A couple of staff developments and a district meeting on music in the
year-round schools. (Orange County)
Year-round music assistance/support. As a follow-up to the previous
question, the teachers were asked if there were any official or unofficial
assistance or support groups with whom year-round music teachers could
exchange ideas. Of those responding, 67.9% said that there was not. The
ACE Coalition (Arts for a Complete Education), FBA (Florida
Bandmasters Association), and FMEA (Florida Music Educators
Association) were the only ‘official’ groups mentioned. Several teachers

157
mentioned that their music supervisor did what they could to help their
programs run smoothly. Other teachers listed some specific support that
would be helpful:
Always valuable is to hear how others are working out. You always
get ideas from others. (Duval County)
Sharing scheduling ideas. YRE is still relatively new to most of our
county. (Seminole County)
We are the only year-round school in our county. Contact/dialogue
with other year-round music teachers would be great. (Lake County)
Teacher Demographics
A composite image of those responding to the questionnaire was
created based on their individual demographics. Table 30 reflects these
specific data.
The number of years that these teachers have taught ranged from one
to 34 years, with the average being 15 years. The number of years that
they had taught in their present school ran from one to 12 years, with the
average of six years. The number of years that they had taught in a year-
round school ran from one to four years, with the average being 2.2 years.
All but two of the teachers had worked in traditional calendar schools prior
to teaching in a year-round school.
Teachers often rely on college courses for recertification and
advancement. One of the frequent concerns about year-round calendars is
the fact that there is little time to take college courses. Table 31 is a
synopsis of the responses on how many non-workshop college courses they
had taken over the last five summers.

158
Table 30
Year-Round Music Teacher Demographics
Sex (N=51)
Frequency
Percentage
Male
13
22.8%
Female
44
77.2%
Age Group (N=56)
Average Age =
41.9 years
20’s
4
7.1%
30’s
22
39.3%
40’s
16
28.6%
50’s
12
21.4%
60’s
2
3.6%
Educational Background (N=57)
Bachelors Degree
30
52.7%
Masters Degree
26
45.6%
Doctorate
1
1.8%
When asked if the year-round calendar had affected their plans to
take future college courses, 66.7% said that it had. One teacher interpreted
the question a little differently and wrote:
I’m going to get my Masters in Elementary Education and go into a
classroom. (Orange County)

159
Table 31
Non-Workshop College Courses Taken Over the Last Five Summers
Response (N=51)
Frequency
Percentage
0 or 1 college course
24
47.1%
2 to 4 college courses
21
41.2%
5 or more college courses
6
11.7%
Suggestions
The last question on the survey was: “As an experienced year-round
music teacher, what suggestions would you make to a music teacher or
administrator preparing to launch a year-round school to help them have a
quality music program?” Needless to say, the range of answers was wide.
Table 32 is a grouping of their responses into categories.
Go single-track. Many of the teachers were quite adamant about
their views on multi-track calendars and especially extended contracts.
NO EXTENDED CONTRACTS unless a teacher desires it. This
issue really concerns me and fellow music and art teachers as we are
concerned about burn-out. (Seminole County)
Under no circumstance is a multi-track calendar a good choice for
year-round. Multi-track is a desperation attempt to house 1600
students in a school built to hold a maximum of 1200. The
individual classrooms do not particularly suffer—it’s only where you
are trying to involve all of the children in some sort of year-round
program like chorus, etc. with large groups of children constantly

160
coming out and returning. It is very hard on continuity. (Duval
County)
Table 32
Music Teacher Suggestions for a Successful Year-Round Music Program
Response (N=49)
Frequency
Percentage
Go Single-Track/Work a Track Contract
15
30.6%
Flexible curriculum and schedule
24
49.0%
Plan ahead
15
30.6%
Hire floating music substitute teachers
4
8.2%
YRE won’t work
4
8.2%
Other
23
53.1%
Note: The percentages total more than 100% because many of the
respondents mentioned more than one of these topics.
Flexibility. The largest category of responses had to do with
flexibility. The advice was not only for music teachers with regard to
schedules and shifting some of their expectations, but also with regard to
working with the school, teachers, and administration, and becoming a
viable part of the school community.
Concentrate more on teaching. Keep your life simple. (Orange
County)
Allow the music teacher to decide the content of the curriculum, not
the county office. (Charlotte County)

161
Try and connect the curriculum in the regular classroom with your
(music) classroom as much as possible. (Charlotte County)
Have a good working relationship with media specialist, FTE [Full-
Time-Equivalent] clerk, secretary, custodians, etc. You will need
their help a lot! (Seminole County)
Support. Be visible. Make the music program a vital part of your
school. (Orange County)
Plan ahead. The advice to ‘plan ahead’ is appropriate for any music
teacher, but especially those facing year-round calendars.
Learn to plan way in advance — you may be teaching Christmas
music in July! (Osceola County)
Organization and communication are the 2 most important and
difficult necessities. I never seem to get things done far enough
ahead. (Duval County)
Talk with PTA to pre-set performance dates for their support.
(Volusia County)
Know what you would like to teach. Have goals and units (long-
range planning). Be prepared to spend quite a bit of time
coordinating/preparing lesson plans and extra rehearsals for
performing groups. It can work if you don’t allow the system to
‘wear’ on you! Don’t let the little things become bio problems!
(Seminole County)
Hire floating music substitutes. The problem of substitute teachers
for music classes is particularly difficult for year-round music teachers.
This is because their schedules are so complex that it is difficult to ‘jump
in’ for a day, and because, for teachers on track contracts, they are often
absent for three-weeks at a time.
Arrange for qualified music teachers to cover contracted music
teacher’s class when they are off-track. (Orange County)

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YRE won’t work. Some teachers viewed year-round education as a
failure and not worth trying to make it work.
YRE is a big frustration to those doing it and we all know it will
crash big time soon! (Orange County)
The overall quality of all education is negatively affected by year-
round. (Orange County)
I really can’t figure out anything to make a “quality” music program
work on multi-track. (Orange County)
Other. A myriad of topics were categorized together as ‘Other’
simply because there were so few of each particular topic. Some of the
suggestions included:
As a music teacher you need to be extremely knowledgeable of
subject, healthy, intelligent, creative, easy to work with, have a large
support system, understanding and totally organized. Administrators
need to find music teachers with these qualities. (Volusia County)
Your school size will affect the program. (Duval County)
Place students in performing groups on the same track. Maybe a
different track for each performing group. (Brevard County)
Offer singleton scheduling of performing classes. (Duval County)
I have seen a block schedule where students get 30 classes in a row
and none for the rest of the year — perhaps that would be good.
(Orange County)
Don’t fight the schedule—use it to your advantage. (Osceola County)
Create a Music In Our Schools Month alternative. (Clay County)
The year-round teacher must stay well organized, anticipate
problems, and be prepared to do everything twice. Everything
except the performances must be repeated for the missing track of

163
kids. You must also offer review every 3 weeks. This can be very
hard on beginners in instrumental music. (Duval County)
Multi-track requires a whole different way of thinking, preparing,
and doing as it will most likely affect how often and when you see
your classes. Most definitely affects special performing groups. It
was our experience at our school that multi-track YRE affected our
faculty morale. Teachers had uncommon teacher work days, we
were all coming and going at different times and we didn’t have
times to fellowship and ‘click.’ (Seminole County)
To paraphrase the last teacher quoted, music in year-round education
requires a whole different way of thinking, preparing, and doing. Many of
the suggestions that were categorized as ‘Other’ reflected teachers looking
for new ways to define their profession and their role in the educational
process.

CHAPTER VII
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
Summary
The purpose of this study was to investigate, describe, and provide
information about the music programs in year-round schools in Florida.
No previous studies had focused on the specific problems facing music
teachers in year-round schools. Although the literature available on year-
round education is quite plentiful, literature on music programs and
information on year-round education in Florida is very limited.
Perhaps the most appealing aspect of year-round education is the
flexibility it allows for the school to meet the specific needs of the
community. This flexibility means that there can be no single definition of
what a year-round school is or how it is structured. The basic premise—
the one long summer vacation being broken up into shorter, more frequent
vacation periods throughout the year—is but a springboard for the myriad
of calendars that schools use under the label of ‘year-round education.’
Music teachers in year-round schools might work in single-track or multi¬
track schools; they might teach on a track or on an extended contract; they
might be one of many year-round music teachers in their county, or they
might be alone. Each of these factors plays a significant part in defining
their role in their particular school.
The review of the literature on year-round education began with a
focus on the year-round movement from a historical standpoint. Although
164

165
most people assume that YRE is a relatively new idea, it actually began in
1904 in Bluffton, Indiana, in an attempt to create more (student) space and
to improve the quality of education.
From 1904 to 1970 the concept of YRE continued quietly in
scattered communities across the nation without being a major force in
educational reform. In 1970, the 45-15 calendar was designed in the
Valley View School District (Illinois) and completely revolutionized the
concept of year-round education. Its main advantage—that all students
have a short vacation period in each of the four seasons—has been
continued in most subsequent calendar designs. The 45-15 design, along
with the closely related 60-20 and the 60-15 designs, are still the most
frequently used year-round calendar designs used today.
Year-round education in Florida has experienced two main phases.
The first began in Miami in the early 1970s and ended in 1981 with the
demise of the Jupiter Concept Six program. The second phase began in
Marion County in 1985 and continues to the present. In 1993-94 Florida
had 105 year-round schools located in 12 counties across the state.
Most of the research studies on year-round education have focused
on four topics: saving money, student achievement, quality of education,
and the responses of the community, families, teachers, and administrators.
The combined results of these studies have not created the overwhelmingly
positive picture that many YRE proponents had hoped for. Instead, the
results tend to reflect no great improvements but then no losses either.
Several sampling problems may have contributed to these results:
few districts have had year-round programs functioning for enough years
that the results could be fairly drawn, and most districts that try year-

166
round schools do so to help handle vast overcrowding. As a result, these
schools often tend to be schools that have other serious problems already.
The literature on music in year-round schools is limited to a few
articles by music teachers and some passing references in other sources.
The consensus of these references is that year-round education is
problematic for music programs. The advice from music-teacher authors
to their peers was to ‘be flexible.’ The advice from non-musician authors
was to invite off-track students to come back for rehearsals and
performances, and to do more concerts during the year.
To investigate the year-round music situation in Florida, a two-
phased qualitative design was developed. The first phase consisted of
interviews with 14 year-round music teachers. From the information
gleaned from these teachers, the second phase, an extensive questionnaire,
was developed.
The questionnaire was distributed to all of the year-round music
teachers in Florida. The format consisted of a combination of both open-
and closed-format questions. Upon receipt of the completed questionnaire,
the researcher categorized the open-format responses to identify trends in
the comments of the teachers. The response rate was 58.8%.
The data from the questionnaires were analyzed by frequencies,
modes, and percentages. To compare the responses of different categories
of year-round music teachers, the Chi-Square test and the Fisher Exact Test
of Probability were used. Statistical significance was found in only one
instance: there was a statistically significant relationship between the type
of calendar (single-track) and the teachers’ desire to continue teaching in

167
year-round schools. In several of the other examples the numbers were
much too small to run meaningful statistical tests.
Conclusions
Although there are wide varieties of calendars and contracts, the data
received from the music teachers in year-round schools in Florida revealed
many similarities in their concerns and views on community/school
relations, general music programs, performing groups, and teacher
preparation. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions
can be drawn:
1. The typical respondent to this questionnaire was a woman, age
41.9 years, with a bachelor’s degree, and 15 years of experience. She has
taught in her present school for six years, and in year-round schools for
2.2 years. She has had experience teaching prior to teaching in a year-
round program.
2. Regarding teacher recommendations on track- or extended-
contracts, there was a clear relationship between their recommendation and
their reasoning. Those teachers who recommended track-contracts did so
to prevent burn-out and to protect the needs of the teacher. Those teachers
who recommended extended-contracts focused on the needs of the students
and of the music program.
3. Although schools have not traditionally provided child-care
for the summer vacation months, families view intersession child-care as a
major concern and often a responsibility of the school system. This study
has demonstrated a strong school and community response to the child-care
problem.

168
4. The fact that Florida high schools are not on year-round
calendars exemplifies a conflict between the desire for a unified district
calendar design and the community wish for a ‘traditional’ high school
experience, with football games, marching bands, and summer school.
5. Florida colleges and universities have been slow to respond to
the needs of year-round teachers in creating degree and recertification
courses that would fit their intersession dates. (Off-track children have
been easier to schedule courses for.) Although the lack of college course
availability is mostly a complaint at the present, it will become more of a
crisis as more schools go on year-round calendars, and as teacher
recertifications become due.
6. Year-round schools would probably be excellent sites for
student teaching placements. The opportunity to experience a ‘first day of
school,’ and the opportunity to witness and experience challenging
schedules and flexible teaching situations are valuable experiences for any
young teacher. In addition, the opportunity to student teach in the summer
months, and be ready to graduate and begin teaching in the fall, benefits the
student as well as the college.
7. Music programs in single-track schools are having few
problems with adjusting to the new calendar. Music programs in multi¬
track schools face many problems no matter what kind of contract the
teacher is on. Extended-contract teachers are facing burn-out, problems
with performing groups, and keeping track of where their general music
classes are sequentially. Track-contract teachers in multi-track schools are
facing high student numbers, high stress levels, and the problem of who
teaches music while the teacher is off-track.

169
8. If the trend in Florida year-round education moves from a
majority of single-track schools to a majority of multi-track schools, the
experiences of the music teachers will be greatly changed. The large
percentage (80%) of year-round music teachers who are teaching on track-
based contracts means that most of these teachers have yet to face the
complex issues surrounding multi-track music programs.
9. Elementary performing groups are being effected by year-
round calendars with regard to scheduling, quality of performances, and
off-track ensemble members in multi-track schools. Most teachers have
adjusted their expectations and continued with their performing ensembles.
10. Secondary performing groups in Florida are largely found in
single-track schools. The population was too small to study extensively,
although it is likely that the identified problems facing elementary multi¬
track performing ensembles would be very similar to those in secondary
schools.
11. There is no clear answer as to whether year-round scheduling
affects music teaching, learning, or the classroom environment on either
the elementary or secondary levels. The need for certified substitute
teachers seen here is supported by the literature and recommendations of
music teacher organizations in other states with heavy YRE involvement
(CMEA, 1991).
12. A large majority of the teachers perceived that they had
received insufficient training and preparation prior to teaching in year-
round schools. Since five of the 12 counties involved only have one year-
round school in each, there was less of an opportunity for district support,

170
training, encouragement and consideration, especially in regard to
scheduling.
Implications for Administrators and Music Teachers
in Year-Round Schools
Based on the conclusions gleaned from the results of the survey and
the literature, some shifts in direction might be appropriate in coordinating
the future of year-round music education and that of the year-round
education movement in Florida. To some extent these implications are
speculative, but they are centered on one basic truth: if given an
opportunity, most music teachers will do whatever it takes for their
programs and their students to succeed.
Multi-Track is the Future
Although currently the majority of year-round schools in Florida are
single-track, it cannot be assumed that that situation will continue. The
main reason that districts even consider year-round education is as a means
of cutting costs and easing overcrowding. The fact that this might be a
positive educational reform has largely been lost on the American public.
With that in mind, the most effective teaching contract for the multi-track
music teacher is the extended contract. Consistency in teaching and student
exposure are the key. Provisions will have to be made by school boards
and administrations to lessen the problems of teacher burn-out.
General Music Classes That Easily Adapt
As a rule, general music classes in both elementary and middle
schools seem to function well in year-round calendars. The main problems

171
mentioned were with sequencing and keeping track of where each class is
in the process. The most effective way to deal with those problems is to
base lessons on non-holiday music, and then number the lessons and use
them consecutively with each class. Holiday music, long a favorite part of
music teaching and learning, should be used at the beginnings and/or
endings of lessons. It would reduce the value of music classes to remove
holiday music from the musical exposure of these students. Instead, its role
in lessons should be adjusted.
Performing Groups and YRE
The main problems with music and the year-round calendar are the
complications created for performing groups—both on the elementary and
the secondary level. The question facing the directors of these groups is,
ultimately, “Who makes up my group?” For many teachers, the traditional
view still holds: the performance ensemble is made up of all the members.
Therefore, for a quality performance or rehearsal to occur, all of the
members must be present. Unfortunately, that does not happen in most
multi-track year-round schools.
A radical answer, one that reflects more of the year-round
philosophy, is that the performing ensemble is made up of the students on-
track at that time. Non-musicians often do not realize that giving up the
concept of the ‘entire group’ is almost impossible for most trained
musicians. For many music teachers, both at the elementary and secondary
levels, performing publicly with good ensembles is a significant part of
their professional identity. Limiting ensemble membership to those that
are on-track at that time, however, will lessen the stress level of the music
teacher. It also will allow off-track students to freely enjoy their vacation

172
times without being pressured to come back to school for rehearsals.
Ensembles by tracks. A more attractive alternative for both
elementary and secondary music teachers is the idea of having ensembles
by tracks. Generally music teachers are not supportive of the idea of
limiting the student pool from which ensemble membership can be selected
or solicited. This alternative is, however, not the same concept as the
‘music track’ that has been suggested in the literature (Webster & Nyberg,
1992; Haney, 1990). Schools having a ‘music track’ would offer music
courses or ensembles only to those students on that track. Schools having
‘ensembles by track’ would offer as evenly as possible the same musical
opportunities for each track. The participants would not be members of
one large combined group; instead the ensemble on their track would
function, rehearse, and perform as a separate entity.
Few teachers have tried the idea of separate ensembles for each track
because of the amount of extra work that it would entail. Students in many
year-round schools are expected to work towards concert goals even when
the concerts are scheduled at times when those students will not be in
school or on-track. Those teachers who have tried to incorporate concert
goals geared around the ends of YRE track sessions usually present
concerts every three weeks. The only solution that encourages student
vacation times and eases teacher stress is to have ensembles by tracks.
Teachers considering this suggestion will be quick to say that they do
not have time in their schedules to do one ensemble—much less four or
five. The lack of time for ensembles will need to be addressed by
administrations. If music is a fundamental part of the educational

173
experience, and if performing opportunities are desired, then time will
have to be allotted—within the school day for elementary students.
It is important to note that five choruses operating on five tracks
does not mean five groups working on the same music to sing together in
one large choir. While that might happen occasionally, these choruses are
essentially five separate performing groups. Nor is it necessary that every
ensemble be available on every track. Students with musical interest and/or
talent are rarely distributed evenly throughout the school, and it is unlikely
they will be evenly distributed throughout the tracks. Tracks with smaller
numbers of music students might form different kinds of ensembles. And,
what about the child on ‘Green’-track that is heart-broken because he or
she wanted to play bells, which are only offered on ‘Orange’-track?
Exceptions can always be made. Exceptions are, however, not anywhere
near as serious a problem as counting on 20% of an ensemble to regularly
give up their vacation time to come in for rehearsals.
This suggestion of ensembles by tracks is inconsistent with the
literature, but not necessarily inconsistent with the results of the (middle
school) questionnaire. It is based, however, on a commitment to reduce the
stress level of the music teacher by reducing the expectations that they have
to make on the part of their students and the students’ families. By putting
the teacher back in charge of their own results, stress levels and teacher
burn-out should be decreased.
Unfortunately, performance ensembles take time and money.
Schools need to support both the programs and the music teachers in
providing them. “Rainbowing” the music ensembles for any length of
time, especially in situations in which there is no music teacher available to

174
bring the in-coming students up to the level of the rest of the group, will
likely bring about a great change in the quality of the performing groups in
Florida.
Concerns for Administrators to Address
Several concerns should be addressed by administrators on the part
of year-round music teachers regarding high schools, scheduling, support
systems, and flexibility.
High schools on YRE. One of the major concerns on the part of
year-round communities is the fact that not all of the area schools operate
on a similar calendar. When families cannot easily find a time to take a
vacation together, they will either pull their children out of school
whenever it is convenient for their vacation, or they will simply not take a
vacation. Neither alternative is desirable. In some Florida districts the
elementary schools are multi-track, the middle schools are single-track, and
the high schools are on traditional calendars. Families with children in all
three levels face an impossible situation with regard to family vacations.
Although the problems with class scheduling and extracurricular
activities have made the future of those Florida high schools on year-round
calendars look dim, there are successful high school programs operating in
other states, and there have been year-round high schools in Florida in the
past. Due to the problem of extracurricular activities, a transition to year-
round high school programs may not be feasible to introduce gradually. In
the meantime, the failure of some districts to institute year-round high
schools, when their elementary and middle schools are already year-round,
may be undermining the future success of any of the year-round schools in
their districts.

175
Scheduling. Teachers need planning days. Many multi-track,
extended contract teachers have lost their only time to do grades, attend in-
service meetings, and engage in long-term planning. Two days per year
need to be scheduled in the district-calendar when all the teachers have a
common in-service time. If that is not feasible, then professional leave
needs to be granted to music teachers so they can attend district music
meetings.
Teaching schedules need to also be examined. One music teacher
cannot effectively teach 1600 students, for example, even though year-
round scheduling means that that many students can be ‘fit’ into that school.
The savings of year-round education is in reducing the costs for new
buildings, and a slightly lower per-pupil cost. It is not realistic to add 20%
more students and expect the salary and maintenance expenditures to
remain constant. Part of the stress level that many music teachers are
dealing with is due to the large number of students that they must face each
week.
Support systems for music teachers. Only seven of the 12 districts in
Florida operating year-round schools in 1993-94 had any type of music
supervisor or resource person. Unfortunately, not even all of the seven
were able to support adequately the music teachers in their district who
were on year-round calendars. Year-round music teachers need time and
opportunity to fellowship and compare ideas with others in like situations.
Flexibility. If given an opportunity, most music teachers will do
whatever it takes to succeed. Administrators need to hire quality music
teachers, and then trust them to make the specific professional decisions.
Just as the trend in year-round education is toward school-based decisions,

176
the same is true for music programs. What works for one teacher may not
work for another teacher in a different setting.
Among the topics that need to be addressed regarding flexibility are:
class scheduling, curriculum requirements, performance needs, and
vacation times. It is quite possible that another type of contract should be
developed to meet the needs of music teachers who work with the entire
campus. If teachers could work more than a track-contract and yet less
than all-year, many of the conflicts between consistency and burn-out
might be eased.
College Responses
Area colleges and universities need to become more involved in the
everyday, educational realities of what is happening in the year-round
schools. Not only should student teachers be placed in year-round schools,
but colleges should look for ways to meet the needs of the year-round
teachers and families.
Special programs for off-track children might be an effective
recruitment tool for higher education and that school in particular. Short¬
term classes for teachers will help with recertification needs, as well as
increase the ties between the colleges and the public schools. Obviously
these kinds of programs do not fit into the traditional college semester
schedules, but they enable colleges and universities to return to their
rightful place at the ‘cutting edge’ of new developments in education.
The Future of the Implications
There are so many variations in the year-round music picture that it
is difficult to define it in a few words. Some music teachers are in flexible

177
situations and districts where they have many choices. Other teachers have
few choices, and most of these teachers are facing further district mandates
on contracts, schedules, and curriculum.
It is clear from the comments of the teachers that, when they were
able to view YRE as an opportunity and not a disaster, they felt that they
were able to succeed. Their feelings of success and hope for the future will
be the impetus for the successes of their students and programs.
Recommendations for Further Research
The following recommendations based on the results of this study are
offered for consideration:
1. The possibility should be investigated of another option in
music teacher contracts besides track- or extended-contracts. Teachers and
districts should not have to choose between program consistency and
teacher burn-out.
2. The effects of multi-track scheduling on music learning and
music programs on both the elementary and secondary levels should be
investigated. It has been generally assumed that the students’ educational
experience would be the same whether they were in a single-track or multi¬
track school.
3. Follow-up studies should be conducted in those counties
requiring music teachers to work extended contracts. Did those teachers
resign? How have they personally and professionally survived the extended
contract design?
4. The effects of year-round scheduling on long-term music
learning and retention should be investigated. Most researchers and
teachers seem to be content with the fact that less is forgotten over a three-

178
week summer break than a three-month summer vacation. Viewing the
educational process as a four-year, twelve-year, or even lifetime process,
requires that students learn for a lifetime and be able to gradually build on
that knowledge with consistency.
5. A study similar to this one should be undertaken in a state or
region where there are more music teachers. Many of the raw numbers
appeared to imply relationships that could not be adequately analyzed due
to the small sample numbers. Separate questionnaires for single-track and
multi-track teachers could result in questions that elicited more accurate
information without the confusion of trying to accommodate every contract
variation within one question.
Coda
The whole problem of music teachers and year-round education can
be expressed in one phrase: same tune, new meter. The ‘tune’ has
remained the same: teaching students about music and enabling them to
experience the joy of making music themselves. The ‘meter,’ the time
frames and schedules of today’s schools, has changed. Like the problem of
trying to march to a waltz tune, music teachers’ steps will need to be
somewhat adjusted so that their tune can continue without faltering. This is
possible, as many Florida year-round music teachers have proven.
Through a balanced approach to both the ‘tune’ and the ‘meter,’
year-round music teachers can have the necessary tools with which to guide
meaningful musical experiences for their students. When a proper balance
of both teacher needs and student needs is achieved, the entire profession
will benefit.

APPENDIX A
STATEMENT ON YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION

Statement on Year-Round Education
(Adopted unanimously by participants of the Second National Seminar on
Year-Round Education, April 7, 1970, and subsequently published by the
Council of State Governments, the Education Commission of the States, and
by many other educational journals.)
It is recognized that the standard 180-day school year as it now
prevails in most schools is not universally satisfactory; nor has any
operating program for a year-round school yet proved to be universally
acceptable.
It is recognized that a plan which may be appropriate in one
community situation may not be acceptable in another situation; and that
the extended programs which seem to have been most acceptable are those
which provide flexibility or optional attendance.
It is recognized that every individual is unique and if each is to learn
what he/she needs to know at his/her own best rate, the school curriculum
must be individualized.
It is recognized that the time schedules of individuals and families
are continuing to become more diverse and that a student’s time in school
must be adaptable to this changing situation.
It is recognized that financial resources of any community, state, and
the nation are limited and must be allocated on a priority basis and that
180

181
educational programs, including the school calendar, must be designed to
obtain optimum economic efficiency.
It is therefore recommended that each State:
1. Take appropriate action to provide enabling legislation and/or
policy permitting flexibility for programming so that various patterns of
year-round education may be explored at the local level.
2. Take appropriate action to provide state school aid on a prorated
basis for extended school programs.
3. Encourage experimental or exploratory programs for year-round
education through financial incentives or grants.
It is recommended that each local school system:
1. Consider ways, including year-round education, in which the
education program can be improved in terms of
(a) providing a quality education with equality in educational
opportunity,
(b) adapting to the community and family living patterns, and
(c) attaining optimum economic efficiency.
2. Include representation of those who would be affected by the
changes in the school schedule in the planning for a year-round education
program, including teachers, parents, students, and other interested groups;
and provide the public with adequate information about the proposed plan
before it is adopted as a mandatory change.

182
3. Carefully assess the adequacy of the financial resources and
current school facilities, including careful analysis of comparative budgets,
before adopting a new schedule.
4. Select and assign staff which will be both effective in terms of the
school program and fair and equitable in terms of the demands placed on
staff.
5. Carefully develop budgets that will adequately provide for
initiating and operating the proposed program and assess adequacy of
school facilities before adopting a new schedule. This includes payment to
teachers on a prorated basis for additional time worked.
6. Provide, in the initial planning, for the institutionalization of the
program if it meets expectations (i.e., do not accept a state, federal, or
other grant to initiate such a program unless the intent is to adopt it as the
regular school schedule if it proves successful and acceptable.)
It is recommended that the U.S. Office of Education and the Education
Commission of the States:
1. Encourage experimentation in year-round education.
2. Rigorously examine all year-round education models which seem
to be widely acceptable in terms of well-defined, established criteria.
3. Foster the adoption of those plans or models which have
demonstrated their value and acceptability so that nationwide patterns may
emerge that are compatible with each other.
Glines & Bingle, 1993, pp. 39-40
Reprinted with permission of the publisher

APPENDIX B
NATIONAL AND FLORIDA ASSOCIATIONS FOR
YEAR-ROUND EDUCATION

National Association for Year-Round Education
P.O. Box 711386
San Diego, CA 92171-1386
Phone: (619) 276-5296
FAX: (619) 571-5754
Dr. Charles Ballinger, Executive Director
Florida Association for Year-Round Education
Duval County Schools
ATTN: Mary Jane Tappen
1701 Prudential Drive
Third Floor
Jacksonville, FL 32207-8182
Phone: (904) 922-4207
Mary Alice Hodges, President
184

APPENDIX C
ELEMENTARY MUSIC TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE

Elementary Music Teacher Questionnaire
1. School Calendar
A. Which of the following modified school calendars best
describes your school?
Traditional calendar plus summer school [skip to
Section 2]
Extended school year (more than 180 teaching
days) [skip to Section 2]
Year-round school (shorter vacations throughout
the year) [continue to B.)
B. Is your school on a single-track or multi-track calendar?
Single-track [skip to DJ
Multi-track [continue to C]
C. If multi-track, how many tracks do you have?
How many of these tracks follow the traditional school
calendar (September to June)? none 1
D. How is your school calendar best described?
45-15 60-15 90-30
Four-Quarter Concept 6
An adaptation of one of the above
Other (Please describe)
2a. Teacher Contracts:
A. Are you on an extended contract of any kind?
yes no
B. How many days are you contracted to work (including in-
service days) a year? days
C. Did you have any choice in the length of your contract?
yes no
186

187
D. Did you have any choice in whether or not you taught on a
year-round calendar? yes no
E. Was there an initial opportunity to transfer to a traditional
calendar school? yes no
F. Did you have any choice in the selection of your track or
schedule? yes no
If yes, what factors led to your choice?
G.For music teachers to be effective in year-round schools,
should they be scheduled on a track, or should they be asked to work
on an extended contract for extra pay?
Track Extended contract
Why?
H.Do all year-round music teachers in your district have to
follow the same kind of contract?
Yes No I do not know
2b. If you teach 180 days a year, skip to 2c.
If you work an extended contract (longer than 180 days):
A. Please describe how your extended contract affects the
following :
a.Work/vacation schedule:
b. Approximate percentage of pay increase: %
c. Any increase in benefits and/or retirement:
d.Evidence of teacher burn-out:

188
B.Who teaches your classes if you are absent?
Another music teacher from the district
Music classes are canceled if I am gone
A substitute teacher is hired
Other (Please describe)
2c. If you work a 180-day contract:
A. Who teaches music when you are off-track?
Another music teacher from the district
Music classes are not scheduled when I am gone
Music classes are canceled if I am gone
A substitute teacher is hired
Other (Please describe)
B. Does your district make any provision for a “floating”
certified music teacher to cover music teacher absences?
yes no
If no, would this be helpful to you? yes no
Why or why not?
C. If a substitute is hired to cover music while you are off-track,
a. Do you write lesson plans for them to use?
yes no
b. Are the substitutes you use certified in music?
yes no
D. If you have a room for music in your building, who uses your
room when you are off-track?
Another music teacher Another class
The room stands empty
There is no music room Other (Please describe)
3. Music Teacher Views and Opinions
3a. Community/School Relations:
A. What changes have you noticed in the needs of families
participating in year-round schools? (child-care, camps, jobs, etc.)

189
B.Has your community responded to the changes in family and
student YRE needs? yes no
If yes, what kind of community responses have you noticed?
C. Have area colleges responded to YRE needs? (short-term
classes, recertification, etc.) yes no
If yes, what changes have you noticed?
If no, what changes in collegiate response might be helpful to
you?
D. Has your school district responded to YRE needs in terms of
music teachers? yes no
What kind of needs have been, or need to be addressed for
music teachers?
E.How are students assigned to tracks in your district?
by geographic area
by parent/student choice
families are grouped together
academic/specialized tracks
3b. If you teach in a multi-track school skip to 3c.
if you teach in a single-track school:
A. Do you feel as if single-track year-round scheduling creates
more negative consequences for music teachers as opposed to regular
teachers in other subjects? yes no
If yes, why do you think this is true?
B. How does single-track year-round scheduling affect your
music program?

190
3c. If you teach in a multi-track school:
A.Do you feel as if multi-track year-round scheduling creates
more negative consequences for music teachers as opposed to regular
teachers in other subjects? yes no
If yes, why do you think this is true?
B.How does multi-track year-round scheduling affect your music
program?
3d. Personal Views
A. What do you see as the biggest advantages of year-round
school calendars? (please rank with ‘1’ as high)
B. What do you see as the biggest disadvantages of year-round
school calendars? (please rank with ‘ 1’ as high)
C. Do you personally want to continue to teach in year-round
schools? yes no Why or why not?
D. Should student teachers/college interns be placed in year-round
schools? yes no
Why or why not?
4. Elementary Music In Year-Round Schools
4a. Elementary General Music Classes:
A. How often do your general music classes meet?
(Please specify by week, month, or year)
Is this arranged on a regular weekly schedule?
yes no

191
B. Who is responsible for scheduling general music classes?
music teacher
special area teachers (art, P.E., library, etc.)
administration
other (Please describe)
C. Do you have a planning time/break built into your schedule?
yes no
How often do you get a planning time/break?
D. Please describe the schedule (weekly, monthly or yearly) that
your general music classes meet on.
E. How has year-round scheduling affected your teaching with
regard to:
a.Sequencing
b.Curriculum content/concept development
c.Student understanding
d.Material retention
F.How has year-round scheduling affected your classroom
environment with regard to:
a. Discipline
b. Teacher burn-out
G.Has YRE made a difference in your teaching?
yes no

192
4b. Elementary Performing Groups:
A. When do your elementary performing groups meet to
rehearse?
Performing groups meet during the regular day
Performing groups meet after- or before-school hours
School does not have organized performing groups
Other (Please describe)
B. Please list the elementary performing ensembles that you
currently have in your school:
C. Has YRE played a role in your decision to have or not have
performing groups? yes no
D. Do you feel that year-round scheduling has affected the quality
of your performances? yes no
If yes, please describe:
E. How do you schedule your concerts in conjunction with YRE?
F. Do you have a seasonal winter holiday program in December?
yes no
If no, what alternatives have you tried?
G. Has YR scheduling affected your performing program?
yes no
If yes, please explain how:
H. How do you handle the problem of performing group
members coming on- and off-track at different times?
I am on a single-track calendar and do not have this
problem [skip to 5A]
Contracts; on- and off-track students must attend all rehearsals
Off-track students are invited to attend rehearsals
Different ensembles for different tracks

193
“Catch-up” rehearsals for students just coming back on-track
I just do the best I can; I never know who will be in rehearsal
My school doesn’t have performing groups
Other (Please describe)
I. If you invite off-track students to come on campus for
rehearsals, what percentage of them do you estimate participate?
%
J. Have you had problems with any of the following with regard
to off-track students coming on campus for rehearsals? (Please
describe)
a.Attendance: yes no
b.Discipline while in rehearsal: yes no
c.Discipline when on campus but not in rehearsal:
yes no
d.Parent permission: yes no
e.Administrative support: yes no
f.Transportation: yes no
g.Off-campus concerts: yes no
h.Record-keeping: yes no
i.Other (Please describe)

194
5. Year-Round Preparation
A.What kind of general preparation specific to YRE did you
receive before you began teaching on a year-round calendar?
B.What kind of preparation specific to teaching music in YRE
did you receive before you began teaching on a year-round calendar?
C.Is there any form of official (or unofficial) assistance or
support groups for music teachers in YR schools?
yes no
If none is available, what kind of assistance or support would
be helpful to you?
6. Teacher Demographics
A. Age:
B. Male Female
C.What is your highest attained educational degree?
Bachelors Masters Specialist
Doctorate
D. How many full years have you taught?
E. How many years have you taught in your present school?
F. How many years have you taught in YRE?
G. How many non-workshop college courses have you taken over
the last 5 summers?
H. Has the year-round calendar affected your plans to take future
college courses? yes no

195
7. Suggestions
A. As an experienced year-round music teacher, what suggestions
would you make to a music teacher or administrator preparing to
launch a year-round school to help them have a quality music
program? (Please use the back of these pages if necessary)

APPENDIX D
SECONDARY MUSIC TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE

Secondary Music Teacher Questionnaire
1. School Calendar
A. Which of the following modified school calendars best
describes your school?
Traditional calendar plus summer school [skip to
Section 2]
Extended school year (more than 180 teaching
days) [skip to Section 2]
Year-round school (shorter vacations throughout
the year) [continue to B.J
B. Is your school on a single-track or multi-track calendar?
Single-track [skip to DJ
Multi-track [continue to C[
C. If multi-track, how many tracks do you have?
How many of these tracks follow the traditional school
calendar (September to June)? none 1
D. How is your school calendar best described?
45-15 60-15 90-30
Four-Quarter Concept 6
An adaptation of one of the above
Other (Please describe)
2a. Teacher Contracts:
A. Are you on an extended contract of any kind?
yes no
B. How many days are you contracted to work (including in-
service days) a year? days
C. Did you have any choice in length of contract?
yes no
197

198
D. Did you have any choice in whether or not you taught on a
year-round calendar? yes no
E. Was there an initial opportunity to transfer to a traditional
calendar school? yes no
F. Did you have any choice in the selection of your track or
schedule? yes no
If yes, what factors led to your choice?
G.For music teachers to be effective in year-round schools,
should they be scheduled on a track, or should they be asked to work
on an extended contract for extra pay?
Track Extended contract
Why?
H.Do all year-round music teachers in your district have to
follow the same kind of contract?
Yes No I do not know
2b. If you teach 180 days a year, skip to 2c.
If you work an extended contract (longer than 180 days):
A. Please describe how your extended contract affects the
following :
a.Work/vacation schedule:
b. Approximate percentage of pay increase: %
c. Any increase in benefits and/or retirement:
d.Evidence of teacher burn-out:

199
B.Who teaches your classes if you are absent?
Another music teacher from the district
Music classes are canceled if I am gone
A substitute teacher is hired
Other (Please describe)
2C. If you work a 180-day contract:
A. Who teaches music when you are off-track?
Another music teacher from the district
Music classes are not scheduled when I am gone
Music classes are canceled if I am gone
A substitute teacher is hired
Other (Please describe)
B. Does your district make any provision for a “floating”
certified music teacher to cover music teacher absences?
yes no
If no, would this be helpful to you? yes no
Why or why not?
C. If a substitute is hired to cover music while you are off-track,
a. Do you write lesson plans for them to use?
yes no
b. Are the substitutes you use certified in music?
yes no
D. If you have a room for music in your building, who uses your
room when you are off-track?
Another music teacher Another class
The room stands empty
There is no music room Other (Please describe)
3. Music Teacher Views And Opinions
3a. Community/School Relations:
A. What changes have you noticed in the needs of families
participating in year-round schools? (child-care, camps, jobs, etc.)

200
B.Has your community responded to the changes in family and
student YRE needs? yes no
If yes, what kind of community responses have you noticed?
C.Have area colleges responded to YRE needs? (short-term
classes, recertification, etc.) yes no
If yes, what changes have you noticed?
If no, what changes in collegiate response might be helpful to
you?
D.Has your school district responded to YRE needs in terms of
music teachers? yes no
What kind of needs have been, or need to be addressed for
music teachers?
E.How are students assigned to tracks in your district?
by geographic area
by parent/student choice
families are grouped together
academic/specialized tracks
3b. If you teach in a multi-track school skip to 3c.
if you teach in a single-track school:
A. Do you feel as if single-track year-round scheduling creates
more negative consequences for music teachers as opposed to regular
teachers in other subjects? yes no
If yes, why do you think this is true?
B. How does single-track year-round scheduling affect your
music program?

201
3c. If you teach in a multi-track school:
A.Do you feel as if multi-track year-round scheduling creates
more negative consequences for music teachers as opposed to regular
teachers in other subjects? yes no
If yes, why do you think this is true?
B.How does multi-track year-round scheduling affect your music
program?
3d. Personal Views
A. What do you see as the biggest advantages of year-round
school calendars? (please rank with ‘ 1’ as high)
B. What do you see as the biggest disadvantages of year-round
school calendars? (please rank with ‘1’ as high)
C.Do you personally want to continue to teach in year-round
schools? yes no Why or why not?
D.Should student teachers/college interns be placed in year-round
schools? yes no Why or why not?
E.Currently there are no high schools in Florida on year-round
schedules. Do you think that YRE would work with a high school
music program? yes no Why or why not?
4. Secondary Music In Year-Round Schools
4a. Secondary School General Music Classes: (If Not Offered, Skip To
4b.)
A. Please list the secondary general music courses taught at your
school:

202
B. Are all general music courses taught during all tracks?
yes no
C. Is there a specific “music track” for students in general music
courses? yes no
D. (Multi-track only) Do students coming back on-track enter on¬
going general music classes? yes no
E. Do you use short modular units for general music?
yes no
List some of the topics you have covered in the last year.
F. Do you follow a written curriculum for general music?
yes no
If yes, please specify:
G. Has YRE made a difference in your general music teaching?
yes no
If yes, please describe how:
4b. Secondary School Performance Groups:
A. Are all performing ensembles offered on all tracks?
yes no
B. Is there a designated “music track” for students in performing
ensembles? yes no
C. (Multi-track only) Do students coming back on-track enter on¬
going performance groups? yes no
D. Has YRE affected your performance schedule?
yes no
If yes, in what ways?

203
E. How do you handle the problem of performing group
members coming on- and off-track at different times?
I am on a single-track calendar and do not have this
problem [skip to I]
Contracts; on- and off-track students must attend all rehearsals
Off-track students are invited to attend rehearsals
Different ensembles for different tracks
“Catch-up” rehearsals for students just coming back on-track
I just do the best I can; I never know who will be in rehearsal
Other (Please describe)
F. If you invite off-track students to come on campus for
rehearsals, what percentage of them do you estimate participate?
%
G. Does your school size/division rating reflect the total
population of the school assuming all tracks were on campus?
yes no
Has this affected your performance ratings and/or standards?
yes no
If yes, please explain:
H.How do you maintain musical balance and/or instrumentation
when some students are off-track?
I. Please list the secondary ensembles in your school:
J. Has YRE affected the performance quality of your ensembles?
yes no
If yes, has the effect been POSITIVE or NEGATIVE?
What aspects of year-round education do you believe have
caused this result?
K.What concerns do you have about the following topics with
regard to YRE:
a. Recruitment

204
b.Curriculum sequence/teaching
c.Uniforms/robes
d.Instrument repairs
e.Record-keeping
L. How has year-round scheduling affected your classroom
environment with regards to:
a. Discipline
b. Teacher burn-out
4c. Secondary Performance Teacher Opinions
A. In a multi-track school, should music students be scheduled on
one track? yes no
Two tracks? yes no
All available tracks? yes no
B. Should music students be allowed to participate in music
classes while they are off-track? yes no
C. When students re-enter their music group after having been
off-track for several weeks, they will not be in sync with the rest of
the group. How should we help them get caught up with the rest of
the students?
5. Year-Round Preparation
A. What kind of general preparation specific to YRE did you
receive before you began teaching on a year-round calendar?

205
B.What kind of preparation specific to teaching music in YRE
did you receive before you began teaching on a year-round calendar?
C.Is there any form of official (or unofficial) assistance or
support groups for music teachers in YR schools?
yes no
If none is available, what kind of assistance or support would
be helpful to you?
6. Teacher Demographics
A. Age:
B. Male Female
C.What is your highest attained educational degree?
Bachelors Masters Specialist
Doctorate
D. How many full years have you taught?
E. How many years have you taught in your present school?
F. How many years have you taught in YRE?
G. How many non-workshop college courses have you taken over
the last 5 summers?
H. Has the year-round calendar affected your plans to take future
college courses? yes no
7. Suggestions
A. As an experienced year-round music teacher, what suggestions
would you make to a music teacher or administrator preparing to
launch a year-round school to help them have a quality music
program? (Please use the back of these pages if necessary)

APPENDIX E
PRELIMINARY CONTACT

August, 1994
Dear Year-Round Music Teacher,
Many schools in Florida have gone on year-round calendars recently
and yet there is very little information available on the effect of year-round
education on music teachers and music programs.
In about a week you will receive a questionnaire on this topic. I would
appreciate your help in completing the form and returning it as quickly as
possible. Many year-round music teachers have discovered some great ideas
to help their programs to succeed in difficult times. I look forward to
receiving your responses about what it happening in your school!
Janice Haworth
University of Florida
207

APPENDIX F
APPROVAL FROM THE INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD

August 15, 1994
To: Ms. Janice Haworth
130 MUB
From: C. Michael Levy, Chair
University of Florida Institutional Review Board
Subject: Approval of Project #94.348
Music programs in year-round schools in Florida:
Current status and implications for future development
I am pleased to advise you that the University of Florida Institutional Review
Board has recommended the approval of this project. The Board concluded that
your subjects will not be placed at risk in this research. Given your protocol, you
should use the cover letter you submitted to us rather than attempting to obtain
legally effective (signed and witnessed) informed consent from each participant.
This approval, however, is conditional upon your submitting to the IRB a copy of
the approved cover letter that includes the following phrase in the upper or lower
margin: “Approved for use through August 15, 1995.”
If you wish to make any changes in this protocol, you must disclose your plans
before you implement them so that the Board can assess their impact on your
project. In addition, you must report to the Board any unexpected complications
arising from the project which affect your subjects.
If you have not completed this project by August 15, 1995, please telephone our
office (392-0433) and we will tell you how to obtain a renewal.
By a copy of this memorandum, your Chair is reminded of the importance of
being fully informed about the status of all projects involving human subjects in
your department, and for reviewing these projects as often as necessary to insure
that each project is being conducted in the manner approved by this
memorandum.
CML/H2
Unfunded
209

APPENDIX G
COVER LETTER

August 31, 1994
Dear Year-Round Music Teacher,
Many schools in Florida have gone on year-round calendars recently
and yet there is very little information available on the effect of year-round
education on music teachers and music programs. I am conducting a
doctoral research project at the University of Florida for which I am
asking your assistance. This investigation is intended to determine what
effect year-round education has on music programs. The areas to be
assessed include the school calendar, teacher contracts and schedules,
general music and performing groups, teacher preparation, and your
views, opinions, and suggestions for creating a successful year-round music
program.
The enclosed questionnaire has been designed for obtaining the
necessary data while requiring a minimum of time for completion. Please
check or fill in the appropriate answers on the survey form. Any
additional comments you may have are welcome. Please feel free to use
the backs of the pages or use additional pages as needed.
As a former music teacher in Palm Beach County, FL, I am aware
of many of the challenges and responsibilities facing music teachers today.
I also know that your schedules are busy, and I appreciate your
contribution to this project.
Upon receipt of your questionnaire, your name will be separated
from the questionnaire to protect your privacy and replaced with a code
number. There will be no references to specific teachers or schools. Any
responses which are cited in the study will be identified solely by question
number or county. Names, addresses, and schools are requested on the
questionnaire only for the purpose of following up with some of the
teachers at a later date. No information gleaned from the survey will be
identified by name or school.
Please return the questionnaire to me as soon as you are finished. A
self-addressed stamped envelope is included for your convenience. Please
211

212
include a request in writing with your survey if you desire to receive the
results of this research project.
Thank you again for your assistance.
Sincerely,
Janice Haworth
Approved for use through August 1995

APPENDIX H
FOLLOW-UP MATERIALS

September 21, 1994
Dear Year-Round Music Teacher,
Several weeks ago you should have received in the mail a copy of a
questionnaire on music in year-round education. I know that many of you
have been off-track these past few weeks but I am hoping to hear from each
of the 105 year-round music teachers in Florida with information about their
music programs.
This study is important to music education because there has been no
research on this topic done up until now. If your questionnaire has been
misplaced, or if you never got one in the first place, please call me, leave
me your name and school, and allow me to send you another copy. The more
teachers that respond, the more accurate a picture of music in year-round
education can be drawn.
Thank you for your assistance.
Janice Haworth
214

215
October, 1994
Dear Year-Round Music Teacher,
Recently I sent a questionnaire to your school seeking information
about your year-round music program. Many schools in Florida have gone
on year-round calendars recently and yet there is very little information
available on the effect of year-round education on music teachers and
music programs. This investigation is intended to determine what effect
year-round education has on music programs.
Because I have not yet received a response from your school, 1 am
sending you a second copy of the questionnaire and a postage-paid return
envelope. Your participation in this study will benefit administrators,
teachers, and music students in year-round schools.
Please return the questionnaire to me as soon as you are finished.
Include a request in writing with your survey if you desire to receive the
results of this research project.
Thank you for your assistance.
Sincerely,
Janice Haworth

216
November, 1994
Dear Year-Round Music Teacher,
Thank you so much for completing and returning the survey on
music programs in year-round schools. I have received some interesting
comments and ideas from year-round music teachers and I look forward to
hearing from the rest. Your assistance in this research effort is
appreciated.
Janice Haworth
University of Florida

APPENDIX I
LIST OF SCHOOLS THAT RESPONDED

Alimacani Elementary School
Duval County
2051 San Pablo Road
Jacksonville, FL 32224-1031
Arbor Ridge Elementary School
Orange County
2900 Logandale Drive
Orlando, FL 32817
Blankner Elementary School
Orange County
720 East Kaley Avenue.
Orlando, FL 32806
Boggy Creek Elementary School
Osceola County
810 Florida Parkway
Kissimmee, FL 34743
Bonneville Elementary School
Orange County
14700 Sussex Drive
Orlando, FL 32826
Challenger 7 Elementary School
Brevard County
6135 Rena Avenue
Cocoa, FL 32927
Chimney Lakes Elementary School
Duval County
9353 Staples Mill Drive
Jacksonville, FL 32244-6319
218

Clarcona Elementary School
Orange County
3607 Damon Road
Apopka, FL 32703
Clay Hill Elementary School
Clay County
6345 State Road #218
Jacksonville, FL 32234
Cypress Elementary School
Osceola County
2251 Lakeside Drive
Kissimmee,FL 34743
Deerwood Elementary School
Osceola County
3701 Marigold Avenue
Kissimmee, FL 34758
Deltona Middle School
Volusia County
250 Enterprise Road
Deltona, FL 32725
Dr. Phillips Elementary School
Orange County
6909 Dr. Phillips Boulevard
Orlando, FL 32819
Dream Lake Elementary School
Orange County
500 North Park Avenue
Apopka, FL 32712
E.E. Booker Elementary School
Sarasota County
2350 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way
Sarasota, FL 34234

220
Enterprise Elementary School
Volusia County
211 Main Street
Enterprise, FL 32725
Frangus Elementary School
Orange County
380 Killington Way
Orlando, FL 32835-6808
Gardendale Elementary Magnet School
Brevard County
301 Grove Boulevard
Merritt Island, FL 32953
Geneva Elementary School
Seminole County
275 1st Street
Geneva, FL 32732
Goldsboro Elementary School
Seminole County
1300 W. 20th Street
Sanford, FL 32771
Green Cove Springs Middle School
Clay County
1220 Bonaventure Avenue
Green Cove Springs, FL 32043
Greenland Pines Elementary School
Duval County
5050 Greenland Road
Jacksonville, FL 32258
Hallandale Elementary School
Broward County
120 SW 4th Avenue
Hallandale, FL 33009

221
Hyde Grove Elementary School
Duval County
2056 Lane Avenue South
Jacksonville, FL 32210
Indian Trails Middle School
Seminole County
550 Tuskawilla Road
Winter Springs, FL 32708
Jackson Heights Middle School
Seminole County
141 Academy Drive
Oviedo, FL 32765
Kaley Elementary School
Orange County
1600 E. Kaley Avenue
Orlando, FL 32806
Keeth Elementary School
Seminole County
600 Tuskawilla Road
Winter Springs, FL 32708
Killarney Elementary School
Orange County
2401 Wellington Boulevard
Winter Park, FL 32789
Lake Como Elementary School
Orange County
901 S. Bumby Avenue
Orlando, FL 32806
Lawton Elementary School
Seminole County
151 Grahan Avenue
Oviedo, FL 32765

Lone Star Elementary School
Duval County
10400 Lone Star Road
Jacksonville, FL 3225-6797
Loretto Elementary School
Duval County
3900 Loretto Road
Jacksonville, FL 32223
Mandarin Middle School
Duval County
5100 Hood Road
Jacksonville, FL 32257
Maxey Elementary School
Orange County
1100 E. Maple Street
Winter Garden, FL 34787
Metro West Elementary School
Orange County
1801 Lake Velma Drive
Orlando, FL 32811
Osteen Elementary School
Volusia County
500 Doyle Road
Osteen, FL 32764
Pine Hills Elementary School
Orange County
1006 Femdell Road
Orlando, FL 32808
Princeton Elementary School
Orange County
311 W. Princeton Street
Orlando, FL 32804

223
Red Bug Elementary School
Seminole County
4000 Red Bug Road
Casselberry, FL 32707
Ridgeview Elementary School
Clay County
421 Jefferson Avenue
Orange Park, FL 32073
Rock Lake Elementary School
Orange County
408 N. Tampa Avenue
Orlando, FL 32805
Sabal Palm Elementary School
Duval County
1201 N. Kernan Boulevard
Jacksonville, FL 32225-5005
Sallie Jones Elementary School
Charlotte County
1221 Cooper Street
Punta Gorda, FL 33950
South Seminole Middle School
Seminole County
101 So. Winter Park Drive
Casselberry, FL 32707
Southside Estates Elementary School
Duval County
9775 Ivey Road
Jacksonville, FL 32216-3499
Sterling Park Elementary School
Seminole County
501 Eagle Circle South
Casselberry, FL 32707

Tángelo Park Elementary School
Orange County
5115 Anzio Street
Orlando, FL 32819
Tavares Elementary School
Lake County
720 E. Clifford Street
Tavares, FL 32778
Tildenville Elementary School
Orange County
1221 Brick Road
Winter Garden, FL 34787
Tuskawilla Middle School
Seminole County
1801 Tuscawilla Road
Oviedo, FL 32765
Valley view Elementary School
Polk County
2900 E. State Road #540A
Lakeland, FL 33813
Ventura Elementary School
Osceola County
275 Waters Edge Drive
Kissimmee, FL 34743
Ventura Elementary School
Orange County
4400 Woodgate Boulevard
Orlando, FL 32822
Wheatley Elementary School
Orange County
2 W. 18th Street
Apopka, FL 32703

Windermere Elementary School
Orange County
11125 Park Avenue
Windermere, FL 34786
Windy Hill Elementary School
Duval County
3831 Forest Boulevard
Jacksonville, FL 32246-6499

APPENDIX J
1993-94 FLORIDA YEAR-ROUND SCHOOLS BY COUNTY

Brevard
Challenger 7 Elementary School
Gardendale Elementary Magnet School
Broward
Hallandale Elementary School
Charlotte
Sallie Jones Elementary School
Clay
Charles Bennett Elementary School
Clay Hill Elementary School
Green Cove Springs Middle School
Ridgeview Elementary School
Duval
Alimacani Elementary School
Beauclerc Elementary School
Brookview Elementary School
Central Riverside Elementary School
Chimney Lakes Elementary School
Crown Point Elementary School
Greenland Pines Elementary School
Hyde Grove Elementary School
John E. Ford Elementary School
Landmark Middle School
Lone Star Elementary School
Loretto Elementary School
Mandarin Middle School
Mandarin Oaks Elementary School
Sabal Palm Elementary School
Southside Estates Elementary School
Windy Hill Elementary School
Lake
Tavares Elementary School
227

228
Orange
Aloma Elementary School
Apopka Elementary School
Arbor Ridge Elementary School
Blankner Elementary School
Bonneville Elementary School
Clarcona Elementary School
Columbia Elementary School
Conway Elementary School
Cypress Park Elementary School
Dr. Phillips Elementary School
Dream Lake Elementary School
Eccleston Elementary School
Frangus Elementary School
Grand Avenue Elementary School
Hillcrest Elementary School
Hungerford Elementary School
Ivey Lane Elementary School
John Young Elementary School
Kaley Elementary School
Killarney Elementary School
Lake Como Elementary School
Maxey Elementary School
Metro West Elementary School
Mollie Ray Elementary School
Ocoee Elementary School
Orlo Vista Elementary School
Palm Lake Elementary School
Pine Hills Elementary School
Pineloch Elementary School
Princeton Elementary School
Rock Lake Elementary School
Shenandoah Elementary School
Shingle Creek Elementary School
Spring Lake Elementary School
Tángelo Park Elementary School
Tildenville Elementary School
Union Park Elementary School
Ventura Elementary School
Wheatley Elementary School
Windermere Elementary School

229
Orange (cont.)
Winegard Elementary School
Zellwood Elementary School
Osceola
Boggy Creek Elementary School
Cypress Elementary School
Deerwood Elementary School
Parkway Middle School
Ventura Elementary School
Polk
Valleyview Elementary School
Sarasota
E.E. Booker Elementary School
Seminole
Casselberry Elementary School
Eastbrook Elementary School
English Estates Elementary School
Geneva Elementary School
Goldsboro Elementary School
Indian Trails Middle School
Jackson Heights Middle School
Keeth Elementary School
Lawton Elementary School
Partin Elementary School
Rainbow Elementary School
Red Bug Elementary School
South Seminole Middle School
Stenstrom Elementary School
Sterling Park Elementary School
Tuskawilla Middle School
Winter Springs Elementary School
Volusia
Deltona Lakes Elementary School
Deltona Middle School
Discovery Elementary School
Enterprise Elementary School

230
Volusia (cont.)
Friendship Elementary School
Galaxy Middle School
Osteen Elementary School
Spruce Creek Elementary School
Sunrise Elementary School
Timbercrest Elementary School

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Janice Lee Haworth was born in Corpus Christi, Texas, on
September 17, 1959, the daughter of Alvin and Betty Haworth. Being a
military dependent, she attended schools in Maryland, California, and
Belgium, graduating from SHAPE International High School in Casteau,
Belgium, in 1976. She holds a Bachelor of Music degree (with honors)
from Carson-Newman College, and a Master of Music in Choral
Conducting degree from the University of Tennessee.
Ms. Haworth taught elementary music in Virginia Beach, Virginia,
and then returned to Europe to serve as the Youth Director for the
International Baptist Church of Brussels, Belgium. In 1986 she resumed
her teaching career as an elementary music teacher in West Palm Beach,
Florida. She entered the University of Florida and received the Doctor of
Philosophy in music education in 1995.
In addition to music education, Ms. Haworth has a strong interest in
church music, computers, and in the shaped-note singing of nineteenth-
century America. She is a member of the Music Educators National
Conference and the National Association for Year-Round Education.
243

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
aLájl
Charles R. Hoffer,
Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Phyllis E. Dorman
Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Russell/L. Robinson
Associate Professor of Music
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Ci «•
Budd A. Udell
Professor of Music

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Arthur C. Je
Associate Profe
Music
I certify that I have read this study apd that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy. // /
V y
Panos E. Livadas
Assistant Professo/ of Computer
and Information Sciences
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
College of Fine Arts and to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
A^e*t tti
May 1995 Dean, College of Fine Arts
Dean, Graduate School

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1995
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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1995
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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