Material Information

Uniform Title:
Proceedings (United States. Merchant Marine Council)
Alternate Title:
Proceedings of the Merchant Marine Council
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
United States -- Merchant Marine Council
Merchant Marine Council, United States Coast Guard
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Merchant marine -- Safety measures -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Ships -- Safety regulations -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
Merchant Marine Council, United States Coast Guard.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (1944)-v. 28, no. 4 (Apr. 1971)
Issuing Body:
"Published at Coast Guard Headquarters under the auspices of the Merchant Marine Council, in the interest of safety at sea."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004847128
oclc - 175308199
lcc - VK1 .U6
System ID:

Related Items

Succeeded by:
Proceedings of the Marine Safety Council

Full Text


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Global Marine Communications--------------.....-....-..-....-
Relief Officers-----------------
Countries Which Have Accepted the 1948 Convention to Date....
Side Lights on the Rules------------------ --
Your Fact Forum----------------------.------
Cotton Waste.----.................------------------------------------
Gas Free-But For How Long ----------------------- -


Amendments to Regulations_----------------
Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circulars No.
Equipment Appiroved by the Commandant--
Articles of Ships' Stores and Supplies_--.-

2-54, 3-54......


A: a
B: e
C, a
D: 1'
E: o
List ]
List 1

b c d dd (2); remainder (1).
I, c i16S; f (4); h (3) ; g (2) ; remainder (1).
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*VJflSL H. C. >SnrPHrAl. USCG
OffieMe3ercbant Marine Safety

A-sistant. Uhtef, Office of
Marine Safety
lice Chairman

Engineer in Chief




Deputy Chief of Stnff
Chief, Merbchant Vessel Inspection
Chief, Merchant Marine Technical
Chief, Merchant Vessel *Personnel
Erccutive Secretary and Member
Mr. K. S. HAmusoN
Ohief Counsel
For each meeting two District Commanders
and three Marine Inspection Officers are
designated as members by the Commandant.

WHEREAS during the past year preventable fires have
bves; and
WHEREAS destruction of property by fire results in an
a billion dollars, of an untold number of jobs, and of an i
of production: and
WHEREAS safety of life and property and conservation
are of primary importance to every citizen of the Nation;
WHEREAS the effectiveness of sound fire-prevention

* taken thou


annual loss of nfleA
irreplaceable amol

of natural reso
programs has

demonstrated in communities throughout the land:
States of America, do hereby designate the week beginning October 3, 195t.
Fire Prevention Week. .
I call upon all citizens to initiate a year-round campaign against the was
caused by preventable fires, and I urge State and local governments, t
American National Red Cross, the National Fire Waste Council, the Cham1
of Commerce of the United States, and business, labor, and farm organization
as well as schools, civic groups, and public information agencies, to cooper
in the observance of Fire Prevention Week. I also direct the appropri
agencies of the Federal Government to assist in this national campaign agaji
the loss of life and property resulting from fires.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused'theSt
of the United States of America to be affixed.
DONE at the City of Washington this Fourth day of August in the yes
our Lord nineteen hundred and fifty-four, and of the Independence oft
United States of America the one hundred and seventy-ninth.
By the President: .;
Secretary of State. ..i

[F. R. Doc. 54-6188; Filed, Aug. 6, 1954; 1:23 p. m.]


The freighter shown on the front cover was reduced to a floating had
navigation by a destructive cargo fire. In addition to the damage evident fri
the picture, four seamen lost their lives in this casualty. What stronger r
sons for adeRuate fire-prevention practices aboard merchant vessels can
advanced? .



-- =


P marine global communication
system had its exception shortly after
obtained the first patent for
telegraphy in 1896. In the
o 'wing year he established what
was probably the first communication
circuit when he linked together
two lighthouses off the North Irish
coast which were separated by a dis-
tance of 7'2 miles.
~T1e potentialities of radio, or wire-
less as it was more commonly called
in those days. as a means of com-
munication between ships was obvi-
ous. However, it was not until the
of 1899, when a wireless
equipped lightship near Dover, Eng-
land, was rammed by a freighter, that
pulic attention was focused on the
~'wbie that wireless telegraphy
assume in the event of a marine
tion of From then on the evolu-
tion of marine radiocommuncation
has followed the lessons learned from
naritne disasters in which radio
PIRyed a part, and in which the
romance oa the sea and the pride and
p4itsofthe seagoing peratorhave
Become legendary. The world now
~Thad at its disposal one of the greatest
uto marine safety since
e rt ship ventured out on the
D oeans. Accordingly, the
eItory of global marine radio-
communications stems from radio in
with safetyy of life at
$ ty after the turn of the ceni-
ry, when maritime nations of the
world began putting radio to its first
at uue as a means of communi-
cating between ships and between
ships and shore stations, administra-
tve problems born of experience and
the need for uniformity of systems
rittident The absence of uni-
forrmty and control was accentuated
by one situation in particular. Num-
erous radio companies throughout the
world were formed to install and op-
erate radio stations on board ships as
well as on shore. These companies
engaged in a ruthless commercial
competitive warfare with each other.
Operators of one company were for-
bidden to carry on any communica-
Lion whatsoever with the ships of a
competitor. This, more than any
other problem, prompted the early in-
ternational radio conferences because
Sfoimied that without com-
plete freedom of intercommunication
between ships and between ships and
shore without regard to particular
systems employed, radio could not ful-
fill its purpose to ships where there


was no alternate means of communi-
cation. .
The principle of intercommuni-
cation without regard to systems
employed became a fundamental
cornerstone of all international radio
agreements to this day. It was
apparent that, in order to have a uni-
form, world-wide maritime radio sys-
tem which would permit ships of all
nations to communicate freely with
each other as well as with shore sta-
tions of all nations, an international
understanding would have to be
reached with respect to operating
frequencies, operating procedures, op-
erator qualifications, and intercom-
munication between stations of dif-
ferent administrations. Accordingly,
as a step in that direction, the first
International Wireless Conference
was held in Berlin in 1903.
An important result of the confer-
ence, which was exploratory in na-
ture, was the recognition, of the need
for a common international signal of
distress. While all delegates agreed
that a distress signal should have
precedence over all other forms of
wireless communication, they were
unable to agree on a specific signal.
It was not until 1906, at the Second
Wireless Conference held in Berlin,
that an international distress signal
was adopted. However, even though
the signal SOS was agreed upon and
included in the Berlin Wireless Tele-
graph Convention, 1906, the signal
CQD continued to be used for some
time and, as late as 1912 when the
TITANIC foundered, both SOS and
CQD were used.
The necessity for the establishment
of uniform methods and standard
procedures for handling the inter-
national problem of radiocommuni-
cation, from the point of view of
safety as well as traffic handling, has
been recognized by the several inter-
national safety and telecommunica-
tions and radio conferences, the most
recent of which were the Interna-
tional Radio Conference of Atlantic
City. 1947, and the International
Safety of Life at Sea Conference,
London, 1948. The agreements re-
sulting therefrom have provided for
the following essentials to a success-
ful system: standard operating pro-
cedures which are uniform through-
out the world: intercommunication
without regard to equipment belong-
ing to any one company; the designa-
tion of specific radio frequencies for
the purpose of making universal con-
tact, and for the transmission and

reception of distress messages; and
standard qualifications for radio op-
erators so that those entrusted with
this important link in the communi-
cation system will be competent to
maintain their equipment and carry
out the established procedures.
The raising of safety standards and
the expansion of a universal com-
munication system in the marine field
has visually been brought about
through the impetus of some sea dis-
aster. This is well illustrated by the
case of the TITMIC disaster in 1912.
The investigation which followed the
sinking of that vessel brought to light
many defects relating to such mat-
ters as the structure of the ship, aids
to navigation, safety precautions and
As a consequence, on June 28, 1912,
Congress adopted a joint resolution
proposing an international maritime
conference to be held to study means
for preventing similar disasters in
the future. In response to world-
wide sentiment, the United Kingdom
called such a conference in London
in 1914, which was attended by
thirteen of the principal maritime
This was the first International
Conference on Safety of Life at Sea.
it required, among other things, the
installation of radio equipment on
board certain ships. However, the
outbreak of the first World War and
other causes prevented the 1914 Con-
vention from coming into world-wide
force although parts of it were en-
acted nationally.
Congress had previously enacted
the Ship Act of June 24, 1910, which
forbade any "ocean-going" steamer
carrying or licensed to carry fifty or
more persons to leave any port of the
United States unless equipped with
efficient apparatus for radiocommu-
nications, in charge of a skilled per-
son, and capable of communication
over a distance of 100 miles. This
Act was amended July 23,1912, toin-
clude all vessels navigating the ocean
or Great Lakes carrying or licensed
to carry fifty or more persons, includ-
ing passengers or crew or both.
After the termination of World
War I, consideration was given to the
holding of a second international
conference to carry forward the work
commenced in 1914. The Second
International Conference on Safety of
Life at Sea convened in London on
April 16, 1929. For years prior to
1929 the entire world had recognized
the growing importance radioteleg-

,This article contains abstracts from a speech given by Commissioner E. M. Webster. Federal Communications Commission. Com-
modore, USCG |Ret.) before The Institute of Radio Engineers. Professional Group on Communications Systems. IRE Symposium on
. Global Communications, at Washington, D. C on June 23. 1954.


raphy had played min the safety of life
at sea. While improvements were
being made in the radio art and more
sea-going ships were being equipped
with apparatus, it Was apparent that
some method had to be devised to
increase the overall number of radio-
equipped vessels if maximum safety
were to be realized,
The 1920 Convention, too, was in-
fluenced by a marine disaster. In
November, 1928, six months before the
Conference convened, the SB VES-
TRIS went down about 100 miles
off the east coast of the United States
under mysterious circumstances. The
shortcomings and failures surround-
ing the radiocommunications were so
glaring that critical studies were un-
dertaken to determine what changes
were desirable to improve and en-
hance the reliability of marine com-
munications and the safety of life at
The subject of safety of life at sea
can be divided into four categories:
one, the ship must be structurally
safe and must be properly equipped
and manned for safe navigation and
internal protection; two, there must
be provided the necessary aids to
navigation ex ternal to the ship to
assist the navigator; three, some
method must be provided on board
the ship to permit the summoning of
aid and the reception of distress calls;
and four, an adequate system for the
search and rescue of ships and their
survivors when in distress is essential.
Communications, in some form or de-
gree, are involved in all categories.
The Conferenee of 1929 quickly
recognized that the maximum safety
would be attained when all vessels.
large and small, were equpped with
radio installations and a continuous
watch by operator was maintained
throughout the exitre period of navi-
gation. However, it was 4lso real-
ized that such a situation, while
highly desirable, was impracticable,
and any attempt to Trequire more
than one operator aboard a cargo
ship certainly would be resisted.
It was concluded that the underly-
ing pinciple was t provide a contin-
uous radio watch by operators for all
ships, but economic considerations
would prevent the adoption of such a
principle without certain exceptions.
It was further concluded that if
limited exemptions could be made
with respect to the continuous watch
principle, a substantial increase
could at least be made in the total
number of radio-equipped ships and
in the number of hours of radio watch


sea throughout

In searching for a solution it was
therefore necessary to strike a balance
between the ideal on the one side and

the practical and economic features
on the other. Too stringent require-
ments involving prohibitive costs
might jeopardize universal accept-

ance of the treaty
sponsible for the
Conference to meet
The Conference
three major probl
ships or classes of
compi onrily fitted

and thus be re-
failure of the
its objective.
was faced with
ems: first, what
with radioteled b
with radiotele -

graph apparatus; second, who ra di.
watches, or hours of operation, should
be maintained aboard those ships;
and third, what should be the tech-
nical requirements of the apparatus
installed. Because of the conflict of
interests and the tendency of each
participating nation to view the prob-
lems from the standpoint of its own
laws and practices, the first two prob-
lems were most difficult of solution.
There was no disagreement with
the philosophy that all passenger
ships on international voyages should
be equipped with radio installations
and maintain a continuous watch by
operator. However, in the sphere of
cargo ships such unanimity did not
exist and a compromise solution was
reached whereby all cargo vessels over
1600 gross tons must be equipped with
radio and must maintain a continu-
ous wateh. The watch requirement,
however, was moddified to the extent
that a continuous watch could be
. maintained by one or more operators.

alarm device
The third
solution was t
ratus to be i
the technical
must meet.
on the part (

by a suitable automatic
as necessary.
and last question for
hat of the type of appa-
nstalled, together with
requirements which it
'here was reluctance
of some participants to

replace the radio installations already
on board and in operation with
equipment qt modern desig~n. HoW-
ever, the advocates of higher stand-
ards were successful I outolawg the
aid slhipboaird spark transmittin
equipment which was obsolete and
which was retarding the development
of a good e lient marwe iradiBocm-
munication system. While the re-
sulting Convention, the final act of
which was signed by all eighteen
participating nations on May 31.,
1929. may have fallen short of the
ultimate in some respects, it was a
major step forward in the direction
of safety of life at sea and the estab-
lishment of a sound maritime com-
munication system.


with the use
the complexion

of high
of the

marine communication system began
to change. Ships at the four corners
of the earth were no longer depend-
ent upon landwire and cable connec-
tions to contact their home countries.
The necessity for communication

with the coast station nearest the s
no longer existed. Now
could communicate with the coj
station nearest the message desi
tion. The marine communica
system had truly reached the tat
of a global communication systenL.
Following World War I, radio
lephonJF eg s f

the world. Because the comm
cited to relatively short distances wi
in limited geographical areas and
cause of the low power require
compact equipment and ease of
eration by non-professional o
torsn radiotelep1y 'r
adaptable to the needs of small b
Various regions of the w
adopted their own frequency
within the band 1600 to 3000 ke.
example, the marine raditeleph
service in the waters of Western 2
rope, i. e., the Baltic Sea, North
English Channel, etc., centered
1650 kc. as a calling and distress
quency, was established some yea
ago. Today the marine radio
phone service is in extensive use
that area.
In about 1931 a small beginnia
was made the lnit
the establishment of a radiotelephtl
service along our cots
without the use of cmm
frequency as in Europe. The
sion of this service has been rap:i-
and today there aes ppoima
*0.000 small boats equipped wit
radiotelephony operating in America-
waters. ,'_
As the radiotelephone system gre
within the various regions and radiE*
telephone equipped boats began ope"
orating en R oq
te ameAvant tAh
the radiotelegraph system, a
cain problem dwich mustcy. "1
sidered alis entoa
international calling and distress
quencyg fo rad ew
atthe International o erene
at M lsnti& Cityn 1
ton of the frequency 2182 ke. oa.a.
world-wide marine radiotelep|h
calling and distress frequency.
The establishment of an ine
national calling and distress fe
quency for radiotelephony was fel
lowed by the requirement included
the International Conference ..o
Safety of Life at Sea, 1948, that oa
going cargo vessels between 500 a0n
1600 gross tons must be equipped wit
radio installations, either radioelat
graph in the 500 kc. band or raditc
telephone in the 2 Mc. band.
for the first time, radiotelephony w-

(Continued on page 188)


When discussing the duties and
responsibilities of mates and engi-
neers aboard merchant vessels it is
generally taken for granted these
officers are thoroughly familiar with
their vessels and the owners' opera-
tional procedures. One exception to
this rule, however, are the Relief
Officers, often referred to as "Night
Mates" and "Night Engineers."
These officers come aboard a great
many ships to relieve the regular offi-
cers of the vessel at night or on Satur-
days, Sundays and holidays in port.
They may be aboard a particular ves-
sel for one watch or several, and Lhen
they are off to another ship, which is
probably operated by a different
steamship company. One night they
may stand a watch on a tanker, the
next on a Liberty-type cargo vessel,
and possibly the next watch may be
on a passenger vessel.
It is evident therefore that these
officers must familiarize themselves
with the vessel and the owner's poli-
cies in a minimum of time. There is
not time to go over all the ship's gear,
nor to go over every detail an officer
coming aboard for the next voyage
would be expected to check prior to
sailing. Still there are many items
which must be checked, records to
be kept: and above all the Relief Offi-
cer must be prepared to handle effec-
tively any emergency which may
. arise.
One of the most practical solutions
we have seen to this problem is that
I employed by the Matson Navigation
Company. This company provides
* each vessel with a looseleaf booklet
containing instructions for Relief

Officers concerning their duties, com-
pany policies and emergency proce-
Sdures. In addition, this booklet has
a diagram of the particular vessel
I with all the emergency equipment
i and other facilities clearly marked.
I Since all vessels have certain char-


acteristics which are different from
others, these diagrams are not placed
aboard the vessel ready-made
Rather each diagram has attached to
it a series of headings on gummed
paper which are cut out when the
pamphlet comes aboard and are
pasted at the appropriate spot on the
diagram to indicate where a particu-
lar facility is located, such as the
controls for the various fire-fighting
equipment, emergency-gear locker.
etc. This booklet is printed in large
type, with illustrations, and is com-
pact enough that it can be read in a
short period of time. There is also
a space provided for the Night Orders
for the Mate, and also the telephone
numbers of all agents and shoreside
operation officials to be called in an
With information such as this at
his finger tips the Relief Officer is
better prepared to perform his duties,
particularly those of the Relief Mate.
The Relief Engineer as a rule knows

the ty
of the
fore g

pe of pla
vessel i

nt with which a parti-
s equipped before he
With the assistance
hed personnel he there-
does not require addi-
referred to above, al-

though brief, is quite comprehensive
Many items are merely touched upon.
since they are somewhat routine in
nature. Functions such as log en-
tries, checking drafts, keeping cargo
plans, etc., are often overlooked, how-
ever, and for this reason a reminder
serves a useful purpose.
Relief Mates are also cautioned to
give attention to the gangway, espe-
cially during the night. Slack hand
lines give little protection to some-
one using the gangway; when they are
too tight there is danger of these lines
snapping. The gangway itself may be
damaged if the roller is not kept clear
of the dock fittings.

Courtes l Matson Nov. Co.

Since the cargi
tidal conditions v
effect on mooring

very e

are also ca
frequent in
other such
heading of
true, but
ample, the

Relief Mate to
lighting is availal
cargo operations.
gear is operating
is easily seen.
cargo equipment,
winch runners,
fore it is needed,


also have

lines, Relief Mates
to check them at
These and many
es come under the
that the vessel is
are routine, it is

essential .
of instr
see that

For ex-
ucting the

ble, especially during
or to see that cargo
safely and properly
By locating spare
such as cargo lights,
tarpaulins, etc., be-
the Relief Mate may

easily prevent delay in operations.
Since fire-fighting equipment dif-
fers on merchant ships the Relief
Officer should be familiar with the
type in use on board the vessel on
which he is serving. One vessel may
have a carbon dioxide smothering
system in the holds, and another may
use steam. This is where the book
of instructions and the diagram serve
their intended purpose best. A short
explanation on the operation and
location of fire-detecting, fire-alarm,
and fire-extinguishing equipment
aboard the vessel is invaluable to the
Relief Mate.
One point which the Relief Mate
must keep constantly in mmind is that

he may ha
anyone fami
fighting eqt
agency arise
most of the
this reason

time c

Court eau UVUROR Nan. Co.a

ive little assistance from
iliar with the vessel's fire-
uipment should an emer-
, since it is quite likely
crew will be ashore. For
he must rely to a great
shoreside assistance. No
e wasted in sounding the
on the vessel and ashore.
of how to go about this
crisis arises is a valuable

Steps then can be taken to
and isolate the fire and at the

same time make sure no one is in the
affected areas. The shoreside fire
department will probably rely on the
Relief Mate for information concern-
ing the rargo, location of the fire, fire-
fighting equipment available, etc.
Here is where advance knowledge re-
garding these factors will pay off.

(Continued on Pvae 171l










The Government of the United
Kingdom extended the International
Convention for the Safety of IMe at
Sea, signed at London on June 10.
1948, to the Colony of Singapore and
to the Federation oft Malaya& These


United Kingdom---....--................--------------...--
New Zealand ---------.............--------------
United States of America.....----
France ....................... --
Netherlands ..................--------
Nodrway .... .............................
Union of South Africa... .........-
In_-dan -- ----- ---- --.-..---. -----
_o__.l __ .... -,.. ...... ... ..
r|ada --- ---- -------------------------
Ita -FLly ~i~,^ _- -- _- S __ ^ K.. . ..^ f-**> :^^...-** __ _.. __*il -
Pakistan ---- -- -- -- -- -- -- -< -
JD ef~L|>~nm ark*ffc i-h-:-- i -:-- :-:-_ -- --j-i -4 *- -- :- it i -*-- i- ---
Yugo slavi-----------------------------
Italy---......... .....--------------------....--------
Ih'.ly..pp es..............................-
sp u .................................
Is rael 1------ ..... ... ..... ...
JapanB ----- --- ------------- ------
Israel --_---------- -----------------_--

bSpain ....... ............. .........
Phili e------ ---- T- ------ ------ --
:inl__a__n ^ .. -- -_ t .-- -..- --.-.--.
r' .ii nd __ -, ... .. ....


Republic.. -

Viet Nanm ..- -- -
Panama .. _=___ ... _
Geece ...............
Nicarag ua---------
Cambodi a ............. -_
U. S. S. R..................
Switzerland ...............
Haitt .. ----......-------....
Egypt .....................

- -- -

- -~- --

-- -

-- -

Sept. 30, 1949




''Nov. 19. 1952

Mar. 26, 1953
Apr. 13, 1953
Sept. 5, 1953
No. 13 1953*
Nov. 19, 1953
Dec. 12, 1953
Apr. 8, 1954
Apr. 21, 1954
May 19, 1954
Aug. 10, 1954
Aug. 19, 1954
Aug. 26, 1954
Sept. 11, 1954

June 11, 1954 Sept. 11, 1954


extensions took effect on August 5 and
October 21, 1953, respectively.
Instruments of Acceptance by the
Governments of Panama and Greece
of the aforementioned Convention
were deposited in the Archives of the


Government of the United KingdcI
on January 8 and 21, 1954, resv.!
tively. In accordance with the
sions of the Convention these Ac
ances became effective three ma
after deposit. Tkhereore, ieFh
manian Acceptance took effect .
April 8, 1954, and the Greek AeJ
ance took effect on April 21,1954. *
Instruments of Acceptance by
Governments of Cambodia. Union
soviet scaitRpbis w

tion wete dpstd nteA
of theGvrmemo h


aaif 2G. 194lesefveltndi
cordance with the provisions S

respective acceptance took effect .
June 2, August 10, 19, and 26, 1951
Instruments of Acceptance by t.
Governments of Egypt and the Poi
People's Republic of the aforem
tioned Convention were also d..
posited in the archives of the Go
eminent of the United damn

the provisions of the Convention, t
Egyptian and Polish acceptance to
effect on Sept. 11, 1954. -
Countries which have accepted th
International Convention for -
Safety of Life at Sea, 1948, and t
Territories to which the Conventiot
ha5 been e tnge
table on this pag .


The Government of the Unite

nunciation of the InternatoalC
vention for the Safety of Life at Se
from the Government of Greece p
January 21, 1954. and from the G
eminent of Poland on June 11, 19T
In accordance with Article 66 of tb
Convention, the Greek denunciatM
will take effect on January 21, 1BJ
and the denunciation by Poland Wi
take effect on June 11, 1955.



Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico------
Spanish Protectorate of Morocco
Colonies__ -- - -
Hong Kong -------- ---
Soma liland_-__ --- -
Singapore. . ..
M alaya ----------------------------

the Spanish

-- .-----------

Nov. 19, 1952
Mar. 26, 1953
Apr. 7. 1953
July 6, 1953
Aug. 5. 1953
Oct. 21, 1953


If you do not like to wear ye
safety goggles when you are enga
, in hazardous work, follow this ,sit
gestion: Next time you are in pa
spend an hour or so abshopping arou
for an extra eye.






/ ,

In this article, the 13th in the Side-
lights on the Rules series, we shall
continue the comparison of the Inter-
national Rules with the correspond-
ing provisions in the local rules appli-
cable to the Inland Waters. Western

Rivers, and the Great Lakes
ing to Rule 16. International
The first part of this rule
vessels and seaplanes to pr
moderate speed in restricted
in the following terms:

by turn-
oceed at

Rule 16 (a) Every vessel, or seaplane
when taxi-ing. on the water, shall, in fog,
mist. falling snow, heavy rainstorms or
any other condition simnllarly restricting
visibility, go at a moderate speed, having
careful regard to the existing circum-
stances and conditions.
Similar provisions are to be found
in Article 16. Inland Rules. and Sec.
80.13 (c), Pilot Rules for Inland
Waters, insofar as vessels are con-
cerned. However, both are silent as
to seaplanes. Another difference is
that neither Article 16 nor Sec. 80.13
(a) refers to "other conditions simi-
larly restricting visibility."
Article 16. Inland Rules. states:

Art. 18. Every vessel shall, in
mist, faLling EDnow. or heavy rain
go at a moderate speed, having
regard to the existing circumstan
conditions .

a fog.
ces and

Section 80.13 'a), Pilot Rules for
Inland Waters, which is almost iden-
tical, in turn, provides that:
80.13 Speed in fog; posting of rules;
diagrams-(a) Moderate speed In fog,-
Every steam vessel shall, in a tog. mist,
falling snow. or heavy rainstorms, go at
a moderate speed, having careful regard
to the existing circumstances and con-
ditions .
Corresponding Rule Numbered 16.
Western Rivers Rules, though similar,
In addition to being silent as to sea-
planes, omits the phrase "having care-
ful regard to the existing circum-
S stances and conditions," and falls to
provide for vessels other than steam
vessels. It also contains the phrase
"whether by day or by night:"
RULE NUMBERED 16. Every steam
vessel shall, inm og, mist. falling snow,
heavy rainstorms, or any other condition
similarly restricting visibility, whether
by daj or night, go at a moderate
Rule 15, Great Lakes Rules, on the
other hand, is worded still differently:
Rule 15. Every vessel shall, in thick
weather, by reason of fog. mist, falling
* snow. heavy rainstorms, or other causes,.

The last part of Rule 16, Interna-
tional Rules. which requires a power-
driven vessel to stop her engines when
a fog signal is heard from what ap-
pears to be forward of the beam,

ibi A po
apparently fi
signal of a vi
not aescertai
engines, and
until danger

'wer-driven vessel
forward of her beam,
essel the position of
led, shall, so far as
of the case adrmt,
then navigate with
of collision is over.


the fog-
which is
ithe cir-
stop her



CC- 172,



ND CG-184, "PrLOT


Aside from the fact a power-driven
vessel is termed a steam vessel in
inland waters, Art. 16, Inland Rules,
and Sec. 80.13 ta), Pilot Rules for
Inland Waters, are worded identi-

Art. 16. A


' 'esCI


apparently forward of her beam, the fog
signal of a vessel the position of which is
not ascertained shall, so far as the cir-
cumstances of the case admit, stop her
engines, and then navigate with caution
untUil danger of collision is over.
80.13 Speed in fog; posting of rules;
diagrams-(aj Moderate speed in fog .
A steam vessel hearing, apparently for-
ward of her beam, the log signal of a

vessel the position of which
trained shall, so far as the c
of the case admit, atop her
then navigate with caution
of collision is over.

Western Rivers
worded differently
quires a steam or
vessel hearing ax
signal from what
ward of the beam
bare steerageway:

is not ascer-
engines and
until danger

Rule Numbered 16,
Rules, not only is
y. but merely re-
other power-driven
other vessel's fog
appears to be for-
to reduce speed to

vessel hearing, apparently forward

of her


at once red
gev'ay, and
the vessels

uce her
shall hav

speed to
with ca
e passed

The term bare steerageway is com-
monly held to be the slowest possible
speed a vessel can make and still
maintain rudder control.
Further differences in wording and
meaning are to be found in Rule 15,
Great Lakes Rules, which contains
the corresponding provisions for the
Great Lakes and their connecting and
tributary waters In these waters, a
steam or other power-driven vessel
must, reduce speed to bare steerage-
way upon hearing a fog signal of an-
other vessel from what appears to be
not more than four points from
right ahead:
Rule 15. A steam vessel hearing.
apparently not more than four points
from right ahead. the fog signal of an-
other vessel shall at once reduce her speed
to bare steerageway. and navigate with
caution until the vessels shall have passed
each other.
'These differences are not particu-
larly critical as long as vessels remain
within their respective waters. How-
ever. the trend today is away from
localized shipping, and that often
makes the differences critical.
In the next issue, the series will go
on to the clear weather steering and
sailing rules. Here, too, critical dif-
ferences will be found in the meeting,
crossing, and overtaking rules.

Global Marine Communications
( Continrted from page 160)
officially recognized as an instru-
ment capable of being used effectively
in a marine communication system.
The marine radiotelephone subject
would not be complete without men-
tion of the so-called high-seas or
long-distance radiotelephone system.
This system is comparable to the
long-range marine radiotelegraph
system employing high frequencies.
and provides ships with a facility to
communicate by radiotelephone di-
rectly with the country with which
communication is desired. At present
you will find these installations con-
fined generally to the large passenger
vessels making overseas voyages,
principally as a convenience to pas-
Any discussion of the global marine
communications system must include
mention of the associated coastal sta-
tions Such stations are located


interconnection between landline fa-
cilities and ships at sea for the ex-
change of both safety and commercial
messages. Coastal stations in most
foreign countries are maintained and
operated by their respective govern-
ments. In the United States, while
Coast Guard and Navy stations main-
tain safety watches on the distress
frequencies, privately owned commer-
cial stations are operated to provide
both safety and general communica-
tion service. To give the maximum of
service and the greatest protection to
ships at sea, most coastal telegraph
stations throughout the world main-
tain watch on 1ih frequeteies as well
as on the international calling and
distress frequency of 500 kilocycles.
Beginning in about 1921 and up to
World War I. radio navigation cen-
tered around the use of radio direc-
tion finders either at shore-based
ra4io compass stations on the fre-
quenCy 3'5 tic, or on board ship tn
conjunction with shore-based radio
beacon stations operating in the 290-
320 kc, band While radio diction
linders and radio beacons still are
seul naetgating tools, the wartime
devetOped radar and loran are of
great assistance i navigating imder
conditions of poor Visibility because
of rad rs ability to detect objects
without dependexne upon a signal
being ra ted the object and
loran's extension of the useful range
of radio navigation facilities.
The International Convention on
Safety of Life at Sea requires thatE
the contracting governments under-
take to provide for the rescue of per-
sons in distress at sea. The Conven-
tion on International Civil Aviation
contains similar provisions with re-
spect to rendering assistance to air-
craft in distress. While the wording
of the two conventions is different,
the objective is the same, namely, to
provide greater safety and security
for the passengers and crew of sur-
face ships and aircraft. The basis
for a successful search and rescue
agency is an adequate communication
system properly used. The global
marine communications system fur-
nishes the necessary link for surface
craft, and through the provisions of
various international treaties, is inte-
grated with the communication sys-
tem of aircraft to form the combined
network upon which the search and
rescue agency is dependent.
This briefly traces the history of
maritime communications. Through
the joint efforts of the maritime na-
tions, a successful global marine com-
munications system has been devel-
oped. Moreover, through the ma-
chinery established by international
agreements, future progress toward
the improvement of the world-wide


Q. When must the steering gear
be tested by a licensed officer?
A. On all vessels making a voyage
of more than 48 hours duration, the
entire steering gear should be exam-
ined and tested by an officer of the
vessel within a period of not more
than twelve 112) hours prior to de-
parture. On other vessels similar ex-
aminations and tests should be made
at least once each week.
Q. When running well off tie
wind or running free in a sailboat,
how can a sudden gust of wind be
met which threatens to capsize the
A. Slack the sheet to spill the
wind out of the sail and luff the boat
up into the wind at the same time.

Q. Before painting canvas, what
should be done, and why?
A. Canvas should be wet before
painting; some advocate soapy water,
others plain fresh water. This keeps
the canvas fairly pliable as it thus
takes much less paint than when dry.
Q. Explari the purpose of ex-
traction, or bleed, steam, and how it is
A. Extraction steam is used to
augment the auxiliary exhaust or
back pressure steam which serves to
heat the feed water and low pressure
distilling plants, seal the shaft glands,
and cushion auxiliary machinery. It
is extracted during nearfull load con-
ditions from the later stages of the
main turbine via bleeder connections
in the casings. Some approved means
must be provided to prevent steam
from entering the turbine via the
bleeder connections.
Q. What is a cross-compound
A. A cross-compound turbine is
a form of compound turbine in which
the steam passes successively through
two separate high and low pressure
casings or turbines, each turbine driv-
ing separate pinions of a reduction
Q. When a vessel is moored to
two anchors, what is the most advan-
tageous position for the cable shackles
or detachable links in event of a foul
A. When moored to two anchors
the most advantageous position for
the shackles or detachable links is on
deck forward of the windlass wildcat,
so that in thq event of foul hawse they
are readily available for detaching in
order to take the turns out of the

Q. What precaution is nec...
in taking a twin screw vessel .-
Ifromu a warf? ....
A. The inside pope1leii
not be used until the stern is
Q. What precautions must.
borne in mind by ships' officers.
maneuvering vessels powered w .
geared turbine drive?

bines for backing purposes and i
rally do not have the
power that is available for f
drive. .
Q. What is the thriose
of application of the two types;
paints used on a ship's bottom? .
first to prevent corrosion o
surface, and then an anti
paint to prevent or discourage fo
of the ship's bottom.
Q. What is the purpose of I
lidTes o1n vv ese

sels with the purpose of affordiang-
positive means for the ship'spe
nel, law enforcement agencies,
other interested parties to dete
of the llmititabns.
are placed on the ship by law for't
various combinations of route, se
cargoes, and water densities that

ings are so placed that they assure t
vessel has sufficient reserve buoyancy
compartmentation, and strength, .
well as ample freeboard so that 1.
combination with the other fat
involved, she possesses reserve stm
ity. Sufficient freeboard is reqi
so that the deck provides a safe wQE
ing platform for the crew, and *
hatches and other openings are bf
enough above the water to be sect.i
from seas that may be encountered. "
Q. Explain why throttling of .a
engine in which saturated steam
used may produce superheated ste
in the valve chest? Why is this undi
sirable? 7.
A. In a throttling process :..
steam passes from a higher pres
to a lower pressure, at approxim
the same total heat. As the steam-
the lower pressure still has the a ...
total heat. it is superheated propq
tionately with the pressure dra
Therefore, when steam passes throE
a steam admission valve, there t4
drop in pressure without performan.
-m ,i

The inherent hazard and persistent
nature of fire in a cargo of cotton
aboard ship were dramatically em-
phasized last spring when a foreign
freighter burned for three days in a
Southern port of the United States.
While bulk sulphur and other mate-
rials which may have been combus-
tible were near the area of the fire.
it was determined that these mate-
rials had not contributed to the origin
of the fire, and the cotton cargo was
the principal agent.) Fortunately
there were no lives lost and injuries
were minor, although there was con-
aiderable damage to the vessel and to
the cargo.
Five hundred bales of cotton had
been loaded in the bottom of No. 5
hold at one port eleven days before
the fire. The remainder of No. 5 hold
was loaded at another port with about
1400 bales of cotton linters and 55
large sealed drums of a commercial
petroleum additive named Lubnrisol.
The flash point of this petroleum ad-
ditive was about 430 degrees P, which
is well above and beyond the flash
point range of inflammable liquids
prohibited by the Dangerous Cargo
regulations from being loaded in the
same hold as baled cotton.
While this vessel was loading bulk
sulphur in No. 4 hold at still another
port, smoke was seen issuing from the
g. oose-neck ventilator on deck, which
Swas the common ventilator for No. 4
and No. 5 holds. No fire was seen in
. No. 4 hold where the bulk sulphur
was being piled, but men in No. 4 hold
reported that the after bulkhead next
. !to No. 5 hold was unusually hot.
..Within one-half hour, the Master
:' .felt certain that there was definitely
. a fire in the cotton with which No. 5
.. hold was completely loaded. He
. ordered the discharge of 1,500 lbs. of
0 gas into No. 5 hold No imme-
diate effects of the CO.. gas were ap-
.' parent and a smoldering fire con-
:: tinued to discharge smoke from the
S.. About two hours after the first de-

= tection
.. establish
!. was in 1N
.:: to have
".-ately .to
il proper fi
c.: harge t


smoke, it was definitely
that the seat of the fire
5 hold and it was decided
ae vessel proceed immedi-
large nearby port where
liLties were available to dis-
cotton linters and proper-

ly combat the fire.
The foreign freighter arrived and
berthed in the large nearby port
-about six hours later with the fire
still in a cwirlrnlarin" Ut.atP A rit.v

fireboat was standing by as the dis-
charge of linters began. Within an-

other eight hour
shelter deck w
charged of linter
of the hatch bo
deck, it was fou
surface of the co
the 'tween deck w
As many of the
as could be brc
hoses from the f
on the fire nm No.
cessive fumes an
dered fire fighting
dously, the fire ga
half hour, and it
the lower hold.
in through ballast
ing stage rose in

that t]
in the
by a



fire was

s the square of the
as completely dis-
s and upon removal
'ards of the 'tween
nd that the entire
)tton linter bales in
vas burning.
freighter's fire hoses
ought to bear and
ireboat were turned
5 hold. Due to ex-
d smoke which hin-
g personnel tremen-
ined during the next
was decided to flood
Water was pumped
Slines. As the flood-
the hold, it seemed
being brought under

,ever. about two hours after
ng began, an explosion occurred
e starboard refrigerated cargo
in No. 5 'tween deck followed
violent flash which seemed to

increase the i
fire in the ca
tus was now
tinued efforts
vessel's crew.

to be

the sho
tion. tl

intensity of
rgo. Shore
called. Si
of fire figh
from the
re brigade
g control o
ie Captain

and feed the
fire appara-
nce the con-
ters from the
fireboat, and
did not seem
ver the con-
of the Port

and a Port Commissioner ordered the
vessel to leave the wharf and proceed
to an anchorage. It was feared that
the fire might spread to the wharf.
Fire fighting was continued at, the
anchorage using all hose lines avail-
As a result of the flooding of No.
5 hold. from below and from above,
the water level gradually rose above
the shelter deck and overflowed into
No. 4 hold. Water also made its way
by devious routes into the shaft alley,
evaporator room, and engine room.
With the fireboat, assisted by three
tugs, pouring water into the ship the
amount of water in the lower holds
was too great to be handled by the
ship's pumps. Gradually the stern
of the vessel settled until it was rest-
ing on the bottom at the anchorage,
leaving only three feet of freeboard
at the stern.
One drastic measure taken to en-
able the fire fighters to get at the
heart of the fire was to cut 8-inch
circular openings in various places in
the main Ieck of No. 5 hold to allow
water to be directed on the burning
cotton in the shelter deck wings and
onto the refrigerated cargo box in the
fnrward end of the shelter deck.

Toward the even
day. the fire was
control and a ba
alongside. Unloadi
ter bales and oil dr
ward part of No. 5
begun by vessel's pe
shoremen in order
frigerator boxes wi
with heavy smoke

ing of the second
somewhat under
rge was brought
mng of cotton lin-
ums from the for-
shelter deck was
rsonne] and long-
to get at the re-
itch were burning
and acrid fumes.

The intense difficulties of
working under these condit
vented much headway in
and it was not until the
afternoon that access was
the refrigerator boxes. By
nmg of the third day the fire
completely extinguished.
While the partially burned

ions pre-
gained to
the eve-
had been

I and un-

burned cotton cargo was being un-
loaded the next day, a bale of cotton
in the forward starboard corner of
No. 5 lower hold was found to be
burned and charred and the burlap
covering on the immediately adjacent
bales was also charred. The wooden
battens on a trunk which led from
the bilge valves in the lower hold up
to the shelter deck next to the re-
frigerator boxes were also completely
charred along their entire length.
It was concluded that the source of
the fire was in this bale of cotton
which was found to be most severely
burned in the lower hold. and was due
to spontaneous heating followed by
ignition Undoubtedly this original
combustion was communicated up-
ward on the wooden battens on the
access trunk to the refrigerated cargo

with co
ing corr
ated di

These boxes were insulated
rk covered by an asphalt seal-
ipound which, in burning, cre-
ense smoke and biting acrid
While at least one small fire.

typical of the inst
ignition often e
loading bulk sulph
in the sulphur in
the fire in No. 5
this small fire wa,
mediately, and no

'antaneous type of
encountered while
ur, had broken out
No. 4 hold before
hold was detected,
s extingushed im-
casual connection

between this small fire and the later
fire in No. 5 hold could be construed.
Bulk sulphur is permitted to be
loaded in the same hold as baled
cotton provided certain precautions
are taken. If cotton is stowed over
sulphur, the sulphur must be trimmed
and leveled and the hold thoroughly
cleaned of sulphur dust. A tight floor
of two 1-inch crossed clean dunnage
boards shall be laid on the sulphur
before the cotton is stowed. If
stowed alongside each other in the
same hold. the cotton and sulphur


-= =

I. K I

must be separated by a tight wooden
bul k h e a d constructed dustproof.
When bulk sulphur is loaded in a
' lower hold, cotton shall not be stowed
in a 'tween deck hold over it until
such hold has been thoroughly

cleaned of all sulphur dust
'tween deck hatch covers are
and covered with tarpaulins a
nage. Bulk sulphur may
loaded over cotton. There is
hibition against stowing bulk

and the
in place
nd dun-
not be
no pro-

and cotton in adjacent holds, as was
the case in the above casualty, pro-
viding the bulkhead between them is
tight. No connection was established
between the presence of the drums
of petroleum additive in the upper
part of No. 5 hold and the origin of
the fire in that hold, although some
of this liquid, flowing from damaged
drums during the latter stages of the
fire, may have contributed to the
While the exact cause of the spon-
taneouis heating of a bale of cotton in
the hold of this vessel will probably
never be ascertained, there are sev-
eral possibilities. The Dangerous
Cargo Regulations contain many pre-
cautions concerning the loading of
cotton aboard ship, several of which
are intended, among other things, to
prevent spontaneous heating. For
example: ,
(D) All cotton (to be accepted
for stowage aboard ship) shall, be
securely baled and bound and covered
with bagging on at least three-
fourths of its surface, including both
ends of the bale. Poorly compressed
bales shall not be accepted. Loose
cotton shall not be accepted for
transportation on board any vessel.
(2) Bales that are wet or have
been wetted shall be stowed separate
from dry cotton, preferably in a
'tween deck, not overstowed. Bales
That are saturated shall not be ac-
'3' Bales showing contact with
oil or grease shall not be accepted
(4' Cotton shall not be stowed
in a hold lately used for oil cargo un-
less such hold has been steamed or
otherwise cleaned so as to completely
remove all traces of oil residue. Par-
ticular care shall be exercised if the
recent cargo contained any vegeta-
ble or animal oils. Holds which have
been recently painted shall not be
uilized for cotton stowage unless
thoroughly dry.
I5) Cotton may not be stowed
in a hold having a division bulkhead
fish is also a boundary of a boiler
II, *t~ilV ais"o a~tc.Illr^fi *i''' ~~t^

room, engine room, coal bunker, or
galley unless such cotton is adequately
dunnaged off the bulkhead. If ad-
jacent to a boiler room, the space be-
tween the cotton and the bulkhead
m*USt be at. least S inches deen a't all

points; if adjacent to an engine room
bulkhead, the space must be at least

deep at all points.
L, like other fibrous or finely
materials, when contami-
ith drying or oxidizing oils,
t spontaneously and under

2 inches
nated w
will hea

sipate the h
may occur.
ing in cotto
in the hold
dangerous d
culation wh
tion, and du
ties of locate
caused in t
batting it.
Due to tl

evolved in baled
such baled mat'
exting uishment
solid streams of

conditions where
nt circulation of air

eat as generated,
Such spontaneoi
n stowed closely
of a ship is par
ue to the lack of

there is
to dis-
us heat-
in bales
air cir-

ic:h '\ "*. *.. ... "Iil
ich will encourage igni-
e to the extreme difficul-
ing the source of a fire
his manner and in com-

ae millions of

fibres in-

cotton and the fpene-
t characteristics of
aerial, the cooling and
of baled cotton by
water is doubly diffi-

cult. The addition to the fire-fight-
ing water supply of various chemical
wetting agents which serve to reduce
the surface tension of the water in
order to secure more rapid penetra-
tion of baled fibres, hay, loose waste

ing branch
intg. HowE
- are niotusu
nor would
streams su
from a sea
of a vessel

forest litter, etc. is a grow-
of the science o0 fire tll-
ever, such wetting agents
ally available aboard ships
their use be possible in hose
applied by the ship's pumps
suction. However, in case
fire involving fibrous ma-

trials in the cargo when the vessel is
alongside a dock, every attempt
should be made to obtain modern
shore apparatus which is equipped
with the so-called "wet water" system.
Any cargo fire is hazardous and de-
structive. Casualty records indicate
that fire in a cargo of cotton is not
only hazardous and destructive, but
persistent to the point of utter frus-
tration, "i^eep yor olt4i *
and clean" is probably the simplest
possible summation of advice on load-
ing this harmless-looking staple fibre.
For all ship's personnel who have
taken part in a 3 or 4 day fight against
fire in cotton, the above advice will
not require repeating.





The imorMnce of as freeing

conipawiler OtWe~ e shpigo ups
which has contained petroleum prod- esppeg for g e purpose
ucts, before hot work can be under- vessels for gas. carried ou
taken in the vicinity, was dramat- nation of this tank barge
ically undefined by an explosion. A a Gas Free Certificate
tank barge which had contained no that the tanks were safe f
caran for at least 14 days was shan- san Fnr Wre


. of test
t an exa
and issja
or men a



tered by a devastating blast (see
ure 1) and one man lost his life.
explosion was apparently caused',
the ignition of gasoline-air vapaor.
the acetylene torch of a yard wo
man, although the gasoline cargo
been pumped out two weeks te
and the barge had been certified
free 7 days before the accident. i:..
Having been brought to the .
yard with another barge for rot
hull repairs, the tank barge w
suffered the above fatality was.:
first to be ordered as freed.
the coursebofniran in
tion, a strong smell of gasoline .
detected and ins'tructig ae .
the yard foreman to have the
thoroughly cleaned out in order
a Gas Free Certificate could .be
tamied. At WITisiie
portions of the hull were marked.
with chalk for repairs, in parti.
one spot on each deck margin or.
wale abreast No. 2 port and star
tanks. Tank cleaning operate
were begun two days later. Dayt
temperatures were near 100i p, .:..
Since Butterworth equipment..
steam were not immediately a
able, the procedure used in cl
tanks on this barge was to wash

pressure, un al gaso em
form had been cleared out.
practice at this yard, apparently,
to wash out the entire barge fot,
period of about, two hours, wait
an interval of several hours, and
start over and wash it out again
again until the yard foreman
satisfied all liquid petroleum prod
had.been removed. T
During the first round of wash
the men who went into the ca.
tanks wore gas masks because of t
gasoline fumes. On subsequtW
rounds the masks were found unn
essary. Normally the wash w

cargo pipe line while the cl p
process was under way. However4 .
this occasion, because proper hO
connections could not readily .b
made, water used for washing 'b
sucked directly from the harbor 1*
portable pump and into the hose
Thus the cargo pipe lines and.-t
entire cargo pump assembly insi
the barge were not flushed out proi
early, and may not have been fush M
out at all. ..
Two days after the cleaning opfeIl
tion had been performed, a comn...
cial chemist, who was properly-ct.ei

Soon afterward,
covers were closed
The covers remain
next few days while]
erations were carric
and on the sides.
dicates that these
opened between th

11 tank hatch
because of rain.
closed for the
andblastming op-
out on the deck
he evidence in-
overs were not
ime of the gas

free certification and the moment of
Following the completion of sand-
blasting, it was decided by the yard
management, to begin removing the
damaged deck sections which had
been marked up for repairs Several
air blowers were available for venti-
lation purposes but, none was used to
air out any of the tanks before start-
ing burning operations An explo-
sion meter was also available but ap-
parently nobody thought, it was neces-
sary to use it. The hatch covers to
the two tanks where burning took
place, and probably the covers to all
cargo tanks, remained closed.
On the morning of the fatal day. a

yard workman w
of burning out a
No. 2 port tank.
Carried out with
velopment. The
structed to move
to the plate to be
starboard tank.
Sacetylene torch,
-. applied it to the
:. plosion occurred

'as assigned the job
section of plating in
This burning was

ut any ut
burner w
his equi
burned (
He did
deck: a



him instantaneously. The ex
shook the area within a mile
A detail from the local Coast
Port Security Unit, the City

..ratus, and
..aene. Se
and other
the yard.
to the one

rescue squad, fire
ambulances rushed

ward de-
then in-
Lent over
on No. 2
s, lit his
ver and
lent, ex-

to the

veral heavy steel members
debris were strewn about
The sister tank barge next
Which had exploded was
Window panes in nearby

could not be pumped out or vacated in
any normal pumping process. How-
ever. on the lower extremity of this
pump casing was a 3-inch capped

nipple obviously installed for t
pose of drainage That this
not been removed for a long t
demonstrated in that, it took t
with a 24-inch pipe wrench to
the cap after the explosion.

the cap

was removed

, liquid

Lhe pur-
cap had
mre was
wo men

drained out
An explosimeter showed a reading
of 100% explosibility in the immedi-
ate vicinity of this pump casing soon
after the explosion. Eight days later
a further test still indicated 100%. ex-
plosibility on the meter in this im-
mediate vicinity and further traces of
liquid gasoline were also detected at
that time.

The evidence

was quite conclusive

that the tank barge explosion was
caused by the ignition of gasoline-air
vapors which had originated from the
cargo pump casing. The explosive
vapor mixture had travelled from the
pump casing through the cargo pip-
ing and escaped into No. 2 starboard
tank through either a leaky valve or
joint, or an open valve, gradually set-
ting up an explosive mixture in this
It is quite likely that had the drain
nipple min the pump casing been re-
moved, gasoline in this casing would
have drained out and been flushed
away and no explosive vapors been
generated. It is also likely that or-
dinary ventilation precautions to re-

place the air or vapors in the tanks
before any hot work was started could
easily have avoided the explosion.
Merely opening the tank access hatch
would very likely have sufficed to
warn the workmen of the lurking va-
pors by sense of smell. PFilling the
pump casing and the entire cargo pipe
Inne with water would probably have
prevented the release of explosive va-
pors to a great extent.
While the above simple and ele-
mentary precautions were not taken
and the hot work was begun under
conditions which may be described
as utterly blind to safety precautions,
it is felt that a principal factor in
causing the series of derelictions
which led to such a grim outcome was
a misunderstanding of the signifi-
cance of the Gas Free Certificate.
Tank Vessel Regulations require
that no riveting, welding, burning, or

like fire-producing
be undertaken w
boundaries of bulk
in spaces adjacent
inspection has bee
miune that such ope
dertaken with safe
tion shall be made.
the continental Ur

operations shall
within or on the
cargo spaces or
thereto, until an
n made to deter-
rations can be un-
:ty. Such inspec-
when in a port of
cited States, by a

gas chemist certificated by the Amer-
ican Bureau of Shipping, if such
services are reasonably available.
It must be clearly understood, in
the interpretation and application of
this safety requirement, that the cer-
tification of any compartment of a

(Continued on page 171)

Buildings were shattered and corru-
. gated metal sheathing on a warehouse
. 300 yards away was torn loose The
Sbarge which had exploded suffered
:..considerable structural damage in her
'c..cargo tanks and began sinking. She
.=was quickly towed to a nearby shore
. .and beached to prevent foundering.
F.. fortunately there was little fire fol-
.lowing the explosion and this was im-
=., mediately extinguished.
Eamination of the damaged barge
-.on the day after the explosion indi-
'l. .=:cated that the deep well vertical cargo
.. pump with which it was equipped had
a. 20-inch cylindrical casing which
extended through the deck down to
Within a few inches of the bottom of
.-the barge. Between the bottom of
the impeller in the lower end of this
pumpp casing and the bottom of the
i=..:.aslng itself there was a space
tS ikk-krsw*n^n.. A iH.lnkao rca~n nrlhirh




[EronR's NOT.--The material con-
tained herein has been condensed due
to space limitations. Copies of the
Federal Registers containing the ma-
terial referred to may be obtained
from the Superintendent of Docu-
ments, Washington 25, D. C.


Chapter I-Coast Guard, Depart-
ment of the Treasury

[GGf 54-16]


A notice regarding proposed
changes in the navigation and vessel
inspection rules and regulations was
published in the Fmnx RGIs sna
dated February 25, 1954, 19 1. R.
1056-1059, as Items I to XI, inclusive,
on the Agenda. to be considered by the
Merchant Marine Council, and a pub-
lic hearing was held on March 23,
1954, at Washington, D. C._
The amendments to 46 CPB 50.01-
15 (d) and 55.07-5 (d) will permit the
use of ultrasonic or other nondestruc-
tive methods for determining the
thickness of the outer walls of pipe
bends after fabrication. These
changes provide an alternate method
for determining pipe wall thicknesses
and will require a non-destructive
method of examination of pipe wall
thicknesses where the design tem-
peratures of the piping will exceed
750 P. These amendments are based
on Item II in the Agenda.
The amendments to 46 CFR 52.01-
55 'a) and 61.20-15 (f), regarding
maximum allowable pressures for
boilers constructed before November
19. 1952. provide that the maximum
llowable pressure of a. boiler may be
recalculated on the basis of the regu-
lations in effect at the timeuch boiler
was contracted for or built, but in no
event will the maximum allowable
pressure be changed to permit a boiler
to operate with a factor of safety of
less than four and a half. These
amendments are based on Item I in
the Agenda.
The new regulation designated 46
CFR 52.65-15 ifb will require direct
drains from boiler safety valves on
new boilers or on replacements of ex-
isting safety valves. This new regu-
lation is based on Item I in the
A nay. sin

The amendment to 46 CFR 52 70-
I0 (a) covers certain detail require-

ments for boiler nozzles, mo
and attachments. There are
stations on butt-welded
However, various restrictio
placed on boiler nozzles, mo
and attachments with flan

no lirm-
ns are
ged or

welding or screwed ends. Slip Wn
flanges and socket-welded connec-
tions may be used under certain
conditions This amendment is based
on comments and data submitted in
connection with the proposed regula-
Stion in Item I in the Agenda.

The amendment
(g), regarding relief
pipe, clarifies the i
lation requirement
lines of machinery
the same pressure
sure. Where the

to 46
f valv
s for
as th

CFR 55.10-1
es in exhaust
of the regu-
the exhaust
designed at
Le inlet pres-
g on the ex-

haust side of machinery is designed
to the same pressure as the inlet
steam pressure, relief valves on the
exhaust side are not consideed ncesn-
sary and will no longer be required,
This amendment is based on Item II
in the Agenda.
The new regulation designated 46
OEE 55.10-1 fh) will restrict certain
installations, such as control and in-
strument piping in superheated steam
lines, to minimize the possibility of
cracking due to thermal shock. The
new regulation is based on Item I in
the Agenda.
The amendment to 46 CFR 55.10-25,
regarding bilge and ballast piping. re-
vises paragraphs ti) and (j) and adds
a new paragraph (k). These changes
are intended to clarify the require-
ments and to provide for the proper
draining of bilges when pumps are
used for combination sermoe.: rid
amendment is based on Item II in the
The amendment to 46 CFR 57.10-5
(4) (3) removes thoeolfic trqbib r
tion against the use of 90 elbows or
bends of less than five diameters in
the exhaust piping of ,all internal
combustion engine instIaltibr 'nh
board motor vessels. Exhaust piping
will still have to be led to the point of
escape without traps and a minimum
number of bends or elbows to prevent
back pressure. This amendment is
based on Item III in the Agenda.
The new regulations designated 46
CFR 70.05-10 and 90.05-10 describe
the intent and application of the
phrase "vessels on an international
voyage," as used in the Coast Guard
rules and regulations. These amend-
ments are based on Item IV in the

The amendments to 46 CPR 71.25-..
20 (a) (1), 71.25-20 ta) (2), 91.25-20 ..
(a) (1), and 91.25-20 (a) 2), ad
requirements regarding testing and
marking for COx cylinders used inH!
hand portable fire extinguishers, aind
semiportable and fixed fire exttin-a
gushing systems. These amendments
are flHed a i.
Agenda. .
The amendments to 46 CFR 72.05-5..
ih) and 72.05-10 (b), regard;
structural fire protection of passenge.:.g
vessels. 72.05-50 fg), regarding ven-.
tilation of auxiliary machinery spaces .l
and 72.05-55 (cc, regarding furniture:.
and furnishings in passageways mud
stairway enclosures on passenger ves-.
sels, clarify the requirements. These.
amendments are based on Item V in:.
the Agenda.
The amendments to 46 CPH 72.404 i
fa' and (b) and 92.25-5 (a) will re-.
quire on new passenger, cargo andiiH
miscellaneous vessels contracted fr' :
on after Jantia
fluman dim aw
of rails in guard rn a :
inches. These amendments are based.."
onIThemn VII in the hid an
The amendments to 46 CPU 75.1O.'
IS" (b), regarding I..
ment for passenger motor vessels .1
less than 300 gross tons in the coat ..:
wise service, 94.01-1 (a), regardilghi
application of lifesaving equipment
requirements to cargo and miscella-
neons vessels, 75.15-90 and 94.15-90, H'
xezavtina JDDgaij ~ainsa~aan
marking requirements for lifeboats.
and life rafts, 75.43-10 (a) and 04.43--
10 (a), regarding the number of ringt
life buoys and water lights required.
94.45-1 (a) and 94.45-10 (a), re-.
cargo and miscellaneous viei jis W
94.50-10 (a), regarding illumination .
for lifeboat launching operations on '
94.55-1 ta) relar ing pa
apparatus on cargo and miscelaneos
vessels, clarify the application of such
... ... ........... g ire
ify the application of certain require.j
ments to vessels but do not change the 4
requirements for such life-saving H
items. These amendments are basea.
on Item IV of the Agenda.
The amendments to 46 CFR 76.05-1.
regarding fire detecting and extinn-.
guishing equipment, 76.05-5 'a), re- Hi
garding manual alarm system. 76.05-4
10 (a), regarding the supervised pa.-i
trol or watchman system, and 95.05.--.
10. regarding fixed fire extinguishminh I
systems required, eliminate the ap-":!
- i I 41 ~am AC Ad .. Ai~i C I M .. aA-. a i. I q a mi

i :ei:Ei~;&~

quirements to motorboats and clarify

the application of the regL
The amendments to 46 CPR


95.50-10 clarify the requ
rding hand portable fi
hers, semiportable firen
thing systems and exclud
s from certain requiremi
ect thereto. These ame
based on Item IV in the



e extin-
I motor-
nts with

The amendment to 46 CFR 78 30-10
(as, regarding supervised patrols on
passenger vessels, eliminates the ap-
plication of this requirement to
motorboats. The amendment to 46
CFR 93.01-1 la,, regarding stability
regulations, makes these require-
ments apply only to vessels on an in-
ternational voyage, which are con-

traced for
1952. These
on Item IV i

on or
e ame
[n the

The miscellaneous
46 CFR Part 146 revise
to date certain require
ing water transportal
commodities so that
nearly parallel as pra
Interstate Commerci
regulations governing
portation of the sam
These amendmentF al
tain new articles of

after November 19.
ndments are based

amendments to
.e and bring up
events govern-
Lion of certain
they will be as
cticable to the
e Commission
Island trans-
e commodities.
so include cer-
commerce, au-

thorize additional shipping con-
tainers for certain commodities, and
revise certain marking and labeling
requirements. The amendments af-
fect 46 CFR 146.04-5, regarding list,
of explosives and other dangerous
articles and combustible liquids;
146.20-3 (qi, regarding shipment of
new explosives; 146 20-7 k'i, regard-
ing explosive projectiles; 146.20-9 'a)
sdd (dj (1), regarding class B ex-
plosives; 146.20-55, regarding electric
lanterns or flashlights; 146.20-100.
regarding class A, dangerous explo-
sives; 146.20-200. regarding class B.
less dangerous explosives: 146 20-300.
regarding class C, relatively safe ex-
plosives; 146.21-65 'c', regarding
limited quantity shipments of inflam-
mable liquids; 146.21-100, regarding
transportation of inflammable liq-
nids; 146.22-25 (bi, regarding lithium,
aluminum hydride; 146.22-100, re-
garding transportation of inflam-
mable solids and oxidizing materials;
146.23-100, regarding transportation
of corrosive liquids; 146.24-100, re-
garding transportation of compressed
gases; 146.25-200, regarding trans-
portation of poisonous articles:
146.25-100, regarding transportation
of combustible liquids: 146 27-100, re-

gardihg transportation of hazardous
articles; and 146.25-55 (b, 11> and
(2), regarding exemptions for class B,
poisonous sohlids. These amendments
are based on Item IX in the Agenda.
The new regulation designated 46
CPR 147.04-5 and amendment to 46

IX in

147.05-100 add new require-
regarding liquefied carbon
e for permanently installed fire
uishing systems and require-
regarding engine starting nfluid.
amendments are based on Item
the Agenda.
specifications for various pyro-
c distress signals have been re-
and brought up to date. The
es in the revised specifications

published in this document deal pri-
marily with the requirements regard-
ing construction, performance, sam-
pling, inspections, conditioning, and
tests for such signals. These amend-
ments are based on Item X in the
Agenda. The specifications have
been republished in their entirety in


incorporate certain editorial

ling hand
1-4, which
cation up
ling floati

lion Subpart 160
red flare distress
amendments to
rc', 160.021-3,
h revise and bring
to date.
tion Subpart 160
ng orange smoke


tress signals, contains amendments
to 46 CFR 160.022-1 and 160 022-4, which revise and bring
the specification up to date.
The specification Subpart 160024,
regarding pistol-projected parachute
red flare distress signals, contains
amendments to 46 CFR 160.024-1 ic),
160 024-3, and 160.024-4, which revise
and bring the specification up to date.

The specification Subpa
regarding hand-held rocket
parachute red flare distre
contains amendments to
160.036-1 'bi, 160.036-3. an
4, which revise and bring t
cation up to date.

rt 160.036
ss signals,
46 CPR
d 160.036-
he specifi-

The specification Subpart 160.037,
regarding hand orange smoke dis-
tress signals, contains amendments to
46 CFR 1600.37-1 'c,, 160.037-3, and
160.037-4, which revise and bring the
specification up to date.
The amendment to 46 CFR 160.040-
5 'ec, regarding representative pro-
duction tests of all rockets, was re-
vised in accordance with the proposed
amendment described in Item XI in
the Agenda. The change requires
representative production check tests
on all rockets supplied, either with
new appliances or as replacements
for spent rockets. The specification
Subpart 160040. regarding impulse-
projected rocket type (and equip-
ment. line-throwing appliances for
merchant vessels, has been also edi-


revised and

brought up to

These amendments to the regula-
tions shall become effective 90 days
after the date of publication of this
document in the Federal Reeister. ex-

cept as otherwise indicated


5 August 1954
Subj: Placard foi
parent materials ir
posting of
1. Purpose. The
memorandum is to
permitting the use
where the regulate

in the

nrms; use of trans-
i lieu of glass for

purpose of this
set forth a policy
of plastics in cases
ions require that

certain forms be framed under glass
for posting on board vessels.
2. Background. Inquiries ha ve
been received concerning the accep-
tance of laminated acetate or other
plastics in lieu of glass for the pur-
pose of protecting the various forms
required by the vessel inspection laws
and regulations to be displayed to the
public on board vessels.
3. Discussion. The statutes and
regulations requiring framing under
glass were intended to protect the
posted placards or forms and to m-

sure their legibil
periods of time.
statutes and or
made effective,
suitable material
tended was glass
paratively recent

ity for considerable
At the time that the
regulations were
the only available
for the purpose in-
. Due to the corn-
, advances made in

the field of transparent plastics it is
considered desirable to permit the use
of these materials in lieu of glass
where possible.
4. Action. The following policy
will be followed in all cases where
glass is now required in accepting
plastics in lieu of glass:
a. All printed placard forms
may be encased min laminated acetate
or framed under clear transparent
sheet plastic or equivalent.
b. All forms requiring entries
or signature may be framed under
clear transparent sheet plastic or
c. Where break glass type
boxes are installed, plastics shall not
be used in lieu of glass.
5. Effective date. Upon receipt.
Captain, U. S. Coast Guard,
Acting Chief, Office of
Merchant Mlarine Safety,
By direction of the Commandant.


17 August 1954
Subj: Revocation or denial of mer-
chant marine documents to persons

- p1

convicted of narcotic violations or
who are ers of or addicted to the
use of narcotice drugs.
1. Purpose. The purpose of this
circular is to bring attention to the
provisions of Public Law 500, 83d
Congress, approved 15 July 1954.
which provides authority for the rev-
ocation or denial of merchant marine
documents to persons involved in cer-
tain narcotic violations or who are
the users of or addicted to the use of
narcotic drugs.
2. Discussion. Public Law 500 pro-
vides statutory authority for the
Coast Guard to deny issuing a docu-
ment to a person involved in certain
narcotics violations or to persons who
are users of or addicted to the use of
narcotic drugs. It also provides that
if a person has been issued a docu-
ment by the Coast Guard, then the
Coast Guard may take action seeking
to revoke the holder's document.
This authority is specific and applies
regardless of whether or not the
holder of a Coast Guard document is
acting under the authority of such a
3. Public Law 500. This is an act
to provide for the revocation or denial
of merchant marine documents to
persons involved in certain narcotic
violations (Public aw 500--83d Comn-
gres, 68 Stat. 484):
"Be it enacted by ihe Senate
and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress
assembled, That when used in this
"(a) The term 'narcotic drug'
shall have the meaning ascribed to
that term by paragraph (a) of the
first section of the Narcotic Drugp
Import and Niport Ac, :as amended
(21 U. S. C, see. (a)), and lso
shal Include marihuana as defined in
section 3238 (b) of the Internal Reve-
ute Code.
"ib) The term 'Secretary'
means the head of the department in
which the Coast Gtard is oerating
"ci The term "seaman's docu-
ment' means any document author-
ized by law or regulation to be issued
to a merchant mariner by the Secre-


2. The Secretary may-
a, deny a seaman's docu-
ment to---
1) any person who. with-
in ten years prior to the date
of the application therefore,
has been convicted in a court
of record of a violation of
the narcotic drug laws of the
United States, the District
of Columbia, or any State or
Territory of the United
States, which conviction has
become final: or

(2) any person who, un-
less he furnishes satisfactory
evidence that he is cured.
has ever been a. user t or
addicted to the use of a nar-
cotic drug; and
a hearing before a Coast
Guard examiner, under
hearing procedures pre-

scribed by the

tive Procedure
amended tU. 8. C.
sees. 1001-1011), t
the seaman's docun
<1 any person w
sequent to the.effec


o revoke
sent of-
vho, sub-
tive date

of this Act and within ten
years prior to the institution
of the action, has.beaen -
victed in a court of record
of a violation of the narcotic
drug laws of the United
States, the District of Co-
lumbia. or any State or Ter-
ritory of the United States,
the revocation to be subject
to the conviction's becoming
final; or
'2' any person who, un-
less he furnishes sastisactory

has been
user of
use of a
Approved July
4. Definition of

that he is cu
, subsequent to
date of. thins
or addicted to
narcotic drug.,,
15, 1954."
narcotic drugs.


a. The provisions of section
171 a of Title 21, United States Code.
read as follows:
"' ai The term 'narcotic drug'
means opmium, coca leaves, cocaine,
is ntpecane, opiate, or sa salt, de
rivative, or preparation of opium,
coca leaves, cocaine, isonipecaine, or
opiate; and the word soipecane'
as used herein shall mean any sub-
stance identified chemically as 1-
methyl-4-phenyl-piperidine-4- ca r -
boxylice acid ethyl ester, or any salt
thereof, by whatever tra d iname des-
ignated; and the word 'opiate' as used
herein shall have the same meaning
as defined in section 3228 ib) of Title
b. The provisions of section
3238 ib' of the Internal Revenue
Code or Title 26 of the United States
Code read as follows:
"'b) The term 'marihuana'
means all parts of the plant Cannabis
saLtiva L., whether growing or not;
the seeds thereof; the resin extracted
from any part of such plant; and
every' compound, manufacture, salt,
derivative, mixture, or preparation of
such plant, its seeds, or resin; but
shall not include the mature stalks of
such plant, fiber produced from such
stalks, oil or cake made from the

seeds of such plant, any other corn-
pound, manufacture, salt, derivative, .:
mixture, or preparation of such ma-

therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the .
sterilized seed of such plant which i
is incapable of germination." ..

Every applicant for a seaman's docu .....
ment will be required to indicate on -
the application whether or hot t."
applicant has ever been connc a.
vnolaupa:t taeswoan mm
of the United States, the District of m
Columbia, or any State or Territory. .
of the United States. If the answer i
is "Yes," the applicant will be re-
quired to state the place, date, and .
particulars of each convictions..

dicate whether or not the applicant ..3
has ever used or has ever been ad- 21
dieted to the use of narcotics. If the ,::i
answer is "Yes," further information .
regarding the place, date, and par-:..J
ticulars of use or addiction to the uai .
of narcotics will be required. An ap- "
plicant's failure to answer or refuel '
to answer one or more questions in
the application will be considered as.
onca ateiepppag questin
the document in question.
S 6. Revocation of documents. I:n:
every cany, wiurm
believe the hbldeo ~ seaman a -.
under the provisions of Public laJw8:
500, 83d Congress, the Coast Guard :.j
will institute proceedings under the .
Admimnistrative Procedure Act (5 U. s. 1.
C. 1001-1011) and R. S. 4450,' as :
amended (46 U. S. C. 239), looking to .
the~ revocatlogfsh Cat ur

7. Actionm required. The coopers-. ;.

gress, is requested. All ...,
tions representing or dealing with :.
persons holding Coast Guard docu;:

tributing the in ormation se a
in this circular.

Captain, U. S. Coast Guard, H:.
Acting Chie Offce of 1
jCCfr R bJ*r JX JJ *:--
By direction of the Commandst1!n


The regulations prescribed
part 162.014, Subehapter Q,
cations, require that manuf
submit samples from each
fusible nluhs for test nrinr

in sub-1
heat a&4
tn nlmuiit

manufactured from the heat being
used on vessels subject to inspection
by the Coast Guard. A list of ap-
proved heats which have been tested
and found acceptable during the
period from 15 July to 15 August 1954,.
is as follows:
The Lunkenheimer Co.. Cincinnati
14. Ohio. Heat Nos. 479 through 483.


The following affidav
cepted during the period
to 15 August 1954:
Butterworth System,
E. 22nd St., Bayonne, N.
Duoseal Corp., 8247
Boulevard, Downy, CaJ
Metal Goods Manuli
106-110 S. Park Ave.,
Okla.. Valves & Fittings




its were ac-
1 from 15 July

Inc., Foot of
J., Valves.
E. Firestone
if., Valves &

acturing Co.,


Articles of ships' stores and supplies
certificated from 29 July 1954 to 27
August 1954, inclusive, for use on
board vessels min accordance with the
provisions of part 147 of the regula-
tions governing "Explosives or Other
Dangerous Articles on Board Vessels"
are as follows:

New Process Chewmical Co., Inc., 121
Clay St., San Francisco 11, Calif.
Certificate No. 171. dated July 30,
New Process Chemical Co., Inc., 121
Clay St., San Francisco 11. Calif.
Certificate No. 173, dated July 30,
R. C. D. Chemicals, Inc., 465
Straight St., Paterson, N. J. Certifi-
cate No. 183, dated August 12, 1954,
"F. O. T. #99."
New Process Chemical Co., Inc., 121
Clay St., San Francisco 11, Calif.
, Certificate No. 186, dated August 27,
New Process Chemical Co., Inc., 121
Clay St., San Francisco 11, Calif.
Certificate No. 187, dated August 27,
1954, "PROCESS 130 SD."'
New Process Chemical Co., Inc., 121
Clay St., San Francisco 11, Calif.
Certificate No. 188, dated August 27,
1954, "TRICON PROCESS 61."
New Process Chemical Co., Inc., 121
Clay St., San Francisco 11, Calif.
Certificate No. 190, dated August 27,

Relief Officers
SContiniud from pa '., l'1)
There are other casualties that may
arise and which the Relief Mate must

be prepared to meet. Damage
ship's structure and gear may
at any time during cargo oper
Or personnel may be injured
the vessel. It is essential th
Relief Mate know what ernme
measures to take, what medical

to the
at the

ties are available, and what reports
are required in these instances.
Cargo and ship's stores must also
be protected from damage and possi-
ble pilferage. Where such conditions
do take place the Relief Mate must
know what reports are required. He
must also know what company offi-
cials are available to assist in correct-
ing such situations. The value of a
complete list of emergency telephone
numbers supplied to each vessel for
use by both the regular and relief
officers thus becomes more evident.
Many steamship companies carry
specific types of cargoes aboard their
vessels. Special means of handling
and caring for this cargo in many
cases have been developed. This may
induce special docking problems, or
loading or discharging situations with
which a Relief MAhte may not be fa-
miliar. For this reason special in-
structions available to the Relief
Mate covering these situations are
very helpful.
It is true many of the points cov-
ered appear routine to menwho make
a practice of staying with a particu-
lar company or ship trip after trip.
The knowledge and experience these
men have picked up during this time
helps considerably towards efficient
operation of their vessel. Some means
of imparting this special knowledge
quickly to the Relief Officer, aboard
for possibly one watch, is essential.
The method arrived at by one steam-
ship company to accomplish this is
considered worthy of note.

Gas Free-But for How Long?
I Continued from page 167)
vessel as "gas free", no matter to what
degree, can only be "held to describe
the conditions of such compartment
at the time that such certification is
The presence of any hidden deposit
of a petroleum product, such as the
gasoline m the bottom of the pump
casing in the above case, may well
lead to the generation of additional
vapors in that area. The character-
istic of the metal of compartments
which h a v e contained petroleum
products to continue to emit minute
quantities of vapor from the pores of
the metal long after the product has
been pumped out may also lead, in
time. to an explosive air-vanor con-

centration in the "empty" compart-

In view of these
concentration whic
any compartment
examined and pro

the tim
free cer
there a
which 1
the mo
nated b


h ca:

limitation fac
ification must a
consideration .

nges in vapor
n take place in
r it has been
iced gas free,
tor in the gas
Ways be given
For instance.

re casualty records on file at
Guard Headquarters which
indicate that compartments
have been certified gas free in
rning have become contami-
y vapors and suffered an ex-

plosion by the afternoon of

the same

day, hidden deposits of petroleum
product being the cause.
This condition may be caused, in
part, by the heat of welding or burn-
ing which would tend to accelerate
the generation of vapors in the heated
area. It is also quite possible that
penetration of the structure by such
operations as burning, drilling, or
chipping may expose hidden pockets
of petroleum product which will then
generate vapors. There are casualty
cases on record wherein the gas free
certification has been made and at a
later time a valve has been opened or
disassembled, product has run otUt,
and an explosion occurred.
When it is remembered that the
minimum concentration by volume of
gasoline vapor in air necessary to
have an explosive mixture is only
about 1.5% and for other petroleum
products the minimum percentage is
similarly low, the need for extreme
caution in relying on a compartment


gas free for a prolonged

~>4~ ~


period, after it has been so certifi-
cated, is readily apparent.
The principal factor to be remem-
bered when undertaking hot work on
tank vessels is that a gas free certifi-
cation only certifies conditions at the
time of the chemist's examination
and does not guarantee that any
tanks or compartments will remain
gas Iree. Due to the many unseen
or unknown conditions, such as de-
scribed above, which can lead to the
generation of vapors after a gas free
certification has been made, the
safest attitude to be maintained con-
cerning the propriety of conducting
hot work in such compartments is
one of continual suspicion.
When there has been any appre-
ciable delay since the gas free certifi-
cation' was made, and especially if
there are any conditions such as the
above-mentioned which would en-
courage further vaporization, call the
gas chemist again. The issuance of
a gas free certificate every day work
is continuing might seem, at the mo-
ment, to be an unnecessary expense
or nuisance, but weighed against the
consequences of explosion, it is very
lnw-enst insuranpe.


3 1262 08746 254

'" N
*i.. H:*


S ** ..

*H* H .
. K .:

.. ..
". .H.

. --- -




Will this winter cost you a tanker? The heavy weather ahead is going to
be tough on both the ships and the men who sail them. Here is a way to ease
the strain on both at one time. Break out the guidance manual for loading
your ship. With the assistance of this manual a favorable distribution of
cargo and or ballast can be simply and accurately determined. Thus a serious
hogging or sagging stress is avoided and a possible casualty averted.
The necessity for the use of such a manual aboard T2 tankers is high-
lighted by the fact that a series of structural failures in these vessels led to
the preparation and distribution of a "Guidance Manual for Loading T2
Tankers" in 1952 by the American Bureau of Shipping. During the past few
years the value of this information has become recognized to such an extent
that similar loading manuals are being developed for most new tankships be-
fore they leave the building yards.
Whether you sail a T2 or not. the preparation and use of a loading guide is
good insurance against a broken back; yours and the ships!