AFRICA TRAINING STRATEGY
FARMING SYSTEMS SUPPORT PROJECT:
Chris Andrew, Susan Poats, and Lisette Walecka
Farming Systems support Project
PSSP TRAINING STRATEGiY EXECUTIVES SMARY
INRaxXICTION': Frai System lreserc and Extensiar is a mthodology directed toarrd taprovement in
kcbo~g~developent for limted resource facaers. This exective sumr~iy hotline the
PSSP ttn strategy promotng tas~rstading and implemantatim of F8lVE. 'Ihe topics are
dIscKusse in detail in the attached document.
GALt: Provide the basi foundation for developent of indigenus training capacity in Fazang system
Reseatrc and extension (FgaVE) within Natinal~ Intitution.
CBJECTIVB: Intiate cand iplemnt r inal ad natimarl practiti mear level short-ter raVI ttraii in
English rad Fnnrench atug a bas for a long term training program for the region.
* raining thnts
Livestock (pending developent)
scanomic aalysis (pendinp)
Management and adin. (peartag)
* Case studies
Diagnoste- Daminican aspublic
andata Trias- Warguay
Eatern ar Qibbean
* aegional shortccure,
English (3 weks)
* Sginal Shooartcouse
French (3 eeks)
* Individual shortcourses
ar vrious aspcts of
rsalv offerd On a tsy-in
orientatimn to raS ~
analyis of e)-taxa e.
LES: *rpovide general orienaltion
to PBtalvE mosts
*Focus an skilburlding for
us~ing sethaodolgial tools
*Focus an FivE practitioners
Ecurag flexbibilty for
taioring training to
*Provide for participatory
or Lhrand a" acti~vtites
*W Us ra world cirtrcumtncs
Provide opportunity for
user input to the ~developent
an audification of training
Srea~te made fo rsynthesi and analYsIs
of currnt FalVE athodologies
particiqui~t~io ha various
* Contribute to national
* Anild at pmreious
* Fcus a building
necssry to conuct
FelvE vithin a national
Supr Training Programs
* Train raier
Ip red bto ffr
workshop me tasy-in
provide partici 6-
ad6-o oppo brties
resourc pearso for
aan liastituti rly
*Advis National Prog~r s
me training strategy
ma bu-ia basis.
*Provide ran latitutional
continuing eduation basis
for ar~n @84 ontisasing
cons~ider aneds for
training in ashu~~
an pedogo1rflog ~ic
emphas PIse L~ and
necessay to design
and m ~arav uorkshops
provide accss to ralV5
and taranes *
* arcourag partkicipatin
in camery and r ganal
leve PSIVE trkra
support a tour stage .
national training srategy
2. structure newhorks
3. sethodological skill
4. to-service training
DRAFT. Briefing Document
FSSP AFRICA TRAINING STRATEGY
The FSSP training strategy for West and Central Africa is designed to
initiate and implement regional and national practitioner-level short term
Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) training in English and
French. This statement delineates the training program strategy and expected
results for the FSSP for 1986 until project termination September 30, 1987.
Though the objectives of the strategy relate to specific FSSP activities in
West and Central Africa, they indicate directions for a long term training
program for the region. FSSP coordinates its training activities through
networking with other organizations such as the West African Farming Sy~stems
Research Network (WJAFSERN), the West African ~Integrated Livestock Systems
Network, and the various formal or informal commodity oriented networking
activities of SAFGRAD, ICRISAT, ILCA, and IITAh in the region.
GENERAL TRAINING OBJECTIVES
A primary objective of the FSSP training program is to provide the basic
foundations for development of indigenous training capacity in FSR/E within
national institution~S, While the FSSP is not specifically directed toiard
institutionalizing training capability, it supports bilateral contracts and
other entities that work with national programs in the establishment of
integrated research and extension efforts that utilize a farming systems
perspective. The FssP has followed this approach since its inception.
Specific emphasis absithis time is being given to three areas: 1) developing
materials, 2) enhancing the skills of existing trainers or training new
trainers, and 3) delivering shortcourses to West and Central African FSR/E
practitioners. Though considered separately in the following paragraphs, the
three areas are linked and many activities benefit more than just one area of
Developing Training Materials
The development of training materials has focused on the methodological
tools needed by practitioners in order to be able to conduct all aspects~ of
FSR/E. Initially, FSSP placed attention on capturing existing lectures and
teachings of FSR/E by translating them into slide/tape presentations. These
were envisioned as a means of demonstrating to non-practitioners the steps of
FSR/E. The project called for development of training materials and courses
but also for immediate delivery of training and technical assistance. With
no extant training materials available, FSSP prepared a preliminary series of
slide/tape presentations to address the near term needs. These were done
quickly during the first year of the project in order to provide trainers
with some minimal materials to assist in demonstrating the processes of
FSR/E. Practitioners with enough experience were able to adapt these to
their own teaching or training styles and use them effectively. Though never
meant to stand alone, these early modules were used by people as self-
tutorials, and in domestic orientation courses for FSSP program associates
and AIDpersonnel. The FSSP considered these materials as intermediate, and
useful while beginning preparations for a more thorough process of materials
development. Many of the modules have been translated into French and
Spanish, and continue to serve as points of departure for discussion, or for
orientation, particularly for those not familiar with the FSR/E approach.
A looseleaf notebook of FSR/E selected readings was also put together
early in the project to use in both FSSP shortcourses as well as in U.S.
university level courses. The notebook has been used in conjunction with the
guidelines written by Shaner et al. (1981), and will shortly be published by
Lynne Reiner Press. This collection of readings has been translated into
Spanish and many of the articles have been translated to French.
In addition to the above, FSSP uses many supporting documents when
conducting a training activity. Some of these are drawn from FSSP
publications such a networking papers or specific articles from the
newsletter. The series of annotated "Bibliography of Readings in Farming
Systems Vols. I, II, and III" in English, French and Spanish and produced by
the projects are routinely distributed at training courses to provide
background information on FSR/E for trainees. The complete FSR/E
bibliography from KSU representing maore than 2000 titles is also often made
available to trainees. The KSU documentation center serves as a reference
point for practitioners and the complete bibliography is now available on
microfiche for use by national programs and libraries and can be purchased
for $2 ,500.00. Additional readings on specific topics-relevent to training
activitiesl are selected these sources and used as supplemental learning
material-s. Whenever possible, these relate to country ar -region-specific
FSR/E experience germaine to course participants.
A major effort of the FSSP training thrust since mid-1984 has been
focused -on the development of several in-depth volumes af' training materials
which represent the methodological breakdown of the FSR/E process into
specific training units. The decision to divide the materials into units
came as a result of recommendations from the FSSP Training Task Force and a
Training for Trainers Workshop, as well as from practical experience in
delivering numerous training short courses. This was followed by the
gathering of existing FSR/E materials from around the world from experienced
FSR/E practitioners and persons with training expertise. Key International
Agricultural Research Centers (IARCS) such as IRRI, CIMMYT, CIAT, CIP, IITA,
and ICRISAT became involved in the effort as well as numerous members of both
U.S. institutions and national programs in developing countries.` Several
training unit development workshops were held at the University of Florida,
and initial unit drafts were tested in various shortcourses held during 1985.
Initial planning had called for three in-depth volumes: 1) Diagnosis, 2)
Design of On-Farm Research, and 3) Management and Administration. Additional
units concerning economic analysis and the design of on-farm research with
livestock will be completed in 1986 and integrated into the series. The
Management and Administration volume is in the process of being tested
modified through a university course which is currently being taught based on
Each of the volumes are not to be considered as a self-contained course,
but rather as an organized collection of units which can be put together by a
training team based upon the needs of the target group of trainees. Each
unit provides specific learning objectivesy-key points, definitions of terms,
a brief text, suggested training activities and practical exercises, and
trainer's notes. The two completed volumes which have been both university-
and field-tested and are now available, are described below.
Volume one, Diagn~osis in FSR/E, contains nine units (212 pages) which
introduce trainees to various diagnostic steps in the FSR/E approach. Volume
one stresses, but is not limited to, initial diagnosis. Its units also
detail on going, or continuous, diagnosis throughout the FSR/E process.
Links between social and biological science disciplines are stressed, as are
considerations of intra-household and socio-cultural issues. Supplementary
materials included in Volume one are (1) "Anatomy of On-Farn Trials: A Case
Study From Paraguay" and (2) Bibiliography of Readings in Farming Systems
Research and Extension, Volumes 1 and 2.
Volume two, Techniques for Design and Analyis ofOn-Farm Experimenta-
tion, contains six units (367 pageji i ~~es) whichdeti h amtildsg
analysis process. A statistical analysis unit is included so that trainers
do not need to depend on outside materials~in this critical area of trial
design and analysis. Volume two also contains three documents which support
the units: (1) On-farm agronomic trials ~in- farming systems research and
extension, by etr E. Hildebrand and Federico Poey, (2) "On-farm exper-
imnentation: A manual of suggested experimental procedures", by CAiRDI (the
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute) staff, and (3)
"~ Introduction to economic analysis of on-farm experiments", a draft workbook
by CIMMYT's Economics Program.
The set of FSR/E Training Units (two volumes and all supplementary
materials) have been mailed free of charge to institutions and individuals
who cooperated in their development and appropriate representatives of
national programs and institutions engaged;~in FSR/E. For those who may wish
to purchase the volumes, they are available for $175.00 U.S. prepaid
(includes postage and handling). The two volumes of FSR/E Training Units
will. be mailed out as a complete set only. Each mailing will contain the two
volumes and all support documents. Each unit within each volume is complete
with separate instructions for trainers, and each includes text material
written for trainees, and hands-on training exercises. Each volume will be
sent out in a loose-leaf binder, to allow for ease of access and use, and to
allow each volume to be updated (with trainer's notes, etc.). As each volume
of training units is used, users are encouraged to notify FSSP of any
adaptions, or new material developed by the users so that this information
can be included in future editions of the training units.
The two volumes were used in the FSSP regional training course in Gambia
(April 1986) and are currently being translated into French for use in the
second regional training course to be held in Mali in November. It is
anticipated that through continued use in African contexts that the materials
will be improved by being modified and adapted to the specific concerns of
The last type of training materials FSSP is engaged in developing are
case studies which can be used to study the actual process of FSR/E within
an existing national program. One such case study uses survey and background
data from an area of the Dominican Republic to simulate a sondeo or
diagnostic survey. Another uses data from Paraguay to demonstrate the
process of designing on-farm. trials and explains how to conduct the analysis
of the results. Other case studies are being developed to demonstrate other
key aspects of the process with actual examples. Though the training target
delivery for the West and Central African region, many useful materials and
lessons can be drawn from the experiences of other regions where FSR/E has be
operational for a longer period of time.
FSSP has been working jointly with the Population Council, using outside
funding from Ford Foundation, to develop eight training case studies. These
follow a format similar to the Harvard Business School case studies in that.
they present data without the analysis which becomes a training activity done
in small groups by the trainees. The case studies were selected from nearly
eighty proposals and represent the following countries or regions: Zambia,
Burkina Faso, Botswana, Kenya, Indonesia, Philippines, Eastern Caribbean, and
Colombia. The first two have been completed and are being tested in various
settings. All of the eight cases selected are nearing completion; two have
"been completed and are being tested in various settings. Cases were selected
in order to specifically present issues of gender and household analysis in
FSR/E. This area was targeted early in the course of the FSSP as an area for
greater analytical attention. Thus, in addition to providing considerable ~
depth in specific FSR/E field activities and problems, these cases will train
practitioners of FSR/E to use gender and household concepts and analysis in
the diagnosis and prioritization of problems, and in the design and analysis
of on-farm research.
In general, all the training materials described above serve as both the.,.
basis for synthesis and analysis of current FSRAB methodologies for the ,
development of training courses.
Training of Trainers.
A training-for-trainers -effort began early in the FSSP with a two-week.
training workshop held at Iowa State University. Included among the
participants were practitioners and graduate students from Africa. These
individuals are now in a position to assist with training on a regional basis
and have participated in various FSSP network activities to further
familiarize themselves with the overall program efforts. FSSP recommends and
encourages bilateral contract people within the region, key AID staff and
national counterparts to participate in both country level and regional level
training programs. Individuals who do participate in these overall efforts
and utilize the materials provided by the FSSP can become a multiplier force
for training in the region. FSSP cannot train all of the people that need
access to PSR/E methodology. The FSSP can provide a basis for a training
effort and serve as a point for learning and consensus relative to
state-of-the-art synthesis and further development of appropriate training
materials for trainers.
The overall training of trainers includes not only consideration of the
needs for training in methodology but also for pedigogical skills as well as
the planning and organizational skills necessary to design and run training
workshops and courses that will facilitate learning and synthesis
opportunities. FSSP i s prepa red to of fe r another r t rai ning-fo r-t ra ine rs
workshop, however, in order to provide in-service training to potential new
trainers, FSSP. includes non-trainer resource persons in training courses.
These persons add their skills and knowledge of content issues to the FSR/E
course while learning new training skills fran the trainer team. Often
persons who wish to become better trainers in FSR/E or who are learning to be
trainers are added to a training team composed of individuals who have
already conducted similar training activities. This type of "participant
add-on" has been a strategy of the FSSP since its inception and has proven
effective in expanding the base of skilled practitioners as well as trainers.
The evaluation, documentation and communication of the FSSP training
activities has been another way in which trainers have been able to
strengthen their own FSR/E training skills. Training activities are usually
reported in the FSSP Newletter in addition to activity reports and sometimes
in proceedings. Those planning their own training courses have found it
quite useful to review the evaluation reports of FSSP's training courses and
workshops. These reports are often made by a skilled individual who is not
,responsible for actual delivery of the course material. They represent a
significant attempt to identify what works, what does not, and why. Being
able to identify and understand why certain things do not work in specific
situations helps to continually improve the material, the course design, and
the trainer skills.
On another level, FSSP has also worked to expand the foundation of
persons knowledgeable about FSR/E within the support entity structure. In
1983, FSSP began a series of domestic introductory workshops. a-These focused
primarily on the basic FSR/E concepts and an overview of the methods and
stages of theeprocess. U.S. based faculty, international participants
studying in thevU.S., as well as USAID staff and personnel made~up a large
part of the workshop participants. These persons then became paj~rt of the
multiplier effect of which has furthered the network of FSR/E practitioners.
West and Central African Delivery
The FSSP has drawn upon the materials and trainer base described above in
the delivey-.of a number of training activities in the West and Central
African region. Because FSSP did not have the luxury to develop the
materials anid train trainers before needing to embark on the delivery of some
training workshops, the latter have served as type of testing ground for
developing an appropriate strategy for a training program. In fact, the
delivery of training was often simultaneous with materials development and!
training of trainers so that the three were mrtually supportive.
Initially, the FSSP was engaged in conducting short (4-7 day) workshops
aimed at providing an overview or introduction to the basic concepts,
philosophy and skills of FSR/E. These were conducted on a regional basis or
among a specific target group within a single country. FSSP then focused on
diagnostic skills, and followed by the skills associated with the design or
analysis of on-farm research. In 1986 with the completion of the first two
volumes of the training units and the completion of several of the case
studies, the FSSP had a solid base for delivering a three week course at the
regional level. The first of these was conducted in the Gambia in April 1986
in English for participants from the Anglophone countries or English speakers
from the French speaking nations. Currently, the materials (Volumes I and II
plus one case study) are being translated into French in preparation for a
second regional course which will be offered in November 1986 in French. The
rEISSP has drawn considerably upon the CIMMYT experience in East and Southern
Africa in the development of its training program. The regional course
focuses on building the methodological skills necessary to conduct FSR/E
within a national progan context.
The Gambia course followed two previous FSSP sponsored training
activities in the country. The first was a regional orientation workshop and
the second was a week-long course focused on the design and analysis of
on-face research. Each of the earlier workshops and the more recent
three-week regional course incorporated participants from the various netw~Jork
organizations such as bQAFSRNJ, SAFGRAD, IITA, and the emerging West African
Integrated Livestock Cropping Systems Network. An interface with CRSP
institutions is expected in the future.
Participation in the second regional course, to be held in Mali, will
come primarily from Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Togo, and Burkina Faso. Other
countries in the region have been invited to send participants also. Rwanda
is also expected to send two or three participants. For these countries, the
sc~egional course can serve as a complement to thefdevelo~pment of national
training strategies and plans to which FSSP materials and training support
can be directed.
As an example, the Niger participants will host a symposium for the
region early in 1987 to discuss further methodological experience and needs.
~i~s- can be used to further strengthen the training--program. Following this
symposium a major three week methodology orientedrshort course will be given
only to individuals in Niger.
The Mauritania program anticipates a number of :training efforts
surrounding the USIAD bilateral contract led by the- University of Arizona.
The FSSP has provided orientation and training assistance to the University
of Arizona on preparing for this major and important bilateral activity.
Follow up work will occur with the team in the field along with contribution
of materials and support for a continual short tenm training effort.
In Mali, the FSSP has been involved since the inception of the design
effort for the present USAID contract led by Auburn University/SECID.
Orientation of design teen members, implementation team members, and now
plans for future training efforts are well underway. These will complement
the regional program as well as be specific to national program needs. Also,
the.,FSSP has provided to Mali an MSTAT training course in statistical methods
particularly oriented to farming systems research and extension. Through
support from FSSP to Michigan State University, one of the FSSP support
entities, the materials for the MSTAT effort were further refined and
translated to French, and tested in courses such as this one. Now
information on MSTAT and its applications is available on a broad scale basis
to West Africa and the rest of the world.
The FSSP has fostered a working relationship and collaborated in a
number of activities with the major International Agricultural Research
Centers. FSSP is currently working with the IARC and other major research'
network groups in Africa, such as CRSPs, WAFSRN, and SAFGRAD and IARCs, to
inform them of training programs and to collaborate with their training
efforts. Other donors such as IDRC and World Bank have become familiar with
the training approach of the FSSP -nxt are considering possible future
collaboration. Private voluntary organizations will also be contacted
concerning training information. All collaborating groups and institutions
can contribute to the training units and the continuing learning process of
synthesis and analysis established through the FSSP training program. This
approach will be followed in 1986 and 1987 as the materials and training
experiences are evaluated in direct use.
A NAPTIONUAL TRAINING STRATEGY
FSSP training funds are strictly limited to materials development and
delivery at the regional level and have been budgeted accordingly through the
end of the project. Due to budgetary cuts, the FSSP does not engage in
training activities at a national level unless the funds for such an activity
are provided from the national program or another donor source such as an AID
mission or project. However, the FSSP experiences in the region provide good
indications of how a national program might develop a training strategy
designed to introduce the FSR/E concept and train a critical mass of
practitioners in order to initiate FSR/B activities. Such a strategy is
envisioned as having four stages, each of which is briefly described below.
During this stage the national program would seek (either internally or
externally) experienced expertise tortead a short workshop (4-5 days maxirmum)
which would focus on the basic concepts and philosophy of FSR/E combined with
some selected skills in diagnosis antdedesign. The goal of such a workshop is
to develop verbal ability on the subject among a broad range of key indivi-
duals in research and extension, as well as management and administration.
In many respects, this type of workshop can be designed for participants to
begin to develop a concensus on what the national definition and framework
for FSR/E will be. It is also a time for conflict to be constructively
handled in order for working and communication relationships to be
established, especially across disciplines or even ministries, where little
cross-over may have occurred in the past.
2. Structured Networking
Following national level orientation (one or several workshops or
discussion sessions), a national program can selectively and strategically
encourage future practitioners to visit other more experienced practitioners
by sending them to participate in regional, cross-country or international
FSR/E networking workshops and symposia. Exchanges of personnel with
projects of greater depth of experience can also be arranged. The purpose
of such structured exchange is to solidify the context and application of
FSR/E by allowing practitioners to "see for themselves" or hear others
describe their experiences and results. This helps people to understand how
FSR/E might serve their own needs and purposes, and begins to "internalize"
the concepts and processes.
3. Training in Methodological Skills
Following stage two, national program leaders should be able to identify
key individuals who are interested and capable of beginning FSR/E work widain
specific regions of the country or in collaboration with on going agricul-
tural development activities. It is best to begin small, and grow as the
level of experience develops and the numbers of trained practitioners
increases. The selected individuals should then receive intensive training
in the methodological skills necessary to begin farming systems activities.
They can be sent to a regional course, such as the one described above, or
the national program may decide to hold such a course in country in order to
train a larger "critical mass" at one time. Initially, outside training
expertise will be needed to design and run such a course. It is important to
train at least a small group to begin with so that they can train the
necessary interdisciplinary teams to conduct field work, and to be able to
have colleagues with whan to discuss practical and theoretical aspects of
their work. Training only one or two individuals and expecting them to
provide all of the training and stimulation for a national program is
insufficient. Part of developing a national training strategy is developing
an indigenous capacity and by institutionalizaing the training process.
4. In-Service Training
After practitioners-have begun to implement FSR/E activities, based on
the skills learned in the training course, they will need further training on
specific subjects. These are best dealt with in the context of their actual
on going work. For example, novice practitioners may wish to improve their
skills in conducting diagnostic surveys. Outside expertise can be brought in
to work with the pract~it~i-oners as they engage in an actual diagnostic subveiy
in a targeted work armsi-r Similarily, expertise can be brought in again t~o
deal with design issues statistical analysis, socioeconomic analysis occathe
conduct of on-fars trials. In many ways, this stage resembles the "call
system" established by CIMMYT in East and Southern Africa, and reinforces the
hands-on aspects of FSRdE. FSSP has assisted projects in this fashion on a
number of occasions, for example, by providing expertise needed for
conducting diagnostic surveys (Liberia 1984) and designing on-farm trials
(Gambia 1985, 1986).
The four stages described above maug or may not occur in the sequence
listed, however, a national program should determine what kind of sequence
would best suit its specific needs. This underlines the need for national
programs to be able to call upon outside expertise to assist them in
assessing their training needs and designing an appropriate strategy to
address them. Such expertise should have a certain "neutrality" regarding
priority commodities or agroecological settings in order to honestly help
national programs assess their needs and not just those of donor or
In order to provide continuity in the training initiatives which have
been set in motion by FSSP, the following directions need to be pursued.
1. Institutionalization of the Regional Methods Course in English and
Frenh Iely, ths process col ollow temdldvlpdb h
University of Zimbabwe which serves the basic training needs for that region.
It has been suggested by numerous FSR/E practitioners (and most recently by
IDRC Canada) that Cameroon, and in particular, the University Centre at
Dschang', would offer an excellent setting for such a course- to be offered
biannually in the region in both English and French. It would be feasible
for Cameroon to develop a "center of FSR/E expertise" which could be drawn
upon by- other countries in the region. It should be noted that the "Lagos
Plan" recommends cooperation among African States to develop specialized
regional and subregional training centers to complement national programs.
2. Training-for-Trainers. It is essential that the trainer base be
broaenedin the region in order for practitioners at the technical, field
level to also begin to also receive training. Though training at the
regional level would be one of the basic components of the training strategy,
internal expertise in training is necessary to insure continued development
of practitioners, and to begin the process of translating the experiences of
national programs themselves into training lessons for others.
3. Continued Refining and Developing of Materials. Translating the
experiences of national programs into training materials is a needed activity
in the region. In addition, existing materials need adaptation in local
ccontextsi-- They also need modification to local vernacular and communication.
Materials must be taken to a level where field workers with little formal
education can be trained to play a larger role in the development of
appropriate technology. It appears essential that some structure, whether
similar or-not to FSSP, needs to be maintained in the region to support or
conduct these activities on an on going basis. rh
FSSPtbbieves that its training program has a good sokid foundation but
that it..isem:nly a beginning. The training units have begunwa synthesis
process cand-ill continue to be changed significantly. Their only credible
evaluation-will come from their ability to stimulate modifications in their
use and implementation. FSSP expects that changes will be necessary on a
continuing,.basis both to refine and revise the contents in .terms of
methodological concerns but also in tailoring specific units to the interest
of national program. The current format and approach embodied towards
training are a basis for stimulating new thought and encouraging development
of methodology for further addressing adaptive research issues. A central
point of coordination and development such as the FSSP will be necessary to
facilitate the process if it is to continue.
There are strong positive linkages between the FSSP training strategy for
Africa and the USAID "Plan for Supporting Agricultural Research and Faculties
of Agriculture in Africa." Most important of these is that- the USAID Africa
Strategy is dependent on a minimanm capacity in all countries to test new
or modified technology, make appropriate adaptations, integrate it into the
farming systems of the various geographical areas, and provide feedback.
These processes are precisely the functions of FSR/E and the FSSP training
program supports national efforts to build their minimum essential capacity.
FSSP's materials and program are to the point at which its support can be
In addition to specific training support, FSSP has gained a significant.
experience in networking (a special, recurrent formal of training) and has a
considerable potential to contribute to the networking component of the
USAID African Strategy. Up to now, FSSP has had to take the initiative in
its networking efforts but is perfectly able and willing to respond to USAID)
and the Africa Bureau leadership in future networking efforts.