Typescript: "A Dash through the Everglades: being a full and accurate account of the strange things seen by a party cros...


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Typescript: "A Dash through the Everglades: being a full and accurate account of the strange things seen by a party crossing that place with a very interesting account of their adventures and a record of the great hominy eating done on that journey, all by an observer"; written by Alonzo Church; begins on Mar. 12, 1892
Series Title:
Personal Correspondence of Sydney Octavius Chase
Physical Description:
Church, Alonzo
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 171
Folder: 9.35. Everglades Exploration Trip. March 12,1892


Spatial Coverage:
North America -- United States of America -- Florida

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University of Florida
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being Ex full and Mcourate
aeeount of the 'b tge
things son be a i
party crossing .
that Placo,

4 t .
very intera-sting aeocont of
their adventures and a
record of kth great
heminy ea ting
done on that
J ouruey,
all& by an observer. (Aonzo CkurX)

Fdwb r'

Ws clevnnler oD (/t r$
Iorn 4Au ut/f ;6o G0ernn cn town P
??2 3/Sl/a;rck 1q41 Sanifa7 F'/oYI

The BverglAdes were always associ.taed in my mind i-'th Seminole
Indians, plenty of deerturkey, fish and all kinds of goae usually found
in the wild and undeveloped sections of our Stnte,besides being endowed v
with that glamour that unexplored regions shroau themselves in,and whihe
to an ardent fancy have all the attractions that the imagination can
picture forth.
The opportunity of joining an expedition for exploring this retgion
was,therefore,eag,'rly embr..ced,despite the udvTio of friends who had been
upon the border of this country, and the winhea of rFlltiveS that I should
not run the risks of such an undertaking.
The plAn was to h. vs enough men to carry wevrything: we should naee
in pa ks,u we kneli it would be impracticrtble to carry horses ;ith us all
the 'aye
This pltlan nfttcnasltsatd rigid aconea. in baggage,and for :..eyral
days baforJ we left home we .rere busy calcIulting the l-t1t possible bulk
of bl'nk-EtY,olothesm,benis,ana all the various articles which saoh of us
wished to carry along for comfort or cunveni.;nce. Finrilly ar .pairing of
being tibli to make a selction from amongst the many things which my
friends knew would be necessary and which I know I ooildn't take,I put
everything aside except one single bli-nket,one chiinge of clothes, three
pair socks, one extra pair of shoes,and my chaesaoloth mosquito bar,to
which I aft"erard added a pitec of oil cloth to vrasp around my prick during
the day,ind to sleep on at night.
Provistons estimated to last our p.irty twelve rdny had been tfilectte
and o0r fully p:-cknd :amy in lacks,easch enck to ,weigh not more than forty
poimds. Our p.art was armed with two shot guns, two Winchester rifle *,
and numerous pistols,besides h1ich we had to carry two portable canvas
boats, three tanntraxae, cooking utenails,ateo. to which was added at Itr
Ny.-rs two wooden boats between twelve and sixteen feet in length.
We lnft the dock at Port Tampa 11 P.M., the 18th ot Vivrch, 189l,on
bohrd ';he 5.eaumship "Tr.rpon",bound for Ft. Myers, which was the nearest
town to the point on the edge of the JBverglades from which we wore deter-
mined to oross it.
Xext morning when we uwoke,the *"TMrld was fe*ing through Boca
Grande Pass,tho entrance to Chirlotte erbor from the Gulf, to take the
inside passage from there down to Ft. ye-rs, and ns we ate anmd steadily
Southward,aeught a fine view of the magnificent view we ware leaving
behind use
1Bo and then between the mangrove islnnds,we could entch a glimpse of
the Gulf on our right,whilA to the l,-ft ,treatoead the solid shore line as
far as the eye could reach: a fresh breese was rippline the rwater,but no
disagreeable motion was given the boat as our course lay in a land-locked
ohnnnl,which enabled us to appreciate the exhilatating effect of the pure
salt air,the shifting icane of waitar,woodn and nandy beach,the b entinel-
like lighthouse distant and indiatinot in the shadow of a eloud,and then
when the cloud rolled by and the morning liht flashed upon its white wwat
gleaming brigIhtly and showing its outline sharply against the sky.
The "Tarpon aotOlJp"d/ a fe w moments at St. a'sAO Citya large and
fashionable hotel on the south ena of Pine rIlrnt,and there took in tow
two sail bO;-ts for the uue of party of fish-rmesl,whe were anxious to go
faster than the wind would carry them,but as the steamer started off again
the sailboateshich lay around the corner of the wharf,and at right a-
gles to the wteamer,became entangled in the fender piles,and after filling
full of water one of them broke loome,and much to the prief of some o
bo-rd who amera to use her,was left behind.
OS topped next at Punta Rassa,from where most of the cattle raised
in SWuth Florian r r ship.ed,and whe.r the Cuban ana Key Wseut cable comes
ashore,nd from there Up Lhe Caloosahatchie to Ft. Makers. The river up
to Myers 1s mai rrjstteo as the Misalesu pi,never less t.hs.n three miles

wide,with quite a strong current, and back of the mangroves bfladnrd with
what sesam a heavy pine forest.
The channel is very crooked and very narrow,and it is difficult for
vessels drawing mere than five feet of water to same up to it. Myers.
It was Sunday when we arrived and as the 'Tarpon" was to lie at the
wharf all night we decided to stay on board her;indeed the hotel was-so
crowded with tourists that we were fortuatte not to be thrown on the ten-
der mercins of the town for a night's lodging,as nam sure ae would have
fared badly.
2t. years is on the south bank of the Clloosahatchie,and during the
Seminole War and for some time afterwards was g;:rrisonnd by the Govornment
Sone of :th old concrete houses built for office rs' quarters,still remain,
and many of the palms planted by the soldiers along the river bank now
beautify the place by their stately presenoe,und furnish shade and cocoa-
nuts to hair owners.
The town has about 1,000 inhabitants;ie handsomely situated on ground
eight or ten feet above the river, is regularly laid out in broad streets
and in winter has a delightful climate. Protected by the broad river
from the cola northwest winds, emi-tropical arnd some tropical fruits grow
Raving spent the afternoon inspecting mango orchards,avaosa4 pear
treer,ate., and the beautiful growth of bamboo to be seon at this plnc@,
we returned,samewa t leg weary, to our steamer.
After a hearty supper we sat upon the upper deok gazing at the full
mooaat the glorious expanse of heaven left open to our view by the wide
river,at the play of the moonlight on the watrr,and on the fringe of palas
along its border; the town was silent,and the only sound to be heard was
the wind whispering in the rigging ov:rhead,or dashing little wavelets
against che side of the vessel. Too much impressed by the beauty of the
scene and the harmonies of nature's music to say a qord,our men,one by
one,as Morpheus stole upon them,silently dropped off to bed.
The boat left next morning at six o'clook,but the steward kindly
gave us a cup of hot coffee before 'e got off.
After we had loaded all our belongings on to two wagons bnd dis-
patched them with a detail of men to the place electedd for our first
canp,we went to the Hendry House for breakfast,to which after the early
exercise we had undergone you may be sure we did full justices
It was now determined that we should stna for a few rays at Pt. Myers
in order to make the final prnparatione for our trip and to break Ihe soa
into camp life and discipline. The remainder of the morning was spent in
making camp life as comfortable as possible,but as our cooks had not ex-
hibited a vmry high degree of culinary skill several of us deoided it
would be discretion to take dinner at the hotel, which we accordingly
That afternoon we put up and tried in a neighboring pond,our iwo fOld
Oin anTaR boats,which we found worked admirably,and next morning: they,
with the two wooden boats purchased that day,were shipped by eOen express
to wait our arrival at Ft. Shackelford on the edge of the everglades.
After trying the canvas boats I put on my new canvas hunting coeat,leggins
and bowls knife,and strolled in town with Mr. Sldney to take supper at
the lendry Houasport my tough dike",admire WUe. Jones,the handsome
guest,and find oht what news there was floating round.
At the hotel we talked with several men who had been in the employ of
the Diseton Drainage Company,and who olaie d to be familiar with at
I ast the bor der of the everglade s. Tey said no man other than as
I-dian has ever been through the glades,except one Brewer,who was are
rested for selling whisky to the Indians and released on hondwhen the
Indiana,in Ordsr to effect his escape, carried him across to Miami.


Of the Iverglade a they gave very conflicting accounts,one man assuring Us
that there was nothing to be met with but terrible sawgrame which ex ton-
ded on every side as far as the eye could reach. The sawgrase, he said,
is from five to ten feet tall,very thick,and so stiff and sharp that it
outs you like the edge of a razor, no gloves or clothes can withestnd it,
and where it touches you it makes a wound which in not attended to will
shortly maks a featuring aore.
This sawgraasahe olaiaed,extended all the way across the glades and
would be an impnnetrable barrier to our advance. Another account,vouohed
for by the author as correct, said that the glades were a labyrinth of
bayous running through a dense jungle of tropical growth,nnd he assured
us if we attempted to penetrate it we would be lost in the mase, and waL-
dering around trying to find a path or channel, would starve before we
oould get out. Of the snakos and alligators to be met with in the glades
a particularly glowing account was given. Mr. T'wns assumed us that as
we advanced through the sawertss the snakes in front crawling out of our
way would make such a crackling in the dry leaves that we would not be
able to hear each others' voices, and ns for alligntore,he said;" When you
get to water they will just be so thick you enn walk across on their headS
Nosquitoen,redbugs,alligator flea swamps c.nd a thousand other horrors,
known and unknown, were detailed for our infornation,until I for onefelt
very much inclined to sacrifice the pleneurr of wearing my canvas coot,
leggings and bowie knife and the distinction of being with a party of
Bverglad explorers.
But on the other hand,from equally reliable authority we were assure
that after passing through a few miles of the everglades we would strike
higher land and find a rich tlandc,covered with both pinn rind harmiook
growth, inhabited and cultivated by Seminoles,htnd Whero grew the most
luxurious of tropical fruits und flowers. Thisathe man assured us,was
the home of the Indian, where he went when troubled by the white man and
found me oure haven and harbor of refuge, here the Indians had villages,
fields and battle, and in the surrounding swamps plenty of game.
When Mr. Sydney and I returned to camp that night we found most of
ear 'Babes in the Wood" slumbering wse etly, as was evidenced by the saw
gourd musio" heard before we came in sight. It soomed to us our heads
had hardly touched our pillows when we heard our Captain calling vigorous-
ly for the cooks to get up 'nd get br-nakfast, For it wak 'most day,and
he wanted us to form the habit of eating bra akfast before the sun wam Up?
Koreverrit turned out that our worthy leader had"looked crooked' at his
watch for it was hardly midnight,and so we were soon slumbering gain.
text day we amouced ourselves as best we could, during the forenooa
Mr.Sydney und I going out in a buggy to imnpect a neighbor ring lemon grove
and in the afternoon packing our vali e a to send around to Mami to P.wait
our coming. bear our tent gnd close by a well stood sone e h-tubswhihd
during the cay some of the Miami 'ladiee" had been twing, and which we
thought we could utilize to as much advantage as they, only in a different
manner; so Mr. Sydney and I stripped and enjoyed the plannure of b.athing
in a tube
The day had be an -vry wrermand as Is usual in that climate the night
was correspondingly cool so bathing in the open air inclinedd us to seek
the warmth of the camp fires which our men kept brightly burning. On all
sides could be seen the oheeseoloth mosquito bars,showing snowy white
agl net the dark bolckground and arranged in pictures4ae confusion, while
gathered around the fires in little groups the men were smoking and ohat-
ting about the march they were to make the next day and their prospects
of getting safely through the evergUlok. Captain Newman was the center
of *ne group in front of Mr. Ingraha s tent,and with him he was planning
our eaapaign and the chances of getting through to Miai. "You see', saA

he to Mr. Ingraham, pointing to a map which lay between than, "We hnow
that rivers of considerable size run into the Gulf on the west the Bay at
florida on the souththe Atlantic on the east, and if this map is correct,
into the Okeechobee on the north; now if this is so,there must be a diTvid
within these enarclades between the head waters of these rivers,or else
a large basin or lake from which they all flew. If we find a lake it
will be an easy matter with the bouts we haveto ferry across it,whils it
we find the divide,as I antioipate,we ought to be able to cut our way
through it. We may have to undergo some hardships,but we have an object
in view which is worth the sacrifice,and I hope when neensaary it will )b
made cheerfully. Should our expedition be successful it may result in
good to the whole country,for if this land can be rendered fit for culti-
vation it will be the most productive of any in this state. It is rich
with the vegetable mounld of centuries, has the mildest climate on this
eontinent,and oncf drained could be put into cultivation at a small cost.
It might support an immense population,and would doubtless supply the
United Stat^s with sugar,rice h'na the fruits adapted to the climate.
With the money sapint on hotels in the city of St. AuguE.tine to gratify
the luxurious tastes of our millionaires I believe this land could be
drained,and the promoter of Bsch a scheme would hYve the right yo be con*
aidered the greatest philanthropist of his age. It would be a glorious
undertaking,for charity could nsk no nobler enterprise, ambition no higher
glory and capital no gr'eter Incre ass than would result from the redempl
tion of this land."
The enthusiasm of our captain was infectious ,nnd When he finished
speaking every man who heard him had determined to do all in his power for
the success of the axpe dition,and felt the dignity of an a explorer who
belongs to an enterprise which if successfully carried out may benefit
his race.
'Twas late that night before I l"ft rmy pl.ce by the fire,ao interest-
ing eare the possibilities a and probabilities propounded by our imagina-
tire coptuin,but he stayed up still Inter,and my last rnoollection that
night was of him,silhouetted against the bright glow of the fire,drawing
inapir&tion from his pipe,and peering into the bright coals as though he
were reading there the secrets of the future.
Next morning our departure from this camp was delayed by the failure
of the wagons to aJpear,but about eight o'clOck one came up,and after be-
ing loaded want forwards towards Pt.Shackelford the driver being instruct-
ad that our camp that night would be at i Nulf-k;y Ponds.*
Mr. Sydney and I were tired of waiting at camp so we decided to fol-
low the first wagon the sun was hot aind I waro a pair of na a shoes thica
began to gall me terribly,but I thought it would never do to complain so
early In the game,so I walked on with a 'smile on my lip but a tsar in my
ee,* trying not to limp any worse than possible under the ciroumatances.
-aomping In the hot sun makes dinner time come farly,but as no sign of
those behind us could be perceived we kept tramping on,devoutly hoping
those in the roar would come up with the provisions by aspper time.
About one olclookjust as we had passed a smRll pond where as some one re-
marked there was a beautiful pleoe for a "picnic dinner",we heard shouts
and shouting behind as,and halting awhile saw a man riding toward us;ihen
he came up he proved to be George Rendry,one of our guidaeswho had oonr
forward rom the other party to bring us some dinner. We found he had
brought a hunting oeat,Jta pockets filled with orackers and cans of potted
ha, and a oeffe s pot and some coffee. When he alit that day and sexhib
ited his six feet,four inches of height,with the picturesque addition of
a broad felt hata pair of immense top boots and jingling spurs I was very
favorably impressed with him,but when h said; 'Boys, I've ridden up from
the other crowd to bring you same coffee and crackers", I "fell dead ia
love with him". The most noticeable things about George Wendry were

him big eyes and his big heart. hot that they were all visible to the
material iye,but if you we re with him long one was to be parcaived as
plainly as the other. His largetenider,grey iyss,fringed with long lash-
es,oontrasted so oddly with his rough address and appeartance,but they
never missed saying whan hb could be of any ua simtance,tnd his kind heart
never failed to move him to attempt the services
When we reached "Half Way Pende" that evening my no w shoes had
raised a blister as big as a half dollar on each of my heelm,and what was
worse one of the blisters had "gone into bankruptcy" and left literally
nothing between my sock and my flesh. After resting a little I went down
to the pond,and taking off my shoes rind ray tocks with the smallest posai-
ble amount of cuticle adhering, tenderly ba'.her my poor feet in its cool-
ing water; that duty attended to I returned to ,he shade of the treem,and
beofre very long some of the other crowd oamn up and commenc-d making oanp
BSveral of the man had their feet in the same condition as mine,but that
did not take away our appetite or keep us awake,and I ventur- to say all
of us enjoyed that supper and slept as ewee tly that night as we over did.
Next morning Mr.Ingraham,Nr.Sydney ind George and ank Hendry had
bre aktunt at daybreak and went off on a huntleaving us to follow with
the wagons when we got them loaded up. That lay aGorge i ndry killed
two deer which gave us plenty of fro sh meat,but the hunt had ooApletely
use d up the hunters. I had been driving one of che warons that morning
but gave my place to one of the tired hun.,ere in the aft!trnoon;I could not
wear my shoes and sould not go burefoot,so I put on my two pair extra
socks and found that I could walk with tolercble a a js.
Be far we had bee n passing through the usual Florida pine land,but
from this on the country a-as more open,and was dotts d everywhere with
grass ponds so that we had a gr at a:al of wading to do. That night we
Gamped in a very poor place,for we had to go a long ways for water and
oould hardly find enough dry wood to cook withe
Next morning,triday,my blisters we re no better,and I felt that anoth
o r day's walking in my socks would muke the soles of ay feet sore to ,0
In this extremity I determined to cut out the back of my shoe just above
the heel,where the worst bliators ws re,and try to walk that way. Muoh
to my gratification thin succeeded admirably and from that time I walked
constantly. Our arch was now on the great South Floria prairie and
although we did not see any luirgo hirds of cattle we were assured that
this range afforded grass for thousands of them.
About ten o'clock a heavy shower fell and ta soon as it held up we
went into camp to get warm and dry off. We stopped unaer a clump of
large oak trees which had from the signs we found evidently been an old
Indian camp. LOosening our cattle to graze and taking out our shirts we
all baokau up to the firs to warm rnd dry ourAslves. While engaged in
this ploasnat occupation Mosem,one of our groupmniffe d the air and
called out;"I mall something burning* See if a oindnr hasn't fallen on
something in the magonl" ws all endeavored to assuage his fears,but at
this momnet a 8anse of unusual warmth in the region of his shirt tail
assur-d him that his worst feara were re alizd, and caused him to exolaim
in horror, My God,boys,its ma ",and to seek in haste the cooling aid of
a neighboring pond. At "Shirt Tail Cmpgnpas we dubbed it we noticed a
wi'deshaggy pony that had been following us all day and which the Rendrys
said blon3ed to Billy Conepache,a Seminole chief.
Tat day we passe d deserted old Indian camps,and about three o'clock
in .he afternoon came to wire fanot,which Hendry told us was twenty-fight
miles long. He said that the land did not belong to the man who fenced
it in,but that custom allowed him to fence off for him own use as much
lend as he needed to grase his cattle on. The grass on this range seemed
to be finer ind tendtrenqthan the ordinary wire 1rams of the pine lands
and,our guides assured us,made a fine pasture. We camped that night in

a elalw e planes kere as could get plenty of wogd,but that night it was
so oeld we could not keop warm. Many of our men,unaceostmtad to walking
were terribly fatiguot so that ever y movement caused them pain:thkat nigh
I was Rwakensd by tke melano Oly sounds of "Oh,Lordl OQ,Go dl" repeated
in the most supplicating tones. Suppouing esom one was sick or injured
I started up re a& to give he alarm,9hen discovTnrd it was our Prteeo
dent,trying to lay his blistered and aching limba in a more comfortable
lp xt morning,5S turday I decided to go with Fr-nk r ndry and i oees b
a different route from thbt which the wagons were to take,to try and kill
some game. We had not gone far from camp w en we heard the baying of our
dogs coming rapidly toward us;we were standing ankle deep in water rtnd
just in thk edge of some young oypress trees no higher than our heads
when I saw a door on the run in the edge of the swamp about one hundre&
yards to our right. Aa 1 had only a shot gun 1 did not fire,supposinI
the distunoe to be tuo gruat for rie to kill,but Hendry who had a rifle and
was standing about ten yards back of me.shot and missed. Hardly had that
deer disappoarod before I saa anoi.lor one hknrding straight for me at the
top of his spa3d. No,,I thuught,is the time for no to make a reputation
as a hunter; 11ll Aait until he comes as cloIe to me as he will,and then
I'11 drop him in his tracks. Hardly had the thought. passed when the deer
was upon me,- I took delib.traLe aim ,nd fired a load of No.8 bird shot
into his flank. I thought that doer waa going fast before I fired,but
theoe bird shot soemod to make him fly. The instant after my shot I
recollected I had that barrel loade d for anipe,and sent my load of buck*
shot whistling after,but all to no iuripoe,and all I could do wan to
watch that do er nakc tracks twenty feot apart across that ialrie,l, ile
frank Randry took long range shots -ith Ma the rifle at him.
Very much crestfallen at our failure,and vowing to do better next
tiam,we took our way towards camp cnd had hardly gone two miles when the
baying of the dogs announced they were again on the trail of some gaam
animal. from the actions of the dogs we surmised it was a wildcat,,nd
peeping about under the bushes frank Hendry moon got a shot. He shot at
the cat in a thick swamp ;.nd whila h), was o-irtain he had not missed it,hk
did not know tbht his shot had been fital. A vild oat wouldod is a very
savage t.nrf dangerous foe and as the dogs seemed to have gone off on a batk
track we had to Tenture in without them. We peoped cautiouIly about us
a Twe advanend,fearing the cat would spring upon us from some bush or 1Ub '
and take ur unnawares,but just at this time irhe dogs came backhand dashing
in found our gime shot doad by a bullet through his fore shoulders. After
skinning the cat and taking a small pi9ea of his meat for Hoess to taste
and sea whether or not it was good anting,we pushed rapidly on '*tOlards Pt.
Shacb lford where the roat of our party were camped. On our way lioe uan
plenty of Indian .i;gna,and finally Sound one of their camipa hidden oaay in
a drnse little hammoock;as only a aquaw and some picaninnies ware at hIm
and they ~Olmed to be Tvry much alarmed at our visit,we did not stay long,
but .ent on about. i. milzl furthw:r and found our camp.
Old Rort Shackelford" had boon so often mentioned ns a definite place
that I o xpeoted to find our camp in the midst of some picturesque old
ruins,the relios of the last Indian war,eand in any event to n ec the remalp
of an old ;tockade or uomu evidence of the soldier cnmps ihich had bten
made there. Pt. Aha nelford,however,is merely a sclunp of pine tre' a on
the edge of the pla le bordering thea verglfde s,were common ropor t ays
fort Shiokiford was located. .ot a vestige or sign of the fort remains,
which is not surprising,oonslsting the whole fortification probably consis
ted of a small stookade which was perhrpe burn d by the Indians as soon
as the soldiers lr.ft 'to
rTo the east of oar camp and about four miles off lay tke unexplored
verglades,but as thi wan Saturday and we were tiredwe decided not to
enter them until Mond y morning.
The Ox t'ea we has- sent before us from Ft. Myers was waiting at It.
hacker or4 when we caeW up,and that afternoon went down to the wat r at
*dge and unloaded the bats and things leaded on it. To mark our camp,

and render it a conspicuous object for some miles around Ibr.eewman hoisted
to the top of one of the highest pines a large flag madH froim a place of
oanvas,on which he marked in black ink the Plant Invoutmant Company's
emblem, a Maltese Cross.
That afternoon we were visited by the old squaw and picaninnieo 1 we
had auen in their canp that morning;wo fed them as well as our larder
woult permit,and the old woman,(kancy she said was her nnka,) grew vary
talkftive for an Indian. She was much amused at the idea of our going
to VMamiand when we asked how long it would take Us to get there,laughed
and Abidi" Indian,two days;white man,tenfifteen days." Point in- to tkh
north she advised us to go that woy,for north of Okeohoobe she stid me
could take our wagone to kMitm. She tola us she had b en to Miami a:nd
that it was a hundred miles from RSh ckalford,but we knew' she was mistaken
about thb ailtance,for as the crow flies it was only about onr hlf th;.t
distance. Thi old woman baid she had be.in Jumper'e squaw,but that a few
days before our arrival Jumper "had got big drunk",c:nc falling: o't of his
canoe had been drowned;also tiat aho livld with Billy Conepachs,or "Little
Billy",whu hnd married her cauhtear. T"at all her men ,era at Chookilis-
kee huntingand her daughters had gune to the nnareir. ta,'ing pout Uome 25
or 30 mile~ away. linrilly, hout dark,findring .i had nothing norr to giv
her,she und tho two children took Tl-ir drporturn. Thn ne xt day 4uA Sun-
day,and as there was little work to do we had plenty of tlP .ii L do t-~L w
pldaOedi;s)me hunted,srom explored the rurrornd.in- country,but most of us
%ere all plea~e to sleep,eat and ch-t,thoroughly enjoying, .he r.rt and
quiet after our eighty mile vnlk from Ft. Mynrs.
In the evening the old squaw cam back agcin,this time bringing with
her two youngerr women,her daughters,and a half dozen or more little chil-
aren* The two younger women were rather better looking than I apnootCi a
but had thei usual Indian f-:atures,black,be hdlike eyes,straight,i nky-col*
ored hair,and low foreheads. They were dresue d in nacques and skirts
of bright-colored caliooeu,vory .iuch as White woman dress,except that the
aacque and skirt did not quite met,which omission left a small rim or
;one of the n:ativa and primitive Incinn in view,giving tre idea that each
woman woru a belt. Possibly allgitor-skin belts -e:re in style there,and
if so thtse might have boon e xc-ll,'nt in~lnt.ions of t' gCinulin article;
or maybu che dress reform lecturer had instilled sorme of her principles
into the natives minds und this was a ne w system of w,-ntilation just out
The noiht pl'ni.;tint features bout theBs women we re their soft volcea,al-
though of course r.Ocustone d to eponking in the o en :-ir,thoir tones were
.low rnd uuBioal,anri vn.ry distinct to our ears. They lft us about )icht
o'clock th;t night, hving amused us e T3'y ;ch,and promising to bring us
some chickens early next morning before wn 'got cff.
That nig-ht I -rote in ry diary:* from what Rquaw Vanoy r sys I julge
thnrr is noth-in9 between -imi .nd hdre but aaw grass r,nd an occar lnnal
hammock i;. ind. Oh, my prophetic soull
Rext morning we were up aerly,and after bidding tVe aRendryn and thoao
sho .war &o go b.,ck with the wagone to Ft. Myers loodby,wti not oujr co'jpa
and ran 8. 32 1. towards the Bv-rgladea.
Tom Boydone of the men from It. Myers,who had agrtn d to go through
with us,bocame frightened at the prospect be fore him and decided to go
back with the w ons. Before we rr! asher! Miami mny a uman in or pnrty
WS h.a he hth swapped his valor for some of Ten Boyds diooreation in this
matter. t u
Af ter running about four miles on our course we struck the Nverelades
au f'r i.u the eye could raonh a vast e zpanse of' nnw grnss ,nd water wit
Lo f,dottud how. u or vith inlInda here and there. A pnrt of our foroe
was detald to set up the canvas boats,store the provisionsand equipage
they were to arry,while the rn at cf us want on ,ith the survey. Where
i enteirr d the gldes the water wan only ankle deep,aloar e xcnpt when
It furthred rso movement in it,and the ground was not so baggy as we founa
it further in. The saw grams meumed to be stunted,for it was only four or
ard fseet highland lay in detached bodies and not a solid mass as we after
ar found t. all a l si84 s mall clumps of tre as or islands could be
sandad we fe.t oonfi'l\nt if they were so numerous as this all the way
across we would always be able to find a camping place.

My first experience with saw grass was not very encouraging,for that
day in forcing my way through soqm of it I had my right h*&nd cut severely
in so veral plrtce,but after being tied up in a cloth grase-d 'wll with
mutton suet it gave me very little trouble.
WV oamped that evening about a mile from lVnd on a lit'.le cypress
islandhardly above the surrounding water,and after bringing up all the
wood we could find for our camp fire made a place for our beds. laci
bed wis fixe d for two,and when practicable we always had a foundation Of
ferns or loaves of somw sort;on top of this mattress we put our oiloloth
to ke ep out thk moisture from the ground,and then ths blankets,one to lie
on,and the other to cover with. As soon an our bed was made the mosquito
bars had to be hung,and for this purpose four .ticka were necessary.
After fe had made campt that day thoMe who eisre not too tired waded
out to explore the neighboring islands;on their r turn they reported they
had seen a deserted In4dian village about which was growir.g a lemon grove,
and on ano.hor island ihat seemed to be a bears'den,but no bear oould be
discovered. Th'.t night Ull were in uood spirits except Nandley,who vor-
ited and seemed to be threatened with an attack of fea r. The bare idea
of any of the men falling sick in this wilderness made me faint at heart,
and that night I could not help feeling uneasy on that account.
hext morning,Tuesday (22nd),we decided to change our course so an to
avoid saw grasa,and this neoessitated the abandonamnt of a portion of the
line we had run the day before,which I did hot ll.e vory much. Barly
that morning Br.IngraheaMr.Sydney and Mr.Moaes went off to the south to
examine a large body of cypress timber,barely visible fr on here we were.
Abimt noon they returned,bringing with them,- or rather I shOuld say being
brought by an Indian in his canoe. They t.tid they hid gone to the oypres.
swamp,and finding the ground very boggy had started to return when the-y
suddenly came upon an Indian on fgot who said his name was "Silly Duel".
T Oy tried to hire him to go to NMami and act as our guide,but he refused;
dspaliring of making any terms with him they started off agaia,when Mr.
Ingraham,who had on bootsebecome bogged up,and in his e efforts to get out
eih usted. The Indian,seeing this,seemod to pity thea,and said,"WaitI
get canoe": he then walked to a thick clump of bushe a near by,pulled opt
a canoe,and taking two of our explorers in it with him came on to where ma
were. We ate lunok that day as we stood in the water,and crackerspotted
ham and cold coffee nevor before tasted so good. The Indian stayed with
us until we had camped and had supper;before he left we offered him every
Inducement to guide us to M*ani,and when we offered him wyomle(whiskey) he
seemed to yield to our wishes,but said he had to go home first and oe s
his gquaw,but would meet us at our next night's campready togo on with ta
to N"ami -but we never saw "Billy fuel' any more. That day'e march had
completely wearied me out,we had advanced since molrng only about five
miles, but they were equivalent to twenty on dry land. I was so tire 4 I
had lost all interest in overything,-didn't care whether r Billy Puel
stayed,-went,or ever came back,so I could lie down and rest. I managed to
help Mr. Sidney arrange our bed ,flopped down on it ,nd slept until supper
was re ady and as soon as I had swallowed that dropped off to sleep again.
Vhat appetites we had,and how delicious everything tasted To be aure
our biscuit had a heart of doughand were very appropriately called "sink-
era",and our coffee wes a little muddy and our bacon salty and not always
well done,but how refreshing this food was to us poor boys,wet,weary and
muddy as we we re.
Next morning before starting off we reconnoitered from the top of a
large wild fig tree which grew in the center of our island,and thought we
could see an opening through the saw grass leading in the dire motion we
wished togo,but about eleven o'clock the saw grass elesed us in,and to go
forward we had to go through it.
We stopped a few moaents to rest and eat our lunch of soda crackers
and fat bacon soaked in a bucket of grease,and then started forward agaia,
for the nearest island was several miles ahead of us,and although we could
See no passage through the saw grass lending up to it,we knew we must reae
it to find wood to cook Wiah and a dry place to alee p. The grass was
high and thick,the ground so boggy that at evnry step we sank into it up

to eur thighs,and the sun was scorohing hot;it soon became evident that at
the rate we were going we could not re ach the island by night,and so Mr.
elwman propose d that we two go ahead and fire the saw grass so as to
olear the way for the boats. The grass directly in front of us had al-
ready been lighted,and fanned by the stiff brease that was blowing was
rapidly spreading ae oun the little pond we stood in. To get beyond this
first wall of fire was now our object,and edging up to whore the saw grase
was thinnest,we waited until the wind lulled a little,and then with one
dash we were through it. We now pushed our way towards the islnnd,light-
ing fires every hundred yards or so,knowing that if the wind held and the
saw grasa burned with its usual fury there would soon be behind us a
clear path for our boats. I was very weary when I started with t'r.Newamn
and after building fire a and forcing my qay through the saw grass for a
mile or so my strerg th completely gave out. I stopped in a lagoon where
the water and mud were nearly wdist deep while Mr. Newman went on making
fires towards the island. On all sides the grass was burning with a fury
I have nevnr seen equalled;to my rear the smoke and flames completely kid
the boats and the men struggling to bring them forward,while Ybry soon the
fires kindled ahead swept down towards me,and but for the bayou in whihd
I stood would have burns d re up. I thought little of the firebut only
of the dreadful fatigue,a sense of faintness oame over me,ani the saW
grass went round and up and down in a most strange fashion;I felt I could
stand no longer,and wading to the saw grass where the watnr shouted a lit-
tle I sat down in the mud,and Ohihow good it felt to rest The severe
exertion I had made had be en too much for me and a deathly sloknees auo-
seeded the faintness,and made me fear I would havs to stretch out at full
length in the mud. After resting in the mud the best part of two hours
I recovered some of ay strerkth,and the clouds of amrake behind me having
rolled away I oould see that our men had abandoned the boats and one by
one were struggling on,rach with a paek on his back. Nothing but atern
asooasity could have compelled me to more,but realizing that I must reaoh
that island that night I gathered up my strength and crawled slowly along
Never did shipwreeked mariner eye with more longing glaCnce the distant
land than I did that island. The smoke had cltarnd ntrd there it ly
before me,not a mile away,with the delicate tracery of its trees outlined
against the sky and the glistening leaves showing bright in the setting
sun,and yet it seemed I n'ver would get to it. Slowly I "bogged" along
my feet working like auction pumps in the mud,stopping now and then to
blow and to wonder w hre the strength for the next step was coming Mfra.
Occasionally some one would Overtake and pass me,but we had no breath to
waste in words,so nothing was said. Just as the sun set I saw a little
smoke curl up from the island,and I knew our Cap;ain had reached it and
was doing his beat to che er us on;about dark I reached the goal for 'hildh
I had been making,and was happy to Btretoh myself on the U ground onci more.
Weariness is no nmea for the suffering I underwent,and comfort no ex-
pre smion of my sonnations of pleasure when I threw myself down on the
ground by the fire Mr. sNewman had madre,and restud.
My advice is to let vary diacontente d man take a trip through the
brergladeui-if it don't kill,it will certainly cure him. All those who
are suffering from "ennui",who have no taste for the good things of the
world,and can feet on nothing but the dainties of the table,after a few
days of such experience as we went through,fatwhite bacon warmed through
will be as delicate to his taste as turkey's breast,and *sinkers" will set
as lightly on his stomach as the lightest white bread;he may havT been
r aised to think lead champagne the only drink fit for a gentlemen,but he
will grow to think cold coffee without milk or sugar equal to nectar.
If a man ib a dude a trip through the glades is the thing to oure him.
A day's journey in llmy,deoaying vegetable matter which coats and per-
meates everything it touches,and no water with which to wash it off will
be good for him;but hie chief medicine will be his morning toilet. He
must rise with the sun when the grass and leaves are we t with dew and


put on his shrinking body clothes heavy and wet with slime,and scrRpe out
of each shoe a cup full of black Lnd odorous mud;-it'a enough to make a
man wear to be contented forever afterwards with a board for a bed and a
ole an shirt once a week.
But to rasine my story;-aa I said before saee ral of the men had
reached the island before me,and from them I laernid that as soon as the
saw grass had burned out be fore them they had advanc:wd with the boats,but
made such clow progress that they decided to p:;ckwhrt. t.hoy would need that
night and goon without them. But they found it was a case of "jumping
from the frying -pan into th. fire",for it was har dr t o carry the bag-
gage on their backs than to drag it in the boats. One by one the nun
eaMs staggering up,and it was lnto before .ve ate or slept;but memory still
dtwlls with delight on the thought of that supper,and gloats with tender
affe action ovar the raoolleation of my plpoaure in eating mush that night.
Orbnarily I date at mush.
Next morning nine men went back for the bort.s,the cooks stayed an
the island to prepare a supply of food,and the surveyor a went on with
the line. Sol.cting our island we triangulated to it and then 'wont back
to our morning's camp,where we found the de tail of men had just aucoaoded
in bringing up the boats. We had lunch jind again took up our line of
maroh,but noun found our way obstructed by aew grass. We had learned
from the o xparienc of the day before that it I as little help to burn
the saw grausaa we doubled up our teams 'arnd pulled through as bns w .e
oould;doubling up meant putting all the men on one boat and then coming
back for the others. By doing this we found we could pull from one la-
goon asrovn the saw grass to another,which we would follow as long me it
went in our dlrection,when we would hunt the narroweat place in the grass
and pull from that lagoon in to the one on the othirr side In this
wy we slowly fought our way onward,one moment str ainng ovnry nerve to
drag our boats through the grass,and the na xt clinging to and shoving
them before us through the mud and water. The m;ir ch that .ft.lrnoon was
almost a repitition of the one the da,.y before;Beveral tiunes the bouts were
stalled and the men 9 xhausted,but after restin;g a bit, they would fall in
with a oho er,und at a One,-Two,- Three,-Gol from Mr. Ingraham would
break their way through. very one took his turn qt iullingnMr.Ingraham
among the re st,and about sundown we came into r ch'innel leaning ip. tto the
island we were making for. That night it was pli.in L.o me t).ut unless
the marching became easier we would hvrn to abandon onu of the wooden
boats,for the men had coomncea d to show strains and apraina from' the Boa
YTre exertion they had undergone. That night, wn made uur orinp un.-r r a
large rild fig tree,the roots of whi-ch stuck out of the ground in a moot
curious faahion,foirming natural doors .nd windows for our urse. On [he
trunk of the tree we noticed the names of "Tomly Tigur","Jaok Chu.rley'
and "Billy Pewil",in rude lettere,evidently carved by bome ertistio Indial
SNxt morning,fridayMlirch 28th,our Secretary was seated on a oonvanr
lent root,writing up his no tes,when a snake,evidently much frightened at
BO many men,saw a nice hollow up his coat sleeve,: nd thinking it hiad ar-
rived at a plioe or harbor of refuge,attneptod to enter. Hoses discorv
ered it at this momnnt,and sanding his note-book and fountain pen one way
abruptly took thb- otter hiBm-slf,not apparently daoirous of making any
lose r acquaintance with his morning caller.
We loft camp vry ruch cheered,as our scout had reported that from
the top of the tree he could see clear water ahead,but we had not gone a
mile when the sav grass barre d our further advance It was then de*
eided to abandon one of our wooden boats,and such baggage as we could dis-
pense withbo we left the smallest wooden boat,loaded with tents,a lot of
*Pades,shovels,axos and cooking utensils that we did not need,but which I
hope have been useful to some 8:;minolt brave before this.
We had been making for an island almost dire ctly on our oourse,but
in the afternoon Mr. Newman decided to turn back a little and try for
one whioh seemed a little more acoe seible. Flying ribout this inland
we notl ui a cloud of birdasmostly white cranem,and when we reached it

that evening we found it was a bird roost and nesting place,and that there
were hundreds of young birds in the nests among the trees. The old birds
fle w away when we landed,but came nack next morntng -a soon as 4we left.
We had be an anxious to see those great t nesting places of the birds,and
had our aor iosity gratified .,t the expense of our comfort,for it was a
very unoomffortable place to can),the odor bein of sufficient strength to
knock down a tolerably strong man.
When outLing raw.ay Lhe grass nnd. brush for a sleeping place we die-
cover,- d .& moocsa n nest and kllle a r occasin,but that did not risturb US
as on- of thn men slupt on the hole and thus kept it effeotwalcy stopped
up all night. This night three, of o-jr men -wer sick and had to be
doctored, i nol-in Hendley and )r.thieux.
ext dayy,lrSAurday, 26th, we want almor;t south far eahile, Ind t.hen
fortunately dliicoTrn. -d an opening in thi san. grass le &: ding in t.h" diree-
ion we ,wiahnd,but the bog was fearful and retr.rded us vnry riuoh.
In the Nft')rnoon we passed another "rookery" as we called it,and just
beyond it found a anall ialrand,evidently a favorite campr with th- Indians
as it had poles stuck up to imark the landing place,and strewn ovor it eare
the shells of numerous tor rapina they hsd eaten. It was decided to
camp hmre,ouch to my cadlight,as u left big toe in the last few days had
developed an ingrowing nail,which at this time was hurting me vY-ry juoh.
It had been announced that duy that our rntinna were in danger of being
a aten before our arrival at Mialni;and we would have to go on allo#anue
fro'm now on;a commissary had been appointed d to aerve out the food and
that night n wnere oaoh allows for slppepr throe biscuit (kinkersl,a oup
of coffee and a thin alioo of bacon. Aftnr supper I oper'4ted on my Lto0
and wi;h Mr. Sydneye' assistance sucoeaded in making a very satisfactory
j ob.
Sunday the 27th w. ware iut on rations of hominy,coffee aind bacon
gravy,but we dtd not suffer from hunger and none of the men soamed to be
very cdoupon,,int. We ate lunch that day in somo3,'hat of a bad humor,as
although we had worked hard all the morning we had not made much progress
In the right direction;in a nest in a bush near us we re two little blue
crane s,Who looked at us and opened their mouthasan cried (I thought) ,w
were grnat idiots to come into such L Ilacoe when we had no wings with
which to fly out.
Thin day thu man Clurke,who had been appointed to serve out the ra-
tions,reslgnod ea the men complained to him about their allowance,so Goo.
Nathioux was appointed in Cl;irke~t pl;6ce.
As ij had not ueen any game in the "Gl;ads" the guns we re usually
kept in the bouts;tbhi morning as we were strung out through the saw gras
I heard from thoui in front shousa of "Get the gunl-Shoot himl-Kill him$-
Catch himl- and an instant after a dear emerge d from the grase in front
and plunged ho 'vily in the bog not twenty yards from me. Pot an instant
thb frigbLened animal soomed stuck in the r:ud,but gathering all its
atrae; th mtdo a supreme effort and aite ppeared in the grass just as
ervoral of us made a rush to catch it. And when the deer was gone and
there te no proupnot of venison ateaks for supper,oevr y one of those
fellows ,,huj c.-re so tirod of hominy went back to the boats,strapped on
their guns,loadeod themselves with ammunition,and vowed the noet thme a
de or o.ae by Lhey h/vuld be ready for hi a, but I haven't seen a door
since and I don't think -huy have either *
All day long as hunted for an opening to the east,and although we
walked miles and mile s,north and south, no channel could be nla fuand.
On all aides could be seen smokes,preaumably lit by Indiansbut they
nev .r came no ir use
In the afternoon a cold wind was blowing,and my wetestIff clothes
chafed me terribly,so that I could not walk without great pnin,and had to
got in one of the boats and ride. At sunaown there was no island near
usso we made our oamp in the saw grass where it grow unusually tall and
thick,and near a little willow or custard apple tree. There was no dry


wood for our fire,the water wae so ruddy we could hardly get enough to
make ooffeekand we had tu out down now grass to mnke mattrsnase thick
enough to raise ua above the water le al. There was a clenr bright
sunset,and a cold north-west wind which chilled me to thA marrow as I
stood changing my wet,muddy clothes a or noa~ dry oneai-thinkinng thero
was no pousibl- ch;,nce for any supper I cent to bed as soon as the blan-
kets were spread down,and although hI-ngry and exhnusted droppyi off to Atm
sleep an soon as I stre tohea mryeelf. About eight o'olook Mr. Rydney
called,and naid they hic manager to b611 nomo rice Find make a pot of
coffee ,'hih 1 injoyea very ruch,altlough the rice vas only half dunn.
My fatigue haa uome'hat abated ana I C1ot up to look at the fires which
were burning Ft a distance und which we or some passing Indians hlad lit
durinir the day. A atiff northAaestr E:as rattling the saw Grass kind fan-
ning the fires into magnifichnoc. Although severall mile from \u wa
could hear tho crackling gAna roaring quite plainly,und see the great
tongues of flame leap fiercely towards the sky,burn with red fury in some
tall bunch of grass,and as the wind ufcts died a ay :nd the prass Frew
thinner,fall buck LIhauntBL d. s if to gather strength fior t fresh outburst.
Some time ~ raat masses of flame carried on by the wind,woulo leap forward
of Lhe tdvunoing line,as if urged by some fierce passion,then that whioh
was left behind woula rush forward with a loud orrickle as though angry
at being distainced in ihe race Our camp was on an island and the wind
was not bringing; the fires to;,ard us,se the frosty air soon :uent me back
to bed and to such sleep as the cold would Ir t nu hnve.
Early next morning as I lay chill-dd and stiff,thinkin in ith a sort of
horror of the disagree able buiinesu that was bnfort, us and wondering if
we were to hive any bruakfast,.Mr'.lewman toueoe d ncm on th'? Rhouldar And
handed mea Oup of warm coffo e .it.h nugar And milk in it, which mada e
feel like another man.
Mathieux,our commissary.who ha:d taken upon himiolf ;h'i duties of cof
managed to gia breakfast,as he had suipprw .ith sonm ,1ii:c':e )f plbnk he had
found in the bo'0ts and a quarn ity of dry Pa-.v( grass;so about. siiten o'clocd
we wore t a In on our way. Mr.ieNman now acided it was beater to ,pull
through rhe ,a -r grass than to vandur ,round looking for a p; n.age wlhire
there wa none,0o we started utral rht into it. Tho pulling wa1 someI
thing tremendous and nothing but st;:rn necessity oiould hrvn kept thi man
at it;I tried it for avhile but became so faint 1 bad to give it up. At
four o'clock th3rn was no island near,but w' could go no farther and
stopped in the saw graas;wet and tired find no dry police to rsit in,hungry
and little chance to cook our small alloi-stnoe, of hominy,and every prospect
of thLt cJon giving out,with two siormen on our hnnds,'ae ve r vary diia
ounsolate. Commissary i4,thieux is the hero of the hour;after ding
h'-rd ay'tyv work he takes '.he co ok'sa pjlioe,:ind ith n lump of rosin from
the bo,.ts :,rna z supply of ac-w grawa prup:ires hor iny ln n coffee for the
Carruth',rs and Deane ar, cumpll:tely disabled,one wit-h a st-ralned aide
and the other with an Inflamjd leg ,na& hlAve to bh hauledri L the boatg
all the t.lne,and Gradeick,onu uf our b;:,ot rmen,h;.t btrainoc his ahnkrfl.:- nd
may ginV out at any timee
uIxt day we Lmadi' for an iul..nd dir .ctly in our course and boutt two
miles off,but the pulling was so huavy oe ijoiiiad to pack forward u p.irt
of our baggage and then go b;.:ok for tshe bOats. Mr.Syc ey A ind I divided
our bundles betwe en us,but the bogas Nore so deep that aftur goinr: a mile
we we re obliged to btop and reat;1ir.Jaeman then so nt moait of the, mon
bock lo bring up the boats,which they succeeded in doing about one o'clock
We then decided to put all the baggage hn the wooden boat,oonentrate, all
our men on that and try and break a way through the grass for the canrva
boats. Th island we camped on that night was a large rookery,and the
I dian1 had recently killed a great many birds,as ::e could see thoir re-
mains strewn all about. The quantity of hi f grown birds on this isl: -n
Suggested to Er. Newman the advisabllity of havIng ,orne of th .m for supper

and in his efforts to secure a young orane,(equal to ehioken) for his own
repast got vigorously pecked on his nose,which the ai'n had rend-r d pnr-
ticuilirly tender,and as the result possibly carried th-. dimple to this
During the night two alligators,attrarotd by the proviuions in one of
the boats,camue up to them,and ht;d not Mr.Ingraham binen sleocpinfl in on': of
the cicnvr-iH boats and frirlhtne-d thorm off,we might h;T}v buoin 1-ft next
morning 'uith nothing to eat.
During that night we were also attack d by an 'army of rod-buga,and
the n.xt morning we we re thickly pupperod with Lh ir "welps",so that our
bodies siemea on fire. roxt day,Wednesday,30th,wo struck G vr'ry fair
channel,running howev.or,rathur too muoCh to the iouth,whir:h we followed
till noon;we then hia to make haul aftdr haul orose the saw rrass until
we were r an( y to drop from exhaustion. At aunaown we worn stall a mile
fro our islnl and no ohainnel that we could ztsre l--tding up to it. Mr.
)ewnangMr.Sydney aind myself went forward to axplore,and in the g th-.ring
darkness .he huats became separated,took different chunnels,iand for a time
went backwards instead of for.ards. We shout-id,fired our gunssand lit
the saw grssa to mark their channel,and when we reached the island,(Whioh
turnuc out to be a bussard roost,) made a bright fire to guide them in.
Some time :tftert d;rk the boits cenie up ;nind w'e mrdt our camp in t.he saw
hrass as best we coiAld;next morning we found two iitumps iiuner our blankets
but o we ro so ea&ry that not ,-ven stunps,redbugs and mosquritae a could
keop us from sleeping.
Thursday rhile e 1 ior- triangulitinrt to Lhn inl;nnd Ah-head of us the
bo~eta waen on nnd soon gor out of hearing. Rio i ut nu f he distinctly
underer.ood that nonn of us we re frightened or in any a/ay unea sy,but we
are willing to admit that a feeling of loneliness otlme ovr.r us whrin our
companions could noerhr be seen,and that we we re a liTtle glad when
we had them in ul ght a*'P:in.
We struck a fine channel leading easterly,and as I could not 'talk
without great pain (from chafes) 1 rode in the can-naa butt all day,:anjoyed
it immensnely,rnd conclu'od I h-"d just behun to en.4oy boat~inr in the Ever-
glrides. During the any we oaufght "even ha;rdshll turtles,hich nadti Et
enjoyable ;datitiun to our scanty fare. Our channel now 'idenld cut rtnd
assumed the proportions of i; riv-er,and ne felt certiin th':t ,'.w,: had come
into the MiUami or uone othn'r stream flowing into the Atlnntio. Wa had
a good c~atr .haut night,rid enjoyed our sapper of hominy and terrapin im-
meniely. Thaos of our men who had he en mount despondent :and comp linin
regaind their ctren: th "nd spirits,and ,wre as brave :;nd ell as any -f
us. We thought that now -se would only harn to follow thi. channel we
were in until it took us to the cosAt,pand that w;e w)iuld hi:vr' no more pull-
ing throu, j the saw grass,
eaxt luy,Pritay,April lht, th)e oh;annel we had behfn following lost
itself in the su, grass,,hand ',w ii-t*-in had to pull through. it. We found,
ho.ev' J-,e gr-'at mapy little ahannels,hardly wide ann'ugh for our boats and
avry deep,yet preferable to the staw grass. Thn fish non became more
pl.iniful,ana when we would run them into a corner they wrouln j'r-:p wildly
out i.nd sauotime a fill into one of the boats. We kill -d T larfg: alliga-
tor und out off hiu tail,intending to e at it,but finding 1iomu young vater
turays a little further on,threw the 'g tor away.
We r-uaoh r .in island ribout. fivo o'clock,r,ni founa it to bo u.no"har
bu azard ruost,but much batter to camp on than .he last one. We had a
hard time getting up to It,and inde ad had to leave our boats ievtral hun-
dred yard from our camp. Ur.Sydaey rnd I missed our bedding and lugsag
for awhile,and v ere very much frightened at' the thought of losing them,
and that night made a very comfortable camp.
During the day we had been constantly on the lookout for aome indi-
cation of lhnd or an Indian oumnpand late in the evening much excitemant
was caused by aome one cryinr out that an Indian wtae in sight. We hur-
rie d forward,anxious to find name ono who could tell us how ft r w. were
from land and how we could get there,but found only a, bush in tht eOdge f
the saw grass. W* now began to realize for the first time that constant

looking at a dead level of Baw grass had destroyed d our idea of perpendie-
uler distance or height;as we wade d along,almost to our arm pits,in
mud and watelr,the bushe a that now begun to appear seemed as traes,end we
were constantly thinking that just in front of us war. a thick forest.
ze xt day .,e had open .eattr no r ly all the tine,and consequently
mado a good march,but as wo could se'ar no sign of land and the water gr ew
oonetn tly deeper,tho men droppo d .g in inLo the depth of despair,and
Some )if th.,m cor inn'~)d to get aick ,i ain. Lazte that evening we rain
struck what looked like it might be a rivler,and everybody cheered rind
wave d hiB hat and t ought that thins rmut b4; the Mi1ai,',nd that another
dayls m'rc!h .iould aurrjly put us ouL ofr tho a'tuor. At thii Vil ,o. we g:-i:a
up all efforts at continuing thu aurvoy,a- wea hNa compl-tely lont sight
of th' ijla nad ""-9 which rwe had laut .ri-ingulatld. Mr.N om. -n saidhow-
a vTr,that he could eiLily comu bd-ck -Ind oonnFot up the lint from Vifaml,
if we e-ver 0got. thet'e,which arrival sBme hna begun :;arioubly to doubt.
Crows.orune s ;inT acquatic birds were Luon in abundance,ana ,v; noticed
pbrtiaculrly~ the crow' wo seemed to profit, saom.s'hat by our advance;an w*
sent alonr th,' -.ter turkeys aould Iaave th..ir nesfts frori fetr of us but
their crowa would fly up to thirm,each stick a bill into an egg ;.nd fly off
with it. Therz seemed to be a feud bettreun the blackbirds and crows as
the blackbirds would enu.avor to L:fadd the water turkey's nstt after the
turkey had l)ft it. Off to the ea) y -o aio.: a denso smoke rising which
somu though might be built for our benofit,but '.hich I btlt-rTa now was
only Lh,' F 'ros fire d bu the Iniaina.
We ominpod Lhbat ni,-ht in .he ba-. grcb natr tomae bushes tu which we
tied ono und of our mosquito bars.
I wau cOdtod in slimyfilthy mud from my ears to my heelsend aftor
we had canped pushed out in one of thu canvas bouts to try i'nd find enoOuh
ole ar wtiter with which Lo w:ash sumu of it off;I ou anuinced taking off my
elothes,but found the little boat wias unistaday enough to test the ;owesr
of a rope-.walker. Fintlly,as I had both arms in the air and my coat over
my hoad,thu boat gave a. lurch to one aiae aind deposited met h;ad first into
the rnd and .aiter,much to the amusement of the lookers on.
Our men now showr plainly th'e a ffeutas o'f thL hhrdahips they hb t
undcrgoneithcir f!ioos are haggurd,th ir eyen bloodb itt and none hrve their
forzmdr onergy;Cli-rku and Wrindley in addition to Minr.iin gave out. entirely
t o-,i-ly ni h:ict to be curried in the bouts.
Sunday morning we decice d to throw away e vc-rything we could possi-
bly dieponue with so as to make room in the boat. for the sick men. We h
had hardly gone a mile when our channel again gave out *ind wa had to pull
through ~ho -rhabL. This day we had no dinnsr,aa we had determlned t1
carIp uarly *nd hLv.; dinner ind supper togKthrr about four o'clock in the
af-r.nuon. Th,; island we .wore making for sr msed almost unaiproachable
fro', the uaw grati&nu bwich ourrunuc d it .on all siaos,and we had to go two
Milo ar'.unU to mnke one forward. About noon Mr.Ingr ahein climbed into. a
little buuh and au clir-d that with the aiu of hi; telescope he coula soo
the roof of ,i houue on an island some uinLitncre nh:'aa of us;we hn' howove
grunn ftithle'-6i from many alsappointzuunLs a rnd laughed at the idea,
A cLozon or more fish Jumped into our buo,tas Ur ';e en't along, one trout
wi hin;,I judCoed nohLrlr- four puunts.
About four o'clock we m..de camp un a high,dry ivlind which hird a
grotLh of :.,nrg hackberries on it,w4ere it looked as if it had once been
Jn cultivtul'on. e 1i11o 'aw.v on this ialhnd user trRcks,and we thought we
must be -r.-ry nuar t9 i land. Next morning from the top of a tree could
be diatinctl, seen the thatched roof of some Indian hut on a neighboring
ial,.nd,and tu knew that this was what Mr. Ingraham had seon the day before
We utarted off in high OpirIts for the Indian oamw but found sew grass In
front of uni whichever weay we turned. uat as we were pra paring to forces
our way through the granjs,an Indian in his canoe came in eight. Instant-
y there 'vas the greatest ex oltement,and everybody wanted to rush for-
ward to meet the man,and When'they were restrained f om thatstood on the
boats,w&ved their hatas,heered and shouted *COam on,c d man, come onl* in
the moat frantic manner; ewen' the sick men weor reanimatsd. When the


Indian came L9 he said his name was "Billy Narney*,and vhen Mr.lewman
asked him how far to ilali,said 25 milea,and pointed in a different direo-
tion from that we had expected. When he said twenty-five miesa to Niam
. our faces fell several feet,for at the rrate we wr:e going, it would take
us five days to get thore,and we had unly enough rations,an half allowanod
for two daeys more.
Billy Warney talked such v.try poor English that Yr. lpdman dSolded to
go with him to hit camp,'w.hich he said w'as near by,and try and find out
who thsr he could -et any provisions or boats thnre,snn more adfinit
informnt'on about the -afy to iiamimi than the old Inci'An could give. Mr,
lea.oman got in the I dian'a canoe,Lnd we all started off,but the Indita
sae6med t', be taking us away from his carip rather than to itso it was dae
aided that Mr.eWa.mrn go on alone witi the Indian while we oooku d aiAas-
thing to c,(t,and waited for him. We found a little clump of buiahe a
where we made our fire and cooked up enough feod for our dinner und supper
and -About two o'clock Mr.la n man came back. He did not get out of the
oanoe,but told us there was no one at Hcrn(,ye:. camp but some women,rhat we
could ;it nothing to oat th,'re,and thart frrom the women ha h'ad l.iarned
that he could go to Miami and corn.' buck by thin time next rjay,if an Indian
to ok him. He said that he had determined to go to )Miamni b.iLh Billy
Harney .nd bring back provisions to us,aind that Mr.Ingr h.um -ndtL Nr.Moswa
wore to follow the canoe in thi canvas boait -rnd )ir C Wase was to coans with
him -;nd the Indian. Re took a bucket of cold hoaminyoookedand the Indi-
an in his canoe ind Mr. Ingraham in hts c-bnoam hbot shoved off and lEft
us. As h-by went Yr. eomrai chilled to us to follow a certain course nutk
day,mrkle firoa in the saw grass, And thu.t ho would be c:;rtain to iaeet us
at noon. We stayed th'it ni.Tht hire .oe qere,had an early super and an
early br.It.ktast next morning,and taking the course giv'rn us by Mr.Nse'an
before he left follo-ed it as nearly as ,he saw grasa would permit.
At noon we had mr;de good progress but rr. ,,e woman could nowhere be hs en.
The grumblers then took the floor unnd talked as tho,-mh .th ie was little
hope jf Fivr hitting home againi. It was dc-cided howevr,to push steadily
on in thi direction we we re told to follow,und when our provisions gave
out to turn due e ase and try and get to the conat. In the afternoon we
had to rke several pull through the saw gransu,',nd as we wrT looking
for 'i conv-nint cimp ing pil'ce waee s; -,umnathing on -t little iaslnna not far
off,th'at moved. r" topped rand our-:fully examined it,but could not make
it out;Bome we re sure it was an Indian watching us,another thought it Wr
some wild animal,b'ut none v~ore positive. Soma of us vrjnt forward to
exar'inu it,and close inspection reveal d the fact that it was the lpair of
breaches rorn by tr. Sydhey when he lnf't ,is,hanginr to a tree. The sight
of those pants wa: worth a gold min, to iis,for it r;usald us that we awer
on the right trrek ,that the party ahnrad of us hf:d hben delayed in getting
to U ami,and that we ought not to expect Mr. Nan-man bF:ck until to-mur row,
TLhat night ,n eociroed tr. again re duce our allowance of food,ara to have
no dinner '.he next day,but to savF what e had lift for viljpar, bext
morning when we left camp we ooulld not but fe el a liT.r.le glooay,as we
had nothinh- for dinner,hardly enough for anol.her m(e ul,and thetr was no
certainty of Mr. Nomaan*s return that day. We hard ~one about a mile wher
we safw oraoko ahead of us und soon 'rftOr two crinOe snnd in one was -r.
IeNaman. At the sight of the canoes we regained our former vigor,and in
a tew mon onts had mad.i the diatnnce that 'iepLraqt'd us and were shaking
hance and che ering our rescuers.
Ur, Iewiman had plenty of provisions with himand as soon as we coiul
final a cIonvenlnint place we btovp-id and cooked a .good meal of bocon.boanu.
rice,tomatoe a nnd ooffee,to which we did ample Justlve. We feasted
royally,while Mr. Bewman told us that he had not been able to ru ach
MTami until one o'clock the day ...ftor he a1, ft us,and so hi~d not been abli
to come back as soon aa he had excited. Ne said we could get to Miami
the next dayand that made us happy.


After certifying our hunger we puahe d on as rapidly as possible,and
oaUImpe that rvn-ning in an abandoned n'i,.in fold just above the rapids in
the N iAmni Riv-r,rind aix miles from N ani.
T at ni;hit we had another big m-al,and wnnt to bed feeling happy,but
not foF long;our hearty meals after such long abstinence madli nearly ovetr
on.i uaik,and nono of us slept that ni-ht.
One of thi Indians, (i-atla) who had oona out with lJr. Nemann,went
back to in'mi Eith isi wvile Billy Xrnmay jn- rnt bl'ck to his e.-mp in the
eavurl;dese. Nott 'mornin,',April 7th, I .ent down the river with N:tll in
hib cranoe,ind aent bl-ok boaRLs enough to bring the rest of t.h party do-n.
To ridn in R cano' the hnrir 8houlci be carr-fully part 4 in this middle
finGor rinca dividend so th'it ..n eqit:rl weight will be on e 'ch hand,rnA
ono holdud hb c;,r f'ul that no more tacks are in one shon th#.n the othor;
by ubsorvin; '.hesi;- precfiutioni I kupt my bmlirLnoe,ind ths, chnoe from turn-
in(g over, lnd r'-ached wy destination safely aft!r a vpry monotonous ride.
On our 5any 'vp shot tih Miami Liver REpids by grttinir aut ind carrying the
canoe 'lo-rn,- and at about elevn o'clock oaima in sight of Ft. TIhllfstwith
thu gov6Trnm:ant flag flying ov-,r it. For the flirnt time in niE life I felt
th:A- the flt;Ar annd Stripes ropresantdd aomothtncS to me;I falt as one Wbo
hAs begin in i foreign country rind oomes b.cek to t.he aimfor th ,ind bltars-
ingt of haE2.
I found tho6o of our party irho h.i jlr'c dod me looking fresh as
ruv ts, and coon.with the aid of soap,,at:r -.nd clrfinn clothas,a de myself
aplpour seiBi-c vilized.
In thi rtft-rnoon the wholi party var at Pt. Duillase,and ';ith Frs.
Tuttle's p.r-mission madc our last camp,con-Tniint to the landing from
wh~lih w.v croassed to the ~tori, ;and l;-rge coD anut grova.

A, Church.

"A UtbJi ThROUui ThikL LVbnujLbS"


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