Nailebn =


Material Information

Nailebn = New life
Parallel title:
New life
Added title page title:
Physical Description:
v. : ill., ports. ; 28 cm.
Icor, Association for Jewish Colonization in the Soviet Union
Place of Publication:
New York
monthly (irregular)
completely irregular


Subjects / Keywords:
Jews -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )


Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Title also in Yiddish and text largely in Yiddish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began in May 1928.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Volume numbers irregular: Jan.-Oct. 1946 called v. 20, no. 1-10, Nov.-Dec. 1946 called v. 19, no. 11-12; 1947 called also v. 20.
General Note:
Description based on: Vol. 11, no. 1 (Jan. 1937); title from cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 19068832
lccn - 50017200
lcc - DS101 .N25
ddc - 296
System ID:

Full Text

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Henry A. Wallace:
Full Collaboration Between
U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.

Wmn. Zukerman:
The Tenth Anniversary
of Biro-Bidjan

liya Ehrenburg:
The Triumph of Man

M. L. Olken:
From Month to Month
I *^ --S

1944 ,l1V

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A11"'lUNTW,1 11


June 12. 1944
My dear Mr. Olken:
The'President has asked me to thank
you and through you all the members of your
organization for the fine letter which you
sent him in recognition of the beginning of
the assault to liberate Europe.
The occasion is one of solemn import
to all American, and the President is strength-
ened and encouraged by the brave spirit which
your message breathes.
Very sincerely yours,

Secretary to the President

Morris L. Olken, Esq.,
National Organizer,
"Icor" Association,
One Union Square. West,
New York 3, N. Y.

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1944 ,41~4 i y 18

Jewish Anti- Fascist

Committee in Moscow
Greets Jews on Invasion

Icor Association
One Union Square
New York 3, N. Y.
On behalf of the Soviet Jews we
send our warm greetings to you and
through you to all the Jews in the
United States of America, Great Bri-
tain, Palestine, Canada, South America,
Argentina, Mexico, Australia, Brazil,
Chile, Cuba, Uruguay and in the oc-
cupied countries on occasion of Allied
landing in France. This momentous
event fills the hearts of all freedom
loving people with joy and admiration
at the determination of our great
American and British allies to combine
their blows on the west and south with
the heroic Red Army's blows from the
east, for the destruction of Hitlerite
Germany, mankind's worst enemy. Red
Army brilliant successes and heroic ef-
forts of all Soviet nations for victory,
the cause to which our Jewish people
also contributed, now supported by al-
lied operations in France, will bring
about triumph, freedom and justice
over Fascist fanaticism and bloody Hit-
lerite tyranny.
Presidium Jewish Anti-Fascist Com-
mittee in U.S.S.R.; S. Mikhoels,

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1944 ,s'1

1944 "151"



June 8, 1944 and death struggle against the worst




enemies of our country and mankind,
Hitlerite Germany and treacherous
Japan-we solemnly pledge to you,
Mr. President, our Commander-in-
Chief, our wholehearted, undivided
We have instructed our branches,
members and readers of our publica-
tion "NAILEBN" (NEW LIFE) to
stand by at your command, spare no
effort and do the utmost to help our
armed forces, to aid the various pa-

triotic civilian agencies to promote
unity amongst the people in our coun-
try, buy bonds, give blood and do
everything to speed the day of Victory.
Respectfully yours,
National Executive Committee,
"ICOR" Association
Professor Charles Kuntz,
Abraham Jenofsky,
National Secretary
Morris L. Olken,
National Organizer

JAm fnth to 09fonth


JUNE 6, 1944 has added one more historic day to the
already rich chronology of our American nation.
The D-Day, the beginning of the invasion has stirred the
hearts of our people as no event in our recent history. We
feel the approach of the great hour, when our boys and girls
and those of our brave allies will make good the decisions,
of the great leaders at Teheran to attack the Nazis from
"east to west, south to north." The landing of our forces
on the sandy beaches of France mean the "Beginning of
the End." The end of Hitlerism, the beginning of peace-
ful, friendly relations amongst the peoples of the earth.

Jews, worst victims of Fascism, along with other suffer-
ing nations, temporarily subdued by Nazi hordes-together
with all patriotic Americans, hail the invasion! We are
fully cognizant of the costly effort required to crush Hitlerite
Germany. The Jewish people have proven that in this
struggle no sacrifice were too great for them. The heroism
displayed in the uprising in the Warsaw ghetto, their par-
ticipation in the victorious armies of the Soviet Union, Great
Britain, amongst the, partisans in' Marshall Tito's army,
in the glorious armed forces of our own United States of
America-all prove their determination to help crush the
worst enemy of mankind-Fascism.
Is it not symbolic of the all-out participation of our Jew-
ish-American youth in this war for the survival of our
country the fact that the twenty-two year old Jewish
officer of Brownsville, N. Y., Lt. Abraham Condiotti, who
comes from a sephardic Jewish family, was the commander
of the first wave of small boats in the invasion landing be-
tween Le Havre and Cherbourg, and that, one of the first
Americans to go ashore in France was another Jewish boy,
Bob Halpern, formerly of the Brooklyn Dodgers profes-
sional football team?
For those of us who are not across-there's the impor-
tant Home Front. The Icor has pledged to President

Franklin D. Roosevelt, our Commander-in-Chief: "To
spare no effort and do the utmost to help our armed forces,
aid the various patriotic civilian agencies to promote unity
amongst the people in our country, buy bonds, give blood,
and do everything to speed the day of Victory."
Let us all make good that pledge!

20 Years "ICOR" Membership and Sub-

scription Drive May 25-June 25, 1944

Chicago Icor Comm............. 36
M M miller .......................... 1
J. & T. Reitchuk ............ 21
N. Kaufman ........................ 6
Jacob Holmstock .............. 1
West New York Icor Comm. 27
Boston Icor Comm............... 8
Rose Malin ................ .... 5
R. Chaimson ................... 5
M Yellin .......................... 2
Sylvia Wall ..................... 2
F. Gold ............................... 1
Baltimore Icor Comm......... 13
David Peisach ...................... 1
East Side Branch Icor........... 4
Frieda Frumkess ................. 4
J. Solnit ............................. 3
B. Yanofsky ...................... 2
R. Brownstein ..................... 2
Broine Stern .................... 2
M Kaelis ........................... 2
Phila. Icor Comm................ 2
Cleveland Icor Comm.......... 6
Toledo Icor Comm.............. 5
Minneapolis Icor Comm....... 5
Sam Lefcowitz .................... 3
Abe Roast ......................... 2

Hazel Feinberg ................... 1
Eve Keller .......................... 1
Luba Shapiro ................. 1
H. Schneider ......................... 1
Mr. Gordon ..................... 1

Sol Lieberman ................ 2
Mr. Roelwin .................. 1
Mr. Feldman ........................ 1
Madison Icor Comm............ 1
M Fidler ........................... 2
H. Novikoff .................. 2
Molly Tenenholtz ............... 1

Mrs. Bella Klein................. 3
V. Lichter .......................... 4
Philip Feider .................... 4
Brighton Icor Comm.......... 2
J. Weinstein ................... 2
Bella Zeid ........................... 1
Bertha Resnick ........ ....... 1
PAULA Steinberg ............. 1
Fanny Davidoff ............... 5
Zippa Katz ..................... 2
Celia Rubin ................... 1
J. Eisenberg ................. 1
Ida Grossman .......... ....... 4
D. Yanishefsky .................. 3
J. Olshansky ............ ....... 1
Max Block ......................... 1
Jean Breiker ....................... 5
H. Aronoff ........................ 1
K. Auerbach ....................... 1
Sh. Levine ............................ 1
H. WOLF ........................... 1

Total for month....................... 231
Previously ............................... 1,767
Total as of June 25, 1944........ 1,998

Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the United States
of America, Washington, D. C.
Dear Mr. President:
The National Executive Committee
of the Icor Association has instructed
me to convey to you the following:
At this most serious time in the life
of our Nation, when the very flower
of the manhood and womanhood of
our beloved fatherland, the United
States of America, is engaged in a life

July, 1944

July, 1944 NAILEBN

Autonomous Jewish District has been formed; the seed has
been planted, and the prospects of a rich harvest are in sight.
Biro-Bidjan in the War
FIRST and foremost, there is the part played by Biro-
Bidjan in the present war. It is an honorable part which
alone, by itself, has fully justified the experiment. According
to an official report given at the last Conference of the Jewish
anti-Fascist Committee, little Biro-Bidjan contributed 26
Million rubles to the Soviet defense fund, fifteen million

rubles for Soviet aeroplanes, twelve million rubles for
armored cars, sixty thousand kilograms of clothing for the
Red Army, sixty-five thousand individual gifts to Soviet
soldiers, three and a half thousand pairs of shoes, a million
rubles for rehabilitation of liberated territories, 460,000
rubles for Soviet orphans. Proportionately, this is a bigger
percentage of contributions to the war effort than made by
any other nationality in Soviet Russia. But more important
still, Biro-Bidjan has produced some of the most outstanding
Jewish heroes of the war.

The Triumph of Man


N days of calm the world seems dull to some people. The
black and white of baseness and nobility are fogged by
routine. But in these terrible times everything is tested-on
the battlefield, on the rack, on the edge of the grave.
I want to tell the story of one man. Its theme, like that
of many other true tales of today, is the triumph of man
over the power of evil.
It is the story of Sutzkever, a Jewish poet who is also a
guerrilla member of a Lithuanian detachment. Sutzkever
arrived in Moscow with a parcel containing some letters
written by Maxim Gorky and Romain Rolland, a diary of
a servant of Peter I,'some drawings by Repin, a painting by
Levitan, a letter written by Leo Tolstoy and many other
precious Russian relics.
He had saved them from destruction by the Nazis.
I first heard of Sutzkever's poems in the days long ago.
A famous Austrian novelist introduced me to them.
In June, 1942 a German train carrying armaments
leaped into the air near Novaya Vileika. Who planted the
mines? The dwellers in the ghetto at Vilnius. They were
doomed. But they fought. That German train was on its
way eastward. The enemy was preparing his second offensive
against us. The train was blown up by guerrillas from the
ghetto of Vilnius.
There were 80,000 Vilnius. The Germans didn't
want to kill them all at once. They wanted to delight in the
prolonged agony of their victims. They set up two death
camps. They protracted the executions. They took two
years for the killings..
Before the war there lived in Berlin a film actor called
Kittel. He was too bad an actor even for Ufa films. So
he got another job. He became a hangman.
For this job he undoubtedly had a flair. He killed tens
of thousands of people in Riga. Then he came to Vilnius,
charged with the task of "liquidating" the ghetto.
Each morning a fresh lot was rounded up. They knew
that if the command was "Right turn!" they would be
driven to hard labor. If it was "Left turn!" it meant Ponyri
station, and death. That continued for 700 days.
What went on in this world of death, where women
gave birth knowing that they were giving birth to doomed

infants, where doctors treated their patients knowing that
execution awaited the sick, the convalescent, and the physi-
cians themselves?
In January, 1942 a guerrilla detachment was formed in
the ghetto. It was led by Vittenberg, a 40-year-old worker.
The, Germans came to arrest him. He hid underground.
Kittel announced that if he did not surrender alive, all the
population of the ghetto would be wiped out.
Vittenberg knew that whether he surrendered or not,
his fellow-citizens were doomed. But he was anxious to
give his brother guerrillas time to get away to the forest.
He took leave of his friends. He said: "It is bitter that I can't
shoot myself." And he went to Kittel. Sutzkever walked
with him to the gates of the ghetto. Now, when he men-
tions Vittenberg, he turns his face aside.
The ghetto was Soviet land. The doomed people listened
secretly to forbidden broadcasts, printed the Soviet Informa-
tion Bureau bulletins, celebrated May 1, November 7 and
February 23. A German arsenal was blown up in Burbishek.
Jews assaulted their guards with their bare hands on the
way to the execution site.
Then one fine day 300 Jews got hold of arms. The Ger-
mans dynamited all the houses where they were suspected
of hiding. But the 300 'braves brokeoout of the ghetto and
joined the Lithuanian guerrillas. Sutzkever was one of them.
They made their way along the sewage pipes. One of them
went insane on that journey.
A Lithuanian peasant woman hid Sutzkever. In the street
of the village where she lived stood a German gallows, and
on that gallows dangled the body of a Lithuanian, and on
that body was a tag bearing the inscription: "He hid Jews."
The Jew Sutzkever said to this Lithuanian woman: "Do
you know what is written there?"
"Yes, I know," she replied. Soviet friendship is no mere
The poet Sutzkever and his fellow-guerrillas fought for
the freedom of Soviet Lithuania. Among them were Lithua-
nians and Russians, Poles and Jews.
The insurgent from Vilnius fought with tommy gun in
hand, poetry in his mind, and Gorky's letter over his heart.
I have seen that letter. The familiar handwriting is faded.
It tells of the Russia of the future, about the strength of man.

July, 1944


The Tenth Anniversary of Biro-Bidjan


T HE month of May marked the tenth anniversary of the
formation of the Autonomous Jewish Province of Biro-
Bidjan in Soviet Russia. The event was observed as an im-
portant historic landmark of Jewish life in Soviet Russia,
but it passed almost unnoticed in the United States. Old
prejudices die hard and old animosities linger on long after
the sources which gave birth to them have disappeared.
And so it happened that a date which is not only of great
interest to students of Jewish history, but is also of vital
importance to masses of Jews of today and still more, of
tomorrow, has been almost deliberately ignored. But facts
like Biro-Bidjan cannot be suppressed. Vital growths that
they are, they spring up again and again and force themselves
upon the attention of the people until they gain their rightful
place in life.
Actually, the Jewish settlement of Biro-Bidjan is not ten
years old now, but more than fifteen years. As far back as
1928, the President of the Soviet Republic Michael Kalinin
who had always taken a paternal interest in Jewish coloniza-
tion, declared that the Soviet Government had decided to
establish a Jewish Autonomous District in Biro-Bidjan, a
rich and fruitful stretch of land on the Amur River in the
Far-East of Soviet Russia. Jewish colonization of that district
began the same year and within a period of five years, a
Jewish settlement of approximately twenty-five thousand
people, mostly engaged in agriculture, was in existence in
Biro-Bidjan. In May 1934, President Kalinin, in accordance
with the promise given to the Jews six years earlier, pro-
claimed the place officially as the Jewish Autonomous Dis-
trict, whose tenth anniversary is now being observed in Soviet
Russia and many other countries.
Why An Autonomous Jewish District?
HE idea of an Autonomous Jewish District is not a
new one in Soviet Russia. It is in the spirit and in
the political line with the Soviet solution of the problem
of Nationalities. According to that program each nationality
is entitled to its own cultural autonomy, such as language,
literature, art, music, and other essentials of a national cul-
ture. In the course of time this autonomy has grown in
,conception to embrace also economic and even political and
military affairs as was recently proclaimed in Molotov's
famous declaration. The Soviet Union is, in short, based on
the principle of a Federation of Nationalities (incidentally,
exactly the reverse principle of the United States which is
based on the theory of a Federation of States, not of separate
nationalities and culture). The Soviet Union has more than
a hundred different nationalities and all have cultural auto-
nomy of their own and sixteen of them have the status of
distinct Republics with Armies, Diplomatic corps and Foreign
affairs of their own.
The Jews in Soviet Russia are placed in a different posi-
tion than most other nationalities. Whereas the latter usually
have their own territories and reside in compact masses on
their own soil, the Jews are scattered all over the Soviet

Union. They occupy important positions in all branches of
Soviet life, cultural, political, industrial and artistic, but they
are not concentrated in one particular place. There are Jews
in every part of the Soviet Union, but no majority in one
particular district. This, according to the Soviet constitution,
would deprive them of the privilege of participating in the
Federal Government of the country (the Soviet Council),
which consists of representatives of various nationalities living
on their territories. It was in order to rectify this shortcoming
of Jewish life and in order to make possible for the Jews to
be represented as a national entity in the Federal govern-
ment of the Soviet Union, that the idea of creating a Jewish
Autonomous district was first born. There were, of course,
other reasons for the plan, for instance-the return of Jews
to agriculture and other productive occupations. But funda-
mentally, the idea behind Biro-Bidjan was to equalize the
Jews of Soviet Russia not only politically and economically,
but also on a nationalistic basis. With this in view, Biro-
Bidjan, a country of the size of Belgium and Holland taken
together, on the Eastern outskirts of Russia, was chosen for
the purpose.
The Difficulties of Biro-Bidjan

B IRO-BIDJAN had met with a great many internal and
external difficulties from the very beginning. The chief
difficulty was that the Jews are by the nature of their history
a people of the diaspora. Given equal rights and opportunities,
they prefer to live among other people and they usually bring
out the best that is in them by mixing with others, rather
than by separating from others. Since in the Soviet Union,
the Jews have enjoyed complete liberty and equality in every
walk of life, few were induced to go out into the wilds of
Biro-Bidjan. The very absence of anti-Semitism worked
against the speedy realization of the Biro-Bidjan project.
The project was also opposed by Zionists and nationalistic
Jews abroad. For some unknown reason, Biro-Bidjan looked
to many Zionists as a competition to Palestine and this,
together with the general antagonism to Soviet Russia which
had prevailed in the world before 1941, hindered consider-
ably the progress of the scheme. Yet, a Jewish settlement
DID spring up in Biro-Bidjan, a unique and most interesting
settlement which can be compared only with the other great
Jewish experiment of the same type, in Palestine. Within a
period of ten years approximately fifty thousand Jews settled
in Biro-Bidjan mostly on the land. The District is run en-
tirely by Jews. The official language of the administration is
Yiddish, the schools and all cultural and administrative insti-
tutions are all conducted in the same language. Two repre-
sentatives of the Biro-Bidjan, Isroel Goldmacher and Leah
Lishnansky, sit on the Federal Soviet Council as delegates
for the Jews. President Kalinin's dream of the Jews partici-
pating as a nationality in the Council of the Soviet Union,
has been, materialized at least in blueprint form. The war
and the preparation for it have naturally, also had a retarding
effect op the growth of the settlement. But a nucleus of an


July, 1944

"I1 IL B n" (new Life)

Vol. XVIII, No. 7 (164) New York. N. Y., July, 1944 .age 209 Single Copy 10 cents
NAILEBN, I Union Square, New York 3, N. Y., Telephone ALgonquin 4-2045, published monthly by the ICOR Association for information on the
economic, cultural, and social life of the Jews the world over. Yearly subscription, $1.00.
Re-entered as second-class matter August 22, 1938, at the Post office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879.
Business Manager-A. JENOFSKY

Full Collaboration between USA and U S S R


On June 1 the Vice President of the United States, Henry
Wallace, who stopped over in Irkutsk on his journey, ad-
dressed a meeting of intellectuals and representatives of
public bodies of the city held in the Regional Theater. In
his speech, which he delivered in Russian, Wallace stated:
It was with deep emotion that I set foot on your soil last
week. I have visited Uelkal, Seimcham, Magadan, Komso-
molsk and Yakutsk. I have made the acquaintance of your
agricultural experts. I have also seen the determination of
the Soviet people to give maximum output in mines, metal-
lurgical plants, aircraft factories and shipyards. I have worked
in your vegetable gardens and met your vegetable gardeners.
I have seen cows of high breeds. I have seen hogs and
I have seen your airdrome structures and made the ac-
quaintance of your fliers and military men, among whom I
wish especially to note General Semenov and Hero of the
Soviet Union, Colonel Mazruk. Among your prominent
administrators, I should like to mention the Director of the
Dalstroy trust, Nikishov, as well as the directors of factories
and plants in the rapidly growing town of youth-Komso-
There exist no other two countries more alike than the
Soviet Union and the United States of America. The vast
expanses of your country, her virgin forests, wide rivers and
large lakes, all kinds of climate-from tropical to polar-
her inexhaustible natural wealth, remind me of my home-
The history of Siberia and her heroic population reminds
me of the history of the Far West of the United States.
The pioneers of our countries, in titanic struggle with nature,
with the hard conditions of life, fearlessly forged ahead,
built new towns and villages, a new industry, a new life,
for the good of their homeland and of all humanity. In this
struggle, in this constructive work, characters were steeled,
the finest human features were developed, innate social in-
stincts were manifested and a sense of common solidarity
asserted itself.
It is not accidental that in the present war, Siberia has
played and continues to play such an enormous part. Her
soldiers are in the front ranks on all fronts and do important

work in the rear. Her technical forces within the shortest
period created a new, complete arsenal needed by the great
Red Army in fighting the hateful, strong enemy, and thus
considerably contributed to its victories. A free people born
on free expanses cannot tolerate any injustice and violence,
and cannot even temporarily live in slavery.
Now that the early dawn of the future postwar peace
slowly rises on the horizon it becomes quite clear that only
the full collaboration of our two great countries and their
Allies may insure for the world peaceful conditions and
correct development. In the cause of major postwar recon-
struction it will be vitally necessary that in the interests of
the whole world the important role of the northwestern part
of the United States of America, Canada, Alaska and Soviet
Siberia be recognized.
These tremendous, sparsely populated territories have been
conquered in our days by aviation. They now need develop-
ment both in their agriculture and industry. The duty of the
United States and Canada is to make resolute scientific
efforts for the development of their northern districts, as this
was demonstrated by the Soviet Union in the case of the
development of Siberia and the Far East. I am certain that
by means of an exchange of information, seeds and the best
breeds of cattle with the Soviet Union, Canada and the
United States may considerably raise the productivity of all
these districts.
The tremendous masses of people who lived through all
the horrors of common and personal disasters believe that
their sufferings and sacrifices were not in vain, and that the
horrible days of war will be followed by bright days of peace
and justice, of plenty, and peace for every man. My present
tour of districts of the Soviet Far East and Siberia, my visits
to factories and plants in those districts, to experimental
agricultural stations and fields, my meetings and talks with
directors of industrial enterprises and agricultural institutions,
with workers and the best Stakhanovites of the war industry
and agriculture, their enormous interest in everything going
on in my country-the United States of America, inspire me
with firm confidence that the friendship between our great
countries, cemented by the blood of the finest sons of the
peoples of two countries on the fronts of the life and death
struggle against Hitlerite Germany-the enemy of humanity
-will grow and gain strength also after the war.