Supplement to Commerce reports


Material Information

Supplement to Commerce reports daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Uniform Title:
Commerce reports
Volume title page for -<1920>:
Supplements to Commerce reports : review of industrial and trade conditions in foreign countries in ... by American consular officers
Portion of title:
Daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce
Physical Description:
6 v. : ; 24-26 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Dept. of Commerce
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Foreign economic relations -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with issue for Jan. 8, 1915?; ceased with issue for Dec. 31, 1920?
Numbering Peculiarities:
Each issue covers an individual country and bears a number corresponding to that country. Reports from the various consular districts in a country are distiguished by the addition of a letter (66a, 66b, 66c, etc.), in the order in which they are issued.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Issue no.52f, 1919, contains misprint, November 41.
General Note:
Title from caption.
General Note:
"Annual series."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822593
oclc - 16390134
sobekcm - AA00005307_00002
lcc - HC1 .R1981
System ID:

Related Items

Preceded by:
Daily consular and trade reports (Washington, D.C. : 1910)
Succeeded by:
Trade and economic review for ..

Full Text

-7:...-":. N Sa. March 12, 1918

*Z Y .: q. .

Ur8hie 1 fR Pu IIH. Cramr Jmuuasy 29.
t dhdii.fR which constitutes the Meditetranean region be-
lb* Itver tfid! the Spanibi frontier, includes the Gard,
A ld::' and Pyrenees-One'ittles Departments. The region
til) esqua re miles,- wit an estimated population, prior
I-fl2-OO0 imhabitants. Viniculture and the: manipula-
l "-.tte with tlii allied industries, are- the chief occu-
iiB. Ac district. Among such iihdustries< are the manufacture
nets and fertilizers for the vineyards, the extraction
irom wine lees, and the..manufacture of wine casks.
'Mi be sai d 6t .local pr periiy is dependent in a very
i :wIt. ret n.e obmtaiu'' from this crop.:
r9 .,the district 0oyed exceptional prosperity.
e tetd several reasonss. The prices obtained for
iiis ateda .latively-..short crop. The manufac-
pre t.6 maiide -important extensions to their
ui i 'nnot dnily the demand for their customary
-4er intieasing requirements of the National Gov-

....'nr t.he. scene -of remairkablI activity, which, as
..dn.o hi .o.diti; assumed. unprecedented
4tMge imports of ereals both for domestic con-
ast t."Sw.itz"dytd.he inreasing.needs of the
theb.. M adfor 'iw material for the
pthe impeats of wine Weret the principal
Sfto th- foregoing result. Owing to- the
tilites, aty ships bound for Ote were
tares other ports. ..

n t the quantitie being: give

-i: ........ ,. ........ ......
.... .. ...... ...
..... d(A IH H ,d ..... .. ..C":. !;" : : ::

.. ,.

.i.ii" .:: ... : :: .. ii:: :.. .. ..
.i, ,,, :ii .. .i .. : ... :
EE:::EE::: :..EE:: ::" E 4FE...: :.. ..E:E:

i .;l,;;;;;;:iiili



m, m7... ....

Coal. ....................
Coal tar...................
Orapes, presswd...........
Lemons and oranges......
Iron .......................
Zinc, tin, and nicale......

9I 15

015, 5O


1, 080



TOw. -



I 3

...... .. .. .......

W d: ... s.............
: t ... .........
V b lea Ptoe .. ,u.

The above statistics cover the general imports with the; ..
of merchandise imported through this port in transit to 81
Owing to its proximity to Spain and Algeria, Cette is
wine port. Under normal conditionalthesvolume of impi
inverse ratio to the size of the local wine crop. However, a
important increase in the imports is attributed not only toi':
able crop conditions, but also to a larger consumption sand4 I
ceipts at Cette 'of large quantities of Algerian wines which we
merly shipped direct to Rouen. For these reasons wines A g
the principal item in the list of Cette imports. The ii
plying larger quantities of fertilizer and fungicide to thi
growers is reflected in the considerable increase in the i:w
nitrates, phosphates, and sulphur. ,
The Transit Trade. ,
Cette ranks second among French ports with reference toI:
national transit trade. The importance of the city, in its .
role of port of entry for merchandise in-ransit to Swi
shown by the following statistics: In 1914 49,653 metric
transshipped; in 1915,201,859 tons; and in 1916,598,879 toaw
constitute the most important item in- bis--trade. Theoe
wheat alone amounted to 436,272 tons. Although there aft
tics available, it is certain that by far the greater portion vi:
chandise is imported from the United States. As publid'o
Switzerland seems to favor the maintenaide of these relay
the war, particularly with regard to the importation of
prospects of the future growth of this trade appear p
Imports from the United States. .
The following comparative statement shows the chief 1
imported directly into Cette from the United States during
1916, the quantities being given in metric tons of 2,290.6 p

ArUtile. I101 116 u Artdle

Breasdata :
Cotagm d...............
Remed and esmaen..
asvy, reldus .......

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, aIs

A othr brtlle...........
w l...............


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T- -

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lift; = ,

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S ," -" .
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&W441 ,15; no6 staves were iiported from the United States.
titif -were received from Italy but quite insufficient to
IMtlemeits. The prevailing high ocean-freight rates were
ltfltbibitTi After the war there ill. be an excellent
ericain 'taves. at this port.
WpK2shpments. to United'staes.
rali exports from this port amounted to 96,940 tons, as
with 108,294 tons in 1915... Almost one-half of this mer-
& consisted of coal shipped to Algeria or supplied to vessels
iering purposes.
allowing table gives the quantity. and valueof the principal
exported to the. United States in 1915, 1916, and 1917, as
k at the American consular agency at Cette:

Yl :"- f.: : "tr
*, :! ... .. ....
fr-i; E..;-] I. .' ::. ':
Hi l. --. : .; ': .. ...
"!:h :e ": p "

--.:. ....: ................pounds..
&,.. .................. .pounds..
.. ............. ,
i. ...... os.. ..ound.. ..
., ....-.. quarts..

q. :... ................. ............
,' 1. ... ..

1915 :'

9,1 0,138

V, 574
3 543,


Quantity. : Value.

S1,936 7,493 61,219
1,049,96 7,690,370 1,250,032
7,109 15,413 3611
1,469 ............ 8, 870
1,748 44,625 12,581
34 711 409,231 4,644
S 31,077 { 567 63, 775
2,197 4,088 4,193
S30,256 ............ 11,053
11 150, 199 ............ 1,360,878

r i*S ilthe declared exports from Cette to the United States
Mita trsmitted by' the consul at a later date, give the quantity
miml of She; tiuincijl items asf tolkws: Tartar argols, 4,245,993
&ikand $893,384; tartrate of lime, 255,684 pounds and $46,698;
buittii, 28,274 pounds and i09114; cigarette paper, $6,432;
_1., 14doziAn quarts and $5st061; and wine lees, 348,739
^U 41:7,62 toabk'alue, $1;061,995.]

-d`:4the" wine industry in this region is shown by
of the production. of the entire country and
A tW CtdItir&k Wotal output, 538,9831,409 gallons in 1016
f .., R 834,700 "4 l lft.; ow.0 ,utput of Cette district, 2512,464"
h as il 11T d5 a 50024,183 gallons in 1916.
mtObsw aium Dprar t vimt ulture is practically th.ei "W
S alch of agriflture of sty importance. The vineyards haa an:
ar. o4 S9498: acres, orrabout 380per cent of the total area of the

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A,,.i. .iiiiiiii,,,. ri


t-47 MY.- I- I~







In this district the crop of 1914, which wpa nearly doubk
1915, was considerably below the normal pro4uctio. NW
the.prices obtained for the crop of 1916. wm higher than
of the preceding year. In fact, it is interesting to no. the a
trend of prices s the beginning of the war. Owi. .
crop in 1914, the prices of wine in e early part of. 31
as 8 or 9 cents per gallon. At the beginning of
varied between 40 and 45 cents per gallon, with an av
calendar year of nearly .50 cents per gallon. It is e
average yield on the crop of 1916 will be from 50 to 55c i
gallon. ......
The rising prices are due not only to short crops and hei
increase in the cost of living, but also in a large measure to a
creased demand for wine. The National Government hsai
large quantities of wine to be issued to the Army in
ordinary rations. It is believed that the general use of
the Army during the war will tend to create a broader didHH for
the product in the future. In any case, present prospesWkdAsflb
a continuation of very high prices. ;:
The silkworm industry is of considerable importance i*t-Mi (-:
trict, particularly in the Department of the Gard. Them re- w-l, .
ever, no available statistics concerning the production in 191 .... .
The Mining Industry-W-isheries. "
With the exception of coal, iron, and bauxite, the output of ti'
mines of this district is of little importance. The production od
these minerals in 1916 was considerably larger than in the preceding
year, the production of coal being 2,022,278 metric tons in 1915m s
2,125,478 tons in 1916; iron ore, 265,533 tons in 1915 and 88851*ts
in 1916; and bauxite, 4,195 tons in 1915 and 23,412 tons in .h i -
The coal mines, which are the most important in south
are situated in the Department of the Gard. The iron a
mines are located in the Department of the Pyrenees-O
the Department of the Herault, respectively. The inh'rea'
production of coal and iron ore is attributed to the Germaee
tion of the important mines in northern and eastern Fu it
difficulty of importing, and the increased demand. The
development of the hydroelectric industry in the Alps ex r
increase in the production of bauxite. Prior to the wIE tS t
quantity of bauxite was exported to the United States toes: NO
port. :
In spite of unfavorable conditions the fishing -industy dmJ
greater prosperity in 1916 than in 1915. Not only wals eo t
larger, but prices were also considerably higher. The buing
statement shows the catch at this port during 1914, 1915, aUd1916;

ea ............................. ....................... ..
Mu .a......................................................



a I a



as ,59 witf a net regxsterecd tonnage ox ,a35,fl14; in liTe,
~ttnKhagit e of 259,857;. in 1916, 3,711 vessels, with
il ae ..74O237. .n 1916 the average net registered tonnage of
frequenting the port "was considerably less than in 1915.
l 4uttrributd t the fact that large numbers of small Spanish
teaels formerly engage in domestic. commerce were at-
to the international trade by the high freight rates. During
l.2' passengers word embarked or landed at this port, as
red with 38,23 in 1915. NeWarly all these passengers were
W laborers attracted to this port by the prevailing high wages.
should be notdd that for thte fist time in more than 20 years the
t an fag was seen in this port. During the year 12 American
with an aggregate net registered tonnage of 33,698, entered
,ist All these ships were lhidened with cereals, with the excep-
D-:onee with crude sulphut and another with petroleum.
TheA clearances for American ports'during 1916 exceeded any previ-
iytar. In 1916, 81 vessels, with 'ah aggregate net registered ton-
Zge 6rf 184,691, cleared from this port for the United States, a gain
-f:.'11 vessels and 102,010 tons over the preceding year. Most of
t "IteMsels were bound for Hampton Roads, Newport News, and
Ns*rti-r&k ft the order indicated. The number and net registered
e:,nage'under the various flags Were as follows: British, 37 vessels
89d 777 tons; Norwegian, 12 vessels ahd 28,478 tons; American,
Stels'and 27,594 tons; Spanish, 10 vessels and 18,751 tons; Greek,
.els: and 8,10.9 tos; French? 1 vessel and 2,280 tons; all other
Ialities, 7 vessels and 9,709 tons. Owing to the lack of outward
t, the great majority of these vessels sailed in ballast.
3 1i916, 70 vessels arrived from the United States with cargoes con-
chiefly of cereals, petroleum, and sulphur. The aggregate net
i tonnage of these vessels was 142,916, as compared with
Ae -115. .
-lb.* the extraordinary increase in the volume of trade, the
Fpot .i- fiitdlies and equipment were quite inadequate. At a
date 40 steamers and a large number of sailing vessels were
Sfo berth.' at the quays.' 'The delay thus incurred was a
.E cmnsidernble loss. For this reason the National Govern-
dstie -dectee of May 2, 1916, provided for an important exten-
>tiW In: order to comprehend the importance of this
it should be borne in mind that the port of Cette, which is a
MttaflSl' is situated on a harrow strip of land between the
,nSea and the Thau Lake. The. execution of the project
dpemtinmg of "the existing canals and the construction
-faie al ava able for ocean-going vessels along the shore of
U '._y's^ a means the important industrial establishments in
tn wlbe placed in direct communication with the sea. It
iy competent authorities that the impetus thus given to the



erection of factories along the shores of the Thau Lake will result in
doubling the actual traffic of the port It is expected that other im-
portant projects, which are now under discussion, will be adopted in
the near future.
Inland Transportation.
Cette has excellent water communications with the intaei. :. .
means of the Midi Canal goods may be shipped to Bordeaux; on ,
other hand, by the Cette-Rhone Canal goods may be shipped to
Lyons and northern France. As the result of improvements com-
pleted in 1916, the Rhone-Cette Canal is available for, the large
Rhone steamers as far as Aigues-Mortes. The necessary improve-
ments between Aigues-Mortes and Cette can not be undertaken until
after the war. The two important navigation companies which
maintain a service on this canal have obtained the release O a large
number of their employees from military service. These are the
reasons which account for the important increase of traffic qn .this
canal. .. .,
The situation as regards the Midi Canal. s very unsatifaq4tiqf
No organized company operates on this canal, the service being-mana-
tained by the individual proprietors, who, in many cases ae at
present in the army. Furthermore, many of the horses, utilized for
traction purposes, have been requisitioned by the Government. In
order to remedy these conditions, the Chambers of Commerce of'Nar-
bonne, Carcassonne. and Beziers plan to form a company in view of
renting all the unutilized barges. By thus organizing the transpor-
tation, it is expected that more satisfactory results will be obtained.
The Paris, Lyons, and Mediterranean and the Midi Railways con-
nect Cette with the interior. Statistics concerning the operation of
these lines during 1916 are not available. Owing to the shortage of
freight cars, the railways were unable to handle satisfactorily the in-
creased traffic. These conditions were the source of considerable loss
both to importers and consignees.
Local Industries.
Most of the import ant factories of Cette are engaged in the manu-
facture of chemical fertilizer or fungicides for the vineyards. In
addition in this vicinity there exist two important sulphur rfineries,
one of which is an American concern. These establishments pro-
duced about 28,500 tons of refined sulphur during the business year,
which ended on July 31, 1916.
Owing to the shortage of staves, due to the difficulty of importing
large quantities under the present abnormal conditions, the output
of wine casks has been very small. On the other hand, firms en-
gaged in the rental of wine casks and tank cars enjoyed a very suc-
cessful year.
Owing to favorable climatic conditions and the existence of numer-
ous salt lakes and marshes, the production of salt is an important
industry in this district. In normal times large quantities are ex-
ported to Newfoundland and Canada for the preparation of fish.
Although this exportation has practically ceased, the industry en-
joyed a particularly prosperous year.. The National Government
purchased large quantities of salt for the manufacture of war mate-

*.... .... ...

-short wnme ct oJ ii proi ton ortartar in il1o was
...... equal ..tR pr'ec year- 'Thin is attributed to the
t, o tt ion wi sextracted from the
aIbta ee of the: French manufacturers of cream of tartar,
SGoernment, fearing a shortage f raw material as a
.t-of thoe short crop of 1915, limited the exports for 1916 to
1 of crude tartar. This quantity was exported in the first
jaths of the year. Inasmuch as the French market was unable
l. tbe surplus f crude.tartar, the Government authorized the
orIdtion of 2,500 Tons in Notember and December, 1916.
T Y'4 916' the market was very irregular. Prices rose from 2.5
.: $(L48) per degree in January to 3.5 francs ($0.67) in May.
Sno furtr [uantities of crude tartar could be exported,
WMI dISiil dropped'to 2 frainds ($0.39) per degree Toward the end
elt year prices rose again to 2.6 francs ($0.50), when authoriza-
#;b export was again granted.
41%. oCLiving-Labor Cogditions.
.g 1916 the cost of living increased steadily. Government
: nity'ees -and persons dependent on a fixed income were particularly
iected by these conditions. As the Government granted allowances
lthe high cost of living, the situation of the former was, to a cer-
tW, extent, ameliorated.
i g to its proximity to Spain, labor conditions in the Cette dis-
("ape'ft perhaps moIs satisfactory than in other parts of France.
R .in times of peace ,an important portion.of the wine crop is
Arthered by Spanish farm laborers, who are imported for this pur-
: poste' In the industrial establishments of this city Spanish labor,
S*pa] icularly unskilled was also very generally employed. Notwith-
hi: t g thBese conditions, the wages of unskilled labor rose in almost
he same proportions as the cost of living. The rise in the wages of
;il4,iS ior was much greater. In fact, had such labor been more
:ab.t nt, the output of the chemical factories would have been con-
/i$41&ry.rgir~r. FmJa.ale labor' was successfully employed to an in-
r.,mlsig 4eatent -in commercial and. banking establishments and in

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