American world traders


Material Information

American world traders new ships for the merchant marine
Physical Description:
20 p. : ill. ; 14 cm.
United States -- Maritime Commission
United States Maritime Commission
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Merchant marine -- United States   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004822925
oclc - 10714003
sobekcm - AA00005298_00001
lcc - VK23 .A4 1946
System ID:

Full Text

American World Traders
for the

The Merchant Marine Act of 1936

"It is necessary for the national defense and de-
velopment of its foreign and domestic commerce that
the United States shall have a merchant marine (a)
sufficient to carry its domestic water-borne commerce
and a substantial portion of the water-borne export
and import foreign commerce of the United States
and to provide shipping service on all routes essential
for maintaining the flow of such domestic and foreign
water-borne commerce at all times, (b) capable of
serving as a naval and military auxiliary in time of
war or national emergency, (c) owned and operated
under the United States flag by citizens of the United
States insofar as may be practicable, and (d) com-
posed of the best-equipped, safest, and most suitable
types of vessels, constructed in the United States and
manned with a trained and efficient citizen personnel.
It is hereby declared to be the policy of the United
States to foster the development and encourage the
maintenance of such a merchant marine."

This booklet is a description of the principal types
of ships designed and built by the U. S. Maritime
Commission under the Merchant Marine Act of 1936.
These world traders that make up our merchant
fleet were designed so that they could be adapted for::
different routes and needs. One type of hull may ':i
have as many as two score different combinations 0
of passenger and cargo space. But the basic hull
and machinery are the same.


1 'ashington, D. C.

The Figures

The Maritime Commission feels that every citizen
should know and understand about our Merchant
The Merchant Marine is not only a vital national
delivery system, taking our products abroad and pick-
ing up the raw materials that keep our economy run-
ning, but it is also an arm of our international policy.
In those t\wo ways, the success or failure of our
Merchant Marine affects every one of us.
Many of us, especially those who live away from
our great port cities, are apt to forget these facts, feel-
ing that the Merchant Marine is the concern of
somebody else.
But it is our Merchant Marine. Unless we under-
stand how it can be used, and use it, it cannot serve
us well.
The Merchant Marine did a magnificent job dur-
ing the war. In the peace it has even a greater task.
Acting Chairman
U ',t, d States Maritime Commission

Tonnage of U. S. Merchant Marine,
Jan. 1, 1942____---------__
Tonnage built during the war (Jan,
1942 to April 1946) _- _

Number of ships built during the war-

Libertys---- _________

Number of Maritime Commission ship-
yards before the war (Jan. 1, 1942) -

Number of Maritime Commission ship-
yards during the war (July 1943-
peak) ------ --

Maritime Commission shipyard employ-
ment on Maritime Commission con-
tracts before the war (Jan. 1, 1942)
Maritime Commission shipyard employ-
ment on Maritime Commission con-
tracts at the peak (Aug. 1943) -----


54, 500, 000

5, 300

2, 700

120, 000

700, 000

1.481:1 t -4h-- I

The War Record

Two-thirds of the world's merchant fleet flies the
Stars and Stripes.
The people of the United States have built and
manned most of the cargo ships that carried the
materials that won the war.
The Axis thought the United States couldn't raise
our cargo tonnage from 11 million deadweight tons
to 50 million in 3 years or train the men to sail this
giant fleet. They never dreamed that we could ship
war materials at the rate of 8,000 tons an hour round
the clock, throughout the year.
This is how America did the job:
The Merchant Marine Act, creating the Maritime
Commission, was passed by Congress in 1936.
In 1939 the first ship of a modern fleet was de-
livered. At the end of 1940, 46 of these were at
By the time of Pearl Harbor, 50 more had been
added, and shortly thereafter the first Liberty ship,
the Patrick Henry, was delivered.
The Commission was directed by the President in

1942 to build 8 million deadweight tons of shipping.
The goal was exceeded.
Sixteen million tons was the mark set for 1943.
More than 19 million tons were delivered.
By the time we went into Tokyo more than 4,500
merchant ships built in the wartime period in United
States shipyards were at work for the United Na-
tions. Officers and men of the merchantt Marine
numbered about 55,000 in 1941. In 1945 there were
270,000 men sailing our ships.
Twenty-one oceangoing merchant ships were the
total of construction by the Maritime Commission
in 1939. Eighty-two times that many were built in
1943, in addition to more than 200 minor types.
Fast vessels built by the Maritime Commission and
converted to hospital ships have completely equipped
wards, diet pantries, recreation rooms, libraries, sun
decks, and other facilities of a first-class hospital.
Despite generally higher average pay scales in
Maritime Commission shipyards over those of the
previous war, the average cost per deadweight ton in

World War II has been $160 compared to $210 in
The speed and efficiency of the Maritime Commis-
sion's C-type cargo vessels is exemplified by the per-
formance of the S. S. Chalhlnge. a C-2 type, which
left New York for the Orient 30 days after the Crown
City, an older ship. The ships followed the same
itinerary y and arrived back in New York on the same
In 1939 the British Empire controlled about one-
third of the world's ocean shipping and the United
States about one-seventh. The United States now
has more than the rest of the world combined.
One yard building Liberty ships delivered these
441 -foot vessels in 23.4 days in regular production.
During the war 268,283,000 tons of cargo moved
in United States flag ships.
Nine out of every 10 men crossed the oceans in
United States ships.
With the end of the war, America made its first
step in the "bold and daring plan" for the Merchant
Marine, voiced by our late President Roosevelt and
reaffirmed by President Truman. Bids were asked
on 27-knot liners, the fastest ever to be built in the
United States, for the South American trades and

22-knot vessels for the Mediterranean trade. For
the first time in a century this country has the oppor-
tunity, the ships and the know-how necessary to as-
sume its rightful place in peacetime world commerce.




1943i -Ai

1944 A6 6A


1946 AiAj A


The Postwar Merchant Marine

The time for postwar planning is over. Postwar Our postwar fleet will have:
action is under way. SPEED-This is made up of a number of factors.
The end of the war released the facilities, the Speed at sea is one, and our postwar fleet over-all will
brains, the skills, and the machines for a great post- be twice as fast as our prewar fleet of dignified but '
war Merchant Marine. elderly vessels. Speed in port is just as important- i
We are on our way to use them. Basic designs for and new cargo gear %will cut days from the turnaround
great new ships have been completed. time.
The designers have done their job. New propul- SAFETY-The United States Merchant Marine ;
sion machinery is completing tests. New metals have post\\ar will have the safest ships in the world-for..
been designed into these new ships. New materials, passengers, for crew, and for American goods going 4
merely laboratory curiosities before the war, have to foreign markets.
been specified. Even new furniture and new wall EFFICIENCY-The postwar merchant fleet will 4
coverings have been developed. Radar and loran move a pound of cargo cheaper than an)' other trans-
take their place on the bridge to supplement the portation system in the world. It will deliver more
sextant and compass. A great research program has tons faster and farther than any other transportation '
been undertaken to develop new cargo handling gear, system.
to overcome the greatest lag in technology, expensive STANDARDS-The United States Merchant Ma-
and unproductive time at the docks. Port improve- rine will carry the American standard of living and
ment programs are under way. working conditions all over the world. Vessels of the .;
On the great world trade ships which carried the merchant fleet will be manned b) trained and efficient
war to the Axis, the gun tubs are coming off and the civilian personnel. Seamen, representing a new high J
bathtubs going back in, with the new types of equip- in the "know-how" of ships and gear, will be wise in
ment being installed. the time-tested methods of good seamanship.

The Passenger Liner

Passenger ships are the showcase of the United
States Merchant Marine. The materials, the com-
-Mi s"-__

forts, the luxuries are a travelling display of Ameri-
can industry and life. By their success are measured
the standards of our Merchant Marine.
Naval architects have moulded the best hulls. En-
gineers have calculated their most powerful engines.
Designers have labored over their boards to lay out
the great public rooms and the living quarters.
America has produced a travelling service so good
that anyone who travels American will also ship
These ships will not compete with air speed. But
for those who want to travel in comfort, to rest and
enjoy themselves, the United States passenger liner
is the way to go.

\l [I/


The .-merica was the Nation's greatest prewar ship.
Shortly\ after she came out, she went to war. She
served on every ocean, transporting hundreds of
thousands of men, and never lost a man.
Back in the North Atlantic service, completely re-
fitted, she will provide safety, comfort, and satisfac-
tion on the world's most heavily travelled sea route.

Deadweight tonnage-14,361.
Length over-all-723 feet.
Breadth-93 feet 3 inches.
Refrigerated cargo capacity-33,500 cubic feet.
Passengers- 1,202.
Normal sea speed (.av erage sea conditions )-22 knots.
Cruising radius (nautical miles)-11,000.


South American Service

The Southern Cross Ships--one week from New
York to Rio. That means the time to South America
is cut in half. Bigger than anything built in America
before the war, these ships will have many a feature
new to the oceans.
Passengers will breakfast in their rooms. Lunch-
eon will be served on deck. Dinner will be a formal
meal, followed by open-air dancing and fiestas.
There \will be one standard of service for all pas-
sengers, and bigger rooms for those who want them.
The ship will be open to the sun, and air condi-
tioned below decks.

Below the passengers will ride fast freight, part of
the United States inter-continental delivery system.

Deadweight tonnage (estimated)--8,450.
Length over-all-731 feet 6 inches.
Breadth-70 feet 6 inches.
Refrigerated cargo capacity--42,369 cubic feet.
Normal sea speed (average sea conditions) -28 knots.
Cruising radius (nautical miles)-11,000.

_C _~__
--~---- -


-- ---

Mediterranean Service

These Sunliners are new from the keel up. Twice
a month they will speed 654 passengers to the Medi-
terranean with comfort. Because they go the South-
ern Route, they will have great sunny play decks, with
lots of outdoor recreation, from sitting to swimming.
Of course, they will have all the newest service safety
features, and they will go to the Mediterranean and
back faster than any prewar United States flag pas-
senger ship.

Deadweight tonnage (estimated -13,600.
Length overall-681 feet.
Breadth-89 feet.
Refrigerated cargo capaciit-45,900 cubic feet.
Passengers-654. -
Normal sea speed (average sea conditions) -22 knots.
Cruising radius (nautical miles)-17,000.




Trans-Pacific Service

These 900-foot Great Circle Liners will encourage
travel. over the big ocean with 1,00U. passengers each
sailing. They will travel either the northern express
route direct to Japan in 8 days, or the warmer, longer
southern route via Honolulu and Manila. Of course,
these will be super-modern throughout, a true postwar
luxury liner.
While these ships are under construction, several
were designed as transports, and good dry ones too,
have been redesigned to provide service. The war
records of these interim ships have proved their
merits, and the need for an adequate Merchant Ma-

rine. When the new ships are finished, the interim
liners will supplement the express service.
Deadweight tonnage- 12,500.
Length o\erall-920 feet.
Breadth-86 feet 4 inches.
Refrigerated cargo capacity-30,000 cubic feet.
Passengers- 1,.100.
Normal sea speed (average sea conditions) -28 knots.
Cruising radius nautical miles) -12,000.

The Big

World Traders

From time to time some design comes along that
is so good it displaces most everything else that did
the job formerly, like the safety razor.
The big world traders designed by the United
States Maritime Commission are like that-the ...
proved so efficient at their job that they have replaced
most other types of ships.
In a thousand ways these ships are improvements
over the ships that came before. The result is that
they are efficient cargo vessels.

Designed for the trade routes heree the big ton-
nage is to be moved, these ships provide efficiency
, unattainable in smaller-sized ships. Big, able, fast,
Sand easily adaptable to the special requirements of
,particular routes, these are the cargo queens of the

SDeadweight tonnage--12,595.

I .J-3-. 1
Length over-all-492 feet.
Breadth-69 feet 6 inches.
Cargo capacity tons- 10.400.
Cre%\ -43.
Normal sea speed (average sea conditions)-161,.
Cruising radius (nautical miles)-12,000.

.o .
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\1\ i ^ C~ '

Dry Cargo

Next in line to the C-3's are these ships, slightly
smaller than the big cargo movers. They provide
speed and eficienc. on the routes where tonnage is
not quite so great.

Dry Carcoo
Deadweight tonnage----- 9.536.
Length over-all -----_ 459' 2.
Breadth ------------ 63'.

Refriteratc d
459' 2'12".

Cargo capacity, tons ----
Passengers ------------
Crew -----___ ------
Normal sea speed (average
sea conditions) ---
Cruising radius (nautical
miles) -------------
Machinery _-__ ______-

Di' Car'go

15!.' knots.



5,550. d!
8 .

15'. knots.

Refrigerarted i

15'.2 knots.'0.


L i:,

Dry Cargo

The smallest of the big worldd traders is onl\ small
in comparison to the other ships in this series. It can
move a lot of cargo.
Dry Caro R, f[i rat, d
Deadweight tonnage -_-. 9.290. 8,909.
Length over-all--------- 417' 9". 417'9".
Breadth _-_-----------_ 60'. 60'.
Cargo capacity, tons----- 7.550. 7,4i0.

Passengers-_ _-----
Crew _-----------
Normal sea speed i average
sea conditions i---
Cruising radius i nautical
miles i -----
Machinery -------

Drv Catg,, R. ,Igoriat d
12. 12.
43. 43.

14 knots.


14 knots.





I f


Dry Cargo-Victory

Designed for war service, these ships have the speed
and efficiency that make them a factor in postwar

Deadweight tonnage-10,850.
Length over-all-455 feet 3 inches.

Breadth-62 feet.
Cargo capacity tons-9,000.
Normal sea speed (average sea conditions)-17
Cruising radius (nautical miles) -20,500.

Dry Cargo-Liberty

Based on time tested tramp ship designs, these
were the ships that moved the tonnage that won the

Deadweight tonnage-10,865.
Length over-all-441 feet 6 inches.

Breadth-56 feet 1II inches.
CargTo capacity tons-9,1100.
Crew -54.
Normal sea speed (average sca conditions -11-
Cruising radius I nautical miles I --- I l)ii I.
NIachinen -steam reciprocating.

Et("' -1 U 1

. A

The Tankers

The tankers are the most easily recognized of all
merchant ships. But since they start from one end
of a pipeline, and discharge into the beginning of
another, they are rarely seen at harbors and piers.
In peace, they keep America's home fires burning
and her wheels turning. In war, they steamed with
the fleet, and fueled the fighting ships while under A A j
way. In war and peace, over the long rolling wastes
of ocean, they carry power in their great tanks.
A tanker seems like a simple device. It's a series
of tanks, with a bow in front, an engine in the stern,
with pumps on deck that deliver millions of gallons,
and crew and navigating quarters above all that.
Actually, they are complex pieces of transportation,
huge specially designed ships for a specific purpose,
which they carry out superbly.



I '
"V-. '^ .
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"1 1 -.

- --
..- --.-- --..- --- -- -"' T


Deadweight tonnage- 18.301).
Length over-all-553 feet.
Breadth-75 feet.
Cargo capacity barrels 1-46.300.

Normal sea speed average sea conditions)-18
Cruising radius I nautical miles 1,91i00.
MachinerN -turbine.

A t .-*




Deadweight tonnage-16,507.
Length over-all-523 feet 6 inches.
Breadth-68 feet.

Cargo capacity i barrels --141,158.
Normal sea speed I average conditions -14 !.. knots.
Cruising radius I nautical miles)--12,600.
NMachineri -turbo-electric.

!,. .e 'ti::ti
"`~?~i~ d,*~s ;r *r
.' 1


Coastal Cargo Ships

'I I -!-.A I

Dead\weight tonnage-2.905.
Length overall-258 feet 9 inches.
Breadth-42 feet I inch.
Cargo capacity% tons-2,243.
Normal sea speed (average sea conditions1-10' 2
Cruising radius (nautical miles -1,500.
Machinery-reciprocatinig steam.

Deadweight tonnage-5,010.
Length overall-338 feet 8 inches.
Breadth-50 feet.
Cargo capacity tons-4,640.
Normal sea speed (average sea conditions)-10/2
Cruising radius (nautical miles)-14,500.



Ship Talk

Every trade has its trade talk. A word is used to express a
certain idea. This saves a sentence every time a statement
is made. Here is an explanation of the trade terms used in
this book:
TONNAGE-The capacity of the ship is measured in different
ways for different purposes.
1. Gross tonnage-The cubic capacity of the ship expressed
in tons. One ton equals 100 cubic feet. This system
is used mainly for measuring size of fighting ships or
passenger ships, rather than carrying capacity.
2. Net tonnage-The capacity of the cargo carrying spaces
of the ship, which is the gross tonnage less engine room,
crew's quarters, bridge, etc.
3. Deadweight-The total carrying capacity of the ship,
expressed in tons of 2,240 pounds.
AMIDSHIPS or MIDSHIPS-In center of ship, half way between
bow and stem.
BALLAST-Any weight carried to make the vessel more sea-
BEAM-Extreme width of ship.
Bow or STEM-Front or forward end of ship.
BRIDGE-Partial deck extending from side to side of vessel.
BULKHEAD-A partition in a ship which divides the interior
into compartments.
BUNKER-Compartment in which fuel is stored.
CARGO BOOM-Extends from the mast like a derrick arm, to
handle cargo.
CROw's NEST-Platform set high up on the foremast, to ac-
commodate the lookout while ship is at sea.

DECK-Part of the ship that correspond, to the floor of a
DEEP TANKS-Ordinarily hold conmpai tent, strengthened to
carry water ballast. Placed ;at either or both ends of the
engine and boiler space, usually run from the tank top up
to or above the lower deck. Sometimes used for oil
DIESEL-A form of engine, like an automobile engine, which
uses oil for fuel.
DOUBLE BOTTOM-A tank whose bottom is formed by the
bottom plates of a ship.
DRAFT-Depth from water line to bottom of keel.
HOLD-Interior of ship in which cargo is stored .
KEEL-Backbone of a vessel. A .,-ne, of connected plates
running fore and aft on the bottom of the center line of
the ship.
KNOT-A speed of I nautical mile per hour. equal. 1.15 land
miles per hour.
LENGTH OVER ALL-Measured fromn the forenost to the after-
most points of a vessel's hull.
PORT SIDE-Left side of ship looking forward toward the bow
or stem.
RAKE-Inclination of the vessel's mast, funiinl, or stem from
an upright angle with the keel. Rake may be either for-
ward or aft.
RIGGING-Manila or wire ropes, lashings used to support or
move booms, masts, spars.
STARBOARD SIDE-Right side of ship. looking from aft forward.
STERN or AFT-Rear end of ship.
T! RnRIN.- -Engint in which steamr dri\e, a fan, which drives
the propeller.
WEATHER DECK-Uppermost continuous deck which is ex-
posed to the weather.
M l:l ~lhi l~liill I

Drawing Board Sketches
of Interiors

These drawings indicate what ship de-
signers have in mind for passenger

Cabin Library-Prome-
nade Deck

Jiu Ai

Veranda Cafe-Prome-
nade Deck

Left: Cabin Sitting

Right: Stateroom



United States Maritime Commission



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