Guides for new world traders


Material Information

Guides for new world traders
Series Title:
U.S. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Economic series
Physical Description:
vi, 26 p. : illus., map. ; 24 cm.
Becker, Edmund F
Cloyes, Corrie ( jt. author )
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Commerce -- United States   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Bibliography: p. 15-26.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Edmund F. Becker and Corrie Cloyes.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004819974
oclc - 04307029
lccn - 47032890
sobekcm - AA00005296_00001
lcc - HF105|HF3011 .A64 no.59
ddc - 382.06173
System ID:

Full Text

NQ4 i



Department of Commerce

Field Service

Albany 7, N. Y., 409 County Court-
Albuquerque, N. Mex.. 203 W. Gold
Atlanta. Ga., 50 Whitehall St.
Baltimore 2, Md., 103 S. Ga- St.
Birmingham, Ala.. 2304 Fourth A\e.,
Boise, Idaho, 210 Baird Bldg.
Boston 9, Mass., 1800 Customhouse.
Buffalo 3, N. Y., 242 Federal Bldg.
Burlington, Vt., Rutland Railroad Sta-
Butte. Mont., 301A O'Rourke Estate
Charleston 3, S. C., 310 Peoples Bldg.
Charleston 1. W. Va.. 612 Atlas Bldg.
Charlotte 2, N. C., 112!12 E. Fourth St.
Chattanooga 2, Tenn.. 505 Post Office
Cheyenne, Wyo., Federal Recreation
Chicago 4, 11., 357 U. S. Courthouse.
Cincinnati 2, Ohio. 1204 Chamber of
Commerce Bldg.
Cleveland 14. Ohio. 1286 Union Com-
merce Bldg.
Columbus 1, Ohio. 1037 N. High St.
Dallas 2, Tex., 602 Santa Fe Bldg.
Denver 2, Colo., 203 Boston Bldg.
Des Moines 9, Iowa, 518 Grand Ave.
Detroit 26, Mich., 1028 New Federal
Duluth 5, Minn., 310 Christie Bldg.
El Paso 7. Te%., 12 Chamber of Com-
merce Bldg.
Erie, Pa., 312 Security Peoples Trust
Evansville, Ind., 112 Northwest Fourth
Fargo, N. Dak., 210 Walker Bldg.
Fremont. Nebr., Pathfinder Hotel.
Grand Rapids 2, Mich., 736 Keeler
Hartford Conn., Room 224 Post Office
Houston 14, Tex., 603 Federal Office
Indianapolis 4, Ind., Chamber of Com-
merce Bldg.
Jackson 5, Miss., 1130 W. Capitol St.
Jacksonville 1, Fla., 425 Federal Bldg.
Kansas City 6, Mo., 600 Interstate Bldg.
Little Rock 5, Ark., 312 Pyramid Bldg.
Los Angeles 12, Calif., 1540 U. S. Post
Office and Courthouse.

Louisville 1, Ky., 631 Federal Bldg.
Manchester. N. H., 814 Elm St.
Memphis 3, Tenn., 229 Federal Bldg.
Miami, Fla., 947 Seybold Bldg.
Milwaukee 3, Wis., 332 W. Wisconsin
Minneapolis 1, Minn., 1234 Metropoli-
tan Life Bldg.
Mobile. Ala., Room 308 Federal Bldg.
Nashville, Tenn.. Federal Courthouse.
New Haven 10, Conn., 152 Temple St.
New Orleans 12, La., 333 St. Charles
New York 1. N. Y.. Empire State Bldg.,
60th Floor.
Norfolk 10, Va., 712 Wainwright Bldg.
Oklahoma Cit) 2, Okla., 901-905 Petro-
leum Bldg.
Omaha 2,Nebr.,918Cit) National Bank
Peoria, Ill., 531 First National Bank
Philadelphia 3. Pa., 1612 Market St.
Phoenix 8, Ariz., 234 N. Central St.
Pittsburgh 19, Pa., 1013 New Federal
Portland 3, Maine. 76 Pearl St.
Portland 4, Oreg.. 520 SW. Morrison St.
Providence 3, R. I., 24 Weybossett St.
Reno. Nev., 50 Sierra St.
Richmond 19, \a., 801 E. Broad St.
Rochester. N. Y., 16 State St.
St. Louis 1, Mo., 107 New Federal Bldg.
Salt Lake City .1 Utah, 321 Atlas Bldg.
San Antonio 5, Tex., 101 Transit Tower
San Diego 1. Calif., 906 Columbia St.
San Francisco 11, Calif.. 307 Custom-
Savannah. Ga.. U. S. Courthouse and
Post Office Bldg.
Scranton, Pa., Wyoming Ave. and
Spruce St.
Seattle 4, Wash., 809 Federal Office
Sioux Falls 6, S. Dak., 310 Policyholders
National Bldg.
Spokane 8. Wash., 1023 W. Riverside
Syracuse 2. N. Y., 224 Harrison St.
Texarkana 5, Tex., 817 Texarkana
National Bank Bldg.
Toledo, Ohio, 445 Huron St.
Wichita 2, Kans., 205 K. F. H. Bldg.
Worcester 8, Mass., 340 Main St.


for NEW
World Traders

By Edmund F. Becker and Corrie Cloyes
Special Services and Intelligence Branch

Economic Series No. 59


Arthur Paul, Director


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. Price 10 cents

The purpose of this booklet is to help businessmen set a sound and intelli-
gent course toward profitable exporting and importing. It is in no sense a
"how to do it" manual. But it does point out some of the major problems and
methods of solving them.
Its greatest value, however, is in citing reliable sources of information and
advice. In other words, it is a guide to further study of the many aspects
of world trade. The list of informational aids is not intended to be compre-
hensive. Rather, it has been carefully selected to include those books, studies,
and other publications that are essential in gaining a fundamental knowledge
of the techniques of trading abroad.
Guides for New World Traders has been prepared by Edmund F. Becker
and Corrie Cloyes under the direction of E. E. Schnellbacher, Director of the
Special Services and Intelligence Branch.
ARTHUR PAUL, Director,
Office of International Trade.

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2010 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from Lyrasis and the Sloan Foundation


Forew ord ...... ........................................ .
The Lure of W world Trade ....................................
Newi comers in Exporting ..................................
Newcomers in Importing ..................................
Both Fields Attract Veterans .. ......... ...
Interest M ust Be Real........................... ........ ...
Plan for the Long Pull.... ................................. ..
How to Analyze Your Product for Export Possibilities............
Product Analysis .....................................
Foreign Sales Analysis................. ..... ........
Foreign Government Restrictions .........................

Competition Analysis .......................
Export Cost Analysis ........................
Exporting Facilities ..........................
Foreign Credit and Exchange .................
How To Analyze Possibilities of Importing Goods ....
Product Analysis .............................
Area Analysis ................... ..........
Government Restrictions ......................
Competition Analysis .................. .....
Import Cost Analysis .........................
Importing Facilities ............ ............
General Information.......................
Where To Go for Help..........................
Office of International Trade..................
The Eyes and Ears of OIT................
Marketing Data by Areas.................
Commodity and Industry Data ............
Special Services and Intelligence. ...........
How to Register for Service. ..................
Commerce Field Offices ......................
Trade Organizations... .......................
Private Organizations .........................
Useful M iddlemen ............................
Some Helpful Tools ................... ....
Government Publications .........................
G general ............... .....................
Foreign Commerce Weekly ................
Export and Import Practice ...............
Foreign Commerce Yearbook, 1939.........

....... III
.... ... 1

Foreign Commerce and Navigation-of the United States for the Calendar
Year 1942 ..................................................
Monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce of the United States........
Foreign Trade-Basic Information Sources.........................
Foreign Trade Letters ...........................................
Foreign Trade Associations in the United States ....................

..... 1
..... 1




. 10
.... 213
..... 21

..... 4

..... 14
. 5

..... 15
..... 15
S. .. 1. 7
. 8
..... 8
. 8

.... 8

..... 10
..... 10
..... 13
. 13
. 13
. 13

..... 15
..... 15
.... 15

. .


. . .

.. .


. .. ... .. .
. .. .. .. ..

. .... ..

. . .
..... .


. . .

Specific Aids ....................................................... 18
Industrial Reference Service ............ ........................ 18
International Reference Service ................................... 18
Channels for Trading Abroad .................................... 18
Commercial Travelers' Guides to Latin America .................... 19
Trade Lists .................................................... 19
M odern Export Packing ......................................... 19
United States Government Regulations .............................. 19
Schedule B; Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commod-
ities Exported From the United States ......................... 19
Comprehensive Export Control Schedule ........................... 20
Schedule A: Statistical Classification of Imports Into the United States. 20
Imports of Strategic Materials and Imports of Certain Foods......... 20
Customs Regulations of the United States .......................... 20
The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals................. 20
Foreign Government Regulations.................................... 20
Trading Under the Laws of Foreign Countries Series ................. 20
Foreign Marks of Origin Regulations............................ 21
Preparing Shipments Series............... ................. .. 21
Documentary Requirements on Shipments to Latin America .......... 21
Industrial Property Protection Throughout the World ........... ... 22
Nongovernmental Publications .......................................... 22
Approach to Latin-American Markets ............ ............... 22
Dictionary of Foreign Trade. ....................... ...... ......... 22
Export Selling, A Guide for Connecticut Manufacturers .................. 22
Foreign Commerce Handbook......................... ...... 22
Foreign Trade: Principles and Practices .......... ................. .. 22
Getting into Foreign Trade.................. ....... ... .. ... 23
How to Import and Export (Bulletin No. 1)............................ 23
How to Buy and Sell in Latin America (Bulletin No. 2).................. 23
Institute of Foreign Trade-A Course on Practical Export Problems ...... 23
Institute of World Trade (Proceedings of First Bay Area)......... ...... 23
International Trade Handbook ................... ........... ...... 23
Modern Export Methods: A Dartnell Survey ................................. 24
Opportunities for Employment in World Trade and Foreign Serv ice ...... 24
Our 100 Leading Imports.............................. .. ......... 24
Our-World Trade During the War-1939-45 ................ ...... 24
The Practice of Foreign Trade ............................. .......... 24
A Review of Export and Import Procedures. ...... ... .. .. ... .... 24
Revised American Foreign Trade Definitions-1941 ......... 25
Commercial Directories and Reference Books ......................... ..... 25
Buyers for Export in New York City ................................. 25
American Register of Exporters and Importers, 1945-46.................. 25
Custom House Guide................. ................ .......... 25
Exporters Encyclopedia .................... ........................ 25
Phelon's New York City Export Buyers' List ................ ......... 25
Plant Purchasing Directory .......................................... 26
Thomas' Register of American Manufacturers, 1946......... ... .... 26


of World Trade

Records indicate the greatest interest in world trade since the days of the
clipper ships. While no exact figures are available, it is safe to say that
foreign markets are luring many thousands of prospective traders.
Newcomers in Exporting
Why is it that so many businessmen, manufacturers in particular, are
planning to enter the export field for the first time? Our wartime record
gives the answer to this question. Many United States manufacturers
expanded their production facilities far beyond any past peacetime standard.
Now they want to maintain their high rate of output and it is extremely
important that they succeed if the national goal of full productive employment
is to be attained.
These manufacturers realize that local or even national markets, in the
long run, cannot wholly absorb their increased production. Hence, they
are exploring-many for the first time-the prospects for selling their goods
beyond the boundaries of the United States.
In many instances, they had their first taste of selling abroad via lend-lease.
In others, world-wide shortages impelled foreign importers arid domestic
export merchants to seek new sources of supply in this country. Thus some
American manufacturers "cut their eye teeth" in foreign trade by having
occasional, unsolicited orders destined for export.
Newcomers in Importing
The exigencies of war also gave birth to the current upsurge of interest in
importing. Our domestic scarcities of strategic materials led to the discovery
of many new sources of supply and, frequently, of highly successful substi-


tutes. Countless foreign finished products, on the other hand, were impos-
sible to obtain. Thus both producers and merchants gained a new appre-
ciation of imports.

Both Fields Attract Veterans
Apart from the mounting enthusiasm for world trade among businessmen,
the fields of exporting and importing are attracting thousands of former
servicemen. These men who served in all branches of the Armed Forces
personally visited the markets of the world. They saw bright possibilities
for selling foreign wares and materials in the United States and for selling
our goods abroad. As civilians, they are now seriously considering world
trade as a postwar career.

Interest Must Be Real
Experiences of the postwar period following World War I point up the
potential problems of a carelessly conceived expansion of our exports and
imports. In that period interest in foreign trade zoomed. Thousands
rushed into exporting, while comparatively few chose importing. But aside
from this out-of-balance situation, events proved that interest was short-lived
with a vast number of the new traders of the 1920's. Many went into the
field intent on making a quick killing and then returning to purely domestic
pursuits. Countless others failed because they just didn't possess the proper
know-how to succeed.
International good-will organizations, trade associations, and other groups
of businessmen, as well as the Government, are alert to the dangers of a
repeat performance in this postwar era. They know that failure %will follow
anything less than a very real interest, backed by a determination to stick to
and succeed in world trade.
Through the press, magazines, and the radio, these leaders in business
and Government have continually stressed the fact that our world trade of
the future must be healthily expanded on a sustained basis.
Every businessman contemplating markets abroad must face the fact at
the outset that not every American product is exportable, nor is every foreign
product importable. Even when it is clearly indicated that a demand exists
or can be created, there are still caution signs to observe.

Plan for the Long Pull

It does not follow that an export or import market can be built up quickly.
Many would-be traders have found that it takes more than good intentions
and a list of potential customers to succeed.

The wise manufacturer, for example, is never motivated entirely by neces-
sity or glamour. He knows that any period of shortages which produce
seller-market conditions is not normal. He also knows that when shortages
end, demands are quickly satisfied and competition soon appears from all
directions. Although he has faith in the fundamental good quality and
salability of his products, he will nevertheless attempt to analyze and evaluate
the essential factors which may affect their successful introduction into foreign

This far-sighted manufacturer is planning for the long pull. He is con-
vinced that if he enters foreign trade he must be prepared to protect and
support his export program through its critical early stages.
The prospective importer-manufacturer, wholesale distributor, or re-
tailer-must conduct much the same searching analysis. Neither he nor the
exporter should expect foreign trade to be a cure-all. Rather, both should
regard entrance into the export or import field as one of several courses to
choose in reaching their postwar aims.of peak employment and sales, and
fair profits.
The remainder of this booklet is designed to help the new world trader get
off on the right foot in world trade and continue in that direction to ultimate

How To Analyze Your Product

for Export Possibilities

While many United States products are already well established in markets
abroad, others are so typical of this country that their sale in foreign countries
is confined largely to United States tourists and residents in those countries,
or to a restricted native clientele. Remember, customs, manners, habits,
buying power, and living conditions-varying from country to country-
affect the demand for goods.
Before making any far-reaching decisions, therefore, you as a manufacturer
should analyze as thoroughly as possible the principal factors affecting the
salability of your merchandise under the conditions peculiar to those mar-
kets. The following outline, long followed by successful world traders,
should serve as your guide.

Product Analysis
(a) Domestic marketing factors-Are your production facilities and your
domestic distribution such that you are justified to enter into export trade?
(b) Foreign market factors-Is your product of the type that is likely to
be in demand abroad? What factors peculiar to your product might limit
its sales?

Foreign Sales Analysis
(a) Trade statistics-Is your product, or something similar, now in use
in the foreign area under review? To what extent? Is it manufactured
locally or imported? If imported, to what extent, and from what countries?
Is it imported from the United States and in what volume?
(b) Economic information-What local factors will influence the volume
of your sales? Basic data on population, per capital incomes, tastes, habits,
purchasing power, seasonal trends, distribution centers and channels, trans-
portation facilities and political conditions are essential.

Foreign Government Restrictions
(a) Tariffs-The customs duties on imported goods in some instances
represent a substantial portion of the cost of your goods to the consumer,
and this has a direct bearing on your ability to compete in a given market.
This responsibility, however, rests on the overseas buyer.
(b) Government regulations-You must thoroughly understand the con-
ditions under which foreign business is conducted. State trading, Govern-
ment monopolies, import and exchange controls, and other trade barriers
often intervene to impede or hinder the development of new trade outlets.

In addition, there are problems of taxation, trade-mark registration, tariff
preferences, the protection of industrial property rights, the transfer of pay-
ments, and similar subjects on which the exporter must be informed in order
to avoid serious losses or embarrassing delays.
(c) United States Government regulations-The war dictated the imposi-
tion of many United States Government controls over foreign trade, financial
transactions, communications, and shipping. Some of these controls are
still in effect. A careful study and thorough understanding of these regula-
tions is a "must" for every foreign trader.

Competition Analysis
(a) Local manufacturers-What competition must you expect from locally
manufactured articles? Who are your local competitors? How important
are they in the local economy?
(b) Foreign competition-What competition will you meet from other
foreign countries in a given market? Are they selling in that market now?
How do their prices and terms compare with your own ?
(c) United States competition-Can you compete with other United States
manufacturers exporting to the same market? How are they selling there-
through branches, subsidiaries, agents, distributors, or directly to consumers?

Export Cost Analysis
Many factors enter into the cost of exporting. Some of these costs, while
individually small, loom large in the aggregate. Goods cannot always be
sold f. o. b. your factory. You may find it necessary to quote f. a. s. United
States port or c. i. f. port of destination
The following factors all enter into the making of a thorough export cost
analysis: Packing, transportation, documentation fees, selling, registration
fees, insurance, discounts, commissions, advertising, terms of payments
abroad (financing), trade-marks, and licenses. Some of these items depend
on company policy and budgets. Other costs can be determined by consulting
common carriers, forwarders, and export houses.

Exporting Facilities
(a) In the United States-What facilities are available? Should you
set up your own export organization or avail yourself of the facilities of a
manufacturers' export agent, combination export manager, export merchant,
or some other distribution channel?
(b) In foreign countries-What are the channels of distribution abroad?
How can you select a satisfactory agent or distributor?

Foreign Credit and Exchange
(a) Exchange rates and regulations-The current rates of exchange, the
availability of dollars, regulations pertaining to remittances abroad-these

are factors affecting the salability of your goods. They are essential in
determining your credit policies.
(b) Credit and sales information-In selecting agents, distributors, or
other representatives, you will require information on such points as their
relative standing in the trade, reputation, distribution facilities and expe-
rience. In dealing with customers, reliable credit information is essential
in determining policies and specific payment terms.

How to Analyze Possibilities

of Importing Goods

The importer must analyze his market just as carefully as does the ex-
porter. If he is a manufacturer, using certain foreign materials, he must
study carefully all sources of supply. If he plans to produce a foreign item
under license, he must investigate the possibilities of selling it in this country,
recognizing that new tastes and new demands have been developed during
and since the war.
The importing wholesaler and retailer must not only appraise the current
demand for a foreign article but they must weigh the chances of maintain-
ing the demand.
Therefore, those who plan importing for the first time would do well
to follow these suggestions before making definite commitments:

It may be f. a. s. U. S. port . or c. i. f. port of destination

Product Analysis

(a) Foreign market factors-Where are the sources of supply? Are they
sufficient to fill your needs over a period of time? Can you rely on the
maintenance of quality? Will you be dealing with the most economic
(b) Domestic market factors-Does a demand exist for the product?
If not, can it be created? Has the article certain features that may limit its
sales? What is the patent situation?

Area Analysis
(a) Trade statistics-Is the foreign product now being imported into this
country? If, so, what countries are supplying it? How much are they
selling here?
(b) Economic information-What factors will influence the volume of
your sales in the United States? You'll need basic and current data on
economic conditions in this country, as well as the outlook on your particular

Government Restrictions
(a) Tariffs-The United States customs duties on imported goods, es-
pecially manufactured products, may represent a considerable portion of
your costs. If this is the case, the problems of competing in this market are
naturally increased.
(b) United States Government regulations-Unless specifically exempted,
all articles imported into the United States are subject to customs duty. In
addition, there are other regulations to follow: Consular invoices; import
controls of certain goods; pure-food regulations; quarantine regulations;
markings of the country of origin, and many others.
(c) Foreign government regulations-Foreign laws and regulations 'may
have a direct bearing on the profitable sale of the goods you import into the
United States. Therefore, it is important that you keep abreast of the cur-
rent situation in the countries in which you buy. What are the export duties,
if any? Have special taxes been levied? In addition to these questions,
you will want to investigate any restrictions that may affect your importing
operations, such as quotas, rationing, and export-licensing systems.

Competition Analysis
(a) United States competition-Can you compete with other United
States firms who are importing the same product? How are they buying-
through branches, agents, distributors, or direct? How do their prices
and terms compare with yours?
(b) Local manufacturers-What competition must you expect from the
same or similar type products manufactured in the United States? Who are
these competitors? How much of the market do they hold?

Import Cost Analysis
In analyzing the cost of importing, numerous questions must be answered.
Can a more attractive price be obtained by paying for the goods abroad? If
so, should payment be made by bank draft or should an import credit be
set up with the importer's American bank in favor of the foreign seller? Or
should financing be done in this country by means of a domestic letter of

In addition to these basic factors, an import cost analysis calls for a study
of the following: Documentation fees, insurance, discounts, commissions,
customs duties, transportation, licenses, advertising, prevailing sales terms
in each source country, and other expenses.

Importing Facilities
(a) In the United States-Should the indirect or direct method be used?
Should you, for example, set up an import department, or would it be more
advantageous to depend on experienced middlemen, such as an import mer-
chant, import commission house, resident agent, wholesaler or jobber, or
broker or factor?
(b) In foreign countries-What are the channels of distribution abroad?
How can you select a satisfactory buying representative?

General Information
In selecting representatives to handle actual buying operations, it is im-
portant to investigate their reputation and standing in the trade, facilities,
experience, and so on. Likewise, reliable credit information on customers is
essential in devising policies and terms of payment.

Where To Go for Help
The principal source of foreign-trade data in the United States is the
Department of Commerce, and the center of information within the Depart-
ment is the Office of International Trade.

Office of International Trade
This Office, referred to hereafter as OIT, provides world traders with facts
and figures-both background and current-essential to making the pre-
liminary analysis on exporting or importing goods and materials. It offers
equally valuable informational aids for the day-to-day conduct of a profitable
export or import business.
Thus, OIT serves the world trader from the time he first considers becoming
an exporter or importer on through his entire foreign-trade career.
Broadly speaking, the services of OIT are twofold: (1) Published aids
ranging from international trade statistics and comprehensive market surveys
to lists of selling outlets and detailed reports on individual foreign firms; and
(2) the personal advice and counsel of experts in all phases of trading abroad.

The Eyes and Ears of OIT
The steady flow of information on every country and commodity is only
possible through the close collaboration of OIT and the United States Foreign
Service. Located in all the trading areas of the world, the Foreign Service

Every conceivable area, commodity and industry is "covered" by OIT

officers act as the eyes and ears of OIT. They gather on-the-spot foreign
market data under the direction of this Office. Then these are carefully
weighed, analyzed and distributed by OIT in a form deemed most useful
to world traders.
While the war years stifled the flow and output of all foreign information,
the present postwar period has brought not only the resumption of these
functions but the basis for a greatly augmented supply of data. Thanks to
the Foreign Service Act of 1946, United States businessmen will be repre-
sented abroad as never before. The Department of Commerce and the
Department of State, as active copartners, are seeing to it that this represen-
tation shall be of a caliber and capacity to insure the quality and variety of
information required, particularly by new world traders.
All these data from abroad are channeled to OIT. Therefore, inquiries
should be directed to this Office in Washington, or to any of the Field Offices
of the Department of Commerce before consulting Foreign Service Officers.
The following outlines briefly the major types of specific helps available
and the Branch within OIT which is responsible for them.

Marketing Data by Areas
Information on every trading area in the world is furnished by the Areas
Branch of OIT. This includes both basic and currerit data at the country
level, on natural as well as industrial resources, mark trade controls,
finance, exchange, tariff rates and regulations, commerce laws and practices,
patents and trade-marks, taxation, and local legislation affecting trade. The
7224.- 4751 : 0

American Republics, British Conmmonw'ealth, European, U. S. R. R., and Far
Eastern Divisions procure, analyze. and disseminate these highly varied data
for their respective areas.
In addition, statistical specialists in each Division gather and compile the
foreign-trade statistics of each country in their particular area. These
statistics include both the export and import figures of the United States, and
of other countries-invaluable aids in determining the size and character of
foreign markets and sources of supply.
The principal vehicles for disseminating the output of the Areas Branch
are the International Reference Service and Foreign Commerce Weekly.

Commodity and Industry Data
The Commodity Branch of OIT is made up of Commodity Service Divisions
and Export Control Divisions. In the former group are: Chemicals and
Drugs, Foodstuffs, Forest Products, Machinery and Metals, Textile and
Leather, and General Products comprising all commodities not included in
any other Division. Thus, every conceivable commodity and industry enter-
ing into world trade is "covered" by specialists in their respective fields.
Broadly speaking these experts collect, study, and analyze information on
foreign production, consumption, distribution and the international trade in
their commodities or industries. They aid in the development of markets for
United States products and help to locate foreign sources of supply for
materials required in this country.
Experienced exporters and importers have long counted on the commodity
specialists for the background and current data they must have to successfully
analyze world markets for their particular lines. When necessary, the Branch
makes special market surveys to determine the best possible outlets for firms
entering the export or import field for the first time.
Most of the work of these Commodity Service Divisions is published in
the Industrial Reference Service and Foreign Commerce Weekly.
As long as shortages make licensing of certain strategic goods necessary.
the Commodities Branch is the source of obtaining such licenses for export.
To carry out this function and to furnish information on the current supply
situation of scarce commodities, the Branch maintains five Export Control
Divisions. These are: General Products, Health Supplies and Chemicals,
Machinery, Metals and Minerals, and Food.
Current information on the control situation is made available to business
in the Comprehensive Export Schedule and Export Control Bulletins.

Special Services and Intelligence
Information on the human element in trading abroad is the province of
the Special Services and Intelligence Branch. Services provided by its
Commercial Intel, Zence Division include Trade Lists classifying the usual
channels of distrib tion, sources of foreign supply, and principal industries,
processors and service organizations. These listings are classified under


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every trading area in the world.

The Commercial Intelligence Division maintains the World Trade Direc-

tory. This directory provides detailed information on around 1,000,000

foreign firms and individuals engaged in world trade. Each report, for

example, cites a firm's method of operation, reputation, size, number of em-

ployees, capital, annual turn-over, ownership or management, represent.

tives or principals in the United States or other countries.

This division announces foreign business visitors and specific export and

import opportunities through New World Trade Leads in Foreign Commerce
Weekly. It also provides, on request, "political" reporting on firms or

individuals whose names appeared at one time or another on the wartime

"black list."

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Intelligence Branch furnishes personalized service to those seeking advice

and counsel on exporting and importing, as well as the various "intangibles"

in world trade. The latter include insurance and commercial and tourist


Information on all aspects of international transportation and com-
munications-shipping, railway, highway, air, pipe-lines inland waterways,

power, public utilities and electrical characteristic s inlanthered and dis-

seminated by the Transportation and testcs-is gahered and dis-
seminated by the T portation and Communications Division. Here the

world trader can obtain current information on facilities, rates, and services

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How To Register for Service
United States firms interested in developing world trade identify them-
selves by registering for the Exporters' or Importers' Index maintained by
OIT. In doing so, they provide certain information concerning their back-
ground and activities which enables OIT to assist them intelligently. At
the present time there are approximately 22,000 exporters, importers, and
other organizations registered with OIT.

Commerce Field Offices
The field offices of the Department of Commerce-located for the con-
venience of businessmen in all parts of the country-serve as advance stations
of the Department of Commerce. Their number was increased from 26 to
77 during 1946.
Each office has an International Trade Division with personnel qualified
to advise and counsel on foreign trade matters, and also maintains a library
which contains Department publications on international subjects.
The services of the field offices have long been used by established ex-
porters and importers. Full advantage of them should be taken by new
world traders. A list of the offices and their addresses appears at the back
of this booklet.

Trade Organizations
Foreign trade organizations, the memberships of which are composed
largely of experienced foreign traders, provide an excellent opportunity to
exchange first-hand experience. Many of these clubs hold weekly or
monthly meetings where day-to-day problems and developments are discussed.
Some conduct forums, lecture courses, and foreign-trade clinics which are
valuable to both new and experienced traders. In practically all cases mem-
bers are provided with printed copies of the proceedings.
These foreign trade groups-often affiliates of national organizations-are
recognized as authorities in their field, and are consulted by the policy
boards of Government agencies with respect to controls, regulations, and
procedures. Chambers of commerce and industry trade associations should
also not be overlooked as valuable sources of information concerning the
place of your industry in foreign trade.
Additional information concerning trade associations may be obtained
from the Trade Association Division, Department of Commerce, Washing-
ton 25, D. C.

Private Organizations
Many of the problems of exporting or importing can be delegated to
private organizations which specialize in one or another phase of the dis-

tribution field. Their services are especially helpful to prospective world
traders who cannot or do not wish to maintain their own foreign-selling
For years, many United States manufacturers have placed their products
in foreign markets or obtained necessary raw or semiprocessed materials
from abroad without being involved to any great extent in the actual me-
chanics of international trade. They have avoided these complications by
employing the services of middlemen. Thus, they have engaged in so-called
"indirect" exporting or importing.

Useful Middlemen
Many of today's middlemen are direct descendants or successors to pioneers
in United States foreign trade. They occupy positions of prominence in
world markets. Their usefulness and ability to serve local manufacturers
have been thoroughly proved.
Such middlemen offer a number of methods of operation, each having
advantages and disadvantages commensurate with the risk, effort, or profits
involved. Their functions are detailed in Channels for Trading Abroad and
Export and Import Practice, cited in the bibliography which follows.

Exporters, particularly those located inland, frequently employ freight
forwarders to attend to the details of clearance, cargo space, delivery of goods
to vessels, certificates of origin, and other formalities connected with the
delivery of the goods aboard ship. Customhouse brokers perform similar
services for importers.
A number of the larger banks maintain foreign departments to handle
the financial transactions incidental to international trade and to provide
specific services for their clients. Their trained staffs, through years of
experience in handling financial, credit and exchange questions, possess a

broad knowledge of world trade as a whole. Many of these banks issue
economic bulletins and give consultative service in marketing as well as in
financial matters.
The novice in either exporting or importing will find that many of his
most perplexing problems are routine, daily grist to these private service

Some HelpfulhTools
The Department of Commerce does not compile lists of United States
firms engaged in foreign trade because the field is adequately covered by
nongovernmental directories. The various directories and references cited
on the pages following are sources for information on foreign trade journals,
foreign language advertising media, advertising agencies specializing in for-
eign areas, United States importers, exporters, forwarders, customhouse bro-
kers, and other private organizations offering services in the field of world
The remainder of this pamphlet is devoted to publications on the various
aspects of foreign trade that are considered basic and particularly helpful
to the new world trader. The list intentionally is not complete. There are,
for example, many other excellent publications, both governmental and non-
governmental, which range from the general to the specific and technical.
In this connection, the need for additional research on specific problems
cannot be emphasized too strongly.

Government Publications


Foreign Commerce Weekly. Annual subscription: Domestic, $6;
foreign, $8.75; single copy, 150. Available from Department of Commerce
Field Offices or the Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
A weekly periodical containing up-to-the-minute news on commodities,
services, and foreign countries; export and import opportunities; lists of
foreign business visitors to this country; Latin American exchange rate ta-
bles; information on foreign trade-mark applications; and United States
export controls and related announcements. Each issue also features special
articles on topics of value to world traders.
Export and Import Practice. Trade Promotion Series No. 175, 1938.
310 pp., illus. 400. Available from Department of Commerce Field Office
or the Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
A manual for the new or established exporter or importer, giving a step-
by-step description of how foreign trade is successfully conducted. Freely
illustrated with specimen forms and documents required in export and


import shipments. Contains a glossary of commercial abbreviations, collec-
tion and payments terms, and a convenient index.
Foreign Commerce Yearbook, 1939. 322 pp. (Published by 1942;
now out of print. Copies of this and earlier editions may be consulted at
Department of Commerce Field Office and at most large libraries. Hand-
book of summaries, for a series of comparable years, of the chief economic
statistics, including foreign trade, of the principal countries of the world.
This publication has been issued annually since 1923, except for the years
1927, 1934, and the period of World War II. Publication of similar current
data was begun in January 1945 with a new series of separate country reports
issued in the International Reference Service. (See Foreign Commerce
Yearbook Country series listed under International Reference Service.)
Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States for the
Calendar Year 1942. 971 pp., 1945, $3.50. Available from the Super-
intendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C. A detailed statistical record
of the foreign commerce of the United States; published annually. Shows
articles exported and imported by countries and by customs districts, and
many other tables. Earlier editions are on file at most large libraries and
Department of Commerce Field Offices.
The following tables, prepared for preliminary distribution, are available
from the Bureau of the Census, United States Department of Commerce,
Washington 25, D. C., at the prices noted. The complete bound volume for
the calendar year 1943 will be issued at a later date.
Table No. 1-United States Imports for Consumption and General Imports
of Merchandise by Commodity by Country of Origin-1943. February
1946. 283 pp. 400. (Paper cover.)
Table No. 4-United States Total Exports and Exports Under the Lend-
Lease Program of Domestic Merchandise by Commodity by Country of
Destination-1943. November 1945. 485 pp., 500. (Paper cover.)
Monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce of the United States.
Subscription: $1.25 a year, single copies, 150. Available from the Bureau
of the Census, United States Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C.
Gives the quantity and value of exports and imports, by articles, monthly
and cumulative figures in 1942, 1943 issues. The 1944 and 1945 issues are
in preparation. Publication, which was suspended during the war, will prob-
ably be resumed on a current basis before the end of 1946.
Foreign Trade-Basic Information Sources. July 1946, 46 pp.
Available from the Office of Information, Inquiry and Reference Section,
Commerce Building, Washington 25, D. C., and Department of Commerce
Field Offices. A comprehensive reading list of Government and nongovern-
mental publications relating to the general subject of foreign trade. Lists
directories of foreign traders and names of magazines and journals having
a wide foreign circulation.
Foreign Trade Letters. (Weekly.) Available on request from Depart-
ment of Commerce Field Offices. (See list of offices on last page of this

booklet.) Each letter carries announcements of events and publications
relating to foreign commerce.
Foreign Trade Associations in the United States: 700 in 140
Cities. 1945, 75 pp. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, United
States Department of Commerce. (Out of print. Copies are available for
reference at many large librariess)
An expansion of this booklet entitled Associations in Foreign Trade and
Affairs is now in preparation. In addition to listing over 700 business and
cultural organizations which have a special interest in foreign affairs, the
new booklet will contain text and statistics summarizing the import and export
trade of the United States.

Specific Aids
Industrial Reference Service. A series of reports issued as completed.
Printed in loose-leaf form, punched for standard 3-ring binder. Published
in parts, available by subscription from Department of Commerce Field
Offices or the Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C., as follows:
Part 1, Transportation and Public Utilities, $1.50 a year; Part 2, Chemicals,
Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, $2 per year; Part 3, Motion Pictures and Equip-
ment, $1.50 a year; Part 4, Electrical Equipment, $1.50 a year; Part 5,
Foodstuffs, Fats and Oils, $1.50 a year; Part 6, Forest Products, $1.50 a year;
Part 7, Leather and Its Products, $1.50 a year; Part 8, General Products,
$1.50 a year; Part 9, Textiles and Related Products, $1.50 a year; Part 10,
Machinery and Motive Products, $1.50 a year; Part 11, Metals and Minerals,
$1.50 a year. Copies of single reports, any part, 50 each.
The series includes foreign market surveys on major industries and com-
modities, transportation facilities, by countries, and other basic studies to
aid in making intelligent market analyses.
International Reference Service. A series of reports, issued as
completed. Printed in loose-leaf form, punched for 3-ring binder. Annual
subscription, beginning with Volume II: $2. Copies of single reports, 50
each. Available from Department of Commerce Field Offices or the Super-
intendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Provides basic economic reports gathered throughout the \orld by For-
eign Service Officers of the United States Government. Covers such subjects
as foreign industrial development, preparing shipments to foreign countries,
methods of doing business, costs of doing business and living in foreign
countries, marketing areas, economic situation in foreign countries and for-
eign commercial laws. Includes the Foreign Commerce Yearbook country
series; i. e., separate reports on Colombia, Portugal, Canada, Chile, Peru,
Cuba, Nicaragua, and others.
Channels for Trading Abroad. Economic Series No. 52, 1946, 26 pp.,
100. Available from Department of Commerce Field Offices or the Super-
intendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.

Designed particularly for businessmen who are planning to enter the fields
of exporting or importing for the first time or greatly expand their prewar
trade abroad. Describes the principal channels through which successful
foreign traders export or import their goods. Suggests methods of selecting
representatives and sources of information about them. Also outlines serv-
ices in this field which are available from the Department of Commerce
and its Field Offices throughout the United States.
Commercial Travelers' Guide to Latin America: Part I-West
Coast of South America. Trade Promotion Series No. 179, 1938, 120 pp.,
350. Part II-East Coast of South America. Trade Promotion Series
No. 187, 1938,97 pp., 35. Part III-Mexico, Central America, and the
Caribbean Countries. Trade Promotion Series No. 208, 1940, 244 pp.,
400. Available from Department of Commerce Field Offices or the Superin-
tendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Includes information on available means of transportation, description
of cities, suggested routes and rates, as well as on matters relating to sales
territories and the purchasing power of the population.
Trade Lists. Listings of foreign firms and individuals (agents, distrib-
utors or dealers, exporters, growers, importers, manufacturers, producers,
refiners, etc., classified by commodity and service organizations). Special
listings compiled on request. $1 per classification per country. Available
from Commercial Intelligence Division, Office of International Trade, United
States Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C. A list of the classi-
fications and countries for which trade lists are available may be obtained
on request from the Division.
Trade lists include data on relative size of firm, method of operation, lines
handled, number of salesmen, and territory covered. Among lists is one
entitled Advertising Media, available for practically all Latin American
countries; compilation of these lists will continue until the entire world is
Modern Export Packing. Trade Promotion Series No. 207, 1940, 540
pp., illus., $1.25. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Available
from Department of Commerce Field Offices, or the Superintendent of Docu-
ments, Washington 25, D. C.
Comprehensive manual describing the basic principles of packing mer-
chandise destined for export. Illustrates tested and effective export packing
procedures used in the late prewar years. Revision to include techniques
during the war is planned.

U. S. Government Regulations

Schedule B: Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign
Commodities Exported from the United States. January 1, 1945.
Part I, Alphabetic Index, 423 pp., $1. Part II, Number Classifications and
Articles Included, 295 pp., 650. Published by the Bureau of the Census and

available from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C., and
the Department of Commerce Field Offices.
Contains specific information necessary for the accurate preparation of
the Shippers Export Declaration, required by the United States Government,
for statistical purposes, before shipments may leave this country.
Comprehensive Export Control Schedule. 250 per copy. Available
from Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C., and Department
of Commerce Field Offices.
Based on the official regulations of the Office of International Trade, to-
gether with supplements issued as Current Export Bulletins. Comprises
all regulations relating to export control.
Schedule A: Statistical Classification of Imports into the United
States. September 1946 issue, 500, Bureau of Census. Available from
Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C., and Department of
Commerce Field Offices.
Contains the details required by Collectors of Customs to be given on en-
tries for goods imported into the United States.
Imports of Strategic Materials and Imports of Certain Foods.
Former is subject to General Import Order M-63 and latter is controlled by
War Food Order 63. Copies available on request from Civilian Production
Administration or Department of Agriculture, respectively, Washington 25,
D. C., and from any of the Department of Commerce Field Offices.
Orders contain regulations applying to the importation of certain goods
and food products into the United States and include the lists of commodities
subject to import control.
Customs Regulations of the United States. 1943 edition, 629 pp.,
Bureau of Customs, Treasury Department, $1.50. Available from the Super-
intendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.
Customs regulations on Marine Inspection and Navigation regulations of
the United States. An appendix contains general reference material in addi-
tion to a number of regulations and statutes under which custom officers
and employees perform services for other agencies.
The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals. This list,
familiarly known as the "black list" has been withdrawn. Many business-
men, however, continue to check with the Office of International Trade to
see whether prospective trade contacts were ever listed, and the effect of
such listing. Aside from patriotic considerations, such firms may have
suffered credit-wise, financial-wise, and reputation-wise through their long
continuance on the black list. OIT will also furnish information on any
action taken by the governments of the liberated areas against collaborators.

Foreign Government Regulations
Trading Under the Laws of Foreign Countries Series. Bureau of
Foreign and Domestic Commerce. A series of handbooks devoted to the
essentials of commercial law in various countries. While they do not

attempt an exhaustive study of such laws, the monographs do provide a
reasonable working knowledge of the legal aspects of doing business in
certain areas. Any particular questions, however, should be checked further
because of possible amendments since publication of the handbooks.
Trading Under the Laws of Canada. Trade Promotion Series No.
176, 1939, 151 pp., 200.
Trading Under the Laws of Great Britain. Trade Promotion Series
No. 153, 1935, 170 pp., 150.
Trading Under the Laws of Venezuela. Trade Promotion Series
No. 170, 1937, 108 pp., 15.
The above issues are still available from the Superintendent of Documents,
Washington 25, D. C., at the prices indicated. Other handbooks in this
series are now out of print but copies are available for reference at Depart-
ment of Commerce Field Offices.
Foreign Marks of Origin Regulations. Trade Promotion Series No.
199, 1939, 190 pp., 500. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
Available from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C.,
and Department of Commerce Field Offices.
A survey of the regulations of foreign countries relating to marks of origin
on imported goods and their containers shows country of origin of mer-
Preparing Shipments Series. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce. A series of studies on preparing shipments to foreign countries.
Each outlines essential information on the documentary requirements and
pertinent customs regulations for the guidance of the American exporter in
preparing and dispatching his shipments to the subject area.
Preparing Shipments to British Countries (Except Canada).
Trade Promotion Series No. 154, 1939, 222 pp., 25<.
Preparing Shipments to Canada. International Reference Service,
No. 42, 1941, 33 pp., 5.
Note.-Although these are prewar publications, the information is believed
to be substantially up-to-date, except for any wartime controls still in force.
Preparing Shipments to Cuba. Trade Promotion Series No. 163, 1935
(includes supplement, 1944). 30 pp., 100.
Preparing Shipments to: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil,
British West Indies, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua,
Panama, Peru, Union of South Africa, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
Separate reports on each of countries named in International Reference
Service. 50 per single copy.
All the above Preparing Shipment releases are available from the Super-
intendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C., or any of the Field Offices
of the Department of Commerce, at the prices indicated.
Documentary Requirements on Shipments to Latin America.
August 1945, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, International

Reference Service, 54 per single copy. Available from Superintendent of
Documents, Washington 25, D. C., or the Department of Commerce Field
A concise schedule showing documentary requirements for freight, air
express, and parcel-post shipments to 20 Latin American countries.
Industrial Property Protection Throughout the World. Trade
Promotion Series No. 165. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
1936, 190 pp., 200. Available from Superintendent of Documents, Wash-
ington 25, D. C., or Department of Commerce Field Offices.
A study designed to help foreign traders protect their rights on property,
such as patents, utility models, industrial designs and models, trade-marks,
commercial names, indications of origin, and the question of repression of
unfair competition. Study also gives exporters a better understanding of
the laws governing such property in various countries, and important inter-
national agreements.

Nongovernmental Publications

Approach to Latin American Markets, by Alexander 0. Stanley.
1945, illus., 154 pp. Free. Dun & Bradstreet, Inc., 290 Broadway, New
York 7, N. Y.
General guide for American manufacturer interested in Latin-American
markets either as an outlet for expanding sales volume or as a source of
supply. In addition to geo-economic study of Latin America, author ex-
plains many factors peculiar to trading with Latin-American Republics, such
as financial statement, credit risk, trade-marks, and export advertising.
Dictionary of Foreign Trade, by Frank Henius. 1946, 745 pp., $10.
Prentice-Hall, Inc., 70 Fifth Avenue, New York 11, N. Y.
Defines concisely foreign trade terms, usages, practices and procedures.
Volume contains, in addition to the dictionary proper, specimen forms, al-
phabetically arranged by subject, and a handy table of weights and measures.
Export Selling, A Guide for Connecticut Manufacturers. The
Foreign Trade Committee of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut,
Inc., Hartford, Conn. September 1944, 87 pp., $1.
This booklet discusses in 22 concise chapters the various problems, tech-
niques, and practices of foreign trade.
Foreign Commerce Handbook. Revised, September 1945, 40 pp.,
15. Foreign Commerce Department, Chamber of Commerce of the United
States, Washington 6, D. C.
Designed to furnish members of the Chamber of Commerce a list of the
.leading sources of export and import information and services, both private
and governmental, available in this country.
Foreign Trade: Principles and Practices, by Grover G. Huebner
and R. L. Kramer. 1942, 554 pp., $4. D. Appleton-Century Co., Inc.. 35
West Thirty-second Street, New York 1, N. Y.

A revision of book of same title published in 1930. Includes comprehen-
sive description of import as well as export trade. Covers general principles;
methods of promotion by Government and private agencies; export and im-
port trading organizations and methods; and financial practices in foreign
Getting Into Foreign Trade, by Eugene Van Cleef. 1946, 133 pp.,
$2.50. The Ronald Press Co., 15 East Twenty-sixth Street, New York 16,
N. Y. Addressed to owners and managers planning to enter the foreign field
and to individuals who wish to follow foreign trade as a career, either in
the business world or in Government service. Concentrates on how to get
started and available informational aids to help insure success.
How to Import and Export. (Postwar Foreign Trade Bulletin No. 1.)
World Trade Department, Los Angeles County Chamber of Commerce.
January 1944.
A report of the proceedings at a series of 12 weekly meetings sponsored
by the Los Angeles County Chamber of Commerce. Includes addresses
delivered by successful exporters, importers, and executives of firms, and
Government officials concerned with foreign trade, and minutes of discussions
which followed.
How to Buy and Sell in Latin America. (Postwar Foreign Trade
Bulletin No. 2.) World Trade Department, Los Angeles County Chamber
of Commerce. May 1944.
A report of the discussions at a second series of meetings held under the
auspices of the Los Angeles County Chamber of Commerce.
Institute of Foreign Trade-A Course on Practical Export Prob-
lems. Export Managers Club of St. Louis, Inc., St. Louis, Mo. January
1944. Includes the minutes of the panel discussions. $7.50.
A series of 11 lectures on export problems delivered by practical foreign
traders and Government officials, under the educational direction of St.
Louis University.
Institute of World Trade-Proceedings of the First Bay Area.
San Francisco Bay Area World Trade Promotion Committee, University
Extension, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. January 1946. 111 pp.,
Collection of addresses and discussions given by business and Government
leaders who have specialized in their respective subjects which covered major
phases of exporting and importing. Appendices contain specimen forms
and revised foreign trade definitions.
International Trade Handbook. International Trade Committee of
the Committee for Economic Development, 285 Madison Avenue, New York
17, N. Y. 1946, 100 pp., illus., 500.
Contains detailed information based on the experience of experts in inter-
national trade, setting forth practical steps to be taken into consideration in
conducting either an export or an import business. Separate sections deal
with special problems of the manufacturer, wholesaler, jobber, and retailer.

Appendix provides lists of commercial abbreviations and revised American
and foreign trade definitions.
Modern Export Methods: a Dartnell Survey. The Dartnell Corp.,
4660 Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago, Ill. Loose-leaf textbook, 1938.
Consists of the 12 following sections: New trends in export policies and
methods; where to find business in overseas markets; how to organize for
direct export; the best methods of indirect exporting; how to sell in overseas
markets; export advertising and merchandising; current practice in financing
export trade; methods of handling foreign shipments; the export forwarder
and freight broker; legal aspects of foreign trade; ocean transportation and
communications; and Government relations in foreign trade.
Opportunities for Employment in World Trade and Foreign
Service: An Outline to Guide Returned Servicemen and Women.
August 1945, 50 pp. Free to any returned serviceman or woman; bulk
orders at rate of $15 per hundred. World Trade Department, Los Angeles
Chamber of Commerce.
Pamphlet contains information to assist discharged service personnel in
deciding whether to take up foreign trade as a career. Also describes types
of openings and qualifications necessary to assure success.
Our 100 Leading Imports. Foreign Commerce Department, Cham-
ber of Commerce of the United States, 1615 H Street NW., Washington, D. C.
November 1945, 76 pp., illus., 300.
Outlines salient facts about the 100 leading imports of the United States,
according to their value in 1940. Data include volume and value of imports,
sources, duty status, uses, domestic production and effect of the war on the
commodities covered.
Our World Trade During the War-1939-45. Foreign Commerce
Department, Chamber of Commerce of the United States, 1615 H Street
NW., Washington, D. C. August 1946, 32 pp., illus., 500.
Concise analysis of the unusual trends and characteristics of world trade
during the war period. Reviews significant changes which occurred in the
volume and distribution of many leading export and import commodities;
presents helpful statistical tables from 1942 to 1945, with comparative aver-
age data for earlier and prewar years.
The Practice of Foreign Trade, by J. Anton DeHaas. 1935, 475 pp.,
illus., $4. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 330 West Forty-second Street, New
York 18, N. Y.
A textbook devoted mainly to the organization and the practice of foreign
trade. Explores factors such as tariffs, financing shipments, marketing of
both imports and exports, and selling techniques.
A Review of Export and Import Procedures. 1944, 50 pp., illus.
Free. Guaranty Trust Co. of New York, 140 Broadway, New York 15, N. Y.
Covers the more important phases of transactions incident to the exporta-
tion and importation of products from and to the United States; i. e., terms

of sale on exports, import letters of credit, documents, and American foreign-
trade definitions.
Revised American Foreign Trade Definitions-1941. 1941, 16 pp.
National Foreign Trade Council, Inc., 22 Beaver Street, New York, N. Y.
Adopted July 30, 1941, by a joint committee representing Chamber of
Commerce of the United States, National Council of American Importers,
Inc., and National Foreign Trade Council, Inc. First revision since issuance
of American Foreign Trade Definitions in 1919.

Commercial Directories and
Reference Books

Buyers for Export in New York City. (Annual.) Thomas Ashwell
& Co., Inc., 20 Vesey Street, New York 7, N. Y. $10.
Provides list of New York City export merchants, export commission
houses, export manufacturers' agents and resident purchasing agents for
foreign companies, and a supplementary list of combination export managers
with the names of the manufacturers they represent.
American Register of Exporters and Importers, 1945-46. 1946,
398 pp. American Register of Exporters and Importers, Inc., 170 Broadway,
New York 7, N. Y. $7.50 in the United States; $8 in foreign countries.
Lists concerns and individuals engaged in export and import trade, gives
type of products in which they deal, and the countries with which their
business is conducted.
Custom House Guide. (Annual.) Import Publications, Inc., Box 7,
Station P., Customhouse, New York 4, N. Y. $20, plus postage.
The following are listed for each port of entry: Customhouse brokers,
freight forwarders, steamship lines and agents, stevedores, United States
Customs bonded truckmen, United States Customs bonded warehouses, gen-
eral warehouses, foreign consuls, chambers of commerce, port authorities.
Also Canadian customs brokers, freight forwarders, and customs bonded
warehouses; foreign forwarding agents, customs headquarters of foreign
countries. Kept up to date by a monthly supplementary service.
Exporters Encyclopedia. (Annual.) 1,800 pp. maps. Published by
Thomas Ashwell & Co., Inc., 20 Vesey Street, New York 7, N. Y. $20.
Described as a "complete export shipping guide." Contains sections on
ports and trade centers, trade and shipping regulations, foreign countries,
communications, foreign trade organizations, export and shipping practice,
and general export information. Lists foreign trade organizations, freight
forwarders, and steamship lines in this country.
Phelon's New York City Export Buyers List. (Annual-April.)
J. S. Phelon & Co., 32 Union Square, New York, N. Y. $10.

Gives export houses in New York City engaged in buying merchandise for
foreign countries, showing class of merchandise bought, countries to which
it is exported, and foreign firms.
Plant Purchasing Directory. 1946, Spring edition. (Bi-annual,
Spring and Fall). Conover-Mast Publication, 333 North Michigan Avenue,
Chicago 1, Ill.
Buying guide designed especially to meet the needs of plant managers,
superintendents, maintenance men, and buying officials.
Thomas' Register of American Manufacturers, 1946. 1945 (An-
nual-December.) Thomas Publishing Co., 461 Eighth Avenue, New York 1,
N.Y. $15.
Classifies manufacturers by kind of product; arranged geographically with
street addresses and capital ratings; listed alphabetically with indication of
nature of products; trade name section, listing registered trade names alpha-
betically; and export section.



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per year


.. ,*
Foreign Commerce Weekly contains
feature articles on timely subject, of particular interest
to the foreign trader. Regular departments include
news items by countries and commodities with sec-
tions devoted to foreign exchange, finance, tariffs
and trade controls, wartime commodity controls,
commercial-law notes, book reviews.
A sample copy will be sent, upon request to the
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
Washington, D. C.

6.oo per year, from the Superinendent of Docenrats, Goorrnment Printng Office, Hahington

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