A O i
WHY YOU SHOULD
CONSIDER A GOVERNMENT CAREER
1. Because appointment and advancement depend on
ability.-All qualified applicants receive considera-
tion for appointment without regard to sex, race, re-
ligion, color, national origin, politics, or any other
nonmerit factor. The same principles of equal em-
ployment opportunity apply after appointment.
2. Because skilled women are given a better chance to
prove themselves.-Women have the chance to work
in practically every occupation open to men in the
Federal service. Their skills in particular fields and
their aptitude for certain work mean that more
women than men are hired to fill some jobs.
3. Because there's room to grow.-The Government is
the largest employer in the United States. Its work
requires hundreds of different skills. The large
number of jobs, and the opportunity to transfer from
one agency to another, assures maximum oppor-
tunity for advancement.
4. Because the Government is a good boss.-Federal
career workers receive excellent "fringe" benefits,
sick leave, life insurance, health insurance and retire-
ment benefits, and opportunities for career advance-
ment through training.
5. Because you'll work with stimulating people.-The
issues of today are the reason for Government's need
of so many intelligent and responsible people. As
a Government worker you'll have a part in many of
this country's achievements and be associated with
men and women as interesting as their jobs.
6. Because the Federal merit system lets you enjoy
"the best of both worlds."-After 3 years of satis-
factory Government service, the Government worker
has "career status." Should a woman find it neces-
sary to leave her job and devote herself to her home,
her career status will help her if she later decides to
return to Government work. She may qualify for
a Federal assignment without competing in an
FEDERAL : /-
WOMEN s 1
Anyone who still thinks that all Government career
women are girl-Friday types in Washington offices is in
for a big surprise. Women in Federal service have rung
the bell in every occupation from astrophysics to zoology.
From tropical shores to arctic snows, in all parts of our
country and in virtually all parts of the world, women
are distinguishing themselves-some providing indis-
pensable support to leaders of vital Government pro-
grams, others as experts in their own right. Some of
them work in occupations traditionally thought of as
woman's special fields, but a great many are in fields still
generally regarded as man's exclusive province.
About 605,000 women are employed by the Federal
Government. Between 1959 and 1962, women in Fed-
eral white-collar jobs increased by about 41,000, notably
in the fields of general office work, supply, law, educa-
tion, personnel, and accounting and fiscal positions.
Women predominate today in several occupations, and
in some bureaus of Federal agencies. They outnumber
men in four broad occupational groups: general office
work, personnel administration, mathematics and statis-
tics, and library and archives. There are also more
women than men working as nurses, dietitians, and social
workers. Sizable numbers are employed in accounting
and budget, and postal work. In the Children's Bureau
of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
in the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor, and
in two divisions of the Department of Agriculture-
Human Nutrition Research and Household Economics
Research-many women workers are concentrated.
The history of women's progress in Government em-
ployment is a story of slow but steady advancement. Al-
though there were a few women postmasters appointed
before 1800, the employment of women by the Govern-
ment was generally looked upon with great disfavor until
after the Civil War. Not only was it rather widely as-
sumed that office work was beyond Delicate Woman's
physical or mental capacities, the mere presence of
women in public offices was regarded by many as a gross
affront to propriety.
Beginning in 1862 the Treasury Department pioneered
in the employment of women. "Female clerks," de-
clared their supervisor emphatically, "are more diligent
and efficient than males!" Following the success of the
Treasury experiment, a small number of "lady clerks"
gained a foothold in other departments. For a long
time, however, women were hired primarily as an econ-
omy measure-they were usually paid about half as much
as men doing the same work.
The Civil Service Act of 1883 marked the real turning
point in Government careers for women. The merit
system established by that Act made it possible for them
to compete for appointment on equal terms with men-
and they did. A young woman, a' graduate of Vassar,
was the second person to be appointed from a civil-serv-
ice examination. Prejudice against them was broken
down little by little, not by any theoretical considerations
of abstract justice but by the performance of the women
themselves on the job.
World War I greatly increased their numbers and gave
them a chance to prove their ability in a variety of occupa-
tions, although postwar reduction of the Government
work force showed that their permanent gains were
largely in clerical fields.
With the Classification Act of 1923, which established
the principle of equal pay for equal work, women at last
gained equality with men on the payroll.
The manpower demands of World War II finally
opened the doors of all professional, technical, and ad-
ministrative fields to women-and they have kept those
doors open ever since by their own efforts and achieve-
ments. They are now found in four-fifths of all the
occupations in the Federal Government.
IN SIGHT z
President John F. Kennedy established the President's
Commission on the Status of Women with the issuance
of Executive Order 10980 on December 14, 1961. He
assigned it the task of developing recommendations to
assure nondiscrimination on the basis of sex and to en-
hance constructive employment opportunities for women
in Government and private employment. It was also
asked for recommendations for services which would al-
low women to continue their roles as wives and mothers
while making a maximum contribution to the world
The Civil Service Commission worked closely with the
President's Commission on the Status of Women to
identify employment practices that work against women
in their attempts to be appointed to Federal positions and
to advance on the basis of merit alone. In 1962, acting
under new authority, the Civil Service Commission put
an end to the traditional practice of barring women from
consideration for many positions. The new rules direct
that no training opportunity or position shall be denied
any person on the basis of sex, except in unusual situations
found justified by the Commission. Evaluation of a
person's experience, skills, and physical requirements is
recognized as the only valid yardstick in determining a
person's fitness for appointment and advancement.
Both Commissions have had common goals: to provide
equality of opportunity for appointment and advance-
ment and to identify inequitable and discriminatory prac-
tices in employment.
The President's Commission made its final report to
the President in October 1963, stating that the Federal
Government can become a showcase for equal employ-
ment opportunity without discrimination of any kind and
noting that action on its recommendations took place so
rapidly that the report became "an account of progress
Soon after the President's Commission on the Status
of Women submitted its report, the President established
an Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women
and a Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of
Women to assure the full participation of women in
American life. The Committee is to transmit annually
to the President a consolidated report on the activities of
the two groups.
President Johnson has made it clear that he is deter-
mined to enlist women in his administration. He has
said, "I am insisting that women play a larger role in this
Government's plans and programs."
The President also said, "It will be a continuing aim
not because it is politic, but because it is sound." With
this long-range goal of having women participate more
in the important work of the Government, the Federal
Government is engaged in an intensive talent search for
womanpower. It is urging women to make their qualifi-
cations known so that they may be considered when
filling Government positions of all kinds.
Because of the distinguished work of the President's
Commission and active leadership in the executive
branch, there are signs that the customs preventing
women from realizing their full potential are gradually
disappearing. Above all, women themselves are prov-
ing by their day-to-day achievements that equal ability
must be rewarded by equal opportunity to succeed-
".. because it is sound."
WOMAN'S r :
The achievements of women in Government have
helped to make the Federal career service what it is
today-a fine example of people working together for
the Nation's progress. Their contributions have been
felt since those first "lady clerks" appeared on the Fed-
eral scene in the 1800's. The distinction with which
they have served has made possible many of the advances
by which modern America defends itself and guards its
welfare. Yet, public recognition has been slow in de-
veloping, and the tributes due women in Government
have frequently failed to materialize.
To spotlight the accomplishments of top-caliber career
women in the Federal service, a special award for them
was established in 1960.
The Federal Woman's Award has three major pur-
poses: to provide well-deserved public recognition to the
recipients and new incentive to others, to highlight the
important work that women are doing in executive, pro-
fessional, scientific, and technical positions, and to stimu-
late the recruitment of talented and ambitious young
women who might not otherwise know of the many fine
career opportunities offered by the Federal service
throughout the United States and abroad.
From the thousands of women in professional, ad-
ministrative, and technical positions who serve with dis-
tinction, Federal administrators each year make up to
three nominations, from their agencies, for the Federal
From those nominated, a panel of distinguished citi-
zens, on behalf of the Board of Trustees for the Award,
selects six outstanding women to receive the award at
Among the women named by agencies for considera-
tion for the award have been representatives from an im-
pressive range of occupational fields. They include
doctors, lawyers, scientists, and engineers; high-ranking
executives, foreign service officers, commercial and in-
dustrial experts; and distinguished specialists in aviation,
space research, and nuclear-age weapons. Also well
represented are the traditional women's occupations such
as social welfare, nursing, nutrition, and library science.
The 1964 awards went to women in six different
career fields-commerce, foreign service, mathematics,
medicine, personnel training, and social welfare.
Over 90 percent of Federal positions. in the United
States today are filled through the competitive merit sys-
tem established by the Civil Service Act of 1883. Nine-
tenths of Federal positions are outside Washington,
D.C.-in towns and cities all over the country-so it is
often possible for a woman to secure a Government job
People without experience usually take a written test.
The examination for people with experience or with
some kinds of technical training may simply require sub-
mitting applications, which are all rated under the same
standards on the basis of the information in them, subject
to verification. Applicants with the highest ratings are
given first consideration in filling positions.
Gateway to career opportunities in Government for
college-caliber people is the Federal-Service Entrance
Examination. Open to college seniors and graduates
regardless of major, as well as to persons with experience
comparable to college graduation, the FSEE is used to
fill trainee-level positions in all but a few highly technical
occupations. The objective of the examination, given
throughout the college year, is to bring into Government
highly qualified, career-minded men and women who
have the potential to grow and develop and become the
Government's career managers, technicians, and profes-
sional leaders of tomorrow. Annually the Government
makes about 8,000 appointments from this examination
to fill its requirements for a continuing supply of able
men and women interested in challenging and respon-
sible positions with a future. Nearly 50 agencies fill
positions from this examination. Thus one application
can open the way for consideration in many agencies.
Scientists and engineers entering the Federal service
have unprecedented opportunity to participate in re-
search and development work of vital importance. Ap-
pointments to these positions are usually made, not from
the FSEE, but from separate examinations. For most
of them, no written test is required.
Other examinations for specific professions, such as ac-
counting, are also announced from time to time.
Less education and experience are required for many
positions such as stenographer, typist, office machine
operator, technical aid in the physical and biological sci-
ences, and post office clerk. Most of them call for a
written or performance test.
The positions of typist and stenographer provide an
open door for women with a high school education.
Many women enter Federal service in these positions,
complete their education after hours, and progress to
more responsible, specialized positions.
No competitive examinations are required for Federal
jobs not under civil service, which are scattered through
the various agencies. All positions in a few agencies-
the Foreign Service of the Department of State, the
Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Atomic Energy
Commission, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the
Department of Medicine and Surgery of the Veterans
Administration-are not under civil service. For infor-
mation about such jobs, you should get in touch with the
A ROAD MAP
TO THE JOB
* Prepare yourself well for the occupation of your
choice. A college education will help.
* Get in touch with a nearby Federal establishment, or
one of the offices listed on the back of this pamphlet,
to find out whether the Government is currently ac-
cepting applications for your occupation. Some ex-
aminations are open all the time, others periodically,
according to the vacancies Federal agencies anticipate.
* If you are a college student, get in touch with your col-
lege placement officer. He has information about
open examinations and a reference copy of the Fed-
eral Career Directory-A Guide for College Students,
which matches college majors with different kinds of
* Apply for the examination that interests you and for
which you believe you are qualified.
Men and women should remember that civil service
examinations are open to every American citizen regard-
less of sex, race, creed, or politics. Appointments are
made on merit, and advancement is on the same basis.
Thousands of employees-men and women alike-are
making successful careers in the Federal service. They
work in programs of national and even worldwide im-
portance. Many of them feel that sharing in work that
is of such vital importance to so many millions of people
is the most attractive and exciting feature of Government
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08135 069 5
CIVIL SERVICE REGIONAL OFFICES
For local employment information, contact the U.S.
Civil Service Regional Office for your State. Address
Director, ............................................ Region, U.S. Civil
Atlanta Region.-Atlanta Merchandise Mart, 240 Peachtree
Street NW., Atlanta, Ga., 30303: Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
Mississippi, North Carolina, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Ten-
nessee, and Virgin Islands.
Boston Region.-Post Office and Courthouse Building, Bos-
ton, Mass., 02109: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
Chicago Region.-Main Post Office Building, Chicago, Ill.,
60607: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and
Dallas Region.-1114 Commerce Street, Dallas, Tex., 75202:
Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Denver Region.-Building 41, Denver Federal Center, Den-
ver, Colo., 80225: Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and
New York Region.-News Building, 220 E. 42d Street, New
York, N.Y., 10017: New Jersey and New York.
Philadelphia Region.-Customhouse, Second and Chestnut
Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., 19106: Delaware, Maryland, Pennsyl-
vania, Virginia, and West Virginia.
San Francisco Region.-Box 36010, 450 Golden Gate Ave-
nue, San Francisco, Calif., 94102: California, Hawaii, and
Seattle Region.-302 Federal Office Building, First Avenue
and Madison Street, Seattle, Wash., 98104: Alaska, Idaho,
Montana, Oregon, and Washington.
St. Louis Region.-Federal Building, 1520 Market Street,
St. Louis, Mo., 63103: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri,
Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
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