1 CHOOSING A CURRICULUM SERIES FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL GENERAL MUSIC By BRENDA ZELT SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: DR. TIMOTHY S. BROPHY, CHAIR PROFESSOR RONALD BURRICHTER, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF FINE AR TS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011
2 2011 Brenda Zelt
3 To my mother
4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS An understanding heart is everything in a teacher, and cannot be esteemed highly enough. One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but with gratitude to those who touched our human feeling. The curriculum is so much necessary raw material, but warmth is the vital element for the growing plant and for the soul of the child. Carl Jung (1875 1961) I would like to thank Dr. Timothy Brophy for all his guidance and direction on this project and all my years as music education student at UF. I cannot express just how m uch his confidence and support has meant to me. I would also like to thank Dr. Leslie Odom and Dr. Russell Robinson for their unending support. I thank both my fianc and my father for always being there for me. Lastly, I would like to thank Professor Rona ld Burrichter for serving on my committee and for taking a chance on a college freshman who desperately wanted to be a music major. Without him, I would not have come this far.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 8 Significance of the Problem ................................ ................................ .................. 8 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ............................ 9 Definition of Ter ms ................................ ................................ ............................... 9 Delimitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 8 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ........ 10 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 10 Philosophical Perspectives ................................ ................................ ................. 10 Theoretical Background ................................ ................................ ...................... 12 Issues and Trends in Music Education ................................ ............................... 16 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ............................... 24 4 ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 26 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 2 6 Selecting a Curriculum Series ................................ ................................ ............ 2 6 M us ic Expressions ................................ ................................ .............................. 30 Making Music ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 3 5 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 41 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 41 What aspects of music education appear consistently in the literature ............... 41 What aspects of music education do the developers of music curriculum series deem most important? ................................ ................................ ........ 42 What are the criteria teachers should consider when selecting a curriculum series ................................ ................................ ........................... 42 Suggestions for Further Study ................................ ................................ ............ 43 APPENDIX A NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR MUSIC EDUCATION ................................ ....... 44 B ALIGNMENT OF NATIONAL AND STATE STANDARDS, GRADES 6 8 .......... 45
6 C QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN SELECTING A CURRICULUM SERIES ............. 4 8 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 9 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 5 4
7 Abstract of Project in Lieu of Thesis Presented to the College of Fine Art s of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Music CHOOSING A CURRICULUM SERIES FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL GENERAL MUSIC By Brenda Zelt August 2011 Chair: Timothy S. Brophy Major: Music Education Given the enigmatic nature of the middle school general music course, it is common for teachers to adopt a curriculum series. These curriculum series typically contain materials and lessons designed to provide a comprehensive music education both during and betw een grade levels. It is important for a teacher to select the series best suited to their needs and the needs of their students. A review of the literature based on categories determined by an analysis of terms common to music education books, the M ENC : Th e National Association for Music Education website, and the 2011 Florida Music Educators Association conference guided the development of a set o f criteria that teachers can use to evaluate a curriculum series. The final list includes categories from both the literature review and an examination of the marketing materials of two curriculum series. The criteria are philosophical and theoretical foundations, scope, sequence, student engagement, assessment, multiculturalism, curriculum integration, flexibility ease of use, lesson enhancements, and budget. By evaluating a curriculum series with respect to these criteria, a teacher will be able to select the ideal series for their situation.
8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION For students who have no desire to be in a p erformance ensemble in secondary school or when high school music electives are not available, the last time they may receive formal music education is in the middle school general music or music appreciation class (Regelski, 2004; Davis, 2011) This place s a great responsibility on the teacher to expose these students to as much as possible within a limited span of time. The teacher is responsible for deciding what to teach and how to teach it unless the administration has created or adopted a music curric ulum. The responsibility of selecting which curriculum series to adopt may fall upon the teacher. Even if a teacher prefers to create their own curriculum, many classrooms contain general music textbooks as an additional resource. With so many choices avai lable, how does the teacher decide what materials to use? Significance of the Problem It is vital that the teacher recommend the curriculum which will best suit the needs of the students and which will help the teacher instill students with a comprehensiv e understanding of music and leave them with an appreciation of music beyond consumerism. Students who had a meaningful experience in their music classes may grow up to be parents and voters who can have a lifetime of adult musical enjoyment (Davis, 2011). independence students need to make meaningful musical choices that enable them to be more effectively involved with music throughout life than just as listeners of the latest (Regelski, 2004, p. x)
9 Purpose of the Study To that end, the purpose of this project was to develop a guide based upon a review of the literature and an analysis of existing curriculum series that music educators can use when selecting a general music curriculum se ries. The following research questions guided this study: What aspects of general music education appear consistently in the literature? What aspects of music education do the developers of music curriculum series deem the most important? What are the criteria teachers should evaluate when selecting a curriculum series? Definition of Terms Curriculum series : a program with a clear scope and sequence designed to help educators deliver a comprehensive education in a certain area, typically drawing the s kills and concepts from a set of standards, and usually including student textbooks, a teacher edition with lesson plans, and supplementary materials. A curriculum series is also known as a music textbook series or a basal series Delimitations C urriculum series analysis was limited by availability of and access to current editions and focused only on those designed for general music or music appreciation, grades 6 8. Likewise, the literature review of issues and trends in general music education dealt mai nly with grades 6 8.
10 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction The review of related literature begins with an examination of philosophical views of music education as pertain ing to curriculum development and emphasis. A summary of theoretical bac kgrounds guiding content selection in the general music class follows. This section concludes with an outline of issues and trends affecting decision making and curriculum content in the music class. Philosophical Perspectives Four major philosophies have influenced education systems in the United States throughout the years: idealism, realism, pragmatism, and existentialism (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2009) Idealism promotes an approach to education focusing on knowledge and concepts. Realism, or empiricism, de pends on observation with a strong emphasis on reason. A curriculum based on realism would provide the opportunity for the (Abeles, Hoffer, & Klotman, 1995, p. 54) necessary in both society and the specific content area. Pragmatists consider the acquisition of knowledge a constantly shifting process and believe a curriculum should include many opportunities for critical thinking. The existentialist view places emphasis on th aterial studied. Scheib (2006) takes a slightly different approach to philosophies of education and curriculum. He posits that the four major philosophical movements of curricular thought are humanism, developmentalism, social efficiency, and social meli orism. Humanists believe that the curriculum should center on traditional subject matter from Western culture. Developmentalists place emphasis on the developmental stages of
11 children and argue for a child ests and abilities. The social efficiency movement advocates a streamlined curriculum preparing ational (Scheib, 2006, p. 6) Social meliorists believe that society can improve through education and seek a curriculum focused on current societal issues. McCarthy and Goble (20 02) argue that the philosophical basis for music education has shifted through several schools of thought: functional, aesthetic, sociological, cognitive, and praxial. Lowell Mason (1792 l music teacher of the United States in 1838. Mason upheld a functional philosophy of music education and advocated the inclusion of music based on its potential intellectual, moral, and physical benefits to participants. The music education as aesthetic education movement ( MEAE ) prepares (McCarthy & Gobl e, 2002, p. 21) A curriculum adhering to an aesthetic philosophy emphasizes the listening experience. Proponents have drawn a connection between a esthetic sensitivity and scholastic achievement. Critics of aesthetic philosophy argue a lack of cultural acc ommodation while p ositive effects of the MEAE movement include the validation of music as a curricular subject and the development of a united conceptual basis (McCarthy & Goble, 2002)
12 The prevailing preference for an aesthetic philosophy of music educat ion gave way near the end of the 20 th century to the emergence of a praxial philosophy. Regelski (2004) explains the differen ce between the aesthetic and praxial philosoph ies. He states, es said to Th e praxial philosophy leaves room for the appreciation of multicultural music a nd music activity. A (Elliott, 1995, p. 259) while seeking to tions, and interactions that (Elliott, 1995, p. 266) Koopman (1998) addresses the debate between MEAE and the praxial approach views can increase our understanding of the many dimension s relevant to musical activities, aesthetic views can enhance our insight into these differing philosophies both have their place in music education and are not mutually exclusive. Theoretical Background Middle school students are in a stage of development known as transescence: the transition between late childhood and early adolescence At this stage, students are more likely to question adult authority and misbehave d ue to increasing social awareness. Students are slowly progressing from the concrete operational stage to the formal operational stage meaning that most will find abstract thinking difficult.
13 Additionally, this age group is generally concerned with develop ing a sense of identity and a feeling of belonging. S tudent cognitive development requires concrete musical actions, reflective abstraction, and acting adaptively to construct functional concepts to use later. Furthermore, since the ability to think abstra ctly is still developing, students will perform better when the teacher presents skills and concepts in a real life context (Regelski, 2004) In Teaching Music in Secondary Schools (2001) Charles Hoffer outlines elements he believes necessary to successf ul and effective teaching. Considering these elements when selecting a curriculum will alleviate some of the issues plaguing middle school general music teachers. Early teenagers will respond more positively to concrete content such as vocal or instrumenta l works about real people, with easy to follow text, or with a clearly defined meaning. Likewise, the ability to achieve results quickly will keep an impatient age group motivated. Choosing material that relates to students will also keep motivation leve ls high. An instructor can take steps to help students see the relevance of music to their lives while still providing a traditional music education. It is not necessary, nor useful, to base an entire curriculum around popular music ; h owever, popular musi c is a means to engage students Another element outlined in the chapter is active learning through performing, creating, games, contests, etc. Appealing to student maturity is another means to success treating the students like adults may result in the st udents acting like adults. Lastly, Hoffer (2001) advocates a curriculum that contains variety. An instructor will have a chance to find success with a greater number of students when they maintain a high level of interest.
14 This still leaves the question o f subject matter. Davis (2011) succinctly describes and a music program? Or is it a de celerated version of the college music appreciation course? What exactly should take place in the middle school general music class, and for whom (Davis, 2011, p. 17) relating school music ac tivities directly to adult music making by including active, hands on learning experiences; in depth exploration of active listening; and opportunities for social connection. Most music educators advocate including elements of creating, performing, and lis tening along with the theoretical elements of notation, history, and style (Boardman, 2001; Hoffer, 2001). Different curriculum models place greater emphasis on certain skills or concepts. Conway (2002) outlines several curriculum models in her article fro m the Music Educator s Journal A teacher can determine the model, or combinations of models, best suited to their needs and select a curriculum accordingly. The four models are objectives based, literature based, skills based, and knowledge based. An objec tives based curriculum is a "four phase process that involves (1) developing objectives, (2) sequencing those objectives (often referred to as scope and sequence), (3) designing activities to meet the objectives (lesson plans), and (4) designing evaluation tools to assure that learning takes place" (Conway, 2002, p. 56) A curriculum following this approach will have a clearly outlined scope and sequence with assessment opportunities after the majority of lessons and/or units.
15 The next model is a literatur e based curriculum. In this model, the curriculum and curriculum works very well for performance based courses" (Conway, 2002, p. 56) meaning that it is poorly suit e d to a general music class. A skills based curriculum stresses musical behaviors and concepts such as singing, playing, moving, tonality, and meter. These objectives do not include affective elements such as student attitudes or preferences. A knowledge ba sed curriculum contrasts with a skills based curriculum by emphasizing cognitive elements such as vocabulary, music theory, and music history. Although the question of content has yet to be resolved, there have been attempts to find an answer. In 1994, the Music Educators National Conference published a set of nine voluntary National Standards for preK 12 music instruction (Lehman, 2008) Development on the standards began in 1992 (The National Standards for Arts Education) The standards consist of nine ge neral abilities along with a listi ng of more specific achievements divided by grade level. Appendix A lists the National Standards for M usic The standards roughly divide into three artistic processes: creating, performing, and describing ( Wells, 1997 ; Boardman, 2001 ). However, since the National Standards are broad, most states have developed their own, more specific, standards. For example, Florida has the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) in Music. Appendix B contains an alignment of th e National Standards and the NGSSS for grades 6 8. These standards, both state and national, play a strong role in determining the overall scope of a music curriculum
16 Issues and Trends in Music Education Price and Orman (1999) conducted a content analysi s of national conferences held by MENC: The National Association for Music Education from 1984 through 1998. (p. 26) This type of analysis also directs attention toward current trends The researchers found that sessions fall into the categories of business meetings, concerts, educational sessions, general sessions, key focus sessions, and receptions. Orman and Pri ce then broke down the sessions within each category by subject area. The subject areas included general music, performance, administration, teacher education, collegiate, MENC, research, technology, industry, exceptionalities, multicultural, and advocacy. The researchers specifically noted a rise in sessions on multicultural issues and a decrease in sessions on exceptionalities. T echnology, exceptionalities, and multiculturalism must be addressed in a general music curriculum. Price and Orman (2001) expand ed upon their original research by analyzing the content of the MENC 2000 National Biennial In Service Conference and relating the representation and decline of sessions relat (p. 231) an increase in technology oriented sessions, and sessions on multiculturalism stayed about the same. Price and Orman (2007) expanded yet again upon their 1999 and 2001 research with an analysis of the content of four national mus Choral Directors Association (ACDA) MENC : The National Association for Music Education Midwest Clinic and American Orff Schulwerk Association. The researchers
17 found that the ACDA conference and Midwest clinic did not offer any sessions on teaching exceptional students while less than one percent of the sessions at t he MENC and Orff Schul werk conferences were on teaching exceptional students. S essions on technology were represented mostly by MENC at 5.8 percent an d sessions on multiculturalism were represented at all conferences but Midwest with the Orff Schulwerk conference offering the most at 17%. Multiculturalism American music education has historically emphasized Western art music over music with different tonal structures However, beginning in the 1960s, multicultural music began to find a place in classrooms. The Music Educators Journal ran its first special issue on multicultural music in 1971 and then again in 1972, 1983, and 1992. (Volk, 1993) Campbel l (1992) examined research studies on multicultural music education to determine the most prevalent issues. She found the issues encompassed the eachers music of a specific ethni (p. 26) as well as studies seeking to define the (p. 27) A teacher choosing a textbook would most likely be concerned with the i ntegrity of the world music content. Abril (2006) presents a framework for determining the validity and appropriateness of multicultural materials within three domains: cultural validity, bias, and practicality. Teachers can find increased confidence in th e cultural validity of their materials by looking for publishers with a good reputation, selecting a
18 performer/composer who understands the represented culture, incorporating activities related to the music, and checking for available performance details ( if applicable) to create an authentic rendition. According to Abril (2006) the lyrics of a song can reflect bias along with portraying musical stereotypes Practical issues of teaching multicultural music include instrumentation and voicing, community s ensibilities, and the alignment of materials with curricular goals. Most current curriculum series include multicultural materials. It is then up to the teacher to determine if they are appropriate. Inclusion teaching exceptional st udents Recent legisl ation calls for greater inclusion of students with special needs into general classrooms The most recent legislative act is the amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1997. These amendments mandate with disabilities have special education and related services (Colwell, 2002, p. 9) There are six guiding principles providing structure for special education under the IDEA law. Three principles students are entitled to free appropriate public education, the development of an individual education plan (IEP), and students should learn in the least restrictive environment possible have the most impact on music educators (Colwell, 20 02) MENC published a position statement on their website for inclusivity in music education. It reads: By law and by custom, those involved in the delivery of education in our nation strive to bring education to the entire populace. Excluding some America ns from music education denies them access to one of the core academic subjects, music, as an essential path toward meeting their educational needs, breaking social and economic barriers, and accommodating diverse learning and teaching. Music education mus t
19 involve and serve individuals from all demographic strata in our society. ( Inclusivity in Music Education Position Statement, 2003) In her article from the Music Educators Journal, Mary Adamer (2001) lists areas for adaptations that will allow students w ith special needs a greater chance for success in the music class. Participation: a dapt the extent of student in volvement to suit their abilities, being sure that the experience is meaningful and the student is not singled out Difficulty level: adapt the required skill level through multi layered activities Level of support: provide the student with adequate assistance to be successful while still allowing for independence Input: adapt instruction to suit different learning styles such as increasing vis ual aids or incorporating more hands on lessons Output: vary the types of responses required Alternative goals: adapt outcome expectations while still doing the same musical tasks Alternative materials: adapt instruments or classroom setup to fit poten tial physical limitations Likewise, VanWeelden (2011) identifie s specific educational supports that may allow all students an increased chance for success: written words, icons; pictures representing written words, color coding; using color to group like objects, other visual aids, echoing; the student repeats words after the teacher, peer mentoring, and assistive and supportive technology; adaptive devices to help students be successful. Technology The use of technology in the classroom has grown trem endously in the past few years. The most recent Florida Music Educators Conference in January 2011 had 24 sessions pertaining to technology approximately 12 percent of the total sessions.
20 Many of these sessions centered on composition in the classroom. Man y classrooms now have computer programs such as GarageBand that allow students to take advantage of technology in the learning environment. Other sessions examined the place of digital media such as podcasts or apps applications for electronic devices. (F lorida Music Education, 2011) The N ext Generation Sunshine State Standards reflect ( Florida Department of Education) Hal Peterson (2006) discusses technology tips and tric ks for music educators in an article from General Music Today The tips are : (1) be involved, (2) use music software, (3) use administrative software, (4) use graphics software, (5) use the hardware, (6) use the peripherals, and (7) make music instruction drop in labs. The tricks are : (1) purchase multiplatform software, (2) perform maintenance on the equipment, (3) work out potential problems in advance, (4) utilize (5) if the opportunity arises, pl an appropriately for the technology lab set up. Peterson also recommends having students use the internet for research, use PowerPoint to create presentations, use notation software, and use digital audio software. M any published curriculum series offer p eriodically updated online resources to help teachers stay current. Thompson (1999) identifies several uses for the internet including as an electronic reference library, a tool for individual practice and drill, and as a learning center in the classroom.
21 Curriculum integration Another topic well represented in the literature is the growing trend towards curriculum integration. Most literature on this topic focuses on integrating music into outside subjects through an interdisciplinary curriculum. Whi le a music textbook can enable a classroom teacher to incorporate music into their lessons, the music teacher selecting a curriculum series may value suggestions on how to incorporate outside subjects into the music class. This also helps students achieve s tandard eight of the National Standards understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts The increased emphasis on outside subjects in the music class can be attributed in part to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 which uses high stakes standardized testing to determine school funding and status. This has caused principals to cut time for arts instruction to allot more time to the instruction of tested subjects (Gerber & Gerrity, 2007). Gerber and Gerrity (2 (p. 19) Similarly, Branscome (2005) identifies a few of the responsibi lities of music educators as preparing students for future roles as musicians and enhanc learning in core curricular subjects for those in (p. 18) Claudia Cornett, in her book Creating Meaning t hrough Literature and the Arts (2007 ), summarize d research on arts integration into the general classroom. She f ound that arts integration can improve academic achievement, have beneficial cognitive effects, improve student performance in literacy and math, increase student motivation,
22 impro and better engage diverse learners (Cornett, 2007) Engaging students Ideally, participation in school music will lead students to view music education as important to their lives. Campbell, Connell, & Beegle (2007) determine the significance of music and music education to middle and high school (p. 220) They analyzed responses to a national essay contest on preventing the elimination of m usic education in schools. The responses indicated that the majority of adolescents view music as highly important to their lives whether or not they were currently involved in school music classes. The researchers also found that ore provisions for the study of music that is relevant to their (Campbell Connell, & Beegle, 2007, p. 230) Thompson (1991) believes that development of positive (p. 11) He music and examined trends from 1970, 1980, and 1990. Thompson found that the preferred creating activities increased over time. He also found that students in the 1990 sample preferred the classical music examples over the pop hits from the 1970s
23 the attention of our students by using popular music, (Thompson, 1991, p. 16) In a survey of the music experiences and practices of adults, the researchers found that out of the 60 adult participants less than 10% currently engage in singing or playing an instrument (VanWeelden & Walters, 2004) However, the majority of participant s had participated in music classes in elementary and middle school. The researchers also found that half of the participants could not read music but did not specify in the report how many participants were once able to read music. This is contradictory t o a typical formal music education, which focuses in some part on the specifics of musical notation. The researchers also asked the participants about habits of music listening and consumerism. The results indicated that the participants were more likely to purchase and listen to popular music or the music that was popular during their teenage years (VanWeelden & Walters, 2004) Although these results cannot be generalized to the entire adult population, they provide a means to insights of potential issues with current general music curriculums. The researchers believe that the disparity between experiences in the music classroom and real life m usic experiences is a contributing factor in the lack of musical participation later in life. Tailoring the genera l music class to fit the future musical needs of students can close this gap (VanWeelden & Walters, 2004).
24 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY To complete this project, I conducted a review of literature on the middle school general music c urriculum. I utilized a n in ternet database of peer reviewed journals to look for articles published no later than 1990 that presented a broad focus on music curriculum development. This provided the basis for the sections on philosophical perspectives and theoretical background. To develop the section on issues and trends in music education I looked for articles on specific concepts and skills important to the curriculum as well as best practices for engaging students. I began my search by examining chapter headings in books on mus ic education popular topics on the MENC website and the schedule for the 2011 Florida Music Educators Association conference I determined that elements appearing in all three sources should become categories within the section on issues and trends in mu sic education. I then used these categories as keywords in a database search to complete my literature review. For example, many of the articles I found contained a description of a specific concept or activity designed to engage students effectively. I de termined In addition, I examined the marketing materials for the Music Expressions and Making Music series using the publishe In both cases featured particular aspects of the general music curriculum. It is logical to then assume that the elements included at least once guides are the elements which the publishers and authors of each series found most important. This is useful because the creators of
25 these series are respected music educators who know through experience what is important to a successful general music curr iculum. For example, the marketing materials for both series drew attention to the use of the National Standards as a basis for the curriculum indicating that the teacher selecting a curriculum series would also be concerned about the inclusion of the Nati onal Standards The topics in the final list of criteria include the categories identified in the literature review and highlighted at least once in the marketing materials for both series For instance, the use of authentic multicultural materials appeare d in several of the articles returned by my database search and at least once in the marketing materials for both Music Expressions and Making Music. Therefore, one of the criteria pertains to the use of authentic multicultural materials. I complete d the l ist of criteria with points relevant to the selection process and mentioned one or more times in the marketing materials for both series but not covered in the literature review of scholarly articles
26 CH APTER 4 ANALYSIS Introduction This section cont ains a list of the criteria a teacher may wish to evaluate when selecting a general music curriculum. This is followed by an analysis of two existing Music Expressions (2004) and Silver Making Music (2005). Criteria f or Selecting a Curriculum Series The points of comparison taken from the literature review, marketing materials, and theoretical foundations, (2) scope, (3) sequence, (4) student engagement (5) assessment, (6) multiculturalism and (7) curriculum integration Points of comparison taken only from the curriculum series include: ( 8 ) flexibility, ( 9 ) ease of use, ( 10 ) lesson enhancements T he final point is (11) budget, wh ich did not appear in any of the literature or materials, but must be considered. These points of comparison are the criteria that teachers should consider when selecting a curriculum series. Below is a list of questions adapted from the criteria to facili tate the evaluation process. These questions are reprinted in Appendix C for quick reference. Do I agree with the philosop hical and theoretical foundations of the curriculum? Some series will outline a philosophy and/or mission statement. If not, it may be possible to determine the philosophy or guiding instructional theories by looking at the marketing materials. For example, both Music Expressions and Making Music advocate an active approach to music learning through is more in line with the praxial philosophy.
27 Does the scope of the curriculum series align with my goals for the class? Most music teachers utilize a framework set by the state, district, and/or school. Teachers may rely upon the National Standards and, in Florida, the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS) Typically, a curriculum series will have a clearly outlined scope and sequence which the teacher can match against his or her own requirements. For example, Music Expressions and Making Music both follow the Na tional Standards but they also meet most of the NGSSS benchmarks. Is the sequence of the curriculum developmentally appropriate? Is the level of prerequisite knowledge reasonable ? Do the lessons and units progress in a logical manner? Is the pacing acc eptable ? Does the order in which new skills are introduced align with accepted instructional theories? For example, s ome music educators believe that students should experience musical concepts before learning about them. It is usual for a curriculum to be gin with singing o r playing, and then progress to a more detailed discussion of musical elements, which are then required for a unit on harmony or music history. Is the curriculum flexible? Can the curriculum be adapted to the length of the class? Some general music classes may only meet for nine weeks while others may meet every day for an entire school year. The instructor might prefer to teach a few select units in depth or they might prefer to do only a few lessons from each unit to provide a broad er focus or they may only be looking for lessons and activities to supplement their existing curriculum plan. It is important to select the series that can be tailored to fit specific situations.
28 Will my students be engaged in the material and activiti es? The literature indicates that students will engage more in material to which they can relate. This can include popular music and artists. The literature also indicates that students will prefer music and activities that appl y to their everyday lives. T hese activities may involve the use of technology to manipulate a song chosen by the students or a discussion about careers in music. Another point instructors may wish to consider is that even if they are at the same skill level, older students in a mixe d grade classroom may not be interested in the same activities and materials as the younger students. Is the program easy to use? or module along with a summary of each lesson. Other features may include a listing of songs by title, genre, and/or composer. A potential factor to consider is readability. Are the lesson plans lai d out i n a way that is easy to follow ? If the lessons are scripted, is the writing style appropr iate? In addition the physical size and weight of the book may be important to some teachers. The person evaluating the curric u lum will be able to determine usability based upon personal preferences. What lesson enhancements did the authors provid e ? Th e curriculum series may include several lesson enhancements in the form of critical thinking exercises cross curricular connections ( see below ), suggestions for further research, background information, adaptations for students with special needs, assessm ents ( see below ), suggestions for using technology, and additional activities or practice.
29 Are other subjects integrated into the lesson plans? Curriculum integration is a growing trend in music education. Language arts and social studies are among t he e asiest subjects to integrate. Also found are mathematics, science, and visual arts. A curriculum outlining clear connections between the music lesson and outside subjects can be a valuable tool to the instructor. What types of assessments are included? T he lesson plans may include suggestions for assessments at the end of each lesson and/or unit. These assessments can consist of many types of activities, including, but not limited to, essay prompts, observations, and worksheets. The assessments can be use d for progress monitoring and grading. Occasionally, the authors of the curriculum will provide specific directions for adm inistration and scoring. Are authentic multicultural music examples included? The publisher s of a c urriculum series may include st atements about the authenticity of the world music examples. Teachers can assess these claims by researching the artists on accompanying recordings, reading through the lyrics, and looking at the arrangements and performance suggestions. Does the series fall within my budget? Perhaps this question should come first, since a negative response will render the other criteria irrelevant. The instructor will need to determine w hat is included with the main curriculum package and w hich supplementary materials are necessary. visual recordings, and desired supplements.
30 Music Expressions Overview Music Expressions (2004), from Warner Bros. Publications i s a comprehensive music education curriculum for kindergarten through eighth grade. The mission statement in the teacher resource guide and coordinated K The middl e school portion is divided into two levels: grade six and grades seven/eight. The listing of features and benefits include: (1) national standards based curriculum, (2) literacy driven and focused, (3) embedded assessments, (4) original recordings, (5) ea sy to use lessons, and (6) updated web resources. Philosophy The philosophical foundations guiding this curriculum developed from the 1999 Housewright Symposium on the Future of Music Education that led to the creation of the following belief statements: Musical understanding involves multiple ways of knowing and doing. Music study must connect authentically with daily life to be meaningful. A worldwide, broad view of music enhances our understanding of the global community. Lifelong involvement in music is achieved through the acquisition of the knowledge and skills outlined in the National Standards. Building lifelong involvement in music is an essential part of music study at all levels. Scope and the teacher resource guide, is divided into strand, standard, fundamental knowledge/skill, and grade
31 level developmental knowledge/skill. The strands and accompanying standards are as follows: perform: play, sing, read; respond: listen/evaluate; notat e: compose, arrange, create, improvise; and connect: relate, apply. The fundamental knowledge/skills remain constant between grade levels. Examples of the fundamental skills include: sing and play alon e and with others ; read musical symbols and terms ; demo nstrate specific expressive and stylistic characteristics associated with musical exemplars within a variety of music; compose music within specified guidelines using varied traditional and non traditional sound sources including electronic media; notate m elodic and rhythmic notation and expressive markings; recognize that music reflects time, place, and culture; and recognize the connection between the arts and disciplines outside the arts. The developmental skills, more specific iterations of the fundame ntal skills, are grade level specific. Examples of the developmental skills include: perform and read simple rhythm patterns in contrasting meters while maintaining a steady pulse (level two); perform simple diatonic melodic patterns (level one); identify a variety of musical styles, cultures, genres, and historical periods from aural examples (level one); use personal and established criteria to make independent judgments about varied music performed and heard (level two);
32 compose and arrange short pieces that incorporate unity and variety and form (level one); improvise melodies, rhythms, and variations in a given style and context (level two); identify corrections between current societal trends and the arts (level one); and apply knowledge of character istics of music of specific cultures (level two). All nine of the National Standards are covered in the Music Expressions curriculum for grades six and seven/eight as well as the majority of the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards (NGSSS). A few of t he benchmarks on technological skills are not met; however, the other benchmarks not falling within the National Standards such as music in real life are included in the curriculum. Sequence The curriculum is organized by a spiral scope and sequence desig ned to provide a comprehensive and continuous education in music through kindergarten to eighth grade. An examination of the provided curriculum maps indicates that level two begins, to some extent, where level one ended instead of progressing with the sam e sequence as the prior level. Teachers can use a modular approach to accommodate six week, nine week, or year long courses. The conceptual sequence for both levels is sing, play, listen, create, read and notate, improvise, relate, compose, analyze. The c omponents making up t he conceptual sequence are g roups/categories, patterns, context, personal connections to music, and/or world connections through music. Subgroups within the components vary between levels. T he components are revisited throughout the se ries enabling students to develop greater understanding.
33 Usability An overview of units and lessons for the complete level (one or two) is located at the beginning of each volume of the sequence for gra des six and seven/eight. A curriculum map for either level one or level two shows the skills and concepts demonstrated by the student for each lesson. A lesson snapshot before each lesson indicates the focus, objectives, content, purpose, and activities as well as the student book page number and CD track numbers. The instruction framework, following the lesson snapshot, indicates the national standards covered in the lesson, types of core thinking skills, vocabulary, assessment, curriculum connections, cri tical thinking skills and life skills are included in the lesson. The scripted lessons are structured into three main parts: focus the lesson, develop the lesson, and finish the lesson. There are embedded assessments with directions for administration an d scoring, and a log is provided in the appendix for recording student grades. Some of the assessments correspond with worksheets provided in the teacher support pack and others are based in real time. Included teacher notes offer tips for instruction and classroom management. Many lessons also include suggestions for further study in Music @ Home sections. Curriculum integration The teacher resource guide for grades six and seven/eight contains an explanation of the curriculum connections present in Musi c Expressions According to the authors, students experience visual art through description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation of select pieces from a variety of cultures and artists. Students practice reading and language arts through written respo nses, worksheets, and comprehension
34 questions following a piece of writing. Physical education is included through individual and group movement activities. By studying the context of music, students are able to draw connections with social studies or geo graphy. Science and math are also included through both content and cognitive skills. For example, lessons comparing and contrasting sound sources relate to science and musical experiences involving patterns or sets pertain to math. Multiculturalism An e xamination of the curriculum map indicates that multicultural music education has a place in the Music Expression curriculum. In level one, students focus on music as a means of communication and connection and discover the elements of a world music exempl ar In level two, however, students receive in depth instruction about world music an d unity and diversity in music. Units seven, eight, and nine are devoted to music of other cultures and the role of history and geography in music In addition, a few oppo rtunities are provided for students to experience songs in other languages. Inclusion The authors only briefly touched upon teaching all learners in the teacher resource guide, providing definitions of common terms applicable to current literature on i nclusion. Specific suggestions are not provided for modifying lessons to meet the needs of all students. T echnology There is not a great deal mentioned about technology in Music Expressions. Some of the Music @ Home ideas provided in the teacher n suggest that student s conduct research online about the lesson content. For most lessons though, it falls upon the teacher to expand the lesson activities to utilize currently available
35 technological resources. For example, since unit one of level two fo cuses on arranging music, student s could use music notation software or experiment with an electronic composition program. Engaging students The activities in this series involve a fair amount of student engagement through student s are likely to have a hard time relating to the music examples accompanying lessons on popular music. Supplementary Materials Worksheets (included) Overhead transparencies (included) Lesson CDs DVD and VHS video Musical : The Hero in Us All Orff Ensemble: Mallet Instruments and Recorders Orff Musical: The Grateful Statues Afro Cuban Percussion World Percussion Music Technology Songwriting Music in the Media Making Music Overview Silver Burdett Making Music (2005) provides developmentally appropriate music learning activities for students in grades pre kindergarten through eight. This levels and engages all students in the music maki (Pearson Education, Inc 2011) The curriculum is divided into pre kindergarten through grade six and grade seven to eight. Features of the secondary program include: (1) active music making, (2)
36 exceptional song literature and recordings, (4) flexible, modular organization, and (4) proven content reflecting the National Standards. Philosophy A specific philosophy is not presented either in the Mak ing Music takes into account that every student is inherently musical and has the potential for musical Grade 7 2005, p. J 28). Instead of a philosophical statement about the curriculum, the authors provide a brief research base on skills acquisition, assessment practices, contemporary/popular music, culturally diverse music, teaching style concepts, and music literacy Scope The content of the Making Music curriculum falls under either music knowledge or performance skills. The modules relating to music knowledge are careers in the music industry styles and performers (grade eight) historical contexts and styles and music theory and fundamentals. The modules related to performance skills are playing in percussion ensembles playing keyboard playing guitar singing in unison and parts and a performance anthology. The scope encompasses both the National Standards and corresponding achievement stand ards. In addition, most of the NGSSS benchmarks are met. The musical elements outlined in the scope are expression (dynamics, tempo, articulation, mood) ; rhythm ( beat, duration, meter, pattern); form ; melody (pitch and direction, tonality, pattern) ; timbre (environmental, vocal, instrumental, electronic) ; and texture and harmony.
37 The musical skills outlined in the scope are singing (vocal development, intonation, expression, part singing, diction) ; playing (percussion, guitar, keyboard/MIDI, recorder ) ; cr eating (improvising, composing) ; reading/notating (rhythm, melody) ; listening/analyzing/describing ; and movement (nonlocomotor, locomotor, time, space, energy). These elements and skills are constant throughout the entire series; however, they increase in complexity between grade levels. Sequence Given th e modular organization of the grade seven and eight curriculum, the sequence is dependent upon the teacher. The musical elements do not differ greatly between grades six, seven, and eight. The most notab le differences are found in instruction on form and harmony. The progression of musical skills is more varied especially within s inging, playing, and creating when compared to reading/notating and listening/analyzing/describing. It is important to note tha t both grades seven and eight assume prior knowledge of musical concepts. Usability Each module opens with module at a glance that outlines the elements, skills, contexts, musical and other literature, assessments, and technology/media links for each less on. The context includes a related outside field such as language arts or social studies and an activity connecting it with music. Also within the context is a list of the footnotes corresponding to the lesson that are comprised of a wide range of topics i ncluding background information, curriculum integration, movement, cultural
38 connections, meeting individual needs, skills reinforcement, and building skills through music. The lesson plans are structured into an introduction, development, and conclusion. The lesson at a glance provided in the beginning of each plan shows the elements, skills, contexts, materials/recordings, vocabulary, national standards, and more music choices. The lessons are not heavily scripted but the authors did provide some suggesti ons. Each lesson has at least one a ssessment suggestion. The assessment activities consist of observations, performances, self assessments, interviews, journals, portfolios, cognitive ass essments, reaction letters, peer critiques, written assessments, and attitude inventory. Curriculum integration Nearly every lesson within each module includes a suggestion for curriculum integration. The outside subjects consist of visual arts, dance, s ocial studies, language arts, science, and related arts. Topics are varied and involve a wide range of activities such as essay writing, class discussions on lyrics, studying the historical context of a piece, and individual research. Multiculturalism Ac Making M usic recognizes that music literature representing a diversity of cultures and countries is an important contributor to multicultural education Research shows that students learn more and have a greater appreciat ion for diversity in music when they are actively involved (Grade 8 Making 2005, p. J 31) The authors included a wide variety of music
39 f rom other cultures and places such as the Caribbean, South Africa, Latin America, and France. Inclusion The authors discuss the importance of collaboration and communication to provid e the best possible music education for students wi th special needs. The authors also recommend that adaptations should be minimal and if possible, applicable to a ll students, thereby reducing the potential for embarrassment. In addition, the authors listed nearly twenty strategies an d principles for consideration while planning and implementing lessons. Many of the strategies focus on peer interaction through small group or partner activities with emphasis on choosing partners carefully. The authors also suggest that assessments be individually modified as needed by providing more time or a change in context and/or modality. Specific suggestions for adaptations are not included within the lesson plans Technology Each lesson includes a technology and/or media link. These suggestions typically require the use of the internet, MIDI, sequencing software, music notation software, and composition software The activitie s include c reating string orchestrations of a MIDI file, creating a digital audio montage, notating improvised rhythms, and arranging rhythm patterns into a dance track. Most of the activities correlate with lesson s in Making Music with Technology This su pplement is available for grades six, seven, and eight and contains similarly structured lesson plans progressing through an introduction, development, and conclusion.
40 Engaging Students styles that are medieval to contemporary P opular music selections are not included at the expense of traditional, multicultural, and classical works. The modular structure a nd emphasis on music in real life allows educators many opportunities to utilize current music. Supplementary Materials Audio CDs DVDs Keyboard Accompaniments Overhead t ransparencies Resource book (worksheets) Making Music with Movement and Dance Maki ng Music with Technology The Power of Performance New Activities for the Substitute Teacher Bridges to Asia Â¡ A Cantar! Master Index and Correlations
41 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION Introduction A well chosen curriculum series can help determine the scope, se quence, music literature, and activities mak ing up the middle school general music class. In this study, I sought to find out what aspects of general music education appear c onsistently in the literature as well as what aspects the developers of general mu sic curriculum series deem most important. My goal was to use this information to determine the criteria teachers should consider and to create questions they may wish to ask when selecting a curriculum series. Appendix C contains the list of questions for reference. What aspects of general music education appear consistently in the literature? Certain aspects of music education appear consistently in the literature pertaining to current issues and trends in music education. These elements include engaging students, incorporating multicultural music, integrating outside subjects into the music class, and accommodating exceptional students. The increase in literature on curriculum integration and teaching exceptional students can be partially attributed to c urrent legislation particularly the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997. This reflects the research of Price and Orman (1999, 2001, 2007) Price and Orman also found an increased emphasis on using te chnology in the music class. Discussions on best practices for engaging students also appear consistently in the literature. Most authors advocated engaging students through active music learning eryday lives. Th is aligns with the praxial philosophy of music education as opposed to the music education as
42 aesthetic education movement and is consistent with the views put forth by David Elliott in Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education (19 95) Another trend is the inclusion of popular music and artists in the classroom. As Hoffer (2001) states and Campbell, Connell, and Beegle (2007) found, students prefer activities to which they can relate. What aspects of music education do the developer s of music curriculum series deem the most important? The developers of music curriculum series highlight aspects of music education t hat they deem most important Among these elements and consistent with the literature are engaging students through active music learning relating the activities to their everyday lives and including popular music In addition to engaging students, the developers of music curriculum series emphasize the scope and sequence of the curriculum. Typically, t he scope follows the National Standards and the sequence is designed go across and between grade levels. Other features include multicultural music, assessments, using technology, adaptations for students with special needs, suggestions for further learning, and supplementary materials. What are the criteria teachers should evaluate when selecting a curriculum series? By answering the first two research questions, I was able to answer the third and determine a set of criteria teachers should consider when selecting a curriculu m series. The criteria are philosophical/theoretical foundations, scope, sequence, flexibility, student engagement, usability, lesson enhancements including technology and inclusion curriculum integration, assessment, multicultural music, and budget. I c hose
43 not to include supplementary materials as a criterion because they are separate from the basic series. I chose to include budget even though it is not explicitly mentioned in the marketing materials for both series because I feel that it is an importa nt consideration. By evaluating how well a series and/or textbook meets the ir needs in relation to these aspects of the general music curriculum, teachers can make a decision that will help them provide their students the best possible education. Suggest ions for Further Study The availability of current and complete curriculum series limited this study. Further lines of inquiry should include a broader selection of curriculum series as well as a n a ectives to continue develop ing the criteria. Furthermore, determining the effectiveness of each series by evaluating student achievement could also strengthen this study.
44 APPENDIX A NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR MUSIC EDUCATION 1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music 2. Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music 3. Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments 4. Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines 5. Reading and notating music 6. Listening to, analyzing, and describing music 7. Evaluating music and music performances 8. Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts 9. Understanding music in relation to history and culture From National S tandards for Arts Education Copyright 1994 by Music Educators National Conference (MENC). Used by permission. The complete National Arts Standards and additional materials relating to the Standards are available from MENC: The National Association for M usic Education, 1806 Robert Fulton Drive, Reston, VA 20191; www.menc.org
45 APPENDIX B ALIGNMENT OF NATIONAL STANDARDS AND NE XT GENERATION SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS MUSIC, GRADES 6 8 National Standard 1 National Standard 2 National Standard 3 National Standard 4 National Standard 5 National Standard 6 National Standard 7 National Standard 8 National Standard 9 N/A Big Idea: Cr itical Thinking and Reflection EU 1 MU.68.C.1.1 MU.68.C.1.2 MU.68.C.1.3 MU.68.C.1.4 EU 2 MU.68.C.2.1 MU.68.C.2.2 MU.68.C.2.3 MU.68.C.2.3 MU.68.C.2.3 EU 3 MU.68.C.3.1 Big Idea: Skills, Techniques, and Processes EU 1 MU.68.S.1.1 MU.68.S.1.2 MU.68.S.1.3 MU.68.S.1.4 MU.68.S.1.4 MU.68.S.1.5 MU.68.S.1.6 MU.68.S.1.7 MU.68.S.1.8 MU.68. S.1.9 EU 2 MU.68.S.2.1 MU.68.S.2.2 EU 3 MU.68.S.3.1 MU.68.S.3.1 MU.68.S.3.2 MU.68.S.3.2 MU.68.S.3.3 MU.68.S.3.3 MU.68.S.3.3 MU.68.S.3.4 MU.68.S.3.5 MU.68.S.3.6 Big Idea: Org anizational Structure EU 1 MU.68.O.1.1 MU.68.O.1.1 EU 2 MU.68.O.2.1
46 *Enduring understanding: complete listing on next page + Detailed listings of the benchmarks can be found at http://www.floridastandards.org/downloads.aspx National Standard 1 National Standard 2 National Standard 3 National Standard 4 National Standard 5 National Standard 6 National Standard 7 National Standa rd 8 National Standard 9 N/A EU 2 MU.68.O.2.2 MU.68.O.2.2 MU.68.O.2.2 EU 3 MU.68.O.3.1 MU.68.O.3.2 MU.68.O.3.2 Big Idea: Historical and Global Connections EU 1 MU.68.H.1.1 MU.68.H.1.2 MU.68.H.1.2 M U.68.H.1.3 MU.68.H.1.4 MU.68.H.1.4 MU.68.H.1.5 MU.68.H.1.5 EU 2 MU.68.H.2.1 MU.68.H.2.2 MU.68.H.2.3 EU 3 MU.68.H.3.1 MU.68.H.3.2 Big Idea: Innovation, Technology, and the Future EU 1 MU.68.F.1.1 MU.68.F.1.2 EU 2 MU.68.F.2.1 MU.68.F.2.2 EU 3 MU.68.F.3.1 MU.68.F.3.1 MU.68.F.3.2 MU.68.F.3.3
47 LIST OF ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS FOR N GSSS IN MUSIC, GRADES 6 8 Big Idea: Critical Thinking and Reflection EU 1 Cognition and reflection are required to appreciate, interpret, and create with artistic intent. EU 2 thinking, problem solving, and decision making skills, in central to artistic growth. EU 3 T he processes of critiquing works of art lead to development of critical thinking skills transferable to other contexts. Big Idea: Skills, Techniques, and Processes EU 1 The arts are inherently experiential and actively engage learners in the processes of creating, interpreting, and responding to art. EU 2 Development of skills, techniques, and processes in the arts strengthens our ability to remember, focus on, process, and sequence information. EU 3 Through purposeful practice, artists learn to manage, master, and refine simple, then complex, skills and techniques. Big Idea: Organizational Structure EU 1 Understanding the organizational structure of an art form provides a foundation for appreciation of artistic works and respect for the creative proces s. EU 2 The structural rules and conventions of an art form serve as both a foundation and departure point for creativity. EU 3 Every art form uses its own unique language, verbal and non verbal, to document and communicate with the world. Big Idea: Histo rical and Global Connections EU 1 Through study in the arts, we learn about and honor others and the worlds in which they live(d). EU 2 The arts reflect and document cultural trends and historical events, and help explain how new directions in the arts ha ve emerged. EU 3 Connections among the arts and other disciplines strengthen learning and the ability to transfer knowledge and skills to and from other fields. Big Idea: Innovation, Technology, and the Future EU 1 Creating, interpreting, and responding i n the arts stimulate the imagination and encourage innovation and creative risk taking. EU 2 Careers in and related to the arts significantly and positively impact local and global economies. EU 3 The 21 st century skills necessary for success as citizens, workers, and leaders in a global economy are embedded in the study of the arts.
48 APPENDIX C QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN SELECTING A CURRICULUM SERIES 1. Do I agree with the philosophical and theoretical foundations of the curriculum? 2. Does the scope of the curr iculum series align with my goals for the class? 3. Is the sequence of the curriculum developmentally appropriate? 4. Is the curriculum flexible? 5. Will my students be engaged in the material and activities? 6. Is the program easy to use? 7. What lesson enhancements did the authors provide? 8. Are other subjects integrated into the lesson plans? 9. What types of assessments are included? 10. Are authentic multicultural music examples included? 11. Does the series fall within my budget?
49 REFERENCES Abeles, H. F., Hoffer, C. R., & Klotman, R. H. (1995). Foundations of Music Education (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Schirmer. Abril, C. R. (2006). Music That Represents Culture: Selecting Music with Integrity. Music Educators Journal 93 (1), 38 45. Adamer, M. S. (2001). Meetin g Special Needs in Music Class : General music teachers can meet the challenges of inclusion by tailoring learning strategies to each student's strengths and weaknesses. Music Educators Journal 87 (4), 23 26. Beethoven, J., Brumfield, S., Campbell, P. S. Connors, D. N., Duke, R. A., Jellison, J. A., et al. (2005). Making Music. Glenview, IL: Pearson Education, Inc. Boardman, E. (2001). Generating a Theory of Music Instruction. Music Educators Journal 88 (2), 45 53. Branscome, E. (2005). A Historical An alysis of Textbook Development in American Music: Education and the Impetus for the National Standards for Music Education. Arts Education Policy Review 107 (2), 13 19. Brophy, T. S., Diaz, J. A., Hanley, D. S., Hinckley, J., & Minear, C. (2004). Music E xpressions. Miami, FL: Warner Bros. Publications. Campbell, P. S. (1992). Research for Teaching Music from a Multicultural Perspective. General Music Today 5 (3), 26 28. Campbell, P. S., Connell, C., & Beegle, A. (2007). Adolescents' Expressed Meanings o f Music in and out of School. Journal of Research in Music Education 55 (3), 220 236.
50 Colwell, C. M. (2002). Learning Disabilities in the Music Classroom: Implications for the Music Education. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education 21 (2), 9 16. Conway, C. (2002). Curriculum Writing in Music. Music Educators Journal 88 (6), 54 59. Cornett, C. E. (2007). Creating Meaning Through Literature and the Arts: An Integration Resource for Classroom Teachers (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pears on Prentice Hall. Davis, V. W. (2011). What Middle School Students Need From Their General Music Class (and How We Can Help). General Music Today 24 (3), 17 22. Elliott, D. J. (1995). Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education. New York: Oxford U niversity Press. Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). Download/Print Standards, Access Points and Glossary Documents Retrieved April 1, 2011, from Next Generation Sunshine State Standards: http://www.floridastandards.org/downloads.aspx Florida Music Education. (2011, January). FMEA Annual Clinic Conference Retrieved June 5, 2011, from Florida Music Education: https://flmusiced.org/FLmusicApps/Conference/Schedule/ Gerber, T., & Gerrity, K. (2007). Principles for Principals: Why Music Remains Important in Middle Schools. General Music Today 21 (1), 17 23. Hoffer, C. R. (2001). Teaching Music in the Secondary Schools (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning, Inc.
51 Koopman, C. (1998). Music Education: Aesthetic or "Praxial"? Journal of Aesthetic Educatio n 32 (3), 1 17. Lehman, P. (2008). A Vision for the Future: Looking at the Standards. Music Educators Journal 94 (4), 28 32. McCarthy, M., & Goble, J. S. (2002). Music Education Philosophy: Changing Times. Music Educators Journal 89 (1), 19 26. MENC: The National Association for Music Education. (2003, June 5). Inclusivity in Music Education Position Statement. Retrieved June 5, 2011, from MENC: The National Association for Music Education: http://www.menc.org/about/view/inclusivity in music education No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107 110, 115 Stat. 1425 (2002). Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2009). Curriculum: Foundations, Principals, and Issues (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Pearson Education. (2011). Silver Burdett Making Music. Ret rieved June 1, 2011 from https://www.pearsonschool.com Peterson, H. (2006). Technology Tips and Tricks for Music Educators. General Music Today 19 (3), 36 43. Price, H. E., & Orman, E. K. (2007). Content Analysis of Four National Music Organizations' C onferences. Journal of Research in Music Education 55 (2), 148 161. Price, H. E., & Orman, E. K. (2001). MENC 2000 National Biennial In Service Conference: A Content Analysis. Journal of Research in Music Education 49 (3), 227 233.
52 Price, H. E., & Orma n, E. K. (1999). MENC National Conferences 1984 1998: A Content Analysis. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education 18 (1), 26 32. Regelski, T. A. (2004). Teaching General Music in Grades 4 8: A Musicianship Approach. New York: Oxford Universit y Press. Scheib, J. W. (2006). Tension in the Life of the School Music Teacher: A Conflict of Ideologies. UPDATE: Applications of Research in Music Education 24 (2), 5 13. Test, D. W., Karvonen, M., Wood, W. M., Browder, D., & Algozzine, B. (2000). Choos ing a Self Determination Curriculum. Teaching Exceptional Children 33 (2), 48 54. The National Standards for Arts Education (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2009, from MENC: The National Association for Music Education: http://www.menc.org/resources/view/ national standards for music education Thompson, K. P. (1991). An Examination of the Consistency of Junior High Students' Preferences for General Music Actvities. Update: Applications of Research in Music Education 9 (2), 11 16. Thompson, K. P. (1999). I nternet Resources for General Music. Music Educators Journal 86 (3), 30 36. VanWeelden, K. (2011). Accomodating the Special Learner in Secondary General Music Classes. General Music Today 24 (3), 39 41. VanWeelden, K., & Walters, S. (2004). A Survey of Adult Music Practices: Implications for Secondary General Music Classes. General Music Today 17 (2), 28 31. Volk, T. M. (1993). The History and Development of Multicultural Music Education as Evidenced in the "Music Educators Journal," 1967 1992. Journa l of Research in Music Education 41 (2), 137 155.
53 Wells, R. (1997). Designing Curricula Based on the Standards. Music Educators Journal, 84 (1), 34 39.
54 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brenda Zelt earned a Bachelors of Music in Music Education degree from the Univer sity of Florida in May of 2009, graduating with honors, summa cum laude. During her time as an undergraduate at the University of Florida, Ms. Zelt was an active member of the University Choir, served as secretary for the UF chapter of the Collegiate Music Educators National Conference, and received the David Wilmot Award for Excellence in Music Education. Ms. Zelt began pursuing her Masters in Music Education immediately after graduation with emphasis on music appreciation and general music in secondary sc hools. She served as research assistant to Dr. Timothy S. Brophy as well as his editorial assistant for The International Journal of Music Education: Practice Her hobbies include crocheting, baking, and playing with her cat, Vera.