Citation
Effect of selected training methods on selling efficiency in retail stores

Material Information

Title:
Effect of selected training methods on selling efficiency in retail stores
Creator:
Vreeland, Richard C., 1925-
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
244 leaves : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Aftercare ( jstor )
Attitude surveys ( jstor )
Customers ( jstor )
Department stores ( jstor )
Marketing strategies ( jstor )
Merchandise ( jstor )
Retail stores ( jstor )
Retail trade ( jstor )
Sales volume ( jstor )
Shopping ( jstor )
Dissertations, Academic -- Economics and Business Administration -- UF
Economics and Business Administration thesis Ph. D
Selling ( lcsh )
Stores, Retail ( lcsh )
City of Gainesville ( local )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis - University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 240-242.
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
022049012 ( ALEPH )
13439784 ( OCLC )
ACY4576 ( NOTIS )
AA00004953_00001 ( sobekcm )

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Full Text










EFFECT OF SELECTED TRAINING METHODS

ON SELLING EFFICIENCY IN RETAIL STORES











By
RICHARD C. VREELAND


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


February, 1962




EFFECT OF SELECTED TRAINING METHODS
ON SELLING EFFICIENCY IN RETAIL STORES
By
RICHARD C. VREELAND
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
February, 1962


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to those
who have assisted in the preparation of this dissertation. He is in
debted to the members of his Supervisory Committee: Dr. J. Donald
Butterworth, Chairman; Dr. Frank Goodwin; Dr. Willard Ash; Dr. John
Webb; and Dr. William Wilmot. The professional advice of these men
was invaluable in the preparation of this manuscript while their
personal encouragement always seemed to be forthcoming when most
needed.
To his wife, Judy, the author is especially grateful. Her
willingness to subordinate personal objectives to the demands of this
research was an intangible contribution of considerable magnitude.
On the other hand, her many hours of editorial assistance tangibly
facilitated the completion of the study.
The St. Petersburg Chapter of the National Sales Executives
Club, which generously assisted in the financing of the research,
earned the author's appreciation. Also, the author wishes to thank
the Chamber of Comnerce and the merchants of Gainesville, Florida,
for their cooperation and Miss Eugenia Townsend for her professional
typing of the final manuscript. To others, not specifically named,
but personally rememberedmany thanks.
- ii -


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
I INTRODUCTION 1
Objectives 8
Scope 9
Definitions 10
Research Design 11
Limitations of Methodology 12
II HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SELLING EFFICIENCY 13
Convenience Goods 15
Self-service 16
Automatic vending 19
Shopping Goods 22
Self-selection 23
The training of retail salespeople 25
Service shopping 28
Motivation 29
Specialty Goods 31
III DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ENVIRONMENT 34
Gainesville Retail Trade Area 34
Retail Stores 36
Description of the store operation 38
Efforts to teach the salespeople how to sell 39
Attitude of management 39
Sales training 42
Shopping service 44
Efforts to motivate the salespeople to sell 44
Compensation 45
Opportunities for advancement 46
Number of salespeople 47
Summary 48
- iii -


<
- iv -
CHAPTER PAGE
IV EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS AND MEASURING TECHNIQUES 50
Experimental Treatments 50
Treatment IV 51
Treatment III 52
Treatment II 56
Treatment I 59
Quantitative Indicators 60
Service shopping 61
Consumer attitude survey 64
Employee -orals survey 68
Sales volume 73
Summary 74
V ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY 76
Comparison of Before-and After-Treatment Results 77
Treatment I 78
Treatment II 84
Treatment III 85
Treatment IV 92
Chi-Square Analysis of Treatment Results 95
Effect of the Treatments on Department Stores 103
The Treatment I department store 105
The Treatment II department store 105
The Treatment III department 6tore 110
The Treatment IV department store 113
Evaluation of Methodology 113
Summary 116
VI ANALYSIS OF THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY 119
Treatment Analysis 120
Effect of the treatments on the respondents
frequency of purchase 125
Analysis of individual stores 129
Evaluation of Methodology 131
Summary 136
VII ANALYSIS OF SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS 138
Treatment Analysis 139
Analysis of Selected Selling Techniques 142
Appropriateness of the approach 143
Overcoming objections 145
Trading up 147
Suggestion selling 150
dosing the sale 152
Effect of the Treatments on Department Stores 155


- V -
CHAPTER
PAGE
Evaluation of Methodology
161
Summary
162
VIII SALES VOLUME
166
IX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
169
The Effect of the Treatments
169
A Program to Increase Retail Selling Efficiency
177
Outlook for the Future
180
APPENDIX A
182
APPENDIX B
198
APPENDIX C
207
APPENDIX D
220
BIBLIOGRAPHY
240
BIOGRAPHY
243


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE PACE
1 THE AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF NET SALES SPENT FOR TOTAL
EXPENSES AND EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION IN SELECTED
TYPES OF RETAIL STORES 2
2 CHARACTERISTICS OF RETAIL STORES IN THE EXPERIMENTAL
DESIGN 40
3 TOTAL AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES 96
4 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE TOTAL AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE
SURVEY RESPONSES 97
5 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES TO JOB AND
CONDITIONS OF WORK 99
6 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO JOB AND CONDITIONS OF WORK 100
7 PERCENTAGE CHANGE OF FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSES TO
QUESTIONS DN THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY CLASSIFIED
BY TREATMENT 121
8 THE PERCENTAGE CHANGE, CLASSIFIED BY TREATMENT, IN THE
CUSTOMERS' FREQUENCY OF PURCHASE AFTER FIVE MONTHS
OF TREATMENT APPLICATION 130
9 PERCENTAGE CHANGE, CLASSIFIED BY STORE, IN THE CUSTOMERS
FREQUENCY OF PURCHASE AFTER FIVE MONTHS OF TREATMENT
APPLICATION 132
10 COMPARISON OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORT MEAN SCORES
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT (IN PERCENTAGES) 140
11 ANALYSIS OF THE VARIANCE IN SERVICE SHOPPING REPORT
TOTAL SCORES 141
vi -


- vii -
table page
12 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
CHOPPING REPORTS, ON THE APPROPRIATENESS OF THE
SALESPERSONS APPROACH (IN PERCENTAGES) 143
13 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF
THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF
THE CORRECT SALES APPROACH 144
14 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPERSON
TO COMPLETELY OVERCOME OBJECTIONS (IN PERCENTAGES) 145
15 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF
THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE
SALESPEOPLE TO COMPLETELY OVERCOME OBJECTIONS 146
16 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE
TO TRADE UP CUSTOMERS (IN PERCENTAGES) 147
17 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF
THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON TRADING UP 149
18 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON SUGGESTION SELLING (IN PER
CENTAGES) 150
19 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF THE
SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF SUGGES
TION SELLING TECHNIQUES 152
20 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS, ON THE UTILIZATION OF CLOSING
TECHNIQUES (IN PERCENTAGES) 153
21 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF
THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON CLOSING ABILITY .... 154
22 PERCENTAGE OF FAVORABLE OBSERVARIONS ON THE SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS CLASSIFIED BY GROUP AND DEPARTMENT
STORE 157
23 SUMMARY OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CHI-SQUARE COMPARISONS
FOR FIVE SELECTED SELLING ATTRIBUTES CLASSIFIED BY
TREATMENT AND DEPARTMENT STORE 160
24 PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN EXPERIMENTAL RETAIL STORES' SALES
FOR APRIL 1961 AS COMPARED TO APRIL 1960 166
25 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE IN THE APRIL 1960 SALES OF THE
EXPERIMENTAL RETAIL STORES 167


- viii -
TABLE PAGE
26 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES OT FINANCIAL
REWARDS FROM EMPLOYMENT 199
27 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO FINANCIAL REWARDS FROM EMPLOYMENT 199
28 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES TO PERSONAL
RELATIONS 200
29 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO PERSONAL RELATIONS 200
30 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSE TO OPERATING
EFFICIENCY 201
31 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO OPERATING EFFICIENCY 201
32 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES TO INDIVIDUAL
SATISFACTION 202
33 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO INDIVIDUAL SATISFACTION 202
34 INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT I
CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY 203
35 INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT II
CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY 204
36 INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT III
CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY 205
37 INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT IV
CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY 206
38 BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT I 208
39 BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT II 209
40 BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT III 210


41
42
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51
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- ix
PAGE
BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT IV 211
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT I 212
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT II 213
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT III 214
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT IV 215
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO
QUESTIONS ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE
STORES IN TREATMENT I 216
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO
QUESTIONS ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE
STORES IN TREATMENT II 217
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO
QUESTIONS ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE
STORES IN TREATMENT III 218
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO
QUESTIONS ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE
STORES IN TREATMENT IV 219
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT STORE
RESULTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF THE CORRECT APPROACH .. 221
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT
STORE RESULTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE TO
COMPLETELY OVERCOME OBJECTIONS 221
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT
STORE RESULTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE TO
TRADE UP CUSTOMERS 222
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT
STORE RESULTS IN THE UTILIZATION OF SUGGESTION SELLING
TECHNIQUES 222
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT
STORE RESULTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF CLOSING
TECHNIQUES 223


TABLES
PAGE
55 RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT I 224
56 RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT II 228
57 RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT III 232
58 RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT IV 236


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURES PAGE
I EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT I 82
II EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT II 87
III EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT III 89
IV EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT IV 94
V GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORE AFTER-TREATMENT I EMPLOYEE
ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS 107
VI GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORE AFTER-TREATMENT II EMPLOYEE
ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS 109
VII GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORE AFTER-TREATMENT III EMPLOYEE
ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS 112
VIII GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORE AFTER-TREATMENT IV EMPLOYEE
ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS 115
IX AVERAGE SCORES ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY 127
X SERVICE SHOPPING REPORT 197
xi -


/
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
' '
Production of form utility takes about one-half of
the money we spend for goods, and marketing (the creation
of place, time and possession utilities) takes the other
half. Speaking broadly, the creation of possession util
ity takes about one-fourth, and the creation of place and
time utility takes about one-fourth of the money spent
for goods.
This study, however, is concerned primarily with the creation of
possession utility thich is usually accon$lished by some type of
retail organizationexcept in the case of industrial goods.
In most retail stores which do not utilize self-service,
the largest single operating expense item is usually employee
compensation. Table 1 shows the importance of this item in
selected retail stores.
Although these figures are not broken down into the specific
percentage paid to salespeople, an idea of the prominence of sales
people cuTpensation can be deduced. For example, another source
discloses that the management of department stores, with the sales
volume shown in the table, spends 8.5% of net sales for compensation
P. D. Converse, K. V.. Huegy aid R. V. Mitchell, Clements
of Marketing (Oth ed.; Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-
Flail, Inc., 1958), p. 7.
- 1 -


- 2 -
A
of sales personnel;* this is approximately 25% of total expenses.
The owner of the average appliance store pays 6.7% of net sales or
also about 25% of total expenses as wages for salespeople.
TABLE 1
THE AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF NET SALES SPENT FOR
TOTAL EXPENSES AND EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION
IN SELECTED TYPES OF RETAIL STORES
Compensation
Store
Total expenses
Management
Other employees
Total
Men's wear
31.2
5.7
10.5
16.2
Womens wear
34.7
5.3
13.2
18.5
Appliance
27.0
2.7
8.9
11.6
Drug
30.6
8.1
12.1
20.2
(Sales
$200,000 to
$250,000
yearly)
Department stores 34.6 (not shown) (not shown) 19.0
(sales $1 $2
million)
Source: Expenses in Retail Businesses, National Cash Register Co.,
Dayton, hio (n.d.).
It can be reasonably assumed, therefore, that many merchants
who employ salespeople and spend approximately 25% of total expenses
to compensate them should be interested in increasing the selling
efficiency of retail salespeople. If salespeople could be induced
2
Sam Flanel, Departmental Merchandising and Operating Results
of 1958 (New York: Controllers Congress, National Retail Merchants
Association, 1959), p. 57.


3 -
to increase their productivity, net sales would increase at little
additional cost because many other expenses would not be proportion
ately increased. As a result, the bulk of the stores margin on
this additional volume would be reflected on the profit and loss
statement as profit before taxes.
There appears to be little evidence in marketing literature
to support any contention that personal salesmanship at the retail
level cannotin fact, must notbe improved and made more efficient.
On the other hand, there are strong indications from several sources
that it can and should be made more effective.
In 1949, the editors of Fortune magazine undertook an in
tensive investigation of the quality of retail salesmanship in the
United States. Their general conclusion at that time was that
i
salesmanship was at an extremely low level. But, in 1952, then
the investigation was repeated they summarized, with a few nota
ble exceptions, that the situation was even worse than in 1949.3
Salespeople in many instances were still ignorant of the benefits
which their merchandise offered the consumer. Furthermore, the
clerks made little effort to determine the customer's needs and
recommend goods which would satisfy them. Many salespeople, in
stead of offering service? exhibited a here is the merchandise
take It or leave it': attitude.
i
Academic investigation appears to concur in these findings.
Doctor Robert H. layers, writing in the scholarly Journal of Retailing,
4 *
*- _
Whats Wrong tilth Retail Salesmanship?" Fortune, XXXXIV,
Ho. 4 (July, 1952), 77.


- 4 -
reports: "One of the major problems In marketing today is the
inefficiency and ineptness of retail salesmanship.'1* His con
clusion is the result of an empirical study of retail salesman
ship in the metropolitan New York City area.
Many retailers recognize this problem and attempt to solve
it in one of two basic ways or by utilising a combination of botii
procedures. One method is to eliminate the salesperson by using
some degree of self-service; the other is to increase the produc
tivity of the salesperson. Retail grocers, for example, have
almost completely adopted the first approach, while smaller
specialty stores, especially in the apparel trade, have utilized
a combination of two methods.
Before the advent of self-service, grocers typically offered
their customers what is commonly termed full service, i.e., assist
ance in the selection of merchandise, free delivery, and credit.
Yet today most grocers no longer offer these services; conse
quently, they have been able to decrease selling costs as a
percentage of sales volume, increase selling efficiency, and
lower selling prices to induce more trade into their stores.
Botli the public and the merchant have benefited from tills limi
tation of service which the consumer has been willing to accept.
Still self-service is not able to increase selling efficiency for
all retailers. For example, what about a department store from
which the public still expects full service?
^Robert H. ifyers, Retail Selling Can and Should Be Improved,"
Journal of Retailing, XXXXI1, No. 1 (Spring, 1957), S9.


- 5 -
The typical department store customer continues to patron
ise this -type of institution rather than a discount house or a self-
service outlet because she wants the services which a department
store characteristically offers. The customer expects to receive
courteous service a full range of credit facilities, speedy
delivery and gift wrapping. The merchant, therefore, cannot
resort to complete self-service to increase selling efficiency.
Instead, he must utilize an optimum combination of self-selection
and competent salespeople and cf these two elements, coo^etent
salespeople are the hardest to secure.
Even the more ardent advocates of self-service would also
admit that in many types of retail operations, other than the
department store, the retailer must still basically rely on sales-
i
people to serve the patrons. In these stores, all of the efforts
of the manufacturers and distributors, as well as the retailers,
to create customer interest in and desire for the goods are
dependent upon the salespersons effectiveness in moving the
merchandise over the 'last two feet of selling space.
When one of the most vocal advocates of self-service stated,
; the only road is the road that leads to robot retailing and at the
end of it 'factories of distribution' in which the messy human
element could be practically eliminated, 5 he tacitly made two
assumptions j (1) retail salespeople are so poor at their jobs that
5E. B. Weiss, Salespeople Can't Be Trained and Shouldn't
Be,' Fortune, XXXXIV, No, 4 (November, 1952), 131.


6
consumers prefer to shop without them, and (2) nothing can be done
to improve Hie level of retail salesmanship. While a case can be
developed, in some instances for the first assumption, empirical
evidence indicates that the second assumption is contrary to the
facts.
Fortune, in 1952, made a special effort to locate stores
whose sales were running counter to the general retail slump in
that year. It was discovered that the stores that were most
conspicuously ahead of their competition in such important
measures as turnover rate, gross sales increases, and trans
action per salesperson were precisely the same stores which had
the most enlightened compensation and training policies.6 Of
course, this assumption does not necessarily indicate causation
but the relationship is notable.
Jane Engels, a women's specialty shop in New York, was
reportedly able to pay its 35 saleswomen $70 to $100 per week in
cotsnissions because of an enlightened training and compensation
plan. But operating ratios did not sufferin fact, they benefited.
Hie store's ratio of payroll to gross sales in 1951, was only 5.0%,
while the national average for similar stores was approximately
6.4%.7
6 Salespeople vs Robots," Fortune, XXXXIV, No. 4 (November,
1952), 102.
7
'What's Wrong with Retail Salesmanship?', Fortune, p. 84.


- 7 -
Neiman-Marcus, the well-known Dallas d epartment store, starts
its sales employees career with a six-week indoctrination program,
and the training never ceases. Even the oldtimer s' must partici
pate periodically in 'role playing." President Stanley Marcus
feels that the salesperson can never be replaced by automation
a
if she knows how to sell and wants to sell.
The results of an extensive retail sales training program
which were disclosed by a New York City department store provides
additional evidence. This retail organization gave an extensive
training program to certain of its selling employees. The sales
volume of personnel who received the training was compared to a
control group in the same store who did not receive any training.
The results indicated that the sales of the trained group showed
an average increase of $25 to $30 per week per salesperson during
the months that the program was in progress. The cost of the pro
gram was $20,000 but the total gain in sales was $500,000.9
It seems evident that retailers who are making a positive
effort to increase the productivity of their salespeople are
achieving desirable results, while others who assume a negative
attitude are doing very little but bemoan their low selling
efficiency. There are, however, enough merchants doing srjmething
positive to warrant the conclusion that "it can be done."
8Ibid., p. 85.
9Dart Ellsworth, 'Does Training Pay Dividends," Journal of
Retailing, XXVI, No. 1 (Spring, 1959), 109.


- 8 *
It appears axiomatic to this writer that efforts to sub
stantially increase selling efficiency in non-self-service stores
should be centered around an investigation of the selection,
training, and motivation of the retail salespeople. Despite
isolated examples to the contrary, it seen that few people have
been taught how to sell or have even been given a good reason why
they should. As a result, they do not effectively perform the
duties for which they are paid and eventually the consumer must
pay far this inefficiency in the form of higher prices.
Only by combining a multiplicity of such factors as sales
training, incentives, and effective supervision can the ability and
the desire to sell be instilled in the typical salesperson. There
is no question that the area is coiqplicated because people themselves
are complex. However, there are indications of progress and more
advances can be made.
Now the problem can be specifically stated for the non-self-
service retailer who wants to improve his selling efficiency. It
consists of two parts: first, how to teach salespeople to sell, and
second, how to motivate them so that they want to sell. A possible
solution to the problem is offered by this study.
Objectives
This research has two objectives:
1. To determine quantitatively the effect of three
different types of retail sales training programs
on the selling efficiency of retail salespeople.


- 9 -
2. To develop a program which can Increase the selling
efficiency of sales personnel in retail stores not
economically large enough to maintain specialized
personnel qualified to conduct tills activity. This
program could also be utilized by executives in
larger retail establishments who wish to conduct
the activity til eraselves.
Scope
This study examines the existing sales training techniques and
compensation plans utilized by the managers of twenty retail stores,
located in the downtown shopping area of Gainesville, Florida, to
maintain and increase the selling efficiency of their salespeople.^0
fliis research, however, does more than just describe the cooperating
retail stores.
The stores are organized into a randomized block design.
Four treatments, three of these representing different methods of
increasing retail selling efficiency and a control group, are rep
licated five times. Treatment I is a combination of sales training,
service shopping, incentive awards, and supervisory participation.
Treatment IX consists of sales training augmented by limited super
visory participation. Regular service shopping is Treatment III.
Treatment IV is continued normal operation or in other words a
control factor. The effects of the four treatments are measured
*None of the stores in the study employed an executive who
devoted at least 50% of his time to sales training.


- 10
by four different quantitative indicators. These data are
then tested in order to determine if the treatments cause sta
tistically significant results.
Statistically} the results of this experiment are not sub
ject to universal inference because the experimental units and
treatments are not randomly chosen from their respective universes.
Nevertheless, ary careful researcher has a sufficiently detailed
description of the subject stores so that he can compare them to
other stores in different shopping areas and determine subjectively
if the results of this study are applicable*
/ : ,¡ I 4 i V : ,
Definitions
i f ' r f .>
Throughout this study the term selling efficiency is used.
Depending upon the orientation of the reader, this term might be
subject to various meanings. Therefore, it is deemed advisable to
acquaint the reader with the definition of this writer.
Selling efficiency, or the efficiency with which an
individual or a store performs the selling function, is the ratio
of sales output to sales input or selling expense. Since both of
the factors in the ratio are subject to various quantitative
interpretations, each is further examined.
There are many ways of measuring sales output. Some retailers
utilize a traffic productivity ratio; others are satisfied with sales
volume, and still others measure the number of transactions cocpleted.
Nevertheless, in this study output is measured by changes in sales
volume, employee morale, customers attitude toward the store and
application of sales techniques by the salespeople.


- 11 -
To compute the sales impute figure, most retailers consider
only actual direct selling costs. A few go further and attempt to
estimate the impute cost of lost customers and ill will which a
poor salesperson can engender. For the purposes of this study,
however, selling expenses are assumed to be constant in the subject
stores. Therefore, if output increases and expenses are assumed
constant, except for the cost of the experimental treatments if
offered on a commercial basis, selling efficiency would increase.
Research Design
The efforts of the experimental units (retail stores) to
increase their selling efficiency were determined by personal inter
views with the owner(s) or managers) of each establishment. Also
ascertained during these interviews was the method which the store
used to compensate its salespeople and the attitude of the manage
ment toward programs which attempt to increase selling efficiency
by increasing the productivity of the sales personnel. These
factors were considered germane to the formation of hypotheses
which explain the experimental interaction between the stores and
the treatments.
Four quantitative indicators were used to secure databout
the subject stores: (1) a customer attitude survey, (2) a survey of
the salespeople's morale, (3) shopping reports which indicated the
application of salesmanship principles by the retail clerks, and
(4) changes in the sales, in percentage, as compared to the same
month of the previous year. All four quantitative measurements


- 12 -
were taken before the treatments were applied and after the treat
ments were completed. Results of the after-treatment indicators
were tested for significance by appropriate statistical methodology.
Before-and after-treatment findings were compared for meaningful
changes.
It must be emphasized that the experimented unit in this
study is the retail storenot the salesperson. Data gathered on
the individual sales clerks, from the shopping reports, were
averaged and are presented on a store basis. No effort is made
to analyze specific salespeople.
Limitations of Methodology
Whenever experiments are conducted with people instead of things,
there is an intangible human factor which cannot be controlled. People
communicate; they feel; they think. These circumstances cannot be
controlledonly acknowledged.
While the research design can collect data on the experi
mental. stores, it is beyond the range of this study to determine
"why" individual salespeople respond to certain treatments and others
do not. When investigation delves into this area it must explore a
myriad of psychological factors which determine individual person
ality and the selection of personnel. These factors are considered
to be given in the present study and, therefore, not subject to
investigation.


CHAPTER II
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SELLING EFFICIENCY
In order to evaluate the contribution of this research to
marketing literature, it is necessary to consider it as a part
of a continuing effort to increase selling efficiency. This ef
fort has been inspired by the desire of the individual merchant
to maximize his own profit as well as by the realization that
< j v r i
failure to anticipate or at least keep abreast of new develop
ments usually results in a deteriorating competitive position.
Since retailing is conducted in every area of the United
V
States, it is difficult to determine "who" inaugurated :what'!
improvement in retail selling efficiency exactly when during
I
the past one-hundred years of retailing. However, precise
chronological identification is not the objective of this
chapter. Rather this chapter has two goals: (1) to describe
methods to increase selling efficiency which have developed in
this country during the last one-hundred years, and (2) to examine
environmental factors which have contributed to these developments.
One of the major trends in retailing, self-selection, can
be traced back to ancient oriental traders who openly displayed
merchandise before their customers. However, the oriental merchant,
- 13 -


14
like his counterpart today, was usually nearby to help persuade
the customer of the value of his wares. Hie customer nevertheless
did have an opportunity to examine goods without any assistance from
the merchant.
In our own country, tills idea was effective in the general
store and the frontier trading post, where some goods were con
veniently stacked around the premises so that the customer would
have an opportunity to examine them while shopping. Of course,
jargon such as 'impulse sales was not used, but the merchants
quickly realized that the principles incorporated in this type
of display yielded much additional business.
While open display techniques were utilized in rural areas
after the Civil War, the big city, high volume store was still
i
basically tied to closed display, with most of the merchandise out
of the grasp of the customerunless the clerk displayed the item
at the counter. While the better organized department stores
gained advantages of managerial efficiency over the general store,
they did not adopt the idea of open displays which was partially
used by the general store. The development of open displays and
self-selection in urban stores awaited the advent of the 5$ and
10$," or variety, store.
Frank Woolworth was one of the few pioneers who did go
against the conventional city trend. In the 1880s, he estab
lished his first open display variety store with girls behind
the counter to assist the buyer and to complete the selling


- IS -
transaction. From this start he eventually developed the national
variety store chain which still bears his name.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Woolworths
application of open display las being partially adopted by other
types of stores. The reason for this was simple: People seemed
to buy more of some types of merchandise when it was directly
available to then, without the assistance of a salesperson, than
they did when the goods were out of reach. It was also noted that
with self-selection fewer salespeople were required to complete a
given volume of business; this was another way of saying that sales
efficiency increased with open display.1
As a result of se.13.lng economies and managerial efficiencies
associated with open display, the mercantile establishments that
utilized it were able to secure a more attractive return on their
investment. Naturally, the success of Woolworth and the other
self-selection devotees was not unnoticed by other retailers. The
open display technique slowly gained considerable acceptance until
today it has become a standard merchandising procedure in almost
every line of trade. The following sections consider this develop
ment in each of the three major classifications of consumer goods.
Convenience Goods
After the early 1900s, the trend toward open display appeared
Woolworths First Seventy-Five Years, 1870-1954 (New York:
F. W. Woolworth Company, 1954), provides additional information cm
the development of this organization.


- 16 -
to split and travel in two different directions. One trend led
toward self-service and was followed by merchants who sold goods
that had all or at least many of the characteristics of con
venience goods. The other trend led toward an optimum utili
zation of open display and personal salesmanship rather than self-
service. Retailers who sold shopping goods moved along this
second road.
While it is difficult to categorize all merchandise into
either convenience or shopping goods, most goods tend more toward
one classification than the other. Consumers prefer to purchase
conveneince goods with a minimum of inconvenience; low prices and
large assortments are also important factors in their selection
of these items. Shopping goods, on the other hand, are articles
of greater value or goods that are bought infrequently; shoppers
want to compare quality, price and appearance before buying these
itemsas result, they are usually willing to expend more time
o
and effort in their selection. Of course, convenience is also
a factor in the purchase of shopping goods but it is not of para
mount importance as in the case of convenience goods.
Self-service
Basic trends, such as self-service, did not usually start
at a certain time in history, instead of at another time, by chance.
^P. D. Converse, H. W. Huegy and R. V. Mitchell, Elements of
Marketing (6th ed.; Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,
Inc.', 1958), pp. 28-29.


- 17 -
Usually there were environmental factors which encourage their
spontaneous creation. In the case of self-service, the avail
ability of branded, prepackaged items as well as the extensive
and intensive advertising of brand names seemed to have been the
raa or contributing factors.
Branded merchandise necessarily represented a consistent
level of quality. Consumers realized that Brand X was the same
whenever and wherever it was purchased. Therefore, there was no
need to inspect each item and be resold on its worth. With brand
ing, prepackaging also emerged to encourage self-service.
Before 1900, the grocer bought most of his goods in bulk
and packaged small amounts himself. But by 1910, the manufacturer
f.
was performing this function in many instances. As a result, the
services of the retailer, which were necessary only for packaging,
no longer stood between the consumer and the goods; now the con-
;
sumer could directly select the merchandise in a package size consis
tent with his needs.
The branding and packaging of consumer goods made it possible
to pre-sell merchandise to the public, and widespread advertising
,. ' I t ; !.
did the selling. Consumers were sold the item by advertising and
were willing to buy it without further persuasion by a salesperson.
Furthermore, it was ascertained that the preselling of merchandise
by advertising was less expensive than a salesperson's persuasion
if in fact the items were actually pre-sold.
In 1916, Clarence Saunders opened a self-service food store
under the trade name Piggly Wiggly which utilized the concept of


18 -
open display but included a completely new innovationno sales
clerks. Hie customers selected their own merchandise without the
assistance of any store personnel and carried it to a check-out counter
where they paid for it. This arrangement further reduced selling
costs by eliminating the salesperson entirely. With reduced costs
and increased sales, selling efficiency naturally increased.
Nevertheless, in 1928, self-service was not recognized as
a major trend in retail distribution. In that year, when Professor
Paul Nystrom of Columbia University enumerated six major trends in
retail distribution, self-service was not even mentioned.3
While certain factors such as advertising and branded items
made self-service feasible in the 1920s, two environmental factors
made consumers reluctant to accept it: (1) our economy was relatively
prosperous and many people were not willing to perform the sales
clerks functions in return for a price reduction, and (2) many
people were reluctant to give up their traditional shopping habits
of buying produce in one store, meat in another establishment and
groceries in still another location for this new idea of one-stop
shopping.
The economic depression of the 1930s, however, forced
significant changes in these traditional consumer habits. People
who previously could afford to purchase goods the price of which
reflected personal service no longer could afford this luxury.
3Paul H. Nystrom, Six Major Trends of Retailing and Their
Significance," Trends in Retail Distribution, ed. Daniel Bloomfield
(New York: H. H. Wilson Co.,930), pp. 95-101.


- 19 -
Marry other customers became aware of the absolute necessity of making
each penny produce the maximum utility. Retailers, intuitively
realizing this change in consumer circumstances, capitalized on it
by rapidly expanding self-service in the food industry.
In 1930, King Kullen started to build a chain of self-
service food stores and, in 1932, the first Big Bear store was
opened in an abandoned Durant automobile factory in New Jersey.
Both of these businesses were characterized by low prices which
reflected a limitation of service and a rapid turnover of stock.
By 1958, nearly all of the food industry was committed to the
principle of self-service and it was reliably estimated that only
about 16% of total food sales were made in non-self-service stores
A
that year.
If, today, we examined the types of retail stores which
have most thoroughly adopted the principle of self-service, we could
not help but notice that the merchandise they sell has one or both
of the following characteristics: (1) it is branded and pre-sold
by advertising, or (2) it is a standard item which has a relatively
low unit value. Itera3 with these characteristics, however, are
also sold by means of another retail innovationautomatic vending.
I .'* \' i < : l
Automatic vending
i
One of the earliest coin operated devices used to dispense
merchandise was reportedly located in English pubs during the 1820's.
^Letter from Doris Boehm, Librarian of Progressive Grocer,
New York, May 11, 1961.


- 20
The customer inserted a copper coin into this simple mechanism and
the lid of a tobacco box would open. The patron could then fill
his pipe.
From this simple beginning other adaptations were slowly
developed. Around 1883, an automatic coin-operated post card
vendor was developed in the United States. Twenty years later
penny vendors far chewing gum and matches were installed in rail
road stations within New York City. However, it was not until
the 1920s that businessmen realized that machines could be used
to sell more expensive items.
During the 1920s, the use of automatic vending machines
to sell convenience goods, was made possible by technological
advances. For exanple, engineers developed mechanisms which
would accept coins of greater value than a penny and also reject
fake coins with a minimum of jamming. These mechanical advances
were encouraged by the marketing opinion of that era.5
In 1929, William F. Merrill, President, Remington-Rand
Business Service decried the high cost of distribution and sug
gested that in certain lines where sales resistance had been
completely eliminated automatic selling should replace the sales
person.6 Merchants who sold cigarettes, which had steadily gained
5For further details concerning the historical development
of automatic vending see; Marten V. Marshall, Automatic Merchandising
A Study of the Problems and Limitations of Vending' ('Cambridge, Mass.:
ftlverside Press'," 1954), pp. -23. ''
6William F. Merrill, Why Sell Goods Already Sold,' Trends in
Retail Distribution, ed. Daniel Bloomfield (New York: H. H. Wilson Co..


- 21 -
in popularity since World War I, agreed; they placed orders for
over 100,000 cigarette machines.
Also, during the 1920*6 an embryo motion picture industry
developed and, in the 1930*s, many new motion picture theaters
opened throughout the country. The owners of these theaters soon
realized that many of their patrons ate candy, chewing gun and
mints in the movies, and as an added source of profit mechanical
candy vendors soon became a necessary adjunct in motion picture
theaters. It also became apparent that movie patrons could be
sold a variety of refreshing drinks during the showings and, in the
1930s, vendors started appearing to fill the publics desire far
refreshments at places and times when conventional retailers were
i
unable to serve them. This development was coincidental with
technological advances in refrigeration which made the machines
economically feasible. This type of vending machine was an
immediate success.
These three items, cigarettes, candy and soft drinks, are
still the bulwark of the automatic vending industry. Prognosti
cators who envisioned the expansion of vending to all types of
i. i I im .'*,* i j 1. $ *, H v .1
retailing appear to have been in error. Admittedly, machines now
vend many other items, but these three convenience goods still
*. *
account far mast of the retail sales completed by automatic vendors.
After World War II, two new, radically different types of
merchandise, gasoline and a full line of groceries, were offered
to the public by automatic vending machines but both failed.
* i *?'


22
Coin-operated gasoline pumps were usually declared a fire hazard
by local fire department inspectors and a coin-operated, fully
automatic, grocery closed because the public failed to support
it.
Vending machines, however, were more successful when they
were introduced into lines more closely allied with conventional
vending goods. Multi-item units serving both hot and cold drinks,
especially coffee, gained general acceptance. Other items, such
as insurance policies, which were mechanically sold at airports,
gained a foothold for automatic merchandising in the service
industries.
Leaders of the automatic marketing industry generally
agree that vending has a secure position in the convenience goods
field and would like to see it expand to other types of goods.
However, they tend to consider vending as a function designed to
complement conventional retail operationnot as a replacement
for it. No machine, as yet developed, can fully duplicate the
service offered by a competent salesperson.
Shopping Goods
While self-service and automatic merchandising, admittedly
have been successful in increasing selling efficiency, they were
generally applicable only to a portion of total retail selling,
namely, pre-sold convenience goods. On the other hand what about
shopping goods where these methods are not completely appropriate?


- 23
Shopping goods are usually not completely pre-sold although
some stores, such as Atlantic Mills, Inc, successfully merchandise
standardized, low-priced fashion goods in self-service stores.
Most shopping goods merchants, however, appear convinced that a
salesperson is still necessary to create interest in the merchandise
and induce the customer to buy. For these establishments, self-
service offers little hope of increasing selling efficiency.
Stores in this category generally use a combination of
two basic ingredients to increase selling efficiency: (1) self
selection of merchandise, and (2) the training of salespeopDe.
The ratio of these two factors forms a continuum with an absolute
minimum of trained sales personnel and a maximum of self-selection
at one aid, in other words, a store which approaches self-service
in philosophy but still retains a certain amount of personal
assistance. At the other end is the store which relies primarily
on well trained salespeople to sell merchandise which is located in
closed displays e.g and exclusive jewelry store.
Discussed in the following sections is the use of self-
selection, sales training, shopping services, and salesperson
motivation as techniques to increase the selling efficiency of
retailers of shopping goods.
Self-selection
The concept of self-selection is as old as retailing itself.
However, the application of open display did not really receive a
strong push until Woolworth began utilizing it in his r5£ and 10£


- 24
or variety stores. The success of this innovation encouraged other
retailers of convenience goods to further develop the principle
into self-service, while the shopping goods merchant was content
to continue moving from closed to open display. The reasoning for
such actions is readily explained.
Experience had indicated that selling efficiency would be
increased if customers would purchase the same amount of merchandise
with a lesser degree of assistance from a salesperson. During the
depression of the 1930's, this was particularly significant because
a reduced level of consumer demand and predatory price competition
necessitated the reduction of all variable expenses. However, the
advantages of self-selection were somewhat mitigated by the abundance
of cheap labor which was available to the retailer. Therefore, the
reduction of selling costs usually realized by merchants who switched
from closed to open display was not as great as it would have been
during a period of higher labor costs.
During World War II, the shortage of labor forced retailers
to reduce their personnel requirements. Because of defense demands,
people were not available for selling positions at wages which re
tailers felt they could offer. Furthermore, there was less need
for skilled salesmanship at the retail level because customers had
purchasing power in excess of the limited supply of consumer mer
chandise. The problem of the retailer was to find goods to sell
not how to sell them once he had bought than. As a result, the
need for personal selling was lessened and the switch to open display
which approached self-service was accelerated.


- 25
In the years after World War II, when business rivalry
was intensified, the cost of labor also increased. Shopping
goods retailers, therefore, found it advisable to continue to
expand the use of self-selection as a means of increasing sell
ing efficiency. Some merchants, such as discount houses which
handled relatively pre-soid items, almost entirely omitted the
conventional function of the salesman.
Nevertheless the trend toward self-service can progress only
to a certain point. Most retailers of shopping goods realize that
I .
the salesperson is still essential to their operation. Even with
the optimum utilization of self-select!on, these merchants still
need to develop the efficiency of their salespeople.
; p ' ... : l ( i ? \ \ \ l
The training of retail salespeople
John Wanamaker was one of the first retailers to espouse
the idea that salespeople could do a more efficient job of selling
if properly' trained. In his first department store in 1870, he
insisted that his salespeople be well informed, courteous, patient,
and service-minded. To reach this goal, he held classes in selling
for his clerks and, in addition, was willing to pay for their con
tinued education in night schools or through correspondence courses.
He argued that well-trained, loyal, and enthusiastic clerks were
one of the greatest assets a store could have.7
"Frank A. Russell and Frank H. Beach, Textbook of Salesmanship
(New York: McGraw-Hill Co., 1955), p. 26.


- 26
This concept gradually was accepted by most of the larger
retailers who became convinced that it was worthwhile to train their
selling personnel. To generate such a conviction was not a partic
ularly difficult theoretical problen since methods of persuasion
were well known at the time; it was only a matter of application.
Benjamin Franklin, in relating the laws of persuasion,
disclosed that they were not original with him. Admittedly, he
gained them from earlier writers. For example, the Golden Rule
of the Bible, "All things whatsoever ye would that men should do
to you, do ye even so to them," is as applicable to retail selling
and human conduct today a3 it was in Biblical times.
One criterion for judging the interest of merchants in apply
ing zules of persuasion to retail selling is the number of books in
i
this field which are published during airy given period of time.
While this is not conclusive evidence of interest, it is nevertheless,
a good indicator. In 1924, Dr* Briscos definitive book on retail
salesmanship listed more than one-hundred references in the field-
most of them published before 1920. New York University School of
Retailing Selected Publications for Retailers lists twenty-one
recommended books in retail salesmanship published in the period
from 1920 to 1929; an additional twenty books were suggested during
the period from 1930 to 1939. But, between 1940 and 1949, this sane
Q
bibliography listed only eight books. Unfortunately the data covering
g
N. A. Brisco, Retail Salesmanship (New York: Ihe Ronald
Press, 1924), pp. 16-26$.
9New York University School of Retailing* Selected Publications


27
1950 to date, are not available.
If the number of publications in an area is accepted as a
criterion of interest, it is clear that interest in the training
of retail salespeople declined during the 1940's. This was un
doubtedly due to the relatively low demand for retail salesmanship
during World War II and the postwar seller's market. However,
during the 1950's, things changed; the seller's market was gone.
Many retailers and manufacturers decried the poor per
formance of retail salespeople which hindered the flow of goods
through trade channels. Ihe public, in various articles, such as
Fortune's ,:What's Wrong with Retail S lesmanship," published in 1952,
also echoed these sentiments. But while retailers and the public
seemed to agree that retail salesmanship was poor, little was being
done to ameliorate the situation.
Ihis writer hypothesizes that you can write only a limited
number of books on the principles of effective selling which them
selves have been known, discussed, studied, and observed for over
fifty years. This is not the need. Ihe need is for methods of
motivating the salesperson to practice them; this area has been
subject to only cursory examination by scientific research. But
at least one relatively new technique has been developedthe pro
fessional shopping service.
for Retailers, A Report Compiled by the Research and Publications
Division (Hew York: New York University Press, 1953), pp. 78-86.


- 28 -
Service shopping
In 1914, Will Berstein of New York theorized that the use of
professional shoppers could improve the performance of salespeople.
He reasoned, if the clerks knew that they would be approached by ap
parently regular customers, who would write a report on their selling
performance, the salespeople would be more attentive to their duties.
Ihe first experiments with this new idea of 'service shopping" were
conducted among the salespeople of the United Drug Company, a large
chain organization.
To the satisfaction of all concerned, except a few employees
who considered the shoppers as spies, the shopping service had a salu
tary effect on retail sales work. Encouraged by this success, Willmark,
Inc., a professional service shopping organization, was formed in 1917.
Its success is indicated by the number of imitators offering similar
services which have entered the field over the years, and by the number
of large stores which areusing their own service shopping employees.
Shopping services are not only providing a quantitative
measuring device for retail salesmanship with reports but are also
helping to develop a standard of performance. Retailers can now
determine the extent to which their salespeople apply generally
accepted and efficient selling techniques over a period of time and
can use this performance as an indicator of the effectiveness of their
sales training.
^Herbert Brean, "They Shop to Hake Your Shopping Pleasanter,"
Readers Digest (September, 1951), pp. 131-134.


Motivation
Throughout history, employers have realized that it was
necessary to offer free men some form of inducement in order to
cause them to work. In other words, they had to have a motive or
reason to work. But not only must Hiere be a motive, the motive must
be sufficiently strong in order to overcome the workers inertia. In
most instances the inducement took the form of money.
The merchant, therefore, has always offered the salesman
some form of pecuniary compensation. This money was in the form
of either a salary or a commissionor a combination of the two.
Usually the employer was convinced of the efficacy of any given
type of compensation to the exclusion of other alternatives.
Coupled with monetary motivation was usually a negative
concept of leadership vhich expected the worker to work diligently
and effectively because he feared what would happen to him if he
failed to produce up to an accepted standard. The consequences of
low productivity could have been some farm of mental chastisement,
!
or loss of employment, or both. This was especially true in larger
organizations.
However, some men realized that there were other factors
besides fear and financial gain which could induce more effort from
the worker. It was observed that in a given work situation a higher
output could be secured if the employee wanted to produce more. The
problem was how to secure a willing worker.
Although this concept of an intangible human factor liad been
implicitly realized for many years, it was not until Elton Mayo


80
experimentally determined its effectiveness in the late 1920'a that
human relations'* became a part of business jargon. Mayo's research
at the Hawthorne plant of General Electric indicated that the
amount of file wage was not the sole determinant of labors out
put. There were also factors involving the interaction between
the worker and his job environment which influenced his productivity. ^
Partially as a result of Mayo's research, merchants began to
place greater enphasis on the human aspects of employee motivation.
While financial compensation was still an important factor, many
agreed that a sound human relations program, especially when coupled
with a realistic compensation plan, could increase selling efficiency*
It was a combination of these two factors, compensation and human
relations, which seemed to determine the employees willingness to
work.
With the acceptance of Mayo's research, the permissive
school of leadership also emerged. According to this concept, the
leader should use positive motivation instead of fear as an instru
ment of authority. Through positive inducements, as well as a good
basic monetary compensation plan, the employee could be transformed
into a willing worker.
Under the permissive leader, the negative idea of leadership
was not entirely discardedonly subordinated to the positive aspects.
^Further discussion of this topic is presented by Elton
Mayo in The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New Yorks
Macmillan do., ).


31 -
While the employer still had basic rights inherent to his ownership
of property, he was not to use them to motivate the worker. They
were utilized only as a last resort.
The employee in a democracy could not be indoctrinated with
an idea of personal worth within the social and legal framework of
the nation and still accept a completely subservient attitude in his
work situation. This incongruity encouraged unionism as well as a
more ready acceptance of positive leadership by managementespecially
after May showed that such a course of action was profitable.
Today most retailers utilize both positive and negative
motivation in a form which one might suspect in some instances is
influenced by the presence of labor unions. The adequacy of the
basic compensation plan for salespeople is still a mute question
in retailing, hile the effectiveness of various combinations of
motivation and compensation is seldom quantified by scientific
research.
Specialty' Goods
Specialty goods are those that have some particular
attraction for the consumer other than price, which in
duces him to put forth special effort to visit the stores
handling them. The attraction lies in special qualities
which differentiate the goods from similar merchandise
with the result that the consumer does not care to make
comparisons before purchasing, or it may reside in the
distinctive characteristics of the store handling the
merchandise. Specialty goods contrast with convenience
goods in that their purchase is sufficiently important
and infrequent to induce the consumer to visit rather
inaccessible soirees of simply, if necessary, and to


- 32 -
12
postpone action until the store can be visited.
A certain style or brand of womens clothing would be an
example of a specialty good if a customer feels that this parti
cular garment has distinctive and favored characteristics. Under
these circumstances, she would be willing to travel a considerable
distance to purchase the desired good because in her eyes this
merchandise is sufficiently differentiated from other garments so
that a substitute is not readily obtainable elsewhere. Because
most specialty goods cost relatively substantial sums of money,
usually she is willing to expend this additional effort to purchase
them.
This writer considers the characteristics of specialty
goods to be more closely associated with shopping goods than with
convenience goods, and selling efficiency trends in specialty goods
stores to be closely associated with trends in shopping goods stores.
Therefore, no effort is made to distinguish between selling efficiency
trends for these two types of goods because it would contribute little
to the overall objectives of this study.
This chapter has shown the development of various methods
utilized to increase retail selling efficiency. The convenience good
merchant was shown to rely primarily on self-service and automatic
vending while tiie shopping good retailer tended to emphasize self
selection, training of the salespeople, service shopping and motivation.
12
Harold Maynard and Theodore Beckman, Principles of Marketing
(5th ed.; New York: Ronald Press, 1956), p. 34.


- 33 -
With the background of this research historically recounted,
Chapter II specifically describes the environment of the experiment.
In Chapter III, the stores which are subject to the experimental
treatments are portrayed as well as the town of Gainesville, Florida,
where they are located.


CHAPTER III
DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ENVIRONMENT
f
The purpose of tills chapter is to describe the Gainesville,
Florida, trade area as well as the retail stores in the experiment.
There are three reasons for presenting this information:
1. The results of this research are not subject to
universal statistical inference. The readers,
therefore, must decide whether the findings are
applicable to other trade areas. To do this, an
accurate description of the experimental units and
their environment is necessary.
2. A description of the media provides a basis for
hypothesizing possible causes of experimental error.
j : 1 1 i
3. In order to provide background for this study, it is
necessary to portray the methods utilized by the sub
ject stores to increase selling efficiency.
Gainesville Retail Trade Area
The city of Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida, is located
at the approximate center of the state in a rural area of farms,
34


35
villages and secondary trading-center towns. Jacksonville, the
nearest metropolitan area with a population of 201,030 is 72
miles northeast; Tampa and St. Petersburg, adjoining cities, 134
miles southwest, have a combined population of 456,268; Tallahassee,
the state capital, has a population of 48,174, and is located 143
miles northwest of Gainesville.^
The Gainesville retail trade area has been circumscribed
in a study which utilized Professor William Reilly's mathematical
law of retail gravitation and a field survey. This research con
cluded that the area circumscribed by mechanical formula closely
corresponded with the region defined by the field survey. Further,
it is noted that the trade area which included all of Alachua County
as well as all or part of eight surrounding counties, had a population
of 186,000 in 1959.2
The city of Gainesville had a population of 29,499 and an
average per capita income of $1830 in 1959. The largest single
employer in the town was the University of Florida which had 3750
academic and non-academic employees with an annual payroll of over
^Population data were secured from: Advance Report of the
1960 Census of Population (Washington, D. C.~ U. S. Department of
Commerce, November 25, 1960), pp. 3-12.
2Dean J. Maitlen, presents a comprehensive description of
Gainesville, Florida, Retail Trade Area in A Delineation of the
Gainesville, Florida, Retail Trade Area (Unpublished Master's
Thesis, School of Business Administration, University of Florida,
1957).


36
$21,000,000about one-third of the community s total income of
approximately $60,770,000.8
The Influence of the University's staff and over 12,000
stud arts on the population characteristics of the city cannot be
\ \ *- r. t ..Li L* .
overlooked. The distribution of educational achievement, scholarly
professions, and ages must be considered atypical when compared to
other cocmunities of similar size* The effect of these factors on
, t .* *
the findings of this study, however, is indeterminate.
The downtown shopping area of Gainesville consists of four
blocks facing the Alachua County courthouse square and two main
streets which lead into it. A shopping center, located one-half
mile from downtown Gainesville, was not included in this study;
this was not an intentional structured part of the research. The
Gainesville Chamber of Commerce, thich enlisted the cooperation of
the subject stores, simply failed to submit any stores from the shopping
coiter.
Retail Stores
The twenty stores that participated in this study were divided
into five classifications: (1) department, (2) ladies ready-to-wear,
* :i
(3) mens ready-to-wear, (4) drug, and (5)appliance. Each retail
establishment was described on the basis of information secured from
-ijNh-
3Statistical data about Gainesville, Florida were secured
from Gainesville, Florida,Facts and Figures (Gainesville, Florida;
Gainesville Chamber of Coniaeree, I960). More comprehensive information
can be secured from this source.


37
the owner(s) and managers) during a personal interview as well as
iron informal conversations at various Chamber of Commerce functions
during an eight-month period. Some of this information, especially
concerning their 'unofficial'1 attitude toward effeats to increase
retail selling efficiency, was not quantified and is, therefore,
subject to personal bias; however, every effort was made to report
objectively this important characteristic.
. 1 'f. I . ( f. -
In order to disguise the names of the stores in the experi
ment, coded designators were used toldentify them. This code vos
In two parts: (1) the type of store was indicated by one or two
letters, and (2) the treatment which the store received was shown
by a T, denota ting treatment, and a number from one to four
designating the type of treatment. According to this code, a depart
ment store was designated (Dp), ladies-ready-to-wear specialty shop
(L), men's-ready-to-wear specialty shop (M), drug store (D), and
appliance store (A). A department store, for example, which
received Treatment I was coded (DpTL), Treatment 11 (DpT2),
Treatment III (DpT3), and Treatment IV (DpT4).
A description of the twenty stares in this study is
i i i ,
summarized under the following sub-headings:
1. Description of the store operation.
II. Efforts to teach salespeople how to sell.
A. Attitude of management
B. Sales training
t- i A#
C. Shopping service


88
III. Efforts to motivate the salesperson to sell.
A. Compensation
B. Opportunities for advancement
IV. Number of salespeople.
A summary chart, Table 2, presents these characteristics by atorre
in concise reference form.
Description of the store operation
All of the stores in this study display their merchandise
openly with the exception of the lunch counters and prescription
departments in the drug storesthese departments offer full ser
vice. In the other stores the customers can either select the mer
chandise from open display and seek a salesperson to conplete the
sale or wait for a salesperson to approach them and offer assistance.
There are no self-service stores in the study.
The managers of the four drug stores disclosed that they
approach self-service as nearly as possible without actually in
stalling check-out counters. In these stores there were usually
an insufficient number of salespeople to assist all customers ade
quately, therefore, they offered assistance only to those customers
who obviously sought aid. The other seventeen stores, however,
expected their salespeople to offer assistance actively to all of
their customers.
Sixteen of the subject stores are locally owned and owner-
managed. Three are units of large multi-unit chain stores; each


39
employs a manager who receives a salary plus a percentage of the
profits as compensation. One store is a locally owned and owner-
managed franchised unit of a large national chain the name of which
is used can both franchised and company-owned establishments.
Efforts to teach the salespeople how to sell
Before a salesperson can increase her selling efficiency,
she must know the techniques of persuasion and how they can be
applied to her specific selling situation. If she does not have
tiiis knowledge, any motivation to increase her desire to sell will
be relatively ineffective because the salesperson does not have the
ability to perform the sales function, regardless of her desire to
do eo. This section describes the utilization, by the subject stores,
of two recognized methods of teaching salespeople how to sellsales
training and service shopping. Also described is the store manager's
or owner's opinion of the efficacy of these techniques.
Attittdo of raanageraent. !t appears evident that retail
store managers would like to increase the selling efficiency of
their sales personnel. They agree that methods, such as self
selection, are not only theoretically sound but also effective be
cause they circumscribe the function of the salesperson. Ihey
differ, however, in their attitude concerning the possibility of
Increasing selling efficiency by improving the selling skills of
their salespeople.


TABLE 2
CHARACTERISTICS OF RETAIL STORES IN THE
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
!
Treatment
I
II
III
IV
Characteristics
Type of store
Dp M L A D
Dp M L A D
Dp M L A D
Dp M L A D
Total
Service:
Self-selection
Management:
Owner managed
Chain
Attitude of
Management:
Positive
Neutral
Negative
Sales training:
None
Occasional
X X X X X
X X X X X
X X X X X
X X Xa X
X
X X X X X
XXX X
X
X X X X X
X X X X
X
X
X
X X
X X
X
X
X X
X
X X
X
XXX
X
X
X
XXX X
XXX X
X
X
XXX
X
X X X X
20
17
3
3
14
3
18
2
X
X


TABLE 2 Continued
Treatment
I
II
III
IV
Characteristics
Type of store
Dp
M
L
A
D
Dp
M
L
A
D
Dp
M
L
A
D
Dp
M
L
A
D
Total
Regular shopping:
None
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
14
Occasional
X
X
X
3
Regular
X
X
3
Compensation:
Salary
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
16
Commission
X
X
2
Salary & comp.
X
X
X
3
Advancement:
Minimum
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
16
Limited
X
X
X
X
4
Number of sales-
people
15
4
3
4
5
8
1
5
5
3
32
1
5
5
3
22
1
4
1
4
aLocaHy owned branch of nationally franchised chain.
SOURCE: Personal interviews with store managers


42 -
Most of the managers seem to agree that the majority of
their salespeople do not have a thorough understanding of selling
techniques and even the few who do have this knowledge seldom
utilize it fully. Furthermore, with three exceptions, they are
i
in accord that it is rather futile to try to correct this situation
for one or both of the following reasons: (1) the salespeople
are not interested in learning and/or applying principles of sales
ranship, and (2) their retail store does not have the specialized
personnel or the resources to undertake a salea training progran.
Nevertheless, fourteen of the managers have a rather neutral
attitude, namely, "I would like to see my salespeople become more
efficient but I am not able to do it. If someone else can do it,
Ill work with him.'1 On the other hand, three managers had a
definitely negative attitude '-Nothing can be done to improve
retail salesmanship. But these managers were willing to partid-
pate in this study to substantiate their viewpoint.
t
The best tangible reflection of the managers attitude
i
toward efforts to increase selling efficiency is disclosed in the
methods which they employ to increase the effectiveness of their
salespeople. These methods include training sessions, where the
salesperson is taught how to sell, and service shopping reports,
i
which report the clerks application of the selling principles.
i
Both methods are used by some of the retail stores in this study.
Sales training. The most widely accepted place for teaching
salespeople how to sell is in sales training meetings. At these


- 43 -
sessions an instructor who can utilize any one or a combination
of a multitude of techniques teaches the salesperson how to sell
merchandise in an effective manner, the meeting can also be used
as a medium for arousing the enthusiasm of the salespeople for
their work.
Only two of the subject stores have a sales training
session as often as once a month; In one, the manager meets with
the employees every week. Both stores are units of large national
chains and in both establishments the manager usually handles
the sales meeting, but the home office supplies the training
material.
None of the other eighteen stores in the study have
regularly scheduled formal sales training sessions. Two of the
larger stores have an occasional meeting once or twice a year with
their salespeople to discuss matters of general interest which
usually does not include retail salesmanship. Hie remaining
sixteen establishments are very small stores, with from one to
six salespeople, and the close employer-employee relationship, the
managers claim, makes formal sales training unnecessary.
When the managers of the stores with no formal sales train
ing were asked, How do you expect your salespeople to learn the
principles of retail selling?7, no satisfactory answer was given.
The managers suggested that they learn by keeping their eyes open1
or 'asking questions.' Other managers felt that the selling
employees were not interested in learning; therefore, why should


- 44
they bother to try to teach then? Yet, all these managers agreed
that their salespeople lost many opportunities to sell merchandise
because of poor salesmanship.
Shopping service. A shopping service provides the retail
store manager with a customer-oriented observation of a salesperson
at work which he is usually otherwise unable to secure. When the
manager is present, a salesperson may act in an atypical manner;
therefore, the manager's perception of the salesperson may be dis
torted. By utilizing professional shoppers, the manager has a
relatively objective report on the salespersons unsupervised actions.
Two professional shopping services are available to Gaines
ville merchants, and both have groups of shoppers ho usually ser
vice subscribers in this area every three or four months. However,
they are also available more frequently upon request. Nevertheless
only two of the independent stores in this study avail themselves
of this service.
Efforts to motivate the salespeople to sell
Assuming that the salesperson has been taught how to sell,
why should she bother to apply these techniques to increase her
sales?
In retail selling the manager does not usually know to what
extent a salesperson is using principles of persuasion to sell
merchandise unless he receives service shopping reports. Because
of this fact, the manager must primarily rely on the motivation
of the individual salesperson to cause her to perform at peak


- 45 -
efficiency. If the salesperson is not self-motivated, it is diffi
cult to ascertain this situation through the exclusive use of
quantitative indicators.
While quantitative indices, such as sales volume, can
determine relative productivity for members of a sales force, they
cannot ascertain the mixture of selling techniques and motivation
which any individual applies to secure a given sales volume. Even
if a salesperson wants to perform effectively, she will sell only
as well as she has been trained. However, if she is not motivated
to sell, regardless of her knowledge of selling techniques, she
will not produce her potential sales volume.
Ideally, the salesperson should be thoroughly trained and
personally committed to apply her skill to the best of her ability.
Compensation and opportunity for advancement are two methods used
by the subject stores to motivate their salespeople. These topics
are discussed in subsequent sections.
Compensation. There are two basic methods of compensation,
salary and cormnission. Each of these methods is used by some of
the stores in the study while other establishments utilize a
combination of the two. A salary, with no commission, is the
most frequently utilized way of compensating the salespeople.
Sixteen of the retail stores pay their sales personnel a straight
salary which varies from $40 to $60 per week; this is the range of
average salary for the storesnot the starting salary. New employees
earn as little as $27.50 for a forty-hour week. The highest salaries
f over $100 per week, are earned by two key salespeople in small


- 46 -
specialty shops. The unweighted average for all stores in this
group is $45 per week if the two salaries over $100 per week are
omitted. The larger stores have the lowest wage scale while the
specialty shops have the highest rate of compensation. Fringe
benefits are not included as a part of the employee's compensation.
In two stores, the employees earn 5% to 6% commission on
their net sales; earning of individuals in these retail establish
ments vary from $60 to $150 a week under this plan, In both stores
the salesperson receives a fixed weekly advance which is charged
against earned commission and the balance is paid quarterly.
Three retailers utilize a combination of salary and com
mission. One compensates its salespeople with an average salary
of $45 per week plus 2% commission; another pays an average salary
of $40 per week for a monthly sales quota plus 3.5% to 5% commission
on all additional sales; and a third store pays a salary plus .5%
commission on net sales.
Opportunities for advancement
The qpportunily to earn and receive promotions within a
given work situation is one of the traditional opportunities offered
to most employees by the firms which employ them. Conceptually, the
worker who diligently applies herself is rewarded in this manner.
The stores in this study, however, offer only limited, if any,
opportunities for advancement to their employees.
Of the twenty stores examined, only four retailers offer
any opportunity for the salesperson to advance to a higher position.


- 47 -
In three of these establishments the firm has an executive training
program open only to college graduates, which supplies management
personnelbut a salesperson without a degree could become head of
a department. In another store, locally owned and managed by the
owners family, a salesperson is occasionally promoted to the
equivalent of a head of a department or assistant buyer.
In the other fifteen stores, there is little, if any,
opportunity for advancement. The salespeople in these stores no
doubt realize the fact that the most they can aspire to is a small
periodic salary increase. The effect that this situation has on
their motivation is not quantitatively known. It can be assumed
that it is not conducive to a high personal desire to sell.
Number of salespeople
If owners and managers are not considered as salespeople,
the retailers being described have from on to thirty-two full
time salespeople. Four stores have only one salesperson who works
forty hours or more each week; twelve retailers have from four to
six full-time salespeople; four stores have in excess of eight
salespeople who work over forty hours.
Part-time salespeople were not included in this study for
the following reasons: (1) in most cases they are considered by
the manager as temporary workers; therefore, they usually have
less interest in their employment than the full-time worker; (2)
the store managers were reluctant to ask part-time workers to


48
attend the training sessions which were a part of this program;
(3) many part-time salespeople were unable to attend the sales
training sessions because of other demands on their time.
Supnary
The store managers participating in this research realize
that the selling efficiency of their salespeople is poor, but most
of them seem to feel that little can be done to improve the
situation; consequently, they make little effort to train their
salespeople. Only two chain stores have a regular sales training
program while the other eighteen stores basically leave the acquiring
of selling skills up to the individual employee. The efficacy of
placing the burden of sales training upon the salesperson instead
of upon the store manager is questionable.
A shopping service is utilized by only five stores. Two
retailers are shopped once every four months; the other three stores
are shopped only once or twice a year on an irregular basis; two of
these four retailers, who are service-shopped, also have sales
training programs.
There is little motivation offered to the salespeople to
encourage them to sell. Two stores pay 5% to 6% of net sales to
their salespeople as compensation while sixteen others pay their
salespeople a straight salary. Two stores utilize a combination
of salary and commission.


49
Little opportunity for advancement exists for salespeople
in fifteen of the subject stores. In the five stores which do
offer the salesperson a chance to advance to a higher position,
three of these stores also offer a commission on net sales as an
incentive to sell. In the two other stores, where only a limited
opportunity for advancement exists, the salesperson is paid a
straight salary.


CHAPTER IV
EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS AND MEASURING TECHNIQUES
In this chapter, the four experimental treatments as well
as the four quantitative indicators which are used to secure data
on the effectiveness of the treatments are presented. This information
is necessary for the following reasons:
1. Retailers who desire to inprove the selling effi
ciency of their retail stares need an accurate
description of any treatment the results of which
justify its application to their business.
2. Others engaged in research need this information
in order to evaluate the efficacy of this research
and to formulate additional hypotheses which this
study may suggest.
3. It provides a background which is necessary to
evaluate properly the results of this study.
Experimental Treatments
Each of the four experimental treatments is replicated on
five retail stores in the Gainesville shopping area. Two of these
50


- 51
treatments approximate techniques currently utilized by some retail
stores to increase their selling efficiency; one is a unique program;
and one is a control or no treatment group. Admittedly, in practice
die application of the two retailer-utilized techniques varies in
different stores, but basically they use singly or in combination
the same fundamental elements examined in this study*
In the following sections the treatments used in this study
are described. Also discussed is the theoretical justification
which supports the assumption that these techniques should increase
i
selling efficiency. The analyses of quantitative experimental
results are presented in subsequent chapters.
Treatment IV
Treatment IV was a control group in this study. After the
t
organizational meeting of the store managers at which the treatments
were randomly assigned to the various stores, these stores did not
have any experimental contactexcept in the collection of quantitative
data. The employees of the five stores in this group as well as
their managers were studiously exempt from any type of stimulus
t
which might affect their selling efficiency.
The inclusion of a control group of stores enabled more
meaningful orthogonal cacparisons to be made between treatments in
the analysis of experimental data. In this manner the effectiveness
of techniques to increase selling efficiency could be compared
directly with that of a group of stores which received no positive


52 -
program. Of course, the presence of a control factor also permits
a more thorough analysis of the experimental findings.
Treatment III
Since 1917, when the Willmark Service Systems, Inc., was
foamed, retail stores have been cognizant of service shopping.
According to Willmark, subscriptions to their shopping service
should have a salutary effect upon retail salespeople; not only
should the Willmark Service improve selling efficiency but also
it should be advantageous in detecting dishonest employees as well
as being a deterrent to dishonest acts by salespeople.^
This study, however, is not concerned with the potential
of service shopping to uncover or prevent dishonest conduct by
salespeople. Instead, this research considers service shopping

only as a method of increasing selling efficiency while acknowledging
a,
that increases in selling efficiency and minimizing the dishonesty of
salespeople are mutually exclusive objectives which can be jointly
accomplished without either function of service shopping becoming
. i
diluted.
Hie efficacy of service shopping as a method of improving
t
retail selling performance was unanimously proclaimed by the training
directors of five nationally known department stores who were
-Increase Sales, Prevent Losses with
(New York": Willnarlt Service SystamsV'inc
ith the Willmark
., 19&4), p. l5.
Program


- S3 -
questioned. The superintendent of selling of the J. L. Hudson Co.,
Detroit, Michigan, reported, ,!We believe that service shopping can
be utilized as a method of sales employee recognition with resulting
improved retail performance, at least in the field of customer
2
service." The representative for Macy's wrote, "The fact that
such shoppings are conducted has, we believe, a salutary effect on
3
the action of all our employees. The other retailers reporting
were just as definite in their endorsement of shopping service as
a method to increase retail selling efficiency.
In theory, the evaluation of a clerk's retail salesmanship
by a professional shopper should help to increase selling efficiency
if it becomes part of a simple overall procedure. This process is
started by a shopping report on a salesperson which is sent to a
store manager. Upon receipt of this report the manager personally
consults the employee who is the subject of the report and either
commends her selling attributes or instructs her in ways to correct
4
her undesirable characteristics or combines both these approaches.
2
Letter from E. Luss, superintendent of selling, The J. L.
Hudson Co., Detroit, Michigan, May 24, 1960.
3Letter from L. Bradley Haight, general assistant for
selling service, Macy's, New York, May 17, 1960.
4This supervisory method of handling shopping reports
is recommended by Willmark Service Systems Inc., as well as
by the five leading department stores who cooperated in this
research.


- 54
To ascertain quantitatively the effectiveness of service
shopping as a means of increasing selling efficiency, service
shopping was applied to five retail stores in this study. The
personnel in these stores were shopped' at the beginning, near the
middle, and at the end of a five-month period. The salespeople, on
whom the reports were written, were Interviewed by their managers
who reviewed the reports with them and either praised or retrained
them according to standards presented in the Supervisor's Manual
located in Appendix A.
This manual was especially prepared to provide the managers
with the standards of performance which the shoppers used to
evaluate the salespeople as well as to give the managers a standard
instructional guide to be used while discussing the report with the
retail clerk. With the aid of the Supervisor's Manual, standard
remedial Instruction could be given any employee whose shopping
report indicated a deficiency in ary aspect of retail salesmanship.
The guide itself was compiled from an analysis of retail salesman
ship principles espoused in generally accepted books on the subject.5
The shopping report form used in this study (see Appendix A)
was a synthesis of six shopping reports, currently utilized by various
organizations. While the format of these reference reports varied,
SThe reader is referred to the bibliography for a listing of
these titles.
6Five department storesMacys, Abraham and Strauss, and
Bloomingdales, New York; John Wanamaker, Philadelphia; J. L. Hudson,
Detroitand Wi 1.1 mark Service Systems, Inc*, submitted forms.


- 55
their context was similar. The fonts examined indicated a similar
interest in determining the following about the salespersons re-
tail selling techinques: (1) approach, (2) display of merchandise,
(3) trading up, (4) suggestion selling, (5) overcoming objections,
(6) close, (7) salesperson's attitude toward the customer, and (8)
salesperson's appearance. Therefore, all these factors were in
corporated into the experimental shopping form.
The actual service shopping was performed by six part-time
professional shoppersfive women and one man. These shoppers,
who varied in age from twenty-two to sixty-four, were given a two-
hour training course which included theoretical instructions and
role playing. In the field, they worked under a supervisor who
checked their reports and retrained them when necessary. The
shoppers received wages of $1.50 per hour an} the supervisor was
paid $2.00 per hour.
In order to minimize any bias among the service shippers,
they were not specifically Informed about the methodology or ob
jective of this study. Furthermore, this researcher minimized ary
field contact with them. In fact, even the return of merchandise,
bought during shopping trips to the stores, was handled by an
assistant.
To summarize, Treatment III consists of three equl-spaced
shopping reports applied over a five-month period. These reports
were discussed with the observed salesperson by the manager and
either praise or corrective sales training or both were given. The
salespeople received no special motivation or formal sales training


- 56 -
Treatment II
Treatment II was a sound training program similar to the
ones given in retail stores throughout the country. A one-hour
sales training session was given to the salespeople in this group
of five stores every three weeks over a five-month perioda total
of six sessions. At these meetings, held from 7:45 to 8:45 A. M.
in the Gainesville Chamber of Commerce meeting .room? standard
methods were used to instruct the salespeople, at the rate of one
topic a session. The following subjects were emphasized at these
sales meetings:
1. The approach
2. Suggestion selling
3. Trading up
4. Steps in the sale
5. Overcoming objections
6. The close
The mimeographed summary notes of these training sessions, which were
distributed to the salespeople, are reproduced in Appendix A.
Illustrative examples of the use of the subject matter to
increase retail selling efficiency were secured from the Personnel
Bulletins of the National Retail Merchants Association. However,
no inducement was given to the salespeople to apply this knowledge
7
Personnel Service (New York: National Retail Merchants
Association, January, 1957, June, 1960).


- 57 -
except the obvious possibilities of promotions and raises in salary
which might be forthcoming from their respective store managers as
recognition for good ;ob performance.
Furthermore, this group was not tested as part of the train
ing program to determine if they ever applied the information which
they received during the training sessions. Of course, indirectly
this information was secured by quantitative indicators which were
applied to all treatments. Still so far as the retail clerks in
this program were concerned, they merely attended classes and re
turned to workthat was the extent of the program.
According to educational theory, man learns by one, two or
a combination of three basic methods: (1) trial and error, (2)
conditioned response, and (3) insight.8 Because the insight method
requires perception, conception and imagination and places reliance
upon the individual to secure understanding, most retail executives,
whose sales force has only a limited educational background, know
ingly or unknowingly utilize the trial and error and the conditioned
response method of training their employees.
Whether or not the store provides formal sales training, its
salespeople still learn by the same techniques. Lacking formal
instruction, the} flounder by trial and error through many selling
situations until they develop certain selling techniques which they
believe sell merchandise. Then they continue to repeat these newly
8William J. Stanton and Richard H. Buskirk, Management of
the Sales Force (Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1959;, p. 233.


58
discovered techniques until they become conditioned reflexes. Un-
/ i !
fortunately, the salesmanship techniques discovered in this manner
are not necessarily the best methods of selling merchandise.
s'. '. .. \
Hie prevalent use of Hay I help you? as a retail sales
approach is an example of an undesirable selling techniques developed
primarily by retail salespeople through trial and error. Dr. Brisco
't
in his definitive book cm retail salesmanship condemned this technique
9
as ineffective in 1926. Nevertheless, many retail salespeople still
utilize it because formal sales training has not communicated a more
effective substitute to the individual clerk.
There are many retail store executives who are convinced
that the training of their salespeople increases selling efficiency.10
Also, there are executives who agree that sales training is econom
ically justified for other stores but not for their establishment;
they offer a plethora of reasons to justify this conclusion-some
reasonable but many emotional. One of the most common reasons is
that they tried to train their salespeople but did not obtain any
tangible gains in selling efficiencyonly expenses.
Results of this treatment will give some quantitative data
which can determine the effectiveness of sales training. Their
findings can also be evaluated according to the compensation plan
9
N. A. Brisco, Retail Salesmanship (New York: The Ronald
Press, 1924), p. 72.
10
See above, pp. 6-7


tN
- 59 -
offered by the various stores. Furthermore, results also can be
compared with other programs.
Treatment I
Treatment I was a combination of Treatments II and III plus
a small pecuniary motivation unique to this treatment. The sales
people in this group of retail stores received the same sales
training as the salespeople in Treatment II. In other words, they
were taught how to sell. But besides being taught how to sell,
service shopping reports were used to test the salespeople after
each of the six training sessions, to determine whether or not
they were in fact applying the principles which they had been
taught.
If they utilized the germane principles of salesmanship,
they received incentive awards amounting to one dollar per sales
person per meeting. On the other hand, if their shopping reports
j-
indicated that they were not using correct selling techniques, they
were retrained by the manager according to the service shopping
procedure. They were also subject to a review of the salient points
of the earlier classes at the next training session.
Theoretically, this treatment combines teaching the sales
person how to sell plus providing two reasons why they should sell:
(1) in order to secure praise from the manager or avoid the obvious sign
of failure to comply with instruction^- retraining by the manager,
and (2) to secure group recognition and monetary awards given at
the next training session.


- 60 -
While the sales training program was the same for Treatments
I and II and the meetings were held at the same place and time, the
days were different; Treatment I met on TuesdayTreatment II met on
Thursday. This was done to avoid any possible feeling of enmity
between the two groups because one group received shopping reports
and pecuniary incentive which the other did not receive.
While either or both methods of increasing sales efficiency
in retail stares, represented by Treatments II and III in this study,
are extensively applied by most larger mercantile establishments and
some smaller retailers, Treatment I is unique. This combination of
training, service shopping, and small pecuniary incentive is offered
as possibly the most effective way for retail stores to increase
their selling efficiency. Larger retail stores could inaugurate
their own programs while smaller retailers could join cooperative
community ventures to utilize this technique.
Quantitative Indicators
In order to secure numerical data appropriate for statistically
testing the effectiveness of the various experimental techniques on
retail selling efficiency, four quantitative Indicators, (1) customer
attitude survey, (2) shopping reports, (8) employee morale survey,
and (4) sales volume, were utilized. Each of these measuring devices
was chosen because it had certain unique characteristics which enabled
it to examine precisely one facet of the overall effect of the treat
ments on selling efficiency. The summation of these four indicators
gives a comprehensive picture of the efficacy of the treatments.


- 61 -
Each of the four measuring devices is presented in this
chapter for the following purposesi
(1) To justify its selection as the optimum measuring
instrument to secure information about a given area
of treatment effect.
(2) To describe the methodology used in applying the
indicators to gather the results of the various
treatments.
Service shopping
The programs to increase retail selling efficiency are
predicated on the existence of a causal relationship between the
application of retail selling skills by salespeople and selling
efficiency. If the salespeople utilise effective selling procedures,
their output should increase while their selling expenses remain
relatively constant; as a consequence, their selling efficiency
increases. This concept is a basic assumption of this study.
It appears essential, therefore, that the application of
generally accepted principles of salesmanship by retail sales
people should be observed directly as well as indirectly. Oblique
>
manifestations of the utilization of good selling techniques may be
observed in customer satisfaction and possibly better employee
morale. But direct observation can best be reported only by perceiving
the salesperson at ter task of selling or measuring ter productivity.
Service shopping is the instrument for observing the salesperson at
work.


62 -
Most large retail organizations and many small retailers
have used service shopping for many years as a technique for
measuring retail selling efficiency. Dr. Donald K. Beckley, in
his definitive monograph on service shopping, considers service
shopping as one of the four basic indicators of selling efficiency.^-
While tiie assistant selling director of Macy's, New York, warns,
"We do not feel that a shopping report is conclusive evidence of
an individuals performance. At best it is only an isolated
incident. However, a series of such "isolated incidents" might
be conclusive of a pattern of performance.
Admittedly, there can be little statistical significance
to shopping reports on individuals according to sampling theory.
If a clerk participates in only fifty sales situations a day, over
a period of five months there is a universe of over 5000 selling
contacts. The significance of a sample of one or two shopping re
ports over this period yields estimates of universal parameters
with such a large reliability variance that the findings have
little statistical valuebut on a store wide basis a more com
prehensive evaluation can be made.
If twenty different salespeople are observed in a given
store on a specific day, a pattern emerges. While the results are
^Donald K. Beckley, Service Shopping (Boston: Prince School
of Retailing, Simmons College, 1953), p. 13. The four indicators
suggested by Beckley are: (1) service shopping, (2) rating by
supervisor, (3) customer interviews, and (4) sales production data.
12Haicht letter, May 17, 1960.


still statistically inconclusive for estimating parameter, neverthe
less they form a more reliable description of the level of the store
personal salesmanship than one observation of an individual would
give. Therefore, in this study, service shopping is concerned only
with the stores performancenot the individual's. There is no
-
attempt to evaluate the effect of the various programs on an
individual salesperson basis.
While the shopping reports are not a valid basis for esti
mating parameters, they are useful for statistical comparisons
within the experiment. Differences between treatments and between
before-and-after quantitative measurements within treatments can
be statistically reduced to a probability of occurrence. This is
in keeping with the objectives of this study which are basically
to determine the effectiveness of various techniques to increase
selling efficiency. Estimates of study parameters are not an
objective of this work.
The same shoppers who performed the service shopping applied
as Treatment III, provided the service shopping reports which were
used as quantitative indicators. The shoppers and their supervisor
were not informed concerning the identity of the stores receiving
various treatments or of the experimental significance of their
reports. They were merely instructed to shop certain stores and
in the case of the stores receiving the first treatment, certain
salespeople.
Shopping reports, while not conclusive evidence of retail
selling performance by salespeople, are still a valuable indicator


64
of the selling techniques actually utilized by the clerk in the sales
situation. Since these techniques are the causal factor which deter
mines to a larger extent the level of retail selling efficiency, their
quantitative examination by means of a shopping service appears
essential. In the next section, however, a more indirect indicator,
a consumer survey, is examined.
v
Consumer attitude survey
An essential ingredient of a successful retail store is
customer satisfaction with the stores merchandise and personal
service. Regardless of the efficiency of a stores overall operation,
if a retail merchant fails to satisfy his patrons and thereby dis-
;
courages them from returning to his store on subsequent occasions,
he usually fails. There are not many stores which can economically
subsist on transient customers only; those few which do so are not
1
considered in this study.
Since customer satisfaction is so necessary for the success
of a retail store, it seems essential that the effect of efforts to
increase retail selling efficiency on a store's customers should be
examined. If the effect is desirable, it should be recognized as a
<
long-run benefit of the program. On the other hand, if the tested
techniques cause the customer to react negatively, the long-run
results will be undesirable regardless of possible immediate gains
recorded by other indicators.
The customer attitude survey, therefore, tends to be a
? f
longer run check cm other quantitative indicators which report


- 65
immediate results. Suppose, for example, that a given treatment
causes the salespeople to 'high pressure'' customers. This might
cause a short-run rise in sales volume but a long-run decrease in
patronageassuming customers reacted negatively to the high pressure"
techniques. Data secured from the customer attitude survey analyzed
within the overall context of the entire experimental findings would
give indications of this situation.
Although a probability sample would have been the most
desirable method of selecting the customer attitude survey respondents,
it was not utilized because funds were not available to compensate
field workers who would have been needed to interview the retail
store's customers. A non-probability sample, such as a convenience
sanle which was actually utilized in this study, had advantages of
economy and convenience but its findings were subject only to non-
statistical inference. 'One should keep clearly in mind that the
use of non-random sampling obtains results whose reliability can
not be measured by established theory.iS
By utilizing a quota sample, even with its acknowledged
limitations, a good indication of the effect of the treatments on
the retail stores customers can be secured. This information is
useful in this study as well as in providing a guide for more
adequately financed future research.
13Morris H. Hansen, William N. Hurvitz, William G. Madow,
Sample Survey Methods and Theory, Vol. I: Methods of Application
(New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1953), p. 73.


- 66
Even though the survey results cannot provide reliable
estimates of parameters, it can secure data which can be examined
to provide meaningful evaluation of the various treatment results.
Admittedly, it would be also desirable to have a sample subject to
statistical inference. Nevertheless, the customer attitude data are
useful in meeting the objectives of this studyeven with its
limitations.
A time period, between 10:00 A. M. and 1:00 P. M. on a
Saturday morning, was arbitrarily selected as the optimum time to
select respondents for two reasons: (1) Since this period was on a
Saturday, marketing students were available to do the field work; and
(2) Saturday was a busy shopping day and the hours between 10:00 A. M.
and 1:00 P. M. were the heaviest traffic hours during that day; there
fore, the interviews per hour ratio werehigh.
A quota of fifty respondents was arbitrarily assigned to
each of the stores in the study. The field workers were instructed
to interview every other patron leaving a given store during the
interview hours until they completed their quota. Field workers
assigned to low traffic stores were told to interview all customers
leaving their stores during the three-hour period.
The interviewers were not specifically told the treatments
which the various stores received although they knew the scope of
the study. In this way, non-sampling bias was reduced.
Field workers were instructed to interview all designated
customers except children under sixteen years of age* Race or
obvious social standing was specifically eliminated as a basis for


- 67 -
tiie selection of respondents. Furthermore, whether or not a person
leaving a store had made a purchase was not relevant; as long as a
person was observed leaving a given retail storeshe or he was a
customer.
Tlie six questions which were presented to the respondents
were designed to determine the customers attitude on the following
subjects: (1) appearance of the salespeople; (2) the salespersons
knowledge of the merchandise which she sold; (3) friendliness of the
salespeople; (4) interest of the salespeople in helping the customer
received; and (6) an opportunity to make any relevant comments. The
questionnaire is reproduced in Appendix A.
After the interviewer read to a respondent a question which
was designed to evoke information to meet one of the survey objectives,
an answer card (see Appendix A) was shown by the field worker. The
customer indicated her feelings by selecting a number from one to
four on a scale which basically represented a possible attitude be- -
tween good and bad. For tabulation purposes, answers one and two
were considered favorable and three and four unfavorable.
A four-part scale was selected after a trial survey with a
three-step scale. With a three-step scale there was a tendency for
customers to choose continually the middle feeling without much
intellectual participation. A four-p^rt scale necessitated more of
a reflection of the respondents feeling since there was no obviously
noncommittal middle opinion. On the other hand, a six-step gradation
was felt to be too finely gradated for the subject matter.


- 68 -
Since the objective of the customer attitude survey was not
to describe and correlate various attitudes with general population
characteristics such as age, sex and income but to indicate the
effectiveness of various treatments, only one classification was
usedthe custoners own classification of herself as a regular,
occasional or seldom customer of a given store. This classification
was included because it was felt to be a more significant factor in
determining the respondents feelings than other possible classifications.^
Employee morale survey
Definitions of morale are many. A review of them all would
show that they define it in terms of what it is, what it does,
whereit resides, whom it affects and what it affects. Thus
to use the foregoing classification, morale is composed as
follows:
1. What it isan attitude of mind, an espirt de corps, a
state of well (or unwell) being, and an emotional force.
2. What it doesaffects output, quality, costs, co-operation,
discipline, enthusiasm, initiative, and other aspects of
success.
3. Where it residesin the minds, attitudes, and emotions of
individuals by themselves, and in their group reactions.
4. Whom it affectsimmediately, employees and executives
in their interactions; ultimately, the customer and the
community.
5. What it affectswillingness to work and to co-operate
in the best interest of the enterprise and in turn of
the individuals themselves.
^4For critical evaluation of the efficacy of conventional
consumer classifications in market research see, Ernest Dichter,
"Seven Tenets of Creative Research," Journal of Marketing, XXV,
No. 4 (April, 1961), 2.


- 69
A single definition is used here merely to provide a quick
clue to the foregoing details. Morale then is a state of
mind of emotions, affecting willingness to work, which in
turn affects individual and organizational objectives.15
Although there is little agreement on a formal definition of
morale, there is a nationally recognized method of quantitatively
measuring itthe Science Research Associates (SRA) Employee In
ventory.16 this inventory was developed by the Industrial Relations
Center of the University of Chicago, and has been given to over
25,000 employees to establish national norms. With this inventory,
the attitudes of employees in fifteen areas can be quantified and
evaluated.
: I N < 4 V
Ihe SRA Employee Inventory has four advantages over an
; t I- ( I i
original morale inventory which could have been developed for this
study: (1) it is nationally recognized and accepted, (2) retailers
or other researchers can readily purchase it for their own use, (3)
national norms are available as standards for evaluating results
obtained in this study, (4) because of years of research, the in
ventory is undoubtedly technically superior to any survey which
this researcher could have developed.
' . * 1 *
While the attitudes of employees can be measured, there is
no authoritative agreement that there exists a causal relationship
15Michael T. Jucius, Personnel Management (Homewood, Illinois:
Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1959), p. M.
16The SRA Employee Inventory and all germane forms and in
struction are available from Science Research Associates, Inc., 259
E. Erie St., Chicago 11, Illinois.


- 70 -
between employee morale and productivity. If there were agreement on
this relationship, this research would have been greatly simplified.
It would only have been necessary to apply the various treatments to
the experimental stores; take a quantitative measure of employee
attitudes; and draw conclusions. If morale showed statistically
significant improvement so would productivity. Unfortunately,
evaluation of this research is not that simple.
It has long been assumed that there is a high correlation
between the morale of a work group and its productivity. However,
research on this subject leads to the conclusion that little is
known about such a relationship. The present state of knowledge
is summarized by a social science group:
One of the most important hypotheses which has been
largely substantiated by the Michigan group holds that
high productivity is not necessarily a function of job
satisfaction or morale. If we distinguish between
organizational goals and personal goals, then those peo
ple who find satisfaction of their own personal needs by
meeting the goals of the organization for which they work
are more likely to be highly productive. It is, however,
possible for people to be satisfied with their jobs al
though they contribute little toward meeting the goals
of their organization. It is also possible for a group
of employees to have high morale because they are able to
accomplish group goals, although these are not necessarily
related to productivity.
While the direct relation between morale and productivity
is subject to dispute the desirability of a good level of morale
17Harold Koontz and Cyril ODonnell, Principles of Management
(New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959), p. 401.
18
I. R. Weschier, M. Kahane, and R. Tonnenbaum, Job Satis
faction, Productivity and Morale: A Case Study", Occupational
Psychology. XXVI, No. 1 (January, 1952), 92.


- 71
la not. According to one writer: 'A favorable state of mind among
the individuals and groups composing an organization is reflected
in a favorable attitude toward the organization, its work and its
leadership. It is reflected directly in the economy and effective
ness with which the organization accomplishes its mission."19 All
other things being equal, there is little reason why management
would not desire a good level of employee morale.
The justification for the use of an employee attitude survey
as a quantitative indicator is rather indirect and of necessity
theoretically inconclusive since there is no established causal
relation between enployee morale and productivity. But employee
morale indirectly contributes toward the reaching of organization
goals and, therefore, the effect which the programs under consideration
have on morale is important in this research. If a program which
theoretically should increase selling efficiency fails, the mitigating
factor may be indirectly found in a lower level of employee morale
which the program itself produced, even though direct causation
would not be logically inferred.
For example, suppose a shopping service is introduced into
a retail store without proper employee indoctrination. As a result,
the salespeople feel that management is spying on them and consequently
they Informally unite to fight the system. Under these circumstances,
even though selling efficiency might improve, the management should be
19Ralph Davis, Hie Fundamentals of Top Management (New York:
Harper and Brothers, 191), p.$&2.


- 72 -
aware of a potentially troublesome situation and take measures to
correct it. This awareness could come from a lower level of
employee morale indicated by the SRA Employee Inventory.
Conversely, if a program to increase selling efficiency also
improves employee attitudes, the program plus improved morale might
have a reinforcing effect upon each other. Again, service shopping is
an appropriate example. Assume that a store's management has ef
fectively convinced its employess that service shopping is a positive
motivating factornot a spy system. Now instead of the employees'
negative attitude working against the program, it works for the
program.
Whether or not this morale factor improves selling efficiency,
the methodology of tills study is not able to conclude, but it can
indicate the effect of the treatments on employee morale. If a program
tangibly increases productivity and morale, the program is doubly
desirable. On the other hand, if it increases productivity but de-
creases morale, there are indications that further research should be
considered before final conclusions are reached.
The SRA Employee Inventory was administered to the employees
in the experimental retail stores according to the instructions
suggested by the publishers except in one instance. While the
managers of stores with more than four employees were given the
results to evaluate and cocsnunicate to their salespeople, stores with
fewer than four employees were not given the results since the employees
of these stores were understandably reluctant to be so closely identified


- 73
I f
with the survey results. Bnployees In both categories were given
assurances of the aforementioned procedure.
In tiie following section a more direct and generally accepted
method of measuring sales productivity is presented.
t . "J l i i
Sales volume
\ v. r A ?
The most universally accepted method of measuring selling
productivity is some type of sales statistic, such as number of
transactions, net sales and the amount of the average sale, these
statistics have the following advantages: (1) the terms are readily
understood by the businessmen, (2) the data are normally collected by
larger retailers, and (3) the sales indicators are more directly re
lated to profits than the other three indicators in this study.
However, because of the preponderance of nailer retail
stores in this study, only one of the sales volume indicators, net
sales volume, was available from all stores in this experiment*
While the larger stores had all types of statistics available, sales
volume was the only indicator common to all stores; therefore, this
statistic was chosen as an indicator of sales production. Also,
there were other practical considerations.
While the experimental stores were willing to submit sales
volume in terms of the percentage change in sales during a period in
1961 as compared to a corresponding period in 1960, they were reluctant
to disclose absolute figures. Consequently, lacking general agreement
to submit absolute figures, it was necessary either to accept percentage


- 74
changes or entirely omit a sales volume indicator. Under these
circumstances percentage changes were agreed upon.
Percentage changes as a quantitative indicator have the
following disadvantages as compared to absolute sales figures: (1)
they are less precise} dollar sales volume can be exact while per
centage changes, especially when rounded to whole numbers, are less
rigorous; and (2) percentages, as relative numbers, are not subject
to calculations possible with absolute numbers, e.g., dividing the
number of clerks into dollar volume to determine average volume, per
clerk. Nevertheless, even with these drawbacks, some indication
of the effect of the techniques on sales production was deemed
advisable because of the aforementioned advantage of this type of
indicator.
i ,.i,. i ( 1 < 1
Summary
j j *1 3 I \ ' *., '7* .1 i
In this chapter the three techniques for improving retail
selling efficiency, a combination of sales training, service
shopping and motivation, sales training, and service shopping, as
well as a control group, were described. The theoretical justification
for the efficacy of the positive treatments and the need for a control
group were also presented. Furthermore, the manner in which each one
of the treatments was applied to the experimental retail stores was
discussed.
The four quantitative indicators which were used to secure
data on the results of the treatments were examined. The limitations


- 75 -
and the advantages of each of the two direct indicators, service
shopping and sales volume, were evaluated as were the two more in
direct measuring techniques, the employee morale and customer attitude
survey. Arguments were advanced to defend the selection of these
indicators as optimum under the given circumstances of this research.


*1 i i
I : 1 f I
CHAPTER V
* ' v. y u J t | ; ? *# I f*
ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY
if f. ? 4 i t i !; 1 j | ft
The Science Research Associates Employee Inventory was given
V % H ,
to the salespeople in the experimental retail stores in order to
(' .' : i \\ i n n *i j
determine the effect of the various treatments on the attitude of the
clerks. While a causal relationship between employee morale and
'¡.In ; t r i I t v llTf >
productivity has not been definitely established by management theorists,

in many instances it has been observed that employee morale and
i:i !i
productivity vary directly. This association, however, should not be
1 fit J i. : i' A f ? > -I i i $
assumed to Indicate causality.
i -Vj *>f. S' ; r [ k K i r b
On the other hand, since the attitudes of employees logically
i t J r '
should affect productivity in some manner event though this relationship
is ; et to be conclusively ascertained, it appears necessary to examine
fluctuations in morale as an interesting manifestation of the treatments.
If the treatments cause an increase in selling efficiency and an increase

in morale, the rise in morale is a salutary by-product. On the other
.
hand, if the treatments cause increases in selling efficiency and a
lowering of morale, there is cause for further consideration of the
programs. Of course, if the treatments are ineffective, the morale
i ';
factor is irrelevant.
- 76


- 77 -
Comparison of Before-and After-Treatment Results
The employee attitude survey was administered to the subject
salespeople before the programs to increase selling efficiency or
treatments were applied, and after the programs were completed. Five
months separated the survey applications. The results of the before-
and after-surveys were plotted on report forms and profiles drawn for
clear graphic comparison.
For tiie following reasons the before-and after-survey results
could not have been statistically compared for significant changes:
(1) the normal turnover of employees over a five-month period, as
well as the necessity of assuring the anonymity of the salespeople
taking the test, precluded the use of paired samples; and (2) since
both surveys had a common group of salespeople, the two groups were
not independent; therefore, conventional statistical procedures were
t *
not applicable.
As a result of these limitations, the after-treatment data
can only be compared to before-treatment results and changes noted.
These variations, however, are amenable to objective evaluation as
possible indicators of treatment effect; they cannot be evaluated
in terms of probability. Furthermore, without the benefit of valid
statistical tests, there is no quantitative way of accounting for
the effect of the multiplicity of extraneous factors, besides the
treatments, which also affect morale. Nevertheless, a comparison of
before-and after-treatment findings does provide an insight into


- 78 -
possible treatment effects which can be further analyzed when the after-
treatment findings are statistically tested later in the chapter.
Treatment I
The total inventory score for Treatment I, the assumed optimum
combination of salestraining, shopping service and motivation, does not
vary sufficiently between before-and after-surveys results to indicate
any meaningful difference. As a result, it is unlikely that there
are very large changes among any of the component classifications
whose sumaation equals the total.
However, there is a mitigating factor. When this program was
half completed, the clerks in Treatment I disclosed, during a training
session, that they were not being compensated by their employers for
attending the meetings. They resented the fact. Since they had to
devote an additional one hour every three weeks to this program, aside
from the regular working hours, they reasoned that they should have
been paid for their time. However, their objections were not too
vehement since they received incentive awards at the meetings;
consequently, they continued to attend the sessions with the assist
ance of continued pressure from their store managers. It can be
hypothesized that this irritation resulted in a general lowering of
the after scores.
Credulity is given this explanation when the 85-25-percentile
decrease on the after-treatment inventory score for Treatment II is
noted. The clerks in this group objected so strenuously to attending


- 79 -
their training sessions without pay that only the strongest managerial
pressure could secure their attendance. In one store, the manager
even had to reverse his position and pay the salespeople in order to
secure their participation.
Generally, the salespersons reaction to Treatment I was
satisfactory but to Treatment II it was rather poor because of the
compensation problems. The response of the salespeople to the programs
was very noticeable because at the time this study was being conducted
in Gainesville, Florida, a program identical to Treatment I was being
offered on a commercial basis in Ocala, Florida, a town thirty miles
away; in Ocala, however, the merchants paid for the program and the
salespeople were compensated for their time.
The response of the salespeople to the commercial program was
very good. Some of the clerks voluntarily expressed the opinion that
they looked forward to attending the training sessions. After the
program was concluded, the managers reported that the clerks had
asked about continuing the program during the following year. Un
fortunately, since this was not an academic project, no quantitative
measurements of morale were secured at the completion of the program.
However, it provided a standard for subjective evaluation of the
salespeoples reaction to Treatments I and II in this study.
Perhaps it is reasonable to assume that the positive influence
of Treatment I on employee attitudes was reduced by the negative
response engendered by their store managers reluctance to compensate
them for their participation in this study. If compensation were given,


- 80 -
scores in certain categories may have been higher, nevertheless, the
results of the before-and after-scores are analyzed by categories to
indicate any significant changes.
Figure I, a comparison of the profiles on the before-and after-
treatment scores indicates at least a 10-percentile change in three
categories of employer attitudes. There are no areas where a variation
in excess of 15-percentiles occurred except in reactions to the
inventory which is not germane to this study. In the remaining
eleven categories, no notable variations are indicated.
In two of the three categories, job demands and supervisor-
employee interpersonal relations, the change could be reasonably
attributed to the treatment. The reason for a change in the third,
identification with the company, is probably due to a non-treatment
factor.
Category one, job demands, includes the reaction of the sales
people to work pressure, fatigue, monetary, work load and hours of
work.
It covers the major things having to do with physical and
mental pressures on the job. Reactions to job pressures are
not only a function of actual pressure that exists but the
employees attitude toward it. If an employee feels he is
getting something out of his work and that he is gaining
personally from it, he is much more likely to react favor
ably to job demands. However, if he feels that the work is
of no personal advantage to him, he may regard it as dull,
monotonous, and fatiguing.
General Manual for the SRA Employee Inventory (3d ed.;
Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1952), p. 19.


KEY:
Before
After
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE I
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT I


82


83
Since this program concentrated on upgrading the salesperson
from an order-taker to a merchandise adviser, it should have created
a more dynamic work environment. The salespeople were taught selling
techniques, tested by means of the service shopping reports on their
application of these techniques and generally expected to render a
higher level of service. This new definition of work expectancy
should have placed greater demands on them and they probably reacted
positively to the circumstances.
Category six, supervisor-employee interpersonal relations,
includes a number of items ordinarily associated by em
ployees with good supervision, such as friendliness, fair
ness, praise, and encouragement. Favorable attitudes toward
immediate supervision are, of course, essential to employee
morale. Teamwork and productivity in the work are probably
more closely related to supervision than to ary other single
factor. What a man does on his job depends on the personal
leadership he gets from his immediate superior. It is far
more important to his productivity than his attitudes toward
management or company policy.2
The participation of the managers in the program evidently
created a favorable employee-manager relationship. In most stores,
the managers attended the meetings with the employees, creating a
team spirit. Also, all of the managers were involved in the shopping
reports and incentive awards given to their employees on the basis of
the shopping reports.
Category thirteen, identification with the company,
measures the employees feeling of participation and belong
ing in the company as well as their pride and interest in
the company. If the company is well-known and important in
2Ibid., p. 18.


- 84 -
its industry, employees may show a high degree of identi
fication even though the:'r attitudes are poor in other
factors.
While the program may have contributed to the salespersons
feeling of participation in the affairs of the store, there is another
influence. The department store in this group completed a new store
front during the experimental treatment. The scores of their employees,
who are over 50% of the total for the category, showed exceptional
improvement. Unfortunately, quantitative effect of this factor cannot
be separated from experimental influenceonly acknowledged.
Treatment II
The difference between the total scores on the employee inventory
before and after sales training was applied to the experimental stores,
indicated a decrease of 25-percentiles. Under normal cir
cumstance, this would have been an indication of a drastic general
change in employee attitudes.
A strong negative factor, such as failure to compensate the
salespeople for their participation in this study, probably caused
this change. In Treatment II, the salespeople were 'pressured into
attending the programs; they were not paid for their time; they
strongly resented the imposition. As a consequence, their entire
morale level dropped.
3Ibid., p. 19.


- 85 -
The situation is analogous to a shopper who has had an un
pleasant experience with the credit department of a store. Prior to
this contact the shopper may have considered the stores merchandise
very attractive, the salespeople efficient, and the store a good place
to purchase goods. But after the unpleasant credit experience, she
tends to think poorly of the entire storenot just the credit
department.
Because of the presence of this strong negative factor, an
analysis of the various survey categories would be in error. Any
analysis would be attributing reactions to the treatment which are
probably not the result of tills causation. Although such an analysis
would be invalid results are shown in Figure II.
Treatment III
i
A comparison of the total scores on the employee inventory
secured before Treatment III, shopping service, was applied, and after
the program was completed, indicated a 5- percentile decrease; this is
shown in Figure III. Discussions with the managers of retail stores
in this group failed to disclose any extraneous factors which might
have influenced the survey results. They further confirmed that they
had followed the recommended shopping service procedure during the
study; however, the validity of these statements could not be ob
jectively verified.
An analysis of the fourteen categories whose simulation equals
the total, disclosed that four categories showed a decrease in excess


KEY
Before
After
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE II
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT II


- 87 -
10
15
55 ' *5


KEY: Before
After
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE III
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT III


Full Text
EFFECT OF SELECTED TRAINING METHODS
ON SELLING EFFICIENCY IN RETAIL STORES
By
RICHARD C. VREELAND
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
February, 1962

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to those
who have assisted in the preparation of this dissertation. He is in¬
debted to the members of his Supervisory Committee: Dr. J. Donald
Butterworth, Chairman; Dr. Frank Goodwin; Dr. Willard Ash; Dr. John
Webb; and Dr. William Wilmot. The professional advice of these men
was invaluable in the preparation of this manuscript while their
personal encouragement always seemed to be forthcoming when most
needed.
To his wife, Judy, the author is especially grateful. Her
willingness to subordinate personal objectives to the demands of this
research was an intangible contribution of considerable magnitude.
On the other hand, her many hours of editorial assistance tangibly
facilitated the completion of the study.
The St. Petersburg Chapter of the National Sales Executives
Club, which generously assisted in the financing of the research,
earned the author's appreciation. Also, the author wishes to thank
the Chamber of Comnerce and the merchants of Gainesville, Florida,
for their cooperation and Miss Eugenia Townsend for her professional
typing of the final manuscript. To others, not specifically named,
but personally remembered—many thanks.
- ii -

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER PAGE
I INTRODUCTION 1
Objectives 8
Scope 9
Definitions 10
Research Design 11
Limitations of Methodology 12
II HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SELLING EFFICIENCY 13
Convenience Goods 15
Self-service 16
Automatic vending 19
Shopping Goods 22
Self-selection 23
The training of retail salespeople 25
Service shopping 28
Motivation „ 29
Specialty Goods 31
III DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ENVIRONMENT 34
Gainesville Retail Trade Area 34
Retail Stores 36
Description of the store operation 38
Efforts to teach the salespeople how to sell 39
Attitude of management 39
Sales training 42
Shopping service 44
Efforts to motivate the salespeople to sell 44
Compensation 45
Opportunities for advancement 46
Number of salespeople 47
Summary 48
- iii -

\
- iv -
CHAPTER PAGE
IV EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS AND MEASURING TECHNIQUES 50
Experimental Treatments 50
Treatment IV 51
Treatment III 52
Treatment II 56
Treatment I 59
Quantitative Indicators 60
Service shopping 61
Consumer attitude survey 64
Employee ~orals survey 68
Sales volume 73
Summary 74
V ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY 76
Comparison of Before-and After-Treatment Results 77
Treatment I 78
Treatment II 84
Treatment III 85
Treatment IV 92
Chi-Square Analysis of Treatment Results 95
Effect of the Treatments on Department Stores 103
The Treatment I department store 105
The Treatment II department store 105
The Treatment III department 6tore 110
The Treatment IV department store 113
Evaluation of Methodology 113
Summary 116
VI ANALYSIS OF THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY 119
Treatment Analysis 120
Effect of the treatments on the respondent’s
frequency of purchase 125
Analysis of individual stores 129
Evaluation of Methodology 131
Summary 136
VII ANALYSIS OF SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS 138
Treatment Analysis 139
Analysis of Selected Selling Techniques 142
Appropriateness of the approach 143
Overcoming objections 145
Trading up 147
Suggestion selling 150
dosing the sale 152
Effect of the Treatments on Department Stores 155

- V -
CHAPTER
PAGE
Evaluation of Methodology
161
Summary
162
VIII SALES VOLUME
166
IX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
169
The Effect of the Treatments
169
A Program to Increase Retail Selling Efficiency
177
Outlook for the Future
180
APPENDIX A
182
APPENDIX B
198
APPENDIX C
207
APPENDIX D
220
BIBLIOGRAPHY
240
BIOGRAPHY
243

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE PACE
1 THE AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF NET SALES SPENT FOR TOTAL
EXPENSES AND EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION IN SELECTED
TYPES OF RETAIL STORES 2
2 CHARACTERISTICS OF RETAIL STORES IN THE EXPERIMENTAL
DESIGN 40
3 TOTAL AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES 96
4 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE TOTAL AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE
SURVEY RESPONSES 97
5 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES TO JOB AND
CONDITIONS OF WORK 99
6 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO JOB AND CONDITIONS OF WORK 100
7 PERCENTAGE CHANGE OF FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSES TO
QUESTIONS DN THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY CLASSIFIED
BY TREATMENT 121
8 THE PERCENTAGE CHANGE, CLASSIFIED BY TREATMENT, IN THE
CUSTOMERS' FREQUENCY OF PURCHASE AFTER FIVE MONTHS
OF TREATMENT APPLICATION 130
9 PERCENTAGE CHANGE, CLASSIFIED BY STORE, IN THE CUSTOMERS’
FREQUENCY OF PURCHASE AFTER FIVE MONTHS OF TREATMENT
APPLICATION 132
10 COMPARISON OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORT MEAN SCORES
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT (IN PERCENTAGES) 140
11 ANALYSIS OF THE VARIANCE IN SERVICE SHOPPING REPORT
TOTAL SCORES 141
vi -

- vii -
table page
12 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
CHOPPING REPORTS, ON THE APPROPRIATENESS OF THE
SALESPERSON’S APPROACH (IN PERCENTAGES) 143
13 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF
THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF
THE CORRECT SALES APPROACH 144
14 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPERSON
TO COMPLETELY OVERCOME OBJECTIONS (IN PERCENTAGES) . 145
15 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF
THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE
SALESPEOPLE TO COMPLETELY OVERCOME OBJECTIONS 146
16 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE
TO TRADE UP CUSTOMERS (IN PERCENTAGES) 147
17 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF
THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON TRADING UP 149
18 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON SUGGESTION SELLING (IN PER¬
CENTAGES) 150
19 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF THE
SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF SUGGES¬
TION SELLING TECHNIQUES 152
20 COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS, ON THE UTILIZATION OF CLOSING
TECHNIQUES (IN PERCENTAGES) 153
21 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF
THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON CLOSING ABILITY .... 154
22 PERCENTAGE OF FAVORABLE OBSERVARIONS ON THE SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS CLASSIFIED BY GROUP AND DEPARTMENT
STORE 157
23 SUMMARY OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CHI-SQUARE COMPARISONS
FOR FIVE SELECTED SELLING ATTRIBUTES CLASSIFIED BY
TREATMENT AND DEPARTMENT STORE 160
24 PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN EXPERIMENTAL RETAIL STORES' SALES
FOR APRIL 1961 AS COMPARED TO APRIL 1960 166
25 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE IN THE APRIL 1960 SALES OF THE
EXPERIMENTAL RETAIL STORES 167

- viii
TABLE PAGE
26 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES OT FINANCIAL
REWARDS FROM EMPLOYMENT 199
27 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO FINANCIAL REWARDS FROM EMPLOYMENT 199
28 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES TO PERSONAL
RELATIONS 200
29 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO PERSONAL RELATIONS 200
30 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSE TO OPERATING
EFFICIENCY 201
31 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO OPERATING EFFICIENCY 201
32 AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES TO INDIVIDUAL
SATISFACTION 202
33 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO INDIVIDUAL SATISFACTION 202
34 INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT I
CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY 203
35 INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT II
CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY 204
36 INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT III
CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY 205
37 INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT IV
CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY 206
38 BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT I 208
39 BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT II 209
40 BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT III 210

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
\
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
- ix
PAGE
BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT IV 211
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT I 212
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT II 213
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT III 214
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR
TREATMENT IV 215
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO
QUESTIONS ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE
STORES IN TREATMENT I 216
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO
QUESTIONS ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE
STORES IN TREATMENT II 217
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO
QUESTIONS ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE
STORES IN TREATMENT III 218
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO
QUESTIONS ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE
STORES IN TREATMENT IV 219
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT STORE
RESULTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF THE CORRECT APPROACH .. 221
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT
STORE RESULTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE TO
COMPLETELY OVERCOME OBJECTIONS 221
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT
STORE RESULTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE TO
TRADE UP CUSTOMERS 222
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT
STORE RESULTS IN THE UTILIZATION OF SUGGESTION SELLING
TECHNIQUES 222
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT
STORE RESULTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF CLOSING
TECHNIQUES 223

TABLES
PAGE
55 RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT I 224
56 RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT II 228
57 RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT III 232
58 RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT IV 236

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURES PAGE
I EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT I 82
II EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT II ’TVTTJi 87
•••
III EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT III 89
IV EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS BEFORE-AND AFTER-
TREATMENT IV 94
V GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORE AFTER-TREATMENT I EMPLOYEE
ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS 107
VI GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORE AFTER-TREATMENT II EMPLOYEE
ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS 109
VII GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORE AFTER-TREATMENT III EMPLOYEE
ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS 112
VIII GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORE AFTER-TREATMENT IV EMPLOYEE
ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS 115
IX AVERAGE SCORES ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY 127
X SERVICE SHOPPING REPORT 197
xi -

/
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
’ • ♦
Production of form utility takes about one-half of
the money we spend for goods, and marketing (the creation
of place, time and possession utilities) takes the other
half. Speaking broadly, the creation of possession util¬
ity takes about one-fourth, and the creation of place and
time utility takes about one-fourth of the money spent
for goods.
This study, however, is concerned primarily with the creation of
possession utility thich is usually accomplished by some type of
retail organization—except in the case of industrial goods.
In most retail stores which do not utilize self-service,
the largest single operating expense item is usually employee
compensation. Table 1 shows the importance of this item in
selected retail stores.
Although these figures are not broken down into the specific
percentage paid to salespeople, an idea of the prominence of sales¬
people cuTpensation can be deduced. For example, another source
discloses that the management of department stores, with the sales
volume shown in the table, spends 8.5% of net sales for compensation
P. D. Converse, K« Vi. Hue&y and R. V. Mitchell, Clements
of Marketing (Oth ed.j Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-
Flail, Inc., 1958), p. 7.
- 1 -

- 2 -
o
of sales personnel;* this is approximately 25% of total expenses.
The owner of the average appliance store pays 6.7% of net sales or
also about 25% of total expenses as wages for salespeople.
TABLE 1
THE AVERAGE PERCENTAGE OF NET SALES SPENT FOR
TOTAL EXPENSES AND EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION
IN SELECTED TYPES OF RETAIL STORES
Compensation
Store
Total expenses
Management
Other employees
Total
Men's wear
SI.2
5.7
10.5
16.2
Women’s wear
34.7
5.3
13.2
18.5
Appliance
27.0
2.7
8.9
11.6
Drug
30.6
8.1
12.1
20.2
(Sales
$200,000 to
$250,000
yearly)
Department stores 34.6 (not shown) (not shown) 19.0
(sales $1 - $2
million)
Source: Expenses in Retail Businesses, National Cash Register Co.,
Dayton, Óhio (n.d.).
It can be reasonably assumed, therefore, that many merchants
who employ salespeople and spend approximately 25% of total expenses
to compensate them should be interested in increasing the selling
efficiency of retail salespeople. If salespeople could be induced
2
Sam Flanel, Departmental Merchandising and Operating Results
of 1958 (New York: Controllers Congress, National Retail Merchants
Association, 1959), p. 57.

to increase their productivity, net sales would increase at little
additional cost because many other expenses would not be proportion¬
ately increased. As a result, the bulk of the store's margin on
this additional volume would be reflected on the profit and loss
statement as profit before taxes.
There appears to be little evidence in marketing literature
to support any contention that personal salesmanship at the retail
level cannot—in fact, must not—be improved and made more efficient,
(hi the other hand, there are strong indications from several sources
that it can and should be made more effective.
In 1949, the editors of Fortune magazine undertook an in-
i t , * * i
tensive investigation of the quality of retail salesmanship in the
United States. Their general conclusion at that time was that
t
salesmanship was at an extremely low level. But, in 1952, then
the investigation was repeated they summarized, with a few nota¬
ble exceptions, that the situation was even worse than in 1949.3
Salespeople in many instances were still ignorant of the benefits
which their merchandise offered the consumer. Furthermore, the
clerks made little effort to determine the customer's needs and
recoranend goods which would satisfy them. Many salespeople, in¬
stead of offering service? exhibited a here is the merchandise—
take It or leave it" attitude*
i
Academic investigation appears to concur in these findings.
Doctor Robert H. layers, writing in the scholarly Journal of Retailing,
8l: What’s Wrong tilth Retail Salesmanship?" Fortune, XXXXIV,
No. 4 (July, 1952), 77.

- 4 -
reports: "One of the major problems In marketing today is the
inefficiency and ineptness of retail salesmanship.’1* His con¬
clusion is the result of an empirical study of retail salesman¬
ship in the metropolitan New York City area.
Many retailers recognize this problem and attempt to solve
it in one of two basic ways or by utilizing a combination of botii
procedures. One method is to eliminate the salesperson by using
some degree of self-service; the other is to increase the produc¬
tivity of the salesperson. Retail grocers, for example, have
almost completely adopted the first approach, while smaller
specialty stores, especially in the apparel trade, have utilized
a combination of two methods.
Before the advent of self-service, grocers typically offered
their customers what is commonly termed full service, i.e., assist¬
ance in the selection of merchandise, free delivery, and credit.
Yet today most grocers no longer offer these services; conse¬
quently, they have been able to decrease selling costs as a
percentage of sales volume, increase selling efficiency, and
lower selling prices to induce more trade into their stores.
Bo til the public and the merchant have benefited from tills limi¬
tation of service which the consumer has been willing to accept.
Still self-service is not able to increase selling efficiency for
all retailers. For example, what about a department store from
which the public still expects full service?
^Robert H. ifyers, Retail Selling Can and Should Be Improved,"
Journal of Retailing, XXXXI1, No. 1 (Spring, 1957), S9.

- 5 -
Hie typical department store customer continues to patron¬
ise this type of institution rather than a discount house or a self-
service outlet because she wants the services which a department
store characteristically offers. The customer expects to receive
courteous service» a full range of credit facilities, speedy
delivery and gift wrapping. The merchant, therefore, cannot
resort to complete self-service to increase selling efficiency.
Instead, he must utilize an optimum combination of self-selection
and competent salespeople and cf these two elements, coo^etent
salespeople are the hardest to secure.
Even the more ardent advocates of self-service would also
admit that in many types of retail operations, other than the
department store, the retailer must still basically rely on sales-
people to serve the patrons. In these stores, all of the efforts
of the manufacturers and distributors, as well as the retailers,
to create customer interest in and desire for the goods are
dependent upon the salesperson’s effectiveness in moving the
merchandise over the ’last two feet’’ of selling space.
When one of the most vocal advocates of self-service stated,
; the only road is the road that leads to robot retailing and at the
end of it ’factories of distribution' in which the messy human
element could be practically eliminated, 5 he tacitly made two
assumptions j (1) retail salespeople are so poor at their jobs that
5E. B. Weiss, Salespeople Can't Be Trained and Shouldn't
Be,’ Fortune, XXXXIV, No. 4 (November, 1952), 181.

6
consumers prefer to shop without them, and (2) nothing can be done
to improve -die level of retail salesmanship. While a case can be
developed, in some instances for die first assumption, empirical
evidence indicates that the second assumption is contrary to the
facts.
Fortune, in 1952, made a special effort to locate stores
whose sales were running counter to the general retail slump in
that year. It was discovered that the stores that were most
conspicuously ahead of their competition in such important
measures as turnover rate, gross sales increases, and trans¬
action per salesperson were precisely the same stores which had
the most enlightened compensation and training policies.6 Of
course, this assumption does not necessarily indicate causation
but the relationship is notable.
Jane Engels, a women's specialty shop in New York, was
reportedly able to pay its 35 saleswomen $70 to $100 per week in
conmissions because of an enlightened training and compensation
plan. But operating ratios did not suffer—in fact, they benefited.
Hie store's ratio of payroll to gross sales in 1951, was only 5.0%,
while the national average for similar stores was approximately
6.4%.7
6 Salespeople vs Robots," Fortune, XXXXIV, No. 4 (November
1952), 102.
7
'What's Wrong with Retail Salesmanship?', Fortune, p. 84.
»

- 7 -
Neiman-Marcus, the well-known Dallas d epartment store, starts
its sales employees career with a six-week indoctrination program,
and the training never ceases. Even the ' oldtimer s’ must partici¬
pate periodically in 'role playing." President Stanley Marcus
feels that the salesperson can never be replaced by automation
a
if she knows how to sell and wants to sell.
Hie results of an extensive retail sales training program
which were disclosed by a New York City department store provides
additional evidence. This retail organization gave an extensive
training program to certain of its selling employees. The sales
volume of personnel who received the training was compared to a
control group in the same store who did not receive any training.
The results indicated that the sales of the trained group showed
an average increase of $25 to $30 per week per salesperson during
the months that the program was in progress. The cost of the pro¬
gram was $20,000 but the total gain in sales was $500,000.9
It seems evident that retailers who are making a positive
effort to increase the productivity of their salespeople are
achieving desirable results, while others who assume a negative
attitude are doing very little but bemoan their low selling
efficiency. There are, however, enough merchants doing something
positive to warrant the conclusion that "it can be done."
8Ibid., p. 85.
9Dart Ellsworth, 'Does Training Pay Dividends," Journal of
Retailing, XXVI, No. 1 (Spring, 1959), 109.

- 8 •*
It appears axiomatic to this writer that efforts to sub¬
stantially increase selling efficiency in non-self-service stores
should be centered around an investigation of the selection,
training, and motivation of the retail salespeople. Despite
isolated examples to the contrary, it seems that few people have
been taught how to sell or have even been given a good reason why
they should. As a result, they do not effectively perform the
duties for which they are paid and eventually the consumer must
pay for this inefficiency in the form of higher prices.
Only by combining a multiplicity of such factors as sales
training, incentives, and effective supervision can the ability and
the desire to sell be instilled in the typical salesperson. There
is no question that the area is conplicated because people themselves
are complex. However, there are indications of progress and more
advances can be made.
Now the problem can be specifically stated for the non-self-
service retailer who wants to improve his selling efficiency. It
consists of two parts: first, how to teach salespeople to sell, and
second, how to motivate them so that they want to sell. A possible
solution to the problem is offered by this study.
Objectives
This research has two objectives:
X. To determine quantitatively the effect of three
different types of retail sales training programs
on the selling efficiency of retail salespeople.

- 9 -
2. To develop a program which can increase the selling
efficiency of sales personnel in retail stores not
economically large enough to maintain specialized
personnel qualified to conduct tills activity. This
program could also be utilized by executives in
larger retail establishments who wish to conduct
the activity til eraselves.
Scope
This study examines the existing sales training techniques and
compensation plans utilized by the managers of twenty retail stores,
located in the downtown shopping area of Gainesville, Florida, to
maintain and increase the selling efficiency of their salespeople.^0
Ihis research, however, does more than just describe the cooperating
retail stores.
The stores are organized into a randomized block design.
Four treatments, three of these representing different methods of
increasing retail selling efficiency and a control group, are rep¬
licated five times. Treatment I is a combination of sales training,
service shopping, incentive awards, and supervisory participation.
Treatment IX consists of sales training augmented by limited super¬
visory participation. Regular service shopping is Treatment III.
Treatment IV is continued normal operation or in other words a
control factor. The effects of the four treatments are measured
10None of the stores in the study employed an executive who
devoted at least 50% of his time to sales training.

- 10 -
by four different quantitative indicators. These data are
then tested in order to determine if the treatments cause sta¬
tistically significant results.
Statistically} the results of this experiment are not sub¬
ject to universal inference because the experimental units and
treatments are not randomly chosen from their respective universes.
Nevertheless, any careful researcher has a sufficiently detailed
description of the subject stores so that he can compare them to
other stores in different shopping areas and determine subjectively
if the results of this study are applicable.
. ' i } /» ;. f ! 4 ' ’ V V 4
Definitions
1 . f I • • I f '■ j t. i
Throughout this study the term selling efficiency’ is used.
Depending upon the orientation of the reader, this term might be
subject to various meanings. Therefore, it is deemed advisable to
acquaint the reader with the definition of this writer.
«Selling efficiency,” or the efficiency with which an
individual or a store performs the selling function, is the ratio
of sales output to sales input or selling expense. Since both of
the factors in the ratio are subject to various quantitative
interpretations, each is further examined.
There are many ways of measuring sales output. Some retailers
utilize a traffic productivity ratio; others are satisfied with sales
volume, and still others measure the number of transactions cocpleted.
Nevertheless, in this study output is measured by changes in sales
voluntó, employee morale, customers’ attitude toward the store and
application of sales techniques by the salespeople.

- 11 -
To compute the sales impute figure, most retailers consider
only actual direct selling costs. A few go further and attempt to
estimate the impute cost of lost customers and ill will which a
poor salesperson can engender. For the purposes of this study,
however, selling expenses are assumed to be constant in the subject
stores. Therefore, if output increases and expenses are assumed
constant, except for the cost of the experimental treatments if
offered on a commercial basis, selling efficiency would increase.
Research Design
The efforts of the experimental units (retail stores) to
increase their selling efficiency were determined by personal inter¬
views with the owner(s) or managers) of each establishment. Also
ascertained during these interviews was the method which the store
used to compensate its salespeople and the attitude of the manage¬
ment toward programs which attempt to increase selling efficiency
by increasing the productivity of the sales personnel. These
factors were considered germane to the formation of hypotheses
which explain the experimental interaction between the stores and
the treatments.
Four quantitative indicators were used to secure datad>out
the subject stores: (1) a customer attitude survey, (2) a survey of
the salespeople's morale, (3) shopping reports which indicated the
application of salesmanship principles by the retail clerks, and
(4) changes in the sales, in percentage, as compared to the same
month of the previous year. All four quantitative measurements

- 12 -
were taken before the treatments were applied and after the treat¬
ments were completed. Results of the after-treatment indicators
were tested for significance by appropriate statistical methodology.
Before-and after-treatment findings were compared for meaningful
changes.
It must be emphasized that the experimented unit in this
study is the retail store—not the salesperson. Data gathered on
the individual sales clerks, from the shopping reports, were
averaged and are presented on a store basis. No effort is made
to analyze specific salespeople.
Limitations of Methodology
Whenever experiments are conducted with people instead of things,
there is an intangible human factor which cannot be controlled. People
communicate; they feel; they think. These circumstances cannot be
controlled—only acknowledged.
While the research design can collect data on the experi¬
mental. stores, it is beyond the range of this study to determine
"why" individual salespeople respond to certain treatments and others
do not. When investigation delves into this area it must explore a
myriad of psychological factors which determine individual person¬
ality and the selection of personnel. These factors are considered
to be given in the present study and, therefore, not subject to
investigation.

CHAPTER II
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SELLING EFFICIENCY
In order to evaluate the contribution of this research to
marketing literature, It is necessary to consider it as a part
of a continuing effort to increase selling efficiency. This ef¬
fort has been inspired by the desire of the individual merchant
to maximize his own profit as well as by the realization that
■< . . • f . i
failure to anticipate or at least keep abreast of new develop¬
ments usually results in a deteriorating competitive position.
Since retailing is conducted in every area of the United
States, it is difficult to determine :who'! inaugurated :what'!
improvement in retail selling efficiency exactly ’when during
l
the past one-hundred years of retailing. However, precise
chronological identification is not the objective of this
chapter. Rather this chapter has two goals: (1) to describe
methods to increase selling efficiency which have developed in
this country during the last one-hundred years, and (2) to examine
environmental factors which have contributed to these developments.
One of the major trends in retailing, self-selection, can
be traced back to ancient oriental traders who openly displayed
merchandise before their customers. However, the oriental merchant,
- 13 -

14
like his counterpart today, was usually nearby to help persuade
the customer of the value of his wares. Hie customer nevertheless
did have an opportunity to examine goods without any assistance from
the merchant.
In our own country, this idea was effective in the general
store and the frontier trading post, where some goods were con¬
veniently stacked around the premises so that the customer would
have an opportunity to examine them while shopping. Of course,
jargon such as 'impulse sales” was not used, but the merchants
quickly realized that the principles incorporated in this type
of display yielded much additional business.
While open display techniques were utilized in rural areas
after the Civil War, the big city, high volume store was still
•i
basically tied to closed display, with most of the merchandise out
of the grasp of the customer—unless the clerk displayed the item
at the counter. While the better organized department stores
gained advantages of managerial efficiency over the general store,
they did not adopt the idea of open displays which was partially
used by the general store. The development of open displays and
self-selection in urban stores awaited the advent of the ”5$ and
10$," or variety, store.
Frank Woolworth was one of the few pioneers who did go
against the conventional city trend. In the 1880’s, he estab¬
lished his first open display variety store with girls behind
the counter to assist the buyer and to complete the selling

- IS -
transaction. From this start he eventually developed the national
variety store chain which still bears his name.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Woolworth’s
application of open display was being partially adopted by other
types of stores. The reason for this was simple: People seemed
to buy more of some types of merchandise when it was directly
available to then, without the assistance of a salesperson, than
they did when the goods were out of reach. It was also noted that
with self-selection fewer salespeople were required to complete a
given volume of business; this was another way of saying that sales
efficiency increased with open display.1
As a result of se.13.tng economies and managerial efficiencies
associated with open display, the mercantile establishments that
utilized it were able to secure a more attractive return on their
investment. Naturally, the success of Woolworth and the other
self-selection devotees was not unnoticed by other retailers. The
open display technique slowly gained considerable acceptance until
today it has become a standard merchandising procedure in almost
every line of trade. The following sections consider this develop¬
ment in each of the three major classifications of consumer goods.
Convenience Goods
After the early 1900’s, the trend toward open display appeared
Woolworth*s First Seventy-Five Years, 1870-1954 (New York:
F. W. Woolworth Company, 1954), provides additional information cm
the development of this organization.

- 16 -
to split and travel in two different directions. One trend led
toward self-service and was followed by merchants who sold goods
that had all or at least many of the characteristics of con¬
venience goods. The other trend led toward an optimum utili¬
zation of open display and personal salesmanship rather than self-
service. Retailers who sold shopping goods moved along this
second road.
While it is difficult to categorize all merchandise into
either convenience or shopping goods, most goods tend more toward
one classification than the other. Consumers prefer to purchase
conveneince goods with a minimum of inconvenience; low prices and
large assortments are also important factors in their selection
of these items. Shopping goods, on the other hand, are articles
of greater value or goods that are bought infrequently; shoppers
want to compare quality, price and appearance before buying these
items—as ó result, they are usually willing to expend more time
o
and effort in their selection. Of course, convenience is also
a factor in the purchase of shopping goods but it is not of para¬
mount importance as in the case of convenience goods.
Self-service
Basic trends, such as self-service, did not usually start
at a certain time in history, instead of at another time, by chance.
^P. D. Converse, H. W. Huegy and R. V. Mitchell, Elements of
Marketing (6th ed.; Englewood Cliffs, New Jerseys Prentice-Hall,
fnc.', 1958), pp. 28-29.

- 17 -
Usually there were environmental factors which encourage their
spontaneous creation. In the case of self-service, the avail¬
ability of branded, prepackaged items as well as the extensive
and intensive advertising of brand names seemed to have been the
raa or contributing factors.
Branded merchandise necessarily represented a consistent
level of quality. Consumers realized that Brand X was the same
whenever and wherever it was purchased. Therefore, there was no
need to inspect each item and be resold on its worth. With brand¬
ing, prepackaging also emerged to encourage self-service.
Before 1900, the grocer bought most of his goods in bulk
and packaged small amounts himself. But by 1910, the manufacturer
waa performing this function in many instances. As a result, the
services of the retailer, which were necessary only for packaging,
no longer stood between the consumer and the goods; now the con-
i
sumer could directly select the merchandise in a package size consis¬
tent with his needs.
The branding and packaging of consumer goods made it possible
to pre-sell merchandise to the public, and widespread advertising
did the selling. Consumers were sold the item by advertising and
were willing to buy it without further persuasion by a salesperson.
Furthermore, it was ascertained that the preselling of merchandise
by advertising was less expensive than a salesperson's persuasion
if in fact the items were actually pre-sold.
In 1916, Clarence Saunders opened a self-service food store
under the trade name Piggly Wiggly which utilized the concept of

18 -
open display but included a completely new innovation—no sales
clerks. The customers selected their own merchandise without the
assistance of any store personnel and carried it to a check-out counter
where they paid for it. This arrangement further reduced selling
costs by eliminating the salesperson entirely. With reduced costs
and increased sales, selling efficiency naturally increased.
Nevertheless, in 1928, self-service was not recognized as
a major trend in retail distribution. In that year, when Professor
Paul Nystrom of Columbia University enumerated six major trends in
retail distribution, self-service was not even mentioned.3
While certain factors such as advertising and branded items
made self-service feasible in the 1920’s, two environmental factors
made consumers reluctant to accept it: (1) our economy was relatively
prosperous and many people were not willing to perform the sales
clerk’s functions in return for a price reduction, and (2) many
people were reluctant to give up their traditional shopping habits
of buying produce in one store, meat in another establishment and
groceries in still another location for this new idea of one-step
shopping.
The economic depression of the 1930’s, however, forced
significant changes in these traditional consumer habits. People
who previously could afford to purchase goods the price of which
reflected personal service no longer could afford this luxury.
3Paul H. Nystrom, ’’Six Major Trends of Retailing and Their
Significance," Trends in Retail Distribution, ed. Daniel Bloomfield
(New York: H. H. Wilson Co.,1930), pp. 95-101.

- 19 -
Many other customers became aware of the absolute necessity of making
each penny produce the maximum utility. Retailers, intuitively
realizing this change in consumer circumstances, capitalized on it
by rapidly expanding self-service in the food industry.
In 1930, King Kullen started to build a chain of self-
service food stores and, in 1932, the first Big Bear store was
opened in an abandoned Durant automobile factory in New Jersey.
Both of these businesses were characterized by low prices which
reflected a limitation of service and a rapid turnover of stock.
By 1958, nearly all of the food Industry was committed to the
principle of self-service and It was reliably estimated that only
about 16% of total food sales were made in non-self-service stores
A
that year.
If, today, we examined the types of retail stores which
have most thoroughly adopted the principle of self-service, we could
not help but notice that the merchandise they sell has one or both
of the following characteristics: (1) it is branded and pre-sold
by advertising, or (2) it is a standard Item which has a relatively
low unit value. Itera3 with these characteristics, however, are
also sold by means of another retail innovation—automatic vending.
$ • \ : - • • ‘ l
Automatic vending
t
One of the earliest coin operated devices used to dispense
merchandise was reportedly located in English pubs during the 1820's.
“^Letter from Doris Boehm, Librarian of Progressive Grocer,
New York, May 11, 1961.

- 20
The customer inserted a copper coin into this simple mechanism and
the lid of a tobacco box would open. The patron could then fill
his pipe.
From this simple beginning other adaptations were slowly
developed. Around 1883, an automatic coin-operated post card
vendor was developed in the United States. Twenty years later
penny vendors far chewing gum and matches were installed in rail¬
road stations within New York City. However, it was not until
the 1920’s that businessmen realized that machines could be used
to sell more expensive items.
During the 1920’s, the use of automatic vending machines
to sell convenience goods, was made possible by technological
advances. Fot exanple, engineers developed mechanisms which
would accept coins of greater value than a penny and also reject
fake coins with a minimum of jamming. These mechanical advances
were encouraged by the marketing opinion of that era.5
In 1929, William F. Merrill, President, Remington-Rand
Business Service decried the high cost of distribution and sug¬
gested that in certain lines where sales resistance had been
completely eliminated automatic selling should replace the sales¬
person.6 Merchants who sold cigarettes, which had steadily gained
5For further details concerning the historical development
of automatic vending see; Marten V. Marshall, Automatic Merchandising—
A Study of the Problems and Limitations of Vending (Cambridge, Mass.:
ftiverísiáe Press'," 1954), pp. $-23. " ' '' ”
6William F. Merrill, ' Why Sell Goods Already Sold,'’ Trends in
Retail Distribution, ed. Daniel Bloomfield (New York: H. H. Wilson Co..
p.‘ ‘400.

- 21 -
in popularity since World War I, agreed; they placed orders for
over 100,000 cigarette machines.
Also, during the 19201s an embryo motion picture industry
developed and, in the 1930’s, many new motion picture theaters
opened throughout the country. The owners of these theaters soon
realized that many of their patrons ate candy, chewing gun and
mints in the movies, and as an added source of profit mechanical
candy vendors soon became a necessary adjunct in motion picture
theaters. It also became apparent that movie patrons could be
sold a variety of refreshing drinks during the showings and, in the
1930’s, vendors started appearing to fill the public’s desire far
refreshments at places and times when conventional retailers were
unable to serve them. This development was coincidental with
technological advances in refrigeration which made the machines
economically feasible. This type of vending machine was an
immediate success.
These three items, cigarettes, candy and soft drinks, are
still the bulwark of the automatic vending industry. Prognosti¬
cators who envisioned the expansion of vending to all types of
•■i. J | , ' . ■ ; • . A. „ _ J l. 4 'fe. r W . -*•: -A
retailing appear to have been in error. Admittedly, machines now
vend many other items, but these three convenience goods still
*: «
account for most of the retail sales completed by automatic vendors.
1 l i ;* i
After World War II, two new, radically different types of
merchandise, gasoline and a full line of groceries, were offered
to the public by automatic vending machines but both failed.
*■ i *!’

- 22 -
Coin-operated gasoline pumps were usually declared a fire hazard
by local fire department inspectors and a coin-operated, fully
automatic, grocery closed because the public failed to support
it.
Vending machines, however, were more successful when they
were introduced into lines more closely allied with conventional
vending goods. Multi-item units serving both hot and cold drinks,
especially coffee, gained general acceptance. Other items, such
as insurance policies, which were mechanically sold at airports,
gained a foothold for automatic merchandising in the service
industries.
Leaders of the automatic marketing industry generally
agree that vending has a secure position in the convenience goods
field and would like to see it expand to other types of goods.
However, they tend to consider vending as a function designed to
complement conventional retail operation—not as a replacement
for it. No machine, as yet developed, can fully duplicate the
service offered by a competent salesperson.
Shopping Goods
While self-service and automatic merchandising, admittedly
have been successful in increasing selling efficiency, they were
generally applicable only to a portion of total retail selling,
namely, pre-sold convenience goods. On the other hand what about
shopping goods where these methods are not completely appropriate?

- 23
Shopping goods are usually not completely pre-sold although
some stores, such as Atlantic Mills, Inc., successfully merchandise
standardized, low-priced fashion goods in self-service stores.
Most shopping goods merchants, however, appear convinced that a
salesperson is still necessary to create interest in the merchandise
and induce the customer to buy. For these establishments, self-
service offers little hope of increasing selling efficiency.
Stores in this category generally use a combination of
two basic ingredients to increase selling efficiency: (1) self¬
selection of merchandise, and (2) the training of salespeopDe.
The ratio of these two factors forms a continuum with an absolute
minimum of trained sales personnel and a maximum of self-selection
at one aid, in other words, a store which approaches self-service
in philosophy but still retains a certain amount of personal
assistance. At the other end is the store which relies primarily
on well trained salespeople to sell merchandise vhich is located in
closed displays e.g„ and exclusive jewelry store.
Discussed in the following sections is the use of self-
selection, sales training, shopping services, and salesperson
motivation as techniques to increase the selling efficiency of
retailers of shopping goods.
Self-selection
The concept of self-selection is as old as retailing itself.
However, the application of open display did not really receive a
strong push until Woolworth began utilizing it in hie r5£ and !0<|r

- 24
or variety stores. The success of this innovation encouraged other
retailers of convenience goods to further develop the principle
into self-service, while the shopping goods merchant was content
to continue moving from closed to open display. The reasoning for
such actions is readily explained.
Experience had indicated that selling efficiency would be
increased if customers would purchase the same amount of merchandise
with a lesser degree of assistance from a salesperson. During the
depression of the 1930's, this was particularly significant because
a reduced level of consumer demand and predatory price competition
necessitated the reduction of all variable expenses. However, the
advantages of self-selection were somewhat mitigated by the abundance
of cheap labor which was available to the retailer. Therefore, the
reduction of selling costs usually realized by merchants who switched
from closed to open display was not as great as it would have been
during a period of higher labor costs.
During World War II, the shortage of labor forced retailers
to reduce their personnel requirements. Because of defense demands,
people were not available for selling positions at wages which re¬
tailers felt they could offer. Furthermore, there was less need
for skilled salesmanship at the retail level because customers had
purchasing power in excess of the limited supply of consumer mer¬
chandise. The problem of the retailer was to find goods to sell—
not how to sell them once he had bought than. As a result, the
need for personal selling was lessened and the switch to open display
which approached self-service was accelerated.

- 25 -
In the years after World War II, when business rivalry
was intensified, the cost of labor also increased. Shopping
goods retailers, therefore, found it advisable to continue to
expand the use of self-selection as a means of increasing sell¬
ing efficiency. Some merchants, such as discount houses which
I r ..
handled relatively pre-sold items, almost entirely omitted the
conventional function of the salesman.
Nevertheless the trend toward self-service can progress only
to a certain point. Most retailers of shopping goods realize that
i , .
the salesperson is still essential to their operation. Even with
the optimum utilization of self-selection, these merchants still
need to develop the efficiency of their salespeople.
* 1 • it1 i * i i \ > / \ l
The training of retail salespeople
John Wanamaker was one of the first retailers to espouse
the idea that salespeople could do a more efficient job of selling
if properly trained. In his first department store in 1870, he
insisted that his salespeople be well informed, courteous, patient,
and service-minded. To reach this goal, he held classes in selling
for his clerks and, in addition, was willing to pay for their con¬
tinued education in night schools or through correspondence courses.
He argued that well-trained, loyal, and enthusiastic clerks were
one of the greatest assets a store could have.7
"Frank A. Russell and Frank H. Beach, Textbook of Salesmanship
(New York: McGraw-Hill Co., 1955), p. 26.

- 26
This concept gradually was accepted by most of the larger
retailers who became convinced that it was worthwhile to train their
selling personnel. To generate such a conviction was not a partic¬
ularly difficult theoretical problen since methods of persuasion
were well known at the time; it was only a matter of application.
Benjamin Franklin, in relating the laws of persuasion,
disclosed that they were not original with fern. Admittedly, he
gained them from earlier writers. For example, the Golden Rule
of the Bible, ; All things whatsoever ye would that men should do
to you, do ye even so to them,” is as applicable to retail selling
and human conduct today a3 it was in Biblical times.
One criterion for judging the interest of merchants in apply¬
ing zules of persuasion to retail selling is the number of books in
i
this field which are published during airy given period of time.
While this is not conclusive evidence of interest, it is nevertheless,
a good indicator. In 1924, Dr. Brisco’s definitive book on retail
salesmanship listed more than one-hundred references in the field-
most of them published before 1920.® New York University School of
Retailing Selected Publications for Retailers lists twenty-one
recommended books in retail salesmanship published in the period
from 1920 to 1929; an additional twenty books were suggested during
the period from 1930 to 1939. But, between 1940 and 1949, this sane
Q
bibliography listed only eight books. Unfortunately the data covering
g
N. A. Brisco, Retail Salesmanship (New York: Ihe Ronald
Press, 1924), pp. 16-26$.
9New York University School of Retailing, ons

— 27 —
1950 to date, are not available.
If the number of publications in an area is accepted as a
criterion of interest, it is clear that interest in the training
of retail salespeople declined during the 1940's. This was un¬
doubtedly due to the relatively low demand for retail salesmanship
during World War II and the postwar seller's market. However,
during the 1950's, things changed; the seller's market was gone.
Many retailers and manufacturers decried the poor per¬
formance of retail salespeople which hindered the flow of goods
through trade channels. The public, In various articles, such as
Fortune's ,:What's Wrong with Retail S lesmanship," published in 1952,
also echoed these sentiments. But while retailers and the public
seemed to agree that retail salesmanship was poor, little was being
done to ameliorate the situation.
This writer hypothesizes that you can write only a limited
number of books on the principles of effective selling which them¬
selves have been known, discussed, studied, and observed for over
fifty years. This is not the need. The need is for methods of
motivating the salesperson to practice them; this area has been
subject to only cursory examination by scientific research. But
at least one relatively new technique has been developed—the pro¬
fessional shopping service.
for Retailers, A Report Compiled by the Research and Publications
Division (Hew York: New York University Press, 1953), pp. 78-86.

- 28 -
Service shopping
In 1914, Will Berstein of New York theorized that the use of
professional shoppers could improve the performance of salespeople.
He reasoned, if the clerks knew that they would be approached by ap¬
parently regular customers, who would write a report on their selling
performance, the salespeople would be more attentive to their duties.
Ihe first experiments with this new idea of ’'service shopping" were
conducted among the salespeople of the United Drug Company, a large
chain organization.
To the satisfaction of all concerned, except a few employees
who considered the shoppers as spies, the shopping service had a salu¬
tary effect on retail sales work. Encouraged by this success, Willmark,
Inc., a professional service shopping organization, was formed in 1917.
Its success is indicated by the number of imitators offering similar
services which have entered the field over the years, and by the number
of large stores which areusing their own service shopping employees.
Shopping services are not only providing a quantitative
measuring device for retail salesmanship with reports but are also
helping to develop a standard of performance. Retailers can now
determine the extent to which their salespeople apply generally
accepted and efficient selling techniques over a period of time and
can use this performance as an indicator of the effectiveness of their
sales training.
^Herbert Brean, "They Shop to Hake Your Shopping Pleasanter,"
Readers Digest (September, 1951), pp. 131-134.

Motivation
Throughout history, employers have realized that it was
necessary to offer free men some form of inducement in order to
cause them to work. In other words, they had to have a motive or
reason to work. But not only must Hiere be a motive, the motive must
be sufficiently strong in order to overcome the worker’s inertia. In
most instances the inducement took the form of money.
The merchant, therefore, has always offered the salesman
some form of pecuniary compensation. This money was in the form
of either a salary or a commission—or a combination of the two.
Usually the employer was convinced of the efficacy of any given
type of compensation to the exclusion of other alternatives.
Coupled with monetary motivation was usually a negative
concept of leadership vhich expected the worker to work diligently
and effectively because he feared what would happen to him If he
failed to produce up to an accepted standard. Ihe consequences of
low productivity could have been some form of mental chastisement,
i
or loss of employment, or both. This was especially true in larger
organizations.
However, some men realized that there were other factors
besides fear and financial gain which could induce more effort from
the worker. It was observed that in a given work situation a higher
output could be secured if the employee wanted to produce more. Ihe
problem was how to secure a willing worker.
Although this concept of an intangible human factor liad been
implicitly realized for many years, it was not until Elton Mayo

80 —
experimentally determined its effectiveness in the late 1920's that
human relations" became a part of business jargon. Mayo's research
at the Hawthorne plant of General Electric indicated that the
amount of the wage was not the sole determinant of labor’s out»
put. There were also factors involving the interaction between
the worker and his job environment which Influenced his productivity. ^
Partially as a result of Mayo's research, merchants began to
place greater enphasis on the human aspects of employee motivation.
While financial compensation was still an important factor, many
agreed that a sound human relations program, especially when coupled
with a realistic compensation plan, could increase selling efficiency*
It was a combination of these two factors, compensation and human
relations, which seemed to determine the employee’s willingness to
work.
With the acceptance of Mayo's research, the permissive
school of leadership also emerged. According to this concept, the
leader should use positive motivation instead of fear as an instru¬
ment of authority. Through positive inducements, as well as a good
basic monetary compensation plan, the employee could be transformed
into a willing worker.
Under the permissive leader, the negative idea of leadership
was not entirely discarded—only subordinated to the positive aspects.
^•Further discussion of this topic is presented by Elton
Mayo in The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New Yorks
Macmillan do., iMI).

31 -
While the employer still had basic rights inherent to his ownership
of property, he was not to use them to motivate the worker. They
were utilized only as a last resort.
The employee in a democracy could not be indoctrinated with
an idea of personal worth within the social and legal framework of
the nation and still accept a completely subservient attitude in his
work situation. This incongruity encouraged unionism as well as a
more ready acceptance of positive leadership by management—especially
after May showed that such a course of action was profitable.
Today most retailers utilize both positive and negative
motivation in a form which one might suspect in some instances is
influenced by the presence of labor unions. The adequacy of the
basic compensation plan for salespeople is still a mute question
in retailing, while the effectiveness of various combinations of
motivation and compensation is seldom quantified by scientific
research.
Specialty' Goods
Specialty goods are those that have some particular
attraction for the consumer other than price, which in¬
duces him to put forth special effort to visit the stores
handling them. The attraction lies in special qualities
which differentiate the goods from similar merchandise
with the result that the consumer does not care to make
comparisons before purchasing, or it may reside in the
distinctive characteristics of the store handling the
merchandise. Specialty goods contrast with convenience
goods in that their purchase is sufficiently important
and infrequent to induce the consumer to visit rather
inaccessible soirees of supply, if necessary, and to

- 32 -
12
postpone action until the store can be visited.
A certain style or brand of women’s clothing would be an
example of a specialty good if a customer feels that this parti¬
cular garment has distinctive and favored characteristics. Under
these circumstances, she would be willing to travel a considerable
distance to purchase the desired good because in her eyes this
merchandise is sufficiently differentiated from other garments so
that a substitute is not readily obtainable elsewhere. Because
most specialty goods cost relatively substantial sums of money,
usually she is willing to expend this additional effort to purchase
them.
This writer considers the characteristics of specialty
goods to be more closely associated with shopping goods than with
convenience goods, and selling efficiency trends in specialty goods
stores to be closely associated with trends in shopping goods stores.
Therefore, no effort is made to distinguish between selling efficiency
trends for these two types of goods because it would contribute little
to the overall objectives of this study.
This chapter has shown the development of various methods
utilized to increase retail selling efficiency. The convenience good
merchant was shown to rely primarily on self-service and automatic
vending while the shopping good retailer tended to emphasize self¬
selection, training of the salespeople, service shopping and motivation.
12
Harold Maynard and Theodore Beckman, Principles of Marketing
(5th ed.; New York: Ronald Press, 1946), p. 34.

- 33 -
With the background of this research historically recounted,
Chapter II specifically describes the environment of the experiment.
In Chapter III, the stores which are subject to the experimental
treatments are portrayed as well as the town of Gainesville, Florida,
where they are located.

CHAPTER III
\
DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL ENVIRONMENT
f
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the Gainesville,
4
Florida, trade area as well as the retail stores in the experiment.
There are three reasons for presenting this information:
1* The results of this research are not subject to
universal statistical inference. The readers,
therefore, must decide whether the findings are
applicable to other trade areas. To do this, an
accurate description of the experimental units and
their environment is necessary.
2. A description of the media provides a basis for
hypothesizing possible causes of experimental error.
»
3. In order to provide background for this study, it is
necessary to portray the methods utilized by the sub-
:
ject stores to increase selling efficiency.
Gainesville Retail Trade Area
The city of Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida, is located
at the approximate center of the state in a rural area of farms,
34

— 35 —
villages and secondary trading-center towns. Jacksonville, the
nearest metropolitan area with a population of 201,030 is 72
miles northeast; Tampa and St. Petersburg, adjoining cities, 134
miles southwest, have a combined population of 456,268; Tallahassee,
the state capital, has a population of 48,174, and is located 143
miles northwest of Gainesville.^
The Gainesville retail trade area has been circumscribed
in a study which utilized Professor William Reilly's mathematical
law of retail gravitation and a field survey. This research con¬
cluded that the area circumscribed by mechanical formula closely
corresponded with the region defined by the field survey. Further,
it is noted that the trade area which included all of Alachua County
as well as all or part of eight surrounding counties, had a population
of 186,000 in 1959.2
The city of Gainesville had a population of 29,499 and an
average per capita income of $1830 in 1959. The largest single
employer in the town was the University of Florida which had 3750
academic and non-academic employees with an annual payroll of over
^Population data were secured from: Advance Report of the
1960 Census of Population (Washington, D. C.~ U. S. Department of
Commerce, November 25, 1960), pp. 3-12.
2Dean J. Maitlen, presents a comprehensive description of
Gainesville, Florida, Retail Trade Area in A Delineation of the
Gainesville, Florida, Retail Trade Area (Unpublished Master's
Thesis, School of Business Administration, University of Florida,
1957).

36
$21,000,000—about one-third of the community’a total income of
approximately $60,770,000.3
Hie influence of the University’s staff and over 12,000
stud arts on the population characteristics of the city cannot be
gi »
overlooked. The distribution of educational achievement, scholarly
professions, and ages must be considered atypical then compared to
other comnunities of similar size. The effect of these factors on
• .*• i , , f
the findings of this study, however, is indeterminate.
The downtown shopping area of Gainesville consists of four
blocks facing the Alachua County courthouse square and two main
streets which lead into it. A shopping center, located one-half
mile from downtown Gainesville, was not included in this study;
this was not an intentional structured part of the research. The
i
Gainesville Chamber of Commerce, which enlisted the cooperation of
the subject stores, simply failed to submit any stores from the shopping
center.
Retail Stores
The twenty stores that participated in this study were divided
into five classifications: (1) department, (2) ladies’ ready-to-wear,
:»
(3) men’s ready-to-wear, (4) drug, and (5)appliance. Each retail
establishment was described on the basis of information secured from
Statistical data about Gainesville, Florida were secured
from Gainesville, Florida,—Facts and Figures (Gainesville, Florida;
Gainesville Chamber of Commerce, I£6o). More comprehensive information
can be secured from this source.

37
the owner(s) and manager^s) during a personal interview as well as
from informal conversations at various Chamber of Commerce functions
during an eight-month period. Some of this informations especially
concerning their 'unofficial” attitude toward efforts to increase
retail selling efficiency, was not quantified and is, therefore,
subject to personal bias; however, every effort was made to report
objectively this important characteristic.
In order to disguise the names of the stores in the experi¬
ment, coded designators were used toidentify them. This code was
in two parts: (1) the type of store was indicated by one or two
letters, and (2) the treatment which the store received was shown
by a T, denota ting treatment, and a number from one to four
designating the type of treatment. According to this code, a depart¬
ment store was designated (Op), ladies'-ready-to-wear specialty shop
(L), men's-ready-to-wear specialty shop (M), drug store (D), and
appliance store (A). A department store, for example, which
received Treatment I was coded (DpTl), Treatment II (DpT2),
Treatment III (DpT3), and Treatment IV (0pT4).
. j *
A description of the twenty stores In this study is
summarized under the following sub-headings:
I. Description of the store operation.
II. Efforts to teach salespeople how to sell.
A. Attitude of management
B. Sales training
C. Shopping service

88
III. Efforts to motivate the salesperson to sell.
A. Compensation
B. Opportunities for advancement
IV. Number of salespeople.
A summary chart, Table 2, presents these characteristics by store
in concise reference form.
Description of the store operation
All of the stores in this study display their merchandise
openly with the exception of the lunch counters and prescription
departments in the drug stores—these departments offer full ser¬
vice. In the other stores the customers can either select the mer¬
chandise from open display and seek a salesperson to complete the
sale or wait for a salesperson to approach them and offer assistance.
There are no self-service stores in the study.
The managers of the four drug stores disclosed that they
approach self-service as nearly as possible without actually in¬
stalling check-out counters. In these stores there were usually
an insufficient number of salespeople to assist all customers ade¬
quately, therefore, they offered assistance only to those customers
who obviously sought aid. The other seventeen stores, however,
expected their salespeople to offer assistance actively to all of
their customers.
Sixteen of the subject stores are locally owned and owner-
managed. Three are units of large multi-unit drain stores; each

— 39
employs a manager who receives a salary plus a percentage of the
profits as compensation. One store is a locally owned and owner-
managed franchised unit of a large national chain the none of which
fe used on both franchised and company-owned establishments.
Efforts to teach the salespeople how to sell
Before a salesperson can increase her selling efficiency,
she must know the techniques of persuasion and how they can be
applied to her specific selling situation. If she does not have
this knowledge, any motivation to increase her desire to sell will
be relatively ineffective because the salesperson does not have the
ability to perform the sales function, regardless of her desire to
do eo. This section describes the utilization, by the subject stores,
of two recognized methods of teaching salespeople how to sell—sales
training and service shopping. Also described is the store manager’s
or owner's opinion of the efficacy of these techniques.
Attitude of management. It appears evident that retail
store managers would like to increase the selling efficiency of
their sales personnel. They agree that methods, such as self¬
selection, are not only theoretically sound but also effective be¬
cause they circumscribe the function of the salesperson. They
differ, however, in their attitude concerning the possibility of
Increasing selling efficiency by improving the selling skills of
their salespeople.

TABLE 2
CHARACTERISTICS OF RETAIL STORES IN THE
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Treatment
I
II
III
IV
Characteristics
Type of store
Dp M L A D
Dp M L A D
Dp M L A D
Dp M L A D
Total
Service:
Self-selection
xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxxxx
20
Management:
Owner managed
Chain
xxxxx xxxax XXX X xxxx
X XX
17
3
Attitude of
Management:
Positive
Neutral
Negative
Sales training:
None
Occasional
X X
XX X X XX XXX
X X
X xxxx
X X XXX
X
XXXX XXX X XXXXX
3
14
3
18
2
X
X

TABLE 2 — Continued
Treatment
I
II
III
IV
Characteristics
Type of store
Dp
M
L
A
D
Dp
M
L
A
D
Dp
M
L
A
D
Dp
M
L
A
D
Total
Regular shopping:
None
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
14
Occasional
X
X
X
3
Regular
X
X
3
Compensation:
Salary
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
16
Commission
X
X
2
Salary & comp.
X
X
X
3
Advancement:
Minimum
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
16
Limited
X
X
X
X
4
Number of sales-
people
15
4
3
4
5
8
1
5
5
3
32
1
5
5
3
22
1
4
1
4
aLocaHy owned branch of nationally franchised chain.
SOURCE: Personal interviews with store managers

42 -
Most of the managers seem to agree that the majority of
their salespeople do not have a thorough understanding of selling
techniques and even the few who do have this knowledge seldom
utilize it fully. Furthermore, with three exceptions, they are
i
in accord that it is rather futile to try to correct this situation
for one or both of the following reasons: (1) the salespeople
are not interested in learning and/or applying principles of sales¬
manship, and (2) their retail store does not have the specialized
personnel or the resources to undertake a salea training progran.
Nevertheless, fourteen of the managers have a rather neutral
attitude, namely, "I would like to see my salespeople become more
efficient but I am not able to do it. If someone else can do it,
I’ll work with him/1 On the other hand, three managers had a
definitely negative attitude— '-Nothing can be done to improve
retail salesmanship.” But these managers were willing to partici-
pate in this study to substantiate their viewpoint.
The best tangible reflection of the manager’s attitude
i
toward efforts to increase selling efficiency is disclosed in the
methods which they employ to increase the effectiveness of their
salespeople. These methods include training sessions, where the
salesperson is taught how to sell, and service shopping reports,
i
which report the clerk’s application of the selling principles.
i
Both methods are used by some of the retail stores in this study.
Sales training. The most widely accepted place for teaching
salespeople how to sell is in sales training meetings. At these

- 43 -
sessions an instructor who can utilize any one or a combination
of a multitude of techniques teaches the salesperson how to sell
merchandise in an effective manner, the meeting can also be used
as a medium for arousing the enthusiasm of the salespeople for
their work.
Only two of the subject stores have a sales training
session as often as once a month; In one, the manager meets with
the employees every week. Both stores are units of large national
chains and in both establishments the manager usually handles
the sales meeting, but the home office supplies the training
material.
None of the other eighteen stores in the study have
regularly scheduled formal sales training sessions. Two of the
larger stores have an occasional meeting once or twice a year with
their salespeople to discuss matters of general interest which
usually does not include retail salesmanship. Hie remaining
sixteen establishments are very small stores, with from one to
six salespeople, and the close employer-employee relationship, the
managers claim, maíces formal sales training unnecessary.
When the managers of the stares with no formal sales train¬
ing were asked, ' How do you expect your salespeople to learn the
principles of retail selling?’7, no satisfactory answer was given.
The managers suggested that they learn by ' keeping their eyes open’1
or 'asking questions.' Other managers felt that the selling
employees were not interested in learning; therefore, why should

- 44 -
they bother to try to teach them? Yet, all these managers agreed
that their salespeople lost many opportunities to sell merchandise
because of poor salesmanship.
Shopping service. A shopping service provides the retail
store manager with a customer-oriented observation of a salesperson
at work which he is usually otherwise unable to secure. When the
manager is present, a salesperson may act in an atypical manner;
therefore, the manager's perception of the salesperson may be dis¬
torted. By utilizing professional shoppers, the manager has a
relatively objective report on the salesperson’s unsupervised actions.
Two professional shopping services are available to Gaines¬
ville merchants, and both have groups of shoppers who usually ser¬
vice subscribers in this area every three or four months. However,
they are also available more frequently upon request. Nevertheless
only two of the independent stores in this study avail themselves
of this service.
Efforts to motivate the salespeople to sell
Assuming that the salesperson has been taught how to sell,
why should she bother to apply these techniques to increase her
sales?
In retail selling the manager does not usually know to what
extent a salesperson is using principles of persuasion to sell
merchandise unless he receives service shopping reports. Because
of this fact, the manager must primarily rely on the motivation
of the individual salesperson to cause her to perform at peak

- 45 -
efficiency. If the salesperson is not self-motivated, it is diffi¬
cult to ascertain this situation through the exclusive use of
quantitative indicators.
While quantitative indices, such as sales volume, can
determine relative productivity for members of a sales force, they
cannot ascertain the mixture of selling techniques and motivation
which any individual applies to secure a given sales volume. Even
if a salesperson wants to perform effectively, she will sell only
as well as she has been trained. However, if she is not motivated
to sell, regardless of her knowledge of selling techniques, she
will not produce her potential sales volume.
Ideally, the salesperson should be thoroughly trained and
personally committed to apply her skill to the best of her ability.
Compensation and opportunity for advancement are two methods used
by the subject stores to motivate their salespeople. These topics
are discussed in subsequent sections.
Compensation. There are two basic methods of compensation,
salary and cormnission. Each of these methods is used by some of
the stores in the study while other establishments utilize a
combination of the two. A salary, with no commission, is the
most frequently utilized way of compensating the salespeople.
Sixteen of the retail stores pay their sales personnel a straight
salary which varies from $40 to $60 per week; this is the range of
average salary for the stores—not the starting salary. New employees
earn as little as $27.50 for a forty-hour week. The highest salaries
°f over $100 per week, are earned by two key salespeople in small

- 46 -
specialty shops. The unweighted average for all stores in this
group is $45 per week if the two salaries over $100 per week are
omitted. The larger stores have the lowest wage scale while the
specialty shops have the highest rate of compensation. Fringe
benefits are not included as a part of the employee's compensation.
In two stores, the employees earn 5% to 6% commission on
their net sales; earning of individuals in these retail establish¬
ments vary from $60 to $150 a week under this plan, In both stores
the salesperson receives a fixed weekly advance which is charged
against earned commission and the balance is paid quarterly.
Three retailers utilize a combination of salary and com¬
mission. One compensates its salespeople with an average salary
of $45 per week plus 2% commission; another pays an average salary
of $40 per week for a monthly sales quota plus 3.5% to 5% commission
on all additional sales; and a third store pays a salary plus .5%
commission on net sales.
Opportunities for advancement
The opportunity to earn and receive promotions within a
given work situation is one of the traditional opportunities offered
to most employees by the firms which employ them. Conceptually, the
worker who diligently applies herself is rewarded in this manner.
The stores in this study, however, offer only limited, if any,
opportunities for advancement to their employees.
Of the twenty stores examined, only four retailers offer
any opportunity for the salesperson to advance to a higher position.

- 47 -
In three of these establishments the firm has an executive training
program open only to college graduates, which supplies management
personnel—but a salesperson without a degree could become head of
a department. In another store, locally owned and managed by the
owner’s family, a salesperson is occasionally promoted to the
equivalent of a head of a department or assistant buyer.
In the other fifteen stores, there is little, if any,
opportunity for advancement. The salespeople in these stores no
doubt realize the fact that the most they can aspire to is a small
periodic salary increase. The effect that this situation has on
their motivation is not quantitatively known. It can be assumed
that it is not conducive to a high personal desire to sell.
Number of salespeople
If owners and managers are not considered as salespeople,
the retailers being described have from on to thirty-two full¬
time salespeople. Four stores have only one salesperson who works
forty hours or more each week; twelve retailers have from four to
six full-time salespeople; four stores have in excess of eight
salespeople who work over forty hours.
Part-time salespeople were not included in this study for
the following reasons: (1) in most cases they are considered by
the manager as temporary workers; therefore, they usually have
less interest in their employment than the full-time worker; (2)
the store managers were reluctant to ask part-time workers to

— 48 «•
attend the training sessions which were a part of this program;
(3) many part-time salespeople were unable to attend the sales
training sessions because of other demands on their time.
Suffnary
The store managers participating in this research realize
that the selling efficiency of their salespeople is poor, but most
of them seem to feel that little can be done to improve the
situation; consequently, they make little effort to train their
salespeople. Only two chain stores have a regular sales training
program while the other eighteen stores basically leave the acquiring
of selling skills up to the individual employee. The efficacy of
placing the burden of sales training upon the salesperson instead
of upon the store manager is questionable.
A shopping service is utilized by only five stores. Two
retailers are shopped once every four months; the other three stores
are shopped only once or twice a year on an irregular basis; two of
these four retailers, who are service-shopped, also have sales
training programs.
There is little motivation offered to the salespeople to
encourage them to sell. Two stores pay 5% to 6% of net sales to
their salespeople as compensation while sixteen others pay their
salespeople a straight salary. Two stores utilize a combination
of salary and commission.

— 49 —
Little opportunity for advancement exists for salespeople
in fifteen of the subject stores. In the five stores which do
offer the salesperson a chance to advance to a higher position,
three of these stores also offer a commission on net sales as an
incentive to sell. In the two other stores, where only a limited
opportunity for advancement exists, the salesperson is paid a
straight salary.

CHAPTER IV
EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS AND MEASURING TECHNIQUES
In tills chapter, the four experimental treatments as well
as the four quantitative indicators which are used to secure data
on the effectiveness of the treatments are presented. This information
is necessary for the following reasons:
1. Retailers who desire to inprove the selling effi¬
ciency of their retail stares need an accurate
description of any treatment the results of which
justify its application to their business.
2. Others engaged in research need this information
in order to evaluate the efficacy of this research
and to formulate additional hypotheses which this
study may suggest.
3. It provides a background which is necessary to
evaluate properly the results of this study.
Experimental Treatments
i
Each of the four experimental treatments is replicated on
five retail stores in the Gainesville shopping area. Two of these
«* 50 —

- 51
treatments approximate techniques currently utilized by some retail
stores to increase their selling efficiency; one is a unique program;
and one is a control or no treatment group. Admittedly, in practice
â– die application of the two retailer-utilized techniques varies in
different stores, but basically they use singly or in combination
the same fundamental elements examined in this study*
In the following sections the treatments used in this study
are described. Also discussed is the theoretical justification
which supports the assumption that these techniques should increase
selling efficiency. The analyses of quantitative experimental
results are presented in subsequent chapters.
Treatment IV
Treatment IV was a control group in this study. After the
i
organizational meeting of the store managers at which the treatments
were randomly assigned to the various stores, these stores did not
have any experimental contact—except in the collection of quantitative
data. The employees of the five stores in this group as well as
their managers were studiously exempt from any type of stimulus
t
which might affect their selling efficiency.
Hie inclusion of a control group of stores enabled more
meaningful orthogonal comparisons to be made between treatments in
the analysis of experimental data. In this manner the effectiveness
of techniques to increase selling efficiency could be compared
directly with that of a group of stores which received no positive

52 -
program. Of course, the presence of a control factor also permits
1 ’ 1 ‘ i, ' * ' » ■ •
a more thorough analysis of the experimental findings.
Treatment III
Since 1917, when the Willmark Service Systems, Inc., was
foamed, retail stores have been cognizant of service shopping.
According to Willmark, subscriptions to their shopping service
should have a salutary effect upon retail salespeople; not only
should the Willmark Service improve selling efficiency but also
it should be advantageous in detecting dishonest employees as well
as being a deterrent to dishonest acts by salespeople.3'
This study, however, is not concerned with the potential
of service shopping to uncover or prevent dishonest conduct by
salespeople. Instead, this research considers service shopping
only as a method of increasing selling efficiency while acknowledging
a, I
that increases in selling efficiency and minimizing the dishonesty of
salespeople are mutually exclusive objectives which can be jointly
accomplished without either function of service shopping becoming
i
diluted.
Hie efficacy of service shopping as a method of improving
t
retail selling performance was unanimously proclaimed by the training
directors of five nationally known department atores adío were
^Increase Sales, Prevent Losses with the Willmark Program
(New York": Willmark Service Systems'," Inct, 14iU), p. ^

- S3 -
questioned. The superintendent of selling of the J. L. Hudson Co.,
Detroit, Michigan, reported, ,!We believe that service shopping can
be utilized as a method of sales employee recognition with resulting
improved retail performance, at least in the field of customer
2
service." The representative for Macy's wrote, "The fact that
such shoppings are conducted has, we believe, a salutary effect on
3
the action of all our employees. The other retailers reporting
were just as definite in their endorsement of shopping service as
a method to increase retail selling efficiency.
In theory, the evaluation of a clerk's retail salesmanship
by a professional shopper should help to increase selling efficiency
if it becomes part of a simple overall procedure. This process is
started by a shopping report on a salesperson which is sent to a
store manager. Upon receipt of this report the manager personally
consults the employee who is the subject of the report and either
commends her selling attributes or instructs her in ways to correct
4
her undesirable characteristics or combines both these approaches.
2
Letter from E. Luss, superintendent of selling, The J. L.
Hudson Co., Detroit, Michigan, May 24, 1960.
3Letter from L. Bradley Haight, general assistant for
selling service, Macy's, New York, May 17, 1960.
4This supervisory method of handling shopping reports
is recommended by Willmark Service Systems Inc., as well as
by the five leading department stores who cooperated in this
research.

- 54
To ascertain quantitatively the effectiveness of service
shopping as a means of increasing selling efficiency, service
shopping was applied to five retail stores in this study. The
personnel in these stores were ' shopped’' at the beginning, near the
middle, and at the end of a five-month period. The salespeople, on
whom the reports were written, were Interviewed by their managers
who reviewed the reports with them and either praised or retrained
them according to standards presented in the Supervisor's Manual
located in Appendix A.
This manual was especially prepared to provide the managers
with the standards of performance which the shoppers used to
evaluate the salespeople as well as to give the managers a standard
* i
instructional guide to be used while discussing the report with the
retail clerk. With the aid of the Supervisor's Manual, standard
remedial Instruction could be given any employee whose shopping
report indicated a deficiency in ary aspect of retail salesmanship.
The guide itself was compiled from an analysis of retail salesman¬
ship principles espoused in generally accepted books on the subject.5
The shopping report form used in this study (see Appendix A)
was a synthesis of six shopping reports, currently utilized by various
f.
organizations. While the format of these reference reports varied,
3The reader is referred to the bibliography for a listing of
these titles.
6Five department stores—Macy's, Abraham and Strauss, and
Bloomingdales, New York; John Wanamaker, Philadelphia; J. L. Hudson,
Detroit—and Wi 1.1 mark Service Systems, Inc., submitted forms.

- 55
their context was similar. The forras examined indicated a similar
interest in determining the following about the salesperson's re-
tail selling techinques: (1) approach, (2) display of merchandise,
(3) trading up, (4) suggestion selling, (5) overcoming objections,
(6) close, (7) salesperson's attitude toward the customer, and (8)
salesperson's appearance. Therefore, all these factors were in¬
corporated into the experimental shopping form.
The actual service shopping was performed by six part-time
professional shoppers—five women and one man. These shoppers,
who varied in age from twenty-two to sixty-four, were given a two-
hour training course which included theoretical instructions and
role playing. In the field, they worked under a supervisor who
checked their reports and retrained them when necessary. The
shoppers received wages of $1.50 per hour an} the supervisor was
paid $2.00 per hour.
, \ â–  \ <
In order to minimize any bias among the service shoppers,
they were not specifically Informed about the methodology or ob¬
jective of this study. Furthermore, this researcher minimized ary
field contact with them. In fact, even the return of merchandise,
bought during shopping trips to the stores, was handled by an
assistant.
To summarize, Treatment III consists of three equl-spaced
shopping reports applied over a five-month period. These reports
were discussed with the observed salesperson by the manager and
either praise or corrective sales training or both were given. The
salespeople received no special motivation or formal sales training

- 56 -
Treatment II
Treatment II was a sound training program similar to the
ones given in retail stores throughout the country. A one-hour
sales training session was given to the salespeople in this group
of five stores every three weeks over a five-month period—a total
of six sessions. At these meetings, held from 7:45 to 8:45 A. M.
in the Gainesville Chamber of Commerce meeting .room? standard
methods were used to instruct the salespeople, at the rate of one
topic a session. The following subjects were emphasized at these
sales meetings:
1. The approach
2. Suggestion selling
3. Trading up
4. Steps in the sale
5. Overcoming objections
6. The close
The mimeographed summary notes of these training sessions, which were
distributed to the salespeople, are reproduced in Appendix A.
Illustrative examples of the use of the subject matter to
increase retail selling efficiency were secured from the Personnel
n
Bulletins of the National Retail Merchants Association. However,
no inducement was given to the salespeople to apply this knowledge
n
Personnel Service (New York: National Retail Merchants
Association, January, 1957, - June, 1960).

- 57 -
except the obvious possibilities of promotions and raises in salary
which might be forthcoming from their respective store managers as
recognition for good ;ob performance.
Furthermore, this group was not tested as part of the train¬
ing program to determine if they ever applied the information which
they received during the training sessions. Of course, indirectly
this information was secured by quantitative indicators which were
applied to all treatments. Still so far as the retail clerks in
this program were concerned, they merely attended classes and re¬
turned to work—that was the extent of the program.
According to educational theory, man learns by one, two or
a combination of three basic methods: (1) trial and error, (2)
conditioned response, and (3) insight.8 Because the insight method
requires perception, conception and imagination and places reliance
upon the individual to secure understanding, most retail executives,
whose sales force has only a limited educational background, know¬
ingly or unknowingly utilize the trial and error and the conditioned
response method of training their employees.
Whether or not the store provides formal sales training, its
salespeople still learn by the same techniques. Lacking formal
instruction, the}’ flounder by trial and error through many selling
situations until they develop certain selling techniques which they
believe sell merchandise. Then they continue to repeat these newly
8William J. Stanton and Richard H. Buskirk, Management of
the Sales Force (Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, 1959;, p. 233.

— 58 —
discovered techniques until they become conditioned reflexes. Un-
/ i !
fortunately, the salesmanship techniques discovered in this manner
are not necessarily the best methods of selling merchandise.
i\ «•'. .. v ,-4.
Hie prevalent use of Hay I help you?” as a retail sales
approach is an example of an undesirable selling techniques developed
primarily by retail salespeople through trial and error. Dr. Brisco
.» !t
in his definitive book on retail salesmanship condemned this technique
9
as ineffective in 1926. Nevertheless, many retail salespeople still
utilize it because formal sales training has not communicated a more
4- í t .
effective substitute to the individual clerk.
There are many retail store executives who are convinced
that the training of their salespeople increases selling efficiency.10
Also, there are executives who agree that sales training is econom¬
ically justified for other stores but not for their establishment;
they offer a plethora of reasons to justify this conclusion-some
reasonable but many emotional. One of the most common reasons is
that they tried to train their salespeople but did not obtain any
tangible gains in selling efficiency—only expenses.
Results of this treatment will give some quantitative data
which can determine the effectiveness of sales training. Their
findings can also be evaluated according to the compensation plan
9
N. A. Brisco, Retail Salesmanship (New York: The Ronald
Press, 1924), p, 72.
10
See above, pp. 6-7

tN
- 59 -
offered by the various stores. Furthermore, results also can be
compared with other programs.
Treatment I
Treatment I was a combination of Treatments II and III plus
a small pecuniary motivation unique to this treatment. The sales¬
people in this group of retail stores received the same sales
training as the salespeople in Treatment II. In other words, they
were taught how to sell. But besides being taught how to sell,
service shopping reports were used to test the salespeople after
each of the six training sessions, to determine whether or not
they were in fact applying the principles which they had been
taught.
If they utilized the germane principles of salesmanship,
they received incentive awards amounting to one dollar per sales¬
person per meeting. On the other hand, if their shopping reports
indicated that they were not using correct selling techniques, they
were retrained by the manager according to the service shopping
procedure. They were also subject to a review of the salient points
of the earlier classes at the next training session.
Theoretically, this treatment combines teaching the sales¬
person how to sell plus providing two reasons why they should sell:
(1) in order to secure praise from the manager or avoid the obvious sign
of failure to comply with instruction^- retraining by the manager,
and (2) to secure group recognition and monetary awards given at
the next training session.

- 60 -
While the sales training program was the same for Treatments
I and II and the meetings were held at the same place and time, the
days were different; Treatment I met on Tuesday—Treatment II met on
Thursday. This was done to avoid any possible feeling of enmity
between the two groups because one group received shopping reports
and pecuniary incentive which the other did not receive.
While either or both methods of increasing sales efficiency
in retail stares, represented by Treatments II and III in this study,
are extensively applied by most larger mercantile establishments and
some smaller retailers, Treatment I is unique. This combination of
training, service shopping, and small pecuniary incentive is offered
as possibly the most effective way for retail stores to increase
their selling efficiency. Larger retail stores could inaugurate
their own programs while smaller retailers could join cooperative
community ventures to utilize this technique.
Quantitative Indicators
In order to secure numerical data appropriate for statistically
testing the effectiveness of the various experimental techniques on
retail selling efficiency, four quantitative Indicators, (1) customer
attitude survey, (2) shopping reports, (8) employee morale survey,
and (4) sales volume, were utilized. Each of these measuring devices
was chosen because it had certain unique characteristics which enabled
it to examine precisely one facet of the overall effect of the treat¬
ments on selling efficiency. The summation of these four indicators
gives a comprehensive picture of the efficacy of the treatments.

- 61 -
Each of the four measuring devices is presented in this
chapter for the following purposes!
(1) To justify its selection as the optimum measuring
instrument to secure information about a given area
of treatment effect.
(2) To describe the methodology used in applying the
indicators to gather the results of the various
treatments.
Service shopping
The programs to increase retail selling efficiency are
predicated on the existence of a causal relationship between the
application of retail selling skills by salespeople and selling
efficiency. If the salespeople utilize effective selling procedures,
their output should increase while their selling expenses remain
relatively constant; as a consequence, their selling efficiency
increases. This concept is a basic assumption of this study.
It appears essential, therefore, that the application of
generally accepted principles of salesmanship by retail sales¬
people should be observed directly as well as indirectly. Oblique
>
manifestations of the utilization of good selling techniques may be
observed in customer satisfaction and possibly better employee
morale. But direct observation can best be reported only by perceiving
the salesperson at ter task of selling or measuring ter productivity.
Service shopping is the instrument for observing the salesperson at
work.
i

— 62 -
Most large retail organizations and many small retailers
have used service shopping for many years as a technique for
measuring retail selling efficiency. Dr. Donald K. Beckley, in
his definitive monograph on service shopping, considers service
shopping as one of the four basic indicators of selling efficiency.^-
While tiie assistant selling director of Macy's, New York, warns,
"We do not feel that a shopping report is conclusive evidence of
an individual’s performance. At best it is only an isolated
incident. However, a series of such "isolated incidents" might
be conclusive of a pattern of performance.
Admittedly, there can be little statistical significance
to shopping reports on individuals according to sampling theory.
If a clerk participates in only fifty sales situations a day, over
a period of five months there is a universe of over 5000 selling
contacts. The significance of a sample of one or two shopping re¬
ports over this period yields estimates of universal parameters
with such a large reliability variance that the findings have
little statistical value—but on a store wide basis a more com¬
prehensive evaluation can be made.
If twenty different salespeople are observed in a given
store on a specific day, a pattern emerges. While the results are
^Donald K. Beckley, Service Shopping (Boston: Prince School
of Retailing, Simmons College, 1953), p. 13. The four indicators
suggested by Beckley are: (1) service shopping, (2) rating by
supervisor, (3) customer interviews, and (4) sales production data.
12Haicht letter, May 17, 1960.

still statistically inconclusive for estimating parameter, neverthe¬
less they form a more reliable description of the level of the store
personal salesmanship than one observation of an individual would
give. Therefore, in this study, service shopping is concerned only
with the store’s performance—not the individual's. There is no
attest to evaluate the effect of the various programs on an
individual salesperson basis.
While the shopping reports are not a valid basis for esti¬
mating parameters, they are useful for statistical comparisons
within the experiment. Differences between treatments and between
before-and-after quantitative measurements within treatments can
be statistically reduced to a probability of occurrence. This is
in keeping with the objectives of this study which are basically
to determine the effectiveness of various techniques to increase
selling efficiency. Estimates of study parameters are not an
objective of this work.
The same shippers who performed the service shopping applied
as Treatment III, provided the service shopping reports which were
used as quantitative indicators. Hie shoppers and their supervisor
were not informed concerning the identity of the stores receiving
various treatments or of the experimental significance of their
reports. They were merely instructed to shop certain stores and
in the case of the stores' receiving the first treatment, certain
salespeople.
Shopping reports, while not conclusive evidence of retail
selling performance by salespeople, are still a valuable indicator

— 64 **
of the selling techniques actually utilized by the clerk in the sales
situation. Since these techniques are the causal factor which deter¬
mines to a larger extent the level of retail selling efficiency, their
quantitative examination by means of a shopping service appears
essential. In the next section, however, a more indirect indicator,
a consumer survey, is examined.
v
Consumer attitude survey
An essential ingredient of a successful retail store is
customer satisfaction with the store’s merchandise and personal
service. Regardless of the efficiency of a store’s overall operation,
if a retail merchant fails to satisfy his patrons and thereby dis-
. $. fit» ¿ .. . v >.. : .* j.
courages them from returning to his store on subsequent occasions,
he usually fails. There are not many stores which can economically
subsist on transient customers only; those few which do so are not
;i' . ^ ^ » i t: ,'ir ,
considered in this study.
t , 4 jj'* .i): ,
Since customer satisfaction is so necessary for the success
of a retail store, it seems essential that the effect of efforts to
increase retail selling efficiency on a store's customers should be
examined. If the effect is desirable, it should be recognized as a
j
long-run benefit of the program. On the other hand, if the tested
* 4 < C
techniques cause the customer to react negatively, the long-run
results will be undesirable regardless of possible immediate gains
recorded by other indicators.
The customer attitude survey, therefore, tends to be a
longer run check on other quantitative indicators which report

- 65
immediate results. Suppose, for example, that a given treatment
causes the salespeople to 'high pressure'' customers. This might
cause a short-run rise in sales volume but a long-run decrease in
patronage—assuming customers reacted negatively to the high pressure"
techniques. Data secured from the customer attitude survey analyzed
within the overall context of the entire experimental findings would
give indications of this situation.
Although a probability sample would have been the most
desirable method of selecting the customer attitude survey respondents,
it was not utilized because funds were not available to compensate
field workers who would have been needed to interview the retail
store’s customers. A non-probability sample, such as a convenience
sanóle which was actually utilized in this study, had advantages of
economy and convenience but its findings were subject only to non-
statistical inference. ’One should keep clearly in mind that the
use of non-random sampling obtains results whose reliability can¬
not be measured by established theory.iS
By utilizing a quota sample, even with its acknowledged
limitations, a good indication of the effect of the treatments on
the retail store’s customers can be secured. This information is
useful in this study as well as in providing a guide for more
adequately financed future research.
13Morris H. Hansen, William N. Iiurvitz, William G. Madow,
Sample Survey Methods and Theory, Vol. Is Methods of Application
(New York": Johnliiley and Sons, Inc., 1953), p. 73.

- 66
Even though the survey results cannot provide reliable
estimates of parameters, it can secure data which can be examined
to provide meaningful evaluation of the various treatment results.
Admittedly, it would be also desirable to have a sauqple subject to
statistical inference. Nevertheless, the customer attitude data are
useful in meeting the objectives of this study—even with its
limitations.
A time period, between 10:00 A. M. and 1:00 P. M. on a
Saturday morning, was arbitrarily selected as the optimum time to
select respondents for two reasons: (1) Since this period was on a
Saturday, marketing students were available to do the field work; and
(2) Saturday was a busy shopping day and the hours between 10:00 A. M.
and 1:00 P. M. were the heaviest traffic hours during that day; there¬
fore, the interviews per hour ratio werehigh.
A quota of fifty respondents was arbitrarily assigned to
each of the stores in the study. The field workers were instructed
to interview every other patron leaving a given store during the
interview hours until they completed their quota. Field workers
assigned to low traffic stores were told to interview all customers
leaving their stores during the three-hour period.
The interviewers were not specifically told the treatments
which the various stores received although they knew the scope of
the study. In this way, non-sampling bias was reduced.
Field workers were instructed to interview all designated
customers except children under sixteen years of age* Race or
obvious social standing was specifically eliminated as a basis for

- 67 -
tiie selection of respondents. Furthermore, whether or not a person
leaving a store had made a purchase was not relevant; as long as a
person was observed leaving a given retail store—she or he was a
customer.
The six questions which were presented to the respondents
were designed to determine the customer’s attitude on the following
subjects: (1) appearance of the salespeople; (2) the salesperson’s
knowledge of the merchandise which she sold; (3) friendliness of the
salespeople; (4) interest of the salespeople in helping the customer
received; and (6) an opportunity to make any relevant comments. The
questionnaire is reproduced in Appendix A.
After the interviewer read to a respondent a question which
was designed to evoke information to meet one of the survey objectives,
an answer card (see Appendix A) was shown by the field worker. The
customer indicated her feelings by selecting a number from one to
four on a scale which basically represented a possible attitude be- -
tween good and bad. For tabulation purposes, answers one and two
were considered favorable and three and four unfavorable.
A four-part scale was selected after a trial survey with a
three-step scale. With a three-step scale there was a tendency for
customers to choose continually the middle feeling without much
intellectual participation. A four-p^rt scale necessitated more of
a reflection of the respondent’s feeling since there was no obviously
noncommittal middle opinion. On the other hand, a six-step gradation
was felt to be too finely gradated for the subject matter.

- 68 -
Since the objective of the customer attitude survey was not
to describe and correlate various attitudes with general population
characteristics such as age, sex and income but to indicate the
effectiveness of various treatments, only one classification was
used—the custoner’s own classification of herself as a regular,
occasional or seldom customer of a given store. This classification
was included because it was felt to be a more significant factor in
determining the respondent’s feelings than other possible classifications.^
Employee morale survey
Definitions of morale are many. A review of them all would
show that they define it in terms of what it is, what it does,
whereit resides, whom it affects and what it affects. Thus
to use the foregoing classification, morale is composed as
follows:
1. What it is—an attitude of mind, an espirt de corps, a
state of well (or unwell) being, and an emotional force.
2. What it does—affects output, quality, costs, co-operation,
discipline, enthusiasm, initiative, and other aspects of
success.
3. Where it resides—in the minds, attitudes, and emotions of
individuals by themselves, and in their group reactions.
4. Whom it affects—immediately, employees and executives
in their interactions; ultimately, the customer and the
community.
5. What it affects—willingness to work and to co-operate
in the best interest of the enterprise and in turn of
the individuals themselves.
^For critical evaluation of the efficacy of conventional
consumer classifications in market research see, Ernest Dichter,
"Seven Tenets of Creative Research," Journal of Marketing, XXV,
No. 4 (April, 1961), 2.

- 69 -
A single definition is used here merely to provide a quick
clue to tíie foregoing details. Morale then is a state of
mind of emotions, affecting willingness to work, which in
turn affects individual and organizational objectives.15
Although there is little agreement on a formal definition of
morale, there is a nationally recognized method of quantitatively
measuring it—the Science Research Associates (SRA) Employee In¬
ventory.16 this inventory was developed by the Industrial Relations
Center of the University of Chicago, and has been given to over
25,000 employees to establish national norms. With this inventory,
f
the attitudes of employees in fifteen areas can be quantified and
evaluated.
: _ I N < 4 “ V
The SRA Employee Inventory has four advantages over an
f 1 |
original morale inventory which could have been developed for this
study: (1) it Is nationally recognized and accepted, (2) retailers
or other researchers can readily purchase it for their own use, (8)
national norms are available as standards for evaluating results
obtained in this study, (4) because of years of research, the in¬
ventory is undoubtedly technically superior to any survey which
this researcher could have developed.
1 . .. *â–  1 i
While the attitudes of employees can be measured, there is
no authoritative agreement that there exists a causal relationship
lsMichael T. Jucius, Personnel Management (Homewood, Illinois:
Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1959), p. áM.
16The SRA Employee Inventory and all germane forms and in¬
struction are available from Science Research Associates, Inc., 259
E. Erie St., Chicago 11, Illinois.

- 70 -
between employee morale and productivity. If there were agreement on
this relationship, this research would have been greatly simplified.
It would caily have been necessary to apply the various treatments to
the experimental stores; take a quantitative measure of employee
attitudes; and draw conclusions. If morale showed statistically
significant improvement so would productivity. Unfortunately,
evaluation of this research is not that simple.
It has long been assumed that there is a high correlation
between the morale of a work group and its productivity. However,
research on this subject leads to the conclusion that little is
17
known about such a relationship. The present state of knowledge
is summarized by a social science group:
One of the most important hypotheses which has been
largely substantiated by the Michigan group holds that
high productivity is not necessarily a function of job
satisfaction or morale. If we distinguish between
organizational goals and personal goals, then those peo¬
ple who find satisfaction of their own personal needs by
meeting the goals of the organization for which they work
are more likely to be highly productive. It is, however,
possible for people to be satisfied with their jobs al¬
though they contribute little toward meeting the goals
of their organization. It is also possible for a group
of employees to have high morale because they are able to
acconplish group goals, although these are not necessarily
related to product!vity.i8
While the direct relation between morale and productivity
is subject to dispute the desirability of a good level of morale
17Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell, Principles of Management
(New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959), p. 401.
18
I. R. Weschier, M. Kahane, and R. Tonnenbaum, ’Job Satis¬
faction, Productivity and Morale: A Case Study", Occupational
Psychology. XXVI, No. 1 (January, 1952), 92.

- 71
la not. According to one writer: ’A favorable state of mind among
the individuals and groups composing an organization is reflected
in a favorable attitude toward the organization, its work and its
leadership. It is reflected directly in the economy and effective¬
ness with which the organization accomplishes its mission."19 All
other things being equal, there is little reason why management
would not desire a good level of employee morale.
The justification for the use of an employee attitude survey
as a quantitative indicator is rather indirect and of necessity
theoretically inconclusive since there is no established causal
relation between employee morale and productivity. But employee
morale indirectly contributes toward the reaching of organization
goals and, therefore, the effect which the programs under consideration
have on morale is important in this research. If a program which
theoretically should increase selling efficiency fails, the mitigating
factor may be indirectly found in a lower level of employee morale
which the program itself produced, even though direct causation
would not be logically inferred.
For example, suppose a shopping service is introduced into
a retail store without proper employee indoctrination. As a result,
the salespeople feel that management is spying on them and consequently
they Informally unite to fight the system. Under these circumstances,
even though selling efficiency might improve, the management should be
19Ralph Davis, Hie Fundamentals of Top Management (New York:
Harper and Brothers, 19¿I), p. "" ''

- 72
aware of a potentially troublesome situation and take measures to
correct it. This awareness could come from a lower level of
employee morale indicated by the SRA Employee Inventory.
Conversely, if a program to increase selling efficiency also
improves employee attitudes, the program plus improved morale might
have a reinforcing effect upon each other. Again, service shopping is
an appropriate example. Assume that a store's management has ef¬
fectively convinced its employess that service shopping is a positive
motivating factor—not a spy system. Now instead of the employees’
negative attitude working against the program, it works for the
program.
Whether or not this morale factor improves selling efficiency,
the methodology of this study is not able to conclude, but it can
indicate the effect of the treatments on employee morale. If a program
tangibly increases productivity and morale, the program is doubly
desirable. On the other hand, if it increases productivity but de-
creases morale, there are indications that further research should be
considered before final conclusions are reached.
The SRA Employee Inventory was administered to the employees
in the experimental retail stores according to the instructions
suggested by the publishers except in one instance. While the
managers of stores with more than four employees were given the
results to evaluate and ccasnunicate to their salespeople, stores with
fewer than four employees were not given the results since the employees
of these stores were understandably reluctant to be so closely identified

- 73
I II
with the survey results. Bnployees In both categories were given
assurances of the aforementioned procedure.
In the following section a more direct and generally accepted
method of measuring sales productivity is presented.
t •«, : 1 \
Sales volume
i • •' * f 4 ?
The most universally accepted method of measuring selling
productivity is some type of sales statistic, such as number of
transactions, net sales and the amount of the average sale, these
statistics have the following advantages: (1) the terms are readily
understood by the businessmen, (2) the data are normally collected by
larger retailers, and (3) the sales indicators are more directly re¬
lated to profits than the other three indicators in this study.
However, because of the preponderance of «nailer retail
stores in this study, only one of the sales volume indicators, net
sales volume, was available from all stores in this experiment.
While the larger stores had all types of statistics available, sales
volume was the only indicator common to all stores; therefore, this
statistic was chosen as an indicator of sales production. Also,
there were other practical considerations.
While the experimental stores were willing to submit sales
volume in terms of the percentage change in sales during a period in
1961 as compared to a corresponding period in 1960, they were reluctant
to disclose absolute figures. Consequently, lacking general agreement
to submit absolute figures, it was necessary either to accept percentage

- 74
changes or entirely omit a sales volume Indicator. Under these
circumstances percentage changes were agreed upon.
Percentage changes as a quantitative indicator have the
following disadvantages as compared to absolute sales figures: (1)
they are less precise} dollar sales volume can be exact while per¬
centage changes, especially when rounded to whole numbers, are less
rigorous; and (2) percentages, as relative numbers, are not subject
to calculations possible with absolute numbers, e.g., dividing the
number of clerks into dollar volume to determine average volume, per
clerk. Nevertheless, even with these drawbacks, some indication
of the effect of the techniques on sales production was deemed
advisable because of the aforementioned advantage of this type of
indicator.
f ? • ' • i • * Í ' ♦ ,• 1 i ■*!
Summary
In this chapter the three techniques for improving retail
selling efficiency, a combination of sales training, service
shopping and motivation, sales training, and service shopping, as
well as a control group, were described. The theoretical justification
for the efficacy of the positive treatments and the need for a control
group were also presented. Furthermore, the manner in which each one
of the treatments was applied to the experimental retail stores was
discussed.
The four quantitative indicators which were used to secure
data on the results of the treatments were examined. The limitations

- 75 -
and the advantages of each of the two direct indicators, service
shopping and sales volume, were evaluated as were the two more in¬
direct measuring techniques, the employee morale and customer attitude
survey. Arguments were advanced to defend the selection of these
indicators as optimum under the given circumstances of this research.

r
CHAPTER V
4 ;■ '* ,¿ t | '.ft f; >'i.
ANALYSIS OF THE EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY
ttie Science Research Associates Employee Inventory was given
i i * i. ,
to the salespeople in the experimental retail stores in order to
■ • ! ■ V . i n :! ■: ¡ ■
determine the effect of the various treatments on the attitude of the
J I • : •
clerics. While a causal relationship between enployee morale and
'•¡.In ; »• i 1 :: t r i I i •■■ J f ■
productivity has not been definitely established by management theorists,
â– 
in mazy instances it has been observed that employee morale and
.... i n •
productivity vary directly. This association, however, should not be
' ' !•' a i . r '? > *1 I i s
assumed to Indicate causality.
1 ■t< 7 * ‘ , • . 0 • >, r [ ’ k - ^ ¡ „ f !•
On the other hand, since the attitudes of employees logically
i i * ; ' • • v
should affect productivity in some manner event though this relationship
is ; et to be conclusively ascertained, it appears necessary to examine
fluctuations in morale as an interesting manifestation of the treatments.
If the treatments cause an increase in selling efficiency and an increase
n > , y* • t y < > * c1
in morale, the rise in morale is a salutary by-product. On the other
.
hand, if the treatments cause increases in selling efficiency and a
lowering of morale, there is cause for further consideration of the
programs. Of course, if the treatments are ineffective, the morale
l Í
factor is irrelevant.
- 76

- 77 -
Comparison of Before-and After-Treatment Results
The employee attitude survey was administered to the subject
salespeople before the programs to increase selling efficiency or
treatments were applied, and after the programs were completed. Five
months separated the survey applications. The results of the before-
and after-surveys were plotted on report forms and profiles drawn for
clear graphic comparison.
For tiie following reasons the before-and after-survey results
could not have been statistically compared for significant changes:
(1) tiie normal turnover of employees over a five-month period, as
well as the necessity of assuring the anonymity of the salespeople
taking the test, precluded the use of paired samples; and (2) since
both surveys had a common group of salespeople, the two groups were
not independent; therefore, conventional statistical procedures were
not applicable.
As a result of these limitations, the after-treatment data
can only be compared to before-treatment results and changes noted.
These variations, however, are amenable to objective evaluation as
possible indicators of treatment effect; they cannot be evaluated
in terms of probability. Furthermore, without the benefit of valid
statistical tests, there is no quantitative way of accounting for
the effect of the multiplicity of extraneous factors, besides the
treatments, which also affect morale. Nevertheless, a comparison of
before-and after-treatment findings does provide an insight into

- 78 -
possible treatment effects which can be further analyzed when the after-
treatment findings are statistically tested later in the chapter.
Treatment I
The total inventory score for Treatment I, the assumed optimum
combination of salestraining, shopping service and motivation, does not
vary sufficiently between before-and after-surveys results to indicate
any meaningful difference. As a result, it is unlikely that there
are very large changes among any of the component classifications
whose sumaation equals the total.
However, there is a mitigating factor. When this program was
half completed, the clerks in Treatment I disclosed, during a training
session, that they were not being compensated by their employers for
attending the meetings. They resented the fact. Since they had to
devote an additional one hour every three weeks to this program, aside
from the regular working hours, they reasoned that they should have
been paid for their time. However, their objections were not too
vehement since they received incentive awards at the meetings;
consequently, they continued to attend the sessions with the assist¬
ance of continued pressure from their store managers. It can be
hypothesized that this irritation resulted in a general lowering of
the after scores.
Credulity is given this explanation when the 85-25-percentile
decrease on the after-treatment inventory score for Treatment II is
noted. The clerks in this group objected so strenuously to attending

- 79 -
their training sessions without pay that only the strongest managerial
pressure could secure their attendance. In one store, the manager
even had to reverse his position and pay the salespeople in order to
secure their participation.
Generally, the salesperson’s reaction to Treatment I was
satisfactory but to Treatment II it was rather poor because of the
compensation problems. The response of the salespeople to the programs
was very noticeable because at the time this study was being conducted
in Gainesville, Florida, a program identical to Treatment I was being
offered on a commercial basis in Ocala, Florida, a town thirty miles
away; in Ocala, however, the merchants paid for the program and the
salespeople were compensated for their time.
The response of the salespeople to the commercial program was
very good. Some of the clerks voluntarily expressed the opinion that
they looked forward to attending the training sessions. After the
program was concluded, the managers reported that the clerks had
asked about continuing the program during the following year. Un¬
fortunately, since this was not an academic project, no quantitative
measurements of morale were secured at the completion of the program.
However, it provided a standard for subjective evaluation of the
salespeople’s reaction to Treatments I and II in this study.
Perhaps it is reasonable to assume that the positive influence
of Treatment I on employee attitudes was reduced by the negative
response engendered by their store manager’s reluctance to compensate
them for their participation in this study. If compensation were given,

- 80 -
scores in certain categories may have been higher, nevertheless, the
results of the before-and after-scores are analyzed by categories to
indicate any significant changes.
Figure I, a comparison of the profiles on the before-and after-
treatment scores indicates at least a 10-percentile change in three
categories of employer attitudes. There are no areas where a variation
in excess of 15-percentiles occurred except in reactions to the
inventory which is not germane to this study. In the remaining
eleven categories, no notable variations are indicated.
In two of the three categories, job demands and supervisor-
employee interpersonal relations, the change could be reasonably
attributed to the treatment. The reason for a change in the third,
identification with the company, is probably due to a non-treatment
factor.
Category one, job demands, includes the reaction of the sales
people to work pressure, fatigue, monetary, work load and hours of
work.
It covers the major things having to do with physical and
mental pressures on the job. Reactions to job pressures are
not only a function of actual pressure that exists but the
employee’s attitude toward it. If an employee feels he is
getting something out of his work and that he is gaining
personally from it, he is much more likely to react favor¬
ably to job demands. However, if he feels that the work is
of no personal advantage to him, he may regard it as dull,
monotonous, and fatiguing.
•general Manual for the SRA Employee Inventory (3d ed.;
Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1952), p. 19.

KEY:
Before
After
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE I
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT I

82

— 83 —
Since this program concentrated on upgrading the salesperson
from an order-taker to a merchandise adviser, it should have created
a more dynamic work environment. The salespeople were taught selling
techniques, tested by means of the service shopping reports on their
application of these techniques and generally expected to render a
higher level of service. This new definition of work expectancy
should have placed greater demands on them and they probably reacted
positively to the circumstances.
Category six, supervisor-employee interpersonal relations,
includes a number of items ordinarily associated by em¬
ployees with good supervision, such as friendliness, fair¬
ness, praise, and encouragement. Favorable attitudes toward
immediate supervision are, of course, essential to employee
morale. Teamwork and productivity in the work are probably
more closely related to supervision than to ary other single
factor. What a man does on his job depends on the personal
leadership he gets from his immediate superior. It is far
more important to his productivity than his attitudes toward
management or company policy.2
The participation of the managers in the program evidently
created a favorable employee-manager relationship. In most stores,
the managers attended the meetings with the employees, creating a
team spirit. Also, all of the managers were involved in the shopping
reports and incentive awards given to their employees on the basis of
the shopping reports.
Category thirteen, identification with the company,
measures the employee’s feeling of participation and belong¬
ing in the company as well as their pride and interest in
the company. If the company is well-known and important in
2Ibid., p. 18.

- 84 -
its industry, employees may show a high degree of identi¬
fication even though thei'r attitudes are poor in other
factors.
While the program may have contributed to the salesperson’s
feeling of participation in the affairs of the store, there is another
influence. The department store in this group completed a new store
front during the experimental treatment. The scores of their employees,
who are over 50% of the total for the category, showed exceptional
improvement. Unfortunately, quantitative effect of this factor cannot
be separated from experimental influence—only acknowledged.
Treatment II
The difference between the total scores on the employee inventory
before and after sales training was applied to the experimental stores,
indicated a decrease of 25-percentiles. Under normal cir¬
cumstance, this would have been an indication of a drastic general
change in employee attitudes.
A strong negative factor, such as failure to compensate the
salespeople for their participation in this study, probably caused
this change. In Treatment II, the salespeople were 'pressured” into
attending the programs; they were not paid for their time; they
strongly resented the imposition. As a consequence, their entire
morale level dropped.
3Ibid., p. 19.

- 85 -
The situation is analogous to a shopper who has had an un¬
pleasant experience with the credit department of a store. Prior to
this contact the shopper may have considered the store’s merchandise
very attractive, the salespeople efficient, and the store a good place
to purchase goods. But after the unpleasant credit experience, she
tends to think poorly of the entire store—not just the credit
department.
Because of the presence of this strong negative factor, an
analysis of the various survey categories would be in error. Any
analysis would be attributing reactions to the treatment which are
probably not the result of tills causation. Although such an analysis
would be invalid results are shown in Figure II.
Treatment III
»
A comparison of the total scores on the employee inventory
secured before Treatment III, shopping service, was applied, and after
the program was completed, indicated a 5- percentile decrease; this is
shown in Figure III. Discussions with the managers of retail stores
in this group failed to disclose any extraneous factors which might
have influenced the survey results. They further confirmed that they
had followed the recommended shopping service procedure during the
study; however, the validity of these statements could not be ob¬
jectively verified.
An analysis of the fourteen categories whose simulation equals
the total, disclosed that four categories showed a decrease in (access

KEY
Before
After
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE II
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT II

87
VERY LOW
2 3 4 5
LOW | AVERAGE | HIGH
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
VERY HIGH
9596 97 98

KEY: Before
After
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE III
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT III

89
35 4f 41'
95 9ft 9? 98
99

- 90 -
i « * *
of 15-percentiles and one reflected a 10-percentile decline; only one
category showed an increase in excess of 15-percentiles. Of these
five categories, however, only three of the differences could have
been reasonably attributed to the treatment. In the remaining two
categories, the differences appear to have been caused by nonexperi-
mental influences. , t ,
, • i > ■ t •
The negative change in category two, which is concerned
primarily with physical work environment, and the negative variation
in category four, which reflectes employee attitudes toward company
benefits programs, evidently were due to nonexpcrimental factors.
While the manager of the largest store in this program, whose sales¬
people contributed 80% of the group total, failed to report any
storewide policy changes, several of the salespeople disclosed that
rumors had been circulated concerning changes in store hours and
employee discount privileges which the salespeople felt were to their
disadvantage. These real or fancied circumstances could have con¬
tributed to changes in these two categories.
The 17-percentile decrease in category five, friendliness and
cooperation of fellow employees, seemed to have been an undesirable
result of this program. It was noted that in stores or departments
where more experienced or older employees received good shopping
reports, the reports were well accepted. On the other hand, if the
array of shopping scores in a store did not generally follow the
informal salesperson hierarchy, some of the unjustly1 evaluated
salespeople would bitterly complain.

- 91 -
While there iras no legitimate need for the individual shopping
reports scores to be catnaon knowledge in a store, they inevitably were
generally known, This, no doubt, created a certain amount of friction,
especially if the established informal leaders had their position
challenged because of relatively poor shopping reports. In two in¬
stances during the study, store managers requested special reports,
preferably favorable, to placate irate salespeople who maintained strong
informal positions which were in jeopardy because of shopping reports.
Category ten, adequacy of communication, showed a 15-percentile
decline.
This category has to do with the freedom which employees
have to express their ideas and feelings up-the-line and
the opportunity they have to learn about company plans
and what is going on generally in the organization. In
short, the category measures both up-the-line and down-
the-line communication.4
•Í
The decline in this category appears to have been a by-product
1 • 'l \ V ' , iff-1 - ■
of the study—not necessarily the treatment. In order to limit atypical
' >•. i t )* • ;' h- i ' • ** -*:■ ; V :
behavior, the clerks were merely told by their managers that the store
\ y v y $ v • ' "' ¿ 7 $ ;;
was subscribing to a shopping service on a trial basis. However,
; »' < > - Il !
partial knowledge of the study was informally circulated. Perhaps
the fact that the salespeople were not con^letely informed contributed
\ } il • j v i 7 j f: s i
to the salesperson's reduced confidence in storewide communication..
Category twelve, status and recognition, deals with the relative
• • ■ V ! ■ I
standing the worker feels he has in the company. It covers such items
^id

- 92 -
as the value and meaningfulness of the job, feeling of equality
with other employees, recognition, relative importance of job, and
freedom to use his own judgment. Improvement in this category usually
is the result of increased employee recognition by management.
Perhaps the 15-percentile gain noted in status and recognition
is due to the salespeople's awareness of increased managerial interest
in their activities as indicated by theiBe of a shopping service.
Also, it could have derived from the administering of the morale
survey which in itself provides a certain degree of recognition.
However, these two factors cannot be accurately circumscribed.
Treatment IV
Treatment IV is the control group; therefore, theoretically
there should be no change in the total before-and after-treatment
survey scores. In fact, the difference between the before-and after-
»
treatment inventory totals is so minute that it cannot be shown in
Figure IV. But a breakdown of the totals into individual categories
does indicate some changes.
Four categories showed changes greater than 15-percentile:
(1) category four, supervisor-employee interpersonal relations, gained;
(2) category eight, technical competence of supervision, increased;
(3) category twelve, status and recognition, advanced; and (4) category
fourteen, opportunity for growth and advancement, declined. Because
these changes cannot be attributed to any positive treatment, they
must have been caused by internal store factors or the quantitative
(V ,

KEY
Before
After
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE IV
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT IV

94
l'l K< I Mil I
S( M I
VERY LOW
• I 5
LOW | AVERAGE | HIGH
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
VERY HIGH
959b 97 98

- 95 -
indicators. However, these unknown influences can only be acknowledged
since the store managers reported no notable change in operations.
While the analysis in this section admittedly is inconclusive
because of unidentified influences, these factors now can be accounted
for in the statistical treatment comparisons presented in the next
section.
Chi-Square Analysis of Treatment Results
In order to compare the effect of the various treatments, a
chi-square analysis of the after-treatment attitudes survey results
is computed to determine if statistically significant differences exist
between total scores as well as between meaningful orthogonal compari¬
sons. These comparisons are standard for all chi-square analyses in
this study. Of course, other comparisons are possible, but those
selected accentuate differences between treatments which are most
relevant to the objectives of this research.
But before this statistical procedure could be utilized, the
three possible answers to the morale survey questions, "agree,’'
"don't know," and "disagree," had to be converted into dichotomous
categories. Since the"don't know” answers were considered a negative
reply, the same as a "disagree," in scoring the survey, this conversion
presented no difficulty.
The summation of the salespeople's responses to all categories
of the attitude survey are shown in the inventory total presented in
Table 3. Since the determination of significant statistical differences

- 96 -
between treatments is a function of the number of responses which
determine the percentage of favorable replies, this information is
also shown as well as the percentage of favorable responses which
alone may be misleading.
TABLE 3
TOTAL AFTER-TREATMENTS MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES
Treatment
Number favorable
Total number
Percentage
favorable
I
1298
3344
88.8
II
1222
3344
36.5
III
1217
3496
34.8
IV
1570
4712
33.3
I ; •
Treatment inventory totals are tested by chi-square analysis to
• r. { »
determine the probability that the differences between the percentages
of favorable replies are due to the experimental program.5 Formally,
the hypothesis that all treatment results are equal is tested. Results
are shown in Table 4.
The analysis indicates that there is a highly significant
difference between the total survey scores and, therefore, the hypo¬
thesis of no treatment difference is rejected. Furthermore, the com-
parisen of Treatment IV, the control group, with the positive treatment
groups also Indicates a chance of less than five out of a thousand that
5American Society of Quantitative Chemists, Transactions of the
10th Annual Meeting (Chicago, Illinois: 1956), pp. 9-5á. '

- 97
the differences are not due to the treatments. The comparison of
Treatment I with Treatments II and III, is also highly significant,
but the probability is slight that the difference between Treatments
II and III is due to the experimental programs.
' < } * * t • V A it ' t » '■ * ft Í
TABLE 4
„i i< «, j. y i ' *; .t*
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE TOTAL AFTER-TREATMENT
MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES
i > i ) \ ■ ’TI I r - v ■ f
Comparison Degrees of freedom
--1 ■■■■J. .. •
Chi-square
• - >r
Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
15,74
P < .005
I vs II ♦ III
1
9.67
. P4..005
II vs III
1
2.19
.10 < P<..25
Total
8
27.60
PC .005
From this analysis it can be concluded with greater than a
99% level of confidence that the treatments caused a difference in
the attitudes of the subject salespeople. Also it can be stated,
with the same degree of confidence, that the difference between the
38.8% of favorable replies from Treatment I and the 36.5% and 34.8%
favorable response of Treatments II and III is due to the treatments.
The probability is slight, however, that the 1.7% difference between
Treatments II and III is due to the effect of the treatments.
Since there is a highly significant difference between treat¬
ment results, it is appropriate to break down the aggregate datum into
more meanful components for further analysis. Therefore, the raw
data, shown in categories one to fifteen in Appendix B, are organized

- 98 -
Into the following five basic classifications, recommended by
Science Research Associates:^
I.Job and Conditions of Work
A. Job Demands (category one)
B. Working Conditions (category two)
II.Financial Rewards
A. Pay (category three)
B, Employee Benefits (category four)
III.Personal Relations
A. Friendliness and Cooperation of Fellow Employees (category five)
B. Supervisor-Employee Interpersonal Relations (category six)
C. Confidence in Management (category seven)
IV.Operating Efficiency
A. technical Competence of Supervision (category eight)
B. Effectiveness of Administration (category nine)
C. Adequacy of Communication (category ten)
V,Individual Satisfaction
A. Security of Job and Work Relations (category eleven)
¡ B. Status and Recognition (category twelve)
C. Identification with the Company (category thirteen)
D. Opportunity for Growth and Advancement (category fourteen)
Category fifteen, reaction to the survey, is not included in
the calculation of the survey totals; it is included in the Inventory
merely as an indicator of the employee’s reaction to the survey as a
^General Manual for the SRA Employee Inventory, p. 24.

- 99 -
management tool. Therefore, in this research, since category fifteen
is not relevant to study objectives, it is omitted.
In order to test the effect of the treatments on the feelings
of the salespeople toward their job and conditions of work, the attitude
survey results in Glassification 1 are shown in Table 5. From these
data a chi-square analysis indicates the probability that the differences
among treatments are due to the programs designed to increase selling
efficiency.
TABLE S
AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO JOB Aid) CONDITIONS OF WORK
Treatment
Number favorable
Total number
Percentage favorable
I
193
484
39.9
II
193
4o4
39.9
III
191
506
37.7
IV
254
682
37.2
The hypothesis that the attitude of the salespeople toward
their job and working conditions is the same in all treatment groups,
is tested. The usual orthogonal comparisons are made. Results are
shown in Table 6.
Since the differences between the total scores are not much
greater than could be expected if there were no treatments applied, the
hypothesis cannot be rejected; therefore, it can be concluded that the
treatments did not significantly affect the salespeople's attitude
toward their job and conditions of work. Furthermore, none of the

- 100 -
comparisons indicatesa probability greater than possibly three out
of four that the treatments caused a difference between the various
programs which are compared.
TABLE 6
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT
MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES TO JOB AND CONDITIONS OF WORK
Comparison Degrees of freedom Chi-square Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
.71
.25< P 4.50
I vs II + III
1
.17
.50 4P < .75
II vs III
1
.45
.254 P ¿..50
Total
3
1.33
.504 P 4.75
The analytical procedure for the remaining four categories is
the same as category one. However, in order to present the findings
in a lucid manner, the tables with the survey data and the chi-square
analysis are placed in Appendix B. Significant statistical results
disclosed by the chi-square analysis, however, are reported in the
text of this chapter.
Classification 2, the salesperson's feeling toward financial
rewards gained from employment, is the next attitude considered. Al-
tv .' -gh there is little reason to assume that the treatments should
affect this area of feeling since the programs did not disturb the
basic compensation plans for the experimental stores, nevertheless this
area is examined. The data are exhibited in Table 26, Appendix B.

- 101
In Table 27 , Appendix B are located the results of the statistical
analysis.
Normally, it would have been noted that the 13.9% difference
between treatment results had fewer than five chances in one thousand
of being due to anything but the experimental programs; therefore, it
would be concluded that the treatments caused a significant change in
1 (, v , A j ‘ ■ j
the salespeople's attitude toward the financial rewards of employment.
In this instance, however, the presence of mitigating factors must
qualify this conclusion. It was observed that the salespeople in
Treatment II reacted negatively to attending the training program
because they were not compensated for this extra time on the job.
Probably this was reflected in a poorer attitude toward their pay than
they would have displayed under normal circumstances. Also, the rumors
circulated by the salespeople in the Treatment III department store may
have affected the clerks’ attitudes toward employee benefits. Since
the summation of pay and benefit feelings equaled the totals in this
classification, these two observations are relevant.
It is unfortunate that other factors are present in this
classification to affect both total and comparative conclusions, but
in a dynamic environment it is difficult to avoid this possiblity.
Strong environmental conditions rarely can be totally prevented—only
acknowledged. The conclusions from this statistical analysis, there¬
fore, should be accepted only with some reservation.
Responses of the salespeople to questions concerning personal
relations with other employees and management is examined in Classifi¬
cation 3. This is one of the classifications in which a treatment effect

- 102
can reasonably be expected to occur since the positive experimental
program did disturb the normal interpersonal routine of the clerks.
The findings are presented in Table 28 , Appendix B*
To determine if there is any significant difference between
the percentage of favorable responses, the hypothesis of equal treat¬
ment effects is tested. Results of this analysis are indicated in
Table 29, Appendix B.
It can be stated with better than a 95% level of confidence
that the differences between treatments are not due to chance and the
hypothesis therefore is rejected. As a result, it can be concluded
that the treatments caused the salespeople to change their feelings
about fellow employees and work supervisors. Still more incisive
conclusions can be drawn from the orthogonal comparisons.
The 43.8% favorable responses of Treatment I when compared
with the lower scores of other positive treatments show a probability
of less than one chance in one-hundred that the 5.4% difference is
not due to the treatments. Furthermore, the 5.6% difference between
Treatment I and Treatment IV appears to be responsible for the 75%
level of confidence that the positive treatments have caused a change
in the personal relations among the salespeople which is experienced
by the clerks in the control group. However, the difference between
Treatments II and III may well be due to chance. From this analysis,
therefore, it can be concluded that only the stores in Treatment I
appears to be significantly affected by the experimental programs.
Classification 4 operating efficiency, concerns the sales¬
people’s feeling about the competency of the store management, including

- 103 -
employee-management communications. A tabulation of the attitudes in
this classification are found in Table 30 , Appendix B. The analysis
is presented in Table 31 , Appendix B.
From -the chi-square analysis it is clear that the hypothesis
of equal treatment effect cannot be rejected. It is reasonable to
conclude, therefore, that the treatments had no appreciable effect
in this area of employee attitudes. Furthermore, none of the
orthogonal comparisons indicates a significant probability.
The extent to which the salespeople’s attitudes, concerning per¬
sonal satisfaction from employment, were affected by the treatments
is examined in Classification 5. The aggregate responses of the clerks
to questions in this area are shown in Table 32, Appendix B. The
analysis of these findings is shown in Table 33 .
The probability that the differences between treatments is due
to the effectiveness of the treatments is less than one chance in two;
therefore, the hypothesis of equal treatment effect cannot be rejected.
It must be concluded, furthermore, that the treatments are not causal
in this facet of the salesperson's attitudes. The comparisons also
yield non-significant results.
Effect of the Treatments on Department Stores
While the effect of the treatments on certain types of retail stores
is not an objective of this study and the research methodology is not
specifically designed to provide this data, the quantitative effect of the
treatments on the attitude of the salespeople in certain stores can be

- 104
presented and analyzed. But meaningful information is not available
on all the stores in the study.
Since -the treatment results equal the summation of all the
clerks in the five stores of which the treatment is ccaqposed, it is a
relatively large and valid sample. If this total is broken down into
individual stores, the number of responses per store, except for the
department store group, varies from one to five. This size is too
small for a valid analysis.
There are two reasons to support the claim that small size
stores are invalid for individual analysis: (1) if a store lias only
a few salespeople, a strong attitude change by one person greatly
distorts the store results; and (2) Science Research Associates ad¬
vises caution in analyzing individual small group results because of
the tendency of people in these groups to distort their feeling be¬
cause they fear individual indentification by management. Acknowledging
these limitations, only the stores in the department store group are
subject to individual analysis.
The department stores because of their relatively large number
of salespeople contributed from 50% to 80% of the treatment totals.
Therefore, a comparison of the results of the department stores, with
the appropriate treatment results of which they are a part, is meaning¬
ful for the following reasons: (1) it indicates the effect of the
largest and probably most free-fran-bias results in relationship to
the smaller stores; and (2) it graphically portrays the individual
department store findings in a dynamic manner. In the following
sections, this procedure is analyzed.

105
The Treatment I department store
The department store given Treatment I is considered to be
the roost cooperative store in the entire group. During this study,
•the store’s management is known to have reinforced the program with
supervisory participation and full moral support; consequently, the
results of DpTI are rather significant.
In Figure V, the enployee attitude profiles of Treatment I and
DpTI are presented. From this chart it is evident that this depart¬
ment store, with 64% of the clerks in the treatments, raised the
entire level of the five stores. In nearly all categories, the scores
of this store are above the treatment level as well as showing an in¬
ventory score in the 83-percentile. The only noticeable low scores
are in the area of employee benefits which are beyond the scope of
the experimental program.
From tills analysis it can be concluded that Treatment I appears
to be more effective in DpTI than in the smaller retail stores. Also
the participation of management in the program seems to have had a
desirable effect upon morale results. Nevertheless the response of
the four small stores is satisfactory.
The Treatment II department store
Because the salespeople in Treatment II were not compensated
for attending the training sessions, a strong negative attitude was
probably nurtured which basically distored the morale level of
Treatment II as well, as shown in Figure VI. Under the circumstances,

KEY:
Group
Department store
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE V
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
AFTER-TREATMENT I GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORES

107

KEY:
Group
Department store
SOURCE: Profile Sheet printed by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE VI
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
AFTER-TREATMENT II GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORES

109

a comparison of category acores was of little value, but the fact
that the total department store score was higher than the treatment
score did yield an analytical contribution. From this information it
was evident that tire clerics In the smaller stares felt more strongly
about the program's infringement upon their time than the salespeople
from the department store* This could have been attributed to the
fact that the department store held regular meetings of its own
while the smaller stores usually did not follow this procedure. As
a result, in all probability the clerks from the smaller stores felt
the training program was more of an inconvenience*
Hie Treatment III department store
Hie department store in Treatment III, which contributed 80%
of the total clerks in the treatment, was the only store in this group
which showed a gain in the after treatment survey as well as having
the highest total score in the treatment. In all the categories, in
Figure VII, *his store was about equal or above the group average;
furthermore, its total score was also above the group. With its
dominant arithmetical position in the treatment average, this is
quite notable.
It appears that service shopping had a relatively negative
effect on the clerks in the small store and a rather salutary influence
on the salespeople In the largest store in the group as well as in the
study. Possibly, this indicated a greater sensitivity of the sales¬
people in the very small stores to criticism and ' outside" inter¬
ference. On the other hand, salespeople in the larger store may take

Group
Department store
KEY:
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OP SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY* (Copyright 195S by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE VII
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
AFTER-TREATMENT III GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORES

112

a service shopping procedure more as a matter of store policy rather
than of personal affront.
The Treatment IV department store
The enyloyee's attitudes in the department store which contributed
65% of the group total, are presented in Figure VIII. A comparison of
the department store with the treatment scores in this chart indicates
that this department store is below the treatment scores In all areas.
There are, however, less obvious factors to be considered.
A comparison of the before-and after-treatment survey results
of the department store shows a small overall climb, consequently, this
store’s survey results were relatively stable. The high treatment average,
therefore, was the result of changes in the small stores. An examination
of the smaller stores disclosed some gain in the drug store and an
exceptionally large advance in the ladies' wear shop} there is not a
known eaq>lanation for these changes.
Evaluation of Methodology
In this study, the salespeople were exposed to the treatment
for an arbitrarily determined length of time—five months. The effect
of the treatments on the salespeople’s attitude, If this time factor
is increased or decreased, could not be determined by the methodology
of this study. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the treatments can
reasonably be assumed to be a function of the length of treatment
application.

KEY:
Group
Department store
SOURCE: Profile Sheet reprinted by permission of Science Research
Associates, Inc. from REPORT OF SURVEY RESULTS ON THE SRA
EMPLOYEE INVENTORY. (Copyright 1953 by Industrial Relations
Center, University of Chicago.)
FIGURE VIII
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS
AFTER-TREATMENT IV GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORES

115

116 -
There is a possibility that treatment differences in the
salespeople's attitudes would have been more meaningful if the treat¬
ments had been applied over a longer period of time. In other words,
it is quite likely that the experiment was not sensitive enough to
detect small treatment differences beginning to appear after only
five months of application. That these differences would have been
detectable over a longer period of time even with a small experiment
is a distinct possibility. A factorial experiment could have isolated
this element.
Another factor to be considered is the necessity for including
in the experiment all of the twenty stores which contributed salespeople.
So far as the morale survey is concerned, there is really little reason
to include the very small store; they contributed relatively few
observations for the chi-square analysis and made administration of
the survey cumbersome. Furthermore, there is some doubt as to the
validity of their responses even if assurances of the confidential
handling of the data are given to the clerks.
Summary
The effect of Treatment I on the cooperating retail stores was
generally good. The after-treatment sui*vey results as compared to the
before-treatment findings indicates a probable improvement in the
salespeople's supervisor-employee relations and job demands but the
overall morale level remained constant. Possibly greater improvement
could have been shown if the salespeople had been paid for the time
which they "voluntarily” contributed to participate in the program.

- 117 «
The chi-square statistical comparison of treatments supports
the analysis of the before-and after-survey results. A highly
significant difference was found to exist between Treatment I and
the other positive programs in the area of personal relations. In other
classifications tested, no significant comparisons between Treatments I
and II plus III were noted.
The largest store in Treatment I, a department store, seems to
have benefited considerably more from the program than the very small
stores. However, whether this was due to greater interest and partici¬
pation by the management of the department store, the size of the
store, or other factors could not be fully ascertained in this study.
A strong negative response by the salespeople in Treatment II,
attributed to the fact that they felt that they should have been paid
for participation in the program, biased the survey results. But one
notable observation was indicated. The department store in the group
was affected less by this fact than the small stores.
When Treatment II was statistically conpared by chi-square analysis
to Treatment III, in the financial rewards classification, a significant
difference was noted* This was probably due to the aforementioned negative
factor. None of the other former classifications of employee attitudes
showed a significant change.
When, after Treatment III results were compared to the before
treatment findings, a possible meaningful gain in the area of status
and recognition and a decline in the friendliness and cooperation of
fellow employees was shown. Other changes noted were probably due to
extraneous factors. On the whole, morale declined slightly.

- 118 *
The department store in the group, when compared to the treat¬
ment results seemed to have gained in most categories and evidently
secured greater benefits from the program than the smaller stores in
the treatments who generally declined considerably from pre-treatment
attitude levels.
The chi-square analysis enabled Treatment Ill to be compared
with Treatment II. Since Treatment II probably declined due to a
mitigating negative factor, the comparisons were not too enlightening.
Still a significant difference in the attitude of the salespeople
toward the financial rewards of en^ploynent was shown.
Treatment IV, the control group, remained relatively constant
during the study. But chi-square analysis showed that the positive
treatments caused a highly significant change as compared to the
control group as far as inventory totals were concerned. Ihis change
was also noted in two attitude classifications.

CHAPTER VI
ANALYSIS OF THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY
The objective of this chapter is to analyze the results
of the attitude survey which was given to a systematic sample of
the customers of all the experimental stores on November 19, 1960,
before any treatments were applied, and on April 22, 1961, after
the programs to improve retail selling efficiency were completed.
The analysis of these findings is directed toward ascertaining the
effect of the various treatments on the attitude of the subject
store’s customers—not to state survey results merely for descriptive
purposes. The customer attitude survey questions are located in
Appendix c •
Those who may wish to analyze these data in order to test
hypotheses not included in this study or to secure insight into
methodology to reach other objectives, are referred to Appendix C
for a complete compilation of the raw data. This quantitative in¬
formation is subject to a multiplicity of descriptive and statistical
interpretations. However, in this study its utilization must of
necessity be confined to research objectives.
- 119 -

- 120 -
Treatocnt Analysis
In order to analyze in a meaningful manner the findings of
the customer attitude survey, the four possible answers to each
question were categorized into favorable and unfavorable replies.
An answer of one or two was considered favorable} while an answer
of three or four was considered unfavorable. The basic data were
converted in this manner into two mutually exclusive categories.
There are two reasons for this dichotomy: (1) it simplifies
the data and thereby makes then more meaningful for the ultimate
user—the retail merchant} and (2) a four-way analysis would give
th impression of mire rigorous statistical presentation than is
justified by the methodology and furthermore would add little to the
analysis.
Although the respondents were chosen systematically, there
was an element of randomness involved which gives some validity to
the use of the sample as a representative sample of the universe of
customers associated with the subject stores. It must be borne in
mind, however, that the possibility of an unknown bias in the sample
does exist. However, within the limitations of the sample, estimates
of the relative treatment effects will be made.
The total treatment results as well as the responses to the
five component questions are presented in Table 7. Only the Treatment I
total indicates a change between before and after results and this varia¬
tion, + 1 percentage point, is rather small. An examination of the four
after treatment percentages of total favorable responses also shows a

TABLE 7
PERCENTAGE CHANGE OF FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSES
TO QUESTIONS ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY
CLASSIFIED BY TREATMENT
Question
Treatments
I
II
III
IV
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
(245)
(222)
(221)
(217)
(229)
(246)
(222)
(187)
1
99%
99%
0
97%
97%
0
100%
99%
-1%
98%
97%
-1%
(218)
(217)
(216)
(213)
(229)
(243)
(203)
(186)
2
92%
98%
+6%
95%
96%
+1
93%
97%
+4%
95%
96%
+1%
(242)
(213)
(215)
(218)
(238)
(238)
(215)
(181)
3
98%
95%
-3%
94%
96%
+2
94%
95%
-1%
96%
95%
-1%
/
(230)
(213)
(214)
(212)
(235)
(237)
(200)
(180)
4
93%
95%
+2%
96%
97%
+1
95%
94%
-1%
94%
94%
0
(238)
(201)
(218)
(206)
(229)
(225)
(213)
(186)
5
96%
94%
-2%
96%
92%
-4
92%
90%
-2%
96%
97%
+1%
Total
(1173)
(1066)
(1089)
(1066)
(1160)
(1190)
(1069)
(916)
95%
96%
+1%
96%
96%
0
95%
95%
0
96%
96%
0
( ) indicates the number of favorable replies.
-121

- 122 -
minute difference. Treatments I, II, and IV disclosed 96% favorable
replies while Treatment III indicated 95% favorable responses.
The cup?r's responses to specific questions indicated only
a minimal difference between the customer’s attitudes before the
treatments were applied and after the programs were completed except
in Question 2 which reflected how the customer felt about the
merchandise knowledge of the salespeople. Responses to this question
indicated that Treatment I gained 6 percentage points to climb to a
favorable level of 98% which is the largest treatment gain noted in
the survey results. None of the other changes appears to be parti¬
cularly notable.
Two factors, nevertheless, should be considered in analyzing
the findings of the customer attitude survey:
1. The percentage of favorable customer attitudes was very
high before the treatments were applied to the stores;
therefore, it is difficult to envision the treatments
causing any significant improvement. Since sales¬
people are not machines, the presence of human foibles
makes it impossible to secure perfection; consequently,
it seems rather unrealistic to expect the favorable
feeling response to use much higher after-treatment
because it is already in the high ninety percentages.
Furthermore, as perfection is approached, the function
of human foibles seems to increase, making further
progress proportionately more difficult.

- 123 -
2. Since the feelings expressed by the customers in
tiie after-treatment attitude survey are presumably an
indirect manifestation of the programs, there must be
of necessity a time lag involved between changing the
salesperson’s selling technique and conveying this
change to the customer. Whether the five months
during which these programs were applied is sufficient
to permit this transfer is not known; but there are
possible indications of change.
One of the most interesting factors disclosed by the customer
attitude survey is the very high opinion which customers have of the
salespeople in the subject stores. Even the survey team who per¬
formed the field work for this study were concerned about this
situation. Having read articles, such as 'hhat's Wrong with Retail
Salesmanship?'7, they expected a far greater percentage of negative
responses.
It must be considered that much of the criticism concerning
retail salesmanship comes from business oriented writers who evaluate
retail salespeople from the viewpoint of the retailer—not the buyer.
Therefore, they usually judge a salesperson’s utilization of sales¬
manship by methods similar to a service shopping report rather than
by surveying the attitude of the customer toward the existing level
of personal selling.
For example, consumers and retailers may be jointly Interested
in having the salespeople (1) know the facts about the merchandise which

- 124 -
they sell, and (2) display interest in helping Hie customer find
merchandise which fills her needs. Nevertheless, while the retailers
might decry the fact that salespeople do not suggest additional items
for a customer to buy, this might be of complete indifference to the
customer. On the other hand, the consumer may prefer to shop without
the assistance of a salesperson; therefore, the mere presence of a
salesperson provided by the retailer may be an annoyance.
A clerk, therefore, may be a poor salesman from a management
point of view because the clerk does not sell merchandise, but from
the customer’s point of reference this may be very desirable; the
customer may not want a clerk who is capable of persuading her to
buy goods. To certain customers, the only function of a salesperson
may be to perform the mechanics of completing the sale.
Another factor which must be considered is the standared
of performance expected by the respondents in this study. Possibly
the expansion of self-service and a self-service attitude among many
merchants has lowered the levéLof performance which the customer
expects from salespeople. As a consequence the same level of per¬
formance which the consumer favorably accepts today might have been
rather undesirable twenty years ago.'*'
â– Stfhile these areas of investigation are notable, they are not
within the scope of this study. However, they do appear to be worthy
of inquiry. There is a possibility that while sellers and buyers do have
a realm of mutually desirable performance which they expect from sales¬
people, they may also have an area of divergent interest.

- 125
One of the subordinate hypotheses, germane to the testing
of the experimental treatments, was to determine if a cus toner’s
attitudes toward a store were associated with the customer’s fre¬
quency of patronage. To secure data pertaining to this hypothesis
the customers were requested to classify thernelves as regular,
occasional or seldom patrons of a store before they were asked to
express their feelings about the store. This was the only cross
classification in the survey.
In order to present the cross classification data in a mean¬
ingful manner, the customers' feelings about the stores were weighted
and scored. If an answer of one, or the best possible feeling, was
given on any question, it was scored as four; a second-best feeling
was scored as three; third was scored as two; and fourth was scored
as one. Therefore, since there were five attitude questions in the
survey, the highest possible score which any respondent could secure
was twenty; the lowest was five.
T individual scores, averaged by treatment and cross-
classified by frequency of purchase,are shown in Figure IX. Ac¬
cording to the data in this figure, the scores of the regular cus¬
tomers are higher than the occasional customers which are in turn
greater than the seldom customers in all the treatments except
Treatment IV. Since the association of customer attitudes and
frequency of patronage are being investigated to determine their

FIGURE 9
AVERAGE SCORES ON THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY

Treatment I 19.1
\\\\\\\\\\\\\
Occasiona L
Seldom
Treatment II 18.6
18 Regu ^
Occaaianal
12.« lSeUo“
Treatment in 18.9
..¿mmrnuuwi—
IS.3p ^-S'~ MPMP PJBflOccasior al
18.0 • I Seldom
Treatment IV 18,4
18 .0 â– â– â– â– â– jlBa^HBHHLoccasional
18.6 Selc ““
18.6
15
0
18
17
16
Regular
to
O
to
127

- 128 -
relationship, not to ascertain the effect of the treatments on this
relationship, only before treatment survey results are presented.
Upon examination of this association of customer attitudes
and regularity of patronage it is reasonable to conclude that a
favorable impression of a store’s salespeople is one of the factors
that influences many regular customers to shop regularly in a store.
To further extend this assumption, it is possible that one of the
factors which affect most customer?frequency of purchase is their
feeling about a store’s salespeople. Also these observations and
assumptions can be further analyzed.
If the customer's attitude about a store’s salespeople does
contribute to determining the customer's frequency of purchase in a
store, then by inproving the level of retail selling performance
it is possible to improve the customer's feeling about the sales¬
people and, consequently, to increase the store's sales by increasing
the customer's frequency of patronage. This does not assume that
the customer's feelings about the store's salespeople is a completely
causal factor; but it does seem reasonable to assume that the
association of frequency of patronage and customer attitudes does
indicate that the actions of the salespeople, manifested in customer
attitudes, does have a partially causal effect upon the patronage of
customers, along with other variable such as store location, type of
merchandise and price.
To examine this contention further, the percentage of customers
in each cross classification before the treatments were applied and after

- 129
tiie programs were completed, as well as the percentage change, is
shewn in Table 8. This comparison fails to indicate any really
notable changes in the percentage of regular customers in any
treatment but certain tendencies are shown. Perhaps if the treat¬
ments were continued over a longer period with a more representative
sample, the 8 percentage point gain of Treatment I and the 12
percentage point loss of Treatment II would show a different
variation.
Analysis of individual stores
¿V.
While the methodology of this study is designed for treatment
analysis, some insight can be secured as to the effect of the treat¬
ments on the attitudes of the customers in individual stores. This
understanding, however, is limited because of the reduced sanple
size which is applicable to specific stores. Instead of the
utilization of a sanple of approximately 225, as in the case of the
treatments, a sanple of only about 50 applies to each store.
An examination of the before-and after-treatment survey results
in Tables 37 to 44, in Appendix C, shows two rather large positive
changes in Question 2 which reflect the salespeople’s merchandise
knowledge; the men’s store in Treatment I gained 16 percentage points
and the appliance store in Treatment II advanced 20 percentage points.
Also, the drug stores in Treatment I declined 12 percentage points on
Question 3, the friendliness of the salespeople, while the men’s store
in the same treatment gained 10 percentage points in Question 4, which
reflected the salespeople's interest in helping the customer find the

TABLE 8
THE PERCENTAGE CHANGE, CLASSIFIED BY TREATMENT, IN THE
CUSTOMERS FREQUENCY OF PURCHASE AFTER FIVE MONTHS OF TREATMENT APPLICATIONS
Type of
treatment
Frequency of purchase
Regular
Occasional
Seldom
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
(79)
(91)
(89)
(71)
(80)
(64)
I
32
40
+8
36
31
-5
32
29
-3
(98)
f "r '
v 4 'J
(79)
(97)
(51)
(59)
II
43
31
-12
51
59
+8
22
26
+4
(99)
(106)
(99)
(96)
(51)
(49)
III
40
42
+2
40
38
-2
20
20
0
(33)
(65)
(84)
(69)
(59)
(58)
IV
37
34
-3
37
36
-1
26
30
+4
( ) indicates the number of responses.
130

131 -
right merchandise. None of the other differences were particularly
notable.
An examination of Table 9 indicates some changes in the
frequency of purchase of the experimental stores’ customers of
which are worthy of mention. The appliance store in Treatment II
declined 32 percentage points and the men’s store in Treatment IV
also declined 24 percentage points. On the other hand, the appliance
store in Treatment IV gained 29 percentage points while the men's
store in Treatment I climbed 24 percentage points. None of the other
changes in regular customers varied more than 14 percentage points.
Evaluation of Methodology
Since there appears to be an association between customer
attitudes and frequency of store patronage, it is reasonable to assume
that the people who feel most negatively about a store do not patronize
the store; consequently, these people are omitted from the survey
population. Their feelings, therefore, are not included in the find¬
ings. This may be a possible cause of the highly favorable responses
to the question in the customer attitude survey.
In future surveys, if descriptive information is desired, it
is suggested that the methodology should take this factor into con¬
sideration and broaden the sanple population. Nevertheless, if only
experimental statistical differences are desired, this factor is not
too Important since the primary consideration under this circumstance
is changes between treatments. In either case, a good randomized
sample design is necessary.

TABLE 9
PERCENTAGE CHANGE, CLASSIFIED BY STORE, IN THE
CUSTOMERS FREQUENCY OF PURCHASE AFTER FIVE MONTHS OF TREATMENT APPLICATION
Type of Frequency of purchase
store and
Regular
Occasional
Seldom
treatment
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
(17)
(19)
(23)
(20)
(10)
(11)
DpTI
34
38
+4
46
40
-6
20
22
+2
(12)
(n)
(15)
(10)
(23)
(10)
LTI
24
36
+12
30
32
+2
46
32
-14
(10)
(22)
(18)
(15)
(17)
(11)
MTI
22
46
+24
40
31
-9
38
23
-15
(23)
(21)
(9)
(15)
(18)
(ii)
ATI
46
45
-1
18
32
+14
36
23
-13
(17)
(18)
(24)
(11)
(12)
(21)
DTI
32
36
+4
45
22
-23
23
42
+19
(79)
(91)
(89)
(71)
â–º
(80)
(64)
>tal Tx
32
40
+8
36
31
-5
32
29
-3
( ) indicates the number of responses
132

TABLE 9 — Continued
T/pe of Frequency of purchase
store and
Regular
Occasional
Seldom
treatment
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
(22)
(23)
(13)
(15)
(7)
(12)
Dp Til
52
46
-6
31
30
-1
17
24
+7
(13)
(6)
(23)
(19)
(14)
(13)
LTTI
26
16
-10
46
50
+4
28
34
+6
(17)
(10)
(12)
(11)
(7)
(17)
MTII
47
26
-21
33
29
-4
20
45
+25
(23)
(7)
(15)
(35)
(12)
(8)
ATI I
46
14
-32
30
70
+40
24
16
-8
(23)
(24)
(16)
(17)
(11)
(9)
DTI I
46
48
+2
32
34
+2
22
18
-4
(98)
(70)
(79)
(97)
(51)
(59)
Total T2
43
31
-12
51
59
+8
22
26
+4
133

TABLE 9 — Continued
Type of
store and
treatment
Frequency of purchase
Regular
Occasional
Seldom
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
(23)
(26)
(19)
(20)
(4)
(4)
DpTIII
53
52
-1
39
40
+1
8
8
0
(16)
(17)
(26)
(23)
(8)
(10)
LTIII
32
34
+2
52
46
-6
16
20
+4
(8)
(14)
(20)
(17)
(22)
(19)
MTIII
16
28
+12
40
34
-6
44
38
-6
(16)
(23)
(25)
(17)
(9)
(ID
ATIII
32
45
+13
50
33
-17
18
22
+4
(33)
(26)
(9)
(19)
(8)
(5)
DTIII
66
52
-14
18
38
+20
16
10
-6
(99)
(106)
(99)
(96)
(51)
(49)
Total T
3
40
42
+2
40
38
-2
2C
20
0
134

TABLE 9 — Continued
Type of Frequency of purchase
store and
Regular
Occasional
Seldom
treatment
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
(23)
(23)
(15)
(20)
(8)
(6)
DpTIV
47
47
0
37
41
+4
16
12
-4
(10)
(IS)
(19)
(17)
(15)
(18)
LTIV
32
30
-2
38
34
-4
30
36
+6
(21)
(4)
(20)
(11)
(9)
(7)
MTIV
42
18
-24
40
50
+10
18
32
+14
(1)
(7)
(8)
(7)
(18)
(7)
ATIV
4
33
+29
30
33
+3
66
33
-33
(22)
(16)
(19)
(14)
(9)
(20)
DTIV
44
32
-12
38
28
-10
18
40
+22
(83)
(65)
(84)
(69)
(59)
(58)
Total T.
37
34
-3
37
36
-1
26
30
+4
133

- 136 -
Big optimum randomised design, assuming sufficient funds were
available, would be an adaptation of area sampling to a time base
with a large enough sample to insure 95% reliability in estimating
parameters. The randomized selection of interview hours, from the
stores’ business hours, and a systematized selection of customers
during these hours would assure randomness. Data gained in this
maimer would enable the before and after survey results to be submitted
to standard "ttestsTto determine significant changes. Limitations of
the sampling procedure in this study precluded these *'t tcst':
examinations.
Summary
Results of the customer attitude survey indicated a certain
degree of association between the customer’s frequency of purchase and
how the customer felt about the stare’s salespeople and service. There
seems to have been positive relationship: the greater the frequency
of patronage, the more favorable the customers felt. An observation
of frequency of patronage and customer attitudes in the four treatments
i * ' 1
disclosed that this association was present in three of the four
groups.
Since it was reasonable to assume that the salesperson's
actions had a partially causative effect upon a customer's frequency
of purchase in a given store, the possible effect of the experimental
treatments upon patronage was examined* The only notable changes were
an 8 percentage point gain in regular customers of Treatment I and a

- 137 -
12 percentage point decrease in the regular patrons of the stores in
Treatment II. The other treatments had only nominal variation.
An analysis of treatment effect on individual areas of the
salesperson's behavior as well, as on the overall total, disclosed
only on finding particularly worthy of mention. On Question 2, con¬
cerning the merchandise knowledge of the salespeople, the percentage
of favorable replies in Treatment I gained 6 percentage points over
the before-treatment survey; other changes were slight. Treatment
totals in percentage of favorable responses varied only 1 percentage
point in Treatment I; all of the other treatment totals were constant.
The individual stores in the study were also examined for
before-and after-treatment changes. Several notable differences were
indicated in customer attitudes and frequency of purchase. They
indicated no general trends.
The results of the consumer attitude survey are of necessity
only indicators of possible treatment effect. The significance of
these findings can be fully evaluated only when considered in relation
to other findings presented in subsequent chapters. In the following
chapter, results of a survey to determine the effect of the treatments
on the selling techniques of the salespeople in the experimental
stores are analyzed.

CHAPTER VII
ANALYSIS OF SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS
In order to secure an objective evaluation of the selling
techniques used by the salespeople included in the experiment, the
clerks were observed by professional service shoppers. These
quantitative observations were the basis for subjective and
statistical analyses used to attain the objectives of this chapter.
The comprehensive original data are presented in Appendix 0.
The purpose of this chapter is to determine the overall ef¬
fect of the treatments on the selling techniques of the salespeople
in the experimental groups. In addition, the reactions of the sales¬
people in five specific selling areas, relevant to selling efficiency,
are also examined. Besides this treatment analysis, the data ob¬
tained from certain individual stores are also Investigated.
Each of the department stores is compared to the overall treat-
¡
raent performance of which it is a part. In this manner, the relative
influence of the department store can be isolated and examined. Since
the department stores are unique in size and managerial attitude, this
analysis illuminates another facet of treatment effect.
In the next section the total effect of the programs to increase
selling efficiency is analyzed. After this topic is covered, the effect
138

- 139
of the treatment on five specific selling techniques is examined.
Finally, in the last analytical section, the department store find¬
ings are investigated.
Treatment Analysis
In order to determine the effect of Ihe treatments on the sell¬
ing techniques of the salespeople in the experimental stores, two types
of analysis are used: (1) the before-treatment service shopping report
scores are subjectively compared with the after-treatment scores, and
(2) the after-treatment scares are statistically analyzed by hierarchical
classifications to test for significant differences between treatments
and the effect which the type of retail store has upon the performance
t
of the clerk.
The before-and after-treatment service shopping report scores
for each experimental program as well as the difference between the scores,
are presented in Table 10. These statistics are an average of the
individual clerk’s service shopping report scores in each treatment. The
number of salespeople those scores are averaged is shown in parentheses.
The 30.6 gain in Treatment I is particularly noteworthy. Since
Treatment I is basically a combination of sales training and service
shopping or the programs of Treatments II and III, the fact that the
summation of the gains of Treatments II and III, 32.4, approximates
the increase of Treatment 1, appears reasonable. Also, it seems to
indicate that the effect of the positive programs are additive so far
as changes in the selling techniques of the salespeople are concerned.
However, these findings are further analyzed by statistical methodology.

* 140 «*
TABLE 10
COMPARISON OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORT MEAN SCORES
BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT (IN PERCENTAGES)
Sales personnel observed
Treatment Before-treatment After-treatment
Number
Score
Number
Score
Change in
score
I
22
52.1
24
82.7
+ 30.6
II
19
71.8
19
83.7
+ 11.9
III
36
46.4
33
66.9
+ 20.5
IV
25
64.8
26
68.3
+ 3.5
To objectively ascertain the effectiveness of the treatments
upon the selling skills of the salespeople, the hypothesis that the
treatment results are equal istested. Orthogonal comparisons bet¬
ween the various treatments are also computed to yield more incisive
analytical findings. In Table 11 the results of the analysis of experi¬
mental variance is presented.1
It is indicated, at a 95% level of confidence, that the experi¬
mental programs did have a significant effect in the total treatment
^or a complete description of the subsampling methodology
utilized see, George W. Snedecor, Statistical Methods (Ames, Iowa:
Iowa State College Press, 1956), p. 264.

141 -
scores of the service shopping reports to differ; consequently, the
hypothesis that all treatment results are equal is rejected. Further¬
more, it can be stated, with the same level of confidence, that the
difference between Treatment I and Treatment II plus III, 7.4%, and
between Treatments II and III, 16.8%, is due to the effect of the
treatments. On the other hand, the differences between the control
group and the positive programs are not statistically significant.
TABLE 11
ANALYSIS OF THE VARIANCE IN SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORT TOTAL SCORES
Source of v ariation
Degrees of freedom
Sum of squares
Mean squares
Treatment
S
(5516.11)
(1838.70)
IV vs I + II + III
1
1035.59
1035.59
I vs II + III
1
1848.26
1848.26*
II vs III
1
2632.26
2632.26*
Stores within treatment
16
6537.60
408.60
Clerks within stores
82
40268.97
491.09
Total
101
52322.68
From this analysis it is also evident that the type of retail
store in which the salespeople worked did not have a statistically
significant effect on the clerk’s service shopping report scores.
Within a treatment, the difference between results in the various
stores is minimal. In fact, because the difference between stores
is so small, there is little .justification for dispersing the treat¬
ments over various types of retail establishments.

- 142 -
Analysis of Selected Selling Techniques
The five selected selling techniques, analyzed in the following
sections, were specifically chosen because they had been emphasized
during the sales training session of Treatments I and II. While some
areas of retail selling received only cursory coverage, these topics
were given comprehensive examination due to their presumed direct effect
on sales volume and the availability of precise selling techniques
which could be taught during the training session and applied by the
salespeople. In other areas, such as the attitude of the salespeople
while assisting the customer to buy, no exact instruction on "how to
do it” could have been given. In Treatment III, however, there was
no knowledge of the topics covered by the individual managers or the
intensity of the instruction given.
Objectively, the results of the before-and after-treatments
service shopping reports for each selected selling technique are
examined and changes noted. These changes are evaluated in relation
to any known environmental effect which may have influenced the sales¬
people’s response, to the treatment. After this objective background
is presented, the interrelation of the after-treatment results are
statistically determined by chi-square methodology.
The chi-square statistical procedure yields an objective
analysis of the effectiveness of the various treatments. In this
way it is possible to determine the probability that the shopping re¬
port results, in the five selling technique areas under consideration,

- 143 -
are due to the treatments. In each instance the null hypothesis that
there is no difference between treatment results is tested and con¬
clusions are drawn.
Appropriateness of the approach
If a customer is approached correctly by a salesperson, the
customer will usually permit the salesperson to continue the selling
process. An incorrect approach, on the other hand, may cause many
customers to block further personal contact with the salesperson and
thereby reduce the clerk’s opportunity to sell merchandise. Results
of the use of a proper approach are shown in TabLe 12.
TABLE 12
COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE SHOPPING
REPORTS, TO TOE APPROPRIATENESS OF THE SALESPERSON'S APPROACH
(IN PERCENTAGES)
Sales personnel observed
Treatment Before-treatment After-treatment
Percentage
Percentage
Percentage
point
Number favorable
Number favorable
change
I
19
42
24
83
+ 41
II
17
65
19
74
+ 9
III
20
42
29
61
+ 24
IV
23
48
26
58
+ 10

- 144
From these findings it is notable that Treatment 1 showed a
i
marked increase of 41 percentage points in this area of retail sales¬
manship , as compared to only moderate gains by the other treatments
and the control group. At the same time, Treatment III indicated a
14 percentage point greater gain than the control group and a 15
percentage point larger advance than Treatment II. There were no
mitigating factors reported by the store managers or observed during
the study to qualify these gains except the apparent zeal which the
manager of the Treatment I department store showed in encouraging his
salespeople to utilize a better approach; but he exhibited this
characteristic toward all aspects of the program.
In order to analyze the relative effectiveness of the treat¬
ments upon the approach of the salespeople in the subject stores, the
after-treatment results are analyzed by chi-square methodology. The
hypothesis that the after-treatment results of all treatments are
equal is tested. Findings are presented in Table IS.
TABLE 13
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER TREATMENT RESULTS OF THE SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF THE CORRECT SALES APPROACH
Comparison
Degrees of freedom
Chi-square
IV vs 1 + II + III
1
2.28
.10 I vs II + III
1
1.60
.104P<.25
II vs III
1
0.36
•SO ¿P <.75
Total
3
i
4.24
.25 4P 4.50

- 145 -
As a result of this analysis, it can be concluded that there
is not a significant difference between treatment totals; therefore,
the hypothesis cannot be rejected. Furthermore, there appears to be
no significant difference between Treatments II and III. For the
other two comparisons, however, it is evident with a 75% to 90% level
of confidence that the differences are a result of the study program.
Overcoming objections
The ability of the salespeople to use standard techniques which
are capable of overcoming the customer’s objections to buying is the
next selling area examined. Results in this essential area of retail
salesmanship are shown in Table 14.
TABLE 14
COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS
ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPERSON TO COMPLETELY OVERCOME OBJECTIONS
(IN PERCENTAGES)
Sales personnel observed
Treatment Before-treatment After-treatment
Percentage
Percentage
Percentage
point
Number favorable
Number favorable
change
I
17
16
21
67
+ 51
II
14
50
17
74
+ 24
III
23
30
26
66
+ 36
IV
18
45
24
25
- 20
These findings indicates a substantial gain by Treatments I, II
and III as compared to the control group. During the time that Treatment I

- 146 -
advanced 51 percentage points, Treatment III gained 36 percentage
points—a 12 percentage point increase over the Treatment II change.
No factors are know, however, which can account for the 20 percentage
point drop of the control group in this selling technique.
The hypothesis that all the after-treatment results are equal
is tested by chi-square analysis. Results are shown In Table 15.
TABLE 15
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF THE SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE TO COMPLETELY
OVERCOME
OBJECTIONS
Comparison
Degrees of freedom
Chi-square
Significance
IVvsI + II +
II 1
14.93
P
.005
I vs II + III
1
.08
75
P
90
II vs III
1
.24
50
P
75
Total
3
15.25
P
.005
From this analysis, it can be concluded with greater than 99%
level of confidence that the difference between the after-treatment
scores is not due to chance. As a result, the hypothesis that there
is no difference between after-treatment scores, is rejected. Also
it can be stated with the same degree of confidence that the positive
treatments did cause a significant positive change in the salesperson’s
ability to overcome objectives as compared to the control group. Other
comparisons, however, fail to show any significant evidence of treat¬
ment causation.

- 147 -
Trading up
The ability of the salespeople to trade the customer up to
better quality, additional, or larger units of the merchandise in
which she has shown an interest is one generally accepted method of
increasing the dollar value of the average sale. In Table 16 the
utilization of this technique by the salespeople in the various
treatments is shown.
TABLE 16
COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON
THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE TO TRADE UP CUSTOMERS
(IN PERCENTAGES)
Sales personnel observed
Treatment Before-treatment After-treatment
Percentage
Percentage
Percentage
point
Number favorable
Number favorable
change
I
17
18
23
57
+ 39
II
14
55
15
53
- 2
III
26
15
27
48
+ 33
IV
18
38
24
33
0
From these findings, it is notable that both Treatments I and
III made substantial gains while Treatment II and the control group,
Treatment IV, remained relatively constant. Even though Treatment I

- 148 -
and II received the same sales training, the salespeople in Treatment I,
possibly because of the small monetary incentive or the use of service
shopping reports as part of the program, responded more favorably to the
instruction. Hiere is no evidence of atypical action by the store
managers which could have affected these data.
Hie results of Treatment III can be compared to the findings
of an organization which commercially offers a similar program—Will-
mark, Inc. In 1957, the last year Willmark released a percentage break¬
down of its shopping reports, the firm disclosed that 53% of the sales¬
people in stores which subscribed to its service utilized trading up
2
selling techniques. It is notable that the stores in Treatment III
climbed from 15% to within 5% of the Willmark average after being exposed
to only three shopping reports within a five-month period. Treatment I
showed an even better improvement by climbing from 18% to 57%.
Hie Willmark shopping form and training manuals were compared
to the shopping procedures used in this study to ascertain if the Will-
mark findings were comparable to experimental statistics. Hiis investi¬
gation disclosed that the Willmark data were not analogous in all five
selling areas analyzed in this research but that they were comparable
in the selling techniques of trading up, suggestion selling, and closing.
Therefore, in these three areas, experimental findings are compared to
Willmark's national figures.
o
"What's Happened to Salesmanship," Personnel Service (New York:
National Retail Merchants Association, March-April, 1958), p. 54.

- 149 -
A chi-square analysis of the after-treatment results Is pre¬
sented in Table 17 for comparative statistical insight. The usual
hypothesis is tested.
i ,
TABLE 17
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF TOE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF TOE
SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON TRADING UP
Comparison Degrees of freedom
Chi-square
Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
2.87
.10 I vs II + III
1
.08
.75 II vs III
1
.12
.50 Total
S
2.57
,25

i
Since the probability that the treatments caused the differences
among study groups is only slightly greater than one out of two, the
hypothesis cannot be rejected. The comparison of the control group
mean, 83%, with the pooled means of the positive treatments, indicates
a 75% to 90% level of confidence that the difference is due to the
treatments. Therefore, it can be concluded with reasonable confidence
that the positive treatments are mo re effective in increasing the
salespeople’s ability to trade up than no treatment. In the other two
comparisons, the results cannot rationally be attributed to the treat¬
ments because the probability that comparative differences are due to
the experimental program is very small.

- 150 -
Suggestion selling
The application of techniques to induce customers to purchase
specials, related or new items, and necessities after they have al¬
ready selected other merchandise, is the next area of retail sales¬
manship under consideration. Results of the shopping reports, in¬
dicating tiie utilization of suggestions selling, are presented in
Table 18.
TABLE 18
COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT
SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS ON SUGGESTION SELLING
(IN PERCENTAGES)
Sales personnel observed
Treatment Before-treatment After-treatment
Percentage
Percentage
Percentage
point
Number favorable
Number favorable
change
I
18
22
24
67
+ 45
II
13
46
19
47
+ 1
III
22
32
26
65
+ 33
IV
17
47
25
40
- 7
Again, in the examination of suggestion selling it is evident
that Treatments I and III substantially gained while Treatment II and

151 -
the control group remained relatively constant. Except in the over¬
coming of objections this has been the general pattern in each of the
four specific selling techniques analyzed. It is possible that a
negative morale response is again reflected in the relatively poor
display of selling techniques by the salespeople in Treatment II.
When the service shopping report findings on the utilization
of suggestion selling techniques are compared to the 1957 Willmark
results, a meaningful difference is observed.8 Willmark reports 25%
of the salespeople which it shopped applied techniques of suggestion
selling as compared to the 65% reported for Treatment III in this study.
In fact, only the before score of Treatment I of all the before and
after data is below the Willmark average. Evidently, for reasons un¬
known, the stores in this study, with or without study programs, are
above the Willmark mean.
The hypothesis of no difference between the treatment scores is
tested. Orthogonal comparisons, standard in this study, are also
examined for statistically significant differences. Results of this
inquiry are presented in Table 19.
Although the confidence level is more than 75% but less than
90% that the experimental prograne caused a difference in the treatment
means—it is still less than the usual research standards of 95% con¬
fidence; therefore, the hypothesis cannot be rejected. There are at
least nine chances out of ten, however, that the positive programs did
3Ibid.

'
- 152 -
cause a difference between their pooled means and the control group.
On tiie other hand, the difference between Treatments II, 47%, and
III, 56%, has three chances out of four of being due to the treat¬
ments while Treatment I when compared to Treatments II and III has
a probability slightly greater than one out of two of being caused
by the experimental programs.
TABLE 19
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF THE SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON THE UTILIZATION OF SUGGESTION SELLING TECHNIQUES
Comparison Degrees of freed can
Chi-square
Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
5.24
.05

I vs II + III
1
.53
.25 II vs III
1
1.46
.104P<.25
Total
3
7.23
.10^ P^ ,25
Closing the sale
If the salesperson attempted by the use of recommended closing
techniques to induce a decision from the shopper to immediately purchase
tiie displayed merchandise, the clerk was credited with the favorable
application of a closing technique. For instructional purposes the
type of close was noted in the shopping form but this datum was not
relevant to this analysis. In Table 20 the results of the shoppers’
observation of closing skills are presented.

• 153 -
TABLE 20
COMPARISON OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT SERVICE SHOPPING
REPORTS, ON THE UTILIZATION OF CLOSING TECHNIQUES
(IN PERCENTAGES)
Treatment
Sales personnel observed
Before-treatment After-treatment
Percentage
Percentage Percentage point
Number favorable Number favorable change
I
18
22
24
92
+ 70
II
14
43
19
79
+ 36
III
23
43
27
67
+ 25
IV
19
58
24
75
+ 17
Hie large gain of Treatment I is particularly noteworthy as
compared to the other positive increases. Since the control group
climbed 17 percentage points in this selling technique, the increases
of Treatments II and III are not so positive an indicator of improve¬
ment as they would have been if the control group had remained relatively
constant. But the slightly greater gain of Treatment II as compared to
Treatment III does tend to reverse a trend previously noted. No unusual
actions by the store managers appear to have affected these findings.
Willmark reported 82% of the salespeople in stores which sub¬
scribed to its service in 1957 utilized an acceptable closing technique.4
4Ibid.

• 154 —
Only one experimental group. Treatment I, surpassed tills standard
with 92% of the clerks attempting to close after receiving a sales
training program. Treatment 117, which was subject to a service similar
to Willmark, was 15% below the Willmark findings.
A comparative analysis of treatment results is completed by
chi-square methodology to determine the relative significance of the
different treatments on the closing ability of the salespeople. Results
of tills analysis are shown in Table 21.
TABLE 21
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT RESULTS OF THE SERVICE
SHOPPING REPORTS ON CLOSING ABILITY
Comparison Degree of freedom
Oii-square
Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
.12
.50 I vs II + III
1
3.63
.0S< P< .10
II vs III
1
.98
.25 Total
3
4 */2
.05 Even though it can be concluded with a 90% level of confidence
that differences among the treatment results are due to experimental
programs, the probability is still below usual research standards and
as a consequence the hypothesis cannot be rejected. The comparison
of Treatment I with the other two positive programs shows an identical
confidence level, but only a slightly better than one out of two
probability exists that the positive programs as compared to the con¬
trol group have a difference due to the effect of the treatments.

- 15S -
While the effect of the treatments on all five stores in
each group was analyzed in this section, no attention was given to the
influence of the program on any of the individual stores. This area,
therefore, is examined in the next portion of the analysis. Especially
investigated is the response of the department store salespeople to
the experimental programs.
Effect of the Treatments on the Department Stores
' ' imm - â– ,
Since the department stores contributed b.L~:aen 50% to 50%
of the service shopping observations in each treatment, it seems
advisable that this type of retail store should be specifically
examined. Besides the obvious influence which the department stores
exerted on the statistical analysis of treatment totals because of
their disproportionate size, there were two other reasons, germane to
study objective, to warrant this investigation.
First, the department stores presented a homogeneous and
unique managerial outlook. The managers in these stores evidently
realized the need for the type of research undertaken in this study;
consequently, they were most active in giving moral and supervisory
support to the application of the treatments. This, unfortunately,
was not true for most of the other stores in the programs; therefore,
by analyzing the department stores the effect of managerial attitudes
on treatment findings can also be examined.
Second, as a result of having more clerks, the service
shopping reports on a store basis were more reliable for the depart¬
ment stores than for ary other type of retailer in the study. While

- 156 -
the percentage results of a store with two clerks could fluctuate
drastically because of one atypical report, a department store with
a total of perhaps fourteen service shopping observations would be
more stable.
In order to isolate the effect of the department stores and to
compare these results with the very small retail stores in this study,
the treatment results, of which the department stores are a part, and
the separate department store findings are presented in Table 22. By
comparing the department stores with the treatment findings, it can be
ascertained whether the department store results are above or below
the treatment total. If, for example, the treatment total is 83%
and the department store score is 88%, it is evident that the smaller
stores findings are below the treatment total and the department store
results above it. As a consequency of this type of insight, the con¬
tribution of the four small stores in each treatment can be compared
to the department store.
From an examination of the data in Table 22 it is evident
that the department stores generally secured greater increases from the
positive experimental programs that the smaller specialty stores. This
was especially noticeable in Treatments I and II, where the department
stores registered greater gains than the treatments, not only in total
scores but in four out of the five selling technique classifications
as well. On the other hand, the department store in Treatment III
also showed larger total score advance than the treatment but it gained
in only three of the five selling characteristics. It seems noteworthy
that the results of the control group which was not subjected to a

157
TABUS 22
PERCENTAGE OF FAVGRABUS OBSERVATIONS ON THE SERVICE SHOPPING
REPORTS CLASSIFIED BY GROUP AND DEPARTMENT STORE
Time of report
Treatment
and change
I
II
III
IV
Group
« *
Store
Group
Store
Group
Store
Group
Store
Total
Before
52
44
72
67
46
35
65
73
After
83
88
84
81
67
59
68
67
Change
+31
+44
+12
+14
+21
+24
+3
«•6
Approach
Before
42
56
65
38
42
47
78
35
After
83
100
74
67
66
56
58
65
Change
+41
+44
+9
+29
+24
+9
+10
+30
Objection
Before
16
13
50
33
30
21
45
54
After
67
83
74
66
66
71
25
24
Change
+51
+70
24
+33
+36
+50
-20
-20
Trading up
Before
18
0
55
17
15
6
33
31
After
57
69
53
56
48
57
33
29
Change
+39
+69
-2
+39
+33
+51
0
-2
Suggestion
selling
Before
22
25
46
66
32
13
47
50
After
67
77
47
56
65
59
40
47
Chrnge
+45
+52
+1
—10
+33
+46
-7
—3
Close
Before
22
25
43
33
43
36
58
64
After
92
92
97
78
67
59
75
83
Change
+70
+67
+36
+45
+25
+23
+17
+19

- 158 -
program to increase selling efficiency did not follow the pattern of
the positive programs but remained relatively constant.
Since all of the stores in each treatment received the same
experimental program, the more favorable reaction of the department
store group probably was due to one or both of the following non¬
program factors: (1) more active and wholehearted support of the
programs by the department store supervisors, and (2) the programs
were more appropriate for a department store operation than for the
other type of stores in the study. Factors were observed during
the program which supports both of these explanations.
The department store managers appear to have been more aware
of the need to increase selling efficiency. As a consequence, the
salespeople were informed that they were expected to apply the selling
principles taught in the programs. Furthermore, at the supervisory
level, especially in the Treatment I department store, the manager
reminded and encouraged the salespeople to use the selling techniques
espoused at the training session. Undoubtedly, this positive attitude,
as compared to the indifferent feeling of many of the smaller store
managers, did have a salutary influence.
The contention that the program was not as applicable to all
types of stores seems to have less validity. While, in theory, the
topics covered during the program were equally useful in any type of
retail selling, in practice this was not necessarily the case. While
the clerks in the department stores were expected to persuade the
customers to purchase goods, the drug stores owners, for example,
actually only expected the salespeople to close the sale. Hie drug

- 159 -
store managers would have appreciated it if their salespeople did sell
merchandise but their entire operation was physically so close to
self-service that actually there was little need for many complete sales
presentations which were standard in the department stores. On the
other hand, the appliance salesmen in some instances were on a more
sophisticated level of selling and much of the subject matter might have
been too basic for their operation.
In Table 23 is presented the level of confidence obtained from
the results of the chi-square analysis of the treatments, shown previously
in this chapter, and that of the department stores, presented in Appendix
D, Tables 49-53, for each of the five selling techniques. A comparison
of the level of confidence for the various comparative differences is
also shown. From this comparison, the relative effectiveness of the
treatments upon the department and smaller stores can be ascertained.
While the comparison of treatment and department store confidence
levels generally does not show an overall trend, the orthogonal compari¬
son, Treatment I versus II plus III, is rather revealing. In this com¬
parison, the difference between the consistently more favorable
observation of Treatment I and the lower scores of Treatments II plus
III are tested to determine the probability that the differences are
due to the treatments. In all of the five selling categories, the
confidence level of the department stores group comparisons is con¬
sistently equal to or above the treatment comparisons.
While it can be theorized that more active supervisory partici¬
pation and more appropriate experimental programs caused generally

160
TABLE 23
SUMMARY OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CHI-SQUARE COMPARISONS FOR FIVE
SELECTED SELLING ATTRIBUTES CLASSIFIED BY TREATMENT AND DEPARTMENT STORE
Selling attribute Level of confidence that comparative differences
and classification are due to the treatment effect
IV VG I +
II + III
I vs II + III
II VS III
Total
Approach
%
%
Group
75% -
90%
75%
«
90%
25%
- 50%
50% - 75%
Department
50 -
75
98
4»
99
75
- 90
98 - 99
Objection
Group
99
10
•m
25
25
- 50
99
Department
99
50
m
75
10
- 25
99
Trading up
Group
75 -
90
10
«*
25
25
- 50
50 - 75
Department
10 -
25
50
4ft
75
25
- 50
25 - 50
Suggestions
Group
90 -
95
50
«1»
75
75
- 90
75 - 90
Department
75 -
90
75
•
90
10
- 25
SO - 75
Close
Group
25 -
50
90
-
95
50
- 75
90 - 95
Department
25 -
50
90
-
95
50
- 75
75 - 90

— 161 “
better department store findings than smaller store results, this
does not account for the higher confidence levels in the Treatment I
versus Treatment II plus Treatment III department store comparisons.
If these factors raised all department stores proportionately, the
differences between the department store orthogonal comparisons
would be the same; therefore, the confidence levels would not have
changed. But since the confidence levels did increase in some
selling techniques, it indicates that while the department stores
generally show absolute results greater than the small stores, the
increase is not proportionate; therefore, the comparative differences
also increased in some instances. As a consequence, the confidence
level ir^r^ased in these certain areas.
From the analysis, it is evident that since DpTI results are
not only gained absolutely but also proportionately more than DpTII
or DpTIII findings—in these areas—comparative differences are also
greater. Therefore, it can be concluded that the two variables,
supervisory participation and the appropriateness of e3q>erimental
programs, probably reacted more favorably with DpTI than either DpTII
or DpTIII.
Evaluation of Methodology
Since the differences among the five types of stores which
received each treatment was of little analytical importance, the
randomizing of each treatment among the various types of mercantile
establishments was unnecessary. Results of equal import could have

- 162 -
been obtained without this factor at less expense and with more
expediency. Also, analysis of the findings could have been more
incisive by reducing the number of stores.
Hie retailers in the programs with less than five participating
salespeople contributed little to the findings except to enable the
effectiveness of the treatments as very small stores to be compared
with relatively larger stores. If this factor is not a consideration,
a more effective allocation of research resources could be made by
using only larger stores. Then, instead of the experimental unit
being considered the store, with good retail cooperstion the findings
could be analyzed on the basis of individual clerks. As a result
of this procedure more sensitive statistical analyses would be avail¬
able at lower cost.
The service shopping procedures, however, generally operated
very smoothly. The service shopping report form was adequate and the
merchants registered no complaints concerning the overall operating
routine. Use of the service shopping manual as a guide for managerial
instruction of the salespeople was also well received by the retailers.
Summary
In order to test the effectiveness of the treatments on the
selling techniques of the salespeople in the subject stores, the
hypothesis that there was no difference between treatments was tested.
This analysis indicated, with at least a 95% level of confidence, that
the treatments caused a significant difference among total treatment
scores and in the salespeople's ability to overcome objections. A

163
probability of at least nine out of ten exists that a change in the
salespeople’s closing techniques was also due to the treatments. In
the other three specific selling techniques analyzed, no significant
am
differences were disclosed.
An analysis of Treatment I findings showed that the difference
between the before-and the after-treatment results of this optimum
training program were greater than any of the other treatments in all
areas examined. Furthermore, when the after-treatment data were
analyzed by chi-square methodology, a comparison of Treatment I with
Treatment II plus III disclosed with at least a 95% level of confi¬
dence that the difference between the larger Treatment I score and
the smaller Treatment II plus III score in overall clerk performance
was due to the treatment. With a minimum of a 90% level of confi¬
dence It Piso can be stated that the treatments caused a positive
change in the eloéing ability of the salespeople in Treatment I.
A comparison of the before-and after-treatment service
shopping reports disclosed that the difference between these two
findings for Treatment II was greater than for Treatment III in only
one selling technique—the closing ability of the salespeople. In
the other four selling techniques as well as the total effect, the
service shopping program of Treatment III yielded a greater change.
Also, the orthogonal comparison of Treatment II versus Treatment III
showed no significant difference in any area of analysis except the
total score difference which showed a 95% level of confidence that
it was due to the treatments.

- 164
The control group in the study remained relatively constant.
After-treatment results showed only minimal differences between
before-and after-treatment findings except in the overcoming of
objections, which declined 20 percentage points, and closing
techniques, which gained 17 percentage points; no reason was noted
for these changes. When Treatment IV was statistically compared
to the positive programs, it was shown with a greater than 99%
level of confidence that the positive treatments increased the
salespeople's ability to overcome objection. It was also in¬
dicated with a 90% to 95% level of confidence that the positive
programs improved the suggestion selling techniques of the sales¬
people in Treatments I, II and III.
When the after-treatment results of the various programs were
compared to the findings of Willmark Service Systems, Inc., in the
comparable areas of suggestion selling, trading up, and closing,
some noteworthy variations were shown. In overcoming objections,
all the positive treatments approximated Willmark findings, but in
suggestion selling techniques the experimental programs were con-
siderably higher. On the other hand, the salespeople's closing
techniques were below Willmark standards except in Treatment I.
The department store results were generally more favorable
than tiie pooled findings of the smaller stores in each group. Not
only were differences among before-and after-treatments usually
larger, but in the orthogonal comparisons of Treatment I versus II
plus III the level of confidence that the treatments caused the
difference was greater; this was usually a result of higher Treatment I
scores. It was hypothesized that greater managerial participation by

- 165 -
the department store managers and possibly the fact that the programs
were more appropriate for their operations were responsible for the
better performance of the salespeople in the department stores.

CHAPTER VIII
SALES VOLUME
To determine the effect of the treatments on the sales volume
of the retail stores in the study, the manager of each raerchantile
establishment was requested to submit the percentage change of April,
1961, net sales as compared to April, 1960. Since April, 1961, was
the final month of the study, the percentage change in April sales
volume reflected any effect of the programs to increase retail
selling efficiency. These findings are presented in Table 23.
TABLE 24
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN EXPERIMENTAL RETAIL STORES'
SALES FOR APRIL 1961 AS COMPARED TO APRIL 1960
Type of store
Treatment
I
II
III
IV
Department
-43
-18
-24
-34
Ladies
+2
-26
-35
-23
Mens
-33
-3
-37
-25
Appliance
+7
-20
+23
+21
Drug
•3
-7
-10
+18 •*
— 166 -

167
The statistical significance of the percentage changes in
sales volume is secured by analyzing the variance of the sales figures
by randomized block design methodology.1 The breakdown of treatment
findings is accomplished by orthogonal comparisons standard in this
study. In Table 24 the analysis is shown.
TABLE 25
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE IN THE APRIL 1960 SALES OF THE
EXPERIMENTAL RETAIL STORES
Source of variance
Degrees of freedom
Sum of squares
Mean square
Store
4
2686.7
671.7
Treatment
S
(780.4)
(260.1)
IV vs I + II + III
1
345.6
345.6
I vs II + III
1
132.3
132.3
II vs III
1
302.5
302.5
Error
12
5*39.2
528.27
Total
19
9806.3
From the analysis of the net sales variance, it can be con¬
cluded that none of the treatments significantly affected the sales
of the experimental stores. Furthermore, the orthogonal comparisons
did not reflect any statistically significant differences which could
be attributed to treatment causation.
There are at least two possible reasons for the lack of a
statistically significant treatment effect upon retail sales: (1)
"^George W. Snedecor, Statistical Methods (Ames, Iowa: Iowa
State College Press, 1956), pT2d4.

- 168 -
there simply was no effect present, or (2) the treatments did cause
a change in retail sales but the sales volume indicator was not
sensitive enough to detect and precisely measure it. To assume
that the second possibility best explains the situation seems
reasonable.
Evidently, changes in the sales volume of the retail stores
was relatively small. As a consequence it was not indicated in the
statistical analysis. Therefore, it seems rational to suggest that
the source of the sales volume, the retail salesperson, should be
examined as a probable source of further insight.
If the selling records of individual salespeople were examined,
it might be noted that certain individual salespeople were not avail¬
able for analysis. Some store managers do not have the sales records
of individual clerks and other managers did not wish to cooperate to
the extent of providing them. Therefore, the analysis of individual
performance can only be recommended for further study.

CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
In order to present the findings of this study in the most
effective manner, the experimental results are organized according
to the research objectives which this investigation strived to
attain. Therefore, in each of the two following main sections of
this chapter, a study abjective and pertinent experimental findings
are summarized. In the third and last part of the chapter possible
future research is suggested.
Hie Effect of the Treatments
To determine quantitatively the effect of three different
types of retail sales training programs on the selling efficiency
of retail salespeople is one of the objectives of this study.
Therefore, the analysis of the data secured by the quantitative
indicators is straaarized separately by treatment. By organizing the
findings by treatment, the absolute and relative effectiveness of
each treatment can be readily ascertained and more incisive con¬
clusions drawn.
- 169 -
t (

- 170 -
Treatment I, a combination of sales training meetings, service
shopping reports and a monetary incentive was the most intensive pro-
'V ''' ' ff
gram in the study. The salespeople att^Hed a sales training meeting
every three weeks for a total of six sessions. Between meetings
they were observed by service shoppers and a report of the encounter
was given to the store manager for corrective training—if necessary.
Salespeople with good shopping reports received an average award of
one dollar per sales training session.
The effect of Treatment I upon the experimental stores was
good. Except in the analysis of sales volume changes, most quanti¬
tative measurements, of treatment effect indicated the performance of
Treatment I to have been superior to the other programs. Not only
were the differences between before-and after-treatments data generally
greater than for the other treatments but the statistical comparison
of Treatment I versus Treatment II plus III usually showed Treatment
I gave the most favorable response.
The effect of the experimental treatments on employee
morale may have been a basic factor which influenced, to an unknown
extent, the results of the other three indicators. While the
effect of morale on productivity has never been conclusively estab¬
lished an increase or decline in morale as a result of the treat¬
ments would certainly be worthy of evaluation.
The overall morale level, which is a summation of fifteen
specific attitudes, changed only a minimal two percentiles when the
results of the after-treatment morale survey results were compared
to before-treatment findings. But the attitudes of the salespeople

- 171 -
toward their fellow employees and supervisors as well as toward the
demands which their employemnt made upon them, showed positive gains
of about 10-percentile. Other categories remained relatively un¬
changed.
Chi-square analysis of Treatments I versus II plus III
indicated a 99% level of confidence that the 15.4% difference of
favorable replies which the salespeople in Treatment I expressed in
the area of personal relations which includes the employee-supervisor
relations category, was a real difference. In the area of job de¬
mands and conditions of work which includes the job demand category,
the difference was not significant. The other areas of employer
attitudes also shewed no significant difference.
Ihere was a known extraneous factor which may have negatively
influenced the morale of the salespeople in Treatment I. The sales¬
people resented the fact that they were required by their employer
to attend the sales training session but were not paid for the time
which they spent there. However, the quantitative effect of the
factor on the salespeople's attitudes was indeterminant. Neverthe¬
less, since the overall morale level was relatively constant, it can
be assumed not to have effected the findings of the other indicators.
Hie results of the customer attitude survey indicated a
certain degree of association between the customer's feelings toward
the salespeople and their frequency of patronage. In three of the
four treatments, the feelings of the customers varied directly with
their frequency of purchase. As a consequence, it was hypothesized
that a positive change in selling ability of the salespeople would

- 172 -
create a more favorable customer attitudes and a greater frequency
of patronage. This would natural!}' result in a greater sales volume
for the store.
The percentage of regular customers in the Treatment I after-
treatment customer attitude survey gained 8 percentage points over the
before-treatment findings. While limitations of methodology precluded
a statistical analysis cf this change it appears to be meaningful
especially since the other treatments showed either negative or
$
nominal positive variation.
An analysis of the before-and after-treatment differences
of the five specific attitudes covered in the survey indicated that
Treatment I climbed 6 percentage points in the customer feelings about
merchandise knowledge of the salespeople. Ihere was no noticeable
change in the other four attitudes* In fact, none of the other treat¬
ments showed any changes which were particularly meaningful.
An analysis of the service shopping reports disclosed that
the difference between the before-and after-treatment results were
larger for Treatment I than any other program. Not only did the
total score substantially increase, but gains in each of the five
selling techniques specifically investigated were also greater than
changes in the other treatments. The comparative differences,
however, were not all as impressive.
The statistical analysis of the difference between Treatment
I and Treatment II plus III indicated, with a 95% level of confidence
that the difference was caused by the treatment effects. Yet the
statistical analysis of the salespeople’s ability to overcome objections

- 173 -
showed only at least a 90% level of confidence that the difference
was caused by the experimental program. None of the other selling
technique comparisons yielded significant findings. Also the
statistical analysis revealed that the type of retail store did not
significantly effect the response of the salespeople within the
store.
But when the service shopping results of the department store
in Treatment I were compared with the pooled results of the smaller
stores in the treatment, a different relationship was indicated.
The department store findings were generally above the little stores.
Furthermore, chi-square statistical comparison of department store
Treatments I versus II plus III showed levels of confidence equal
or greater than the smaller stores In all five selling techniques
examined.
The primary reason for the superior department store per¬
formance seems to have been managerial attitudes. In Treatment I
department store, the manager aggressively supported the experimental
program while the managers of the smaller stores were relatively
indifferent. This was the main atypical factor noted and it was
detected in all the department stores; it resulted in the other
department stores also showing correspondingly favorable results
where compared to the pooled findings of the smaller stores. It can
be concluded therefore, that the effectiveness of all three positive
programs is a function of managerial participation.
But in Treatment I the function of managerial participation
was more important than in the other treatments. Since Treatment I

- 174 -
was a combination of sales training sessions and service shopping,
if the management fully participates in the program the results
should have been proportionately greater than for either a program
of sales training or service shopping. This was confirmed by the
service shopping report scores of the Treatment I department store
when analyzed in relation to the department stores in Treatments II
and III.
A statistical analysis of changes in the sales volume of
the experimental stores failed to show any significant changes
due to the treatments. This was probably due to the fact that the
changes in the sales volume of the individual clerks was too small
and inconsistent jo be detected and analyzed by an indicator which
reflected only storewide changes. An indicator of the clerks sell¬
ing performance would have been more appropriate.
The salespeople in the Treatment II program attended the
same type of sales training sessions as Treatment I, but they were
neither service shopped nor received monetary incentives. As in the
case of Treatment I the meetings were held every three weeks. But
the salespeople in this program were rather upset about attending the
training meetings.
Because the salespeople were not compensated for attending
the sales training sessions and did not receive any monetary awards,
they were considerably more disturbed about the infringement upon their
time than the salespeople in Treatment I. This was reasonably assumed
to be the cause of the very notable 22 percentile drop in overall
employee morale. Ihe presence of this strong negative factor also

- 175 -
made the analysis of the differences between before-and after-treat¬
ment morale survey results inconclusive for specific attitudes.
When Treatment II was compared to Treatment III by chi-square
statistical methodology only one of the five areas of employee
attitudes showed a significant difference. In financial rewards,
the level of confidence was at least 99%. But a comparison of over¬
all morale indicated a less than 50% level of confidence that the
differences were due to the treatments.
Although tiie customers of Treatment II showed the usual
_ -¡
direct association of favorable customer attitudes and frequency of
patronage, there was not a notable change between the results of the
before-and after-treatment customer attitudes surveys. Also, there
was no apparently significant change in the total findings or any
of the five feelings which were expressed by the customers. As a
consequency, it can be concluded tiiat the effect of Treatment II was
not reflected in the attitudes of the experimental store's customers.
The results of the service shopping reports revealed that
generally the difference between before-and after-treatment service
shopping reports for Treatment II were less than Treatment III. In
the total scores as well as four out of the five specific selling
techniques examined, Treatment II showed greater gains. Only in the
salesperson's application of closing techniques was Treatment II’s
improvement greater.
A comparison of the overall effects of Treatment II and III
on the selling skills of the salespeople indicated a 95% level of

'y •
- 176 -
confidence that the difference between the treatments was due to the
effectiveness of the programs. Of the five specific selling techniques
examined, only one, closing the sale, revealed a significant difference.
The methodology of this study was inadequate to objectively
determine if the drastic reduction in the morale of the salespeople
caused the salespeople to reject the sales training. But there is
sufficient evidence in management literature to accept this possible
causation as at least a working hypothesis. Therefore, it must be
concluded that considerable doubt exists that Treatment II vías as
effective in increasing selling efficiency as it would have been
without the inadvertant presence of a negative morale factor.
Treatment III consisted of a service shopping report being
made at three equally spaced time intervals during the five month
study period. The reports were given to the manager as a guide to
any remedial action which he may have deemed necessary. A guide
was also provided to the managers as a source for instructional
material.
In most instances the service shopping reports indicated that
the results of Treatment III were superior to Treatment II but less
than Treatment I. But the customers attitude survey and percentage
changes in sales volume revealed little difference between Treatments
II and III. The morale survey, however, did indicate some changes
between before-and after-treatment results within Treatment III.
Differences in the after-treatment morale survey results as
compared to the before-treatment findings, indicate a decrease in the
friendliness and cooperation offellow employees. A meaningful gain

- 177 -
was noted in the status and recognition of the salespeople. The overall
morale level declined slightly after the treatment, but other attitudes
remained relatively constant. Orthogonal comparisons between Treatments
II and III revealed only one significant finding in the salespersons
attitudes toward financial rewards.
Treatment IV or the control group received no program which
attempted to increase retail selling efficiency. It was included in
the study merely as a basis for comparing the results of the other
three positive programs. This function is performed well.
A comparison of the control group with the pooled results of
the positive treatments can not show any specific treatment conclusions
but it could indicate if the positive treatments as a whole were more
effective than no treatment. The service shopping reports and the
morael survey generally indicated that the treatments did effect the
retail salespeople in the study, but the customer attitude survey could
not be analyzed in this manner. On the other hand, the sales volume
indicator showed no significant differences between stores which
received treatments and those in the control group.
;v •»'
A Program to Increase Retail Selling Efficiency
Another objective of this study is to develop a program
which could increase the selling efficiency of sales personnel in
retail stores not economically large enough to maintain specialized
personal qualified to conduct this activity. This program also
would be applicable to larger retail establishments that might wish
to conduct the activity themselves.
\

- 178 -
Fran an evaluation of the treatment findings, it appears
evident that Treatment I produced the best overall results of the
three programs tested. Nevertheless, it must be considered that the
program's value is also determined by the relationship of the ad¬
ministrative cost of tiie program to gains in productivity. It is
unfortunate that a more sensitive indicator of the effect of the
treatments in sales volume was not available to objectively ascertain
this factor.
However, on the basis of definite improvements in the re¬
tail selling techniques of the salespeople which resulted from
Treatment I, it seems reasonable to assume that some gains in sales
were registered even though the improvement was too small to be
statistically significant. Since the cost of the program, if offered
to a group of smaller retail stores, would have been $5 per sales¬
person each month, a gain of only $20 in the salesperson's retail
sales during the month would have justified the expenditure.3-
The $5 per month cost of the program was determined from the
author's experience in administering a very similar program for a
group of merchants. For the $5 per salesperson fee, the retailer's
salespeople each month received the following: (1) a breakfast and
If a retail store realizes a 30% margin on the additional $20
of retail sales, $6 would be contributed toward total expenses. Since
other store expenses would probably not appreciably increase because
of these additional sales, the $6 should permit the store to recover
the costs of the training program. Of course, this is just an ap¬
proximation and assumes the store is operating above the break-even
point.

- 179 -
a one hour salesmeeting, (2) a shopping report on their activities
which was given to the store manager and (3) an average incentive
award of $1. Since the continental breakfast at a local hotel
dining room cost 60 report was $1., and $1 was set aside for incentives, the remaining
$2.40 from each $5 monthly fee was compensation for conducting the
' 'rv*-:’’ \
sales meetings and supervising the overall activity.
A Treatment I type of program could be offered to retailers
in several ways. Larger stores could conduct the program themselves.
Smaller stores could express a desire for a program, possibly
through a local merchants association and induce a qualified person
to promote this type of program for them. On the other hand, a
qualified individual could organize the program and "sell it" to
the merchants.
From the author’s experience, the best way to organize a
program for a small group of retailers is through the manager of
the local Chamber of Commerce. Usually he will be amenable to
calling a merchants meeting. At this meeting the program is
presented and an enrollment of fifty salespeople is sought.
At this initial meeting it is absolutely essential that
the merchants realize that the results which they secure from the
program are dependent, to a large extent, on managerial support and
participation. Without this factor the entire program effect can be
weakened. To infer that all the merchants need to do is expose
their salespeople to the program and sit back and await results is
very misleading.

- 180 -
There is another by-product of the program which was not
evident in the experimental findings. When the program is com¬
mercially presented to a group of salespeople it usually indirectly
causes about 10%-15% of the salespeople to seek employment elsewhere.
These clerks are usually just "putting in time" on the job; therefore,
when they are expected to increase their selling performance they
usually leave. This was related by one merchant as a primary benefit
of the program.
Outlook for the Future
This research examined three possible ways of solving the two
chronic problems of retailers: (1) how to teach salespeople to sell;
and (2) how to motivate them so that they want to sell. Yet there
are other alternative solutions which could be adapted from methods
currently used in manufacturing activities to increase the productivity
of workers.
When Elton Mayo and his disciples expounded the concept that
production was not only a function of physical facilities but of
human attitudes as well—management generally responded by synthesizing
principles of human relations into their overall planning. Frcm this
synthesis, management soon learned that there were other factors be¬
sides money which determined a man’s desire to produce. In many
plants, therefore, radical new compensation plans and employee-
management philosophies were inaugurated.
One arrangement strongly encourages maximum employee partici¬
pation in supervisory level decisions. Also, it allocates to the

- 181 -
workers a fixed percentage of their productivity as either wages or
a bonus. As a consequence the worker realizes from increased pro¬
duction not only a direct monetary gain but psychic satisfaction.
The study of group dynamics is also securing insights into
human motivation. The classic assumption of individual motivation
is being challenged by a new concept of group interrelations. Per¬
haps the work group is more important to individual attitudes than
either management decree or individual stimulus.
The conclusion from these brief observations is single.
Production management is experimenting with varying degrees of
success with the newer concepts of group dynamics and human relations.
In some instances, the results are excellent—in other situations
they fail; but should not retailers also investigate these new
disciplins and try to adapt the findings to their problems.
Is a salary, commission, or a combination a*l7ry and
commission compensation plan the only alternative methods of
motivating retail salespeople to sell? Can salespeople participate
in supervisory-level decisions as some production workers do? Can
human relation principles only increase manufacturing production—
or are they just as applicable to retail selling?
The answers to the retailer’s chronic problems of retail
selling efficiency probably will not be found in the past—but in
the frontiers of human motivation investigation. To depart from
personnel practices which in some cases have not changed in fifty
years to try semething new is not easy. However, some manufacturers
are successfully adapting or modifying new concepts to solve their
human engineering problems—can retailers afford to do less?

APPENDIX A
SALES TRAINING AIDS AND QUANTITATIVE INDICATORS

The objective of this guide is to provide sales supervisors with a
concise explanation of the philosophy and purposes behind the
questions in the Service Shopping Report.
X. APPROACH
A. Approached promptly? The salesperson should recognize or
offer to serve the shopper within approximately 3 minutes
after she arrives in the department.
1. Waited reasonable time. The shopper is served within
3-5 minutes.
2. Recognized and waited reasonable time. If the shopper
is recognized as a waiting customer within 5 minutes
after she enters the department and actually is offered
service within a reasonable, she continues to seek
merchandise. Recognition can be offered in terms of a
smile or a statement such as, "I’ll be with you in just
a moment."
3. Waited over 5 minutes and left. If the shopper is not
approached or recognized during 5 minutes of waiting
she is instructed to leave the store. Under "conments"
she notes the reason for the lack of service. For
example: >-«r
V
a. no clerk in department,
b. clerk busy with stock,
c. salesperson talking with other personnel,
d. salesperson busy with another customer and failed
to recognize shopper as a waiting customer.
B. Bie selling situation determines the appropriate approach.
"Full service" suggests a service approach, e.g., "Good
morning, may I help you?" While "semi-self service" would
require a merchandise approach, e.g., "Good morning, have
you found any socks which you like?" Self-service, on the other
hand, would necessitate that a greeting such as "Good morning"
be given to the custoner at the check out counter.
II. INTEREST
A. Merchandise requested in stock? During at least 10% of their
shopping visits the shopper is instructed to specifically re¬
quest brands of merchandise which any given department or
store does not carry. "If the salesperson offers no positive
assistance or suggests another store, che shopper is instructed
to leave the establishment. However, if assistance is offered
she switches to available merchandise and continues her shopping.

- 184 -
III. SELECTION - DISPLAY
A. Determined needs with questions(s)? One of the primary duties
of a salesperson is to find out the shopper’s needs and satis¬
factorily fill them. The following are examples of questions
which would enable the salesperson to determine the shopper’s
needs:
1. "Is this a gift?”
2. "How tall is your boy?"
3. "Are you interested in a sport or dress shirt?"
B. Showed medium price line first? If the merchandise requested
is offered in several price lines, the shopper should be shown
the medium priced item first. Premium and/or budget items
would be introduced as the sales situation progresses.
C. Showed merchandise in 3*s? The shopper should be offered a
selection of merchandiseof 3 items. More than 3 colors of
styles, for example, tends to confuse. A choice of less than
3 often fails to locate or stimulate the shopper’s interest.
D. Knew the physical location of the stock? In order to ef¬
fectively display merchandise the salesperson should have a
knowledge of and be able to immediately locate any item
carried in stock.
IV. CREATING DESIRE
A. Knew the merchandise? The shopper records her general impression
of the salesperson’s merchandise knowledge. She considers answers
by the salesclerk to specific requests for merchandise infor¬
mation. Also weighed is the merchandise information which the
salesperson volunteers. Any specific request for merchandise in¬
formation which is not satisfactorily answered is noted by the
shopper.
B. Related benefits to merchandise? The shopper indicates the de¬
gree to which the salesperson stressed the benefits that would
accrue to her from ownership of the merchandise. The following
are examples of merchandise facts and related shopper benefits:
1. "These shoes have rubber soles for easier walking."
2. "The double stitching on this dress prevents seams from
opening."
3. "This cotton shirt resists wrir.lJ.cs♦ ’’
C. Merchandise information and benefits volunteered? The sales-
person should offer merchandise information and related benefits
in her sales talk as well as in response to specific questions.

- 185 -
D. Handled objections? Objections are an indication of the
interest in the merchandise as well as her desire for
additional information. Failure of the salesperson to
handle objections in a satisfactory way or not at all
leads to lost sales. Examples of techniques for handling
objections are the following:
1. Yes but; (ball point pens skip) "yes, some popular priced
ball points pens skip, but the new ....
2. Reverse English (blanket too light in weight) ’'that*sthe
very reason you should own one. What you want in a
blanket is warmth—not weight. This blanket is 100%
wool, reinforced with high test silk, etc.
3. Compensation (this merchandise is soiled) "frankly this
merchandise is part of our end-of-season inventory and
is slightly soiled—that is why we have drastically
reduced it in price.
V. TRADE UP
A. No opportunity to trade up. In some instances the shopper asks
for specific one price line merchandise, e.g., a G. E. steam
iron. This situation offers little opportunity for the sales¬
person to trade up.
B. Attempted to trade up? Salesperson should continually be aware
of the opportunity to sell larger units (economy size?), better
quality (we also have this item in the deluxe quality for special
occasions), and additional units (these are 3 for $1 or 40 you save 20<£ by buying 3).
VI. SUGGESTION SELLING
A. Suggested other items? "Is there anything else?* is not sug¬
gestion sellingI Suggestion selling requires the salesperson
to specifically suggest additional merchandise such as specials,
related items, new items, or necessities to the shopper.
B. Benefits stressed? The benefits which the suggested merchandise
offers should be mentioned to the shopper in order to justify
the suggestion of the item.
C. Suggested items shown? Every effort should be made to show
the suggested merchandise as well as to tell about its qualities.
In some instances this is difficult but it is a goal toward
which the salesperson should strive. Sales increase when suggested
items are shownI

- 186 -
VII.CLOSE
A. Tried to close the sale? Many sales are lost because of the
reluctance of the salesperson to close the sale. Instead of
a positive effort to consumaste the sale, a deadening silence
prevails at the close. This silence is usually broken by the
shopper when she says, "I'll think it over”—and leaves the
store.
Bie salesperson can use many different techniques to close tfie
sale. For example:
1. Assume close - "Bien you have decided upon this dress?”
}
2. Repeat major selling points.
S. Choice question - ’"-h ich of these colors do you prefer?”
B. Gave assurances of satisfaction? Assurances of satisfaction,
after the sales is closed, help to build good will by re¬
assuring the shopper of her wisdom in purchasing merchandise
from your store. For example:
1. "I'm sure you will enjoy wearing this dress to work."
2. "These shoes are a wonderful buy."
3. "The more you use this razor the more you will like it."
VIII.DEPARTURE
The parting remarks are noted by the shopper, e.g., "Blank you,
Mrs. Jones."
IX.APPEARANCE
The shopper’s impression of the salesperson’s neatness appropriate¬
ness of attire for business and personal cleanliness are recorded.
Reason(s) for a poor rating are noted, under "conment".
X.ATTITUDE
The shopper’s impression of the interest which the salesperson
exhibited in trying to satisfy her needs.
XI.DISPOSITION
The shopper's evaluation of the friendliness and cheerfulness
which the salesclerk exhibited duringthe s?le.

- 187 -
THE APPROACH
Approach a customer within 3 minutes after she enters your department.
If you are unable to give prompt service to a waiting customer because
you are already serving another customer recognize the waiting customer
with a smile and say, "I’ll be with you in a moment."
Recognize the waiting customer. — Let her know that you realize that
she is waiting.
When to use, "May I help you?"
Situation one (1) - The merchandise is under glass or behind a counter
and the customer is obviously waiting at the
counter to be served.
Situation two (2) - If you have been instructed by your store manager
to approach the customer as soon as she enters
your selling area.
DO NOT USE "HAY I HELP YOU?" WHEN THE CUSTOMER IS LOOKING AT
MERCHANDISE.
X X X X
Approaches to use if the customer is looking at merchandise.
Question methods
Have you found the size you’re looking for?
Yes - "That's finel We have a nice selection of colors
and styles in size 12."
No - "Perhaps I can help'you. What size are you looking
for?"
Benefits methods
Fishing lure - "Good morning, that lure catches the big ones."
BE FRIENDLY, GREET EVERYBODY THAT WALKS THROUGH YOUR DEPARTMENT WITH A
CHEERY "GOOD MORNING."

- 188 -
TRADING UP
1.Better Quality Merchandise: When a custome asks for a certain
type of merchandise, without specifying any price:
Bring her the medium and the higher priced merchandise. If
you feel the items are too expensive for her, then show her
the popular priced line later.
When a customer asks for medium priced items, bring the
medium priced item as well as a higher priced item. BUT
SHOW AND TELL THE BENEFITS OF THE MEDIUM PRICED ITEM BEFORE
MENTIONING THE BENEFITS OF THE PREMIUM ARTICLE.
When a customer asks for a popular priced item, bring the
popular priced item as well as a medium priced article.
But show andtell the benefits of the popular priced item
before mentioning the benefits of the medium priced line.
ALWAYS SHOW THE CUSTOMER WHAT SHE ASKS FOR FIRST-THEN TRADE
UP TO BETTER QUALITY.
There are three price lines.
LOWER: Popular, budget, or good (NEVER CHEAP)
MEDIUM: Better
HIGH: Best, premium or luxury
2.Additional Units: If the Item you sell needs to be replaced in a
short time—sell additional units.
1. Hosiery 2. Diapers 3. Film
3.Large Sizes: People like to be thrifty. You can save them money
by suggesting:
Large economy sizes
Thrift packages
Family sizes
Your customers will thank you for saving them money, for example,
batteries or tires which will last longer, family size tooth
paste, or the economy size bar of soap.

- 189 -
SUGGESTION SELLING
"Anything else?" is not suggestion selling.
In order to sell additional merchandise it is necessary that you
1. Show tiie additional merchandise;
2. Tell the customer WHY she should buy the "extra" goods.
When the customer is "sold" on one item, sell her additional
merchandise. Types of "extra" items are:
1. Specials — goods that are on sales in your department
or any place within the store.
2. Related items — merchandise that goes together, for
example, ties with shirts.
3. New items — goods that just arrived which the customer
might not know about.
4. Necessities — merchandise that the customer can always
use, for example, hose, razor blades, or tooth paste.
Build your sales ticket with "extra" items.

- 190 -
STEPS OF THE SALE
1. Salesperson approaches customer with an interest-creating remark:
"Good morning, Mrs. Burton." (Appeals to pride of customer by
using her name).
"Have you found the size you're looking for?"
"May I help you, madam?"
"These new gloves are lovely, aren't they?"
2. Salesperson asks a few leading questions to get necessary information
and to learn buying needs or wants:
"Are they for yourself?"
"Any preference in color?"
"What size do you wear?"
3. After a selection of items is placed before the customer and while
the customer is examining then, the salesperson explains the features
and points out reasons for buying;
New style
Beautiful spring shades
Can be worn with so many other things
4. Answers objections of the customer which may come up."
,!Yes; this article does come higher in price, but you get
far more. It will last longer, give better service, and in
the end is much more economical." »
5. Directs closing questions to stimulate decision:
"Do you prefer the long or short?"
If the customer requests merchandise which is not in stock:
1 - Offer substitute
2 - Order, if possible
After the customer entirely completes her transaction, assure her
that she has made a wise purchase:
"I'm sure you'll enjoy wearing this shirt."
"I know this material will make a lovely dress."
'Tfou'll get years of work from these tools."

- 191 -
THE ART OF OVERCOMING OBJECTIONS
During the normal course of a sale, most customers will raise
one or more objections before they buy. If the objections are handled
skillfully, the customer will buy. On the other hand, if the objections
are poorly managed, the customer will usually say, rThank you, I'll
look around and drop back later." But very few ever "drop back later."
In general, objections may be classified as:
1. Need objections. (They do not need the item)
2. Price objections. (Oh! that is too expensive)
3. Objections to a particular feature of the article. (These
shoes are too pointed)
Even the most expert salesperson cannot anticipate all of the
customers objections. Every salesperson, however, should be prepared
to answer the objections which are certain to arise during the sale.
Exactly how the obstacle should be handled depends largely on the
circumstance of the sale. Three possible methods by which objections
may be answered follow:
1. The indirect denial. This is the "yes, but" method of
J
presenting another angle.
2. Compensation. This consists of admitting the objection
but pointing out an offsetting advantage which outweighs it.
3. The questioned method. Asking a question which when
answered will overcome the objection.

- 192 -
ALWAYS - BE - CLOSING
If you are not able to close a sale, you are merely a good conversationa¬
list. You can determine the customers needs; you can find merchandise
to fill her needs; but you are not able to sell her this merchandise.
In all probability, after she leaves your store, without a purchase, she
will buy the merchandise someplace else. That is why the art of closing
a sales is so important—it makes sales for you and your store.
Hiere are three basic steps in closing a retail sale:
1. Narrow the choice of merchandise offered the customer by
carefully removing items for which you feel she has no
interest. You will receive indications of lack of interest
from the customer’s attitude and remarks.
2. After you have narrowed the choice down to a decision bet¬
ween one or two items, ask a question which gives the
customer an opportunity to confirm the items she likes
best, e.g.
"This is the suit you really like best, isn’t it?”
'Don’t you think this red hat is most becoming?"
3. When the customer confirms her desire for the merchandise,
ask a choice question, e.g.
"Would you like to charge it or pay cash?”
4. If the customer refuse® to confirm a choice of merchandise
(step #2), repeat the various benefits of the item. Then
ask a question which will give to the customer another
opportunity to indicate her preference (step #2), and close
with a choice question (step #3).
Remember—everything in the sales presentation builds up the closing;
therefore—always be closing.

- 193 -
CUSTOMERS ATTITUDE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Good Morning. I’m conducting a survey for the University of Florida
to find out how you feel about . Would you mind
giving me your honest opinion on a few subjects?
Do you shop in ?
regularly occasionally seldom
Now, I would like to ask you a trial question to give you an idea of the
type of questions I am going to ask.
I would like to know how you feel about the weather today,
Would you say that today is:
1.I would like to know how you feel about the appearance of the sales¬
people in . Would you say that they are:
2.In general, how well do you feel that the salespeople in ^
know the facts about their merchandise. Would you say that they know
their merchandise:
3.I would like to know how you feel about the friendliness of the
salespeople in . Would you say that they are:
4.Now I would like to know how you feel about the interest which the
salespeople in take in helping you to select the
right merchandised Would you say that they are:
5.I would like to know how you feel about the service which you received
when you shopped in . Would you say the service was:
6.Would you like to make any comments about the salespeople or the
service which you receive .?

- 194 -
RATING SCALES FOR THE CUSTOMERS ATTITUDE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Trial question
Very nice day
1
2
rv
3
4
Rather nasty day
Question 1
Always neat and clean
1
2
3
4
Seldom neat and clean
Question 2
Very well
1
2
3
4
Not at all

195 -
Question 3
Always friendly and cheerful
T
T
Seldom friendly- did cheerful
Question 4
Very interested in helping me
T
-3-
Not interested-frt-aSl in helping me
Question 5
Very good
â– 7

FIGURE X
SERVICE SHOPPING FORM

- 197 -
RETAIL SATES PERSONNEL WORKSHOP
"A Comprehensive Program to Increase Retail Selling Efficiency"
STORE
DEPT.
SERVICE: Full â–¡
TIME
Semi-Self â–¡
A. M.
P. M.
Self â–¡
I. APPROACH: Yes No
A. Approached promptly? â–¡ O
if no . . .
1. Waited reasonable time O
2. Recognized and waited a
reasonable time O
3. Waited over 5 minutes and left O*
B. Approach appropriate? â–¡ 0*-5
II. INTEREST.
A. Merchandise requested in stock? â–¡ O
if no . . .
1. Offered substitute O
2. Would order O
3. Offered no assistance O*
4. Suggested another store O*
III. SELECTION DISPLAY:
VIII. DEPARTURE: Yes No
Departing remark? Q 0-7
IX. APPEARANCE:
General impression of the salesperson's
physical appearance
Outstanding
Satisfactory Q
Poor D*-10
X. ATTITUDE:
General impression of the salesperson's
interest in helping you
Very interested â–¡
Fairly interested
Not interested â–¡ -10
XI. DISPOSITION:
A. Determined needs with questions?
â–¡
O -2
General impression of the salesperson's
B. Showed medium priced lines first?
â–¡
O -2
disposition
C. Showed merchandise in 3's?
â–¡
O -2
Too familiar
□••10
D. Knew physical location of the stock?
â–¡
O -2
Friendly and cheerful
â–¡
Cold and aloof
□*•10
IV. CREATING DESIRE:
A. Knew the merchandise?
Very well â–¡
Satisfactorily Q
Poorly □*•10
B. Related benefits to merchandise?
Stressed benefits Q
Mentioned benefits Q
Ignored benefits â–¡ -3
C. Merchandise information and
benefits volunteered?
D. Handled objections?
Completely â–¡
Partially â–¡ -3
Not at all â–¡ -5
V TRADE UP:
A. Attempted to trade up?
if yes . . .
1. Additional units â–¡
2. Better quality â–¡
3. Larger units Q
VI. SUGGESTION SELLING:
A. Suggested other items?
1. Specials â–¡
2. Related item(s) â–¡
3. New item(s) Q
4. Necessities â–¡
B. Benefits stressed?
C. Item{s) was shown
VII. CLOSE:
A. Tried to close?
SALESPERSON S DESCRIPTION.
Male â–¡ Female â–¡
Hair style
Glasses? Yes No
Age
No./Initials
if yes . . .
1.
Assumed close
â–¡
2.
Choice question
â–¡
3.
Repeated major selling points
â–¡
4.
Other
â–¡
â–¡ 0-2
â–¡ 0-10
â–¡ 0-15
â–¡ 0-5
â–¡ 0-5
â–¡ 0-5
AMOUNT OF PURCHASE
Merchandise:
100
SCORE
A red X in the score box indicates that the shopper
left the store without completing the sale. Reason is
circled in red.
N.A. — not applicable
Shopper
Incentive Earned?
•COMMENTS: (Explain all * ratings)
Copyright R. C. VREEIAND I960

APPENDIX B
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY

- 199
TABLE 26
AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES
TO FINANCIAL REWARDS FROM EMPLOYMENT
Treatment
Number favorable
Total number
Percentage favorable
I
78
352
22.2
II
98
352
26.4
III
62
368
16.8
IV
83
496
16.7
TABLE 27
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO FINANCIAL REWARDS FROM EMPLOYMENT
Comparison
Degrees of freedom
Chi-square
Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
5.28
.10 I vs II + III
1
.06
.75 II vs III
1
10.25
P<.005
Total
3
15.59
P < .005

200
TABLE 28
AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES TO PERSONAL RELATIONS
Treatment
Number favorable
Total number
Percentage favorable
I
366
836
43.8
II
318
836
38.0
III
339
874
38.8
IV
450
1178
38.2
TABLE 29
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO PERSONAL RELATIONS
Comparison Degrees of freedom Chi-square Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
1.34
.10 < P<.25
I vs II + III
1
6.73
.005< P<.01
II vs III
1
.08
.75 P< .90
Total
3
8.15
,025
- 201 -
TABLE 30
AFTER TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSE TO OPERATING EFFICIENCY
Treatment
Number favorable
Total number
Percentage favorable
I
290
748
38.8
II
299
748
40.0
III
283
782
36.2
IV
361
1054
34.2
TABLE 31
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO OPERATING EFFICIENCY
Comparison Degrees of freedom Chi-square Significance
IV vs I +
II + III
1
.47
.25

I vs II +
III
1
.01
â– *. â– 
II vs III
1
.21
.50 Total
3
69
504P< .75

- 202
TABLE 32
AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY RESPONSES TO INDIVIDUAL SATISFACTION
Treatment
Number favorable
Total number Percentage favorable
*
I
371
924
40.1
II
319
924
34.5
III
342
966
35.4
IV
422
1302
32.4
TABLE 33
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF AFTER-TREATMENT MORALE SURVEY
RESPONSES TO INDIVIDUAL SATISFACTION
Comparison Degrees of freedom
Chi-square
Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
.74
.50 I vs II + III
1
.74
.50< P <.75
II vs III
1
.00
Total
3
1.48
,50
TABLE 34
INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT I CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY
Store and before- Category
i — ■ ■ ■ ....... —- — — ■ .i..
and after-results
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
Total
XV
Dp
Before
3.92
3.92
1.77
1.31
3.31
6.54
5.31
4.92
3.77
3.69
4.62
4.66
3.31
2.46
53.31
1.54
After
4.29
4.57
2.29
.86
3.50
7.64
6.14
5.29
4.36
4.14
4.86
5.21
3.86
2.86
59.86
1.86
L
Before
3.00
4.50
2.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
5.50
2.50
3.00
3.50
5.50
4.50
4.00
2.50
52.50
2.00
After
4.00
5.00
3.00
4.00
4.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
74.00
2.00
M
Before
4.25
4.50
2.00
1.75
3.75
6.50
5.25
5.50
4.00
4.00
4.50
5.00
3.75
3.25
58.50
1.75
After
4.67
4.67
.33
3.69
3.67
5.67
5.33
4.00
4.00
4.00
5.33
5.33
4.00
3.00
57.67
2.00
A
Before
3.33
5.33
3.00
4.00
3.33
6.66
7.00
5.33
3.66
5.00
6.66
6.00
3.66
3.00
66.00
1.00
After
4.00
3.00
3.00
.50
2.50
6.50
4.50
3.00
2.50
2.50
3.00
4.00
3.50
2.50
45.00
1.50
D
Before
5.00
6.00
3.20
2.20
4.00
8.00
6.80
5.80
5.00
5.40
6.20
5.80
4.00
3.20
70.60
1.60
After
3.00
6.00
3.00
1.00
4.00
8.00
5.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
62.00
1.00
203

TABLE 35
II©IVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT II CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY
v.
Store and before-
and after-results
Category
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
Total
XV
Dp
Before
4.37
5.00
2.62
2.75
3.00
7.37
6.25
4.87
3.50
3.25
5.25
5.00
3.75
3.13
61.13
1.75
After
3.64
4.18
1.82
3.36
2.82
5.45
6.36
5.09
4.90
4.00
5.00
3.36
8.73
3.18
58.00
1.73
L
Before
4.20
5.80
2.20
2.20
3.60
7.20
6.40
5.60
4.20
3.00
4.40
4.60
7.50
7.60
60.00
1.40 '
After
4.40
5.80
2.20
1.40
3.60
6.60
5.80
5.00
4.40
4.20
3.80
5.00
3.00
2.20
57.40
1.40
M
Before
5.00
6.00
4.00
1.50
4.00
8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00
5.50
6.00
5.50
4.00
4.0C
71.50
2.00
After
4.00
5.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
5.00
5.50
3.50
3.00
3.50
4.50
3.00
4.00
2.50
48.50
1.50
A
Before
5.00
5.66
3.66
3.30
4.00
7.66
6.66
5.33
5.00
5.33
7.00
5.33
3.66
3.66
71.33
.66
After
4.00
6.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
6.50
6.50
4.50
5.00
4.00
3.00
4.50
2.50
2.50
57.00
2.00
D
Before
4.00
5.25
2.75
1.75
2.75
6.00
6.25
4.50
4.25
5.00
5.25
5.50
3.25
3.25
59.75
1.75
After
4.00
5.00
1.00
1.00
3.00
2.00
4.00
3.00
4.00
2.00
9.00
5.00
3.00
2.00
43.00
.50
204

TABLE 36
INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT III CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY
Store and before- Category
and after-results
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
Total
XV
Dp
Before
2,65
4.88
1.53
2.23
3.30
6.53
5.37
4.64
3.86
4.12
3.81
3.91
3.56
2.88
54.33
1.86
After
3.97
4.54
1.91
.95
3.27
6.78
5.02
4.89
4.08
3.89
4.48
4.70
3.62
2.78
55.54
1.57
L
Before
3.40
4.80
2.40
2.20
3.80
6.40
6.20
5.00
4.20
4.40
5.00
36.60
2.80
59.00
1.40
Aftet
4.00
4.66
1.00
1.00
3.33
4.33
4.00
9.66
3.66
2.33
3.33
3.33
2.33
1.66
43.67
.66
M
Before
5.00
6.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
7.00
6.00
6.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
5.00
4.00
4.00
71.00
2.00
After
1.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
1.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
23.00
2.00
A
Before
5.00
4.50
4.00
4.00
3.00
3.50
4.50
3.00
2.50
3.50
5.00
5.50
4.00
1.50
53.50
2.00
After
2.00
4.00
1.00
.50
2.00
3.00
2.50
3.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
33.33
2.00
D
Before
4.75
4.25
2.75
1.25
4.00
6.75
6.25
5.00
4.50
5.25
5.50
5.00
3.25
3.50
63.00
1.25
After
3.33
5.33
.66
2.00
2.66
5.00
6.00
3.16
3.66
4.66
4.33
3.66
4.00
3.66
52.66
1.33
205

TABLE 37
INDIVIDUAL STORE RESULTS OF THE BEFORE-AND AFTER-TREATMENT
EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TREATMENT IV CLASSIFIED BY CATEGORY
Store and before-
Category
and after-results
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
Total
XV
Dp
Before
3.06
4.67
.72
1.56
3.17
5.39
4.67
3.61
3.50
3.11
3.22
3.61
3.17
2.33
45.78
1.56
After
3.50
4.10
.95
1.40
2.85
6.00
4.90
3.65
3.35
3.35
3.75
3.95
2.95
2.20
46.80
1.60
L
Before
3.00
5.00
.33
.33
2.33
4.66
5.00
3.66
3.33
2.66
2.66
2.00
3.00
.66
38.67
1.33 !
After
5.00
5.66
2.00
3.33
4.00
7.66
7.00
6.00
5.00
6.00
6.00
5.33
4.00
2.00
69.00
2.00
M
Before
3.00
3.00
1.00
4.00
4.00
7.00
8.00
4.00
1.00
6.00
5.00
6.00
4.00
3.00
59.00
2.00
After
3.00
6.00
2.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
3.00
1.00
4.00
0.00
3.00
29.00
2.00
A
Before
4.66
5.66
3.00
3.66
3.66
6.66
6.66
4.00
4.66
5.66
6.00
5.33
5.33
3.33
68.33
1.33
After
4.00
3.70
.66
.33
3.33
7.00
4.66
4.33
4.33
3.00
4.00
4.00
2.66
1.33
47.33
1.66
D
Before
4.20
5.00
2.40
2.80
5.40
6.20
6.20
4.20
3.80
4.40
6.00
4.80
3.80
3.80
61.00
1.40
After
3.50
6.00
1.50
2.75
3.25
7.75
6.25
6.00
4.75
4.75
5.25
5.25
3.50
3.25
64.00
1.50
206

APPENDIX C
CUSTOMERS' ATTITUDE SURVEY

BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR TREATMENT I
Type of store
m w
O M
CD
Question
and frequency
I
II
III
IV
V
of customer
g §
rQ 4J
Response
Response
Response
Response
Response
purchase
1 8
55-0
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
Department
Regular
17
15
2
14
3
13
4
14
3
17
Occasional
23
20
3
15
7
19
3
1
16
5
2
21
2
Seldom
10
8
2
2
7
6
3
1
6
3
8
2
Ladies
Regular
12
12
12
12
12
12
Occasional
15
15
12
3
15
14
1
15
Seldom
23
17
6
13
8
2
18
4
1
16
5
1
1
15
6
1
Men
Regular
10
9
1
4
4
1
6
4
3
7
5
4
1
Occasional
18
9
8
1
10
3
5
13
5
10
5
3
10
7
1
Seldom
17
13
4
11
4
1
1
9
6
1
1
8
5
4
8
7
2
Appliance
Regular
23
23
9
4
22
1
21
2
22
1
Occasional
9
7
2
7
1
1
7
2
8
1
5
3
1
Seldom
18
13
5
10
5
3
14
4
11
5
1
1
13
4
1
Drug
Regular
17
14
2
1
8
8
1
14
3
12
4
1
14
3
Occasional
24
17
7
13
10
1
18
5
1
15
8
1
18
6
Seldom
12
6
6
6
3
2
\1
9
3
7
3
1
1
6
4
2
i
I
208

TABLE 39
BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS TREATMENT II
Type of store Question
and frequency
tj-l M
O M
I
II
III
IV
V
of customer
B
Q) o
-9 40
Response
Response
Response
Response
Response
purchase
ss 3
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
Department
Regular
22
21
1
15
6
1
Occasional
13
11
2
9
4
Seldom
7
5
1
1
3
4
Ladies
Regular
13
9
4
9
4
Occasional
23
18
4
1
7
14
1
Seldom
14
13
1
7
7
Men
Regular
17
15
2
15
2
Occasional
12
10
2
11
1
Seldom
7
6
1
5
2
Appliance
Regular
23
15
8
14
7
1
Occasional
15
10
5
10
4
1
Seldom
12
8
2
2
4
6
2
Drug
Regular
23
18
5
17
4
2
Occasional
16
9
6
1
12
3
1
Seldom
11
6
3
2
6
4
1
20
2
15
7
19
3
10
3
10
3
11
2
4
2
1
4
1
2
4
2
10
3
7
6
12
1
10
4
3
12
10
1
16
6
1
9
5
10
4
10
2
2
17
17
17
11
1
11
1
11
6
1
6
1
5
2
19
2
2
21
1
1
20
3
10
3
2
9
5
1
8
5
2
6
4
2
8
3
1
6
3
3
22
1
18
4
1
21
2
11
3
2
12
4
12
4
9
1
1
8
3
9
2

TABLE 40
BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR TREATMENT III
Type of store
Question
and frequency
CO
o u
I
II
III
IV
V
of customer
M 8
Q> O
Response
Response
Response
Response
Response
purchase
-Q +*
55 8
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
Department
Regular
26
23
3
14
10
1
1
18
6
1
1
17
7
1
1
18
6
1
1
Occasional
19
15
4
9
8
1
10
7
2
11
7
1
12
4
3
Seldom
4
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
3
1
2
1
1
Ladies
Regular
16
14
1
12
4
14
2
14
2
16
Occasional
26
23
3
17
9
17
9
21
4
1
24
2
Seldom
8
5
3
5
3
7
1
6
2
6
2
Men
Regular
8
8
6
2
8
7
1
8
Occasional
20
16
4
10
9
1
19
1
17
3
16
4
Seldom
22
14
8
15
5
2
21
1
13
9
19
2
1
Appliance
Regular
16
13
3
9
6
1
13
2
1
10
3
2
1
10
4
1
1
Occasional
18
7
11
6
6
2
13
9
2
1
14
6
4
1
11
4
5
4
Seldom
9
7
2
4
3
2
77
2
7
1
1
7
2
Drug
Regular
33
13
1
32
1
32
1
32
1
33
Occasional
9
7
2
8
1
9
9
7
1
1
Seldom
8
7
1
5
3
6
1
1
5
3
7
1
210

TABLE 41
BEFORE-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR TREATMENT IV
Type of store
and frequency
of customer
purchase
Number of
customers
Question
I
II
III
IV
V
Response
Response
Response
Response
Response
1
2
3 4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3 4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Department
Regular
23
20
3
15
7
1
20
2
1
18
4
1
20
2
1
Occasional
18
11
7
8
4
2
1
8
10
7
8
1
1
12
4
1
1
Seldom
8
8
6
2
3
2
7
1
6
2
Ladies
Regular
16
15
1
15
1
13
2
1
15
1
15
1
Occasional
19
15
4
15
4
9
10
14
5
15
4
&&&*«
15
13
2
12
3
10
4
1
7
7
1
9
4
2
Men
Regular
21
21
19
2
21
21
19
1
1
Occasional
20
18
1
1
14
4
1
1
16
3
1
15
3
1
1
16
1
2
1
Seldom
9
9
8
1
8
1
7
2
8
1
AppJiance
Regular
1
1
1
1
1
1
Occasional
8
7
1
8
8
8
8
Seldom
18
16
2
13
3
2
16
2
17
1
15
3
Drug
Regular
22
13
6
3
9
1
2
" *
14
6
2
12
6
3
1
15
5
2
Occasional
19
10
9
9 10
10
7
2
9
7
3
14
3
2
Seldom
9
8
1
3
6
9
7
1
1
8
1
211

TABLE 42
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR TREATMENT I
Type of store
Question
and frequency
m
o *
I
II
III
IV
V
of customer
S-l E
■§ m
Response
Response
Response
Response
Response
purchase
% 3
S5 O
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
Regular
19
17
2
17
1
1
17
2
18
1
19
Occasional
20
13
7
8
10
1
9
10
12
6
1
8
11
Seldom
11
9
2
8
3
8
3
8
3
9
2
Ladies
Regular
11
10
1
11
10
1
10
1
11
Occasional
10
9
1
8
2
9
1
6
3
1
9
1
Seldom
10
7
3
8
2
8
2
6
3
1
6
4
Men
Regular
22
20
2
13
9
11 11
12
8
2
4
8
Occasional
15
12
3
8
7
9
5
1
6
9
7
7
1
Seldom
11
6
5
4
6
1
5
5
1
4
6
1
6
3
1
1
Appliance
Regular
21
17
4
17
4
19
1
1
19
1
1
18
2
1
Occasional
15
9
5
1
7
6
1 1
9
4
1
1
11
3
1
5
7
2
1
Seldom
11
7
4
5
6
8
3
9
1
1
5
4
1
Drug
Regular
18
14
4
12
4
13
4
1
13
4
12
4
2
Occasional
11
7
4
3
8
3
5
2
1
4
6
1
4
5
1
1
Seldom
21
6
12
1
11
9
1
10
8
3
10 11
11
9
1
212

TABLE 43
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR TREATMENT II
*
Type of store
—:
Question
and frequency
4-< co
O H
I
II
III
IV
V
of customer
|i
Response
Response
Response
Response
Response
purchase
-3 4J
£ (0
—MS—
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
Department
Regular
23
20
3
19
4
21
2
23
21
1
1
Occasional
15
13
2
10
5
15
13
2
12
1
1
Seldom
12
7
5
5
5
2
11
1
6
5
1
7
3
2
Ladies
Regular
6
4
2
4
2
6
5
1
5
1
Occasional
19
15
4
16
3
15
4
13
5
1
15
3
1
Seldom
13
9
3
1
7
4
1 1
8
3
2
6
6
1
7
3
3
Men
Regular
10
10
9
1
9
1
9
1
9
1
Occasional
11
11
10
1
10
1
9
2
8
1
1
Seldom
17
14
3
12
5
13
3
1
11
4
2
10
6
1
Appliance
Regular
7
6
1
5
2
7
6
1
6
1
Occasional
35
22
12
1
14
20
1
23
9
3
16
19
21 11
2
Seldom
8
4
2
1
4
3
6
2
5
1
1
3
4
Drug
Regular
24
16
7
1
20
2
21
3
16
4
1
21
3
Occasional
17
13
2
2
10
3
2
13
3
1
7
7
13
1
3
Seldom
9
5
2
1
1
5
3
1
6
2
1
5
4
5
3
213

TABLE 44
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR TREATMENT III
Type of store
CO
o u
Question
and frequency
I
II
III
VI
V
of customer
0) o
Response
Response
Response
Response
Response
purchase
Is
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
12 3 4
Treatment
Regular
26
24
2
15
9
2
15
9
2
16
6
2
2
16
6
Occasional
20
13
7
10
9
1
8
7
4
1
9
9
2
13
5
Seldom
4
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
Ladies
Regular
17
16
1
15
2
16
1
15
1
1
16
1
Occasional
23
20
3
19
4
18
4
1
20
3
17
6
Seldom
10
9
1
6
4
8
2
6
4
6
3
Men
Regular
14
14
14
14
14
14
Occasional
17
11
6
12
5
15
2
14
3
10
7
Seldom
19
14
4
10
9
15
4
14
5
14
4
Appliance
Regular
23
18
5
16
6
1
12
11
15
7
1
15
3
Occasional
17
13
4
6
11
8
7
1
1
8
8
1
8
6
Seldom
11
5
2
2
4
6
6
5
1
1
8
1
2
4
2
Drug
Regular
26
23
3
16
10
24
2
17
9
22
4
Occasional
19
14
5
10
7
2
14
4
1
12
5
1
1
14
1
Seldom
S
3
2
2
3
3
1
1
2
3
1
3
4
1 1,
1
1
3 2
1 2
3 2
3 1
1
214

TABLE 45
AFTER-TREATMENT CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY RESULTS FOR TREATMENT IV
Type of store
and frequency
of customer
purchase
% s
if
Question
I
II
III
IV
V
Response
Response
Response
Response
Response
1
2
3
4
1
2
3 4
1
2
3
4
1
2
3 4
1
2
3
4
Department
Regular
23
15
7
1
12
10
1
18
3
2
13
9
1
15
8
Occasional
20
17
3
10
8
2
13
5
1
1
10
9
1
13
7
Seldom
6
5
1
3
3
5
1
3
2
1
2
3
1
Ladies
Regular
15
15
12
3
13
2
14
1
15
Occasional
17
15
2
9
7
1
12
4
1
12
5
11
6
Seldom
18
16
2
11
6
1
12
4
2
13
4
13
4
1
Men
Regular
4
3
1
4
4
4
4
Occasional
11
11
9
2
10
1
11
11
Seldom
7
7
6
1
7
6
1
6
1
Appliance
Regular
7
7
4
3
7
7
6
1
Occasional
7
7
5
2
7
7
3
4
Seldom
7
7
5
2
7
5
2
5
2
Drug
Regular
16
7
6
1
2
2
13
1
8
6
1
1
12
4
12
3
1
Occasional
14
8
6
7
6
1
6
7
7
3
4
8
5
1
Seldom
20
14
6
9
8
2 1
4 15
1
9
7
3
11
7
1
1
215

TABLE 46
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO QUESTIONS ON
THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE STORES IN TREATMENT I
Stores
Question
Dp
L
M
A
D
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
I
(50)
(5)
0
(50)
(31)
(43)
(50)
(SO)
(46)
(52)
(47)
100%
100
0
100
100
0
96
100
+4
100
98
••2
98
98
0
II
(48)
(47)
(48)
(31)
(36)
(47)
(46)
(45)
(48)
(47)
98
96
-2
96
100
+4
82
98
+16
92
96
+4
91
98
+7
III
(48)
(49)
(49)
(31)
(43)
(46)
(50)
(44)
(52)
(43)
96
100
+4
98
100
+2
96
96
0
100
94
-6
98
86
-12
IV
(47)
(48)
(48)
(28)
(38)
(45)
(48)
(44)
(49)
(48)
96
98
+2
96
90
-6
84
94
+10
96
94
-2
92
98
V
(50)
(49)
(48)
(31)
(41)
(45)
(48)
(41)
(51)
(45)
100J
100
0
96
100
-r4
91
94
+3
96
89
-7
96
90
-6
( ) indicates number of favorable responses.
216

TABLE 47
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO QUESTIONS ON
TIE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE STORES IN TREATMENT II
Question
Stores
Dp
L
M
A
D
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
I
(41)
(45)
(49)
(37)
(36)
(38)
(48)
(47)
(47)
(45)
1
98
90
-8
98
97
-5
100
100
0
96
96
0
94
90
-4 1
^ t
II
(41)
(43)
(48)
(36)
(36)
(38)
(45)
(48)
(46)
(43)
1
98
96
-2
96
95
-1
100
100
0
90
98
*r8
92
93
+1
III
(41)
(48)
(47)
(36)
(36)
(37)
(44)
(47)
(47)
(48)
98
96
-2
94
95
Hi
100
97
-7
88
94
+6
94
96
+2
IV
(40)
(43)
(49)
(36)
(34)
(36)
(47)
(48)
(49)
(43)
95
97
h2
98
95
+3
94
95
+1
94
98
+4
98
98
0
V
(41)
(46)
(47)
(34)
(35)
(35)
(45)
(46)
(50)
(46)
98
92
-6
94
89
-5
97
95
-2
90
94
+4
100
92
-8
( ) indicates number of favorable responses.

TABLE 48
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSE TO QUESTIONS ON
THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR TOE STORES IN TREATMENT III
Stores
Question
Dp
L
M
A
D
«.
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
I
(49)
100
(50)
100
0
(49)
100
(50)
100
0
(50)
100
(49)
100
0
(SO)
100
(47)
96
-4
(51)
100
(50)
100
i
0 to
I-*
II
(43)
91
(46)
92
+1
(50)
100
(50)
100
0
(56)
95
(50)
100
+5
(39)
78
(49)
98
i20
l
(50)
100
(48)
96
03
1
-4
III
(43)
88
(43)
86
-2
(50)
100
(49)
98
-2
(50)
100
(50)
100
0
(46)
92
(49)
96
+4
(49)
98
(48)
96
-2
IV
(45)
92
(43)
86
-6
(49)
98
(49)
98
0
(50)
100
(50)
100
V ***â–  j
0
(41)
82
(49)
92
+10
(49)
100
(48)
96
-4
V
(43)
83
(44)
88
0
(¿0)
100
98
-2
(49)
98
(49)
98
0
(38)
78
(38)
75
—3
(49)
98
(45)
90
••3
( ) indicates number of favorable responses.
218

TABLE 49
PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FAVORABLE CUSTOMER RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS ON
THE CUSTOMER ATTITUDE SURVEY FOR THE STORES IN TREATMENT IV
Question
•
—
—
Stores
Dp
L
M
A
D
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
Before
After
Change
I
(49)
(47)
(50)
(SO)
(49)
(22)
(27)
(21)
(47)
(47)
100
96
-4
100
100
0
98
100
+2
100
100
0
94
94
0
II
(42)
(46)
(50)
(48)
(48)
(22)
(27)
(21)
(38)
(45)
91
94
+8
100
96
-4
96
IDO
+4
93
100
+7
95
90
f*5
III
(45)
(45)
(48)
(47)
(49)
(27)
(21)
(46)
(46)
98
91
-7
96
94
-2
98
ioo
+2
100
100
0
92
94
+2
IV
(45)
(46)
(49)
(49)
(48)
(22)
(27)
(21)
(42)
(42)
94
94
0
98
98
0
96
100
+4
100
100
0
84
86
+2
V
(46)
(48)
(48)
(49)
(46)
(22)
(27)
(21)
(46)
(46)
94
98
+4
96
98
+1
92
100
+8
100
100
0
92
92
0
( ) indicates number of favorable responses.
i
219

APPENDIX D
SERVICE SHOPPING REPORT

- 221 -
TABLE 50
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT STORE RESULTS
ON THE UTILIZATION OF THE CORRECT APPROACH
Comparison
Degrees of freedom
Chi-square
Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
.94
.25< P < ,75
I vs II + III
1
5.94
• 010 II vs III
1
1.49
.104P<.25
Total
3
8.37
.025 TABLE 51
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT STORE RESULTS
ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE TO
COMPLETELY OVERCOME OBJECTIONS
Comparison Degrees of freedom Chi-square Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
12.12
P <.005
I vs II + III
1
.66
.25 II vs III
1
.04
.75 Total
3
12.32
.005
- 222 -
TABLE 52
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT STORE RESULTS
ON THE ABILITY OF THE SALESPEOPLE TO TRADE UP CUSTOMERS
Comparison
Degrees of freedom
Chi-square
Significance
IV vs I + II +
III
1
.8
.25< P <.50
I vs II + III
1
1.28
,25< P < .50
II vs III
1
.16
,50<.P4.75
Trtrl
S
2.24
.50 TABLE 53
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT STORE RESULTS
IN THE UTILIZATION OF SUGGESTION SELLING TECHNIQUES
Comparison Degrees of freedom Chi-square Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
1.32
P <.25
I vs II + III
1
1.36
,10 II vs III
1
.04
.75< P < ,90
Total
3
2.72
.25
- 223 -
TABLE 54
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTER-TREATMENT DEPARTMENT STORE RESULTS
ON THE UTILIZATION OF CLOSING TECHNIQUES
Comparison
Degree of freedom
Chi-square
Significance
IV vs I + II + III
1
0.39
.50^ P<.75
I vs II + III
1
3.53
.0S< P<.10
II vs III
1
1.12
.25< P<.50
Total
3
5.04
.10< P^.25

TABLE 55
RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT I
Dp L M A D Totals
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
I. APPROACH:
A. Approached promptly? 6
If tío i t •
1. Waited reasonable
time 1
2. Recognized and
waited a reason¬
able time 2
3. Waited over 5
minutes and left 2
B. Approach appropriate? 5
5 13
4 13
II. INTEREST:
2
1 1 2 2 3 1
2
113 3
15 7 21 3
i
1
1
1
2 2
i
1
2 1
3
8 11 20 4
A. Merchandise requested
' in stock: 7 1 12 1 2 2
if no . . .
1. Offered substitute 1
2. Would order
3 Offered no assist¬
ance 1
. Suggested another
store
3 IS 3 22 2
2 1
1 2
1 1
4
224

TABLE 55 — Continued
Dp
L
M
A
D
Totals
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
III. SELECTION - DISPLAY:
Determined needs
with questions:
3
5
11
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
3 3
7
11
19
5
Showed medium priced
lines first?
3
5
11
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1 1
1
1
1
2
7
11
16
5
Showed merchandise
in 3*s?
3
5
10
3
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
1 1
1
1
1
2
6
12
15
6
Knew physical location
of the stock?
5
3
13
2
2
2
1
4
2
2
1
2 3
10
6
24
IV. CREATING DESIRE:
A. Knew the merchandise?
Very well
Satisfactorily
Poorly
B. Related benefits to
merchandise?
Stressed benefits
Mentioned benefits
Ignored benefits
C. Merchandise informa¬
tion and benefits
volunteered?
D. Handled objections?
Completely
Partially
Not at all
4
2
9
2
11 2
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
2 2
1 2
1
13 2
1
1 1
2
1 1
2 2
7 1* 16 -
9 6
2 1
2 2 1 7 11 16 8
225

TABLE 55 — Continued
Dp
L
M
A
D
Totals
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Ye3 No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
V. TRADE UP:
A. Attempted to trade up?
if yes . . .
8 9 4 1 1 1 1
3 2 2 1
11 12 12
3 14 13 10
VI. SUGGESTION SELLING:
A. Suggested other items? 2 6 10 3
B. Benefits stressed? 1164
C. Item(s) was shown 116 4
VII. CLOSE:
2 2 2 1 22 2
2 0 0 2 1 1
11 1111
4 14 16 8,
1 3 11 5 M
2 2 10-6 S
A. Tried to close?
if yes ♦ . .
VIII. DEPARTURE:
2 6 12 1 2 2
2 13 1 2 2
3 3 4 14 22 2
Departing remark? 3 5 13
IX. APPEARANCE:
General impression of
tiie salesperson's physical
appearance
Outstanding
Satisfactory
Poor
6
7
2 2
2 13 12 2
2
1
1
1 1
1 1
3 2 1 9 9 22 2
1 1 11
2 17 IS
8
3

TABLE 55 — Continued
Dp
L
M
A
D
Totals
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
X. ATTITUDE:
General impression of the
salesperson’s interest in
helping you
Very interested
Fairly interested
Not interested
XI, DISPOSITION:
General impression of the
salesperson’s disposition
Too familiar
Friendly and cheerful
Cold and aloof
3
a
c
5
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
6 14
7 10
5
13
3
12 22
4
227

TABLE 56
RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT II
=
Dp
Totals
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Nc
I. APPROACH:
A. Approached promptly? 7 1 5 4 2 4
if no . . .
1. Waited reasonable
time 2 1
2. Recognized and
waited reasonable
time 12 1
3. Waited over 5
minutes and left 1
B. Approach appropriate 3 5 7 2 1 3 1
II. INTEREST:
A. Merchandise requested
in stock: 5 3 7 2 1 4
if no . . •
1. Offered substitute 1 1
2. Would order 1
3. Offered no assist¬
ance 111
4. Suggested another
store
2 12
3 1
11 2 12 1 3
2 2 3 2 1 3 1
1
12 7 15 4 ,
2
11 6 14 5
13 4
1
1
16 3
2
1
1
228

TABLE 56 — Continued
Dp
L
M
A
D
Totals
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
III. SELECTION - DISPLAY:
A. Determined needs with
questions? 4
B. Showed medium priced
lines first? 2
C. Showed merchandise in
3*8? 3
D. Knew physical loca¬
tion of the stock: 4
2 8 1
4 7 2
3 9
2 9
IV. CREATING DESIRE:
A. Knew the merchandise?
Very well 8
Satisfactorily 1
Poorly 2
B. Related benefits to
merchandise?
Stressed benefits 3
Mentioned benefits 2
Ignored benefits 1
C. Merchandise informa¬
tion and benefits
volunteered? 3 3
D. Handled ob ections?
Completely 2
Partially 1
Not at all 3
6
3
1
6
7
6
2
2
3
4
2 112 13
12 1
7 5 17 2
2 2
2 11 2 11
12 1
2 2
1111 2 1
2 1
5 9 12 5
6 7 13 3
4 2 2
3 3
3
1 12 2 19
4
2 3
1
3
1
2
1 2
1
3 4
6 11
15 4
8 1 1111
12 2 1
1 2
6 8 13 5
7 14
2 3
4
229

TABLE 56 — Continued
=.T-—I—:—::::--::-—:——
Dp L MAD Totals
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
V.TRADE UP:
A.Attempted to trade up? 15 5 4
If yes . . .
VI.SUGGESTION SELLING:
A. Suggested other items? 4254
B. Benefits stressed? 3132
C. Iten(s) was shown 2 2 4 1
VII.CLOSE:
2 113
5 9 8 7
4
111 123
0 1 13
0 1 13
1 2
0 1
1 0
1 6 7 9 10 i
3 3 6 3 m
3 3 7 2 o
A. Tried to close?
if yes . . .
VIII. DEPARTURE:
Departing remark?
IX. APPEARANCE:
General impression
of the salesperson’s
physical appearance
Outstanding
Satisfactory
Poor
12 3
2 13
2 1
6 8 15 4
12 1
9 6 15 1
1 1
2
1 5
15 12

TABLE 56 — Continued
Dp L M A D Totals
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Ves No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yea No Yes No Yes No
X. ATTITUDES
General Impression of
the salesperson's interest
in helping you
Very interested 3 4
Fairly interested 1 5
Not interested S
2
2
1
1 2
1 1
1
1
1 1
1
7 8
7 10
6 »
XX. DISPOSITIONi
General inpression of
the salesperson's dis¬
position
Too familiar
Friendly and cheerful 6
Cold and aloof
9
1 4 2 2 3 3
8 l 15 19
1
1
231

TABLE 57
RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT III
Dp
L
M
A
D
Totals
Before
After
Before
After
Before
After
Before
After
Before After
Before
After
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
Yes No Yes No
Yes No
Yes No
I. APPROACH:
A. Approached promptly?
5 19
8 14
3
3 1
1 1
1 1
3 1
1 2
3 2
12
24
15 18
if no . . .
i
1. Waited reason-
N3
co
able time
11
10
3
1
2
14
13
N5
2. Recognized and
vraited a reason¬
able time 1
3. Waited over 5
minutes and left
Approach appropriate? 8
II.
B.
INTEREST:
7 4
9 10
8 12 2 2
13 3
2 12
8 4
11 15 19 10
A. Merchandise requested
in stock? 12
1. Offered substitute 4
2. Would order
S. Offered no assist¬
ance
. Suggested another
store
5 17
1
12 14
1 2
1 1
4
2 12
20
4
1
8 25 1
1
4
1

TABLE 57 — Continued
Dp
L
M
A
D
Totals
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes Nb Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
III. SELECTION - DISPLAY:
A. Determined needs
with questions
9
7
14
4
B. Showed medium priced
lines first?
1
IS
10
7
C. Shovied merchandise
in 3’s?
2
14
13
4
D. Knew physical loca¬
tion of the stock?
14
2
16
2
CREATING DESIRE:
A. Knew the merchandise?
Very well
8
9
Satisfactorily
4
7
Poorly
4
1
B. Related benefits
to merchandise?
Stressed benefits
1
5
Mentioned benefits
22
Ignored benefits
IS
5
7
C. Merchandise infor¬
mation and benefits
volunteered?
4
12
10
7
D. Handled objections
Completely
3
12
Partially
7
2
Not at all
4
3
2 13 1
2 12 2
2 12
3 4
2 2
1 2
1
1 3
1 1
2 1
2
1
2 2
1
1
1 2
1
1
1 1
1
1
2 2 3
12 1
2 1
3 3
2 2
2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 1
112
112
112
2
1
1
14 12 24 5
4 21 16 8
5 19 20 4 1
22 3 27 2
12 15
8 12
4
>]A - 9
4 9
17
9 16 15 8
7 18
10 4
6 4
1
233

TABLE 57 — Continued
Dp
L
H
A
D
Totals
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After*
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before
Yes No
After
Yes No
Before
Yes No
After
Yes No
V. TRADE UP:
A. Attempted to trade up? 1 16 8
if yes . . .
VI. SUGGESTION SELLING:
A. Suggested other items? 2 14 10
B. Benefits stressed? 1 14
C. Item(s) was shown 1 15
VII. CLOSE:
9
7
6
5
1 2 1 S
S 3 1
12 12
12 0 3
11 2 2 11
2 2
4 22 13 14
1
112
1 11
1 11
7 15 17 9
4 3 8 9
4 3 8 9
A. Tried to dose?
if yes . ♦ .
VIII. DEPARTURE:
Departing remark?
IX. APPEARANCE:
9 16 7 2 1 3 1
10 7 12 5
3 1
3 111
3 13
2 2
112
10 13 18 9
18 9 22 6
General impression of.
the salesperson’s phy¬
sical appearance
Outstanding 2 4
Satisfactory 15 13
1 2
2 2
114 8
2 1 4 20
234

TABLE 57 — Continued
Dp L M A D Totals
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
X. ATTITUDE:
General impression of
tile salesperson's interest
in helping you
Very interested 4
Fairly interested 8
Not Interested 5
7
8
2
2 2
1 2
1
XI. DISPOSITION:
General impression of
the salesperson's
disposition
Too familiar
Friendly and cheerful
Cold and aloof
1
1
1
2
11 14
10 19
7 5
S
2 2 19 26
8
235

TABLE 58
RESULTS OF THE SERVICE SHOPPING REPORTS FOR TREATMENT IV
Dp
L
M
A
D
Totals
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
Before After
Yes No Yes No
I. APPROACH:
A.
B.
Approached promptly?
If no , . .
1. Waited reason¬
able time
2. Recognized and
waited reason¬
able time
3. Waited over 5
minutes and left
Approach appropriate?
12 5 10 7
4 S
1 4
6 11 11 6
II. INTEREST:
A. Merchandise requested
in stock? 14 2 14 3 2 2 2
1. Offered substitute 13 2
2. Would order
3. Offered no assist¬
ance 1
4. Suggested another
store
1111 1
1
2 11
2
2 1
2
11 18 7 14 12 »
4
11 12 15 11
20 2
1
1
21
7
2
2
1
2
236

TABLE 58 — Continued
I
=
Dp
A
D
Totals
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
III. SELECTION - DISPLAY:
A. Determined needs
with questions?
B. Showed medium
priced lines first?
C. Showed merchandise
in 3'Si
D. Knew physical loca¬
tion of tiie stock?
9 6 9 8 1 1
6 9 9 8 2
3
4 11 12 5 2 1
14 2 16 1 2 3
2
2
2
2
1
1 2
2 11 9 10 13
1
1
7 IS 12 9
4 15 17 5
1 12 1
17 4 23 1 '
IV. CREATING DESIRE:
A. Knew the merchandise?
Very well 5
Satisfactorily 7
Poorly
B. Related benefits to
merchandise
Stressed benefits 2
Mentioned benefits 6
Ignored benefits
C. Merchandise infor¬
mation and benefits
volunteered? 7
5
9
2 3
2
10
4 5
7 10 7
1 2
2 13
2
2
2
1
6 8
8 12
5 3
1
1
2 3
8 15
5 7
1 2 2 8 11 14 12
237

TABLE 58 — Continued
Dp L M A D Totals
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
D. Handled objections?
Completely
Partially
Not at all
V. TRADE UP:
4
2
10
3
A. Attempted to trade up? 4 9 5 12
if yes . . .
VI. SUGGESTION SELLING:
A. Suggested other items? 6689
B. Benefits stressed?
C. Item(s) was shown
2 4 5 3
6 0 6 2
VII. CLOSE:
1113
1 1
0 1
0 1
1 3
0 1
1 0
A. Tried to close?
if yes . . .
VIII. DEPARTURE:
Departing remark?
5 14 3 113 1
11 4 14 3
2 1
1
1
1
2 8 6
2 8 15
2 3
2
1 2
1
6 12
8
16
i
i
1 1
1
1
1 2
1
1
2 8 9 10 15
3 5 6 4
7 18 2
1
1 2
2 11 8 18 6
111 1
1 2 1 1 15 6 19
6
238

Dp L M A D Totals
Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After Before After
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
IX. APPEARANCE:
General impression of
the salesperson’s
physical appearance
Outstanding
Satisfactory
Poor
X. ATTITUDE:
2 1
14 14 1
2
General impression of
tee salesperson’s
interest in helping you
Very interested
Fairly interested
Not interested
5 4
8 11 1
2 2
1
2
1
2
1
XI. DISPOSITION:
General impression of
tee salesperson’s dis¬
position
Too familiar
Friendly and cheerful 15 15 3
Cold and aloof 2 11
2
1 1
2 1
1 1
4 5
17 18
2 ,
'O
2 111
7 8
9 14
2 4
2 11
3

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
Beckley, Donald K. and Logan, William B. The Retail Salesperson at
Work. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1948.
Bloomfield, Daniel (ed.) Trends in Retail Distribution. New York:
H. H. Wilson Co., I93Ó:
Brisco, N. A. Retail Salesmanship. New York: The Ronald Press, 1924.
Converse, P. D., Heugy, H. W., and Mitchell, R. V. Elements of Marketing.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1958.
Davis, Ralph. The Fundamentals of Top Management. New York: Harper
& Brothers, 1^51.
Hansen, Morris H., Hurwitz, William G., and Madow, William G. Sample
Survey Methods and Theory, Vol. I: Methods of Application.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 19¿á.
Hill, T. Murray and Walters, R. G. Success Through Salesmanship.
Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Co., 1940.
Jucius, Michael T. Personnel Management. Homewood, Illinois: Richard
D. Irwin, Inc., l9S^.
Kneeland, Natalie, Bernard, Louise and Tallman, Gerald B. Selling to
Today’s Customer. Boston: The Anthenaeum Press, 1942.
Koontz, Harold and O’Donnell, Cyril. Principles of Management. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959.
Maynard, Harold and Beckman, Theodore. Principles of Marketing. 5th ed.
rev. New York: The Ronald Press, 19^6.
Mayo, Elton. The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization. New
York: Macmillan Co., 1933.
- 240 -

- 241 -
Merrill, William. "Why Sell Goods Already Sold," Trends in Retail
Distribution, ed. Daniel Bloomfield, New York: H. H. Wilson
Co., 1930.
Packer, Harry Q. and Hitchcock, Louise S. Merchandise Information in
Successful Selling. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.,'1946.
Robinson, 0. Preston and Christine H. Successful Retail Salesmanship
Helping Customers Buy. New YorF: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1946.
Russell, Frank A. and Beach, Frank H. Textbook of Salesmanship.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.,~Inc., 19S9.
Snedecor, George W. Statistical Methods. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State
College Press, 1956.
Stanton, William J. and Buskirk, Richard H. Management of the Sales
Force. Homewood, Illinois: Richard Ú. Irwin, 1959.
Periodicals
Brean, Herbert. 'They Shop to Make Your Shopping Pleasanter," Readers
Digest. September, 1951.
Dichter, Ernest. "Seven Tenets of Creative Research," Journal of
Marketing. XXV, No. 4 (April, 1961), 2.
Ellsworth, Dart. ’Does Training Pay Dividends," Journal of Retailing.
XXVI, No. 1 (Spring, 1959), 109-111.
Myers, Robert H. "Retail Selling Can and Should be Improved," Journal
of Retailing. XXXIII, No. 1 (Spring, 1957), 39-41.
Personnel Service. New York: National Retail Merchants Association,
January"7~l957 - June, 1960,
"Salespeople vs Robots," Fortune. XXXXIV, No. 4 (November, 1952), 102.
Weiss, E. B. "Salespeople Can't be Trained and Should't Be," Fortune.
XXXXIV, No. 4 (November, 1952), 131.
Weschler, I. R., Kahane, M., and Tonnenbaum, R. "Job Satisfaction,
Productivity and Morale: A Case Study," Occupational
Psychology. XXVI, No. 1 (January, 1952).
"What's Happened to Salesmanship?" Personnel Service, March-April, 1958.
"What's Wrong with Retail Salesmanship," Fortune. XXXXIV, No. 4 (Julv,
1952), 77-86.

242 -
Pamphlets
Expenses in Retail Businesses, Dayton, Ohio: National Cash Register Co.,
(n.d.).
Gainesville, Florida—Facts and Figures. Gainesville, Florida: Gaines-
ville Chamber of* Commerce, 1960.
General Manual of the SRA Employer Inventory, 30 ed. Chicago: Science
Research Association, 1952.
Increase Sales, Prevent Losses with the Willmark Program. New York:
Willmark Service Systems, Inc., 1954.
Woolworth’s First Seventy-Five Years, 1870-1954. New York: F. W.
Woolworth Co., 1954.
Reports, Monographs and Unpublished Works
New York University School of Retailing, Selected Publications for
Retailers. New York: New Vork University Press, 1953.
American Society of Quantitative Chemists, Transactions of the 10th
Annual Meeting. Chicago: 1956.
Flanel, Sam. Departmental Mechandising and Operating Results of 1958.
New Yorlc: Controllers Congress, National Retail Merchants
Association, 1959.
Beckley, Donald R. Service Shopping. Boston: Prince School of Re¬
tailing, Sinmons College, 1953.
Maitlen, Dean T. !'A Delineation of the Gainesville, Florida, Retail
Trade Area." Unpublished Master’s Thesis, School of Business
Administration, University of Florida, 1957.

BIOGRAPHY
• I t f l . .
The author was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1925. After
» . ♦ \ ■ i I , r > ' •
completing high school in New York City in 1942 he served in the
, ;
Army Air Force until discharged in 1946. Since 1957, when he
received a direct commission in the United States Coast Guard, he
,i I : . i. | •
has been in the organized reserve.
In 1948 he entered Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida,
1 ) 1 » . * • ■. . •, •_ . • j: . • •’ »
and was graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1952. During
the next five years he was employed as a credit reporter for The
National Credit Organization for one year; sales supervisor for
Howard Johnson's Ice Crean Company Road Division for two years;
and sales manager of the Tom Thumb Donut Machine Company for two
â–  -
years. In 1955 he married the former Julia Robertson—they have
i < : < ; ' ;
two children.
I v , i \
The University of Florida accepted the author as a graduate
student in 1957 and awarded to him the Masters of Business Administration
degree in August, 1958; In September, 1958 he commenced a three year
doctoral program. During his doctoral studies he acquired two years of
•J j i ’ ; I: l, V
teaching experience in the College of Business Administration as well
as becoming a member of the American Marketing Association and Southern
Economics Association.
243 -

This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chair¬
man of the candidate’s supervisory committee and has been approved by
all members of that committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the
College of Business Administration and to the Graduate Council, and was
approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
February, 1962
Dean, Graduate School
Supervisory Committee

BIOGRAPHY
• I t f l . .
The author was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1925. After
» . ♦ \ ■ i I , r > ' •
completing high school in New York City in 1942 he served in the
, ;
Army Air Force until discharged in 1946. Since 1957, when he
received a direct commission in the United States Coast Guard, he
,i I : . i. | •
has been in the organized reserve.
In 1948 he entered Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida,
1 ) 1 » . * • ■. . •, •_ . • j: . • •’ »
and was graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1952. During
the next five years he was employed as a credit reporter for The
National Credit Organization for one year; sales supervisor for
Howard Johnson's Ice Crean Company Road Division for two years;
and sales manager of the Tom Thumb Donut Machine Company for two
â–  -
years. In 1955 he married the former Julia Robertson—they have
i < : < ; ' ;
two children.
I v , i \
The University of Florida accepted the author as a graduate
student in 1957 and awarded to him the Masters of Business Administration
degree in August, 1958; In September, 1958 he commenced a three year
doctoral program. During his doctoral studies he acquired two years of
•J j i ’ ; I: l, V
teaching experience in the College of Business Administration as well
as becoming a member of the American Marketing Association and Southern
Economics Association.
243 -

This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chair¬
man of the candidate’s supervisory committee and has been approved by
all members of that committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the
College of Business Administration and to the Graduate Council, and was
approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
February, 1962
Dean, Graduate School
Supervisory Committee



This dissertation was prepared under the direction of the chair
man of tiie candidates supervisory committee and has been approved by
all members of that committee. It was submitted to the Dean of the
College of Business Administration and to the Graduate Council, and was
approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
February, 1962
Dean, Graduate School
Supervisory Committee



PAGE 1

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PAGE 6

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PAGE 7

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