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Energy, protein and phosphorus utilization by poultry as influenced by virginiamycin

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Title:
Energy, protein and phosphorus utilization by poultry as influenced by virginiamycin
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Buresh, Robert Edward, 1958-
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ix, 57 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Antibiotics ( jstor )
Body weight ( jstor )
Diet ( jstor )
Feed conversion ratio ( jstor )
Feed intake ( jstor )
Nutrients ( jstor )
Phosphorus ( jstor )
Poultry ( jstor )
Poults ( jstor )
Swine ( jstor )
Animal Science thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Animal Science -- UF
Poultry -- Feed utilization efficiency ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Feeding and feeds ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 51-56).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert Edward Buresh.

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ENERGY, PROTEIN AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION
BY POULTRY AS INFLUENCED BY VIRGINIAMYCIN






BY






ROBERT EDWARD BURESH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1985
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author wishes to express his appreciation to his

major advisor and friend, Dr. R.H. Harms, for his

patience, knowledge and genuine concern which helped to

make this record a worthwhile undertaking. For his

encouragement, insight and wealth of ideas, this author

will always be grateful.

Appreciation is also expressed to Dr. F.B. Mather,

Dr. R.D. Miles, and Dr. R.B. Shireman for their comments,

guidance, and willingness to serve on the advisory

committee.

The author is indebted to the professors, graduate

students, laboratory technicians and farm staff of the

University of Florida Poultry Science Department for their

assistance in this and other research conducted.

Additional gratitude is extended to the SmithKline

Animal Health Products and its representative, Dr. S.M.

Free, Jr., for their support and assistance in the

projects presented in this dissertation.

Finally, the author Wishes to extend his deepest love

and appreciation to his parents and wife, Lisa, for their

invaluable support during this project. It is to them and

his daughter, Lauren, that he dedicates this work.




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to express his appreciation to his
major advisor and friend, Dr. R.H. Harms, for his
patience, knowledge and genuine concern which helped to
make this record a worthwhile undertaking. For his
encouragement, insight and wealth of ideas, this author
will always be grateful.
Appreciation is also expressed to Dr. F.B. Mather,
Dr. R.D. Miles, and Dr. R.B. Shireraan for their comments,
guidance, and willingness to serve on the advisory
committee.
The author is indebted to the professors, graduate
students, laboratory technicians and farm staff of the
University of Florida Poultry Science Department for their
assistance in this and other research conducted.
Additional gratitude is extended to the SmithKline
Animal Health Products and its representative, Dr. S.M.
Free, Jr., for their support and assistance in the
projects presented in this dissertation.
Finally, the author wishes to extend his deepest love
and appreciation to his parents and wife, Lisa, for their
invaluable support during this project. It is to them and
his daughter, Lauren, that he dedicates this work.
ii







VI ENERGY UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS...............28

Introduction................................28
Materials and Methods.......................29
Results and Discussion.................. ......30

VII PROTEIN UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS.............33

Introduction............................... 33
Materials and Methods ....................... 33
Experiment One.........................33
Experiment Two.........................36
Results and Discussion......................36
Experiment One........................ 36
Experiment Two......................... 38

VIII THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON
PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY BROILER CHICKS.....41

Introduction. .............................. 41
Materials and Methods........................41
Results and Discussion......................44

IX SUMMARY OF RESULTS ........................ 47

X CONCLUSIONS.......... ..................... 49

REFERENCES........... ...... .... ................. .... 51

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................57















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

3-1 Composition of the basal diet....................14

3-2 Body weight and feed efficiency of turkey
poults fed four levels of virginiamycin..........16

4-1 Composition of the basal diet....................19

4-2 Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization of turkey poults fed
diets with three levels of peanut hulls with
and without virginiamycin........................21

5-1 Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization when turkey poults were
fed ad libitum or restricted fed..................26

6-1 Performance of turkey poults fed antibiotics
according to two feeding programs................31

7-1 Composition of the basal diet....................35

7-2 Performance of turkey poults when fed diets
with two protein levels and with three
antibiotics (Experiment One) .....................37

7-3 Performance of turkey poults fed diets with
two protein levels and with four antibiotics
(Experiment Two)..................................38

8-1 Composition of the basal diet....................43

8-2 Performance of broilers fed various levels
of phosphorus for three weeks with and
without virginiamycin............................45















LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


Celsius C
gram(s) g
International Chick Unit ICU
International Unit IU
kilocalorie kcal
kilogram(s) kg
microgram(s) mcg
milligrams) mg
parts per million ppm




LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Celsius
C
gram(s)
8
International
Chick Unit
ICU
International
Unit
IU
kilocalorie
kcal
kilograra(s)
kg
micrograra(s)
meg
milligram(s)
mg
parts per million
ppm
vi







to be 22 ppm and therefore was used in all subsequent

experiments.

Two methods of limiting the energy intake of the

poults were utilized in the three experiments evaluating

energy utilization. Dilution of an adequate diet with

peanut hulls resulted in reducing the energy content of

the diet by 15 and 30%. The addition of virginiamycin to

the diluted diets resulted in increased body weights,

improved feed efficiency, and reduced amount of energy

required per gram of body weight.

A second energy utilization experiment utilized a

restricted feeding program to limit energy intakes. The

poult body weights and feed efficiencies were improved

following virginiamycin supplementation in both the ad

libitum fed and 25% restricted feeding programs. The

equivalent feed intakes of the restricted fed poults

resulted in the demonstration of an improved energy

utilization. Using this restricted feeding program to

compare the effects of four antibiotics, it was then found

that lincomycin and virginiamycin addition to the diet

improved energy utilization.

The influence of virginiamycin on protein utilization

was studied with a diet shown to be protein-deficient for

turkey poults. It was found in two experiments that the

addition of Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin to


viii









the protein-deficient basal diet resulted in enhanced

growth promotion and protein utilization.

Virginiamycin supplementation to chick diets

containing various phosphorus levels increased body

weights and bone ash, and improved feed efficiency

values. Numerical reductions in the amount of phosphorus

consumed per gram of body weight indicated an improved

phosphorus utilization.




the protein-deficient basal diet resulted in enhanced
growth promotion and protein utilization.
Virginiamycin supplementation to chick diets
containing various phosphorus levels increased body
weights and bone ash, and improved feed efficiency
values. Numerical reductions in the amount of phosphorus
consumed per gram of body weight indicated an improved
phosphorus utilization.
IX


2
would have on dietary energy, protein and mineral
utilization by poultry.
The first experiment was designed to determine the
level of virginiamycin inclusion in the diet to obtain
maximum responses in turkey poults.
The second and third experiments were conducted to
investigate what influence virginiamycin would have on
energy utilization by turkey poults. In the fourth
experiment, the influence of four antibiotics on energy
utilization was studied.
Experiment five was designed to study the influence
of virginiamycin and three other antibiotics on the
utilization of protein by turkey poults.
A final experiment was designed to study the
influence of virginiamycin on the utilization of dietary
phosphorus by broiler chicks.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Characterization of Virginiamycin
Virginiaraycin is an antibiotic produced by a mutant
of Streptomyces virginiae, which was isolated from Belgian
soil (De Somer and Van Dijck, 1955; Van Dijck, 1969).
Virginiamycin, also known by the name Staphylomycin,
belongs to a class of antibiotics that share two basic
chemical structures that act synergistically to exhibit
their antibacterial action. The two major components of
virginiamycin are designated as factors M and S. Factor M
is present in a larger amount and is mainly active against
Micrococcus aureus, while Factor S is primarily active
against Bacillus subtillis (Van Dijck, 1969). Each of the
components individually demonstrates bacteriostatic
activity against gram-positive bacteria, but in
combination are bactericidal. The synergistic response of
the virginiaraycin components has been attributed to Factor
S (Vanderhaeghe et al., 1957; Van Dijck et al., 1957; Van
Dijck and Braekel, 1969; Bycroft, 1977).
The antibacterial activity of virginiamycin is
expressed by the inhibition of the metabolic pathway which
controls protein synthesis. It has been shown that this
3







1985). The third possible mode of action involves a

reduction in the rate of passage of nutrients through the

intestine and a thinning of the intestinal wall. Each of

these would result in an improved absorption of nutrients

(Madge, 1969, 1971). Additionally, a reduction in the

intestinal tissue would decrease the maintenance require-

ments of the tissue. This would result in an increased

amount of nutrients available for other tissues.



Growth Promotion and Improved Performance

The stimulation of growth promotion in domestic

poultry is perhaps the greatest factor in the feeding of

antibiotics. Chickens were the first animals in which the-

antibiotic growth effect was observed when Moore et al.

(1946) reported that chicks fed diets containing

streptomycin grew more rapidly than the controls. Since

the presentation of Moore's findings, numerous researchers

have been involved in the evaluation of antibiotics, in

particular, virginiamycin, in poultry feeds. The positive

responses resulting from virginiamycin supplementation

have been partitioned into improvements in the utilization

of dietary energy, protein, and other nutrients. Others

have evaluated virginiamycin supplementation on the basis

of improved growth, feed efficiency and enhanced

performance. The latter group will be reviewed first.









Eyssen et al. (1962) reported that virginiamycin (20

ppm) in a semi-synthetic diet improved the body weights of

21-day-old chicks by 26%. They concluded that the

response to virginiamycin may be due to an inhibition of

the growth of lactobacilli bacteria within the crop of the

bird. In later experiments, Eyssen (1962) reported a

growth response of 15-30% when virginiamycin was added to

the diet.

There have also been numerous reports published

comparing the relative effectiveness of various

antibiotics. Combs and Bossard (1963) found virginiamycin

(8.8 ppm) to be significantly (P<.05) more effective in

increasing broiler body weights than nine other

antibiotics chlortetracyclinee hydrochloride,

oxytetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin, spiramycin

embonate, zinc bacitracin, procaine penicillin, tylosin,

spontin and erythromycin). Additionally, the growth

responses were greater when "used" litter was placed in

the floor pens as compared to clean litter. In

comparisons utilizing chicks and turkey poults, Yates and

Schaible (1961; 1962) found virginiamycin (9.9 ppm) to be

comparable to terramycin and zinc bacitracin on the basis

of growth, feed utilization and livability.

Foster (1972) evaluated the effectiveness of two

antibiotics (including virginiamycin), a nitrofuran

derivative and two arsenicals to promote broiler growth.









Body weights and feed conversion values for birds fed

virginiamycin (5.5 ppm) were not significantly different

from the controls. However, it was reported that each of

these feed additives reduced the weight and weight per

unit area of the small intestine. In a later study,

Foster (1978) evaluated the four growth promoting feed

additives available in the United Kingdom (virginiamycin,

flavophospholipol, nitrovin and zinc bacitracin). Each of

the additives, except the flavophospholipol, demonstrated

the ability to significantly improve body weights.

However, none had any influence on feed conversion. In

addition to these growth promoting effects on poultry,

several researchers have made similar conclusions with

growing and finishing swine (Barnhart et al., 1960;

Griffin et al., 1961; Miller and Barnhart, 1961; Griffin

and Lidvall, 1962). In each of these antibiotic

comparison experiments, virginiamycin at various levels

was shown to improve the average daily gain and feed

efficiency values. Jones and Pond (1963) reported that

virginiamycin (44 ppm) significantly increased the average

daily gain of weanling pigs but had no significant effect

on the body weight gain or feed efficiency values when fed

to rats.

To extend the understanding of the growth promoting

qualities of virginiamycin, Leeson (1984) studied the

influence of virginiamycin (11 ppm) on growth and carcass








characteristics. The antibiotic improved weight gains,

feed efficiency, carcass weights, carcass yields and

carcass grading according to Agriculture Canada

standards. In addition to growth promotion, Miles et al.

(1984b) found that virginiamycin (10 ppm) enhanced the

utilization of dietary xanthophyll, resulting in an

increase in broiler shank pigmentation. Miles and Harms

(1984) also reported that virginiamycin inclusion in the

diet (10 ppm) resulted in an improvement in broiler

uniformity and litter quality.

The only research reported in the United States
evaluating the effect of feeding virginiamycin on the

performance of laying hens was conducted by Miles et al.

(1985). Improvements in egg production and feed effi-

ciency were found in one of two experiments, each lasting

five 28-day periods. However, in both experiments,

virginiamycin (10 ppm) significantly reduced egg size.



Energy Utilization
In addition to growth promotion, an improvement in

the utilization of energy has been associated with the
feeding of antibiotics to poultry. Nelson et al. (1963a;

1963b) concluded that the addition of several antibiotics

to the diets of chicks resulted in an increased efficiency

of absorption of calorigenic nutrients. A similar in-

crease in the absorption and utilization of carbohydrates


s








and fats was demonstrated by Eyssen and De Somer (1963a;

1963b). In a study involving virginiamycin, March (1978)

found that supplementation (22 ppm) to broiler diets

increased the metabolizable energy from the diets an

average of 7.2%. Ravindran et al. (1984) used growing

swine to demonstrate that virginiamycin (11 ppm)

supplementation improved dietary energy utilization of a

high fiber diet. In a related study with growing swine,

Gorrill et al. (1960a; 1960b) showed that the addition of

an antibiotic mixture to the diet increased the

digestibility of dietary energy.

In contrast, others have failed to show these

positive effects of antibiotics on energy utilization.

Sibbald et al. (1961) and Slinger et al. (1962), in

studies with chicks and turkey poults, found that the

addition of antibiotics to the diets had no influence on

dietary metabolizable energy. In a series of experiments

conducted over three years, Begin (1971) was unable to

demonstrate that chlortetracycline had any effect on the

metabolizable energy obtained from the diet.



Protein Utilization
There is a general agreement between researchers

regarding the influence of antibiotic feeding on the

utilization of protein. This was perhaps first

demonstrated by Cunha et al. (1950) with the conclusion




9
and fats was demonstrated by Eyssen and De Somer (1963a;
1963b). In a study involving virginiamycin, March (1978)
found that supplementation (22 ppm) to broiler diets
increased the metabolizable energy from the diets an
average of 7.2%. Ravindran et al. (1984) used growing
swine to demonstrate that virginiamycin (11 ppm)
supplementation improved dietary energy utilization of a
high fiber diet. In a related study with growing swine,
Gorrill et al. (1960a; 1960b) showed that the addition of
an antibiotic mixture to the diet increased the
digestibility of dietary energy.
In contrast, others have failed to show these
positive effects of antibiotics on energy utilization.
Sibbald et al. (1961) and Slinger et al. (1962), in
studies with chicks and turkey poults, found that the
addition of antibiotics to the diets had no influence on
dietary metabolizable energy. In a series of experiments
conducted over three years, Begin (1971) was unable to
demonstrate that chlortetracycline had any effect on the
metabolizable energy obtained from the diet.
Protein Utilization
There is a general agreement between researchers
regarding the influence of antibiotic feeding on the
utilization of protein. This was perhaps first
demonstrated by Cunha et al. (1950) with the conclusion







Mineral Utilization

It has been recognized for three decades that

inclusion of antibiotics in the diet exerts an influence

on the utilization of dietary minerals and the subsequent

mineral requirement. Common et al. (1950) reported that

serum calcium was additively elevated following estrogen

injection when chlortetracycline was added to the diets of

pullets. Migicovsky et al. (1951) fed chicks a low

calcium diet supplemented with penicillin, and found that

the antibiotic increased the incorporation of 45Ca into

the tibia. They concluded that in this experiment,

penicillin enhanced the absorption of calcium. Pepper et

al. (1952) obtained a greater growth response to

aureomycin with diets deficient in manganese than with

those adequate in the mineral. The antibiotic also

reduced the incidence of perosis in chicks fed the low

manganese diets. This enhancement of manganese

utilization was confirmed by Pepper et al. (1953).

Similar reductions in the incidence of perosis in turkey

poults were reported by Slinger et al. (1951) and Scott

(1951) when penicillin and aureomycin were included in the
diets, respectively. Linblad et al. (1954) noted that the

more inadequate the diet with respect to calcium and

phosphorus the greater was the percentage increase in body

weights of chicks and poults due to chlortetracycline. It

was concluded that calcium utilization was enhanced by the




11
Mineral Utilization
It has been recognized for three decades that
inclusion of antibiotics in the diet exerts an influence
on the utilization of dietary minerals and the subsequent
mineral requirement. Common et al. (1950) reported that
serum calcium was additively elevated following estrogen
injection when chlortetracycline was added to the diets of
pullets. Migicovsky et al. (1951) fed chicks a low
calcium diet supplemented with penicillin, and found that
the antibiotic increased the incorporation of ^5ca into
the tibia. They concluded that in this experiment,
penicillin enhanced the absorption of calcium. Pepper et
al. (1952) obtained a greater growth response to
aureomycin with diets deficient in manganese than with
those adequate in the mineral. The antibiotic also
reduced the incidence of perosis in chicks fed the low
manganese diets. This enhancement of manganese
utilization was confirmed by Pepper et al. (1953)
Similar reductions in the incidence of perosis in turkey
poults were reported by Slinger et al. (1951) and Scott
(1951) when penicillin and aureomycin were included in the
diets, respectively. Linblad et al. (1954) noted that the
more inadequate the diet with respect to calcium and
phosphorus the greater was the percentage increase in body
weights of chicks and poults due to chlortetracycline. It
was concluded that calcium utilization was enhanced by the













CHAPTER III
DETERMINATION OF THE VIRGINIAMYCIN LEVEL
FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE IN TURKEY POULTS



Introduction

It has been demonstrated that the inclusion of

virginiamycin to the diet results in increased body weight

gains and improved feed efficiencies in various types of

poultry. The range of levels over which maximum responses

were obtained varied from 8.8 to 22 ppm. The Food and

Drug Administration currently set the maximum allowable

level to be 22 ppm (20 grams per ton) for the improvement

of body weight gain and feed efficiency in broiler

chickens and replacement pullets (Feed Additive

Compendium, 1985). The following two experiments were

conducted to determine the level of virginiamycin

necessary to obtain optimum performance in turkey poults.



Materials and Methods
Two experiments were conducted with day-old Nicholas

Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean meal basal diet

(Table 3-1) was used. Four experimental diets were fed

which contained O, 5.5, 11 and 22 ppm of virginiamycin.

At day of age, the poults were randomized and placed into












TABLE 3-1
Composition of the basal diet


Ingredient


Yellow corn 48.58
Soybean meal (49% Protein) 43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P & 22% Ca) 2.09
Limestone 1.42
Salt .30
Animal fat 3.71
Microingredients* .50
TM-50** .05
DL-methionine .18


* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D3; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyr.imidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 998.8 mg
choline; 22 mcg vitamin B12; 110 mcg biotin; 125 mg
ethoxyquin; 126.1 mg MnCO3; 300.1 mg iron citrate;
15.97 mg CuC12*2H20; 1.65 mg KI; 41.85 mg ZnO.

** Registered trademark for Terramycin (110 mg/kg), Chas
Pfizer, Lee's Summit, MO.


L








electrically heated, Petersime batteries with raised wire

floors. In both experiments, each diet was fed to six

pens, each containing four male and four female poults.

Poults were individually weighed at 21 days of age and

feed consumption was determined. Since there was no

treatment by experiment interaction, the data were

combined. Significant differences between treatment means

were determined according to Duncan's multiple range test

(Duncan, 1955) and the dose relationship was established

using linear least squares analysis of the log data.



Results and Discussion

The addition of 5.5 ppm of virginiamycin resulted in

a significant increase in body weight of poults (Table

3-2). An increase in weight which approached the 5% level

of probability, was obtained when the level of

virginiamycin was increased from 5.5 to 11 ppm. A

numerical increase in weight was obtained when the level

of virginiamycin was increased to 22 ppm. Least square

analysis of the log data indicate that 22 ppm was required

for maximum weight gain.

The addition of 5.5, 11 or 22 ppm resulted in

significantly improved feed efficiency compared to the

control. A numerical improvement in feed efficiency was

obtained when the level of virginiamycin was increased

from 5.5 to 11 and from 11 to 22 ppm.










TABLE 3-2
Body weight and feed efficiency of turkey poults
fed four levels of virginiamycin



Virginiamycin Body weight* Feed efficiency*
(ppm) (g) (g/g body wt)

0 417.5a 1.35c

5.5 458.8b 1.27b

11 477.2bc 1.26ab

22 485.9c 1.23a

* Means with different superscripts within a column are
significantly different (P<.05) according to Duncan's
multiple range test.





16
TABLE 3-2
Body weight and feed efficiency of turkey poults
fed four levels of virginiamycin
Virginiamycin
(ppm)
Body weight*
(g)
Feed efficiency*
(g/g body wt)
0
417.5a
1 .35
5.5
458.8b
1 .27b
11
477.2bc
1.26ab
22
485.9
1.23a
* Means with different superscripts within a column are
significantly different (P_<_.05) according to Duncan's
multiple range test.













CHAPTER IV
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY UTILIZATION
USING AN ENERGY DILUTED DIET



Introduction

There has been considerable data in the literature

indicating that the feeding of antibiotics to poultry

results in an improved utilization of dietary energy.

Virginiamycin is among this group of antibiotics. The

most common method to determine changes in energy

utilization has been with the use of diets in which the

energy levels are varied by altering ingredient

combinations. The two experiments reported herein were

conducted to determine the influence of virginiamycin on

energy utilization by the turkey poult when fed diets

designed to be less dense calorically than the basal.



Materials and Methods

Two experiments were conducted using day-old Nicholas

Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean meal basal diet

(Table 4-1) was used which was calculated to contain 2719

kilocalories per kg. Two additional diets were formulated

by mixing 85 and 70% of the basal diet with 15 and 30% of

ground peanut hulls, respectively. The ground peanut











TABLE 4-1
Composition of the basal diet


Ingredient


Yellow corn 48.63
Soybean meal (49%) 43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P & 22% Ca) 2.09
Limestone 1.42
Salt .30
Poultry oil 3.71
Microingredients* .50
DL-methionine .18


* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D ; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 998.8 mg
choline; 22 mcg vitamin B12; 110 mcg biotin; 125 mg
ethoxyquin; 126.1 mg MnCO'; 300.1 mg iron citrate;
15.97 mg CuCl'2H20; 1.65 mg KI and 41.85 mg ZnO.








hulls diluted the nutrient density of the diet and were

assumed to have no metabolizable energy value for poults

(Ensminger and Olentine, 1978; Cullison, 1979). Thus,

these diets contained approximately 2311 and 1903 kilo-

calories per kg, respectively. Each diet was supplemented

with either 0 or 22 ppm of virginiamycin. The latter

level was demonstrated to be optimum by the experiments in

Chapter III.

The poults were sexed at one-day of age, and four

males and four females were randomly assigned to pens in

electrically heated Petersime battery brooders with raised

wire floors. Six and nine replicate pens were fed each

diet in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. The

experimental diets and water were offered ad libitum

throughout the 21-day experimental period.

Body weights were obtained at 21-days of age and feed

consumption was measured at this time. The data were

subjected to the analysis of variance and significant

differences determined by Duncan's multiple range test

(Duncan, 1955). Since the sex by treatment and the

treatment by experiment interactions were not significant,

the data have been combined.



Results and Discussion

The 15% peanut hull dilution in nutrient density

resulted in poults with greater feed consumption and









poorer growth rates than the poults fed the undiluted

control diet (Table 4-2). Also feed consumption was

slightly increased with the 30% dilution with supplemental

virginiamycin. And yet, better energy utilization was

found in the smaller poults.

The addition of virginiamycin to all diets resulted

in increased body weight (Table 4-2). The increase in

weight was greatest in poults fed the diet with the lowest

energy level. Feed consumption as grams per bird was not

influenced by the addition of virginiamycin to the two

diets with the higher energy levels. A significant

increase in feed consumption along with the largest weight

increase was obtained when virginiamycin was added to the

diet with the lowest energy level. Thus, feed efficiency

was improved significantly in all diets by the addition of

virginiamycin. The increased body weight and reduced feed

efficiency resulted in reducing the amount of energy

required per gram of body weight (Table 4-2). This

improvement was significant when the diet contained no

peanut hulls and numerically improved in the diets

containing peanut hulls.

The improvement in the body weight and feed

efficiency of poults from the addition of virginiamycin

agrees with the data previously reported by Harms and

Miles (1983b). The improvement in energy utilization in

the energy-diluted diets used in this study would indicate




21
poorer growth rates than the poults fed the undiluted
control diet (Table 4-2). Also feed consumption was
slightly increased with the 30% dilution with supplemental
virginiamycin. And yet, better energy utilization was
found in the smaller poults.
The addition of virginiamycin to all diets resulted
in increased body weight (Table 4-2). The increase in
weight was greatest in poults fed the diet with the lowest
energy level. Feed consumption as grams per bird was not
influenced by the addition of virginiamycin to the two
diets with the higher energy levels. A significant
increase in feed consumption along with the largest weight
increase was obtained when virginiamycin was added to the
diet with the lowest energy level. Thus, feed efficiency
was improved significantly in all diets by the addition of
virginiamycin. The increased body weight and reduced feed
efficiency resulted in reducing the amount of energy
required per gram of body weight (Table 4-2). This
improvement was significant when the diet contained no
peanut hulls and numerically improved in the diets
containing peanut hulls.
The improvement in the body weight and feed
efficiency of poults from the addition of virginiamycin
agrees with the data previously reported by Harms and
Miles (1983b). The improvement in energy utilization in
the energy-diluted diets used in this study would indicate







that virginiamycin is possibly increasing the utilization

of all calorigenic nutrients. The present data agree with

those of Heuser (1951) who reported that when the energy

level of the diet was decreased, the response to

antibiotics was increased.

Virginiamycin supplementation in this study resulted

in a greater growth response and improved feed efficiency

in diets designed to be less calorically dense than the

basal diet.















CHAPTER V
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY UTILIZATION
BY TURKEY POULTS WHEN AD LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED FED



Introduction

It was demonstrated in the previous chapter that

virginiamycin enhanced the utilization of energy through

the use of adequate and energy diluted diets. The energy

intake was restricted in the following experiment by

restricting feed intake, and the influence of

virginiamycin was then determined.



Materials and Methods

An experiment was conducted using day-old Nicholas

Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean basal diet was

used (Table 4-1). The poults were sexed at one day of age

and randomly assigned to 36 pens in electrically heated

Petersime batteries with raised wire floors. A 2 x 2

factorial arrangement of treatments was used comparing

full and restricted feeding program with and without 22

ppm of virginiamycin. Nine replications, each containing

four male and four female poults were fed each of the four

experimental diets. Two groups were fed the diet ad

libitum. The other group received only 75% of the average









amount of feed consumed by the poults fed the non-

supplemented ad libitum diet. The allotment of feed for

the poults on the restricted program was calculated daily

using the previous day's consumption for the ad libitum

birds.

Individual body weights were obtained and feed

consumption by pen was calculated at 21 days. Feed

efficiency (g feed/g body weight) and kilocalories of

metabolizable energy required per gram body weight were

calculated. The data were subjected to the analyses of

variance. The sex by treatment interaction was not signi-

ficant, therefore, the data for sexes were combined.

Significant differences between treatment means were

determined by Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).



Results and Discussion

A 25% reduction in feed intake resulted in a signifi-

cant reduction in body weight in both the presence and

absence of virginiamycin (Table 5-1). The addition of

virginiamycin resulted in a significant increase in body

weight. This improvement was approximately the same for

the ad libitum fed and restricted treatments. Feed

consumption was not significantly different for the two ad

libitum fed groups (Table 5-1). The addition of virginia-

mycin to the diet significantly improved feed efficiency

for both the ad libitum fed and the restricted groups.




25
amount of feed consumed by the poults fed the non-
supplemented ad libitum diet. The allotment of feed for
the poults on the restricted program was calculated daily
using the previous day's consumption for the ad libitum
birds.
Individual body weights were obtained and feed
consumption by pen was calculated at 21 days. Feed
efficiency (g feed/g body weight) and kilocalories of
metabolizable energy required per gram body weight were
calculated. The data were subjected to the analyses of
variance. The sex by treatment interaction was not signi
ficant, therefore, the data for sexes were combined.
Significant differences between treatment means were
determined by Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).
Results and Discussion
A 25# reduction in feed intake resulted in a signifi
cant reduction in body weight in both the presence and
absence of virginiamycin (Table 5-1). The addition of
virginiamycin resulted in a significant increase in body
weight. This improvement was approximately the same for
the ad libitum fed and restricted treatments. Feed
consumption was not significantly different for the two ad
libitum fed groups (Table 5-1). The addition of virginia
mycin to the diet significantly improved feed efficiency
for both the ad libitum fed and the restricted groups.







The addition of virginiamycin to the diet

significantly reduced the amount of energy required to

produce a gram of weight gain (Table 5-1). This

improvement in energy utilization was greater with poults

in the restricted groups (7.4%) than with the ad libitum

fed group.

The improvement in feed efficiency and energy

utilization from virginiamycin supplementation agree with

the findings presented in Chapter IV. However, in this

study the energy intake was the same for those poults in

the restricted group receiving the diets with and without

virginiamycin. Therefore, the improvement in weight gain

observed in this study was a result of more efficient

energy utilization.















CHAPTER VI
ENERGY UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS



Introduction

Following the completion of the previous two sets of

experiments, it was concluded that virginiamycin can

effectively enhance energy utilization. Although several

antibiotics have been reported to influence energy

utilization by poultry and swine, there have been no

direct comparisons between antibiotics in terms of this

response. The following two experiments were conducted

with turkey poults and the restricted feeding procedure

presented in Chapter V to determine the influence of four

antibiotics on energy utilization. The antibiotics

utilized were Bacitracin MD,1 Flavomycin,2 lincomycin and

virginiamycin. Each of these feed additives has been

shown to promote growth in poultry and swine.





1Bacitracin MD is a registered trademark for bacitracin
methylene disalicylate, A.L. Laboratories, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 17632.
2 Flavomycin is a registered trademark for bambermycins,
American Hoechst Corp., Somerville, NJ, 08876.




CHAPTER VI
ENERGY UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS
Introduction
Following the completion of the previous two sets of
experiments, it was concluded that virginiamycin can
effectively enhance energy utilization. Although several
antibiotics have been reported to influence energy
utilization by poultry and swine, there have been no
direct comparisons between antibiotics in terms of this
response. The following two experiments were conducted
with turkey poults and the restricted feeding procedure
presented in Chapter V to determine the influence of four
antibiotics on energy utilization. The antibiotics
utilized were Bacitracin MD,' Flavomycin, lincomycin and
virginiamycin. Each of these feed additives has been
shown to promote growth in poultry and swine.
4
Bacitracin MD is a registered trademark for bacitracin
methylene disalicylate, A.L. Laboratories, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 17632.
2
Flavomycin is a registered trademark for bambermycins,
American Hoechst Corp., Somerville, NJ, 08876.
23













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32


The results of this experiment indicate that the

utilization of energy can be enhanced by the feeding of

various antibiotics to turkey poults. A feeding program

which limited the energy intake was used to demonstrate

that both lincomycin and virginiamycin enhanced energy

utilization. The results concerning virginiamycin and

energy utilization agree with those previously presented

in earlier chapters.








minerals and no supplemental choline was used (Table

7-1). Supplemental sulfate and choline were removed from

the basal diet to increase the stress on the poults in

order to obtain maximum responses to the antibiotics.

This basal diet was calculated to be deficient in protein

for the growing poult (26%) and has been shown to respond

to supplemental methionine and virginiamycin (Harms and

Miles, 1983a; 1983b). An arrangement of treatments was

used which included zero and .18% supplemental methionine

and Bacitracin MD,1 Flavomycin2 and virginiamycin at 50,

2, and 20 grams per ton, respectively.

At one-day of age, the poults were sexed and were

randomly assigned to pens in electrically heated Petersime

battery brooders with raised wire floors. Each of the

eight experimental diets was fed to a total of eleven

pens, each containing four male and four female poults.

The diets and deionized water were offered ad libitum

throughout the 21-day experimental period. The poults

were individually weighed at 21-days of age and feed

consumption was determined.





SBacitracin MD is a registered trademark for bacitracin
methylene disalicylate, A.L. Laboratories, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 17632.
2Flavomycin is a registered trademark for bambermycins,
American Hoescht Corp., Somerville, NJ, 08876.










TABLE 7-1
Composition of the basal diet


Ingredients


Yellow Corn 48.81
Soybean meal (49%) 43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P & 22% Ca) 2.09
Limestone 1.42
Salt .30
Animal fat 3.71
Microingredients (choline and SO4 free)* .50


* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D3; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadionine
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 22 mcg
vitamin B-2; 110 mcg biotin; 125 mg ethoxyquin; 126.1
mg MnCO0; 100.1 mg iron citrate; 15.97 mg CuC12*2H20;
1.65 mg KI; 41.85 mg ZnO.





35
TABLE 7-1
Composition of the basal diet
Ingredients
#
Yellow Corn
48.81
Soybean meal (49/0
43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5# P
& 22# Ca)
2.09
Limestone
1 .42
Salt
30
Animal fat
3.71
Microingredients (choline and
SO^ free)*
.50
* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D^; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadionine
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 22 meg
vitamin B^o; 110 meg biotin; 125 mg ethoxyquin; 126.1
mg MnCO^; 300.1 mg iron citrate; 15.97 mg CuClp^HnO;
1.65 mg KI; 41.85 mg ZnO.





















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TABLE 7-2
Performance of turkey poults when fed diets with
two protein levels and with three antibiotics (Experiment One)
Antibiotic
Supplemental
Methionine
Body weight*
Feed consumption*
Feed utilization*
<*)
(g)
(g/poult)
(g feed/g body wt)
Control
0
281.9a
390.6ab
1 .39
Bacitracin MD
0
298.9a
401.4ab
1 34d
Flavomycin
0
293.9
387.4!*
1 .32
Virginiamycin
0
326.3b
415.2
1.27a
Control
.18
422.8
586.2C
1.39
Bacitracin MD
.18
441.4d
589.6
1.34d
Flavomycin
.18
439.4d
587.0
1 34d
Virginiamycin
.18
446.3d
580.5
1 .30
* Means with different superscripts within each column are significantly different
(P<_.05) according to Duncan's multiple range test.






contrast, only virginiamycin significantly improved body

weight gains when the antibiotics were added to the

protein deficient basal. Additionally, poults fed diets

containing virginiamycin had the only significant increase

in feed consumption. Feed efficiency was significantly

improved with the antibiotic supplemented diets as

compared to the protein adequate basal, with the largest

improvement observed with virginiamycin. With the

protein-deficient basal, the addition of Bacitracin MD,

Flavomycin and virginiamycin each significantly improved

feed efficiency values in a progressive manner, with

virginiamycin being the most beneficial.

Experiment Two

The addition of lincomycin or virginiamycin to the

protein adequate basal diet significantly increased the

growth of the poults (Table 7-3). Without supplemental

methionine added to the basal, Flavomycin and lincomycin

significantly improved body weight gains compared to the

control and Bacitracin MD, and virginiamycin fed poults

showed an additional increase in growth compared to

Flavomycin and lincomycin. There were no significant

differences in feed consumption between antibiotics within

each of the basal diets. In a manner similar to the body

weight gains, the supplementation of either the protein-

adequate or protein-deficient diet with Flavomycin,










lincomycin and virginiamycin significantly improved feed

efficiency values.

The results from these two experiments indicate that

the supplementation of basal diets with one of several

antibiotics improved poult body weight gains and feed

efficiency values. The magnitude of this growth response

was greater in the diets deficient in sulfur amino acids

indicating that the antibiotics enhanced the utilization

of these components in the diet. In the protein-deficient

diets, Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin each

resulted in enhanced amino acid utilization.




40
lincomycin and virginiamycin significantly improved feed
efficiency values.
The results from these two experiments indicate that
the supplementation of basal diets with one of several
antibiotics improved poult body weight gains and feed
efficiency values. The magnitude of this growth response
was greater in the diets deficient in sulfur amino acids
indicating that the antibiotics enhanced the utilization
of these components in the diet. In the protein-deficient
diets, Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin each
resulted in enhanced amino acid utilization.







Materials and Methods

A total of 768 day-old Cobb feather-sexed chicks were

used. Four males and four females were randomly assigned

to each of 96 pens in Petersime battery brooders with

raised wire floors.

A corn-soybean meal basal diet (Table 8-1) containing

.40% total phosphorus was used. Three additional diets

were formulated by adding .07, .14, and .21% supplemental

phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate (18% P and 22% Ca).

Each of the diets containing 0, .07, and .14% supplemental

phosphorus was fed with 0 and 22 ppm virginiamycin. The

diet with .21% supplemental phosphorus was fed only with 0

supplemental virginiamycin. The calcium content of the

diet was maintained at .7% by varying the amount of added

ground limestone and using builders sand as a filler.

Fifteen replicate pens were fed each of six diets with the

lower phosphorus, and six pens were placed on the diet

with the highest phosphorus level.

After three weeks on treatment, the birds were

individually weighed and pen-feed consumption was

determined. Feed efficiency was also calculated for this

period. Bone ash was determined on the right tibia from

eight males and eight females randomly selected from each

treatment. The determination of bone ash was with the

method accepted by the Association of Official Analytical

Chemists (AOAC, 1975). The tibias were cleaned of meat











TABLE 8-1
Composition of the basal diet


Ingredients %


Corn 59.4
Soybean meal (49%) 36.0
Animal fat 1.0
Microingredients* .5
Salt .4
Variables** 2.7


* Supplied the following activities per kg of diet: 6600
IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU vitamin D3, 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite; 4.4 mg riboflavin, 13.2
mg pantothenic acid; 39.6 mg niacin; 499.4 mg choline
chloride; 22.0 mcg vitamin B1; 125 mg ethoxyquin; 60.0
mg manganese; 50.0 mg iron; 6.0 mg copper; 198 mcg
cobalt; 1.1 mg iodine; and 35.0 mg zinc.

** Includes washed builders sand, ground limestone, and
dicalcium phosphate (18.5% phosphorus and 22% calcium).








leaving the cartilage cap intact and were extracted for 24

hours with methanol, then 24 hours with methanol and then

24 hours with petroleum ether in a Soxhlet extractor. The

tibias were finally dried at 95 C for 12 hours and ashed

in a muffle furnace at 600 C for eight hours. Because the

sex by treatment interaction was not significant, the data

were combined for both sexes. Significant differences

between treatment means were determined by Duncan's

multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).



Results and Discussion

The addition of virginiamycin to the diet resulted in

a significant increase in body weight (Table 8-2). This

increase was only significant (P<.05) with the chicks fed

the diet with .47% phosphorus; however, the difference

approached significance with those chicks receiving the

basal diet and was numerically greater with those fed the

diet containing .54% total phosphorus. The phosphorus

level by virginiamycin interaction was not significant,

indicating that the response from virginiamycin was

present at all levels of phosphorus.

Although feed intakes were slightly higher with

chicks fed the diets containing virginiamycin (Table 8-2),

these differences were not significant. Feed efficiencies

and milligrams of phosphorus consumed per gram of body

weight were numerically reduced with virginiamycin at all














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phosphorus levels (Table 8-2). The improvements in feed

efficiency and the reductions in the amount of phosphorus

consumed per gram of body weight reflect a trend

indicating that adding virginiamycin improved the utiliza-

tion of phosphorus. When all levels of phosphorus were

combined, the addition of virginiamycin to the diet

numerically increased bone ash values (Table 8-2). The

response, as measured by bone ash, was similar to the

response obtained with growth. The largest and only

significant response from virginiamycin was obtained when

the diet contained .47% phosphorus, as evident in the body

weight, feed efficiency and phosphorus intake values.














CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY OF RESULTS


1. The optimum levels of virginiamycin supplementation to

the diet of turkey poults was 22 ppm as determined by

body weight and feed efficiency.

2. The addition of virginiamycin to diets in which the

energy was diluted with peanut hulls resulted in

increased body weights and improved utilization of

feed and energy.

3. The use of a restricted feeding program was used in

additional studies on energy utilization.

a. Virginiamycin supplementation resulted in

increases in body weights, improved feed

efficiency and energy utilization.

b. Virginiamycin and lincomycin produced similar

results in terms of body weights and energy

utilization. Bacitracin MD and Flavomycin did

not improve the energy utilization when compared

to the control.

4. The addition of Flavomycin, lincomycin, and

virginiamycin produced improvements in body weights





48


and the utilization of protein when poults were fed a

diet known to be limiting in protein.

5. The addition of virginiamycin to diets containing

various levels of phosphorus resulted in numerical

improvements in body weight gains, feed efficiencies,

bone ash, and phosphorus utilization.














CHAPTER X
CONCLUSIONS


The results and interpretations presented in this

dissertation reveal information about virginiamycin that

have previously been unpublished for poultry. This in-

cludes both the studies evaluating the antibiotic alone

and studies conducted to compare the relative efficiencies

of various antibiotics.

It was the underlying purpose of these studies to

develop assays to effectively evaluate the influence of

virginiamycin on various nutrients. These assays were

initially adequate but rendered deficient or limiting in a

specific nutrient by several methods. The energy value of

the diets was limited by either diluting the diet with

peanut hulls or the use of a restricted feeding program.

Restriction of the sulfur amino acids in the diet was

accomplished by the formulation of a diet free of

supplemental methionine with a vitamin and trace mineral

premix free of choline and sulfate. In the final

experiment, the phosphorus levels of the diet were varied

by adding different levels of dicalcium phosphate. It can

be concluded that each of the diets was successful in










evaluating the effectiveness of virginiamycin to influence

the utilization of specific nutrients.

It has been demonstrated that virginiamycin supple-

mentation to the rations of poultry reduced the amount of

energy, protein, and phosphorus required per unit of body

weight gain. These results were obtained with rapidly

growing young poultry, whose requirements for specific

nutrients are generally greater than those of more mature

birds. This relative increase in requirements allows the

nutrient utilization effects to be shown.

The interpretation of these results is not to indi-

cate that nutrient levels in commercial diets should be

reduced in the presence of virginiamycin, but to demon-

strate the various specific nutrient effects resulting

from the supplementation of the antibiotic. It can be

hypothesized that the addition of virginiamycin to the

diets of poultry increases the margin of safety associated

with the particular diets. This would be of importance to

commercial producers using ingredients with nutrient

specifications below the expected values. More detailed

research is required to understand the relationship

between the proposed mechanisms of action for

virginiamycin and the effects on nutrient utilization.

Additionally, it can be concluded that virginiamycin

is comparable to Flavomycin and lincomycin on the basis of

energy and protein utilization, and superior to Bacitracin

MD in both of these parameters.




50
evaluating the effectiveness of virginiamycin to influence
the utilization of specific nutrients.
It has been demonstrated that virginiamycin supple
mentation to the rations of poultry reduced the amount of
energy, protein, and phosphorus required per unit of body
weight gain. These results were obtained with rapidly
growing young poultry, whose requirements for specific
nutrients are generally greater than those of more mature
birds. This relative increase in requirements allows the
nutrient utilization effects to be shown.
The interpretation of these results is not to indi
cate that nutrient levels in commercial diets should be
reduced in the presence of virginiamycin, but to demon
strate the various specific nutrient effects resulting
from the supplementation of the antibiotic. It can be
hypothesized that the addition of virginiamycin to the
diets of poultry increases the margin of safety associated
with the particular diets. This would be of importance to
commercial producers using ingredients with nutrient
specifications below the expected values. More detailed
research is required to understand the relationship
between the proposed mechanisms of action for
virginiamycin and the effects on nutrient utilization.
Additionally, it can be concluded that virginiamycin
is comparable to Flavomycin and lincomycin on the basis of
energy and protein utilization, and superior to Bacitracin
MD in both of these parameters.







Duncan, D. B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F
tests. Biometrics 11:1-42.

Ensminger, M.E., and C.G. Olentine, Jr., 1978. Feeds and
Nutrition. 1st ed. Ensminger Pub. Co., Clovis, CA.

Eyssen, H., 1962. The additive effects of nucleic acids
and antibiotics as individual growth promotants for
chicks. Poultry Sci. 41:1822-1828.

Eyssen, H., V. De Prins, and P. De Somer, 1962., The
growth-promoting action of virginiamycin and its
influence on the crop flora in chickens. Poultry Sci.
41:227-233.

Eyssen, H., and P. De Somer, 1963a. The mode of action of
antibiotics in stimulating growth of chicks. J. Exp.
Med. 117:127-137.

Eyssen, H., and P. De Somer, 1963b. Effect of antibiotics
on growth and nutrient absorption of chicks. Poultry
Sci. 42:1373-1379.

Feed Additive Compendium, 1985. Additives and their
uses. The Miller Publ. Co.,'Minneapolis, MN.

Foster, W. H., 1972. A practical evaluation of five food
additives likely to be used as growth parameters in
broiler rations. Br. Poult. Sci. 13:123-131.

Foster, W. H., 1978. An evaluation of food additives for
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55
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Studies on the stimulation of growth by dietary
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1984. Effects of fiber and virginiamycin on nutrient
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growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 59:400-408.
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in turkeys. 3. Evidence of the detrimental effect of
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


The author, Robert E. Buresh, was born August 9,

1958, at Pasadena, California. He graduated fifth in his

class at Tampa Catholic High School in 1976. He entered

Clemson University in the fall of that year and obtained a

Bachelor of Science degree in animal industries in the

spring of 1980. As an undergraduate, the author was a

member of the varsity swimming team, Kappa Alpha Order,

Alpha Zeta, Gamma Sigma Delta, Phi Eta Sigma and Alpha

Lambda Delta.

The author entered the Graduate School of Clemson

University in the summer of 1980 and was granted the

degree of Master of Science in animal and food industries

in the spring of 1982. His master's thesis was entitled

"Passive Solar Energy for the Brooding of Broilers."

He entered the University of Florida in 1982 and was

awarded the Ruby V. Voitle Outstanding Graduate Student

Award in 1984 and 1985.

He married the former Elisa M. Sierra on May 17,

1980, and presently has a 20-month-old daughter, Lauren.











I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




Robert H. Harms, Chairman
Professor of Animal Science




I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




Floyd B. Mather
Associate Professor of Animal
Science



I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


Associate Professor of
Science











I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




"Rachel B. Shireman
Associate Professor of Food
Science and Human Nutrition



This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the College of Agriculture and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.


May 1985
Dean, college of Agr4 culture


Dean, Graduate School












































UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
III 11111 111111I 11111111111 I II111 11
3 1262 08556 7559




Full Text
20
hulls diluted the nutrient density of the diet and were
assumed to have no metabolizable energy value for poults
(Ensrainger and Olentine, 1978; Cullison, 1979). Thus,
these diets contained approximately 2311 and 1903 kilo
calories per kg, respectively. Each diet was supplemented
with either 0 or 22 ppm of virginiamycin. The latter
level was demonstrated to be optimum by the experiments in
Chapter III.
The poults were sexed at one-day of age, and four
males and four females were randomly assigned to pens in
electrically heated Petersime battery brooders with raised
wire floors. Six and nine replicate pens were fed each
diet in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. The
experimental diets and water were offered ad libitum
throughout the 21-day experimental period.
Body weights were obtained at 21-days of age and feed
consumption was measured at this time. The data were
subjected to the analysis of variance and significant
differences determined by Duncans multiple range test
(Duncan, 1955). Since the sex by treatment and the
treatment by experiment interactions were not significant,
the data have been combined.
Results and Discussion
The 15# peanut hull dilution in nutrient density
resulted in poults with greater feed consumption and


4
antibiotic interferes with the translation process at the
level of the 50S ribosoraal subunit, thus inhibiting
protein synthesis (Parfait et al., 1978; Cocito, 1978).
The absorption of virginiaraycin from the
gastrointestinal tract is extremely poor, thus limiting
the effects of the antibiotic to within the digestive
tract. Numerous investigations have been undertaken to
evaluate the possible mode of action of antibiotics
leading to their growth promoting responses. Research
studying the mode of action of virginiamycin is currently
being continued. There have been three basic hypotheses
in the literature that aid in explaining the growth-
promoting responses to virginiamycin. First, there have
been reported changes in the composition and distribution
of intestinal bacteria. This has been presented by Eyssen
et al. (1962) and Eyssen and DeSomer (1963a; 1963b).
These researchers proposed that the growth-stimulating
effect of virginiamycin was most likely due to the
antibacterial action against gram-positive microorganisms
which interfere with the absorption of nutrients.
Secondly, virginiamycin has been shown to depress the
breakdown of glucose and amino acids within the gastro
intestinal tract, primarily in the small intestine. This
decrease in substrate breakdown results in a subsequent
decrease in the microbial production of lactic acid,
volatile fatty acids, and ammonia (Lindsey et al..


CHAPTER VII
PROTEIN UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS
AS INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS
Introduction
The most expensive macro-nutrient in formulated
rations for poultry is protein. This is a major reason
for the interest in the influence of feeding antibiotics
on the utilization of protein. It has been demonstrated
that virginiamycin has the ability to enhance protein and
sulfur amino acid utilization in turkey poults,
replacement pullets and broilers (Harms and Miles, 1983a;
1983b; Miles and Harms, 1983; Miles et al., 1984a).
The two experiments presented here were conducted to
compare the effect of virginiamycin and other antibiotics
on the utilization of sulfur amino acids by turkey
poults. Each experiment was conducted in successive years
and consisted of two trials.
Materials and Methods
Experiment One
A total of 704 day-old Nicholas Large White turkey
poults were used in the two trials of this experiment. A
corn-soybean meal basal diet containing sulfate-free trace
33


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Characterization of Virginiamycin
Virginiamycin is an antibiotic produced by a mutant
of Streptomyces virginiae, which was isolated from Belgian
soil (De Soraer and Van Dijck, 1955; Van Dijck, 1969)
Virginiamycin, also known by the name Staphylomycin,
belongs to a class of antibiotics that share two basic
chemical structures that act synergistically to exhibit
their antibacterial action. The two major components of
virginiamycin are designated as factors M and S. Factor M
is present in a larger amount and is mainly active against
Micrococcus aureus, while Factor S is primarily active
against Bacillus subtillis (Van Dijck, 1969). Each of the
components individually demonstrates bacteriostatic
activity against gram-positive bacteria, but in
combination are bactericidal. The synergistic response of
the virginiamycin components has been attributed to Factor
S (Vanderhaeghe et al., 1957; Van Dijck et al., 1957; Van
Dijck and Braekel, 1969; Bycroft, 1977).
The antibacterial activity of virginiamycin is
expressed by the inhibition of the metabolic pathway which
controls protein synthesis. It has been shown that this
3


43
TABLE 8-1
Composition of the basal diet
Ingredients
#
Corn
59.4
Soybean meal (49#)
36.0
Animal fat
1.0
Microingredients*
.5
Salt
.4
Variables**
2.7
* Supplied the following activities per kg of diet: 6600
IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU vitamin Dz, 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite; 4.4 mg riboflavin, 13.2
mg pantothenic acid; 39.6 mg niacin; 499.4 mg choline
chloride; 22.0 meg vitamin 125 mg ethoxyquin; 60.0
mg manganese; 50.0 mg iron; o.O mg copper; 198 meg
cobalt; 1.1 rag iodine; and 35.0 mg zinc.
** Includes washed builders sand, ground limestone, and
dicalciura phosphate (18.5# phosphorus and 22# calcium).


48
and the utilization of protein when poults were fed a
diet known to be limiting in protein.
5. The addition of virginiamycin to diets containing
various levels of phosphorus resulted in numerical
improvements in body weight gains, feed efficiencies,
bone ash, and phosphorus utilization.


the protein-deficient basal diet resulted in enhanced
growth promotion and protein utilization.
Virginiamycin supplementation to chick diets
containing various phosphorus levels increased body
weights and bone ash, and improved feed efficiency
values. Numerical reductions in the amount of phosphorus
consumed per gram of body weight indicated an improved
phosphorus utilization.
ix


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES v
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vi
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTERS
I INTRODUCTION 1
II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 3
Characterization of Virginiamycin 3
Growth Promotion and Improved Performance....5
Energy Utilization 8
Protein Utilization 9
Mineral Utilization .10
III DETERMINATION OF THE VIRGINIAMYCIN LEVEL
FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE IN TURKEY POULTS....13
Introduction 13
Materials and Methods 13
Results and Discussion 15
IV THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY
UTILIZATION USING AN ENERGY DILUTED DIET....18
Introduction 18
Materials and Methods 18
Results and Discussion 20
V THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY
UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS WHEN AD
LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED FED 24
Introduction 24
Materials and Methods 24
Results and Discussion 25
iii


9
and fats was demonstrated by Eyssen and De Somer (1963a;
1963b). In a study involving virginiamycin, March (1978)
found that supplementation (22 ppm) to broiler diets
increased the metabolizable energy from the diets an
average of 7.2%. Ravindran et al. (1984) used growing
swine to demonstrate that virginiamycin (11 ppm)
supplementation improved dietary energy utilization of a
high fiber diet. In a related study with growing swine,
Gorrill et al. (1960a; 1960b) showed that the addition of
an antibiotic mixture to the diet increased the
digestibility of dietary energy.
In contrast, others have failed to show these
positive effects of antibiotics on energy utilization.
Sibbald et al. (1961) and Slinger et al. (1962), in
studies with chicks and turkey poults, found that the
addition of antibiotics to the diets had no influence on
dietary metabolizable energy. In a series of experiments
conducted over three years, Begin (1971) was unable to
demonstrate that chlortetracycline had any effect on the
metabolizable energy obtained from the diet.
Protein Utilization
There is a general agreement between researchers
regarding the influence of antibiotic feeding on the
utilization of protein. This was perhaps first
demonstrated by Cunha et al. (1950) with the conclusion



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PAGE 69

81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


TABLE 6-1
Performance of turkey poults fed antibiotics
according to two feeding programs
Supplement
Feeding
Program*
Body weight**
Feed
consumption**
Energy utilization**
(g)
(g/poult)
(kcal/g body wt)
Control
Full
486.1d
664.3b
3.586b
Bacitracin MD
Full
503.6s
660.6b
3.605
Flavomycin
Full
512.7s
649.6b
3.445a
Lincoraycin
Full
520.2e
649.0
3.382a
Virginiamycin
Full
516.8e
628.7
3.347a
Control
75%
350.5a
478.0a
3.709
Bacitracin MD
75%
351.0s
478.0a
3.709
Flavomycin
75%
360.0ab
478.0a
3.652
Lincomycin
75%
359.9ab
478.0a
3.594
Virginiamycin
75%
371.8bc
478.0a
3.502
* Experimental
diets were
fed ad libitum
(Full)
or restricted to
75% of ad libitum.
** Means with different superscripts within each column are significantly different
(P<_.05) according to Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).


TABLE 4-2
Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency and energy utilization
of turkey poults fed diets with three levels of peanut hulls
with and without virginiamycin
Feed Feed Energy
consumption* efficiency* utilization*
Diet Body wt* (g) (g/poult) (g feed/g body wt) (kcal/g body wt
% peanut
hulls -vm
+ vm**
-vm
+ vm
-vm
+ vm
-vm
+ vm
0
441.8d
473.9e
570.1b
568.2b
1 .28b
1 .22a
3.52a
3.27b
IV)
15
416.9
431.9cd
588.1b
592.2b
1.43d
1 .38
3.27b
3.17bc
rv>
30
314.4a
365.0b
507.8a
575.7b
1.66f
1.59e
3.07cd
3.01d
* Means with different superscripts within a criterion are significantly different
(P_<_.05) according to Duncans multiple range test.
** Virginiamycin


53
Griffin, S. A., E. R. Lidvall, and D. E. McKechnie,
1961. Thiofuradene, virginiamycin, tylosin,
aureomycin and bacitracin for growing-finishing
swine. J. Anim. Sci. 20:934.
Harms, R. H., and R. D. Miles, 1983a. The additive effect
of choline plus inorganic sulfate and virginiamycin
for sparing sulfur amino acid needs of turkey
poults. Nutr. Rept. Int. 28:399-401.
Harms, R. H., and R. D. Miles, 1983b. The response of
turkey poults to virginiamycin in diets containing
various levels of supplemental methionine. Poultry
Sci. 62:1896-1898.
Henry, P. R., C. B. Ammerman, and R. D. Miles, 1985.
Effect of virginiamycin on Mn absorption in broiler
chicks. Page 27 in Proc. Southern Poult. Sci. Soc.
Heuser, G. F., 1951. Studies on antibiotics for
poultry. Pages 25-32 in Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf.
Feed. Mfr.
Jones, J. R., and W. G. Pond, 1963. Effect of the
addition of lysine and virginiamycin to corn-soybean
meal rations on performance of weanling pigs. J.
Anim. Sci. 22:1033-1037.
Leeson, S., 1984. Growth and carcass characteristics of
broiler chickens fed virginiamycin. Nutr. Rept. Int.
29:1383-1389.
Lindblad, G. S., S. J. Slinger, and I. Motzok, 1954.
Effect of aureomycin on the calcium and phosphorus
requirements of chicks and poults. Poultry Sci.
33:482-491.
Lindsey, T. 0., R. D. Hedde, and J. A. Sokolek, 1985.
Characterization of feed additive effects on the gut
micro-flora of chickens. Page 32 in Proc. Southern
Poult. Sci. Soc.
Machlin, L. J., C. A. Denton, W. L. Kellogg, and H. R.
Bird, 1952,. Effect of dietary antibiotic upon feed
efficiency and protein requiremnt of growing
chickens. Poultry Sci. 31:106-109.


40
lincomycin and virginiamycin significantly improved feed
efficiency values.
The results from these two experiments indicate that
the supplementation of basal diets with one of several
antibiotics improved poult body weight gains and feed
efficiency values. The magnitude of this growth response
was greater in the diets deficient in sulfur amino acids
indicating that the antibiotics enhanced the utilization
of these components in the diet. In the protein-deficient
diets, Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin each
resulted in enhanced amino acid utilization.


VI ENERGY UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS 28
Introduction 28
Materials and Methods 29
Results and Discussion 30
VII PROTEIN UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS 33
Introduction 33
Materials and Methods 33
Experiment One 33
Experiment Two 36
Results and Discussion 36
Experiment One 36
Experiment Two 38
VIII THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON
PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY BROILER CHICKS....41
Introduction 41
Materials and Methods 41
Results and Discussion 44
IX SUMMARY OF RESULTS 47
X CONCLUSIONS 49
REFERENCES 51
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 57
iv


TABLE 7-3
Performance of turkey poults fed diets with
two protein levels and with four antibiotics (Experiment Two)
Antibiotic
Supplemental
Methionine
Body weight*
Feed consumption*
Feed utilization*
(*)
(g)
(g/poult)
(g feed/g body wt)
Control
0
319.9a
432.1a
1.36*1
Bacitracin MD
0
328.9a
436.6a
1.34d
Flavoraycin
0
357.1a
461.5a
1.30
Lincomycin
0
349.2b
447.0a
1.29
Virginiamycin
0
375.1
472.5a
1.29
Control
.18
475.4
615.5a
1.30
Bacitracin MD
.18
478.1
619.0a
1.29
Flavomycin
.18
490.1e
608.5a
1.24a
Lincomycin
.18
498.5
609.9a
1.23ab
Virginiamycin
.18
515.2*
619.4a
1.21a
* Means with different superscripts within each column are significantly different
(P_£.05) according to Duncan's multiple range test.


42
Materials and Methods
A total of 768 day-old Cobb feather-sexed chicks were
used. Four males and four females were randomly assigned
to each of 96 pens in Petersime battery brooders with
raised wire floors.
A corn-soybean meal basal diet (Table 8-1) containing
.40% total phosphorus was used. Three additional diets
were formulated by adding .07, .14, and .21% supplemental
phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate (18% P and 22% Ca).
Each of the diets containing 0, .07, and .14% supplemental
phosphorus was fed with 0 and 22 ppm virginiamycin. The
diet with .21% supplemental phosphorus was fed only with 0
supplemental virginiamycin. The calcium content of the
diet was maintained at .7% by varying the amount of added
ground limestone and using builders sand as a filler.
Fifteen replicate pens were fed each of six diets with the
lower phosphorus, and six pens were placed on the diet
with the highest phosphorus level.
After three weeks on treatment, the birds were
individually weighed and pen-feed consumption was
determined. Feed efficiency was also calculated for this
period. Bone ash was determined on the right tibia from
eight males and eight females randomly selected from each
treatment. The determination of bone ash was with the
method accepted by the Association of Official Analytical
Chemists (AOAC, 1975). The tibias were cleaned of meat


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08556 7559


15
electrically heated, Petersirae batteries with raised wire
floors. In both experiments, each diet was fed to six
pens, each containing four male and four female poults.
Poults were individually weighed at 21 days of age and
feed consumption was determined. Since there was no
treatment by experiment interaction, the data were
combined. Significant differences between treatment means
were determined according to Duncan's multiple range test
(Duncan, 1955) and the dose relationship was established
using linear least squares analysis of the log data.
Results and Discussion
The addition of 5.5 ppm of virginiamycin resulted in
a significant increase in body weight of poults (Table
3-2). An increase in weight which approached the 5% level
of probability, was obtained when the level of
virginiamycin was increased from 5.5 to 11 ppm. A
numerical increase in weight was obtained when the level
of virginiamycin was increased to 22 ppm. Least square
analysis of the log data indicate that 22 ppm was required
for maximum weight gain.
The addition of 5.5 11 or 22 ppm resulted in
significantly improved feed efficiency compared to the
control. A numerical improvement in feed efficiency was
obtained when the level of virginiamycin was increased
from 5.5 to 11 and from 11 to 22 ppm.


5
1985). The third possible mode of action involves a
reduction in the rate of passage of nutrients through the
intestine and a thinning of the intestinal wall. Each of
these would result in an improved absorption of nutrients
(Madge, 1969, 1971). Additionally, a reduction in the
intestinal tissue would decrease the maintenance require
ments of the tissue. This would result in an increased
amount of nutrients available for other tissues.
Growth Promotion and Improved Performance
The stimulation of growth promotion in domestic
poultry is perhaps the greatest factor in the feeding of
antibiotics. Chickens were the first animals in which the"
antibiotic growth effect was observed when Moore et al.
(1946) reported that chicks fed diets containing
streptomycin grew more rapidly than the controls. Since
the presentation of Moore's findings, numerous researchers
have been involved in the evaluation of antibiotics, in
particular, virginiamycin, in poultry feeds. The positive
responses resulting from virginiamycin supplementation
have been partitioned into improvements in the utilization
of dietary energy, protein, and other nutrients. Others
have evaluated virginiamycin supplementation on the basis
of improved growth, feed efficiency and enhanced
performance. The latter group will be reviewed first.


6
Eyssen et al. (1962) reported that virginiamycin (20
ppm) in a semi-synthetic diet improved the body weights of
21-day-old chicks by 26$. They concluded that the
response to virginiamycin may be due to an inhibition of
the growth of lactobacilli bacteria within the crop of the
bird. In later experiments, Eyssen (1962) reported a
growth response of 15-30# when virginiamycin was added to
the diet.
There have also been numerous reports published
comparing the relative effectiveness of various
antibiotics. Combs and Bossard (1963) found virginiamycin
(8.8 ppm) to be significantly (P£.05) more effective in
increasing broiler body weights than nine other
antibiotics (chlortetracycline hydrochloride,
oxytetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin, spiramycin
embnate, zinc bacitracin, procaine penicillin, tylosin,
spontin and erythromycin). Additionally, the growth
responses were greater when "used" litter was placed in
the floor pens as compared to clean litter. In
comparisons utilizing chicks and turkey poults, Yates and
Schaible (1961; 1962) found virginiamycin (9.9 ppm) to be
comparable to terramycin and zinc bacitracin on the basis
of growth, feed utilization and livability.
Foster (1972) evaluated the effectiveness of two
antibiotics (including virginiamycin), a nitrofuran
derivative and two arsenicals to promote broiler growth.


27
The addition of virginiamycin to the diet
significantly reduced the amount of energy required to
produce a gram of weight gain (Table 5-1). This
improvement in energy utilization was greater with poults
in the restricted groups (7.4%) than with the ad libitum
fed group.
The improvement in feed efficiency and energy
utilization from virginiamycin supplementation agree with
the findings presented in Chapter IV. However, in this
study the energy intake was the same for those poults in
the restricted group receiving the diets with and without
virginiamycin. Therefore, the improvement in weight gain
observed in this study was a result of more efficient
energy utilization.


CHAPTER VIII
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON
PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY BROILER CHICKS
Introduction
The previous experiments have established that
virginiamycin has the ability to enhance energy and
protein utilization by turkey poults and that this effect
is comparable to those responses found with other antibio
tics. Antibiotics have also been shown to influence the
utilization of minerals in the diet. The enhancement of
mineral absorption by virginiamycin has been reported in a
study with growing swine (Ravindran et al.t 1984). The
minerals these researchers evaluated included calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and manganese.
An improvement in the absorption of manganese was reported
by Henry et al. (1985) following the addition of
virginiamycin to the diets of broiler chicks.
The experiment reported herein was conducted to
determine the influence of virginiamycin on phosphorus
utilization in the broiler chicks by feeding diets
containing three levels of phosphorus.
41


CHAPTER IV
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY UTILIZATION
USING AN ENERGY DILUTED DIET
Introduction
There has been considerable data in the literature
indicating that the feeding of antibiotics to poultry
results in an improved utilization of dietary energy.
Virginiamycin is among this group of antibiotics. The
most common method to determine changes in energy
utilization has been with the use of diets in which the
energy levels are varied by altering ingredient
combinations. The two experiments reported herein were
conducted to determine the influence of virginiamycin on
energy utilization by the turkey poult when fed diets
designed to be less dense calorically than the basal.
Materials and Methods
Two experiments were conducted using day-old Nicholas
Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean meal basal diet
(Table 4-1) was used which was calculated to contain 2719
kilocalories per kg. Two additional diets were formulated
by mixing 85 and 70# of the basal diet with 15 and 30# of
ground peanut hulls, respectively. The ground peanut
18


46
phosphorus levels (Table 8-2). The improvements in feed
efficiency and the reductions in the amount of phosphorus
consumed per gram of body weight reflect a trend
indicating that adding virginiamycin improved the utiliza
tion of phosphorus. When all levels of phosphorus were
combined, the addition of virginiamycin to the diet
numerically increased bone ash values (Table 8-2). The
response, as measured by bone ash, was similar to the
response obtained with growth. The largest and only
significant response from virginiamycin was obtained when
the diet contained .47# phosphorus, as evident in the body
weight, feed efficiency and phosphorus intake values.


52
Duncan, D. B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F
tests. Biometrics 11:1-42.
Ensminger, M.E., and C.G. Olentine, Jr., 1978. Feeds and
Nutrition. 1st ed. Ensminger Pub. Co., Clovis, CA.
Eyssen, H., 1962. The additive effects of nucleic acids
and antibiotics as individual growth promotants for
chicks. Poultry Sci. 41:1822-1828.
Eyssen, H., V. De Prins, and P. De Somer, 1962. The
growth-promoting action of virginiamycin and its
influence on the crop flora in chickens. Poultry Sci.
41:227-233.
Eyssen, H., and P. De Somer, 1963a. The mode of action of
antibiotics in stimulating growth of chicks. J. Exp.
Med. 117:127-137.
Eyssen, H., and P. De Somer, 1963b. Effect of antibiotics
on growth and nutrient absorption of chicks. Poultry
Sci. 42:1373-1379.
Feed Additive Compendium, 1985. Additives and their
uses. The Miller Publ. Co., Minneapolis, MN.
Foster, W. H., 1972. A practical evaluation of five food
additives likely to be used as growth parameters in
broiler rations. Br. Poult. Sci. 13:123-131.
Foster, W. H., 1978. An evaluation of food additives for
broiler production. Br. Poult. Sci. 19:55-59.
Foster, W. H., and M. H. Stevenson, 1983. The interaction
of food additives and protein content in broiler
diets. Br. Poult. Sci. 24:455-462.
Gorrill, A. D. L., J. M. Bell, and C. M. Williams,
1960a. Ingredient and processing interrelationships
in swine feeds. II. Effects of antibiotics, protein
source and pelleting on the responses to the inclusion
of wheat bran. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 40:93-99.
Gorrill, A. D. L., J. M. Bell, and C. M. Williams,
1960b. Ingredient and processing interrelationships
in swine feeds. II. Effects of wheat bran, pelleting
and protein source on responses to dietary
antibiotics. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 40:100-106.
Griffin, S. A., and E. R. Lidvall, 1962. Programs for
feeding antibiotics to growing-finishing swine. J.
Anim. Sci. 21:997.


CHAPTER V
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY UTILIZATION
BY TURKEY POULTS WHEN AD LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED FED
Introduction
It was demonstrated in the previous chapter that
virginiaraycin enhanced the utilization of energy through
the use of adequate and energy diluted diets. The energy
intake was restricted in the following experiment by
restricting feed intake, and the influence of
virginiamycin was then determined.
Materials and Methods
An experiment was conducted using day-old Nicholas
Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean basal diet was
used (Table 4-1). The poults were sexed at one day of age
and randomly assigned to 36 pens in electrically heated
Petersime batteries with raised wire floors. A 2 x 2
factorial arrangement of treatments was used comparing
full and restricted feeding program with and without 22
ppm of virginiamycin. Nine replications, each containing
four male and four female poults were fed each of the four
experimental diets. Two groups were fed the diet ad
libitum. The other group received only 75& of the average
24


TABLE 7-2
Performance of turkey poults when fed diets with
two protein levels and with three antibiotics (Experiment One)
Supplemental
Antibiotic
Methionine
Body weight*
Feed consumption*
Feed utilization*
(*)
(g)
(g/poult)
(g feed/g body wt)
Control
0
281.9a
390.6ab
1 .39
Bacitracin MD
0
298.9a
401.4ab
1.34d
Flavomycin
0
293.9?
387.4?
1.32
Virginiamycin
0
326.3b
415.2b
1.27a
Control
.18
422.8?
586.2
1 -39
Bacitracin MD
Flavomycin
.18
.18
441.4a
439.4?
589.6
587.0
1 *34d
1 *34d
Virginiamycin
.18
446.3d
580.5
1.30b
* Means with different superscripts within each column are significantly different
(P<_.05) according to Duncan's multiple range test.


8
characteristics. The antibiotic improved weight gains,
feed efficiency, carcass weights, carcass yields and
carcass grading according to Agriculture Canada
standards. In addition to growth promotion, Miles et al.
(1984b) found that virginiamycin (10 ppm) enhanced the
utilization of dietary xanthophyll, resulting in an
increase in broiler shank pigmentation. Miles and Harms
(1984) also reported that virginiamycin inclusion in the
diet (10 ppm) resulted in an improvement in broiler
uniformity and litter quality.
The only research reported in the United States
evaluating the effect of feeding virginiamycin on the
performance of laying hens was conducted by Miles et al.
(1985). Improvements in egg production and feed effi
ciency were found in one of two experiments, each lasting
five 28-day periods. However, in both experiments,
virginiamycin (10 ppm) significantly reduced egg size.
Energy Utilization
In addition to growth promotion, an improvement in
the utilization of energy has been associated with the
feeding of antibiotics to poultry. Nelson et al. (1963a;
1963b) concluded that the addition of several antibiotics
to the diets of chicks resulted in an increased efficiency
of absorption of calorigenic nutrients. A similar in
crease in the absorption and utilization of carbohydrates


11
Mineral Utilization
It has been recognized for three decades that
inclusion of antibiotics in the diet exerts an influence
on the utilization of dietary minerals and the subsequent
mineral requirement. Common et al. (1950) reported that
serum calcium was additively elevated following estrogen
injection when chlortetracycline was added to the diets of
pullets. Migicovsky et al. (1951) fed chicks a low
calcium diet supplemented with penicillin, and found that
the antibiotic increased the incorporation of 4^Ca into
the tibia. They concluded that in this experiment,
penicillin enhanced the absorption of calcium. Pepper et
al. (1952) obtained a greater growth response to
aureomycin with diets deficient in manganese than with
those adequate in the mineral. The antibiotic also
reduced the incidence of perosis in chicks fed the low
manganese diets. This enhancement of manganese
utilization was confirmed by Pepper et al. (1953)*
Similar reductions in the incidence of perosis in turkey
poults were reported by Slinger et al. (1951) and Scott
(1951) when penicillin and aureomycin were included in the
diets, respectively. Linblad et al. (1954) noted that the
more inadequate the diet with respect to calcium and
phosphorus the greater was the percentage increase in body
weights of chicks and poults due to chlortetracycline. It
was concluded that calcium utilization was enhanced by the


55
Miller, H. W., and C. E. Barnhart, 1961. Growth
stimulants and antibacterial agents for growing
pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 20:943.
Moore, P. R., H. Evenson, T. D. Luckey, E. McCoy, C. A.
Elvehjem, and E. B. Hart, 1946. Use of sulfasuxidine,
streptothricin, and streptomycin in nutritional
studies with the chick. J. Biol. Chem. 165:437-441.
Nelson, F. E., L. S. Jensen, and J. McGinnis, 1963a.
Studies on the stimulation of growth by dietary
antibiotics. I. Changes in growth response of chicks
to antibiotics over a three year period. Poultry Sci.
42:906-909.
Nelson, F. E., L. S. Jensen, and J. McGinnis, 1963b.
Studies on the stimulation of growth by antibiotics.
2. Effect of antibiotics on metabolizable energy of
the diet. Poultry Sci. 42:909-912.
Parfait, R., M. P. de Bethune, and C. Cocito, 1978. A
spectrofluorometric study of the interaction between
virginiamycin S and bacterial ribosomes. Molec. Gen.
Genet. 166:45-51.
Pepper, ¥. F., S. J. Slinger, and I. Motzok, 1952. Effect
of aureomycin on the manganese requirement of chicks
fed varying levels of salt and phosphorus. Poultry
Sci. 31:1054-1061.
Pepper, V. F., S. J. Slinger, and I. Motzok, 1953. Effect
of aureomycin on the niacin and manganese requirements
of chicks. Poultry Sci. 32:656-660.
Ravindran, V., E. T. Karnegay, and K. E. Webb, Jr.,
1984. Effects of fiber and virginiamycin on nutrient
absorption, nutrient retention and rate of passage in
growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 59:400-408.
Scott, M. L., 1951. Studies on the enlarged hock disorder
in turkeys. 3. Evidence of the detrimental effect of
fish liver oil and the beneficial effect of dried
brewers' yeast and other products. Poultry Sci.
30:846-855.
Sibbald, I. R., S. J. Slinger, and G. C. Ashton, 1961.
Factors affecting the metabolizable energy content of
poultry feeds. 4. The influences of calcium,
phosphorus, antibiotics and pantothenic acid. Poultry
Sci. 40:945-951.


to be 22 ppm and therefore was used in all subsequent
experiments.
Two methods of limiting the energy intake of the
poults were utilized in the three experiments evaluating
energy utilization. Dilution of an adequate diet with
peanut hulls resulted in reducing the energy content of
the diet by 15 and 30#. The addition of virginiamycin to
the diluted diets resulted in increased body weights,
improved feed efficiency, and reduced amount of energy
required per gram of body weight.
A second energy utilization experiment utilized a
restricted feeding program to limit energy intakes. The
poult body weights and feed efficiencies were improved
following virginiamycin supplementation in both the ad
libitum fed and 25% restricted feeding programs. The
equivalent feed intakes of the restricted fed poults
resulted in the demonstration of an improved energy
utilization. Using this restricted feeding program to
compare the effects of four antibiotics, it was then found
that lincomycin and virginiamycin addition to the diet
improved energy utilization.
The influence of virginiamycin on protein utilization
was studied with a diet shown to be protein-deficient for
turkey poults. It was found in two experiments that the
addition of Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin to
viii


32
The results of this experiment indicate that the
utilization of energy can be enhanced by the feeding of
various antibiotics to turkey poults. A feeding program
which limited the energy intake was used to demonstrate
that both lincomycin and virginiamycin enhanced energy
utilization. The results concerning virginiamycin and
energy utilization agree with those previously presented
in earlier chapters.


minerals and no supplemental choline was used (Table
7-1). Supplemental sulfate and choline were removed from
the basal diet to increase the stress on the poults in
order to obtain maximum responses to the antibiotics.
This basal diet was calculated to be deficient in protein
for the growing poult (26%) and has been shown to respond
to supplemental methionine and virginiamycin (Harms and
Miles, 1983a; 1983b). An arrangement of treatments was
used which included zero and .18% supplemental methionine
and Bacitracin MD,"* Flavoraycin^ and virginiamycin at 50,
2, and 20 grams per ton, respectively.
At one-day of age, the poults were sexed and were
randomly assigned to pens in electrically heated Petersime
battery brooders with raised wire floors. Each of the
eight experimental diets was fed to a total of eleven
pens, each containing four male and four female poults.
The diets and deionized water were offered ad libitum
throughout the 21-day experimental period. The poults
were individually weighed at 21-days of age and feed
consumption was determined.
A
Bacitracin MD is a registered trademark for bacitracin
methylene disalicylate, A.L. Laboratories, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 17632.
p
Flavomycin is a registered trademark for barabermycins,
American Hoescht Corp., Somerville, NJ, 08876.


35
TABLE 7-1
Composition of the basal diet
Ingredients
#
Yellow Corn
48.81
Soybean meal (49$)
43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5# P & 22# Ca)
2.09
Limestone
1.42
Salt
.30
Animal fat
3.71
Microingredients (choline and SO^ free)*
.50
* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D^; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadionine
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13*2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 22 meg
vitamin B1pJ 110 meg biotin; 125 mg ethoxyquin; 126.1
mg MnCO*; 300.1 mg iron citrate; 15.97 mg CuClp*2HpO;
1.65 mg KI; 41.85 mg ZnO.


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
ENERGY, PROTEIN AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION
BY POULTRY AS INFLUENCED BY VIRGINIAMYCIN
BY
ROBERT EDWARD BURESH
May 1985
Chairman: Robert H. Harms
Major Department: Animal Science
A series of studies was conducted to investigate the
influence of virginiamycin on the utilization of dietary
energy, protein and phosphorus by poultry.
The approach used to evaluate nutrient utilization
involved providing the animals with diets limiting in a
specific nutrient. This method allowed the ability of
virginiamycin to enhance nutrient utilization to be
demonstrated.
These studies were conducted in electrically heated
battery brooders, each consisting of experimental periods
of 21 days.
It was necessary to initially determine the level of
virginiamycin that must be used in the diets to obtain the
maximum responses in turkey poults. This level was found
vii


7
Body weights and feed conversion values for birds fed
virginiamycin (5.5 ppm) were not significantly different
from the controls. However, it was reported that each of
these feed additives reduced the weight and weight per
unit area of the small intestine. In a later study,
Foster (1978) evaluated the four growth promoting feed
additives available in the United Kingdom (virginiamycin,
flavophospholipol, nitrovin and zinc bacitracin). Each of
the additives, except the flavophospholipol, demonstrated
the ability to significantly improve body weights.
However, none had any influence on feed conversion. In
addition to these growth promoting effects on poultry,
several researchers have made similar conclusions with
growing and finishing swine (Barnhart et al., 1960;
Griffin et al., 1961; Miller and Barnhart, 1961; Griffin
and Lidvall, 1962). In each of these antibiotic
comparison experiments, virginiamycin at various levels
was shown to improve the average daily gain and feed
efficiency values. Jones and Pond (1963) reported that
virginiamycin (44 ppm) significantly increased the average
daily gain of weanling pigs but had no significant effect
on the body weight gain or feed efficiency values when fed
to rats.
To extend the understanding of the growth promoting
qualities of virginiamycin, Leeson (1984) studied the
influence of virginiamycin (11 ppm) on growth and carcass


LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
3-1 Composition of the basal diet 14
3-2 Body weight and feed efficiency of turkey
poults fed four levels of virginiamycin 16
4-1 Composition of the basal diet 19
4-2 Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization of turkey poults fed
diets with three levels of peanut hulls with
and without virginiamycin 21
5-1 Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization when turkey poults were
fed ad libitum or restricted fed 26
6-1 Performance of turkey poults fed antibiotics
according to two feeding programs 31
7-1 Composition of the basal diet 35
7-2 Performance of turkey poults when fed diets
with two protein levels and with three
antibiotics (Experiment One) 37
7-3 Performance of turkey poults fed diets with
two protein levels and with four antibiotics
(Experiment Two) 38
8-1 Composition of the basal diet 43
8-2 Performance of broilers fed various levels
of phosphorus for three weeks with and
without virginiamycin 45
v


39
contrast, only virginiamycin significantly improved body
weight gains when the antibiotics were added to the
protein deficient basal. Additionally, poults fed diets
containing virginiamycin had the only significant increase
in feed consumption. Feed efficiency was significantly
improved with the antibiotic supplemented diets as
compared to the protein adequate basal, with the largest
improvement observed with virginiamycin. With the
protein-deficient basal, the addition of Bacitracin MD,
Flavomycin and virginiamycin each significantly improved
feed efficiency values in a progressive manner, with
virginiamycin being the most beneficial.
Experiment Two
The addition of lincomycin or virginiamycin to the
protein adequate basal diet significantly increased the
growth of the poults (Table 7-3). Without supplemental
methionine added to the basal, Flavomycin and lincomycin
significantly improved body weight gains compared to the
control and Bacitracin MD, and virginiamycin fed poults
showed an additional increase in growth compared to
Flavomycin and lincomycin. There were no significant
differences in feed consumption between antibiotics within
each of the basal diets. In a manner similar to the body
weight gains, the supplementation of either the protein-
adequate or protein-deficient diet with Flavomycin,


17
These data indicate that supplementing the diet of
turkey poults with virginiamycin is effective for
improving body weight and feed efficiency. The data agree
with those reported by Harms and Miles (1983b), where it
was shown that the addition of 22 ppm resulted in
increased body weight with turkey poults. These data
indicate that the level of 22 ppm is necessary to give
maximum benefit as measured by body weight and feed
efficiency.


56
Slinger, S. J., I. Motzok, and ¥. F. Pepper, 1951. The
effect of salt, manganese, and APF supplements on
growth and bone formation in poults. Poultry Sci.
30:153-156.
Slinger, S. J., W. F. Pepper, I. Motzok, and I. R.
Sibbald, 1961. Studies on the calcium requirements of
turkeys. I. Influence of antibiotics during the
starting period. 2. Interrelationships with
reserpine during the growing period. Poultry Sci.
40:1281-1291.
Slinger, S. J., W. F. Pepper, I. Motzok, and I. R.
Sibbald, 1962. Studies on the calcium requirements of
turkeys. 3. Influence of chlortetracycline and
reserpine during the starting and growing periods.
Poultry Sci. 41:460-467.
Stokstad, E. L. R., T. H. Jukes, and W. L. Williams,
1953. The growth-promoting effect of aureomycin on
various types of diet. Poultry Sci. 32:1054-1058.
Supplee, W. C., 1960. The effect of antibiotic
supplementation on the response of poults to dietary
corn oil. Poultry Sci. 39:227-229.
Vanderhaeghe, H., P. Van Dijck, G. Parraentier, and P. De
Somer, 1957* Isolation and properties of the
components of staphylamycin. Antibiot. Chemo. 7:606-
614.
Van Dijck, P., 1969. Further bacteriological evaluation
of virginiamycin. Chemotherapy 14:322-332.
Van Dijck, P., and G. Van Braekel, 1969. Plasma-binding
of virginiamycin in vitro and in vivo. Chemotherapy
14:109-114.
Van Dijck, P., H. Vanderhaeghe, and P. De Somer, 1957.
Microbiologic 3tudy of the components of
staphylomycin. Antibiot. Chemo. 7:625-629.
Yates, J. D., and P. J. Schaible, 1961. The value of
virginiamycin and certain other antibiotics in chick
and poult rations contaminated with raw or heated hen
feces. Poultry Sci. 40:1472.
Yates, J. D., and P. J. Schaible, 1962. Virginiamycin as
an antibiotic for poultry feeds. Nature 194:183-184.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Robert H. Harms, Chairman
Professor of Animal Science
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Floyd B. Mather
Associate Professor of Animal
Science
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Richard D. Miles, Jr.
Associate Professor of Anj
Science


16
TABLE 3-2
Body weight and feed efficiency of turkey poults
fed four levels of virginiamycin
Virginiamycin
(ppm)
Body weight*
(g)
Feed efficiency*
(g/g body wt)
0
417.5a
1.35
5.5
458.8b
1,27b
11
477.2bc
1.26ab
22
485.9
1.23a
* Means with different superscripts within a column are
significantly different (P_<_.05) according to Duncan's
multiple range test.


14
TABLE 3-1
Composition of the basal diet
Ingredient
#
Yellow corn
48.58
Soybean meal (49# Protein)
43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5# P & 22# Ca)
2.09
Limestone
1.42
Salt
.30
Animal fat
3.71
Microingredients*
.50
TM-50**
.05
DL-methionine
.18
* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D*; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 rag menadione
dimethylpyr-imidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 998.8 rag
choline; 22 meg vitamin B^; 110 meg biotin; 125 mg
ethoxyquin; 126.1 mg MnCO^; 300.1 mg iron citrate;
15.97 mg CuC12-2H20; 1.65 mg KI; 41.85 mg ZnO.
** Registered trademark for Terramycin (110 mg/kg), Chas
Pfizer, Lees Summit, MO.


12
antibiotic but the results were insufficient to conclude a
significant reduction in the calcium or phosphorus
requirements. Similarly, Slinger et al. (1961; 1962)
demonstrated that antibiotics enhanced the growth of
poults on low calcium diets, but concluded that the
calcium levels employed were too high to appraise their
effects on the calcium requirements. Ravindran et al.
(1984) utilized and diets varying in their fiber content
for growing swine to demonstrate the influence of
virginiamycin on mineral utilization. Supplementation of
the high fiber diet with virginiamycin (11 ppm) resulted
in an improved absorption and retention of phosphorus,
calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and manganese.
This response was attributed to a slowed rate of passage
of digesta through the intestines and the influence on
large intestine microorganisms favoring enhanced plant
cell wall degradation. No response was observed with the
normal fiber diet.
Henry and others (1985) conducted an experiment to
evaluate the effect of virginiamycin (12 ppm) on manganese
absorption of broiler chicks fed a standard corn-soybean
meal diet. They reported that virginiamycin decreased
intestinal weights and increased weight gains and kidney
and bone manganese values. This indicated that
virginiamycin increased the absorption of manganese.


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
In the modern production of poultry meat and eggs,
feed cost has been recognized as the greatest expense.
The attempt by the poultry industry to reduce this expense
has resulted in the increased use of feed additives in the
rations. These additives may demonstrate either therapeu
tic or non-therapeutic qualities, but the ultimate goal of
their use is to obtain maximum production gains. Included
among these feed additives are antibiotics.
In addition to the direct relationship between
antibiotics and disease control, many have been shown to
influence the growth rate and utilization of dietary
nutrients. Although the knowledge of the mechanisms of
these actions is not complete, the relationship between
antibiotics and nutrient utilization is one of
considerable interest.
All of the experiments described in this dissertation
were conducted with virginiamycin, an antibiotic that has
been demonstrated as an additive capable of increasing
production gains in poultry. These experiments were
conducted to investigate what influence virginiamycin
1


29
Materials and Methods
A total of 880 day-old Nicholas Large White turkey
poults were used in two experiments. A corn-soybean meal
basal was used (Table 4-1) that has been shown to be
adequate for optimum poult growth. The basal diet was
calculated to contain 2719 kilocalories of metabolizable
energy per kilogram of diet. The following four
antibiotics were added to the basal at the respective
levels: Bacitracin MD (50 g/ton), Flavomycin (2 g/ton),
lincomycin (4 g/ton) and virginiamycin (20 g/ton). Each
of these experimental diets plus the unsuppleraented basal
was fed according to one of the feeding programs. The
programs required that the diets be fed ad libitum or 75#
of ad libitum. The latter was determined daily by
measuring the feed consumed by the poults fed the
unsuppleraented basal diet.
The poults were sexed at one-day of age and randomly
assigned to pens in electrically heated Petersime battery
brooders with raised wire floors. The ten experimental
treatments were fed to a total of 11 pens, each containing
four male and four female poults. Water was offered ad
libitum throughout the experimental period.
Poults were individually weighed at 21-days of age
and feed consumption was determined. The data in both
experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and
significant differences between treatment means were


CHAPTER X
CONCLUSIONS
The results and interpretations presented in this
dissertation reveal information about virginiamycin that
have previously been unpublished for poultry. This in
cludes both the studies evaluating the antibiotic alone
and studies conducted to compare the relative efficiencies
of various antibiotics.
It was the underlying purpose of these studies to
develop assays to effectively evaluate the influence of
virginiamycin on various nutrients. These assays were
initially adequate but rendered deficient or limiting in a
specific nutrient by several methods. The energy value of
the diets was limited by either diluting the diet with
peanut hulls or the use of a restricted feeding program.
Restriction of the sulfur amino acids in the diet was
accomplished by the formulation of a diet free of
supplemental methionine with a vitamin and trace mineral
preraix free of choline and sulfate. In the final
experiment, the phosphorus levels of the diet were varied
by adding different levels of dicalcium phosphate. It can
be concluded that each of the diets was successful in
49


10
that the protein requirements of growing swine could be
lowered when aureomycin was added to a corn-peanut meal
basal diet. Machlin et al. (1952) reported that
aureomycin addition allowed the protein level of a broiler
diet to be reduced by at least 2 percent and obtain
maximum growth. A similar response was found by Stokstad
et al. (1953) who showed that aureomycin would stimulate
growth when added to a broiler diet limiting in protein.
More recent reports have demonstrated that virginiamycin
(22 ppm) supplementation enhanced the utilization of
sulfur amino acids by broilers and turkey poults based on
body weight and feed efficiency data (Harms and Miles,
1983a; 1983b; Miles and Harms, 1983; Miles et al.,
1984a). In each of these experiments, a basal diet was
utilized that had previously been shown to respond
significantly to supplemental methionine. Improvements in
body weights and feed efficiency values were also found by
Miles et al. (1984a) when virginiamycin (22 ppm) was added
to the diets of Leghorn-type pullets containing sub-
optimal protein levels.
Results presented by Gorrill et al. (1960b) offer the
only conflicting conclusions relating antibiotic
supplementation to protein utilization. In a study with
growing swine, they found that the addition of an
antibiotic mixture to various diets had little or no
effect on the utilization of protein.


26
TABLE 5-1
Body weight feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization when turkey poults
were ad libitum or restricted fed
Ad libitum fed
2556 Feed
restriction
-vm
+vm
-vm
+vm
Body weight (g)*
440.2
463.8d
309.9a
334.5b
Feed consumption
(g/bird)*
559.5b
553.3b
419.0a
418.7a
Feed efficiency*
1.26b
1.20a
1.36
1.28b
Kilocalories/g body
weight*
3.41b
3.26a
3.68
3.46b
* Means 'with different superscripts within a row are
significantly different (P_<_.05) according to Duncan's
multiple range test.


I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Rachel B. Shireman
Associate Professor of Food
Science and Human Nutrition
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the College of Agriculture and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
May 1985
.CU4<
k
r. Sy
W*
Dean,/College of Agriculture
Dean, Graduate School


44
leaving the cartilage cap intact and were extracted for 24
hours with methanol, then 24 hours with methanol and then
24 hours with petroleum ether in a Soxhlet extractor. The
tibias were finally dried at 95 C for 12 hours and ashed
in a muffle furnace at 600 C for eight hours. Because the
sex by treatment interaction was not significant, the data
were combined for both sexes. Significant differences
between treatment means were determined by Duncan's
multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).
Results and Discussion
The addition of virginiamycin to the diet resulted in
a significant increase in body weight (Table 8-2). This
increase was only significant (P_<_.05) with the chicks fed
the diet with .47% phosphorus; however, the difference
approached significance with those chicks receiving the
basal diet and was numerically greater with those fed the
diet containing .54% total phosphorus. The phosphorus
level by virginiamycin interaction was not significant,
indicating that the response from virginiamycin was
present at all levels of phosphorus.
Although feed intakes were slightly higher with
chicks fed the diets containing virginiamycin (Table 8-2),
these differences were not significant. Feed efficiencies
and milligrams of phosphorus consumed per gram of body
weight were numerically reduced with virginiamycin at all


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to express his appreciation to his
major advisor and friend, Dr. R.H. Harms, for his
patience, knowledge and genuine concern which helped to
make this record a worthwhile undertaking. For his
encouragement, insight and wealth of ideas, this author
will always be grateful.
Appreciation is also expressed to Dr. F.B. Mather,
Dr. R.D. Miles, and Dr. R.B. Shireman for their comments,
guidance, and willingness to serve on the advisory
committee.
The author is indebted to the professors, graduate
students, laboratory technicians and farm staff of the
University of Florida Poultry Science Department for their
assistance in this and other research conducted.
Additional gratitude is extended to the SmithKline
Animal Health Products and its representative, Dr. S.M.
Free, Jr., for their support and assistance in the
projects presented in this dissertation.
Finally, the author wishes to extend his deepest love
and appreciation to his parents and wife, Lisa, for their
invaluable support during this project. It is to them and
his daughter, Lauren, that he dedicates this work.
ii


54
Madge, D. S., 1969. Effect of antibiotics on intestinal
absorption in guinea pigs. Comp. Biochera. Physiol.
30:295-307.
Madge, D. S., 1971. Effects of zinc bacitracin and
virginiamycin on intestinal absorption in mice. Comp.
Gen. Pharmac. 2:43-512.
March, B. E., and J. Biely, 1967. A re-assessment of the
mode of action of growth stimulating properties of
antibiotics. Poultry Sci. 46:831-838.
March, B. E., R. Soong, and C. MacMillan, 1978. Growth
rate, feed conversion, and dietary metabolizable
energy in response to virginiamycin supplementation of
different diets. Poultry Sci. 57:1346-1350.
Migicovsky, B. B., A. M. Neilson, M. Gluck, and R.
Burgess, 1951. Penicillin and calcium absorption.
Arch. Biochera. Biophys. 34:478-480.
Miles, R. D., C. R. Douglas, and R. H. Harms, 1984a.
Influence of virginiamycin in pullets and broilers fed
diets containing suboptimal protein and sulfur amino
acid levels. Nutr. Rept. Int. 30:983-989.
Miles, R. D., and R. H. Harms, 1983. Sulfur amino acid
sparing effect of virginiamycin in turkey poult
diets. Poultry Sci. 62:1470.
Miles, R. D., and R. H. Harms, 1984. Influence of
virginiamycin on broiler performance, uniformity and
litter quality. Nutr. Rept. Int. 29:971-975.
Miles, R. D., D. M. Janky, and R. H. Harms, 1981. Effect
of virginiamycin on laying hen and broiler
performance. Poultry Sci. 60:1698.
Miles, R. D., D. M. Janky, and R. H. Harms, 1982. Broiler
and laying hen performance when fed diets containing
virginiamycin. Poultry Sci. 61:1388.
Miles, R. D., D. M. Janky, and R. H. Harms, 1984b.
Virginiamycin and broiler performance. Poultry Sci.
63:1218-1221.
Miles, R. D., D. M. Janky, and R. H. Harms, 1985
Virginiamycin and laying hen performance. Poultry
Sci. 64:139-143.


ENERGY, PROTEIN AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION
BY POULTRY AS INFLUENCED BY VIRGINIAMYCIN
BY
ROBERT EDWARD BURESH
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1985


ENERGY, PROTEIN AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION
BY POULTRY AS INFLUENCED BY VIRGINIAMYCIN
BY
ROBERT EDWARD BURESH
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1985

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to express his appreciation to his
major advisor and friend, Dr. R.H. Harms, for his
patience, knowledge and genuine concern which helped to
make this record a worthwhile undertaking. For his
encouragement, insight and wealth of ideas, this author
will always be grateful.
Appreciation is also expressed to Dr. F.B. Mather,
Dr. R.D. Miles, and Dr. R.B. Shireraan for their comments,
guidance, and willingness to serve on the advisory
committee.
The author is indebted to the professors, graduate
students, laboratory technicians and farm staff of the
University of Florida Poultry Science Department for their
assistance in this and other research conducted.
Additional gratitude is extended to the SmithKline
Animal Health Products and its representative, Dr. S.M.
Free, Jr., for their support and assistance in the
projects presented in this dissertation.
Finally, the author wishes to extend his deepest love
and appreciation to his parents and wife, Lisa, for their
invaluable support during this project. It is to them and
his daughter, Lauren, that he dedicates this work.
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
LIST OF TABLES v
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS vi
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTERS
I INTRODUCTION 1
II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 3
Characterization of Virginiamycin 3
Growth Promotion and Improved Performance....5
Energy Utilization 8
Protein Utilization 9
Mineral Utilization 10
III DETERMINATION OF THE VIRGINIAMYCIN LEVEL
FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE IN TURKEY POULTS....13
Introduction 13
Materials and Methods 13
Results and Discussion 15
IV THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY
UTILIZATION USING AN ENERGY DILUTED DIET....18
Introduction 18
Materials and Methods 18
Results and Discussion 20
V THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY
UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS WHEN AD
LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED FED 24
Introduction 24
Materials and Methods 24
Results and Discussion 25
iii

VI ENERGY UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS 28
Introduction 28
Materials and Methods 29
Results and Discussion 30
VII PROTEIN UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS 33
Introduction 33
Materials and Methods 33
Experiment One 33
Experiment Two 36
Results and Discussion 36
Experiment One 36
Experiment Two 38
VIII THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON
PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY BROILER CHICKS....41
Introduction 41
Materials and Methods 41
Results and Discussion 44
IX SUMMARY OF RESULTS 47
X CONCLUSIONS 49
REFERENCES 51
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 57
IV

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
3-1 Composition of the basal diet 14
3-2 Body weight and feed efficiency of turkey
poults fed four levels of virginiamycin 16
4-1 Composition of the basal diet 19
4-2 Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization of turkey poults fed
diets with three levels of peanut hulls with
and without virginiamycin 21
5-1 Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization when turkey poults were
fed ad libitum or restricted fed 26
6-1 Performance of turkey poults fed antibiotics
according to two feeding programs 31
7-1 Composition of the basal diet 35
7-2 Performance of turkey poults when fed diets
with two protein levels and with three
antibiotics (Experiment One) 37
7-3 Performance of turkey poults fed diets with
two protein levels and with four antibiotics
(Experiment Two) 38
8-1 Composition of the basal diet 43
8-2 Performance of broilers fed various levels
of phosphorus for three weeks with and
without virginiamycin 45
v

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Celsius
C
gram(s)
g
International
Chick Unit
ICU
International
Unit
IU
kilocalorie
kcal
kilograra(s)
kg
micrograra(s)
meg
milligram(s)
mg
parts per million
ppm
vi

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
ENERGY, PROTEIN AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION
BY POULTRY AS INFLUENCED BY VIRGINIAMYCIN
BY
ROBERT EDWARD BURESH
May 1985
Chairman: Robert H. Harms
Major Department: Animal Science
A series of studies was conducted to investigate the
influence of virginiamycin on the utilization of dietary
energy, protein and phosphorus by poultry.
The approach used to evaluate nutrient utilization
involved providing the animals with diets limiting in a
specific nutrient. This method allowed the ability of
virginiamycin to enhance nutrient utilization to be
demonstrated.
These studies were conducted in electrically heated
battery brooders, each consisting of experimental periods
of 21 days.
It was necessary to initially determine the level of
virginiamycin that must be used in the diets to obtain the
maximum responses in turkey poults. This level was found
vii

to be 22 ppm and therefore was used in all subsequent
experiments.
Two methods of limiting the energy intake of the
poults were utilized in the three experiments evaluating
energy utilization. Dilution of an adequate diet with
peanut hulls resulted in reducing the energy content of
the diet by 15 and 30%. The addition of virginiamycin to
the diluted diets resulted in increased body weights,
improved feed efficiency, and reduced amount of energy
required per gram of body weight.
A second energy utilization experiment utilized a
restricted feeding program to limit energy intakes. The
poult body weights and feed efficiencies were improved
following virginiamycin supplementation in both the ad
libitum fed and 25% restricted feeding programs. The
equivalent feed intakes of the restricted fed poults
resulted in the demonstration of an improved energy
utilization. Using this restricted feeding program to
compare the effects of four antibiotics, it was then found
that lincomycin and virginiamycin addition to the diet
improved energy utilization.
The influence of virginiamycin on protein utilization
was studied with a diet shown to be protein-deficient for
turkey poults. It was found in two experiments that the
addition of Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin to
viii

the protein-deficient basal diet resulted in enhanced
growth promotion and protein utilization.
Virginiamycin supplementation to chick diets
containing various phosphorus levels increased body
weights and bone ash, and improved feed efficiency
values. Numerical reductions in the amount of phosphorus
consumed per gram of body weight indicated an improved
phosphorus utilization.
IX

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
In the modern production of poultry meat and eggs,
feed cost has been recognized as the greatest expense.
The attempt by the poultry industry to reduce this expense
has resulted in the increased use of feed additives in the
rations. These additives may demonstrate either therapeu¬
tic or non-therapeutic qualities, but the ultimate goal of
their use is to obtain maximum production gains. Included
among these feed additives are antibiotics.
In addition to the direct relationship between
antibiotics and disease control, many have been shown to
influence the growth rate and utilization of dietary
nutrients. Although the knowledge of the mechanisms of
these actions is not complete, the relationship between
antibiotics and nutrient utilization is one of
considerable interest.
All of the experiments described in this dissertation
were conducted with virginiamycin, an antibiotic that has
been demonstrated as an additive capable of increasing
production gains in poultry. These experiments were
conducted to investigate what influence virginiamycin
1

2
would have on dietary energy, protein and mineral
utilization by poultry.
The first experiment was designed to determine the
level of virginiamycin inclusion in the diet to obtain
maximum responses in turkey poults.
The second and third experiments were conducted to
investigate what influence virginiamycin would have on
energy utilization by turkey poults. In the fourth
experiment, the influence of four antibiotics on energy
utilization was studied.
Experiment five was designed to study the influence
of virginiamycin and three other antibiotics on the
utilization of protein by turkey poults.
A final experiment was designed to study the
influence of virginiamycin on the utilization of dietary
phosphorus by broiler chicks.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Characterization of Virginiamycin
Virginiaraycin is an antibiotic produced by a mutant
of Streptomyces virginiae, which was isolated from Belgian
soil (De Somer and Van Dijck, 1955; Van Dijck, 1969).
Virginiamycin, also known by the name Staphylomycin,
belongs to a class of antibiotics that share two basic
chemical structures that act synergistically to exhibit
their antibacterial action. The two major components of
virginiamycin are designated as factors M and S. Factor M
is present in a larger amount and is mainly active against
Micrococcus aureus, while Factor S is primarily active
against Bacillus subtillis (Van Dijck, 1969). Each of the
components individually demonstrates bacteriostatic
activity against gram-positive bacteria, but in
combination are bactericidal. The synergistic response of
the virginiaraycin components has been attributed to Factor
S (Vanderhaeghe et al., 1957; Van Dijck et al., 1957; Van
Dijck and Braekel, 1969; Bycroft, 1977).
The antibacterial activity of virginiamycin is
expressed by the inhibition of the metabolic pathway which
controls protein synthesis. It has been shown that this
3

4
antibiotic interferes with the translation process at the
level of the 50S ribosoraal subunit, thus inhibiting
protein synthesis (Parfait et al., 1978; Cocito, 1978).
The absorption of virginiaraycin from the
gastrointestinal tract is extremely poor, thus limiting
the effects of the antibiotic to within the digestive
tract. Numerous investigations have been undertaken to
evaluate the possible mode of action of antibiotics
leading to their growth promoting responses. Research
studying the mode of action of virginiamycin is currently
being continued. There have been three basic hypotheses
in the literature that aid in explaining the growth-
promoting responses to virginiamycin. First, there have
been reported changes in the composition and distribution
of intestinal bacteria. This has been presented by Eyssen
et al. (1962) and Eyssen and DeSomer (1963a; 1963b).
These researchers proposed that the growth-stimulating
effect of virginiamycin was most likely due to the
antibacterial action against gram-positive microorganisms
which interfere with the absorption of nutrients.
Secondly, virginiamycin has been shown to depress the
breakdown of glucose and amino acids within the gastro¬
intestinal tract, primarily in the small intestine. This
decrease in substrate breakdown results in a subsequent
decrease in the microbial production of lactic acid,
volatile fatty acids, and ammonia (Lindsey et al.,

5
1985). The third possible mode of action involves a
reduction in the rate of passage of nutrients through the
intestine and a thinning of the intestinal wall. Each of
these would result in an improved absorption of nutrients
(Madge, 1969, 1971). Additionally, a reduction in the
intestinal tissue would decrease the maintenance require¬
ments of the tissue. This would result in an increased
amount of nutrients available for other tissues.
Growth Promotion and Improved Performance
The stimulation of growth promotion in domestic
poultry is perhaps the greatest factor in the feeding of
antibiotics. Chickens were the first animals in which the-
antibiotic growth effect was observed when Moore et al.
(1946) reported that chicks fed diets containing
streptomycin grew more rapidly than the controls. Since
the presentation of Moore's findings, numerous researchers
have been involved in the evaluation of antibiotics, in
particular, virginiamycin, in poultry feeds. The positive
responses resulting from virginiamycin supplementation
have been partitioned into improvements in the utilization
of dietary energy, protein, and other nutrients. Others
have evaluated virginiamycin supplementation on the basis
of improved growth, feed efficiency and enhanced
performance. The latter group will be reviewed first.

6
Eyssen et al. (1962) reported that virginiamycin (20
ppm) in a semi-synthetic diet improved the body weights of
21-day-old chicks by 26%. They concluded that the
response to virginiamycin may be due to an inhibition of
the growth of lactobacilli bacteria within the crop of the
bird. In later experiments, Eyssen (1962) reported a
growth response of 15-30% when virginiamycin was added to
the diet.
There have also been numerous reports published
comparing the relative effectiveness of various
antibiotics. Combs and Bossard (1963) found virginiamycin
(8.8 ppm) to be significantly (P<_.05) more effective in
increasing broiler body weights than nine other
antibiotics (chlortetracycline hydrochloride,
oxytetracycline hydrochloride, oleandomycin, spiramycin
embónate, zinc bacitracin, procaine penicillin, tylosin,
spontin and erythromycin). Additionally, the growth
responses were greater when "used" litter was placed in
the floor pens as compared to clean litter. In
comparisons utilizing chicks and turkey poults, Yates and
Schaible (1961; 1962) found virginiamycin (9.9 ppm) to be
comparable to terramycin and zinc bacitracin on the basis
of growth, feed utilization and livability.
Foster (1972) evaluated the effectiveness of two
antibiotics (including virginiamycin), a nitrofuran
derivative and two arsenicals to promote broiler growth.

7
Body weights and feed conversion values for birds fed
virginiamycin (5.5 ppm) were not significantly different
from the controls. However, it was reported that each of
these feed additives reduced the weight and weight per
unit area of the small intestine. In a later study,
Foster (1978) evaluated the four growth promoting feed
additives available in the United Kingdom (virginiamycin,
flavophospholipol, nitrovin and zinc bacitracin). Each of
the additives, except the flavophospholipol, demonstrated
the ability to significantly improve body weights.
However, none had any influence on feed conversion. In
addition to these growth promoting effects on poultry,
several researchers have made similar conclusions with
growing and finishing swine (Barnhart et al., 1960;
Griffin et al., 1961; Miller and Barnhart, 1961; Griffin
and Lidvall, 1962). In each of these antibiotic
comparison experiments, virginiamycin at various levels
was shown to improve the average daily gain and feed
efficiency values. Jones and Pond (1963) reported that
virginiamycin (44 ppm) significantly increased the average
daily gain of weanling pigs but had no significant effect
on the body weight gain or feed efficiency values when fed
to rats.
To extend the understanding of the growth promoting
qualities of virginiamycin, Leeson (1984) studied the
influence of virginiamycin (11 ppm) on growth and carcass

8
characteristics. The antibiotic improved weight gains,
feed efficiency, carcass weights, carcass yields and
carcass grading according to Agriculture Canada
standards. In addition to growth promotion, Miles et al.
(1984b) found that virginiamycin (10 ppm) enhanced the
utilization of dietary xanthophyll, resulting in an
increase in broiler shank pigmentation. Miles and Harms
(1984) also reported that virginiamycin inclusion in the
diet (10 ppm) resulted in an improvement in broiler
uniformity and litter quality.
The only research reported in the United States
evaluating the effect of feeding virginiamycin on the
performance of laying hens was conducted by Miles et al.
(1985). Improvements in egg production and feed effi¬
ciency were found in one of two experiments, each lasting
five 28-day periods. However, in both experiments,
virginiamycin (10 ppm) significantly reduced egg size.
Energy Utilization
In addition to growth promotion, an improvement in
the utilization of energy has been associated with the
feeding of antibiotics to poultry. Nelson et al. (1963a;
1963b) concluded that the addition of several antibiotics
to the diets of chicks resulted in an increased efficiency
of absorption of calorigenic nutrients. A similar in¬
crease in the absorption and utilization of carbohydrates

9
and fats was demonstrated by Eyssen and De Somer (1963a;
1963b). In a study involving virginiamycin, March (1978)
found that supplementation (22 ppm) to broiler diets
increased the metabolizable energy from the diets an
average of 7.2%. Ravindran et al. (1984) used growing
swine to demonstrate that virginiamycin (11 ppm)
supplementation improved dietary energy utilization of a
high fiber diet. In a related study with growing swine,
Gorrill et al. (1960a; 1960b) showed that the addition of
an antibiotic mixture to the diet increased the
digestibility of dietary energy.
In contrast, others have failed to show these
positive effects of antibiotics on energy utilization.
Sibbald et al. (1961) and Slinger et al. (1962), in
studies with chicks and turkey poults, found that the
addition of antibiotics to the diets had no influence on
dietary metabolizable energy. In a series of experiments
conducted over three years, Begin (1971) was unable to
demonstrate that chlortetracycline had any effect on the
metabolizable energy obtained from the diet.
Protein Utilization
There is a general agreement between researchers
regarding the influence of antibiotic feeding on the
utilization of protein. This was perhaps first
demonstrated by Cunha et al. (1950) with the conclusion

10
that the protein requirements of growing swine could be
lowered when aureomycin was added to a corn-peanut meal
basal diet. Machlin et al. (1952) reported that
aureomycin addition allowed the protein level of a broiler
diet to be reduced by at least 2 percent and obtain
maximum growth. A similar response was found by Stokstad
et al. (1953) who showed that aureomycin would stimulate
growth when added to a broiler diet limiting in protein.
More recent reports have demonstrated that virginiamycin
(22 ppm) supplementation enhanced the utilization of
sulfur amino acids by broilers and turkey poults based on
body weight and feed efficiency data (Harms and Miles,
1983a; 1983b; Miles and Harms, 1983; Miles et al.,
1984a). In each of these experiments, a basal diet was
utilized that had previously been shown to respond
significantly to supplemental methionine. Improvements in
body weights and feed efficiency values were also found by
Miles et al. (1984a) when virginiamycin (22 ppm) was added
to the diets of Leghorn-type pullets containing sub-
optimal protein levels.
Results presented by Gorrill et al. (1960b) offer the
only conflicting conclusions relating antibiotic
supplementation to protein utilization. In a study with
growing swine, they found that the addition of an
antibiotic mixture to various diets had little or no
effect on the utilization of protein.

11
Mineral Utilization
It has been recognized for three decades that
inclusion of antibiotics in the diet exerts an influence
on the utilization of dietary minerals and the subsequent
mineral requirement. Common et al. (1950) reported that
serum calcium was additively elevated following estrogen
injection when chlortetracycline was added to the diets of
pullets. Migicovsky et al. (1951) fed chicks a low
calcium diet supplemented with penicillin, and found that
the antibiotic increased the incorporation of ^5ca into
the tibia. They concluded that in this experiment,
penicillin enhanced the absorption of calcium. Pepper et
al. (1952) obtained a greater growth response to
aureomycin with diets deficient in manganese than with
those adequate in the mineral. The antibiotic also
reduced the incidence of perosis in chicks fed the low
manganese diets. This enhancement of manganese
utilization was confirmed by Pepper et al. (1953)»
Similar reductions in the incidence of perosis in turkey
poults were reported by Slinger et al. (1951) and Scott
(1951) when penicillin and aureomycin were included in the
diets, respectively. Linblad et al. (1954) noted that the
more inadequate the diet with respect to calcium and
phosphorus the greater was the percentage increase in body
weights of chicks and poults due to chlortetracycline. It
was concluded that calcium utilization was enhanced by the

12
antibiotic but the results were insufficient to conclude a
significant reduction in the calcium or phosphorus
requirements. Similarly, Slinger et al. (1961; 1962)
demonstrated that antibiotics enhanced the growth of
poults on low calcium diets, but concluded that the
calcium levels employed were too high to appraise their
effects on the calcium requirements. Ravindran et al.
(1984) utilized and diets varying in their fiber content
for growing swine to demonstrate the influence of
virginiamycin on mineral utilization. Supplementation of
the high fiber diet with virginiamycin (11 ppm) resulted
in an improved absorption and retention of phosphorus,
calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and manganese.
This response was attributed to a slowed rate of passage
of digesta through the intestines and the influence on
large intestine microorganisms favoring enhanced plant
cell wall degradation. No response was observed with the
normal fiber diet.
Henry and others (1985) conducted an experiment to
evaluate the effect of virginiamycin (12 ppm) on manganese
absorption of broiler chicks fed a standard corn-soybean
meal diet. They reported that virginiamycin decreased
intestinal weights and increased weight gains and kidney
and bone manganese values. This indicated that
virginiamycin increased the absorption of manganese.

CHAPTER III
DETERMINATION OF THE VIRGINIAMYCIN LEVEL
FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE IN TURKEY POULTS
Introduction
It has been demonstrated that the inclusion of
virginiamycin to the diet results in increased body weight
gains and improved feed efficiencies in various types of
poultry. The range of levels over which maximum responses
were obtained varied from 8.8 to 22 ppm. The Food and
Drug Administration currently set the maximum allowable
level to be 22 ppm (20 grams per ton) for the improvement
of body weight gain and feed efficiency in broiler
chickens and replacement pullets (Feed Additive
Compendium, 1985). The following two experiments were
conducted to determine the level of virginiamycin
necessary to obtain optimum performance in turkey poults.
Materials and Methods
Two experiments were conducted with day-old Nicholas
Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean meal basal diet
(Table 3-1) was used. Four experimental diets were fed
which contained 0, 5.5, 11 and 22 ppm of virginiamycin.
At day of age, the poults were randomized and placed into
13

14
TABLE 3-1
Composition of the basal diet
Ingredient
%
Yellow corn
48.58
Soybean meal (49% Protein)
43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P & 22% Ca)
2.09
Limestone
1.42
Salt
.30
Animal fat
3.71
Microingredients*
.50
TM-50**
.05
DL-raethionine
.18
* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D^; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadione
dimethy lpyr-imidinol bisulfite (MPB) ; 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 998.8 rag
choline; 22 meg vitamin B^» 110 meg biotin; 125 mg
ethoxyquin; 126.1 mg MnCO^; 300.1 mg iron citrate;
15.97 mg CuCl2*2H20; 1.65 mg KI; 41.85 mg ZnO.
Registered trademark for Terramycin (110 mg/kg), Chas
Pfizer, Lee's Summit, MO.
**

15
electrically heated, Petersime batteries with raised wire
floors. In both experiments, each diet was fed to six
pens, each containing four male and four female poults.
Poults were individually weighed at 21 days of age and
feed consumption was determined. Since there was no
treatment by experiment interaction, the data were
combined. Significant differences between treatment means
were determined according to Duncan's multiple range test
(Duncan, 1955) and the dose relationship was established
using linear least squares analysis of the log data.
Results and Discussion
The addition of 5.5 ppm of virginiamycin resulted in
a significant increase in body weight of poults (Table
3-2). An increase in weight which approached the 5% level
of probability, was obtained when the level of
virginiamycin was increased from 5*5 to 11 ppm. A
numerical increase in weight was obtained when the level
of virginiamycin was increased to 22 ppm. Least square
analysis of the log data indicate that 22 ppm was required
for maximum weight gain.
The addition of 5*5, 11 or 22 ppm resulted in
significantly improved feed efficiency compared to the
control. A numerical improvement in feed efficiency was
obtained when the level of virginiamycin was increased
from 5.5 to 11 and from 11 to 22 ppm.

16
TABLE 3-2
Body weight and feed efficiency of turkey poults
fed four levels of virginiamycin
Virginiamycin
(ppm)
Body weight*
(g)
Feed efficiency*
(g/g body wt)
0
417.5a
1 .35°
5.5
458.8b
1 .27b
11
477.2bc
1.26ab
22
485.9°
1.23a
* Means with different superscripts within a column are
significantly different (P_<_.05) according to Duncan's
multiple range test.

17
These data indicate that supplementing the diet of
turkey poults with virginiamycin is effective for
improving body weight and feed efficiency. The data agree
with those reported by Harms and Miles (1983b), where it
was shown that the addition of 22 ppm resulted in
increased body weight with turkey poults. These data
indicate that the level of 22 ppm is necessary to give
maximum benefit as measured by body weight and feed
efficiency.

CHAPTER IV
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY UTILIZATION
USING AN ENERGY DILUTED DIET
Introduction
There has been considerable data in the literature
indicating that the feeding of antibiotics to poultry-
results in an improved utilization of dietary energy.
Virginiamycin is among this group of antibiotics. The
most common method to determine changes in energy
utilization has been with the use of diets in which the
energy levels are varied by altering ingredient
combinations. The two experiments reported herein were
conducted to determine the influence of virginiamycin on
energy utilization by the turkey poult when fed diets
designed to be less dense calorically than the basal.
Materials and Methods
Two experiments were conducted using day-old Nicholas
Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean meal basal diet
(Table 4-1) was used which was calculated to contain 2719
kilocalories per kg. Two additional diets were formulated
by mixing 85 and 70# of the basal diet with 15 and 30# of
ground peanut hulls, respectively. The ground peanut
18

19
TABLE 4-1
Composition of the basal diet
Ingredient
%
Yellow corn
48.63
Soybean meal (49%)
43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P & 22% Ca)
2.09
Limestone
1.42
Salt
.30
Poultry oil
3.71
Microingredients*
.50
DL-methionine
.18
* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D^; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13-2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 998.8 mg
choline; 22 meg vitamin B^» 110 racS biotin; 125 mg
ethoxyquin; 126.1 mg MnCO^; 300.1 rag iron citrate;
15.97 mg CuC1*2H20; 1.65 mg KI and 41.85 mg ZnO.

20
hulls diluted the nutrient density of the diet and were
assumed to have no metabolizable energy value for poults
(Ensminger and Olentine, 1978; Cullison, 1979). Thus,
these diets contained approximately 2311 and 1903 kilo¬
calories per kg, respectively. Each diet was supplemented
with either 0 or 22 ppm of virginiamycin. The latter
level was demonstrated to be optimum by the experiments in
Chapter III.
The poults were sexed at one-day of age, and four
males and four females were randomly assigned to pens in
electrically heated Petersime battery brooders with raised
wire floors. Six and nine replicate pens were fed each
diet in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. The
experimental diets and water were offered ad libitum
throughout the 21-day experimental period.
Body weights were obtained at 21-days of age and feed
consumption was measured at this time. The data were
subjected to the analysis of variance and significant
differences determined by Duncan's multiple range test
(Duncan, 1955). Since the sex by treatment and the
treatment by experiment interactions were not significant,
the data have been combined.
Results and Discussion
The 15# peanut hull dilution in nutrient density
resulted in poults with greater feed consumption and

21
poorer growth rates than the poults fed the undiluted
control diet (Table 4-2). Also feed consumption was
slightly increased with the 30% dilution with supplemental
virginiamycin. And yet, better energy utilization was
found in the smaller poults.
The addition of virginiamycin to all diets resulted
in increased body weight (Table 4-2). The increase in
weight was greatest in poults fed the diet with the lowest
energy level. Feed consumption as grams per bird was not
influenced by the addition of virginiamycin to the two
diets with the higher energy levels. A significant
increase in feed consumption along with the largest weight
increase was obtained when virginiamycin was added to the
diet with the lowest energy level. Thus, feed efficiency
was improved significantly in all diets by the addition of
virginiamycin. The increased body weight and reduced feed
efficiency resulted in reducing the amount of energy
required per gram of body weight (Table 4-2). This
improvement was significant when the diet contained no
peanut hulls and numerically improved in the diets
containing peanut hulls.
The improvement in the body weight and feed
efficiency of poults from the addition of virginiamycin
agrees with the data previously reported by Harms and
Miles (1983b). The improvement in energy utilization in
the energy-diluted diets used in this study would indicate

TABLE 4-2
Body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency and energy utilization
of turkey poults fed diets with three levels of peanut hulls
with and without virginiamycin
Diet
% peanut hul
Body wt* (g)
Feed
consumption*
(g/poult)
Feed
efficiency*
(g feed/g body wt)
Energy
utilization*
(kcal/g body wt
Is -vm
+ vm**
-vra
+ vm
-vm
+ vm
-vm
+ vm
0
441.8d
473.9e
570.1b
568.2b
1 .28b
1 .22a
3 • 52a
3 • 27b
15
416.9C
431.9cd
588.1b
592.2b
1 .43d
1 .38°
3.27b
3.17bc
30
314.4a
365.0b
507.8a
575.7b
1 .66f
1.59e
3.07cd
3.01d
* Means with different superscripts within a criterion are significantly different
(P<_.05) according to Duncan's multiple range test.
** Virginiamycin.

23
that virginiamycin is possibly increasing the utilization
of all calorigenic nutrients. The present data agree with
those of Heuser (1951) who reported that when the energy
level of the diet was decreased, the response to
antibiotics was increased.
Virginiamycin supplementation in this study resulted
in a greater growth response and improved feed efficiency
in diets designed to be less calorically dense than the
basal diet.

CHAPTER V
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON ENERGY UTILIZATION
BY TURKEY POULTS WHEN AD LIBITUM OR RESTRICTED FED
Introduction
It was demonstrated in the previous chapter that
virginiamycin enhanced the utilization of energy through
the use of adequate and energy diluted diets. The energy
intake was restricted in the following experiment by
restricting feed intake, and the influence of
virginiamycin was then determined.
Materials and Methods
An experiment was conducted using day-old Nicholas
Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean basal diet was
used (Table 4-1). The poults were sexed at one day of age
and randomly assigned to 36 pens in electrically heated
Petersime batteries with raised wire floors. A 2 x 2
factorial arrangement of treatments was used comparing
full and restricted feeding program with and without 22
ppm of virginiamycin. Nine replications, each containing
four male and four female poults were fed each of the four
experimental diets. Two groups were fed the diet ad
libitum. The other group received only 75% of the average
24

25
amount of feed consumed by the poults fed the non-
supplemented ad libitum diet. The allotment of feed for
the poults on the restricted program was calculated daily
using the previous day's consumption for the ad libitum
birds.
Individual body weights were obtained and feed
consumption by pen was calculated at 21 days. Feed
efficiency (g feed/g body weight) and kilocalories of
metabolizable energy required per gram body weight were
calculated. The data were subjected to the analyses of
variance. The sex by treatment interaction was not signi¬
ficant, therefore, the data for sexes were combined.
Significant differences between treatment means were
determined by Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).
Results and Discussion
A 25# reduction in feed intake resulted in a signifi¬
cant reduction in body weight in both the presence and
absence of virginiamycin (Table 5-1). The addition of
virginiamycin resulted in a significant increase in body
weight. This improvement was approximately the same for
the ad libitum fed and restricted treatments. Feed
consumption was not significantly different for the two ad
libitum fed groups (Table 5-1). The addition of virginia¬
mycin to the diet significantly improved feed efficiency
for both the ad libitum fed and the restricted groups.

26
TABLE 5-1
Body weight feed consumption, feed efficiency
and energy utilization when turkey poults
were ad libitum or restricted fed
Ad libitum fed
25% Feed
restriction
-vm
+ vm
-vm
+ vm
Body weight (g)*
440.2C
465.3d
309.9a
334.5b
Feed consumption
(g/bird)*
559.5b
553.3b
419.0a
418.7a
Feed efficiency*
1.26b
1 .20a
1.36°
1.28b
Kilocalories/g body
weight*
3 - 41b
3.26a
3.68°
3.46b
* Means 'with different superscripts within a row are
significantly different (P_£.05) according to Duncan's
multiple range test.

27
The addition of virginiamycin to the diet
significantly reduced the amount of energy required to
produce a gram of weight gain (Table 5-1). This
improvement in energy utilization was greater with poults
in the restricted groups (7.4%) than with the ad libitum
fed group.
The improvement in feed efficiency and energy
utilization from virginiamycin supplementation agree with
the findings presented in Chapter IV. However, in this
study the energy intake was the same for those poults in
the restricted group receiving the diets with and without
virginiamycin. Therefore, the improvement in weight gain
observed in this study was a result of more efficient
energy utilization.

CHAPTER VI
ENERGY UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS
Introduction
Following the completion of the previous two sets of
experiments, it was concluded that virginiamycin can
effectively enhance energy utilization. Although several
antibiotics have been reported to influence energy
utilization by poultry and swine, there have been no
direct comparisons between antibiotics in terms of this
response. The following two experiments were conducted
with turkey poults and the restricted feeding procedure
presented in Chapter V to determine the influence of four
antibiotics on energy utilization. The antibiotics
utilized were Bacitracin MD,' Flavomycin, lincomycin and
virginiamycin. Each of these feed additives has been
shown to promote growth in poultry and swine.
4
Bacitracin MD is a registered trademark for bacitracin
methylene disalicylate, A.L. Laboratories, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 17632.
2
Flavomycin is a registered trademark for bambermycins,
American Hoechst Corp., Somerville, NJ, 08876.
23

29
Materials and Methods
A total of 880 day-old Nicholas Large White turkey
poults were used in two experiments. A corn-soybean meal
basal was used (Table 4-1) that has been shown to be
adequate for optimum poult growth. The basal diet was
calculated to contain 2719 kilocalories of metabolizable
energy per kilogram of diet. The following four
antibiotics were added to the basal at the respective
levels: Bacitracin MD (50 g/ton), Flavomycin (2 g/ton),
lincomycin (4 g/ton) and virginiamycin (20 g/ton). Each
of these experimental diets plus the unsupplemented basal
was fed according to one of the feeding programs. The
programs required that the diets be fed ad libitum or 75%
of ad libitum. The latter was determined daily by
measuring the feed consumed by the poults fed the
unsupplemented basal diet.
The poults were sexed at one-day of age and randomly
assigned to pens in electrically heated Petersirae battery
brooders with raised wire floors. The ten experimental
treatments were fed to a total of 11 pens, each containing
four male and four female poults. Water was offered ad
libitum throughout the experimental period.
Poults were individually weighed at 21-days of age
and feed consumption was determined. The data in both
experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and
significant differences between treatment means were

30
determined using Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan,
1955). There was no significant treatment by trial or sex
by treatment interaction; therefore, the data were
combined for presentation.
Results and Discussion
A significant response in body weights was observed
in each of the antibiotic-supplemented poults when the
diets were offered ad libitum (Table 6-1). However, when
the feed intake was restricted by 25$, only the
virginiamycin supplementation resulted in significant
increases. Additionally, poults fed virginiamycin had
significantly greater body weights than those fed
Bacitracin MD. There were no significant differences in
feed consumption with the ad libitum fed program. The
actual feed consumption of the restricted program was 72%
of the ad libitum intake. When the feed efficiency is
calculated in terms of the intake of kilocalories required
per gram of body weight, significant differences between
the antibiotics became evident. In the ad libitum
program, feeding the control and Bacitracin MD resulted in
less efficient conversion of energy to weight gain than
Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin. When the energy
intake was restricted by 25%, both lincomycin and
virginiamycin were different from the other antibiotics.

TABLE 6-1
Performance of turkey poults fed antibiotics
according to two feeding programs
Supplement
Feeding
Pro.gram*
Body weight**
Feed consumption**
Energy utilization**
(g)
(g/poult)
(kcal/g body wt)
Control
Full
486.1d
664.3b
3.586b
Bacitracin MD
Full
503.6e
660.6b
3.605°
Flavomycin
Full
512.7e
649.6b
3.445a
Lincoraycin
Full
520.2e
649.0°
3.382a
Virginiamycin
Full
516.8e
628.7°
3.347a
Control
75%
350.5a
478.0a
3.709°
Bacitracin MD
75%
351.0a
478.0a
3.709°
Flavomycin
75%
360.0ab
478.0a
3.652a
Lincomycin
75%
359.9ab
478.0a
3.594°
Virginiamycin
75%
371.8bc
478.0a
3.502°
* Experimental diets were fed ad libitum (Full) or restricted to 75% of ad libitum.
** Means with different superscripts within each column are significantly different
(P<_.05) according to Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).

32
The results of this experiment indicate that the
utilization of energy can be enhanced by the feeding of
various antibiotics to turkey poults. A feeding program
which limited the energy intake was used to demonstrate
that both lincomycin and virginiamycin enhanced energy
utilization. The results concerning virginiamycin and
energy utilization agree with those previously presented
in earlier chapters.

CHAPTER VII
PROTEIN UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS
AS INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS
Introduction
The most expensive macro-nutrient in formulated
rations for poultry is protein. This is a major reason
for the interest in the influence of feeding antibiotics
on the utilization of protein. It has been demonstrated
that virginiamycin has the ability to enhance protein and
sulfur amino acid utilization in turkey poults,
replacement pullets and broilers (Harms and Miles, 1983a;
1983b; Miles and Harms, 1983; Miles et al., 1984a).
The two experiments presented here were conducted to
compare the effect of virginiamycin and other antibiotics
on the utilization of sulfur amino acids by turkey
poults. Each experiment was conducted in successive years
and consisted of two trials.
Materials and Methods
Experiment One
A total of 704 day-old Nicholas Large White turkey
poults were used in the two trials of this experiment. A
corn-soybean meal basal diet containing sulfate-free trace
33

54
minerals and no supplemental choline was used (Table
7-1). Supplemental sulfate and choline were removed from
the basal diet to increase the stress on the poults in
order to obtain maximum responses to the antibiotics.
This basal diet was calculated to be deficient in protein
for the growing poult (26%) and has been shown to respond
to supplemental methionine and virginiamycin (Harms and
Miles, 1983a; 1983b). An arrangement of treatments was
used which included zero and .18% supplemental methionine
and Bacitracin MD,"1 Flavomycin^ and virginiamycin at 50,
2, and 20 grams per ton, respectively.
At one-day of age, the poults were sexed and were
randomly assigned to pens in electrically heated Petersime
battery brooders with raised wire floors. Each of the
eight experimental diets was fed to a total of eleven
pens, each containing four male and four female poults.
The diets and deionized water were offered ad libitum
throughout the 21-day experimental period. The poults
were individually weighed at 21-days of age and feed
consumption was determined.
1
Bacitracin MD is a registered trademark for bacitracin
methylene disalicylate, A.L. Laboratories, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 17632.
2
Flavomycin is a registered trademark for barabermycins,
American Hoescht Corp., Somerville, NJ, 08876.

35
TABLE 7-1
Composition of the basal diet
Ingredients
#
Yellow Corn
48.81
Soybean meal (49/0
43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5# P
& 22# Ca)
2.09
Limestone
1 .42
Salt
• 30
Animal fat
3.71
Microingredients (choline and
SO^ free)*
.50
* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin D^; 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadionine
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13.2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 22 meg
vitamin B^; 110 meg biotin; 125 mg ethoxyquin; 126.1
mg MnCO^; 300.1 mg iron citrate; 15.97 mg CuClp^HnO;
1.65 mg KI; 41.85 mg ZnO.

36
Experiment Two
This experiment was conducted the following year and
consisted of two trials utilizing a total of 1120 Nicholas
Large White turkey poults. The basal diet used was the
same as that in Experiment One (Table 7-1). Lincomycin (4
grams per ton) was included in the arrangement of treat¬
ments in Experiment Two. Each of the diets was fed to a
total of 14 pens, each containing four male and four
female poults. In both of the trials in this experiment,
the poults were subjected to similar procedures as de¬
scribed in Experiment One. This included a random assign¬
ment of poults to pens, free access to feed and water, and
methods for body weight and feed consumption measurement.
The data collected from both experiments were
subjected to analysis of variance and significant
differences between treatment means were determined using
Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1955). There was no
trial by experiment or sex by treatment interaction;
therefore, the data were combined for presentation.
Results and Discussion
Experiment One
A significant increase in growth was obtained with
the addition of all of the antibiotics to the methionine
supplemented basal diet (Table 7-2). There was no differ¬
ence in body weights among the individual antibiotics. In

TABLE 7-2
Performance of turkey poults when fed diets with
two protein levels and with three antibiotics (Experiment One)
Antibiotic
Supplemental
Methionine
Body weight*
Feed consumption*
Feed utilization*
<*)
(g)
(g/poult)
(g feed/g body wt)
Control
0
281.9a
390.6ab
1 .39®
Bacitracin MD
0
298.9a
401.4ab
1 • 34d
Flavomycin
0
293.9®
387.4®
1.32°
Virginiamycin
0
326.3b
415.2°
1.27a
Control
.18
422.8°
586.2°
1.39®
Bacitracin MD
.18
441.4d
589.6°
1.34d
Flavomycin
.18
439.4d
587.0°
1 • 34d
Virginiamycin
.18
446.3d
580.5C
1 .30°
* Means with different superscripts within each column are significantly different
(P<_.05) according to Duncan's multiple range test.

TABLE 7-3
Performance of turkey poults fed diets with
two protein levels and with four antibiotics (Experiment Two)
Antibiotic
Supplemental
Methionine
Body weight*
Feed consumption*
Feed utilization*
(*)
(g)
(g/poult)
(g feed/g body wt)
Control
0
319.9a
432.1a
1.36¡J
Bacitracin
MD
0
328.9a
436.6a
1.34d
Flavomycin
0
357.1a
461.5a
1 .30°
Lincomycin
0
349.2b
447.0a
1.29°
Virginiamycin
0
375.1c
472.5a
1.29°
Control
.18
475.4d
615.5a
1 .30°
Bacitracin
MD
.18
478.1°
619.0a
1.29°
Flavomycin
.18
490.1de
608.5a
1 .24a
Lincomycin
.18
498.5j
609.9a
1.23ab
Virginiamycin
.18
515.2i
619.4a
1.21a
* Means with different superscripts within each column are significantly different
(P_<_.05) according to Duncan's multiple range test.

39
contrast, only virginiamycin significantly improved body
weight gains when the antibiotics were added to the
protein deficient basal. Additionally, poults fed diets
containing virginiamycin had the only significant increase
in feed consumption. Feed efficiency was significantly
improved with the antibiotic supplemented diets as
compared to the protein adequate basal, with the largest
improvement observed with virginiamycin. With the
protein-deficient basal, the addition of Bacitracin MD,
Flavomycin and virginiamycin each significantly improved
feed efficiency values in a progressive manner, with
virginiamycin being the most beneficial.
Experiment Two
The addition of lincomycin or virginiamycin to the
protein adequate basal diet significantly increased the
growth of the poults (Table 7-3). Without supplemental
methionine added to the basal, Flavomycin and lincomycin
significantly improved body weight gains compared to the
control and Bacitracin MD, and virginiamycin fed poults
showed an additional increase in growth compared to
Flavomycin and lincomycin. There were no significant
differences in feed consumption between antibiotics within
each of the basal diets. In a manner similar to the body
weight gains, the supplementation of either the protein-
adequate or protein-deficient diet with Flavomycin,

40
lincomycin and virginiamycin significantly improved feed
efficiency values.
The results from these two experiments indicate that
the supplementation of basal diets with one of several
antibiotics improved poult body weight gains and feed
efficiency values. The magnitude of this growth response
was greater in the diets deficient in sulfur amino acids
indicating that the antibiotics enhanced the utilization
of these components in the diet. In the protein-deficient
diets, Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin each
resulted in enhanced amino acid utilization.

CHAPTER VIII
THE INFLUENCE OF VIRGINIAMYCIN ON
PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION BY BROILER CHICKS
Introduction
The previous experiments have established that
virginiamycin has the ability to enhance energy and
protein utilization by turkey poults and that this effect
is comparable to those responses found with other antibio¬
tics. Antibiotics have also been shown to influence the
utilization of minerals in the diet. The enhancement of
mineral absorption by virginiamycin has been reported in a
study with growing swine (Ravindran et al., 1984). The
minerals these researchers evaluated included calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc and manganese.
An improvement in the absorption of manganese was reported
by Henry et al. (1985) following the addition of
virginiamycin to the diets of broiler chicks.
The experiment reported herein was conducted to
determine the influence of virginiamycin on phosphorus
utilization in the broiler chicks by feeding diets
containing three levels of phosphorus.
41

42
Materials and Methods
A total of 768 day-old Cobb feather-sexed chicks were
used. Four males and four females were randomly assigned
to each of 96 pens in Petersime battery brooders with
raised wire floors.
A corn-soybean meal basal diet (Table 8-1) containing
.40$ total phosphorus was used. Three additional diets
were formulated by adding .07» .14, and .21# supplemental
phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate (18# P and 22# Ca).
Each of the diets containing 0, .07, and .14# supplemental
phosphorus was fed with 0 and 22 ppm virginiamycin. The
diet with .21# supplemental phosphorus was fed only with 0
supplemental virginiamycin. The calcium content of the
diet was maintained at .7# by varying the amount of added
ground limestone and using builders sand as a filler.
Fifteen replicate pens were fed each of six diets with the
lower phosphorus, and six pens were placed on the diet
with the highest phosphorus level.
After three weeks on treatment, the birds were
individually weighed and pen-feed consumption was
determined. Feed efficiency was also calculated for this
period. Bone ash was determined on the right tibia from
eight males and eight females randomly selected from each
treatment. The determination of bone ash was with the
method accepted by the Association of Official Analytical
Chemists (AOAC, 1975). The tibias were cleaned of meat

43
TABLE 8-1
Composition of the basal diet
Ingredients
#
Corn
59.4
Soybean meal (49#)
36.0
Animal fat
1.0
Microingredients*
.5
Salt
.4
Variables**
2.7
* Supplied the following activities per kg of diet: 6600
IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU vitamin D*, 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite; 4.4 mg riboflavin, 13.2
mg pantothenic acid; 39.6 mg niacin; 499.4 mg choline
chloride; 22.0 meg vitamin 125 mg ethoxyquin; 60.0
mg manganese; 50.0 mg iron; 6.0 mg copper; 198 meg
cobalt; 1.1 rag iodine; and 35*0 mg zinc.
** Includes washed builders sand, ground limestone, and
dicalciura phosphate (18.5# phosphorus and 22# calcium).

44
leaving the cartilage cap intact and were extracted for 24
hours with methanol, then 24 hours with methanol and then
24 hours with petroleum ether in a Soxhlet extractor. The
tibias were finally dried at 95 C for 12 hours and ashed
in a muffle furnace at 600 C for eight hours. Because the
sex by treatment interaction was not significant, the data
were combined for both sexes. Significant differences
between treatment means were determined by Duncan's
multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).
Results and Discussion
The addition of virginiamycin to the diet resulted in
a significant increase in body weight (Table 8-2). This
increase was only significant (P_<_.05) with the chicks fed
the diet with .47% phosphorus; however, the difference
approached significance with those chicks receiving the
basal diet and was numerically greater with those fed the
diet containing .54% total phosphorus. The phosphorus
level by virginiamycin interaction was not significant,
indicating that the response from virginiamycin was
present at all levels of phosphorus.
Although feed intakes were slightly higher with
chicks fed the diets containing virginiamycin (Table 8-2),
these differences were not significant. Feed efficiencies
and milligrams of phosphorus consumed per gram of body
weight were numerically reduced with virginiamycin at all

TABLE 8-2
Performance of broilers fed various levels of phosphorus
for three weeks with and without virginiamycin
Dietary
Phosphorus
treatment
Virginiamycin
Body
weight*
Feed
consumption*
Feed
efficiency*
Bone ash*
Phosphorus
intake*
(*)
(ppm)
(g)
(g/bird)
(g feed/g
body wt)
(%)
(mg/g body
wt)
.40
0
372a
567a
1.56a
43.3a
5.99a
.40
22
396*
602a
1 .52a
43.0a,
5.89a
.47
0
441b
688b
1.54b
43*5ab
7.24b
.47
22
486c
726bc
1 .50a
45.5b
7.00a
.54
0
494°d
752jd
1.53ab
48.1c
8.10a
.54
22
517d
776d
1 .50a
48.3C
8.05d
.61
0
501cd
760d
1.55b
50.3C
9.25e
. 40+.47+.54
0
444
672
1.54
44.5
7.11
22
469**
697
1.51**
45.2
6.98**
* Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P<_.05) according to
Duncan's multiple range test.
** Significantly different from control.

46
phosphorus levels (Table 8-2). The Improvements in feed
efficiency and the reductions in the amount of phosphorus
consumed per gram of body weight reflect a trend
indicating that adding virginiamycin improved the utiliza¬
tion of phosphorus. When all levels of phosphorus were
combined, the addition of virginiamycin to the diet
numerically increased bone ash values (Table 8-2). The
response, as measured by bone ash, was similar to the
response obtained with growth. The largest and only
significant response from virginiamycin was obtained when
the diet contained .47$ phosphorus, as evident in the body
weight, feed efficiency and phosphorus intake values.

CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY OF RESULTS
1 . The optimum levels of virginiamycin supplementation to
the diet of turkey poults was 22 ppm as determined by
body weight and feed efficiency.
2. The addition of virginiamycin to diets in which the
energy was diluted with peanut hulls resulted in
increased body weights and improved utilization of
feed and energy.
3. The use of a restricted feeding program was used in
additional studies on energy utilization.
a. Virginiamycin supplementation resulted in
increases in body weights, improved feed
efficiency and energy utilization.
b. Virginiamycin and lincomycin produced similar
results in terms of body weights and energy
utilization. Bacitracin MD and Flavomycin did
not improve the energy utilization when compared
to the control.
4. The addition of Flavomycin, lincomycin, and
virginiamycin produced improvements in body weights
47

48
and the utilization of protein when poults were fed a
diet known to be limiting in protein.
5. The addition of virginiamycin to diets containing
various levels of phosphorus resulted in numerical
improvements in body weight gains, feed efficiencies,
bone ash, and phosphorus utilization.

CHAPTER X
CONCLUSIONS
The results and interpretations presented in this
dissertation reveal information about virginiamycin that
have previously been unpublished for poultry. This in¬
cludes both the studies evaluating the antibiotic alone
and studies conducted to compare the relative efficiencies
of various antibiotics.
It was the underlying purpose of these studies to
develop assays to effectively evaluate the influence of
virginiamycin on various nutrients. These assays were
initially adequate but rendered deficient or limiting in a
specific nutrient by several methods. The energy value of
the diets was limited by either diluting the diet with
peanut hulls or the use of a restricted feeding program.
Restriction of the sulfur amino acids in the diet was
accomplished by the formulation of a diet free of
supplemental methionine with a vitamin and trace mineral
premix free of choline and sulfate. In the final
experiment, the phosphorus levels of the diet were varied
by adding different levels of dicalcium phosphate. It can
be concluded that each of the diets was successful in
49

50
evaluating the effectiveness of virginiamycin to influence
the utilization of specific nutrients.
It has been demonstrated that virginiamycin supple¬
mentation to the rations of poultry reduced the amount of
energy, protein, and phosphorus required per unit of body
weight gain. These results were obtained with rapidly
growing young poultry, whose requirements for specific
nutrients are generally greater than those of more mature
birds. This relative increase in requirements allows the
nutrient utilization effects to be shown.
The interpretation of these results is not to indi¬
cate that nutrient levels in commercial diets should be
reduced in the presence of virginiamycin, but to demon¬
strate the various specific nutrient effects resulting
from the supplementation of the antibiotic. It can be
hypothesized that the addition of virginiamycin to the
diets of poultry increases the margin of safety associated
with the particular diets. This would be of importance to
commercial producers using ingredients with nutrient
specifications below the expected values. More detailed
research is required to understand the relationship
between the proposed mechanisms of action for
virginiamycin and the effects on nutrient utilization.
Additionally, it can be concluded that virginiamycin
is comparable to Flavomycin and lincomycin on the basis of
energy and protein utilization, and superior to Bacitracin
MD in both of these parameters.

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Begin, J. J., 1971. The effect of antibiotic
supplementation on growth and energy utilization of
chicks. Poultry Sci. 50:1496-1500.
Bycroft, B. W., 1977. Configurational and conformational
species on the group A peptide antibiotics of the
milkamycin (streptogramin, virginiamycin) family. J.
Chem. Soc. 1:2465-2470.
Cocito, C., 1978. Pressure dissociation of fractional
ribosomes and reassociation of ribosomal subunits.
Molec. Gen. Genet. 162:43-50.
Combs, G. F., and E. H. Bossard, 1963. Comparison of
growth response of chicks to virginiamycin and other
antibiotics. Poultry Sci. 42:681-685.
Common, R. H., T. J. Keefe, R. Burgess, and W. A. Maw,
1950. Modifications of the biochemical responses of
the immature pullet to estrogen by means of dietary
aureomycin. Nature 166:992-993.
Cullison, A.E., 1979. Feeds and Feeding. Reston Pub.
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Cunha, T. J., J. E. Burnside, H. M. Edwards, G. B.
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Glasscock, 1950. Effect of animal protein factor on
lowering protein needs of the pig. Arch. Biochem.
25:455-457.
De Somer, P., and P. Van Dijck, 1955. A preliminary
report on antibiotic number 899, a streptogramin-like
substance. Antibiot. Chemo. 5:632-639.
51

52
Duncan, D. B., 1955- Multiple range and multiple F
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54
Madge, D. S., 1969. Effect of antibiotics on intestinal
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March, B. E., R. Soong, and C. MacMillan, 1978. Growth
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Migicovsky, B. B., A. M. Neilson, M. Gluck, and R.
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Miles, R. D., D. M. Janky, and R. H. Harms, 1982. Broiler
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Miles, R. D., D. M. Janky, and R. H. Harms, 1984b.
Virginiamycin and broiler performance. Poultry Sci.
63:1218-1221 .
Miles, R. D., D. M. Janky, and R. H. Harms, 1985.
Virginiamycin and laying hen performance. Poultry
Sci. 64:139-143.

55
Miller, H. W., and C. E. Barnhart, 1961. Growth
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Studies on the stimulation of growth by antibiotics.
2. Effect of antibiotics on metabolizable energy of
the diet. Poultry Sci. 42:909-912.
Parfait, R., M. P. de Bethune, and C. Cocito, 1978. A
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of aureomycin on the manganese requirement of chicks
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Ravindran, V., E. T. Karnegay, and K. E. Webb, Jr.,
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Scott, M. L., 1951. Studies on the enlarged hock disorder
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fish liver oil and the beneficial effect of dried
brewers' yeast and other products. Poultry Sci.
30:846-855.
Sibbald, I. R., S. J. Slinger, and G. C. Ashton, 1961.
Factors affecting the metabolizable energy content of
poultry feeds. 4. The influences of calcium,
phosphorus, antibiotics and pantothenic acid. Poultry
Sci. 40:945-951.

56
Slinger, S. J., I. Motzok, and W. F. Pepper, 1951. The
effect of salt, manganese, and APF supplements on
growth and bone formation in poults. Poultry Sci.
30:153-156.
Slinger, S. J., W. F. Pepper, I. Motzok, and I. R.
Sibbald, 1961. Studies on the calcium requirements of
turkeys. I. Influence of antibiotics during the
starting period. 2. Interrelationships with
reserpine during the growing period. Poultry Sci.
40:1281-1291 .
Slinger, S. J., W. F. Pepper, I. Motzok, and I. R.
Sibbald, 1962. Studies on the calcium requirements of
turkeys. 3. Influence of chlortetracycline and
reserpine during the starting and growing periods.
Poultry Sci. 41:460-467.
Stokstad, E. L. R., T. H. Jukes, and W. L. Williams,
1953. The growth-promoting effect of aureomycin on
various types of diet. Poultry Sci. 32:1054-1058.
Supplee, W. C., 1960. The effect of antibiotic
supplementation on the response of poults to dietary
corn oil. Poultry Sci. 39:227-229.
Vanderhaeghe, H., P. Van Dijck, G. Parmentier, and P. De
Somer, 1957* Isolation and properties of the
components of staphylamycin. Antibiot. Chemo. 7:606-
614.
Van Dijck, P., 1969. Further bacteriological evaluation
of virginiamycin. Chemotherapy 14:322-332.
Van Dijck, P., and G. Van Braekel, 1969. Plasma-binding
of virginiamycin in vitro and in vivo. Chemotherapy
14:109-114.
Van Dijck, P., H. Vanderhaeghe, and P. De Somer, 1957.
Microbiologic study of the components of
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Yates, J. D., and P. J. Schaible, 1961. The value of
virginiamycin and certain other antibiotics in chick
and poult rations contaminated with raw or heated hen
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Yates, J. D., and P. J. Schaible, 1962. Virginiamycin as
an antibiotic for poultry feeds. Nature 194:183-184.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
The author, Robert E. Buresh, was born August 9,
1958, at Pasadena, California. He graduated fifth in his
class at Tampa Catholic High School in 1976. He entered
Clemson University in the fall of that year and obtained a
Bachelor of Science degree in animal industries in the
spring of 1980. As an undergraduate, the author was a
member of the varsity swimming team, Kappa Alpha Order,
Alpha Zeta, Gamma Sigma Delta, Phi Eta Sigma and Alpha
Lambda Delta.
The author entered the Graduate School of Clemson
University in the summer of 1980 and was granted the
degree of Master of Science in animal and food industries
in the spring of 1982. His master's thesis was entitled
"Passive Solar Energy for the Brooding of Broilers."
He entered the University of Florida in 1982 and was
awarded the Ruby V. Voitle Outstanding Graduate Student
Award in 1984 and 1985.
He married the former Elisa M. Sierra on May 17,
1980, and presently has a 20-month-old daughter, Lauren.
57

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
ÁLlL¿¿S¿¿L
Robert H.
Professor
Harms, Chairman
of Animal Science
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Associate Professor of Animal
Science
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Richard Df Miles, Jr. A
Associate Professor of An^al
Science

I certify that I have read this study and that in ray
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
'Rachel B. Shireman
Associate Professor of Food
Science and Human Nutrition
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the College of Agriculture and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
May 1985
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
The author, Robert E. Buresh, was born August 9,
1958, at Pasadena, California. He graduated fifth in his
class at Tampa Catholic High School in 1976. He entered
Clemson University in the fall of that year and obtained a
Bachelor of Science degree in animal industries in the
spring of 1980. As an undergraduate, the author was a
member of the varsity swimming team, Kappa Alpha Order,
Alpha Zeta, Gamma Sigma Delta, Phi Eta Sigma and Alpha
Lambda Delta.
The author entered the Graduate School of Clemson
University in the summer of 1980 and was granted the
degree of Master of Science in animal and food industries
in the spring of 1982. His master's thesis was entitled
"Passive Solar Energy for the Brooding of Broilers."
He entered the University of Florida in 1982 and was
awarded the Ruby V. Voitle Outstanding Graduate Student
Award in 1984 and 1985.
He married the former Elisa M. Sierra on May 17,
1980, and presently has a 20-month-old daughter, Lauren.
57


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REFERENCES
Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1975.
Official Methods of Analysis. 12th ed. Washington,
DC.
Barnhart, C. E., J. C. Robertson, and H. W. Miller,
1960. Virginiamycin, a new antibiotic, for growing
swine. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1247.
Begin, J. J., 1971. The effect of antibiotic
supplementation on growth and energy utilization of
chicks. Poultry Sci. 50:1496-1500.
Bycroft, B. W., 1977. Configurational and conformational
species on the group A peptide antibiotics of the
milkamycin (streptogramin, virginiamycin) family. J.
Chem. Soc. 1:2465-2470.
Cocito, C., 1978. Pressure dissociation of fractional
ribosomes and reassociation of ribosomal subunits.
Molec. Gen. Genet. 162:43-50.
Combs, G. F., and E. H. Bossard, 1963. Comparison of
growth response of chicks to virginiamycin and other
antibiotics. Poultry Sci. 42:681-685.
Common, R. H., T. J. Keefe, R. Burgess, and W. A. Maw,
1950. Modifications of the biochemical responses of
the immature pullet to estrogen by means of dietary
aureomycin. Nature 166:992-993.
Cullison, A.E., 1979. Feeds and Feeding. Reston Pub.
Co., Inc., Reston, VA.
Cunha, T. J., J. E. Burnside, H. M. Edwards, G. B.
Meadows, R. H. Benson, A. M. Pearson, and R. S.
Glasscock, 1950. Effect of animal protein factor on
lowering protein needs of the pig. Arch. Biochem.
25:455-457.
De Somer, P., and P. Van Dijck, 1955. A preliminary
report on antibiotic number 899, a streptogramin-like
substance. Antibiot. Chemo. 5:632-639.
51


30
determined using Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan,
1955). There was no significant treatment by trial or sex
by treatment interaction; therefore, the data were
combined for presentation.
Results and Discussion
A significant response in body weights was observed
in each of the antibiotic-supplemented poults when the
diets were offered ad libitum (Table 6-1). However, when
the feed intake was restricted by 25#, only the
virginiamycin supplementation resulted in significant
increases. Additionally, poults fed virginiamycin had
significantly greater body weights than those fed
Bacitracin MD. There were no significant differences in
feed consumption with the ad libitum fed program. The
actual feed consumption of the restricted program was 72%
of the ad libitum intake. When the feed efficiency is
calculated in terms of the intake of kilocalories required
per gram of body weight, significant differences between
the antibiotics became evident. In the ad libitum
program, feeding the control and Bacitracin MD resulted in
less efficient conversion of energy to weight gain than
Flavomycin, lincomycin and virginiamycin. When the energy
intake was restricted by 25# both lincomycin and
virginiamycin were different from the other antibiotics.


CHAPTER IX
SUMMARY OF RESULTS
1. The optimum levels of virginiamycin supplementation to
the diet of turkey poults was 22 ppm as determined by
body weight and feed efficiency.
2. The addition of virginiamycin to diets in which the
energy was diluted with peanut hulls resulted in
increased body weights and improved utilization of
feed and energy.
3. The use of a restricted feeding program was used in
additional studies on energy utilization.
a. Virginiamycin supplementation resulted in
increases in body weights, improved feed
efficiency and energy utilization.
b. Virginiamycin and lincomycin produced similar
results in terms of body weights and energy
utilization. Bacitracin MD and Flavomycin did
not improve the energy utilization when compared
to the control.
4. The addition of Flavomycin, lincomycin, and
virginiamycin produced improvements in body weights
47


2
would have on dietary energy, protein and mineral
utilization by poultry.
The first experiment was designed to determine the
level of virginiamycin inclusion in the diet to obtain
maximum responses in turkey poults.
The second and third experiments were conducted to
investigate what influence virginiamycin would have on
energy utilization by turkey poults. In the fourth
experiment, the influence of four antibiotics on energy
utilization was studied.
Experiment five was designed to study the influence
of virginiamycin and three other antibiotics on the
utilization of protein by turkey poults.
A final experiment was designed to study the
influence of virginiamycin on the utilization of dietary
phosphorus by broiler chicks.


CHAPTER III
DETERMINATION OF THE VIRGINIAMYCIN LEVEL
FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE IN TURKEY POULTS
Introduction
It has been demonstrated that the inclusion of
virginiamycin to the diet results in increased body weight
gains and improved feed efficiencies in various types of
poultry. The range of levels over which maximum responses
were obtained varied from 8.8 to 22 ppm. The Food and
Drug Administration currently set the maximum allowable
level to be 22 ppm (20 grams per ton) for the improvement
of body weight gain and feed efficiency in broiler
chickens and replacement pullets (Feed Additive
Compendium, 1985). The following two experiments were
conducted to determine the level of virginiamycin
necessary to obtain optimum performance in turkey poults.
Materials and Methods
Two experiments were conducted with day-old Nicholas
Large White turkey poults. A corn-soybean meal basal diet
(Table 3-1) was used. Four experimental diets were fed
which contained 0, 5.5, 11 and 22 ppm of virginiamycin.
At day of age, the poults were randomized and placed into
13


25
amount of feed consumed by the poults fed the non-
supplemented ad libitum diet. The allotment of feed for
the poults on the restricted program was calculated daily
using the previous days consumption for the ad libitum
birds.
Individual body weights were obtained and feed
consumption by pen was calculated at 21 days. Feed
efficiency (g feed/g body weight) and kilocalories of
metabolizable energy required per gram body weight were
calculated. The data were subjected to the analyses of
variance. The sex by treatment interaction was not signi
ficant, therefore, the data for sexes were combined.
Significant differences between treatment means were
determined by Duncans multiple range test (Duncan, 1955).
Results and Discussion
A 25# reduction in feed intake resulted in a signifi
cant reduction in body weight in both the presence and
absence of virginiamycin (Table 5-1). The addition of
virginiamycin resulted in a significant increase in body
weight. This improvement was approximately the same for
the ad libitum fed and restricted treatments. Feed
consumption was not significantly different for the two ad
libitum fed groups (Table 5-1). The addition of virginia
mycin to the diet significantly improved feed efficiency
for both the ad libitum fed and the restricted groups.


21
poorer growth rates than the poults fed the undiluted
control diet (Table 4-2). Also feed consumption was
slightly increased with the 30# dilution with supplemental
virginiamycin. And yet, better energy utilization was
found in the smaller poults.
The addition of virginiamycin to all diets resulted
in increased body weight (Table 4-2). The increase in
weight was greatest in poults fed the diet with the lowest
energy level. Feed consumption as grams per bird was not
influenced by the addition of virginiamycin to the two
diets with the higher energy levels. A significant
increase in feed consumption along with the largest weight
increase was obtained when virginiamycin was added to the
diet with the lowest energy level. Thus, feed efficiency
was improved significantly in all diets by the addition of
virginiamycin. The increased body weight and reduced feed
efficiency resulted in reducing the amount of energy
required per gram of body weight (Table 4-2). This
improvement was significant when the diet contained no
peanut hulls and numerically improved in the diets
containing peanut hulls.
The improvement in the body weight and feed
efficiency of poults from the addition of virginiamycin
agrees with the data previously reported by Harms and
Miles (1983b). The improvement in energy utilization in
the energy-diluted diets used in this study would indicate


19
TABLE 4-1
Composition of the basal diet
Ingredient
#
Yellow corn
48.63
Soybean meal (49#)
43.17
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5# P & 22# Ca)
2.09
Limestone
1.42
Salt
.30
Poultry oil
3.71
Microingredients*
.50
DL-methionine
.18
* Supplied per kg of diet: 6600 IU vitamin A; 2200 ICU
vitamin Dy, 11 IU vitamin E; 2.2 mg menadione
dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB); 4.4 mg riboflavin;
13*2 mg pantothenic acid; 59.6 mg niacin; 998.8 mg
choline; 22 meg vitamin 11 meg biotin; 125 mg
ethoxyquin; 126.1 mg MnCO^; 300.1 mg iron citrate;
15.97 mg CuC1*2H20; 1.65 mg KI and 41.85 mg ZnO.


50
evaluating the effectiveness of virginiamycin to influence
the utilization of specific nutrients.
It has been demonstrated that virginiamycin supple
mentation to the rations of poultry reduced the amount of
energy, protein, and phosphorus required per unit of body
weight gain. These results were obtained with rapidly
growing young poultry, whose requirements for specific
nutrients are generally greater than those of more mature
birds. This relative increase in requirements allows the
nutrient utilization effects to be shown.
The interpretation of these results is not to indi
cate that nutrient levels in commercial diets should be
reduced in the presence of virginiamycin, but to demon
strate the various specific nutrient effects resulting
from the supplementation of the antibiotic. It can be
hypothesized that the addition of virginiamycin to the
diets of poultry increases the margin of safety associated
with the particular diets. This would be of importance to
commercial producers using ingredients with nutrient
specifications below the expected values. More detailed
research is required to understand the relationship
between the proposed mechanisms of action for
virginiamycin and the effects on nutrient utilization.
Additionally, it can be concluded that virginiamycin
is comparable to Flavomycin and lincomycin on the basis of
energy and protein utilization, and superior to Bacitracin
MD in both of these parameters.


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
Celsius
C
gram(s)
g
International
Chick Unit
ICU
International
Unit
IU
kilocalorie
kcal
kilogram(s)
kg
micrograra(s)
meg
milligram(s)
mg
parts per million
ppm
vi


23
that virginiamycin is possibly increasing the utilization
of all calorigenic nutrients. The present data agree with
those of Heuser (1951) who reported that when the energy
level of the diet was decreased, the response to
antibiotics was increased.
Virginiamycin supplementation in this study resulted
in a greater growth response and improved feed efficiency
in diets designed to be less calorically dense than the
basal diet.


TABLE 8-2
Performance of broilers fed various levels of phosphorus
for three weeks with and without virginiamycin
Dietary
Phosphorus
treatment
Virginiamycin
Body
weight*
Feed
consumption*
Feed
efficiency*
Bone ash*
Phosphorus
intake*
(%)
(ppm)
(g)
(g/bird)
(g feed/g
body wt)
(*)
(mg/g body
wt)
.40
0
372a
567a
1.56a
43.3a
5.99a
.40
22
396a
602a
1*52h
43.0a,
43.5ab
5.89a
.47
0
441b
688b
1.54b
7.24b
.47
22
486a
726bc
1.50a
45.5b
7.009
.54
0
494ad
752ad
1.53ab
48.1c
8.10a
.54
22
517d
776d
1.50a
48.3
8.05d
.61
0
501cd
760d
1.55b
50.3C
9.25e
.40+.47+.54
0
444
672
1.54
44.5
7.11
22
469**
697
1.51**
45.2
6.98**
* Means with different superscripts are significantly different (P<_.05) according to
Duncan's multiple range test.
** Significantly different from control.


36
Experiment Two
This experiment was conducted the following year and
consisted of two trials utilizing a total of 1120 Nicholas
Large White turkey poults. The basal diet used was the
same as that in Experiment One (Table 7-1). Lincomycin (4
grams per ton) was included in the arrangement of treat
ments in Experiment Two. Each of the diets was fed to a
total of 14 pens, each containing four male and four
female poults. In both of the trials in this experiment,
the poults were subjected to similar procedures as de
scribed in Experiment One. This included a random assign
ment of poults to pens, free access to feed and water, and
methods for body weight and feed consumption measurement.
The data collected from both experiments were
subjected to analysis of variance and significant
differences between treatment means were determined using
Duncans multiple range test (Duncan, 1955). There was no
trial by experiment or sex by treatment interaction;
therefore, the data were combined for presentation.
Results and Discussion
Experiment One
A significant increase in growth was obtained with
the addition of all of the antibiotics to the methionine
supplemented basal diet (Table 7-2). There was no differ
ence in body weights among the individual antibiotics. In


CHAPTER VI
ENERGY UTILIZATION BY TURKEY POULTS AS
INFLUENCED BY FOUR ANTIBIOTICS
Introduction
Following the completion of the previous two sets of
experiments, it was concluded that virginiamycin can
effectively enhance energy utilization. Although several
antibiotics have been reported to influence energy
utilization by poultry and swine, there have been no
direct comparisons between antibiotics in terms of this
response. The following two experiments were conducted
with turkey poults and the restricted feeding procedure
presented in Chapter V to determine the influence of four
antibiotics on energy utilization. The antibiotics
utilized were Bacitracin MD,"* Flavomycin,^ lincomycin and
virginiamycin. Each of these feed additives has been
shown to promote growth in poultry and swine.
1 Bacitracin MD is a registered trademark for bacitracin
methylene disalicylate, A.L. Laboratories, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, 17632.
p
Flavomycin is a registered trademark for bambermycins,
American Hoechst Corp., Somerville, NJ, 08876.
28