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Computer-aided drafting for scenic and lighting designers

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Title:
Computer-aided drafting for scenic and lighting designers a training guide using the AUTOCAD drafting package and the Zenith Z-100 microcomputer
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Hall, Delbert L
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Language:
English
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viii, 201 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Circles ( jstor )
Computer aided design ( jstor )
Computer technology ( jstor )
Coordinate systems ( jstor )
Drawing ( jstor )
Geometric lines ( jstor )
Lighting design ( jstor )
Personal computers ( jstor )
Technical drawing ( jstor )
Theater ( jstor )
Computer-aided design ( lcsh )
Stage lighting ( lcsh )
Theaters -- Stage-setting and scenery ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1986.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 194-200).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Delbert L. Hall.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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AA00004860_00001 ( sobekcm )

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COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING
FOR SCENIC AND LIGHTING DESIGNERS:
A TRAINING GUIDE USING THE AUTOCADS DRAFTING PACKAGE
AND THE ZENITH Z-100 MICROCOMPUTER









By

DELBERT L. HALL


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1986




COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING
FOR SCENIC AND LIGHTING DESIGNERS:
A TRAINING GUIDE USING THE AUTOCAD DRAFTING PACKAGE
AND THE ZENITH Z-100 MICROCOMPUTER
By
DELBERT L. HALL
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1986


Copyright
by
Delbert L
1986
. Hall


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to thank all of the members of my
committee for their hard work and for their guidance in
helping me complete this work. I also want to thank the
students who helped by participating in the testing phase
of this dissertation. Very special thanks are extended to
Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg for more reasons than can be named.
I would to like thank my parents, who have given me so
much moral support over the years. And most importantly, I
want to thank my wife, Kathy, for all the love, support and
understanding which she has given me during this period.
AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc.
Permission from Autodesk Inc. has been granted for the use
of copyrighted materials for this dissertation.
iii


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vi
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTERS
IINTRODUCTION
Background of the Problem 1
Statement of the Problem 3
The Purpose of the Study 4
The Hypothesis 5
Scope and Delimitations 6
Notes 8
IIBACKGROUND
Background of Computer Use in Theatre. ... 9
What Is CAD? 14
The History of CAD 18
What Is a Microcomputer-Based CAD System? 20
CAD in Nontheatrical Professions 23
CAD in the Theatre 26
Summary of Literature 30
Notes 30
IIIMATERIALS AND METHODS
The Software 34
The Hardware 38
The Tutorial 41
Preliminary Studies 44
The Subjects 45
Methodology 47
Notes 51
IV


IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Statistical Analysis 52
Breakdown of Scores by Area 59
Conclusions 61
Note 62
V DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
Summary 63
Recommendations 66
Notes 67
GLOSSARY 69
APPENDICES
A THE TUTORIAL 73
B PLOTTING TABLE 174
C NOTES ON USING WORDSTAR 175
D CAD PROGRAMS ON THE MARKET 178
E AUTOCAD'S MENUS 180
F SYLLABUS 183
G COURSE OUTLINE 185
H TEST DRAWING 188
I DRAFTING EXAMPLES 189
J QUESTIONNAIRE 191
K COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TEST SUBJECTS .... 193
BIBLIOGRAPHY 194
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 201
v


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
52
53
53
54
54
55
55
56
57
58
58
59
LIST OF TABLES
Evaluation by Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg of the
Drawing Test for the Test Group
Evaluation by Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg of the
Drawing Test for the Control Group
Evaluation by Ronald A. Naversen of the
Drawing Test for the Test Group
Evaluation by Ronald A. Naversen of the
Drawing Test for the Control Group
Evaluation by Delbert L. Hall of the
Drawing Test for the Test Group
Evaluation by Delbert L. Hall of the
Drawing Test for the Control Group
Grand Totals of Test Scores
Comparison of Scores on the Drawing Test
Between the CAD and the Manual Methods . .
t Distribution Comparison of Mean Scores on
the Drawing Test
Comparison Among Evaluators of Scores from
Test Group on the Drawing Test
Comparison Among Evaluators of Scores from
Control Group on the Drawing Test
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation of Scores
Between Evaluators
Time Chart of CAD Training by Members of
the Test Group
vi


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING
FOR SCENIC AND LIGHTING DESIGNERS:
A TRAINING GUIDE USING THE AUTOCAD DRAFTING PACKAGE
AND THE ZENITH Z-100 MICROCOMPUTER
By
Delbert L. Hall
December 1986
Chairman: Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg
Major Department: Speech
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for
training scenic and lighting designers to use computer-
aided drafting (CAD) as a tool for producing technical
drawings for theatrical productions. To bring four
subjects to an acceptable level of performance using CAD, a
self-study tutorial was employed. The effectiveness of the
method was subsequently determined by comparing the
drawings of a test group, which learned CAD using the
tutorial, with the drawings created by a control group,
which used manual drafting techniques. After each drawing
had been scored on four key areas of drafting quality, the
mean scores of the two groups were compared and the
effectiveness of the tutorial judged.
Vll


Two microcomputer-based CAD workstations were used for
the study. The AutoCAD drafting package, version 2.02, and
the Zenith Z-100 microcomputer were the major components of
the CAD workstations. The purpose of the tutorial was to
train scenic and lighting design students to draft
theatrical drawings using the workstations and the AutoCAD
drafting package.
The results of the testing in this study showed that a
test group, who had learned to use CAD through the
tutorial, scored 33 percent higher on a drawing test than a
control group using manual drafting methods. The drawings
were rated by trained raters on productivity, accuracy,
readability, and reproduciblity by trained raters with an
average reliability coefficient of .9490907. The test
results suggest that scenic and lighting designers trained
by the self-study tutorial method to make theatrical
drawings using CAD produced signifigantly better theatrical
drawings than students using manual drafting techniques.
Vlll


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Problem
Drafting is the process of graphically representing a
design in a precise manner so that it can be accurately
constructed by craftsmen. Architects, engineers, interior
designers, scenic designers, and lighting designers, all
use drafting in some way to communicate their design ideas
to others. Until recently, designers used drawing boards,
T-squares, triangles, pencils, erasers, templates, scale
rulers, and other specially designed drafting aides to
manually draw each element of the design onto paper.
Computer-aided drafting (CAD) is an alternative method
which offers benefits over traditional methods of drafting
and which has been adopted by many designers and draftsmen
as the preferred method.^
This researcher first became aware of computer-aided
design and drafting (CADD) on microcomputers in October
1983 in a review of CADD programs in PC World magazine
entitled "Computer-Aided Design.The review explained
some of the applications of CADD and gave examples of
drawings created using each of the three CADD programs
considered in the article. According to the aforementioned
1


2
article, the three leading CADD programs available for
microcomputers at that time were AutoCAD, The Drawing
Processor, and MicroCAD. It was obvious to this
researcher that CADD was a tool which scenic designers
might use to create drawings. It was not until August
1984, when the researcher saw one of these programs in
operation, that he realized the potential of computer-aided
design and drafting for theatre.
In September 1984, the theatre department of the
University of Florida decided to investigate the use of
computer-aided drafting as an alternative to traditional
drafting methods. Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg and the researcher
made up the team investigating the use of CAD for
theatrical uses and potential CAD programs for this
purpose.
During the investigation, seven CAD programs, AutoCAD,
CADplan, CADdraft, Design Board Professional, The Drawing
Processor, MicroCAD, and VersaCAD, were reviewed or tested
by the team. During the investigation, the team tested a
CAD program used by the theatre department at Florida State
University. Jack Miller, the theatre department's
technical director, showed the investigating team the work
he had accomplished using the program and allowed the team
to spend several hours creating their own drawings using an
IBM workstation and VersaCAD software. During the session
several simple theatrical drawings were created. The
process was slow, however, due to the overwhelming number


3
of commands possible and the complexity of the program's
command structure. The investigating team's difficulty in
creating quality drawings with this CAD program made it
apparent to the researcher that, if this program was
finally selected, a method of training users would need to
be established. Tests with the six other programs being
reviewed by the investigating team revealed that
*
difficulties with command structures and uses was not an
isolated problem and that training designers to use CAD was
a serious problem that had to be addressed.
Statement of the Problem
The problem identified for this study was the lack of
training materials for teaching scenic and lighting
designers to use CAD to produce construction drawings for
theatrical productions. CAD had been widely accepted in
the architectural and engineering professions, and was
being taught in the architecture and engineering
departments of colleges and universities.^ Despite CAD's
wide use by other professions, it had been ignored by most
theatre departments as a method of producing working
drawings for theatrical productions.4 The major reason was
the lack of computer knowledge by most theatre
practitioners. In 1984, when this study was begun, most
scenic and lighting designers knew little of CAD and did


4
not know the benefits of using CAD to produce drawings for
their productions. As theatrical designers have been
introduced to CAD and its potential advantages over
traditional drafting methods, theatrical designers have
shown great interest in using this new tool. These
designers realized the complexity of CAD and their major
concern was training in the use of CAD.5 Currently, there
are no publications for training theatrical designers to
use CAD to produce working drawings for theatrical
productions. The lack of training resources makes many
university theatrical designers reluctant to spend between
$7,000 and $14,000 to set-up a typical microcomputer-based
CAD workstation.^
The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for
training scenic and lighting designers to use computer-
aided drafting as a tool for producing working drawings for
theatrical productions. A self-study tutorial method was
selected to be used in creating the training procedure.
The tutorial was divided into twenty lessons for teaching
both the commands and the uses of the commands for
producing theatrical drawings.


5
The goal of the research study was to determine the
effectiveness of the training method by comparing the
drafting of a test group who learned CAD using the tutorial
with drafting by a control group using traditional methods.
Research conducted by the University of Illinois, the
American Institute for Architects, and several companies
interested in CAD cited several advantages of CAD over
manual drafting. The advantages include productivity,
. 7
accuracy, and legibility of drawings. An increase in
productivity in producing construction drawings would give
the designer more time to develop the design. An increase
in drawing accuracy and legibility would result in fewer
construction errors which cost time and money. The
benefits of CAD could result in better productions at lower
costs.
The Hypothesis
The study was designed to develop and test a method for
training scenic and lighting designers to use CAD for
producing working drawings for theatrical productions. The
null hypothesis tested was as follows:
There will be no difference in the mean scores of
the drawing test between the test group using CAD
to produce their drawings and the control group


using manual drafting techniques on the measures
uti1ized.
Scope and Delimitations
Participation in the research was limited to
scenic and lighting design students in the theatre
department at the University of Florida who had
completed the department's course in manual
drafting, TPA 3070. Students who met this
requirement and who were available to participate
in this study were used as the test group. An
equal number of students were selected as a
control group from the qualified students who were
not available to participate as members of the
test group. The students in the control group
were selected on the basis of their scores in TPA
3070, their GPA, their SAT/GRE score, and profile
evaluations, so that the two groups were made up
of members of equal abilities and drafting skills.
The test group followed a structured schedule in
completing each step of the tutorial (APPENDIX G).
The length of study was fifteen weeks.
A room designated as a CAD laboratory was equipped
with the CAD workstations described within this
document. The room was used solely for the study


7
and was readily accessible for members of the test
group.
4. The test group (N = 4) was divided into two groups
of two students for taking the two-hour test.
The test was taken in the same location with the
same equipment used to train the students in the
use of CAD. The four members of the control group
took the same test as the test group in the manual
drafting classroom where they had taken the manual
drafting course.
5. The drawings created by both groups were evaluated
in four areas.
1. Drawing productivity
2. Drafting accuracy
3. Readability/neatness
4. Reproducibility
The success of the training procedure was
determined by comparing the mean score of the test
group against the mean score of the control group.
If the mean score of the test group had been higher
than the mean score of the control group, the null
hypothesis would not have been supported. If the
null hypothesis had not been supported, the
proposed method of teaching CAD to scenic and
lighting designers to produce theatrical drawings
would have been considered a successful method.
If the mean score of the control group had been
higher than or equal to the mean score of the test


8
group, the null hypothesis would have been
supported, and the proposed method of teaching CAD
to scenic and lighting designers would have been
considered unsuccessful.
Notes
1 Daniel S. Raker, "CAD Angles," Plan and Print, Vol.
N 5 8, No. 8 (1985), pp. 114-115.
Davis Straub, "Computer-Aided Design," PC World,
October 1983, pp. 100-114.
-3
Elizabeth Bollinger, "EduCAD Outlook," Plan and
Print, Vol. N58, No. 8 (1985), p. 116.
^ Conversations with Bill Teague of the University of
Alabama, Dr. Richard Beam of Western Carolina University,
Tom Nowell of Lynchburg College, Joe Stell of the
University of Georgia, and other scenic designers, lighting
designers, and technical directors from colleges and
universities across the country, from September 1984 to
June 1986.
^ Conversations with Bill Teague of the University of
Alabama, Dr. Richard Beam of Western Carolina University,
Tom Nowell of Lynchburg College, Joe Stell of the
University of Georgia, and other scenic designers, lighting
designers, and technical directors from colleges and
universities across the country, from September 1984 to
June 1986.
^ Steven M. Lord, "What I Wish I Had Known About CAD
Software, But I Didn't Know Enough to Ask," Mechanical
Engineering, Vol. 107, No. 11 (1985), pp. 24-26.
7 Oliver R. Witte, "Afforsable CAD," Architectural
Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1984), pp. 42-47.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Background of Computer Use in Theatre
The first major use of computers in the theatre began
in the late 1950s when data processing equipment was linked
with theatrical dimming equipment to produce computer
controlled lighting consoles. The punch card driven
consoles used were not reliable. By the early 1960s, high
speed memory storage devices, magnetic drums, and ferrite
core stores were being used to create dedicated computers.
One of the first marketed computerized lighting control
systems utilizing this technology was the IDM/R system by
the English company Rank Strand (1966). By 1972, Rank
Strand and its U.S. counterpart, Strand Century, were
producing three memory lighting control systems: 1) DDM-
Digital Dimmer Memory, 2) MMS-Modular Memory System, 3)
Mini-Q/II.1
The first two systems were designed for large theatre
applications and could control several hundred dimmers at
the same time. Both systems permitted time fades and
precise control of dimmer settings. The Mini-Q/II was a
lower budget memory system targeted for schools and
community theatres. The Mini-Q/II could control up to 96
9


10
channels and store up to 128 cues for playback. The three
systems provided computerized control systems that met the
needs of theatre and began a revolution in lighting
control.
By 1974, most lighting control manufacturers were
producing at least one computerized control system.
Computerized lighting consoles had proven reliable and
provided users with advantages not possible on pre-set
lighting consoles. "The computer is a fantastic tool
because it allows greater speed in lighting cues,"^
according to Roland Bates, the production stage manager for
the New York City Ballet.
Despite advantages over other lighting control systems
and widespread acceptance in colleges and universities,
computerized lighting control did not debut on Broadway
until 1975 when EDI's new LS-8 computerized control system
was used for A Chorus Line.^ Change to the computerized
console reduced the number of electricians required to
handle lighting during performances and helped reduce
production cost.^ Designer Tharon Musser won a Tony award
for her lighting for this production. The computer was now
established in the profession for use in stage lighting.
Most computers that helped operate lighting control
systems were dedicated computers and could not be used for
other purposes. But by the late 1970s, general purpose
microcomputers were available at modest cost, and theatre
practitioners began looking for ways to use them. One of


11
the first uses of microcomputers in the theatre was in the
business area. The microcomputer was marketed as a tool for
small businesses and software written for that purpose
could be easily adopted by theatres. Theatrical supplier
Herb Schmoll of Design Line, Inc., was one of the first
individuals to develop a line of computer programs for
theatre business applications.5 Schmoll wrote programs to
create seating plans and print theatre tickets; keep
inventories of scenic materials, costumes, and lighting
equipment; and estimate the cost of building theatrical
scenery. Schmoll also developed a box office program to
keep track of ticket sales. These programs were marketed
as Theatre Application Programs (TAP) by Design Line, Inc.
Russ Houchen, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of
Florida, wrote five programs for the TAP product line.
These programs included a budget program, a calendar
program, a mailing list program, a student record program,
and a library program. Most of the programs written by
Schmoll and Houchen for the TAP product line are still
marketed today by Rosco, Inc.
From the beginning of the use of microcomputers by
theatre practitioners, individuals were writing their own
programs or adapting programs written for other purposes,
to manage the business side of the theatre operation. The
theatre department at the University of Southern
Mississippi adapted a public domain check balancing program


12
to a financial management program for theatrical
productions.
Designers who knew the power of the computer in
controlling lights wanted to use the tool for the paperwork
of lighting design. By the late 1970s lighting designers
began adopting data base management programs to help manage
board hook-ups and instrument schedules. One of the
earliest programs for this purpose was written by Gerard
Duffin in BASIC for the NorthStar computer.7 Duffin wrote
his program as part of a Master of Fine Arts thesis project
at the University of Florida in 1978. Despite Duffin's
work, the first article published in theatre journals on
how to use computers for handling lighting paperwork was
"Microcomputers In Stage Lighting" by Michael R. Brooks in
Theatre Crafts magazine, April 1983. Brooks's program,
written for the Atari 800 microcomputer, produced
instrument schedules and illustrated diagrams of hanging
positions from data entered by the user. As more powerful
data base management programs became available for
different microcomputer systems, the use of microcomputers
grew. Craig Miller, lighting designer for the Santa Fe
Opera, began using an Apple computer and a data base
management program called Quick File in early 1982 to
help him manage the paperwork of his lighting designs.
Miller now uses a portable computer and AppleWorks software
to help handle the constantly changing arrangement of
lighting instruments while touring.8


13
John Weygandt, a professor at Pomona College in
California, uses an Apple Macintosh computer and Filevision
by Telos Software Products to create both lighting plots
and the paperwork for his productions.^ Weygandt feels
that the computer provides the designer with more freedom
to experiment with a lighting design than he would have
without the use of the computer. About using the computer
to produce a lighting design Weygandt said, "I am sure that
revisions in the plot and paperwork were faster and easier
to handle [than using traditional methods of producing a
lighting design]. I felt somehow less encumbered by the
revisions and consequentially freer to try new
approaches."-*-
The desire by lighting designers to use the computer
for paperwork has spawned a program written by John
McKernon, a USA #829 member. McKernon's program, ALP
(Assistant Lighting Designer), compiles instrument
schedules, hook-ups, gel cutting lists, and circuiting
information while checking for overloaded circuits,
overloaded dimmers, and notation errors in the paperwork of
a lighting design.-*--'- Marketed by Rosco Inc., the program
was designed to help the lighting designer save time by
organizing designs and finding errors on the paperwork
before the design is hung.
Although lighting designers have made great use of
microcomputers, scenic designers have found far fewer uses
for them. In 1982, Robert Reinecke of Kutztown State


14
College in Pennsylvania wrote a computer program for a TRS-
80 microcomputer that would calculate the minimum amount of
lumber needed to build the necessary flat for a production
1 9
from the dimension given by the user. His program also
calculated the number of cornerblocks needed and the cost
of the lumber. Reinecke also used the microcomputer to
create a chase sequencer for strings of lights on a set for
Thurber Carnival.^J
Since the scenic designer's work is far more
graphically oriented than the lighting designer's, scenic
designers have had to wait for the development of computer-
aided drafting programs before the computer could become an
important tool for them.
What Is CAD?
CAD, as an acronym, can stand for computer-aided
drafting or computer-aided design. The acronyms can be
combined to form CADD, computer-aided design and drafting.
Regardless, the word stands for a computer program which
can be used to create, edit, and make hard copies of
graphic images. "CAD can be thought of as 'image
processing.' The process of creating an image with a CAD
system is akin to that of creating a document"-*-4 with a
word processor. It is a tool to make the process of
creating and editing fast and easy.


15
A CAD program allows the user to enter commands,
instructing the computer to draw lines, arcs, circles, and
other shapes called primitives, in order to construct a
design.^ Primitives can be edited by other commands of
the CAD program in order to correct mistakes or alter
design ideas. CAD programs can have more than one hundred
commands with each command having multiple options.
Several tasks easily accomplished with CAD are tedious
and time-consuming operations when performed using manual
drafting procedures. They include mirroring an object,
inserting a copy of a previously created object into a new
location, moving an object or group of objects to a new
location, and changing the size of an object or group of
objects in a drawing.
One example of CAD's power to perform tasks not easily
accomplished manually is its ability to place a copy of an
object previously drawn at a new location. To perform this
task manually, the user would have to measure each part of
the object and determine the relationship of each part to
the next. He or she would re-draw the object in the new
location, measuring each part. If the object was made up
of many lines, arcs, circles, or text items, this process
could be slow. To accomplish the same task with CAD, the
user specifies the object to be copied by placing it in a
"window" and then specifying where the copy is to be
placed. The computer does all of the measuring and places


16
a copy of the object specified at the new location.
Details on moving an object can be found in LESSON 11 of
APPENDIX A.
Once a drawing has been created with a CAD program, it
can be stored and re-edited at a later time to create a new
drawing. The scale (size) of a drawing created with CAD
can be changed with fewer than a dozen keystrokes. Another
advantage of CAD over traditional methods of drafting is
the precise accuracy which it provides. Many CAD programs
have an accuracy greater than one-billionth of the unit of
measurement in which the user is working.^ This measuring
and drawing accuracy can produce drawings superior in
quality to drawings created with manual techniques.
APPENDIX J shows an example of a section of a drawing
created using CAD and a section of a drawing drafted
manually. Details of this may be found in LESSON 17 of
APPENDIX A.
The drafting ability of CAD is only one part of its
capability. Because the computer can solve complex
mathematical equations, manipulate data, and display
graphic information at high speeds, CAD is capable of
performing many tasks in addition to drafting. Several CAD
programs allow the user to customize the program by adding
new commands and features not part of the original program.
New commands are usually developed around a specific task
performed by the user. As the user designs these new
features for the CAD program, its usefulness is expanded.


17
Defining CAD is becoming increasingly difficult because
the uses of CAD are growing as designers discover ways to
use the programs. Architect John Voosen said, "Although
we started out intending to use our CAD program just for
technical drafting, we are now using it for design
explorations and presentation work of a kind we never would
have attempted several months ago."-*- Carol Ann Tunell,
another CAD user, said, "When you begin to understand how a
computer can work for you, how it can actually aid
creativity by allowing you to work faster and more
precisely, the computer's usefulness and versatility become
obvious."-*-9 A study conducted by Arthur D. Little, a
respected computer consultant, showed "the overall
productivity increase of CAD users to average 4:1, with a
minimum gain of 2:1."20 Another study conducted in 1983
predicted that 40,000 draftsmen would be out of work by the
year 2000 due to the increased efficiency of CAD over
traditional methods of drafting.2-*- Computer-aided drafting
is a productivity tool that offers benefits over
traditional drafting methods. The use of such a tool
should make CAD's users more productive and gives them more
time to develop a better design.
All computer graphics do not fall into the category of
CAD. One area of computer graphics related to CAD is
computer imaging.22 Computer imaging is the computer
simulation of three-dimensional objects. In simulation,
the surfaces of objects are colored or shaded in a manner


18
that reveals the form and texture of the objects under a
specified lighting situation. The technique is sometimes
referred to as "solid modeling.Computer imaging has
numerous uses including design. However, it is not a
technique used in the drafting aspects of CAD. Although
the use of computer imaging is becoming more common in the
microcomputer environment, it is still found predominantly
on mini and mainframe computers. ^4
Some CAD programs have the ability to create three-
dimensional representations of objects in the form of wire
frame models. Two such programs are MicroCAD and Design
Board Professional. Wire frame models do not show surfaces
of the objects as solid models.^ They show only the edges
of the structures. Hidden lines can be removed from wire
frame models to give them the illusion of being solid.
However, they do not show their form by indicating
reflected light. Three-dimensional CAD ability is
increasing in popularity among CAD programs.
The History of CAD
IBM (International Business Machines) and DEC (Digital
Equipment Corporation) established the foundation for
engineering graphics' support of computers in the early
1960s.26 Shortly afterward, the first computer-aided
drafting program, CADAM, was developed by Lockheed


19
Corporation to run on IBM mainframe computers.^ General
Motors and McDonnel1-Douglas Corporation also developed in-
house CAD programs.
In 1969, Data General Corporation introduced the first
minicomputer which was inexpensive in comparison to
mainframe computers. CAD programs were developed for a
growing number of minicomputers. By the early 1970s, CAD
2 8
systems had become an industry.
In the late 1970s, microcomputers were developed and
marketed. Often referred to as personal computers, these
off-the-shelf computers are simple to use and, unlike mini
or mainframe computers, within the price range of many
individuals. Around microcomputers, the largest revolution
in the CAD, microcomputer-based CAD system, was about to
take place:
International Data Corp. of Framinghag,
Massachusetts, estimates that personal computer
based CAD hardware and software systems shipped
will increase from 1,900 in 1983 to 32,000
systems this year [1986] and to 205,000 CAD
packages by the end of 1988.
Because a microcomputer-based CAD system is the most
affordable and likely to be the choice of colleges and
universities implementing CAD into their programs, it was
selected as the type of CAD system to be used in this
study.


20
What Is a Microcomputer-Based CAD System?
The microcomputer has one central processing unit,
located in a single computer chip, which handles all of the
mathematical calculations.of the computer. Every function
of the computer is controlled in some way by this
microprocessor. The use of a single microprocessor makes
microcomputers slow in comparison to minicomputers and
mainframe computers which use several processors to control
the computer's functions and mathematical calculations.
Microcomputers using an eight-bit microprocessor, the most
common microprocessor size of the early 1980s, were also
limited to small amounts of memory space, usually sixty-
five thousand bytes or less.
CAD, which is calculation and memory intensive, was
limited on the early microcomputers. However, developments
in technology in the last five years have produced sixteen-
bit microprocessors which operate three times faster than
the eight-bit microprocessor and can address ten times as
much data. Such advances have led the way to the
development of CAD for microcomputers.
Not only have microcomputers increased in speed and
memory capacity the past several years; their cost has
dropped steadily. A microcomputer CAD system with 70 to 80
percent of the features of a minicomputer CAD system can be
purchased for about one-tenth the cost of a minicomputer
CAD system.3 The cost difference has made CAD on


21
microcomputers affordable to many. Steven M. Lord, a
mechanical engineer who has investigated the use of CAD in
his profession, said:
A workstation capable of handling most of the
design and drafting tasks typically performed by
a product development group can be assembled for
a total cost of between $7,000 and $14,000.
Assuming only a very conservative 25 percent
increase in engineering efficiency, plus a
substantial decrease in drafting and checking
time, the investment should pay for itself in
less than a year.-^
Most microcomputers come with a keyboard to input
information into the computer and a monitor on which the
computer displays. Monitors can be monochrome or color
video display units. Monochrome monitors usually have the
best resolution because monochrome monitors use only one
electron gun to produce each pixel or dot on the screen,
and the more pixels per inch, the better the resolution.
Color monitors use three electron guns to produce each
pixel. Because of the need for greater numbers of electron
guns, color monitors usually have fewer pixels per inch on
the screen and therefore, less resolution. Because color
can be used in the communication process to help define
layers, linetypes, or special symbols for objects, color
monitors are good communication tools for CAD. High
resolution color monitors for CAD are available and improve
the ease of using a CAD system, because they show better
detail of objects as well as differentiate between objects
by using color.


22
If drawings could be displayed only on a monitor, CAD
systems would be almost useless. The microcomputer-based
CAD system requires a device for producing the finished
drawing on paper so that the drawing can be reproduced and
given to the craftsmen who execute the design. The most
commonly used device for producing hardcopies of drawings
is a pen plotter. Using a technical drawing pen similar to
those used by draftsmen, a pen plotter can produce inked
drawings from data sent to it by the computer. Plotters
can operate with accuracy up to 0.001 of an inch.-^
Operating at between 3 inches per second and 15 inches per
second, a pen plotter can produce drawings which can be
blueprinted.
Other peripheral devices used in a microcomputer-based
system might include a mouse, a digitizing tablet, or a
light pen. These three devices are input devices and can
be used in place of the keyboard which is the most common
input device. The above mentioned input devices can be
used to tell the computer which commands it is to perform
or where to locate precise points on a drawing so that the
user can draw lines, circles, arcs, and text. Because of
their design, the alternative input devices are often
easier and faster to use than the keyboard. The digitizing
tablet is the most versatile and accurate of the alternate
input devices. It can also be used for tracing pre
existing drawings into the computer's memory.


23
The third and most important part of a CAD system is
the CAD program or software. The software is what gives
the user the drawing and editing features of the CAD
system. Therefore, choosing a CAD program that best fits
the user's needs is the most important decision in setting
up a CAD system and should be made first. After the
software has been selected, a microcomputer and peripheral
devices that work with the software should be chosen. Some
CAD programs work with different models of computers and
many different peripheral devices, but other programs
operate only on a select group of computers.
CAD in Nontheatrical Professions
When CAD programs were first developed for micro
computers in the early 1980s, CAD developers looked at the
possible markets for their products.The markets
targeted as potential CAD users were architects, interior
designers, electrical engineers, and mechanical
engineers.35 The program developers looked at the design
and drafting needs of these professions and tried to
develop products suited to their needs.As the
advantages of CAD were realized by other professions, CAD
programs with features directly related to other fields,
such as cartography and landscape planning, appeared. CAD
programs were also developed as "general drafting"


24
a 7
programs, capable of doing most architectural or
mechanical drafting, but limited in the number of
specialized features. General drafting programs have
spread the use of CAD from sophisticated industrial use to
teaching general drafting principles and concepts in high
schools.
Architects are among the most common users of CAD.
Aware of growing interest in CAD, in 1984 the American
Institute of Architects tested six CAD programs and
published the results in its journal, Architectural
O Q
Technology. According to Charles B. Thomsen, architect,
the use of CAD by architects is based on three factors:
cost, time, and quality:
Architects are hired to solve problems: to
design buildings. But our big cost is not the
cost of design. It is the production of working
drawings. We spend our money not in solving the
problem, but in documenting the solution . .
How many times have you looked at something you
have just finished and thought, 'If only I had
time to do that again, I could do it better.'
With CAD you can. ^
Thomsen concluded that CAD would help improve the
designs of architects by providing time to test more
alternatives and that the architect's clients would be the
big winners with CAD.41
Dennis Davey, an architect in Tolland, Connecticut,
first acquired a microcomputer in 1978 for word processing
and office accounting. In 1983, he used it to produce his
first CAD drawing. Davey says that he can complete his


25
drawings on the computer in about one-fourth the time that
it would take him to prepare them manually.4^ Davey also
feels that the quality of the drafting produced on the
computer is superior to hand-drafted drawings.4^
Carol Ann Tunell, founder of an interior architecture
firm in Phoenix, Arizona, says that CAD has a 3:1
productivity gain over manual drafting and that translates
into lower overhead and salary costs. Tunell says that
CAD eliminates much of the repetitive redrawing and
reworking common to manual drafting.44 "CAD's an
invaluable tool. It saves money, and at the same time,
helps you to do a better job."4
Warren Ferguson, president of Ferguson Map Co., Inc.,
of San Antonio, Texas, replaced the traditional drafting
methods in his company with a CAD system called SAM (Simply
Amazing Mapmaker). He said:
You used to see a big drafting room with a lot of
people doing a lot of repetitive work. Now you
see a few people at computer installations
putting out the same amount of work. A computer
can be anywhere from five to ten times as
productive as a human being in this business.4
Using computer-aided cartography,
. . it may be possible for an individual to
produce custom-tailored maps designed to meet a
specific need. According to this scenario, a
person planning a vacation trip could ask the
computer to create a map outlining possible
routes, as well as to provide weather forecasts
and locations of gas stations.4^


26
Jerry Wisdom is the owner of a firm that designs and
builds amusement park rides. In 1984, Wisdom installed a
single computer-aided design workstation to handle all of
the company's design and drafting needs. Wisdom says that
CAD helps his company maximize time and minimize costly
material waste:
Since CAD permits me to
elements, I can design
beginning construction,
and that tolerances are
versatility and accurac
with a design.
quickly manipulate desi
a ride, and before
make sure all parts fit
correct. CAD's
y let me play 'what-if'
gn
Wisdom's mechanical engineer William Hatch said,
The readability of a CAD-generated drawing is
superior to that of a manual drawing. When
you're dealing with a 100-foot-long ride that
must be folded onto a truck trailer, you can't
afford a construction mistake because a drawing
is unclear. y
CAD in the Theatre
An early article published about the use of CAD as a
design tool for theatres, "Computer Set Modeling," by
Arnold R. Ness and Brent L. Fleming appeared in Theatre
Crafts magazine in April 1983. Fleming, who was the
supervisor of technical production at Bradley University's
Hartmann Center for the Performing Arts, conceived the idea
for the program to help foresee sightline problems caused


27
by the deep thrust stage, optional sidestages, and steeply
raked house of the center's Meyer Jocob Theatre. With the
help of Ness from the university's department of
manufacturing, he developed a computer program that would
create a graphic representation of a set on the stage of
the Meyer Jocob Theatre.- Once the data on the setting
were entered into the computer, this program could be used
to view it from different locations in the theatre's house.
Using this technique, the designer and the director could
view a design and solve scenic design problems before the
set was constructed.
The program developed by Ness and Fleming was written
in FORTRAN and used Tektronix Plotl0 graphics.Running
on a Control Data Cyber 171, a mainframe computer, and
Tektronix 4000 series terminals, this program helped solve
many design problems at Bradley University. The cost of
the equipment, estimated at over $300,000, made Ness and
Fleming's program an unrealistic solution for other scenic
designers. The program was also limited to perspective
problems and did not have any drafting capabilities.
"MicroCAD: Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design,"
published in Theatre Crafts magazine in February, 1985,
dealt with the use of a general drafting program for
theatrical design. Michael R. Brooks's article reviewed
MicroCAD, a CAD program by Computer Aided Design in San
Francisco. Brooks explained how he used this program to
create perspective views of his scenic designs from


28
different locations in the house in much the same way as
Ness and Fleming's program did. MicroCAD also made it
possible to draft ground plans, elevations, and other
typical working drawings needed for theatrical
productions.55 Because MicroCAD was written for
microcomputers, it was a design and drafting tool that was
affordable to potential users.
Lighting designers have also been looking for ways to
use CAD to help them create light plots and manage
paperwork required for a lighting design. The first
commercial CAD program designed specifically for creating
light plots was ShowPlot by Jon Harshaw. The program was
not merely a data base. It made it possible to draw plan
views of theatres and scenery on which the program could
superimpose the lighting design. ShowPlot has been adopted
by several professional lighting designers to produce
lighting graphics.54
Another program for creating lighting graphics is
Instaplot by Steve Kaye of Source Point, Inc., of Norcross,
Georgia.55 The program works as an extension to the
AutoCAD drafting package and was created to help lighting
designers create extensive lighting plots for concerts.
Lighting designers Jim Chapman and Robert Roth have used
AutoCAD and Instaplot to draft lighting plots for several
concerts including Michael Jackson's Victory Tour, the
Live-Aid concert, and Madonna's Virgin Tour.55


29
Although the use of CAD by theatrical designers was
increased over the past several years, it is still uncommon
to find a CAD system in use by scenic designers. At a
program on computer-aided design the researcher chaired at
the Southeastern Theatre Conference in March of 1986, in
Charlotte, North Carolina, less than half of the nearly
seventy designers and technical directors present used
computers in any of their work. Among those who did use
computers, the most common use was word processing. Four
of the individuals attending this program used the Apple
Macintosh computer and the MacPaint or MacDraw programs to
produce some drawings for their productions. They were
limited to drawings with a maximum size of 11 inches by 17
inches. In addition to those on the panel, only one
designer attending the program was presently using a
complete CAD system. Interest in CAD systems by attending
designers and technical directors was high and many
indicated they were seriously considering purchasing a CAD
system within the next two years.
To help inform potential CAD users about the new tool
for drawing, at least two of the twenty-one regional
sections of the United States Institute for Theatre
Technology, the Alberta section and the Southeastern
section, will hold master classes on CAD for members in the
summer of 1986.^8 These classes will concentrate on
showing potential users different CAD programs and giving
them a first-hand look at CAD.


30
Summary of Literature
The review of the literature shows the development of
the use of computers by scenic and lighting designers. It
also shows how members of other professions have used CAD
to benefit them in their work. Research supports the need
for establishment of a method for training scenic and
lighting designers in the use of computer-aided drafting as
a means of producing working drawings for theatrical
productions. Training programs similar in method but
geared to the architectural and engineering professions,
have provided many users with a means by which to learn to
use the computer as a design and drafting tool.
Notes
Phillip Rose and Charles Levy, "Thanks for the
Memory," Theatre Crafts, October 1974, p. 25.
9 .
Phillis Wollman and Larry McClain, "Computers Shine On
Stage," Popular Computing, August 1983, p. 126.
^ Patricia MacKay, "A Chorus Line: Computerized
Lighting Control Comes to Broadway," Theatre Crafts,
Nov./Dec. 1975, pp. 28-29.
^ Wollman and McClain, p. 123.
5 Personal interview with Herb Schmoll, author of
several computer programs for theatrical applications, 22
September, 1981.
^ Personal interview with George Crook, scenic designer
at the University of Southern Mississippi, 9 September, 1983.


31
^ Gerard Duffin, Development of a Basic Computer
Program for Theatre Light Plots, Project in Leu of Thesis,
University of Florida, 1978.
O
Craig Miller, "Using Your Apple to Handle Lighting
Paperwork," Theatre Crafts, March 1985, pp. 16, 57-61.
Q
John Weygandt, "Filevision for Your Lighting
Design," Theatre Crafts, October 1985, p. 100.
Weygandt, p. 107.
Robert Heller, "ALD: Lighting Software from Rosco,"
Theatre Crafts, January 1985, p. 16.
I O
Robert Reinecke, "Computer Calculation of Lumber
Required for Flat Construction", Theatre Design and
Technology, Vol. 18, No. 4 (1982), p. 18.
Robert Reinecke, "A Microcomputer-Controlled
Chaser," Theatre Crafts, May 1982, p. 56.
14 Glenn Hart, "CAD: The Big Picture for Micros," PC
Magazine, March 1985, p. 108.
15 John Lowell, Computer Graphics (New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1985), pp. 56-57.
1 Weygandt, p. 107.
17 ,
Personal interview with Kathy Ricks, president of
CAD dealership and training facility in Charlotte, NC, 11
May, 1985.
I8 Oliver R. Witte, "Affordable CAD," Architectural
Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1984), p. 44.
I Q
Mark Josephson, "Space Planning with CADD," Plan
and Print, Vol. N59, No. 3 (1986), p. 43.
20
T & W
Syst
ems,
, How to
(Huntii
ngton Beach,
CA:
T & S S
21
Davis
Straub, 1
"Computer
1983,
p. 100.
22
Lowell
r P.
41.
23
Lowell
, PP-
60-
-63, 132.
24
Lowell
r p.

ID
25
Lowell
, p.
128-
-131.


32
23 Patrick R. Carberry, CAD/CAM with Personal
Computers (Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books Inc., 1985),
p. 4-5.
o 7
Carberry, p. 5.
7 o
Carberry, p# 5.
29 Hart, pp. 108-109.
30 Hart, p. 109.
33 Steven M. Lord, "What I Wish I Had Known About CAD
Software, But I Didn't Know Enough to Ask," Mechanical
Engineering, Vol. 107, No. 11 (1985), pp. 24-26.
32 Carberry, p. 149-152.
33 Donald J. Jung and Michael J. Bethel, "Selecting a
Plotter," Theatre Crafts, Nov./Dec. 1984, p. 19.
34 Personal interview with Gregory L. Bloom, vice
president of products and services for MegaCADD, Inc., 11
May, 1985.
33 Bloom.
33 Bloom.
*3 7
Byron Ryono, "Let Your Apple Do the Drafting," A+,
December 1984, pp. 42-47.
33 "CAD Stirs Interest," Electronic Education, Vol. 5,
No. 5 (1986), p. 21.
39 Witte, pp. 42-47.
40 Charles B. Thomsen, "CAD's Greatest Promise Is as a
Creative, Interactive Tool," Architectural Technology, Vol.
2, No. 2 (1984) pp. 64-65.
43 Thomsen, p. 65.
442 Robert Bede, "Two-Member Office and CAD," Plan and
Print, Vol. N59, No. 3 (1986) pp. 34-35.
43 Bede, p. 35.
44 Mark Josephson, "Space Planning with CADD," Plan and
Print, Vol. N 5 9, No. 3 (1986), p. 43.
45
Mark Josephson, "Space Planning with CADD," p. 58.


33
24.
Mike Sheridan, "Back on the Map," Sky, May 1986, p.
46
Mike
She
47
Sher i
dan,
48
Mark
Jos
>t,
Vol.
N 5 9
49
Mark
Jos
50
Arnold R.
Mark Josephson, "Amusement Park Rides," p. 31.
Arnold R. Ness and Brent L. Fleming, "Computer Set
Design," Theatre Crafts, April 1983, pp. 28-29.
Ness and Fleming, p. 81.
52 Ness and Fleming, pp. 80-82.
52 Michael R. Brooks, "MicroCAD: Three-Dimensional
Computer Aided Design," Theatre Crafts, February 1985,
pp. 85-88.
54 James L. Moody, "Showplot: A New Program for
Lighting Designers," Theatre Crafts, Aug./Sept. 1985,
pp. 28, 86-88.
R S .
Personal interview with Steve Kaye, author of
Instaplot, 13 September, 1985.
Lionel Johnston, "AutoCAD Applications: Lighting
Design," CADalyst, Jan./March 1986, p. 52.
c 7
Personal interview with Robert Warren, technical
director at the University of Southern Mississippi, 8 March,
1986.
58
Ron Olson, "Computers and the Arts," USITT
Newsletter, Vol. 26, No. 3 (1986), p. 11.


CHAPTER III
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The Software
In response to the increase in demand for CAD,
manufacturers have marketed a wide range of CAD programs,
each having strengths and weaknesses for different types of
design and drafting work. These programs range in cost
from $100 to nearly $3,000.
The following checklist outlines the questions that
prospective CAD users should ask themselves in evaluating
CAD programs.
1. Does the program have features needed to do the
work?
2. Is there a local dealer for the program who can help
match equipment with the program to meet needs?
3. How difficult is the program to learn and is
training available?
4. Does the company which produces the program have a
good reputation and will they be in existence to
supply updates in years to come?
5. Are there other users in the area of theatrical
design who use the program and recommend it?
6. If the user already owns a computer, is there a
version of the program for this computer?
7. Will the program support a wide range of peripheral
devices?
34


35
8.Can the user purchase an entry level version of the
program and add more features later?
The selection of CAD programs can be narrowed to the
program which best fits the user's needs by answering these
questions as they apply to each CAD program which the user
is considering. APPENDIX D contains a list of CAD programs
currently on the market.
The checklist was used by the theatre department at
the University of Florida in the fall of 1984 to choose a
CAD program which best fit the theatrical drafting needs of
students and faculty. The needs included
1. General drafting
2. Creation of custom templates (blocks)
3. Text writing
4. Isometric drafting
5. 3-D drawing
6. Auto-dimensioning
7. Ability to plot 24" x 36" drawings
8. Hatching
9. Creation of arrays
10. Scaling of objects
In addition to drafting features, most CAD programs
contain non-drafting features that aid the drafting
features or have special applications that theatrical
designers can use. Some of the non-drafting features of
CAD desired were
1. User-defined menus
2. Attribute extraction for reports
3. On-screen coordinates, distances and angles
4. Help feature
5. Well documented user's guide


36
When the choices had been narrowed to three, the
dealers of the CAD programs considered were given several
examples of standard theatrical drafting and asked to
duplicate these drawings using their CAD programs. When
the drawings were being produced, careful attention was
paid to ease of use and features of each program useful for
theatrical drafting. After reviewing the results, AutoCAD,
by Autodesk Inc., was selected as the CAD program which
best fit the needs of the theatre department at the
University of Florida and which was used in this study.
Although AutoCAD lacked several useful features
available on some of the other CAD programs, such as
parallel lines and 3-D perspective capabilities, AutoCAD's
command structure seemed easy to understand and use. This
was important, because most theatrical designers have
little or no computer experience. AutoCAD also provided
for the creation of custom menus and commands. That
feature proved to be one of AutoCAD's greatest assets.
Kathy Ricks, a CAD specialist in Charlotte, North
Carolina, recommended AutoCAD because of its flexibility
and its user base. AutoCAD is the largest selling CAD
program on the market with 44 percent of the market share.1
Because of the large user base, numerous third-party
software developers have created add-on programs to provide
new functions and customized applications to AutoCAD.
Several programs, including Instaplot, were written
specifically for theatrical applications. The large user


37
base also meant that support from other users,
publications, and local dealers would be available to
provide training, insights into new ways to use the
program, and add-on features to make AutoCAD a more useful
program.
AutoCAD, available for 31 different computers,-^
provides the user with the option to upgrade to a varied
selection of different computers and still be able to use
the CAD program with which he or she is familiar. AutoCAD
also supports a wide range of plotters and digitizers.
AutoCAD's major drawback is its expense, $2,500 for the
complete package. According to PC Magazine's 1986 review
of CAD programs,
the low-end programs tested are good values for
the money, but that's about it. Even though they
are easier to learn than the heavy hitters (and
obviously costing less), most users would be
better served by making the investment in buying
and learning a more serious CAD program.
An entry level version of AutoCAD can be purchased for
about $1,000. The three extension options can be added
separately to spread out the cost as the user learns the
program and its functions. However, about 90 percent of
the sales of AutoCAD include all three drafting
extensions.^ The theatre department at the University of
Florida chose to purchase the complete AutoCAD drafting
package, version 2.02.


38
When purchased, AutoCAD, version 2.02, was the most up-
to-date version available for the Zenith Z-100 micro
computer. Since that time, Autodesk, Inc., has released
another version of AutoCAD with additional features
including polylines, 3-dimensional object creation and
view, hidden line removal, chamfer, and the ability to plot
drawings to dot matrix printers. The newer version of
AutoCAD was not used in this study because it was not
available until after the proposed training procedure had
been conceived. Future training procedures should take
advantage of the latest version of AutoCAD.
The Hardware
AutoCAD provided a wide choice in the selection of
microcomputers. Because the University of Florida had a
purchasing agreement with Zenith, a Zenith computer was the
most economical choice. The selection was narrowed to the
Z-100 microcomputer and the Z-150 microcomputer, both by
Zenith. The difference between the computers was
substantial. The major advantage of the Z-150
microcomputer was its compatibility with the IBM PC
microcomputer. Because of the large number of IBM PC used
by businesses and individuals, compatibility meant that a
number of other programs would be available to run on the
Z-150. Many programs which would be desirable, such as


39
Design Board Professional, dBASE III, Generic CAP, and
MicroCAD, were not available for the Z-100.
The Z-100, however, had advantages. The Mechanical
Engineering department of the University of Florida was
using eight Z-100 computers running AutoCAD to teach CAD
as part of a computer graphics class. They reported
success with the Z-100 running AutoCAD and offered help for
the theatre department in establishing its CAD facility.
After reviewing cost, features, repair records,
availability of local repair facilities, and other factors
outlined on the checklist on pages 34 and 35, the Zenith Z-
100 computer was selected. Two Z-100 microcomputers each
with a 10 megabyte Winchester disk drive and one floppy
disk drive were purchased from Zenith. The Winchester disk
drive was selected because of the need for high speed
interchange of extremely large amounts of data between the
storage device to the computer's memory. The Winchester
disk holds thirty times more data than a five and one-
quarter inch floppy disk used by the Z-100, and the
Winchester disk drive operates 10 times faster than
floppy disk drive.^ These factors made the Winchester disk
drive a better data storage device for the massive amount
of data involved with CAD. These computers use the 8086
16-bit microprocessor with an 8-bit data bus and had 443
kilobytes of RAM memory. The computers did not have the
optional 8087 math co-processor which increases the speed
at which the computer is able to make mathematical


calculations by 300 percent, and therefore, makes the CAD
process faster.7 Lack of experience with CAD by the team
selecting the hardware for the CAD workstations was the
reason for the item's not being purchased for the CAD
workstations.
Each of these computers was equipped with a 12-inch
monochrome monitor. Expense prevented the use of color
monitors. The monochrome monitors cost $89 each whereas a
color monitor costs between $700 and $3,000 each, depending
on the size of the monitor and the quality of resolution.
Hardcopy output was obtained through the use of a
Houston Instruments DMP-42 plotter connected to each
computer. These plotters were capable of producing the two
most common sizes of drawings used by scenic and lighting
designers, either 18" X 24" (C size) or 24" X 36" (D size)
drawings. The DMP-42 plotters were selected because of the
size of drawings they would produce, their cost, and their
excellent repair record.
Although no alternative input devices were purchased
for the study, an optical mouse was borrowed from the
mechanical engineering CAD facility and used during a
portion of the study. The device was not available during
the testing phase of the study. The lack of such a device
will be discussed in Chapter IV.
The testing done during the study used only the
equipment listed above. The system described above is
considered a minimum CAD system, and the results of the


41
testing should be viewed with the limitation in mind. The
use of high resolution color monitors, alternative input
devices, and math co-processors would have improved the
efficiency of the CAD system.
The Tutorial
How to train scenic and lighting designers to use the
CAD workstations described in Chapter III to produce
drawings for theatrical productions was the problem to be
solved by the study. The first step was to investigate
present methods of training designers to use the program.
AutoCAD was shipped with a reference manual entitled
The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide which explains all
of AutoCAD's commands and features in great detail and is
an excellent source of information about the program. It
is, however, a reference manual and not a training manual.
It does not clearly lead the user through a process by
which he or she learns to set-up a drawing and use
AutoCAD's commands to accomplish a desired task. For
training users, another source needed to be found.
Several training manuals for AutoCAD were investigated
including House 1, an architectural drafting workbook for
manual drafting or for CAD; CadPACK Beginning AutoCAD
Tutorial, a general purpose guide to AutoCAD's commands;
and Inside AutoCAD, an extensive teaching guide for AutoCAD


42
on the IBM PC microcomputer. Each of these training
sources had strengths and weaknesses, but after discussion,
it was decided that none of these methods were acceptable
for teaching computer-aided drafting to scenic and lighting
designers using AutoCAD and the Zenith Z-100 microcomputer.
Two major flaws in the training manuals were that they did
not address the way AutoCAD used the function keys of the
Zenith Z-100, and the above-mentioned manuals did not
relate AutoCAD's commands to theatrical drawings. Instead
of using one of the commercially created training programs
available to the theatre department, the researcher decided
to develop and test a program specifically aimed at
problems faced by scenic and lighting designers.
The tutorial method was chosen because it could be
used either at the user's own pace or as part of an
organized course in CAD. The method also allowed for
step-by-step instructions for each command as the user
carried it out at his/her workstation. Two of the three
commercially designed training programs reviewed, Inside
AutoCAD and CadPACK Beginning AutoCAD Tutorial, were
tutorials. The tutorial method of training designers to
use a CAD program appeared to be the clearest and easiest
method for the user and it was selected as the method used
for the tutorial in the study.
The guidebook for scenic and lighting designers was
conceived as an introduction to AutoCAD and was designed to
be used with the Zenith Z-100 microcomputer and AutoCAD,


43
version 2.02. The tutorial does not cover all of AutoCAD's
commands or features. Instead, it concentrates on teaching
the user the commands which relate to the drawings most
commonly done by scenic and lighting designers. AutoCAD
also has commands intended for expert users and these
commands were not taught as part of the tutorial. The
tutorial should be used in conjunction with The AutoCAD
Drafting Package User Guide in order to provide detailed
information about each of AutoCAD's commands or options.
One objective of the tutorial was to address typical
drafting tasks faced by scenic and lighting designers. The
twenty lessons of the tutorial and the exercises at the end
of most lessons were designed so that the user progressed
to the point where he or she was prepared to create
complete drawings for a production.
Since the tutorial was conceived as an introduction to
AutoCAD, a determination had to be made as to what commands
would be taught and in which order. The process began by
defining the goal of the project in terms of a final
examination and then preparing an outline for teaching the
materials needed to successfully complete the examination.
As part of the objective of the study, the proposed length
of the training period was limited to fifteen weeks, the
typical length of study of a one semester course at the
University of Florida. Thus, the proposed training
procedure could be used within the format of most
universities and colleges operating on the semester system.


44
Preliminary Studies
A preliminary test of the proposed training procedure
was made during the fall semester 1985. The test involved
a single student with a basic knowledge of scenic and
lighting design. The student completed each lesson in the
tutorial along with the accompanying exercises and progress
was monitored with each lesson. Frequent consultations
with the test subject revealed strengths and weaknesses
within the tutorial and its design. Upon completion of the
tutorial, the test subject was successfully able to
complete the final examination prepared prior to his
training. Knowledge gained by the researcher during this
preliminary testing led to the reorganization of the
tutorial. The revised tutorial, APPENDIX A, was used for
training the students in the testing section of this study.
Since many students in the technical theatre program at
the University of Florida had been exposed to some uses of
computers in theatre, a survey was taken to discover to
what extent a theatrical population would have experience
with computers and to discover knowledge and beliefs about
computer-aided drafting. The results of the survey appear
in APPENDIX J. Overall, thirteen technical theatre majors
who completed the questionnaire were familiar with
computers and their uses in theatre and felt that a
knowledge of computers by theatrical designers and
technicians would be necessary in the future. Most of the


45
group surveyed had seen CAD demonstrated and believed
strongly that a knowledge of CAD would help then seek
future employment and that CAD should be taught by theatre
departments in colleges and universities.
The Subjects
Two groups of four students were used for the testing
of the proposed training procedure. One group was the
control group and the other was the test group. All eight
students involved in the test had previously taken the
theatre department's manual drafting course TPA 3070,
Theatrical Drawing Methods and Procedures. The test group
was selected by a random chance method from the pool of
eleven qualified students. A control group of comparable
ability was selected from the remaining students in the
pool by using the students' final grade in TPA 3070, GPA,
score on standardized tests, and profile evaluations.
APPENDIX K contains a comparative analysis of test
subjects. Four students in each group is a small sample
size. However, the number was necessary for several
reasons. First, the study was limited by the number of CAD
workstations available. With only two workstations for the
test subjects to use, the researcher decided to limit the
number of students participating in the training to four in


46
order that each student have adequate time to use the
equipment. The researcher believed that a larger number of
students would create scheduling problems and the students
might not complete all of the assigned exercises due to the
lack of CAD workstations. The second reason for the small
number of students participating in the test was a result
of the small number of scenic and lighting design students
currently at the University of Florida. It was the belief
of the researcher that CAD should be taught to students
only after they have had experience with manual drafting
methods. Although researchers at the University of
Illinois felt that CAD could be a better method for
teaching design and drafting concepts,^ the researcher and
other members of the theatre department's design staff at
the University of Florida, felt that knowledge and
experience with manual methods of drafting provide a
background on which the student could base his/her work
with CAD. Because of the number of scenic and lighting
design students at the University of Florida who do not
have adequate manual drafting experience, the number of
students involved in CAD instruction is likely to remain
low. Therefore, having a test group of four students was
in line with the estimated class size of future classes in
CAD at the University of Florida.
At the current enrollment level, a more conclusive
study which would involve a substantial number of test
subjects would take in excess of ten years at the


47
University of Florida. Because the length of such a study
exceeds the parameters of a dissertation, and because
changes in the backgrounds of subjects over the length of
the study would jeopardize the validity of the test, an
exploratory test will be used to set up results to be
confirmed or refuted by other researchers. Therefore, for
this study N = 4 is considered a valid sample size for the
test.
Methodology
During spring semester 1986, the four students
involved in the CAD portion of the testing took an
independent study course in which they used the proposed
method for learning CAD. Progress was supervised by Dr.
A.F.C. Wehlburg and the researcher. The syllabus and
course outline for the CAD course can be found in APPENDIX
F and APPENDIX G, respectively.
The course emphasized typical drawings which would be
created by scenic and lighting designers in preparation for
a theatrical production. The four drafting skills
emphasized were drawing productivity, drafting accuracy,
readability and neatness, and reproducibility.
Drafting productivity is defined as the amount or
quantity of drawing that the draftsman can complete in a
set period of time. The speed at which the draftsman


48
creates a drawing determines the productivity of the
draftsman. Productivity is affected by the amount of time
the draftsman spends perfecting the accuracy of the
drawing, the readability of the drawing, and the
reproducibility of the drawing.
Drafting accuracy is the degree to which the draftsman
has successfully rendered the drawings. Drafting accuracy
includes both drawing accuracy and measuring accuracy.
Accuracy includes the draftsman's ability to draw sharp
corners, straight lines, and consistent symbols.
The third area of evaluation is readability and
neatness, including arrangement of information on a
drawing, clarity of lines, readability of symbols, text and
dimensions, and the overall appearance of the drawing. The
readability of a drawing can be affected by the users
choice of drawing media, i.e. ink or graphite. Another
factor affecting the readability of drawings is the
indication of lines which are left on the paper after a
drawing is corrected.
Reproducibility is the degree to which the drawing is
able to be reproduced using typical blue line reproduction
techniques. The two factors controlling reproducibility are
darkness of lines and consistency of line weights. Because
several individuals on the production staff need copies of
the working drawings for a production, successful
reproduction of drawings is considered an important feature
of drafting.


49
Upon completion of the course, the four students were
given a scaled drawing of the floor plan for a theatrical
production (APPENDIX H) and were instructed to complete the
following drawings for this production in two hours:
1. Floor plan
2. Front Elevations
The students were told to complete as much of the
assignment as possible in the scheduled time and that the
drawings were to be presentational quality and as error-
free as possible. The students were aware of how the
drawings were to be evaluated and were instructed to do the
best work possible. The test group created their drawings
using the CAD workstations described above in the study.
Since there were only two CAD workstations, the test was
given to two students at a time. No communication between
the students taking the test was allowed.
The four students in the control group were given the
same drawing test. However, they were to produce their
drawings using manual drafting techniques. The group also
was aware of the evaluation procedure and told to do their
best work. The members of the control group worked
individually in a drafting classroom.
The experimental design used in the study was
"Randomized Control-Group Posttest Only," which has good
internal validity.^ This testing design controls for
history, maturation, pretesting, statistical regression,


measuring instruments, differential selection of subjects,
and experimental mortality.^
The drawings created during the test were evaluated
by faculty and staff members of the theatre department.
The evaluators were Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg, former technical
director and lighting designer for the theatre department,
and the instructor of the manual drafting course offered by
the theatre department; Mr. Ronald A. Naversen, scenic
designer for the theatre department; and the researcher,
who teaches manual drafting as part of a course in
stagecraft for the theatre department. Each of the four
areas being evaluated was assigned a grade between zero and
ten with zero being the worst grade possible and ten being
the best grade possible. The maximum possible grade for
each test subject was forty points. The grades for each of
the four areas were totaled and every student was assigned
a final grade by each evaluator. A final score for each
group was obtained by tallying the scores for all of the
test subjects in the group.
A _t test for independent samples was used to determine
if the difference between the scores of the two groups were
significant. The 99 percent confidence level, with six
degrees of freedom, was selected for the test. At this
level of confidence, the possibility of an error in the
test results is 1 percent. The results of the test are
found in Chapter IV.


51
Notes
4 Personal interview with Kathy Ricks, president of
CAD dealership and training facility in Charlotte, NC, 11
May, 1985.
^ Glenn Hart, "CAD: The Big Picture for Micros," PC
Magazine, Vol.5, No. 5 (1986), p. 126.
^ "CAD Stirs Interest," Electronic Education, Vol 5,
No. 8 (1986), p. 21.
4 Hart, p. 109.
^ Hart, p. 126.
^ Donald B. Vitz, "Hard Facts about Hard Disk,"
Architectural Technology, No. 2, Vol. 2 (1984), p. 63.
7 Personal interview with Kathy Ricks, 11 May, 1985.
O
"U of Illinois Studies CAD vs Manual Instruction,"
Plan and Print, Vol. N85, No. 8 (1985), p. 118.
Q
Stephen Isaac, Handbook m Research and Evaluation
for Education and the Behavioral Sciences (San Diego: EdITS
Publishers, 1980), p. 42.
10
Isaac, p. 49


CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Statistical Analysis
The drawings created by both the test group and the
control group were evaluated by three experienced scenic
and lighting designers. Using the criteria established for
the study, the three evaluators independently scored the
drawings during the test by both the test group and the
control group. The scores of these evaluations are
recorded in tables 1 through 6.
Table 1
Evaluation by Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg of the Drawing Test
for the Test Group
Productivity
Accuracy
Readabi1ity
Reproducibi1ity
Total
#1
10
10
10
10
40
#2
6
9
8
10
33
#3
5
9
8
10
32
#4
9.5
9
10
10
| 39.5
Total
30.5
37
36
40
144.5
52


53
Table 2
Evaluation by Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg of the Drawing Test
for the Control Group
Productivity
Accuracy
Readability
Reproducibi1ity
Total
#1
9
4
5
6
24
#2
9
6
6
7
28
#3
9
3
4
8
24
#4
10
7
8
7
32
otal
37
20
23
28
108
Table 3
Evaluation by Ronald A. Naversen of the Drawing Test
for the Test Group
#1
#2
#3
#4
Productivity
Accuracy
Readabi1ity
Reproducibi1ity
Total
10
10
10
10
40
7
9
9
10
35
7
8
9
10
35
9
10
9
10
38
36
37
37
40
148
Total


54
Table 4
Evaluation by Ronald A. Naversen of the Drawing Test
for the Control Group
Productivity
Accuracy
Readabi1ity
Reproducibility
Total
#1
9
5
6
6
26
#2
9
5
6
7
27
#3
8
5
6
6
25
#4
9
6
6
7
28
otal
35
21
24
26
106
Table 5
Evaluation by Delbert L. Hall of the Drawing Test
for the Test Group
#1
#2
#3
#4
Productivity
Accuracy
Readability
Reproducibility
Total
10
9
9
10
38
5.5
8.5
8.5
10
32.5
5
8
9
10
32
9
9
9
10
37
29.5
34.5
35.5
40
139.5
Total


55
Table 6
Evaluation by Delbert L. Hall of the Drawing Test
for the Control Group
Productivity
Accuracy
Readabi1ity
Reproducibility
Total
#1
9
4.5
6.5
6
26
#2
9
6.5
6
6.5
28
#3
8.5
3
4.5
8
24
#4
9.5
7
7.5
8
32
otal
36
21
24.5
28.5
110
The scores from the three evaluators for all members of
each group in each of the four categories were tallied, and
Table 7 displays the results. The scores in three of the
four areas being evaluated were significantly higher for
the test group (CAD) than the scores of the control group
(Man.) .
Table 7
Grand Totals of Test Scores
Productivity
Accuracy
Readability
Reproducibi1ity
Total
CAD
97
| 108.5
108.5
120
432
Man.
108
62
71.5
82.5
324


56
The null hypothesis established for the study was
tested by computing the mean score for each group and
comparing the scores. The mean score for the test group
was 36.0 while the mean score for the control group was
27.0. Table 8 shows the mean score, standard deviation,
and the variance of each of the test groups.
Table 8
Comparison of Scores on the Drawing Test
Between the CAD and Manual Methods
N
Points
Mean
SD
Variance
CAD
3
X
4
432
36.0
3.0069
9.0417
Man.
3
X
4
324
27.0
2.6771
7.1667
A comparison of the mean scores for each group shows
that the test group's mean was 9.0 higher that the control
group's mean. Using a _t test for independent samples to
test for significance of difference between the two groups,
a .01 level of significance was applied. The critical
value of a two-tailed _t at a .01 level of significance was
3.143. In the comparing of the mean between the test group
and the control group the t-value was 7.544. At the 99
percent confidence level and 6 degrees of freedom, a
significant difference exists between the mean scores of
the two groups. Therefore, at the .01 level of


57
significance the null hypothesis was not accepted. These
statistics are reported in Table 9.
Table 9
t Distribution Comparison of Mean Scores
on the Drawing Test
CAD/Man.
Mean Difference
9.0
df
6
t value
7.544*
*£ < .01
Table 10 and Table 11 compare the scores given by the
three evaluators to the test group and the control group in
total points given, mean, and the standard deviation.
The tables show consistencies in the scoring pattern of
each evaluator (standard deviation) and consistencies in
the scores of each group compared among evaluators
(points and mean). The scores given by the three
evaluators were compared the combined data across the
two groups using the Pearson product-moment correlation
to test the interrater reliability of the scoring of the
evaluators. Table 12 shows the results of the
comparisons. These correlation coefficients show a high
degree of reliability in the scoring by the evaluators
on the drawing test in the study.


58
Table 10
Comparison Among Evaluators of Scores from Test Group
on the Drawing Test
Points
Mean
SD
Wehlburg
144.5
36.125
3.646
Naversen
148
37.0
2.121
Hall
139.5
34.875
2.654
Table 11
Comparison Among Evaluators of Scores from Control Group
on the Drawing Test
Points
Mean
SD
Wehlburg
108
27
3.166
Naversen
106
26.5
1.118
Hall
110
27.5
2.958


59
Table 12
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation of Scores
Between Evaluators
Evaluators
Wehlburg/Naversen
Wehlburg/Hall
Naverson/Hall
Correlation Factor
.9278522
.9915364
.9278837
Breakdown of Scores by Area
Productivity
Productivity was the only area in which the traditional
drafting method scored considerably higher than CAD. This
can be attributed to poor scores on productivity by two of
the four students in the test group. Productivity in
drafting comes with practice of the craft and all students
do not develop at the same rate. It can be speculated that
the two students whose productivity rating was low did not
develop skill as rapidly as the other two students. Since
the productivity rating of 50 percent of the test group was
in line with scores from the control group, the lower
scores of the remaining 50 percent were considered to be
due to lack of experience with the method.


60
The workstations used for the testing were minimally
equipped. Productivity should increase considerably if the
workstation were equipped with math co-processors, higher
resolution monitors, and digitizing tablets. This
conclusion is based on information obtained from Kathy
Ricks who conducts training programs in CAD for
archi tects ^
Accuracy
The drawings created by the test group contained far
fewer measuring errors and represented the design with a
higher level of accuracy than those of the students using
manual drafting. Drafting inaccuracies such as over-drawn
lines, corners not meeting properly, line weight problems,
and lines not drawn straight where necessary, were far more
common in the manually drafted drawings than in the CAD
drawings. The test group scored 108.5 on accuracy while
the control group scored 62 which computes to a 75 percent
higher degree of accuracy on the test for drawings created
using CAD than on drawings created using manual techniques.
Readabi1ity
The drawings created using CAD were more legible, and
lettered more clearly than the drawings created using
manual techniques. Symbols, a prime communication source


61
in drafting, were drawn more consistently and were more
legible in drawings created by the test group. Dimensions
and text items were also more legible in the CAD drawings.
Also improving the readability of the computer-aided
drawings was the use of ink. The ink lines were crisper
and easier to read than lines drawn with graphite.
Readability of the drawings created using CAD scored 52
percent higher than manually created drawings on the
drawing test.
Reproducibility
Ink also reproduced extremely well using diazo (blue
line) printing techniques. Ink offered several advantages
to the draftsmen in terms of clarity of lines and
reproducibility. However, mistakes drawn in ink are
difficult to correct. One student's drawings, created
manually using ink, suffered from errors and inaccurate
drafting. Reproducibility of CAD produced drawings was
45 percent better than manually drafted drawings.
Conclusions
Overall, the test group scored 33 percent higher on the
drawing test than the control group, a mean increase of
9.00 with a maximum score of forty points. These


62
statistics indicate a significant difference in the
drafting ability of students using computer-aided drafting
to create typical working drawings for theatrical
productions. They also indicate the success of the method
to teach students to use CAD for producing construction
drawings.
Exit interviews with the four students in the test
group indicted they unanimously preferred CAD over
traditional drafting methods. They also indicated that
they felt their productivity with CAD was increasing and
had not reached its potential with this method of drafting.
All of the students in the test group indicated a strong
interest in continuing to use CAD and improving their CAD
ability.
The four members of the control group were also
interviewed by the researcher. All members of the control
group had seem drawings created by the test group during
the training process and were impressed by the quality of
the drawings. The members of the control group were
unanimous in their belief that computer-aided drafting was
superior to manual drafting, and all expressed interest in
learning to use CAD.
Note
1
Personal interview with Kathy Ricks, 11 May, 1985.


CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
Summary
This study indicates that the proposed method for
teaching CAD to theatrical designers is effective and
infers that designers using CAD are capable of creating
drawings of better quality than designers using traditional
drafting techniques. Other important observations about
the use of CAD were also made during the study. The most
important observation concerns the attitude of the students
when using CAD.
The students involved in the study were excited about
learning CAD and showed enthusiasm for the course. This
was reflected in the amount of time they spent using CAD,
averaging 114.5 hours over the semester long course (the
amount of time spent using CAD by each student in the test
group is reported in Table 13). Three of the four students
used CAD to produce drawings for other classes which they
were taking or for theatrical productions in which they
were involved. These extra CAD drawings were not part of
the course and it was the students' decision to produce
their needed drawings with CAD rather than with traditional
drafting methods.
63


64
Table 13
Time Chart of CAD Training by
Members of the Test Group
Total Hours
Weekly Average
#1
103.5
6.9
#2
122
8.13
#3
96.5
6.43
#4
136
9.06
Total
485
30.52
Average
114.5
7.63
Similar reactions to CAD were reported in a study at
the University of I11inois/Urbana by Dr. Michael Pleck and
Dr. Tom Woodley of the Department of General Engineering:
A majority of the students like, and in fact,
prefer to use the micro-based facility over
traditional methods of drawing. Further, . .
once the associated system procedures have been
mastered, most students can make the same graphic
representation faster and better with the micro-
based CAD system than with traditional methods.
Pleck and Woodley reported that, "Students using CAD
have more time to grapple with cognitive problems and
develop advanced skills because they are less caught up in
repetitive, monotonous manual tasks."2 Excitement about
CAD is attracting more students to learn drafting:


65
Student drafting class enrollments have increased
by more than 120 percent during the last nine
months in the Albuquerque Public School District,
according to Al Sanchez, specialist for the
district's practical arts program. The sudden
jump is attributed, he says, to the district's
recent acquisition of computer-aided design (CAD)
technology.^
Colleges and universities should embrace CAD as both an
excellent teaching tool and a marketable skill for their
students. According to Elizabeth Bollinger, an associate
professor in the College of Architecture at the University
of Houston and a member of the steering committee of the
Association of Computer Aided Design in Architecture:
The microcomputer-based CAD system is now
recognized as a viable tool in the design office,
and colleges and schools throughout the United
States are looking for ways to respond to their
students' needs for CAD skills in support of
industry demands.
The computer may someday be as common a part of the
scenic and lighting designer's tools as T-squares and
pencils are today.
Future studies using the four students who learned CAD
for this study should be conducted to test improvement
after one year of using CAD. Other studies might also
include research into using different CAD programs to do
theatrical drafting and in using computers for teaching
scenic design concepts. The use of computers as teaching
tools is limited only by the programs available and the
imagination of the teachers using them.


bb
As more people in the arts learn to use the computer,
they will discover more ways to use the tool. As the
number of ways to use computers increases, computers and
the arts will grow closer together. CAD is just one of the
ways that theatre can benefit from new technology. Future
uses of CAD may go far beyond the present uses of CAD.
According to Daniel S. Raker, president of a CAD consulting
and marketing firm, "Within ten years many CAD experts
predict that engineers and designers will sit down at their
CAD workstations, use the computer to build a design and
the CAD system will 'automatically' produce the drawings to
match the design."5 Present uses of computers should be
thought of as building blocks for the future.
Recommendations
A follow-up study of the test group after six months of
using CAD and again after one year of using CAD would be
valuable in graphing the continued progress of individuals
with computer-aided drafting. Such a follow-up study could
provide comparative information on the skills tested in the
study. Using the same control group would allow the
researcher to compare the development pattern of the two
groups.
The conclusion of the study regarding the effectiveness
of the teaching method and the use of CAD for producing


67
theatrical drawing leads the researcher to recommend that a
similar study be conducted using a different test group in
order to compare the results and confirm or rebut the
findings of this study. In addition to recommending a
similar study, the researcher recommends a study be
conducted using more complete CAD workstations. The study
could show variances in the productivity level of the
students using the different workstation configurations.
The following recommendations are made with regard to
the teaching method used in this study:
1. Increase the rate at which the lessons are
assigned to five or six per week instead of three.
2. Revise the rate at which the lessons are
assigned to five or six per week instead of three.
2. Revise the schedule in order to spend more time
drafting and re-drafting actual working drawings.
3. Schedule several drawing tests with increased
emphasis on productivity.
Notes
1 "U of Illinois Studies CAD vs Manual Instruction,"
Plan and Print, Vol. N85, No. 8 (1985), p. 118.
^ "u of Illinois Studies CAD vs Manual Instruction,"
p. 118.
^ "CAD Stirs Interest," Electronic Education, Vol. 5,
No. 5 (1986), p. 21.


68
4 Elizabeth Bollinger, "EduCAD Outlook," Plan and
Print, Vol. N 8 5, No. 8 (1985), p. 116.
^ Daniel S. Raker, "CAD Angles," Plan and Print,
N58, No. 9 (1985), pp. 8-9.
Vol.


GLOSSARY
"A" size sheet: 8 1/2" x 11" drafting paper.
Attribute: non-graphic information assigned to an object in
a CAD drawing.
"B" size sheet: 11" x 17" drafting paper.
BASIC (Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code): a
popular computer language.
Boot: the automatic process of loading the operating
system of the computer into its memory.
Bus:
"C"
CAD:
CAE:
CAM:
system by which information is transferred between
the CPU and memory.
size sheet: 18" x 24" drafting paper,
computer-aided design or computer-aided drafting,
computer-aided engineering,
computer-aided manufacturing.
CRT (Cathode-ray tube): a type of monitor for viewing data.
CPU (Central Processing Unit): the part of the computer
that does the mathematical calculations and control the
flow of data within the computer.
Configure: to set up peripheral devices so that they
communicate properly with the computer.
Coordinates: the numerical representation of the location
of a point using X,Y (and Z) directions.
Cross hatching: filling in an area of a drawing with a
pattern.
Cursor: the rectangle of light on the screen (sometimes
flashing) prompting the user to input data or a
response.
69


/0
Crosshairs: crossed horizontal and vertical lines on the
screen indicating the position of a point.
"D" size sheet: 24" x 36" drafting paper.
Dedicated computer: a computer which was designed to
perform only one task.
Default: pre-defined.
Digitizer tablet: a device for inputting coordinates of
points.
DOS (Disk Operating System): a computer program that tells
the computer how to store data on a disk.
"E" size sheet: 36" x 48" drafting paper.
Floppy disk drive: a medium capacity data storage device
that uses a removable disk.
Format: to prepare a disk to store electronic data.
FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation): a compiled computer language
designed for math intensive programing.
Function keys: keys with specific functions defined by the
program.
Hardcopy: any data printed or plotted onto paper.
Hardware: computer equipment.
Input: to enter commands or data into the computer's
memory.
K: multiplied by 1024 (64)< is equal to 64 times 1024 or
65,536) .
Layers: (also called levels) they are a way of grouping
objects on a drawing; each layer can be turned on or
off.
Light pen: a pen-like device which is touched against the
screen to indicate coordinates of a point.
LISP: a computer language in some versions of AutoCAD which
allow the user to create new commands.
Mainframe computer: large computer with mass storage
designed for corporate use.


71
Memory: location where the computer temporarily stores
programs and other electronic data before it is sent to
the CPU.
Menu: a list of command options displayed on the screen.
Microcomputer: a small, single-board computer with the CPU
located on a single chip.
Microprocessor: a computer chip that contains the CPU of a
computer.
Minicomputer: a medium-sized computer designed for large
businesses, the CPU is located in more than one chip.
Monitor: another name for a CRT.
Mouse: input device that is moved across a table to
specify position of crosshairs or a cursor.
Object: any line, arc, circle, or text on a drawing.
Origin (also called base): a reference point, usually in
the lower left-hand corner of the screen, whose
coordinate is 0,0.
Output: data displayed to the user on the CRT, printed on a
printing device, or sent to a plotter from the
computer.
Pen plotter: a device for creating a hardcopy of a drawing.
Peripheral device: any input or output device.
Polar coordinates: coordinate system defined by angle and
distance from a starting point.
Puck: a device commonly used with a digitizing tablet to
select coordinates.
RAM (Random Access Memory): memory in the computer where
the program and data are stored while the program is
running.
ROM (Read Only Memory): data stored on chips by the
manufacturer.
Rubber-banding: the process of stretching a temporary line
between two points to indicate the final
placement of a line.
Scale: a ratio between the original size of an object and
the drawn representation of that object.


72
Serial: common type of output procedure for transferring
data to and from peripheral devices.
Software: a computer program.
Stylus: pen-like output device used with a digitizing
tablet.
Toggle: the ON/OFF switching of a CAD function by the
repeated pressing of a key.
USA #829 (United Scenic Artist): union for theatrical
designers, New York local.
Window: a partial or whole view of the drawing area on a
monitor.
Winchester disk drive (also called a hard disk drive): a
high speed, high capacity data storage system.
Workstation: a computer and peripheral devices needed to
perform the tasks associated with a particular job.
Zoom: enlarging or decreasing the display image.


APPENDIX A
THE TUTORIAL
Introduction
This tutorial uses the Zenith Z-100 microcomputer to
teach AutoCAD. Using other computers with the tutorial
may be confusing at times since the keyboard arrangement
may be different and the function keys of other computers
may be assigned functions other than those on the Z-100.
It is assumed that the computer has been properly setup and
is ready for use. If not, consult your owner's manual for
instructions on setting up your computer.
Although prior computer experience is not required in
order to learn to use AutoCAD, a fundamental knowledge of
the computer and its parts is helpful. Most interaction
with the computer will be through the computer's keyboard
which is similar to that of a typewriter. However, the
computer's keyboard has several keys not found on a
typewriter with which you need to be familiar. Below is a
list of these keys and their functions. Find these keys on
your keyboard or on the drawing of the Z-100 keyboard in
Figure 1, and be familiar with their location and use.
73


74
CTRL: The CONTROLkey (abbreviated CTRL) is used in a
similar fashion as one normally uses the SHIFT key
on a typewriter. By holding down the CTRL key and
pressing another key, special commands are sent to
the computer.
F0--F12: These thirteen keys are function keys and are used
to send special commands to the computer. AutoCAD
uses many of these keys to allow you to change
some of the display characteristics of the
program.
D.CHR/I.CHR: (Delete Character/Insert Character) Used by
AutoCAD in the same way as a function key.
DEL LINE/INS LINE: (Delete Line/Insert Line) Used by
AutoCAD in the same way as a function key.
Specific function within AutoCAD of above keys:
Key
Function
F0
none
FI
none
F2
none
F3
none
F4
none
F5 or
CTRL
D
Toggle
COORD
F6 or
CTRL
G
Toggle
GRID
F7 or
CTRL
0
Toggle
ORTHO
F8 or
CTRL
B
Toggle
SNAP
F9 or
CTRL
T
Toggle
TABLET
F10
Flip Screen
F11
Fast Crosshair
F12
Slow Crosshair
DEL LI
NE/II
SIS LINE
Menu Cursor
D CHAR/I CHAR
Abort (
Crosshai
s
s
rs
HOME:
Used
in AutoCAD
to display
crosshairs on
the screen.
ARROW
KEYS: (Located on
position crosshai
the keypad) Used
rs on the screen.
in AutoCAD to
ENTER: This key is a duplication of the RETURN key.


HOME
-
H
t

7
8
9
+
4
5
6

r \
s
V
y
ENTER
1
2
3
v" y
0
i
\
t i


/ O
If you make a mistake while typing in any command,
pressing the BACK SPACE key will back the cursor over text
that you have typed, erasing as it moves.
The second part of the computer with which you must
interact is the disk drive storage devices located on the
face of the Z-100 above the keyboard. Disk drives come in
two varieties, floppy disk drives and Winchester disk
drives. Winchester disk drives are also known as hard disk
drives. If your computer has a Winchester disk drive, it
will be located on the left hand-side of the face of the
computer and will be labeled as such. Hard disk drives are
approximately ten times faster than floppy disk drives and
can contain from 30 to 100 time more data. Because of
CAD's great memory requirements and the need for CAD
programs to read and write information to and from the
computer's disk drives, a hard disk drive makes working
with CAD faster.
If your computer does not have a hard disk drive, then
it must have two floppy disk drives in order to run
AutoCAD. Floppy disk drives use removable floppy disks.
These disks, which store much less data than non-removable
hard disks, can be removed from the computer and other
disks containing other programs or data put in their place.
When not in use by the computer, floppy disks should be
stored in a safe location. A diagram of a floppy disk is
shown in Figure 2.


Disk Inside Envelop
Write Protect Slo
Cardboard Envelop
Index/Sector Hole
Read/Write Acces
Slot
Figure 2. A floppy disk.
The read/write access slot exposes the shiny disk
within the stiff cover. Be very careful to never touch
this shiny disk. The floppy disk is placed in the disk
drive with the label up and the side nearest the
read/write access slot leading the way. Holding onto the
disk label will help to protect the disk when inserting it
into the disk drive.
Although microcomputers generally use one micro
processor for handling all mathematical calculations, math
co-processors are available for many microcomputers. These
co-processors can handle the mathematics involved in CAD,
relieving the main processor from this job. Math co
processors, such as the 8087 used in the Zenith Z-100,
speed up the mathematics involved in CAD and makes the CAD


program run from two to three times faster. These co
processors are optional and your computer may not have one.
If not, your local dealer will be able to give information
about them.
About the Tutorial
This tutorial is designed to lead you step-by-step
through many of the most commonly used drawing commands
provided by AutoCAD. AutoCAD is a sophisticated CAD
program, and it would be impractical for this text to
attempt to teach all of AutoCAD's commands and command
options. It is anticipated that, as you become familiar
with AutoCAD, you will discover new uses for the program
and experiment with many of the command options not covered
in the tutorial. The key to learning AutoCAD is to
practice. The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide can
provide in-depth information about all of AutoCAD1s
features. The tutorial is not a substitute for the user
guide. It is a guide book for teaching AutoCAD's commands
in a logical and progressive order.
Before you begin, you need to become familiar with
several terms and procedures used throughout the tutorial
which have special meanings.
]: The square brackets are used around a word,
letter, or special symbol to specify a
specific key on the keyboard, (i.e. [RETURN],
[Y] or [F6 ] ).
[


"AutoCAD will prompt:": AutoCAD is asking you a question
and you must respond with an
answer.
"Enter": The bold printed character or characters which
appear after "Enter" are the desired response to
the prompt. You should type this response as
it appears and then press the [RETURN] key.
"Select": Place the crosshairs or cursor on the point or
menu item you desired and press the [RETURN] key.
Text which is indented in the tutorial is text that
will be displayed on the monitor at that time. This text
could be a prompt or information that AutoCAD is giving you
about its operation. Below is a tutorial for formatting a
floppy disk. It is written in the same fashion as the
lessons in the tutorial. Use the tutorial below to become
familiar with the style of this guidebook. If your
computer has two disk drives, you will need to format two
data disks on which you will save your drawings and a
system disk to use in configuring AutoCAD. If your
computer has a hard disk, only format the data disks, and
use them to save back-up copies of your drawings.
Formatting a Floppy Disk
When you purchase a new floppy disk, it is completely
blank. Before you can store information on that disk, you
must encode it with a system for storing the data. Think
of it as painting lines on a road to create lanes for the
traffic. Formatting sets up these lanes and a directory to
keep track of where it stores the data. Since all models
of computers do not store information on disks the same
way, you must format the disk for your computer.


Before you begin to format a disk, you need to know the
difference between a system disk and a data disk. When you
turn on your computer, the first thing it does is to read a
special program off the disk in the default drive (A for a
two drive system; or E for a computer with a hard disk
drive). This program is called the Disk Operating System
(DOS). DOS provides the computer with the information it
needs to perform most of its tasks, including how to format
a disk. DOS is stored in the computer's memory and is not
read again until the computer is turned off and back on or
unless you press the [RESET] key. Since DOS is read only
once, when you first turn on the computer, it is only
needed on disks that you might use to "boot the system,"
such as a program disk. These disks are often referred to
as system disks.
Some disks may contain data files produced by computer
programs and not the programs themselves. These disks are
called data disks and do not need to contain DOS, which
takes up space on the disk. The drawings you create with
AutoCAD will be stored as data files. Therefore, you need
to format a disk on which to store your drawings and it
does not need to contain DOS.
Begin by placing a system disk in your default drive. If
you have a hard disk, do nothing. Then, turn on the power
to your computer. The disk will whirl and the computer
will read DOS from the disk. When this is complete, the
computer will display the drive letter followed by the
greater than sign (>). This is the computer's way of
telling you that it is ready to begin.
To format a data disk, first enter FORMAT. The computer
will respond:
FORMAT version 2.19
Copyright (C) 1984, Zenith Data Systems Corporation
Drive to format?:
Enter B if you have a two disk drive system or A if you
have a hard disk drive. The computer will now respond:
Insert new disk in drive (A or B)
and press RETURN when ready.
Follow these instructions. The disk drive you specified
will now spin for about 35 seconds. The computer is now
formatting the disk. Next, the computer will prompt:
Enter desired volume label (11 characters) RETURN for none?


You now have the opportunity to encode your disk with a
volume label. This electronic label can be used to you to
identify the disk as yours or to identify the type of
information on the disk. You are limited to 11 characters
(spaces count as characters). "HALL DATA 1", "MY DISK
#1", and "ACAD Data" are all valid labels. Choose a name
that is meaningful and descriptive and enter it. The disk
will spin again, and the computer will display:
322560 bytes total disk space
322560 bytes available on disk.
Do you wish to format another disk (Y/N)?
You have just formatted your first disk. Remove your newly
formatted-data disk from the disk drive and place it back
into its paper envelope. With a felt tip pen, write the
volume name on one of the labels that came with your disks,
and place it in the upper right corner near the notch.
Never write on your disk with a hard writing device such as
a pencil or ball point pen that might damage the fragile
disk inside of the cover. Enter Y to format another disk
or enter N to exit this command. Your data disk are
important, because they will contain the results of your
work with AutoCAD. Treat them gently and protect then from
moisture, heat, and magnetic fields. Also, be careful
NEVER to touch the shiny disk that is inside the protective
cover.
To format a disk and place DOS on the disk at the same
time, enter FORMAT /S. This type of disk is called a
system disk. The process for formatting a system disk is
exactly the same as formatting a data disk. A system disk
can be used for booting your computer, whereas a data disk
cannot. If your computer has two floppy disk drives, you
will need to format at least one system disk.
Configuring AutoCAD and Peripheral Devices
Before you can begin using AutoCAD you should make
backup copies of all AutoCAD program disks and store the
originals in a safe location. Your Z-100 User's Manual
will tell you how to use the DISKCOPY command to accomplish
this task.


82
Next you must prepare AutoCAD to run on your computer.
If your computer has a Winchester disk drive, copy all of
your AutoCAD disks onto the hard disk drive. You can then
configure the copy of AutoCAD on this disk drive.
If you have two floppy disk drives, you must copy the
following files onto the system disk which had been
formatted earlier:
ACAD.EXE
ACAD.HLP
ACAD.HDX
ACAD.OVL
ACAD1.0VL
ACAD2.OVL
Other files such as text fonts, hatching patterns,
and library files should be added to this disk as you
become aware of your need for them. Label this disk
"AutoCAD Boot Disk."
If you have a plotter, a mouse, a digitizer tablet, or
a light pen, connect these devices to your computer. Use
The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide and the
instructions that came with your specific devices to
connect them to your computer. When you have completed
these tasks, boot AutoCAD by entering ACAD. If you have
two floppy disk drives in your computer, your "AutoCAD Boot
Disk" must be in disk drive A. The following menu should
appear on your monitor:


83
Main Menu
0. Exit AutoCAD
1. Begin a NEW drawing
2. Edit an EXISTING drawing
3. Plot a drawing
4. Configure AutoCAD
5. File utilities
6. Compile shape/font description file
7. Convert old drawing file
Enter Selection:
Enter 4 to configure AutoCAD. When you do the following
configuration menu will appear.
Configuration menu
0. Exit to Main Menu
1. Show current configuration
2. Allow I/O port configuration
3. Configure video display
4. Configure digitizer
5. Configure plotter
6. Configure system console
7. Configure operating parameters
Enter selection:
If you have a digitizer, mouse, or light pen, enter 4
as your selection and answer the queries to configure the
input device you have connected to the computer. If you
have a plotter, enter 5 as your selection and answer the
queries to configure the plotter. If you have none of
these devices, go to the next step.
Finally, you must enter 7 to configure the operating
parameters. When you do, the following menu will appear:


Operating parameters menu
0. Exit to configuration menu
1. Alarm on error
2. Initial drawing conditions
3. Drawing Editor menu
Enter selection:
Enter 3 to begin setting the initial drawing
conditions. AutoCAD will query you with prompts that you
may not understand. These prompts will become clear to you
as you learn to use AutoCAD's commands. Set the initial
drawing limits to 12"f9", the snap resolution to .25, and
the coordinate display format to 2 (Decimal). Now, select
0 in each menu to return to the Main Menu and save the new
configuration. You only configure AutoCAD once, unless you
decide to change the configuration.
If you have a plotter connected to your computer, you
can plot any of AutoCAD's sample drawings to paper. Below
are instructions for plotting a drawing. If you are not
ready to plot a drawing, you can return to these
instructions at any time during the course of the tutorial
to do so.
You are now ready to begin learning to use AutoCAD.
The following tutorial will help teach you many of
AutoCAD's commands and ways to use these commands for doing
theatrical drafting. Although CAD at first may be slower
than traditional methods of drafting, practice will result
in a better knowledge of the commands and increased CAD
speed. Turn to Lesson 1 and begin.


How to Plot a Drawing
AutoCAD can use many different plotters. In the example
below, a Houston Instruments' DMP-42 plotter is used.
Plotting a drawing can be accomplished within the Drawing
Editor by using the PLOT command or from the Main Menu by
selecting option #3. If you select this command from the
Main Menu, AutoCAD will ask you for the name of the drawing
to plot. If selected from the Drawing Editor, it will plot
the current drawing. Next, AutoCAD displays:
PLOT Drawing
Drawing color assignments:
Color
Line type
Pen speed
Color
Line type
Pen speed
1
0
16
9
0
16
2
0
16
10
0
16
3
0
16
11
0
16
4
0
16
12
0
16
5
0
16
13
0
16
6
0
16
14
0
16
7
0
16
15
0
16
8
0
16
Sizes are in
Inches
Plot origin is at (0.00,0.00)
Plot area is 34 wide by 21.5 high (MAX size)
Pen width is 0.010
Do you want to change anything? (Y/N)
Enter N. These specifications will rarely, if ever, need
to be changed. However, should you wish to change any of
them consult The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide for
directions.
Next, AutoCAD will prompt:
Position paper in plotter.
Press RETURN when ready.
First, turn ON the power to the plotter. When you do, the
plotter's roller will rotate one direction and then the
other. When it stops, position your paper in your plotter,
aligning it with the front edge of the plotter. Next,
you must inform the plotter of the size of the paper you
are using by pressing the [SMALL] button if your paper size


8b
is 18 x 24 inches, or by pressing the [LARGE] button if
your paper size is 24 x 36 inches. When the button is
pressed, a small red indicator light will come ON, and the
paper will be rolled through the plotter and back to its
original position. Next, you must set the communication
rate between the computer and the plotter. This is done by
first pressing the [ENTER] button on the plotter. When you
do, an indicator light will come on. Then press the "up
arrow" button on the plotter. The [ENTER] indicator light
will then go OFF. Finally, place the pen in the pen holder
of the plotter. Once you have completed these steps, press
the [RETURN] key on the computer. The paper will be rolled
into position for plotting, and AutoCAD will then prompt:
Scale (N, 1:N, RETURN, or "V") :
Since you created your drawing in "full scale," AutoCAD
must be told a scale in which to plot on the paper.
AutoCAD gives you four different ways to specify the scale
of the drawing. Use Appendix B to translate the scale in
which you want your drawing plotted into AutoCAD's scaling
system. Enter this scaling factor. (If you want the
drawing plotted in 1/4" = l'-0" scale, you would enter
1:48). AutoCAD will inform you of the effective plotting
size of your drawing, and the plotter will be start
producing the drawing.
When the plotter has completed the drawing, AutoCAD will
prompt:
Press RETURN to continue.
Press the [RETURN] and AutoCAD will return you to the Main
Menu or to the Drawing editor.
Pen plotters require very little maintenance. The
plotter's pens should be kept capped when not in use to
prevent the ink from drying out and clogging the pen.
Different types of pens in different line widths are
available for most plotters. You should also cover the
plotter to help keep it clean.


THE LESSONS
LESSON 1Creating a Drawing: HELP, *CANCEL*, QUIT, END
When you run AutoCAD it displays its MAIN MENU. This menu
gives you
eight choices.
Main Menu
0.
Exit AutoCAD
1 1.
Begin a NEW drawing
2.
Edit an EXISTING drawing
3.
Plot a drawing
4.
Configure AutoCAD
5.
File Utilities
6.
Compile shape/font description file
7.
Convert old drawing file
Enter
selection:
This less
on will teach you how to create a drawing
using
AutoCAD's
drawing editor. The drawing editor allows
you to
create and edit drawings. Choices 1 and 2 will take you to
the drawing editor, but they serve different purposes.
Enter 1 at the prompt and "Begin a NEW Drawing." AutoCAD
will now ask you for the name of your drawing. The
following rules govern the name of a drawing.
1. Names must be between 1 and 8 characters long.
2. Only letters A-Z, numbers 0-9, and the special
characters (dollar), "-" (hyphen), and
(underscore) are allowed.
3. AutoCAD converts all lower case letters to upper case
letters ( "a" is the same as "A").
4. Blank spaces are not allowed.
VALID NAMES INVALID NAMES
BOB BOB*R (illegal character)
house RESTAURANT (name too long)
DRAWING1 DRAWING 1 (blank space)
Besides the name of the drawing, you may indicate on which
disk drive you wish the drawing to be saved. You do this by
the drive's designation letter, followed by a colon (:),
and then the name of the drawing. If no drive is
indicated, the drive currently in use is the one selected.
If the Z-100 you are using has two floppy disk drives, they
will be designated as A and' B. A Winchester (hard-disk)
drive is designated as the E drive. Most computers with a
hard disk drive have only one floppy disk drive.


88
Place a formatted disk in the floppy drive you want to use,
and type the indication letter for that drive, a colon, and
then the drawing name LESS0N1. If you want your drawing
saved on drive A, then you would enter A:LESSONl, and press
RETURN. AutoCAD has now created a drawing file called
LES SON1 on the disk in the A drive and now displays the
drawing editor screen.
The Drawing Editor
The drawing editor screen is divided into five areas.
L/r 2 Fill
Cocvn*nd t
.
.jean .a .0000
ROOT
MENU
BLOCKS
DIMi
C[3PLay
DRAM
EDIT
HATC H:
HUITV
LATER:
MOOES
PLOT:
UTILITT
1. Drawing display area
2. Status line
3. Coordinate display
4. Menu area
5. Command line
The drawing display area (1) is the area in which your
drawing will appear as you create or edit it. The status
line (2) indicates the current layer on which you are
drawing and any drawing aids which are turned on. Layer 0
is the layer AutoCAD begins with when you create a new
drawing, and the "Fill" aid is presently on. AutoCAD's
drawing aids will be covered in subsequent lessons. The
coordinate display (3) is next to the status line. It
should read "0.000,0.000." This feature will be explained
fully in the next lesson. First, you will learn how to
issue AutoCAD commands.


AutoCAD gives you several methods of issuing commands, but
two will be dealt with in this lesson. The first method
allows you to select the command you want from one of
several menus which AutoCAD displays in the menu area (4)
on the right-hand side of the screen. The first menu is
called the "ROOT MENU" and it is used to select other
menus. A breakdown of the menus appears in Appendix E. In
order to select an item from this menu, first press the
[DEL LIN] key. When you do, the word ROOT becomes
highlighted. This is AutoCAD's way of indicating that this
item is ready to be selected. In order to position the
highlighter on the item you want to select, use the up
arrow and down arrow keys on the keypad. Practice moving
the highlighter up and down with the arrow keys. Notice
that the highlighter will "wrap around" when it reaches
the top or bottom of the screen.
Place the highlighter on the word UTILITY and press
[RETURN], [SPACE] or [ENTER]. All three of these keys will
tell Aju_t £C A D to accept the item indicated by the
highlighter. AutoCAD then replaces its ROOT MENU with the
UTILITY menu. When this happens, notice the last two
choices on this menu. "Last Menu" returns you to the menu
before the present one. Sometimes the menus can get three
or four levels deep. You are presently on the second
level, so the last menu was the ROOT MENU. Choosing "ROOT
MENU" will always return you to the root menu, no matter
what menu you are presently using. Now, go one level
deeper by moving the highlighter to the word "RENAME", and
selecting this command. When you do, AutoCAD will replace
the UTILITY menu with the RENAME menu, and it will begin
executing the RENAME command. Notice the word RENAME on
the command line near the bottom of the screen, followed by
a prompt for more information needed to execute the command
on the next line. Sometimes you may select a command and
then realize that this was the wrong command. When this
happens, as it now has, move the highlighter with the arrow
keys to the word CANCEL and select this command. CANCEL
will get you out of the command that you have started. You
still have the RENAME menu displayed, so select "LAST MENU"
to return you to the UTILITY menu.
AutoCAD has a command that can help you before you enter a
wrong command. It is called HELP. Select HELP from the
menu at this time. HELP does not have a sub-menu; instead,
you must enter your response at the keyboard. AutoCAD
prompts :
Command name (RETURN for list):
The HELP command can give you information about any of
AutoCAD's commands or list all available commands in case
you cannot remember the name of the command you need.


y yj
Right now, enter RENAME to find out what this command does.
Enter means to type in the command name, followed by
hitting the [RETURN] key. The [BACKSPACE] key allows you
to delete the last character you typed to correct typing
mistakes. When you press
drawing editor screen and
screen. This screen, of
bottom two lines, only
AutoCAD
[RETURN], AutoCAD will remove the
replace it with the command line
which you normally see only the
displays text. This is where
will write information about the command you have
specified. The HELP command will also tell you in which
section of the User Guide to find more information on that
command. Once you have read this information, you can flip
back to the drawing editor screen by pressing the [F10]
key.
Of course, you can enter AutoCAD's commands directly at the
keyboard instead of selecting them from one of the menus.
Enter HELP. AutoCAD will again prompt with:
Command name (RETURN for list):
This time only press [RETURN]. Now AutoCAD will list all
of its commands. Again, press [F 10 ] and AutoCAD will
return to the drawing editor screen. If you misspell a
command name, AutoCAD will respond with:
Unknown command, type ? for list of commands.
The question mark (?) is the abbreviation for HELP.
Remember to correct any misspellings by using the
[BACKSPACE] key to delete typing errors before pressing
[RETURN].
One AutoCAD command is entered differently on the keyboard
than it appears on the menu. This is the *CANCEL* command.
This command appears on the menu as CANCEL. To cancel a
command at the keyboard, hold down the [CONTROL] key on the
left side of the keyboard (and often abbreviated as CTRL),
and press the letter [C] key once. Then release the
[CONTROL] key. AutoCAD will then prompt you that it has
canceled the command in progress.
The next thing you will learn in this lesson is how to exit
the drawing editor and return to the main menu when you
have finished editing a drawing. To exit the drawing
editor and have AutoCAD save your drawing on the disk drive
you specified when you began the drawing, enter END. If
you do not want to save this drawing on a disk, enter QUIT.
If you enter QUIT, AutoCAD will ask you:
Really want to discard all changes to drawing?


This is AutoCAD1s way of checking before it destroys this
drawing. Type Y for YES if you are sure that you do not
want this drawing saved. Since you did not create a
drawing in this lesson, enter QUIT and Y to end the drawing
and return to the main menu. At the end of each lesson you
will have the option to exit the drawing by using END or
QUIT. In most cases, you will want to use the END command
and save your drawing on your drawing disk. Some of the
drawings you create in one exercise will be needed later in
other exercises. Only use the QUIT command if you are sure
that you do not want to save the drawing.
The Final Step
If you are using a computer with a hard-disk drive, take
the following steps to protect your equipment before
turning it off.
1. Exit AutoCAD
2. Enter SHIP
3. Enter 0 (zero)
Finally, turn off your computer.


Full Text
COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING
FOR SCENIC AND LIGHTING DESIGNERS:
A TRAINING GUIDE USING THE AUTOCAD® DRAFTING PACKAGE
AND THE ZENITH Z-100 MICROCOMPUTER
By
DELBERT L. HALL
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1986

Copyright
by
Delbert L
1986
. Hall

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to thank all of the members of my
committee for their hard work and for their guidance in
helping me complete this work. I also want to thank the
students who helped by participating in the testing phase
of this dissertation. Very special thanks are extended to
Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg for more reasons than can be named.
I would to like thank my parents, who have given me so
much moral support over the years. And most importantly, I
want to thank my wife, Kathy, for all the love, support and
understanding which she has given me during this period.
AutoCAD® is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc.
Permission from Autodesk Inc. has been granted for the use
of copyrighted materials for this dissertation.
iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vi
ABSTRACT vii
CHAPTERS
IINTRODUCTION
Background of the Problem 1
Statement of the Problem 3
The Purpose of the Study 4
The Hypothesis 5
Scope and Delimitations 6
Notes 8
IIBACKGROUND
Background of Computer Use in Theatre. ... 9
What Is CAD? 14
The History of CAD 18
What Is a Microcomputer-Based CAD System? . 20
CAD in Nontheatrical Professions 23
CAD in the Theatre 26
Summary of Literature 30
Notes 30
IIIMATERIALS AND METHODS
The Software 34
The Hardware 38
The Tutorial 41
Preliminary Studies 44
The Subjects 45
Methodology 47
Notes 51
IV

IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Statistical Analysis 52
Breakdown of Scores by Area 59
Conclusions 61
Note 62
V DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
Summary 63
Recommendations 66
Notes 67
GLOSSARY 69
APPENDICES
A THE TUTORIAL 73
B PLOTTING TABLE 174
C NOTES ON USING WORDSTAR 175
D CAD PROGRAMS ON THE MARKET 178
E AUTOCAD'S MENUS 180
F SYLLABUS 183
G COURSE OUTLINE 185
H TEST DRAWING 188
I DRAFTING EXAMPLES 189
J QUESTIONNAIRE 191
K COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TEST SUBJECTS .... 193
BIBLIOGRAPHY 194
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 201
v

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
52
53
53
54
54
55
55
56
57
58
58
59
LIST OF TABLES
Evaluation by Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg of the
Drawing Test for the Test Group
Evaluation by Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg of the
Drawing Test for the Control Group
Evaluation by Ronald A. Naversen of the
Drawing Test for the Test Group
Evaluation by Ronald A. Naversen of the
Drawing Test for the Control Group
Evaluation by Delbert L. Hall of the
Drawing Test for the Test Group
Evaluation by Delbert L. Hall of the
Drawing Test for the Control Group
Grand Totals of Test Scores
Comparison of Scores on the Drawing Test
Between the CAD and the Manual Methods . . .
t Distribution Comparison of Mean Scores on
the Drawing Test
Comparison Among Evaluators of Scores from
Test Group on the Drawing Test
Comparison Among Evaluators of Scores from
Control Group on the Drawing Test
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation of Scores
Between Evaluators
Time Chart of CAD Training by Members of
the Test Group
vi

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING
FOR SCENIC AND LIGHTING DESIGNERS:
A TRAINING GUIDE USING THE AUTOCAD® DRAFTING PACKAGE
AND THE ZENITH Z-100 MICROCOMPUTER
By
Delbert L. Hall
December 1986
Chairman: Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg
Major Department: Speech
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for
training scenic and lighting designers to use computer-
aided drafting (CAD) as a tool for producing technical
drawings for theatrical productions. To bring four
subjects to an acceptable level of performance using CAD, a
self-study tutorial was employed. The effectiveness of the
method was subsequently determined by comparing the
drawings of a test group, which learned CAD using the
tutorial, with the drawings created by a control group,
which used manual drafting techniques. After each drawing
had been scored on four key areas of drafting quality, the
mean scores of the two groups were compared and the
effectiveness of the tutorial judged.
Vll

Two microcomputer-based CAD workstations were used for
the study. The AutoCAD drafting package, version 2.02, and
the Zenith Z-100 microcomputer were the major components of
the CAD workstations. The purpose of the tutorial was to
train scenic and lighting design students to draft
theatrical drawings using the workstations and the AutoCAD
drafting package.
The results of the testing in this study showed that a
test group, who had learned to use CAD through the
tutorial, scored 33 percent higher on a drawing test than a
control group using manual drafting methods. The drawings
were rated by trained raters on productivity, accuracy,
readability, and reproduciblity by trained raters with an
average reliability coefficient of .9490907. The test
results suggest that scenic and lighting designers trained
by the self-study tutorial method to make theatrical
drawings using CAD produced signifigantly better theatrical
drawings than students using manual drafting techniques.
Vlll

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Problem
Drafting is the process of graphically representing a
design in a precise manner so that it can be accurately
constructed by craftsmen. Architects, engineers, interior
designers, scenic designers, and lighting designers, all
use drafting in some way to communicate their design ideas
to others. Until recently, designers used drawing boards,
T-squares, triangles, pencils, erasers, templates, scale
rulers, and other specially designed drafting aides to
manually draw each element of the design onto paper.
Computer-aided drafting (CAD) is an alternative method
which offers benefits over traditional methods of drafting
and which has been adopted by many designers and draftsmen
as the preferred method.^
This researcher first became aware of computer-aided
design and drafting (CADD) on microcomputers in October
1983 in a review of CADD programs in PC World magazine
entitled "Computer-Aided Design.The review explained
some of the applications of CADD and gave examples of
drawings created using each of the three CADD programs
considered in the article. According to the aforementioned
1

2
article, the three leading CADD programs available for
microcomputers at that time were AutoCAD, The Drawing
Processor, and MicroCAD. It was obvious to this
researcher that CADD was a tool which scenic designers
might use to create drawings. It was not until August
1984, when the researcher saw one of these programs in
operation, that he realized the potential of computer-aided
design and drafting for theatre.
In September 1984, the theatre department of the
University of Florida decided to investigate the use of
computer-aided drafting as an alternative to traditional
drafting methods. Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg and the researcher
made up the team investigating the use of CAD for
theatrical uses and potential CAD programs for this
purpose.
During the investigation, seven CAD programs, AutoCAD,
CADplan, CADdraft, Design Board Professional, The Drawing
Processor, MicroCAD, and VersaCAD, were reviewed or tested
by the team. During the investigation, the team tested a
CAD program used by the theatre department at Florida State
University. Jack Miller, the theatre department's
technical director, showed the investigating team the work
he had accomplished using the program and allowed the team
to spend several hours creating their own drawings using an
IBM workstation and VersaCAD software. During the session
several simple theatrical drawings were created. The
process was slow, however, due to the overwhelming number

3
of commands possible and the complexity of the program's
command structure. The investigating team's difficulty in
creating quality drawings with this CAD program made it
apparent to the researcher that, if this program was
finally selected, a method of training users would need to
be established. Tests with the six other programs being
reviewed by the investigating team revealed that
*
difficulties with command structures and uses was not an
isolated problem and that training designers to use CAD was
a serious problem that had to be addressed.
Statement of the Problem
The problem identified for this study was the lack of
training materials for teaching scenic and lighting
designers to use CAD to produce construction drawings for
theatrical productions. CAD had been widely accepted in
the architectural and engineering professions, and was
being taught in the architecture and engineering
departments of colleges and universities.^ Despite CAD's
wide use by other professions, it had been ignored by most
theatre departments as a method of producing working
drawings for theatrical productions.4 The major reason was
the lack of computer knowledge by most theatre
practitioners. In 1984, when this study was begun, most
scenic and lighting designers knew little of CAD and did

4
not know the benefits of using CAD to produce drawings for
their productions. As theatrical designers have been
introduced to CAD and its potential advantages over
traditional drafting methods, theatrical designers have
shown great interest in using this new tool. These
designers realized the complexity of CAD and their major
concern was training in the use of CAD.5 Currently, there
are no publications for training theatrical designers to
use CAD to produce working drawings for theatrical
productions. The lack of training resources makes many
university theatrical designers reluctant to spend between
$7,000 and $14,000 to set-up a typical microcomputer-based
CAD workstation.6
The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for
training scenic and lighting designers to use computer-
aided drafting as a tool for producing working drawings for
theatrical productions. A self-study tutorial method was
selected to be used in creating the training procedure.
The tutorial was divided into twenty lessons for teaching
both the commands and the uses of the commands for
producing theatrical drawings.

5
The goal of the research study was to determine the
effectiveness of the training method by comparing the
drafting of a test group who learned CAD using the tutorial
with drafting by a control group using traditional methods.
Research conducted by the University of Illinois, the
American Institute for Architects, and several companies
interested in CAD cited several advantages of CAD over
manual drafting. The advantages include productivity,
. 7
accuracy, and legibility of drawings. An increase m
productivity in producing construction drawings would give
the designer more time to develop the design. An increase
in drawing accuracy and legibility would result in fewer
construction errors which cost time and money. The
benefits of CAD could result in better productions at lower
costs.
The Hypothesis
The study was designed to develop and test a method for
training scenic and lighting designers to use CAD for
producing working drawings for theatrical productions. The
null hypothesis tested was as follows:
There will be no difference in the mean scores of
the drawing test between the test group using CAD
to produce their drawings and the control group

using manual drafting techniques on the measures
uti1ized.
Scope and Delimitations
Participation in the research was limited to
scenic and lighting design students in the theatre
department at the University of Florida who had
completed the department's course in manual
drafting, TPA 3070. Students who met this
requirement and who were available to participate
in this study were used as the test group. An
equal number of students were selected as a
control group from the qualified students who were
not available to participate as members of the
test group. The students in the control group
were selected on the basis of their scores in TPA
3070, their GPA, their SAT/GRE score, and profile
evaluations, so that the two groups were made up
of members of equal abilities and drafting skills.
The test group followed a structured schedule in
completing each step of the tutorial (APPENDIX G).
The length of study was fifteen weeks.
A room designated as a CAD laboratory was equipped
with the CAD workstations described within this
document. The room was used solely for the study

7
and was readily accessible for members of the test
group.
4. The test group (N = 4) was divided into two groups
of two students for taking the two-hour test.
The test was taken in the same location with the
same equipment used to train the students in the
use of CAD. The four members of the control group
took the same test as the test group in the manual
drafting classroom where they had taken the manual
drafting course.
5. The drawings created by both groups were evaluated
in four areas.
1. Drawing productivity
2. Drafting accuracy
3. Readability/neatness
4. Reproducibility
The success of the training procedure was
determined by comparing the mean score of the test
group against the mean score of the control group.
If the mean score of the test group had been higher
than the mean score of the control group, the null
hypothesis would not have been supported. If the
null hypothesis had not been supported, the
proposed method of teaching CAD to scenic and
lighting designers to produce theatrical drawings
would have been considered a successful method.
If the mean score of the control group had been
higher than or equal to the mean score of the test

8
group, the null hypothesis would have been
supported, and the proposed method of teaching CAD
to scenic and lighting designers would have been
considered unsuccessful.
Notes
1 Daniel S. Raker, "CAD Angles," Plan and Print, Vol.
N58, No. 8 (1985), pp. 114-115.
Davis Straub, "Computer-Aided Design," PC World,
October 1983, pp. 100-114.
-3
Elizabeth Bollinger, "EduCAD Outlook," Plan and
Print, Vol. N58, No. 8 (1985), p. 116.
^ Conversations with Bill Teague of the University of
Alabama, Dr. Richard Beam of Western Carolina University,
Tom Nowell of Lynchburg College, Joe Stell of the
University of Georgia, and other scenic designers, lighting
designers, and technical directors from colleges and
universities across the country, from September 1984 to
June 1986.
^ Conversations with Bill Teague of the University of
Alabama, Dr. Richard Beam of Western Carolina University,
Tom Nowell of Lynchburg College, Joe Stell of the
University of Georgia, and other scenic designers, lighting
designers, and technical directors from colleges and
universities across the country, from September 1984 to
June 1986.
^ Steven M. Lord, "What I Wish I Had Known About CAD
Software, But I Didn't Know Enough to Ask," Mechanical
Engineering, Vol. 107, No. 11 (1985), pp. 24-26.
7 Oliver R. Witte, "Afforsable CAD," Architectural
Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1984), pp. 42-47.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Background of Computer Use in Theatre
The first major use of computers in the theatre began
in the late 1950s when data processing equipment was linked
with theatrical dimming equipment to produce computer
controlled lighting consoles. The punch card driven
consoles used were not reliable. By the early 1960s, high
speed memory storage devices, magnetic drums, and ferrite
core stores were being used to create dedicated computers.
One of the first marketed computerized lighting control
systems utilizing this technology was the IDM/R system by
the English company Rank Strand (1966). By 1972, Rank
Strand and its U.S. counterpart, Strand Century, were
producing three memory lighting control systems: 1) DDM-
Digital Dimmer Memory, 2) MMS-Modular Memory System, 3)
Mini-Q/II.1
The first two systems were designed for large theatre
applications and could control several hundred dimmers at
the same time. Both systems permitted time fades and
precise control of dimmer settings. The Mini-Q/II was a
lower budget memory system targeted for schools and
community theatres. The Mini-Q/II could control up to 96
9

10
channels and store up to 128 cues for playback. The three
systems provided computerized control systems that met the
needs of theatre and began a revolution in lighting
control.
By 1974, most lighting control manufacturers were
producing at least one computerized control system.
Computerized lighting consoles had proven reliable and
provided users with advantages not possible on pre-set
lighting consoles. "The computer is a fantastic tool
because it allows greater speed in lighting cues,"^
according to Roland Bates, the production stage manager for
the New York City Ballet.
Despite advantages over other lighting control systems
and widespread acceptance in colleges and universities,
computerized lighting control did not debut on Broadway
until 1975 when EDI's new LS-8 computerized control system
was used for A Chorus Line.^ Change to the computerized
console reduced the number of electricians required to
handle lighting during performances and helped reduce
production cost.^ Designer Tharon Musser won a Tony award
for her lighting for this production. The computer was now
established in the profession for use in stage lighting.
Most computers that helped operate lighting control
systems were dedicated computers and could not be used for
other purposes. But by the late 1970s, general purpose
microcomputers were available at modest cost, and theatre
practitioners began looking for ways to use them. One of

11
the first uses of microcomputers in the theatre was in the
business area. The microcomputer was marketed as a tool for
small businesses and software written for that purpose
could be easily adopted by theatres. Theatrical supplier
Herb Schmoll of Design Line, Inc., was one of the first
individuals to develop a line of computer programs for
theatre business applications.5 Schmoll wrote programs to
create seating plans and print theatre tickets; keep
inventories of scenic materials, costumes, and lighting
equipment; and estimate the cost of building theatrical
scenery. Schmoll also developed a box office program to
keep track of ticket sales. These programs were marketed
as Theatre Application Programs (TAP) by Design Line, Inc.
Russ Houchen, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of
Florida, wrote five programs for the TAP product line.
These programs included a budget program, a calendar
program, a mailing list program, a student record program,
and a library program. Most of the programs written by
Schmoll and Houchen for the TAP product line are still
marketed today by Rosco, Inc.
From the beginning of the use of microcomputers by
theatre practitioners, individuals were writing their own
programs or adapting programs written for other purposes,
to manage the business side of the theatre operation. The
theatre department at the University of Southern
Mississippi adapted a public domain check balancing program

12
to a financial management program for theatrical
productions.
Designers who knew the power of the computer in
controlling lights wanted to use the tool for the paperwork
of lighting design. By the late 1970s lighting designers
began adopting data base management programs to help manage
board hook-ups and instrument schedules. One of the
earliest programs for this purpose was written by Gerard
Duffin in BASIC for the NorthStar computer.7 Duffin wrote
his program as part of a Master of Fine Arts thesis project
at the University of Florida in 1978. Despite Duffin's
work, the first article published in theatre journals on
how to use computers for handling lighting paperwork was
"Microcomputers In Stage Lighting" by Michael R. Brooks in
Theatre Crafts magazine, April 1983. Brooks's program,
written for the Atari 800 microcomputer, produced
instrument schedules and illustrated diagrams of hanging
positions from data entered by the user. As more powerful
data base management programs became available for
different microcomputer systems, the use of microcomputers
grew. Craig Miller, lighting designer for the Santa Fe
Opera, began using an Apple computer and a data base
management program called Quick File in early 1982 to
help him manage the paperwork of his lighting designs.
Miller now uses a portable computer and AppleWorks software
to help handle the constantly changing arrangement of
lighting instruments while touring.8

13
John Weygandt, a professor at Pomona College in
California, uses an Apple Macintosh computer and Filevision
by Telos Software Products to create both lighting plots
and the paperwork for his productions.^ Weygandt feels
that the computer provides the designer with more freedom
to experiment with a lighting design than he would have
without the use of the computer. About using the computer
to produce a lighting design Weygandt said, "I am sure that
revisions in the plot and paperwork were faster and easier
to handle [than using traditional methods of producing a
lighting design]. I felt somehow less encumbered by the
revisions and consequentially freer to try new
approaches."
The desire by lighting designers to use the computer
for paperwork has spawned a program written by John
McKernon, a USA #829 member. McKernon's program, ALP
(Assistant Lighting Designer), compiles instrument
schedules, hook-ups, gel cutting lists, and circuiting
information while checking for overloaded circuits,
overloaded dimmers, and notation errors in the paperwork of
a lighting design.-*--'- Marketed by Rosco Inc., the program
was designed to help the lighting designer save time by
organizing designs and finding errors on the paperwork
before the design is hung.
Although lighting designers have made great use of
microcomputers, scenic designers have found far fewer uses
for them. In 1982, Robert Reinecke of Kutztown State

14
College in Pennsylvania wrote a computer program for a TRS-
80 microcomputer that would calculate the minimum amount of
lumber needed to build the necessary flat for a production
• • • 1 9
from the dimension given by the user. His program also
calculated the number of cornerblocks needed and the cost
of the lumber. Reinecke also used the microcomputer to
create a chase sequencer for strings of lights on a set for
Thurber Carnival.^J
Since the scenic designer's work is far more
graphically oriented than the lighting designer's, scenic
designers have had to wait for the development of computer-
aided drafting programs before the computer could become an
important tool for them.
What Is CAD?
CAD, as an acronym, can stand for computer-aided
drafting or computer-aided design. The acronyms can be
combined to form CADD, computer-aided design and drafting.
Regardless, the word stands for a computer program which
can be used to create, edit, and make hard copies of
graphic images. "CAD can be thought of as 'image
processing.' The process of creating an image with a CAD
system is akin to that of creating a document"-'-4 with a
word processor. It is a tool to make the process of
creating and editing fast and easy.

15
A CAD program allows the user to enter commands,
instructing the computer to draw lines, arcs, circles, and
other shapes called primitives, in order to construct a
design.^ Primitives can be edited by other commands of
the CAD program in order to correct mistakes or alter
design ideas. CAD programs can have more than one hundred
commands with each command having multiple options.
Several tasks easily accomplished with CAD are tedious
and time-consuming operations when performed using manual
drafting procedures. They include mirroring an object,
inserting a copy of a previously created object into a new
location, moving an object or group of objects to a new
location, and changing the size of an object or group of
objects in a drawing.
One example of CAD's power to perform tasks not easily
accomplished manually is its ability to place a copy of an
object previously drawn at a new location. To perform this
task manually, the user would have to measure each part of
the object and determine the relationship of each part to
the next. He or she would re-draw the object in the new
location, measuring each part. If the object was made up
of many lines, arcs, circles, or text items, this process
could be slow. To accomplish the same task with CAD, the
user specifies the object to be copied by placing it in a
"window" and then specifying where the copy is to be
placed. The computer does all of the measuring and places

16
a copy of the object specified at the new location.
Details on moving an object can be found in LESSON 11 of
APPENDIX A.
Once a drawing has been created with a CAD program, it
can be stored and re-edited at a later time to create a new
drawing. The scale (size) of a drawing created with CAD
can be changed with fewer than a dozen keystrokes. Another
advantage of CAD over traditional methods of drafting is
the precise accuracy which it provides. Many CAD programs
have an accuracy greater than one-billionth of the unit of
measurement in which the user is working.^ This measuring
and drawing accuracy can produce drawings superior in
quality to drawings created with manual techniques.
APPENDIX J shows an example of a section of a drawing
created using CAD and a section of a drawing drafted
manually. Details of this may be found in LESSON 17 of
APPENDIX A.
The drafting ability of CAD is only one part of its
capability. Because the computer can solve complex
mathematical equations, manipulate data, and display
graphic information at high speeds, CAD is capable of
performing many tasks in addition to drafting. Several CAD
programs allow the user to customize the program by adding
new commands and features not part of the original program.
New commands are usually developed around a specific task
performed by the user. As the user designs these new
features for the CAD program, its usefulness is expanded.

17
Defining CAD is becoming increasingly difficult because
the uses of CAD are growing as designers discover ways to
use the programs. Architect John Voosen said, "Although
we started out intending to use our CAD program just for
technical drafting, we are now using it for design
explorations and presentation work of a kind we never would
have attempted several months ago."-*-® Carol Ann Tunell,
another CAD user, said, "When you begin to understand how a
computer can work for you, how it can actually aid
creativity by allowing you to work faster and more
precisely, the computer's usefulness and versatility become
obvious."-*-9 A study conducted by Arthur D. Little, a
respected computer consultant, showed "the overall
productivity increase of CAD users to average 4:1, with a
minimum gain of 2:1."20 Another study conducted in 1983
predicted that 40,000 draftsmen would be out of work by the
year 2000 due to the increased efficiency of CAD over
traditional methods of drafting.2-*- Computer-aided drafting
is a productivity tool that offers benefits over
traditional drafting methods. The use of such a tool
should make CAD's users more productive and gives them more
time to develop a better design.
All computer graphics do not fall into the category of
CAD. One area of computer graphics related to CAD is
computer imaging.22 Computer imaging is the computer
simulation of three-dimensional objects. In simulation,
the surfaces of objects are colored or shaded in a manner

18
that reveals the form and texture of the objects under a
specified lighting situation. The technique is sometimes
referred to as "solid modeling."^J Computer imaging has
numerous uses including design. However, it is not a
technique used in the drafting aspects of CAD. Although
the use of computer imaging is becoming more common in the
microcomputer environment, it is still found predominantly
on mini and mainframe computers. ^4
Some CAD programs have the ability to create three-
dimensional representations of objects in the form of wire
frame models. Two such programs are MicroCAD and Design
Board Professional. Wire frame models do not show surfaces
of the objects as solid models.^ They show only the edges
of the structures. Hidden lines can be removed from wire
frame models to give them the illusion of being solid.
However, they do not show their form by indicating
reflected light. Three-dimensional CAD ability is
increasing in popularity among CAD programs.
The History of CAD
IBM (International Business Machines) and DEC (Digital
Equipment Corporation) established the foundation for
engineering graphics' support of computers in the early
1960s.26 Shortly afterward, the first computer-aided
drafting program, CADAM, was developed by Lockheed

19
Corporation to run on IBM mainframe computers.^ General
Motors and McDonnel1-Douglas Corporation also developed in-
house CAD programs.
In 1969, Data General Corporation introduced the first
minicomputer which was inexpensive in comparison to
mainframe computers. CAD programs were developed for a
growing number of minicomputers. By the early 1970s, CAD
2 8
systems had become an industry.
In the late 1970s, microcomputers were developed and
marketed. Often referred to as personal computers, these
off-the-shelf computers are simple to use and, unlike mini
or mainframe computers, within the price range of many
individuals. Around microcomputers, the largest revolution
in the CAD, microcomputer-based CAD system, was about to
take place:
International Data Corp. of Framinghag,
Massachusetts, estimates that personal computer
based CAD hardware and software systems shipped
will increase from 1,900 in 1983 to 32,000
systems this year [1986] and to 205,000 CAD
packages by the end of 1988.
Because a microcomputer-based CAD system is the most
affordable and likely to be the choice of colleges and
universities implementing CAD into their programs, it was
selected as the type of CAD system to be used in this
study.

20
What Is a Microcomputer-Based CAD System?
The microcomputer has one central processing unit,
located in a single computer chip, which handles all of the
mathematical calculations.of the computer. Every function
of the computer is controlled in some way by this
microprocessor. The use of a single microprocessor makes
microcomputers slow in comparison to minicomputers and
mainframe computers which use several processors to control
the computer's functions and mathematical calculations.
Microcomputers using an eight-bit microprocessor, the most
common microprocessor size of the early 1980s, were also
limited to small amounts of memory space, usually sixty-
five thousand bytes or less.
CAD, which is calculation and memory intensive, was
limited on the early microcomputers. However, developments
in technology in the last five years have produced sixteen-
bit microprocessors which operate three times faster than
the eight-bit microprocessor and can address ten times as
much data. Such advances have led the way to the
development of CAD for microcomputers.
Not only have microcomputers increased in speed and
memory capacity the past several years; their cost has
dropped steadily. A microcomputer CAD system with 70 to 80
percent of the features of a minicomputer CAD system can be
purchased for about one-tenth the cost of a minicomputer
CAD system.3® The cost difference has made CAD on

21
microcomputers affordable to many. Steven M. Lord, a
mechanical engineer who has investigated the use of CAD in
his profession, said:
A workstation capable of handling most of the
design and drafting tasks typically performed by
a product development group can be assembled for
a total cost of between $7,000 and $14,000.
Assuming only a very conservative 25 percent
increase in engineering efficiency, plus a
substantial decrease in drafting and checking
time, the investment should pay for itself in
less than a year.-^
Most microcomputers come with a keyboard to input
information into the computer and a monitor on which the
computer displays. Monitors can be monochrome or color
video display units. Monochrome monitors usually have the
best resolution because monochrome monitors use only one
electron gun to produce each pixel or dot on the screen,
and the more pixels per inch, the better the resolution.
Color monitors use three electron guns to produce each
pixel. Because of the need for greater numbers of electron
guns, color monitors usually have fewer pixels per inch on
the screen and therefore, less resolution. Because color
can be used in the communication process to help define
layers, linetypes, or special symbols for objects, color
monitors are good communication tools for CAD. High
resolution color monitors for CAD are available and improve
the ease of using a CAD system, because they show better
detail of objects as well as differentiate between objects
by using color.

22
If drawings could be displayed only on a monitor, CAD
systems would be almost useless. The microcomputer-based
CAD system requires a device for producing the finished
drawing on paper so that the drawing can be reproduced and
given to the craftsmen who execute the design. The most
commonly used device for producing hardcopies of drawings
is a pen plotter. Using a technical drawing pen similar to
those used by draftsmen, a pen plotter can produce inked
drawings from data sent to it by the computer. Plotters
can operate with accuracy up to 0.001 of an inch.-^
Operating at between 3 inches per second and 15 inches per
second, a pen plotter can produce drawings which can be
blueprinted.
Other peripheral devices used in a microcomputer-based
system might include a mouse, a digitizing tablet, or a
light pen. These three devices are input devices and can
be used in place of the keyboard which is the most common
input device. The above mentioned input devices can be
used to tell the computer which commands it is to perform
or where to locate precise points on a drawing so that the
user can draw lines, circles, arcs, and text. Because of
their design, the alternative input devices are often
easier and faster to use than the keyboard. The digitizing
tablet is the most versatile and accurate of the alternate
input devices. It can also be used for tracing pre¬
existing drawings into the computer's memory.

23
The third and most important part of a CAD system is
the CAD program or software. The software is what gives
the user the drawing and editing features of the CAD
system. Therefore, choosing a CAD program that best fits
the user's needs is the most important decision in setting
up a CAD system and should be made first. After the
software has been selected, a microcomputer and peripheral
devices that work with the software should be chosen. Some
CAD programs work with different models of computers and
many different peripheral devices, but other programs
operate only on a select group of computers.
CAD in Nontheatrical Professions
When CAD programs were first developed for micro¬
computers in the early 1980s, CAD developers looked at the
possible markets for their products.3^ The markets
targeted as potential CAD users were architects, interior
designers, electrical engineers, and mechanical
engineers.35 The program developers looked at the design
and drafting needs of these professions and tried to
develop products suited to their needs.35 As the
advantages of CAD were realized by other professions, CAD
programs with features directly related to other fields,
such as cartography and landscape planning, appeared. CAD
programs were also developed as "general drafting"

24
â– a 7
programs, capable of doing most architectural or
mechanical drafting, but limited in the number of
specialized features. General drafting programs have
spread the use of CAD from sophisticated industrial use to
teaching general drafting principles and concepts in high
schools.
Architects are among the most common users of CAD.
Aware of growing interest in CAD, in 1984 the American
Institute of Architects tested six CAD programs and
published the results in its journal, Architectural
O Q
Technology. According to Charles B. Thomsen, architect,
the use of CAD by architects is based on three factors:
cost, time, and quality:
Architects are hired to solve problems: to
design buildings. But our big cost is not the
cost of design. It is the production of working
drawings. We spend our money not in solving the
problem, but in documenting the solution . . .
How many times have you looked at something you
have just finished and thought, 'If only I had
time to do that again, I could do it better.'
With CAD you can. ^
Thomsen concluded that CAD would help improve the
designs of architects by providing time to test more
alternatives and that the architect's clients would be the
big winners with CAD.41
Dennis Davey, an architect in Tolland, Connecticut,
first acquired a microcomputer in 1978 for word processing
and office accounting. In 1983, he used it to produce his
first CAD drawing. Davey says that he can complete his

25
drawings on the computer in about one-fourth the time that
it would take him to prepare them manually.4^ Davey also
feels that the quality of the drafting produced on the
computer is superior to hand-drafted drawings.4^
Carol Ann Tunell, founder of an interior architecture
firm in Phoenix, Arizona, says that CAD has a 3:1
productivity gain over manual drafting and that translates
into lower overhead and salary costs. Tunell says that
CAD eliminates much of the repetitive redrawing and
reworking common to manual drafting.44 "CAD's an
invaluable tool. It saves money, and at the same time,
helps you to do a better job."4®
Warren Ferguson, president of Ferguson Map Co., Inc.,
of San Antonio, Texas, replaced the traditional drafting
methods in his company with a CAD system called SAM (Simply
Amazing Mapmaker). He said:
You used to see a big drafting room with a lot of
people doing a lot of repetitive work. Now you
see a few people at computer installations
putting out the same amount of work. A computer
can be anywhere from five to ten times as
productive as a human being in this business.4®
Using computer-aided cartography,
. . . it may be possible for an individual to
produce custom-tailored maps designed to meet a
specific need. According to this scenario, a
person planning a vacation trip could ask the
computer to create a map outlining possible
routes, as well as to provide weather forecasts
and locations of gas stations.4^

26
Jerry Wisdom is the owner of a firm that designs and
builds amusement park rides. In 1984, Wisdom installed a
single computer-aided design workstation to handle all of
the company's design and drafting needs. Wisdom says that
CAD helps his company maximize time and minimize costly
material waste:
Since CAD permits me to
elements, I can design
beginning construction,
and that tolerances are
versatility and accurac
with a design. °
quickly manipulate desi
a ride, and before
make sure all parts fit
correct. CAD's
y let me play 'what-if'
gn
Wisdom's mechanical engineer William Hatch said,
The readability of a CAD-generated drawing is
superior to that of a manual drawing. When
you're dealing with a 100-foot-long ride that
must be folded onto a truck trailer, you can't
afford a construction mistake because a drawing
is unclear. y
CAD in the Theatre
An early article published about the use of CAD as a
design tool for theatres, "Computer Set Modeling," by
Arnold R. Ness and Brent L. Fleming appeared in Theatre
Crafts magazine in April 1983. Fleming, who was the
supervisor of technical production at Bradley University's
Hartmann Center for the Performing Arts, conceived the idea
for the program to help foresee sightline problems caused

27
by the deep thrust stage, optional sidestages, and steeply
raked house of the center's Meyer Jocob Theatre. With the
help of Ness from the university's department of
manufacturing, he developed a computer program that would
create a graphic representation of a set on the stage of
the Meyer Jocob Theatre.-’® Once the data on the setting
were entered into the computer, this program could be used
to view it from different locations in the theatre's house.
Using this technique, the designer and the director could
view a design and solve scenic design problems before the
set was constructed.
The program developed by Ness and Fleming was written
in FORTRAN and used Tektronix Plotl0 graphics.Running
on a Control Data Cyber 171, a mainframe computer, and
Tektronix 4000 series terminals, this program helped solve
many design problems at Bradley University. The cost of
the equipment, estimated at over $300,000, made Ness and
Fleming's program an unrealistic solution for other scenic
designers. The program was also limited to perspective
problems and did not have any drafting capabilities.
"MicroCAD: Three-Dimensional Computer Aided Design,"
published in Theatre Crafts magazine in February, 1985,
dealt with the use of a general drafting program for
theatrical design. Michael R. Brooks's article reviewed
MicroCAD, a CAD program by Computer Aided Design in San
Francisco. Brooks explained how he used this program to
create perspective views of his scenic designs from

28
different locations in the house in much the same way as
Ness and Fleming's program did. MicroCAD also made it
possible to draft ground plans, elevations, and other
typical working drawings needed for theatrical
productions.55 Because MicroCAD was written for
microcomputers, it was a design and drafting tool that was
affordable to potential users.
Lighting designers have also been looking for ways to
use CAD to help them create light plots and manage
paperwork required for a lighting design. The first
commercial CAD program designed specifically for creating
light plots was ShowPlot by Jon Harshaw. The program was
not merely a data base. It made it possible to draw plan
views of theatres and scenery on which the program could
superimpose the lighting design. ShowPlot has been adopted
by several professional lighting designers to produce
lighting graphics.54
Another program for creating lighting graphics is
Instaplot by Steve Kaye of Source Point, Inc., of Norcross,
Georgia.55 The program works as an extension to the
AutoCAD drafting package and was created to help lighting
designers create extensive lighting plots for concerts.
Lighting designers Jim Chapman and Robert Roth have used
AutoCAD and Instaplot to draft lighting plots for several
concerts including Michael Jackson's Victory Tour, the
Live-Aid concert, and Madonna's Virgin Tour.55

29
Although the use of CAD by theatrical designers was
increased over the past several years, it is still uncommon
to find a CAD system in use by scenic designers. At a
program on computer-aided design the researcher chaired at
the Southeastern Theatre Conference in March of 1986, in
Charlotte, North Carolina, less than half of the nearly
seventy designers and technical directors present used
computers in any of their work. Among those who did use
computers, the most common use was word processing. Four
of the individuals attending this program used the Apple
Macintosh computer and the MacPaint or MacDraw programs to
produce some drawings for their productions. They were
limited to drawings with a maximum size of 11 inches by 17
inches. In addition to those on the panel, only one
designer attending the program was presently using a
complete CAD system. Interest in CAD systems by attending
designers and technical directors was high and many
indicated they were seriously considering purchasing a CAD
system within the next two years.
To help inform potential CAD users about the new tool
for drawing, at least two of the twenty-one regional
sections of the United States Institute for Theatre
Technology, the Alberta section and the Southeastern
section, will hold master classes on CAD for members in the
summer of 1986.-^ These classes will concentrate on
showing potential users different CAD programs and giving
them a first-hand look at CAD.

30
Summary of Literature
The review of the literature shows the development of
the use of computers by scenic and lighting designers. It
also shows how members of other professions have used CAD
to benefit them in their work. Research supports the need
for establishment of a method for training scenic and
lighting designers in the use of computer-aided drafting as
a means of producing working drawings for theatrical
productions. Training programs similar in method but
geared to the architectural and engineering professions,
have provided many users with a means by which to learn to
use the computer as a design and drafting tool.
Notes
Phillip Rose and Charles Levy, "Thanks for the
Memory," Theatre Crafts, October 1974, p. 25.
9 . .
Phillis Wollman and Larry McClain, "Computers Shine On
Stage," Popular Computing, August 1983, p. 126.
^ Patricia MacKay, "A Chorus Line: Computerized
Lighting Control Comes to Broadway," Theatre Crafts,
Nov./Dec. 1975, pp. 28-29.
^ Wollman and McClain, p. 123.
5 Personal interview with Herb Schmoll, author of
several computer programs for theatrical applications, 22
September, 1981.
^ Personal interview with George Crook, scenic designer
at the University of Southern Mississippi, 9 September, 1983.

31
^ Gerard Duffin, Development of a Basic Computer
Program for Theatre Light Plots, Project in Leu of Thesis,
University of Florida, 1978.
O
Craig Miller, "Using Your Apple to Handle Lighting
Paperwork," Theatre Crafts, March 1985, pp. 16, 57-61.
Q
John Weygandt, "Filevision for Your Lighting
Design," Theatre Crafts, October 1985, p. 100.
Weygandt, p. 107.
Robert Heller, "ALD: Lighting Software from Rosco,"
Theatre Crafts, January 1985, p. 16.
I O
Robert Reinecke, "Computer Calculation of Lumber
Required for Flat Construction", Theatre Design and
Technology, Vol. 18, No. 4 (1982), p. 18.
Robert Reinecke, "A Microcomputer-Controlled
Chaser," Theatre Crafts, May 1982, p. 56.
14 Glenn Hart, "CAD: The Big Picture for Micros," PC
Magazine, March 1985, p. 108.
15 John Lowell, Computer Graphics (New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1985), pp. 56-57.
1® Weygandt, p. 107.
17 ,
Personal interview with Kathy Ricks, president of
CAD dealership and training facility in Charlotte, NC, 11
May, 1985.
I8 Oliver R. Witte, "Affordable CAD," Architectural
Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1984), p. 44.
I Q
Mark Josephson, "Space Planning with CADD," Plan
and Print, Vol. N59, No. 3 (1986), p. 43.
20
T & W
Syst
ems,
, How to
(Huntii
ngton Beach,
CA:
T & S S
21
Davis
Straub, 1
"Computer
1983,
p. 100.
22
Lowell
r P.
41.
23
Lowell
, PP-
60-
-63, 132.
24
Lowell
r p.
•
ID
25
Lowell
, p.
128-
-131.

32
23 Patrick R. Carberry, CAD/CAM with Personal
Computers (Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books Inc., 1985),
p. 4-5.
? 7
Carberry, p. 5.
Carberry, p. 5.
29 Hart, pp. 108-109.
30 Hart, p. 109.
33 Steven M. Lord, "What I Wish I Had Known About CAD
Software, But I Didn't Know Enough to Ask," Mechanical
Engineering, Vol. 107, No. 11 (1985), pp. 24-26.
32 Carberry, p. 149-152.
33 Donald J. Jung and Michael J. Bethel, "Selecting a
Plotter," Theatre Crafts, Nov./Dec. 1984, p. 19.
34 Personal interview with Gregory L. Bloom, vice
president of products and services for MegaCADD, Inc., 11
May, 1985.
33 Bloom.
33 Bloom.
*3 7
Byron Ryono, "Let Your Apple Do the Drafting," A+,
December 1984, pp. 42-47.
33 "CAD Stirs Interest," Electronic Education, Vol. 5,
No. 5 (1986), p. 21.
39 Witte, pp. 42-47.
40 Charles B. Thomsen, "CAD's Greatest Promise Is as a
Creative, Interactive Tool," Architectural Technology, Vol.
2, No. 2 (1984) , pp. 64-65.
43 Thomsen, p. 65.
442 Robert Bede, "Two-Member Office and CAD," Plan and
Print, Vol. N59, No. 3 (1986) pp. 34-35.
43 Bede, p. 35.
44 Mark Josephson, "Space Planning with CADD," Plan and
Print, Vol. N 5 9, No. 3 (1986), p. 43.
45
Mark Josephson, "Space Planning with CADD," p. 58.

33
24.
Mike Sheridan, "Back on the Map," Sky, May 1986, p.
46
Mike
She
47
Sher i
dan,
48
Mark
Jos
>t,
Vol.
N 5 9
49
Mark
Jos
50
Arnold R.
Mark Josephson, "Amusement Park Rides," p. 31.
Arnold R. Ness and Brent L. Fleming, "Computer Set
Design," Theatre Crafts, April 1983, pp. 28-29.
Ness and Fleming, p. 81.
52 Ness and Fleming, pp. 80-82.
52 Michael R. Brooks, "MicroCAD: Three-Dimensional
Computer Aided Design," Theatre Crafts, February 1985,
pp. 85-88.
54 James L. Moody, "Showplot: A New Program for
Lighting Designers," Theatre Crafts, Aug./Sept. 1985,
pp. 28, 86-88.
R S • .
Personal interview with Steve Kaye, author of
Instaplot, 13 September, 1985.
Lionel Johnston, "AutoCAD Applications: Lighting
Design," CADalyst, Jan./March 1986, p. 52.
c 7
Personal interview with Robert Warren, technical
director at the University of Southern Mississippi, 8 March,
1986.
58
Ron Olson, "Computers and the Arts," USITT
Newsletter, Vol. 26, No. 3 (1986), p. 11.

CHAPTER III
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The Software
In response to the increase in demand for CAD,
manufacturers have marketed a wide range of CAD programs,
each having strengths and weaknesses for different types of
design and drafting work. These programs range in cost
from $100 to nearly $3,000.
The following checklist outlines the questions that
prospective CAD users should ask themselves in evaluating
CAD programs.
1. Does the program have features needed to do the
work?
2. Is there a local dealer for the program who can help
match equipment with the program to meet needs?
3. How difficult is the program to learn and is
training available?
4. Does the company which produces the program have a
good reputation and will they be in existence to
supply updates in years to come?
5. Are there other users in the area of theatrical
design who use the program and recommend it?
6. If the user already owns a computer, is there a
version of the program for this computer?
7. Will the program support a wide range of peripheral
devices?
34

35
8.Can the user purchase an entry level version of the
program and add more features later?
The selection of CAD programs can be narrowed to the
program which best fits the user's needs by answering these
questions as they apply to each CAD program which the user
is considering. APPENDIX D contains a list of CAD programs
currently on the market.
The checklist was used by the theatre department at
the University of Florida in the fall of 1984 to choose a
CAD program which best fit the theatrical drafting needs of
students and faculty. The needs included
1. General drafting
2. Creation of custom templates (blocks)
3. Text writing
4. Isometric drafting
5. 3-D drawing
6. Auto-dimensioning
7. Ability to plot 24" x 36" drawings
8. Hatching
9. Creation of arrays
10. Scaling of objects
In addition to drafting features, most CAD programs
contain non-drafting features that aid the drafting
features or have special applications that theatrical
designers can use. Some of the non-drafting features of
CAD desired were
1. User-defined menus
2. Attribute extraction for reports
3. On-screen coordinates, distances and angles
4. Help feature
5. Well documented user's guide

36
When the choices had been narrowed to three, the
dealers of the CAD programs considered were given several
examples of standard theatrical drafting and asked to
duplicate these drawings using their CAD programs. When
the drawings were being produced, careful attention was
paid to ease of use and features of each program useful for
theatrical drafting. After reviewing the results, AutoCAD,
by Autodesk Inc., was selected as the CAD program which
best fit the needs of the theatre department at the
University of Florida and which was used in this study.
Although AutoCAD lacked several useful features
available on some of the other CAD programs, such as
parallel lines and 3-D perspective capabilities, AutoCAD's
command structure seemed easy to understand and use. This
was important, because most theatrical designers have
little or no computer experience. AutoCAD also provided
for the creation of custom menus and commands. That
feature proved to be one of AutoCAD's greatest assets.
Kathy Ricks, a CAD specialist in Charlotte, North
Carolina, recommended AutoCAD because of its flexibility
and its user base. AutoCAD is the largest selling CAD
program on the market with 44 percent of the market share.1
Because of the large user base, numerous third-party
software developers have created add-on programs to provide
new functions and customized applications to AutoCAD.
Several programs, including Instaplot, were written
specifically for theatrical applications. The large user

37
base also meant that support from other users,
publications, and local dealers would be available to
provide training, insights into new ways to use the
program, and add-on features to make AutoCAD a more useful
program.
AutoCAD, available for 31 different computers,-^
provides the user with the option to upgrade to a varied
selection of different computers and still be able to use
the CAD program with which he or she is familiar. AutoCAD
also supports a wide range of plotters and digitizers.
AutoCAD's major drawback is its expense, $2,500 for the
complete package. According to PC Magazine's 1986 review
of CAD programs,
the low-end programs tested are good values for
the money, but that's about it. Even though they
are easier to learn than the heavy hitters (and
obviously costing less), most users would be
better served by making the investment in buying
and learning a more serious CAD program.
An entry level version of AutoCAD can be purchased for
about $1,000. The three extension options can be added
separately to spread out the cost as the user learns the
program and its functions. However, about 90 percent of
the sales of AutoCAD include all three drafting
extensions.^ The theatre department at the University of
Florida chose to purchase the complete AutoCAD drafting
package, version 2.02.

38
When purchased, AutoCAD, version 2.02, was the most up-
to-date version available for the Zenith Z-100 micro¬
computer. Since that time, Autodesk, Inc., has released
another version of AutoCAD with additional features
including polylines, 3-dimensional object creation and
view, hidden line removal, chamfer, and the ability to plot
drawings to dot matrix printers. The newer version of
AutoCAD was not used in this study because it was not
available until after the proposed training procedure had
been conceived. Future training procedures should take
advantage of the latest version of AutoCAD.
The Hardware
AutoCAD provided a wide choice in the selection of
microcomputers. Because the University of Florida had a
purchasing agreement with Zenith, a Zenith computer was the
most economical choice. The selection was narrowed to the
Z-100 microcomputer and the Z-150 microcomputer, both by
Zenith. The difference between the computers was
substantial. The major advantage of the Z-150
microcomputer was its compatibility with the IBM PC
microcomputer. Because of the large number of IBM PC used
by businesses and individuals, compatibility meant that a
number of other programs would be available to run on the
Z-150. Many programs which would be desirable, such as

39
Design Board Professional, dBASE III, Generic CAP, and
MicroCAD, were not available for the Z-100.
The Z-100, however, had advantages. The Mechanical
Engineering department of the University of Florida was
using eight Z-100 computers running AutoCAD to teach CAD
as part of a computer graphics class. They reported
success with the Z-100 running AutoCAD and offered help for
the theatre department in establishing its CAD facility.
After reviewing cost, features, repair records,
availability of local repair facilities, and other factors
outlined on the checklist on pages 34 and 35, the Zenith Z-
100 computer was selected. Two Z-100 microcomputers each
with a 10 megabyte Winchester disk drive and one floppy
disk drive were purchased from Zenith. The Winchester disk
drive was selected because of the need for high speed
interchange of extremely large amounts of data between the
storage device to the computer's memory. The Winchester
disk holds thirty times more data than a five and one-
quarter inch floppy disk used by the Z-100, and the
Winchester disk drive operates 10 times faster than á
floppy disk drive.^ These factors made the Winchester disk
drive a better data storage device for the massive amount
of data involved with CAD. These computers use the 8086
16-bit microprocessor with an 8-bit data bus and had 443
kilobytes of RAM memory. The computers did not have the
optional 8087 math co-processor which increases the speed
at which the computer is able to make mathematical

calculations by 300 percent, and therefore, makes the CAD
process faster."7 Lack of experience with CAD by the team
selecting the hardware for the CAD workstations was the
reason for the item's not being purchased for the CAD
workstations.
Each of these computers was equipped with a 12-inch
monochrome monitor. Expense prevented the use of color
monitors. The monochrome monitors cost $89 each whereas a
color monitor costs between $700 and $3,000 each, depending
on the size of the monitor and the quality of resolution.
Hardcopy output was obtained through the use of a
Houston Instruments DMP-42 plotter connected to each
computer. These plotters were capable of producing the two
most common sizes of drawings used by scenic and lighting
designers, either 18" X 24" (C size) or 24" X 36" (D size)
drawings. The DMP-42 plotters were selected because of the
size of drawings they would produce, their cost, and their
excellent repair record.
Although no alternative input devices were purchased
for the study, an optical mouse was borrowed from the
mechanical engineering CAD facility and used during a
portion of the study. The device was not available during
the testing phase of the study. The lack of such a device
will be discussed in Chapter IV.
The testing done during the study used only the
equipment listed above. The system described above is
considered a minimum CAD system, and the results of the

41
testing should be viewed with the limitation in mind. The
use of high resolution color monitors, alternative input
devices, and math co-processors would have improved the
efficiency of the CAD system.
The Tutorial
How to train scenic and lighting designers to use the
CAD workstations described in Chapter III to produce
drawings for theatrical productions was the problem to be
solved by the study. The first step was to investigate
present methods of training designers to use the program.
AutoCAD was shipped with a reference manual entitled
The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide which explains all
of AutoCAD's commands and features in great detail and is
an excellent source of information about the program. It
is, however, a reference manual and not a training manual.
It does not clearly lead the user through a process by
which he or she learns to set-up a drawing and use
AutoCAD's commands to accomplish a desired task. For
training users, another source needed to be found.
Several training manuals for AutoCAD were investigated
including House 1, an architectural drafting workbook for
manual drafting or for CAD; CadPACK Beginning AutoCAD
Tutorial, a general purpose guide to AutoCAD's commands;
and Inside AutoCAD, an extensive teaching guide for AutoCAD

42
on the IBM PC microcomputer. Each of these training
sources had strengths and weaknesses, but after discussion,
it was decided that none of these methods were acceptable
for teaching computer-aided drafting to scenic and lighting
designers using AutoCAD and the Zenith Z-100 microcomputer.
Two major flaws in the training manuals were that they did
not address the way AutoCAD used the function keys of the
Zenith Z-100, and the above-mentioned manuals did not
relate AutoCAD's commands to theatrical drawings. Instead
of using one of the commercially created training programs
available to the theatre department, the researcher decided
to develop and test a program specifically aimed at
problems faced by scenic and lighting designers.
The tutorial method was chosen because it could be
used either at the user's own pace or as part of an
organized course in CAD. The method also allowed for
step-by-step instructions for each command as the user
carried it out at his/her workstation. Two of the three
commercially designed training programs reviewed, Inside
AutoCAD and CadPACK Beginning AutoCAD Tutorial, were
tutorials. The tutorial method of training designers to
use a CAD program appeared to be the clearest and easiest
method for the user and it was selected as the method used
for the tutorial in the study.
The guidebook for scenic and lighting designers was
conceived as an introduction to AutoCAD and was designed to
be used with the Zenith Z-100 microcomputer and AutoCAD,

43
version 2.02. The tutorial does not cover all of AutoCAD's
commands or features. Instead, it concentrates on teaching
the user the commands which relate to the drawings most
commonly done by scenic and lighting designers. AutoCAD
also has commands intended for expert users and these
commands were not taught as part of the tutorial. The
tutorial should be used in conjunction with The AutoCAD
Drafting Package User Guide in order to provide detailed
information about each of AutoCAD's commands or options.
One objective of the tutorial was to address typical
drafting tasks faced by scenic and lighting designers. The
twenty lessons of the tutorial and the exercises at the end
of most lessons were designed so that the user progressed
to the point where he or she was prepared to create
complete drawings for a production.
Since the tutorial was conceived as an introduction to
AutoCAD, a determination had to be made as to what commands
would be taught and in which order. The process began by
defining the goal of the project in terms of a final
examination and then preparing an outline for teaching the
materials needed to successfully complete the examination.
As part of the objective of the study, the proposed length
of the training period was limited to fifteen weeks, the
typical length of study of a one semester course at the
University of Florida. Thus, the proposed training
procedure could be used within the format of most
universities and colleges operating on the semester system.

44
Preliminary Studies
A preliminary test of the proposed training procedure
was made during the fall semester 1985. The test involved
a single student with a basic knowledge of scenic and
lighting design. The student completed each lesson in the
tutorial along with the accompanying exercises and progress
was monitored with each lesson. Frequent consultations
with the test subject revealed strengths and weaknesses
within the tutorial and its design. Upon completion of the
tutorial, the test subject was successfully able to
complete the final examination prepared prior to his
training. Knowledge gained by the researcher during this
preliminary testing led to the reorganization of the
tutorial. The revised tutorial, APPENDIX A, was used for
training the students in the testing section of this study.
Since many students in the technical theatre program at
the University of Florida had been exposed to some uses of
computers in theatre, a survey was taken to discover to
what extent a theatrical population would have experience
with computers and to discover knowledge and beliefs about
computer-aided drafting. The results of the survey appear
in APPENDIX J. Overall, thirteen technical theatre majors
who completed the questionnaire were familiar with
computers and their uses in theatre and felt that a
knowledge of computers by theatrical designers and
technicians would be necessary in the future. Most of the

45
group surveyed had seen CAD demonstrated and believed
strongly that a knowledge of CAD would help then seek
future employment and that CAD should be taught by theatre
departments in colleges and universities.
The Subjects
Two groups of four students were used for the testing
of the proposed training procedure. One group was the
control group and the other was the test group. All eight
students involved in the test had previously taken the
theatre department's manual drafting course TPA 3070,
Theatrical Drawing Methods and Procedures. The test group
was selected by a random chance method from the pool of
eleven qualified students. A control group of comparable
ability was selected from the remaining students in the
pool by using the students' final grade in TPA 3070, GPA,
score on standardized tests, and profile evaluations.
APPENDIX K contains a comparative analysis of test
subjects. Four students in each group is a small sample
size. However, the number was necessary for several
reasons. First, the study was limited by the number of CAD
workstations available. With only two workstations for the
test subjects to use, the researcher decided to limit the
number of students participating in the training to four in

46
order that each student have adequate time to use the
equipment. The researcher believed that a larger number of
students would create scheduling problems and the students
might not complete all of the assigned exercises due to the
lack of CAD workstations. The second reason for the small
number of students participating in the test was a result
of the small number of scenic and lighting design students
currently at the University of Florida. It was the belief
of the researcher that CAD should be taught to students
only after they have had experience with manual drafting
methods. Although researchers at the University of
Illinois felt that CAD could be a better method for
teaching design and drafting concepts,^ the researcher and
other members of the theatre department's design staff at
the University of Florida, felt that knowledge and
experience with manual methods of drafting provide a
background on which the student could base his/her work
with CAD. Because of the number of scenic and lighting
design students at the University of Florida who do not
have adequate manual drafting experience, the number of
students involved in CAD instruction is likely to remain
low. Therefore, having a test group of four students was
in line with the estimated class size of future classes in
CAD at the University of Florida.
At the current enrollment level, a more conclusive
study which would involve a substantial number of test
subjects would take in excess of ten years at the

47
University of Florida. Because the length of such a study
exceeds the parameters of a dissertation, and because
changes in the backgrounds of subjects over the length of
the study would jeopardize the validity of the test, an
exploratory test will be used to set up results to be
confirmed or refuted by other researchers. Therefore, for
this study N = 4 is considered a valid sample size for the
test.
Methodology
During spring semester 1986, the four students
involved in the CAD portion of the testing took an
independent study course in which they used the proposed
method for learning CAD. Progress was supervised by Dr.
A.F.C. Wehlburg and the researcher. The syllabus and
course outline for the CAD course can be found in APPENDIX
F and APPENDIX G, respectively.
The course emphasized typical drawings which would be
created by scenic and lighting designers in preparation for
a theatrical production. The four drafting skills
emphasized were drawing productivity, drafting accuracy,
readability and neatness, and reproducibility.
Drafting productivity is defined as the amount or
quantity of drawing that the draftsman can complete in a
set period of time. The speed at which the draftsman

48
creates a drawing determines the productivity of the
draftsman. Productivity is affected by the amount of time
the draftsman spends perfecting the accuracy of the
drawing, the readability of the drawing, and the
reproducibility of the drawing.
Drafting accuracy is the degree to which the draftsman
has successfully rendered the drawings. Drafting accuracy
includes both drawing accuracy and measuring accuracy.
Accuracy includes the draftsman's ability to draw sharp
corners, straight lines, and consistent symbols.
The third area of evaluation is readability and
neatness, including arrangement of information on a
drawing, clarity of lines, readability of symbols, text and
dimensions, and the overall appearance of the drawing. The
readability of a drawing can be affected by the users
choice of drawing media, i.e. ink or graphite. Another
factor affecting the readability of drawings is the
indication of lines which are left on the paper after a
drawing is corrected.
Reproducibility is the degree to which the drawing is
able to be reproduced using typical blue line reproduction
techniques. The two factors controlling reproducibility are
darkness of lines and consistency of line weights. Because
several individuals on the production staff need copies of
the working drawings for a production, successful
reproduction of drawings is considered an important feature
of drafting.

49
Upon completion of the course, the four students were
given a scaled drawing of the floor plan for a theatrical
production (APPENDIX H) and were instructed to complete the
following drawings for this production in two hours:
1. Floor plan
2. Front Elevations
The students were told to complete as much of the
assignment as possible in the scheduled time and that the
drawings were to be presentational quality and as error-
free as possible. The students were aware of how the
drawings were to be evaluated and were instructed to do the
best work possible. The test group created their drawings
using the CAD workstations described above in the study.
Since there were only two CAD workstations, the test was
given to two students at a time. No communication between
the students taking the test was allowed.
The four students in the control group were given the
same drawing test. However, they were to produce their
drawings using manual drafting techniques. The group also
was aware of the evaluation procedure and told to do their
best work. The members of the control group worked
individually in a drafting classroom.
The experimental design used in the study was
"Randomized Control-Group Posttest Only," which has good
internal validity.^ This testing design controls for
history, maturation, pretesting, statistical regression,

measuring instruments, differential selection of subjects,
and experimental mortality.^
The drawings created during the test were evaluated
by faculty and staff members of the theatre department.
The evaluators were Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg, former technical
director and lighting designer for the theatre department,
and the instructor of the manual drafting course offered by
the theatre department; Mr. Ronald A. Naversen, scenic
designer for the theatre department; and the researcher,
who teaches manual drafting as part of a course in
stagecraft for the theatre department. Each of the four
areas being evaluated was assigned a grade between zero and
ten with zero being the worst grade possible and ten being
the best grade possible. The maximum possible grade for
each test subject was forty points. The grades for each of
the four areas were totaled and every student was assigned
a final grade by each evaluator. A final score for each
group was obtained by tallying the scores for all of the
test subjects in the group.
A _t test for independent samples was used to determine
if the difference between the scores of the two groups were
significant. The 99 percent confidence level, with six
degrees of freedom, was selected for the test. At this
level of confidence, the possibility of an error in the
test results is 1 percent. The results of the test are
found in Chapter IV.

51
Notes
1 Personal interview with Kathy Ricks, president of
CAD dealership and training facility in Charlotte, NC, 11
May, 1985.
^ Glenn Hart, "CAD: The Big Picture for Micros," PC
Magazine, Vol.5, No. 5 (1986), p. 126.
^ "CAD Stirs Interest," Electronic Education, Vol . 5,
No. 8 (1986), p. 21.
4 Hart, p. 109.
5 Hart, p. 126.
^ Donald B. Vitz, "Hard Facts about Hard Disk,"
Architectural Technology, No. 2, Vol. 2 (1984), p. 63.
7 Personal interview with Kathy Ricks, 11 May, 1985.
O
"U of Illinois Studies CAD vs Manual Instruction,"
Plan and Print, Vol. N85, No. 8 (1985), p. 118.
Q
Stephen Isaac, Handbook m Research and Evaluation
for Education and the Behavioral Sciences (San Diego: EdITS
Publishers, 1980), p. 42.
10
Isaac, p. 49.

CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Statistical Analysis
The drawings created by both the test group and the
control group were evaluated by three experienced scenic
and lighting designers. Using the criteria established for
the study, the three evaluators independently scored the
drawings during the test by both the test group and the
control group. The scores of these evaluations are
recorded in tables 1 through 6.
Table 1
Evaluation by Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg of the Drawing Test
for the Test Group
Productivity
Accuracy
Readabi1ity
Reproducibi1ity
Total
#1
10
10
10
10
40
#2
6
9
8
10
33
#3
5
9
8
10
32
#4
9.5
9
10
10
| 39.5
Total
30.5
37
36
40
144.5
52

53
Table 2
Evaluation by Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg of the Drawing Test
for the Control Group
Productivity
Accuracy
Readability
Reproducibi1ity
Total
#1
9
4
5
6
24
#2
9
6
6
7
28
#3
9
3
4
8
24
#4
10
7
8
7
32
otal
37
20
23
28
108
Table 3
Evaluation by Ronald A. Naversen of the Drawing Test
for the Test Group
#1
#2
#3
#4
Productivity
Accuracy
Readabi1ity
Reproducibi1ity
Total
10
10
10
10
40
7
9
9
10
35
7
8
9
10
35
9
10
9
10
38
36
37
37
40
148
Total

54
Table 4
Evaluation by Ronald A. Naversen of the Drawing Test
for the Control Group
Productivity
Accuracy
Readabi1ity
Reproducibility
Total
#1
9
5
6
6
26
#2
9
5
6
7
27
#3
8
5
6
6
25
#4
9
6
6
7
28
otal
35
21
24
26
106
Table 5
Evaluation by Delbert L. Hall of the Drawing Test
for the Test Group
#1
#2
#3
#4
Productivity
Accuracy
Readability
Reproducibility
Total
10
9
9
10
38
5.5
8.5
8.5
10
32.5
5
8
9
10
32
9
9
9
10
37
29.5
34.5
35.5
40
139.5
Total

55
Table 6
Evaluation by Delbert L. Hall of the Drawing Test
for the Control Group
Productivity
Accuracy
Readabi1ity
Reproducibility
Total
#1
9
4.5
6.5
6
26
#2
9
6.5
6
6.5
28
#3
8.5
3
4.5
8
24
#4
9.5
7
7.5
8
32
otal
36
21
24.5
28.5
110
The scores from the three evaluators for all members of
each group in each of the four categories were tallied, and
Table 7 displays the results. The scores in three of the
four areas being evaluated were significantly higher for
the test group (CAD) than the scores of the control group
(Man.) .
Table 7
Grand Totals of Test Scores
Productivity
Accuracy
Readability
Reproducibi1ity
Total
CAD
97
| 108.5
108.5
120
432
Man.
108
62
71.5
82.5
324

56
The null hypothesis established for the study was
tested by computing the mean score for each group and
comparing the scores. The mean score for the test group
was 36.0 while the mean score for the control group was
27.0. Table 8 shows the mean score, standard deviation,
and the variance of each of the test groups.
Table 8
Comparison of Scores on the Drawing Test
Between the CAD and Manual Methods
N
Points
Mean
SD
Variance
CAD
3
X
4
432
36.0
3.0069
9.0417
Man.
3
X
4
324
27.0
2.6771
7.1667
A comparison of the mean scores for each group shows
that the test group's mean was 9.0 higher that the control
group's mean. Using a t test for independent samples to
test for significance of difference between the two groups,
a .01 level of significance was applied. The critical
value of a two-tailed _t at a .01 level of significance was
3.143. In the comparing of the mean between the test group
and the control group the t-value was 7.544. At the 99
percent confidence level and 6 degrees of freedom, a
significant difference exists between the mean scores of
the two groups. Therefore, at the .01 level of

57
significance the null hypothesis was not accepted. These
statistics are reported in Table 9.
Table 9
t Distribution Comparison of Mean Scores
on the Drawing Test
CAD/Man.
Mean Difference
9.0
df
6
t value
7.544*
*£ < .01
Table 10 and Table 11 compare the scores given by the
three evaluators to the test group and the control group in
total points given, mean, and the standard deviation.
The tables show consistencies in the scoring pattern of
each evaluator (standard deviation) and consistencies in
the scores of each group compared among evaluators
(points and mean). The scores given by the three
evaluators were compared the combined data across the
two groups using the Pearson product-moment correlation
to test the interrater reliability of the scoring of the
evaluators. Table 12 shows the results of the
comparisons. These correlation coefficients show a high
degree of reliability in the scoring by the evaluators
on the drawing test in the study.

58
Table 10
Comparison Among Evaluators of Scores from Test Group
on the Drawing Test
Points
Mean
SD
Wehlburg
144.5
36.125
3.646
Naversen
148
37.0
2.121
Hall
139.5
34.875
2.654
Table 11
Comparison Among Evaluators of Scores from Control Group
on the Drawing Test
Points
Mean
SD
Wehlburg
108
27
3.166
Naversen
106
26.5
1.118
Hall
110
27.5
2.958

59
Table 12
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation of Scores
Between Evaluators
Evaluators
Wehlburg/Naversen
Wehlburg/Hall
Naverson/Hall
Correlation Factor
.9278522
.9915364
.9278837
Breakdown of Scores by Area
Productivity
Productivity was the only area in which the traditional
drafting method scored considerably higher than CAD. This
can be attributed to poor scores on productivity by two of
the four students in the test group. Productivity in
drafting comes with practice of the craft and all students
do not develop at the same rate. It can be speculated that
the two students whose productivity rating was low did not
develop skill as rapidly as the other two students. Since
the productivity rating of 50 percent of the test group was
in line with scores from the control group, the lower
scores of the remaining 50 percent were considered to be
due to lack of experience with the method.

60
The workstations used for the testing were minimally
equipped. Productivity should increase considerably if the
workstation were equipped with math co-processors, higher
resolution monitors, and digitizing tablets. This
conclusion is based on information obtained from Kathy
Ricks who conducts training programs in CAD for
archi tects . ^
Accuracy
The drawings created by the test group contained far
fewer measuring errors and represented the design with a
higher level of accuracy than those of the students using
manual drafting. Drafting inaccuracies such as over-drawn
lines, corners not meeting properly, line weight problems,
and lines not drawn straight where necessary, were far more
common in the manually drafted drawings than in the CAD
drawings. The test group scored 108.5 on accuracy while
the control group scored 62 which computes to a 75 percent
higher degree of accuracy on the test for drawings created
using CAD than on drawings created using manual techniques.
Readabi1ity
The drawings created using CAD were more legible, and
lettered more clearly than the drawings created using
manual techniques. Symbols, a prime communication source

61
in drafting, were drawn more consistently and were more
legible in drawings created by the test group. Dimensions
and text items were also more legible in the CAD drawings.
Also improving the readability of the computer-aided
drawings was the use of ink. The ink lines were crisper
and easier to read than lines drawn with graphite.
Readability of the drawings created using CAD scored 52
percent higher than manually created drawings on the
drawing test.
Reproducibility
Ink also reproduced extremely well using diazo (blue
line) printing techniques. Ink offered several advantages
to the draftsmen in terms of clarity of lines and
reproducibility. However, mistakes drawn in ink are
difficult to correct. One student's drawings, created
manually using ink, suffered from errors and inaccurate
drafting. Reproducibility of CAD produced drawings was
45 percent better than manually drafted drawings.
Conclusions
Overall, the test group scored 33 percent higher on the
drawing test than the control group, a mean increase of
9.00 with a maximum score of forty points. These

62
statistics indicate a significant difference in the
drafting ability of students using computer-aided drafting
to create typical working drawings for theatrical
productions. They also indicate the success of the method
to teach students to use CAD for producing construction
drawings.
Exit interviews with the four students in the test
group indicted they unanimously preferred CAD over
traditional drafting methods. They also indicated that
they felt their productivity with CAD was increasing and
had not reached its potential with this method of drafting.
All of the students in the test group indicated a strong
interest in continuing to use CAD and improving their CAD
ability.
The four members of the control group were also
interviewed by the researcher. All members of the control
group had seem drawings created by the test group during
the training process and were impressed by the quality of
the drawings. The members of the control group were
unanimous in their belief that computer-aided drafting was
superior to manual drafting, and all expressed interest in
learning to use CAD.
Note
1
Personal interview with Kathy Ricks, 11 May, 1985.

CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
Summary
This study indicates that the proposed method for
teaching CAD to theatrical designers is effective and
infers that designers using CAD are capable of creating
drawings of better quality than designers using traditional
drafting techniques. Other important observations about
the use of CAD were also made during the study. The most
important observation concerns the attitude of the students
when using CAD.
The students involved in the study were excited about
learning CAD and showed enthusiasm for the course. This
was reflected in the amount of time they spent using CAD,
averaging 114.5 hours over the semester long course (the
amount of time spent using CAD by each student in the test
group is reported in Table 13). Three of the four students
used CAD to produce drawings for other classes which they
were taking or for theatrical productions in which they
were involved. These extra CAD drawings were not part of
the course and it was the students' decision to produce
their needed drawings with CAD rather than with traditional
drafting methods.
63

64
Table 13
Time Chart of CAD Training by
Members of the Test Group
Total Hours
Weekly Average
#1
103.5
6.9
#2
122
8.13
#3
96.5
6.43
#4
136
9.06
Total
485
30.52
Average
114.5
7.63
Similar reactions to CAD were reported in a study at
the University of I11inois/Urbana by Dr. Michael Pleck and
Dr. Tom Woodley of the Department of General Engineering:
A majority of the students like, and in fact,
prefer to use the micro-based facility over
traditional methods of drawing. Further, . . .
once the associated system procedures have been
mastered, most students can make the same graphic
representation faster and better with the micro-
based CAD system than with traditional methods.
Pleck and Woodley reported that, "Students using CAD
have more time to grapple with cognitive problems and
develop advanced skills because they are less caught up in
repetitive, monotonous manual tasks."2 Excitement about
CAD is attracting more students to learn drafting:

65
Student drafting class enrollments have increased
by more than 120 percent during the last nine
months in the Albuquerque Public School District,
according to Al Sanchez, specialist for the
district's practical arts program. The sudden
jump is attributed, he says, to the district's
recent acquisition of computer-aided design (CAD)
technology. ^
Colleges and universities should embrace CAD as both an
excellent teaching tool and a marketable skill for their
students. According to Elizabeth Bollinger, an associate
professor in the College of Architecture at the University
of Houston and a member of the steering committee of the
Association of Computer Aided Design in Architecture:
The microcomputer-based CAD system is now
recognized as a viable tool in the design office,
and colleges and schools throughout the United
States are looking for ways to respond to their
students' needs for CAD skills in support of
industry demands.
The computer may someday be as common a part of the
scenic and lighting designer's tools as T-squares and
pencils are today.
Future studies using the four students who learned CAD
for this study should be conducted to test improvement
after one year of using CAD. Other studies might also
include research into using different CAD programs to do
theatrical drafting and in using computers for teaching
scenic design concepts. The use of computers as teaching
tools is limited only by the programs available and the
imagination of the teachers using them.

bb
As more people in the arts learn to use the computer,
they will discover more ways to use the tool. As the
number of ways to use computers increases, computers and
the arts will grow closer together. CAD is just one of the
ways that theatre can benefit from new technology. Future
uses of CAD may go far beyond the present uses of CAD.
According to Daniel S. Raker, president of a CAD consulting
and marketing firm, "Within ten years many CAD experts
predict that engineers and designers will sit down at their
CAD workstations, use the computer to build a design and
the CAD system will 'automatically' produce the drawings to
match the design."5 Present uses of computers should be
thought of as building blocks for the future.
Recommendations
A follow-up study of the test group after six months of
using CAD and again after one year of using CAD would be
valuable in graphing the continued progress of individuals
with computer-aided drafting. Such a follow-up study could
provide comparative information on the skills tested in the
study. Using the same control group would allow the
researcher to compare the development pattern of the two
groups.
The conclusion of the study regarding the effectiveness
of the teaching method and the use of CAD for producing

67
theatrical drawing leads the researcher to recommend that a
similar study be conducted using a different test group in
order to compare the results and confirm or rebut the
findings of this study. In addition to recommending a
similar study, the researcher recommends a study be
conducted using more complete CAD workstations. The study
could show variances in the productivity level of the
students using the different workstation configurations.
The following recommendations are made with regard to
the teaching method used in this study:
1. Increase the rate at which the lessons are
assigned to five or six per week instead of three.
2. Revise the rate at which the lessons are
assigned to five or six per week instead of three.
2. Revise the schedule in order to spend more time
drafting and re-drafting actual working drawings.
3. Schedule several drawing tests with increased
emphasis on productivity.
Notes
1 "U of Illinois Studies CAD vs Manual Instruction,"
Plan and Print, Vol. N85, No. 8 (1985), p. 118.
^ "u of Illinois Studies CAD vs Manual Instruction,"
p. 118.
^ "CAD Stirs Interest," Electronic Education, Vol. 5,
No. 5 (1986), p. 21.

68
4 Elizabeth Bollinger, "EduCAD Outlook," Plan and
Print, Vol. N 8 5, No. 8 (1985), p. 116.
5 Daniel S. Raker, "CAD Angles," Plan and Print,
N58, No. 9 (1985), pp. 8-9.
Vol.

GLOSSARY
"A" size sheet: 8 1/2" x 11" drafting paper.
Attribute: non-graphic information assigned to an object in
a CAD drawing.
"B" size sheet: 11" x 17" drafting paper.
BASIC (Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code): a
popular computer language.
Boot: the automatic process of loading the operating
system of the computer into its memory.
Bus:
"C"
CAD:
CAE:
CAM:
system by which information is transferred between
the CPU and memory.
size sheet: 18" x 24" drafting paper,
computer-aided design or computer-aided drafting,
computer-aided engineering,
computer-aided manufacturing.
CRT (Cathode-ray tube): a type of monitor for viewing data.
CPU (Central Processing Unit): the part of the computer
that does the mathematical calculations and control the
flow of data within the computer.
Configure: to set up peripheral devices so that they
communicate properly with the computer.
Coordinates: the numerical representation of the location
of a point using X,Y (and Z) directions.
Cross hatching: filling in an area of a drawing with a
pattern.
Cursor: the rectangle of light on the screen (sometimes
flashing) prompting the user to input data or a
response.
69

/0
Crosshairs: crossed horizontal and vertical lines on the
screen indicating the position of a point.
"D" size sheet: 24" x 36" drafting paper.
Dedicated computer: a computer which was designed to
perform only one task.
Default: pre-defined.
Digitizer tablet: a device for inputting coordinates of
points.
DOS (Disk Operating System): a computer program that tells
the computer how to store data on a disk.
"E" size sheet: 36" x 48" drafting paper.
Floppy disk drive: a medium capacity data storage device
that uses a removable disk.
Format: to prepare a disk to store electronic data.
FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation): a compiled computer language
designed for math intensive programing.
Function keys: keys with specific functions defined by the
program.
Hardcopy: any data printed or plotted onto paper.
Hardware: computer equipment.
Input: to enter commands or data into the computer's
memory.
K: multiplied by 1024 (64jc is equal to 64 times 1024 or
65,536) .
Layers: (also called levels) they are a way of grouping
objects on a drawing; each layer can be turned on or
off.
Light pen: a pen-like device which is touched against the
screen to indicate coordinates of a point.
LISP: a computer language in some versions of AutoCAD which
allow the user to create new commands.
Mainframe computer: large computer with mass storage
designed for corporate use.

71
Memory: location where the computer temporarily stores
programs and other electronic data before it is sent to
the CPU.
Menu: a list of command options displayed on the screen.
Microcomputer: a small, single-board computer with the CPU
located on a single chip.
Microprocessor: a computer chip that contains the CPU of a
computer.
Minicomputer: a medium-sized computer designed for large
businesses, the CPU is located in more than one chip.
Monitor: another name for a CRT.
Mouse: input device that is moved across a table to
specify position of crosshairs or a cursor.
Object: any line, arc, circle, or text on a drawing.
Origin (also called base): a reference point, usually in
the lower left-hand corner of the screen, whose
coordinate is 0,0.
Output: data displayed to the user on the CRT, printed on a
printing device, or sent to a plotter from the
computer.
Pen plotter: a device for creating a hardcopy of a drawing.
Peripheral device: any input or output device.
Polar coordinates: coordinate system defined by angle and
distance from a starting point.
Puck: a device commonly used with a digitizing tablet to
select coordinates.
RAM (Random Access Memory): memory in the computer where
the program and data are stored while the program is
running.
ROM (Read Only Memory): data stored on chips by the
manufacturer.
Rubber-banding: the process of stretching a temporary line
between two points to indicate the final
placement of a line.
Scale: a ratio between the original size of an object and
the drawn representation of that object.

72
Serial: common type of output procedure for transferring
data to and from peripheral devices.
Software: a computer program.
Stylus: pen-like output device used with a digitizing
tablet.
Toggle: the ON/OFF switching of a CAD function by the
repeated pressing of a key.
USA #829 (United Scenic Artist): union for theatrical
designers, New York local.
Window: a partial or whole view of the drawing area on a
monitor.
Winchester disk drive (also called a hard disk drive): a
high speed, high capacity data storage system.
Workstation: a computer and peripheral devices needed to
perform the tasks associated with a particular job.
Zoom: enlarging or decreasing the display image.

APPENDIX A
THE TUTORIAL
Introduction
This tutorial uses the Zenith Z-100 microcomputer to
teach AutoCAD. Using other computers with the tutorial
may be confusing at times since the keyboard arrangement
may be different and the function keys of other computers
may be assigned functions other than those on the Z-100.
It is assumed that the computer has been properly setup and
is ready for use. If not, consult your owner's manual for
instructions on setting up your computer.
Although prior computer experience is not required in
order to learn to use AutoCAD, a fundamental knowledge of
the computer and its parts is helpful. Most interaction
with the computer will be through the computer's keyboard
which is similar to that of a typewriter. However, the
computer's keyboard has several keys not found on a
typewriter with which you need to be familiar. Below is a
list of these keys and their functions. Find these keys on
your keyboard or on the drawing of the Z-100 keyboard in
Figure 1, and be familiar with their location and use.
73

74
CTRL: The CONTROLkey (abbreviated CTRL) is used in a
similar fashion as one normally uses the SHIFT key
on a typewriter. By holding down the CTRL key and
pressing another key, special commands are sent to
the computer.
F0--F12: These thirteen keys are function keys and are used
to send special commands to the computer. AutoCAD
uses many of these keys to allow you to change
some of the display characteristics of the
program.
D.CHR/I.CHR: (Delete Character/Insert Character) Used by
AutoCAD in the same way as a function key.
DEL LINE/INS LINE: (Delete Line/Insert Line) Used by
AutoCAD in the same way as a function key.
Specific function within AutoCAD of above keys:
Key Function
F0
none
FI
none
F2
none
F3
none
F4
none
F5 or
CTRL
D
Toggle
COORD
F6 or
CTRL
G
Toggle
GRID
F7 or
CTRL
0
Toggle
ORTHO
F8 or
CTRL
B
Toggle
SNAP
F9 or
CTRL
T
Toggle
TABLET
F10
Flip Screen
F11
Fast Crosshairs
F12
Slow Crosshairs
DEL LI
NE/II
SIS LINE
Menu Cursor
D CHAR/I CHAR
Abort i
Crosshairs
HOME:
Used
in AutoCAD
to display
crosshairs on
the screen.
ARROW
KEYS: (Located on
position crosshai
the keypad) Used
rs on the screen.
in AutoCAD to
ENTER: This key is a duplication of the RETURN key.

HOME
-
H
t
—
7
8
9
*
4
5
6
—
r \
•s
V
)
ENTER
1
2
3
V" ^
0
i
\
t i

/ O
If you make a mistake while typing in any command,
pressing the BACK SPACE key will back the cursor over text
that you have typed, erasing as it moves.
The second part of the computer with which you must
interact is the disk drive storage devices located on the
face of the Z-100 above the keyboard. Disk drives come in
two varieties, floppy disk drives and Winchester disk
drives. Winchester disk drives are also known as hard disk
drives. If your computer has a Winchester disk drive, it
will be located on the left hand-side of the face of the
computer and will be labeled as such. Hard disk drives are
approximately ten times faster than floppy disk drives and
can contain from 30 to 100 time more data. Because of
CAD's great memory requirements and the need for CAD
programs to read and write information to and from the
computer's disk drives, a hard disk drive makes working
with CAD faster.
If your computer does not have a hard disk drive, then
it must have two floppy disk drives in order to run
AutoCAD. Floppy disk drives use removable floppy disks.
These disks, which store much less data than non-removable
hard disks, can be removed from the computer and other
disks containing other programs or data put in their place.
When not in use by the computer, floppy disks should be
stored in a safe location. A diagram of a floppy disk is
shown in Figure 2.

Disk Inside Envelop
Write Protect Slo
Cardboard Envelop
Index/Sector Hole
Read/Write Acces
Slot
Figure 2. A floppy disk.
The read/write access slot exposes the shiny disk
within the stiff cover. Be very careful to never touch
this shiny disk. The floppy disk is placed in the disk
drive with the label up and the side nearest the
read/write access slot leading the way. Holding onto the
disk label will help to protect the disk when inserting it
into the disk drive.
Although microcomputers generally use one micro¬
processor for handling all mathematical calculations, math
co-processors are available for many microcomputers. These
co-processors can handle the mathematics involved in CAD,
relieving the main processor from this job. Math co¬
processors, such as the 8087 used in the Zenith Z-100,
speed up the mathematics involved in CAD and makes the CAD

program run from two to three times faster. These co¬
processors are optional and your computer may not have one.
If not, your local dealer will be able to give information
about them.
About the Tutorial
This tutorial is designed to lead you step-by-step
through many of the most commonly used drawing commands
provided by AutoCAD. AutoCAD is a sophisticated CAD
program, and it would be impractical for this text to
attempt to teach all of AutoCAD's commands and command
options. It is anticipated that, as you become familiar
with AutoCAD, you will discover new uses for the program
and experiment with many of the command options not covered
in the tutorial. The key to learning AutoCAD is to
practice. The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide can
provide in-depth information about all of AutoCAD1s
features. The tutorial is not a substitute for the user
guide. It is a guide book for teaching AutoCAD's commands
in a logical and progressive order.
Before you begin, you need to become familiar with
several terms and procedures used throughout the tutorial
which have special meanings.
]: The square brackets are used around a word,
letter, or special symbol to specify a
specific key on the keyboard, (i.e. [RETURN],
[Y] , or [F6 ] ).
[

"AutoCAD will prompt:": AutoCAD is asking you a question
and you must respond with an
answer.
"Enter": The bold printed character or characters which
appear after "Enter" are the desired response to
the prompt. You should type this response as
it appears and then press the [RETURN] key.
"Select": Place the crosshairs or cursor on the point or
menu item you desired and press the [RETURN] key.
Text which is indented in the tutorial is text that
will be displayed on the monitor at that time. This text
could be a prompt or information that AutoCAD is giving you
about its operation. Below is a tutorial for formatting a
floppy disk. It is written in the same fashion as the
lessons in the tutorial. Use the tutorial below to become
familiar with the style of this guidebook. If your
computer has two disk drives, you will need to format two
data disks on which you will save your drawings and a
system disk to use in configuring AutoCAD. If your
computer has a hard disk, only format the data disks, and
use them to save back-up copies of your drawings.
Formatting a Floppy Disk
When you purchase a new floppy disk, it is completely
blank. Before you can store information on that disk, you
must encode it with a system for storing the data. Think
of it as painting lines on a road to create lanes for the
traffic. Formatting sets up these lanes and a directory to
keep track of where it stores the data. Since all models
of computers do not store information on disks the same
way, you must format the disk for your computer.

Before you begin to format a disk, you need to know the
difference between a system disk and a data disk. When you
turn on your computer, the first thing it does is to read a
special program off the disk in the default drive (A for a
two drive system; or E for a computer with a hard disk
drive). This program is called the Disk Operating System
(DOS). DOS provides the computer with the information it
needs to perform most of its tasks, including how to format
a disk. DOS is stored in the computer's memory and is not
read again until the computer is turned off and back on or
unless you press the [RESET] key. Since DOS is read only
once, when you first turn on the computer, it is only
needed on disks that you might use to "boot the system,"
such as a program disk. These disks are often referred to
as system disks.
Some disks may contain data files produced by computer
programs and not the programs themselves. These disks are
called data disks and do not need to contain DOS, which
takes up space on the disk. The drawings you create with
AutoCAD will be stored as data files. Therefore, you need
to format a disk on which to store your drawings and it
does not need to contain DOS.
Begin by placing a system disk in your default drive. If
you have a hard disk, do nothing. Then, turn on the power
to your computer. The disk will whirl and the computer
will read DOS from the disk. When this is complete, the
computer will display the drive letter followed by the
greater than sign (>). This is the computer's way of
telling you that it is ready to begin.
To format a data disk, first enter FORMAT. The computer
will respond:
FORMAT version 2.19
Copyright (C) 1984, Zenith Data Systems Corporation
Drive to format?:
Enter B if you have a two disk drive system or A if you
have a hard disk drive. The computer will now respond:
Insert new disk in drive (A or B)
and press RETURN when ready.
Follow these instructions. The disk drive you specified
will now spin for about 35 seconds. The computer is now
formatting the disk. Next, the computer will prompt:
Enter desired volume label (11 characters) RETURN for none?

You now have the opportunity to encode your disk with a
volume label. This electronic label can be used to you to
identify the disk as yours or to identify the type of
information on the disk. You are limited to 11 characters
(spaces count as characters). "HALL DATA 1", "MY DISK
#1", and "ACAD Data" are all valid labels. Choose a name
that is meaningful and descriptive and enter it. The disk
will spin again, and the computer will display:
322560 bytes total disk space
322560 bytes available on disk.
Do you wish to format another disk (Y/N)?
You have just formatted your first disk. Remove your newly
formatted-data disk from the disk drive and place it back
into its paper envelope. With a felt tip pen, write the
volume name on one of the labels that came with your disks,
and place it in the upper right corner near the notch.
Never write on your disk with a hard writing device such as
a pencil or ball point pen that might damage the fragile
disk inside of the cover. Enter Y to format another disk
or enter N to exit this command. Your data disk are
important, because they will contain the results of your
work with AutoCAD. Treat them gently and protect then from
moisture, heat, and magnetic fields. Also, be careful
NEVER to touch the shiny disk that is inside the protective
cover.
To format a disk and place DOS on the disk at the same
time, enter FORMAT /S. This type of disk is called a
system disk. The process for formatting a system disk is
exactly the same as formatting a data disk. A system disk
can be used for booting your computer, whereas a data disk
cannot. If your computer has two floppy disk drives, you
will need to format at least one system disk.
Configuring AutoCAD and Peripheral Devices
Before you can begin using AutoCAD you should make
backup copies of all AutoCAD program disks and store the
originals in a safe location. Your Z-100 User's Manual
will tell you how to use the DISKCOPY command to accomplish
this task.

82
Next you must prepare AutoCAD to run on your computer.
If your computer has a Winchester disk drive, copy all of
your AutoCAD disks onto the hard disk drive. You can then
configure the copy of AutoCAD on this disk drive.
If you have two floppy disk drives, you must copy the
following files onto the system disk which had been
formatted earlier:
ACAD.EXE
ACAD.HLP
ACAD.HDX
ACAD.OVL
ACAD1.0VL
ACAD2.OVL
Other files such as text fonts, hatching patterns,
and library files should be added to this disk as you
become aware of your need for them. Label this disk
"AutoCAD Boot Disk."
If you have a plotter, a mouse, a digitizer tablet, or
a light pen, connect these devices to your computer. Use
The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide and the
instructions that came with your specific devices to
connect them to your computer. When you have completed
these tasks, boot AutoCAD by entering ACAD. If you have
two floppy disk drives in your computer, your "AutoCAD Boot
Disk" must be in disk drive A. The following menu should
appear on your monitor:

83
Main Menu
0. Exit AutoCAD
1. Begin a NEW drawing
2. Edit an EXISTING drawing
3. Plot a drawing
4. Configure AutoCAD
5. File utilities
6. Compile shape/font description file
7. Convert old drawing file
Enter Selection:
Enter 4 to configure AutoCAD. When you do the following
configuration menu will appear.
Configuration menu
0. Exit to Main Menu
1. Show current configuration
2. Allow I/O port configuration
3. Configure video display
4. Configure digitizer
5. Configure plotter
6. Configure system console
7. Configure operating parameters
Enter selection:
If you have a digitizer, mouse, or light pen, enter 4
as your selection and answer the queries to configure the
input device you have connected to the computer. If you
have a plotter, enter 5 as your selection and answer the
queries to configure the plotter. If you have none of
these devices, go to the next step.
Finally, you must enter 7 to configure the operating
parameters. When you do, the following menu will appear:

Operating parameters menu
0. Exit to configuration menu
1. Alarm on error
2. Initial drawing conditions
3. Drawing Editor menu
Enter selection:
Enter 3 to begin setting the initial drawing
conditions. AutoCAD will query you with prompts that you
may not understand. These prompts will become clear to you
as you learn to use AutoCAD's commands. Set the initial
drawing limits to 12"f9", the snap resolution to .25, and
the coordinate display format to 2 (Decimal). Now, select
0 in each menu to return to the Main Menu and save the new
configuration. You only configure AutoCAD once, unless you
decide to change the configuration.
If you have a plotter connected to your computer, you
can plot any of AutoCAD's sample drawings to paper. Below
are instructions for plotting a drawing. If you are not
ready to plot a drawing, you can return to these
instructions at any time during the course of the tutorial
to do so.
You are now ready to begin learning to use AutoCAD.
The following tutorial will help teach you many of
AutoCAD's commands and ways to use these commands for doing
theatrical drafting. Although CAD at first may be slower
than traditional methods of drafting, practice will result
in a better knowledge of the commands and increased CAD
speed. Turn to Lesson 1 and begin.

How to Plot a Drawing
AutoCAD can use many different plotters. In the example
below, a Houston Instruments' DMP-42 plotter is used.
Plotting a drawing can be accomplished within the Drawing
Editor by using the PLOT command or from the Main Menu by
selecting option #3. If you select this command from the
Main Menu, AutoCAD will ask you for the name of the drawing
to plot. If selected from the Drawing Editor, it will plot
the current drawing. Next, AutoCAD displays:
PLOT Drawing
Drawing color assignments:
Color
Line type
Pen speed
Color
Line type
Pen speed
1
0
16
9
0
16
2
0
16
10
0
16
3
0
16
11
0
16
4
0
16
12
0
16
5
0
16
13
0
16
6
0
16
14
0
16
7
0
16
15
0
16
8
0
16
Sizes are in
Inches
Plot origin is at (0.00,0.00)
Plot area is 34 wide by 21.5 high (MAX size)
Pen width is 0.010
Do you want to change anything? (Y/N)
Enter N. These specifications will rarely, if ever, need
to be changed. However, should you wish to change any of
them consult The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide for
directions.
Next, AutoCAD will prompt:
Position paper in plotter.
Press RETURN when ready.
First, turn ON the power to the plotter. When you do, the
plotter's roller will rotate one direction and then the
other. When it stops, position your paper in your plotter,
aligning it with the front edge of the plotter. Next,
you must inform the plotter of the size of the paper you
are using by pressing the [SMALL] button if your paper size

8b
is 18 x 24 inches, or by pressing the [LARGE] button if
your paper size is 24 x 36 inches. When the button is
pressed, a small red indicator light will come ON, and the
paper will be rolled through the plotter and back to its
original position. Next, you must set the communication
rate between the computer and the plotter. This is done by
first pressing the [ENTER] button on the plotter. When you
do, an indicator light will come on. Then press the "up
arrow" button on the plotter. The [ENTER] indicator light
will then go OFF. Finally, place the pen in the pen holder
of the plotter. Once you have completed these steps, press
the [RETURN] key on the computer. The paper will be rolled
into position for plotting, and AutoCAD will then prompt:
Scale (N, 1:N, RETURN, or "V") :
Since you created your drawing in "full scale," AutoCAD
must be told a scale in which to plot on the paper.
AutoCAD gives you four different ways to specify the scale
of the drawing. Use Appendix B to translate the scale in
which you want your drawing plotted into AutoCAD's scaling
system. Enter this scaling factor. (If you want the
drawing plotted in 1/4" = l'-0" scale, you would enter
1:48). AutoCAD will inform you of the effective plotting
size of your drawing, and the plotter will be start
producing the drawing.
When the plotter has completed the drawing, AutoCAD will
prompt:
Press RETURN to continue.
Press the [RETURN] and AutoCAD will return you to the Main
Menu or to the Drawing editor.
Pen plotters require very little maintenance. The
plotter's pens should be kept capped when not in use to
prevent the ink from drying out and clogging the pen.
Different types of pens in different line widths are
available for most plotters. You should also cover the
plotter to help keep it clean.

THE LESSONS
LESSON 1—Creating a Drawing: HELP, *CANCEL*, QUIT, END
When you run AutoCAD it displays its MAIN MENU. This menu
gives you
eight choices.
Main Menu
0.
Exit AutoCAD
1 1.
Begin a NEW drawing
2.
Edit an EXISTING drawing
3.
Plot a drawing
4.
Configure AutoCAD
5.
File Utilities
6.
Compile shape/font description file
7.
Convert old drawing file
Enter
selection:
This less
on will teach you how to create a drawing
using
AutoCAD's
drawing editor. The drawing editor allows
you to
create and edit drawings. Choices 1 and 2 will take you to
the drawing editor, but they serve different purposes.
Enter 1 at the prompt and "Begin a NEW Drawing." AutoCAD
will now ask you for the name of your drawing. The
following rules govern the name of a drawing.
1. Names must be between 1 and 8 characters long.
2. Only letters A-Z, numbers 0-9, and the special
characters (dollar), "-" (hyphen), and
(underscore) are allowed.
3. AutoCAD converts all lower case letters to upper case
letters ( "a" is the same as "A").
4. Blank spaces are not allowed.
VALID NAMES INVALID NAMES
BOB BOB*R (illegal character)
house RESTAURANT (name too long)
DRAWING1 DRAWING 1 (blank space)
Besides the name of the drawing, you may indicate on which
disk drive you wish the drawing to be saved. You do this by
the drive's designation letter, followed by a colon (:),
and then the name of the drawing. If no drive is
indicated, the drive currently in use is the one selected.
If the Z-100 you are using has two floppy disk drives, they
will be designated as A and' B. A Winchester (hard-disk)
drive is designated as the E drive. Most computers with a
hard disk drive have only one floppy disk drive.

88
Place a formatted disk in the floppy drive you want to use,
and type the indication letter for that drive, a colon, and
then the drawing name LESS0N1. If you want your drawing
saved on drive A, then you would enter A:LESSONl, and press
RETURN. AutoCAD has now created a drawing file called
LES SON1 on the disk in the A drive and now displays the
drawing editor screen.
The Drawing Editor
The drawing editor screen is divided into five areas.
L»»»r 2 Fill
Ccruntndt
.©
j.*eer ROOT
MENU
BLOCK 5
DIM:
C[3PLay
ORAM
EDIT
HATC H:
IHCUITV
LAY EF l
MOOES
PLOT:
UTILITY
1. Drawing display area
2. Status line
3. Coordinate display
4. Menu area
5. Command line
The drawing display area (1) is the area in which your
drawing will appear as you create or edit it. The status
line (2) indicates the current layer on which you are
drawing and any drawing aids which are turned on. Layer 0
is the layer AutoCAD begins with when you create a new
drawing, and the "Fill" aid is presently on. AutoCAD's
drawing aids will be covered in subsequent lessons. The
coordinate display (3) is next to the status line. It
should read "0.000,0.000." This feature will be explained
fully in the next lesson. First, you will learn how to
issue AutoCAD commands.

AutoCAD gives you several methods of issuing commands, but
two will be dealt with in this lesson. The first method
allows you to select the command you want from one of
several menus which AutoCAD displays in the menu area (4)
on the right-hand side of the screen. The first menu is
called the "ROOT MENU" and it is used to select other
menus. A breakdown of the menus appears in Appendix E. In
order to select an item from this menu, first press the
[DEL LIN] key. When you do, the word ROOT becomes
highlighted. This is AutoCAD's way of indicating that this
item is ready to be selected. In order to position the
highlighter on the item you want to select, use the up
arrow and down arrow keys on the keypad. Practice moving
the highlighter up and down with the arrow keys. Notice
that the highlighter will "wrap around" when it reaches
the top or bottom of the screen.
Place the highlighter on the word UTILITY and press
[RETURN], [SPACE] or [ENTER]. All three of these keys will
tell AutoCAD to accept the item indicated by the
highlighter. AutoCAD then replaces its ROOT MENU with the
UTILITY menu. When this happens, notice the last two
choices on this menu. "Last Menu" returns you to the menu
before the present one. Sometimes the menus can get three
or four levels deep. You are presently on the second
level, so the last menu was the ROOT MENU. Choosing "ROOT
MENU" will always return you to the root menu, no matter
what menu you are presently using. Now, go one level
deeper by moving the highlighter to the word "RENAME", and
selecting this command. When you do, AutoCAD will replace
the UTILITY menu with the RENAME menu, and it will begin
executing the RENAME command. Notice the word RENAME on
the command line near the bottom of the screen, followed by
a prompt for more information needed to execute the command
on the next line. Sometimes you may select a command and
then realize that this was the wrong command. When this
happens, as it now has, move the highlighter with the arrow
keys to the word CANCEL and select this command. CANCEL
will get you out of the command that you have started. You
still have the RENAME menu displayed, so select "LAST MENU"
to return you to the UTILITY menu.
AutoCAD has a command that can help you before you enter a
wrong command. It is called HELP. Select HELP from the
menu at this time. HELP does not have a sub-menu; instead,
you must enter your response at the keyboard. AutoCAD
prompts :
Command name (RETURN for list):
The HELP command can give you information about any of
AutoCAD's commands or list all available commands in case
you cannot remember the name of the command you need.

y yj
Right now, enter RENAME to find out what this command does.
Enter means to type in the command name, followed by
hitting the [RETURN] key. The [BACKSPACE] key allows you
to delete the last character you typed to correct typing
mistakes. When you press
drawing editor screen and
screen. This screen, of
bottom two lines, only
AutoCAD
[RETURN], AutoCAD will remove the
replace it with the command line
which you normally see only the
displays text. This is where
will write information about the command you have
specified. The HELP command will also tell you in which
section of the User Guide to find more information on that
command. Once you have read this information, you can flip
back to the drawing editor screen by pressing the [F10]
key.
Of course, you can enter AutoCAD's commands directly at the
keyboard instead of selecting them from one of the menus.
Enter HELP. AutoCAD will again prompt with:
Command name (RETURN for list):
This time only press [RETURN]. Now AutoCAD will list all
of its commands. Again, press [F10] and AutoCAD will
return to the drawing editor screen. If you misspell a
command name, AutoCAD will respond with:
Unknown command, type ? for list of commands.
The question mark (?) is the abbreviation for HELP.
Remember to correct any misspellings by using the
[BACKSPACE] key to delete typing errors before pressing
[RETURN].
One AutoCAD command is entered differently on the keyboard
than it appears on the menu. This is the *CANCEL* command.
This command appears on the menu as CANCEL. To cancel a
command at the keyboard, hold down the [CONTROL] key on the
left side of the keyboard (and often abbreviated as CTRL),
and press the letter [C] key once. Then release the
[CONTROL] key. AutoCAD will then prompt you that it has
canceled the command in progress.
The next thing you will learn in this lesson is how to exit
the drawing editor and return to the main menu when you
have finished editing a drawing. To exit the drawing
editor and have AutoCAD save your drawing on the disk drive
you specified when you began the drawing, enter END. If
you do not want to save this drawing on a disk, enter QUIT.
If you enter QUIT, AutoCAD will ask you:
Really want to discard all changes to drawing?

This is AutoCAD1s way of checking before it destroys this
drawing. Type Y for YES if you are sure that you do not
want this drawing saved. Since you did not create a
drawing in this lesson, enter QUIT and Y to end the drawing
and return to the main menu. At the end of each lesson you
will have the option to exit the drawing by using END or
QUIT. In most cases, you will want to use the END command
and save your drawing on your drawing disk. Some of the
drawings you create in one exercise will be needed later in
other exercises. Only use the QUIT command if you are sure
that you do not want to save the drawing.
The Final Step
If you are using a computer with a hard-disk drive, take
the following steps to protect your equipment before
turning it off.
1. Exit AutoCAD
2. Enter SHIP
3. Enter 0 (zero)
Finally, turn off your computer.

92
LESSON 2—AutoCAD's Coordinate System: SNAP, POINT, REDRAW
In this lesson you will learn how AutoCAD keeps track of
points on the screen, how to move to any point on the
screen, and how to draw points on the screen.
Run AutoCAD and create a new drawing called LESSON2. Do not
forget to put the drive prefix and colon in front of the
drawing name and to have your drawing disk in the drive you
select.
The Coordinate System
AutoCAD uses a coordinate system called Cartesian
coordinates. This system has an X axis, and a Y axis. The
cartesian grid can be divided into four quadrants.
Locations on the grid are represented by first giving the X
coordinate, and then the Y coordinate. Point 2,3 is two
units to the right and three units up (point 0,0 is the
reference point). Point -4,-2.5 is four units to the left
and two and a half units down. It is easiest to think of
computer graphics occupying only Quadrant I, although they
can use any or all quadrants. If only Quadrant I is used,
point 0,0 would be in the lower left corner, and all
coordinates would be positive numbers. Now, press the [F5]
key. This turns on the coordinate display at the top of the
screen, and the message "" will appear on the
command line. When the crosshairs (coordinate markers) are

93
displayed, the coordinates will also be displayed. Press
the [HOME] key. This will turn on the crosshairs. The
crosshairs are indicating the point in the lower left
corner of the display area, and the coordinate 0.000,0.000
is given in the coordinate display. The [D CHR, I CHR]
key can be used to turn off the crosshairs.
To move the crosshairs, hold down the right arrow key. The
crosshairs will move to the right as long as you hold down
the key. Watch the X coordinate in the coordinate display
change as the crosshairs move. Now, hold down the up arrow
key. The crosshairs will move up, and the Y coordinate in
the display will now change. This display is very helpful
in indicating where the crosshairs are positioned.
Each time you press an arrow key, the crosshairs move a
very precise distance. This distance is called the SNAP
resolution or SNAP value and is defined as the smallest
distance between two points. The easiest way to turn on
the SNAP feature is to press the [F8] key once. A message
will appear on the command line, and the word SNAP will be
displayed on the status line at the top of the screen.
SNAP can be "toggled" off by pressing the [F8] key again.
For this lesson, you will want to leave on the SNAP
feature.
Move the crosshairs to the point 1.000,1.000. Next, press
the right arrow key once. The crosshairs will move, and
the coordinate display should change to 1.250, 1.000. The
SNAP value is presently set to .25. Now, press the Fll key
ojnce and press the right arrow key again. The crosshairs
should have jumped across the screen. Look at the
coordinate display. It should read 3.750,1.000. The
crosshairs moved 2.5 units to the right, or 10 times the
SNAP value. The SNAP value is still .25; however, the [Fll]
key multiplies the SNAP value to move the crosshairs
faster. By pressing the [F12] key, you can return to the
original SNAP value. Practice using these keys to move the
crosshairs around the screen before continuing.
You can also change the SNAP value. Enter SNAP. AutoCAD
will prompt:
Command:SNAP On/Off/Value/Aspeet/Rotate/Style:
Enter 1. This will set the SNAP value to 1 unit. Now use
the arrow keys to move the crosshairs around the drawing
area. Enter SNAP again (or just press the [RETURN] key or
the [SPACEBAR]). This time set the value to .1, and see
how this affects the movement of the crosshairs. Don't
forget to try the [Fll] and [F12] keys as well. Because
AutoCAD can keep track of SNAP values down to .00000001, it
is a very accurate drafting tool.

Zf *1
Making Your Point
Enter the command POINT. The prompt should be:
Point:
Move your crosshairs to the point 2.000,2.000 and press the
[RETURN] key. AutoCAD will place a "blip" (a small "plus
sign") on the screen where your crosshairs are positioned
and will remove the crosshairs. Enter POINT again, move
your crosshairs to the point 3.000,1.000, and press the
[RETURN] key. AutoCAD will now put a blip on the screen at
this location. You can mark points anywhere on the screen
by moving the crosshairs to that point and using a command
to mark that position.
You can also mark a point by giving its coordinates at the
keyboard. Enter POINT again. This time enter 3,3 at the
keyboard to the prompt, and AutoCAD will place another
blip on the screen. Move your crosshairs to the blip and
read its position on the coordinate display at the top of
the screen. The blip is at the position 3.000,3.000,
exactly where you told AutoCAD to put it. Enter SNAP again,
but this time enter @1,1 as the point. The blip did not
appear at point 1.000,1.000. Instead, it appeared at point
4.000,4.000. This is because the symbol tells AutoCAD
that you want this point put in relationship to the last
point you marked instead of point 0,0. This point is
placed one unit to the right and then one unit up from your
last point (which was at point 3.000,3.000). Now try
another one, but try to figure where the blip will appear
before you press the [RETURN]. Keep plotting different
points until you understand their relationship.
Cleaning Up the Screen
Blips are AutoCAD's way of marking an end point. Actually
you have been placing points on the screen, but the blips
keep you from seeing them. AutoCAD has a command that will
remove these blips. Enter REDRAW. As soon as you press
the [RETURN] key, AutoCAD will redraw your drawing without
the blips. You should be able to see the points you have
drawn. This command is very helpful when you have drawn a
great deal and have too many blips cluttering up your
drawing.
Experiment with the commands you have learned in this
lesson until you feel competent using them. Remember that
computer-aided drafting takes practice. Exit the drawing by
entering QUIT and Y; you do not need to save this drawing.

95
Then enter 0 to exit AutoCAD. Finally, enter SHIP,
and turn off the computer.
then 0,

96
LESSON 3—Drawing and Erasing Lines: LINE, ERASE, Close,
Undo, OOPS
Run AutoCAD and create the new drawing LES SON 3 on your
drawing disk. Turn on the coordinate display, [F5], then
turn on SNAP, [F8], In this lesson you should enter all of
your commands at the keyboard instead of selecting them
from the menus. In later lessons you will use the menus
more.
Drawing Lines
The LINE command is the first command you will learn in
this lesson. Once you are in the drawing editor, enter HELP
or ? to activate the HELP command, and then enter LINE at
the prompt in order to find out more about the LINE
command. Read carefully about the format of this command.
When you have finished, press the [F10] key to return to
the drawing editor screen.
Enter LINE. AutoCAD wants to know where you want to start,
so it prompts:
From point:
Enter 2,2 at the keyboard, and AutoCAD will put a blip at
that point on the screen. Remember that the coordinate
display does not function when you enter coordinates at the
keyboard. AutoCAD then wants to know the other end point
of this line, so it prompts:
To point:
Now enter 4,2. AutoCAD will mark that point with a blip
and then draw a line from 2,2 to 4,2. You are still in the
LINE command, and AutoCAD is waiting for you to tell it
what point to draw a line next, so it again prompts:
To point:
Enter 4,8 and AutoCAD will mark that point and draw a line
from the previous point you selected 4,2 to point 4,8. And
again, AutoCAD is waiting for you to tell it the next point
to which to draw a line.
In Lesson 2, you learned that you could select points by
using the crosshairs. Press the [HOME] key to display the
crosshairs. When you do, AutoCAD will automatically draw a
line from the last point you selected to the intersection
of the crosshairs. Don't worry if it does not look as you

97
expected. Move the crosshairs to another spot on the
screen. As the crosshairs move, so does the line
connecting them with the last point, 4,8. This line is
called a "rubber-band line" and shows you what your line
would look like if drawn at that point. Also, be aware
that if part of the crosshairs, rubber-band line, and/or
any drawn lines overlap, AutoCAD will cause these lines to
become temporarily invisible. This does not affect the
drawing. When the crosshairs are moved from on top of the
line(s) they are covering, the invisible lines will
return. As you move the crosshairs, look at the coordinate
display. When you draw a line using the crosshairs to
establish the ending point, AutoCAD displays the length of
the line and the angle of the line separated by the "<"
symbol. The following diagrams show how AutoCAD computes
angles.
90 -270
These angles can be expressed as either positive or
negative numbers, although AutoCAD1s default is positive.
This type of coordinates is referred to as -"polar
coordinates."
Once you get the crosshairs to the point where you wish the
next line to be drawn, press [RETURN]. AutoCAD will mark
this point, draw the line, turn off the crosshairs, and
prompt for the next point.
If you do not like the line you have just drawn, AutoCAD
will allow you to correct it without exiting the LINE
command. Respond to the prompt for the next point with U.
It stands for "Undo" and will tell AutoCAD to erase the
last line you drew. Part of the blip may still remain,
however. AutoCAD will then prompt for the next point.

98
Now, draw your next line by specifying the length and angle
of the line. Enter @2<180. A line two units long will be
drawn from your last specified point (4,8) at an 180 degree
angle. Remember the "@" symbol means "from the last
point." It is followed by the length of the line, the "<"
symbol - which means "at an angle of," and the angle in
degrees. To draw the last line back to the original
starting point could be done by entering the coordinates of
the starting point (if you remembered them), or by using
the crosshairs, but, AutoCAD does provide an easier way.
Enter C as your response to the prompt for the next point,
and AutoCAD will close your lines into a polygon. The
Close option always draws a line back to the point with
which you started when you began the present LINE command.
Of course, you can get rid of all blips by using the REDRAW
command.
Another helpful feature of the LINE command allows you to
start a new line at the point you ended the last line. To
do this, first enter LINE, and at the prompt:
From point:
Press [RETURN], This selects the last point of the last
line as the first point of this line. AutoCAD will now
prompt for the next point. Draw more lines. Practice
drawing lines at different angles and using the Undo and
Close options.
Erasing Lines
In an earlier lesson, you used Undo to erase a line;
however, Undo is an option of the LINE command and not a
command itself and can only be used while you are executing
the LINE command. Also, Undo can only erase the last line
drawn.. A more versatile command for erasing lines is the
ERASE command. To erase a line or group of line.s in a
drawing, enter ERASE. AutoCAD will prompt:
ERASE Select objects or Window or Last:
AutoCAD gives you three ways to erase the line or lines.
In most cases, AutoCAD considers each line a separate
object. In later lessons you will learn when this will not
be the case. To erase the last line you drew, enter L as
your response to the prompt. AutoCAD will erase the last
line you drew, just like the Undo option did earlier, and
then prompt for the next command. If you want to erase
several lines, you can select the lines you want to erase
with the crosshairs. Enter ERASE and then move the
crosshairs to any point on any line you wish to erase (do

99
not place crosshairs on an intersection of two or more
lines because AutoCAD will not be able to determine which
line you wish to select), and press [RETURN], AutoCAD will
put a blip on the line and turn off the crosshairs. It
will not erase the line or end the command. Instead, it
wants you to select another line to erase. Now, move your
crosshairs to another line and press [RETURN] again. A
blip will be placed on this line and the crosshairs turned
off. Continue this process until you have selected all the
lines you wish to erase. To get AutoCAD to erase all the
lines you have selected, simply press the [RETURN] key once
more. AutoCAD will erase the lines and display a message
telling the number of selections you made and the number of
objects AutoCAD found.
This is an- efficient way to erase a few scattered lines,
but what if you want to erase a large area with many lines?
To do this the Window option works best. Enter ERASE
again. This time enter W as your response to the prompt.
In this option,you place a "rubber-band window" around the
objects to be erased. Remember, any object that is not
completely within the window will not be erased. Now, move
the crosshairs to the lower-left corner of what will be the
window and press [RETURN]. AutoCAD will place a blip
there. Then use the arrow keys to create your window.
First, move up until the height is correct, and then move
to the right to create a window. Use the arrow keys to
adjust the size of the window until it contains all of the
lines you wish to erase. Then press [RETURN]. AutoCAD
will erase all of the lines that are completely within the
window and tell you how many objects it found. Use the
REDRAW command to clean-up the unwanted blips.
Practice drawing and erasing lines until you feel
comfortable with these commands.
Exercises
EX3 — 1
EX3 — 2
Draw a diamond within a square.
Draw an American flag. Use points for stars.

100
LESSON 4—Drawing Circles and Arcs: CIRCLE, ARC
Not all objects can be drawn with straight lines. Some
have curves. In this lesson you will learn to create arcs
and circles.
Run AutoCAD and create a new drawing called LESSON4. Be
sure to precede the name of the drawing with the letter
indicating on which drive you want to save your drawing,
and to have a formatted disk in that drive. Then, turn the
coordinate display and the SNAP feature on, [F8] AND [F5].
Circles
A circle is a ring of points an equal distance from a
center point. The distance from the center point to any
point on the circle is called the radius and the diameter
of the circle is two times the radius. Therefore, if a
circle has a radius of 1 unit, the diameter will be 2
units. When you create a circle with AutoCAD, you will
have to define the size of the circle by specifying either
its radius or its diameter. In this lesson, once again you
will enter all of your commands by typing the commands in
at the keyboard.
Enter CIRCLE. AutoCAD will return the prompt:
CIRCLE Center point (or 3P or 2P):
AutoCAD gives you three ways to draw circles.
1. Select the center point and then specify either the
radius or the diameter.
2. Select any three points on the circle, and AutoCAD
willthen calculate the center point and draw the
circle.
3. Select two points. AutoCAD will place the center
point between the two points you select and draw
the circle.
When AutoCAD gives you more than one choice, the first
choice is the default choice (what AutoCAD expects, unless
you indicate otherwise). Sometimes these other choices
will be placed in parentheses "()" to set them off. To
select a center point, use your crosshairs to move to a
point near the center of your screen that you want to be
the center point of your circle and press [RETURN].
AutoCAD will put a blip there, and this will be the center
point of your circle. AutoCAD will then display the prompt:

101
Center point (or 3P or 2P) : Radius (or D) :
AutoCAD wants to know if you want to specify the radius or
the diameter of the circle. If you just input a number,
AutoCAD will assume that this number represents the radius.
Otherwise, you should enter D, and and AutoCAD will ask for
the diameter. Enter 1 to this prompt. AutoCAD will draw
a circle around the center point you specified at a radius
of 1 unit. Enter CIRCLE again. Specify the same center
point as the last time. Then select a diameter of 4 units.
Remember to enter D to specify diameter and then 4 to
specify the size. There is one more way to specify the size
of the circle using this option. Enter CIRCLE again.
Choose the same center point, but this time enter DRAG as
your response to the prompt for the radius. Now, using any
arrow key move your crosshairs. As you move the crosshairs,
AutoCAD will drag the radius of the circle. Drawing
circles takes a lot of calculations, so this process may
seem slow. The radius of the circle will be displayed in
the coordinate display at the top of the screen. When you
get the circle to the size you want it, press [RETURN] and
AutoCAD will draw the circle and prompt for your next
command. Make a few more circles using this method. Then,
use the ERASE and REDRAW commands to erase the entire
screen, just as you did in Lesson 3, before continuing.
Enter CIRCLE, again. This time, enter 3P as your response
to the prompt. AutoCAD will prompt:
First point:
Use your crosshairs to select any point on the screen.
AutoCAD will mark this point and prompt:
Second point:
Select another point with your crosshairs, and AutoCAD will
mark it and prompt:
Third point:
When you select this third point, AutoCAD will compute the
center point and the radius, and then draw the circle.
Start drawing another circle using this same method, except
type DRAG instead of selecting a third point. Now you can
use the arrow keys to drag the third point and change the
size and position of the circle. When you get the circle as
you want it, press [RETURN] to finalize the command.
Again, experiment with this method of drawing circles
before erasing the screen and starting on the last method.

102
This time, enter CIRCLE, and then enter 2P as your
response to the first prompt. AutoCAD will then prompt:
First point on diameter:
Select any point using your crosshairs. AutoCAD will then
prompt:
Second point on diameter:
Now, you can either select your second point with your
crosshairs, or you can enter DRAG and drag your second
point. By now you should be beginning to understand how
this command works, so experiment with this method of
drawing circles. When you have mastered drawing circles,
erase the screen and proceed with the next section.
Arcs
An arc is defined by a starting point, an ending point, and
a center point. When AutoCAD draws an arc it will always
"swing" the arc in a counterclockwise direction from the
starting point to the ending point. This is important to
remember, in order to produce the arc that you desire.
This lesson will cover the most frequently used methods
that AutoCAD gives you to defining an arc, this lesson will
only cover a few. You are encouraged to experiment will all
of the options and find the ones which work best for you.
Enter ARC. AutoCAD will respond with the prompt:
Start point or C:
Since "Start point" is the first option, it is the default.
Select a point near the center of the screen that you would
like to be the starting point for your arc. AutoCAD will
mark that point and respond with the prompt:
Second point or C or E:
To select an end point, enter E as your response since this
is not the default option. AutoCAD now prompts you for the
End point. Select a point to the right of the starting
point. AutoCAD now needs to know the center point, but it
allows you to enter that point in anyone of four different
ways: selecting the center point with the crosshairs or
specifying the coordinates, giving the radius of the arc,
specifying the included angle of the arc, or specifying the
diameter of the arc. AutoCAD's prompt is:
Center point or R or A or D:

10J
Select a center point. With the crosshairs, select a point
somewhere below the two points already selected. If the
point you select as the center point is not the same
distance from both the starting point and the ending point,
your arc will not end at the ending point you specified.
AutoCAD computes the radius of the arc by using the
starting point and the center point. When it tries to draw
the arc using this radius, it ends the arc as close to the
ending point is it could. Notice how AutoCAD draws the arc
in a counterclockwise direction. AutoCAD will always draw
arcs in this direction.
Try to draw another arc. Earlier you drew a circle by
specifying three points on the circle, option 3P. You can
do the same with an arc. Enter the ARC command again and
select a starting point. Next, select a second point.
This point will be a point that will lie somewhere on the
arc but will not be an end point. Choose one above your
starting point and to the left. Last, select the ending
point, one further to the left and below the starting
point. AutoCAD will compute the center point and draw the
arc. Draw another arc using this same method, except enter
DRAG before selecting the ending point.
These are two of the most common ways of drawing an arc,
although Ajj_toCAD provides several other options.
Experiment with these different options. As you experiment,
remember that it is possible to give AutoCAD specifications
for an arc which is impossible to draw. In these cases,
AutoCAD will do its best to draw what you have specified,
but it may not be able to create this exact arc.
Finally, press the [DEL LINE] key to turn on the menu
highlighter. Select DRAW from this menu and ARC from the
next menu. Draw some arcs, choosing your options from the
menu. When you fully understand these commands, return to
the ROOT MENU and exit the drawing.
Exercises
EX4--1 Draw a "Smiley face."
EX4—2 Draw a puffy cloud.
EX4—3 Draw a simple car or truck.

104
LESSON 5—Drawing Aids; BREAK, ZOOM, PAN
In Lesson 3, you learned how to draw and erase lines.
However, if you drew a line that is too long, you had to
erase the entire line and draw another line the correct
length. In this lesson you will begin by learning the
command AutoCAD uses to erase part of a line, the BREAK
command. The second command you will learn in this lesson
is the ZOOM command. It allows you to magnify your drawing
so you can do very detailed work. This command is very
involved and this lesson will not cover all of the options
within the command. As you learn more about AutoCAD, you
can begin to experiment with these options. Finally, you
will learn how to use the PAN command. This command will
help you bring items into view when you are zoomed in on
part of a drawing.
Run AutoCAD and begin a new drawing called LESSON5. Then
turn on SNAP and the coordinate display.
Erasing Only Part of a Line
Draw a line from 2,2 to 8,2. Then press the [RETURN] key
once more to get you out of the LINE command. Suppose you
now decide that this line is too long. The BREAK command
allows you to erase the unwanted part of the line. Enter
BREAK. AutoCAD will prompt with:
Select object:
Move your crosshairs to point 2,6 and select that point.
AutoCAD will mark that point and then respond with:
Enter second point or F:
Move your crosshairs to point 8,2 and select that as your
second point. AutoCAD will mark that point and erase the
line between the two blips. Now enter OOPS. AutoCAD will
respond with "*Invalid*". That is because you cannot use
OOPS to recover a line you erase with the BREAK command as
you can with the ERASE command. Once you erase a line with
the BREAK command, the only way to get it back is to draw
it again.
Enter BREAK again, and select point 4,2 as your response to
the first prompt. Now, when AutoCAD asks you for the
second point, move your crosshairs to point 8,2 and press
[RETURN]. AutoCAD does not require that this second point
be on the line. It erases the line you selected in the
direction you selected.

105
Enter BREAK once more, and select point 3,2
again put a blip at the point you select and
AutoCAD will
respond with:
Enter second point or F:
This time enter F. This tells AutoCAD that the first point
you selected on the line only selects the object that you
want broken, not a point on the object to begin the break.
Now AutoCAD prompts:
Enter first point:
AutoCAD wants to know from which point you want to start
erasing. Select any point on the remaining line. AutoCAD
then prompts:
Enter second point:
Select the point to which you want AutoCAD to erase.
AutoCAD will then break the line you selected from the
point you selected as your first point to the point you
selected as your second point.
Draw several circles and arcs, and
erase parts of each. AutoCAD
counterclockwise direction, in the
use the BREAK command to
breaks circles in a
same way it draws arcs.
Practice using the BREAK command until you feel confident
with the command. When you feel that you have mastered it,
you are ready to move to the next section. DO NOT ERASE
THE SCREEN. You will need some lines on the screen to work
with in the next section, so leave many short lines and
arcs.
Taking a Closer Look
Enter ? to activate the HELP command and then enter ZOOM to
take a close look at the ZOOM command. When you enter the
ZOOM command, the prompt is:
Magnification or type (ACELPW):
This lesson will explain four of these options: A, C, P,
and W.
A—All
C—Center
P—Previous
W--Window

106
Read the information on the ZOOM command, and then press
the [F10] key to return to the drawing editor display. The
screen now displays the entire drawing area, but you can
use the ZOOM command to focus on only part of this area.
Enter ZOOM, and the ZOOM prompt will be displayed. Now,
enter W in response. AutoCAD will then prompt:
First point:
In Lesson 3 you used the Window option to select a group of
lines you wanted erased. The Window option in this command
works much the same way, except the area you select will
become the new area displayed. Use your crosshairs to
select any point on your screen. AutoCAD will then prompt:
Second point:
Move your crosshairs to create a window as before. This
window should include a couple of the lines you created
earlier. When you have the window as you want it, press
[RETURN]. AutoCAD will clear the display area and then
redraw the area, zooming in on the window you selected.
You can now use any of AutoCAD1s other commands to edit
your drawing at this increased magnification. You can look
even closer at this part of your drawing. Enter ZOOM
again, and use your crosshairs to window in on part of the
area now displayed. Once you have completed this second
windowing, use the arrow key to move the crosshairs around.
As you do, notice how far they seem to move each time you
press an arrow key. This distance is still .25 units. You
are just seeing it in greater detail.
You can easily return the screen display to the view you
had before you did the last ZOOM. Since that was your
previous view, enter ZOOM and enter P to the prompt.
AutoCAD will clear the screen display and redraw the
previous display. This feature makes it easy to jump back
and forth between two views of a drawing.
Of course, AutoCAD will let you fine tune a view once you
are in it. Find a line in this view on which you wish to
concentrate. Enter ZOOM again, and enter C at the prompt.
AutoCAD will respond with:
Center point:
Use your crosshairs to point to the center of the line on
which you wish to concentrate or the center point if the
line is an arc, and press RETURN. AutoCAD will respond
with:
Magnification or Height :

107
This represents the height of the area to be
displayed. AutoCAD allows you to change it, but for now
just press [RETURN] to accept the present height. AutoCAD
will then redraw the view, moving the point you selected to
the center of the screen display. This is one way of
providing more room to add to an existing line.
But what if you want to see the entire drawing? Enter ZOOM
again, and enter A to the prompt. The "A" stands for "all"
and will cause AutoCAD to display all of the drawing.
Getting a Better View
PAN is another command for getting a better view of an
object that is only partially visible within the windowed
area. Use the ZOOM command to zoom in to an area of your
drawing. When this is complete, enter PAN. AutoCAD will
then prompt:
Displacement:
Move your crosshairs to a point on one of the lines on the
perimeter of the drawing display area, and select it.
AutoCAD will then prompt:
Second point:
Now move your crosshairs a point near the center of the
screen area and select this point. When you do, AutoCAD
will move your window so the first point you selected is
moved to the second point you selected. The size of the
window will not change. This command allows you to move
your window around your drawing without zooming out and
then zooming back in.
Practice "zooming in," panning, breaking lines, arcs, and
circles, and "zooming out." When you feel that you have
mastered these commands, exit the drawing.
Exercises
EX5--1 Draw a snowman with a top hat and necktie.
EX5--2 Add details to your car or truck, EX4--3.

108
LESSON 6—Measurements: UNITS, LIMITS, STATUS
In earlier lessons you measured the drawing display area
in units. Each unit could have represented any measurement
of distance: an inch, a foot, or a mile. In the theatre,
most drawings are scaled in feet and inches or what is
referred to as architectural units. The type of
measurement you have been using in your lessons is referred
to as decimal units, because each unit was broken down in a
decimal fashion. It would be easier to do theatrical
drafting if AutoCAD could keep measurements in feet and
inches. This lesson will demonstrate how AutoCAD can do
this. Run AutoCAD and create the drawing LESS0N6. Turn on
the coordinate display and SNAP.
Drawing in Feet and Inches
Enter the command UNITS. AutoCAD will display the
four unit systems that it can use and ask for your choice.
System of units:
1. Scientific
2. Decimal
3. Engineering
4. Architectural
Enter choice 1 to 4 <2>:
Enter 4 to choose the architectural unit system. The next
three questions AutoCAD asks refer to the way AutoCAD will
display the architectural units. Answer these questions:
8, N, 0, respectively. When the "Command" prompt appears,
use the [ F10 ] key to flip back to the drawing editor
display screen.
Now, look at the coordinate display. The X and Y
coordinates are each represented in the architectural unit
style, 0'-0". Move your crosshairs around the display area
to get an idea of how big an area you are displaying. It
is important to realize one of the basic differences
between standard drafting and computer-aided drafting: in
computer-aided drafting, you draw in full scale, and the
computer scales your drawing for the screen display or for
the size of the paper on which your drawing will be
plotted. As AutoCAD is now set up, the largest object you
can draw is l'-0" wide (although 1' — 2 5/8" are displayed)
and 0'-9" high. This is not very large. You can easily
change the size of the area on which you draw. To do so,
you use the LIMITS command.

109
First, you must decide how large a drawing area you will
need. If you were going to draw a ground plan of a
proscenium stage, you would need an area about 120 feet
wide and 60 feet deep. Two important factors in making the
decision of how large an area to create are the size of the
paper on which you are going to plot your drawing and the
scale of that drawing. Appendix B gives a table for
selecting the paper size, scale, and LIMITS for your
drawing. If you are using a Houston Instruments DMP-42
plotter, the maximum size of the area on which the plotter
can draw is 34" by 21.5". If you are using this plotter
and want your drawing to fill this area in 1/4" = l'-0"
scale, then your LIMITS will be 136'-0' by 86'-0". If you
want your drawing plotted in 1/2" = l'-0" scale, then the
LIMITS would be 6 8' — 0' by 43'-0'. The LIMITS which best
suit these requirements are 136'-0" by 86'-0".
To set the new LIMITS, enter LIMITS. AutoCAD will respond:
Lower left corner <0'-0", 0'-0">:
Remember the cartesian coordinates you learned in Lesson 1?
By placing the lower left corner at 0'-0", 0'-"0 places the
drawing in quadrant I. The "< >" symbols around a value
mean that this is the default value. Since 0'-0",0'-0" is
where you want this corner, pressing [RETURN] will enter
the default value for you. Now AutoCAD will prompt:
Upper right corner <1'-0",0'-9">:
At this point you set the limits. Instead of the default
(old) value, enter 136',86'. Since the inches were 0, no
value had to be entered for them. Be sure to include the
foot mark ('), or you will not get the desired results.
Finally, use the ZOOM command to display the entire area.
Although nothing looks different, it is. Use the
crosshairs to move around the drawing display area. The
coordinate display will show you where the crosshai.rs are
at all times. Your display area should now be 139'-11 1/4"
wide and 86'-0" high.
Why is the display area 139'-11 1/4" wide when you set the
limits to 86'-0" wide? The reason is the area you
selected, which is the size of the area on which you want
to draw, is not proportional to the size of the drawing
display. AutoCAD will display this larger area, but it
will not let you draw beyond the limits which you have set.
If you try to plot beyond the limits you have set, AutoCAD
will display the message "** Outside limits ^Invalid*."

110
The Status Page
AutoCAD keeps track of the limits that you set, the amount
of space your drawing uses, the size of the display, the
number of lines (entries) in your drawing, and much more.
AutoCAD allows you to look at this information whenever you
require it. To do so, enter STATUS. AutoCAD will display
the status of the drawing. Your display should look
similar to this:
0 entries in
Limits are
LESS0N6
X:
0'-0"
136'-0"
Y:
0'-0"
86'-0"
Drawing uses
X:
0'-0"
0'-0"
Y:
0'-0"
0'-0"
Display shows
X:
0'-0"
139'-11 1/4"
Y:
0'-0"
86'-0"
Insertion base is
X:
0'-0"
Y: 0'-0
Snap resolution is
X:
0’-l"
Y: 0'-l
Grid spacing is
X:
0'-0"
Y: 0'-0
Current layer: 0
Color: 7 (white) Linetype: CONTINUOUS
Axis off Fill on Ortho off Qtext off Snap on Tablet off
Object snap modes: None
Free RAM: 26228 bytes Free disk: 4265984 bytes
I/O page space: 172 bytes
You are not expected to understand everything that is
displayed, but, you should understand everything through
"Current layer: 0" except "Grid spacing ...." When you
finish studying the status of your drawing, press the [F10]
key to return you to the drawing display screen.

Ill
Exercise
EX6 — 1 Draw the ground
resolution to l'-0"
plan below. (Setting
will make it easier.)
the SNAP
QJ
_J
S
CO

112
LESSON 7—Different Lines and Layers; LAYER, LINE TYPE,
LTSCALE
All of the previous lessons have concentrated on teaching
you to draw figures to represent your ideas. However, you
have been limited in that you have only been able to draw
continuous, or solid lines. In drafting, many different
types of lines are used to communicate different meanings.
AutoCAD allows you to use different line types as well.
The nine different line types AutoCAD already knows are:
CONTINUOUS
DASHED
HIDDEN
CENTER
PHANTOM
DOT
DASHDOT . . . . . .
BORDER
DIVIDE .. .. .. ..
You can create other line types, but this will not be
covered in this lesson. These nine line types are waiting
for you to put them to use.
Creating Layers
Run AutoCAD and create a drawing called LESSON7. When you
look at the status line in the upper left corner of the
screen, it reads Layer 0. AutoCAD always begins a new
drawing on Layer 0. AutoCAD draws on layers which are
similar to clear plastic sheets. Until now you have only
drawn on Layer 0, the default layer, but you have an
unlimited number of layers on which you can draw. Each
layer is assigned a line type so that when you draw on that
layer, you get lines drawn only in the line type assigned
to that layer.
Enter STATUS. Locate the following information on the
status screen.
Current layer: 0
Color: 7 (white) Linetype: CONTINUOUS
This tells you that the layer on which you can now draw is
Layer 0 (you can only draw on one layer at a time). It is
displayed as a white line (this is only important if you
have a color monitor), and the line type is CONTINUOUS.
When you create a new layer, you assign the name you want
to use to refer to that layer, the color it will be drawn

li 3
(if you have a
drawn. Press
display screen.
color monitor), and the line type to be
the [ F10 ] key to return to the drawing
Enter LAYER. AutoCAD responds with:
?/Set/New/On/Off/Color/Ltype:
The seven options control
the following:
? *
SET name
NEW name,
ON *
ON name, n
OFFname,
COLOR name
LTYPE name
name
ame
name -
or
List all layers, colors and linetypes
in current drawing.
Makes (name) the current layer
Creates a new layer called (name)
Turns ON all layers, makes visible
Turns ON layer (name), makes visible
Turns OFF layer (name), makes
invisible
number - Assigns color to specified layer
Assigns (name) to specified layer
If you have a color monitor, you can assign different
colors to each layer in order to distinguish between
different types of objects. When you assign a color, you
can select either the color or the number that represents
that color. The default color is #7 or white. If you have
a monochrome monitor, always use white lines. The
following colors have been assigned to the corresponding
numbers.
1 - Red
2 - Yellow
3 - Green
4 - Cyan
5 - Blue
6 - Magenta
7 - White
Enter ?. AutoCAD will prompt:
Layer name(s) <*>:
The question mark (?) is used to tell AutoCAD that you want
information just as you used it to get information on
different commands earlier. This time you want information
about the layers used in this drawing. The asterisk (*)
means "everything." It is called a "wildcard" symbol.
Enter * and press [RETURN] to have AutoCAD inform you of
all layers used in this drawing, whether these layers are
OFF or ON, the colors assigned to each layer, the linetype
assigned to each layer, and the current layer.

114
As you can see, only Layer 0 exists at the present time.
Note that AutoCAD did not prompt with "Command:" as it
usually does when you finish executing a command. AutoCAD
will stay in the LAYER command until you press [RETURN] as
your response to the current prompt. Do so now. AutoCAD
will return you to the "Command:" prompt.
Enter LAYER again. To create a new layer enter NEW or N.
AutoCAD will prompt with:
New layer name(s):
You can create as many new layers as you need to at one
time. If you wanted to create one layer on which to draw
the walls of your set, another layer on which to put the
furniture, and a third on which to put your center line,
you can create them all now. Enter WALLS,FURNITURE,
CENTERLINE. Remember to separate the names only by commas.
The name of a layer can be from 0 to 31 characters long and
can include any special characters, so choose names that
describe the objects you plan to draw on that layer. Enter
? again and then *. You now have four layers: 0, WALLS,
FURNITURE, and CENTER LINE. AutoCAD has assigned all of
these layers the color white and the linetype CONTINUOUS.
These are the default values, but you can reassign any
layer with any color or line type.
To assign a different color to a layer enter COLOR or C.
AutoCAD will respond with:
Color:
Now enter either the number or name of the color you want
to assign to a layer. In this case, enter RED. Now you can
assign this color to whichever layers you choose. Enter
FURNITURE, and again enter ? and * to see the change.
Changing Line types
Changing line types is just as simple. Enter LTYPE or L.
AutoCAD will prompt with:
Linetype (or ?) :
AutoCAD can substitute any of the eight other line types
for the CONTINUOUS line type. Since you have a layer
called "CENTER LINE," you might want to assign this layer
the CENTER line type. Enter CENTER to this prompt. When
AutoCAD prompts:

115
Layer name(s) <0>:
Enter CENTER LINE.
Drawing on Different Layers
Once again, AutoCAD displays the LAYER prompt. Use the ?
option to check that this change was made.
Now you will draw on one of the new layers you have
created. First, use the [F10] key to flip back to the
drawing display screen. Before you can draw on a layer, you
must make it your current layer. To do that, enter SET or
S. AutoCAD will prompt:
New current layer <0>:
Enter the name of the layer that you want to draw on.
Enter FURNITURE. AutoCAD will again return you to the
LAYER prompt. Now, press [RETURN] again to get out of the
layer command. When you do, watch the change in the status
line. It will display the first eight characters of the
name of the new current layer. Use the LINE command to
draw a line across the display. If you have a color
monitor the line will appear red. If you only have a
monochrome monitor, the line will appear amber or green,
depending on your monitor. Color can enhance your display
and add meanings to lines, but so can different linetypes,
and you have a CENTER linetype waiting to be used. Enter
LAYER again, and set the current layer to CENTER LINE.
Remember to press the [RETURN] key again, to get you out of
the LAYER command, once you have SET the new current layer.
Now use the LINE command to draw another line across the
screen.
If the scale of your CENTER linetype seems too small, you
can always change it. Enter LTSCALE. AutoCAD will prompt:
New scale factor <1.0000>:
Enter 2 and your line or lines on the current layer will
immediately change to the new scale. Change the scale to 5
and all the lines on the current layer will change again.
Remember, you can only have one linetype, color, and scale
for each layer.
Practice creating new layers with different linetypes,
colors, and scales, and draw on each.

1X0
Exercises
EX7--1 Draw a center line on layer "CL" in Exercise
EX6 — 1.
EX7--2 Create a drawing using at least six different
line types.

LESSON 8—Text: TEXT, QTEXT
Drawing is only one form of communication. Sometimes the
information you need to convey can best be communicated
through text, or text combined with a drawing. All
drafting contains some text: title, scale, date, notes,
etc. Text is an important part of drafting, and AutoCAD
makes using text in your drawings very easy.
Justifying Text
Before you get started, it might help to have an
understanding of how text can be arranged or justified.
Text can be justified in any one of four ways: Left
Justified, Right Justified, Center Justified, or Aligned.
When text is left justified, a starting point is specified
and the text is written from left to right starting at the
user specified point. Right justified text has a user
specified ending point. The text is then written with the
right edge of the last character lining up with the user
specified ending point. Text that is center justified has
a user specified center point, and the text is centered on
that point. Finally, aligned text has a user specified
starting point and a user specified ending point. The text
is then aligned between these two points. All text must be
justified by one of these four methods.
Run AutoCAD and begin a new drawing called LESS0N8. The
command to put text on your drawing is TEXT, so enter TEXT.
AutoCAD will respond with:
Starting point or (ACRS):
The default method of justifying text is left
justification. Therefore, AutoCAD prompts you for the
starting point. If you want to justify your text using one
of the other three methods, you would enter A for aligned,
C for center justified, or R for right justified. The S
stands for style. You use this option to change the style
of your characters. This option will be discussed in
Lesson 19.
Move your crosshairs near the upper-left corner of your
screen, leave some room for your text; then press [RETURN]
to specify this point as the starting point for your text.
Next, AutoCAD will prompt:
Height <0.2000>:

J- -L U
This means that the height of the characters is presently
set to 0.2000 units, but you can enter a new character
height. You can change the character height to any size as
often as you find it necessary. Enter .5 to set the
character height to 0.5000 units.
Now, AutoCAD prompts with:
Rotation angle <0>:
AutoCAD can write text at any angle. It is presently set
to zero degrees. Since this is the angle you want now,
simply press [RETURN]. Finally, AutoCAD will prompt:
TEXT:
Enter LEFT JUSTIFIED. AutoCAD will write your text onto the
display. Did you notice that AutoCAD did not treat the
[SPACE] as a [RETURN] as it usually does? The TEXT command
is the only command that works this way. All other commands
accept the [SPACE] key to mean [RETURN]. Enter TEXT again.
This time enter R, as your response to the prompt, to right
justify text. AutoCAD will prompt:
End point:
Use your crosshairs to select a point near the lower-right
corner of your display. Press [RETURN] when prompted for
both height and rotation (to leave them the same), and
enter RIGHT JUSTIFIED as your text. Enter TEXT again, and
enter C to center your next text. When AutoCAD prompts:
Center point:
Use your crosshairs to select a point near the center of
the display area. Enter .75 at the height prompt to change
the size of your characters. Then enter 30 to set the
rotation angle to 30 degrees. Finally, enter CENTER
JUSTIFIED as your text. Enter TEXT one more time. Entering
A, as your response to the prompt, will choose aligned
text. AutoCAD will them prompt:
First text line point:
Use your crosshairs to select a point below the "L" in
"LEFT JUSTIFIED." AutoCAD will then prompt:
Second text line point:
Use your crosshairs to select a point below the "T" in
"LEFT JUSTIFIED." AutoCAD will use these two points to
figure out how large to make the characters and align the
text between the two points.

119
Sometimes your text can get so small that you cannot read
it. Enter TEXT again. Select a starting point below the
"J" in "CENTER JUSTIFIED." Set the height of the
characters to .05, and leave the rotation set at 0. Now,
enter "THESE ARE VERY SMALL CHARACTERS" as your text. The
character size you have selected is so small that AutoCAD
can only represent them as a line. Nevertheless, your text
is there. Use the ZOOM command to window around this text
and zoom in for a closer look. You should now be able to
read the text. Now zoom back out to view the entire
drawing again.
Notice how slowly AutoCAD redraws your text. This is
because text is made up of many complicated shapes, and
AutoCAD must do many mathematical calculations in order to
draw your text. There is a command that will speed up this
process, it is called QTEXT. Enter QTEXT. The prompt will
be:
On/Off :
Whenever you create a drawing, QTEXT is automatically off.
Enter ON. You will not notice any immediate changes. Now
enter REGEN. (This is a function that AutoCAD does
normally when you use many of AutoCAD's commands, but you
are forcing it to do it now). AutoCAD will replace your
text with two parallel lines. By doing this, AutoCAD can
redraw the screen display much more rapidly, because the
complicated shapes have been replaced with simple ones.
Turn QTEXT Off, and enter REGEN again. Your text will now
return, but slower than the last example.
Practice writing text using the various methods of
justifying text, making it different sizes and at different
angles. When you feel confident with these commands, exit
this drawing.
Exercise
EX8 — 1 Create a ti11eb1 ockfor Exercise EX6 — 1.
Included: name of drawing, date, designer, theatre
name, scale, drawing number, and name of show.
(Place all text on a layer "TBLOCK".)

1¿\Ó
LESSON 9—Dimensions: DIM
Dimensioning your drawing is another important step in
drafting. When you dimension a drawing manually, you make
many decisions of which you are probably unaware. A
computer cannot make these decisions on its own. It must be
told. AutoCAD1 s DIM command allows you to use its semi¬
automatic dimensioning capabilities. This is one of
AutoCAD's most sophisticated commands. This lesson will
cover all of AutoCAD's dimensioning possibilities. The
AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide will provide you with
more information on some of AutoCAD's other dimensioning
features.
Dimensioning a Drawing
Run AutoCAD and create a new drawing called LESSON9. Use
the UNITS command to set the unit type to architectural.
Next, enter DIM. AutoCAD will prompt:
Dim:
There are over thirty different responses to this prompt.
You want to enter STATUS at this time. AutoCAD will
display the following information on the screen.
DIMSCALE
1.0000
Overall scale factor
DIMASZ
3/16"
Arrow size
DIMCEN
1/16"
Center mark size
DIMEXO
1/16"
Extension line origin offset
DIMDLI
3/8"
Dimension line increment for continuation
DIMEXE
3/16"
Extension above dimension line
DIMTP
0"
Plus tolerance
DIMTM
0"
Minus tolerance
DIMTXT
3/16"
Text height
DIMTSZ
0"
Tick size
DIMTOL
Off
Generate dimension tolerances
DIMLIM
Off
Generate dimension limits
DIMTIH
On
Text inside extensions is horizontal
DIMTOH
On
Text outside extensions is horizontal
DIMSE1
Off
Suppress the first extension line
DIMSE2
Off
Suppress the second extension line
DIMTAD
Off
Place text above the dimension line
Since the computer cannot read your mind, you have to
supply the values for the above factors. These factors
control, to a great extent, the way your dimensions will
appear. You will need to change several of these factors:
DIMASZ, DIMEXE, DIMEXO, DIMTXT, DIMTIH and DIMTOH. To do

121
this, type the name of the factor you want to change,
DIMASZ, and press [RETURN], AutoCAD will tell you what the
current value is and ask you to input the new value. Enter
3/8" to tell AutoCAD that you want the new arrow size to be
three-eights of an inch. Now change the values for DIMEXE
and DIMTXT to 3/8", and DIMEXO to 1/8" in the same way.
Then press [F10] to flip back to the drawing editor display
screen.
Linear
The most versatile type of dimensioning is linear
dimensioning. It is divided into horizontal, vertical,
aligned, and rotated dimensioning. Horizontal dimensioning
draws a horizontal dimension line with vertical extension
lines. Vertical dimensioning draws vertical dimension
lines with horizontal extensions. Aligned dimensioning
draws the dimension line parallel to the line that is being
dimensioned with extension lines perpendicular to the
dimension line. When using rotated dimensioning, AutoCAD
asks for the angle at which to place the dimension line.
HDRIZDNTAL and ALIGNED ROTATED
VERTICAL
Draw the three objects above. Then, follow the step-by-step
process for dimensioning the first object. Dimension the
remaining objects on your own. First, enter the style of
dimensioning you wish to do: HOR, VER, AL I, or ROT. Enter
HOR for Horizontal. AutoCAD will prompt:
First extension line origin or RETURN to select:
This prompt gives you the choice of either selecting the
point for the first extension line or telling AutoCAD that
you want to select an object (line) and dimension the
entire object. Press the [RETURN] key to do the latter.
Now, AutoCAD prompts:
Select line, arc,
or circle:

122
Move your crosshairs to the line which forms the top of the
square and select it. Next, AutoCAD asks for the:
Dimension line location:
Move your crosshairs to a point 1" above the top line, and
select it. This will be the position of the dimension
line. AutoCAD will now prompt:
Dimension text <6">:
The dimension within the "< >" symbols is the actual
dimension. However, you can substitute any dimension or
text you wish. To have AutoCAD insert the actual dimension
into the dimension line, press [RETURN], If you want a
different dimension entered, type in the text you want
inserted and press [RETURN]. AutoCAD then draws the
extension lines and the dimension line with the dimension
being the text you entered. Enter EXIT to get out of the
DIM command, and use the ZOOM command to take a closer look
at the dimension line. Now, dimension the remaining
objects following the instructions on the command line.
Angular
Angular dimensioning generates an arc to show the angle
between two non-parallel lines in degrees. Draw the object
below and dimension it as shown. Enter ANG to use Angular
dimensioning.
Diameter and Radius
Diameter dimensioning shows the diameter of a circle while
radius dimensioning marks the center point of an arc and
shows its radius. Draw and dimension the two objects below.
Enter DIA for Diameter dimensioning and RAD for Radius
dimensioning.

123
Other commands can be used to mark the center of an arc or
circle or to create leader lines. These can be found in
The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide.
Exercise
EX9—1 Draw and dimension the drawing below.

LESSON 10—Alternative Input Devices: ORTHO, OSNAP
Up until now you have used the arrow keys to move your
crosshairs around the screen. In this lesson you will
learn about alternative input devices for moving the
crosshairs and selecting menu items, and two commands to
make drawing with these devices easier.
There are several alternative input devices that can be
used with a computer: the digitizer tablet, the light pen,
and the mouse are the most common. These devices attach to
the rear of your computer and can be used in place of your
arrow keys to move your crosshairs. If you have one of
these devices, connect it to your computer, if it is not
already connected. Use the instructions that came with
your device to insure that it is connected properly. Next,
re-configure AutoCAD to use the particular device you have.
AutoCAD can be configured for any of fourteen different
digitizers. The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide will
provide guidelines to help you configure AutoCAD for your
device.
The Digitizer Tablet
The digitizer tablet also has two parts, the tablet and a
puck. Tablets come is a variety of sizes, from 11" by 11"
to 48" by 108" or larger. The position of the puck on the
tablet is sent to the computer and reflected on the screen
by the crosshairs' position. The digitizer tablet is a
more accurate pointing device than either the mouse or the
light pen. Some digitizers have as many as twelve buttons
for inputting different signals to the computer. These
digitizers allow you to decide which AutoCAD command will
be signaled by which button.
The Light Pen
The light pen an inexpensive input device. Most light pens
consist of two parts: a transparent mesh that attaches to
the front of the monitor and the light pen itself. The mesh
is made up of horizontal and vertical optical fibers. By
touching the light pen to this mesh, the mesh calculates
the X coordinate and the Y coordinate of the point where
the pen's light is located. This device is easy to use,
but it is not extremely accurate.

The Mouse
The mouse is the least expensive and most common of the
three alternative input devices that will be mentioned in
this lesson. It is also one of the simplest devices to
operate. The optical mouse is pushed around on a desk-top
or on a special gridded surface, while a mechanical mouse
rolls on any hard surface. The movement of the mouse is
transmitted to the computer through a wire and the movement
of the crosshairs corresponds to the movement of the mouse.
You can also signal the computer by using your mouse. Most
mice have from one to four buttons located on them. By
pressing these buttons, you send different signals to the
computer. Below is way AutoCAD interprets each of the
different buttons on a mouse with four buttons.
Button #
1
2
3
4
AutoCAD Command
Select Point
[RETURN] or [ENTER]
REDRAW
*Cancel*
Knowing and using these buttons can make working with
AutoCAD faster and easier.
Using an Alternative Input Device
All of these devices can be used to make working with
AutoCAD easier and faster. The remainder of this lesson
will concentrate on using the mouse, since it is the most
common input device. If you have one of the other
alternative input devices, you will be able to complete the
lesson using the device you have. If you do not have an
alternative input device, use the arrow keys as you have
been doing. Although the two commands covered in this
lesson are almost essential when using one of the
alternative pointing devices, they are also extremely
important to individuals using only the keyboard.
Create a new drawing called LESSON10. Turn the coordinate
display, on and use your mouse or other alternative input
device to slowly move your crosshairs around the screen.
The first thing you will probably notice about using an
alternative input device is how quickly you can move the
crosshairs. Try to place the crosshairs on point
7.0000,5.0000. It is difficult to do. Now, turn SNAP on,
and move the crosshairs around the screen. The SNAP
function works just as it did when you moved the crosshairs

with the arrow keys. Now, place your crosshairs on point
7.0000,5.0000, and it will be much easier.
In addition to using your alternative input device for
moving your crosshairs, you can also use it for selecting
items from the menu. Move your mouse or puck to the right
until some block on the menu is highlighted. Then move the
mouse up or down until the highlighter is on the DRAW
command and press the RETURN button (#1 on the Optomouse).
If you are using a light pen just point to the DRAW command
and press the select button. AutoCAD will then replace the
ROOT MENU with the DRAW menu. Now, use your alternative
pointing device to select the LINE command. The DRAW menu
will be replaced by the LINE menu and AutoCAD will prompt:
Command: LINE From point:
Move your crosshairs to the left and use select button (#1)
to select point 4.0000,1.0000 as the starting point for
your line. Draw a line four units long from this point
directly to your right (0 degrees). This is not too
difficult but you have to be careful that you move your
pointing device straight or your line will be at an
unwanted angle. Since you are about to draw a square and
all lines will be at a ninety degree angle to one another,
there is an AutoCAD function that can make your efforts
easier. It is called ORTHO.
The Orthographic Feature
Press the [F7] key to activate the ORTHO function. Now,
move your pointing device around the screen. When ORTHO is
on, all lines are drawn on either the X or Y axis. Now,
finish drawing your square. When you finish, you will have
to select *Cancel* from the menu to end the LINE command.
Then press button #3 on your Optomouse, if you are using
this device, to have AutoCAD REDRAW the square.
Object Snap
Next, you will draw another square the same size as the
first and placed so that it is sitting directly on top of
your first square. Start by placing your crosshairs on the
upper right corner of your first square. Even with SNAP
on, this is difficult to do. This might have seemed easier
when you used the arrow key to move the crosshairs, but
AutoCAD does have a command to make this much easier. It
Ts called OSNAP. Select HELP from the menu and then enter

(type) OSNAP to find out more about this command. When you
are drawing a line, OSNAP will permit you to choose any
point within a "target range" of the point you want, and
AutoCAD will find that point. Of course, you must use one
of OSNAP's modes to tell AutoCAD what will distinguish the
point you want from any other. This point must relate to
some object that already exists. End point of a line,
center of a line, and intersection of two or more lines are
three ways of defining a point. The OSNAP command has many
different modes that you will want to experiment with and
you can use several of them together. When you have
finished reading about these modes, flip back to the
drawing display screen, and turn off the ORTHO function,
[F7] .
Since two of the points you need to select in drawing this
second box are points that can be defined as end points of
lines that already exist, OSNAP can be very helpful in
drawing this second square. Use your input device to
select OSNAP from the menu. The present menu will be
replaced with the OSNAP menu. However, the command line
does not show that the OSNAP command has been selected, so
enter OSNAP at the keyboard at this time. AutoCAD will
prompt:
Object snap modes:
Now you can enter from the keyboard or select from the menu
the mode or modes you wish to use. Select "end point" with
your pointing device. Now, select LASTMENU to return you
to the LINE menu and then select "LINE:" to enter the line
command. Next, move your pointing device to the left,
bringing the crosshairs onto the screen,. They are
different now. There is a rectangle around the
intersection of the crosshairs. This rectangle is the
"target area." Move the crosshairs so that the upper right
corner of your first square is somewhere inside of the
target area, and press the select button. This is easier
than having to line the crosshairs up perfectly with this
point. Now, move the crosshairs up four units, and press
the select button. Since no point defined by the mode
function was found inside of the target area, the point
indicated by the crosshairs was selected. Continue drawing
the second square. When you finish drawing the square,
select *Cancel* by pointing to it and pressing button #2.
Continue drawing objects using your alternative input
device and different OSNAP modes. When you understand all
of the uses of this command, quit the drawing.

Exercises
EXl 0 — 1
Draw the solid objects below, then set
OSNAP as indicated and draw each of the
three dashed lines.
1) TAN,END
2) MID,PER
3) CEN,INT
1

1ZÍ
LESSON 11—Duplicating Parts of a Drawing: MOVE, COPY,
MIRROR, PAN
Computer-aided drafting has many features that set it apart
from conventional drafting and increase its productivity
over the manual method. In the next several lessons you
will learn some of AutoCAD's commands that allow you to do
large amounts of work with very little effort.
Run AutoCAD and create a drawing called LESSONll. Draw the
three simple shapes shown below along the left side of the
drawing display area.
O
The four
COPY, and
but each
increase
commands you will learn in this lesson
MIRROR. These commands are similar in
has a different purpose and each can
your drafting speed.
are: MOVE,
many ways,
be used to
Moving Objects
The MOVE command is self-explanatory. It is used to move a
line or many lines from their present locations to new
locations. Enter MOVE. AutoCAD will prompt you with:
Displacement:
Displacement requires that you enter two points, a starting
point and an ending point. These two points can be
indicated anywhere on the display. AutoCAD uses these two
points to find out how far and in which direction you want
to move the object(s). It may make this clearer if you
first indicate a point on the object which you want to move
and then indicate the new location of this point when the
command is completed. You will move the circle from its
present position to the opposite side of the screen. To do

this, first move the crosshairs to the starting point and
press [RETURN]. Choose the point on the extreme right side
of the circle. AutoCAD will then prompt:
Second point:
This is the ending point. Move your crosshairs to the
right, and select a point near the right edge of the
drawing area display. Be sure that you stay within the
twelve units limits of the drawing. Finally, AutoCAD wants
to know what object(s) you want moved, so it prompts:
Select objects or Window or Last:
This prompt should look very familiar by now. You can
select the objects you want to move by selecting them with
the crosshairs, placing a window around them, or moving the
last object you drew by entering L. Since you only want to
move the circle, place your crosshairs anywhere on the
circle and press [RETURN] twice. When you do, AutoCAD will
erase your original circle and then redraw it where you
indicated. Now move it back to its original location. The
MOVE command can be used to move any number of objects to a
new location at the same time. When you move more than one
object, their relationship to each other stays the same.
Making Copies
The COPY command is very similar to the MOVE command. The
only difference is that the original object or objects are
not erased. Enter COPY. AutoCAD will again prompt:
Displacement:
This time, make a copy of the square and place it in the
upper right corner of the drawing area. Select the upper
right corner of the square as your first point and another
point near the upper right corner of the display as your
second point. Since the square is made up of four lines
(or objects), use the window option to select the lines you
want to copy. AutoCAD will then draw another square
exactly like the original at the point you indicated.
AutoCAD can make a copy of any group of lines, no matter
how many lines or how complicated the pattern, and place it
wherever you indicate. These copies can then be edited in
the same ways as the originals. You might use this command
to make a copy of a standard flat in a rear elevation, a
lighting instrument on a light plot, or a special symbol
you created for a drawing.

Mirroring an Object
AutoCAD's MIRROR command can be used to flip an object, or
group of objects, so that the new object is the reverse of
the first. This command is very useful when a drawing
contains a symmetrical item which is made up of many lines.
The prompts for the MIRROR command are similar to the other
commands you have learned in this lesson, but are in a
different order and include one new prompt. To see how
this command works, you will make a mirror image of the
channel (the third shape) somewhere on the screen. Enter
MIRROR. AutoCAD will first prompt:
Select objects or Window or Last:
Use the crosshairs to select the three lines that make up
the channel. Then, press [RETURN] once more to signal that
you have finished selecting objects. AutoCAD will then
prompt with:
First point of mirror line:
This "mirror line" is an imaginary line that AutoCAD will
use to reflect the image across. Select a point slightly
above and to the right of the channel. When you do,
AutoCAD will prompt:
Second point:
Now select a point directly below the first point of the
mirror line and slightly below the channel. Finally,
AutoCAD will prompt:
Delete old objects? :
AutoCAD is now giving you the choice of keeping the
original objects you indicated or erasing them as it did
with the COPY command. The default is no (N). Typing Y
would indicate that you want to delete the old objects.
Enter N or just press [RETURN]. AutoCAD will then make a
mirrored copy of the lines you selected and place them
exactly opposite the mirror line that you selected. The
length of the line you selected was not important. AutoCAD
only used these two points to find the displacement
distance and angle. This command could be used to complete
a very complicated, but symmetrical, drawing by requiring
you to draw only half of the drawing and mirroring the
other half. Also, if you have ever wondered what a
particular floor plan would look like if reversed, this
command could be used to find out.
These commands are three of the commands that allow you to
quickly make radical changes or additions to your drawings.

132
Practice using these commands before ending this lesson and
starting the next.
Exercises
EX11--1 Draw a small triangle. Then, use the
MIRROR, COPY, and MOVE commands to form your own
unique "bio-chemical" molecule.
EX11--2 Set the units to architectural and the limits
to 32'-0" by 20'-0". Next, draw the rear elevation
of a standard flat 12 feet tall, and 5 feet wide.
Then use the COPY command to make a second flat,
and the MIRROR command to make a third.

1JJ
LESSON 12—Making an Electronic Template: BLOCK, INSERT,
WBLOCK, BASE
The COPY command you learned in the last lesson is
excellent for an exact copy of a collection of objects you
already have on your drawing. However, sometimes it would
be helpful to change the size of the collection of objects
or even change their angle. The commands you will learn in
this lesson will allow you to treat a collection of objects
as an electronic template.
What are Blocks?
Blocks are a collection of objects which have been captured
and named as a single object. This complex object, or
block, as it is called, can be copied to another location
using a special command. Unlike the COPY command, the
command for copying blocks allows the user to change the
scale of the block along either the X axis or the Y axis in
order to change the proportions of the block. A square can
become a rectangle or a circle can become an oval. The
rotation angle of a block can be changed when it is used in
a drawing. Blocks can be saved in files so that they can
be used over and over again in different drawings. There
is no limit to the number of blocks that you can create and
use. Your library might include furniture, lighting
instruments, floor plan symbols, etc. Anything you can
draw with AutoCAD can be saved as a block.
Creating and Saving Blocks
Run AutoCAD and create a new drawing called LESSON12. Turn
on the coordinate display, set the UNITS to architectural,
set the limits to 40',25' and set the SNAP resolution to
6". Finally, use the ZOOM All command combination to view
the entire drawing area.
Begin this lesson by drawing a 1' X 1' square anywhere on
the screen. Making the square a neutral size will make it
very versatile when you scale it later. Now that you have
drawn your square, save it as a block. To do so, enter
BLOCK. AutoCAD will prompt you:
Block name:
All blocks are identified by their name. Enter SQUARE to
name this block "SQUARE." Next AutoCAD will prompt:

Insertion base point:
The insertion base point is the reference point within your
block that AutoCAD will use when copying your block to its
new location. It is also the point around which your block
will rotate when you change the rotation angle of the
block. Use your crosshairs to select the lower-left corner
of your square. Finally, AutoCAD will prompt:
Select objects or Window or Last:
Use the Window option to select an area containing your
square. When you do, AutoCAD will report the number of
objects it found and will erase then. Your square has now
been saved as a block, and you can copy that block to any
location on your drawing. But what happened to your
original square? When AutoCAD creates a block, it erases
the objects which made up the block. Of course you can get
back the last object you erased by using the OOPS command.
Enter OOPS to bring back your square.
Now, draw a circle with a diameter of 1 foot. Make a block
called CIRCLE from this object and make the center point
the insertion base point. You can create as many blocks as
you want, but for now only use these two.
Using Blocks
Now that you have created some blocks you need to know how
to use them. The INSERT command is used to place copies of
your blocks within your drawing. Enter INSERT. AutoCAD
will prompt:
Block name (or ?):
AutoCAD now wants to know what block to insert into the
drawing. Entering a question mark will get you a list of
the blocks that AutoCAD can use in this drawing. Enter ?.
AutoCAD will respond with:
Defined blocks.
SQUARE
CIRCLE
As you can see, AutoCAD has captured these objects into
blocks for you to use. Press the [F10] key to flip back to
the drawing editor screen. Now, enter INSERT again. This
time, respond to the prompt by entering SQUARE. AutoCAD
will then prompt:

ibb
Insertion point:
Remember, you made the insertion base point the lower-left
corner of your square. Select a point near the lower-left
corner of the drawing display area where you would like
this insertion point to be placed. AutoCAD will then
prompt:
X scale factor <1> or Corner:
The default scale on the X axis is one. Since the width of
your original square was one foot, the width of your
inserted square will be one foot times the scaling factor
you input. If you were using this command to create the
outlines of standard flats, you could make the width of the
flat four feet by entering 4 to this prompt. AutoCAD will
then prompt:
Y scale factor (default=X):
The default value here is the value you input for the X
axis. However, if you want the height of your flat to be
twelve feet, enter 12. Finally, AutoCAD will prompt:
Rotation angle <0>:
The default of the rotation angle is 0 (as the original).
Enter 0 to this prompt, or you can just press the [RETURN]
key to accept to value in the brackets. AutoCAD will
instantly draw the block with the axis scaled as specified.
Although this block is made up of four lines, AutoCAD
treats blocks as one object.
Now insert the CIRCLE. Scale the X axis to 6, scale the Y
axis to 3, and set the rotation angle to 30.
Blocks are easy to create and use in drawing. They can
even be manipulated to produce other shapes. They can be
used as an electronic template to make drawing standard
shapes very quickly.
Using Blocks in Other Drawings
The major problem with the blocks you have created is that
they can only be used in this drawing, not in other
drawings. Since it would be useful for you to be able to
create a library of different blocks and to use them in any
of your drawings, AutoCAD has a way of saving your blocks
on your data disk so they can be used in any drawing. The
command is WBLOCK.

j > \j
Enter WBLOCK. AutoCAD will respond with:
File name:
This file name is the name of the file on which AutoCAD
will store the desired block on your data disk. It is
often easiest to store it in a file that has the same name
as the name of the block in that file. Enter A:SQUARE to
name this file SQUARE, and save it on the disk in drive A.
AutoCAD will then prompt:
Block name:
Now AutoCAD wants to know the name of the block to be
stored in this file. If the name of the block and the name
of the file are the same, you can enter an equals sign ( = )
instead of the name of the block. If the name of the block
is different from the name of the file, then the name of
the block must be entered. Enter = to place the block
SQUARE into this file. Repeat this process with the block
CIRCLE.
Using a Drawing as a Block
When you use the WBLOCK command, it turns the block you
name into its own separate drawing. As you know, all
drawing files end in the suffix .DWG. For this reason, you
can insert any drawing you have created into another
drawing without making the first drawing a block. When you
do this, AutoCAD uses point 0,0 as the insertion base
point. You can, of course, specify a different insertion
base point by using the BASE command. For more information
on the BASE command, see The AutoCAD Drafting Package User
Guide.
Practice creating and using blocks until you feel that you
have mastered it. Draw chairs, lighting instruments, or
anything else, and create a block from it. Insert these
blocks into your drawing and experiment with how you can
manipulate them. Once you have mastered these commands,
move on to the next lesson.

Exercises
EX12--1 Draw the symbols for five different lighting
instruments, and save them as blocks. Using these
blocks, create an imaginary lighting plot
consisting of three electrics.
EX12--2 Draw five pieces of furniture, and save them
as blocks. Then, arrange these pieces of
furniture in an imaginary setting.
NOTE: Use the WBLOCK command to save ALL blocks to your
data disk.

13«
LESSON 13--Multiplying an Object: ARRAY
In the last two lessons you have learned how to make copies
of an object or collection of objects that you have
created. Until now, however, you have been limited to
making only one copy at a time. This lesson will teach you
AutoCAD1s command for making many copies of an object or
collection of objects.
Run AutoCAD and create a new drawing called LESSON13. Use
the function keys to turn on the coordinate display and the
SNAP feature. Next, draw a small square anywhere in the
drawing display area. Make each side .5 units long. This
will be the collection of objects that you will copy. Save
this square as a block using the BLOCK command. Call your
block SHAPE. Although you can create arrays from a
collection of objects, making a block of these objects (now
considered by AutoCAD to be one object) makes this task
easier and the result more predictable. Now insert this
block near the lower-left corner of the drawing display
area. Having completed these tasks, you are ready to begin
the new lesson.
Creating Rectangular Arrays
The ARRAY command will allow you to make multiple copies of
a collection of objects. Enter ARRAY. AutoCAD will
respond with:
Select objects or Window or Last:
Enter L to select the square. A block is considered one
object. AutoCAD will prompt:
1 found.
Rectangular or circular array (R/C):
The ARRAY commands can perform two types of array
functions, rectangular and circular. Enter R to select the
rectangular array type. AutoCAD will prompt:
Number of rows:
Rows run from left to right or from right to left on your
display. They correspond to the X axis. Enter 7. AutoCAD
will then prompt:
Number of columns:

Columns run from bottom to top or top to bottom on your
display. They correspond to the Y axis. Enter 3, and
AutoCAD will prompt:
Unit cell or distance between rows:
Since the first row will begin with the objects you
selected, what AutoCAD wants to know where to start the
next row of squares. If your response is a positive
number, the rows will build in an upward direction. If
your response is a negative number, the rows will build in
a downward direction. Enter 1 to make your original square
part of the bottom row. This tells AutoCAD to start the
next row 1 unit above the point where it started the
previous (or first) row. AutoCAD will prompt:
Distance between columns:
Entering a positive number will cause each column to be
created to the right of the last column. Entering a
negative number will cause each column to be created to the
left of the last column. Enter 4. This tells AutoCAD to
make the original square the first square on its row.
AutoCAD will now draw the 28 squares as you have specified.
These squares contain a total of 112 lines. As you can
see, the ARRAY command can save time if you need to create
a large number of copies of a collection of objects.
Common uses might include: lighting instruments spaced a
specific distance from each other on a pipe batten, a
lighting ladder, or a lighting boom.
Creating Circular Arrays
Using the circular array function is similar. First, insert
another copy of your block (SHAPE) near the middle of the
empty space on the right side of the display area. Now,
enter the ARRAY command again, and select the lone square
as your object. AutoCAD will again prompt:
Rectangular or circular array (R/C):
Enter C to specify the circular array type. Next AutoCAD
will prompt:
Center point of array:
Use you crosshairs to select a point 1 unit above and 1
unit to the right of this square. AutoCAD will then
respond with:
Angle between items ( +=CCW,-=CW):

The notation "+=CCW,-=CW" means that the angle is positive,
and the array will be created in a counterclockwise
direction. If a negative angle is entered, then the array
will be created in a clockwise direction. Enter 30. This
will space the squares 30 degrees apart. Next, AutoCAD
will prompt:
Number of items or -(degrees to fill):
This prompt gives you two options: You can enter the number
of copies you want created (this includes the original), or
you can specify the amount of space, in degrees, that you
want the copies to occupy. To do the latter, enter a
negative sign (-) before the number of degrees. Entering
zero (0) or 360 tells AutoCAD that the array will be a
complete circle. Enter 10 to tell AutoCAD that you want 10
squares in this array. Finally, AutoCAD will prompt:
Rotate objects as they are copied?
When the array is created, all the objects can be exactly
as the original, or they can be rotated to match the swing
of the circle. The default is not to rotate. Press
[RETURN] to select the default. When you do, AutoCAD will
create the circular array as you have specified. Create
another circular array using the same block. This time,
make the circle complete and rotate the objects.
The ARRAY command is very powerful. It allows you to
create multiple copies of an object or objects. The true
advantage of CAD over manual drafting is its ability to
have the computer to do the repetitive, time consuming
work. The ARRAY command is a clear example of this in
action.
Continue using the ARRAY command until you feel that you
understand it thoroughly.
Exercise
EX13 — 1 Use the ARRAY command and one of the
instrumentsymbols you drew in exercise EXll—1 to
create an imaginary lighting position (one
electric) with 10 instruments spaced 18 inches
apart.

LESSON 14--Adding Texture to Your Drawings: HATCH
Hatching, sometimes referred to as cross-hatching, is an
important process in drafting. It can be used to tell the
person looking at the drawing the type of material of which
an object is made or if the object has been sectioned.
Hatching can also be used as decoration. For whatever
purpose hatching is used, it is an important communication
device in drafting.
Run AutoCAD, and create a new drawing called LESSON14. Set
the UNITS to architectural and the LIMITS to 34" by 21.5".
Set SNAP to 1 inch. Then draw a square 1' by 1' near the
center of the drawing display area. This is the area you
will hatch.
Hatching
Enter the command HATCH. AutoCAD will respond with:
Pattern (? or name/U,style) :
To find out the names of the different hatch patterns
available, enter ?. AutoCAD will then display the names of
the 41 hatch patterns which you can use. Appendix A in The
AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide illustrates each of
these patterns. Press the [F10] key to flip back to the
drawing display screen. Enter HATCH again, and then, enter
ANSI31 as the hatch pattern you will use first. This
pattern consists of solid lines at a 45 degree angle.
AutoCAD will then prompt:
Scale for pattern <1.0000>:
The lines in this pattern are fairly close together, so to
space them further apart, enter 5 as the scale. Next,
AutoCAD will prompt:
Angle for pattern <0>:
AutoCAD allows you to change the angle of the pattern, as
well as its scale, in order to create the best hatch
pattern for your needs. Enter 0 to leave it as it was
originally created. When you do want to change the angle,
re-call the diagram in Lesson 3 that showed you how AutoCAD
uses angles. Next, AutoCAD prompts:
Select objects or Window or Last:

1
Enter W, and then place a window around the square. When
you press the [RETURN] key, AutoCAD will specify the number
of objects found and then hatch the area inside the square.
When AutoCAD hatches an area, all of the lines which make
up the hatching are considered as one object. Enter ERASE
and the L to erase the last object drawn. AutoCAD will
erase all of the hatching. By preceding the name of the
hatch pattern with an asterisk (*) , AutoCAD will keep each
line of a hatch pattern as a separate object. This works
similarly to using the asterisk in the BLOCK command.
To see some of the other features of the HATCH command,
draw a circle inside the square and another square inside
the circle. Now, enter HATCH again, answering the prompts
as before. Select a window that includes all of the shapes
you have drawn. When you press [RETURN], AutoCAD will
hatch the two squares, but not the circle. In the normal
mode, AutoCAD hatches every other inclusive shape as it
works its way into the center. If a triangle had been
drawn inside the smaller square, AutoCAD would not have
hatched it.
Use the ERASE command to erase the hatching (the last
object drawn), and try another of AutoCAD's hatch styles.
The three hatch styles are:
N - Normal (same as no style specified)
0 - Fill outermost areas only
I - Ignore internal structure
When you wish to use a style other than Normal, you enter a
comma (,) followed by the letter designating the style,
immediately after the pattern name. Enter EARTH,0 to
specify the EARTH hatch pattern and the outermost hatching
style. Set the scale to 3, and window around all three
shapes again. This time AutoCAD will only hatch the outer
square and leave the other two shapes un-hatched.
Erase the hatching, and enter HATCH one more time. This
time enter ANGLE,I as the pattern name and shape. Set the
scale to 3, and the angle to 45. This time AutoCAD will
hatch the entire area, ignoring the shapes inside the outer
structure.
AutoCAD always bases its hatching at point 0,0. By doing
this, two different hatchings, using the same pattern and
the same scale, will line up. The hatching operation of
AutoCAD is very complicated and at times, very
unpredictable. At times, an area may not be filled
completely with the hatch pattern. To help solve this
problem, you can create a scratch layer on which you can

break up the area to be hatched into smaller areas. By-
hatching each of these small areas separately (on a hatch
layer) and then erasing the outlines of the small areas,
you can make the drawing appear hatched correctly. Continue
experimenting with the HATCH command, looking at different
patterns and scales.
Exercises
EX14 — 1 Create a "bull's eye" target of five
circles. Hatch each area with a different pattern.
EX14--2 Hatch the walls of the theatre you drew in
exercise EX6--3.

144
LESSON 15—Correcting Mistakes: CHANGE
In earlier lessons you have learned several commands for
correcting mistakes. In this lesson you will learn one
more. The CHANGE command allows you to correct many
different types of errors without erasing the mistake and
re-drawing that portion of the drawing again. This command
can make correcting mistakes faster and easier than using
the ERASE command and re-drawing the objects correctly.
Run AutoCAD and create a drawing called LESSON15.
Changing a Drawing
The CHANGE command cannot be used to correct all mistakes.
It can be used to shorten or lengthen a line; change the
radius of a circle; change the location, size, rotation,
style, or characters of a text string; and change the
location or angle of a block. It can also be used to
reposition lines to a common intersection point and to
change the layer on which objects are drawn. To test these
features, duplicate the drawing below.
TEXT
All sides of the open channel are two units long. The
triangle is two units wide and two units tall, and the
circle has a radius of one unit. The triangle is saved as a
block with its intersection base near its center. The text
is .5 units in height. Once you have this drawing
completed, you can begin changing it.
Begin by changing the length and angle of the long diagonal
line. First, enter CHANGE. AutoCAD will prompt:
Selected objects or Window or Last:

14b
Use your crosshairs to select this line near its right
end point. This is important because AutoCAD will move the
end point nearest the point you select. Press [RETURN]
again to signal AutoCAD that you have completed the
selection process. AutoCAD will prompt:
1 selected, 1 found.
Intersection point (or L):
Because you want to change the end point of the line, you
must now specify the new end point. Use your crosshairs
to select a point above the circle. When you do, AutoCAD
will shorten the line and place the new end point where you
specified. Using the CHANGE command is much quicker than
erasing the line and re-drawing it. Now try moving two
lines to a common end- point.
Enter CHANGE. This time select the two uprights of the
open channel as the objects to change. Now select a point
between the two uprights as the intersection point.
AutoCAD will move the two end points together at the point
specified to form a triangle.
Enter CHANGE again. This time use your crosshairs to
select any point on the circle. Then, press [RETURN] again
to inform AutoCAD that the selection process is over.
Next, move your crosshairs to the new radius and press
[RETURN]. AutoCAD will erase the old circle and draw a new
one with the radius you just specified.
This time change the text in the lower left corner of the
display area. Enter CHANGE, and select any point on the
text to specify it as the object to change. Press [RETURN]
again to signal that the selection process is complete.
Now select a point near the upper left corner as the
intersection point. AutoCAD will prompt:
Text style: STANDARD
New style or RETURN for no change:
Press [RETURN] to keep the style as STANDARD. Now, AutoCAD
prompts :
New height <.5000>:
Enter .75 to change the height of the text. AutoCAD then
prompts :
New rotation angle <0>:

14 b
Enter -30 as the new rotation angle. Finally, AutoCAD will
prompt:
New text :
Enter CHANGED as the new text. AutoCAD will now change the
text as you have described.
Changing a block is very similar to changing text. First,
enter CHANGE. Next, select any point on the triangle (the
one which is saved as a block). Then, press [RETURN] again
to signal that you have completed selecting objects.
AutoCAD will prompt:
1 selected, 1 found.
Insertion point (or L):
Select the center point of your circle as the intersection
point. AutoCAD will then prompt:
New rotation angle <0>:
Enter 180 as the new rotation angle. When you do, AutoCAD
will move and rotate the block.
The CHANGE command can also be used for placing objects on
another layer. Enter CHANGE one more time, and select the
triangle that is inside the circle. AutoCAD will prompt:
1 selected, 1 found.
Intersection point (or L):
This time, enter L to indicate that you want to place this
object on a different layer. AutoCAD will now prompt:
New layer:
You can now enter the name of the layer on which you want
the triangle to be placed. In as much as you have not
created any other layers in this drawing, how can you place
it on another layer? If the layer you specify does not
exist, the CHANGE command will create the layer first and
then move the objects you specified onto that layer. Enter
TRI as the layer name, and almost instantly AutoCAD
accomplishes its task. Enter LAYER, followed by ?, and
finally * to check to see if the new layer was created.
You should now see layers 0 and TRI listed.
The CHANGE command can save time when making changes in
your drawing.

Exercise
EX15--1 Use the CHANGE command to make changes to
the car truck your drew in EX4—3.

148
LESSON 16—Freehand Drawing: FILLET, SKETCH
In this lesson you will learn how to use AutoCAD to do
"freehand" drawing, and how to "round" the corners of
objects you have already drawn. Run AutoCAD and create a
drawing called LESSON 16.
Rounding-off Corners
A fillet is an arc which connects two lines. Set your
limits to 12,9 and draw three lines as indicated below.
c
5
A
Now, enter FILLET. AutoCAD will then prompt:
Select two lines or R:
Because an arc must have a specified radius, you need to
set the radius you want for your fillet. This does not
have to be reset before each fillet, just when you want to
change the radius. Enter R. AutoCAD will then prompt:
Enter fillet radius:
Enter .5. AutoCAD will record this as the new fillet
radius and return you to the Command: prompt. Enter. FILLET
again. This time when prompted, move your crosshairs to
any point on line A and select it. Then, move your
crosshairs to any point on line B and select it. When you
do, AutoCAD will compute the center point and draw an arc
between the two lines. When it does this, it will erase
part of a line that is too long or extend a line that is
too short, so that a perfect rounded corner is the result.
Enter FILLET again, and set the radius to 0. Enter FILLET
once more, and select lines B and C when prompted. When
this is done, AutoCAD will adjust these two lines so that
they end at precisely the same point. This is a fast way
to correct some drawing errors.

-L 3
Practice drawing lines and fillets before moving to the
next section of this lesson.
Freehand Drawing
The SKETCH command frees you from some of the rigidity of
most of AutoCAD1s other commands. However, it does have
certain limitations. The major limitation is that it only
works with an alternative pointing device such as a mouse
or digitizer tablet. If you do not have such a device,
then you cannot use this command. If you do have an
alternative pointing device, erase all objects in the
current drawing, turn off SNAP and ORTHO, and enter SKETCH.
AutoCAD will then prompt you:
Record increment:
The SKETCH command actually draws a series of short,
straight lines to form your sketch. The smaller the
increment (length of these lines), the more detailed you
can make the sketch. The problem with making your
increment very small is that the smaller the increment, the
more memory and disk space the drawing will take. For now,
enter .01 as the increment. AutoCAD will now display:
Sketch. Pen exit Record Erase Connect
This is your menu for the SKETCH command. You enter the
capitalized letter, or the period (.) to select the desired
option of this command.
The Pen (P) option is the most used option in this command.
Before you draw, you move your crosshairs to the point
where you wish to begin drawing, and then press the [P] key
to turn on your pen. Once you have done this, you can
begin drawing. As you move the crosshairs, you draw. Once
you have drawn as much of your sketch as you wish, press
the [P] key again. This will turn off the pen. Now when
you move the crosshairs, no lines are drawn. You can move
the crosshairs to a new point, toggle the pen back on with
the [P] key, and continue drawing from that point. If you
make a mistake, you can press the [E] key to select the
Erase option. When you do, AutoCAD will prompt:
SELECT end of delete
This option works differently from the ERASE command you
learned earlier. This option erases from the end point of
the sketch-line you just completed, back to the point you
are being asked to specify. Move your crosshairs. AutoCAD
will blackout the portion that it will erase. When you

have your crosshairs on the point you wish to select, press
the [P] key. When you erased a line by mistake earlier,
you could get it back by using the OOPS command. If you
make a mistake here, you can get the erased part back be
pressing the [E] key again. Practice sketching and using
the Erase option.
One reason that the SKETCH command is so flexible is that
your sketching has not been saved onto your disk. It is
only in the computer's memory. Once sketches have been
saved onto your disk, you cannot erase them with the Erase
option of this command.
There are two ways to save the sketch onto your disk. The
first is to use the exit option. This option saves your
sketch to your disk and exits the SKETCH command at the
same time. The second is to use the Record option which
saves your sketching onto your disk but does not exit the
SKETCH command. You can then sketch more.
If you are not pleased with your drawing and decide to make
a new start, the Quit option can help. This option erases
all sketching that has not been saved onto your disk and
then exits the SKETCH command.
The Connect (C) option can help you find the last end point
of your sketching. This is very helpful after you have
used the Erase option. Select this option now and find
your last end point.
The last option of the command is the period (.) option.
Turn off your pen, and move it away from the end point of
your last sketching. Now press the [.] key. This option
will draw a straight line from your last end point to the
point you just selected. This command makes drawing long
straight lines within the SKETCH command easy.
CAUTION. Because the SKETCH command uses large amounts of
memory and disk space, it should be used only when
necessary. Use the STATUS command to check your disk
space to ensure that you have enough room. AutoCAD will
warn you if you are filling the computer's memory and ask
you to save your sketching onto your disk. If you fill
your disk, you may end up losing a lot of your drawing.

Sketch the drawi
n9 belo
w.

LESSON 17—Creating Your Own Menus: MENU
By this point, you have learned to use most of AutoCAD's
commands. In selecting these commands, you have either
entered them at the the keyboard or selected them from the
menu area on the right side of the Drawing Editor's
display. In this lesson you will learn how to create your
own menus to make working with AutoCAD fast and easy.
What is a Menu?
When you enter the Drawing Editor from the Main Menu, one
of the messages displayed at the bottom of the screen is
"Loading menu file." The default menu which is loaded is
called ACAD.MNU. The suffix .MNU distinguishes this file
as a menu. Although a menu can be of several different
types, this lesson will only cover screen menus: menus
displayed in the menu area of the drawing editor display.
Before you begin creating your own menus, you need to be
aware of some of the rules and symbols for creating a menu.
First, the menu can only display a menu item of eight
characters or less. Second, the name of the menu item to
be displayed must be placed in square brackets [ ]. Next,
the commands, responses, and special characters which make
up the menu item follow the item name. Look at the menu
item below.
[SQUARE]INSERT A:SQUARE \
Every character in a menu item means something to AutoCAD,
therefore, care must be taken not to add something extra or
leave something out. This menu item has the name SQUARE.
It's name is placed in square brackets. Immediately after
the name of the menu item is the first command, INSERT.
There is no space before the command name. The space after
the word INSERT acts as a [RETURN], It tells AutoCAD to
process this command. If you remember the structure of the
insert command, you will recall that the first thing for
which it asks is the name of the block to insert. It gets
this information from the next part of the menu item
ArSQUARE. The space after the block name acts as a
[RETURN]. The last part of the menu item, the back slash
(\), tells AutoCAD that the user is to input the next piece
of information at the keyboard or by using the crosshairs.
If the block you are inserting is always going to be scaled
the same, then this information could be included in the
menu item. Since nothing appears after the back slash,
the rest of the prompts appear on the command line and the
user must input the responses.

Here are some more menu items and descriptions of their
actions.
[ERASE L]ERASE L;
This item erases the last object drawn. The semicolon (;)
acts as a [RETURN],
[ClRCLE]CIRCLE \DRAG;
This item enters the CIRCLE command and waits for you to
pick the center point and DRAG the point for the radius.
Your menu items can include only one command or many
commands. If the item is too large to fit on one typed
line, a plus sign ( + ) must be used to connect one line to
another. Here is an example of a lengthy menu item.
[SETUP]UNITS4 8 N 0;LIMITS ; 1 3 6 ' ,86'; INSERT TBLOCK 0,0 ;
TEXT C 1301,1' 9" 0 DELBERT HALL;
Another hint in creating a menu is to include a special
character before the first command to cancel any command
that you may have started. You did this at the keyboard
earlier by holding down the [CONTROL] key and pressing the
[C] key. To enter this same cancel function in a menu
item, you type the caret symbol (") followed by the letter
C. Here is an example of this function used in a menu
item.
[OOPS]"COOPS;
It is important that you know the sequence of prompts for
every command you use in a menu item. If you are not
certain of the sequence, look it up in the lesson in which
that command was covered or in The AutoCAD Drafting Package
User Guide.
Typing Your Menu
To create a menu requires a word processor with a program
or non-document mode. Many word processors including Word
Star and Peach Text have this feature.
When you create your menu, create it in the non-document
mode. Also add ".MNU" to the end of the file name so that
AutoCAD will recognize it as a menu file. After you have
completed your menu, save it onto your disk.
If you have never used a word processor, Appendix C has
some hints for using the WordStar word processor.

You can create as many menus as you like with as many items
in each menu as you need. The following are some uses for
special menus.
Furniture - inserting furniture pieces
Lighting - inserting various lighting instruments
Setup - setting LIMITS, drawing your margin lines and
title block, and labeling it
Resolution - setting different SNAP resolutions
Draw - drawing commands you use frequently
Using Your New Menu
It is very easy to get AutoCAD to replace its regular menu
with yours. To do so, enter MENU. AutoCAD will prompt:
File name:
Now enter the name of your menu file. Do not enter the .MNU
suffix onto the end of the file name. AutoCAD knows to look
for this type of file. When it finds the file you
specified, it will replace its own menu with yours. By
using the arrow keys you can select your menu items.
Having your custom menu displayed in the menu area does not
prevent you from using any of AutoCAD's standard commands.
You can still enter the regular commands at the keyboard
and select your own menu items from the menu area. You can
design custom menus to fit special drafting needs. This is
one of the best features AutoCAD provides.
Exercises
EX17--1 Create a menu for inserting the lighting
instruments you drew in EX12—1.
EX17--2 Create a menu of one item which, when chosen,
will draw a circle, write your name, draw a margin
line, insert a lighting instrument, ZOOM in on the
circle, ERASE the circle, and ZOOM A without any
input from the keyboard.

155
LESSON 18—Getting up Attributes and Creating Reports;
ATTDEF, ATTEXT, ATTDISP, ATTEDIT
Attributes are tags which are attached to blocks. When you
insert the block, AutoCAD prompts you for either the
character value or the numeric value for each tag. You
can have as many attributes as you wish attached to a block
and these attributes can be visible or invisible within the
drawing. The location, size, and rotation angle of each
attribute is specified when it is created. The values of
these attributes can later be electronically read from your
drawing and used to create a report. A "bill of materials"
is a report which lists all of the occurrences of specified
objects, such as doors and windows, and gives specified
data about each. This type of report is easily created by
AutoCAD.
In this lesson you will create attributes for a lighting
instrument, use this instrument in a plot, and then extract
these attributes to create a report (instrument schedule).
Run AutoCAD and create a drawing called LESSON18. Set
UNITS to architectural, LIMITS to 10',8', and turn on SNAP.
Defining Attributes
In Exercise 14--1 you drew five lighting instruments and
saved them as blocks. Insert one of these instruments into
this drawing as shown below.
\
The following attributes will be associated with this
symbol: INST. NUMBER, POSITION, CIRCUIT, and GEL.

The command to set-up an attribute is ATTDEF, which stands
for attribute definition. This command is used to define
each attribute. Enter ATTDEF to begin defining the
attribute GEL. AutoCAD will prompt:
Attribute mode - Invisibles Constants VerifyS
Enter (ICV) to change, RETURN when done.
The three modes control whether an attribute is visible or
invisible, whether it is constant or variable, and whether
or not the value is to be later verified by the user. For
the GEL (color number) you do not want it invisible, you do
not want it constant (different instruments will have
different gel colors), but you do want to verify your
input, so enter V. AutoCAD will now prompt:
Attribute mode - Invisibles Constants VerifyS
Enter (ICV) to change, RETURN when done.
Since this is how you want the attribute set, press
[RETURN].
Next AutoCAD will prompt:
Attribute tag:
This is when you enter the name of the attribute you are
defining. Enter GEL. AutoCAD will then prompt:
Attribute prompt:
You now enter the message with which AutoCAD will prompt
when you are to enter the gel color number. Prompt messages
should be meaningful and clear. Enter WHAT IS THE GEL
NUMBER? Next AutoCAD prompts:
Default attribute value:
If you have a value that is used often, you can enter it
here. Since no single gel is used more than any other,
press [RETURN] to enter no value. AutoCAD's next prompt
is:
Starting point or (ACRS):
This is the prompt for the location of the attribute.
Since an attribute is text, several of its prompts are the
same as in the TEXT command. Enter C to center the value.
Then move your crosshairs and select a point just in front
of the instrument. AutoCAD then prompts:
Height <.200>:

Enter 4 to set the height of the text to 4 inches.
Finally, AutoCAD prompts:
Rotation angle <0>:
Press [RETURN] to accept zero as the rotation angle.
You have now defined the first attribute. Use the drawing
and data below to define the three remaining attributes.
c p
/ \
• — ■
w
GEL
INST, NUMBER
CIRCUIT
POSITION
Command: ATTRIBUTE
Attribute modes - Invisible :N Constants Verify:Y
Attribute tag: CIRCUIT
Attribute prompt: TO WHAT CIRCUIT IS THIS INSTRUMENT CONNECTE
Default attribute value: (none)
Starting point or (ACRS): C
Height: 4
Rotation angle: 0
Command: ATTRIBUTE
Attribute modes - Invisible :Y Constants Verify:Y
Attribute tag: POSITION
Attribute prompt: ON WHAT POSITION IS THIS INSTRUMENT LOCATED
Default attribute value: (none)
Starting point or (ACRS): C
Height: 4
Rotation angle: 0
Command: ATTRIBUTE
Attribute modes - Invisible :N Constant:N Verify:Y
Attribute tag: INST. NUMBER
Attribute prompt: WHAT IS THE INST. NUMBER?
Default attribute value: (none)
Starting point or (ACRS): C
Height: 6
Rotation angle: 0

I JO
If it seems that these attributes were defined in an
unusual order, you are correct. Attributes must be defined
in reverse order. In this case, the INST. NUMBER will be
prompted first, followed by the POSITION, the CIRCUIT, and
the GEL.
Now that you have defined the attributes, you must
associate them with the symbol by combining them into one
object, a block. Use the BLOCK command to create a block
that contains the symbol and all of the attributes. Be sure
to provide this block with a name that associates it with
the type of instrument it represents. Make the insertion
point the center of the instrument. When this is done, you
are ready to create your plot.
Using a Block with Attributes
Using a block which contains attributes is similar to using
one which does not. Below is how the plot you are about to
create should look when you are finished. The POSITION
attribute is invisible.
60
c p
) \
Bll
Enter INSERT and then the name of the block you just
created. Next, use your crosshairs to specify the
insertion point, and then enter the scaling factors and the
rotation angle. Now AutoCAD will begin prompting you for
the attributes' values. Use the drawing above to get the
information to enter. Call this position the 1ST ELECTRIC.
Once AutoCAD has asked you for the four attributes' values,
it will re-prompt you with the values and want you to
verify them. This is the result of setting the verify mode
to Y. If the value is what you want it to be, press the
34 09
L.
3 c
p
/
(
3
2
O
B13
]
B12

±oy
[RETURN] key. If not, enter the value you want. Once the
four attributes' values have been verified, AutoCAD will
draw the block and the visible attributes' values. Now
enter INSERT again, and insert the next instrument and its
attributes' values. Repeat this process until your have
completed the drawing above.
Making a Report
AutoCAD can capture the attributes' values from your
drawing and make a report. The command to do this is
ATTEXT (ATTribute EXTract). This command can extract the
information in any one of three different formats: Comma
Delimited Format (CDF), Space Delimited Format (SPF) , or a
Drawing Extraction File (DXF). In this lesson you will use
the SDF format only. The AutoCAD Drafting Package User
Guide contains information about other formats.
Before AutoCAD can read data from a drawing, it must know
what data you want and how to arrange it. This information
is stored in a template file. You can create a template
file with a line editor, a data base management program, or
with a word processor a non-document mode.
Since you have completed your drawing, save it with the END
command and exit the Drawing Editor. Next, exit AutoCAD
and run your word processor. Be sure that you open a non¬
document file and name it TEMPLATE.TXT. The suffix .TXT
must be a part of a template file name. Now, enter the
information exactly as it is listed below.
INST. NUMBER N003000
SPACE1 C002000
BLlNAME C010000
SPACE2 C002000
POSITION C015000
SPACE3 C002000
GEL N003000
Each line represents one attribute or piece of information.
"INST. NUMBER" is the name of one of your attributes. When
AutoCAD searches your drawing and finds a lighting
instrument, it will list its INST. NUMBER first.
"N003000" tells AutoCAD three things: first, this item is
treated as numerical data; second, this column of the
report is to have three spaces; and third, there are no
digits to the right of the decimal place.
The next entry is "SPACE1 C002000." This a special entry
used to provide a column of two blank spaces to keep items
from running together in the report. It is treated as

-LOW
character data and has a width of two. Character data does
not have a decimal place so the last three digits are
"000. "
The third entry is "BL:NAME." "BL:" means that this
information is related to the block itself. In this case,
AutoCAD extracts the name of the block and makes it the
next entry in the report. Not only can you extract the
attributes from the drawing, but also information about the
blocks themselves. The AutoCAD Drafting Package User Guide
has additional information about other data that can be
read from your drawings.
The remaining entries are more "spacing entries" and
attributes. These are set up similar to one of the first
three entries. Save this file and run AutoCAD again.
Return to the drawing LESS0N18.
Now enter ATTEXT. AutoCAD will prompt:
CDF, SDF, or DXF Attribute extract :
Enter S to choose Space Delimited Format. AutoCAD will
then prompt:
Extract file name :
The extracted file will have the same name as the drawing
unless you specify a different name. However, this file
will have the suffix .TXT, whereas your drawing has .DWG as
its suffix. Press [RETURN] to accept this name. Finally,
AutoCAD will prompt:
Template file :
Enter TEMPLATE, or the name of the template file you
created. AutoCAD will then search the drawing and prepare
a report as you have specified in a file named
LESS0N18.TXT. By having different templates, you can
create different reports from the same drawing. AutoCAD
will inform you of the number of entries (blocks) from
which it extracted information. Your report is now
complete. To view, edit, and print your report, exit this
drawing and AutoCAD and return to your word processor.
The report you have created is similar to an instrument
schedule. This feature can be used to create instrument
schedules, board hook-ups, gel cutting reports, etc.

Exercises
EX18--1. Definethe following attribute for the five
instruments you created in EX12--2 and use them in
a lighting plot with at least two hanging
positions: POSITION, INST.#, DIMMER, CIRCUIT,
AREA, GEL, and REMARKS.
EX18--2 Create a template file to extract these
attributes plus the block name, and create a
report (instrument schedule).

LESSON 19—Adding Variety to Your Text:
STYLE
In this lesson you
more elaborate text
will learn how to use different, and
styles to add variety to your drawings.
Text Styles
When you run AutoCAD,
called "TXT". This is
used when you used the
with four other fonts,
and VERTICAL. Below are
it loads in
the letterin
TEXT command
They are SIM
examples of
a text style or font
g style that you have
. AutoCAD is supplied
PLEX, COMPLEX, ITALIC,
these styles.
TXT¡ Standard font
ABC123$8 SIMPLEX: Smoother font
ABC123$&?
COMPLEX: Multi-stroke
ABC123$&?
ITALIC: Italicized
ABC123$ V A
E B
R C
T 1
I 2
C 3
A $
L &
These fonts can be altered in several ways to produce
scores of different lettering styles. To best understand a
text style, you should create one. As you do, you will
learn the parts which compose a text style. Run AutoCAD
and create the drawing LESSON19. Then, enter STYLE. This
is the command to define a text style. AutoCAD will
prompt:
Text style name (or ?):
You must now tell AutoCAD the name of the text style that
you are about to define. The name can be up to 31
characters in length and may contain letters, numbers, and
the special characters "$ - Call your text style
SIMPLE.

ib ¿
Next, AutoCAD will prompt:
Font name :
In order to create a text style you must build from an
existing font. You have four fonts from which to choose:
TXT, SIMPLEX, COMPLEX, or VERTICAL. Enter SIMPLEX. AutoCAD
will now prompt:
Height :
The height of characters is normally set to 0. Doing this
allows you to set the actual height of the characters when
you use the TEXT command. If you enter another height,
that will be the height of the characters, and they will
not be able to be changed within the TEXT command, so enter
0 to this prompt.
The next prompt is:
Width factor :
This factor is normally set to 1. If the width factor is
less than one, then the letters will appear condensed. If
the width factor is greater than one then the letters will
appear stretched. Below are examples of text set to
different widths.
Simplex Skinny
Simplex Normal
Simplex Wide
Enter 1 to keep them normal. Then AutoCAD will prompt:
Obliquing angle :
Another name for the obliquing angle is the "slant" of the
letters. If the obliquing angle is 0 the letters will
stand straight; if the angle is negative, the letters will
lean to the left; and if the angle is positive, the letters
will lean to the right. Below are examples of three
obliquing angles.

164
0" obliquing (norme!) !
15' (forward) obliquing L_
—1SS ((oacVo'NQ'rci') ctoWcquvrxo, _A
Enter 0 to keep your letters standing straight. The next
two prompts are:
Backward? :
Upside-down? :
The following are examples of text using these settings.
flbsjqe—qoMU
2blDW>l0D8
These settings are rarely used. Enter N to both of these
prompts. You have now defined a text style.
Using Different Text Styles
Using your newly-defined text style in your drawing is
easy. Begin by entering TEXT. When you do, AutoCAD will
prompt:
Starting point (or ACRS):
In Lesson 10 you learned what the A, C, and R does, but not
what the S does. The S stands for "Style" and is used to
select the text style to be used. Enter S. AutoCAD will
prompt:
Style name :

Enter SIMPLE. This was the name you gave the text style
you defined earlier. AutoCAD will then return to the last
prompt:
Starting point (or ACRS):
Move your crosshairs and select a starting point. Then
respond to the remaining prompts as you usually do and
enter SIMPLE as your text. AutoCAD will then draw your
text in the style you specified. This text style will
remain the default until you specify another.
Create different text styles using different fonts,
obliquing angles, etc. You might want to create a menu
item that loads in different fonts, defines text styles,
and sets the default text style to one other than TXT.

LESSON 20—Isometric Drawings: ISOPLANE, SNAP, GRID
Isometric drawings allow you to see three sides of an
object at the same time. To accomplish this, an isometric
view must distort the actual shape to some degree. However,
it is often the best type of drawing for helping visualize
an object. Therefore, it is commonly used in detail
drawings.
Although it is possible to create isometric drawings with
the commands you already know, AutoCAD does provide some
features to make it easier.
Run AutoCAD and create the drawing LESSON20.
Isometric Crosshair Movement
Up to now, the X and Y axis of your coordinates have been
at right angles to each other. This is because your
drawings have been of two dimensional objects. However, an
isometric drawing represents three dimensional objects, and
therefore, must have an X and a Y and a Z axis. The X axis
follows the 150/330 degree angle, the Y axis follows the
90/270 degree angle, and the Z axis follows the 30/210
degree angle.
Y-AXIS
90*
To change from two axes movement (standard) to three axes
movement (isometric) you use the SNAP command. Enter SNAP.
AutoCAD will prompt:
On/Off/Value/Aspect/Rotate/Style:

167
Enter S to change the style. AutoCAD will prompt:
Standard/Isometric:
Enter I to set the style to Isometric. AutoCAD will then
prompt:
Vertical spacing:
Vertical spacing is another name for the snap resolution.
Enter .5 to set the snap resolution to .5 units.
To get an idea of the change you have made, enter GRID.
AutoCAD will prompt:
On/Off/Value(X)/Aspect:
Enter .5. This command will set the grid to .5 units, the
same value as your snap resolution, and then turn on the
grid. The grid can be used to help you visualize direction
and spacing when you draw.
perform,
it does
But before you start, you have one more step to
Since a drawing is two dimensional, even if
represent a three dimensional object, you can only specify
two of the three axes for your crosshairs' movement at one
time. Look at the cube below. The lines which make up the
left side lie on the X and Y axes, the lines which make up
the top lay on the X and Z axes, and the lines which make
up the right side lie on the Y and Z axes. Each section of
this cube would be drawn while you are in the position
which specifies the axes needed to draw on that plane.
LEFT
RIGHT

The AutoCAD command to set the axes is ISOPLANE. Enter
ISOPLANE. AutoCAD will prompt:
Left/Top/Right/(Toggle):
Entering LEFT, RIGHT, or TOP will specify the two axis
which make up that plane. By only pressing [RETURN], you
can toggle between the three responses.
Turn on your crosshairs and use your arrow keys to move
them around the screen area. Change planes by pressing the
[RETURN] key and watch how a different pair of axes are
selected. Move the new crosshairs around the screen.
Select the third pair of axes and move these crosshairs
around the drawing area. Now, draw a cube like the one
above. Use the LINE command, as you did earlier. All of
AutoCAD's command still work. You must simply adjust to
seeing your object on the three planes and change to the
correct plane for drawing lines on that plane.
When you have completed the cube, practice drawing more
complicated objects, such as objects with curves. When you
have mastered AutoCAD's isometric feature, end this
drawing.
Exercise
EX20--1 Draw an isometric view of a standard
platform. Suspend the lid above the frame in order
to show the construction of the frame. Set your
units to architectural and your snap resolution to
3/4 of an inch.

J. O V
CONCLUSION
Theatrical Drafting with AutoCAD
The exercises at the end of each lesson in the
tutorial have been short examples of the uses of the
commands you have learned up to that point. These command
are sufficient to allow you to do most theatrical drafting
floor plans, front elevations, rear elevations, detail
drawings, section drawings, and lighting plots. It is now
time for you to use AutoCAD in a production drawing
situation.
Begin by re-drafting the working drawings of a
production with which you are familiar from manually done
drawings. The key to increasing your drawing speed with
CAD is to plan the drafting process carefully so that the
drawing can be completed with the least amount of work.
Several of AutoCAD's features are excellent devices
for saving time and effort. You can create custom menus
that contain commands to help accomplish time-consuming
tasks faster. A command to draw border lines and title
blocks is one such custom command. Also, you can create
blocks that you can use over and over to save you time.
Standard drawings of your theatre can be created and used
as a start for floor plans, section drawings of a set,
and light plots.

X / Y)
Below are some hints for improving your CAD
productivity with different types of theatrical drawings.
Floor Plans
Always begin a drawing by planning how you will draft
it. Decide what layers you need and create them. By
turning off layers on which you have drawn, you decrease
the regeneration time. This can cause a significant time
savings on large drawings. If you have already drawn the
theatre in which this production takes place, insert it.
Build a library of blocks such as furniture, which you
might use in your drawings. Remember, a block is always
inserted on the layer on which it was created, unless the
block was created on layer 0, in which case, the block is
inserted on the current layer. A rectangular block 1.25" x
1' can be created and used as the plan view of a flat. The
extra thickness makes the flat appear clearly when plotted.
Insert this flat with the length and angle needed to make
each wall.
Other commands and functions useful in drawing floor
plans are: CHANGE, DIST, and OSNAP.
Front and Rear Elevations
If you plan to draft both front and rear elevations,
draw the front elevations first. Each unit of flats in the
front elevation can be saved as a block and inserted in the

new drawing with an X factor of -1 to reverse the unit from
a front elevation to a rear elevation. This will save you
time when drawing the rear elevation. Be sure to save
these units as blocks before you dimension them or the
dimensioning will be reversed in the rear elevation.
The most difficult part of drawing front or rear
elevations is dimensioning them. Accuracy is very
important in dimensioning your drawings. Be certain that
you have drawn and dimensioned all lines correctly.
Another dimensioning problem involves text size. On the
screen, your text my seem the proper size, but when
plotted, it can be extremely large, writing over
construction lines or forcing AutoCAD to write the
dimension outside of the extension lines. The following
standards can be used to set your dimensioning
specifications. As you become more experienced with
AutoCAD and plotting your drawings, you will settle on
dimensioning specifications which suits your drafting
style.
DIMASZ -
3"
DIMTXT -
4"
DIMEXO -
3"
DIMEXE -
3"
DINTIH -
on
DIMTOH -
on
DIMTAD -
off
Rear elevations contain many lines, and regeneration,
when changing views, can take a great deal of time. Plan
your drafting to minimize regenerations. Take care to see

that your lines are horizontal or vertical where required,
and that your lines meet to form proper corners. Errors in
accuracy that are not apparent when zoomed out show up when
the drawing is plotted. Be aware that on any large and
complex drawing, you may have to do a test plot to find
drafting mistakes.
Other Drawings
The same guidelines for drawing floor plans, front
elevations and rear elevations also apply to section
drawings, detail drawings, and light plots. Plan your
drafting and make use of the features that CAD offers.
Keep a list of drafting tricks that work in certain
situations, and try to create custom commands to make jobs
easier. Save blocks so that you can use them in other
drawings. Keep a list of your blocks and the layer on
which each was created. Create custom menus and commands
to make time-consuming tasks faster.
Practice drafting different types of theatrical
drawings. As you learn more ways to use AutoCAD's commands
and features, your drafting speed should increase. After
about one hundred hours of drawing with AutoCAD, most users
can draft as fast or faster with CAD than with manual
methods.
As you learn more about CAD, you may discover other
ways to use it. Besides drafting, AutoCAD might be used as
a design tool, and new features being added may help you do

perspective drawings of sets. CAD is a productivity tool
whose design and drafting applications have just begun to
be explored.
Final Notes
While this tutorial was being written, AutoDesk
released AutoCAD, version 2.17, for the Zenith Z-100. This
latest version of AutoCAD has several new commands, many of
them related to the new three-dimensional capabilities of
AutoCAD. AutoDesk also made slight command structure
changes for many of the old commands in its newest version
of AutoCAD. Although AutoCAD, version 2.17, does have new
features which would be of interest to scenic designers,
very few changes were made to improve the two-dimensional
drafting capabilities of AutoCAD.
Users should be aware of the version of AutoCAD and
the drafting extensions which they purchase. Each version
of AutoCAD will differ slightly from another, and
directions in this tutorial may be confusing if used with a
version of AutoCAD other than version 2.02

APPENDIX B
PLOTTING TABLE
The following plotting table is for the Houston Instruments
DMP-42 plotter.
Technical Data:
Plot Size
SMALL
LARGE
Paper Size
18 x 24 inches (C)
24 x 36 inches (D)
Plot Area
14.5 x 21.5 inches
21.5 x 34 inches
Plot Table
Scale
AutoCAD Scale
Limits (C)
Limits (D)
1/8"
-
1 '
-0"
1:96
172',116'
272 '
, 172 ’
1/4"
=
1'
-0"
1:48
86' ,58 '
136 '
,86 '
3/8"
=
1 '
-0"
1:32
64'6",43'6"
102 '
,43 '6"
1/2"
=
1'
-0"
1:24
43 ' ,29 '
68 '
,43 •
3/4"
=
1 '
-0"
1: 16
3213 ", 21 1 9"
51'
,32'3"
1"
=
1 '
-0"
1:12
21’6",14 ’6"
34 '
,21 ’6"
2"
=
1 '
-0"
1:6
10’9",7'3"
17'
,10 '9"
174

APPENDIX C
NOTES ON USING WORDSTAR
A book which is of great help in learning WordStar is
WordStar Made Easy by Walter A. Ettlin. If you are
planning to use word processing on a regular basis, this
book will made using WordStar much easier.
To start WordStar, type WS
The screen will show you many command which you will need.
Ctrl D And a name brings up a new document, if it is a
new name. Add the drive name as the prefix to
save the file on that drive.
Ctrl D And the name of a file that already exist will
bring up that document. Files stored on the
default drive will appear below the menu of
commands. To see files stored on another drive
use:
Crtl L And it will ask for the drive name
Ctrl N And a name to create a non-document file. This
type of file is used by AutoCAD.
Ctrl G Will kill the letter over the cursor
Ctrl T Will kill the word to the right of the cursor
Ctrl Y Will kill the entire line that the cursor is on
(be careful with this command)
To move the cursor on the screen:
Use the Ctrl key with the letters indicated below. Note
that the keys are laid out in a cross pattern of the
direction you want to move.
QR= To top of document
R= One screen up
E= One line up
W= Scroll up a line
QS = To front of line
A= One word left
S= One letter left
QD= To end of line
F= One word right
D= One letter right
QC= To end of document
1 r C= One screen down
X= One line down
Z — Scroll down a line
175

The program will put in its own page limitation. If you
want to force a new page, use the dot command on the left
had side of the page.
Type PA and press the [RETURN] key. This command and a
line will appear on the screen.
The program will put in its own page numbers. If you do
not want these page numbers to be printed, type .OP on the
first line of the document.
The DEL key will move the cursor to the left one space.
The BACK SPACE key will also move the cursor to the left
one space, but it will NOT erase the letter.
Ctrl KD will save the file you are working on. If this is
an old file, a .BAK file will also be created. This is
actually your original file.
To move a section of your text, you first mark the top and
the bottom of the section that you want to move.
Ctrl KB For the beginning of the block
Ctrl KK For the end of the block
Note the the symbols and are placed at the
beginning and end of the block and the block will appear in
inverse video.
Then move the cursor to where you want the block inserted.
Ctrl KC Will place a copy of the block at this location
Ctrl KV Will move the block from the old location to the
new location
Ctrl KY Will delete the block
Ctrl KH Will remove the inverse video and return the text
to normal
Ctrl OC Will center the text on a line
To change to margin width use the following:
Ctrl OR Will ask you how many spaces wide the document
should be. You just enter the number and hit
[RETURN]; 65 is the default.
Ctrl OL Will ask you how many spaces the left margin
should be. You just enter the number and hit
[RETURN], The line at the top of the screen will
show you your results.
If you want the right margin justified use:
Ctrl B It will set them straight or ask you if you want
a hyphen. If you do not, just use the command
again.
If you want text print in bold type use:
Ctrl PB Use it at the front and back of the text you want
in bold print.

If you want to underline some text use:
Ctrl PS Use it at the front and back of text you want
underscored.
To get out of WordStar just hit the X key after
document has been saved.
the

4
APPENDIX D
CAD PROGRAMS ON THE MARKET
AutoCAD
Autodesk Inc.
150 Shoreline Hwy., Bid. B
Mill Valley, CA 94941
(415) 331-0356
CADKEY
Micro Control Systems Inc.
27 Hartford Turnpike
Vernon, CT 06066
(203) 647-0220
CADplan, CADdraft
P-CAD Personal CAD Systems Inc.
15425 Los Gatos Blvd.
Los Gatos, CA 95030
(408) 356-3183
CADVANCE
CalComp: Personal Systems Unit
200 Hacienda Ave.
Campbell, CA 95008
(714) 821-2000
Design Board Professional
Megga CADD Inc.
401 Second Avenue South
Seattle, WA 98104
(800) 223-3175
Drawing Processor
BG Graphics Systems Inc.
824 Stetson Ave.
Kent, WA 98031
(206) 852-2736
Generic CADD
Generic Software
6 Lake Bellevue, #203
Bellevue, WA 98005
(206) 462-1944
178

J- / -/
MicroCAD
Imagimeda Technologies
7650 Geary Blvd.
San Francisco, CA 94121
(415) 387-0263
ProCAD
CADCAL Products
9311 Eton St.
Chatsworth, CA 91311
(213) 700-7888
ProDesign II
American Small Business Computers
118 South Mill St.
Pryor, OK 74361
(918) 825-4844
ROBOCAD-PC
ROBOgraphics
Chessel1-Robocom Corp.
125 Pheasant Run Suite 2B
Newtown, PA 18940
(215) 968-4422
VersaCad Advanced, CADApple
T&W Systems Inc.
7372 Prince Dr. Suite 106
Huntington Beach, CA 92647
(714) 847-9960

APPENDIX E
AUTOCAD'S MENUS
ROOT
MENU
BLOCKS
ATTRIB:
BASE:
BLOCK:
INSERT:
WBLOCK:
DIM:
LINEAR -
ANGULAR:
DIAMETER:
RADIUS:
CENTER:
LEADER:
REDRAW:
STATUS:
UNDO:
EXIT:
DISPLAY
PAN:
QTEXT:
REDRAW:
REGEN:
RGNAUTO:
ZOOM
DRAW
ARC
CIRCLE
INSERT:
LINE:
POINT:
SHAPE:
SKETCH:
SOLID:
TEXT:
TRACE:
- ATTDEF:
- ATTDISP:
- ATTEXT:
- HORIZ:
- VERTICAL
- ALIGNED:
- ROTATED:
- BASELIN:
- CONTINU:
180

EDIT
- ARRAY:
- BREAK:
- CHANGE:
- COPY:
- ERASE:
- FILLET:
- MIRROR:
- MOVE:
HATCH:
INQUIRY
- AREA:
- DBLIST:
- DIST:
- ID:
- LIST:
- STATUS:
LAYERS
- LAYER:
- LINETYP:
- LTSCALE:
MODES
- AXIS:
- COORDS:
- DRAGMOD:
- GRID:
- ISOPLAN:
- ORTHO:
- OSNAP:
- SNAP:
- TABLET:
PLOT
UTILITY
- APERTUR:
- DXF/DXB
- FILES: - DXFIN:
- HELP: - DXFOUT
- LIMITS: - DXBIN:
- MENU:
- PURGE:
- RENAME:
- SCRIPT:
- STYLE:
- UNITS:
- SAVE:
- END:
- ENDSV:
- QUIT:

Frequently Used Sub-menus
ERASE
OSNAP
window
last
undo
OOPS:
LASTMENU
ROOTMENU
quick
center
endpoint
insert
intersec
midpoint
node
perpend
quadrant
tangent
none
LASTMENU
LAYER:
set
new
on
off
color
listing
LASTMENU
ROOTMENU

APPENDIX F
SYLLABUS
SYLLABUS FOR THE 4905 and THE 6905
COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING FOR SCENIC AND LIGHTING DESIGNERS
M-W-F Spring 1986 Dr. A.F.C. Wehlburg
8:30-9:20 Mr. Delbert L. Hall
The purpose of this course is to teach students the
fundamentals of computer-aided drafting. Students will
learn CAD using the AutoCAD drafting package on Zenith Z-
100 micro-computers. No prior knowledge of computers is
required.
This course is being taught as an upper-level course for
scenic and lighting designers. It will require a great
amount of work outside of class (approx. 8-10 hours per
week), and a large number of assignments. Because of the
structure of the course, students cannot afford to fall
behind. If you are not prepared to give this kind of
commitment to this course, DROP IT NOW.
A CAD Lab for the Department of Theatre has been
established in room 474 of Little Hall. This room contains
a great deal of expensive equipment and students in this
course are required to follow the established rules for
using this facility.
Text - Computer-Aided Drafting for Scenic and Lighting
Designers by D. Hall
Supplemental text - Inside AutoCAD by D. Raker and H. Rice
The following items are required for this course:
One (1), 1-1/2" 3 ring binder
Two (2), double sided-double density 5-1/4" floppy
diskettes
Grading will be based on the following:
40% Homework Assignments (averaged)
20% Mid-term Exam
30% Final Project
10% Attendance, attitude, and progress
100%
183

Cheating (making a copy of someone else's works and
submitting it as your own) will result in the failure of
students involved.
Any homework assignment turned in late will be docked 25
points. NO assignment will be accepted more than one week
late. NO incompletes will be given in this course.
Final Project is due on Thursday, May 1, at 9:00am.

APPENDIX G
COURSE OUTLINE
Jan. 6
8
Feb.
Intro.- What
The Computer
is CAD?
10
Formatting a disk
13
AutoCAD - Introduction
15
1)
Creating a Drawing
17
2)
AutoCAD's Coordinate
System
20
3)
Drawing and Erasing
Lines
22
4)
Drawing Circles and
Arcs
24
5)
Drawing Aids
27
TBA
29
6)
Measurements
31
7)
Different Lines and
Layers
3
8)
Text
5
9)
Dimensions
7
10)
Alternate Pointing Dev:
ices
10
TBA
12
ID
Duplicating
Parts of a
Drawing
14
12)
Making an Electronic Template
17
13)
Multiplying
an Object
19
14)
Adding Text
ure to Your
Drawings
21
15)
Correcting
Mistakes
24
TBA
26
Mid-
-term Exam
28
Title Block
Mar. 3 Ground Plan
5 No class meeting
7 No class meeting
10 Ground Plan (cont.)
12 Symbols (set)
14 Floor Plan
17 Floor Plan (cont.)
19 Symbols (lighting)
21 Light Plot
24 SPRING BREAK
26 SPRING BREAK
27 SPRING BREAK
31 Light Plot (cont.)
Apr. 2 Elevations
4 Elevations (cont.)
7 TBA
9 16) Freehand Drawing
11 17) Creating Your Own Menus
14 18) Getting up Attributes and Creati
ng Reports
185

16
19)
Adding Variety to
18
20)
Isometric Drawing
21
TBA
23
TBA
25
TBA
Text

APPENDIX H
TEST DRAWING

Mot»» from Tour lnitructon:
Mot»» froi th« Designers:
You ar» th« draftsun for th» Final Bean and your
d»»ign«ra har» Ju»t handad you tha floor plan balow.
Couplet» th» following drawing» for this show:
1. Floor Flan
2. Front KL»ratlona
Thi» should b» your vary b»»t work of th» semester
AM/WWWW
All flats ar» 14* tall. Windows ara 4» tall
and 3» off floor. Door 1» tall.
All flat» ar» rounded off to th» n»ar»»t foot In
width. Break walla down to US» stock flatag».
Sine» wo will be out of town next week, naka sur»
you Include all dlsMnsions, »tc. Those drawings
â– ist go to the shop todaJJJJ <
á
ww
L
Ti/**T4*
u.
3
188

APPENDIX I
DRAFTING EXAMPLES
Portion of a Drawing Created by CAD
189

Portion of a Drawing Created Manually
J
Ln
o
k
Tab I

APPENDIX J
QUESTIONNAIRE
>-
C
o
4)
>-
c
4)
CD
•—
CD
C i)
4)
CL
CD
C
O
4)
o
CD
o
L- L_
L.
in
L.
4-» CD
CD
o
—
4-»
to <
<
z
Q
to
1. I am experienced as a computer user. 2
2. I have experience in computer
programming. 2
2 2
4 3
3. I am familiar with some of the uses
of computers in the theatre.
4. I believe that the uses of
computers in the theatre will
continue to rise.
12
1 0
0 0
5.I believe that a knoledge of
computers by theatrical designers
and technicians will be necessary
in the future. 10 3 0 0 0
6. I feel that the use of computers
can add more flexibility and
creativity to a designer's job. 11 2 0 0 0
7. I have seen a CAD system demostrated
and understand its basic function. 92101
8. I think that the use of computers
will improve the quality of
drafting. 94000
9. I believe that theatre departments
should spend the necessary amount
of money to purchase CAD equipment
to'train students. 67000
191
Disagree

c
o
>*
•—
4)
>
c
4)
cn
—
i_
cn
c
4)
4)
CL
cn
c
o
V
4)
o
fTJ
o
i-
L.
L-
1_
4-»
cn
U)
o
•—
4-J
to
<
<
z
Q
to
10.I believe that a knoledge of CAD
will be beneficial when seeking
future employment in the theatre.
5 0 0 0
11. I think that college and university
theatre departments should offer
courses in computer-aided drafting. 10
12. I would be interested in taking a
course in CAD. 13
3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
Disagree

APPENDIX K
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TEST SUBJECTS
Test Group
GPA
SAT/GRE
TPA 3070
#1
2.53
1130
3.0
#2
2.72
1080
3.5
#3
3.29
1160
3.5
#4
2.25
970
3.5
Control Group
GPA
SAT/GRE
TPA 3070
#1
3.02
920
4.0
#2
3.21
1110
4.0
#3
2.24
NA
2.5
#4
3.34
1070
3.5
193

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
A native North Carolinian, Delbert L. Hall received
his Bachelor of Science degree in speech and theatre arts
from Western Carolina University in 1977 and his Master of
Fine Arts in drama from the University of North Carolina at
Greensboro in 1981. Mr. Hall taught scenic and lighting
design at the University of Miami and at LaGrange College
before coming to the University of Florida to pursue his
Ph.D.
Mr. Hall is the vice president of the southeast
section of the United States Institute for Theatre
Technology and he is the commissioner for Computers in
Education for that organization. An active member of the
Southeastern Theatre Conference for eleven years, he has
presented several programs on computers for state and
regional theatre groups.
Delbert married Kathleen Schmidt of St. Petersburg,
Florida, in 1982. They presently reside in Gainesville,
Florida.
201

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation fo^ the ' -----
I certify that I hayfe read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the <
Professor of Theatre
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully
as a dissertation for the degree/of/Doctor of Philosophy.
Thomas Abbott
Professor of Speech
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
as a dissertation for the de
Professor of Instruction and
Curriculum
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
the Department of Speech in the College of Liberal Arts and
Sciences and to the Graduate School and was accepted as
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.
December 1986
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 1968




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