Citation
Dimensions of juvenile delinquency and their relationship to sensation seeking, self-reported offenses, and frustration

Material Information

Title:
Dimensions of juvenile delinquency and their relationship to sensation seeking, self-reported offenses, and frustration
Creator:
Jefferson, Terry W
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v, 105 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Clinical psychology ( jstor )
Crimes against the person ( jstor )
Delinquency ( jstor )
Delinquent behavior ( jstor )
Mental stimulation ( jstor )
Property crimes ( jstor )
Psychology ( jstor )
Sensation seeking ( jstor )
Visual perception ( jstor )
Young offenders ( jstor )
Department of Clinical and Health Psychology thesis Ph.D ( mesh )
Dissertations, Academic -- College of Health Related Professions -- Department of Clinical and Health Psychology -- UF ( mesh )
Frustration ( mesh )
Juvenile Delinquency -- psychology ( mesh )
Research ( mesh )
Risk-Taking ( mesh )
Sensation ( mesh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 1989.
Bibliography:
Bibliography: leaves 96-104.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Terry W. Jefferson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
001140437 ( ALEPH )
22444976 ( OCLC )
AFN9781 ( NOTIS )
AA00004781_00001 ( sobekcm )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text












DIMENSIONS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP
TO SENSATION SEEKING, SELF-REPORTED OFFENSES, AND
FRUSTRATION












By

TERRY W. JEFFERSON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1989




DIMENSIONS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP
TO SENSATION SEEKING, SELF-REPORTED OFFENSES, AND
FRUSTRATION
By
TERRY W. JEFFERSON
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1989


ACKNOWLE DGMENTS
I would like to express my gratitude to the faculty and
staff of the Department of Clinical and Health Psychology
for their time and effort in making my tenure at Florida
productive and enjoyable. I would like to thank my
dissertation committee, Dr. Sheila Eyberg, Dr. Jackie
Goldman, Dr. Steve Boggs, and Dr. Ronald Akers, for their
constructive feedback and encouragment. I would especially
like to thank Dr. James Johnson for his guidance and
patience throughout my studies at Florida. His
encouragement and ideas gave me the enthusiasm needed to see
this project become a reality. I would like to express my
appreciation to the administration and teachers of the
Alachua County school system for their tolerance and
cooperation in the data collection phase of this study. I
would like to thank my parents for instilling in me the
concern for others that makes this field so rewarding. I
owe my biggest thanks to my son, Andrew, for his
unconditional love and smiles that always helped me keep
things in perspective, and my wife, Julie, for her love,
understanding and encouragement that persevered throughout
all the day-to-day hassles and rewards.
ii


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ABSTRACT iv
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Overview of Delinquency 1
Theories of Delinquency 2
The Role of Frustration 7
Dimensions of Delinquent Personalities 9
Stimulation Seeking and Its Relevance to
Delinquency 12
Nature of the Present Study 20
2 METHODS 24
Subjects 24
Measures 24
Procedures 2 9
Analysis 32
3 RESULTS 3 5
Self-Reported Delinquency 36
Delinquency and Sensation Seeking 4 6
Frustration 47
Academic, Problem Behavior, and
Extracurricular Activities 48
Correlations 53
4 DISCUSSION 57
APPENDICES
A QUESTIONNAIRES 68
B RAW DATA 85
REFERENCES 96
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 105
iii


Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
DIMENSIONS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP
TO SENSATION SEEKING, SELF-REPORTED OFFENSES AND FRUSTRATION
By
Terry W. Jefferson
August 1989
Chairman: James H. Johnson, Ph.D.
Major Department: Clinical and Health Psychology
This study examines the effects of delinquent
personality dimensions and sensation seeking on self-
reported delinquent behavior in a sample of high school
students. Three major personality dimensions have been
delineated within the delinquent population; however, very
little research has been conducted to assess the influence
these personality dimensions may have on delinquent
behavior. Sensation seeking has been proposed as a
motivator for various stimulating or risk-taking behaviors,
one of which is delinquent behavior. The individual effects
and interaction of sensation seeking and delinquent
personality dimensions on self-reported delinquent behavior
iv


were examined.
The data revealed a strong relationship between
sensation seeking and self-reported delinquent behavior.
Analysis showed that specific types of delinquent behavior
were significantly related to the interaction of delinquent
personality dimensions and gender. These findings were
discussed in relation to previous reseach, implications for
future study and possible preventative measures aimed at
reducing delinquent behavior.
v


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Overview of Delinquency
Juvenile delinquency is a legal term referring to a
person, under 18 years of age, who has committed a crime or
engaged in other illegal behavior not specified in the
criminal code which may potentially involve the individual
in the juvenile justice system. Delinquent behaviors can
range from status offenses that are illegal due to the age
of the offender (i.e. truancy, running away) to index
offenses which are illegal regardless of the age of the
offender (i.e. disorderly conduct, assault, burglary,
murder). Juvenile delinquency did not exist as a legal
entity until 1899, when the United States initiated special
juvenile courts to deal with young people who committed
crimes. Juvenile courts were heralded as a major social
advance where the welfare of the child became as important
as the crime committed (Stumphauzer, 1985).
Delinquency is quite common in America. Research has
shown that close to 90% of adolescents have engaged in some
type of delinquent behavior (Williams & Gold, 1972; Elliott,
Huizinga, & Ageton, 1985). In 1984, there were more than 2
million arrests of persons under 18 years of age (FBI,
1985). This figure is viewed as an underestimate, because
it is based only on reported crimes. Arrest rates tend to
1


2
increase with age, reaching a peak at 17 years for males,
and 16 for females (FBI, 1984). There has also been an
increase throughout the world in serious and violent crimes
by juveniles, such as armed robbery, murder, and rape
(Stumphauzer, 1981). These statistics suggest that
delinquency is one of the major problems facing the
behavioral sciences.
Theories of Delinquency
There have been many attempts to explain delinquent
behavior from different perspectives. Several of the major
theories include sociological, psychological, and
biological. Sociological theories of delinquency view the
behavior as a function of a complex interaction of variables
within the individual's environment, over which he or she
may or may not have control. These variables include sex,
race, socioeconomic status (SES), geographic region, family
characteristics, job opportunities, and subcultural norms
and values. Three of the major sociological theories will
be discussed.
Merton (1938) has developed what has been referred to
as anomic or strain theory, which has been elaborated on by
Cohen (1955) in the form of status deprivation, and Cloward
and Ohlin (1960) in the form of differential opportunity.
According to strain theory, success is prized by all
Americans, but opportunities for success by legitimate means
are not distributed equally among the social classes.
Adolescents feel pressure for deviant behavior when they


3
experience marked discrepancies between aspirations and
opportunities for achievement (Cloward and Ohlin, 1960).
This discrepancy or "strain" is primarily produced in lower
class youths who have conventional success goals, but due to
their social class have limited opportunities to achieve
these goals. This strain may produce lowered self-worth,
increased frustration, alienation, and ambivalence. It may
also produce attempts toward advancement through
illegitimate means, resulting in delinquent behavior and
often involvement in the juvenile justice system. This
theory was the motivating force behind several government
programs in the 1960's to help provide job opportunities,
better education, and community programs for juveniles of
lower income families. However, strain theory lacks
empirical support for several of its major premises and has
been criticized as being excessively complex in its attempt
to account for too much (Empey, 1982).
Another sociological theory of delinquency is the
Social Bonding theory proposed by Hirschi (1969). He
asserts that it is only the individual's bond to society
that deters antisocial behavior. The strength of this
social bond determines the person's degree of conformity.
This social bond is achieved through attachment, commitment,
involvement, and belief. Attachment is the tie of affection
and respect between children and significant others, such as
parents, teachers, and friends. Commitment is the extent to
which children dedicate themselves to conventional lines of


4
action for fear of the consequences of deviant behavior.
Involvement is the degree to which a person participates in
conventional activities. Belief is the degree that
individuals accept the morality of the law and conventional
values. Hirschi believes that these four factors are the
bases for conformity and that the lack of control from these
bonds is a major contributor to delinquent behavior. He
places much importance on the family in the development of
attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
Akers (1977) proposed a Social Learning theory of
deviant behavior, which has its origins in operant
conditioning research. He states that social behavior is
learned through operant conditioning, in which behavior is
shaped by its consequences. Behavior is strengthened by
reinforcement (presentation of positive stimuli or removal
of aversive stimuli) and weakened by punishment
(presentation of aversive stimuli or removal of positive
stimuli). The occurrence of deviant or conforming behavior
is dependent on the person's history of reinforcement and
punishment for the behavior and the reinforcement and
punishment associated with alternative behaviors
(differential reinforcement). He proposed that deviant
behavior will increase when there is greater exposure to
delinquent rather than nondelinquent models (imitation),
when delinquent behavior is differentially reinforced, when
there is more association with delinquent peers
(differential association), and when delinquent behavior is


5
framed in more positive than negative terms. This theory
has received empirical support for explaining drug abuse
(Krohn, Lanza-Kaduce, & Akers, 1984; Lanza-Kaduce, Akers,
Krohn & Radosevich, 1984) and aggressive behavior
(Neopolitan, 1981).
Some sociological theories have resulted in changes in
social policy and have led to the development of new
programs to address those areas viewed as being major
contributors to delinquency. The data on the application of
these programs to the problem of delinquency have resulted
in modest impact on the rates of delinquency (Empey, 1982) .
One reason for the modest success rates in prevention and
treatment of delinquency may be the assumption of
homogeneity of the delinquent personality espoused by most
of these theories. Closer scrutiny of the delinquent
population may reveal that certain sociological theories are
more applicable to some types of delinquents than others.
The fact that some children from the same environment
engage in delinquent behavior, while others do not, suggests
that more than just broad social factors are involved. In
the development of delinquent behavior, psychological
variables have often been posited as influential. The major
psychological theories of delinquency are analytical,
operant, and familial.
One of the earliest psychological theories of
delinquency was based on Freud's work. Friedlander (1947)
stressed that the delinquent functions according to the


6
pleasure principle and cannot tolerate frustration or delay
gratification. Delinquents have an ineffective superego,
due to inadequate care during infancy, which makes them
unable to inhibit their pleasure-seeking tendencies.
Another analytically oriented theory has been proposed by
Stot (1980). He proposed that growing children have two
basic needs: self realization; and care, affection, and
devotion from an adult. Dissatisfaction of either need
leads to discomfort and efforts to resolve this frustration.
If the frustration is not resolved, anxiety mounts, leading
to the activation of an emergency reaction system. This
system activates feelings of resentment and delinquent
behavior, such as retaliation, "avoidance excitement" and
"inferiority compensation."
The application of operant theory to delinquent
behavior has been elaborated on above (Akers, 1977), but has
clear implications for psychological learning processes.
Patterson (1982) theorizes that delinquent behavior is
primarily due to a dysfunctional family process. Through a
lack of discipline, the juvenile fails to learn to
discriminate between criminal and noncriminal behavior.
Parents contribute to the development of delinquent behavior
by failing to label, track, and provide consequences
consistently for this behavior. Parents reinforce
delinquent behavior by modeling coercive ways of
interacting, which results in deficient social skills.


7
This lack of social skills results in difficulties at school
and at work, which may predispose juveniles to interpersonal
problems throughout their life.
Various biological explanations for delinquent
behavior have also been proposed. Mowrer (1960) suggests
that some children's responsiveness to external stimulation
is impaired, which leads to difficulty making associations
between behavior and punishment. Therefore, these children
experience problems inhibiting behavior that may elicit
punishment and fail to learn the consequences of their
behavior.
Various sociological and psychological theories cite
strain, social bonding, or failure to learn consequences as
factors involved in etiology of delinquency. One common
characteristic shared by these factors is their production
of or increase in frustration.
The Role of Frustration
Many delinquent behaviors may be in response to
academic failure, blocked vocational opportunities, or
feelings of entrapment in an aversive situation, which many
juveniles find very frustrating. Frustration may result in
aggressive acts. Strain theorists have attempted to address
this issue at the sociological level, but firm empirical
support is lacking. One of the most influential
psychological theories of aggression is the Frustration-
Aggression Hypothesis (Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mower, &
Sears, 1939). According to this theory frustration always


8
leads to some form of aggression, and the occurrence of
aggressive behavior always presupposes the presence of
frustration. Frustration results from interference in
attaining some anticipated goal. Aggression is defined as a
behavior, the goal of which is the injury of a person.
According to this theory, various factors influence the
occurrence of aggression: the amount of frustration,
effects of punishment, displacement of aggression, and the
catharsis of aggression. Aggression will be directed at the
source of frustration, unless the aggression is inhibited
(via punishment), which will produce more frustration. This
vicious circle of frustration-blocked aggression-frustration
continues and increases the probability that the person will
exhibit other acts of aggression not directed at the
frustrating object (displaced aggression). Attempts to
create experimentally different levels of frustration and
look for corresponding differences in aggression has
provided only limited support for the theory (Williams &
Geison, 1979). However, it has been found that the same
individual maintains the same tendency to experience
frustration in a variety of settings (Schachter, 1964; Lamb,
1978). Although most workers in the area would argue with
the view that frustration "always" results in aggressive
behavior, it would seem that experiencing frustration may
contribute to crimes against persons or objects which are
unprovoked and are attributed to the pathology of the
delinquent, rather than their situation.


9
Megargee (1966) distinguished between "undercontrolled"
delinquents, who are habitually aggressive, and
"overcontrolled" delinquents, who commit violent crimes, yet
have no prior criminal history. The undercontrolled type
are impulsive and respond to frustration with aggression and
are labeled psychopaths. The overcontrolled type rarely
respond with aggression due to strong inhibitions; only
after a long build up of frustrations will they exhibit
aggressive behavior.
While these broad-based theories have advanced our
thinking about delinquency, they are limited in their view
of the delinquent personality as a unitary concept.
Interestingly, in light of the varied behavior that can
bring a delinquent into the juvenile justice system, these
delinquents may be highly variable in their attitudes and
behavior.
Dimensions of Delinquent Personalities
The majority of delinquency researchers have viewed
delinquency as a unitary concept and have focused simply on
examining differences between delinquent and non-delinquent
samples (Quay, 1987); however, data suggest that the
delinquent population is a very heterogeneous group. This
notion has been supported by research initially conducted by
Hewitt and Jenkins (1946) and later in a widely cited study
by Quay (1964). Evidence from multivariate studies suggests
that juvenile delinquents can be reliably classified into at
least three major personality types: neurotic/disturbed


10
(ND), unsocialized-psychopath (PD), and socialized-
subcultural (SD) (Quay, 1964). The ND is viewed as
hypersensitive, with feelings of inferiority and depression,
having poor social skills, at times impulsive and
aggressive, but experiences tension and guilt over
misbehaviors. The PD is viewed as manipulative, defiant,
guiltless, amoral, rebellious, egocentric, distrustful of
authority, impulsive and without loyalties. The SD is
likely to come from lower SES, be a loyal member of a gang,
and cooperate with the gang in crime. The SD has no
motivation to change his behavior, except to avoid arrests.
In addition to Hewitt & Jenkins (1946) and Quay (1964),
other studies have attested to the reliable identification
of these dimensions in children and adolescents (Behar &
Stringfield, 1974; Conners, 1969; Kohn & Rosman, 1972;
Victor & Halverson, 1976).
In addition to differences identified through
multivariate research, other differences have been found
among the delinquent personality groups. Ellis (1982) found
that ND were less empathic than PD, who were less empathic
than SD. The ND scores correlated negatively with all the
adjustment scales of the California Personality Inventory
(Quay & Peterson, 1964). In a study measuring the three
dimensions, scores on the SD and ND scales were not related
to intelligence, but the PD scores were negatively related
to achievement and intelligence, which is consistent with
the findings obtained with adult psychopaths. The PD scale


11
correlated negatively with Responsibility, Communality, and
Achievement via Independence scales of the California
Personality Inventory, which is consistent with the view
that PD do not see themselves as lacking poise, or self-
control and do not seek to make a good impression.
Individuals classified as psychopathic delinquents have been
found to be more immature in their moral development and
role taking abilities as well as more concrete in their
reasoning than ND or SD (Jurkovic & Prentice, 1977).
The SD scores correlated negatively with Well Being,
Tolerance, Intellectual Efficiency, and Psychological
Mindedness suggesting that rigidity, and conformity are
characteristics of the high SD scorer (Quay & Peterson,
1964). Genshaft (1980) found the Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles of ND, PD, and SD
delinquents revealed two personality types: a weak ego
delinquent with considerable intrapsychic conflict (ND) and
a more traditional psychopathic delinquent with little
apparent anxiety or neurotic symptoms (PD).
Although learning deficits have been found in
undifferentiated samples of delinquents (Zinkus & Gottlieb,
1977; Jerse & Fakouri, 1978; Lane, 1980), only recently has
it been found that learning problems correlated with the PD
scale of the Personal Opinion Survey, but not the SD or ND
scales (Jefferson & Johnson, 1989). These learning problems
may be due to a wide variety of reasons within the


12
individual's personality or a function of the their
behavior. These may include: missed opportunities caused
by disciplinary actions, disinterest resulting from
insufficient stimulation from the academic material, or
learning disabilities. Physiological evidence also supports
the existence of delinguent groups. Borkovec (1970) found
that psychopathic delinguents had lower initial reactivity
to a tone stimulus than neurotic delinquents. Others have
reported lower electrodermal reactivity in conduct
disordered children and antisocial adolescents (Raine &
Venables, 1984; Delameter & Lahey, 1983). Hare (1968) found
that adult psychopaths had lower resting levels of
electrodermal responding and less autonomic responses to
tones than neurotic psychopaths and nonpsychopath inmates.
Psychopaths have also been found to be less responsive to
aversive stimuli than nonpsychopathic offenders (Hare,
Frazelle, & Cox, 1978; Hare & Craigen, 1974). These findings
suggest that psychopaths may require a stronger stimulus to
evoke a response, and they may respond differently to
punishment than non-psychopathic offenders.
Stimulation Seeking and Its relevance to Delinquency
The physiological data on psychopathic delinquents is
consistent with the notion of the pathological stimulation
seeker proposed by Quay (1965). Quay theorized that the
psychopath has either an increased rate of adaptation or a
lessened basal reactivity causing a condition of stimulus
deprivation which the psychopath finds affectively


13
unpleasant. The psychopath seeks to change this affective
state by seeking stimulation. In this highly routinized
modern world, the need to change the level of stimulation
may be achieved either by changing the intensity of the
stimulation or the variability of stimulation sources, such
as listening to loud music, driving at high speeds, or sky
diving. Zuckerman (1979) defines sensation seeking as "the
need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and
experiences and the willingness to take physical and social
risks for the sake of such experiences" (p. 34).
Zuckerman, Kolin, Price & Zoob (1964) developed the
Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), to measure individual
differences in sensation seeking. Various psychological
measures have been correlated with stimulation seeking. A
positive correlation has been found between high stimulation
seeking and the Mania and the Psychopathic Deviant scales of
the MMPI, the Extraversin scale (Zuckerman, Bone, Neary,
Mangelsdorff, & Brustman, 1972,* Zuckerman & Link, 1968), and
Psychoticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory
(Eysenck & Zuckerman, 1978). The Experience Seeking and
Disinhibition scales of the SSS correlated with the
frequency of situations in which emotions were expressed and
the intensity of the emotions expressed (Allen, 1976). No
correlation has been found between stimulation seeking and
anxiety (Zuckerman, Schultz, & Hopkins, 1967; Zuckerman &
Link, 1968; Kilpatrick, Sutker & Smith, 1976). Stimulation
seeking appears to be related to impulsivity, particularly,


14
the readiness to engage in activities which are physically
risky (Zuckerman, 1979). Zuckerman, Kolin, Price and Zoob
(1964) found a negative correlation with anxiety and a
positive correlation with scores on the Embedded Figures
Test. This suggested that the SSS is not a measure of
impulsivity, but of sensitivity to internal sensations.
Physiological evidence suggest that high stimulation
seekers are markedly different from low stimulation seekers
biochemically and neurophysiologically. Larger initial skin
conductance levels have been found in high stimulation
seekers than in low stimulation seekers under various types
of stimulation, such as the presentation of neutral (e.g.
landscape, clock) or loaded (e.g. boxing, mountain climbing)
slides (Smith, Perlstein, Davidson & Michael, 1986). High
stimulation seekers show a greater orienting reflex to novel
stimuli than low stimulation seekers (Neary & Zuckerman,
1976). Daitzman and Zuckerman (1980) found that subjects
scoring high on the Disinhibition scale had significantly
higher levels of testosterone, 17-B estradiol, and estrone
than low scorers on the Disinhibition scale. Higher
testosterone levels have been found in inmates with a
history of aggressive or violent tendencies (Rada, Laws &
Kellner, 1976; Ehrenkranz, Bliss & Sheard, 1974).
Zuckerman (1979) reviewed the physiological data
related to stimulation seeking and replaced his theory of an
optimal level of arousal mediated by the reticulo-cortical
activating system, with a theory concentrating on the limbic


15
reward system. He accepts Stein's (1978) theory that
dopamine pathways provide the general approach incentive,
and norepinephrine pathways control the expectancies of
positive reinforcement from the stimuli. High levels of
dopamine result in more activity and the increased
exploration of new situations, and high norepinephrine is
related to the expectation for positive reinforcement from
persons or situations, which would be part of the motivation
for risk taking behavior. SSS scores have been found to be
negatively correlated with plasma monoamine oxidase levels
(Murphy, Belmaker, Buchsbaum, Martin, Ciaranello & Wyatt,
1977; Schooler, Zahn, Murphy & Buchsbaum, 1978). Monoamine
oxidase (MAO) is the primary catalyst for breaking down
monoaminergic neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine,
and serotonin) and high MAO levels have been shown to be
related to depressive symptoms (Cotman & McGaugh, 1980).
The high levels of activity in these reward centers
result in a special alertness and responsiveness to novel
stimulation that can be related to stimulation seeking.
However, subseguent research has revealed that metabolites
of dopamine measured in the cerebrospinal fluid were not
related to stimulation seeking, but norepinephrine
metabolites in the CSF did correlate negatively with
stimulation seeking (Zuckerman, 1983). The relationship
between norepinephrine and stimulation seeking has more
recently been investigated with the primary focus on the
locus coeruleus, which contains 70% of the norepinephrine in


16
the brain (Zuckemtan & Como, 1983) It has been found that
when electrodes were implanted in the locus coeruleus of
rats, novel stimulation produced habituation and
dishabituation similar to the responses found when measuring
the orienting response in humans (Aston-Jones & Bloom,
1981). This suggests that the norepinephrine system may
constitute another arousal system (Routtenberg, 1968). The
intrinsic reward or punishment may be related to the level
of arousal, with high arousal related to anxiety and
moderate arousal related to reward. This results in a
return to the optimal level of stimulation theory first
proposed, but with a specific biological system as its
basis. It may be that the high stimulation seekers have a
lower arousability in the norepinephrine system, which may
be the reason some high sensation seekers use drugs or
experiences that increase norepinephrine activity (Zuckerman
& Como, 1983).
It is noteworthy that these physiological findings with
stimulation seekers are very similar to those found with
psychopathic delinquents. It may be that the sensation
seeker will engage in behaviors that will result in a
relative increase in internal arousal such as high speed
driving, attending rock concerts, and sky diving, but if
these appropriate types of behavior are not available, they
may find inappropriate ways to increase their arousal, such
as truancy, fighting, using certain types of drugs, or
stealing.


17
The research on the relationship between sensation
seeking and delinquency has yielded some interesting
results. Male and female felons and delinquents have been
found to score higher on the SSS than psychiatric patients
(Thorne, 1971) and nondelinquent high school students
(Farley & Sewell, 1976). White, Labouvie, and Bates (1985)
found that delinquent adolescents scored significantly
higher on the disinhibition scale of the SSS than
nondelinquent adolescents. Farley and Farley (1972) found
that in 27 delinquent females, the ones scoring high on the
SSS exhibited more fighting, escape attempts, and were
punished more often for disobeying their supervisors than
those scoring low on the scale. This finding suggests that
there may be a link between stimulation seeking and
aggressive behavior. However, these studies address the
delinquent personality as a unitary concept, which is
contrary to the data presented above (see, Quay, 1987).
In contrast to these studies employing paper and pencil
measures of stimulation seeking, laboratory research on
stimulation and novelty seeking among the delinquent
personality groups has been successful in delineating the
theorized differences related to personality dimensions of
delinquency. Skrzypek (1969) supported Quay's theory in
finding that PD had lower pretest anxiety, and higher
novelty and complexity preference scores than ND. Orris
(1969) found that PD had a severe vigilance decrement when
compared to SD and ND. Unsocialized-psychopaths (PD) have


18
been found to have a higher level of stimulation seeking
than ND and normal children, as measured by decreased
viewing time of a monotonous sequence of photographic slides
(Whitehill, Demeyer-Gapin, & Scott, 1976). However, these
subjects were classified by subjective ratings and these
delinquent groups may be somewhat different than those
groups classified by Quay and Parsons (1971). These studies
suggest that stimulation seeking may play a significant role
in the psychological makeup of some delinquents, especially
the psychopathic delinquent.
The relationship between stimulation seeking and
aggression has received limited attention. Studying
undergraduates, Zuckerman (1974) found the Disinhibition
scale, for males and females, and the General,
Disinhibition, and Experience Seeking scales for females,
correlated positively with the aggression scale on the
Personality Research Form. This positive relationship has
also been found for the Experience Seeking and Disinhibition
scales in a VA psychiatric sample (Daitzman & Tumilty,
1974). High school students who scored high on the SSS
tended to engage in misbehavior at school more often than
low scorers on the SSS (Wasson, 1980). The biological
substrate for aggression is thought to rest primarily in the
limbic system, which is in the same region proposed as the
substrate for stimulation seeking.
Frustration may also play a significant role in the
behavior of the psychopathic delinquent. This group of


19
delinquents may become more frustrated given that they have
more learning difficulties, and have greater problems in
social situations, and because their attempts at stimulation
seeking may be blocked. These situations taken together
place the delinquent at risk for aggressive behavior,
resulting in difficulties at school, both academically and
socially.
Given the diversity within the delinquent population,
it is likely that individual delinquents have different
motivations behind their behavior and respond to situations
differently. For example, psychopathic delinquents may have
higher sensation-seeking needs than other delinquents and
this may result in more frustration if these needs are not
met. Their sensation seeking needs along with a heightened
level of frustration may put them at risk for more
aggressive and delinquent behavior. While not motivated by
sensation seeking needs, the neurotic delinquents may
attempt to overcompensate for preceived inadequacies by
engaging in delinquent behavior. Neurotic delinquents may
experience just as much frustration, but its origin may
relate to these feelings of inadequacy. The sensation
seeking needs of socialized delinquents, although not as
great as psychopathic delinquents, may be met through
interactions with their peer group. Frustration experienced
by these delinquents may be minimized by their group's
support and behavior. The three delinquent dimensions may
have a very different relationship with sensation seeking


20
and frustration. In general, this study attempts to examine
such relationships among dimensions of delinquency,
sensation seeking, and frustration such as those
hypothesized here and how these relationships relate to
different types of delinquent behavior.
Nature of the Present Study
This study attempted to overcome one of the major
shortcomings of prior delinquency research by considering
differences among the three delinquent subgroups, i.e
neurotic delinquent, socialized delinquent, and psychopathic
delinquent. A major goal of the present study was to
examine how the type and frequency of self-reported
delinquent behavior varied among high school students as a
function of delinquency personality type. In addition,
differences between high and low sensation seekers were
assessed so as to evaluate the relationship between
sensation seeking and self-reported delinquency. Also of
interest was how the combination of these two variables
(delinquent type and sensation seeking status) might relate
to the dependent measures. The resulting six groups were
the major focus of the study: High Sensation Seeking (SS)
Neurotic delinquent, High SS Socialized delinquent, High SS
Psychopathic delinquent, Low SS Neurotic delinquent, Low SS
Socialized delinquent, Low SS Psychopathic delinquent.
In terms of the interaction of sensation seeking and
delinquency group, it was predicted that high stimulation
seekers in the PD group would be found to have engaged in


21
more predatory crimes (e.g. assault, burglary, and auto
theft) and public disorder crimes (e.g. disorderly conduct,
drunkenness, and obscene phone calls) than subjects in the
low stimulation seeking PD group and the other four groups.
It was assumed that these differences relate to the
heightened frustration, resulting from unsatisfied
stimulation needs, as well as the learning problems
experienced by subjects in the psychopathic delinquent
group.
A second goal of the study was to examine the role of
frustration in delinquent groups and stimulation seekers,
especially in regard to aggressive behavior. Given the
assertions of strain theory and the frustration-aggression
hypothesis, a higher level of frustration should be related
to a higher frequency of aggressive behavior. The proposed
relationship between the PD and the high stimulation seeker
suggest that this group would score higher on a measure of
frustration if their stimulation needs are blocked, if they
are experiencing academic problems and if their social
interactions are ineffective. It was predicted that the PD
group would experience more frustration than the ND group,
who would experience more than the SD group.
The study also sought to examine other presumed
correlates of delinquent group membership and stimulation
seeking. Variables considered here included school grades,
school behavior, sports, self-reported arrests, and classes
taken. It was hypothesized that the high stimulation


22
seeking PD subjects would exhibit relatively poorer academic
performance than the ND or SD subjects. Because the
research with sensation seekers concerning academic
performance is equivocal (Anderson, 1973; Kish & Busse,
1968), this relationship was also be examined. This study
sought to replicate earlier findings that high stimulation
seekers engage in more misbehavior at school (Wasson, 1980).
Information concerning the subjects' favorite classes and
sports participation was obtained to determine if high
stimulation seekers participate in more stimulating and
risky activities and sports than low stimulation seekers.
The students who participate in these sports or activities
should report a lower frequency of delinquent behavior,
given that either their need for stimulation is fulfilled
and/or they may have less time to engage in delinquent
activities.
The relationship of socioeconomic status, sex, and race
to self-reported delinquent behavior was assessed by
inclusion of these variable in regression analyses or by
chi-square analysis. Official records of delinquency show a
disproportionate amount of crime is committed by members of
the lower social classes and blacks (Elliot & Ageton, 1980;
Brownfield, 1986). The occupation and education of the
parents was also examined among the six groups.
Given the use of multiple self-report measures, a
social desirability scale was given to measure and control
for the subjects' desire "to put up a good front." This


23
tendency may indicate self deception, a lack of insight into
one's own character or an unwillingness to accept one's
limitations (Anastasia, 1976). These scores were used in
the data analysis to help control for the variability this
tendency may contribute to the subjects responses.


CHAPTER 2
METHOD
Subjects
The sample consisted of 140 high school students, of
which 57 (41%) were male and 83 (59%) were female. The
sample was predominantly white (94%). The ages of the
subjects ranged from 14 to 19 years, with a mean of 16
years, 8 months. The median family income of the sample was
in the $30,000 to $50,000 range.
Measures
A Student Demographic Questionnaire provided
information on age, race, GPA, hobbies, favorite class,
participation in sports, focus of current difficulties,
frequency of disciplinary actions at school, criminal
history, and counseling history.
A Parent Questionnaire provided information on
occupation of the mother and father, their age, their
education, number of persons in the home, number of
siblings, income range, and history of diagnosis and
medication for hyperactivity.
The subjects were administered the Personal Opinion
Survey (POS)(Quay & Parsons, 1971) to classify them into the
delinquent personality dimensions. The POS is a 100 item,
24


25
true-false questionnaire. The POS was developed from a
series of factor analytic studies of the responses of both
institutionalized delinquents and public school students to
a large pool of items tapping attitudes, beliefs, feelings,
and behaviors (Peterson, Quay, & Cameron, 1959; Peterson,
Quay, & Tiffany, 1961; Quay, Peterson & Consalvi, 1960).
The POS yields scores on three personality dimensions:
Neurotic Delinquent, Socialized Delinquent, and Psychopathic
Delinquent. Test-retest reliability for the three scales
using 65 institutionalized delinquents over an interval of
90 days yielded a stability coefficient of .76 for Neurotic
Delinquency, .75 for Psychopathic Delinquency, and .61 for
Socialized Delinquency. The three factors of the POS have
adequate discriminant validity as suggested by significant
group differences on the Neuroticism and Well Being scales
of the California Personality Inventory, intellectual and
achievement measures, and cross validation with new samples
(Quay and Parsons, 1971). The POS has also been used in
research to differentiate groups of delinquents (Hundleby &
Ross, 1977; Genshaft, 1980; Raine & Venables, 1981; Ellis,
1982; Raine, Roger, & Venables, 1982; Jefferson & Johnson,
1989) .
Each subject completed the Sensation Seeking Scale -
Form V (SSS) (Zuckerman, 1979) which consists of 40 forced-
choice items with two response choices per items (e.g., A. I
like "wild" uninhibited parties., or B. I prefer quiet
parties with good conversation.). The SSS (Form V)


26
(Zuckerman, 1979) was developed by factor analysis of
earlier versions of the SSS, which yielded four factors;
Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking,
Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. The Thrill and
Adventure Seeking factor consists of items expressing a
desire to participate in sports or activities involving some
physical danger or risk, such as mountain climbing,
parachute jumping, scuba diving, and high speed driving.
The Experience Seeking factor consists of items expressing a
desire to seek new experiences through the mind and senses
by living in a nonconformist life style with unconventional
friends and by travel. The Disinhibition factor consists of
items expressing a need to engage in uninhibited behavior in
social situations, such as excessive alcohol abuse at
parties, inappropriately loud or aggressive, and seeking
variety in sexual partners. The Boredom Susceptibility
factor consists of items describing an aversion for
repetitive experiences, routine work, or dull or predictable
people as well as restlessness when things are unchanging.
The SSS provides scores on the four factors, as well as a
total sum.
Scores on the SSS have been found to correlate with
drug abuse, particularly marijuana, hashish, amphetamine and
psychedelic drugs (Brill, Crumpton, & Grayson, 1971; Carrol
& Zuckerman, 1977; Kaestner, Rosen, & Appel, 1977),
cigarette smoking (Stanaway & Watson, 1981), gambling
(Zuckerman, 1974), sexual behavior and attitudes (Zuckerman,


27
Tushop, & Finner, 1976), skydiving (Hymbaugh & Garrett,
1974), scuba diving (Heyman & Rose, 1980), and volunteering
for hypnosis and encounter groups (Stanton, 1976; Zuckerman,
Schultz, & Hopkins, 1967). SSS scores have been found to be
negatively correlated with age (Kish & Busse, 1968).
Test-retest reliability of the SSS using 65 males and
females ranged from .70 on the Boredom Susceptibility scale
to .94 on Thrill and Adventure Seeking and Total scales.
When correlated with the Embedded Figures Test, Howard
Mazes, and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List it
appears that the SSS measures sensitivity to internal
sensations rather than impulsiveness. A positive
relationship between SSS scores and field independence and a
negative relationship with anxiety have been found, which is
consistent with theories of sensation seeking (Zuckerman,
1979) .
The Self-Report Delinquency Scale, developed by Elliott
and Ageton (1980), was administered to all subjects to
obtain information regarding the type and frequency of
delinquent acts subjects engaged in over the last year.
This measure consists of forty-seven items, which are a
representative sample of the full range of delinquent acts,
from "skipping classes without an excuse" to "attacked
someone with the idea of seriously hurting or killing him or
her." The drug use items include alcohol, marijuana,
hallucinogens, amphetamines, barbituates, heroin, and
cocaine. Respondents rated the frequency in which they were


28
involved in the delinquent act or used the drug in the last
year by selecting one of eight categorical responses: 1.
zero; 2. less than once a month; 3. once a month; 4. once
every 2-3 weeks; 5. once a week; 6. 2-3 times a week; 7.
once a day; 8. 2-3 times a day. This scale yields six
subscales: predatory crimes against persons (e.g., sexual
assault, aggravated assault, & robbery); predatory crimes
against property (e.g., vandalism, burglary, auto theft,
larceny, stealing, fraud & joyriding); illegal service
crimes (e.g., prostitution, selling drugs, & buy/providing
liquor for minors); public disorder crimes (e.g., carrying a
concealed weapon, hitchhiking, disorderly conduct,
drunkenness, making obscene phone calls); status crimes
(e.g., runaway, sexual intercourse, alcohol use, & truancy);
and hard drug use (e.g., amphetamines, barbituates,
hallucinogens, heroin, & cocaine). The research using this
measure has been found to be more consistent with official
arrest records than studies using other self-reported
delinquency measures addressing issues of race and class
difference (Elliot & Ageton, 1980; Brownfield, 1986;
Sampson, 1986).
Each subject completed the Trait Frustration Scale
(Bergandi, Williams, & Lamb, 1982) which is an eight item
Likert-type scale. The items are written in the first
person and each describes a frustrating situation along with
a response to that situation (e.g., If other people are
beating me in a game, I inwardly accept it.). Responses to


29
the items are on an eight-point Likert scale ranging from 1
(almost never) to 8 (almost always). The scale provides
three scores: Interpersonal score, Intrapersonal score and
Total score. Half of the frustrating situations are
individualized (e.g., Frustrating tasks make me feel
aggressive), resulting in the intrapersonal score, and half
are situations involving interpersonal competition (e.g., If
other people are beating me in a game, I inwardly accept
it.) yielding the interpersonal score. In a normative
sample of 162 college students, it was found that subjects
scoring high on this scale show greater aggression than
lower scoring subjects following frustrating experiences and
also greater relief following successful experiences
(Bergandi, Williams, & Lamb, 1982) suggesting that this is a
reasonably valid measure of frustration.
The Marlowe-Crown Social Desirability Short Form
1f10) (MCSDS) (Strahan & Gerbasi, 1972) was completed by all
subjects. This scale consists of ten items and yields a
general social desirability score. Reliability coefficients
for the 1(10) MCSDS range from .59 to .70 and correlations
between the full MCSDS and the 1(10) short form range from
.80 to .90.
Procedures
After receiving permission from school personnel,
subjects were recruited from study halls, where they were
given a brief description of the research and procedures
used. The confidential nature of individual results was


30
emphasized to each subject. Consent forms and the Parent
Questionnaire were sent home with each potential subject to
be completed by the parent and returned to the experimenter
prior to testing. Approximately 950 consent form/parent
questionnaire packets were given to volunteers at four high
schools in Alachua county.1 There were 169 completed
packets returned to the experimenter, resulting in a return
rate of 18%. The subjects were tested individually and in
groups of up to 8 subjects during their study periods. The
subjects were instructed to read the directions at the top
of each questionnaire and to request assistance if they did
not understand a question. When the subjects completed the
questionnaires they were given a free hamburger coupon and a
list of referrals for drug abuse and psychological services
available in the Alachua county area. Because the
questionnaires were coded and the subjects' names were not
directly associated with the codes, the list of
psychological services was provided to all subjects in the
event that they were experiencing emotional problems
orabusing drugs and had responded so on the questionnaires.
1High school students were be used for several reasons.
The POS has been used for classifying elementary and high
school students into the neurotic/disturbed, unsocialized-
psychopathic, and socialized-subcultural groups (Raine &
Venables, 1981; Raine, Roger, & Venables, 1982). Evidence
that official delinquency records tend to underestimate
delinquent behavior and that self-report measures reveal
undetected offenses suggests that many students in the high
schools participate in delinquent behavior (Quay, 1987).
Research has also found that juveniles who have been
arrested or convicted have a high likelihood of admitting


31
At two of the schools, the students' records were
inspected by the experimenter to obtain their official grade
point average, and school officials provided the number of
disciplinary actions taken by the school in the last year
for each subject. At the remaining two schools, school
officials were given the subjects' names and they provided
the official grade point averages and the number of
disciplinary actions taken by the school in the last year
for each subject.
Of the 169 subjects who completed the questionnaires,
17 did not report engaging in behavior which could have
resulted in them being arrested and 12 were judged to be
over-reporting delinquent behavior.2 These 29 subjects were
excluded from the analyses.
their offenses in a survey (Hardt & Peterson-Hardt, 1977;
Hindelang, Hirschi, & Weiss, 1981) and only a small number
(8 of 400) of unconvicted juveniles claimed to have been
convicted (West & Farrington, 1977). It was assumed that
subjects who engage in a minimal amount of delinquent
behavior and who have similar attitudes as incarcerated
delinquents, would also have less problematic, but similar
behavior patterns and need for stimulation as juveniles not
in the school setting due to their delinquent behavior.
O , ,
'These subjects were deleted from the analysis on the basis
of several findings. There was a marked break in the
distribution of the frequency of total delinquent acts from
1088 to 1240. The individuals whose scores were above this
break were then examined to evaluate for possible over
reporting. Each questionnaire was evaluated with the age
and sex of the respondent in mind and pattern of overall
responding. Examples of over-reporting include: having
intercourse, cheating, stealing $5-50, failing to return
change, smoking marijuana, taking hallucinogens, damaging


32
The POS raw scores were used to classify subjects with
regard to delinquent dimensions as in Genshaft (1980). POS
raw scores were normalized and converted to T-scores.
Subjects were classified on the basis of their highest T-
score, which resulted in 54 subjects classified as neurotic-
disturbed (M = 57.1, SD = 7.7), 42 as socialized-subcultural
(M = 57.4, SD = 9.4), and 44 as unsocialized-psychopathic (M
= 56.0, SD = 12.5). Duncan's Multiple Range tests revealed
that each group scored significantly higher on that POS
scale in which they were classified, than the other two
scales in which they were not classified.
The Sensation Seeking Scale total scores were divided
at the median to classify subjects as high and low sensation
seekers. The 11 subjects whose score fell at the median
were randomly placed in one of the two groups, which
resulted in 76 low sensation seekers (M = 14.8, SD = 4.5)
and 64 high sensation seekers (M = 25.5, SD = 3.3).
Combining the two classifications resulted in six
groups, shown in Table 2-1.
Analysis
Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate
the relationship between delinquent dimensions, sensation
seeking, income, and sex, as well as possible interactions
school property, running away from home, hitting other
students 2 to 3 times per day; failing to return change,
smoking marijuana, hitting students, lying about your age,
being paid for sex, skipping class daily.


33
Table 2-1. Delinquent
Frequencies.
Group
by Sensation
Seeking Group
Neurotic
Socialized
Psvchooathic
Sensation Seekina
Total
High
22
15
27
64
Low
32
27
17
76
Total
54
42
44
140


34
among these variables in predicting type and frequency of
self-reported delinquent behavior, frustration, grade point
average and the number of disciplinary actions. Sex was
included in the model due to the sensation seeking
differences found between males and females (Zuckerman,
1979). Income level was also included in the model as
research by Elliott and Ageton (1980) has found a
significant relationship between SES and delinquent
behavior. Age was treated as a control variable and entered
into the regression model first. Again, the frequency and
number of different crimes from the Self-Report Delinquency
Questionnaire (Predatory Crimes against Property, Illegal
Service Crimes, Public Disorder Crimes, and Status Crimes)
were considered as dependent variables.
Separate analyses were accomplished for the three
delinquent groups and the two sensation seeking groups.
Although, these analyses would yield redundant findings as
the regression analysis, the specific relationships among
the different delinquent groups and between the high and low
sensation seekers were further examined via these analyses.
Here, several ANOVA's were conducted to assess the specific
relationships among the delinquent groups for various
dependent variables. T-tests were used to assess
differences between the sensation seeking groups on various
demographic and dependent variables. The categorical
variables (sex, counseling, arrests, family income) were
assessed by Chi-square tests.


CHAPTER 3
RESULTS
Inspection of the data revealed that several dependent
measures departed substantially from normality. As a result
a log transformation was performed on the following
measures: frequency of predatory crimes against property,
frequency of service crimes, frequency of public disorder
crimes, total frequency of delinquent acts, number of
different service crimes, total number of different
delinquent acts and stressors.
Two subscales of the Self-Report Delinquency
Questionnaire were scored categorically due to the limited
number of subjects endorsing items on these subscales (hard
drug use and predatory crimes against persons). Those who
had committed predatory crimes against persons and those who
used hard drugs were scored one on each scale, and if they
had not committed any of these offenses they were scored a
zero on the appropriate subscale.
The six delinquent by sensation seeking groups did not
differ with regard to age, family income, parent's age or
education, number of siblings, and number of persons in the
home.
35


36
Self-Reported Delinquency
Examination of the self-report delinquency Questionnaire
revealed that 90% of the subjects completing the
questionnaires had engaged in some type of delinquent
behavior. This finding is consistent with earlier research
(Williams & Gold, 1972) with self-reported delinquent
behavior.
The regression analysis revealed that the delinquent
groups did not contribute significantly to the model in
predicting any type of self-reported delinquent behavior.
Even though delinquent group was not significant in the
overall regression analysis the relation between self-report
of delinquent behavior and delinquency groups was examined
further (see Table 3-1). Here, it can be seen that the
psychopathic group reported significantly more illegal
service crimes than the other two groups. The psychopathic
group also reported significantly more delinquent acts than
the neurotic group, but neither group differed significantly
from the socialized group.
Table 3-2 indicates that these differences among the
delinquent groups may be primarily due to relative
differences in the higher frequency categories (>55 for
illegal service crimes and >250 for total delinquent acts).
At the lower end of the frequency range for illegal service
crimes, the ratio of neurotic to psychopathic is
approximately 1:1, but at the higher frequency ranges, the


37
Table 3-1. Differences between the Three Delinquent
Subtypes on measures of self-reported delinquency, sensation
seeking and frustration.
Neurotic Socialized Psychopathic
N=54 N=4 5 N=53
Mean
S.D.
Mean
S.D.
Mean
S.D.
Rancrea
Age (years)
16.5
1.2
16.5
1.2
16.7
1.1
n. s.
Income*
4.7
1.1
4.5
1.4
5.0
1.2
n. s.
Number in Home
3.9
1.1
4.0
1.2
3.8
.9
n. s.
Illegal Service
Crimes(number)
.7
.7
1.1
.9
1.3
1.2
ND SD PD
Total Number
Delinquent Acts*3
1.9
t
.9-
2.1
. 6
2.3
.7
ND SD PD
Official Grade
Point Average
2.9
.6
2.2
.9
2.7
.6
ND SD PD
Official
Disciplin.
.7
1.4
2.9
4.0
1.9
3.0
ND PD SD
Disinhibition
Scale (SSS)
4.5
2.4
4.4
2.9
5.8
2.5
ND SD PD
Thrill and 6.8
Adventure Seeking
(SSS)
2.6
6.6
2.6
7.7
2.0
ND SD PD
Experience
Seeking (SSS)
4.4
2.4
4.0
2.6
4.8
2.0
n. s.
Boredom Suscep.
(SSS)
3.3
2.1
3.1
1.9
3.7
2.0
n. s.
SSS Total Score
19.0
6.7
18.0
7.3
22.0
5.4
ND SD PD
Intrapersonal 17.8
Frustration Score
4.3
14.3
5.4
17.3
6.3
ND SD PD
Frustration
Total Score
35.9
6.3
30.9
7.6
33.7
8.2
ND PD SD
1 = < $5,000; 2
= $5,
000 -
10,000
'; 3 =
$10,000
i 20,000
4 = $20,000 30,000; 5 = $30,000 50,000; 6 = >$50,000
aunderlined groups are not significantly different at p <
.05; transformed data.


38
Table 3-2.
Levels of
Percentage of
Delinquency by
Respondents Reporting Specific
Delinquent Group.
Illegal Service
Crimes
Frequency
Neurotic
Socialized
Psychopathic
%
%
%
1-14
77.8
64.3
61.4
15-29
11.1
21.4
11.4
30-54
3.7
4.8
11.4
55+
7.4
9.5
15.9
Total Self-Reported Delinquency
Frequency
Neurotic
%
Socialized
%
Psychopathic
%
1-49
31.5
19.0
22.7
50-99
24.1
26.2
18.2
100-249
24.1
28.6
22.7
250+
20.3
26.2
36.4


39
ratio is approximately 1:2. These differences are similar
to those found by Elliott and Ageton (1982) with respect to
race and class differences, with blacks and lower SES
subjects over-represented in the high frequency categories.
The delinquent groups were not different with regard to
the frequency and number of predatory crimes against
property, public disorder crimes or status crimes.
T-tests revealed that high sensation seekers reported
more delinquent acts on the subscales of the self-report
delinquency questionnaire(as seen in Table 3-3). These
findings are consistent with earlier findings of Farley and
Farley (1972), that high sensation seeking scores are
associated with more delinquent behavior. However, these
findings go beyond earlier studies, showing that high
sensation seekers also participate in a greater number and a
wide range of delinquent behavior.
Regression analysis suggested that sensation seeking
and a delinquent group by sex interaction effect
significantly predicted the frequency of self-reported
delinquent acts, and this model accounted for 36% of the
variance (see Table 3-4). However, only sensation seeking
significantly predicted the number of different self-
reported delinquent acts and this model accounted for 39% of
the variance. Contrary to my initial hypothesis, regression
analyses revealed no significant interactions between
delinquent group and sensation seeking group membership (see
Table 3-4).


40
Table 3-3. Demographic and Various Dependent Measures for
the Two Sensation Seeking Groups.
Low SS High SS
N=7 9 N=64
Mean
S.D.
Mean
S.D.
P
Age (years)
16.6
1.3
16.6
1.2
n. s.
Income3
4.6
1.3
4.9
1.1
n. s.
Number in Home
4.0
1.1
3.8
1.0
n. s.
Predatory Crimes
Property (number)
1.6
2.1
4.0
3.4
.0001
Illegal Service
Crimes (number)b
.6
.7
1.5
1.0
.0001
Public Disorder
Crimes (number)
1.8
1.5
3.2
1.6
.0001
Status Crimes
(number)
2.5
1.1
3.2
1.2
.0002
Total Number
Delinquent Actsb
1.8
. 6
2.4
.6
.0001
Official GPA
2.6
.9
2.6
.7
n. s.
Official
Disciplinary Actions
1.6
2.8
2.0
3.3
n. s.
Frustration
Scale Total
33.1
7.5
34.4
7.7
n. s.
% males
33
50
. 05
% arrested
1
14
. 01
% with prior
counseling
34
60
.005
% who play school
sports
37
55
. 05
al = < $5,000; 2 = $5,
4 = $20,000 30,020;
transformed data; X2
000 10,000;
5 = $30,000
3 = $10,
- 50,000;
000 20,
6 = >$50
000
, 000


41
Table 3-4. Summary of Findings from the Regression
Analysis Using Delinquent Group, Sensation Seeking, Sex, and
Income in Predicting Self-Reported Delinquency.
Variable
Significant Variables
in Recrression Model
P*
R2*
Total Delinquent Acts
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.0002
Delinquent x Sex
.04
. 36
Number
Sensation Seeking
.0001
.39
Predatory Crimes/Property
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.09
Sex
. 003
.33
Number
Sensation Seeking
.02
Sex
. 0009
.36
Illegal Service Crimes
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.004
Delinquent
.05
Delinquent x Sex
.05
. 37
Number
Sensation Seeking
. 0009
.33
Public Disorder Crimes
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.0004
Sex
.06
.33
Number
Sensation Seeking
.0009
.34
Status Crimes
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.0003
Delinquent x Sex
. 02
. 38
Number
Sensation Seeking
. 0001
.28
Total Frustration Score
Delinquent
.02
.29
Official GPA
Delinquent Group
.003
Income Level
.04
.32
Official Disciplinary
Delinquent
.04
Actions
Sex
. 07
Del incruentxSSSxSex
. 05
.30
9
Variable significance level; **overall model R .


42
Regression analysis suggested a significant delinquent
group by sex interaction for the frequency of status crimes,
illegal service crimes and the total frequency of delinquent
acts. For these three variables, males in the Psychopathic
group consistently endorsed more items.
Figure 3-1 displays the relation between delinquent
group, sex, and the frequency of status crimes. Female
neurotic and socialized groups reported more status crimes
than males in their respective groups, but this pattern
reverses with the psychopathic group. The delinquent group
by sex interaction for illegal service crimes is presented
in Figure 3-2. The pattern for illegal service crimes is
very similar to that found with status crimes, but with the
neurotic group displaying a more extreme difference as a
function of sex. The total frequency of delinquent acts by
delinquent group and sex is plotted in Figure 3-3. Here, it
is evident that both sexes in the neurotic and socialized
groups are essentially equal in total delinquent acts, but
the psychopathic group demonstrated a markedly different
pattern with males higher than females. These findings
support earlier research concerning psychopathic males, but
suggest that psychopathic females may be very different from
the hypothesized psychopathic group, at least in terms of
delinquent behavior.
Chi-square analysis suggested a significant association
between sex and both the frequency and the number of
predatory crimes against property and the frequency of


43
Status
Crimes
Figure 3-1. Frequency of Status Crimes as a Function of
Delinquent Group and Sex.


44
Figure 3-2. Frequency of Illegal Service Crimes as a
Function of Delinquent Group and Sex.


45
Total
Delinquent
Acts
(transformed
freq.)
Figure 3-3. Frequency of Total Delinquent Acts as a
Function of Delinquent Group and Sex.


46
public disorder crimes, with males reporting more crimes
than females. This is consistent with previous self-report
surveys (Elliott et al., 1983) and surveys of official
records (Visher & Roth, 1986).
The six delinquent by sensation seeking groups were
different in their use of hard drugs with all three high
sensation seeking groups having more drug users (17) than
the low sensation seekers (3)(X2(5, N = 140) = 17.04, p <
.005). This supports previous research regarding more drug
usage among high sensation seekers than low sensation
seekers (Brill, Crumpton, & Grayson, 1971; Carrol &
Zuckerman, 1977; Kaestner, Rosen, & Appel, 1977).
The six groups did not differ in terms of predatory
crimes against persons. This is in contrast to earlier
findings of Ellis (1982), who found that psychopathic
delinquents exhibited more aggression toward persons than
the neurotic or socialized delinquents.
Delinquency and Sensation Seeking
Psychopathic delinquents were significantly higher than
the other two groups on the Thrill and Adventure Seeking
scale, Disinhibition scale and the Total score of the
Sensation Seeking Scale (see Table 3-1). These findings are
consistent with earlier findings concerning psychopathic
delinquents and sensation seeking (Whitehill, Demeyer-Gapin,
& Scott, 1976). There were no significant differences


47
among the groups on the Experience Seeking or the Boredom
Susceptibility subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale.
The two sensation seeking groups were significantly
different with regard to sex, with more females in the low
sensation seeking group, and an even number of males and
females in the high sensation seeking group (see Table 3-3).
There were no significant differences on any of the scales
of the Sensation Seeking Scale (Form V) between a sample of
undergraduates and the subjects in this sample (Zuckerman,
1979) .
Frustration
Overall, this sample scored significantly below a
sample of college undergraduates (n=162) on the total score
of the Frustration Scale (t(300) = 2.73, p < .005)
(Bergandi, Williams, & Lamb, 1982). The socialized and
psychopathic groups scored significantly below the sample of
undergraduates (socialized: t(300) = 6.14, p < .001;
psychopathic: t(300) = 2.66, p < .005) (Bergandi, Williams,
& Lamb, 1982). The neurotic group scored no differently
from college undergraduates on the total Frustration score.
As seen in Table 3-1, the socialized group had lower
total frustration scores than the neurotic group, neither of
which were different from the psychopathic group.
Additionally, the socialized group scored significantly
below the other two groups on the intrapersonal subscale of
the Frustration Scale. There were no significant
differences between the sensation seeking groups on any of


48
the frustration measures. The regression analyses confirmed
the above findings, with delinquent group being the only
significant variable in the model predicting total
frustration. The regression model was not significant in
predicting scores on the intrapersonal and interpersonal
subscales of the Frustration Scale.
Academic. Problem Behavior, and Extracurricular Activities
The relation between delinquent group and grade point
average was examined using an analysis of variance followed
by Duncan's multiple range test. These results are
presented in Figure 3-4. Here it can be seen that the grade
point average for the socialized delinquent group was
significantly lower than that for either the neurotic group
or the psychopathic group. This finding was unexpected
given that Jurkovic and Prentice (1977) found that neurotic
and socialized scores on the POS were unrelated to
intelligence, but psychopathic scores were negatively
related to intelligence and achievement. It remains unclear
if this lower grade point average for the socialized group
is sample specific or possibility that differences in
academic achievement may not be a stable characteristic of
the different delinquent groups.
The relation between the delinquency group and the
frequency of official disciplinary actions was examined


49
Official
Grade
Point
Average
Delinquent Subtype
Figure 3-4. Official Grade Point Average as a Function of
Delinquent Group.


3.5
50
3
Official 2
Disciplinary
Actions
1.5
1
0.5
Neurotic
Delinquent
Socialized PsychoDathic
Delinquent Delinquent
Delinquent Subtype
Figure 3-5. Official Disciplinary Actions as a Function of
Delinquent Group.


51
using an ANOVA, followed be a Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
These results are presented in Figure 3-5. The neurotic
group did not differ from the psychopathic group, and the
socialized group had significantly more disciplinary actions
than the neurotic group, but not significantly more than the
psychopathic group. This was unexpected given the
differences found with delinquent behavior ( i.e.
psychopathies engaging in more illegal service crimes).
There were no significant differences between high and low
sensation seekers on official disciplinary actions.
A regression analysis indicated a significant three way
interaction of sensation seeking group x delinquent group x
sex in predicting official disciplinary actions. This
interaction is presented in Figure 3-6. High sensation
seeking socialized delinquent males received significantly
more official disciplinary actions than any of the other
groups. Low sensation seeking males had a higher, but
similar pattern of disciplinary actions to high sensation
seeking females. Also, high sensation seeking males had a
higher, but similar pattern to low sensation seeking
females. This data, along with data previously presented,
suggest a complex relationship between delinquent group and
sex.
Of the ten subjects arrested, 6 were in the high
sensation seeking socialized delinquent group, 3 were in the
high sensation seeking psychopathic delinquent group, and 1
in the low sensation seeking socialized delinquent group.


52
Delinquent Subtype
Figure 3-6. Official Disciplinary Actions as a Function of
Delinquent Group, Sensation Seeking Group and Sex.


53
There was no difference among the six groups with regard to
prior counseling/psychotherapy experience.
Overall, the high sensation seeking subjects reported
more arrests, counseling experience and participation in
school sports.
Subjects in the six groups demonstrated a wide range of
academic and sports interests, though no significant
differences in the frequency of these variables between the
groups was found. Clearly, the most popular classes were
English, history, and science, and these were distributed
rather evenly across groups. Chi-square analysis of the
percentage of subjects within each group who played some
sport at school suggested no significant differences. The
most popular sports were football and basketball with these
distributed approximately evenly across groups.
Correlations
Pearson product-moment correlations were computed in an
attempt to further examine the strength of the relationships
between self-reported delinquent behavior and delinquent
personality dimensions, sensation seeking, GPA, and
frustration scores. These correlations are presented in
Table 3-5. Here it can be noted that the psychopathic scale
of the Personal Opinion Survey correlated significantly with
the predatory crimes against property, public disorder
crimes, and the total delinquent acts scales of the Self-


54
Table 3-5. Pearson Correlations for Self-report
Delinquency Questionnaire subscales (transformed freq.) and
various measures (N=140).
Predatory
Crimes
Property
Illegal
Service
Crimes
Public
Disorder
Crimes
Status
Crimes
Total
Delinquent
Acts
PD (POS)
.35**
.23
.37**
.27
.43**
SD (POS)
.27
.21
.27
.27
.30*
ND (POS)
.13
-.04
. 06
.05
.11
TAS (SSS)
.26
. 18
.22
. 14
.22
ES (SSS)
. 05
.35**
.27
.20
.29*
DIS (SSS)
.34**
.55**
.54**
.55**
.59**
BS (SSS)
.23**
.22**
.32**
.25
.33**
Total (SSS)
. 32**
.47**
.49**
.42**
.52**
Age (yrs)a
-.05
.24
.13
.28*
.21
Frustration .30*
Total
. 13
.17
. 12
. 19
Official
GPAb
.04
-.05
-.19
-.18
-.16
*p < .05. **p < .01. an=137. bn=135.
Correction (M = 55).
Bonferroni


55
report Delinquency Questionnaire. The socialized scale
correlated significantly with the total delinquent acts,
while the neurotic scale had no significant correlations.
Additionally, the Disinhibition Scale and the Total score of
the Sensation Seeking Scale have significantly greater
correlations with the delinquent subscales than the other
subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scales. These findings
are consistent with earlier findings regarding the relation
between delinquent behavior and sensation seeking (Farley &
Farley, 1976) and the Disinhibition subscale of the
Sensation Seeking Scale (White, Labouvie, & Bates, 1985).
The correlations between specific delinquent behavior and
sensation seeking scores has never been reported.
It was also found that the raw scores of the
psychopathic scale of the Personal Opinion Survey correlated
with the Disinhibition Scale r(140) = .26,_n.s., the Boredom
Susceptibility r(140) = .36, p < .01, and the total score of
the Sensation Seeking Scale r(140) = .24, n.s. There were
no other significant correlations between the neurotic and
socialized scales of the POS and the Sensation Seeking Scale
subscales. These findings support and extend earlier
findings by Jefferson and Johnson (1989) concerning the
relationship between the psychopathic scale of the Personal
Opinion Survey and the Sensation Seeking Survey scores. The
strength of the relationship between the total frustration
score and predatory crimes against property was consistent
with the earlier predictions.


56
The correlation for the raw scores on the psychopathic
scale of the Personal Opinion Survey and the official grade
point average was r(135) = -.27, n.s., which yields a trend
in the direction as found in earlier studies concerning
psychopathic delinguents and intelligence (Jurkovic and
Prentice, 1977). The correlation for the raw scores on the
socialized scale of the Personal Opinion Survey and the
official grade point average was r(135) = -.50, p < 01.


CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION
The present findings are consistent with earlier
research on self-reported delinquent behavior in that
approximately 90% of the subjects reported behavior which
could have resulted in their arrest (Williams & Gold, 1972;
Elliott, Huizinga, & Ageton, 1985). Although these
behaviors may have been as benign as loitering or skipping
school, most subjects had various types of behavior which
would be classified as delinquent. This high percentage of
adolescents engaging in delinquent behavior highlights the
need for more research in this area.
A surprising finding was the limited number of
differences among the delinquent personality dimensions in
terms of self-reported delinquent behavior. There may be
several reasons for this finding. One, differences in
delinquent behavior among the groups may be confounded with
sample bias. For instance, members of the psychopathic
group may have been less extreme members of this group and
thus engaged in less delinquent behavior. It may also be
due to one group of delinquents under-reporting delinquent
behavior, i.e. the neurotic group. It may also be due to
the method of classification, with statistical differences
57


58
on the scales of the POS not corresponding to differences in
delinquent personalities.
The relation between delinquent group and sex has
received very limited attention in the delinquency
literature. Yet, this interaction was significant in
predicting the frequency of illegal service crimes, status
crimes, and total delinquent acts, with female neurotic and
socialized subjects more likely to engage in these types of
crimes than the male neurotic and socialized subjects.
However, the male psychopathic subject is likely to engage
in more crimes of these types, as well as more total
delinquent acts than males or females in the other two
groups. Given the theorized traits of the psychopathic
dimension, it is not surprising that psychopathic males
would report more delinquent activity. Their manipulative,
amoral, rebellious and impulsive nature makes them more
likely to engage in delinquent behavior. The finding that
males reported more predatory crimes against property and
public disorder crimes is not surprising given the
propensity of adolescent males to engage in such behaviors
in response to peer pressure or to impress others. The sex
difference may also be due to the males having a higher
number of opportunities to engage in this type of behavior
or possibly to the females' ties to males who have an
inhibiting effect on their behavior. These findings suggest
that even within the delinquent dimensions, sex differences


59
need to be considered in order to fully understand the
delinquent adolescent.
Sensation seeking was found to be a major factor in
accounting for self-reported delinquent behavior. Such a
strong relationship between sensation seeking and self-
reported delinquent behavior was somewhat surprising, given
the sparse attention sensation seeking has received in the
delinquent literature. As part of a juvenile's personality,
sensation seeking may be a primary motivator for behavior in
general, given the finding that many subjects who engaged in
delinquent behavior also participated in extracurricular
activities at school. For example, among the 20 subjects
with the highest frequency of delinquent behavior, 12 or 60%
engaged in organized sports (either at school or away from
school).
In terms of sensation seeking scores, the results from
this study are consistent with theorizing concerning the
relation between the psychopathic delinquent group and
sensation seeking. The psychopathic group scored higher on
the Sensation Seeking Scale, especially on the Disinhibition
Scale, than the other two groups. These findings support
earlier research portraying psychopathic delinquents as
sensation seekers, even though most researchers failed to
differentiate this group from other delinquent personality
groups. It is unclear if this is the component of the
psychopathic dimension that drives the individual to engage


60
in delinquent behavior or if it is a general motivator for
behavior.
This study extends the laboratory research with
delinquents and behavior problem children, suggesting that
it is the psychopathic group which accounts for a large part
of the sensation seeking tendencies within the delinquent
population. In fact of all of the psychopathic delinquents,
61% were high sensation seekers. This is in contrast to the
pattern in the other two groups, with high sensation seekers
comprising 36% of the neurotic group, and 41% of the
socialized groups.
The results of this study provide no support for the
hypothesis that the delinquent dimensions and sensation
seeking groups would interact to result in more crime. This
may be due to several factors. The aspect of the
psychopathic personality that may motivate the juvenile to
participate in delinquent behavior may be largely accounted
for by sensation seeking. The relationship between
delinquent behavior and delinquent personality dimensions
may also be affected by the large effect of sex, with
females having a different pattern of delinquent behavior
than males. The lack of an interaction may also be due to
the method of recruiting subjects, with the students with
strong psychopathic and sensation seeking tendencies not
volunteering to participate.
When all the variables measured were included in the
model, sensation seeking was consistently the single best


61
predictor of the frequency and number of predatory crimes
against property, illegal service crimes, public disorder
crimes, status crimes, and total delinquent acts. These
findings support earlier findings that those who engage in
delinquent behavior tend to score higher on sensation
seeking measures. This study extends those findings to
adolescents who engage in all types delinquent behavior but
are not incarcerated.
Frustration did not appear to play the role among the
delinquent groups as was hypothesized. The higher scores
for the psychopathic and neurotic groups may affect these
groups in two very different ways. The psychopathic group
may be more inclined to act out or engage in delinquent
behavior due to their frustration, where as the neurotic
group may be inclined to internalize their frustration and
suffer the emotional consequences. The socialized group's
lower level of frustration, when compared to the other two
groups, may be the result of less concern with academic
matters, and more concern with their social circle. Their
peer group may produce stress, but also provides various
ways to cope with stress that may lessen the frustration
related to being an adolescent. It may be difficult dealing
with the stressors related to adolescence, but it may be
less difficult with a good social network.
The pattern for disciplinary actions was markedly
different from the pattern for self-reported delinquent
behavior among the delinquent groups. The relatively high


62
level of disciplinary actions for the socialized group may
be a function of the peer group the subjects associate with
or the socialized group's tendency to engage in behavior
that will result in being caught (i.e. tardiness, being
disruptive in class). This may also be due to the tendency
for the socialized group members to be easily influenced by
peer pressure.
In terms of achievement, the results of this study
conflict with results from previous studies using the same
delinquent personality dimensions. In earlier studies,
subjects in the psychopathic group were found to score lower
on measures of intelligence and achievement than the other
groups (Jurkovic & Prentice, 1977; Jefferson & Johnson,
1989). However, no such relationship was found with this
sample. Indeed the socialized group had a significantly
lower GPA than the other two groups. This sample of
socialized subjects may not have academic performance as a
high priority in their peer group. With more emphasis on
looking good, having the right friends, or concentrating on
non-academic activities, this group may be less concerned
with their class requirements. These findings suggest that
the intellectual/achievement data related to the delinquent
personality dimensions may be sample specific and not a
major differentiating factor among the groups.
This study is not without methodological compromise.
For instance, this study primarily used self-report measures
and these types of measures have been criticized for their


63
questionable reliability and validity. However, the
reliability and validity of the questionnaires used in this
study demonstrated acceptable construct validity and test-
retest reliability, with the exception of the Frustration
Scale, which had no available reliability data. Likewise,
these measures are susceptible to response bias. In many
research situations it is essential to control for the
subjects' need to present themselves in the best possible
liqht. However, the personality dimensions measured in this
study may contain various amounts of social desirability.
Any attempt to control for this presumed confound may in
fact be removing some aspect from the analysis which is a
valid part of the dimension being assessed.
In an attempt to assess a possible response bias,
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were
calculated for the subjects' self-report of grade point
average and disciplinary actions taken at school in the last
year and official (from school records) grade point average
and disciplinary actions. The correlations of self-report
and official information were significant (grade point
average: r(122) = .77, p < .0001; disciplinary actions:
r(122) = .71, p < .0001). When the effect of social
desirability, as measured by the Marlowe-Crown Social
Desirability Scale, was removed (via partial correlations),
the correlations were slightly higher, though not
significantly so (grade point average: r(99) = .80, p <
.0001; disciplinary actions: r(lll) = .74, p < .0001).


64
These findings suggest that the subjects are reliably
reporting information that is highly susceptible to response
bias. The possible effects of social desirability were
assessed by examining differences among the delinquent
groups and between the sensation seeking groups on social
desirability, as well as including it in a multiple
regression analysis. There were no significant differences
among the delinquent groups nor between the sensation
seeking groups on the social desirability measure. The
inclusion of social desirability in the multiple regression
analysis had no effect on the significant findings.
This study used high school students reporting
delinquent behavior as opposed to adjudicated delinquents.
Some may argue that using non-incarcerated adolescents as
subjects would provide a limited amount of useful
information in understanding delinquent behavior. However,
consistent with our findings, research has found that
approximately 90% of adolescents report engaging in
delinquent behavior (Williams & Gold, 1972) and that
juveniles reliably report their offenses (Hardt & Peterson-
Hardt, 1977; Hindelang, Hirschi & Weiss, 1981). The use of
high school students reporting delinquent behavior provided
information about a less pathological sample of delinquents,
not typically considered in delinquent research and this
somewhat underutilized population in delinquent research
provided some unique information about the delinquent
personality.


65
The results from this study may have implications in
several areas of the delinquent literature. The
relationship between sensation seeking and delinquent
behavior in this sample was greater than has typically been
found. The strong association between sensation seeking and
different delinquent behaviors suggests that a more thorough
understanding of this relationship may provide some answers
concerning the motivations behind individuals engaging in
delinquent behavior and may provide insights into possible
interventions for delinquent juveniles. Whether this
relationship between sensation seeking and delinquent
behavior is consistent from high school students' reporting
delinquent behavior to institutionalized delinquents, needs
further examination.
The present findings provide several topics for future
research. No study has examined the pattern of delinquent
behavior among the delinquent dimensions with adjudicated
delinquents. Also, no prior research has examined the
percentage of each delinquent dimension that participates in
the different frequencies of delinquent behavior (as seen in
Table 3-2). Future research should examine if there is
consistancy across the delinquent dimensions for self-
reported delinquents and adjudicated delinquents in their
pattern of delinquent behavior (e.g., whether psychopathic
delinquents engage in more illegal service crimes).
There is another concern in terms of delinquent
personality dimensions and sex. Quay and Parson (1971)


66
failed to differentiate between males and females in the
data reported on the development of the Personal Opinion
Survey. In fact, when there was an association between
delinquent behavior and delinquent group, gender was also
involved. As can be seen in Figure 3-6, the pattern of
differences between the delinquent groups is markedly
different between males and females. These differences
highlight the need for further research into these different
patterns of delinquent behavior for males and females and
whether the personality traits afforded to the socialized,
psychopathic and neurotic delinquents are consistent for
both sexes.
If replicated, this study suggests possible directions
for interventions and preventative actions that could be
taken to help decrease the probability of adolescents
engaging in delinquent behavior. Given the strong
relationship between sensation seeking and delinquent
behavior, changes in the classroom designed to maintain the
students' attention longer and increase their participation
in the learning process would seem likely to be useful.
Classroom changes may include: modification of course
presentation by using more visual aids and more stimulating
demonstrations of concepts, computer aided teaching, shorter
lectures versus typical one hour lectures, and smaller
student to teacher ratios. The availability of more
extracurricular activities, such as intraschool teams
competing against each other, which would facilitate


67
participation of a larger number of students and occupy
their time that may have been spent in delinquent activity.
The data from this study highlight the need for more
research into the delinquent personality. These findings
provide a glimpse at the motivations behind delinquent
behavior and the need for more specificity in delinquent
research. More precision in research, in terms of
delinquent behavior and delinquent personalities, would lead
to a more thorough understanding of the delinquent
individual and hopefully lead to successful treatment and
early identification for those juveniles at risk for
engaging in delinquent behavior.


Appendix A
QUESTIONNAIRES


69
Interest and Preference Test
Directions: Each of the items below contains two choices, A
and B. Please circle the choices that most describes your
likes or the way you feel. In some cases you may find items
in which both choices describe your likes or feelings.
Please choose the one which better describes your likes or
feelings. In some cases you may find items in which you do
not like either choice, in these cases mark the choice you
dislike the least. Do not leave any items blank.
It is important that you respond to all items with only
one choice. We are interested only in your likes or
feelings, not in how others feel about these things or how
one is supposed to feel. There are no right or wrong
answers as in other kinds of tests. Give an honest a
opinion of yourself.
1. A. I like "wild" uninhibited parties.
B. I prefer quiet parties with good conversation.
2. A. There are some movies I enjoy seeing a second or even
a third time.
B. I can't stand watching a movie that I've seen before.
3. A. I often wish I could be a mountain climber.
B. I can't understand people who risk their necks
climbing mountains.
4. A. I dislike all body odors.
B. I like some of the earthy body smells.
5. A. I get bored seeing the same old faces.
B. I like the comfortable familiarity of everyday
friends.
6. A. I like to explore a strange city or section of town
by myself, even if it means getting lost.
B. I prefer a guide when I am in a place I don't know
well.
7. A. I dislike people who do or say things just to shock
or upset people.
B. When you can predict almost everything a person will
say or do he or she must be a bore.
8. A. I usually don't enjoy a movie or play where I can
predict what will happen in advance.
B. I don't mind watching a movie or play where I can
predict what will happen in advance.
9. A. I have tried marijuana or would like to.
B. I would never smoke marijuana.


70
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
A. I would not like to try any drug which might produce
strange and dangerous effects on me.
B. I would like to try some of the drugs that produce
hallucinations.
A. A sensible person avoids activities that are
dangerous.
B. I sometimes like to do things that are a little
frightening.
A. I dislike "swingers."
B. I enjoy the company of real "swingers."
A. I find that stimulants make me uncomfortable.
B. I often like to get high (drinking liquor or smoking
pot) .
A. I like to try new foods that I have never tasted
before.
B. I order the dishes with which I am familiar, so as to
avoid disappointment and unpleasantness.
A. I enjoy looking at home movies or travel slides.
B. Looking at someone's home movies or travel slides
bores me tremendously.
A. I would like to take up the sport of water-skiing.
B. I would not like to take up water-skiing.
A. I would like to try surf-board riding.
B. I would not like to try surf-board riding.
A. I would like to take off on a trip with no pre
planned or definite routes, or timetable.
B. When I go on a trip I like to plan my route and
timetable fairly carefully.
A. I prefer the "down-to-earth" kinds of people as
friends.
B. I would like to make friends in some of the "far-out"
groups like artists and "hippies."
A. I would not like to learn to fly an airplane.
B. I would like to learn to fly an airplane.
A. I prefer the surface of the water to the depths.
B. I would like to go scuba diving.
A. I would like to meet some persons who are homosexual
(men or women).
B. I stay away from anyone I suspect of being "queer."
23. A. I would like to try parachute jumping.


71
B. I would never want to try jumping out of a plane with
or without a parachute.
24. A. I prefer friends who are excitingly unpredictable.
B. I prefer friends who are reliable and predictable.
25. A. I am not interested in experiences for its own sake.
B. I like to have new and exciting experiences and
sensations even if they are a little frightening,
unconventional or illegal.
26. A. The essence of good art is in its clarity, symmetry
of form and harmony of colors.
B. I often find beauty in the "clashing" colors and
irregular forms of modern paintings.
27. A. I enjoy spending time in the familiar surroundings of
home.
B. I get very restlessness if I have to stay around home
for any length of time.
28. A. I like to dive off the high dive.
B. I don't like the feeling I get standing on the high
board (or I don't go near it at all).
29. A. I like to date members of the opposite sex who are
physically exciting.
B. I like to date members of the opposite sex who share
my values.
30. A. Heavy drinking usually ruins a party because some
people get loud and boisterous.
B. Keeping the drinks full is the key to a good party.
31. A. The worst social sin is to be rude.
B. The worst social sin is to be a bore.
32. A. A person should have considerable sexual experience
before marriage.
B. It's better if two married persons begin their sexual
experience with each other.
33. A. Even if I had the money I would not care to associate
with flighty persons like those in the "jet set."
B. I could conceive of myself seeking pleasure around
the world with the "jet set."
34. A. I like people who are sharp and witty even if they do
sometimes insult others.
B. I dislike people who have their fun at the expense of
hurting the feelings of others.
35. A. There is altogether too much portrayal of sex in
movies.


72
B. I enjoy watching many of the "sexy" scenes in movies.
36. A. I feel best after taking a couple of drinks.
B. Something is wrong with people who need liquor to
feel good.
37. A. People should dress according to some standard of
taste, neatness, and style.
B. People should dress in individual ways even if the
effects are sometimes strange.
38. A. Sailing long distances in small crafts is foolhardy.
B. I would like to sail a long distance in a small but
seaworthy sailing craft.
39. A. I have no patience with dull or boring persons.
B. I find something interesting in almost every person I
talk with.
40. A. Skiing fast down a high mountain slope is a good way
to end up on crutches.
B. I think I would enjoy the sensations of skiing very
fast down a high mountain slope.


73
Delinquency Questionnaire
PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than 1 1 2-3 1 2-3
1 X every XXX X
a a 2-3 a a a a
0 mth mth wks wk wk day day
1. purposely damaged or
destroyed property belonging
to your parents or other
family members.
2. purposely damaged or
destroyed property belonging
to a school.
3. purposely damaged or
destroyed other property that
did not belong to you (not
counting family or school
property).
4. stolen (or tried to steal) a
motor vehicle, such as a car
or motorcycle.
5. stolen (or tried to steal)
something worth more than
$50.
6. knowingly bought, sold or
held stolen goods (or tried
to do any of these things).
7. thrown objects (such as
rocks, snowballs, or bottles)
at cars or people.
8. run away from home.
9. lied about your age to gain
entrance or to purchase
something; for example lying
about your age to buy liquor
or get into a movie.
10. carried a hidden weapon other
than a plain pocket knife.
11. stolen (tried to steal)
things worth $5 or less.


74
PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than
1
1
2-3 1
2-3
1
X
every
X
X X
X
a
a
2-3
a
a a
a
0 mth
mth
wks
wk
wk day
day
12. attacked someone with the
idea of seriously hurting or
killing him/her.
13. been paid for having sexual
relations with someone.
14. had sexual intercourse with
a person of the opposite sex.
15. been involved in gang fights.
16. sold marijuana or hashish,
("pot," "grass," "hash").
17. cheated on school tests.
18. hitchhiked where it is
illegal to do so.
19. stolen money or other things
from your parents or other
member of your family.
20. hit (or threatened to hit) a
teacher or other adult at
school.
21. hit (or threatened to hit)
one of your parents.
22. hit (or threatened to hit)
other students.
23. been loud, rowdy, or unruly
in a public place
(disorderly conduct).
24. sold hard drugs, such as
heroin, cocaine, and LSD.
25. taken a vehicle for a ride
(drive) without the owner's
permission.


75
PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than
1
1
2-3 1
2-3
1
X
every X
X
X
X
a
a
2-3 a
a
a
a
0 mth
mth
wks wk
wk day
day
26. bought or provided liquor for
a minor.
27. had (or tried to have) sexual
relations with someone
against their will.
28. used force (strong-arm
methods) to get money or
things from other students.
29. used force (strong-arm
methods) to get money or
things from a teacher or other
adult at school.
30. used force (strong-arm
methods) to get money or
things from other people
(not students or teachers).
31. avoided paying for such
things as movies, bus or
subway rides, and food.
32. been drunk in a public
place.
33. stolen (or tried to steal)
things worth between $5 and
$50.
34. stolen (or tried to steal)
something at school.
35. broken into a building or
vehicle (or tried to break in)
to steal something or just
look around.
36. begged for money or things
from strangers.
37. skipped classes without an
excuse.


76
PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than
1
1
2-3 1
2-3
1
X
every
X
X
X
X
a
a
2-3
a
a
a
a
0 mth
mth
wks
wk
wk day
day
38. failed to return extra
change that a cashier gave
you by mistake.
39. been suspended from school.
40. made obscene telephone calls,
such as calling someone and
saying dirty things.
HOW OFTEN IN THE LAST YEAR
HAVE YOU USED:
41. alcoholic beverages (beer,
wine and hard liquor).
42. marijuana hashish
("grass, "pot," "hash").
43. hallucinogens ("LSD,
"mescaline," "peyote,"
"acid")
44. amphetamines ("uppers,"
"speed," "whites").
45. barbituates("downers,"
"reds," "ludes").
46. heroin ("horse," "smack").
47. cocaine ("coke").


77
Personal Opinion Survey
1. The best teachers are the ones who are very easy.
2. I would be a happier person if I could satisfy all my
parent's wishes.
3. Sometimes I wonder if I'll ever grow up.
4. My folks usually blame bad company for the trouble I get
into.
5. In this world you're a fool if you trust other people.
6. Before I do something, I try to consider how my friends
will react to it.
7. We ought to pay our elected officials better than we do.
8. I never used to steal little things from the
neighborhood stores.
9. My teachers have given me lower grades than I deserve
just because they think I am a trouble-maker.
10. I don't worry about the future; there's nothing much I
can do about it anyway.
11. I often say mean things to other people and then feel
sorry for it afterwards.
12. When I think I am right nobody can change my mind.
13. I don't mind hurting people who get in my way.
14. Most people are squares.
15. I am always hurting the people I love the most.
16. I am so touchy on some subjects that I can't talk about
them.
17. You have to get the other guy before he gets you.
18. Most boys stay in school because the law says they have
to.
19. Policeman are friendly and try to help you.
20. You have to admire somebody who has enough guts to talk
back to a cop.
21. One day I will get even with everybody who has done me
dirty.
22. I have never seen a policeman yet who cared about anyone
but himself.
23. I feel tired a good deal of the time.
24. People seem to like me at first, but I have trouble
keeping friends.
25. When a group of boys get together they are bound to get
in trouble sooner or later.
26. You gotta fight to get what's coming to you.
27. I never wish that I were dead.
28. Only a fool would spend his life working a 40 hour week.
29. I never worry about a thing.
30. It seems as if people are always telling me what to do,
or how to do things.
31. I do what I want to do, whether anybody likes it or not.
32. At times I have a strong urge to do something harmful or
shocking.
33. I think people like me as much as they do other people.
34. Even when things go right for a while I know it won't
last.


78
35. I can easily "shake it off" when I do something I know
is wrong.
36. I never have the habit of shaking my head, neck, or
shoulder.
37. A person is better off if he doesn't trust anyone.
38. The best way to get ahead in the world is to be tough.
39. It is very important to have enough friends and social
life.
40. All this talk about honesty and justice is a lot of
nonsense.
41. There is something wrong with a person who can't take
orders without getting angry or resentful.
42. I am doing as much or as well as my parents expect me
to.
43. When I see people laughing I often think they are
laughing at me.
44. The only way to settle anything is to lick the guy.
45. It's dumb to trust older people.
46. I just can't stop doing things that I am sorry for
later.
47. For all the things I have done I should have been
punished more than I have.
48. I usually feel well and strong.
49. I sometimes feel that no one loves me.
50. When I was going to school I played hooky quite often.
51. My future looks bright.
52. I find it hard to "drop" or "break with" a friend.
53. Sometimes I think I won't live very long.
54. It doesn't matter what you do as long as you get your
kicks.
55. I wish I had not been such a disappointment to my
family.
56. The most important thing is to win no matter how.
57. Everyone should be required to finish high school.
58. I owe my family nothing.
59. My feelings are never hurt so badly I cry.
60. The only way to make big money is to steal it.
61. In school I was sometimes sent to the principal for
cutting up.
62. I have never been in trouble with the law.
63. The worst thing a person can do is to get caught.
64. I don't think I'm quite as happy as others seem to be.
65. I sometimes wish I'd never been born.
66. A guy's only protection is his friends.
67. A person who steals from the rich isn't really a thief.
68. I have had a real fight.
69. My way of doing things is apt to be misunderstood by
others.
70. If you're clever enough, you can steal anything and get
away with it.
71. The average policeman is not strict enough about the
law.
72. The only way to get what you want is to take it.


79
73. I must admit I find it very hard to work under strict
rules and regulations.
74. Success in this world is a matter of luck.
75. I often get nervous I have to get up and move around to
calm myself down.
76. Nobody has ever called me "chicken and gotten by with
it.
77. I just don't seem to get the breaks other people do.
78. I get so angry that I "see red".
79. It's hard to get others to like me.
80. I don't really care what happens to me.
81. No matter how hard I try I always get caught.
82. My eyes often pain me.
83. Women are only good for what you can get out of them.
84. My life pretty boring and dull most of the time.
85. I have been expelled from school or nearly expelled.
86. The only way to make out is to be tough.
87. It is harder for me to just sit still and relax.
88. Once you've been in trouble, you haven't got a chance.
89. Hitting someone makes me feel good inside.
90. Being successful usually means having your name in the
paper.
91. Even when things go right I know it won't last.
92. I'd like to start a new life somewhere else.
93. If you don't have enough to live on, it's OK to steal.
94. It is important to think about what you do.
95. I can outwit almost anyone.
96. On my report card I usually get some failure marks.
97. I feel that I have often been punished without cause.
98. Whenever I do something I shouldn't, it worries me.
99. It's alright to steal from the rich because they don't
need it.
. Sometimes I have stolen things I really didn't need.
100


80
Answer Sheet
Name: Date of Birth:
CIRCLE T (TRUE) OR F (FALSE) FOR EACH QUESTION.
1.
T
F
26. T
F
51. T
F
76.
T
F
2.
T
F
27. T
F
52. T
F
77.
T
F
3.
T
F
28. T
F
53. T
F
78.
T
F
4.
T
F
29. T
F
54. T
F
79.
T
F
5.
T
F
30. T
F
55. T
F
80.
T
F
6.
T
F
31. T
F
56. T
F
81.
T
F
7.
T
F
32. T
F
57. T
F
82.
T
F
8.
T
F
33. T
F
58. T
F
83.
T
F
9.
T
F
34. T
F
59. T
F
84.
T
F
10.
T
F
35. T
F
60. T
F
85.
T
F
11.
T
F
36. T
F
61. T
F
86.
T
F
12.
T
F
37. T
F
62. T
F
87.
T
F
13.
T
F
38. T
F
63. T
F
88.
T
F
14.
T
F
39. T
F
64. T
F
89.
T
F
15.
T
F
40. T
F
65. T
F
90.
T
F
16.
T
F
41. T
F
66. T
F
91.
T
F
17.
T
F
42. T
F
67. T
F
92.
T
F
18.
T
F
43. T
F
68. T
F
93.
T
F
19.
T
F
44. T
F
69. T
F
94.
T
F
20.
T
F
45. T
F
70. T
F
95.
T
F
21.
T
F
46. T
F
71. T
F
96.
T
F
22.
T
F
47. T
F
72. T
F
97.
T
F
23.
T
F
48. T
F
73. T
F
98.
T
F
24 .
T
F
49. T
F
74. T
F
99.
T
F
25.
T
F
50. T
F
75. T
F
100.
T
F


81
Frustration Scale
PLEASE CIRCLE THE MOST APPROPRIATE RESPONSE
1.
If other people are beating
me in a game, I inwardly
accept it.
ALMOST
NEVER
12 3
ALMOST
ALWAYS
4 5 6 7 8
2. When I work at a task, and things
keep going wrong, as a result 112345678
feel as if I could smack someone,
somebody, or myself.
3. When a problem seems very difficult,
I try that much harder and work
that much harder to solve it. 12345678
4. If I am losing while playing my 12345678
favorite sport, I get frustrated.
5. When I'm involved in a competitive
activity, I am able to remain 12345678
inwardly calm.
6.Frustrating tasks make me feel
aggressive.
12345678
7.Even if unsuccessful, I enjoy the 12345678
challenge of a difficult task.
8.When I lose out in competing with
somebody else, (ie.ajob, in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
school, cheerleader, etc.) I
become moody.


82
Social Desirability Scale
PLEASE CIRCLE TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F) TO EACH QUESTION.
T F
1. I'm always willing to admit it when I make a
mistake.
T F
2. I like to gossip at times.
T F
3. I always try to practice what I preach.
T F
4. I never resent being asked to return a favor.
T F
5. There have been occasions when I took advantage of
someone.
T F
6. I sometimes try to get even rather than forgive
and forget.
T F
7. I have never been irked when people expressed
ideas very different from my own.
T F
8. At times I have really insisted on having things
my own way.
T F
9. There have been times when I felt like smashing
things.
T F
10. I have never deliberately said something that
hurt someone's feelings.


83
Parent Questionnaire
Relation to Child: Father Mother Step-Father
Step-Mother Foster Parent
Phone Number:
Date of Birth: Spouses Date of Birth:
Spouses Relation to Child: Father Mother
Step-Father Step-Mother
Foster Parent
Number of other siblings: Total number in the household:
Your Occupation:
Spouse's Occupation:
Education: High School H.S. Graduate College
College Graduate Post Graduate
Spouse's Education: High School H.S. Graduate
_College
College Graduate Post Graduate
Family income level: <$5,000 $5,000-10,000
$10,000-20,000 $20,000-30,000
$30,000-50,000 >$50,000
Activities you participate in with the child:
Has your child ever been diagnosed as hyperactive?Yes No
Has your child ever taken medication for hyperactivity?Yes
No


84
Student Questionnaire
Date of Birth: Today's Date
Grade: Grade Point Average:
Number of times in the last year you have been disciplined
at school (sent to office, put in detention, suspended,
expelled):
Favorite Class: Favorite Sport:
Sports played at school:
Organized Sports played away from school:
Hobbies:
Have you ever been arrested: Yes No
If so, what for?
Have any of your brothers/sisters ever been arrested? Yes
No
Have you ever talked to a counselor or psychologist about
something that was upsetting you? Yes No
If so, what prompted you to talk to
someone?
Where does most of your stress come from: home school
friends other


Appendix B
RAW DATA


86
Variable List: subject number, age, school(1-PK Yonge, 2-
Gainesville HS, 3-Buchholz HS, 4-Newberry HS), POS-SD, POS-
ND, POS-PD, SSS-TAS, SSS-ES, SSS-DIS, SSS-BS, SSS-Total,
sex, Frustration-Interpersonal, Frustration-Intrapersonal,
Frustration-Total, SRDQ- frequency of pred. crimes against
persons, SRDQ-frequency of pred. crimes against property,
SRDQ-frequency of illegal service crimes, SRDQ-frequency of
status crimes, SRDQ-hard drug use, SRDQ-frequency total,
SRDQ-number of different pred. crimes against persons, SRDQ-
number of different pred. crimes against property, SRDQ-
number of different illegal service crimes, SRDQ- number of
different public disorder crimes, SRDQ-number of different
status crimes, SRDQ-number of different hard drugs used,
SRDQ-total number of different offenses, social desirability
score, self-reported GPA, official GPA, self-reported
disciplinary actions, official disciplinary actions, number
of arrests, had siblings been arrested (0-no, 1-yes), prior
counseling or psychotherapy (0-no, 1-yes), origin of stress
(1-home, 2-school, 3-friends, 4-others), mother age, father
age, number of siblings, total number in the household,
father education (1-HS, 2-HS grad., 3-college, 4-college
grad, 5- post grad.), mother education, income (l-<5000, 2-
5-10,000, 3-10-20,000, 4-20-30,000, 5-30-50,000, 6->50,000),
ever diagnosed hyperactive(0-no, 1-yes), ever had medication
for hyperactivity(0-no, 1-yes), race, do they come from a
single parent home (0-no, 1-yes), delinquent group (1-SD, 2-
ND, 3-PD), overall group number (1-low SS SD, 2-Low SS ND,
3-low SS PD, 4-high SS SD, 5-high SS ND, 6-high SS PD),
sensation seeking group (1-low, 2-high), participate in
school sports (0-no, 1-yes), participate in other organized
sports (0-no, 1-yes), grade.
Raw data:
001 15.7 2 11 12 4 4 1 1 2 8 1 9 10 19 1 0 0 0 20 21
10001023 3.0 1.3 0.0014 45 47 131140010
2 2 1 0 1 10
002 17.7 1 15 9 10 3 6 7 5 21 1 16 10 26 5 35 135 162 483 5
825 162451 19 5 2.0 2.1 7.5 90011 47 57 453360
01025201 12
003 16.0 1 11 21 4 8 3 8 7 26 2 23 14 37 12 87 17 11 61 0
188 172640 20 1. 3.2 010011 36 34 25244101
0 1 4 2 0 0 9
004 14.2 1 9 23 2 5 1 3 0 9 2 20 16 36 10 22 5 22 17 0 76
231320 11 0 2.5 3.0 000002 41 45 255350010
1110 0 9
005 17.0 1 12 16 22 9 8 9 6 32 1 25 18 43 62 353 162 629 87
650 1943 2 14 2 9 5 5 38 3 2.0 2.2 571012 37 39 1433
4001036210 10
007 17.5 1 5 9 9 10 7 6 3 26 2 21 15 36 0 5 0 10 32 0 47
01022056 4.0 3.6 000012 38 38 134560020
3 6 2 1 1 12
008 17.0 1 12 15 12 1 2 2 0 5 1 14 9 23 24 10 25 5 20 0 84
222140 11 8 3.0 1.4 .30116 32.46.311021
2 2 1 0 0 10


87
009 16.1 1 7 24 18 10 9 8 5 32 2 14 16 30 0 24 20 15 135 735
929 021323 11 5 2.0 2.9 110119 42 46 23. .600
1014200 10
010 18.2 1 17 20 7 9 4 5 3 21 1 23 12 35 10 20 10 5 25 0 70
242530 16 6 3.0 2.2 200011 47 47 255560010
2 5 2 1 1 12
011 16.5 1 6 12 13 9 10 4 4 27 1 13 15 28 0 15 77 140 168 12
412 033341 14 9 3.8 3.6 140001 38 39 1444500
1036211 11
012 16.8 164365241
7 2 7 12 19 0 0 5 17 20 0 42
00112043. 2.2 000011 48 47 1455500103
3 1 0 0 11
013 15.6 1 4 4 2 8 4 3 0 15 2 13 18 31 0 5 0 10 5 0 20
01021047 3.0 3.1 000015 36 35 141230010
3 3 1 1 1 10
014 17.0 1 8 18 6 9 9 3 5 26 1 20 26 46 5 10 0 5 5 20 45
12011162 3.7 3.6 0.0005 37 38 022340011
1 4 2 0 0 11
015 16.2 1 12 23 12 9 6 7 3 25 1 20 20 40 5 56 5 745 277 0
1088 171540 18 4 2.5 2.8 220005 47 48 145550
01014210 10
016 15.5 1 10 16 18 5 2 5 3 15 1 14 19 33 917 168 0 46 150 0
1281 260520 15 4 2.6 2.0 400002 34.12.3300
2133111 10
017 15.0 1 9 17 2 8 6 5 3 22 2 18 17 35 0 37 5 5 29 0 76
061130 11 0 3.8 4.0 000001 41 43 144340010
14 2 119
018 15.1 1 9 11 16 8 10 8 8 34 2 7 14 21 5 151 50 275 102
447 1030 194555 29 5 2.5 2.1 10 0 0 1 1 45 41 1 4 4 2
40010362009
019 16.5 1 13 26 18 8 1 2 4 15 1 23 23 46 5 87 5 15 57 0 169
181320 15 3 2.0 2.9 110001 41 58 132250010
1 1 1 1 1 10
020 15.9 1 4 24 11 2 3 3 0 8 2 16 16 32 0 20 0 0 10 0 30
04002066. 3.8 000011 47 51 0255200101
1 1 0 0 10
021 15.8 1 8 8 7 8 5 7 3 23 2 6 10 16 0 10 17 74 145 0 246
022440 12 2 2.0 2.4 020004 45 53 125550010
3 6 2 1 0 10
022 14.8 1 10 16 3 4 4 4 1 13 2 26 15 41 0 20 5 12 17 0 54
04112085 3.6 2.7 000012 40 53 265550010
1 1 1 0 0 10
023 17.1 2 3 8 3 10 7 2 3 22 2 10 8 18 0 0 12 0 10 0 22
00102037 3.0 2.9 1.0002 47.13.5300111
4 2 0 1 11
024 17.6 1 10 18 7 9 9 6 4 28 2 16 15 31 10 32 20 6 37 0 105
251350 16 2 3.3 3.7 110011 38 40 254550110
1 4 2 0 1 12
025 14.4 2 6 2 2 9 5 9 7 30 2 16 11 27 0 0 5 36 5 0 46
00131056 3.0 2.7 0.0012 45 41 145560010
2 5 2 1 1 9
026 16.8 2 15 17 8 8 6 2 4 20 1 17 17 34 0 34 12 37 10 0 93


88
04122093 3.7 3.7 000002 49 48 145460010
2 2 1 1 1 11
027 17.0 2 8 13 9 9 7 6 2 24 1 23 17 40 0 27 5 154 50 5 241
041341 13 3 3.3 2.8 370015 46 51 145460010
3 6 2 1 1 11
028 16.3 2 6 1 4 10 9 7 3 29 1 13 15 28 0 5 30 45 62 5 147
023351 14 8 3.0 3.2 490012 38.324250011
3 6 2 1 1 11
029 16.9 2 10 8 7 7 1 8 6 22 1 18 20 38 12 216 20 557 140 0
945 1 11 1 5 3 0 21 3 2.9 100005 39.134.2001
1 2 5 2 1 1 11
030 14.5 26418232 15 19 19 28 12 00000 12
10000018 3.5 3.0 00002 44 48 254560010
2 2 1119
031 16.3 2 13 21 25 10 5 9 5 29 1 18 23 41 5 1993 5 1189 15
0 3207 1 12 1 5 3 0 22 1 2.3 3.0 021101 45 54 46355
001036211 11
032 15.1 2 9 11 7 8 2 4 5 19 2 14 11 25 5 30 5 41 30 0 111
161430 15 6 3.5 3.5 200009 44 44 135450010
2 2 110 9
033 16.2 2 7 8 16 8 5 8 4 25 1 21 15 36 0 0 12 12 89 0 113
00114064 3.0 2.7 100002 39 41 255350010
3 6 2 1 1 11
034 17.8 2 4 5 5 10 5 4 0 19 2 16 20 36 10 0 12 15 17 0 54
20132083 3.6 3.6 000002 43 44 145560010
3 3 1 0 0 12
035 17.3 2 12 18 9 6 8 7 5 26 2 9 16 25 5 0 135 121 64 10
335 102422 11 4. 2.4 01011 10 43 45 2422500
1025200 11
036 17.0 2 14 22 3 8 8 5 3 24 2 13 25 38 0 10 25 400 69 5
509 022531 13 1. 1.8 10 3001 14 38 34 0355400
1025200 10
037 15.3 2 9 6 18 7 4 6 5 21 1 26 21 47 5 35 10 17 15 0 82
182120 14 3 2.5 1.5 000004 40 40 133430011
3 6 2 1 1 9
038 15.9 2 9 17 10 3 4 3 0 10 2 16 12 28 0 0 0 5 130 0 135
00011026 2.0 1.9 03001 14 36.13.4.0021
1 1 1 0 0 10
039 16.3 2 16 17 19 6 5 4 6 21 1 29 15 44 105 1200 140 119
591 402 2557
794764 37 2 3.0 2.5 40000 14 35 43 03546001
0 2 5 2 1 0 11
040 18.0 2 7 13 1 9 6 0 1 16 1 16 18 34 0 0 0 5 12 0 17
00011026 2.8 2.6 110014 39 46 034261010
1 1 1 0 0 12
041 16.8 2 10 13 3 7 6 2 2 17 2 19 12 31 0 0 5 0 5 5 15
00101136 3.0 2.9 130001 37 43 0. 3340010
2 2 1 0 0 11
042 15.6 2 18 5 3 10 4 7 0 21 1 12 7 19 12 27 5 17 37 0 98
141240 12 3 3.4 3.1 111011 40 40 145340010
2 5 2 1 1 10
043 17.4 2 10 20 6 8 2 6 4 20 2 27 13 40 0 0 5 0 42 0 47
00104052 2.0 2.2 11001 14 38 38 5.2120010
1 1 1 0 0 12


89
044 17.9 2 17 25 18 6 4 9 5 24 1 26 23 49 168 1523 377 288
259 5 2620 4 13 2 8 5 1 33 2 1.2 1.7 000011 32 32 251
44001025200 12
045 17.5 2 7 8 5 7 8 7 2 24 2 20 20 40 0 18 64 30 147 5 264
032231 11 2 3.5 3.2 000115 43 .224430011
3 6 2 1 0 12
046 16.8 3 11 10 1 6 4 5 4 19 2 13 8 21 0 10 17 10 57 0 94
022240 10 5 2.7 260001 49 48 0321400102
2 1 0 1 11
047 15.6 2 5 17 6 10 7 3 2 22 1 19 16 35 5 27 0 15 10 0 57
14022092 3.9 3.7 000002 48 46 035460010
1 4 2 1 1 10
048 17.2 2 5 7 8 7 3 8 2 20 1 19 15 34 12 10 0 5 44 0 71
12013073 3.5 2.6 13 50001. . .55500103
3 1 0 0 10
049 17.3 2 7 8 2 7 0 3 3 13 2 20 15 35 5 15 5 5 10 0 40
13112085 3.5 3.5 000002 43 56 133550010
2 2 1 0 1 12
050 16.0 2 6 11 2 10 5 1 0 16 2 13 18 31 0 0 5 0 10 0 15
00102033 3.9 3.8 000012. 42 125.400111
1 1 1 1 10
051 17.2 2 18 23 28 7 6 5 5 23 1 26 18 44 42 64 104 1406 50
12 1678 472641 24 3 3.0 2.4 62100 12 50.24.43
001136201 12
052 18.4 2 10 15 6 6 2 2 3 13 2 18 19 37 5 0 0 17 44 0 66
10012043 2.0 2.1 010001 37 42 251130010
1 1 1 0 0 12
053 18.1 2 9 17 12 9 4 4 2 19 2 11 23 34 12 0 0 24 52 0 88
10013052 2.0 1.8 000014 54 50 131. 30010
1 1 1 0 0 12
054 15.7 2 12 15 6 10 7 10 4 31 2 23 14 37 0 10 37 77 57 5
186 023341 13 4 2.5 1.6 000108 47 49 3243400
1125210 10
055 15.7 2 11 10 4 9 9 9 6 33 2 19 16 35 0 20 22 52 69 0 163
043230 12 5 3.0 031014 46 48 2355500102
5 2 0 1 10
056 15.6 3 7 6 9 10 5 7 7 29 1 18 18 36 57 266 12 1021 89 0
1445 281440 19 3 2.7 3.0 000002 38.12.3300
11362119
057 16.9 2 16 22 6 3 3 1 2 9 2 24 11 35 0 0 0 17 62 0 79
00025073..6 000006 37 40 1.425001022
1 0 1 11
058 15.2 2 11 16 2 4 2 7 3 16 1 19 19 38 5 12 5 17 29 0 68
11123083 3.2 2.5 110002 42 42 145560010
1 1 1 1 1 10
059 17.2 26529822 21 1 16 7 23 505 157 10 140 317
101523 12 3 2.5 1.4 120002 27 37 033530010
2 2 1 0 0 9
060 17.0 2 14 15 5 8 10 6 5 29 2 10 17 27 10 0 57 36 290 0
393 202350 12 5 2.5 2.3 211011 40 43 1453500
1025210 11
061 15.8 2 7 8 7 9 7 8 3 27 2 19 12 31 0 25 12 42 37 0 116
051430 13 2 3.2 3.2 100011 43 47 145560010
3 6 2 1 1 10


90
062 14.7 3 5 6 4 8 7 6 5 26 2 7 17 24 0 0 0 22 10 0 32
00032056. 2.8 000012 34.03.32001136
2 0 0 9
063 17.1 2 9 14 4 8 4 6 0 18 2 22 18 40 0 25 10 30 57 0 122
052340 14 4 3.5 3.0 100002 44.24.340011
1 1 1 1 1 11
064 17.5 2 15 27 31 2 6 9 5 22 2 21 28 49 171 164 64 153 69
25 646 5 12 4 8 5 2 36 1 .75 .9 19 10 1 0 0 7 30 1 3 3 .
002136201 11
065 14.8 2 9 10 8 9 4 3 4 20 1 11 7 18 17 25 0 15 10 0 67
250320 12 1 3.0 3.0 210002 41 36 253340010
3 3 10 19
066 17.0 2 13 22 15 10 5 3 7 25 1 16 22 38 15 69 0 20 42 0
146 3 11 0 3 4 0 21 3 2.5 2.4 210015 37.14.3400
1114201 11
067 14.9 2 12 11 3 6 1 2 4 13 2 17 15 32 5 25 5 10 15 0 60
151230 12 5. 2.2 340102 49. 11 8.4400112
2 10 0 9
068 17.0 2 6 21 13 4 2 6 6 18 1 27 26 53 25 72 20 377 147 0
641 251330 14 1 3.5 3.0 53000 14 41 44 142350
01011101 11
069 14.9 2 9 7 3 8 3 6 5 22 1 21 28 49 10 40 5 10 32 0 97
251220 12 2 3.0 2.7 000002 38 41 035450010
2 5 2 1 1 9
070 15.2 2 11 12 8 10 4 6 5 25 1 23 32 55 370 402 5 747 740
0 2264 261530 17 3 2.5 2.0 220014 39 42 03525
0010252009
071 15.1 2 6 16 8 4 3 4 6 17 1 23 16 39 0 0 0 10 5 0 15
00021032 2.5 2.9 00000 11 49 50 432250010
1110 0 9
072 16.7 26 12 1031372 15 17 32 500550 15
10011035 4.0 4.0 000009 38 39 254.30010
1 1 1 0 0 11
073 18.3 2 14 17 19 8 4 7 4 23 1 20 16 36 5 22 25 382 82 0
516 132340 13 4 2.0 1.6 22101 14 34 40 144440
01036201 12
074 14.3 2 11 22 6 4 2 6 4 16 2 20 20 40 0 20 20 94 50 0 184
041540 14 2 2.6 2.6 000018 43.02.540011
11110 9
075 14.5 26649463 22 1 17 8 25 550 17 50 32
11021054 3.0 2.4 330018 38 42 142341010
3 6 2 1 1 9
076 16.8 3 11 5232106194 13 5000 22 0 27
10003048 2.0 1.4 000002 55 61 463240010
2 2 1 1 1 11
077 17.8 23319200 11 2 19 13 32 005050 10
00101024 3.0 3.0 020002 40 50 554460010
3 3 1 0 0 12
078 15.9 3 8 16 10 5 6 8 4 23 2 16 22 38 365 0 12 60 121 0
558 10133083 2.7 2.4 13 60014 45 44 1444500
1014210 10
079 17.5 3 6 6 2 8 7 4 2 21 1 17 17 34 0 5 0 17 42 0 64
01024075 3.6 3.4 240002 45 47 1453.0010
2 2 1 1 1 12


91
080 17.3 3 4 16 3 2 0 4 2 8 2 20 16 36 0 0 5 64 124 0 193
00123064 3.4 3.2 000002 43 44 255560010
1 1 1 0 0 12
081 17.8 3 5 10 4 8 4 5 4 21 2 23 9 32 0 0 5 0 69 5 79
00103155 3.5 3.6 000002. 41 025.500111
1 1 0 0 12
082 18.1 3 7 9 5 6 4 5 1 16 2 16 17 33 0 0 0 5 45 0 50
00013045 3.1 2.3 000012 42 48. .4450010
3 3 1 0 0 12
083 17.7 3 11 17 5 6 3 4 2 15 2 28 20 48 0 0 52 10 129 0 191
00124076 3.1 2.7 13001 14 43 44 1444.0010
1 1 1 0 1 12
084 18.1 3 8 12 4 7 4 3 7 21 2 14 16 30 0 0 5 0 64 0 69
00100233 2.3 .0.0001 44 49 2443600101
4 2 1 1 12
085 16.0 3 4 15 4 6 3 1 2 12 2 11 18 29 0 0 0 5 5 0 10
00011024 3.5 3.2 100002. .03455002.1
1 1 0 0 10
086 18.2 3 4 8 2 9 6 10 3 28 2 13 19 32 5 27 142 114 442 0
730 142440 15 3 3.2 2.8 210011 39 40 0355600
1014200 12
087 15.7 3 13 4 2 10 6 3 0 19 1 18 14 32 5 35 5 15 10 0 70
171320 14 4 2.9 2.3 000019 42 47 255460010
2 2 1 1 1 10
088 17.7 3 7 12 3 8 7 4 6 25 2 18 15 33 0 0 5 0 10 0 15
00102036 2.5 2.9 0. 0011 38 39 143350010
1 4 2 0 0 12
089 3 8 13 8 8 2 6 2 18 1 20 15 35 5 32 0 25 10 0 72
140520 12 7 2.7 2.8 100002 40 40 253330010
111119
090 18.4 3 4 6 18 4 3 6 3 16 1 21 17 38 20 67 12 52 912 0
1063 141340 13 2 3.1 2.5 030002 42 50 145350
01033110 12
091 18.2 3 10 21 9 7 7 3 2 19 2 14 23 37 0 0 12 5 44 0 61
00113056 3.3 3.1 000015 48 56 365450010
1 1 1 0 1 12
092 18.3 3 6 2 14 9 4 7 4 24 1 18 13 31 0 0 5 17 417 0 439
00132066 3.6 2.4 000001 42 46 243260010
3 6 2 1 1 12
093 16.4 3 12 14 2 5 4 8 3 20 2 16 11 27 0 0 20 34 155 0 209
00143083 3.6 3.4 110002 43 43 134460010
2 2 1 0 0 11
094 16.7 3 13 15 2 7 2 1 4 14 2 25 17 42 0 15 5 10 22 0 52
03123094 3.0 2.9 110002 52 51 255240010
2 2 1 0 0 11
095 16.6 39667893 27 17 26 33 00 140 155 124 10 429
003332 11 9 3.0 2.3 4 10 1002 41 42 14445001
0 2 5 2 0 1 11
096 18.1 3 12 3 23 10 6 8 4 28 1 8 14 22 0 54 370 735 244 5
1408 082351 19 6 2.0 1.0 341004 33 43 464430
01036200 12
097 18.0 3 14 18 16 4 1 4 4 13 1 16 7 23 0 0 0 135 5 0 140
00021039 2.7 1.4 000011 1.2
2 1 1 1 12


92
098 16.9 3 18 16 10 7 4 9 5 25 2 18 20 38 0 5 12 92 525 0
634 011350 10 3. 1.2 111012 37 38 14446001
0 2 5 2 0 0 11
099 16.0 3 9 11 10 6 3 6 4 19 1 24 20 44 10 0 0 10 10 0 30
20022061 3.2 3.0 000002 46.0354600103
3 1 1 1 10
100 17.4 3 5 15 5 8 5 5 6 24 1 13 22 35 5 10 0 52 10 0 77
12012063 3.6 3.6 000011 60 60 331340010
1 4 2 0 1 12
101 15.7 3 3 3 8 9 3 0 4 16 2 17 16 33 5 17 12 15 10 0 59
12132092 3.8 3.8 000102 43.34.3200113
3 1 1 1 10
103 16.6 3 5 13 3 10 9 3 3 25 2 24 22 46 10 25 10 22 52 12
131 252361 19 3 3.2 1.7 200014 41 44 1453610
1014210 11
104 17.7 3 12 12 16 10 5 6 3 24 1 22 25 47 10 192 130 382
512 0 1226 281330 17 5 3.5 2.9 330001 43 53.43
35001036211 12
105 19.4 3 12 6 9 5 1 0 1 7 2 15 8 23 0 32 20 50 204 0 306
021550 13 3 2.3 1.6 16001 12. .353331020
2 2 1 1 0 12
106 18.2 3 14 14 18 6 3 6 5 20 1 24 47 41 30 241 69 17 57 0
414 473320 19 7 3.1 2.3 670011 39 40 2355600
1033110 12
107 16.7 3 5 5 4 8 4 9 6 27 1 22 18 40 5 60 25 15 89 0 194
192340 19 2 3.6 3.7 000111 41 44 355460010
3 6 2 1 1 11
108 17.5 3 9 10 3 9 4 0 1 14 2 21 10 31 0 5 0 5 140 0 150
01013054 2.0 1.4 000015. 39 02. .300112
2 1 0 0 11
109 15.9 3 14 23 15 9 3 8 4 24 2 21 18 39 52 377 52 104 284
20 889 121441 13 3. 2.0 .00011 37.25.3400
1114211 10
111 17.6 3 12 12 16 10 5 6 3 24 1 22 25 47 0 25 17 67 77 5
191 281330 17 0 3.0 2.4 010001 45 50 1453500
1036200 12
112 17.7 3 7 5 10 10 3 10 5 28 1 12 19 31 15 420 40 82 474 0
1031 3 11 3 4 4 0 25 1 3.3 3.2 000012 36 33 146250
01036200 12
113 18.0 3 7 2 10 9 5 9 7 30 1 17 14 31 0 30 5 34 246 0 315
061440 15 4 3.1 2.9 100002 38 38 144460010
3 6 2 0 1 12
114 17.7 3 6 11 12 7 6 3 1 17 2 22 23 45 0 5 12 12 62 0 91
01123072 3.0 3.4 10001 14 41 45 244460010
3 3 1 1 0 12
115 18.0 3 9 12 1 9 4 5 3 21 2 16 15 31 0 12 20 64 280 0 376
01124087 2.0 1.7 000101 45 46 345540010
2 2 1 0 0 12
116 18.4 3 14 24 12 8 5 3 6 22 2 22 16 38 0 0 0 10 27 0 37
00024063 2.1 2.8 110019 39 41 145561010
1 4 2 1 0 12
117 18.6 3 9 13 13 8 4 5 1 18 1 15 11 26 365 39 12 442 175 0
1033 151440 15 4 2.5 1. 0001 43 52 4422600
1033110 12


119
O O
3 6
121
225
1 1
122
854
1 O
123
2 O
1 1
124
2 O
1 O
125
O 1
1 1
126
2 2
1 1
127
O 2
2 2
128
448
O 1
129
2 O
3 1
130
478
1 0
131
0 1
3 1
132
0 0
1 1
133
0 0
4 2
134
1 3
4 2
135
0 4
3 6
136
0 1
1 1
137
0 3
1 4
93
14.7 3 4 2 4 9 3 7 3 22 2 12 11 23 0 0 0 5 22 0 27
013048 3.4 2.7 00001 53 53 243350010
2 0 19
16.23 14 13 0 10 3 6 4 23 1 19 16 35 5 52 20 64 84 0
161220 12 3 1.5 2.1 33101 14. 42 234.400
2 5 2 0 0 9
15.1 3 8 7 13 9 5 7 2 23 1 22 22 44 5 237 52 406 154 0
192530 20 1 2.0 2.1 200001 44 48 1353500
3 6 2 0 1 9
14.63 15 16 12 2 2 1 4 9 2 15 15 30 6 0 5 5 11 0 27
113075. .2.51001 41 42 03446001022
1 9
. 3 5 14 7 4 1 0 0 5 2 13 14 27 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
000025. 2.6 .00009 39.1332.002111
0 .
14.6 3 11 24 4 2 1 3 4 10 2 15 24 39 0 5 0 0 22 0 27
003043 1.5 1.7 010011 37 39 144350010
10 0 9
14.8 3 13 21 8 5 4 3 4 16 2 16 22 38 10 10 0 10 10 0 40
022084 3.5 3.2 000011 39 40 145560010
10 0 9
15.2 3 14 14 7 2 2 2 0 6 2 22 21 43 0 57 0 0 44 0 101
003053 1.7 1.7 .14 0008 38 34 243550010
110 9
15.6 3 14 12 8 8 5 3 3 19 1 19 12 31 12 12 0 397 22 5
110631 12 3 1.5 1.3 9 10 0012 40 44 364460
0 2 2 1 1 0 9
15.7 3 6 19 29 3 5 2 8 18 1 17 21 38 32 0 0 15 5 0 52
0 4 1 0 7 2 3.0 1.8 110005 1.3
0 0 9
16.2 3 12 21 4 10 4 5 3 22 1 17 9 26 10 35 12 394 27 0
281440 19 3 3.7 3.0 100012 36 37 3622500
1 4 2 1 1 10
17.8 4 6 5 3 4 2 2 2 10 2 18 15 33 0 5 5 5 15 0 30
113065 2.7 2.8 000009. .1344600103
0 1 12
17.6 4 9 15 2 4 1 2 1 8 1 14 12 26 0 0 0 5 25 0 30
012033 2.7 2.0 360104 43.04.2300211
1 0 12
16.7 4 9 21 3 10 9 9 2 30 2 24 15 39 0 0 64 39 72 0 175
252096 3.6 3.5 000015. .0333300101
1 1 11
14.5 3 10 21 6 10 6 6 8 30 2 16 26 42 5 62 0 82 74 0 223
0 4 4 0 12 1 1.5 .0.0012 38 40 3655600101
0 0 9
15.4 3 8 9 16 7 4 8 6 25 1 16 17 33 0 20 0 64 52 0 146
021074 2.5 2.3 .20002 40 42 253560010
2 0 0 9
15.1 3 10 23 4 8 6 5 1 20 2 19 14 33 0 5 0 15 22 0 42
033076 3.3 3.5 00001 10 42 41 143550010
10 0 9
. 4 13 25 7 8 9 7 7 31 2 22 18 40 0 20 17 174 152 0 363
2 4 4 0 13 1 2.7 2.4 00011 41 41 461240010
2 1 1 11


94
138 14.4 3 8 9 3 6 1 3 1 11 2 19 11 30 O O O 5 10 O 15
00012035 2.0 1.8 11000 14 32 39 345530011
2 2 10 19
139 17.6 3 5 10 1 5 2 2 3 12 2 16 17 33 0 5 0 0 67 0 72
01004057 3.4 3.3 000012 46 48 145550010
1 1 1 0 0 12
141 14.8 37927335 18 2 12 13 25 0000 730 0 730
00002025 3.5 3.0 110002 41 39 143450010
11110 9
142 15.2 3 11 12 25 10 7 7 7 31 1 11 17 28 10 208 52 89 656
0 1015 241440 15 1 2.8 2.8 lilil 56 61 24426
0010362009
143 14.9 35413323 11 2 14 15 29 550550 20
11011043 3.4 3.6 000102 42 43 145450010
3 3 1 0 0 9
144 14.5 3 9 22 6 8 5 1 0 14 2 19 16 35 5 135 0 0 10 0 150
12002055 4.0 3.7 000006. 35. .44400112
2 1119
145 16.5 3 11 16 10 9 7 8 5 29 2 15 25 40 5 15 104 29 109 0
262 132330 12 3 3.2 1.9 000011 64 72 0344500
1014210 11
146 17.7 3 6 9 5 8 4 8 4 24 1 21 16 37 12 25 24 49 29 0 139
152630 17 2 3.2 3.1 200002 46 45 234460010
3 6 2 1 1 12
147 16.0 3 11 17 17 6 4 5 3 18 1 21 18 39 17 12 12 74 64 0
179 211420 10 2 3.2 2.7 870003 36 38 1444600
1033111 10
148 18.6 3 12 12 12 9 3 9 5 26 1 26 23 49 10 30 5 47 77 0
169 261530 17 2 2.9 2.4 10 14 0 0 0 1 42 43 1 4 5 2 6 0
01025211 12
149 18.1 3 9 6 11 7 5 7 6 25 1 22 19 41 10 62 69 84 207 17
449 2 11 3 6 4 2 28 2 3.0 2.2 560002 50 50 255560
01036210 12
150 17.2 3 12 13 17 10 6 8 4 28 2 12 18 30 5 22 77 282 677 0
1063 133540 16 5 2.5 2.2 200008 40.02.4500
1136200 11
151 19.2 3 8 6 10 6 2 2 5 15 1 25 23 48 15 35 5 370 32 0 457
371250 18 2 3.0 2.7 220002 39 38. .5340010
3 3 1 1 0 12
152 18.3 3 7 19 4 6 4 4 3 17 2 14 18 32 0 0 0 20 5 0 25
00011024 2.8 2.8 000001 42 42 354250010
1 1 1 0 0 12
153 18.2 3 9 14 21 5 4 7 5 21 1 21 18 39 365 39 25 429 382 0
1240 152330 14 4 3.0 1.3 5 10 0002 46 48. 1130
01033100 12
154 15.2 37943583 19 2 22 23 45 50 130 69 199 0 403
10134093 3.5 3.1 000002 46 41 243250010
1110 0 9
155 18.2 3 10 9 3 3 2 5 3 13 2 18 14 32 0 0 32 24 44 0 100
00223074 3.3 3.7 000001 38 32 045460010
2 2 1 0 0 12
156 19.4 3 8 9 11 9 3 7 3 22 1 15 17 32 130 237 142 174 154
0 837 162430 16 6 2.5 1.8 610011 40 45 353350
01036210 12


Full Text
DIMENSIONS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP
TO SENSATION SEEKING, SELF-REPORTED OFFENSES, AND
FRUSTRATION
By
TERRY W. JEFFERSON
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1989

ACKNOWLE DGMENTS
I would like to express my gratitude to the faculty and
staff of the Department of Clinical and Health Psychology
for their time and effort in making my tenure at Florida
productive and enjoyable. I would like to thank my
dissertation committee, Dr. Sheila Eyberg, Dr. Jackie
Goldman, Dr. Steve Boggs, and Dr. Ronald Akers, for their
constructive feedback and encouragment. I would especially
like to thank Dr. James Johnson for his guidance and
patience throughout my studies at Florida. His
encouragement and ideas gave me the enthusiasm needed to see
this project become a reality. I would like to express my
appreciation to the administration and teachers of the
Alachua County school system for their tolerance and
cooperation in the data collection phase of this study. I
would like to thank my parents for instilling in me the
concern for others that makes this field so rewarding. I
owe my biggest thanks to my son, Andrew, for his
unconditional love and smiles that always helped me keep
things in perspective, and my wife, Julie, for her love,
understanding and encouragement that persevered throughout
all the day-to-day hassles and rewards.
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ü
ABSTRACT iv
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Overview of Delinquency 1
Theories of Delinquency 2
The Role of Frustration 7
Dimensions of Delinquent Personalities 9
Stimulation Seeking and Its Relevance to
Delinquency 12
Nature of the Present Study 20
2 METHODS 24
Subjects 24
Measures 24
Procedures 2 9
Analysis 32
3 RESULTS 3 5
Self-Reported Delinquency 36
Delinquency and Sensation Seeking 4 6
Frustration 47
Academic, Problem Behavior, and
Extracurricular Activities 48
Correlations 53
4 DISCUSSION 57
APPENDICES
A QUESTIONNAIRES 68
B RAW DATA 85
REFERENCES 96
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 105
iii

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
DIMENSIONS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP
TO SENSATION SEEKING, SELF-REPORTED OFFENSES AND FRUSTRATION
By
Terry W. Jefferson
August 1989
Chairman: James H. Johnson, Ph.D.
Major Department: Clinical and Health Psychology
This study examines the effects of delinquent
personality dimensions and sensation seeking on self-
reported delinquent behavior in a sample of high school
students. Three major personality dimensions have been
delineated within the delinquent population; however, very
little research has been conducted to assess the influence
these personality dimensions may have on delinquent
behavior. Sensation seeking has been proposed as a
motivator for various stimulating or risk-taking behaviors,
one of which is delinquent behavior. The individual effects
and interaction of sensation seeking and delinquent
personality dimensions on self-reported delinquent behavior
iv

were examined.
The data revealed a strong relationship between
sensation seeking and self-reported delinquent behavior.
Analysis showed that specific types of delinquent behavior
were significantly related to the interaction of delinquent
personality dimensions and gender. These findings were
discussed in relation to previous reseach, implications for
future study and possible preventative measures aimed at
reducing delinquent behavior.
v

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Overview of Delinquency
Juvenile delinquency is a legal term referring to a
person, under 18 years of age, who has committed a crime or
engaged in other illegal behavior not specified in the
criminal code which may potentially involve the individual
in the juvenile justice system. Delinquent behaviors can
range from status offenses that are illegal due to the age
of the offender (i.e. truancy, running away) to index
offenses which are illegal regardless of the age of the
offender (i.e. disorderly conduct, assault, burglary,
murder). Juvenile delinquency did not exist as a legal
entity until 1899, when the United States initiated special
juvenile courts to deal with young people who committed
crimes. Juvenile courts were heralded as a major social
advance where the welfare of the child became as important
as the crime committed (Stumphauzer, 1985).
Delinquency is quite common in America. Research has
shown that close to 90% of adolescents have engaged in some
type of delinquent behavior (Williams & Gold, 1972; Elliott,
Huizinga, & Ageton, 1985). In 1984, there were more than 2
million arrests of persons under 18 years of age (FBI,
1985). This figure is viewed as an underestimate, because
it is based only on reported crimes. Arrest rates tend to
1

2
increase with age, reaching a peak at 17 years for males,
and 16 for females (FBI, 1984). There has also been an
increase throughout the world in serious and violent crimes
by juveniles, such as armed robbery, murder, and rape
(Stumphauzer, 1981). These statistics suggest that
delinquency is one of the major problems facing the
behavioral sciences.
Theories of Delinquency
There have been many attempts to explain delinquent
behavior from different perspectives. Several of the major
theories include sociological, psychological, and
biological. Sociological theories of delinquency view the
behavior as a function of a complex interaction of variables
within the individual's environment, over which he or she
may or may not have control. These variables include sex,
race, socioeconomic status (SES), geographic region, family
characteristics, job opportunities, and subcultural norms
and values. Three of the major sociological theories will
be discussed.
Merton (1938) has developed what has been referred to
as anomic or strain theory, which has been elaborated on by
Cohen (1955) in the form of status deprivation, and Cloward
and Ohlin (1960) in the form of differential opportunity.
According to strain theory, success is prized by all
Americans, but opportunities for success by legitimate means
are not distributed equally among the social classes.
Adolescents feel pressure for deviant behavior when they

3
experience marked discrepancies between aspirations and
opportunities for achievement (Cloward and Ohlin, 1960).
This discrepancy or "strain" is primarily produced in lower
class youths who have conventional success goals, but due to
their social class have limited opportunities to achieve
these goals. This strain may produce lowered self-worth,
increased frustration, alienation, and ambivalence. It may
also produce attempts toward advancement through
illegitimate means, resulting in delinquent behavior and
often involvement in the juvenile justice system. This
theory was the motivating force behind several government
programs in the 1960's to help provide job opportunities,
better education, and community programs for juveniles of
lower income families. However, strain theory lacks
empirical support for several of its major premises and has
been criticized as being excessively complex in its attempt
to account for too much (Empey, 1982).
Another sociological theory of delinquency is the
Social Bonding theory proposed by Hirschi (1969). He
asserts that it is only the individual's bond to society
that deters antisocial behavior. The strength of this
social bond determines the person's degree of conformity.
This social bond is achieved through attachment, commitment,
involvement, and belief. Attachment is the tie of affection
and respect between children and significant others, such as
parents, teachers, and friends. Commitment is the extent to
which children dedicate themselves to conventional lines of

4
action for fear of the consequences of deviant behavior.
Involvement is the degree to which a person participates in
conventional activities. Belief is the degree that
individuals accept the morality of the law and conventional
values. Hirschi believes that these four factors are the
bases for conformity and that the lack of control from these
bonds is a major contributor to delinquent behavior. He
places much importance on the family in the development of
attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
Akers (1977) proposed a Social Learning theory of
deviant behavior, which has its origins in operant
conditioning research. He states that social behavior is
learned through operant conditioning, in which behavior is
shaped by its consequences. Behavior is strengthened by
reinforcement (presentation of positive stimuli or removal
of aversive stimuli) and weakened by punishment
(presentation of aversive stimuli or removal of positive
stimuli). The occurrence of deviant or conforming behavior
is dependent on the person's history of reinforcement and
punishment for the behavior and the reinforcement and
punishment associated with alternative behaviors
(differential reinforcement). He proposed that deviant
behavior will increase when there is greater exposure to
delinquent rather than nondelinquent models (imitation),
when delinquent behavior is differentially reinforced, when
there is more association with delinquent peers
(differential association), and when delinquent behavior is

5
framed in more positive than negative terms. This theory
has received empirical support for explaining drug abuse
(Krohn, Lanza-Kaduce, & Akers, 1984; Lanza-Kaduce, Akers,
Krohn & Radosevich, 1984) and aggressive behavior
(Neopolitan, 1981).
Some sociological theories have resulted in changes in
social policy and have led to the development of new
programs to address those areas viewed as being major
contributors to delinquency. The data on the application of
these programs to the problem of delinquency have resulted
in modest impact on the rates of delinquency (Empey, 1982) .
One reason for the modest success rates in prevention and
treatment of delinquency may be the assumption of
homogeneity of the delinquent personality espoused by most
of these theories. Closer scrutiny of the delinquent
population may reveal that certain sociological theories are
more applicable to some types of delinquents than others.
The fact that some children from the same environment
engage in delinquent behavior, while others do not, suggests
that more than just broad social factors are involved. In
the development of delinquent behavior, psychological
variables have often been posited as influential. The major
psychological theories of delinquency are analytical,
operant, and familial.
One of the earliest psychological theories of
delinquency was based on Freud's work. Friedlander (1947)
stressed that the delinquent functions according to the

6
pleasure principle and cannot tolerate frustration or delay
gratification. Delinquents have an ineffective superego,
due to inadequate care during infancy, which makes them
unable to inhibit their pleasure-seeking tendencies.
Another analytically oriented theory has been proposed by
Stot (1980). He proposed that growing children have two
basic needs: self realization; and care, affection, and
devotion from an adult. Dissatisfaction of either need
leads to discomfort and efforts to resolve this frustration.
If the frustration is not resolved, anxiety mounts, leading
to the activation of an emergency reaction system. This
system activates feelings of resentment and delinquent
behavior, such as retaliation, "avoidance excitement" and
"inferiority compensation."
The application of operant theory to delinquent
behavior has been elaborated on above (Akers, 1977), but has
clear implications for psychological learning processes.
Patterson (1982) theorizes that delinquent behavior is
primarily due to a dysfunctional family process. Through a
lack of discipline, the juvenile fails to learn to
discriminate between criminal and noncriminal behavior.
Parents contribute to the development of delinquent behavior
by failing to label, track, and provide consequences
consistently for this behavior. Parents reinforce
delinquent behavior by modeling coercive ways of
interacting, which results in deficient social skills.

7
This lack of social skills results in difficulties at school
and at work, which may predispose juveniles to interpersonal
problems throughout their life.
Various biological explanations for delinquent
behavior have also been proposed. Mowrer (1960) suggests
that some children's responsiveness to external stimulation
is impaired, which leads to difficulty making associations
between behavior and punishment. Therefore, these children
experience problems inhibiting behavior that may elicit
punishment and fail to learn the consequences of their
behavior.
Various sociological and psychological theories cite
strain, social bonding, or failure to learn consequences as
factors involved in etiology of delinquency. One common
characteristic shared by these factors is their production
of or increase in frustration.
The Role of Frustration
Many delinquent behaviors may be in response to
academic failure, blocked vocational opportunities, or
feelings of entrapment in an aversive situation, which many
juveniles find very frustrating. Frustration may result in
aggressive acts. Strain theorists have attempted to address
this issue at the sociological level, but firm empirical
support is lacking. One of the most influential
psychological theories of aggression is the Frustration-
Aggression Hypothesis (Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mower, &
Sears, 1939). According to this theory frustration always

8
leads to some form of aggression, and the occurrence of
aggressive behavior always presupposes the presence of
frustration. Frustration results from interference in
attaining some anticipated goal. Aggression is defined as a
behavior, the goal of which is the injury of a person.
According to this theory, various factors influence the
occurrence of aggression: the amount of frustration,
effects of punishment, displacement of aggression, and the
catharsis of aggression. Aggression will be directed at the
source of frustration, unless the aggression is inhibited
(via punishment), which will produce more frustration. This
vicious circle of frustration-blocked aggression-frustration
continues and increases the probability that the person will
exhibit other acts of aggression not directed at the
frustrating object (displaced aggression). Attempts to
create experimentally different levels of frustration and
look for corresponding differences in aggression has
provided only limited support for the theory (Williams &
Geison, 1979). However, it has been found that the same
individual maintains the same tendency to experience
frustration in a variety of settings (Schachter, 1964; Lamb,
1978). Although most workers in the area would argue with
the view that frustration "always" results in aggressive
behavior, it would seem that experiencing frustration may
contribute to crimes against persons or objects which are
unprovoked and are attributed to the pathology of the
delinquent, rather than their situation.

9
Megargee (1966) distinguished between "undercontrolled"
delinquents, who are habitually aggressive, and
"overcontrolled" delinquents, who commit violent crimes, yet
have no prior criminal history. The undercontrolled type
are impulsive and respond to frustration with aggression and
are labeled psychopaths. The overcontrolled type rarely
respond with aggression due to strong inhibitions; only
after a long build up of frustrations will they exhibit
aggressive behavior.
While these broad-based theories have advanced our
thinking about delinquency, they are limited in their view
of the delinquent personality as a unitary concept.
Interestingly, in light of the varied behavior that can
bring a delinquent into the juvenile justice system, these
delinquents may be highly variable in their attitudes and
behavior.
Dimensions of Delinquent Personalities
The majority of delinquency researchers have viewed
delinquency as a unitary concept and have focused simply on
examining differences between delinquent and non-delinquent
samples (Quay, 1987); however, data suggest that the
delinquent population is a very heterogeneous group. This
notion has been supported by research initially conducted by
Hewitt and Jenkins (1946) and later in a widely cited study
by Quay (1964). Evidence from multivariate studies suggests
that juvenile delinquents can be reliably classified into at
least three major personality types: neurotic/disturbed

10
(ND), unsocialized-psychopath (PD), and socialized-
subcultural (SD) (Quay, 1964). The ND is viewed as
hypersensitive, with feelings of inferiority and depression,
having poor social skills, at times impulsive and
aggressive, but experiences tension and guilt over
misbehaviors. The PD is viewed as manipulative, defiant,
guiltless, amoral, rebellious, egocentric, distrustful of
authority, impulsive and without loyalties. The SD is
likely to come from lower SES, be a loyal member of a gang,
and cooperate with the gang in crime. The SD has no
motivation to change his behavior, except to avoid arrests.
In addition to Hewitt & Jenkins (1946) and Quay (1964),
other studies have attested to the reliable identification
of these dimensions in children and adolescents (Behar &
Stringfield, 1974; Conners, 1969; Kohn & Rosman, 1972;
Victor & Halverson, 1976).
In addition to differences identified through
multivariate research, other differences have been found
among the delinquent personality groups. Ellis (1982) found
that ND were less empathic than PD, who were less empathic
than SD. The ND scores correlated negatively with all the
adjustment scales of the California Personality Inventory
(Quay & Peterson, 1964). In a study measuring the three
dimensions, scores on the SD and ND scales were not related
to intelligence, but the PD scores were negatively related
to achievement and intelligence, which is consistent with
the findings obtained with adult psychopaths. The PD scale

11
correlated negatively with Responsibility, Communality, and
Achievement via Independence scales of the California
Personality Inventory, which is consistent with the view
that PD do not see themselves as lacking poise, or self-
control and do not seek to make a good impression.
Individuals classified as psychopathic delinquents have been
found to be more immature in their moral development and
role taking abilities as well as more concrete in their
reasoning than ND or SD (Jurkovic & Prentice, 1977).
The SD scores correlated negatively with Well Being,
Tolerance, Intellectual Efficiency, and Psychological
Mindedness suggesting that rigidity, and conformity are
characteristics of the high SD scorer (Quay & Peterson,
1964). Genshaft (1980) found the Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles of ND, PD, and SD
delinquents revealed two personality types: a weak ego
delinquent with considerable intrapsychic conflict (ND) and
a more traditional psychopathic delinquent with little
apparent anxiety or neurotic symptoms (PD).
Although learning deficits have been found in
undifferentiated samples of delinquents (Zinkus & Gottlieb,
1977; Jerse & Fakouri, 1978; Lane, 1980), only recently has
it been found that learning problems correlated with the PD
scale of the Personal Opinion Survey, but not the SD or ND
scales (Jefferson & Johnson, 1989). These learning problems
may be due to a wide variety of reasons within the

12
individual's personality or a function of the their
behavior. These may include: missed opportunities caused
by disciplinary actions, disinterest resulting from
insufficient stimulation from the academic material, or
learning disabilities. Physiological evidence also supports
the existence of delinguent groups. Borkovec (1970) found
that psychopathic delinguents had lower initial reactivity
to a tone stimulus than neurotic delinquents. Others have
reported lower electrodermal reactivity in conduct
disordered children and antisocial adolescents (Raine &
Venables, 1984; Delameter & Lahey, 1983). Hare (1968) found
that adult psychopaths had lower resting levels of
electrodermal responding and less autonomic responses to
tones than neurotic psychopaths and nonpsychopath inmates.
Psychopaths have also been found to be less responsive to
aversive stimuli than nonpsychopathic offenders (Hare,
Frazelle, & Cox, 1978; Hare & Craigen, 1974). These findings
suggest that psychopaths may require a stronger stimulus to
evoke a response, and they may respond differently to
punishment than non-psychopathic offenders.
Stimulation Seeking and Its relevance to Delinquency
The physiological data on psychopathic delinquents is
consistent with the notion of the pathological stimulation
seeker proposed by Quay (1965). Quay theorized that the
psychopath has either an increased rate of adaptation or a
lessened basal reactivity causing a condition of stimulus
deprivation which the psychopath finds affectively

13
unpleasant. The psychopath seeks to change this affective
state by seeking stimulation. In this highly routinized
modern world, the need to change the level of stimulation
may be achieved either by changing the intensity of the
stimulation or the variability of stimulation sources, such
as listening to loud music, driving at high speeds, or sky
diving. Zuckerman (1979) defines sensation seeking as "the
need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and
experiences and the willingness to take physical and social
risks for the sake of such experiences" (p. 34).
Zuckerman, Kolin, Price & Zoob (1964) developed the
Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), to measure individual
differences in sensation seeking. Various psychological
measures have been correlated with stimulation seeking. A
positive correlation has been found between high stimulation
seeking and the Mania and the Psychopathic Deviant scales of
the MMPI, the Extraversión scale (Zuckerman, Bone, Neary,
Mangelsdorff, & Brustman, 1972,* Zuckerman & Link, 1968), and
Psychoticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory
(Eysenck & Zuckerman, 1978). The Experience Seeking and
Disinhibition scales of the SSS correlated with the
frequency of situations in which emotions were expressed and
the intensity of the emotions expressed (Allen, 1976). No
correlation has been found between stimulation seeking and
anxiety (Zuckerman, Schultz, & Hopkins, 1967; Zuckerman &
Link, 1968; Kilpatrick, Sutker & Smith, 1976). Stimulation
seeking appears to be related to impulsivity, particularly,

14
the readiness to engage in activities which are physically
risky (Zuckerman, 1979). Zuckerman, Kolin, Price and Zoob
(1964) found a negative correlation with anxiety and a
positive correlation with scores on the Embedded Figures
Test. This suggested that the SSS is not a measure of
impulsivity, but of sensitivity to internal sensations.
Physiological evidence suggest that high stimulation
seekers are markedly different from low stimulation seekers
biochemically and neurophysiologically. Larger initial skin
conductance levels have been found in high stimulation
seekers than in low stimulation seekers under various types
of stimulation, such as the presentation of neutral (e.g.
landscape, clock) or loaded (e.g. boxing, mountain climbing)
slides (Smith, Perlstein, Davidson & Michael, 1986). High
stimulation seekers show a greater orienting reflex to novel
stimuli than low stimulation seekers (Neary & Zuckerman,
1976). Daitzman and Zuckerman (1980) found that subjects
scoring high on the Disinhibition scale had significantly
higher levels of testosterone, 17-B estradiol, and estrone
than low scorers on the Disinhibition scale. Higher
testosterone levels have been found in inmates with a
history of aggressive or violent tendencies (Rada, Laws &
Kellner, 1976; Ehrenkranz, Bliss & Sheard, 1974).
Zuckerman (1979) reviewed the physiological data
related to stimulation seeking and replaced his theory of an
optimal level of arousal mediated by the reticulo-cortical
activating system, with a theory concentrating on the limbic

15
reward system. He accepts Stein's (1978) theory that
dopamine pathways provide the general approach incentive,
and norepinephrine pathways control the expectancies of
positive reinforcement from the stimuli. High levels of
dopamine result in more activity and the increased
exploration of new situations, and high norepinephrine is
related to the expectation for positive reinforcement from
persons or situations, which would be part of the motivation
for risk taking behavior. SSS scores have been found to be
negatively correlated with plasma monoamine oxidase levels
(Murphy, Belmaker, Buchsbaum, Martin, Ciaranello & Wyatt,
1977; Schooler, Zahn, Murphy & Buchsbaum, 1978). Monoamine
oxidase (MAO) is the primary catalyst for breaking down
monoaminergic neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine,
and serotonin) and high MAO levels have been shown to be
related to depressive symptoms (Cotman & McGaugh, 1980).
The high levels of activity in these reward centers
result in a special alertness and responsiveness to novel
stimulation that can be related to stimulation seeking.
However, subseguent research has revealed that metabolites
of dopamine measured in the cerebrospinal fluid were not
related to stimulation seeking, but norepinephrine
metabolites in the CSF did correlate negatively with
stimulation seeking (Zuckerman, 1983). The relationship
between norepinephrine and stimulation seeking has more
recently been investigated with the primary focus on the
locus coeruleus, which contains 70% of the norepinephrine in

16
the brain (Zuckemtan & Como, 1983) . It has been found that
when electrodes were implanted in the locus coeruleus of
rats, novel stimulation produced habituation and
dishabituation similar to the responses found when measuring
the orienting response in humans (Aston-Jones & Bloom,
1981). This suggests that the norepinephrine system may
constitute another arousal system (Routtenberg, 1968). The
intrinsic reward or punishment may be related to the level
of arousal, with high arousal related to anxiety and
moderate arousal related to reward. This results in a
return to the optimal level of stimulation theory first
proposed, but with a specific biological system as its
basis. It may be that the high stimulation seekers have a
lower arousability in the norepinephrine system, which may
be the reason some high sensation seekers use drugs or
experiences that increase norepinephrine activity (Zuckerman
& Como, 1983).
It is noteworthy that these physiological findings with
stimulation seekers are very similar to those found with
psychopathic delinquents. It may be that the sensation
seeker will engage in behaviors that will result in a
relative increase in internal arousal such as high speed
driving, attending rock concerts, and sky diving, but if
these appropriate types of behavior are not available, they
may find inappropriate ways to increase their arousal, such
as truancy, fighting, using certain types of drugs, or
stealing.

17
The research on the relationship between sensation
seeking and delinquency has yielded some interesting
results. Male and female felons and delinquents have been
found to score higher on the SSS than psychiatric patients
(Thorne, 1971) and nondelinquent high school students
(Farley & Sewell, 1976). White, Labouvie, and Bates (1985)
found that delinquent adolescents scored significantly
higher on the disinhibition scale of the SSS than
nondelinquent adolescents. Farley and Farley (1972) found
that in 27 delinquent females, the ones scoring high on the
SSS exhibited more fighting, escape attempts, and were
punished more often for disobeying their supervisors than
those scoring low on the scale. This finding suggests that
there may be a link between stimulation seeking and
aggressive behavior. However, these studies address the
delinquent personality as a unitary concept, which is
contrary to the data presented above (see, Quay, 1987).
In contrast to these studies employing paper and pencil
measures of stimulation seeking, laboratory research on
stimulation and novelty seeking among the delinquent
personality groups has been successful in delineating the
theorized differences related to personality dimensions of
delinquency. Skrzypek (1969) supported Quay's theory in
finding that PD had lower pretest anxiety, and higher
novelty and complexity preference scores than ND. Orris
(1969) found that PD had a severe vigilance decrement when
compared to SD and ND. Unsocialized-psychopaths (PD) have

18
been found to have a higher level of stimulation seeking
than ND and normal children, as measured by decreased
viewing time of a monotonous sequence of photographic slides
(Whitehill, Demeyer-Gapin, & Scott, 1976). However, these
subjects were classified by subjective ratings and these
delinquent groups may be somewhat different than those
groups classified by Quay and Parsons (1971). These studies
suggest that stimulation seeking may play a significant role
in the psychological makeup of some delinquents, especially
the psychopathic delinquent.
The relationship between stimulation seeking and
aggression has received limited attention. Studying
undergraduates, Zuckerman (1974) found the Disinhibition
scale, for males and females, and the General,
Disinhibition, and Experience Seeking scales for females,
correlated positively with the aggression scale on the
Personality Research Form. This positive relationship has
also been found for the Experience Seeking and Disinhibition
scales in a VA psychiatric sample (Daitzman & Tumilty,
1974). High school students who scored high on the SSS
tended to engage in misbehavior at school more often than
low scorers on the SSS (Wasson, 1980). The biological
substrate for aggression is thought to rest primarily in the
limbic system, which is in the same region proposed as the
substrate for stimulation seeking.
Frustration may also play a significant role in the
behavior of the psychopathic delinquent. This group of

19
delinquents may become more frustrated given that they have
more learning difficulties, and have greater problems in
social situations, and because their attempts at stimulation
seeking may be blocked. These situations taken together
place the delinquent at risk for aggressive behavior,
resulting in difficulties at school, both academically and
socially.
Given the diversity within the delinquent population,
it is likely that individual delinquents have different
motivations behind their behavior and respond to situations
differently. For example, psychopathic delinquents may have
higher sensation-seeking needs than other delinquents and
this may result in more frustration if these needs are not
met. Their sensation seeking needs along with a heightened
level of frustration may put them at risk for more
aggressive and delinquent behavior. While not motivated by
sensation seeking needs, the neurotic delinquents may
attempt to overcompensate for preceived inadequacies by
engaging in delinquent behavior. Neurotic delinquents may
experience just as much frustration, but its origin may
relate to these feelings of inadequacy. The sensation
seeking needs of socialized delinquents, although not as
great as psychopathic delinquents, may be met through
interactions with their peer group. Frustration experienced
by these delinquents may be minimized by their group's
support and behavior. The three delinquent dimensions may
have a very different relationship with sensation seeking

20
and frustration. In general, this study attempts to examine
such relationships among dimensions of delinquency,
sensation seeking, and frustration such as those
hypothesized here and how these relationships relate to
different types of delinquent behavior.
Nature of the Present Study
This study attempted to overcome one of the major
shortcomings of prior delinquency research by considering
differences among the three delinquent subgroups, i.e
neurotic delinquent, socialized delinquent, and psychopathic
delinquent. A major goal of the present study was to
examine how the type and frequency of self-reported
delinquent behavior varied among high school students as a
function of delinquency personality type. In addition,
differences between high and low sensation seekers were
assessed so as to evaluate the relationship between
sensation seeking and self-reported delinquency. Also of
interest was how the combination of these two variables
(delinquent type and sensation seeking status) might relate
to the dependent measures. The resulting six groups were
the major focus of the study: High Sensation Seeking (SS)
Neurotic delinquent, High SS Socialized delinquent, High SS
Psychopathic delinquent, Low SS Neurotic delinquent, Low SS
Socialized delinquent, Low SS Psychopathic delinquent.
In terms of the interaction of sensation seeking and
delinquency group, it was predicted that high stimulation
seekers in the PD group would be found to have engaged in

21
more predatory crimes (e.g. assault, burglary, and auto
theft) and public disorder crimes (e.g. disorderly conduct,
drunkenness, and obscene phone calls) than subjects in the
low stimulation seeking PD group and the other four groups.
It was assumed that these differences relate to the
heightened frustration, resulting from unsatisfied
stimulation needs, as well as the learning problems
experienced by subjects in the psychopathic delinquent
group.
A second goal of the study was to examine the role of
frustration in delinquent groups and stimulation seekers,
especially in regard to aggressive behavior. Given the
assertions of strain theory and the frustration-aggression
hypothesis, a higher level of frustration should be related
to a higher frequency of aggressive behavior. The proposed
relationship between the PD and the high stimulation seeker
suggest that this group would score higher on a measure of
frustration if their stimulation needs are blocked, if they
are experiencing academic problems and if their social
interactions are ineffective. It was predicted that the PD
group would experience more frustration than the ND group,
who would experience more than the SD group.
The study also sought to examine other presumed
correlates of delinquent group membership and stimulation
seeking. Variables considered here included school grades,
school behavior, sports, self-reported arrests, and classes
taken. It was hypothesized that the high stimulation

22
seeking PD subjects would exhibit relatively poorer academic
performance than the ND or SD subjects. Because the
research with sensation seekers concerning academic
performance is equivocal (Anderson, 1973; Kish & Busse,
1968), this relationship was also be examined. This study
sought to replicate earlier findings that high stimulation
seekers engage in more misbehavior at school (Wasson, 1980).
Information concerning the subjects' favorite classes and
sports participation was obtained to determine if high
stimulation seekers participate in more stimulating and
risky activities and sports than low stimulation seekers.
The students who participate in these sports or activities
should report a lower frequency of delinquent behavior,
given that either their need for stimulation is fulfilled
and/or they may have less time to engage in delinquent
activities.
The relationship of socioeconomic status, sex, and race
to self-reported delinquent behavior was assessed by
inclusion of these variable in regression analyses or by
chi-square analysis. Official records of delinquency show a
disproportionate amount of crime is committed by members of
the lower social classes and blacks (Elliot & Ageton, 1980;
Brownfield, 1986). The occupation and education of the
parents was also examined among the six groups.
Given the use of multiple self-report measures, a
social desirability scale was given to measure and control
for the subjects' desire "to put up a good front." This

23
tendency may indicate self deception, a lack of insight into
one's own character or an unwillingness to accept one's
limitations (Anastasia, 1976). These scores were used in
the data analysis to help control for the variability this
tendency may contribute to the subjects responses.

CHAPTER 2
METHOD
Subjects
The sample consisted of 140 high school students, of
which 57 (41%) were male and 83 (59%) were female. The
sample was predominantly white (94%). The ages of the
subjects ranged from 14 to 19 years, with a mean of 16
years, 8 months. The median family income of the sample was
in the $30,000 to $50,000 range.
Measures
A Student Demographic Questionnaire provided
information on age, race, GPA, hobbies, favorite class,
participation in sports, focus of current difficulties,
frequency of disciplinary actions at school, criminal
history, and counseling history.
A Parent Questionnaire provided information on
occupation of the mother and father, their age, their
education, number of persons in the home, number of
siblings, income range, and history of diagnosis and
medication for hyperactivity.
The subjects were administered the Personal Opinion
Survey (POS)(Quay & Parsons, 1971) to classify them into the
delinquent personality dimensions. The POS is a 100 item,
24

25
true-false questionnaire. The POS was developed from a
series of factor analytic studies of the responses of both
institutionalized delinquents and public school students to
a large pool of items tapping attitudes, beliefs, feelings,
and behaviors (Peterson, Quay, & Cameron, 1959; Peterson,
Quay, & Tiffany, 1961; Quay, Peterson & Consalvi, 1960).
The POS yields scores on three personality dimensions:
Neurotic Delinquent, Socialized Delinquent, and Psychopathic
Delinquent. Test-retest reliability for the three scales
using 65 institutionalized delinquents over an interval of
90 days yielded a stability coefficient of .76 for Neurotic
Delinquency, .75 for Psychopathic Delinquency, and .61 for
Socialized Delinquency. The three factors of the POS have
adequate discriminant validity as suggested by significant
group differences on the Neuroticism and Well Being scales
of the California Personality Inventory, intellectual and
achievement measures, and cross validation with new samples
(Quay and Parsons, 1971). The POS has also been used in
research to differentiate groups of delinquents (Hundleby &
Ross, 1977; Genshaft, 1980; Raine & Venables, 1981; Ellis,
1982; Raine, Roger, & Venables, 1982; Jefferson & Johnson,
1989) .
Each subject completed the Sensation Seeking Scale -
Form V (SSS) (Zuckerman, 1979) which consists of 40 forced-
choice items with two response choices per items (e.g., A. I
like "wild" uninhibited parties., or B. I prefer quiet
parties with good conversation.). The SSS (Form V)

26
(Zuckerman, 1979) was developed by factor analysis of
earlier versions of the SSS, which yielded four factors;
Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking,
Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. The Thrill and
Adventure Seeking factor consists of items expressing a
desire to participate in sports or activities involving some
physical danger or risk, such as mountain climbing,
parachute jumping, scuba diving, and high speed driving.
The Experience Seeking factor consists of items expressing a
desire to seek new experiences through the mind and senses
by living in a nonconformist life style with unconventional
friends and by travel. The Disinhibition factor consists of
items expressing a need to engage in uninhibited behavior in
social situations, such as excessive alcohol abuse at
parties, inappropriately loud or aggressive, and seeking
variety in sexual partners. The Boredom Susceptibility
factor consists of items describing an aversion for
repetitive experiences, routine work, or dull or predictable
people as well as restlessness when things are unchanging.
The SSS provides scores on the four factors, as well as a
total sum.
Scores on the SSS have been found to correlate with
drug abuse, particularly marijuana, hashish, amphetamine and
psychedelic drugs (Brill, Crumpton, & Grayson, 1971; Carrol
& Zuckerman, 1977; Kaestner, Rosen, & Appel, 1977),
cigarette smoking (Stanaway & Watson, 1981), gambling
(Zuckerman, 1974), sexual behavior and attitudes (Zuckerman,

27
Tushop, & Finner, 1976), skydiving (Hymbaugh & Garrett,
1974), scuba diving (Heyman & Rose, 1980), and volunteering
for hypnosis and encounter groups (Stanton, 1976; Zuckerman,
Schultz, & Hopkins, 1967). SSS scores have been found to be
negatively correlated with age (Kish & Busse, 1968).
Test-retest reliability of the SSS using 65 males and
females ranged from .70 on the Boredom Susceptibility scale
to .94 on Thrill and Adventure Seeking and Total scales.
When correlated with the Embedded Figures Test, Howard
Mazes, and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List it
appears that the SSS measures sensitivity to internal
sensations rather than impulsiveness. A positive
relationship between SSS scores and field independence and a
negative relationship with anxiety have been found, which is
consistent with theories of sensation seeking (Zuckerman,
1979) .
The Self-Report Delinquency Scale, developed by Elliott
and Ageton (1980), was administered to all subjects to
obtain information regarding the type and frequency of
delinquent acts subjects engaged in over the last year.
This measure consists of forty-seven items, which are a
representative sample of the full range of delinquent acts,
from "skipping classes without an excuse" to "attacked
someone with the idea of seriously hurting or killing him or
her." The drug use items include alcohol, marijuana,
hallucinogens, amphetamines, barbituates, heroin, and
cocaine. Respondents rated the frequency in which they were

28
involved in the delinquent act or used the drug in the last
year by selecting one of eight categorical responses: 1.
zero; 2. less than once a month; 3. once a month; 4. once
every 2-3 weeks; 5. once a week; 6. 2-3 times a week; 7.
once a day; 8. 2-3 times a day. This scale yields six
subscales: predatory crimes against persons (e.g., sexual
assault, aggravated assault, & robbery); predatory crimes
against property (e.g., vandalism, burglary, auto theft,
larceny, stealing, fraud & joyriding); illegal service
crimes (e.g., prostitution, selling drugs, & buy/providing
liquor for minors); public disorder crimes (e.g., carrying a
concealed weapon, hitchhiking, disorderly conduct,
drunkenness, making obscene phone calls); status crimes
(e.g., runaway, sexual intercourse, alcohol use, & truancy);
and hard drug use (e.g., amphetamines, barbituates,
hallucinogens, heroin, & cocaine). The research using this
measure has been found to be more consistent with official
arrest records than studies using other self-reported
delinquency measures addressing issues of race and class
difference (Elliot & Ageton, 1980; Brownfield, 1986;
Sampson, 1986).
Each subject completed the Trait Frustration Scale
(Bergandi, Williams, & Lamb, 1982) which is an eight item
Likert-type scale. The items are written in the first
person and each describes a frustrating situation along with
a response to that situation (e.g., If other people are
beating me in a game, I inwardly accept it.). Responses to

29
the items are on an eight-point Likert scale ranging from 1
(almost never) to 8 (almost always). The scale provides
three scores: Interpersonal score, Intrapersonal score and
Total score. Half of the frustrating situations are
individualized (e.g., Frustrating tasks make me feel
aggressive), resulting in the intrapersonal score, and half
are situations involving interpersonal competition (e.g., If
other people are beating me in a game, I inwardly accept
it.) yielding the interpersonal score. In a normative
sample of 162 college students, it was found that subjects
scoring high on this scale show greater aggression than
lower scoring subjects following frustrating experiences and
also greater relief following successful experiences
(Bergandi, Williams, & Lamb, 1982) suggesting that this is a
reasonably valid measure of frustration.
The Marlowe-Crown Social Desirability - Short Form
1f10) (MCSDS) (Strahan & Gerbasi, 1972) was completed by all
subjects. This scale consists of ten items and yields a
general social desirability score. Reliability coefficients
for the 1(10) MCSDS range from .59 to .70 and correlations
between the full MCSDS and the 1(10) short form range from
.80 to .90.
Procedures
After receiving permission from school personnel,
subjects were recruited from study halls, where they were
given a brief description of the research and procedures
used. The confidential nature of individual results was

30
emphasized to each subject. Consent forms and the Parent
Questionnaire were sent home with each potential subject to
be completed by the parent and returned to the experimenter
prior to testing. Approximately 950 consent form/parent
questionnaire packets were given to volunteers at four high
schools in Alachua county.1 There were 169 completed
packets returned to the experimenter, resulting in a return
rate of 18%. The subjects were tested individually and in
groups of up to 8 subjects during their study periods. The
subjects were instructed to read the directions at the top
of each questionnaire and to request assistance if they did
not understand a question. When the subjects completed the
questionnaires they were given a free hamburger coupon and a
list of referrals for drug abuse and psychological services
available in the Alachua county area. Because the
questionnaires were coded and the subjects' names were not
directly associated with the codes, the list of
psychological services was provided to all subjects in the
event that they were experiencing emotional problems
orabusing drugs and had responded so on the questionnaires.
1High school students were be used for several reasons.
The POS has been used for classifying elementary and high
school students into the neurotic/disturbed, unsocialized-
psychopathic, and socialized-subcultural groups (Raine &
Venables, 1981; Raine, Roger, & Venables, 1982). Evidence
that official delinquency records tend to underestimate
delinquent behavior and that self-report measures reveal
undetected offenses suggests that many students in the high
schools participate in delinquent behavior (Quay, 1987).
Research has also found that juveniles who have been
arrested or convicted have a high likelihood of admitting

31
At two of the schools, the students' records were
inspected by the experimenter to obtain their official grade
point average, and school officials provided the number of
disciplinary actions taken by the school in the last year
for each subject. At the remaining two schools, school
officials were given the subjects' names and they provided
the official grade point averages and the number of
disciplinary actions taken by the school in the last year
for each subject.
Of the 169 subjects who completed the questionnaires,
17 did not report engaging in behavior which could have
resulted in them being arrested and 12 were judged to be
over-reporting delinquent behavior.2 These 29 subjects were
excluded from the analyses.
their offenses in a survey (Hardt & Peterson-Hardt, 1977;
Hindelang, Hirschi, & Weiss, 1981) and only a small number
(8 of 400) of unconvicted juveniles claimed to have been
convicted (West & Farrington, 1977). It was assumed that
subjects who engage in a minimal amount of delinquent
behavior and who have similar attitudes as incarcerated
delinquents, would also have less problematic, but similar
behavior patterns and need for stimulation as juveniles not
in the school setting due to their delinquent behavior.
O , , ,
'‘These subjects were deleted from the analysis on the basis
of several findings. There was a marked break in the
distribution of the frequency of total delinquent acts from
1088 to 1240. The individuals whose scores were above this
break were then examined to evaluate for possible over¬
reporting. Each questionnaire was evaluated with the age
and sex of the respondent in mind and pattern of overall
responding. Examples of over-reporting include: having
intercourse, cheating, stealing $5-50, failing to return
change, smoking marijuana, taking hallucinogens, damaging

32
The POS raw scores were used to classify subjects with
regard to delinquent dimensions as in Genshaft (1980). POS
raw scores were normalized and converted to T-scores.
Subjects were classified on the basis of their highest T-
score, which resulted in 54 subjects classified as neurotic-
disturbed (M = 57.1, SD = 7.7), 42 as socialized-subcultural
(M = 57.4, SD = 9.4), and 44 as unsocialized-psychopathic (M
= 56.0, SD = 12.5). Duncan's Multiple Range tests revealed
that each group scored significantly higher on that POS
scale in which they were classified, than the other two
scales in which they were not classified.
The Sensation Seeking Scale total scores were divided
at the median to classify subjects as high and low sensation
seekers. The 11 subjects whose score fell at the median
were randomly placed in one of the two groups, which
resulted in 76 low sensation seekers (M = 14.8, SD = 4.5)
and 64 high sensation seekers (M = 25.5, SD = 3.3).
Combining the two classifications resulted in six
groups, shown in Table 2-1.
Analysis
Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate
the relationship between delinquent dimensions, sensation
seeking, income, and sex, as well as possible interactions
school property, running away from home, hitting other
students - 2 to 3 times per day; failing to return change,
smoking marijuana, hitting students, lying about your age,
being paid for sex, skipping class - daily.

33
Table 2-1. Delinquent
Frequencies.
Group
by Sensation
Seeking Group
Neurotic
Socialized
Psvchooathic
Sensation Seekina
Total
High
22
15
27
64
Low
32
27
17
76
Total
54
42
44
140

34
among these variables in predicting type and frequency of
self-reported delinquent behavior, frustration, grade point
average and the number of disciplinary actions. Sex was
included in the model due to the sensation seeking
differences found between males and females (Zuckerman,
1979). Income level was also included in the model as
research by Elliott and Ageton (1980) has found a
significant relationship between SES and delinquent
behavior. Age was treated as a control variable and entered
into the regression model first. Again, the frequency and
number of different crimes from the Self-Report Delinquency
Questionnaire (Predatory Crimes against Property, Illegal
Service Crimes, Public Disorder Crimes, and Status Crimes)
were considered as dependent variables.
Separate analyses were accomplished for the three
delinquent groups and the two sensation seeking groups.
Although, these analyses would yield redundant findings as
the regression analysis, the specific relationships among
the different delinquent groups and between the high and low
sensation seekers were further examined via these analyses.
Here, several ANOVA's were conducted to assess the specific
relationships among the delinquent groups for various
dependent variables. T-tests were used to assess
differences between the sensation seeking groups on various
demographic and dependent variables. The categorical
variables (sex, counseling, arrests, family income) were
assessed by Chi-square tests.

CHAPTER 3
RESULTS
Inspection of the data revealed that several dependent
measures departed substantially from normality. As a result
a log transformation was performed on the following
measures: frequency of predatory crimes against property,
frequency of service crimes, frequency of public disorder
crimes, total frequency of delinquent acts, number of
different service crimes, total number of different
delinquent acts and stressors.
Two subscales of the Self-Report Delinquency
Questionnaire were scored categorically due to the limited
number of subjects endorsing items on these subscales (hard
drug use and predatory crimes against persons). Those who
had committed predatory crimes against persons and those who
used hard drugs were scored one on each scale, and if they
had not committed any of these offenses they were scored a
zero on the appropriate subscale.
The six delinquent by sensation seeking groups did not
differ with regard to age, family income, parent's age or
education, number of siblings, and number of persons in the
home.
35

36
Self-Reported Delinquency
Examination of the self-report delinquency Questionnaire
revealed that 90% of the subjects completing the
questionnaires had engaged in some type of delinquent
behavior. This finding is consistent with earlier research
(Williams & Gold, 1972) with self-reported delinquent
behavior.
The regression analysis revealed that the delinquent
groups did not contribute significantly to the model in
predicting any type of self-reported delinquent behavior.
Even though delinquent group was not significant in the
overall regression analysis the relation between self-report
of delinquent behavior and delinquency groups was examined
further (see Table 3-1). Here, it can be seen that the
psychopathic group reported significantly more illegal
service crimes than the other two groups. The psychopathic
group also reported significantly more delinquent acts than
the neurotic group, but neither group differed significantly
from the socialized group.
Table 3-2 indicates that these differences among the
delinquent groups may be primarily due to relative
differences in the higher frequency categories (>55 for
illegal service crimes and >250 for total delinquent acts).
At the lower end of the frequency range for illegal service
crimes, the ratio of neurotic to psychopathic is
approximately 1:1, but at the higher frequency ranges, the

37
Table 3-1. Differences between the Three Delinquent
Subtypes on measures of self-reported delinquency, sensation
seeking and frustration.
Neurotic Socialized Psychopathic
N=54 N=4 5 N=53
Mean
S.D.
Mean
S.D.
Mean
S.D.
Rancrea
Age (years)
16.5
1.2
16.5
1.2
16.7
1.1
n. s.
Income*
4.7
1.1
4.5
1.4
5.0
1.2
n. s.
Number in Home
3.9
1.1
4.0
1.2
3.8
.9
n. s.
Illegal Service
Crimes(number)
.7
.7
1.1
.9
1.3
1.2
ND SD PD
Total Number
Delinquent Acts*3
1.9
1
.9-
2.1
.6
2.3
.7
ND SD PD
Official Grade
Point Average
2.9
.6
2.2
.9
2.7
. 6
ND SD PD
Official
Disciplin.
.7
1.4
2.9
4.0
1.9
3.0
ND PD SD
Disinhibition
Scale (SSS)
4.5
2.4
4.4
2.9
5.8
2.5
ND SD PD
Thrill and 6.8
Adventure Seeking
(SSS)
2.6
6.6
2.6
7.7
2.0
ND SD PD
Experience
Seeking (SSS)
4.4
2.4
4.0
2.6
4.8
2.0
n. s.
Boredom Suscep.
(SSS)
3.3
2.1
3.1
1.9
3.7
2.0
n. s.
SSS Total Score
19.0
6.7
18.0
7.3
22.0
5.4
ND SD PD
Intrapersonal 17.8
Frustration Score
4.3
14.3
5.4
17.3
6.3
ND SD PD
Frustration
Total Score
35.9
6.3
30.9
7.6
33.7
8.2
ND PD SD
1 = < $5,000; 2
= $5
,000 -
10,000
• ; 3 =
$10,000
i - 20,000
4 = $20,000 - 30,000; 5 = $30,000 - 50,000; 6 = >$50,000
Underlined groups are not significantly different at p <
.05; ^transformed data.

38
Table 3-2.
Levels of
Percentage of
Delinquency by
Respondents Reporting Specific
Delinquent Group.
Illegal Service
Crimes
Frequency
Neurotic
Socialized
Psychopathic
%
%
%
1-14
77.8
64.3
61.4
15-29
11.1
21.4
11.4
30-54
3.7
4.8
11.4
55+
7.4
9.5
15.9
Total Self-Reported Delinquency
Frequency
Neurotic
%
Socialized
%
Psychopathic
%
1-49
31.5
19.0
22.7
50-99
24.1
26.2
18.2
100-249
24.1
28.6
22.7
250+
20.3
26.2
36.4

39
ratio is approximately 1:2. These differences are similar
to those found by Elliott and Ageton (1982) with respect to
race and class differences, with blacks and lower SES
subjects over-represented in the high frequency categories.
The delinquent groups were not different with regard to
the frequency and number of predatory crimes against
property, public disorder crimes or status crimes.
T-tests revealed that high sensation seekers reported
more delinquent acts on the subscales of the self-report
delinquency questionnaire(as seen in Table 3-3). These
findings are consistent with earlier findings of Farley and
Farley (1972), that high sensation seeking scores are
associated with more delinquent behavior. However, these
findings go beyond earlier studies, showing that high
sensation seekers also participate in a greater number and a
wide range of delinquent behavior.
Regression analysis suggested that sensation seeking
and a delinquent group by sex interaction effect
significantly predicted the frequency of self-reported
delinquent acts, and this model accounted for 36% of the
variance (see Table 3-4). However, only sensation seeking
significantly predicted the number of different self-
reported delinquent acts and this model accounted for 39% of
the variance. Contrary to my initial hypothesis, regression
analyses revealed no significant interactions between
delinquent group and sensation seeking group membership (see
Table 3-4).

40
Table 3-3. Demographic and Various Dependent Measures for
the Two Sensation Seeking Groups.
Low SS High SS
N=7 9 N=64
Mean
S.D.
Mean
S.D.
P
Age (years)
16.6
1.3
16.6
1.2
n. s.
Income3
4.6
1.3
4.9
1.1
n. s.
Number in Home
4.0
1.1
3.8
1.0
n. s.
Predatory Crimes
Property (number)
1.6
2.1
4.0
3.4
.0001
Illegal Service
Crimes (number)b
.6
.7
1.5
1.0
.0001
Public Disorder
Crimes (number)
1.8
1.5
3.2
1.6
.0001
Status Crimes
(number)
2.5
1.1
3.2
1.2
.0002
Total Number
Delinquent Actsb
1.8
. 6
2.4
.6
.0001
Official GPA
2.6
.9
2.6
.7
n. s.
Official
Disciplinary Actions
1.6
2.8
2.0
3.3
n. s.
Frustration
Scale Total
33.1
7.5
34.4
7.7
n. s.
% males
33
50
. 05
% arrested
1
14
. 01
% with prior
counseling
34
60
.005
% who play school
sports
37
55
. 05
al = < $5,000; 2 = $5,
4 = $20,000 - 30,020;
“transformed data; X2
000 - 10,000;
5 = $30,000
3 = $10,
- 50,000;
000 - 20,
6 = >$50
000
, 000

41
Table 3-4. Summary of Findings from the Regression
Analysis Using Delinquent Group, Sensation Seeking, Sex, and
Income in Predicting Self-Reported Delinquency.
Variable
Significant Variables
in Recrression Model
P*
R2*
Total Delinquent Acts
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.0002
Delinquent x Sex
.04
. 36
Number
Sensation Seeking
.0001
.39
Predatory Crimes/Property
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.09
Sex
. 003
.33
Number
Sensation Seeking
.02
Sex
. 0009
.36
Illegal Service Crimes
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.004
Delinquent
.05
Delinquent x Sex
.05
. 37
Number
Sensation Seeking
. 0009
.33
Public Disorder Crimes
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.0004
Sex
.06
.33
Number
Sensation Seeking
.0009
.34
Status Crimes
Frequency
Sensation Seeking
.0003
Delinquent x Sex
. 02
. 38
Number
Sensation Seeking
. 0001
.28
Total Frustration Score
Delinquent
.02
.29
Official GPA
Delinquent Group
.003
Income Level
.04
.32
Official Disciplinary
Delinquent
.04
Actions
Sex
. 07
Del incruentxSSSxSex
. 05
.30
• • • . 9
♦Variable significance level; **overall model R .

42
Regression analysis suggested a significant delinquent
group by sex interaction for the frequency of status crimes,
illegal service crimes and the total frequency of delinquent
acts. For these three variables, males in the Psychopathic
group consistently endorsed more items.
Figure 3-1 displays the relation between delinquent
group, sex, and the frequency of status crimes. Female
neurotic and socialized groups reported more status crimes
than males in their respective groups, but this pattern
reverses with the psychopathic group. The delinquent group
by sex interaction for illegal service crimes is presented
in Figure 3-2. The pattern for illegal service crimes is
very similar to that found with status crimes, but with the
neurotic group displaying a more extreme difference as a
function of sex. The total frequency of delinquent acts by
delinquent group and sex is plotted in Figure 3-3. Here, it
is evident that both sexes in the neurotic and socialized
groups are essentially equal in total delinquent acts, but
the psychopathic group demonstrated a markedly different
pattern with males higher than females. These findings
support earlier research concerning psychopathic males, but
suggest that psychopathic females may be very different from
the hypothesized psychopathic group, at least in terms of
delinquent behavior.
Chi-square analysis suggested a significant association
between sex and both the frequency and the number of
predatory crimes against property and the frequency of

43
Status
Crimes
Figure 3-1. Frequency of Status Crimes as a Function of
Delinquent Group and Sex.

44
Figure 3-2. Frequency of Illegal Service Crimes as a
Function of Delinquent Group and Sex.

45
Total
Delinquent
Acts
(transformed
freq.)
Figure 3-3. Frequency of Total Delinquent Acts as a
Function of Delinquent Group and Sex.

46
public disorder crimes, with males reporting more crimes
than females. This is consistent with previous self-report
surveys (Elliott et al., 1983) and surveys of official
records (Visher & Roth, 1986).
The six delinquent by sensation seeking groups were
different in their use of hard drugs with all three high
sensation seeking groups having more drug users (17) than
the low sensation seekers (3)(X2(5, N = 140) = 17.04, p <
.005). This supports previous research regarding more drug
usage among high sensation seekers than low sensation
seekers (Brill, Crumpton, & Grayson, 1971; Carrol &
Zuckerman, 1977; Kaestner, Rosen, & Appel, 1977).
The six groups did not differ in terms of predatory
crimes against persons. This is in contrast to earlier
findings of Ellis (1982), who found that psychopathic
delinquents exhibited more aggression toward persons than
the neurotic or socialized delinquents.
Delinquency and Sensation Seeking
Psychopathic delinquents were significantly higher than
the other two groups on the Thrill and Adventure Seeking
scale, Disinhibition scale and the Total score of the
Sensation Seeking Scale (see Table 3-1). These findings are
consistent with earlier findings concerning psychopathic
delinquents and sensation seeking (Whitehill, Demeyer-Gapin,
& Scott, 1976). There were no significant differences

47
among the groups on the Experience Seeking or the Boredom
Susceptibility subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale.
The two sensation seeking groups were significantly
different with regard to sex, with more females in the low
sensation seeking group, and an even number of males and
females in the high sensation seeking group (see Table 3-3).
There were no significant differences on any of the scales
of the Sensation Seeking Scale (Form V) between a sample of
undergraduates and the subjects in this sample (Zuckerman,
1979) .
Frustration
Overall, this sample scored significantly below a
sample of college undergraduates (n=162) on the total score
of the Frustration Scale (t(300) = 2.73, p < .005)
(Bergandi, Williams, & Lamb, 1982). The socialized and
psychopathic groups scored significantly below the sample of
undergraduates (socialized: t(300) = 6.14, p < .001;
psychopathic: t(300) = 2.66, p < .005) (Bergandi, Williams,
& Lamb, 1982). The neurotic group scored no differently
from college undergraduates on the total Frustration score.
As seen in Table 3-1, the socialized group had lower
total frustration scores than the neurotic group, neither of
which were different from the psychopathic group.
Additionally, the socialized group scored significantly
below the other two groups on the intrapersonal subscale of
the Frustration Scale. There were no significant
differences between the sensation seeking groups on any of

48
the frustration measures. The regression analyses confirmed
the above findings, with delinquent group being the only
significant variable in the model predicting total
frustration. The regression model was not significant in
predicting scores on the intrapersonal and interpersonal
subscales of the Frustration Scale.
Academic. Problem Behavior, and Extracurricular Activities
The relation between delinquent group and grade point
average was examined using an analysis of variance followed
by Duncan's multiple range test. These results are
presented in Figure 3-4. Here it can be seen that the grade
point average for the socialized delinquent group was
significantly lower than that for either the neurotic group
or the psychopathic group. This finding was unexpected
given that Jurkovic and Prentice (1977) found that neurotic
and socialized scores on the POS were unrelated to
intelligence, but psychopathic scores were negatively
related to intelligence and achievement. It remains unclear
if this lower grade point average for the socialized group
is sample specific or possibility that differences in
academic achievement may not be a stable characteristic of
the different delinquent groups.
The relation between the delinquency group and the
frequency of official disciplinary actions was examined

49
Official
Grade
Point
Average
Delinquent Subtype
Figure 3-4. Official Grade Point Average as a Function of
Delinquent Group.

3.5
50
3
Official 2
Disciplinary
Actions
1.5
1
0.5
Neurotic
Delinquent
Socialized PsychoDathic
Delinquent Delinquent
Delinquent Subtype
Figure 3-5. Official Disciplinary Actions as a Function of
Delinquent Group.

51
using an ANOVA, followed be a Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
These results are presented in Figure 3-5. The neurotic
group did not differ from the psychopathic group, and the
socialized group had significantly more disciplinary actions
than the neurotic group, but not significantly more than the
psychopathic group. This was unexpected given the
differences found with delinquent behavior ( i.e.
psychopathies engaging in more illegal service crimes).
There were no significant differences between high and low
sensation seekers on official disciplinary actions.
A regression analysis indicated a significant three way
interaction of sensation seeking group x delinquent group x
sex in predicting official disciplinary actions. This
interaction is presented in Figure 3-6. High sensation
seeking socialized delinquent males received significantly
more official disciplinary actions than any of the other
groups. Low sensation seeking males had a higher, but
similar pattern of disciplinary actions to high sensation
seeking females. Also, high sensation seeking males had a
higher, but similar pattern to low sensation seeking
females. This data, along with data previously presented,
suggest a complex relationship between delinquent group and
sex.
Of the ten subjects arrested, 6 were in the high
sensation seeking socialized delinquent group, 3 were in the
high sensation seeking psychopathic delinquent group, and 1
in the low sensation seeking socialized delinquent group.

52
Delinquent Subtype
Figure 3-6. Official Disciplinary Actions as a Function of
Delinquent Group, Sensation Seeking Group and Sex.

53
There was no difference among the six groups with regard to
prior counseling/psychotherapy experience.
Overall, the high sensation seeking subjects reported
more arrests, counseling experience and participation in
school sports.
Subjects in the six groups demonstrated a wide range of
academic and sports interests, though no significant
differences in the frequency of these variables between the
groups was found. Clearly, the most popular classes were
English, history, and science, and these were distributed
rather evenly across groups. Chi-square analysis of the
percentage of subjects within each group who played some
sport at school suggested no significant differences. The
most popular sports were football and basketball with these
distributed approximately evenly across groups.
Correlations
Pearson product-moment correlations were computed in an
attempt to further examine the strength of the relationships
between self-reported delinquent behavior and delinquent
personality dimensions, sensation seeking, GPA, and
frustration scores. These correlations are presented in
Table 3-5. Here it can be noted that the psychopathic scale
of the Personal Opinion Survey correlated significantly with
the predatory crimes against property, public disorder
crimes, and the total delinquent acts scales of the Self-

54
Table 3-5. Pearson Correlations for Self-report
Delinquency Questionnaire subscales (transformed freq.) and
various measures (N=140).
Predatory
Crimes
Property
Illeqal
Service
Crimes
Public
Disorder
Crimes
Status
Crimes
Total
Delinquent
Acts
PD (POS)
.35**
.23
.37**
.27
.43**
SD (POS)
.27
.21
.27
.27
.30*
ND (POS)
.13
-.04
. 06
.05
.11
TAS (SSS)
.26
. 18
.22
. 14
.22
ES (SSS)
. 05
.35**
.27
.20
.29*
DIS (SSS)
.34**
.55**
.54**
.55**
.59**
BS (SSS)
.23**
.22**
.32**
.25
.33**
Total (SSS)
. 32**
.47**
.49**
.42**
.52**
Age (yrs)a
-.05
.24
.13
.28*
.21
Frustration .30*
Total
. 13
.17
. 12
. 19
Official
GPAb
.04
-.05
-.19
-.18
-.16
*p < .05. **p < .01. an=137. bn=135.
Correction (M = 55).
Bonferroni

55
report Delinquency Questionnaire. The socialized scale
correlated significantly with the total delinquent acts,
while the neurotic scale had no significant correlations.
Additionally, the Disinhibition Scale and the Total score of
the Sensation Seeking Scale have significantly greater
correlations with the delinquent subscales than the other
subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scales. These findings
are consistent with earlier findings regarding the relation
between delinquent behavior and sensation seeking (Farley &
Farley, 1976) and the Disinhibition subscale of the
Sensation Seeking Scale (White, Labouvie, & Bates, 1985).
The correlations between specific delinquent behavior and
sensation seeking scores has never been reported.
It was also found that the raw scores of the
psychopathic scale of the Personal Opinion Survey correlated
with the Disinhibition Scale r(140) = .26,_n.s., the Boredom
Susceptibility r(140) = .36, p < .01, and the total score of
the Sensation Seeking Scale r(140) = .24, n.s. There were
no other significant correlations between the neurotic and
socialized scales of the POS and the Sensation Seeking Scale
subscales. These findings support and extend earlier
findings by Jefferson and Johnson (1989) concerning the
relationship between the psychopathic scale of the Personal
Opinion Survey and the Sensation Seeking Survey scores. The
strength of the relationship between the total frustration
score and predatory crimes against property was consistent
with the earlier predictions.

56
The correlation for the raw scores on the psychopathic
scale of the Personal Opinion Survey and the official grade
point average was r(135) = -.27, n.s., which yields a trend
in the direction as found in earlier studies concerning
psychopathic delinguents and intelligence (Jurkovic and
Prentice, 1977). The correlation for the raw scores on the
socialized scale of the Personal Opinion Survey and the
official grade point average was r(135) = -.50, p < . 01.

CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION
The present findings are consistent with earlier
research on self-reported delinquent behavior in that
approximately 90% of the subjects reported behavior which
could have resulted in their arrest (Williams & Gold, 1972;
Elliott, Huizinga, & Ageton, 1985). Although these
behaviors may have been as benign as loitering or skipping
school, most subjects had various types of behavior which
would be classified as delinquent. This high percentage of
adolescents engaging in delinquent behavior highlights the
need for more research in this area.
A surprising finding was the limited number of
differences among the delinquent personality dimensions in
terms of self-reported delinquent behavior. There may be
several reasons for this finding. One, differences in
delinquent behavior among the groups may be confounded with
sample bias. For instance, members of the psychopathic
group may have been less extreme members of this group and
thus engaged in less delinquent behavior. It may also be
due to one group of delinquents under-reporting delinquent
behavior, i.e. the neurotic group. It may also be due to
the method of classification, with statistical differences
57

58
on the scales of the POS not corresponding to differences in
delinquent personalities.
The relation between delinquent group and sex has
received very limited attention in the delinquency
literature. Yet, this interaction was significant in
predicting the frequency of illegal service crimes, status
crimes, and total delinquent acts, with female neurotic and
socialized subjects more likely to engage in these types of
crimes than the male neurotic and socialized subjects.
However, the male psychopathic subject is likely to engage
in more crimes of these types, as well as more total
delinquent acts than males or females in the other two
groups. Given the theorized traits of the psychopathic
dimension, it is not surprising that psychopathic males
would report more delinquent activity. Their manipulative,
amoral, rebellious and impulsive nature makes them more
likely to engage in delinquent behavior. The finding that
males reported more predatory crimes against property and
public disorder crimes is not surprising given the
propensity of adolescent males to engage in such behaviors
in response to peer pressure or to impress others. The sex
difference may also be due to the males having a higher
number of opportunities to engage in this type of behavior
or possibly to the females' ties to males who have an
inhibiting effect on their behavior. These findings suggest
that even within the delinquent dimensions, sex differences

59
need to be considered in order to fully understand the
delinquent adolescent.
Sensation seeking was found to be a major factor in
accounting for self-reported delinquent behavior. Such a
strong relationship between sensation seeking and self-
reported delinquent behavior was somewhat surprising, given
the sparse attention sensation seeking has received in the
delinquent literature. As part of a juvenile's personality,
sensation seeking may be a primary motivator for behavior in
general, given the finding that many subjects who engaged in
delinquent behavior also participated in extracurricular
activities at school. For example, among the 20 subjects
with the highest frequency of delinquent behavior, 12 or 60%
engaged in organized sports (either at school or away from
school).
In terms of sensation seeking scores, the results from
this study are consistent with theorizing concerning the
relation between the psychopathic delinquent group and
sensation seeking. The psychopathic group scored higher on
the Sensation Seeking Scale, especially on the Disinhibition
Scale, than the other two groups. These findings support
earlier research portraying psychopathic delinquents as
sensation seekers, even though most researchers failed to
differentiate this group from other delinquent personality
groups. It is unclear if this is the component of the
psychopathic dimension that drives the individual to engage

60
in delinquent behavior or if it is a general motivator for
behavior.
This study extends the laboratory research with
delinquents and behavior problem children, suggesting that
it is the psychopathic group which accounts for a large part
of the sensation seeking tendencies within the delinquent
population. In fact of all of the psychopathic delinquents,
61% were high sensation seekers. This is in contrast to the
pattern in the other two groups, with high sensation seekers
comprising 36% of the neurotic group, and 41% of the
socialized groups.
The results of this study provide no support for the
hypothesis that the delinquent dimensions and sensation
seeking groups would interact to result in more crime. This
may be due to several factors. The aspect of the
psychopathic personality that may motivate the juvenile to
participate in delinquent behavior may be largely accounted
for by sensation seeking. The relationship between
delinquent behavior and delinquent personality dimensions
may also be affected by the large effect of sex, with
females having a different pattern of delinquent behavior
than males. The lack of an interaction may also be due to
the method of recruiting subjects, with the students with
strong psychopathic and sensation seeking tendencies not
volunteering to participate.
When all the variables measured were included in the
model, sensation seeking was consistently the single best

61
predictor of the frequency and number of predatory crimes
against property, illegal service crimes, public disorder
crimes, status crimes, and total delinquent acts. These
findings support earlier findings that those who engage in
delinquent behavior tend to score higher on sensation
seeking measures. This study extends those findings to
adolescents who engage in all types delinquent behavior but
are not incarcerated.
Frustration did not appear to play the role among the
delinquent groups as was hypothesized. The higher scores
for the psychopathic and neurotic groups may affect these
groups in two very different ways. The psychopathic group
may be more inclined to act out or engage in delinquent
behavior due to their frustration, where as the neurotic
group may be inclined to internalize their frustration and
suffer the emotional consequences. The socialized group's
lower level of frustration, when compared to the other two
groups, may be the result of less concern with academic
matters, and more concern with their social circle. Their
peer group may produce stress, but also provides various
ways to cope with stress that may lessen the frustration
related to being an adolescent. It may be difficult dealing
with the stressors related to adolescence, but it may be
less difficult with a good social network.
The pattern for disciplinary actions was markedly
different from the pattern for self-reported delinquent
behavior among the delinquent groups. The relatively high

62
level of disciplinary actions for the socialized group may
be a function of the peer group the subjects associate with
or the socialized group's tendency to engage in behavior
that will result in being caught (i.e. tardiness, being
disruptive in class). This may also be due to the tendency
for the socialized group members to be easily influenced by
peer pressure.
In terms of achievement, the results of this study
conflict with results from previous studies using the same
delinquent personality dimensions. In earlier studies,
subjects in the psychopathic group were found to score lower
on measures of intelligence and achievement than the other
groups (Jurkovic & Prentice, 1977; Jefferson & Johnson,
1989). However, no such relationship was found with this
sample. Indeed the socialized group had a significantly
lower GPA than the other two groups. This sample of
socialized subjects may not have academic performance as a
high priority in their peer group. With more emphasis on
looking good, having the right friends, or concentrating on
non-academic activities, this group may be less concerned
with their class requirements. These findings suggest that
the intellectual/achievement data related to the delinquent
personality dimensions may be sample specific and not a
major differentiating factor among the groups.
This study is not without methodological compromise.
For instance, this study primarily used self-report measures
and these types of measures have been criticized for their

63
questionable reliability and validity. However, the
reliability and validity of the questionnaires used in this
study demonstrated acceptable construct validity and test-
retest reliability, with the exception of the Frustration
Scale, which had no available reliability data. Likewise,
these measures are susceptible to response bias. In many
research situations it is essential to control for the
subjects' need to present themselves in the best possible
liqht. However, the personality dimensions measured in this
study may contain various amounts of social desirability.
Any attempt to control for this presumed confound may in
fact be removing some aspect from the analysis which is a
valid part of the dimension being assessed.
In an attempt to assess a possible response bias,
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were
calculated for the subjects' self-report of grade point
average and disciplinary actions taken at school in the last
year and official (from school records) grade point average
and disciplinary actions. The correlations of self-report
and official information were significant (grade point
average: r(122) = .77, p < .0001; disciplinary actions:
r(122) = .71, p < .0001). When the effect of social
desirability, as measured by the Marlowe-Crown Social
Desirability Scale, was removed (via partial correlations),
the correlations were slightly higher, though not
significantly so (grade point average: r(99) = .80, p <
.0001; disciplinary actions: r(lll) = .74, p < .0001).

64
These findings suggest that the subjects are reliably
reporting information that is highly susceptible to response
bias. The possible effects of social desirability were
assessed by examining differences among the delinquent
groups and between the sensation seeking groups on social
desirability, as well as including it in a multiple
regression analysis. There were no significant differences
among the delinquent groups nor between the sensation
seeking groups on the social desirability measure. The
inclusion of social desirability in the multiple regression
analysis had no effect on the significant findings.
This study used high school students reporting
delinquent behavior as opposed to adjudicated delinquents.
Some may argue that using non-incarcerated adolescents as
subjects would provide a limited amount of useful
information in understanding delinquent behavior. However,
consistent with our findings, research has found that
approximately 90% of adolescents report engaging in
delinquent behavior (Williams & Gold, 1972) and that
juveniles reliably report their offenses (Hardt & Peterson-
Hardt, 1977; Hindelang, Hirschi & Weiss, 1981). The use of
high school students reporting delinquent behavior provided
information about a less pathological sample of delinquents,
not typically considered in delinquent research and this
somewhat underutilized population in delinquent research
provided some unique information about the delinquent
personality.

65
The results from this study may have implications in
several areas of the delinquent literature. The
relationship between sensation seeking and delinquent
behavior in this sample was greater than has typically been
found. The strong association between sensation seeking and
different delinquent behaviors suggests that a more thorough
understanding of this relationship may provide some answers
concerning the motivations behind individuals engaging in
delinquent behavior and may provide insights into possible
interventions for delinquent juveniles. Whether this
relationship between sensation seeking and delinquent
behavior is consistent from high school students' reporting
delinquent behavior to institutionalized delinquents, needs
further examination.
The present findings provide several topics for future
research. No study has examined the pattern of delinquent
behavior among the delinquent dimensions with adjudicated
delinquents. Also, no prior research has examined the
percentage of each delinquent dimension that participates in
the different frequencies of delinquent behavior (as seen in
Table 3-2). Future research should examine if there is
consistancy across the delinquent dimensions for self-
reported delinquents and adjudicated delinquents in their
pattern of delinquent behavior (e.g., whether psychopathic
delinquents engage in more illegal service crimes).
There is another concern in terms of delinquent
personality dimensions and sex. Quay and Parson (1971)

66
failed to differentiate between males and females in the
data reported on the development of the Personal Opinion
Survey. In fact, when there was an association between
delinquent behavior and delinquent group, gender was also
involved. As can be seen in Figure 3-6, the pattern of
differences between the delinquent groups is markedly
different between males and females. These differences
highlight the need for further research into these different
patterns of delinquent behavior for males and females and
whether the personality traits afforded to the socialized,
psychopathic and neurotic delinquents are consistent for
both sexes.
If replicated, this study suggests possible directions
for interventions and preventative actions that could be
taken to help decrease the probability of adolescents
engaging in delinquent behavior. Given the strong
relationship between sensation seeking and delinquent
behavior, changes in the classroom designed to maintain the
students' attention longer and increase their participation
in the learning process would seem likely to be useful.
Classroom changes may include: modification of course
presentation by using more visual aids and more stimulating
demonstrations of concepts, computer aided teaching, shorter
lectures versus typical one hour lectures, and smaller
student to teacher ratios. The availability of more
extracurricular activities, such as intraschool teams
competing against each other, which would facilitate

67
participation of a larger number of students and occupy
their time that may have been spent in delinquent activity.
The data from this study highlight the need for more
research into the delinquent personality. These findings
provide a glimpse at the motivations behind delinquent
behavior and the need for more specificity in delinquent
research. More precision in research, in terms of
delinquent behavior and delinquent personalities, would lead
to a more thorough understanding of the delinquent
individual and hopefully lead to successful treatment and
early identification for those juveniles at risk for
engaging in delinquent behavior.

Appendix A
QUESTIONNAIRES

69
Interest and Preference Test
Directions: Each of the items below contains two choices, A
and B. Please circle the choices that most describes your
likes or the way you feel. In some cases you may find items
in which both choices describe your likes or feelings.
Please choose the one which better describes your likes or
feelings. In some cases you may find items in which you do
not like either choice, in these cases mark the choice you
dislike the least. Do not leave any items blank.
It is important that you respond to all items with only
one choice. We are interested only in your likes or
feelings, not in how others feel about these things or how
one is supposed to feel. There are no right or wrong
answers as in other kinds of tests. Give an honest a
opinion of yourself.
1. A. I like "wild" uninhibited parties.
B. I prefer quiet parties with good conversation.
2. A. There are some movies I enjoy seeing a second or even
a third time.
B. I can't stand watching a movie that I've seen before.
3. A. I often wish I could be a mountain climber.
B. I can't understand people who risk their necks
climbing mountains.
4. A. I dislike all body odors.
B. I like some of the earthy body smells.
5. A. I get bored seeing the same old faces.
B. I like the comfortable familiarity of everyday
friends.
6. A. I like to explore a strange city or section of town
by myself, even if it means getting lost.
B. I prefer a guide when I am in a place I don't know
well.
7. A. I dislike people who do or say things just to shock
or upset people.
B. When you can predict almost everything a person will
say or do he or she must be a bore.
8. A. I usually don't enjoy a movie or play where I can
predict what will happen in advance.
B. I don't mind watching a movie or play where I can
predict what will happen in advance.
9. A. I have tried marijuana or would like to.
B. I would never smoke marijuana.

70
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
A. I would not like to try any drug which might produce
strange and dangerous effects on me.
B. I would like to try some of the drugs that produce
hallucinations.
A. A sensible person avoids activities that are
dangerous.
B. I sometimes like to do things that are a little
frightening.
A. I dislike "swingers."
B. I enjoy the company of real "swingers."
A. I find that stimulants make me uncomfortable.
B. I often like to get high (drinking liquor or smoking
pot) .
A. I like to try new foods that I have never tasted
before.
B. I order the dishes with which I am familiar, so as to
avoid disappointment and unpleasantness.
A. I enjoy looking at home movies or travel slides.
B. Looking at someone's home movies or travel slides
bores me tremendously.
A. I would like to take up the sport of water-skiing.
B. I would not like to take up water-skiing.
A. I would like to try surf-board riding.
B. I would not like to try surf-board riding.
A. I would like to take off on a trip with no pre¬
planned or definite routes, or timetable.
B. When I go on a trip I like to plan my route and
timetable fairly carefully.
A. I prefer the "down-to-earth" kinds of people as
friends.
B. I would like to make friends in some of the "far-out"
groups like artists and "hippies."
A. I would not like to learn to fly an airplane.
B. I would like to learn to fly an airplane.
A. I prefer the surface of the water to the depths.
B. I would like to go scuba diving.
A. I would like to meet some persons who are homosexual
(men or women).
B. I stay away from anyone I suspect of being "queer."
23. A. I would like to try parachute jumping.

71
B. I would never want to try jumping out of a plane with
or without a parachute.
24. A. I prefer friends who are excitingly unpredictable.
B. I prefer friends who are reliable and predictable.
25. A. I am not interested in experiences for its own sake.
B. I like to have new and exciting experiences and
sensations even if they are a little frightening,
unconventional or illegal.
26. A. The essence of good art is in its clarity, symmetry
of form and harmony of colors.
B. I often find beauty in the "clashing" colors and
irregular forms of modern paintings.
27. A. I enjoy spending time in the familiar surroundings of
home.
B. I get very restlessness if I have to stay around home
for any length of time.
28. A. I like to dive off the high dive.
B. I don't like the feeling I get standing on the high
board (or I don't go near it at all).
29. A. I like to date members of the opposite sex who are
physically exciting.
B. I like to date members of the opposite sex who share
my values.
30. A. Heavy drinking usually ruins a party because some
people get loud and boisterous.
B. Keeping the drinks full is the key to a good party.
31. A. The worst social sin is to be rude.
B. The worst social sin is to be a bore.
32. A. A person should have considerable sexual experience
before marriage.
B. It's better if two married persons begin their sexual
experience with each other.
33. A. Even if I had the money I would not care to associate
with flighty persons like those in the "jet set."
B. I could conceive of myself seeking pleasure around
the world with the "jet set."
34. A. I like people who are sharp and witty even if they do
sometimes insult others.
B. I dislike people who have their fun at the expense of
hurting the feelings of others.
35. A. There is altogether too much portrayal of sex in
movies.

72
B. I enjoy watching many of the "sexy" scenes in movies.
36. A. I feel best after taking a couple of drinks.
B. Something is wrong with people who need liquor to
feel good.
37. A. People should dress according to some standard of
taste, neatness, and style.
B. People should dress in individual ways even if the
effects are sometimes strange.
38. A. Sailing long distances in small crafts is foolhardy.
B. I would like to sail a long distance in a small but
seaworthy sailing craft.
39. A. I have no patience with dull or boring persons.
B. I find something interesting in almost every person I
talk with.
40. A. Skiing fast down a high mountain slope is a good way
to end up on crutches.
B. I think I would enjoy the sensations of skiing very
fast down a high mountain slope.

73
Delinquency Questionnaire
PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than 1 1 2-3 1 2-3
1 X every XXX X
a a 2-3 a a a a
0 mth mth wks wk wk day day
1. purposely damaged or
destroyed property belonging
to your parents or other
family members.
2. purposely damaged or
destroyed property belonging
to a school.
3. purposely damaged or
destroyed other property that
did not belong to you (not
counting family or school
property).
4. stolen (or tried to steal) a
motor vehicle, such as a car
or motorcycle.
5. stolen (or tried to steal)
something worth more than
$50.
6. knowingly bought, sold or
held stolen goods (or tried
to do any of these things).
7. thrown objects (such as
rocks, snowballs, or bottles)
at cars or people.
8. run away from home.
9. lied about your age to gain
entrance or to purchase
something; for example lying
about your age to buy liquor
or get into a movie.
10. carried a hidden weapon other
than a plain pocket knife.
11. stolen (tried to steal)
things worth $5 or less.

74
PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than
1
1
2-3 1
2-3
1
X
every
X
X X
X
a
a
2-3
a
a a
a
0 mth
mth
wks
wk
wk day
day
12. attacked someone with the
idea of seriously hurting or
killing him/her.
13. been paid for having sexual
relations with someone.
14. had sexual intercourse with
a person of the opposite sex.
15. been involved in gang fights.
16. sold marijuana or hashish,
("pot," "grass," "hash").
17. cheated on school tests.
18. hitchhiked where it is
illegal to do so.
19. stolen money or other things
from your parents or other
member of your family.
20. hit (or threatened to hit) a
teacher or other adult at
school.
21. hit (or threatened to hit)
one of your parents.
22. hit (or threatened to hit)
other students.
23. been loud, rowdy, or unruly
in a public place
(disorderly conduct).
24. sold hard drugs, such as
heroin, cocaine, and LSD.
25. taken a vehicle for a ride
(drive) without the owner's
permission.

75
PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than
1
1
2-3 1
2-3
1
X
every X
X
X
X
a
a
2-3 a
a
a
a
0 mth
mth
wks wk
wk day
day
26. bought or provided liquor for
a minor.
27. had (or tried to have) sexual
relations with someone
against their will.
28. used force (strong-arm
methods) to get money or
things from other students.
29. used force (strong-arm
methods) to get money or
things from a teacher or other
adult at school.
30. used force (strong-arm
methods) to get money or
things from other people
(not students or teachers).
31. avoided paying for such
things as movies, bus or
subway rides, and food.
32. been drunk in a public
place.
33. stolen (or tried to steal)
things worth between $5 and
$50.
34. stolen (or tried to steal)
something at school.
35. broken into a building or
vehicle (or tried to break in)
to steal something or just
look around.
36. begged for money or things
from strangers.
37. skipped classes without an
excuse.

76
PUT A CHECK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX
HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST YEAR HAVE YOU:
less
than
1
1
2-3 1
2-3
1
X
every
X
X
X
X
a
a
2-3
a
a
a
a
0 mth
mth
wks
wk
wk day
day
38. failed to return extra
change that a cashier gave
you by mistake.
39. been suspended from school.
40. made obscene telephone calls,
such as calling someone and
saying dirty things.
HOW OFTEN IN THE LAST YEAR
HAVE YOU USED:
41. alcoholic beverages (beer,
wine and hard liquor).
42. marijuana - hashish
("grass,” "pot," "hash").
43. hallucinogens ("LSD,
"mescaline," "peyote,"
"acid")
44. amphetamines ("uppers,"
"speed," "whites").
45. barbituates("downers,"
"reds," "ludes").
46. heroin ("horse," "smack").
47. cocaine ("coke").

77
Personal Opinion Survey
1. The best teachers are the ones who are very easy.
2. I would be a happier person if I could satisfy all my
parent's wishes.
3. Sometimes I wonder if I'll ever grow up.
4. My folks usually blame bad company for the trouble I get
into.
5. In this world you're a fool if you trust other people.
6. Before I do something, I try to consider how my friends
will react to it.
7. We ought to pay our elected officials better than we do.
8. I never used to steal little things from the
neighborhood stores.
9. My teachers have given me lower grades than I deserve
just because they think I am a trouble-maker.
10. I don't worry about the future; there's nothing much I
can do about it anyway.
11. I often say mean things to other people and then feel
sorry for it afterwards.
12. When I think I am right nobody can change my mind.
13. I don't mind hurting people who get in my way.
14. Most people are squares.
15. I am always hurting the people I love the most.
16. I am so touchy on some subjects that I can't talk about
them.
17. You have to get the other guy before he gets you.
18. Most boys stay in school because the law says they have
to.
19. Policeman are friendly and try to help you.
20. You have to admire somebody who has enough guts to talk
back to a cop.
21. One day I will get even with everybody who has done me
dirty.
22. I have never seen a policeman yet who cared about anyone
but himself.
23. I feel tired a good deal of the time.
24. People seem to like me at first, but I have trouble
keeping friends.
25. When a group of boys get together they are bound to get
in trouble sooner or later.
26. You gotta fight to get what's coming to you.
27. I never wish that I were dead.
28. Only a fool would spend his life working a 40 hour week.
29. I never worry about a thing.
30. It seems as if people are always telling me what to do,
or how to do things.
31. I do what I want to do, whether anybody likes it or not.
32. At times I have a strong urge to do something harmful or
shocking.
33. I think people like me as much as they do other people.
34. Even when things go right for a while I know it won't
last.

78
35. I can easily "shake it off" when I do something I know
is wrong.
36. I never have the habit of shaking my head, neck, or
shoulder.
37. A person is better off if he doesn't trust anyone.
38. The best way to get ahead in the world is to be tough.
39. It is very important to have enough friends and social
life.
40. All this talk about honesty and justice is a lot of
nonsense.
41. There is something wrong with a person who can't take
orders without getting angry or resentful.
42. I am doing as much or as well as my parents expect me
to.
43. When I see people laughing I often think they are
laughing at me.
44. The only way to settle anything is to lick the guy.
45. It's dumb to trust older people.
46. I just can't stop doing things that I am sorry for
later.
47. For all the things I have done I should have been
punished more than I have.
48. I usually feel well and strong.
49. I sometimes feel that no one loves me.
50. When I was going to school I played hooky quite often.
51. My future looks bright.
52. I find it hard to "drop" or "break with" a friend.
53. Sometimes I think I won't live very long.
54. It doesn't matter what you do as long as you get your
kicks.
55. I wish I had not been such a disappointment to my
family.
56. The most important thing is to win no matter how.
57. Everyone should be required to finish high school.
58. I owe my family nothing.
59. My feelings are never hurt so badly I cry.
60. The only way to make big money is to steal it.
61. In school I was sometimes sent to the principal for
cutting up.
62. I have never been in trouble with the law.
63. The worst thing a person can do is to get caught.
64. I don't think I'm quite as happy as others seem to be.
65. I sometimes wish I'd never been born.
66. A guy's only protection is his friends.
67. A person who steals from the rich isn't really a thief.
68. I have had a real fight.
69. My way of doing things is apt to be misunderstood by
others.
70. If you're clever enough, you can steal anything and get
away with it.
71. The average policeman is not strict enough about the
law.
72. The only way to get what you want is to take it.

79
73. I must admit I find it very hard to work under strict
rules and regulations.
74. Success in this world is a matter of luck.
75. I often get nervous I have to get up and move around to
calm myself down.
76. Nobody has ever called me "chicken” and gotten by with
it.
77. I just don't seem to get the breaks other people do.
78. I get so angry that I "see red".
79. It's hard to get others to like me.
80. I don't really care what happens to me.
81. No matter how hard I try I always get caught.
82. My eyes often pain me.
83. Women are only good for what you can get out of them.
84. My life pretty boring and dull most of the time.
85. I have been expelled from school or nearly expelled.
86. The only way to make out is to be tough.
87. It is harder for me to just sit still and relax.
88. Once you've been in trouble, you haven't got a chance.
89. Hitting someone makes me feel good inside.
90. Being successful usually means having your name in the
paper.
91. Even when things go right I know it won't last.
92. I'd like to start a new life somewhere else.
93. If you don't have enough to live on, it's OK to steal.
94. It is important to think about what you do.
95. I can outwit almost anyone.
96. On my report card I usually get some failure marks.
97. I feel that I have often been punished without cause.
98. Whenever I do something I shouldn't, it worries me.
99. It's alright to steal from the rich because they don't
need it.
. Sometimes I have stolen things I really didn't need.
100

80
Answer Sheet
Name: Date of Birth:
CIRCLE T (TRUE) OR F (FALSE) FOR EACH QUESTION.
1.
T
F
26. T
F
51. T
F
76.
T
F
2.
T
F
27. T
F
52. T
F
77.
T
F
3.
T
F
28. T
F
53. T
F
78.
T
F
4.
T
F
29. T
F
54. T
F
79.
T
F
5.
T
F
30. T
F
55. T
F
80.
T
F
6.
T
F
31. T
F
56. T
F
81.
T
F
7.
T
F
32. T
F
57. T
F
82.
T
F
8.
T
F
33. T
F
58. T
F
83.
T
F
9.
T
F
34. T
F
59. T
F
84.
T
F
10.
T
F
35. T
F
60. T
F
85.
T
F
11.
T
F
36. T
F
61. T
F
86.
T
F
12.
T
F
37. T
F
62. T
F
87.
T
F
13.
T
F
38. T
F
63. T
F
88.
T
F
14.
T
F
39. T
F
64. T
F
89.
T
F
15.
T
F
40. T
F
65. T
F
90.
T
F
16.
T
F
41. T
F
66. T
F
91.
T
F
17.
T
F
42. T
F
67. T
F
92.
T
F
18.
T
F
43. T
F
68. T
F
93.
T
F
19.
T
F
44. T
F
69. T
F
94.
T
F
20.
T
F
45. T
F
70. T
F
95.
T
F
21.
T
F
46. T
F
71. T
F
96.
T
F
22.
T
F
47. T
F
72. T
F
97.
T
F
23.
T
F
48. T
F
73. T
F
98.
T
F
24 .
T
F
49. T
F
74. T
F
99.
T
F
25.
T
F
50. T
F
75. T
F
100.
T
F

81
Frustration Scale
PLEASE CIRCLE THE MOST APPROPRIATE RESPONSE
1.
If other people are beating
me in a game, I inwardly
accept it.
ALMOST
NEVER
12 3
ALMOST
ALWAYS
4 5 6 7 8
2. When I work at a task, and things
keep going wrong, as a result 112345678
feel as if I could smack someone,
somebody, or myself.
3. When a problem seems very difficult,
I try that much harder and work
that much harder to solve it. 12345678
4. If I am losing while playing my 12345678
favorite sport, I get frustrated.
5. When I'm involved in a competitive
activity, I am able to remain 12345678
inwardly calm.
6.Frustrating tasks make me feel
aggressive.
12345678
7.Even if unsuccessful, I enjoy the 12345678
challenge of a difficult task.
8.When I lose out in competing with
somebody else, (ie.ajob, in 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
school, cheerleader, etc.) I
become moody.

82
Social Desirability Scale
PLEASE CIRCLE TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F) TO EACH QUESTION.
T F
1. I'm always willing to admit it when I make a
mistake.
T F
2. I like to gossip at times.
T F
3. I always try to practice what I preach.
T F
4. I never resent being asked to return a favor.
T F
5. There have been occasions when I took advantage of
someone.
T F
6. I sometimes try to get even rather than forgive
and forget.
T F
7. I have never been irked when people expressed
ideas very different from my own.
T F
8. At times I have really insisted on having things
my own way.
T F
9. There have been times when I felt like smashing
things.
T F
10. I have never deliberately said something that
hurt someone's feelings.

83
Parent Questionnaire
Relation to Child: Father Mother Step-Father
Step-Mother Foster Parent
Phone Number:
Date of Birth: Spouses Date of Birth:
Spouses Relation to Child: Father Mother
Step-Father Step-Mother
Foster Parent
Number of other siblings: Total number in the household:
Your Occupation:
Spouse's Occupation:
Education: High School H.S. Graduate College
College Graduate Post Graduate
Spouse's Education: High School H.S. Graduate
_College
College Graduate Post Graduate
Family income level: <$5,000 $5,000-10,000
$10,000-20,000 $20,000-30,000
$30,000-50,000 >$50,000
Activities you participate in with the child:
Has your child ever been diagnosed as hyperactive?Yes No
Has your child ever taken medication for hyperactivity?Yes
No

84
Student Questionnaire
Date of Birth: Today's Date
Grade: Grade Point Average:
Number of times in the last year you have been disciplined
at school (sent to office, put in detention, suspended,
expelled):
Favorite Class: Favorite Sport:
Sports played at school:
Organized Sports played away from school:
Hobbies:
Have you ever been arrested: Yes No
If so, what for?
Have any of your brothers/sisters ever been arrested? Yes
No
Have you ever talked to a counselor or psychologist about
something that was upsetting you? Yes No
If so, what prompted you to talk to
someone?
Where does most of your stress come from: home school
friends other

Appendix B
RAW DATA

86
Variable List: subject number, age, school(1-PK Yonge, 2-
Gainesville HS, 3-Buchholz HS, 4-Newberry HS), POS-SD, POS-
ND, POS-PD, SSS-TAS, SSS-ES, SSS-DIS, SSS-BS, SSS-Total,
sex, Frustration-Interpersonal, Frustration-Intrapersonal,
Frustration-Total, SRDQ- frequency of pred. crimes against
persons, SRDQ-frequency of pred. crimes against property,
SRDQ-frequency of illegal service crimes, SRDQ-frequency of
status crimes, SRDQ-hard drug use, SRDQ-frequency total,
SRDQ-number of different pred. crimes against persons, SRDQ-
number of different pred. crimes against property, SRDQ-
number of different illegal service crimes, SRDQ- number of
different public disorder crimes, SRDQ-number of different
status crimes, SRDQ-number of different hard drugs used,
SRDQ-total number of different offenses, social desirability
score, self-reported GPA, official GPA, self-reported
disciplinary actions, official disciplinary actions, number
of arrests, had siblings been arrested (0-no, 1-yes), prior
counseling or psychotherapy (0-no, 1-yes), origin of stress
(1-home, 2-school, 3-friends, 4-others), mother age, father
age, number of siblings, total number in the household,
father education (1-HS, 2-HS grad., 3-college, 4-college
grad, 5- post grad.), mother education, income (l-<5000, 2-
5-10,000, 3-10-20,000, 4-20-30,000, 5-30-50,000, 6->50,000),
ever diagnosed hyperactive(0-no, 1-yes), ever had medication
for hyperactivity(0-no, 1-yes), race, do they come from a
single parent home (0-no, 1-yes), delinquent group (1-SD, 2-
ND, 3-PD), overall group number (1-low SS SD, 2-Low SS ND,
3-low SS PD, 4-high SS SD, 5-high SS ND, 6-high SS PD),
sensation seeking group (1-low, 2-high), participate in
school sports (0-no, 1-yes), participate in other organized
sports (0-no, 1-yes), grade.
Raw data:
001 15.7 2 11 12 4 4 1 1 2 8 1 9 10 19 1 0 0 0 20 21
10001023 3.0 1.3 0.0014 45 47 131140010
2 2 1 0 1 10
002 17.7 1 15 9 10 3 6 7 5 21 1 16 10 26 5 35 135 162 483 5
825 162451 19 5 2.0 2.1 7.5 90011 47 57 453360
01025201 12
003 16.0 1 11 21 4 8 3 8 7 26 2 23 14 37 12 87 17 11 61 0
188 172640 20 1. 3.2 010011 36 34 25244101
0 1 4 2 0 0 9
004 14.2 1 9 23 2 5 1 3 0 9 2 20 16 36 10 22 5 22 17 0 76
231320 11 0 2.5 3.0 000002 41 45 255350010
1110 0 9
005 17.0 1 12 16 22 9 8 9 6 32 1 25 18 43 62 353 162 629 87
650 1943 2 14 2 9 5 5 38 3 2.0 2.2 571012 37 39 1433
4001036210 10
007 17.5 1 5 9 9 10 7 6 3 26 2 21 15 36 0 5 0 10 32 0 47
01022056 4.0 3.6 000012 38 38 134560020
3 6 2 1 1 12
008 17.0 1 12 15 12 1 2 2 0 5 1 14 9 23 24 10 25 5 20 0 84
222140 11 8 3.0 1.4 .30116 32.46.311021
2 2 1 0 0 10

87
009 16.1 1 7 24 18 10 9 8 5 32 2 14 16 30 0 24 20 15 135 735
929 021323 11 5 2.0 2.9 110119 42 46 23. .600
1014200 10
010 18.2 1 17 20 7 9 4 5 3 21 1 23 12 35 10 20 10 5 25 0 70
242530 16 6 3.0 2.2 200011 47 47 255560010
2 5 2 1 1 12
011 16.5 1 6 12 13 9 10 4 4 27 1 13 15 28 0 15 77 140 168 12
412 033341 14 9 3.8 3.6 140001 38 39 1444500
1036211 11
012 16.8 164365241
7 2 7 12 19 0 0 5 17 20 0 42
00112043. 2.2 000011 48 47 1455500103
3 1 0 0 11
013 15.6 1 4 4 2 8 4 3 0 15 2 13 18 31 0 5 0 10 5 0 20
01021047 3.0 3.1 000015 36 35 141230010
3 3 1 1 1 10
014 17.0 1 8 18 6 9 9 3 5 26 1 20 26 46 5 10 0 5 5 20 45
12011162 3.7 3.6 0.0005 37 38 022340011
1 4 2 0 0 11
015 16.2 1 12 23 12 9 6 7 3 25 1 20 20 40 5 56 5 745 277 0
1088 171540 18 4 2.5 2.8 220005 47 48 145550
01014210 10
016 15.5 1 10 16 18 5 2 5 3 15 1 14 19 33 917 168 0 46 150 0
1281 260520 15 4 2.6 2.0 400002 34.12.3300
2133111 10
017 15.0 1 9 17 2 8 6 5 3 22 2 18 17 35 0 37 5 5 29 0 76
061130 11 0 3.8 4.0 000001 41 43 144340010
14 2 119
018 15.1 1 9 11 16 8 10 8 8 34 2 7 14 21 5 151 50 275 102
447 1030 194555 29 5 2.5 2.1 . 10 0 0 1 1 45 41 1 4 4 2
40010362009
019 16.5 1 13 26 18 8 1 2 4 15 1 23 23 46 5 87 5 15 57 0 169
181320 15 3 2.0 2.9 110001 41 58 132250010
1 1 1 1 1 10
020 15.9 1 4 24 11 2 3 3 0 8 2 16 16 32 0 20 0 0 10 0 30
04002066. 3.8 000011 47 51 0255200101
1 1 0 0 10
021 15.8 1 8 8 7 8 5 7 3 23 2 6 10 16 0 10 17 74 145 0 246
022440 12 2 2.0 2.4 020004 45 53 125550010
3 6 2 1 0 10
022 14.8 1 10 16 3 4 4 4 1 13 2 26 15 41 0 20 5 12 17 0 54
04112085 3.6 2.7 000012 40 53 265550010
1 1 1 0 0 10
023 17.1 2 3 8 3 10 7 2 3 22 2 10 8 18 0 0 12 0 10 0 22
00102037 3.0 2.9 1.0002 47.13.5300111
4 2 0 1 11
024 17.6 1 10 18 7 9 9 6 4 28 2 16 15 31 10 32 20 6 37 0 105
251350 16 2 3.3 3.7 110011 38 40 254550110
1 4 2 0 1 12
025 14.4 2 6 2 2 9 5 9 7 30 2 16 11 27 0 0 5 36 5 0 46
00131056 3.0 2.7 0.0012 45 41 145560010
2 5 2 1 1 9
026 16.8 2 15 17 8 8 6 2 4 20 1 17 17 34 0 34 12 37 10 0 93

88
04122093 3.7 3.7 000002 49 48 145460010
2 2 1 1 1 11
027 17.0 2 8 13 9 9 7 6 2 24 1 23 17 40 0 27 5 154 50 5 241
041341 13 3 3.3 2.8 370015 46 51 145460010
3 6 2 1 1 11
028 16.3 2 6 1 4 10 9 7 3 29 1 13 15 28 0 5 30 45 62 5 147
023351 14 8 3.0 3.2 490012 38.324250011
3 6 2 1 1 11
029 16.9 2 10 8 7 7 1 8 6 22 1 18 20 38 12 216 20 557 140 0
945 1 11 1 5 3 0 21 3 . 2.9 100005 39.134.2001
1 2 5 2 1 1 11
030 14.5 26418232 15 19 19 28 12 00000 12
10000018 3.5 3.0 . 00002 44 48 254560010
2 2 1119
031 16.3 2 13 21 25 10 5 9 5 29 1 18 23 41 5 1993 5 1189 15
0 3207 1 12 1 5 3 0 22 1 2.3 3.0 021101 45 54 46355
001036211 11
032 15.1 2 9 11 7 8 2 4 5 19 2 14 11 25 5 30 5 41 30 0 111
161430 15 6 3.5 3.5 200009 44 44 135450010
2 2 110 9
033 16.2 2 7 8 16 8 5 8 4 25 1 21 15 36 0 0 12 12 89 0 113
00114064 3.0 2.7 100002 39 41 255350010
3 6 2 1 1 11
034 17.8 2 4 5 5 10 5 4 0 19 2 16 20 36 10 0 12 15 17 0 54
20132083 3.6 3.6 000002 43 44 145560010
3 3 1 0 0 12
035 17.3 2 12 18 9 6 8 7 5 26 2 9 16 25 5 0 135 121 64 10
335 102422 11 4. 2.4 01011 10 43 45 2422500
1025200 11
036 17.0 2 14 22 3 8 8 5 3 24 2 13 25 38 0 10 25 400 69 5
509 022531 13 1. 1.8 10 3001 14 38 34 0355400
1025200 10
037 15.3 2 9 6 18 7 4 6 5 21 1 26 21 47 5 35 10 17 15 0 82
182120 14 3 2.5 1.5 000004 40 40 133430011
3 6 2 1 1 9
038 15.9 2 9 17 10 3 4 3 0 10 2 16 12 28 0 0 0 5 130 0 135
00011026 2.0 1.9 03001 14 36.13.4.0021
1 1 1 0 0 10
039 16.3 2 16 17 19 6 5 4 6 21 1 29 15 44 105 1200 140 119
591 402 2557
794764 37 2 3.0 2.5 40000 14 35 43 03546001
0 2 5 2 1 0 11
040 18.0 2 7 13 1 9 6 0 1 16 1 16 18 34 0 0 0 5 12 0 17
00011026 2.8 2.6 110014 39 46 034261010
1 1 1 0 0 12
041 16.8 2 10 13 3 7 6 2 2 17 2 19 12 31 0 0 5 0 5 5 15
00101136 3.0 2.9 130001 37 43 0. 3340010
2 2 1 0 0 11
042 15.6 2 18 5 3 10 4 7 0 21 1 12 7 19 12 27 5 17 37 0 98
141240 12 3 3.4 3.1 111011 40 40 145340010
2 5 2 1 1 10
043 17.4 2 10 20 6 8 2 6 4 20 2 27 13 40 0 0 5 0 42 0 47
00104052 2.0 2.2 11001 14 38 38 5.2120010
1 1 1 0 0 12

89
044 17.9 2 17 25 18 6 4 9 5 24 1 26 23 49 168 1523 377 288
259 5 2620 4 13 2 8 5 1 33 2 1.2 1.7 000011 32 32 251
44001025200 12
045 17.5 2 7 8 5 7 8 7 2 24 2 20 20 40 0 18 64 30 147 5 264
032231 11 2 3.5 3.2 000115 43 .224430011
3 6 2 1 0 12
046 16.8 3 11 10 1 6 4 5 4 19 2 13 8 21 0 10 17 10 57 0 94
022240 10 5 2.7 . 260001 49 48 0321400102
2 1 0 1 11
047 15.6 2 5 17 6 10 7 3 2 22 1 19 16 35 5 27 0 15 10 0 57
14022092 3.9 3.7 000002 48 46 035460010
1 4 2 1 1 10
048 17.2 2 5 7 8 7 3 8 2 20 1 19 15 34 12 10 0 5 44 0 71
12013073 3.5 2.6 13 50001. . . .55500103
3 1 0 0 10
049 17.3 2 7 8 2 7 0 3 3 13 2 20 15 35 5 15 5 5 10 0 40
13112085 3.5 3.5 000002 43 56 133550010
2 2 1 0 1 12
050 16.0 2 6 11 2 10 5 1 0 16 2 13 18 31 0 0 5 0 10 0 15
00102033 3.9 3.8 000012. 42 125.400111
1 1 1 1 10
051 17.2 2 18 23 28 7 6 5 5 23 1 26 18 44 42 64 104 1406 50
12 1678 472641 24 3 3.0 2.4 62100 12 50.24.43
001136201 12
052 18.4 2 10 15 6 6 2 2 3 13 2 18 19 37 5 0 0 17 44 0 66
10012043 2.0 2.1 010001 37 42 251130010
1 1 1 0 0 12
053 18.1 2 9 17 12 9 4 4 2 19 2 11 23 34 12 0 0 24 52 0 88
10013052 2.0 1.8 000014 54 50 131. 30010
1 1 1 0 0 12
054 15.7 2 12 15 6 10 7 10 4 31 2 23 14 37 0 10 37 77 57 5
186 023341 13 4 2.5 1.6 000108 47 49 3243400
1125210 10
055 15.7 2 11 10 4 9 9 9 6 33 2 19 16 35 0 20 22 52 69 0 163
043230 12 5 3.0 . 031014 46 48 2355500102
5 2 0 1 10
056 15.6 3 7 6 9 10 5 7 7 29 1 18 18 36 57 266 12 1021 89 0
1445 281440 19 3 2.7 3.0 000002 38.12.3300
11362119
057 16.9 2 16 22 6 3 3 1 2 9 2 24 11 35 0 0 0 17 62 0 79
00025073..6 000006 37 40 1.425001022
1 0 1 11
058 15.2 2 11 16 2 4 2 7 3 16 1 19 19 38 5 12 5 17 29 0 68
11123083 3.2 2.5 110002 42 42 145560010
1 1 1 1 1 10
059 17.2 26529822 21 1 16 7 23 505 157 10 140 317
101523 12 3 2.5 1.4 120002 27 37 033530010
2 2 1 0 0 9
060 17.0 2 14 15 5 8 10 6 5 29 2 10 17 27 10 0 57 36 290 0
393 202350 12 5 2.5 2.3 211011 40 43 1453500
1025210 11
061 15.8 2 7 8 7 9 7 8 3 27 2 19 12 31 0 25 12 42 37 0 116
051430 13 2 3.2 3.2 100011 43 47 145560010
3 6 2 1 1 10

90
062 14.7 3 5 6 4 8 7 6 5 26 2 7 17 24 0 0 0 22 10 0 32
00032056. 2.8 000012 34.03.32001136
2 0 0 9
063 17.1 2 9 14 4 8 4 6 0 18 2 22 18 40 0 25 10 30 57 0 122
052340 14 4 3.5 3.0 100002 44.24.340011
1 1 1 1 1 11
064 17.5 2 15 27 31 2 6 9 5 22 2 21 28 49 171 164 64 153 69
25 646 5 12 4 8 5 2 36 1 .75 .9 19 10 1 0 0 7 30 . 1 3 . 3 .
002136201 11
065 14.8 2 9 10 8 9 4 3 4 20 1 11 7 18 17 25 0 15 10 0 67
250320 12 1 3.0 3.0 210002 41 36 253340010
3 3 10 19
066 17.0 2 13 22 15 10 5 3 7 25 1 16 22 38 15 69 0 20 42 0
146 3 11 0 3 4 0 21 3 2.5 2.4 210015 37. 14.3400
1114201 11
067 14.9 2 12 11 3 6 1 2 4 13 2 17 15 32 5 25 5 10 15 0 60
151230 12 5. 2.2 340102 49. 11 8.4400112
2 10 0 9
068 17.0 2 6 21 13 4 2 6 6 18 1 27 26 53 25 72 20 377 147 0
641 251330 14 1 3.5 3.0 53000 14 41 44 142350
01011101 11
069 14.9 2 9 7 3 8 3 6 5 22 1 21 28 49 10 40 5 10 32 0 97
251220 12 2 3.0 2.7 000002 38 41 035450010
2 5 2 1 1 9
070 15.2 2 11 12 8 10 4 6 5 25 1 23 32 55 370 402 5 747 740
0 2264 261530 17 3 2.5 2.0 220014 39 42 03525
0010252009
071 15.1 2 6 16 8 4 3 4 6 17 1 23 16 39 0 0 0 10 5 0 15
00021032 2.5 2.9 00000 11 49 50 432250010
1110 0 9
072 16.7 26 12 1031372 15 17 32 500550 15
10011035 4.0 4.0 000009 38 39 254.30010
1 1 1 0 0 11
073 18.3 2 14 17 19 8 4 7 4 23 1 20 16 36 5 22 25 382 82 0
516 132340 13 4 2.0 1.6 22101 14 34 40 144440
01036201 12
074 14.3 2 11 22 6 4 2 6 4 16 2 20 20 40 0 20 20 94 50 0 184
041540 14 2 2.6 2.6 000018 43.02.540011
11110 9
075 14.5 26649463 22 1 17 8 25 550 17 50 32
11021054 3.0 2.4 330018 38 42 142341010
3 6 2 1 1 9
076 16.8 3 11 5232106194 13 5000 22 0 27
10003048 2.0 1.4 000002 55 61 463240010
2 2 1 1 1 11
077 17.8 23319200 11 2 19 13 32 005050 10
00101024 3.0 3.0 020002 40 50 554460010
3 3 1 0 0 12
078 15.9 3 8 16 10 5 6 8 4 23 2 16 22 38 365 0 12 60 121 0
558 10133083 2.7 2.4 13 60014 45 44 1444500
1014210 10
079 17.5 3 6 6 2 8 7 4 2 21 1 17 17 34 0 5 0 17 42 0 64
01024075 3.6 3.4 240002 45 47 1453.0010
2 2 1 1 1 12

91
080 17.3 3 4 16 3 2 0 4 2 8 2 20 16 36 0 0 5 64 124 0 193
00123064 3.4 3.2 000002 43 44 255560010
1 1 1 0 0 12
081 17.8 3 5 10 4 8 4 5 4 21 2 23 9 32 0 0 5 0 69 5 79
00103155 3.5 3.6 000002. 41 025.500111
1 1 0 0 12
082 18.1 3 7 9 5 6 4 5 1 16 2 16 17 33 0 0 0 5 45 0 50
00013045 3.1 2.3 000012 42 48. .4450010
3 3 1 0 0 12
083 17.7 3 11 17 5 6 3 4 2 15 2 28 20 48 0 0 52 10 129 0 191
00124076 3.1 2.7 13001 14 43 44 1444.0010
1 1 1 0 1 12
084 18.1 3 8 12 4 7 4 3 7 21 2 14 16 30 0 0 5 0 64 0 69
00100233 2.3 .0.0001 44 49 2443600101
4 2 1 1 12
085 16.0 3 4 15 4 6 3 1 2 12 2 11 18 29 0 0 0 5 5 0 10
00011024 3.5 3.2 100002. .03455002.1
1 1 0 0 10
086 18.2 3 4 8 2 9 6 10 3 28 2 13 19 32 5 27 142 114 442 0
730 142440 15 3 3.2 2.8 210011 39 40 0355600
1014200 12
087 15.7 3 13 4 2 10 6 3 0 19 1 18 14 32 5 35 5 15 10 0 70
171320 14 4 2.9 2.3 000019 42 47 255460010
2 2 1 1 1 10
088 17.7 3 7 12 3 8 7 4 6 25 2 18 15 33 0 0 5 0 10 0 15
00102036 2.5 2.9 0. 0011 38 39 143350010
1 4 2 0 0 12
089 . 3 8 13 8 8 2 6 2 18 1 20 15 35 5 32 0 25 10 0 72
140520 12 7 2.7 2.8 100002 40 40 253330010
111119
090 18.4 3 4 6 18 4 3 6 3 16 1 21 17 38 20 67 12 52 912 0
1063 141340 13 2 3.1 2.5 030002 42 50 145350
01033110 12
091 18.2 3 10 21 9 7 7 3 2 19 2 14 23 37 0 0 12 5 44 0 61
00113056 3.3 3.1 000015 48 56 365450010
1 1 1 0 1 12
092 18.3 3 6 2 14 9 4 7 4 24 1 18 13 31 0 0 5 17 417 0 439
00132066 3.6 2.4 000001 42 46 243260010
3 6 2 1 1 12
093 16.4 3 12 14 2 5 4 8 3 20 2 16 11 27 0 0 20 34 155 0 209
00143083 3.6 3.4 110002 43 43 134460010
2 2 1 0 0 11
094 16.7 3 13 15 2 7 2 1 4 14 2 25 17 42 0 15 5 10 22 0 52
03123094 3.0 2.9 110002 52 51 255240010
2 2 1 0 0 11
095 16.6 39667893 27 17 26 33 00 140 155 124 10 429
003332 11 9 3.0 2.3 4 10 1002 41 42 14445001
0 2 5 2 0 1 11
096 18.1 3 12 3 23 10 6 8 4 28 1 8 14 22 0 54 370 735 244 5
1408 082351 19 6 2.0 1.0 341004 33 43 464430
01036200 12
097 18.0 3 14 18 16 4 1 4 4 13 1 16 7 23 0 0 0 135 5 0 140
00021039 2.7 1.4 000011 1.2
2 1 1 1 12

92
098 16.9 3 18 16 10 7 4 9 5 25 2 18 20 38 0 5 12 92 525 0
634 011350 10 3. 1.2 111012 37 38 14446001
0 2 5 2 0 0 11
099 16.0 3 9 11 10 6 3 6 4 19 1 24 20 44 10 0 0 10 10 0 30
20022061 3.2 3.0 000002 46.0354600103
3 1 1 1 10
100 17.4 3 5 15 5 8 5 5 6 24 1 13 22 35 5 10 0 52 10 0 77
12012063 3.6 3.6 000011 60 60 331340010
1 4 2 0 1 12
101 15.7 3 3 3 8 9 3 0 4 16 2 17 16 33 5 17 12 15 10 0 59
12132092 3.8 3.8 000102 43.34.3200113
3 1 1 1 10
103 16.6 3 5 13 3 10 9 3 3 25 2 24 22 46 10 25 10 22 52 12
131 252361 19 3 3.2 1.7 200014 41 44 1453610
1014210 11
104 17.7 3 12 12 16 10 5 6 3 24 1 22 25 47 10 192 130 382
512 0 1226 281330 17 5 3.5 2.9 330001 43 53.43
35001036211 12
105 19.4 3 12 6 9 5 1 0 1 7 2 15 8 23 0 32 20 50 204 0 306
021550 13 3 2.3 1.6 16001 12. .353331020
2 2 1 1 0 12
106 18.2 3 14 14 18 6 3 6 5 20 1 24 47 41 30 241 69 17 57 0
414 473320 19 7 3.1 2.3 670011 39 40 2355600
1033110 12
107 16.7 3 5 5 4 8 4 9 6 27 1 22 18 40 5 60 25 15 89 0 194
192340 19 2 3.6 3.7 000111 41 44 355460010
3 6 2 1 1 11
108 17.5 3 9 10 3 9 4 0 1 14 2 21 10 31 0 5 0 5 140 0 150
01013054 2.0 1.4 000015. 39 02. .300112
2 1 0 0 11
109 15.9 3 14 23 15 9 3 8 4 24 2 21 18 39 52 377 52 104 284
20 889 121441 13 3. 2.0 .00011 37.25.3400
1114211 10
111 17.6 3 12 12 16 10 5 6 3 24 1 22 25 47 0 25 17 67 77 5
191 281330 17 0 3.0 2.4 010001 45 50 1453500
1036200 12
112 17.7 3 7 5 10 10 3 10 5 28 1 12 19 31 15 420 40 82 474 0
1031 3 11 3 4 4 0 25 1 3.3 3.2 000012 36 33 146250
01036200 12
113 18.0 3 7 2 10 9 5 9 7 30 1 17 14 31 0 30 5 34 246 0 315
061440 15 4 3.1 2.9 100002 38 38 144460010
3 6 2 0 1 12
114 17.7 3 6 11 12 7 6 3 1 17 2 22 23 45 0 5 12 12 62 0 91
01123072 3.0 3.4 10001 14 41 45 244460010
3 3 1 1 0 12
115 18.0 3 9 12 1 9 4 5 3 21 2 16 15 31 0 12 20 64 280 0 376
01124087 2.0 1.7 000101 45 46 345540010
2 2 1 0 0 12
116 18.4 3 14 24 12 8 5 3 6 22 2 22 16 38 0 0 0 10 27 0 37
00024063 2.1 2.8 110019 39 41 145561010
1 4 2 1 0 12
117 18.6 3 9 13 13 8 4 5 1 18 1 15 11 26 365 39 12 442 175 0
1033 151440 15 4 2.5 . 1. 0001 43 52 4422600
1033110 12

119
O O
3 6
121
225
1 1
122
854
1 O
123
2 O
1 1
124
2 O
1 O
125
O 1
1 1
126
2 2
1 1
127
O 2
2 2
128
448
O 1
129
2 O
3 1
130
478
1 0
131
0 1
3 1
132
0 0
1 1
133
0 0
4 2
134
1 3
4 2
135
0 4
3 6
136
0 1
1 1
137
0 3
1 4
93
14.7 3 4 2 4 9 3 7 3 22 2 12 11 23 0 0 0 5 22 0 27
013048 3.4 2.7 . 00001 53 53 243350010
2 0 19
16.23 14 13 0 10 3 6 4 23 1 19 16 35 5 52 20 64 84 0
161220 12 3 1.5 2.1 33101 14. 42 234.400
2 5 2 0 0 9
15.1 3 8 7 13 9 5 7 2 23 1 22 22 44 5 237 52 406 154 0
192530 20 1 2.0 2.1 200001 44 48 1353500
3 6 2 0 1 9
14.63 15 16 12 2 2 1 4 9 2 15 15 30 6 0 5 5 11 0 27
113075. .2.51001 41 42 03446001022
1 9
. 3 5 14 7 4 1 0 0 5 2 13 14 27 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
000025. 2.6 .00009 39.1332.002111
0 .
14.6 3 11 24 4 2 1 3 4 10 2 15 24 39 0 5 0 0 22 0 27
003043 1.5 1.7 010011 37 39 144350010
10 0 9
14.8 3 13 21 8 5 4 3 4 16 2 16 22 38 10 10 0 10 10 0 40
022084 3.5 3.2 000011 39 40 145560010
10 0 9
15.2 3 14 14 7 2 2 2 0 6 2 22 21 43 0 57 0 0 44 0 101
003053 1.7 1.7 .14 0008 38 34 243550010
110 9
15.6 3 14 12 8 8 5 3 3 19 1 19 12 31 12 12 0 397 22 5
110631 12 3 1.5 1.3 9 10 0012 40 44 364460
0 2 2 1 1 0 9
15.7 3 6 19 29 3 5 2 8 18 1 17 21 38 32 0 0 15 5 0 52
0 4 1 0 7 2 3.0 1.8 110005 1.3
0 0 9
16.2 3 12 21 4 10 4 5 3 22 1 17 9 26 10 35 12 394 27 0
281440 19 3 3.7 3.0 100012 36 37 3622500
1 4 2 1 1 10
17.8 4 6 5 3 4 2 2 2 10 2 18 15 33 0 5 5 5 15 0 30
113065 2.7 2.8 000009. .1344600103
0 1 12
17.6 4 9 15 2 4 1 2 1 8 1 14 12 26 0 0 0 5 25 0 30
012033 2.7 2.0 360104 43.04.2300211
1 0 12
16.7 4 9 21 3 10 9 9 2 30 2 24 15 39 0 0 64 39 72 0 175
252096 3.6 3.5 000015. .0333300101
1 1 11
14.5 3 10 21 6 10 6 6 8 30 2 16 26 42 5 62 0 82 74 0 223
0 4 4 0 12 1 1.5 .0.0012 38 40 3655600101
0 0 9
15.4 3 8 9 16 7 4 8 6 25 1 16 17 33 0 20 0 64 52 0 146
021074 2.5 2.3 .20002 40 42 253560010
2 0 0 9
15.1 3 10 23 4 8 6 5 1 20 2 19 14 33 0 5 0 15 22 0 42
033076 3.3 3.5 00001 10 42 41 143550010
10 0 9
. 4 13 25 7 8 9 7 7 31 2 22 18 40 0 20 17 174 152 0 363
2 4 4 0 13 1 2.7 2.4 . 00011 41 41 461240010
2 1 1 11

94
138 14.4 3 8 9 3 6 1 3 1 11 2 19 11 30 O O O 5 10 O 15
00012035 2.0 1.8 11000 14 32 39 345530011
2 2 10 19
139 17.6 3 5 10 1 5 2 2 3 12 2 16 17 33 0 5 0 0 67 0 72
01004057 3.4 3.3 000012 46 48 145550010
1 1 1 0 0 12
141 14.8 37927335 18 2 12 13 25 0000 730 0 730
00002025 3.5 3.0 110002 41 39 143450010
11110 9
142 15.2 3 11 12 25 10 7 7 7 31 1 11 17 28 10 208 52 89 656
0 1015 241440 15 1 2.8 2.8 lililí 56 61 24426
0010362009
143 14.9 35413323 11 2 14 15 29 550550 20
11011043 3.4 3.6 000102 42 43 145450010
3 3 1 0 0 9
144 14.5 3 9 22 6 8 5 1 0 14 2 19 16 35 5 135 0 0 10 0 150
12002055 4.0 3.7 000006. 35. .44400112
2 1119
145 16.5 3 11 16 10 9 7 8 5 29 2 15 25 40 5 15 104 29 109 0
262 132330 12 3 3.2 1.9 000011 64 72 0344500
1014210 11
146 17.7 3 6 9 5 8 4 8 4 24 1 21 16 37 12 25 24 49 29 0 139
152630 17 2 3.2 3.1 200002 46 45 234460010
3 6 2 1 1 12
147 16.0 3 11 17 17 6 4 5 3 18 1 21 18 39 17 12 12 74 64 0
179 211420 10 2 3.2 2.7 870003 36 38 1444600
1033111 10
148 18.6 3 12 12 12 9 3 9 5 26 1 26 23 49 10 30 5 47 77 0
169 261530 17 2 2.9 2.4 10 14 0 0 0 1 42 43 1 4 5 2 6 0
01025211 12
149 18.1 3 9 6 11 7 5 7 6 25 1 22 19 41 10 62 69 84 207 17
449 2 11 3 6 4 2 28 2 3.0 2.2 560002 50 50 255560
01036210 12
150 17.2 3 12 13 17 10 6 8 4 28 2 12 18 30 5 22 77 282 677 0
1063 133540 16 5 2.5 2.2 200008 40.02.4500
1136200 11
151 19.2 3 8 6 10 6 2 2 5 15 1 25 23 48 15 35 5 370 32 0 457
371250 18 2 3.0 2.7 220002 39 38. .5340010
3 3 1 1 0 12
152 18.3 3 7 19 4 6 4 4 3 17 2 14 18 32 0 0 0 20 5 0 25
00011024 2.8 2.8 000001 42 42 354250010
1 1 1 0 0 12
153 18.2 3 9 14 21 5 4 7 5 21 1 21 18 39 365 39 25 429 382 0
1240 152330 14 4 3.0 1.3 5 10 0002 46 48. . 1130
01033100 12
154 15.2 37943583 19 2 22 23 45 50 130 69 199 0 403
10134093 3.5 3.1 000002 46 41 243250010
1110 0 9
155 18.2 3 10 9 3 3 2 5 3 13 2 18 14 32 0 0 32 24 44 0 100
00223074 3.3 3.7 000001 38 32 045460010
2 2 1 0 0 12
156 19.4 3 8 9 11 9 3 7 3 22 1 15 17 32 130 237 142 174 154
0 837 162430 16 6 2.5 1.8 610011 40 45 353350
01036210 12

95
157 18.1 3 8 20 7 5 4 6 2 17 2 17 20 37 O 17 5 12 154 0
02113074 3.8 3.7 000102 34 46 3355600
1 1 1 0 1 12
158 16.0 3 13 10 3 1 1 4 4 10 2 10 14 24 12 5 5 20 159
11114085 1.5 .6 2 11 0009 29 30 1522100
2 2 10 19
188
1 0
0 201
2 1

REFERENCES
Akers, R.L. (1977). Deviant behavior: A social learning
approach (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Allen, J.G. (1976). Correlates of emotional styles.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 44., 678-
685.
Anastasia, A. (1976). Psychological testing (4th ed.). New
York: Macmillan.
Anderson, R.E. (1973). Relationship between sensation
seeking and academic achievement, school attendance,
academic ability and alcohol use. In M. Zuckerman
(Ed.) Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of
arousal. (pp. 230-255) Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.
Aston-Jones, G., & Bloom, F.E. (1981). Norepinephrine-
containing locus coeruleus neurons in behaving rats
exhibit pronounced responses to non-noxious
environmental stimuli. Journal of Neuroscience. 8,
887-900.
Behar, L., & Stringfield, S.A. (1974). A behavior rating
scale for the preschool child. Developmental
Psychology. 10. 601-610.
Bergandi, T.A., Williams, J.R., & Lamb, D.H. (1982). Trait
frustration and aggression in adult humans.
Psychological Bulletin. 51. 815-819.
Borkovec, T.D. (1970). Autonomic reactivity to sensory
stimulation in psychopathic, neurotic and normal
juvenile delinquents. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology. 35. 217-222.
Brill, N.Q., Crumpton, E., & Grayson, H.M. (1971).
Personality factors in marijuana use. Archives of
General Psychiatry. 24. 163-165.
Brownfield, D. (1986). Social class and violent behavior.
Criminology. 24. 421-437.
Carrol, E.N., & Zuckerman, M. (1977). Psychopathology and
sensation seeking in "downers,” "speeders," and
"trippers": A study of the relationship between
96

97
personality and drug choice. International
Journal of Addiction. 12. 591-601.
Cohen, A.K. (1955). Delinquent boys: The culture of the
gang. New York: Free Press.
Conners, C.K. (1969). A teacher rating scale for use in
drug studies with children. American Journal of
Psychiatry. 126. 884-888.
Cotman, C.W., & McGaugh, R. (1980). Behavioral
neuroscience: An introduction. New York: Academic
Press.
Cloward, R.A., & Ohlin, L.E. (1960). Delinquency and
opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. New York:
Free Press.
Daitzman, R.J., & Tumilty, T.N. (1974). Support for an
activation-regulation deficit in schizophrenia:
Implication for treatment. Newsletter for Research in
Mental Health and Behavioral Science. 16. 31-35.
Daitzman, R.J., & Zuckerman, M. (1980). Disinhibitory
sensation seeking personality and gonadal hormones.
Personality and Individual Differences. 1, 103-110.
Delameter, A.M., & Lahey, B.B. (1983). Physiological
correlates of conduct problems and anxiety of
hyperactive and learning disabled children. Journal of
Abnormal Child Psychology. 11, 85-100.
Dishon, T.J., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., &
Patterson, G.M. (1984). Skills deficits and male
adolescent delinguency. Journal of Abnormal Child
Psychology. 12(1), 37-54.
Dollard, J., Doob, L.W., Miller, N.E., Mowrer, O.H., &
Sears, R.R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New
Haven: Yale University Press.
Ehrenkranz, J., Bliss, E., & Sheard, M.H. (1974). Plasma
testosterone: Correlation with aggressive behavior and
social dominance in man. Psychosomatic Medicine. 36,
469-475.
Elliott, D.S., & Ageton, S.S. (1980). Reconciling
differences in self-reported and official estimates of
delinguency. American Sociological Review. 45. 95-110.
Elliott, D.S., Ageton, S.S., Huizinga, D., Knowles, B.A. &
Cantor, R.J. (1983). The prevalance and incidence of
delinquent behavior: 1976-1980. Boulder, CO:
Behavioral Research Institute.

98
Elliott, D.S., Huizinga, P., & Ageton, S.S. (1985).
Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills,
CA: Sage.
Ellis, P.L. (1982). Empathy: A factor in antisocial
behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 10(1),
123-134
Empey, L.T. (1982). American delinquency: Its meaning and
construction (rev. ed.). Homewood, II: Dorsey Press.
Eysenck, S.B.G., & Eysenck, H.J. (1977). The place of
impulsiveness in a dimensional system of personality
description. British Journal of Social and Clinical
Psychology. 16, 57-68.
Eysenck, S.B., & Zuckerman, M. (1978). The relationship
between sensation seeking and Eysenck's dimensions of
personality. British Journal of Psychology. 69, 483-
487.
Farley, F.H., & Farley, S.V. (1972). Sensation seeking
motivation and delinquent behavior among
institutionalized delinquent girls. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2£(1), 94-97.
Farley, F.H., & Sewell, T. (1976). Test of an arousal
theory of delinquency. Criminal Justice and Behavior.
3(4), 315-320.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (1984). Uniform crime
reports. Washington, DC: Department of Justice
Federal Bureau of Investigation (1985). Uniform crime
reports. Washington, DC: Department of Justice.
Friedlander, K. (1947). The psvcho-analvtical approach to
juvenile delinquency. New York: International
Universities Press.
Genshaft, J.L. (1980). Personality characteristics of
delinquent subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child
Psychology. 8(2), 279-283.
Hardt, R.H., & Peterson-Hardt, S. (1977). On determining
the quality of the delinquency self-report method.
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 14. 247-
261.
Hare, R.D. (1968). Psychopathy, autonomic functioning and
the orienting response. Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Monograph Supplement. 73. 1-24.

99
Hare, R.D., & Craigen, D. (1974). Psychopathy and
physiological activity in a mixed-motive game
situation. Psychophysiology. 11. 197-206.
Hare, R.D., Frazelle, J., & Cox, D.N. (1978). Psychopathy
and physiological responses to threat of an aversive
stimulus. Psychophysiology. 15. 165-172.
Hewitt, L.E. & Jenkins, R.L. (1946). Fundamental patterns
of maladjustment, the dynamics of their origin.
Springfield, IL: State of Illinois.
Heyman, S.R., & Rose, K.G. (1980). Psychological factors
affecting SCUBA performance. In C.H. Nadeau, W.R.
Halliwell, K.M. Newell, & G.C. Roberts (eds.).
Psychology of motor behavior and sport. Chicago, II:
Human Kinetics Press.
Hindelang, M.J., Hirschi, T., & Weiss, J.G. (1981).
Measuring delinguencv. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinguencv. Berkley:
University of California Press.
Hundleby, J.D., & Ross, B.E. (1977). Comparison of
measures of psychopathy. Journal of Counseling and
Clinical Psychology. 45. 702-703.
Hymbaugh, K., & Garrett, J. (1974). Sensation seeking
among skydivers. Perceptual Motor Skills. 38. 118.
Jerse, F.W., & Fakouri, M.E. (1978). Juvenile delinquency
and academic deficiency. Contemporary Education. 49,
106-109.
Jefferson, T.W., & Johnson, J.H. (1989). Dimensions of
juvenile delinguencv and their relationship to
childhood hyperactivity and sensation seeking.
Unpublished manuscript.
Jurkovic, G.J., & Prentice, N.M. (1977). Relation of moral
and cognitive development to dimensions of juvenile
delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 86, 414-
420.
Kaestner, E., Rosen, L., & Appel, P. (1977). Patterns of
drug abuse: Relationships with ethnicity, sensation
seeking and anxiety. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology. 45, 462-468.
Kilpatrick, D.G., Sutker, P.B., & Smith, A.D. (1976).
Deviant drug and alcohol use: The role of anxiety,
sensation seeking and other personality variables. In
M. Zuckerman & C.D. Spielberger (Eds.), Emotion and

100
Anxiety: New Concepts. Methods, and Applications (pp.
167-175). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.
Kish, G.B., & Busse, W. (1968). Correlates of stimulus
seeking: Age, education, intelligence and aptitude.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 32. 633-
637.
Kohn, M., & Rosman, L.A. (1972). A social competence scale
and symptom checklist for the preschool child: Factor
dimensions, their cross instrument generality, and
longitudinal persistence. Developmental Psychology. 6,
430-444.
Krohn, M.D., Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Akers, R.L. (1984).
Community context and theories of deviant behavior: An
examination of social learning and social bonding
theories. Sociological Quarterly. 25, 353-371.
Lamb, D.H. (1978) Anxiety. In H. London & J. Exner
(Eds.), Dimensions of personality (pp 32-64). New
York: Wiley.
Lane, B.A. (1980). The relationship of learning
disabilities and juvenile delinquency: Current status.
Journal of Learning Disabilities. 13. 20-30.
Lanza-Kaduce, L., Akers, R.L., Krohn, M.D., & Radosevich,
M.J. (1984). Cessation of alcohol and drug use among
adolescents: A social learning model. Deviant
Behavior. 5, 79-96.
Megargee, E.I. (1966). Research in clinical assessment.
New York: Harper & Row.
Merton, R.K. (1938). Social structure and anomie.
American Sociological Review. 3, 672-682.
Mowrer, O.H. (1960). Learning theory and behavior. New
York: Wiley.
Murphy, D.L., Belmaker, R.H., Buchsbaum, M., Martin, N.F.,
Ciaranello, R., & Wyatt, R.J. (1977). Biogenic amine-
related enzymes and personality variations in normals.
Psychological Medicine. 7, 149-157.
Neary, R.S., & Zuckerman, M. (1976). Sensation seeking,
trait and state anxiety, and the electrodermal
orienting reflex. Psychophysiology. 13, 205-211.
Neopolitan, J. (1981). Parental influences on aggressive
behavior: A social learning approach. Adolescence.
16, 831-840.

101
Orris, J.B. (1969). Visual monitoring performance in three
groups of male delinguents. Journal of Abnormal
Psychology. 74, 227-229.
Patterson, G.R. (1982). Coercive Family Process. Eugene,
OR: Castilia.
Peterson, D.R., Quay, H.C., & Cameron, G.R. (1959).
Personality and background factors in juvenile
delinquency as inferred from questionnaire responses.
Journal of Consulting Psychology. 23. 392-399.
Peterson, D.R., Quay, H.C., & Tiffany, T.C. (1961).
Personality factors related to juvenile delinquency.
Child Development. 32., 355-372.
Quay, H.C. (1964). Dimensions of personality in delinquent
boys as inferred from the factor analysis of case
history data. Child Development. 35, 479-484.
Quay, H.C. (1965). Psychopathic personality as
pathological stimulation seeking. American Journal of
Psychiatry. 122. 180-183.
Quay, H.C. (1987). Handbook of juvenile delinguencv. New
York: Wiley & Sons.
Quay, H.C., & Parsons, L.B. (1971). Differential
behavioral classification of the juvenile offender.
Bureau of Prisons, U.S. Department of Justice.
Quay, H.C., & Peterson, D.R. (1964). The Questionnaire
measurement of personality dimensions associated with
juvenile delinguencv. Bureau of Prisons, U.S.
Department of Justice.
Quay, H.C., Peterson, D.R., & Consalvi, C. (1960). The
interpretation of the three personality factors in
juvenile delinquency. Journal of Consulting
Psychology. 24. 555.
Rada, R.T., Laws, D.R., & Kellner, R. (1976). Plasma
testosterone levels in a rapist. Psychosomatic
Medicine. 38, 257-258.
Raine, A., & Venables, P.H. (1981). Classical conditioning
and socialization-A biosocial interaction. Personality
and Individual Differences. 2, 273-283.
Raine, A., Roger, D.B., & Venables, P.H. (1982). Locus of
control and socialization. Journal of Research in
Personality. 16, 147-156.

102
Raine, A., & Venables, P.H. (1984). Electrodermal
nonresponding, antisocial behavior & schizoid
tendencies in adolescents. Psvchophvsio1ogy. 21. 424-
433.
Routtenberg, A. (1968). The two-arousal hypothesis:
Reticular formation and limbic system. Psychological
Review. 75, 51-81.
Sampson, R.J. (1986). Effects of socioeconomic context on
official reaction to juvenile delinquency. American
Sociological Review. 51, 867-895.
Schachter, S. (1964). The interaction of cognitive and
physiological determinants of emotional state. , In L
Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social
psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 49-80). New York: Academic
Press.
Schooler, C., Zahn, T.P., Murphy, D.L., & Buchsbaum, M.S.
(1978). Psychological correlates of monoamine oxidase
in normals. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders.
166. 177-186.
Segal, B., & Singer, J.L. (1976). Daydreaming, drug and
alcohol use in college students: A factor analytic
study. Addictive Behaviors. 1, 227-235.
Skrzypek, G.J. (1969). Effects of perceptual isolation and
arousal on anxiety, complexity preference, and novelty
preference in psychopathic and neurotic delinquents.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 74(3), 321-329.
Smith, B.D., Perlstein, W.M., Davidson, R.A., & Michael, K.
(1986). Sensation seeking: Differential effects of
relevant, novel stimulation on electrodermal activity.
Personality and Individual Differences. 7, 445-452.
Stanaway, R.G., & Watson, D.W. (1981). Smoking and
personality: A factorial study. British Journal of
Psychology. 20, 213-214.
Stanton, H.E. (1976). Hypnosis and encounter group
volunteers: A validation study of the SSS. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 44., 692.
Stein, L. (1978). Reward transmitters: Catecholamines and
opioid peptides. In M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, & K.F.
Killam (Eds.), Psvchopharmacologv: A generation of
progress (pp. 240-245). New York: Raven Press.
Stot, D.H. (1980). Delinguencv and human nature.
Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

103
Strahan, R., & Gerbasi, K.C. (1972). Short, homogeneous
versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability
Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 28, 191-193.
Stumphauzer, J.S. (1981). Behavior modification with
delinquents and criminals. In E. Craighead, A. Kazdin,
& M.J. Mahoney (Eds.), Behavior modification:
Principles, issues, and applications (2nd ed., pp. 189-
194). Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Stumphauzer, J.S. (1985). Helping delinquents change: A
treatment manual of social learning approaches. New
York: Haworth Press, Inc.
Thorne, G.L. (1971). The sensation seeking scale with
deviant populations. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology. 37, 106-110.
Victor, J.B., & Halverson, C.F., Jr. (1976). Behavior
problems in elementary school children: A follow-up
study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 4, 17-30.
Visher, C.A., & Roth, J. A. (1986). Participation in
criminal careers. In A. Blumstein, J. Cohen, J.A.
Roth, & C.A. Visher (Eds.), Criminal careers and
"career criminals". (Vol. 1, pp. 211-291).
Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Wasson, A.S. (1980). Stimulus-seeking perceived school
environment and school misbehavior. Adolescence. 15,
603-608.
West, D., & Farrington, D.P. (1977). The Delinquent way of
life. London: Heinemann.
White, H.R., Labouvie, E.W. & Bates, M.E. (1985). The
relationship between sensation seeking and delinquency:
A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Research in Crime
and Delinquency. 22(3), 197-211.
Whitehill, M., Demeyer-Gapin, S., & Scott, T.J. (1976).
Stimulation seeking in antisocial preadolescent
children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. £5(1), 101-
104.
Williams, J.R., & Geison, S.C. (1979). A frustration
effect in adult humans? Motivation and Emotion. 3.,
117-127.
Williams, J.R., & Gold, M. (1972). From delinquent
behavior to official delinquency. Social Problems. 20,
2009-224.

104
Zinkus, P.W. & Gottlieb, M.I. (1977). Learning
disabilities and juvenile delinquency. Clinical
Pediatrics. 17, 775-780.
Zuckerman, M. (1974). The sensation seeking motive. In
Progress in Experimental Personality Research (Vol. 7,
pp. 124-157). New York: Academic Press.
Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the
optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
Erlbaum.
Zuckerman, M. (1983). Sensation seeking: the initial
motive for drug abuse. In E. Gottheil, K.A. Druley,
T.E. Skoloda, & H.M. Waxman feds.). Etiological Aspects
of Alcohol and Drug Abuse (pp. 202-220). Springfield,
II: Thomas.
Zuckerman,M., Bone, R., Neary, R., Mangelsdorff, P., &
Brustman, B. (1972). What is sensation seeking?
Personality traits and experience correlates of SSS.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 39,
308-321.
Zuckerman, M., & Como, P. (1983). Sensation seeking and
arousal systems. Personality and Individual
Differences. 4., 381-386.
Zuckerman, M., Kolin, E.A., Price, L., & Zoob, I. (1964).
Development of a sensation seeking scale. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 28, 477-482.
Zuckerman, M., & Link, K. (1968). Construct validity of
the SSS. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology. 32., 420-426.
Zuckerman, M., Schultz, D.P., & Hopkins, T.R. (1967).
Sensation seeking and volunteering for sensory
deprivation and hypnosis experiments. Journal of
Consulting Psychology. 31. 358-363.
Zuckerman, M., Tushop, R., & Finner, S. (1976). Sexual
attitudes and experience: Attitude and personality
correlates and changes produced by a course in
sexuality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology. 44. 7-19.

Biographical Sketch
I was born and raised in Rustburg Virginia by two
caring parents, along with an older brother and sister.
Upon completing high school, I attended Virginia Tech in
Blacksburg, Virginia. In August of 1980 I married Julianna
M. Raasch. In 1981, I received a Bachelor of Science degree
in psychology with a minor in biology. I then attended
Hollins College and received a Master of Arts degree in
psychology in 1983. In June of 1982, I began working for
the Mental Health Services of the Roanoke Valley as a crisis
intervention counselor in the Emergency Outreach Services.
In January of 1984, I became the coordinator of Emergency
Outreach Services, supervising 7 counselors. In May of 1985
our first child, Andrew Ryan, was born. In August of 1985,
I resigned for Mental Health Services and moved to
Gainesville, Florida, to attend the University of Florida in
clinical psychology, pursuing a Ph.D. While at the
University of Florida I became involved in research into
delinquency, sensation seeking and male sexual dysfunctions.
In August of 1988 I moved my family to Washington D.C. to
begin an internship in clinical psychology with the United
States Air Force at Malcolm Grow Medical Center.
105

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree (Of Doctor of Philosophy.
James H. Johnson, Chair
Professor ofViJlinical and
Health Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
<(~^\
Sheila Eyberg ' ^
Professor of Clinical and
Health Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality,
a dissertation for the degree
Í Doctor of^-Philosophy.
■t ¿jJUjXcu ^{p¿díLL^uJ
Jacqueline Goldman
Professor of Clinical and
Health Psychology
as
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Stephen R. Boggs '
Assistant Professor of
Clinical and Health Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of póctor of Philosophy.
n ñA.^4/ a/.
Ronald Akers
Professor of Sociology

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Health Related Professions and to the
Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment on
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
August 1989
: ^ - ..
Dean, College of Health
Related Professions
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08554 3949




PAGE 1

',0(16,216 2) -89(1,/( '(/,148(1&< $1' 7+(,5 5(/$7,216+,3 72 6(16$7,21 6((.,1* 6(/)5(3257(' 2))(16(6 $1' )58675$7,21 %\ 7(55< : -())(5621 $ ',66(57$7,21 35(6(17(' 72 7+( *5$'8$7( 6&+22/ 2) 7+( 81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$ ,1 3$57,$/ )8/),//0(17 2) 7+( 5(48,5(0(176 )25 7+( '(*5(( 2) '2&725 2) 3+,/2623+< 81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$

PAGE 2

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

PAGE 3

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

PAGE 4

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

PAGE 5

ZHUH H[DPLQHG 7KH GDWD UHYHDOHG D VWURQJ UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU $QDO\VLV VKRZHG WKDW VSHFLILF W\SHV RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU ZHUH VLJQLILFDQWO\ UHODWHG WR WKH LQWHUDFWLRQ RI GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\ GLPHQVLRQV DQG JHQGHU 7KHVH ILQGLQJV ZHUH GLVFXVVHG LQ UHODWLRQ WR SUHYLRXV UHVHDFK LPSOLFDWLRQV IRU IXWXUH VWXG\ DQG SRVVLEOH SUHYHQWDWLYH PHDVXUHV DLPHG DW UHGXFLQJ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU Y

PAGE 6

&+$37(5 ,1752'8&7,21 2YHUYLHZ RI 'HOLQTXHQF\ -XYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQF\ LV D OHJDO WHUP UHIHUULQJ WR D SHUVRQ XQGHU \HDUV RI DJH ZKR KDV FRPPLWWHG D FULPH RU HQJDJHG LQ RWKHU LOOHJDO EHKDYLRU QRW VSHFLILHG LQ WKH FULPLQDO FRGH ZKLFK PD\ SRWHQWLDOO\ LQYROYH WKH LQGLYLGXDO LQ WKH MXYHQLOH MXVWLFH V\VWHP 'HOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRUV FDQ UDQJH IURP VWDWXV RIIHQVHV WKDW DUH LOOHJDO GXH WR WKH DJH RI WKH RIIHQGHU LH WUXDQF\ UXQQLQJ DZD\f WR LQGH[ RIIHQVHV ZKLFK DUH LOOHJDO UHJDUGOHVV RI WKH DJH RI WKH RIIHQGHU LH GLVRUGHUO\ FRQGXFW DVVDXOW EXUJODU\ PXUGHUf -XYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQF\ GLG QRW H[LVW DV D OHJDO HQWLW\ XQWLO ZKHQ WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV LQLWLDWHG VSHFLDO MXYHQLOH FRXUWV WR GHDO ZLWK \RXQJ SHRSOH ZKR FRPPLWWHG FULPHV -XYHQLOH FRXUWV ZHUH KHUDOGHG DV D PDMRU VRFLDO DGYDQFH ZKHUH WKH ZHOIDUH RI WKH FKLOG EHFDPH DV LPSRUWDQW DV WKH FULPH FRPPLWWHG 6WXPSKDX]HU f 'HOLQTXHQF\ LV TXLWH FRPPRQ LQ $PHULFD 5HVHDUFK KDV VKRZQ WKDW FORVH WR b RI DGROHVFHQWV KDYH HQJDJHG LQ VRPH W\SH RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU :LOOLDPV t *ROG (OOLRWW +XL]LQJD t $JHWRQ f ,Q WKHUH ZHUH PRUH WKDQ PLOOLRQ DUUHVWV RI SHUVRQV XQGHU \HDUV RI DJH )%, f 7KLV ILJXUH LV YLHZHG DV DQ XQGHUHVWLPDWH EHFDXVH LW LV EDVHG RQO\ RQ UHSRUWHG FULPHV $UUHVW UDWHV WHQG WR

PAGE 7

LQFUHDVH ZLWK DJH UHDFKLQJ D SHDN DW \HDUV IRU PDOHV DQG IRU IHPDOHV )%, f 7KHUH KDV DOVR EHHQ DQ LQFUHDVH WKURXJKRXW WKH ZRUOG LQ VHULRXV DQG YLROHQW FULPHV E\ MXYHQLOHV VXFK DV DUPHG UREEHU\ PXUGHU DQG UDSH 6WXPSKDX]HU f 7KHVH VWDWLVWLFV VXJJHVW WKDW GHOLQTXHQF\ LV RQH RI WKH PDMRU SUREOHPV IDFLQJ WKH EHKDYLRUDO VFLHQFHV 7KHRULHV RI 'HOLQTXHQF\ 7KHUH KDYH EHHQ PDQ\ DWWHPSWV WR H[SODLQ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU IURP GLIIHUHQW SHUVSHFWLYHV 6HYHUDO RI WKH PDMRU WKHRULHV LQFOXGH VRFLRORJLFDO SV\FKRORJLFDO DQG ELRORJLFDO 6RFLRORJLFDO WKHRULHV RI GHOLQTXHQF\ YLHZ WKH EHKDYLRU DV D IXQFWLRQ RI D FRPSOH[ LQWHUDFWLRQ RI YDULDEOHV ZLWKLQ WKH LQGLYLGXDOnV HQYLURQPHQW RYHU ZKLFK KH RU VKH PD\ RU PD\ QRW KDYH FRQWURO 7KHVH YDULDEOHV LQFOXGH VH[ UDFH VRFLRHFRQRPLF VWDWXV 6(6f JHRJUDSKLF UHJLRQ IDPLO\ FKDUDFWHULVWLFV MRE RSSRUWXQLWLHV DQG VXEFXOWXUDO QRUPV DQG YDOXHV 7KUHH RI WKH PDMRU VRFLRORJLFDO WKHRULHV ZLOO EH GLVFXVVHG 0HUWRQ f KDV GHYHORSHG ZKDW KDV EHHQ UHIHUUHG WR DV DQRPLF RU VWUDLQ WKHRU\ ZKLFK KDV EHHQ HODERUDWHG RQ E\ &RKHQ f LQ WKH IRUP RI VWDWXV GHSULYDWLRQ DQG &ORZDUG DQG 2KOLQ f LQ WKH IRUP RI GLIIHUHQWLDO RSSRUWXQLW\ $FFRUGLQJ WR VWUDLQ WKHRU\ VXFFHVV LV SUL]HG E\ DOO $PHULFDQV EXW RSSRUWXQLWLHV IRU VXFFHVV E\ OHJLWLPDWH PHDQV DUH QRW GLVWULEXWHG HTXDOO\ DPRQJ WKH VRFLDO FODVVHV $GROHVFHQWV IHHO SUHVVXUH IRU GHYLDQW EHKDYLRU ZKHQ WKH\

PAGE 8

H[SHULHQFH PDUNHG GLVFUHSDQFLHV EHWZHHQ DVSLUDWLRQV DQG RSSRUWXQLWLHV IRU DFKLHYHPHQW &ORZDUG DQG 2KOLQ f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nV WR KHOS SURYLGH MRE RSSRUWXQLWLHV EHWWHU HGXFDWLRQ DQG FRPPXQLW\ SURJUDPV IRU MXYHQLOHV RI ORZHU LQFRPH IDPLOLHV +RZHYHU VWUDLQ WKHRU\ ODFNV HPSLULFDO VXSSRUW IRU VHYHUDO RI LWV PDMRU SUHPLVHV DQG KDV EHHQ FULWLFL]HG DV EHLQJ H[FHVVLYHO\ FRPSOH[ LQ LWV DWWHPSW WR DFFRXQW IRU WRR PXFK (PSH\ f $QRWKHU VRFLRORJLFDO WKHRU\ RI GHOLQTXHQF\ LV WKH 6RFLDO %RQGLQJ WKHRU\ SURSRVHG E\ +LUVFKL f +H DVVHUWV WKDW LW LV RQO\ WKH LQGLYLGXDOnV ERQG WR VRFLHW\ WKDW GHWHUV DQWLVRFLDO EHKDYLRU 7KH VWUHQJWK RI WKLV VRFLDO ERQG GHWHUPLQHV WKH SHUVRQnV GHJUHH RI FRQIRUPLW\ 7KLV VRFLDO ERQG LV DFKLHYHG WKURXJK DWWDFKPHQW FRPPLWPHQW LQYROYHPHQW DQG EHOLHI $WWDFKPHQW LV WKH WLH RI DIIHFWLRQ DQG UHVSHFW EHWZHHQ FKLOGUHQ DQG VLJQLILFDQW RWKHUV VXFK DV SDUHQWV WHDFKHUV DQG IULHQGV &RPPLWPHQW LV WKH H[WHQW WR ZKLFK FKLOGUHQ GHGLFDWH WKHPVHOYHV WR FRQYHQWLRQDO OLQHV RI

PAGE 9

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f SURSRVHG D 6RFLDO /HDUQLQJ WKHRU\ RI GHYLDQW EHKDYLRU ZKLFK KDV LWV RULJLQV LQ RSHUDQW FRQGLWLRQLQJ UHVHDUFK +H VWDWHV WKDW VRFLDO EHKDYLRU LV OHDUQHG WKURXJK RSHUDQW FRQGLWLRQLQJ LQ ZKLFK EHKDYLRU LV VKDSHG E\ LWV FRQVHTXHQFHV %HKDYLRU LV VWUHQJWKHQHG E\ UHLQIRUFHPHQW SUHVHQWDWLRQ RI SRVLWLYH VWLPXOL RU UHPRYDO RI DYHUVLYH VWLPXOLf DQG ZHDNHQHG E\ SXQLVKPHQW SUHVHQWDWLRQ RI DYHUVLYH VWLPXOL RU UHPRYDO RI SRVLWLYH VWLPXOLf 7KH RFFXUUHQFH RI GHYLDQW RU FRQIRUPLQJ EHKDYLRU LV GHSHQGHQW RQ WKH SHUVRQnV KLVWRU\ RI UHLQIRUFHPHQW DQG SXQLVKPHQW IRU WKH EHKDYLRU DQG WKH UHLQIRUFHPHQW DQG SXQLVKPHQW DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK DOWHUQDWLYH EHKDYLRUV GLIIHUHQWLDO UHLQIRUFHPHQWf +H SURSRVHG WKDW GHYLDQW EHKDYLRU ZLOO LQFUHDVH ZKHQ WKHUH LV JUHDWHU H[SRVXUH WR GHOLQTXHQW UDWKHU WKDQ QRQGHOLQTXHQW PRGHOV LPLWDWLRQf ZKHQ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU LV GLIIHUHQWLDOO\ UHLQIRUFHG ZKHQ WKHUH LV PRUH DVVRFLDWLRQ ZLWK GHOLQTXHQW SHHUV GLIIHUHQWLDO DVVRFLDWLRQf DQG ZKHQ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU LV

PAGE 10

IUDPHG LQ PRUH SRVLWLYH WKDQ QHJDWLYH WHUPV 7KLV WKHRU\ KDV UHFHLYHG HPSLULFDO VXSSRUW IRU H[SODLQLQJ GUXJ DEXVH .URKQ /DQ]D.DGXFH t $NHUV /DQ]D.DGXFH $NHUV .URKQ t 5DGRVHYLFK f DQG DJJUHVVLYH EHKDYLRU 1HRSROLWDQ f 6RPH VRFLRORJLFDO WKHRULHV KDYH UHVXOWHG LQ FKDQJHV LQ VRFLDO SROLF\ DQG KDYH OHG WR WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI QHZ SURJUDPV WR DGGUHVV WKRVH DUHDV YLHZHG DV EHLQJ PDMRU FRQWULEXWRUV WR GHOLQTXHQF\ 7KH GDWD RQ WKH DSSOLFDWLRQ RI WKHVH SURJUDPV WR WKH SUREOHP RI GHOLQTXHQF\ KDYH UHVXOWHG LQ PRGHVW LPSDFW RQ WKH UDWHV RI GHOLQTXHQF\ (PSH\ f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nV ZRUN )ULHGODQGHU f VWUHVVHG WKDW WKH GHOLQTXHQW IXQFWLRQV DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH

PAGE 11

SOHDVXUH SULQFLSOH DQG FDQQRW WROHUDWH IUXVWUDWLRQ RU GHOD\ JUDWLILFDWLRQ 'HOLQTXHQWV KDYH DQ LQHIIHFWLYH VXSHUHJR GXH WR LQDGHTXDWH FDUH GXULQJ LQIDQF\ ZKLFK PDNHV WKHP XQDEOH WR LQKLELW WKHLU SOHDVXUHVHHNLQJ WHQGHQFLHV $QRWKHU DQDO\WLFDOO\ RULHQWHG WKHRU\ KDV EHHQ SURSRVHG E\ 6WRW f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f EXW KDV FOHDU LPSOLFDWLRQV IRU SV\FKRORJLFDO OHDUQLQJ SURFHVVHV 3DWWHUVRQ f WKHRUL]HV WKDW GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU LV SULPDULO\ GXH WR D G\VIXQFWLRQDO IDPLO\ SURFHVV 7KURXJK D ODFN RI GLVFLSOLQH WKH MXYHQLOH IDLOV WR OHDUQ WR GLVFULPLQDWH EHWZHHQ FULPLQDO DQG QRQFULPLQDO EHKDYLRU 3DUHQWV FRQWULEXWH WR WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU E\ IDLOLQJ WR ODEHO WUDFN DQG SURYLGH FRQVHTXHQFHV FRQVLVWHQWO\ IRU WKLV EHKDYLRU 3DUHQWV UHLQIRUFH GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU E\ PRGHOLQJ FRHUFLYH ZD\V RI LQWHUDFWLQJ ZKLFK UHVXOWV LQ GHILFLHQW VRFLDO VNLOOV

PAGE 12

7KLV ODFN RI VRFLDO VNLOOV UHVXOWV LQ GLIILFXOWLHV DW VFKRRO DQG DW ZRUN ZKLFK PD\ SUHGLVSRVH MXYHQLOHV WR LQWHUSHUVRQDO SUREOHPV WKURXJKRXW WKHLU OLIH 9DULRXV ELRORJLFDO H[SODQDWLRQV IRU GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU KDYH DOVR EHHQ SURSRVHG 0RZUHU f VXJJHVWV WKDW VRPH FKLOGUHQn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t 6HDUV f $FFRUGLQJ WR WKLV WKHRU\ IUXVWUDWLRQ DOZD\V

PAGE 13

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f ZKLFK ZLOO SURGXFH PRUH IUXVWUDWLRQ 7KLV YLFLRXV FLUFOH RI IUXVWUDWLRQEORFNHG DJJUHVVLRQIUXVWUDWLRQ FRQWLQXHV DQG LQFUHDVHV WKH SUREDELOLW\ WKDW WKH SHUVRQ ZLOO H[KLELW RWKHU DFWV RI DJJUHVVLRQ QRW GLUHFWHG DW WKH IUXVWUDWLQJ REMHFW GLVSODFHG DJJUHVVLRQf $WWHPSWV WR FUHDWH H[SHULPHQWDOO\ GLIIHUHQW OHYHOV RI IUXVWUDWLRQ DQG ORRN IRU FRUUHVSRQGLQJ GLIIHUHQFHV LQ DJJUHVVLRQ KDV SURYLGHG RQO\ OLPLWHG VXSSRUW IRU WKH WKHRU\ :LOOLDPV t *HLVRQ f +RZHYHU LW KDV EHHQ IRXQG WKDW WKH VDPH LQGLYLGXDO PDLQWDLQV WKH VDPH WHQGHQF\ WR H[SHULHQFH IUXVWUDWLRQ LQ D YDULHW\ RI VHWWLQJV 6FKDFKWHU /DPE f $OWKRXJK PRVW ZRUNHUV LQ WKH DUHD ZRXOG DUJXH ZLWK WKH YLHZ WKDW IUXVWUDWLRQ DOZD\V UHVXOWV LQ DJJUHVVLYH EHKDYLRU LW ZRXOG VHHP WKDW H[SHULHQFLQJ IUXVWUDWLRQ PD\ FRQWULEXWH WR FULPHV DJDLQVW SHUVRQV RU REMHFWV ZKLFK DUH XQSURYRNHG DQG DUH DWWULEXWHG WR WKH SDWKRORJ\ RI WKH GHOLQTXHQW UDWKHU WKDQ WKHLU VLWXDWLRQ

PAGE 14

0HJDUJHH f GLVWLQJXLVKHG EHWZHHQ XQGHUFRQWUROOHG GHOLQTXHQWV ZKR DUH KDELWXDOO\ DJJUHVVLYH DQG RYHUFRQWUROOHG GHOLQTXHQWV ZKR FRPPLW YLROHQW FULPHV \HW KDYH QR SULRU FULPLQDO KLVWRU\ 7KH XQGHUFRQWUROOHG W\SH DUH LPSXOVLYH DQG UHVSRQG WR IUXVWUDWLRQ ZLWK DJJUHVVLRQ DQG DUH ODEHOHG SV\FKRSDWKV 7KH RYHUFRQWUROOHG W\SH UDUHO\ UHVSRQG ZLWK DJJUHVVLRQ GXH WR VWURQJ LQKLELWLRQV RQO\ DIWHU D ORQJ EXLOG XS RI IUXVWUDWLRQV ZLOO WKH\ H[KLELW DJJUHVVLYH EHKDYLRU :KLOH WKHVH EURDGEDVHG WKHRULHV KDYH DGYDQFHG RXU WKLQNLQJ DERXW GHOLQTXHQF\ WKH\ DUH OLPLWHG LQ WKHLU YLHZ RI WKH GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\ DV D XQLWDU\ FRQFHSW ,QWHUHVWLQJO\ LQ OLJKW RI WKH YDULHG EHKDYLRU WKDW FDQ EULQJ D GHOLQTXHQW LQWR WKH MXYHQLOH MXVWLFH V\VWHP WKHVH GHOLQTXHQWV PD\ EH KLJKO\ YDULDEOH LQ WKHLU DWWLWXGHV DQG EHKDYLRU 'LPHQVLRQV RI 'HOLQTXHQW 3HUVRQDOLWLHV 7KH PDMRULW\ RI GHOLQTXHQF\ UHVHDUFKHUV KDYH YLHZHG GHOLQTXHQF\ DV D XQLWDU\ FRQFHSW DQG KDYH IRFXVHG VLPSO\ RQ H[DPLQLQJ GLIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQ GHOLQTXHQW DQG QRQGHOLQTXHQW VDPSOHV 4XD\ f KRZHYHU GDWD VXJJHVW WKDW WKH GHOLQTXHQW SRSXODWLRQ LV D YHU\ KHWHURJHQHRXV JURXS 7KLV QRWLRQ KDV EHHQ VXSSRUWHG E\ UHVHDUFK LQLWLDOO\ FRQGXFWHG E\ +HZLWW DQG -HQNLQV f DQG ODWHU LQ D ZLGHO\ FLWHG VWXG\ E\ 4XD\ f (YLGHQFH IURP PXOWLYDULDWH VWXGLHV VXJJHVWV WKDW MXYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQWV FDQ EH UHOLDEO\ FODVVLILHG LQWR DW OHDVW WKUHH PDMRU SHUVRQDOLW\ W\SHV QHXURWLFGLVWXUEHG

PAGE 15

1'f XQVRFLDOL]HGSV\FKRSDWK 3'f DQG VRFLDOL]HG VXEFXOWXUDO 6'f 4XD\ f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t -HQNLQV f DQG 4XD\ f RWKHU VWXGLHV KDYH DWWHVWHG WR WKH UHOLDEOH LGHQWLILFDWLRQ RI WKHVH GLPHQVLRQV LQ FKLOGUHQ DQG DGROHVFHQWV %HKDU t 6WULQJILHOG &RQQHUV .RKQ t 5RVPDQ 9LFWRU t +DOYHUVRQ f ,Q DGGLWLRQ WR GLIIHUHQFHV LGHQWLILHG WKURXJK PXOWLYDULDWH UHVHDUFK RWKHU GLIIHUHQFHV KDYH EHHQ IRXQG DPRQJ WKH GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\ JURXSV (OOLV f IRXQG WKDW 1' ZHUH OHVV HPSDWKLF WKDQ 3' ZKR ZHUH OHVV HPSDWKLF WKDQ 6' 7KH 1' VFRUHV FRUUHODWHG QHJDWLYHO\ ZLWK DOO WKH DGMXVWPHQW VFDOHV RI WKH &DOLIRUQLD 3HUVRQDOLW\ ,QYHQWRU\ 4XD\ t 3HWHUVRQ f ,Q D VWXG\ PHDVXULQJ WKH WKUHH GLPHQVLRQV VFRUHV RQ WKH 6' DQG 1' VFDOHV ZHUH QRW UHODWHG WR LQWHOOLJHQFH EXW WKH 3' VFRUHV ZHUH QHJDWLYHO\ UHODWHG WR DFKLHYHPHQW DQG LQWHOOLJHQFH ZKLFK LV FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK WKH ILQGLQJV REWDLQHG ZLWK DGXOW SV\FKRSDWKV 7KH 3' VFDOH

PAGE 16

FRUUHODWHG QHJDWLYHO\ ZLWK 5HVSRQVLELOLW\ &RPPXQDOLW\ DQG $FKLHYHPHQW YLD ,QGHSHQGHQFH VFDOHV RI WKH &DOLIRUQLD 3HUVRQDOLW\ ,QYHQWRU\ ZKLFK LV FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK WKH YLHZ WKDW 3' GR QRW VHH WKHPVHOYHV DV ODFNLQJ SRLVH RU VHOI FRQWURO DQG GR QRW VHHN WR PDNH D JRRG LPSUHVVLRQ ,QGLYLGXDOV FODVVLILHG DV SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQWV KDYH EHHQ IRXQG WR EH PRUH LPPDWXUH LQ WKHLU PRUDO GHYHORSPHQW DQG UROH WDNLQJ DELOLWLHV DV ZHOO DV PRUH FRQFUHWH LQ WKHLU UHDVRQLQJ WKDQ 1' RU 6' -XUNRYLF t 3UHQWLFH f 7KH 6' VFRUHV FRUUHODWHG QHJDWLYHO\ ZLWK :HOO %HLQJ 7ROHUDQFH ,QWHOOHFWXDO (IILFLHQF\ DQG 3V\FKRORJLFDO 0LQGHGQHVV VXJJHVWLQJ WKDW ULJLGLW\ DQG FRQIRUPLW\ DUH FKDUDFWHULVWLFV RI WKH KLJK 6' VFRUHU 4XD\ t 3HWHUVRQ f *HQVKDIW f IRXQG WKH 0LQQHVRWD 0XOWLSKDVLF 3HUVRQDOLW\ ,QYHQWRU\ 003,f SURILOHV RI 1' 3' DQG 6' GHOLQTXHQWV UHYHDOHG WZR SHUVRQDOLW\ W\SHV D ZHDN HJR GHOLQTXHQW ZLWK FRQVLGHUDEOH LQWUDSV\FKLF FRQIOLFW 1'f DQG D PRUH WUDGLWLRQDO SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQW ZLWK OLWWOH DSSDUHQW DQ[LHW\ RU QHXURWLF V\PSWRPV 3'f $OWKRXJK OHDUQLQJ GHILFLWV KDYH EHHQ IRXQG LQ XQGLIIHUHQWLDWHG VDPSOHV RI GHOLQTXHQWV =LQNXV t *RWWOLHE -HUVH t )DNRXUL /DQH f RQO\ UHFHQWO\ KDV LW EHHQ IRXQG WKDW OHDUQLQJ SUREOHPV FRUUHODWHG ZLWK WKH 3' VFDOH RI WKH 3HUVRQDO 2SLQLRQ 6XUYH\ EXW QRW WKH 6' RU 1' VFDOHV -HIIHUVRQ t -RKQVRQ f 7KHVH OHDUQLQJ SUREOHPV PD\ EH GXH WR D ZLGH YDULHW\ RI UHDVRQV ZLWKLQ WKH

PAGE 17

LQGLYLGXDOnV SHUVRQDOLW\ RU D IXQFWLRQ RI WKH WKHLU EHKDYLRU 7KHVH PD\ LQFOXGH PLVVHG RSSRUWXQLWLHV FDXVHG E\ GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV GLVLQWHUHVW UHVXOWLQJ IURP LQVXIILFLHQW VWLPXODWLRQ IURP WKH DFDGHPLF PDWHULDO RU OHDUQLQJ GLVDELOLWLHV 3K\VLRORJLFDO HYLGHQFH DOVR VXSSRUWV WKH H[LVWHQFH RI GHOLQJXHQW JURXSV %RUNRYHF f IRXQG WKDW SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQJXHQWV KDG ORZHU LQLWLDO UHDFWLYLW\ WR D WRQH VWLPXOXV WKDQ QHXURWLF GHOLQTXHQWV 2WKHUV KDYH UHSRUWHG ORZHU HOHFWURGHUPDO UHDFWLYLW\ LQ FRQGXFW GLVRUGHUHG FKLOGUHQ DQG DQWLVRFLDO DGROHVFHQWV 5DLQH t 9HQDEOHV 'HODPHWHU t /DKH\ f +DUH f IRXQG WKDW DGXOW SV\FKRSDWKV KDG ORZHU UHVWLQJ OHYHOV RI HOHFWURGHUPDO UHVSRQGLQJ DQG OHVV DXWRQRPLF UHVSRQVHV WR WRQHV WKDQ QHXURWLF SV\FKRSDWKV DQG QRQSV\FKRSDWK LQPDWHV 3V\FKRSDWKV KDYH DOVR EHHQ IRXQG WR EH OHVV UHVSRQVLYH WR DYHUVLYH VWLPXOL WKDQ QRQSV\FKRSDWKLF RIIHQGHUV +DUH )UD]HOOH t &R[ +DUH t &UDLJHQ f 7KHVH ILQGLQJV VXJJHVW WKDW SV\FKRSDWKV PD\ UHTXLUH D VWURQJHU VWLPXOXV WR HYRNH D UHVSRQVH DQG WKH\ PD\ UHVSRQG GLIIHUHQWO\ WR SXQLVKPHQW WKDQ QRQSV\FKRSDWKLF RIIHQGHUV 6WLPXODWLRQ 6HHNLQJ DQG ,WV UHOHYDQFH WR 'HOLQTXHQF\ 7KH SK\VLRORJLFDO GDWD RQ SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQWV LV FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK WKH QRWLRQ RI WKH SDWKRORJLFDO VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNHU SURSRVHG E\ 4XD\ f 4XD\ WKHRUL]HG WKDW WKH SV\FKRSDWK KDV HLWKHU DQ LQFUHDVHG UDWH RI DGDSWDWLRQ RU D OHVVHQHG EDVDO UHDFWLYLW\ FDXVLQJ D FRQGLWLRQ RI VWLPXOXV GHSULYDWLRQ ZKLFK WKH SV\FKRSDWK ILQGV DIIHFWLYHO\

PAGE 18

XQSOHDVDQW 7KH SV\FKRSDWK VHHNV WR FKDQJH WKLV DIIHFWLYH VWDWH E\ VHHNLQJ VWLPXODWLRQ ,Q WKLV KLJKO\ URXWLQL]HG PRGHUQ ZRUOG WKH QHHG WR FKDQJH WKH OHYHO RI VWLPXODWLRQ PD\ EH DFKLHYHG HLWKHU E\ FKDQJLQJ WKH LQWHQVLW\ RI WKH VWLPXODWLRQ RU WKH YDULDELOLW\ RI VWLPXODWLRQ VRXUFHV VXFK DV OLVWHQLQJ WR ORXG PXVLF GULYLQJ DW KLJK VSHHGV RU VN\ GLYLQJ =XFNHUPDQ f GHILQHV VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DV WKH QHHG IRU YDULHG QRYHO DQG FRPSOH[ VHQVDWLRQV DQG H[SHULHQFHV DQG WKH ZLOOLQJQHVV WR WDNH SK\VLFDO DQG VRFLDO ULVNV IRU WKH VDNH RI VXFK H[SHULHQFHV S f =XFNHUPDQ .ROLQ 3ULFH t =RRE f GHYHORSHG WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH 666f WR PHDVXUH LQGLYLGXDO GLIIHUHQFHV LQ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ 9DULRXV SV\FKRORJLFDO PHDVXUHV KDYH EHHQ FRUUHODWHG ZLWK VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ $ SRVLWLYH FRUUHODWLRQ KDV EHHQ IRXQG EHWZHHQ KLJK VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG WKH 0DQLD DQG WKH 3V\FKRSDWKLF 'HYLDQW VFDOHV RI WKH 003, WKH ([WUDYHUVLQ VFDOH =XFNHUPDQ %RQH 1HDU\ 0DQJHOVGRUII t %UXVWPDQ r =XFNHUPDQ t /LQN f DQG 3V\FKRWLFLVP VFDOH RI WKH (\VHQFN 3HUVRQDOLW\ ,QYHQWRU\ (\VHQFN t =XFNHUPDQ f 7KH ([SHULHQFH 6HHNLQJ DQG 'LVLQKLELWLRQ VFDOHV RI WKH 666 FRUUHODWHG ZLWK WKH IUHTXHQF\ RI VLWXDWLRQV LQ ZKLFK HPRWLRQV ZHUH H[SUHVVHG DQG WKH LQWHQVLW\ RI WKH HPRWLRQV H[SUHVVHG $OOHQ f 1R FRUUHODWLRQ KDV EHHQ IRXQG EHWZHHQ VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG DQ[LHW\ =XFNHUPDQ 6FKXOW] t +RSNLQV =XFNHUPDQ t /LQN .LOSDWULFN 6XWNHU t 6PLWK f 6WLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ DSSHDUV WR EH UHODWHG WR LPSXOVLYLW\ SDUWLFXODUO\

PAGE 19

WKH UHDGLQHVV WR HQJDJH LQ DFWLYLWLHV ZKLFK DUH SK\VLFDOO\ ULVN\ =XFNHUPDQ f =XFNHUPDQ .ROLQ 3ULFH DQG =RRE f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f RU ORDGHG HJ ER[LQJ PRXQWDLQ FOLPELQJf VOLGHV 6PLWK 3HUOVWHLQ 'DYLGVRQ t 0LFKDHO f +LJK VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNHUV VKRZ D JUHDWHU RULHQWLQJ UHIOH[ WR QRYHO VWLPXOL WKDQ ORZ VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNHUV 1HDU\ t =XFNHUPDQ f 'DLW]PDQ DQG =XFNHUPDQ f IRXQG WKDW VXEMHFWV VFRULQJ KLJK RQ WKH 'LVLQKLELWLRQ VFDOH KDG VLJQLILFDQWO\ KLJKHU OHYHOV RI WHVWRVWHURQH % HVWUDGLRO DQG HVWURQH WKDQ ORZ VFRUHUV RQ WKH 'LVLQKLELWLRQ VFDOH +LJKHU WHVWRVWHURQH OHYHOV KDYH EHHQ IRXQG LQ LQPDWHV ZLWK D KLVWRU\ RI DJJUHVVLYH RU YLROHQW WHQGHQFLHV 5DGD /DZV t .HOOQHU (KUHQNUDQ] %OLVV t 6KHDUG f =XFNHUPDQ f UHYLHZHG WKH SK\VLRORJLFDO GDWD UHODWHG WR VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG UHSODFHG KLV WKHRU\ RI DQ RSWLPDO OHYHO RI DURXVDO PHGLDWHG E\ WKH UHWLFXORFRUWLFDO DFWLYDWLQJ V\VWHP ZLWK D WKHRU\ FRQFHQWUDWLQJ RQ WKH OLPELF

PAGE 20

UHZDUG V\VWHP +H DFFHSWV 6WHLQnV f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t :\DWW 6FKRROHU =DKQ 0XUSK\ t %XFKVEDXP f 0RQRDPLQH R[LGDVH 0$2f LV WKH SULPDU\ FDWDO\VW IRU EUHDNLQJ GRZQ PRQRDPLQHUJLF QHXURWUDQVPLWWHUV GRSDPLQH QRUHSLQHSKULQH DQG VHURWRQLQf DQG KLJK 0$2 OHYHOV KDYH EHHQ VKRZQ WR EH UHODWHG WR GHSUHVVLYH V\PSWRPV &RWPDQ t 0F*DXJK f 7KH KLJK OHYHOV RI DFWLYLW\ LQ WKHVH UHZDUG FHQWHUV UHVXOW LQ D VSHFLDO DOHUWQHVV DQG UHVSRQVLYHQHVV WR QRYHO VWLPXODWLRQ WKDW FDQ EH UHODWHG WR VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ +RZHYHU VXEVHJXHQW UHVHDUFK KDV UHYHDOHG WKDW PHWDEROLWHV RI GRSDPLQH PHDVXUHG LQ WKH FHUHEURVSLQDO IOXLG ZHUH QRW UHODWHG WR VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ EXW QRUHSLQHSKULQH PHWDEROLWHV LQ WKH &6) GLG FRUUHODWH QHJDWLYHO\ ZLWK VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ =XFNHUPDQ f 7KH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ QRUHSLQHSKULQH DQG VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ KDV PRUH UHFHQWO\ EHHQ LQYHVWLJDWHG ZLWK WKH SULPDU\ IRFXV RQ WKH ORFXV FRHUXOHXV ZKLFK FRQWDLQV b RI WKH QRUHSLQHSKULQH LQ

PAGE 21

WKH EUDLQ =XFNHPWDQ t &RPR f ,W KDV EHHQ IRXQG WKDW ZKHQ HOHFWURGHV ZHUH LPSODQWHG LQ WKH ORFXV FRHUXOHXV RI UDWV QRYHO VWLPXODWLRQ SURGXFHG KDELWXDWLRQ DQG GLVKDELWXDWLRQ VLPLODU WR WKH UHVSRQVHV IRXQG ZKHQ PHDVXULQJ WKH RULHQWLQJ UHVSRQVH LQ KXPDQV $VWRQ-RQHV t %ORRP f 7KLV VXJJHVWV WKDW WKH QRUHSLQHSKULQH V\VWHP PD\ FRQVWLWXWH DQRWKHU DURXVDO V\VWHP 5RXWWHQEHUJ f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t &RPR f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

PAGE 22

7KH UHVHDUFK RQ WKH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG GHOLQTXHQF\ KDV \LHOGHG VRPH LQWHUHVWLQJ UHVXOWV 0DOH DQG IHPDOH IHORQV DQG GHOLQTXHQWV KDYH EHHQ IRXQG WR VFRUH KLJKHU RQ WKH 666 WKDQ SV\FKLDWULF SDWLHQWV 7KRUQH f DQG QRQGHOLQTXHQW KLJK VFKRRO VWXGHQWV )DUOH\ t 6HZHOO f :KLWH /DERXYLH DQG %DWHV f IRXQG WKDW GHOLQTXHQW DGROHVFHQWV VFRUHG VLJQLILFDQWO\ KLJKHU RQ WKH GLVLQKLELWLRQ VFDOH RI WKH 666 WKDQ QRQGHOLQTXHQW DGROHVFHQWV )DUOH\ DQG )DUOH\ f IRXQG WKDW LQ GHOLQTXHQW IHPDOHV WKH RQHV VFRULQJ KLJK RQ WKH 666 H[KLELWHG PRUH ILJKWLQJ HVFDSH DWWHPSWV DQG ZHUH SXQLVKHG PRUH RIWHQ IRU GLVREH\LQJ WKHLU VXSHUYLVRUV WKDQ WKRVH VFRULQJ ORZ RQ WKH VFDOH 7KLV ILQGLQJ VXJJHVWV WKDW WKHUH PD\ EH D OLQN EHWZHHQ VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG DJJUHVVLYH EHKDYLRU +RZHYHU WKHVH VWXGLHV DGGUHVV WKH GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\ DV D XQLWDU\ FRQFHSW ZKLFK LV FRQWUDU\ WR WKH GDWD SUHVHQWHG DERYH VHH 4XD\ f ,Q FRQWUDVW WR WKHVH VWXGLHV HPSOR\LQJ SDSHU DQG SHQFLO PHDVXUHV RI VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ ODERUDWRU\ UHVHDUFK RQ VWLPXODWLRQ DQG QRYHOW\ VHHNLQJ DPRQJ WKH GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\ JURXSV KDV EHHQ VXFFHVVIXO LQ GHOLQHDWLQJ WKH WKHRUL]HG GLIIHUHQFHV UHODWHG WR SHUVRQDOLW\ GLPHQVLRQV RI GHOLQTXHQF\ 6NU]\SHN f VXSSRUWHG 4XD\nV WKHRU\ LQ ILQGLQJ WKDW 3' KDG ORZHU SUHWHVW DQ[LHW\ DQG KLJKHU QRYHOW\ DQG FRPSOH[LW\ SUHIHUHQFH VFRUHV WKDQ 1' 2UULV f IRXQG WKDW 3' KDG D VHYHUH YLJLODQFH GHFUHPHQW ZKHQ FRPSDUHG WR 6' DQG 1' 8QVRFLDOL]HGSV\FKRSDWKV 3'f KDYH

PAGE 23

EHHQ IRXQG WR KDYH D KLJKHU OHYHO RI VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ WKDQ 1' DQG QRUPDO FKLOGUHQ DV PHDVXUHG E\ GHFUHDVHG YLHZLQJ WLPH RI D PRQRWRQRXV VHTXHQFH RI SKRWRJUDSKLF VOLGHV :KLWHKLOO 'HPH\HU*DSLQ t 6FRWW f +RZHYHU WKHVH VXEMHFWV ZHUH FODVVLILHG E\ VXEMHFWLYH UDWLQJV DQG WKHVH GHOLQTXHQW JURXSV PD\ EH VRPHZKDW GLIIHUHQW WKDQ WKRVH JURXSV FODVVLILHG E\ 4XD\ DQG 3DUVRQV f 7KHVH VWXGLHV VXJJHVW WKDW VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ PD\ SOD\ D VLJQLILFDQW UROH LQ WKH SV\FKRORJLFDO PDNHXS RI VRPH GHOLQTXHQWV HVSHFLDOO\ WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQW 7KH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG DJJUHVVLRQ KDV UHFHLYHG OLPLWHG DWWHQWLRQ 6WXG\LQJ XQGHUJUDGXDWHV =XFNHUPDQ f IRXQG WKH 'LVLQKLELWLRQ VFDOH IRU PDOHV DQG IHPDOHV DQG WKH *HQHUDO 'LVLQKLELWLRQ DQG ([SHULHQFH 6HHNLQJ VFDOHV IRU IHPDOHV FRUUHODWHG SRVLWLYHO\ ZLWK WKH DJJUHVVLRQ VFDOH RQ WKH 3HUVRQDOLW\ 5HVHDUFK )RUP 7KLV SRVLWLYH UHODWLRQVKLS KDV DOVR EHHQ IRXQG IRU WKH ([SHULHQFH 6HHNLQJ DQG 'LVLQKLELWLRQ VFDOHV LQ D 9$ SV\FKLDWULF VDPSOH 'DLW]PDQ t 7XPLOW\ f +LJK VFKRRO VWXGHQWV ZKR VFRUHG KLJK RQ WKH 666 WHQGHG WR HQJDJH LQ PLVEHKDYLRU DW VFKRRO PRUH RIWHQ WKDQ ORZ VFRUHUV RQ WKH 666 :DVVRQ f 7KH ELRORJLFDO VXEVWUDWH IRU DJJUHVVLRQ LV WKRXJKW WR UHVW SULPDULO\ LQ WKH OLPELF V\VWHP ZKLFK LV LQ WKH VDPH UHJLRQ SURSRVHG DV WKH VXEVWUDWH IRU VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ )UXVWUDWLRQ PD\ DOVR SOD\ D VLJQLILFDQW UROH LQ WKH EHKDYLRU RI WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQW 7KLV JURXS RI

PAGE 24

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nV VXSSRUW DQG EHKDYLRU 7KH WKUHH GHOLQTXHQW GLPHQVLRQV PD\ KDYH D YHU\ GLIIHUHQW UHODWLRQVKLS ZLWK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ

PAGE 25

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f PLJKW UHODWH WR WKH GHSHQGHQW PHDVXUHV 7KH UHVXOWLQJ VL[ JURXSV ZHUH WKH PDMRU IRFXV RI WKH VWXG\ +LJK 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 66f 1HXURWLF GHOLQTXHQW +LJK 66 6RFLDOL]HG GHOLQTXHQW +LJK 66 3V\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQW /RZ 66 1HXURWLF GHOLQTXHQW /RZ 66 6RFLDOL]HG GHOLQTXHQW /RZ 66 3V\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQW ,Q WHUPV RI WKH LQWHUDFWLRQ RI VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG GHOLQTXHQF\ JURXS LW ZDV SUHGLFWHG WKDW KLJK VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNHUV LQ WKH 3' JURXS ZRXOG EH IRXQG WR KDYH HQJDJHG LQ

PAGE 26

PRUH SUHGDWRU\ FULPHV HJ DVVDXOW EXUJODU\ DQG DXWR WKHIWf DQG SXEOLF GLVRUGHU FULPHV HJ GLVRUGHUO\ FRQGXFW GUXQNHQQHVV DQG REVFHQH SKRQH FDOOVf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

PAGE 27

VHHNLQJ 3' VXEMHFWV ZRXOG H[KLELW UHODWLYHO\ SRRUHU DFDGHPLF SHUIRUPDQFH WKDQ WKH 1' RU 6' VXEMHFWV %HFDXVH WKH UHVHDUFK ZLWK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV FRQFHUQLQJ DFDGHPLF SHUIRUPDQFH LV HTXLYRFDO $QGHUVRQ .LVK t %XVVH f WKLV UHODWLRQVKLS ZDV DOVR EH H[DPLQHG 7KLV VWXG\ VRXJKW WR UHSOLFDWH HDUOLHU ILQGLQJV WKDW KLJK VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNHUV HQJDJH LQ PRUH PLVEHKDYLRU DW VFKRRO :DVVRQ f ,QIRUPDWLRQ FRQFHUQLQJ WKH VXEMHFWVn IDYRULWH FODVVHV DQG VSRUWV SDUWLFLSDWLRQ ZDV REWDLQHG WR GHWHUPLQH LI KLJK VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNHUV SDUWLFLSDWH LQ PRUH VWLPXODWLQJ DQG ULVN\ DFWLYLWLHV DQG VSRUWV WKDQ ORZ VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNHUV 7KH VWXGHQWV ZKR SDUWLFLSDWH LQ WKHVH VSRUWV RU DFWLYLWLHV VKRXOG UHSRUW D ORZHU IUHTXHQF\ RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU JLYHQ WKDW HLWKHU WKHLU QHHG IRU VWLPXODWLRQ LV IXOILOOHG DQGRU WKH\ PD\ KDYH OHVV WLPH WR HQJDJH LQ GHOLQTXHQW DFWLYLWLHV 7KH UHODWLRQVKLS RI VRFLRHFRQRPLF VWDWXV VH[ DQG UDFH WR VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU ZDV DVVHVVHG E\ LQFOXVLRQ RI WKHVH YDULDEOH LQ UHJUHVVLRQ DQDO\VHV RU E\ FKLVTXDUH DQDO\VLV 2IILFLDO UHFRUGV RI GHOLQTXHQF\ VKRZ D GLVSURSRUWLRQDWH DPRXQW RI FULPH LV FRPPLWWHG E\ PHPEHUV RI WKH ORZHU VRFLDO FODVVHV DQG EODFNV (OOLRW t $JHWRQ %URZQILHOG f 7KH RFFXSDWLRQ DQG HGXFDWLRQ RI WKH SDUHQWV ZDV DOVR H[DPLQHG DPRQJ WKH VL[ JURXSV *LYHQ WKH XVH RI PXOWLSOH VHOIUHSRUW PHDVXUHV D VRFLDO GHVLUDELOLW\ VFDOH ZDV JLYHQ WR PHDVXUH DQG FRQWURO IRU WKH VXEMHFWVn GHVLUH WR SXW XS D JRRG IURQW 7KLV

PAGE 28

WHQGHQF\ PD\ LQGLFDWH VHOI GHFHSWLRQ D ODFN RI LQVLJKW LQWR RQHnV RZQ FKDUDFWHU RU DQ XQZLOOLQJQHVV WR DFFHSW RQHnV OLPLWDWLRQV $QDVWDVLD f 7KHVH VFRUHV ZHUH XVHG LQ WKH GDWD DQDO\VLV WR KHOS FRQWURO IRU WKH YDULDELOLW\ WKLV WHQGHQF\ PD\ FRQWULEXWH WR WKH VXEMHFWV UHVSRQVHV

PAGE 29

&+$37(5 0(7+2' 6XEMHFWV 7KH VDPSOH FRQVLVWHG RI KLJK VFKRRO VWXGHQWV RI ZKLFK bf ZHUH PDOH DQG bf ZHUH IHPDOH 7KH VDPSOH ZDV SUHGRPLQDQWO\ ZKLWH bf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f4XD\ t 3DUVRQV f WR FODVVLI\ WKHP LQWR WKH GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\ GLPHQVLRQV 7KH 326 LV D LWHP

PAGE 30

WUXHIDOVH TXHVWLRQQDLUH 7KH 326 ZDV GHYHORSHG IURP D VHULHV RI IDFWRU DQDO\WLF VWXGLHV RI WKH UHVSRQVHV RI ERWK LQVWLWXWLRQDOL]HG GHOLQTXHQWV DQG SXEOLF VFKRRO VWXGHQWV WR D ODUJH SRRO RI LWHPV WDSSLQJ DWWLWXGHV EHOLHIV IHHOLQJV DQG EHKDYLRUV 3HWHUVRQ 4XD\ t &DPHURQ 3HWHUVRQ 4XD\ t 7LIIDQ\ 4XD\ 3HWHUVRQ t &RQVDOYL f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f 7KH 326 KDV DOVR EHHQ XVHG LQ UHVHDUFK WR GLIIHUHQWLDWH JURXSV RI GHOLQTXHQWV +XQGOHE\ t 5RVV *HQVKDIW 5DLQH t 9HQDEOHV (OOLV 5DLQH 5RJHU t 9HQDEOHV -HIIHUVRQ t -RKQVRQ f (DFK VXEMHFW FRPSOHWHG WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH )RUP 9 666f =XFNHUPDQ f ZKLFK FRQVLVWV RI IRUFHG FKRLFH LWHPV ZLWK WZR UHVSRQVH FKRLFHV SHU LWHPV HJ $ OLNH ZLOG XQLQKLELWHG SDUWLHV RU % SUHIHU TXLHW SDUWLHV ZLWK JRRG FRQYHUVDWLRQf 7KH 666 )RUP 9f

PAGE 31

=XFNHUPDQ f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t *UD\VRQ &DUURO t =XFNHUPDQ .DHVWQHU 5RVHQ t $SSHO f FLJDUHWWH VPRNLQJ 6WDQDZD\ t :DWVRQ f JDPEOLQJ =XFNHUPDQ f VH[XDO EHKDYLRU DQG DWWLWXGHV =XFNHUPDQ

PAGE 32

7XVKRS t )LQQHU f VN\GLYLQJ +\PEDXJK t *DUUHWW f VFXED GLYLQJ +H\PDQ t 5RVH f DQG YROXQWHHULQJ IRU K\SQRVLV DQG HQFRXQWHU JURXSV 6WDQWRQ =XFNHUPDQ 6FKXOW] t +RSNLQV f 666 VFRUHV KDYH EHHQ IRXQG WR EH QHJDWLYHO\ FRUUHODWHG ZLWK DJH .LVK t %XVVH f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f 7KH 6HOI5HSRUW 'HOLQTXHQF\ 6FDOH GHYHORSHG E\ (OOLRWW DQG $JHWRQ f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

PAGE 33

LQYROYHG LQ WKH GHOLQTXHQW DFW RU XVHG WKH GUXJ LQ WKH ODVW \HDU E\ VHOHFWLQJ RQH RI HLJKW FDWHJRULFDO UHVSRQVHV ]HUR OHVV WKDQ RQFH D PRQWK RQFH D PRQWK RQFH HYHU\ ZHHNV RQFH D ZHHN WLPHV D ZHHN RQFH D GD\ WLPHV D GD\ 7KLV VFDOH \LHOGV VL[ VXEVFDOHV SUHGDWRU\ FULPHV DJDLQVW SHUVRQV HJ VH[XDO DVVDXOW DJJUDYDWHG DVVDXOW t UREEHU\f SUHGDWRU\ FULPHV DJDLQVW SURSHUW\ HJ YDQGDOLVP EXUJODU\ DXWR WKHIW ODUFHQ\ VWHDOLQJ IUDXG t MR\ULGLQJf LOOHJDO VHUYLFH FULPHV HJ SURVWLWXWLRQ VHOOLQJ GUXJV t EX\SURYLGLQJ OLTXRU IRU PLQRUVf SXEOLF GLVRUGHU FULPHV HJ FDUU\LQJ D FRQFHDOHG ZHDSRQ KLWFKKLNLQJ GLVRUGHUO\ FRQGXFW GUXQNHQQHVV PDNLQJ REVFHQH SKRQH FDOOVf VWDWXV FULPHV HJ UXQDZD\ VH[XDO LQWHUFRXUVH DOFRKRO XVH t WUXDQF\f DQG KDUG GUXJ XVH HJ DPSKHWDPLQHV EDUELWXDWHV KDOOXFLQRJHQV KHURLQ t FRFDLQHf 7KH UHVHDUFK XVLQJ WKLV PHDVXUH KDV EHHQ IRXQG WR EH PRUH FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK RIILFLDO DUUHVW UHFRUGV WKDQ VWXGLHV XVLQJ RWKHU VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQF\ PHDVXUHV DGGUHVVLQJ LVVXHV RI UDFH DQG FODVV GLIIHUHQFH (OOLRW t $JHWRQ %URZQILHOG 6DPSVRQ f (DFK VXEMHFW FRPSOHWHG WKH 7UDLW )UXVWUDWLRQ 6FDOH %HUJDQGL :LOOLDPV t /DPE f ZKLFK LV DQ HLJKW LWHP /LNHUWW\SH VFDOH 7KH LWHPV DUH ZULWWHQ LQ WKH ILUVW SHUVRQ DQG HDFK GHVFULEHV D IUXVWUDWLQJ VLWXDWLRQ DORQJ ZLWK D UHVSRQVH WR WKDW VLWXDWLRQ HJ ,I RWKHU SHRSOH DUH EHDWLQJ PH LQ D JDPH LQZDUGO\ DFFHSW LWf 5HVSRQVHV WR

PAGE 34

WKH LWHPV DUH RQ DQ HLJKWSRLQW /LNHUW VFDOH UDQJLQJ IURP DOPRVW QHYHUf WR DOPRVW DOZD\Vf 7KH VFDOH SURYLGHV WKUHH VFRUHV ,QWHUSHUVRQDO VFRUH ,QWUDSHUVRQDO VFRUH DQG 7RWDO VFRUH +DOI RI WKH IUXVWUDWLQJ VLWXDWLRQV DUH LQGLYLGXDOL]HG HJ )UXVWUDWLQJ WDVNV PDNH PH IHHO DJJUHVVLYHf UHVXOWLQJ LQ WKH LQWUDSHUVRQDO VFRUH DQG KDOI DUH VLWXDWLRQV LQYROYLQJ LQWHUSHUVRQDO FRPSHWLWLRQ HJ ,I RWKHU SHRSOH DUH EHDWLQJ PH LQ D JDPH LQZDUGO\ DFFHSW LWf \LHOGLQJ WKH LQWHUSHUVRQDO VFRUH ,Q D QRUPDWLYH VDPSOH RI FROOHJH VWXGHQWV LW ZDV IRXQG WKDW VXEMHFWV VFRULQJ KLJK RQ WKLV VFDOH VKRZ JUHDWHU DJJUHVVLRQ WKDQ ORZHU VFRULQJ VXEMHFWV IROORZLQJ IUXVWUDWLQJ H[SHULHQFHV DQG DOVR JUHDWHU UHOLHI IROORZLQJ VXFFHVVIXO H[SHULHQFHV %HUJDQGL :LOOLDPV t /DPE f VXJJHVWLQJ WKDW WKLV LV D UHDVRQDEO\ YDOLG PHDVXUH RI IUXVWUDWLRQ 7KH 0DUORZH&URZQ 6RFLDO 'HVLUDELOLW\ 6KRUW )RUP If 0&6'6f 6WUDKDQ t *HUEDVL f ZDV FRPSOHWHG E\ DOO VXEMHFWV 7KLV VFDOH FRQVLVWV RI WHQ LWHPV DQG \LHOGV D JHQHUDO VRFLDO GHVLUDELOLW\ VFRUH 5HOLDELOLW\ FRHIILFLHQWV IRU WKH f 0&6'6 UDQJH IURP WR DQG FRUUHODWLRQV EHWZHHQ WKH IXOO 0&6'6 DQG WKH f VKRUW IRUP UDQJH IURP WR 3URFHGXUHV $IWHU UHFHLYLQJ SHUPLVVLRQ IURP VFKRRO SHUVRQQHO VXEMHFWV ZHUH UHFUXLWHG IURP VWXG\ KDOOV ZKHUH WKH\ ZHUH JLYHQ D EULHI GHVFULSWLRQ RI WKH UHVHDUFK DQG SURFHGXUHV XVHG 7KH FRQILGHQWLDO QDWXUH RI LQGLYLGXDO UHVXOWV ZDV

PAGE 35

HPSKDVL]HG WR HDFK VXEMHFW &RQVHQW IRUPV DQG WKH 3DUHQW 4XHVWLRQQDLUH ZHUH VHQW KRPH ZLWK HDFK SRWHQWLDO VXEMHFW WR EH FRPSOHWHG E\ WKH SDUHQW DQG UHWXUQHG WR WKH H[SHULPHQWHU SULRU WR WHVWLQJ $SSUR[LPDWHO\ FRQVHQW IRUPSDUHQW TXHVWLRQQDLUH SDFNHWV ZHUH JLYHQ WR YROXQWHHUV DW IRXU KLJK VFKRROV LQ $ODFKXD FRXQW\ 7KHUH ZHUH FRPSOHWHG SDFNHWV UHWXUQHG WR WKH H[SHULPHQWHU UHVXOWLQJ LQ D UHWXUQ UDWH RI b 7KH VXEMHFWV ZHUH WHVWHG LQGLYLGXDOO\ DQG LQ JURXSV RI XS WR VXEMHFWV GXULQJ WKHLU VWXG\ SHULRGV 7KH VXEMHFWV ZHUH LQVWUXFWHG WR UHDG WKH GLUHFWLRQV DW WKH WRS RI HDFK TXHVWLRQQDLUH DQG WR UHTXHVW DVVLVWDQFH LI WKH\ GLG QRW XQGHUVWDQG D TXHVWLRQ :KHQ WKH VXEMHFWV FRPSOHWHG WKH TXHVWLRQQDLUHV WKH\ ZHUH JLYHQ D IUHH KDPEXUJHU FRXSRQ DQG D OLVW RI UHIHUUDOV IRU GUXJ DEXVH DQG SV\FKRORJLFDO VHUYLFHV DYDLODEOH LQ WKH $ODFKXD FRXQW\ DUHD %HFDXVH WKH TXHVWLRQQDLUHV ZHUH FRGHG DQG WKH VXEMHFWVn QDPHV ZHUH QRW GLUHFWO\ DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK WKH FRGHV WKH OLVW RI SV\FKRORJLFDO VHUYLFHV ZDV SURYLGHG WR DOO VXEMHFWV LQ WKH HYHQW WKDW WKH\ ZHUH H[SHULHQFLQJ HPRWLRQDO SUREOHPV RUDEXVLQJ GUXJV DQG KDG UHVSRQGHG VR RQ WKH TXHVWLRQQDLUHV +LJK VFKRRO VWXGHQWV ZHUH EH XVHG IRU VHYHUDO UHDVRQV 7KH 326 KDV EHHQ XVHG IRU FODVVLI\LQJ HOHPHQWDU\ DQG KLJK VFKRRO VWXGHQWV LQWR WKH QHXURWLFGLVWXUEHG XQVRFLDOL]HG SV\FKRSDWKLF DQG VRFLDOL]HGVXEFXOWXUDO JURXSV 5DLQH t 9HQDEOHV 5DLQH 5RJHU t 9HQDEOHV f (YLGHQFH WKDW RIILFLDO GHOLQTXHQF\ UHFRUGV WHQG WR XQGHUHVWLPDWH GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DQG WKDW VHOIUHSRUW PHDVXUHV UHYHDO XQGHWHFWHG RIIHQVHV VXJJHVWV WKDW PDQ\ VWXGHQWV LQ WKH KLJK VFKRROV SDUWLFLSDWH LQ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU 4XD\ f 5HVHDUFK KDV DOVR IRXQG WKDW MXYHQLOHV ZKR KDYH EHHQ DUUHVWHG RU FRQYLFWHG KDYH D KLJK OLNHOLKRRG RI DGPLWWLQJ

PAGE 36

$W WZR RI WKH VFKRROV WKH VWXGHQWVn UHFRUGV ZHUH LQVSHFWHG E\ WKH H[SHULPHQWHU WR REWDLQ WKHLU RIILFLDO JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH DQG VFKRRO RIILFLDOV SURYLGHG WKH QXPEHU RI GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV WDNHQ E\ WKH VFKRRO LQ WKH ODVW \HDU IRU HDFK VXEMHFW $W WKH UHPDLQLQJ WZR VFKRROV VFKRRO RIILFLDOV ZHUH JLYHQ WKH VXEMHFWVn QDPHV DQG WKH\ SURYLGHG WKH RIILFLDO JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJHV DQG WKH QXPEHU RI GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV WDNHQ E\ WKH VFKRRO LQ WKH ODVW \HDU IRU HDFK VXEMHFW 2I WKH VXEMHFWV ZKR FRPSOHWHG WKH TXHVWLRQQDLUHV GLG QRW UHSRUW HQJDJLQJ LQ EHKDYLRU ZKLFK FRXOG KDYH UHVXOWHG LQ WKHP EHLQJ DUUHVWHG DQG ZHUH MXGJHG WR EH RYHUUHSRUWLQJ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU 7KHVH VXEMHFWV ZHUH H[FOXGHG IURP WKH DQDO\VHV WKHLU RIIHQVHV LQ D VXUYH\ +DUGW t 3HWHUVRQ+DUGW +LQGHODQJ +LUVFKL t :HLVV f DQG RQO\ D VPDOO QXPEHU RI f RI XQFRQYLFWHG MXYHQLOHV FODLPHG WR KDYH EHHQ FRQYLFWHG :HVW t )DUULQJWRQ f ,W ZDV DVVXPHG WKDW VXEMHFWV ZKR HQJDJH LQ D PLQLPDO DPRXQW RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DQG ZKR KDYH VLPLODU DWWLWXGHV DV LQFDUFHUDWHG GHOLQTXHQWV ZRXOG DOVR KDYH OHVV SUREOHPDWLF EXW VLPLODU EHKDYLRU SDWWHUQV DQG QHHG IRU VWLPXODWLRQ DV MXYHQLOHV QRW LQ WKH VFKRRO VHWWLQJ GXH WR WKHLU GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU 2 nf7KHVH VXEMHFWV ZHUH GHOHWHG IURP WKH DQDO\VLV RQ WKH EDVLV RI VHYHUDO ILQGLQJV 7KHUH ZDV D PDUNHG EUHDN LQ WKH GLVWULEXWLRQ RI WKH IUHTXHQF\ RI WRWDO GHOLQTXHQW DFWV IURP WR 7KH LQGLYLGXDOV ZKRVH VFRUHV ZHUH DERYH WKLV EUHDN ZHUH WKHQ H[DPLQHG WR HYDOXDWH IRU SRVVLEOH RYHUn UHSRUWLQJ (DFK TXHVWLRQQDLUH ZDV HYDOXDWHG ZLWK WKH DJH DQG VH[ RI WKH UHVSRQGHQW LQ PLQG DQG SDWWHUQ RI RYHUDOO UHVSRQGLQJ ([DPSOHV RI RYHUUHSRUWLQJ LQFOXGH KDYLQJ LQWHUFRXUVH FKHDWLQJ VWHDOLQJ IDLOLQJ WR UHWXUQ FKDQJH VPRNLQJ PDULMXDQD WDNLQJ KDOOXFLQRJHQV GDPDJLQJ

PAGE 37

7KH 326 UDZ VFRUHV ZHUH XVHG WR FODVVLI\ VXEMHFWV ZLWK UHJDUG WR GHOLQTXHQW GLPHQVLRQV DV LQ *HQVKDIW f 326 UDZ VFRUHV ZHUH QRUPDOL]HG DQG FRQYHUWHG WR 7VFRUHV 6XEMHFWV ZHUH FODVVLILHG RQ WKH EDVLV RI WKHLU KLJKHVW 7 VFRUH ZKLFK UHVXOWHG LQ VXEMHFWV FODVVLILHG DV QHXURWLF GLVWXUEHG 0 6' f DV VRFLDOL]HGVXEFXOWXUDO 0 6' f DQG DV XQVRFLDOL]HGSV\FKRSDWKLF 0 6' f 'XQFDQnV 0XOWLSOH 5DQJH WHVWV UHYHDOHG WKDW HDFK JURXS VFRUHG VLJQLILFDQWO\ KLJKHU RQ WKDW 326 VFDOH LQ ZKLFK WKH\ ZHUH FODVVLILHG WKDQ WKH RWKHU WZR VFDOHV LQ ZKLFK WKH\ ZHUH QRW FODVVLILHG 7KH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH WRWDO VFRUHV ZHUH GLYLGHG DW WKH PHGLDQ WR FODVVLI\ VXEMHFWV DV KLJK DQG ORZ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV 7KH VXEMHFWV ZKRVH VFRUH IHOO DW WKH PHGLDQ ZHUH UDQGRPO\ SODFHG LQ RQH RI WKH WZR JURXSV ZKLFK UHVXOWHG LQ ORZ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV 0 6' f DQG KLJK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV 0 6' f &RPELQLQJ WKH WZR FODVVLILFDWLRQV UHVXOWHG LQ VL[ JURXSV VKRZQ LQ 7DEOH $QDO\VLV 0XOWLSOH UHJUHVVLRQ DQDO\VHV ZHUH SHUIRUPHG WR HYDOXDWH WKH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ GHOLQTXHQW GLPHQVLRQV VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ LQFRPH DQG VH[ DV ZHOO DV SRVVLEOH LQWHUDFWLRQV VFKRRO SURSHUW\ UXQQLQJ DZD\ IURP KRPH KLWWLQJ RWKHU VWXGHQWV WR WLPHV SHU GD\ IDLOLQJ WR UHWXUQ FKDQJH VPRNLQJ PDULMXDQD KLWWLQJ VWXGHQWV O\LQJ DERXW \RXU DJH EHLQJ SDLG IRU VH[ VNLSSLQJ FODVV GDLO\

PAGE 38

7DEOH 'HOLQTXHQW )UHTXHQFLHV *URXS E\ 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ *URXS 1HXURWLF 6RFLDOL]HG 3VYFKRRDWKLF 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQD 7RWDO +LJK /RZ 7RWDO

PAGE 39

DPRQJ WKHVH YDULDEOHV LQ SUHGLFWLQJ W\SH DQG IUHTXHQF\ RI VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU IUXVWUDWLRQ JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH DQG WKH QXPEHU RI GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV 6H[ ZDV LQFOXGHG LQ WKH PRGHO GXH WR WKH VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ GLIIHUHQFHV IRXQG EHWZHHQ PDOHV DQG IHPDOHV =XFNHUPDQ f ,QFRPH OHYHO ZDV DOVR LQFOXGHG LQ WKH PRGHO DV UHVHDUFK E\ (OOLRWW DQG $JHWRQ f KDV IRXQG D VLJQLILFDQW UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ 6(6 DQG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU $JH ZDV WUHDWHG DV D FRQWURO YDULDEOH DQG HQWHUHG LQWR WKH UHJUHVVLRQ PRGHO ILUVW $JDLQ WKH IUHTXHQF\ DQG QXPEHU RI GLIIHUHQW FULPHV IURP WKH 6HOI5HSRUW 'HOLQTXHQF\ 4XHVWLRQQDLUH 3UHGDWRU\ &ULPHV DJDLQVW 3URSHUW\ ,OOHJDO 6HUYLFH &ULPHV 3XEOLF 'LVRUGHU &ULPHV DQG 6WDWXV &ULPHVf ZHUH FRQVLGHUHG DV GHSHQGHQW YDULDEOHV 6HSDUDWH DQDO\VHV ZHUH DFFRPSOLVKHG IRU WKH WKUHH GHOLQTXHQW JURXSV DQG WKH WZR VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXSV $OWKRXJK WKHVH DQDO\VHV ZRXOG \LHOG UHGXQGDQW ILQGLQJV DV WKH UHJUHVVLRQ DQDO\VLV WKH VSHFLILF UHODWLRQVKLSV DPRQJ WKH GLIIHUHQW GHOLQTXHQW JURXSV DQG EHWZHHQ WKH KLJK DQG ORZ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV ZHUH IXUWKHU H[DPLQHG YLD WKHVH DQDO\VHV +HUH VHYHUDO $129$nV ZHUH FRQGXFWHG WR DVVHVV WKH VSHFLILF UHODWLRQVKLSV DPRQJ WKH GHOLQTXHQW JURXSV IRU YDULRXV GHSHQGHQW YDULDEOHV 7WHVWV ZHUH XVHG WR DVVHVV GLIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQ WKH VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXSV RQ YDULRXV GHPRJUDSKLF DQG GHSHQGHQW YDULDEOHV 7KH FDWHJRULFDO YDULDEOHV VH[ FRXQVHOLQJ DUUHVWV IDPLO\ LQFRPHf ZHUH DVVHVVHG E\ &KLVTXDUH WHVWV

PAGE 40

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f 7KRVH ZKR KDG FRPPLWWHG SUHGDWRU\ FULPHV DJDLQVW SHUVRQV DQG WKRVH ZKR XVHG KDUG GUXJV ZHUH VFRUHG RQH RQ HDFK VFDOH DQG LI WKH\ KDG QRW FRPPLWWHG DQ\ RI WKHVH RIIHQVHV WKH\ ZHUH VFRUHG D ]HUR RQ WKH DSSURSULDWH VXEVFDOH 7KH VL[ GHOLQTXHQW E\ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXSV GLG QRW GLIIHU ZLWK UHJDUG WR DJH IDPLO\ LQFRPH SDUHQWnV DJH RU HGXFDWLRQ QXPEHU RI VLEOLQJV DQG QXPEHU RI SHUVRQV LQ WKH KRPH

PAGE 41

6HOI5HSRUWHG 'HOLQTXHQF\ ([DPLQDWLRQ RI WKH VHOIUHSRUW GHOLQTXHQF\ 4XHVWLRQQDLUH UHYHDOHG WKDW b RI WKH VXEMHFWV FRPSOHWLQJ WKH TXHVWLRQQDLUHV KDG HQJDJHG LQ VRPH W\SH RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU 7KLV ILQGLQJ LV FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK HDUOLHU UHVHDUFK :LOOLDPV t *ROG f ZLWK VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU 7KH UHJUHVVLRQ DQDO\VLV UHYHDOHG WKDW WKH GHOLQTXHQW JURXSV GLG QRW FRQWULEXWH VLJQLILFDQWO\ WR WKH PRGHO LQ SUHGLFWLQJ DQ\ W\SH RI VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU (YHQ WKRXJK GHOLQTXHQW JURXS ZDV QRW VLJQLILFDQW LQ WKH RYHUDOO UHJUHVVLRQ DQDO\VLV WKH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ VHOIUHSRUW RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DQG GHOLQTXHQF\ JURXSV ZDV H[DPLQHG IXUWKHU VHH 7DEOH f +HUH LW FDQ EH VHHQ WKDW WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF JURXS UHSRUWHG VLJQLILFDQWO\ PRUH LOOHJDO VHUYLFH FULPHV WKDQ WKH RWKHU WZR JURXSV 7KH SV\FKRSDWKLF JURXS DOVR UHSRUWHG VLJQLILFDQWO\ PRUH GHOLQTXHQW DFWV WKDQ WKH QHXURWLF JURXS EXW QHLWKHU JURXS GLIIHUHG VLJQLILFDQWO\ IURP WKH VRFLDOL]HG JURXS 7DEOH LQGLFDWHV WKDW WKHVH GLIIHUHQFHV DPRQJ WKH GHOLQTXHQW JURXSV PD\ EH SULPDULO\ GXH WR UHODWLYH GLIIHUHQFHV LQ WKH KLJKHU IUHTXHQF\ FDWHJRULHV IRU LOOHJDO VHUYLFH FULPHV DQG IRU WRWDO GHOLQTXHQW DFWVf $W WKH ORZHU HQG RI WKH IUHTXHQF\ UDQJH IRU LOOHJDO VHUYLFH FULPHV WKH UDWLR RI QHXURWLF WR SV\FKRSDWKLF LV DSSUR[LPDWHO\ EXW DW WKH KLJKHU IUHTXHQF\ UDQJHV WKH

PAGE 42

7DEOH 'LIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQ WKH 7KUHH 'HOLQTXHQW 6XEW\SHV RQ PHDVXUHV RI VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQF\ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG IUXVWUDWLRQ 1HXURWLF 6RFLDOL]HG 3V\FKRSDWKLF 1 1 1 0HDQ 6' 0HDQ 6' 0HDQ 6' 5DQFUHD $JH \HDUVf Q V ,QFRPHr Q V 1XPEHU LQ +RPH Q V ,OOHJDO 6HUYLFH &ULPHVQXPEHUf 1' 6' 3' 7RWDO 1XPEHU 'HOLQTXHQW $FWVr W 1' 6' 3' 2IILFLDO *UDGH 3RLQW $YHUDJH 1' 6' 3' 2IILFLDO 'LVFLSOLQ 1' 3' 6' 'LVLQKLELWLRQ 6FDOH 666f 1' 6' 3' 7KULOO DQG $GYHQWXUH 6HHNLQJ 666f 1' 6' 3' ([SHULHQFH 6HHNLQJ 666f Q V %RUHGRP 6XVFHS 666f Q V 666 7RWDO 6FRUH 1' 6' 3' ,QWUDSHUVRQDO )UXVWUDWLRQ 6FRUH 1' 6' 3' )UXVWUDWLRQ 7RWDO 6FRUH 1' 3' 6' n L DXQGHUOLQHG JURXSV DUH QRW VLJQLILFDQWO\ GLIIHUHQW DW S WUDQVIRUPHG GDWD

PAGE 43

7DEOH /HYHOV RI 3HUFHQWDJH RI 'HOLQTXHQF\ E\ 5HVSRQGHQWV 5HSRUWLQJ 6SHFLILF 'HOLQTXHQW *URXS ,OOHJDO 6HUYLFH &ULPHV )UHTXHQF\ 1HXURWLF 6RFLDOL]HG 3V\FKRSDWKLF b b b 7RWDO 6HOI5HSRUWHG 'HOLQTXHQF\ )UHTXHQF\ 1HXURWLF b 6RFLDOL]HG b 3V\FKRSDWKLF b

PAGE 44

UDWLR LV DSSUR[LPDWHO\ 7KHVH GLIIHUHQFHV DUH VLPLODU WR WKRVH IRXQG E\ (OOLRWW DQG $JHWRQ f ZLWK UHVSHFW WR UDFH DQG FODVV GLIIHUHQFHV ZLWK EODFNV DQG ORZHU 6(6 VXEMHFWV RYHUUHSUHVHQWHG LQ WKH KLJK IUHTXHQF\ FDWHJRULHV 7KH GHOLQTXHQW JURXSV ZHUH QRW GLIIHUHQW ZLWK UHJDUG WR WKH IUHTXHQF\ DQG QXPEHU RI SUHGDWRU\ FULPHV DJDLQVW SURSHUW\ SXEOLF GLVRUGHU FULPHV RU VWDWXV FULPHV 7WHVWV UHYHDOHG WKDW KLJK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV UHSRUWHG PRUH GHOLQTXHQW DFWV RQ WKH VXEVFDOHV RI WKH VHOIUHSRUW GHOLQTXHQF\ TXHVWLRQQDLUHDV VHHQ LQ 7DEOH f 7KHVH ILQGLQJV DUH FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK HDUOLHU ILQGLQJV RI )DUOH\ DQG )DUOH\ f WKDW KLJK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ VFRUHV DUH DVVRFLDWHG ZLWK PRUH GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU +RZHYHU WKHVH ILQGLQJV JR EH\RQG HDUOLHU VWXGLHV VKRZLQJ WKDW KLJK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV DOVR SDUWLFLSDWH LQ D JUHDWHU QXPEHU DQG D ZLGH UDQJH RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU 5HJUHVVLRQ DQDO\VLV VXJJHVWHG WKDW VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG D GHOLQTXHQW JURXS E\ VH[ LQWHUDFWLRQ HIIHFW VLJQLILFDQWO\ SUHGLFWHG WKH IUHTXHQF\ RI VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW DFWV DQG WKLV PRGHO DFFRXQWHG IRU b RI WKH YDULDQFH VHH 7DEOH f +RZHYHU RQO\ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ VLJQLILFDQWO\ SUHGLFWHG WKH QXPEHU RI GLIIHUHQW VHOI UHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW DFWV DQG WKLV PRGHO DFFRXQWHG IRU b RI WKH YDULDQFH &RQWUDU\ WR P\ LQLWLDO K\SRWKHVLV UHJUHVVLRQ DQDO\VHV UHYHDOHG QR VLJQLILFDQW LQWHUDFWLRQV EHWZHHQ GHOLQTXHQW JURXS DQG VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXS PHPEHUVKLS VHH 7DEOH f

PAGE 45

7DEOH 'HPRJUDSKLF DQG 9DULRXV 'HSHQGHQW 0HDVXUHV IRU WKH 7ZR 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ *URXSV /RZ 66 +LJK 66 1 1 0HDQ 6' 0HDQ 6' 3 $JH \HDUVf Q V ,QFRPH Q V 1XPEHU LQ +RPH Q V 3UHGDWRU\ &ULPHV 3URSHUW\ QXPEHUf ,OOHJDO 6HUYLFH &ULPHV QXPEHUfE 3XEOLF 'LVRUGHU &ULPHV QXPEHUf 6WDWXV &ULPHV QXPEHUf 7RWDO 1XPEHU 'HOLQTXHQW $FWVE 2IILFLDO *3$ Q V 2IILFLDO 'LVFLSOLQDU\ $FWLRQV Q V )UXVWUDWLRQ 6FDOH 7RWDO Q V b PDOHV b DUUHVWHG b ZLWK SULRU FRXQVHOLQJ b ZKR SOD\ VFKRRO VSRUWV DO fWUDQVIRUPHG GDWD ;

PAGE 46

7DEOH 6XPPDU\ RI )LQGLQJV IURP WKH 5HJUHVVLRQ $QDO\VLV 8VLQJ 'HOLQTXHQW *URXS 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6H[ DQG ,QFRPH LQ 3UHGLFWLQJ 6HOI5HSRUWHG 'HOLQTXHQF\ 9DULDEOH 6LJQLILFDQW 9DULDEOHV LQ 5HFUUHVVLRQ 0RGHO 3r 5r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f f f A9DULDEOH VLJQLILFDQFH OHYHO rrRYHUDOO PRGHO 5

PAGE 47

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

PAGE 48

6WDWXV &ULPHV )LJXUH )UHTXHQF\ RI 6WDWXV &ULPHV DV D )XQFWLRQ RI 'HOLQTXHQW *URXS DQG 6H[

PAGE 49

)LJXUH )UHTXHQF\ RI ,OOHJDO 6HUYLFH &ULPHV DV D )XQFWLRQ RI 'HOLQTXHQW *URXS DQG 6H[

PAGE 50

7RWDO 'HOLQTXHQW $FWV WUDQVIRUPHG IUHTf )LJXUH )UHTXHQF\ RI 7RWDO 'HOLQTXHQW $FWV DV D )XQFWLRQ RI 'HOLQTXHQW *URXS DQG 6H[

PAGE 51

SXEOLF GLVRUGHU FULPHV ZLWK PDOHV UHSRUWLQJ PRUH FULPHV WKDQ IHPDOHV 7KLV LV FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK SUHYLRXV VHOIUHSRUW VXUYH\V (OOLRWW HW DO f DQG VXUYH\V RI RIILFLDO UHFRUGV 9LVKHU t 5RWK f 7KH VL[ GHOLQTXHQW E\ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXSV ZHUH GLIIHUHQW LQ WKHLU XVH RI KDUG GUXJV ZLWK DOO WKUHH KLJK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXSV KDYLQJ PRUH GUXJ XVHUV f WKDQ WKH ORZ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV f; 1 f S f 7KLV VXSSRUWV SUHYLRXV UHVHDUFK UHJDUGLQJ PRUH GUXJ XVDJH DPRQJ KLJK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV WKDQ ORZ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV %ULOO &UXPSWRQ t *UD\VRQ &DUURO t =XFNHUPDQ .DHVWQHU 5RVHQ t $SSHO f 7KH VL[ JURXSV GLG QRW GLIIHU LQ WHUPV RI SUHGDWRU\ FULPHV DJDLQVW SHUVRQV 7KLV LV LQ FRQWUDVW WR HDUOLHU ILQGLQJV RI (OOLV f ZKR IRXQG WKDW SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQWV H[KLELWHG PRUH DJJUHVVLRQ WRZDUG SHUVRQV WKDQ WKH QHXURWLF RU VRFLDOL]HG GHOLQTXHQWV 'HOLQTXHQF\ DQG 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 3V\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQWV ZHUH VLJQLILFDQWO\ KLJKHU WKDQ WKH RWKHU WZR JURXSV RQ WKH 7KULOO DQG $GYHQWXUH 6HHNLQJ VFDOH 'LVLQKLELWLRQ VFDOH DQG WKH 7RWDO VFRUH RI WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH VHH 7DEOH f 7KHVH ILQGLQJV DUH FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK HDUOLHU ILQGLQJV FRQFHUQLQJ SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQWV DQG VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ :KLWHKLOO 'HPH\HU*DSLQ t 6FRWW f 7KHUH ZHUH QR VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFHV

PAGE 52

DPRQJ WKH JURXSV RQ WKH ([SHULHQFH 6HHNLQJ RU WKH %RUHGRP 6XVFHSWLELOLW\ VXEVFDOHV RI WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH 7KH WZR VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXSV ZHUH VLJQLILFDQWO\ GLIIHUHQW ZLWK UHJDUG WR VH[ ZLWK PRUH IHPDOHV LQ WKH ORZ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXS DQG DQ HYHQ QXPEHU RI PDOHV DQG IHPDOHV LQ WKH KLJK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXS VHH 7DEOH f 7KHUH ZHUH QR VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFHV RQ DQ\ RI WKH VFDOHV RI WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH )RUP 9f EHWZHHQ D VDPSOH RI XQGHUJUDGXDWHV DQG WKH VXEMHFWV LQ WKLV VDPSOH =XFNHUPDQ f )UXVWUDWLRQ 2YHUDOO WKLV VDPSOH VFRUHG VLJQLILFDQWO\ EHORZ D VDPSOH RI FROOHJH XQGHUJUDGXDWHV Q f RQ WKH WRWDO VFRUH RI WKH )UXVWUDWLRQ 6FDOH Wf S f %HUJDQGL :LOOLDPV t /DPE f 7KH VRFLDOL]HG DQG SV\FKRSDWKLF JURXSV VFRUHG VLJQLILFDQWO\ EHORZ WKH VDPSOH RI XQGHUJUDGXDWHV VRFLDOL]HG Wf S SV\FKRSDWKLF Wf S f %HUJDQGL :LOOLDPV t /DPE f 7KH QHXURWLF JURXS VFRUHG QR GLIIHUHQWO\ IURP FROOHJH XQGHUJUDGXDWHV RQ WKH WRWDO )UXVWUDWLRQ VFRUH $V VHHQ LQ 7DEOH WKH VRFLDOL]HG JURXS KDG ORZHU WRWDO IUXVWUDWLRQ VFRUHV WKDQ WKH QHXURWLF JURXS QHLWKHU RI ZKLFK ZHUH GLIIHUHQW IURP WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF JURXS $GGLWLRQDOO\ WKH VRFLDOL]HG JURXS VFRUHG VLJQLILFDQWO\ EHORZ WKH RWKHU WZR JURXSV RQ WKH LQWUDSHUVRQDO VXEVFDOH RI WKH )UXVWUDWLRQ 6FDOH 7KHUH ZHUH QR VLJQLILFDQW GLIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQ WKH VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ JURXSV RQ DQ\ RI

PAGE 53

WKH IUXVWUDWLRQ PHDVXUHV 7KH UHJUHVVLRQ DQDO\VHV FRQILUPHG WKH DERYH ILQGLQJV ZLWK GHOLQTXHQW JURXS EHLQJ WKH RQO\ VLJQLILFDQW YDULDEOH LQ WKH PRGHO SUHGLFWLQJ WRWDO IUXVWUDWLRQ 7KH UHJUHVVLRQ PRGHO ZDV QRW VLJQLILFDQW LQ SUHGLFWLQJ VFRUHV RQ WKH LQWUDSHUVRQDO DQG LQWHUSHUVRQDO VXEVFDOHV RI WKH )UXVWUDWLRQ 6FDOH $FDGHPLF 3UREOHP %HKDYLRU DQG ([WUDFXUULFXODU $FWLYLWLHV 7KH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ GHOLQTXHQW JURXS DQG JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH ZDV H[DPLQHG XVLQJ DQ DQDO\VLV RI YDULDQFH IROORZHG E\ 'XQFDQnV PXOWLSOH UDQJH WHVW 7KHVH UHVXOWV DUH SUHVHQWHG LQ )LJXUH +HUH LW FDQ EH VHHQ WKDW WKH JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH IRU WKH VRFLDOL]HG GHOLQTXHQW JURXS ZDV VLJQLILFDQWO\ ORZHU WKDQ WKDW IRU HLWKHU WKH QHXURWLF JURXS RU WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF JURXS 7KLV ILQGLQJ ZDV XQH[SHFWHG JLYHQ WKDW -XUNRYLF DQG 3UHQWLFH f IRXQG WKDW QHXURWLF DQG VRFLDOL]HG VFRUHV RQ WKH 326 ZHUH XQUHODWHG WR LQWHOOLJHQFH EXW SV\FKRSDWKLF VFRUHV ZHUH QHJDWLYHO\ UHODWHG WR LQWHOOLJHQFH DQG DFKLHYHPHQW ,W UHPDLQV XQFOHDU LI WKLV ORZHU JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH IRU WKH VRFLDOL]HG JURXS LV VDPSOH VSHFLILF RU SRVVLELOLW\ WKDW GLIIHUHQFHV LQ DFDGHPLF DFKLHYHPHQW PD\ QRW EH D VWDEOH FKDUDFWHULVWLF RI WKH GLIIHUHQW GHOLQTXHQW JURXSV 7KH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ WKH GHOLQTXHQF\ JURXS DQG WKH IUHTXHQF\ RI RIILFLDO GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV ZDV H[DPLQHG

PAGE 54

2IILFLDO *UDGH 3RLQW $YHUDJH 'HOLQTXHQW 6XEW\SH )LJXUH 2IILFLDO *UDGH 3RLQW $YHUDJH DV D )XQFWLRQ RI 'HOLQTXHQW *URXS

PAGE 55

2IILFLDO 'LVFLSOLQDU\ $FWLRQV 1HXURWLF 'HOLQTXHQW 6RFLDOL]HG 3V\FKR'DWKLF 'HOLQTXHQW 'HOLQTXHQW 'HOLQTXHQW 6XEW\SH )LJXUH 2IILFLDO 'LVFLSOLQDU\ $FWLRQV DV D )XQFWLRQ RI 'HOLQTXHQW *URXS

PAGE 56

XVLQJ DQ $129$ IROORZHG EH D 'XQFDQnV 0XOWLSOH 5DQJH 7HVW 7KHVH UHVXOWV DUH SUHVHQWHG LQ )LJXUH 7KH QHXURWLF JURXS GLG QRW GLIIHU IURP WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF JURXS DQG WKH VRFLDOL]HG JURXS KDG VLJQLILFDQWO\ PRUH GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV WKDQ WKH QHXURWLF JURXS EXW QRW VLJQLILFDQWO\ PRUH WKDQ WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF JURXS 7KLV ZDV XQH[SHFWHG JLYHQ WKH GLIIHUHQFHV IRXQG ZLWK GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU LH SV\FKRSDWKLHV HQJDJLQJ LQ PRUH LOOHJDO VHUYLFH FULPHVf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

PAGE 57

'HOLQTXHQW 6XEW\SH )LJXUH 2IILFLDO 'LVFLSOLQDU\ $FWLRQV DV D )XQFWLRQ RI 'HOLQTXHQW *URXS 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ *URXS DQG 6H[

PAGE 58

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

PAGE 59

7DEOH 3HDUVRQ &RUUHODWLRQV IRU 6HOIUHSRUW 'HOLQTXHQF\ 4XHVWLRQQDLUH VXEVFDOHV WUDQVIRUPHG IUHTf DQG YDULRXV PHDVXUHV 1 f 3UHGDWRU\ &ULPHV 3URSHUW\ ,OOHJDO 6HUYLFH &ULPHV 3XEOLF 'LVRUGHU &ULPHV 6WDWXV &ULPHV 7RWDO 'HOLQTXHQW $FWV 3' 326f rr rr rr 6' 326f r 1' 326f 7$6 666f (6 666f rr r ',6 666f rr rr rr rr rr %6 666f rr rr rr rr 7RWDO 666f rr rr rr rr rr $JH \UVfD r )UXVWUDWLRQ r 7RWDO 2IILFLDO *3$E rS rrS DQ EQ &RUUHFWLRQ 0 f %RQIHUURQL

PAGE 60

UHSRUW 'HOLQTXHQF\ 4XHVWLRQQDLUH 7KH VRFLDOL]HG VFDOH FRUUHODWHG VLJQLILFDQWO\ ZLWK WKH WRWDO GHOLQTXHQW DFWV ZKLOH WKH QHXURWLF VFDOH KDG QR VLJQLILFDQW FRUUHODWLRQV $GGLWLRQDOO\ WKH 'LVLQKLELWLRQ 6FDOH DQG WKH 7RWDO VFRUH RI WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH KDYH VLJQLILFDQWO\ JUHDWHU FRUUHODWLRQV ZLWK WKH GHOLQTXHQW VXEVFDOHV WKDQ WKH RWKHU VXEVFDOHV RI WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOHV 7KHVH ILQGLQJV DUH FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK HDUOLHU ILQGLQJV UHJDUGLQJ WKH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DQG VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ )DUOH\ t )DUOH\ f DQG WKH 'LVLQKLELWLRQ VXEVFDOH RI WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH :KLWH /DERXYLH t %DWHV f 7KH FRUUHODWLRQV EHWZHHQ VSHFLILF GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DQG VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ VFRUHV KDV QHYHU EHHQ UHSRUWHG ,W ZDV DOVR IRXQG WKDW WKH UDZ VFRUHV RI WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF VFDOH RI WKH 3HUVRQDO 2SLQLRQ 6XUYH\ FRUUHODWHG ZLWK WKH 'LVLQKLELWLRQ 6FDOH Uf BQV WKH %RUHGRP 6XVFHSWLELOLW\ Uf S DQG WKH WRWDO VFRUH RI WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH Uf QV 7KHUH ZHUH QR RWKHU VLJQLILFDQW FRUUHODWLRQV EHWZHHQ WKH QHXURWLF DQG VRFLDOL]HG VFDOHV RI WKH 326 DQG WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6FDOH VXEVFDOHV 7KHVH ILQGLQJV VXSSRUW DQG H[WHQG HDUOLHU ILQGLQJV E\ -HIIHUVRQ DQG -RKQVRQ f FRQFHUQLQJ WKH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF VFDOH RI WKH 3HUVRQDO 2SLQLRQ 6XUYH\ DQG WKH 6HQVDWLRQ 6HHNLQJ 6XUYH\ VFRUHV 7KH VWUHQJWK RI WKH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WKH WRWDO IUXVWUDWLRQ VFRUH DQG SUHGDWRU\ FULPHV DJDLQVW SURSHUW\ ZDV FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK WKH HDUOLHU SUHGLFWLRQV

PAGE 61

7KH FRUUHODWLRQ IRU WKH UDZ VFRUHV RQ WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF VFDOH RI WKH 3HUVRQDO 2SLQLRQ 6XUYH\ DQG WKH RIILFLDO JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH ZDV Uf QV ZKLFK \LHOGV D WUHQG LQ WKH GLUHFWLRQ DV IRXQG LQ HDUOLHU VWXGLHV FRQFHUQLQJ SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQJXHQWV DQG LQWHOOLJHQFH -XUNRYLF DQG 3UHQWLFH f 7KH FRUUHODWLRQ IRU WKH UDZ VFRUHV RQ WKH VRFLDOL]HG VFDOH RI WKH 3HUVRQDO 2SLQLRQ 6XUYH\ DQG WKH RIILFLDO JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH ZDV Uf S

PAGE 62

&+$37(5 ',6&866,21 7KH SUHVHQW ILQGLQJV DUH FRQVLVWHQW ZLWK HDUOLHU UHVHDUFK RQ VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU LQ WKDW DSSUR[LPDWHO\ b RI WKH VXEMHFWV UHSRUWHG EHKDYLRU ZKLFK FRXOG KDYH UHVXOWHG LQ WKHLU DUUHVW :LOOLDPV t *ROG (OOLRWW +XL]LQJD t $JHWRQ f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

PAGE 63

RQ WKH VFDOHV RI WKH 326 QRW FRUUHVSRQGLQJ WR GLIIHUHQFHV LQ GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLWLHV 7KH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ GHOLQTXHQW JURXS DQG VH[ KDV UHFHLYHG YHU\ OLPLWHG DWWHQWLRQ LQ WKH GHOLQTXHQF\ OLWHUDWXUH
PAGE 64

QHHG WR EH FRQVLGHUHG LQ RUGHU WR IXOO\ XQGHUVWDQG WKH GHOLQTXHQW DGROHVFHQW 6HQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ ZDV IRXQG WR EH D PDMRU IDFWRU LQ DFFRXQWLQJ IRU VHOIUHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU 6XFK D VWURQJ UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG VHOI UHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU ZDV VRPHZKDW VXUSULVLQJ JLYHQ WKH VSDUVH DWWHQWLRQ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ KDV UHFHLYHG LQ WKH GHOLQTXHQW OLWHUDWXUH $V SDUW RI D MXYHQLOHnV SHUVRQDOLW\ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ PD\ EH D SULPDU\ PRWLYDWRU IRU EHKDYLRU LQ JHQHUDO JLYHQ WKH ILQGLQJ WKDW PDQ\ VXEMHFWV ZKR HQJDJHG LQ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DOVR SDUWLFLSDWHG LQ H[WUDFXUULFXODU DFWLYLWLHV DW VFKRRO )RU H[DPSOH DPRQJ WKH VXEMHFWV ZLWK WKH KLJKHVW IUHTXHQF\ RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU RU b HQJDJHG LQ RUJDQL]HG VSRUWV HLWKHU DW VFKRRO RU DZD\ IURP VFKRROf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

PAGE 65

LQ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU RU LI LW LV D JHQHUDO PRWLYDWRU IRU EHKDYLRU 7KLV VWXG\ H[WHQGV WKH ODERUDWRU\ UHVHDUFK ZLWK GHOLQTXHQWV DQG EHKDYLRU SUREOHP FKLOGUHQ VXJJHVWLQJ WKDW LW LV WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF JURXS ZKLFK DFFRXQWV IRU D ODUJH SDUW RI WKH VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ WHQGHQFLHV ZLWKLQ WKH GHOLQTXHQW SRSXODWLRQ ,Q IDFW RI DOO RI WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQWV b ZHUH KLJK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV 7KLV LV LQ FRQWUDVW WR WKH SDWWHUQ LQ WKH RWKHU WZR JURXSV ZLWK KLJK VHQVDWLRQ VHHNHUV FRPSULVLQJ b RI WKH QHXURWLF JURXS DQG b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

PAGE 66

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n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

PAGE 67

OHYHO RI GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV IRU WKH VRFLDOL]HG JURXS PD\ EH D IXQFWLRQ RI WKH SHHU JURXS WKH VXEMHFWV DVVRFLDWH ZLWK RU WKH VRFLDOL]HG JURXSnV WHQGHQF\ WR HQJDJH LQ EHKDYLRU WKDW ZLOO UHVXOW LQ EHLQJ FDXJKW LH WDUGLQHVV EHLQJ GLVUXSWLYH LQ FODVVf 7KLV PD\ DOVR EH GXH WR WKH WHQGHQF\ IRU WKH VRFLDOL]HG JURXS PHPEHUV WR EH HDVLO\ LQIOXHQFHG E\ SHHU SUHVVXUH ,Q WHUPV RI DFKLHYHPHQW WKH UHVXOWV RI WKLV VWXG\ FRQIOLFW ZLWK UHVXOWV IURP SUHYLRXV VWXGLHV XVLQJ WKH VDPH GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\ GLPHQVLRQV ,Q HDUOLHU VWXGLHV VXEMHFWV LQ WKH SV\FKRSDWKLF JURXS ZHUH IRXQG WR VFRUH ORZHU RQ PHDVXUHV RI LQWHOOLJHQFH DQG DFKLHYHPHQW WKDQ WKH RWKHU JURXSV -XUNRYLF t 3UHQWLFH -HIIHUVRQ t -RKQVRQ f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

PAGE 68

TXHVWLRQDEOH UHOLDELOLW\ DQG YDOLGLW\ +RZHYHU WKH UHOLDELOLW\ DQG YDOLGLW\ RI WKH TXHVWLRQQDLUHV XVHG LQ WKLV VWXG\ GHPRQVWUDWHG DFFHSWDEOH FRQVWUXFW YDOLGLW\ DQG WHVW UHWHVW UHOLDELOLW\ ZLWK WKH H[FHSWLRQ RI WKH )UXVWUDWLRQ 6FDOH ZKLFK KDG QR DYDLODEOH UHOLDELOLW\ GDWD /LNHZLVH WKHVH PHDVXUHV DUH VXVFHSWLEOH WR UHVSRQVH ELDV ,Q PDQ\ UHVHDUFK VLWXDWLRQV LW LV HVVHQWLDO WR FRQWURO IRU WKH VXEMHFWVn QHHG WR SUHVHQW WKHPVHOYHV LQ WKH EHVW SRVVLEOH OLTKW +RZHYHU WKH SHUVRQDOLW\ GLPHQVLRQV PHDVXUHG LQ WKLV VWXG\ PD\ FRQWDLQ YDULRXV DPRXQWV RI VRFLDO GHVLUDELOLW\ $Q\ DWWHPSW WR FRQWURO IRU WKLV SUHVXPHG FRQIRXQG PD\ LQ IDFW EH UHPRYLQJ VRPH DVSHFW IURP WKH DQDO\VLV ZKLFK LV D YDOLG SDUW RI WKH GLPHQVLRQ EHLQJ DVVHVVHG ,Q DQ DWWHPSW WR DVVHVV D SRVVLEOH UHVSRQVH ELDV 3HDUVRQ SURGXFWPRPHQW FRUUHODWLRQ FRHIILFLHQWV ZHUH FDOFXODWHG IRU WKH VXEMHFWVn VHOIUHSRUW RI JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH DQG GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV WDNHQ DW VFKRRO LQ WKH ODVW \HDU DQG RIILFLDO IURP VFKRRO UHFRUGVf JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH DQG GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV 7KH FRUUHODWLRQV RI VHOIUHSRUW DQG RIILFLDO LQIRUPDWLRQ ZHUH VLJQLILFDQW JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH Uf S GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV Uf S f :KHQ WKH HIIHFW RI VRFLDO GHVLUDELOLW\ DV PHDVXUHG E\ WKH 0DUORZH&URZQ 6RFLDO 'HVLUDELOLW\ 6FDOH ZDV UHPRYHG YLD SDUWLDO FRUUHODWLRQVf WKH FRUUHODWLRQV ZHUH VOLJKWO\ KLJKHU WKRXJK QRW VLJQLILFDQWO\ VR JUDGH SRLQW DYHUDJH Uf S GLVFLSOLQDU\ DFWLRQV UOOOf S f

PAGE 69

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b RI DGROHVFHQWV UHSRUW HQJDJLQJ LQ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU :LOOLDPV t *ROG f DQG WKDW MXYHQLOHV UHOLDEO\ UHSRUW WKHLU RIIHQVHV +DUGW t 3HWHUVRQ +DUGW +LQGHODQJ +LUVFKL t :HLVV f 7KH XVH RI KLJK VFKRRO VWXGHQWV UHSRUWLQJ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU SURYLGHG LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW D OHVV SDWKRORJLFDO VDPSOH RI GHOLQTXHQWV QRW W\SLFDOO\ FRQVLGHUHG LQ GHOLQTXHQW UHVHDUFK DQG WKLV VRPHZKDW XQGHUXWLOL]HG SRSXODWLRQ LQ GHOLQTXHQW UHVHDUFK SURYLGHG VRPH XQLTXH LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\

PAGE 70

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n UHSRUWLQJ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU WR LQVWLWXWLRQDOL]HG GHOLQTXHQWV QHHGV IXUWKHU H[DPLQDWLRQ 7KH SUHVHQW ILQGLQJV SURYLGH VHYHUDO WRSLFV IRU IXWXUH UHVHDUFK 1R VWXG\ KDV H[DPLQHG WKH SDWWHUQ RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DPRQJ WKH GHOLQTXHQW GLPHQVLRQV ZLWK DGMXGLFDWHG GHOLQTXHQWV $OVR QR SULRU UHVHDUFK KDV H[DPLQHG WKH SHUFHQWDJH RI HDFK GHOLQTXHQW GLPHQVLRQ WKDW SDUWLFLSDWHV LQ WKH GLIIHUHQW IUHTXHQFLHV RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DV VHHQ LQ 7DEOH f )XWXUH UHVHDUFK VKRXOG H[DPLQH LI WKHUH LV FRQVLVWDQF\ DFURVV WKH GHOLQTXHQW GLPHQVLRQV IRU VHOI UHSRUWHG GHOLQTXHQWV DQG DGMXGLFDWHG GHOLQTXHQWV LQ WKHLU SDWWHUQ RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU HJ ZKHWKHU SV\FKRSDWKLF GHOLQTXHQWV HQJDJH LQ PRUH LOOHJDO VHUYLFH FULPHVf 7KHUH LV DQRWKHU FRQFHUQ LQ WHUPV RI GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\ GLPHQVLRQV DQG VH[ 4XD\ DQG 3DUVRQ f

PAGE 71

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n DWWHQWLRQ ORQJHU DQG LQFUHDVH WKHLU SDUWLFLSDWLRQ LQ WKH OHDUQLQJ SURFHVV ZRXOG VHHP OLNHO\ WR EH XVHIXO &ODVVURRP FKDQJHV PD\ LQFOXGH PRGLILFDWLRQ RI FRXUVH SUHVHQWDWLRQ E\ XVLQJ PRUH YLVXDO DLGV DQG PRUH VWLPXODWLQJ GHPRQVWUDWLRQV RI FRQFHSWV FRPSXWHU DLGHG WHDFKLQJ VKRUWHU OHFWXUHV YHUVXV W\SLFDO RQH KRXU OHFWXUHV DQG VPDOOHU VWXGHQW WR WHDFKHU UDWLRV 7KH DYDLODELOLW\ RI PRUH H[WUDFXUULFXODU DFWLYLWLHV VXFK DV LQWUDVFKRRO WHDPV FRPSHWLQJ DJDLQVW HDFK RWKHU ZKLFK ZRXOG IDFLOLWDWH

PAGE 72

SDUWLFLSDWLRQ RI D ODUJHU QXPEHU RI VWXGHQWV DQG RFFXS\ WKHLU WLPH WKDW PD\ KDYH EHHQ VSHQW LQ GHOLQTXHQW DFWLYLW\ 7KH GDWD IURP WKLV VWXG\ KLJKOLJKW WKH QHHG IRU PRUH UHVHDUFK LQWR WKH GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLW\ 7KHVH ILQGLQJV SURYLGH D JOLPSVH DW WKH PRWLYDWLRQV EHKLQG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DQG WKH QHHG IRU PRUH VSHFLILFLW\ LQ GHOLQTXHQW UHVHDUFK 0RUH SUHFLVLRQ LQ UHVHDUFK LQ WHUPV RI GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DQG GHOLQTXHQW SHUVRQDOLWLHV ZRXOG OHDG WR D PRUH WKRURXJK XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH GHOLQTXHQW LQGLYLGXDO DQG KRSHIXOO\ OHDG WR VXFFHVVIXO WUHDWPHQW DQG HDUO\ LGHQWLILFDWLRQ IRU WKRVH MXYHQLOHV DW ULVN IRU HQJDJLQJ LQ GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU

PAGE 73

$SSHQGL[ $ 48(67,211$,5(6

PAGE 74

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nW VWDQG ZDWFKLQJ D PRYLH WKDW ,nYH VHHQ EHIRUH $ RIWHQ ZLVK FRXOG EH D PRXQWDLQ FOLPEHU % FDQnW XQGHUVWDQG SHRSOH ZKR ULVN WKHLU QHFNV FOLPELQJ PRXQWDLQV $ GLVOLNH DOO ERG\ RGRUV % OLNH VRPH RI WKH HDUWK\ ERG\ VPHOOV $ JHW ERUHG VHHLQJ WKH VDPH ROG IDFHV % OLNH WKH FRPIRUWDEOH IDPLOLDULW\ RI HYHU\GD\ IULHQGV $ OLNH WR H[SORUH D VWUDQJH FLW\ RU VHFWLRQ RI WRZQ E\ P\VHOI HYHQ LI LW PHDQV JHWWLQJ ORVW % SUHIHU D JXLGH ZKHQ DP LQ D SODFH GRQnW NQRZ ZHOO $ GLVOLNH SHRSOH ZKR GR RU VD\ WKLQJV MXVW WR VKRFN RU XSVHW SHRSOH % :KHQ \RX FDQ SUHGLFW DOPRVW HYHU\WKLQJ D SHUVRQ ZLOO VD\ RU GR KH RU VKH PXVW EH D ERUH $ XVXDOO\ GRQnW HQMR\ D PRYLH RU SOD\ ZKHUH FDQ SUHGLFW ZKDW ZLOO KDSSHQ LQ DGYDQFH % GRQnW PLQG ZDWFKLQJ D PRYLH RU SOD\ ZKHUH FDQ SUHGLFW ZKDW ZLOO KDSSHQ LQ DGYDQFH $ KDYH WULHG PDULMXDQD RU ZRXOG OLNH WR % ZRXOG QHYHU VPRNH PDULMXDQD

PAGE 75

$ ZRXOG QRW OLNH WR WU\ DQ\ GUXJ ZKLFK PLJKW SURGXFH VWUDQJH DQG GDQJHURXV HIIHFWV RQ PH % ZRXOG OLNH WR WU\ VRPH RI WKH GUXJV WKDW SURGXFH KDOOXFLQDWLRQV $ $ VHQVLEOH SHUVRQ DYRLGV DFWLYLWLHV WKDW DUH GDQJHURXV % VRPHWLPHV OLNH WR GR WKLQJV WKDW DUH D OLWWOH IULJKWHQLQJ $ GLVOLNH VZLQJHUV % HQMR\ WKH FRPSDQ\ RI UHDO VZLQJHUV $ ILQG WKDW VWLPXODQWV PDNH PH XQFRPIRUWDEOH % RIWHQ OLNH WR JHW KLJK GULQNLQJ OLTXRU RU VPRNLQJ SRWf $ OLNH WR WU\ QHZ IRRGV WKDW KDYH QHYHU WDVWHG EHIRUH % RUGHU WKH GLVKHV ZLWK ZKLFK DP IDPLOLDU VR DV WR DYRLG GLVDSSRLQWPHQW DQG XQSOHDVDQWQHVV $ HQMR\ ORRNLQJ DW KRPH PRYLHV RU WUDYHO VOLGHV % /RRNLQJ DW VRPHRQHnV KRPH PRYLHV RU WUDYHO VOLGHV ERUHV PH WUHPHQGRXVO\ $ ZRXOG OLNH WR WDNH XS WKH VSRUW RI ZDWHUVNLLQJ % ZRXOG QRW OLNH WR WDNH XS ZDWHUVNLLQJ $ ZRXOG OLNH WR WU\ VXUIERDUG ULGLQJ % ZRXOG QRW OLNH WR WU\ VXUIERDUG ULGLQJ $ ZRXOG OLNH WR WDNH RII RQ D WULS ZLWK QR SUHn SODQQHG RU GHILQLWH URXWHV RU WLPHWDEOH % :KHQ JR RQ D WULS OLNH WR SODQ P\ URXWH DQG WLPHWDEOH IDLUO\ FDUHIXOO\ $ SUHIHU WKH GRZQWRHDUWK NLQGV RI SHRSOH DV IULHQGV % ZRXOG OLNH WR PDNH IULHQGV LQ VRPH RI WKH IDURXW JURXSV OLNH DUWLVWV DQG KLSSLHV $ ZRXOG QRW OLNH WR OHDUQ WR IO\ DQ DLUSODQH % ZRXOG OLNH WR OHDUQ WR IO\ DQ DLUSODQH $ SUHIHU WKH VXUIDFH RI WKH ZDWHU WR WKH GHSWKV % ZRXOG OLNH WR JR VFXED GLYLQJ $ ZRXOG OLNH WR PHHW VRPH SHUVRQV ZKR DUH KRPRVH[XDO PHQ RU ZRPHQf % VWD\ DZD\ IURP DQ\RQH VXVSHFW RI EHLQJ TXHHU $ ZRXOG OLNH WR WU\ SDUDFKXWH MXPSLQJ

PAGE 76

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nW OLNH WKH IHHOLQJ JHW VWDQGLQJ RQ WKH KLJK ERDUG RU GRQnW JR QHDU LW DW DOOf $ OLNH WR GDWH PHPEHUV RI WKH RSSRVLWH VH[ ZKR DUH SK\VLFDOO\ H[FLWLQJ % OLNH WR GDWH PHPEHUV RI WKH RSSRVLWH VH[ ZKR VKDUH P\ YDOXHV $ +HDY\ GULQNLQJ XVXDOO\ UXLQV D SDUW\ EHFDXVH VRPH SHRSOH JHW ORXG DQG ERLVWHURXV % .HHSLQJ WKH GULQNV IXOO LV WKH NH\ WR D JRRG SDUW\ $ 7KH ZRUVW VRFLDO VLQ LV WR EH UXGH % 7KH ZRUVW VRFLDO VLQ LV WR EH D ERUH $ $ SHUVRQ VKRXOG KDYH FRQVLGHUDEOH VH[XDO H[SHULHQFH EHIRUH PDUULDJH % ,WnV EHWWHU LI WZR PDUULHG SHUVRQV EHJLQ WKHLU VH[XDO H[SHULHQFH ZLWK HDFK RWKHU $ (YHQ LI KDG WKH PRQH\ ZRXOG QRW FDUH WR DVVRFLDWH ZLWK IOLJKW\ SHUVRQV OLNH WKRVH LQ WKH MHW VHW % FRXOG FRQFHLYH RI P\VHOI VHHNLQJ SOHDVXUH DURXQG WKH ZRUOG ZLWK WKH MHW VHW $ OLNH SHRSOH ZKR DUH VKDUS DQG ZLWW\ HYHQ LI WKH\ GR VRPHWLPHV LQVXOW RWKHUV % GLVOLNH SHRSOH ZKR KDYH WKHLU IXQ DW WKH H[SHQVH RI KXUWLQJ WKH IHHOLQJV RI RWKHUV $ 7KHUH LV DOWRJHWKHU WRR PXFK SRUWUD\DO RI VH[ LQ PRYLHV

PAGE 77

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

PAGE 78

'HOLQTXHQF\ 4XHVWLRQQDLUH 387 $ &+(&. ,1 7+( $335235,$7( %2; +2: 0$1< 7,0(6 ,1 7+( /$67 <($5 +$9( <28 OHVV WKDQ ; HYHU\ ;;; ; D D D D D D PWK PWK ZNV ZN ZN GD\ GD\ SXUSRVHO\ GDPDJHG RU GHVWUR\HG SURSHUW\ EHORQJLQJ WR \RXU SDUHQWV RU RWKHU IDPLO\ PHPEHUV SXUSRVHO\ GDPDJHG RU GHVWUR\HG SURSHUW\ EHORQJLQJ WR D VFKRRO SXUSRVHO\ GDPDJHG RU GHVWUR\HG RWKHU SURSHUW\ WKDW GLG QRW EHORQJ WR \RX QRW FRXQWLQJ IDPLO\ RU VFKRRO SURSHUW\f VWROHQ RU WULHG WR VWHDOf D PRWRU YHKLFOH VXFK DV D FDU RU PRWRUF\FOH VWROHQ RU WULHG WR VWHDOf VRPHWKLQJ ZRUWK PRUH WKDQ NQRZLQJO\ ERXJKW VROG RU KHOG VWROHQ JRRGV RU WULHG WR GR DQ\ RI WKHVH WKLQJVf WKURZQ REMHFWV VXFK DV URFNV VQRZEDOOV RU ERWWOHVf DW FDUV RU SHRSOH UXQ DZD\ IURP KRPH OLHG DERXW \RXU DJH WR JDLQ HQWUDQFH RU WR SXUFKDVH VRPHWKLQJ IRU H[DPSOH O\LQJ DERXW \RXU DJH WR EX\ OLTXRU RU JHW LQWR D PRYLH FDUULHG D KLGGHQ ZHDSRQ RWKHU WKDQ D SODLQ SRFNHW NQLIH VWROHQ WULHG WR VWHDOf WKLQJV ZRUWK RU OHVV

PAGE 79

387 $ &+(&. ,1 7+( $335235,$7( %2; +2: 0$1< 7,0(6 ,1 7+( /$67 <($5 +$9( <28 OHVV WKDQ ; HYHU\ ; ; ; ; D D D D D D PWK PWK ZNV ZN ZN GD\ GD\ DWWDFNHG VRPHRQH ZLWK WKH LGHD RI VHULRXVO\ KXUWLQJ RU NLOOLQJ KLPKHU EHHQ SDLG IRU KDYLQJ VH[XDO UHODWLRQV ZLWK VRPHRQH KDG VH[XDO LQWHUFRXUVH ZLWK D SHUVRQ RI WKH RSSRVLWH VH[ EHHQ LQYROYHG LQ JDQJ ILJKWV VROG PDULMXDQD RU KDVKLVK SRW JUDVV KDVKf FKHDWHG RQ VFKRRO WHVWV KLWFKKLNHG ZKHUH LW LV LOOHJDO WR GR VR VWROHQ PRQH\ RU RWKHU WKLQJV IURP \RXU SDUHQWV RU RWKHU PHPEHU RI \RXU IDPLO\ KLW RU WKUHDWHQHG WR KLWf D WHDFKHU RU RWKHU DGXOW DW VFKRRO KLW RU WKUHDWHQHG WR KLWf RQH RI \RXU SDUHQWV KLW RU WKUHDWHQHG WR KLWf RWKHU VWXGHQWV EHHQ ORXG URZG\ RU XQUXO\ LQ D SXEOLF SODFH GLVRUGHUO\ FRQGXFWf VROG KDUG GUXJV VXFK DV KHURLQ FRFDLQH DQG /6' WDNHQ D YHKLFOH IRU D ULGH GULYHf ZLWKRXW WKH RZQHUnV SHUPLVVLRQ

PAGE 80

387 $ &+(&. ,1 7+( $335235,$7( %2; +2: 0$1< 7,0(6 ,1 7+( /$67 <($5 +$9( <28 OHVV WKDQ ; HYHU\ ; ; ; ; D D D D D D PWK PWK ZNV ZN ZN GD\ GD\ ERXJKW RU SURYLGHG OLTXRU IRU D PLQRU KDG RU WULHG WR KDYHf VH[XDO UHODWLRQV ZLWK VRPHRQH DJDLQVW WKHLU ZLOO XVHG IRUFH VWURQJDUP PHWKRGVf WR JHW PRQH\ RU WKLQJV IURP RWKHU VWXGHQWV XVHG IRUFH VWURQJDUP PHWKRGVf WR JHW PRQH\ RU WKLQJV IURP D WHDFKHU RU RWKHU DGXOW DW VFKRRO XVHG IRUFH VWURQJDUP PHWKRGVf WR JHW PRQH\ RU WKLQJV IURP RWKHU SHRSOH QRW VWXGHQWV RU WHDFKHUVf DYRLGHG SD\LQJ IRU VXFK WKLQJV DV PRYLHV EXV RU VXEZD\ ULGHV DQG IRRG EHHQ GUXQN LQ D SXEOLF SODFH VWROHQ RU WULHG WR VWHDOf WKLQJV ZRUWK EHWZHHQ DQG VWROHQ RU WULHG WR VWHDOf VRPHWKLQJ DW VFKRRO EURNHQ LQWR D EXLOGLQJ RU YHKLFOH RU WULHG WR EUHDN LQf WR VWHDO VRPHWKLQJ RU MXVW ORRN DURXQG EHJJHG IRU PRQH\ RU WKLQJV IURP VWUDQJHUV VNLSSHG FODVVHV ZLWKRXW DQ H[FXVH

PAGE 81

387 $ &+(&. ,1 7+( $335235,$7( %2; +2: 0$1< 7,0(6 ,1 7+( /$67 <($5 +$9( <28 OHVV WKDQ ; HYHU\ ; ; ; ; D D D D D D PWK PWK ZNV ZN ZN GD\ GD\ IDLOHG WR UHWXUQ H[WUD FKDQJH WKDW D FDVKLHU JDYH \RX E\ PLVWDNH EHHQ VXVSHQGHG IURP VFKRRO PDGH REVFHQH WHOHSKRQH FDOOV VXFK DV FDOOLQJ VRPHRQH DQG VD\LQJ GLUW\ WKLQJV +2: 2)7(1 ,1 7+( /$67 <($5 +$9( <28 86(' DOFRKROLF EHYHUDJHV EHHU ZLQH DQG KDUG OLTXRUf PDULMXDQD KDVKLVK JUDVVf SRW KDVKf KDOOXFLQRJHQV /6' PHVFDOLQH SH\RWH DFLGf DPSKHWDPLQHV XSSHUV VSHHG ZKLWHVf EDUELWXDWHVGRZQHUV UHGV OXGHVf KHURLQ KRUVH VPDFNf FRFDLQH FRNHf

PAGE 82

3HUVRQDO 2SLQLRQ 6XUYH\ 7KH EHVW WHDFKHUV DUH WKH RQHV ZKR DUH YHU\ HDV\ ZRXOG EH D KDSSLHU SHUVRQ LI FRXOG VDWLVI\ DOO P\ SDUHQWnV ZLVKHV 6RPHWLPHV ZRQGHU LI ,nOO HYHU JURZ XS 0\ IRONV XVXDOO\ EODPH EDG FRPSDQ\ IRU WKH WURXEOH JHW LQWR ,Q WKLV ZRUOG \RXnUH D IRRO LI \RX WUXVW RWKHU SHRSOH %HIRUH GR VRPHWKLQJ WU\ WR FRQVLGHU KRZ P\ IULHQGV ZLOO UHDFW WR LW :H RXJKW WR SD\ RXU HOHFWHG RIILFLDOV EHWWHU WKDQ ZH GR QHYHU XVHG WR VWHDO OLWWOH WKLQJV IURP WKH QHLJKERUKRRG VWRUHV 0\ WHDFKHUV KDYH JLYHQ PH ORZHU JUDGHV WKDQ GHVHUYH MXVW EHFDXVH WKH\ WKLQN DP D WURXEOHPDNHU GRQnW ZRUU\ DERXW WKH IXWXUH WKHUHnV QRWKLQJ PXFK FDQ GR DERXW LW DQ\ZD\ RIWHQ VD\ PHDQ WKLQJV WR RWKHU SHRSOH DQG WKHQ IHHO VRUU\ IRU LW DIWHUZDUGV :KHQ WKLQN DP ULJKW QRERG\ FDQ FKDQJH P\ PLQG GRQnW PLQG KXUWLQJ SHRSOH ZKR JHW LQ P\ ZD\ 0RVW SHRSOH DUH VTXDUHV DP DOZD\V KXUWLQJ WKH SHRSOH ORYH WKH PRVW DP VR WRXFK\ RQ VRPH VXEMHFWV WKDW FDQnW WDON DERXW WKHP
PAGE 83

, FDQ HDVLO\ VKDNH LW RII ZKHQ GR VRPHWKLQJ NQRZ LV ZURQJ QHYHU KDYH WKH KDELW RI VKDNLQJ P\ KHDG QHFN RU VKRXOGHU $ SHUVRQ LV EHWWHU RII LI KH GRHVQnW WUXVW DQ\RQH 7KH EHVW ZD\ WR JHW DKHDG LQ WKH ZRUOG LV WR EH WRXJK ,W LV YHU\ LPSRUWDQW WR KDYH HQRXJK IULHQGV DQG VRFLDO OLIH $OO WKLV WDON DERXW KRQHVW\ DQG MXVWLFH LV D ORW RI QRQVHQVH 7KHUH LV VRPHWKLQJ ZURQJ ZLWK D SHUVRQ ZKR FDQnW WDNH RUGHUV ZLWKRXW JHWWLQJ DQJU\ RU UHVHQWIXO DP GRLQJ DV PXFK RU DV ZHOO DV P\ SDUHQWV H[SHFW PH WR :KHQ VHH SHRSOH ODXJKLQJ RIWHQ WKLQN WKH\ DUH ODXJKLQJ DW PH 7KH RQO\ ZD\ WR VHWWOH DQ\WKLQJ LV WR OLFN WKH JX\ ,WnV GXPE WR WUXVW ROGHU SHRSOH MXVW FDQnW VWRS GRLQJ WKLQJV WKDW DP VRUU\ IRU ODWHU )RU DOO WKH WKLQJV KDYH GRQH VKRXOG KDYH EHHQ SXQLVKHG PRUH WKDQ KDYH XVXDOO\ IHHO ZHOO DQG VWURQJ VRPHWLPHV IHHO WKDW QR RQH ORYHV PH :KHQ ZDV JRLQJ WR VFKRRO SOD\HG KRRN\ TXLWH RIWHQ 0\ IXWXUH ORRNV EULJKW ILQG LW KDUG WR GURS RU EUHDN ZLWK D IULHQG 6RPHWLPHV WKLQN ZRQnW OLYH YHU\ ORQJ ,W GRHVQnW PDWWHU ZKDW \RX GR DV ORQJ DV \RX JHW \RXU NLFNV ZLVK KDG QRW EHHQ VXFK D GLVDSSRLQWPHQW WR P\ IDPLO\ 7KH PRVW LPSRUWDQW WKLQJ LV WR ZLQ QR PDWWHU KRZ (YHU\RQH VKRXOG EH UHTXLUHG WR ILQLVK KLJK VFKRRO RZH P\ IDPLO\ QRWKLQJ 0\ IHHOLQJV DUH QHYHU KXUW VR EDGO\ FU\ 7KH RQO\ ZD\ WR PDNH ELJ PRQH\ LV WR VWHDO LW ,Q VFKRRO ZDV VRPHWLPHV VHQW WR WKH SULQFLSDO IRU FXWWLQJ XS KDYH QHYHU EHHQ LQ WURXEOH ZLWK WKH ODZ 7KH ZRUVW WKLQJ D SHUVRQ FDQ GR LV WR JHW FDXJKW GRQnW WKLQN ,nP TXLWH DV KDSS\ DV RWKHUV VHHP WR EH VRPHWLPHV ZLVK ,nG QHYHU EHHQ ERUQ $ JX\nV RQO\ SURWHFWLRQ LV KLV IULHQGV $ SHUVRQ ZKR VWHDOV IURP WKH ULFK LVQnW UHDOO\ D WKLHI KDYH KDG D UHDO ILJKW 0\ ZD\ RI GRLQJ WKLQJV LV DSW WR EH PLVXQGHUVWRRG E\ RWKHUV ,I \RXnUH FOHYHU HQRXJK \RX FDQ VWHDO DQ\WKLQJ DQG JHW DZD\ ZLWK LW 7KH DYHUDJH SROLFHPDQ LV QRW VWULFW HQRXJK DERXW WKH ODZ 7KH RQO\ ZD\ WR JHW ZKDW \RX ZDQW LV WR WDNH LW

PAGE 84

, PXVW DGPLW ILQG LW YHU\ KDUG WR ZRUN XQGHU VWULFW UXOHV DQG UHJXODWLRQV 6XFFHVV LQ WKLV ZRUOG LV D PDWWHU RI OXFN RIWHQ JHW QHUYRXV KDYH WR JHW XS DQG PRYH DURXQG WR FDOP P\VHOI GRZQ 1RERG\ KDV HYHU FDOOHG PH FKLFNHQf DQG JRWWHQ E\ ZLWK LW MXVW GRQnW VHHP WR JHW WKH EUHDNV RWKHU SHRSOH GR JHW VR DQJU\ WKDW VHH UHG ,WnV KDUG WR JHW RWKHUV WR OLNH PH GRQnW UHDOO\ FDUH ZKDW KDSSHQV WR PH 1R PDWWHU KRZ KDUG WU\ DOZD\V JHW FDXJKW 0\ H\HV RIWHQ SDLQ PH :RPHQ DUH RQO\ JRRG IRU ZKDW \RX FDQ JHW RXW RI WKHP 0\ OLIH SUHWW\ ERULQJ DQG GXOO PRVW RI WKH WLPH KDYH EHHQ H[SHOOHG IURP VFKRRO RU QHDUO\ H[SHOOHG 7KH RQO\ ZD\ WR PDNH RXW LV WR EH WRXJK ,W LV KDUGHU IRU PH WR MXVW VLW VWLOO DQG UHOD[ 2QFH \RXnYH EHHQ LQ WURXEOH \RX KDYHQnW JRW D FKDQFH +LWWLQJ VRPHRQH PDNHV PH IHHO JRRG LQVLGH %HLQJ VXFFHVVIXO XVXDOO\ PHDQV KDYLQJ \RXU QDPH LQ WKH SDSHU (YHQ ZKHQ WKLQJV JR ULJKW NQRZ LW ZRQnW ODVW ,nG OLNH WR VWDUW D QHZ OLIH VRPHZKHUH HOVH ,I \RX GRQnW KDYH HQRXJK WR OLYH RQ LWnV 2. WR VWHDO ,W LV LPSRUWDQW WR WKLQN DERXW ZKDW \RX GR FDQ RXWZLW DOPRVW DQ\RQH 2Q P\ UHSRUW FDUG XVXDOO\ JHW VRPH IDLOXUH PDUNV IHHO WKDW KDYH RIWHQ EHHQ SXQLVKHG ZLWKRXW FDXVH :KHQHYHU GR VRPHWKLQJ VKRXOGQnW LW ZRUULHV PH ,WnV DOULJKW WR VWHDO IURP WKH ULFK EHFDXVH WKH\ GRQnW QHHG LW 6RPHWLPHV KDYH VWROHQ WKLQJV UHDOO\ GLGQnW QHHG

PAGE 85

$QVZHU 6KHHW 1DPH 'DWH RI %LUWK &,5&/( 7 758(f 25 ) )$/6(f )25 ($&+ 48(67,21 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 ) 7 )

PAGE 86

)UXVWUDWLRQ 6FDOH 3/($6( &,5&/( 7+( 0267 $335235,$7( 5(63216( ,I RWKHU SHRSOH DUH EHDWLQJ PH LQ D JDPH LQZDUGO\ DFFHSW LW $/0267 1(9(5 $/0267 $/:$<6 :KHQ ZRUN DW D WDVN DQG WKLQJV NHHS JRLQJ ZURQJ DV D UHVXOW IHHO DV LI FRXOG VPDFN VRPHRQH VRPHERG\ RU P\VHOI :KHQ D SUREOHP VHHPV YHU\ GLIILFXOW WU\ WKDW PXFK KDUGHU DQG ZRUN WKDW PXFK KDUGHU WR VROYH LW ,I DP ORVLQJ ZKLOH SOD\LQJ P\ IDYRULWH VSRUW JHW IUXVWUDWHG :KHQ ,nP LQYROYHG LQ D FRPSHWLWLYH DFWLYLW\ DP DEOH WR UHPDLQ LQZDUGO\ FDOP )UXVWUDWLQJ WDVNV PDNH PH IHHO DJJUHVVLYH (YHQ LI XQVXFFHVVIXO HQMR\ WKH FKDOOHQJH RI D GLIILFXOW WDVN :KHQ ORVH RXW LQ FRPSHWLQJ ZLWK VRPHERG\ HOVH LHDMRE LQ VFKRRO FKHHUOHDGHU HWFf EHFRPH PRRG\

PAGE 87

6RFLDO 'HVLUDELOLW\ 6FDOH 3/($6( &,5&/( 758( 7f 25 )$/6( )f 72 ($&+ 48(67,21 7 ) ,n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nV IHHOLQJV

PAGE 88

3DUHQW 4XHVWLRQQDLUH 5HODWLRQ WR &KLOG )DWKHU 0RWKHU 6WHS)DWKHU 6WHS0RWKHU )RVWHU 3DUHQW 3KRQH 1XPEHU 'DWH RI %LUWK 6SRXVHV 'DWH RI %LUWK 6SRXVHV 5HODWLRQ WR &KLOG )DWKHU 0RWKHU 6WHS)DWKHU 6WHS0RWKHU )RVWHU 3DUHQW 1XPEHU RI RWKHU VLEOLQJV 7RWDO QXPEHU LQ WKH KRXVHKROG
PAGE 89

6WXGHQW 4XHVWLRQQDLUH 'DWH RI %LUWK 7RGD\nV 'DWH *UDGH *UDGH 3RLQW $YHUDJH 1XPEHU RI WLPHV LQ WKH ODVW \HDU \RX KDYH EHHQ GLVFLSOLQHG DW VFKRRO VHQW WR RIILFH SXW LQ GHWHQWLRQ VXVSHQGHG H[SHOOHGf )DYRULWH &ODVV )DYRULWH 6SRUW 6SRUWV SOD\HG DW VFKRRO 2UJDQL]HG 6SRUWV SOD\HG DZD\ IURP VFKRRO +REELHV +DYH \RX HYHU EHHQ DUUHVWHG
PAGE 90

$SSHQGL[ % 5$: '$7$

PAGE 91

9DULDEOH /LVW VXEMHFW QXPEHU DJH VFKRRO3.
PAGE 98

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

PAGE 99

2 2 2 2 OLOLO

PAGE 100

2

PAGE 101

5()(5(1&(6 $NHUV 5/ f 'HYLDQW EHKDYLRU $ VRFLDO OHDUQLQJ DSSURDFK QG HGf %HOPRQW &$ :DGVZRUWK $OOHQ -* f &RUUHODWHV RI HPRWLRQDO VW\OHV -RXUQDO RI &RQVXOWLQJ DQG &OLQLFDO 3V\FKRORJ\ $QDVWDVLD $ f 3V\FKRORJLFDO WHVWLQJ WK HGf 1HZ
PAGE 102

SHUVRQDOLW\ DQG GUXJ FKRLFH ,QWHUQDWLRQDO -RXUQDO RI $GGLFWLRQ &RKHQ $. f 'HOLQTXHQW ER\V 7KH FXOWXUH RI WKH JDQJ 1HZ
PAGE 103

(OOLRWW '6 +XL]LQJD 3 t $JHWRQ 66 f ([SODLQLQJ GHOLQTXHQF\ DQG GUXJ XVH %HYHUO\ +LOOV &$ 6DJH (OOLV 3/ f (PSDWK\ $ IDFWRU LQ DQWLVRFLDO EHKDYLRU -RXUQDO RI $EQRUPDO &KLOG 3V\FKRORJ\ f (PSH\ /7 f $PHULFDQ GHOLQTXHQF\ ,WV PHDQLQJ DQG FRQVWUXFWLRQ UHY HGf +RPHZRRG ,, 'RUVH\ 3UHVV (\VHQFN 6%* t (\VHQFN +f 7KH SODFH RI LPSXOVLYHQHVV LQ D GLPHQVLRQDO V\VWHP RI SHUVRQDOLW\ GHVFULSWLRQ %ULWLVK -RXUQDO RI 6RFLDO DQG &OLQLFDO 3V\FKRORJ\ (\VHQFN 6% t =XFNHUPDQ 0 f 7KH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG (\VHQFNnV GLPHQVLRQV RI SHUVRQDOLW\ %ULWLVK -RXUQDO RI 3V\FKRORJ\ )DUOH\ )+ t )DUOH\ 69 f 6HQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ PRWLYDWLRQ DQG GHOLQTXHQW EHKDYLRU DPRQJ LQVWLWXWLRQDOL]HG GHOLQTXHQW JLUOV -RXUQDO RI &RQVXOWLQJ DQG &OLQLFDO 3V\FKRORJ\ Bf )DUOH\ )+ t 6HZHOO 7 f 7HVW RI DQ DURXVDO WKHRU\ RI GHOLQTXHQF\ &ULPLQDO -XVWLFH DQG %HKDYLRU f )HGHUDO %XUHDX RI ,QYHVWLJDWLRQ f 8QLIRUP FULPH UHSRUWV :DVKLQJWRQ '& 'HSDUWPHQW RI -XVWLFH )HGHUDO %XUHDX RI ,QYHVWLJDWLRQ f 8QLIRUP FULPH UHSRUWV :DVKLQJWRQ '& 'HSDUWPHQW RI -XVWLFH )ULHGODQGHU f 7KH SVYFKRDQDOYWLFDO DSSURDFK WR MXYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQF\ 1HZ
PAGE 104

+DUH 5' t &UDLJHQ f 3V\FKRSDWK\ DQG SK\VLRORJLFDO DFWLYLW\ LQ D PL[HGPRWLYH JDPH VLWXDWLRQ 3V\FKRSK\VLRORJ\ +DUH 5' )UD]HOOH t &R[ '1 f 3V\FKRSDWK\ DQG SK\VLRORJLFDO UHVSRQVHV WR WKUHDW RI DQ DYHUVLYH VWLPXOXV 3V\FKRSK\VLRORJ\ +HZLWW /( t -HQNLQV 5/ f )XQGDPHQWDO SDWWHUQV RI PDODGMXVWPHQW WKH G\QDPLFV RI WKHLU RULJLQ 6SULQJILHOG ,/ 6WDWH RI ,OOLQRLV +H\PDQ 65 t 5RVH .* f 3V\FKRORJLFDO IDFWRUV DIIHFWLQJ 6&8%$ SHUIRUPDQFH ,Q &+ 1DGHDX :5 +DOOLZHOO .0 1HZHOO t *& 5REHUWV HGVf 3V\FKRORJ\ RI PRWRU EHKDYLRU DQG VSRUW &KLFDJR ,, +XPDQ .LQHWLFV 3UHVV +LQGHODQJ 0+LUVFKL 7 t :HLVV -* f 0HDVXULQJ GHOLQJXHQFY %HYHUO\ +LOOV &$ 6DJH +LUVFKL 7 f &DXVHV RI 'HOLQJXHQFY %HUNOH\ 8QLYHUVLW\ RI &DOLIRUQLD 3UHVV +XQGOHE\ -' t 5RVV %( f &RPSDULVRQ RI PHDVXUHV RI SV\FKRSDWK\ -RXUQDO RI &RXQVHOLQJ DQG &OLQLFDO 3V\FKRORJ\ +\PEDXJK t *DUUHWW f 6HQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DPRQJ VN\GLYHUV 3HUFHSWXDO 0RWRU 6NLOOV -HUVH ): t )DNRXUL 0( f -XYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQF\ DQG DFDGHPLF GHILFLHQF\ &RQWHPSRUDU\ (GXFDWLRQ -HIIHUVRQ 7: t -RKQVRQ -+ f 'LPHQVLRQV RI MXYHQLOH GHOLQJXHQFY DQG WKHLU UHODWLRQVKLS WR FKLOGKRRG K\SHUDFWLYLW\ DQG VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ 8QSXEOLVKHG PDQXVFULSW -XUNRYLF *t 3UHQWLFH 10 f 5HODWLRQ RI PRUDO DQG FRJQLWLYH GHYHORSPHQW WR GLPHQVLRQV RI MXYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQF\ -RXUQDO RI $EQRUPDO 3V\FKRORJ\ .DHVWQHU ( 5RVHQ / t $SSHO 3 f 3DWWHUQV RI GUXJ DEXVH 5HODWLRQVKLSV ZLWK HWKQLFLW\ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG DQ[LHW\ -RXUQDO RI &RQVXOWLQJ DQG &OLQLFDO 3V\FKRORJ\ .LOSDWULFN '* 6XWNHU 3% t 6PLWK $' f 'HYLDQW GUXJ DQG DOFRKRO XVH 7KH UROH RI DQ[LHW\ VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ DQG RWKHU SHUVRQDOLW\ YDULDEOHV ,Q 0 =XFNHUPDQ t &' 6SLHOEHUJHU (GVf (PRWLRQ DQG

PAGE 105

$Q[LHW\ 1HZ &RQFHSWV 0HWKRGV DQG $SSOLFDWLRQV SS f +LOOVGDOH 1/DZUHQFH (UOEDXP $VVRFLDWHV .LVK *% t %XVVH : f &RUUHODWHV RI VWLPXOXV VHHNLQJ $JH HGXFDWLRQ LQWHOOLJHQFH DQG DSWLWXGH -RXUQDO RI &RQVXOWLQJ DQG &OLQLFDO 3V\FKRORJ\ .RKQ 0 t 5RVPDQ /$ f $ VRFLDO FRPSHWHQFH VFDOH DQG V\PSWRP FKHFNOLVW IRU WKH SUHVFKRRO FKLOG )DFWRU GLPHQVLRQV WKHLU FURVV LQVWUXPHQW JHQHUDOLW\ DQG ORQJLWXGLQDO SHUVLVWHQFH 'HYHORSPHQWDO 3V\FKRORJ\ .URKQ 0' /DQ]D.DGXFH / t $NHUV 5/ f &RPPXQLW\ FRQWH[W DQG WKHRULHV RI GHYLDQW EHKDYLRU $Q H[DPLQDWLRQ RI VRFLDO OHDUQLQJ DQG VRFLDO ERQGLQJ WKHRULHV 6RFLRORJLFDO 4XDUWHUO\ /DPE '+ f $Q[LHW\ ,Q + /RQGRQ t ([QHU (GVf 'LPHQVLRQV RI SHUVRQDOLW\ SS f 1HZ
PAGE 106

2UULV -% f 9LVXDO PRQLWRULQJ SHUIRUPDQFH LQ WKUHH JURXSV RI PDOH GHOLQJXHQWV -RXUQDO RI $EQRUPDO 3V\FKRORJ\ 3DWWHUVRQ *5 f &RHUFLYH )DPLO\ 3URFHVV (XJHQH 25 &DVWLOLD 3HWHUVRQ '5 4XD\ +& t &DPHURQ *5 f 3HUVRQDOLW\ DQG EDFNJURXQG IDFWRUV LQ MXYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQF\ DV LQIHUUHG IURP TXHVWLRQQDLUH UHVSRQVHV -RXUQDO RI &RQVXOWLQJ 3V\FKRORJ\ 3HWHUVRQ '5 4XD\ +& t 7LIIDQ\ 7& f 3HUVRQDOLW\ IDFWRUV UHODWHG WR MXYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQF\ &KLOG 'HYHORSPHQW 4XD\ +& f 'LPHQVLRQV RI SHUVRQDOLW\ LQ GHOLQTXHQW ER\V DV LQIHUUHG IURP WKH IDFWRU DQDO\VLV RI FDVH KLVWRU\ GDWD &KLOG 'HYHORSPHQW 4XD\ +& f 3V\FKRSDWKLF SHUVRQDOLW\ DV SDWKRORJLFDO VWLPXODWLRQ VHHNLQJ $PHULFDQ -RXUQDO RI 3V\FKLDWU\ 4XD\ +& f +DQGERRN RI MXYHQLOH GHOLQJXHQFY 1HZ
PAGE 107

5DLQH $ t 9HQDEOHV 3+ f (OHFWURGHUPDO QRQUHVSRQGLQJ DQWLVRFLDO EHKDYLRU t VFKL]RLG WHQGHQFLHV LQ DGROHVFHQWV 3VYFKRSKYVLRRJ\ 5RXWWHQEHUJ $ f 7KH WZRDURXVDO K\SRWKHVLV 5HWLFXODU IRUPDWLRQ DQG OLPELF V\VWHP 3V\FKRORJLFDO 5HYLHZ 6DPSVRQ 5f (IIHFWV RI VRFLRHFRQRPLF FRQWH[W RQ RIILFLDO UHDFWLRQ WR MXYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQF\ $PHULFDQ 6RFLRORJLFDO 5HYLHZ 6FKDFKWHU 6 f 7KH LQWHUDFWLRQ RI FRJQLWLYH DQG SK\VLRORJLFDO GHWHUPLQDQWV RI HPRWLRQDO VWDWH ,Q / %HUNRZLW] (Gf $GYDQFHV LQ H[SHULPHQWDO VRFLDO SV\FKRORJ\ 9RO SS f 1HZ
PAGE 108

6WUDKDQ 5 t *HUEDVL .& f 6KRUW KRPRJHQHRXV YHUVLRQV RI WKH 0DUORZH&URZQH 6RFLDO 'HVLUDELOLW\ 6FDOH -RXUQDO RI &OLQLFDO 3V\FKRORJ\ 6WXPSKDX]HU -6 f %HKDYLRU PRGLILFDWLRQ ZLWK GHOLQTXHQWV DQG FULPLQDOV ,Q ( &UDLJKHDG $ .D]GLQ t 00DKRQH\ (GVf %HKDYLRU PRGLILFDWLRQ 3ULQFLSOHV LVVXHV DQG DSSOLFDWLRQV QG HG SS f %RVWRQ +RXJKWRQ0LIIOLQ 6WXPSKDX]HU -6 f +HOSLQJ GHOLQTXHQWV FKDQJH $ WUHDWPHQW PDQXDO RI VRFLDO OHDUQLQJ DSSURDFKHV 1HZ
PAGE 109

=LQNXV 3: t *RWWOLHE 0, f /HDUQLQJ GLVDELOLWLHV DQG MXYHQLOH GHOLQTXHQF\ &OLQLFDO 3HGLDWULFV =XFNHUPDQ 0 f 7KH VHQVDWLRQ VHHNLQJ PRWLYH ,Q 3URJUHVV LQ ([SHULPHQWDO 3HUVRQDOLW\ 5HVHDUFK 9RO SS f 1HZ
PAGE 110

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

PAGE 111

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n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n $VVLVWDQW 3URIHVVRU RI &OLQLFDO DQG +HDOWK 3V\FKRORJ\ FHUWLI\ WKDW KDYH UHDG WKLV VWXG\ DQG WKDW LQ P\ RSLQLRQ LW FRQIRUPV WR DFFHSWDEOH VWDQGDUGV RI VFKRODUO\ SUHVHQWDWLRQ DQG LV IXOO\ DGHTXDWH LQ VFRSH DQG TXDOLW\ DV D GLVVHUWDWLRQ IRU WKH GHJUHH RI ,-SFWRU RI 3KLORVRSK\ Q $A D 5RQDOG $NHUV 3URIHVVRU RI 6RFLRORJ\

PAGE 112

7KLV GLVVHUWDWLRQ ZDV VXEPLWWHG WR WKH *UDGXDWH )DFXOW\ RI WKH &ROOHJH RI +HDOWK 5HODWHG 3URIHVVLRQV DQG WR WKH *UDGXDWH 6FKRRO DQG ZDV DFFHSWHG DV SDUWLDO IXOILOOPHQW RQ WKH UHTXLUHPHQWV IRU WKH GHJUHH RI 'RFWRU RI 3KLORVRSK\ $XJXVW B }!r ?7 'HDQ &ROOHJH RI +HDOWK 5HODWHG 3URIHVVLRQV 'HDQ *UDGXDWH 6FKRRO

PAGE 113

81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$ ,,, ,,, ,,, OOOOO


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
III III III lllll -
3 1262 08554 3949


xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8
REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd
INGEST IEID EQHYT8AB9_QVTO9C INGEST_TIME 2011-11-02T15:29:14Z PACKAGE AA00004781_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES