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The BAT groundwater monitoring system in contaminant studies

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Title:
The BAT groundwater monitoring system in contaminant studies
Creator:
Mines, Barry Shaun, 1962-
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English
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xviii, 256 leaves : ill., photos. ; 29 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical analysis ( jstor )
Cylinders ( jstor )
Groundwater ( jstor )
Liquids ( jstor )
Porosity ( jstor )
Pumps ( jstor )
Soils ( jstor )
Steels ( jstor )
Storage containers ( jstor )
Water tables ( jstor )
Civil Engineering thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Civil Engineering -- UF
City of Gainesville ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1992.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 244-254)
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Barry Shaun Mines.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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THE BAT GROUNDWATER MONITORING
SYSTEM IN CONTAMINANT STUDIES



















By

BARRY SHAUN MINES


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1992


































Copyright 1992

by

Barry Shaun Mines



































This dissertation is dedicated to my loving wife, Wendy,

who put many of her dreams on hold so that I might achieve one

of mine.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


There are numerous individuals to whom I must express my

gratitude for their help and guidance in my academic

progression. It is definitely true that no man is an island

as I have been significantly influenced by those around me.

Dr. Bloomquist has served as a technical consultant. By

introducing high technology materials he has taught me to be

innovative and to think like an inventor. He has also given

me insight into many scientific principles.

Dr. Davidson has stressed to me the fundamentals of soil

behavior. He has listened with keen interest to my progress

reports after each field and laboratory test and has advised

me well. My gratitude to him for reading and editing my

research proposals and dissertation drafts are immeasurable.

Dr. Townsend has guided my professional development in

several ways--first, by giving me numerous scientific articles

dealing with my research which always seemed to come at an

appropriate time. His teaching methods instilled in his

students' confidence in their ability to design. Of all the

teachers I have had he has stressed the practical aspects of

design engineering, ensuring that students evaluate all

possible concerns to come up with the most effective and

economical designs. He has won me over to the teaching

iv









profession through his sincere involvement in the students'

development. He took groups to numerous construction sites to

see engineering works firsthand and to seminars and

conferences on new and innovative engineering techniques. As

part of his involvement with the Engineers' Fair, he had

students build reinforced earth walls with cardboard and paper

strips, giving them the opportunity to work as a group on a

engineering project as done in industry.

Charlie Schmidt enabled me to become a pseudo-chemist.

He taught me the theory of mass spectrometry and allowed me

hands-on use of the Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer for

chemical analyses. He honed my skills as a chemist and gave

me insight into the properties of hydrocarbons and chemical

solvents.

Dr. Tom Stauffer provided technical assistance and

arranged the financial support for this study. I am very

appreciative of his promptness in reading my drafts and

supplying helpful testing suggestions along with his hands on

approach of going to the site to view the field testing.

I am deeply appreciative of Dr. Don Myhre's sincere

interest in my project. He has always taken the time to

listen to the progress of my research and to make helpful

suggestions. From his soil chemistry class, he has stimulated

my interest in the sorption capacities of soils and the

partitioning of hydrophobic organic compounds.









Dr. Thompson and his staff have been most helpful in all

administrative affairs, from working with the Air Force to

obtain my funding, to ordering required equipment for my

research. Dr. Thompson has always had time to discuss my

research progress and provide liaison help with the Air Force.

His seminar course has been on target with various speakers on

current engineering issues. He has helped me to be a better

engineer/manager by showing me that it is not enough to be a

sound technical engineer; one must also be an informed citizen

and be aware of changing current events and how they affect

civil engineering.

My sincere appreciation is due to Ed Dobbson. Ed

accompanied me on many BAT and electric cone penetration

tests. He instructed me well on the use of the penetrometer

rig to the point where I could manage on my own. Ed would

always check to see when I would like to do more testing and

was always most helpful. I could always count on Ed to help

me fix any mechanical equipment with which I had problems.

Ed, along with Dr. Bloomquist, was great at thinking of

alternative ways to obtain groundwater samples.

I am grateful to the Handex Company, Geosolutions Inc.,

and the Alachua County Department of Environmental Control for

letting me use their contaminated sites for this study.

To my brother, Dr. Richard Mines, I am grateful for his

interest in my research. As a civil-environmental engineer,









he was responsible for introducing me to this area of study

and for helping me develop into an engineer.

Richard and Dreama Mines, my parents, were responsible

for instilling a high regard for education in my life. From

my mother I have inherited an unquenchable desire for reading,

which, along with my father's high level of motivation and

determination, has allowed me to succeed in life. They taught

me that if you don't push yourself in life, you will never

know your limits.

I am most grateful to my wife, Wendy. She made several

edits to my dissertation and allowed me to work numerous

nights and weekends, sacrificing much of our time together.

She was always there to help me when testing did not go well

or equipment did not arrive.


vii
















TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . .. iv

LIST OF TABLES .. xii

LIST OF FIGURES .. xiv

ABSTRACT . ... xvi

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION. 1

1.1 Problem Statement 1
1.2 Objectives .. 3

2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5

2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Direct Push Technology 6
2.2.1 Hydropunch 6
2.2.2 BAT Probe 9
2.3 DPT Field Studies .. .. 10
2.4 Sample Preservation. .. 16
2.5 Necessity for Current Study .. 17

3 LAB PERMEABILITY TESTING .. 20

3.1 Permeability Limitations of the BAT System 20
3.2 Lab Permeability of Soils .. 22

4 BAT GROUNDWATER MONITORING SYSTEM LAB STUDIES 30

4.1 Introduction .. 30
4.2 Monitoring Well Model .. 31
4.3 Experiment 1 Inside Model Monitoring Well 33
4.4 Experiment 2 Inside the Model Monitoring Well
. 38
4.5 Experiment 3 Inside the Model Monitoring Well
. 41
4.6 Experiment 4--Sampling Within Tank Spiked
Water . .. 46
4.7 Experiment 5--Sampling Within Tank Spiked
Water ... 51
4.8 Experiment 6--Sampling Within Tank Spiked
Water ... 52

viii










4.9 Teflon Ball and Tube Sampling Apparatus 54
4.10 BAT Vadose Zone Probe Testing 56
4.11 Summary. . 58

5 ANALYSIS, TRANSPORT, AND PROPERTIES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS .. 61

5.1 Introduction ... 61
5.2 Organic Compounds 61
5.3 Chemical Analysis .... 64
5.4 Regulatory Contaminant Levels .. 70
5.5 Solute Transport 71

6 FIELD STUDIES--CAVALIER PRODUCTS BUILDING SITE 76

6.1 Introduction .. 76
6.2 Field Test 1 77
6.3 Field Test 2 ... 79
6.4 BAT Sampling Within MW-17 84
6.5 CPT Testing .. 86
6.6 BAT Sampling Within MW-15 .. 87
6.7 BAT Field Test 5 ... 90
6.8 Summary . 93

7 FIELD STUDIES--TEXTILE TOWN .. 94

7.1 Introduction .. 94
7.2 BAT Test 1 . 95
7.3 BAT Test 2 98
7.4 BAT Testing at MW-7 .. 100
7.5 Vertical Contamination Profile at MW-7 103
7.6 Vertical Profile Testing at MW-11 .. 104
7.7 BAT Probe testing in MW-11 107
7.8 Plume Chasing ... 109
7.9 CPT Testing ... .111
7.10 Summary . 112

8 BAT MODIFICATION TESTING .. ... 114

8.1 Vacuum Pump Test 1 ... 114
8.2 Vacuum Pump Test 2 .. 118
8.3 Field Testing of Drill Rods as a Monitoring
Well . 122
8.4 Summary . 124

9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .. 127

9.1 Conclusions 127
9.2 Recommendations for Future Testing 130
9.3 Advantages of the BAT Groundwater Monitoring
System . 132









9.4 Disadvantages of the BAT Groundwater Monitoring
System . 133

APPENDICES

A PERMEABILITY DATA ... 135

A.1 Needle Permeability Without Filter 136
A.2 Permeability of Needle and HDPE Filter 141
A.3 Permeability of Needle and Steel Filter 146
A.4 Permeability of Kaolin-Sand Mixture 158
A.5 Permeability of Yellow Fine Mortar Sand 163
A.6 Permeability of a Uniform Sand ... 169
A.7 Permeability Data from Lynch Park .. 175
A.8 Sieve Analysis Data ... 177
A.9 Constant Head Permeability Data ..... 178
A.10 Falling Head Permeability Test ... 179
A.11 Atterberg Limits .. 179
A.12 Derivation of Formulas for BAT Permeability
Calculations .. 180

B ORGANIC CHEMICAL DATA ... .187

C BAT FIELD SAMPLING LOG ... .190

C.1 Cavalier Site .. 190
C.2 Textile Town Site .. 192

D CHEMICAL ANALYSES DATA ... .198

D.1 GC/MS Data for Cavalier Site .. 198
D.2 GC/MS Data for Textile Town Site .. 200

E DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES .. ... 205

E.1 Bailer Decontamination ... 205
E.2 Decontamination of BAT Glass Sample Vials 205
E.3 BAT Probe Decontamination 206
E.4 Decontamination of Enviro probe ... 207

F CONE PENETRATION DATA ... .208

F.1 CPT Sounding at Lynch Park Adjacent to
MW-17 . 208
F.2 CPT Sounding at Lynch Park Adjacent to
MW-15 . 208
F.3 CPT Sounding at Textile Town Around MW-11 209
F.4 CPT Sounding at Textile Town Around MW-7 209

G HEADSPACE CORRECTIONS .. 210









H OVERVIEW OF GROUNDWATER STRATEGIES


H.1 Groundwater Studies .. 215
H.1.1 Planning 215
H.1.2 Conventional Sampling Mechanisms .216
H.2 Monitoring Well Design Considerations 224
H.2.1 General ............. 224
H.2.2 Monitoring Well Size .. .224
H.2.3 Expected Contaminants 225
H.2.4 Water Table Depth .. 225
H.2.5 Screen and Casing Materials 226
H.3 Well Development .. .229
H.4 Purging of Wells 230
H.5 Sampling Studies .. ..231
H.5.1 Lab Studies .. 231
H.5.2 Field Studies .. .235
H.6 Underground Storage Tank Regulatory Programs 238
H.6.1 Congressional Acts .. 238
H.6.2 EPA's Underground Storage Tank
Program .. 239
H.6.3 Florida DER Programs .. .242

REFERENCE LIST. .... 244

SUPPLEMENTAL BIBLIOGRAPHY .. 251

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ... 255


215
















LIST OF TABLES


Table 3.1 Permeability Limitation Values of BAT
System .. 23

Table 3.2 Permeability of Three Soils ... 29

Table 4.1 Chemical Analyses of Sampling Within Model
Monitoring Well .. 39

Table 4.2 Chemical Analyses of Experiment Two Inside
the Model Monitoring Well ... 40

Table 4.3 Chemical Analyses of BAT Probe Sampling
Inside the Model Monitoring Well 44

Table 4.4 Chemical Analyses of Sampling Within Tank
Spiked Water ... 50

Table 4.5 Chemical Analyses from Sampling Within Tank
Spiked Water . 53

Table 4.6 Chemical Analyses of Experiment 6 .. 55

Table 4.7 Vadose Probe Testing ... 59

Table 5.1 Henry's Constant for Selected VOCs ... 63

Table 5.2 Primary Drinking Water Standards (MCLs) 69

Table 5.3 Florida Ground Water Target Levels ... 71

Table 6.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-17 at Cavalier
Site .... 81

Table 6.2 Chemical Analyses from MW-17 at Cavalier
Site .... 83

Table 6.3 Chemical Analyses from BAT Sampling Within
MW-17 . 86

Table 6.4 Chemical Analyses from BAT Sampling Within
MW-15 . 89

Table 6.5 Chemical Analyses from Lab Insitu Class 92

xii










Table 7.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-17 at Textile Town 103

Table 7.2 Chemical Analyses of Vertical Sampling at
MW-7 . 105

Table 7.3 Analyses from BAT Testing in MW-11 .. 110

Table 7.4 Chemical Analyses from Plume Chasing 112

Table 8.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-7 .. 119

Table 8.2 Total Times for Truck Set Up and Sampling 120

Table 8.3 Chemical Analyses from Vacuum Pump Apparatus 121

Table 8.4 Chemical Analyses from BAT Testing around
MW-7 . 125

Table 9.1 Summary Comparison of BAT Versus BAiler
Recovery of VOCs ... 128

Table G.1 Henry's Law Constants for Selected Organic
Compounds ..... 212


xiii


















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 2.1 Hydropunch in Closed and Open Positions

Figure 2.2 BAT Enviroprobe in Closed and Open
Positions .

Figure 3.1 Gradation Curve of Uniform White Fine Sand


S8


S 211

. 25


Figure 3.2 Gradation Curve of Fine Mortar Sand

Figure 4.1 Teflon Bailer .

Figure 4.2 Model Monitoring Well Set-Up .

Figure 4.3 BAT MK2 Probe .

Figure 4.4 Cascaded Sampling for Zero Head Space
Sample .

Figure 4.5 BAT Probe with Reaction Beam .

Figure 4.6 Balloon and Test Tube Apparatus .

Figure 4.7 BAT Sampling in Nalgene Container .

Figure 4.8 Typical Soil Moisture Curve .

Figure 5.1 Transport of a Typical LNAPL .

Figure 5.2 Transport of a DNAPL .

Figure 5.3 Typical Ion Chromatograph .

Figure 5.4 Typical Mass Spectra .

Figure 6.1 Cavalier Site Plan .


. 32

. 34

. 36


. 37

. 43

* 47

* 48

. 60

. 62

. 65

. 67

* 68

* 77


Figure 6.2 View of Cavalier Site--Lynch Park on Left

Figure 7.1 Textile Town Site Plan .

Figure 7.2 View of Textile Town--Penetrometer Rig
near MW-7 .


xiv









Figure 7.3 Cone over MW-11 .

Figure 7.4 View of Stripping Tower for Remediation

Figure 7.5 Penetrometer Rig around MW-7 .

Figure 7.6 Vertical Contamination Profile at MW-7

Figure 7.7 Vertical Contamination Profile at MW-11

Figure 7.8 Lateral Plume Delineation .

Figure 8.1 Brass Adaptor for Vacuum Pump Testing

Figure G.1 Fraction Remaining C/Co versus V,/V. for
Headspace Related Errors for Selected
Aromatics. Compounds Apply to 20 C .

Figure G.2 Fraction Remaining C/Co versus V,/Vs for
Headspace Related Errors for Selected
Chlorinated Compounds. Compounds Apply
to 20 C .

Figure H.1 Conventional Groundwater Sampling
Mechanisms .


. 97

S 101

S 102

S 106

S 108

S 113

S 115



S 213




S 214


218















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE BAT GROUNDWATER MONITORING SYSTEM IN
CONTAMINANT STUDIES

By

Barry Shaun Mines

August 1992

Chairperson: John L. Davidson
Major Department: Civil Engineering

Groundwater contamination continues to be a serious threat to

our environment. One prevalent cause of such contamination is

leakage from underground storage tanks. Detection and

assessment of contamination must be made before remediation of

any site can begin. This is traditionally accomplished by

sampling from monitoring wells. The BAT Groundwater

Monitoring System is a recently developed device which can

collect samples of pore fluid without the need for a drilled

well.

An experimental study was conducted on the BAT System,

with the major objective of evaluating its effectiveness in

sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Both large-scale

laboratory and field investigations were carried out. At many

locations BAT testing was compared to adjacent bailer sampling

from monitoring wells.


xvi









Neither the well bailer nor the BAT system consistently

recovered more VOCs, though concentrations recovered in most

cases were comparable. BAT samples recovered using a

stainless steel filter element consistently exhibited higher

concentrations of VOCs than did samples from probes with the

HDPE filter. Concentrations of volatile constituents in BAT

samples displayed a lower standard deviation than did samples

obtained using the bailer.

The effect of headspace in the BAT's sampling tubes was

investigated. VOCs measured in single tubes with small

amounts of headspace compared favorably with those in test

tubes obtained in a cascaded set-up which had no headspace.

The use of an inert material balloon within the sampling tube

to eliminate headspace and vacuum effects showed promise.

Modifications to the equipment were made to investigate the

possibility of drawing the much larger fluid samples required

for some chemical tests.

The BAT System can be used to estimate a formation's

coefficient of permeability. It was found that this

capability is limited, by the pore size of the filter element,

to determinations in very fine material, specifically silts

and clays.

The BAT test is a relatively rapid, inexpensive

penetration test which provides high quality and reproducible

pore fluid samples. It has the potential for use in the

assessment of contaminated sites, especially in the


xvii









delineation of leakage plumes and in siting of permanent

wells.


xviii















CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION



1.1 Problem Statement


Groundwater contamination continues to be a serious

threat to our environment at a time when the demand for water

resources has never been greater. Many states, including

Florida, obtain the majority of their water from groundwater

(aquifers). Contamination of this water can occur from

numerous sources. Some of the more prevalent are the

application of pesticides for agricultural uses, leakage of

fuel from storage tanks (above or below ground), leakage of

leachate from sanitary landfills or hazardous waste sites, and

spillage/leakage from industrial plants. For, example the

Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (Stuart, 1986)

estimates that 6000 of the state's 60,000 petroleum storage

tanks are leaking. Currently there are over 1.4 million

underground storage tanks in the United States that are

regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery ACT

(RCRA). Of these it is estimated that approximately 80% are

constructed of bare steel, which is easily corroded.

Determination of the presence of groundwater

contamination is typically performed by installing monitoring









2

wells for groundwater sampling. Alternative methods include

soil sampling for analysis, extraction of vapors from the

vadose zone, magnetic/resistivity surveys, and direct push

(or penetration) technology (DPT).

DPT makes use of a cone device which is pushed or

hammered into the ground. Some tips have sensors for

measuring the changes in the resistivity/conductivity of the

soil which can provide a measure of the total dissolved solids

through correlations. Others tips use fluorescence sensors to

detect contamination (Cooper and Malone, 1991). Fluorescence

sensors radiate ultraviolet light out into the soil where some

contaminants absorb the radiation and then fluoresce (emit

light). The emitted light is received by a fiber-optic link

which sends the information to an optical analzyer for

spectral analysis. Cooper and Malone (1991) state that these

sensors are only good for contamination concentrations greater

than 200 ppm. Another problem with this system is that not

all organic compounds fluoresce. Some that do are polynuclear

aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenol, toluene, and the

xylenes. Naturally occurring materials also fluoresce causing

interference.

A relatively new penetrometer, the BAT probe

(Torstensson, 1984), allows groundwater samples to be taken

without installation of costly monitoring wells. A porous

element in the probe's tip connects via a hypodermic needle

and septum with an evacuated sample tube, which is lowered











down the center of the push rods from the surface. However,

considerable doubt has existed in the regulatory arena as to

whether such a sampling device would cause a loss of VOCs due

to the initial vacuum in the sample tube. Some environmental

regulatory agencies are not willing to use the BAT until a

larger data base has been established on its ability to obtain

a representative sample. Peristaltic pumps used to obtain

groundwater samples from monitoring wells have generally been

ineffective for sampling VOCs because the reduced pressure

causes the VOCs to volatilze away.

The question to be answered is whether the BAT probe can

be penetrated into the ground and recover groundwater samples

which contain contamination levels comparable as that obtained

using a monitoring well and bailer.



1.2 Objectives

The purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth,

comprehensive study to compare results from the BAT probe and

and Teflon bailers from nearby monitoring wells. VOCs are

typically the most difficult contaminants to sample. The

research was performed by taking samples within a small radius

around monitoring wells at two leaking underground storage

tank sites and taking bailer samples from the monitoring

wells. BAT sampling will also be performed inside the

monitoring wells to ensure basically the same water is being

sampled.









4

A secondary purpose of the study is to evaluate the

repeatability of BAT probe testing, i.e., what is the

precision of the device? Does it have a high or a low

standard deviation compared to the Teflon bailer? Other

objectives of the research are to:



1. Evaluate the significance of headspace in BAT sample

vials and look at possible modifications to eliminate this

headspace.

2. Perform laboratory testing to determine the limitations

of the BAT probe for the determination of the coefficient of

permeability. Does the BAT probe give reasonable values of

the coefficient of permeability?

3. Examine modifications which could be made to the BAT

groundwater monitoring system to allow collection of larger

sample sizes.

4. Perform BAT testing to determine the extent of vertical

and horizontal contamination at a site.

5. Determine typical sampling times for the BAT probe along

with time estimates for setting up a penetrometer rig and

taking groundwater samples with the BAT probe.

6. Provide an overall evaluation of the BAT system, its

advantages, disadvantages, and uses in groundwater studies

(specifically contamination assessments).

7. Reommend future possible research with the BAT system.















CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


2.1 Introduction


The ability to characterize the quality of groundwater

adequately and economically is a major concern in all

contamination studies. In order to determine whether a site's

groundwater is contaminated, samples must be obtained for

chemical analysis to verify the presence of contaminants and

their concentrations. Engineers, owners, contractors, and

regulatory officials are concerned with obtaining groundwater

samples that are "representative" of actual insitu conditions.

Obtaining "representative" groundwater samples for chemical

analysis is extremely difficult, if not impossible. It

parallels the problem geotechnical engineers have in obtaining

"undisturbed" soil samples.

The literature review that follows first gives

descriptions of two DPT systems (BAT System and the

Hydropunch) used for performing groundwater contamination

assessment and then presents a critical review of previous

testing of these devices. Lastly, a discussion of headspace

in sample vials is presented.











2.2 Direct Push Technology

Development of DPT within the past ten years has made it

possible to take groundwater samples without having to drill

and install a monitoring well. This is a significant

breakthrough since Pettyjohn et al. (1981) have shown that

drilling monitoring wells can alter the chemical and microbial

environment in the vicinity of the well. Drilling fluids can

especially alter the chemistry of the groundwater. Direct

push technology has been around for decades in the form of

cone penetration testing. Cone penetration testing is used to

determine soil stratigraphy by measuring the end bearing and

frictional resistance on a tip of standard dimensions, which

is pushed into the ground at a standard rate. ASTM D3441

governs the performance of the test. In DPT a sampling

device is attached to a string of drill rods and either

hammered or hydraulically pushed into the ground to the

required sampling depth. Two such commercial devices which

will be discussed below are the Hydropunch and the BAT

Groundwater Monitoring System.



2.2.1 Hydropunch

The Hydropunch device was introduced in March 1985. Edge

and Cordry (1989) give an excellent overview of the system.

The device has a stainless steel drive cone, a stainless steel

perforated intake for sampling, and a stainless steel sample

chamber. To obtain a sample, the device is attached by means











of an adapter to either cone penetration rods or drill rods.

The device is pushed hydraulically to the required sampling

depth. The push rods are then pulled up 1.5 feet to expose

the stainless steel intake. The drive cone is held in place

by the friction of the soil. Once the intake is exposed,

water flows through the intake into the sample chamber due to

hydrostatic pressure. Once the chamber is filled (5 mL) the

device is pulled to the surface. A ball valve, similar to

that in a bailer, closes during extraction ensuring no loss of

sample. At the surface the device is disassembled and a

discharge tube inserted into the unit to allow transfer of the

fluid sample to a container for storage and transport to a

lab. Figure 2.1 is a diagram showing the Hydropunch

operation.

The device minimizes cross contamination. Since the

exterior of the device is smooth, contaminated soil is not

transported down as the sampler is advanced. It also has the

advantage of not exposing the sample to negative pressures

which could cause degassing and loss of VOCs. It has the

disadvantage of only obtaining a very small sample (5 mL). In

sandy soils, samples can be obtained in as little as 5

minutes. In clayey soils it may take 45 minutes or longer.

Like the bailer, the sample must be transferred to a sample

container, a process which could cause loss of VOCs. The

hydropunch requires no purging of water as is necessary in the

use of monitoring wells.




















































Figure 2.1 Hydropunch in Closed and Open Positions











2.2.2 BAT Probe

Torstensson (1984) describes another probe that was

developed for groundwater sampling using DPT. The standard

device, known as a BAT probe, consists of a tip with a porous

filter. The probe is attached to special drill rods (1 inch

minimum inner diameter) and then pushed hydraulically into the

ground to the required sampling depth. At the ground surface,

a vacuum pump is used to evacuate a test tube (35 mL) which is

placed within a housing. A chain of weights is attached to

the housing and to a steel cable, which is used to lower the

apparatus through the center of the drill rods. The housing

also contains a double-ended needle, which is installed within

a spring. Once the housing reaches the bottom of the drill

rod, the hypodermic needle first makes contact with a septum

in the BAT probe and is then pushed up through a septum in

the test tube. Water is thus drawn through the porous filter

of the BAT probe and into the evacuated test tube. When

equilibrium is reached the apparatus is manually pulled to the

surface and the test tube removed from the housing, labeled,

and placed in a cooler for transport to a laboratory. When

pulling up on the steel cable, the spring in the housing

causes the double-ended needle to simultaneously lose contact

with the test tube and the septum of the filter, ensuring no

sample loss. The BAT system has other attachments which can

be lowered down the drill rods to measure pore water pressure

and to perform hydraulic conductivity tests. Torstensson









10

(1984) describes the use of the system in monitoring Cl-

concentrations with depth and with time at a Stockholm,

Sweden, site in 1981. Figure 2.2 shows a diagram of the BAT

Enviroprobe.



2.3 DPT Field Studies

Edge and Cordry (1989) discuss several case histories in

which the Hydropunch was used in groundwater contamination

studies. It was used in 1985, 1986, and 1987 at a California

landfill for the detection of leaking, low level, VOCs. At a

schoolyard in the spring of 1986 in Los Angeles, California,

it was used on a weekend to confirm the presence of benzene,

toluene, and xylene contamination. The study was carried out

over the weekend to minimize disruption to the school and was

completed at a third of the cost of monitoring wells. In

1988, it was used at a petrochemical facility in Louisiana to

detect low levels of chlorinated organic. The concentration

and extent of contamination was determined which allowed

planning of remedial measures. Klopp et al. (1989) discuss

several case histories of the use of the BAT system in ground

water contamination studies. It was used to study the

stratification of arsenic near San Francisco in 1986. It was

also used for several projects in Texas under the review of

the USEPA and the Texas Water Commission. These included

sampling at a leaking storage tank, delineation of a plume,
















SEPTUM


=II- 4 RETAINING NUT


PROBE BODY

THREADED CONNECTION


POROUS FILTER m



TIP


Figure 2.2 BAT Enviroprobe in Closed and Open Positions


7-7









12

detection of buried hazardous waste, and sampling at an

abandoned land fill. This paper notes that the BAT system can

take a sample at one elevation, be decontaminated at that

elevation, then pushed to another depth for additional

sampling in order to vertically delineate the ground water

quality.

Smolley and Kappmeyer (1991) used the Hydropunch at

Silicon Valley, California for the plume delineation of VOCs

that had leaked from underground storage tanks. The

Hydropunch was first validated by pushing it beside an

existing monitoring well and taking ground samples from each

for comparison. The Hydropunch gave higher concentrations of

VOCs than samples from the monitoring well. The operators of

the Hydropunch only had a 70% sample collection success rate

at this site. They found that the check valve does not always

close properly, causing a loss of sample. The study concluded

that by using the Hydropunch samples could be collected at 20

to 40 percent of the projected cost of monitoring wells. The

work was also completed in a third of the time that would have

been required for monitoring wells. This paper states that

samples up to 500 mL can be taken with the sampler, which is

significantly larger than that stated by Edge and Cordry

(1989). This must be due to some modification to the system.

Strutynsky and Sainey (1990) discuss the use of both the

Hydropunch and the BAT system at an industrial site in

southern Ohio to delineate a trichloroethene plume. These









13

systems were chosen because the plume had moved off the

manufacturer's site onto the property of a farmer who did not

want monitoring wells installed on his property. At this site

the operators had an 81% sampling success rate with the

Hydropunch (22 samples out of 27 attempts). It was noted that

the tip had to be placed at least 4 feet below the water table

for sample collection. The BAT system was tried at two

locations at this site. The first was not successful as the

thin walled casing used to push the BAT probe buckled.

Normally, heavy duty steel drill rods are used to push the BAT

probe. At the second location the BAT Enviroprobe was

successful in obtaining multiple samples.

Lammons et al. (1991) discuss the use of the Hydropunch

at an industrial site in South Carolina to delineate the

vertical and horizontal extent of ground water contamination.

The Hydropunch took samples at several locations which were

then made into permanent monitoring wells. The Hydropunch was

able to take a significantly greater number of samples than

conventional methods for the same cost, which made it possible

to more effectively delineate the contaminant plume.

Torstensson and Petsonk (1988) discuss the work done by

the Earth Technology Corporation at two contaminated sites in

California. At one site samples were taken from a monitoring

well with a conventional teflon bailer. The BAT probe was

then placed inside the well and additional samples taken. The

samples were analyzed by EPA methods 601 and 602. The BAT









14

samples showed consistently higher concentrations of VOCs. For

one contaminant, tetrachloroethene, the BAT probe recovered

77% more than the bailer did. The actual concentrations of

contaminants were probably even greater than obtained with the

BAT probe, as the 35 mL sample vials had a slight headspace in

them. Torstensson suggested that two sample vials could be

used in conjunction to avoid having any headspace. Two test

tubes would be placed in a sample housing with a hypodermic

needle between them. During sampling, the bottom test tube

would fill completely with the overflow going up into the

second test tube. Therefore the second test tube would

contain water and headspace while the bottom one would be

completely filled.

Geomatrix Consultants (1986) used the BAT probe at East

Palo Alto, California, to delineate an arsenic plume.

Fourteen BAT soundings were made to determine the

concentration of arsenic with depth. Samples obtained from

the BAT system were in general agreement with those obtained

from the few monitoring wells that were already in place.

The BAT probe can also be used for vadose zone monitoring

as demonstrated by Haldorsen et al. (1985). A sintered

ceramic filter with an average pore size of 2 microns is used.

Since initially a vacuum is placed on a test tube, this device

can only obtain a ground water sample when the soil tension is

less than about 10 meters of water. By measuring the pore

pressure changes with time as the water flows into the









15

sampler, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be

calculated. The saturated hydraulic conductivity in an

unsaturated zone can be determined by performing an outflow

test while measuring pore pressure changes with time. This is

done by partially filling a test tube with water and then

pressurizing it. The water is forced into the unsaturated

zone and gradually saturates the soil. In a fairly

homogeneous soil the probe can be used at different depths,

each having a different soil tension, to obtain the hydraulic

conductivity which can be used to plot the K(h) curve.

Petsonk (1985) discusses the theory for performing hydraulic

conductivity tests which is based upon work by Hvorslev,

Dachler, and from Boyle's Law.

A large scale field comparison of several ground water

sampling devices was performed at the Desert Research

Institute in Las Vegas, Nevada, in conjunction with the USEPA

Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (Blegen et al.,

1988). The sampling devices used in the comparison included

a teflon bailer, a bladder pump (Well Wizard), the West Bay MP

System, two in situ BAT probes, and a BAT well probe. Six

"monitoring" wells were installed at a site contaminated with

benzene and chlorobenzene. Three wells were of the

conventional type. Two others were constructed by drilling a

borehole, inserting a BAT probe into it, placing a gravel pack

around the probe, and backfilling the borehole. The last well

was a borehole in which the Westbay MP system was installed.










16
The wells were set up in a rectangular grid with a 20 foot

spacing between them. Samples were taken with each device

over an eight week period. The bladder pump and the BAT probe

generally obtained the highest recovery of organic; the

Westbay system obtained the lowest, with the teflon bailer in

between.

2.4 Sample Preservation

Johnson et al. (1987) looked at the effect of headspace

in sample bottles on the loss of VOCs. They found that if the

volume of the headspace is greater than 5% of the total volume

of the container, significant loss of VOCs could occur. In

one instance, a sample bottle only half filled with a sample

had a 50% reduction in l,l,l-trichloroethane.

Pankow (1986) also studied the effect of headspace on the

loss of VOCs. He provides an excellent table and figure

relating the loss of VOCs to different headspace volumes for

numerous organic chemical compounds. Appendix G provides

expanded figures of the concentration remaining in solution

versus different headspace volumes for selected aromatic and

chlorinated organic compounds. He found that samples

containing benzene and toluene and with a ratio of volume of

headspace to volume of sample as great as .1 only suffered a

compound loss of 1%. However, with some other organic, such

as vinyl chloride and chloroethane, a .1 ratio of headspace to









17

sample would result in a loss of 25% or more. The effect of

headspace is thus very dependent upon the contaminant in

question.

Clesceri et al. (1989) recommend that sample vials for

volatile analysis have no headspace to avoid loss of volatiles

by volatization. Samples once taken in the field should be

placed in a cooler supplied with ice packs to maintain the

temperature at 4C. By keeping the samples cool and dark

there is less chance of loss of volatiles and less chance of

growth of microorganisms.



2.5 Necessity for Current Study

Blegen et al. (1988) performed a study comparing seven

different samplers, including the BAT groundwater monitoring

system and a Teflon bailer, at a single site in Nevada.

Several issues were not addressed in this study. At no time

were BAT and Teflon bailer samples obtained from the same

monitoring well to be sure that basically the same water was

being sampled. In this study, a hole was predrilled, the BAT

probe installed, and the hole then backfilled with a gravel

pack, fine silica sand, and a cement-bentonite slurry. The

BAT probe in this case was basically an installed monitoring

well. This defeats the major purpose of the BAT, which is to

eliminate drilling and installation of a monitoring well. The

question is whether the BAT can be penetrated into the ground

and recover representative samples which contain contamination









18

comparable to that obtained using a monitoring well and

bailer.

In Blegen's study the BAT probe was installed 20 feet

from the monitoring well where Teflon bailer samples were

obtained. Such a significant distance in itself may cause a

discrepancy in the concentrations of contaminants measured.

Variations can also be caused by the sampling depth interval.

The BAT groundwater monitoring system samples over a length of

2 inches while the wells installed were screened over a 12

inch interval. No information in their study is given as to

whether or not BAT samples were obtained using cascaded

sampling techniques to eliminate headspace. No data was

presented where the BAT probe was used with a stainless steel

filter in comparison to a HDPE filter.

The current study is needed to develop a larger database

with the BAT groundwater monitoring system. Numerous

regulatory agencies are skeptical of new and innovative

systems until they are thoroughly tested to validate their

use. This study will provide sampling with the BAT probe

using both steel and HDPE filters to evaluate the better of

the two. BAT sampling will be performed inside monitoring

wells to allow comparison directly with Teflon bailer samples

to validate its ability to recover VOCs. BAT sampling will

also be performed adjacent to monitoring wells to show that it

can recover higher concentrations of VOCs than the teflon

bailer in monitoring wells due to the dilution effect which









19

can occur in monitoring wells. Statistics will be given to

show that the BAT system is a more precise device by showing

a lower standard deviation and relative standard deviation

(coefficient of variation) than the bailer.

BAT samples will be analyzed at different amounts of

headspace to see if significant losses of VOCs occur in the

BAT sample tubes due to headspace. Pankow (1986) has

previously shown that losses of BTEX in sample vials with

small amounts of headspace was minimal.















CHAPTER 3
LAB PERMEABILITY TESTING



3.1 Permeability Limitations of the BAT System


The insitu coefficient of permeability can be determined

using the BAT groundwater monitoring system. Both inflow and

outflow testing is possible. For inflow testing the BAT MK2

probe is hydraulically pushed to the desired depth. The pore

water pressure is determined by using the BAT pore water

pressure adaptor. The adaptor uses a single ended hypodermic

needle to make hydraulic connection between the BAT probe and

a pore pressure transducer which is connected to a digital

display unit. The insitu pore pressure is recorded from the

hand held display unit. A double ended test tube is then

placed in a housing and is connected to the pressure

transducer by means of a single ended hypodermic needle which

is connected to an extension cylinder. The extension cylinder

has a small port which contains a rubber septum. For inflow

testing a needle is used to pierce the septum and either a

syringe or vacuum pump is used to evacuate the test tube. For

outflow testing, water is placed into the test tube and then

pressurized using a syringe through the septum port. The

pressure in the test tube can be read on the display unit.









21

Once the desired pressure is attained the needle is removed

from the septum and the test tube remains sealed at that

pressure. The housing is then lowered down the drill rods

until connection is made with the probe. Upon connection a

stopwatch is started. Pressure readings should be taken from

the hand held digital read-out at regular intervals. In the

inflow test, as water is drawn into the test tube the pressure

becomes more positive. The initial pore pressure reading

along with the pressure readings with time are input into a

computer program "Perm" Version 13 developed by the BAT

company which calculates the coefficient of permeability.

Additional information on the program "Perm" is provided in

section A.12 of Appendix A.

In both the inflow and outflow tests water must pass

through the probe's porous filter and through the hypodermic

needle which provides connection between the sample tube and

the probe. It is apparent that there will be a maximum soil

permeability which can be correctly measured. In a more

permeable soil the flow of water will be governed not by the

soil but by the filter and/or the needle. The determined

"permeability" will be of the device and not of the penetrated

soil. This limiting permeability value was determined by

laboratory testing.

The BAT probe was placed in a bucket of water and inflow

permeability testing performed. An initial vacuum (negative

pressure) was applied to the test tube using a vacuum hand









22

pump. The test tube was then lowered down the drill rods

until needle contact was made with the probe's septum.

Because the test tube pressure was lower than the insitu

(bucket) water pressure, water was drawn into the tube. This

continued until equilibrium was reached, i.e., the pressure in

the test tube was equal to the external water pressure.

Twelve tests were performed using the stainless steel

porous filter and five using the high density polyethylene

(HDPE) porous filter. To determine if the porous filter or

the needle actually provided the limiting permeability, five

additional tests were performed with no porous filter. The

results are shown in Table 3.1. The average permeability of

the set-up using the steel filter was 7.8E-04 cm/sec, using

the HDPE filter 1.7E-04 and with no filter 6.1E-03. This

demonstrates that it is the pore size of the probe filter

which is the limiting component.

The BAT groundwater monitoring system with the porous

filters tested is not suitable for permeability testing in

soils with a coefficient greater than approximately 1.OE-04

cm/sec, i.e., clean sands and sand-gravel mixes. The methods

may be suitable in such soils as clays, silts, and clay or

silt-sand mixes (Cedergren, 1977).



3.2 Lab Permeability of Soils

The coefficients of permeability of three soils were

determined in the laboratory using the BAT groundwater












Table 3.1 Permeability Limitation Values of BAT
System


TRIAL

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

AVERAGE
STD DEV


PERM
W/STEEL
FILTER
(cm/sec)

9.6E-05
4.6E-04
4.1E-03
2.4E-03
6.2E-04
1.1E-04
1.1E-03
9.6E-05
8.3E-05
8.5E-05
9.0E-05
7.2E-05

7.8E-04
1.2E-03


PERM
W/HDPE
FILTER
(cm/sec)

1.4E-04
1.6E-04
1.4E-04
1.5E-04
2.4E-04








1.7E-04
3.4E-05


PERM
NO
FILTER
(cm/sec)

5.0E-04
8.2E-03
2.1E-02
6.2E-05
7.2E-04








6.1E-03
7.3E-03


monitoring system and then compared with values obtained from

constant/falling head tests. The soils were a uniform white

silica sand, a fine yellow mortar sand, and a 50% silica sand-

50% kaolinite clay mixture. The uniform white silica sand was

obtained from the Feldspar Corporation of Edgar, Florida (EPK

Sand, CAS NO. 14808-60-7). It had an effective size (D1,) of

.16 mm, a uniformity coefficient (Cu) of 1.7 and a

coefficient of curvature (C,) of .93. Its grain size

distribution curve is shown in Figure 3.1. This soil also

classified as an A-3 according to the AASHTO system. The fine

yellow mortar sand (Figure 3.2) had a Do, of .19 mm, a Cu of

1.7 and a C, of 1.08. This soil classified as an A-3 in the









24

AASHTO system. Both soils classified as a SP (poorly graded

sand) according to the Unified Soil Classification System

(USCS). The sand-clay mixture was obtained by blending the

EPK sand with pulverized kaolin that was also obtained from

the Feldspar Corporation (CAS No. 1332-58-7). The mixture had

a plastic limit of 20.0 and a liquid limit of 31.8.

Coefficients of permeabilities of the sands were also

estimated using Hazen's equation:

k-C* (Do1) 2



where k = permeability in cm/sec

C = empirical factor with an average value of 1

Do = effective diameter in mm



Hazen estimates are included in the table of results, Table

3.2



Before performing any BAT permeability testing in the lab

it was necessary to determine the size of container (bucket)

which would avoid any boundary effects that could influence

the results. Drawdown was estimated by assuming a porosity

of the sand, knowing the radius of the available containers

and knowing the volume of water which would be removed per

test (35 mL).












35
H-hw-
7Er2*n


Figure 3.1 Gradation Curve of Uniform White Fine Sand



where H h, = drawdown in cm

n = porosity or saturated volumetric water content

r = radius of the container in cm

To be conservative a low porosity (n) of .3 was selected. A

low porosity would cause a greater drawdown. A bucket of

radius 5.5 inches (14 cm) was selected. For this bucket the

drawdown was calculated as:


WHITE SILICA SAND


LOG DIAMET1 (MM)














































Figure 3.2 Gradation Curve of Fine Mortar Sand


H-hw- 35 -.19cm-.00623ft
,*142*.3



To determine the upper limit of the coefficient of

permeability that could be used with this bucket the following

equation was used (Joint Technical Manual Departments of the

Army, Air Force, and Navy, 1983):


R-C* (H-h,) *v,


YEUIW/ORANGE SAND
100

9 -o -I- --- ---

80 --f-~- ___ ---t __----

70.1----

S60
I. -------_-- -
250- -- ----_ ----- -- -- V.
40- ____
aI I I II

a-
20-



0.01 0.1 1 10
ILD DUAIIE (MM)












where R = radius of influence in feet

H = height of water level beyond the zone of influence

h, = height of water at the probe

H h, = the drawdown in feet

C = empirical factor normally equal to 2 or 3

k = coefficient of permeability in units of 10'- cm/sec


5.5-3*.00623*/T
12
K-6.01*10-2 cm
sec



This coefficient of permeability is significantly greater

than the upper limit of the BAT system (1.OE-04 cm/sec). The

11 inch diameter bucket is therefore satisfactory as regards

to boundary affects.

The experiments with the sand consisted of placing a

known volume of water into the bucket, locating the BAT probe

in the center of the bucket and raining a known amount of dry

sand (by weight) in around it. The bucket was shaken to

vibrate and settle the soil thereby eliminating any large

voids. This procedure was followed until the bucket was

filled with sand (an approximate height of 13 inches) and the

water level was at the surface of the sand. This allowed the

exact water pressure and the unit weight of the material to be

known. The pore pressure was also checked with the BAT pore









28

pressure device. This gave water heights within 2 cm of the

known heights in the bucket. Since the steel filter had the

highest permeability it was used for all testing.

For the BAT permeability testing the white silica sand

had a dry unit weight of 80.6 pcf and a moist (saturated) unit

weight of 109 pcf. The yellow mortar sand had a dry unit

weight of 90.6 pcf and a moist unit weight of 114.4 pcf. The

same respective dry unit weights were used in the constant

head tests.

The sand-kaolin mixture was prepared by placing a known

amount of water into the bucket and adding a known dry amount

of kaolin. The water and kaolin were mechanically mixed.

Sand was mixed in gradually until a 50-50 mixture of sand-

kaolin had been made. The mixture had a dry unit weight of

67.5 pcf and a moist unit weight of 99.3 pcf. The moist unit

weight in the falling head test was 118 pcf.

The results of the permeability testing are shown in

Table 3.2. The kaolin-water mixture had the lowest

coefficient of permeability of the three soils as expected.

The BAT underestimated the coefficient of permeability by a

factor of 100 when compared with the falling head test even

though the material was in a denser state in the falling head

apparatus. The permeabilities' calculated using Hazen's

equation for the sands compared rather well with the values

obtained from the constant head permeability tests. Values

obtained with the BAT probe did not compare well with the










29

constant head tests. It was evident that the fine sands were

more permeable than the steel filter used on the BAT probe.

The BAT testing in the fine sands was still a measure of the

permeability of the steel filter and not of the fine sand. It

is evident that the BAT is severely limited for permeability

testing. Further research could include comparison of the

coefficient of permeability from the BAT probe and from field

pumping tests since both measure predominantly the horizontal

coefficient of permeability.

Table 3.2 Permeability of Three Soils


TRIAL

1
2
3
4
5
6

AVERAGE
STD DEV

HAZEN'S EQ

CONSTANT HEA
FALLING HEAE


PERM
SAND-KAOLIN

(cm/sec)

2.8E-07
2.1E-07
2.0E-07
2.0E-07
2.0E-07


2.2E-07
2.9E-08



D6 -
S6.3E-05


PERM
FINE MORTAR
SAND
(cm/sec)

4.2E-04
6.5E-04
5.9E-05
9.6E-05
5.3E-04
2.6E-05

3.0E-04
2.3E-04

3.6E-02

2.3E-02
-


PERM
UNIFORM
SAND
(cm/sec)

1.8E-05
2.0E-05
1.3E-05
7.4E-05
5.3E-05
5.8E-05

3.9E-05
2.2E-05

2.6E-02

1.6E-02


I















CHAPTER 4
BAT GROUNDWATER MONITORING SYSTEM LAB STUDIES



4.1 Introduction


This chapter discusses laboratory studies which were

performed to evaluate the BAT probe's ability to recover VOCs

as compared to that of the Teflon bailer in a controlled

environment. A model monitoring well was built to sample with

the BAT probe and with the Teflon bailer. Additional testing

with the BAT probe and the bailer was performed in a large

nalgene tank filled with water spiked with gasoline

constituents. This testing was performed to directly compare

the amount of VOCs recovered from the BAT probe and the Teflon

bailer to determine if the BAT performed comparable to the

bailer.

Each section describes in detail all set-up procedures

and testing sequences. All chemical analyses for this study

(both laboratory and field) were performed on a Gas

Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) in accordance with EPA

Methods 524/624 which allows water sample storage at 4 C

without preservatives up to seven days. The equipment used

was a Hewlett-Packard 5985 GC/MS "benchtop" system with an HP

5840A gas chromatograph. The GC had a 30 meter capillary









31

column with a 0.32 mm inner diameter. Samples were purged for

11 minutes, desorbed for four minutes, and baked for 6

minutes.

Other topics include modifications of the BAT system to

provide samples with no headspace including the use of

balloons inside test tubes and Teflon tubes with Teflon balls.

A BAT probe with a ceramic filter is used in the laboratory to

simulate vadose zone testing.



4.2 Monitoring Well Model


A ground water monitoring well was constructed in the lab

to model a typical field installation. The purpose of the

model was to allow an evaluation of two types of groundwater

sampling mechanisms, a Teflon bailer (350 mL--Norwell

Company) and the BAT probe. The Teflon bailer is shown in

Figure 4.1.

The model was constructed within a metal 55-gallon drum

which was lined with a plastic nalgene container. The nalgene

container was used to decrease the chemical interaction

sorptionn or leaching) that could occur between the

contaminants and either the metal drum or regular plastic

garbage cans. Because of the flexibility of the nalgene

container the metal drum was needed to provide rigid

containment. Since the nalgene tank had a flow valve on the

bottom, a small slit was made down the side of the metal drum

with a welding torch to allow its insertion. The monitoring










32

well was constructed of a 2.5 foot section of "triloc" slotted

pvc well screen with a #10 slot (.01 inch opening). This was

threaded onto a 2.5 foot section of pvc casing on one end and

a pointed tip on the other. The monitoring well had an inner

diameter of 2 inches. A uniform sand with an effective

diameter of .012 inches was rained in around the monitoring


Figure 4.1 Teflon Bailer









33

well. Figure 4.2 is a photograph of the model monitoring well

set-up.

4.3 Experiment 1 Inside Model Monitoring Well

In the first experiment a solution was prepared by mixing

50 liters of water with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, each

at a concentration of 20 pg/l (20 ppb). This contaminated

water was then siphoned through a flexible tube into the

bottom of the monitoring well, from which it spread radially

into the sand-filled container. Filling took approximately

two and a half hours.

Several attempts to mix the chemicals directly with water

were unsuccessful due to the relative insolubility of these

volatile aromatics. Each attempt only provided a non-aqueous

phase liquid (NAPL) above the water due to its lower specific

gravity and hydrophobic characteristics. To overcome this

problem 0.5 grams of benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were added

to 50 ml of methanol (CH3OH) to dissolve the aromatics. This

provided a solution with a concentration of 10,000 mg/l (ppm).


.5g 103mL 10mg10000mg
50mL L g L



To achieve a desired concentration of 20 ppb, 100 p1 of

the above solution was injected into a tank containing 50

liters of water. The water and chemicals were gently

mechanically mixed with a wooden rod.












1 X1,00 g x103R
1x1O,OOO0x lQCji
100LLx 106 pL L mg =20tig
50L L


Figure 4.2 Model Monitoring Well Set-Up


When the filling of the tank with water was completed, a

Teflon bailer, which had been cleaned and stored in aluminum

foil, was lowered down the monitoring well to obtain a water

sample. This first bailer sample was discarded. The bailer









35

was again lowered down the well to obtain a sample. Upon

retrieval, two 40 mL glass vials (teflon sealed) were filled

using the bottom control flow valve. While inserting the flow

control valve into the bottom of the bailer, it appeared that

a small air bubble was introduced into the water and traveled

up through the bailer. Two 40 mL glass vials were also filled

by decanting the water through the top of the bailer. The

vials were refrigerated for sample preservation. A BAT probe

(Figure 4.3) was then lowered down through the center of the

well to obtain samples. The first sample was discarded

because 8 mL of the water in the sample was from the water

that was used to saturate the porous filter. Three attempts

were made to obtain samples using the cascaded type system of

two test tubes in series (Figure 4.4). This procedure was

used to collect a bottom tube sample with no headspace while

the upper sample will contain some headspace. Cascaded BAT

samples were numbered with odd integers for the lower (zero

headspace) tube samples, e.g BAT3, and with the next (even)

integer for the upper (with headspace) tube sample for the

same test. Only one of the three attempts yielded a sample

with no headspace. There appeared to be a bad connection

between the two test tubes. In the two unsuccessful attempts,

the bottom test tubes were partially filled while the upper

tubes were empty. The upper test tubes when opened still had

vacuums. Samples were stored for less than one day before

performing the chemical analyses. Results are shown in Table
















EVACUATED TEST
TUBE


SEPTLI -
DOUBLE ENDED
NEEDLE
SEPTUM





POROUS FILTER H


Figure 4.3 BAT MK2 Probe













-,U UPPER SAMPLE TUBE
WITH SOME HEADSPACE


- HYPODERMIC NEEDLE




-_LOWER SAMPLE TUBE
NO HEADSPACE


---- HYPODERMIC NEEDLE

S--- TIP SEPTUM


Figure 4.4 Cascaded Sampling for Zero Head Space Sample









38

4.1. The bailer samples recovered more VOCs than did the BAT

samples. The single BAT sample with no headspace still

recovered 3% less benzene, 15% less toluene, and 24% less

xylene than did the average of all the bailer samples.



4.4 Experiment 2 Inside the Model Monitoring Well

After the chemicals had remained in the drum for three

days, additional samples were taken. Two full samples without

headspace were obtained using the cascaded technique (BAT1 and

BAT3) and one sample was obtained using the single vial

technique (BAT5). These samples were also taken by placing

the BAT probe down the center of the monitoring well. The

results are shown in Table 4.2.

These two rounds of sampling did show the effect that

headspace has on the loss of VOCs. Generally, the larger the

headspace the smaller the amount of VOCs observed. The sample

that was obtained during experiment 1 which was stored for

five days did not show any additional loss of VOCs as compared

to those stored for only one day.

A very important factor discovered was that the method of

extracting the water sample from the BAT test tubes played a

large role in the levels of observed contaminants. It was

determined that the best method to obtain the water from a

double-ended test tube was to hold the tube vertically, remove

the top end of the test tube, insert the needle of the syringe

through the bottom end and draw the water out of the test












Table 4.1 Chemical Analyses of Sampling Within Model
Monitoring Well


SAMPLE HEAD BENZENE TOLUENE XYLENE COMMENTS
SPACE ppb ppb ppb
%

TANK 14.6 11.8 12.1
WATER

BAT 15 13.7 8.8 7.8 SINGLE-
ENDED TEST
TUBE

BAILER 16.1 11.2 12.3 BOTTOM
FLOW
CONTROL
VALVE

BAT 57 10.3 8.0 7.3 DOUBLE-
ENDED TEST
TUBE

BAILER 16.0 11.8 12.4 DECANTED
TOP

BAILER 16.8 12.2 12.9 DECANTED
TOP

BAT 0 16.0 10.0 9.6 DOUBLE-
ENDED TEST
TUBE

BAT 50 11.9 6.7 6.4 DECANTED
THROUGH
NECK

BAILER 17.0 12.0 13.0 BOTTOM
FLOW
CONTROL
VALVE
AVG BAILER 16.5 11.8 12.7

True concentration of water in tank was to be 20 ppb (20
1g/l).
BAT samples obtained by lowering probe down the center of
the pvc monitoring well.












Table 4.2 Chemical Analyses
Monitoring Well


of Experiment Two Inside the Model


HEAD BENZENE
SPACE ppb
%

0 4.7




9 3.5




0 2.6




43 2.8




5 2.3


BAT 39
STORED
FIVE
DAYS
(FROM EXPERIMENT


11.8


TOLUENE
ppb


2.7




2.7




1.5




1.8




1.3




7.2


XYLENE
ppb


4.7




4.4




3.7




3.8




2.9




5.0


COMMENTS


DOUBLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED

SINGLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED

DOUBLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED

SINGLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED

SINGLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED

DOUBLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED


tube. When extracting the sample with both ends sealed

(also occurs when using a sealed single-ended test tube), it

becomes quite difficult to remove the sample and if the


SAMPLE


BAT1




BAT2




BAT3




BAT4




BAT5









41

analyst is not careful the sample can be pulled back into the

test tube. If an additional needle is placed in the bottom

test tube to relieve the vacuum while the sample is being

extracted with the syringe, little air bubbles move up through

the sample. This may cause a loss of VOCs. Water should be

slowly drawn out of the test tubes to allow the syringe to

gradually fill without any headspace. If the water is removed

too quickly, bubbling can occur as the water enters the

syringe. The most successful method for extracting the water

from a single-ended test tube is to remove the end of the test

tube and to hold the test tube in a near horizontal position.

The needle of the syringe is then placed in the test tube and

kept under the water level. As the water level is lowered,

the test tube is inverted slightly to keep the needle under

the water. Another method not attempted would be to remove

the seal and, holding the tube vertically, use a syringe with

a long enough needle to reach the bottom of the test tube. If

an adequate needle is not available, it may be possible to

place a length of thin tubing over the needle which can be

lowered down the test tube.



4.5 Experiment 3 Inside the Model Monitoring Well

A third round of testing was performed after draining the

water from the tank the previous day. A new contaminated

solution of 20 ppb each of benzene, toluene, and o-xylene was

mixed and slowly siphoned by gravity down the monitoring well









42
to fill the model. A 40 mL vial was filled with the

contaminated water. A Teflon bailer was used to obtain two

samples from the well (BAILER1 and BAILER2). This sampling

was performed within 5 minutes of the filling. Since there

was little time for interaction between the contaminants and

the pvc well, no purging was performed.

BAT probe sampling was performed for the first time in

the soil, adjacent to the monitoring well. The probe was

pushed to the bottom of the tank using a hydraulic jack. A

load frame constructed of four inch steel channel, and shown

in Figure 4.5, provided the reaction for the penetration push.

Two samples without headspace (BAT1 and BAT3) were obtained

after drawing the water out of the filter. The BAT probe was

then removed from the tank and a second probe inserted at a

different location and to a shallower depth. Two samples with

no headspace (BAT5 and BAT7) were obtained from this depth.

The results of the chemical analyses are shown in Table 4.3.

The bailer samples contained higher concentrations of

contaminants than the BAT samples. The BAT samples taken from

the very bottom of the tank were quite low. This was probably

due to incomplete draining of the tank which allowed the old

contaminated water to be sampled. The longer the water remains

in the tank, the greater the chance of sorption of the

contaminants onto the soil and loss of VOCs. The

concentrations of contaminants in the upper BAT samples were

closer to those obtained from the bailer samples, but were












































Figure 4.5 BAT Probe with Reaction Frame


still generally around 35% lower.

At this time, it was believed that there were two

principal reasons why the BAT system was not recovering

similar levels of VOCs as the bailer. One reason was that the

bailer samples were taken within a few minutes of filling the

well, with little time for the VOCs to volatilize. The water

obtained from the BAT samples taken a couple of hours later,










44

Table 4.3 Chemical Analyses of BAT Probe Sampling Inside the
Model Monitoring Well


SAMPLE HEAD BENZENE TOLUENE XYLENE COMMENTS
SPACE ppb ppb ppb
%

TANK 18.1 21.3 24.3
WATER

BAILER 17.7 19.0 21.5

BAILER 15.5 16.4 18.6

BAT1 0 4.4 3.4 2.1 BOTTOM OF
TANK

BAT3 0 5.2 4.2 2.7 BOTTOM OF
TANK

BAT5 0 10.6 10.6 9.4 UPPER PART
OF TANK

BAT7 0 12.4 12.0 13.9 UPPER PART
OF TANK

BAT pushed into the soil with the use of Hydraulic Jack.

Water spiked to provide concentrations of 20 pg/1 (ppb)
for each contaminant.







however,had plenty of time to interact sorbb) with the soil

perhaps resulting in a lower recovery of VOCs. The second

possible explanation for the lower recovery of VOCs was that

the BAT's use of a vacuum causes a loss of VOCs. It was

thought that the water entering the BAT test tube would bubble

due to the vacuum which had been placed on the test tube. The

bubbling would cause a loss of volatiles as they would enter









45

the gaseous phase. A lab experiment was performed to see if

the water did bubble when entering the test tube. A vacuum

was placed on two test tubes which were then connected with a

double-ended needle. Another double-ended needle was placed

into the septum of the BAT probe, which had been placed in a

bucket of water. The bottom test tube was then placed in

contact with the exposed needle from the BAT probe. At the

instant contact was made, water was pulled into the test tube

and bubbling did occur. Bubbling occurred but it became less

dramatic as the test tube filled.

The test was repeated with the probe's porous filter

removed to see if it could have been only partially saturated.

In which case, the bubbles that formed would be due to air

entrapped in the porous filter and pulled into the test tube.

The test showed considerable bubbling, which eliminated the

filter as the responsible party.

Another test was performed using degassed water (boiled

water) to see if the bubbling effect was due to dissolved gas

being pulled out of solution by the vacuum. Less bubbling

occurred. Bubbling will probably always occur as long as

there is a head space when the water enters the test tube.

When a syringe without any headspace is used to slowly

withdraw water from a test tube or vial almost no bubbling

occurs. If the syringe is pulled strongly back and a

headspace is formed, the water will bubble when entering the

syringe due to the reduced pressure.









46

In order to eliminate headspace it was decided to make

use of a membrane inside a double-ended test tube. A balloon

was used as the membrane. The balloon was placed in the test

tube with its opening stretched over the neck of the test

tube. The top was then screwed on over the balloon (Figure

4.6). A syringe was inserted through this top to evacuate the

air from the balloon. This caused the balloon to collapse.

The top was then screwed onto the other end of the test tube

and the air evacuated with a syringe. This membrane test tube

was used with the probe in the lab with tap water with

virtually a 100% success rate. When sampling, the water would

enter the balloon and fill it. Once the unstretched length of

the balloon filled, it would continue to fill as the water

stretched the balloon until it came in contact with the walls

of the glass tube. The water would then continue to expand

the balloon upward. When viewing the test tube after

sampling, a small bubble was observed in the water filled

balloon.



4.6 Experiment 4--Sampling Within Tank Spiked Water

This experiment consisted of filling a nalgene container

with 200 liters of distilled water. The container had less

than 10% headspace. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were

injected into the tank to give it a concentration of 10 pg/l

of each contaminant. The tank was mechanically mixed with a

pvc slotted well screen. The objective here was to directly












































Figure 4.6 Balloon and Test Tube Apparatus



compare the bailer and the BAT without the presence of the

sand. The sand was thought to sorb some of the contaminants,

resulting in the lower recovery of volatiles by the BAT system

in earlier experiments.

The BAT probe was lowered into the tank and suspended

slightly below the water level using two "C" clamps on the

drill rod, Figure 4.7. Tape was placed around the drill rod

to seal the hole and the escape of any gaseous fumes. The












































Figure 4.7 BAT Sampling in Nalgene Container


first BAT sample was as usual discarded, as it contained at

least 8 mL of the distilled water which had been used to

saturate the probe. Three BAT samples (BAT1, BAT3 and BAT5)

were collected without headspace by the cascaded technique.

A minimum of 10 minutes was required to completely fill the

bottom test tube before any filling of the upper test tube

occurred. Two BAT samples (BAT7 and BAT8) obtained using a

single-ended test tube, filled approximately 90% within 7









49

minutes. Two BAT samples, BAT9 and BAT10, were obtained using

the balloon technique. After sampling with the BAT system,

two samples of the tank water were obtained with the Teflon

bailer, BAILER1 and BAILER2.

Results of the chemical analyses are shown in Table 4.4.

The bailer samples again recovered the highest percentages of

VOCs. Samples using the balloon technique recovered the

lowest percentage of VOCs. This was undoubtedly due to

sorption of the contaminants onto the rubber balloon. There

was an extreme variation in the results obtained from the BAT

samples with and without headspace.

Statistical data such as the standard deviation (STD) and

the relative standard deviation (RSD) were calculated from the

equations given below. The relative standard deviation is

also known as the coefficient of variation. The standard

deviation and relative standard deviation are both measures of

skewness. They give us an idea on the precision of our data.

The smaller the skewness in the data the higher the precision

in the sampling procedure and device. This infers that the

sampling procedure is also highly reproducible and gives us a

high level of confidence.












Chemical Analyses of Sampling Within Tank Spiked


Water


HEAD BENZENE
SPACE ppb
%


TOLUENE XYLENE
ppb ppb


COMMENTS


BAT9
BAT10


BAT1
BAT3
BAT4


BAT5
BAT7
BAT8


AVG BAT

BAT-NO HEAD
AVG
STD
RSD


BAILER1
BAILER2

AVG
BAILER
STD
RSD


2.49
1.72

5.84
9.02
5.40


7.68
8.20
8.61

7.46


SPACE (#1
7.51
1.3
17.3


9.08
9.60

9.34

0.3
3.2


1.29
1.01

7.01
9.10
6.30


8.65
7.69
8.30

7.84


,3,5)
8.25
0.9
10.8


9.80
9.99

9.90

0.1
1.0


0.56
0.44

7.81
9.20
6.96


9.13
8.21
9.50

8.47


8.71
0.6
6.9


11.20
11.90

11.55

0.3
2.6


BALLOON
BALLOON



PRESSURIZED
BEFORE
EXTRACTING


EXCLUDING
BALLOON
SAMPLES


Tank Spiked to give actual concentrations of 10 14g/1
(ppb) for each contaminant.


SAMPLE


Table 4.4













STD= (-) 2
N
RSD- STx100
X-actual concentration
X-mean concentration
N-numberofsamples



4.7 Experiment 5--Sampling Within Tank Spiked Water


This experiment consisted of spiking 225 liters of water

with benzene, toluene, and xylene to achieve a concentration

of 8.9 ppb for each contaminant. The chemicals were mixed

mechanically as in Experiment 4. The container had less than

2% headspace. Five samples (BAT1, BAT3... BAT9) without

headspace were collected with the BAT probe using the cascaded

technique. Each test tube did contain a small bubble. Five

samples were obtained with the teflon bailer by decanting from

the top into 40 mL vials. Results of the chemical analyses

are shown in Table 4.5.

Since the results again showed that the BAT recovered

lower BTX concentrations, an attempt was made to obtain

samples using hydrostatic pressure rather than with reduced

pressure. This method is used by the Hydropunch system. A

cascaded type system was used with two modifications. Two

double-ended test tubes were used. A cap was not placed on

the top of the upper test tube. This allowed air to vent from

the test tubes as they filled. The second modification

consisted of grilling a hole into the top of the metal plug









52

which is screwed down on to the test tube container housing.

This allowed the air to vent from the test tube and from the

container housing.

The BAT probe was placed approximately three feet below

the container free water surface. After sixteen hours the

lower test tube was about 80% (28 mL) full. Such a length of

time would, in most situations be impractical. Also such a

long period of time would allow a significant amount of the

VOCs to vaporize.

Another attempt at collecting a sample hydrostatically

was performed. The threaded glass ends were removed from the

tube and fused onto a smaller diameter tube of approximately

the same length. The modified tube held approximately 12.5 mL

of water, about 1/3 the standard tube's volume. It was hoped

this would significantly reduce the time required for

sampling. The modified tube filled completely, with no

headspace, and approximately 10 mL entered the upper tube

within seventeen hours. This however was also considered

inadequate.

4.8 Experiment 6--Sampling Within Tank Spiked Water

This experiment again used the balloon technique.

Testing was as previously tried with the exception that the












Table 4.5 Chemical Analyses from
Water


Sampling Within Tank Spiked


SAMPLE



BAILER1
BAILER2
BAILER3
BAILER4
BAILER5


HEAD
SPACE


0
0
0


AVG BAILER

STANDARD DEVIATION

RELATIVE STANDARD
DEVIATION


BAT1
BAT3
BAT5
BAT7
BAT9


AVG BAT


STANDARD DEVIATION

RELATIVE STANDARD
DEVIATION

BAT % LOWER


Tank spiked to provide actual concentrations of 10 pg/l
(10 ppb) for each of the contaminants.


BENZENE
ppb


9.9
9.5
7.4
9.9
8.3

9.0

1.0

11.1



6.9
7.6
8.4
6.7
6.7

7.3


0.7

9.6


18.9


TOLUENE
ppb


9.7
9.1
9.7
9.9
10.2

9.7

0.4

4.1



9.1
9.1
8.7
9.0
8.4

8.9


0.3

3.4


8.2


XYLENE
ppb


10.1
10.0
10.7
10.6
11.0

10.5

0.4

3.8



9.1
9.4
8.7
9.3
8.4

9.0


0.4

4.4


14.3









54

inside of the balloon was sprayed with a dry film lubricant

and mold release agent, manufactured by Crown Industrial

Products of Hebron, Illinois (#6075). The product label

states that it is chemically similar to TFE (Teflon) as

manufactured by Dupont.

A solution of 10 ppb (10 gg/l) of benzene, toluene, and

xylene was made. Three BAT samples (BAT1, BAT3 and BAT5) with

no headspace were taken using the cascade technique. Two BAT

samples were collected using the balloon which had been coated

with the teflon spray. Two bailer samples (BAILER1 and

BAILER2) were obtained for comparison. The results are shown

in Table 4.6.

After performing the chemical analysis on the two bailer

samples and two of the no headspace BAT samples, analysis was

performed on the balloon sample. This sample overloaded the

GC/MS system due to the freon propellant that is used in the

teflon spray coating. The third BAT sample with no head space

was run directly after the balloon sample but could not be

properly interpreted. Analysis on the second balloon sample

was not performed. In this test the BAT samples, without any

headspace recovered more VOCs than did the Teflon bailer.



4.9 Teflon Ball and Tube Sampling Apparatus

Another modification to the BAT system was tried to

obtain zero headspace samples. Teflon tubes were manufactured









55

with a constant inner diameter of 1/4 inch and threads

machined on either end to fit the BAT test tube caps.

A Teflon ball, 1/4 inch in diameter, was placed inside

the Teflon tube. The ball was to be in contact with the walls

of the tube with no air space around the wall. After the ball

was placed in the end of the tube, one cap was screwed on and

a vacuum pulled on that side of the tube. The second cap was

then screwed onto the other end and a vacuum placed on that

side. When the hypodermic needle made contact with the BAT

septum and the septum of the Teflon tube, it was hoped that

the higher pressure of the water would push the teflon ball up

the tube and yield a sample without any head space.



Table 4.6 Chemical Analyses of Experiment 6


SAMPLE HEAD BENZENE TOLUENE XYLENE
SPACE ppb ppb ppb

BAILER1 0 11.4 10.0 8.9
BAILER2 0 10.7 8.8 8.2

AVG BAILER 11.1 9.4 8.6


BAT1 0 12.0 10.3 9.5
BAT7 0 11.9 10.0 8.4

AVG BAT 0 12.0 10.2 9.0


BAILER % LOWER 7.5 7.8 4.4
THAN BAT

Water spiked to provide actual concentration levels of 10
Mg/l (10 ppb) for each contaminant.









56

Several trials with this method met little success. Even

though Teflon has a very low coefficient of friction, the

water pressure was not sufficient to push the ball up the

tube. The diameter of the tube was slightly enlarged to see

if this would help. The ball did move slightly better, but

would typically become stuck somewhere in the middle of the

tube. This was probably due to the flexibility of the teflon

tube. If the tube became the slightest bit distorted in any

direction, the inner diameter would change and cause the ball

to become stuck.



4.10 BAT Vadose Zone Probe Testing

Laboratory testing was conducted with a BAT probe using

a ceramic filter. Such a filter, with its small pore size of

2 microns, is necessary if sampling is to be attempted in the

unsaturated zone. Standard BAT filters made of steel or HDPE

have larger pore sizes. These filters allow air to be pulled

into the filter which inhibits the flow of water because a

full vacuum cannot be maintained. This means sampling is

greatly hindered.

A uniform fine silica sand was placed in a plastic

concrete cylinder casing (12" high by 6" diameter) to a height

of 8 inches. Before placing the sand in the container a small

hole was made in the bottom of the casing to allow water to

drain out. A piece of white cotton sheet was taped over the

hole on the inside of the casing to serve as a filter. A









57

piece of strapping tape was placed over the hole on the

outside of the casing to inhibit flow.

The dry soil had a mass of 6012 grams. Water, with a

mass of 1555 grams was then poured into the soil. The

strapping tape was removed and the water allowed to drain into

a pan. When drainage was complete, 161 grams of water had

been collected, which left 1394 grams in the soil. The

initial water content (by weight) was then 23.2% and the moist

unit weight was 124.5 pcf. The BAT probe with ceramic filter

was then saturated in a bucket of water and pushed by hand

into the soil filled cylinder. Pore pressure readings were

taken and sampling performed with the BAT groundwater

monitoring system. Results are shown in Table 4.7.

Some problems were evident with the pore pressure

readings. By removing the water from the soil the pressure

should have become more negative as the test progressed. The

pore pressure reading problems could have been caused from all

the water in the ceramic filter being pulled out.

By taking a soil sample from the field and performing a

test like that above, the soil moisture curve could be

developed. A typical soil moisture curve is shown in Figure

4.8. With this information pore pressures could be read in

the field and correlated to the actual water content from this

graph. The soil water content profile is needed for all

unsaturated flow problems.











4.11 Summary

Testing within a tank filled with water spiked with

gasoline constituents proved to be a better method than

modeling a well inside a 55-gallon drum filled with sand. For

the two experiments in the tank filled water there was

conflicting data. In one test the bailer recovered more VOCs

than did the BAT probe and in the other test the BAT probe

recovered more than the bailer. The data from the BAT probe

showed it to be a more precise device than the bailer by

having a lower relative standard deviation.





















Table 4.7 Vadose Probe Testing


Sampling
Time



20 min


40 min


2 hrs
15 min

24 hrs
15 min

43 hrs
30 min


Water
Recovered
mL
(Water content)

4
(23.1%)

1.5
(23.1%)

4
(23.0%)

23.5
(22.6%)

0.0


Pore
Pressure
cm of
Water

-.42


-.43


-.42


0.0


-.03


Evaporation was not considered in water calculations.

Water = 1 g/cm3 1 ml = 1 cm3
























SANDY SOIL
0.35


0.3-


^0.25 ---------- -
0.25--


8 0.2





0.1


0.05 --- _
1 10 100
NEGATIVE MATRIC PI1ENTIAL cm


Figure 4.8 Typical Soil Moisture Curve















CHAPTER 5
ANALYSIS, TRANSPORT, AND PROPERTIES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS


5.1 Introduction

This chapter is provided to give a overview of some basic

principles of geo-environmental engineering. Discussions are

provided on organic compounds, chemical analysis of water

samples, regulatory contaminant levels, and solute transport.

This background information is necessary before looking at the

field contaminant studies that were performed.

5.2 Organic Compounds

Organic compounds are defined as compounds which contain

some amount of carbon. Hydrocarbons are compounds which

contain only hydrogen and carbon. The most familiar

hydrocarbons are benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the

xylenes. These four compounds are typically known as BTEX.

All four are constituents in petroleum products such as

gasoline. Petroleum hydrocarbons typically have specific

gravities less than one making them float on top of the

groundwater in a separate phase. These compounds are

sometimes called LNAPLs (Light non aqueous phase liquids) or

floaters. Hydrocarbons such as BTEX which typically have low

solubilities in water and volatilize easily are known as VOCs.

Figure 5.1 illustrates the typical transport of a LNAPL.

61









62

Henry's Constant, H, is a coefficient which describes a

compound's partitioning between the liquid and vapor phases.

The higher the Henry's Constant the more likely the compound

is to come out of water and go into a vapor phase. Table 5.1

lists the Henry's Constant of several compounds, from Pankow

(1986).


* DISSOLVED PHASE

I NONAQUEUOUS PHASE LIQUID


GROUNDWATER
FLOW
No-


Figure 5.1 Transport of a Typical LNAPL


MsNN MIM\M\N: n\11M&M,1












Table 5.1 Henry's Constant for Selected VOCs


COMPOUND

BENZENE

CHLOROBENZENE

TOLUENE

ETHYLBENZENE

O-XYLENE

M-XYLENE

P-XYLENE


H

0.0055

0.0036

0.0067

0.0066

0.0050

0.0070

0.0071


COMPOUND

METHYLENE CHLORIDE

CHLOROFORM

CHLOROETHANE

VINYL CHLORIDE

TRICHLOROETHENE

TETRACHLOROETHENE

ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE


H

0.0020

0.0029

0.15

0.081

0.0091

0.0153

0.00082


H is in atm.m'/mol


If VOCs are present in groundwater they vaporize and

migrate vertically and horizontally in the gas phase through

the soil pores until they reach the atmosphere. This is a

natural remediation process. Ballestro et al. (1991) state

that nonhalogenated compounds such as BTEX, when present in

low concentrations in groundwater, readily degrade in

oxygenated soil. This does not occur, however, when large

concentrations are present.

Halogenated organic compounds contain hydrogen, carbon,

and one or more of the halogens, fluorine, chlorine, bromine,

or iodine.

Chlorinated compounds are typically denser than water and

are known as sinkers or dense non-aqueous phase liquids










64
(DNAPLs). These compounds will sink through groundwater until

they reach a confining layer and will then move laterally with

gravity. If the confining layer is angled, the contaminant

can even move upgradient. Figure 5.2 illustrates a simulated

transport of a DNAPL. Chlorinated DNAPLs include chloroform,

tetrachloroethene or perchloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene

(TCE), methylene chloride, l,l,l-trichloroethane (TCA) and,

1,1,2-trichlorotrifluorethane (freon). Trichloroethene is a

degreasing solvent and is the most common contaminant found in

groundwater. Tetrachloroethene is used in dry cleaning fluid.



5.3 Chemical Analysis

Once groundwater samples are taken they must be analyzed

to determine the presence and concentration of contaminants.

For gasoline spills or leaking underground storage tanks, EPA

Method 602 titled Purgeable Aromatics is run to determine the

presence and concentration of the aromatic chemicals. These

include benzene, chlorobenzene, the three dichlorobenzenes,

ethylbenzene, and toluene. This analysis consists of

injecting a sample into a purging device where an inert gas

such as helium is bubbled through the water sample to

volatilize the contaminants. These are then trapped on a

sorbant material. The trap is then heated and backflushed

with helium to desorb the contaminants which are then sent to

a gas chromatograph (GC) for separation and detection. Before












































Figure 5.2 Transport of DNAPL

running any samples the gas chromatograph must be calibrated

for the contaminants of concern.

These contaminants are individually run through the gas

chromatograph since it cannot absolutely distinguish between

compounds. By running each compound separately the retention

time is determined for each compound. Compounds come off the

GC column in order of their boiling points. With this method

there can still be some error because several compounds may









66

elute (come off the column) at the same retention time.

Figure 5.3 shows a typical total ion chromatograph.

The state of the art for groundwater analysis makes use

of a gas chromatograph in conjunction with a mass spectrometer

(GC/MS). EPA Method 624 titled Purgeables makes use of the

GC/MS for the detection and quantitation of not only the seven

contaminants found in Method 602 but 24 other compounds. This

analysis is run in a similar manner to that of Method 602 with

the exception that after the sample leaves the GC it is sent

to the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer bombards the

compounds with electrons to try to ionize them by knocking off

electrons and some of the atoms. As the compound is bombarded

with electrons it is scanned several times a second to

determine the atomic mass units (AMUs) that are present and

their relative intensities. This allows better determination

of compounds. Each compound has a mass spectrum which is its

own unique fingerprint under the given conditions. The mass

spectrum of a compound shows the fragmentation ions that are

present and their relative amounts. A typical mass spectrum

is shown in Figure 5.4. The compound shown is o-xylene (1,2

dimethylbenzene). Its chemical formula is C,Ho, resulting in

a molecular weight of 106. This is one of the peaks shown.

Another peak shown is 91 which comes when a methyl group

(CH3), having a weight of 15, is knocked off the compound.

The mass spectrum for each peak can be viewed to determine














AREA TABLE ENTRIES: FRN 17067

Entry Time Ma. Ar-ea

1 92.9 94.7 4680. 104.0
2 11.3 95.7 24860. 53:1.2
3 11.5 113.7 18472. 394.7
4 10.0 127.7 2058. 44.8
5 2.,8 54.7 2168. 46.3
6 14.9 76.7 5121. 109.4
7 10.9 77.7 56148. 1199.7
6 14.3 91.7 31937. 692.5
9 19.5 185.7 16821. 359.4
CALCIRLfTE %. OH ENTRY #:
1Ba25 ML BAILER SAM + 180/25 INT9 18 SEPT 91 EM I 17067
IiJLDB-624 311 / .32 11M / 1.8 UI1 FILM







i--l' I I --I I I I I -l












36814
8671


















I I I
7 3 9 10 11 12 13, 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24




Figure 5.3 Typical Ion Chromatograph



what compound or compounds are present at that particular


retention time.























Entry Statistics Hass/int Mass/Int Iass/Int Hiass/Int Hass/Int Hass/Int
Fil: LIN(N71B)
Entry; 1724 ? 76 92 75
Peaks: 16 51 167 183 50
Meo Ut: 16 52 70 185 173
63A. if 187 400
C8 H10. 65 7 107 33
m m
mini l I I ..... ._ ^ __ _


Figure 5.4 Typical Mass Spectra


Before running any samples the GC/MS must be calibrated.
This is done by running known compounds at known
concentrations through the system to obtain response factors.
Response factors are the actual known concentrations divided
by the peak area for the compound in question. These factors
are obtained by running a wide range of concentrations of the
particular compounds such as 2 ppb, 4ppb, 10 ppb, and 20 ppb.
These data are then averaged to give a response factor for
each compound to be analyzed.


J.-OZENE, 1,2-DIMETHn-,












Table 5.2 Primary Drinking Water Standards (MCLs)


Metals Ag/1

Arsenic 50
Barium 1000
Cadmium 10
Chromium 50
Lead 50
Mercury 2
Selenium 10

Volatile Organics

Vinyl Chloride 2
Trichloroethene 5
Benzene 5
Carbon Tetrachloride 5
1,2-Dichloroethene 5
1,l-Dichloroethene 7
1,1,l-Trichloroethane 200

Semivolatiles

1,4-Dichlorobenzene 75
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 10

Pesticides/Herbicides

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 100
gamma-BHC 4
Methoxychlor 100
Toxaphene 5

Additional Parameters

Nitrate 10,000
Fluoride 4,000








Method 524 titled Measurement of Purgeable Organic

Compounds in Water by Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass

Spectrometry covers a total of sixty compounds. The method of









70

detection limit (MDL) depending upon the type of column ranges

from .02 to .35 ppb. The method of detection limit is the

minimum concentration above zero that is detected 99% of the

time.

5.4 Regulatory Contaminant Levels

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) which was passed in

1974 sets the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking

water. These levels are listed in Table 5.2. States may,

however, implement even more stringent requirements. The

Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (DER) has set

its own state ground water target levels. For closing an

underground storage facility in Florida the contaminant levels

must not exceed those listed in Table 5.3. Methyl tert-butyl

ether (MTBE) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) are fuel additives.

Ethylene dibromide is also used in soil fumigants. Neither of

these two compounds is listed in EPA Method 602.

EPA Method 610 is titled Polynuclear Aromatic

Hydrocarbons. This method covers sixteen organic compounds

that are associated with fuels other than gasoline such as

diesel, kerosene, jet fuel A, JP-4 (jet fuel), and No. 6

heating oil. This method requires a minimum sample size of

250 ml. EPA Method 625 titled Base/Neutrals and Acids covers

61 compounds. It includes all the compounds from method 610

plus several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and several

pesticides including DDT, aldrin, chlordane, toxaphene, and

dieldrin.











Table 5.3 Florida Ground Water Target Levels


tg/l
Gasoline (EPA Method 602)

Benzene 1

Total VOA 50
-Benzene
-Toluene
-Total Xylenes
-Ethylbenzene

Methyl Tert-Butyl 50
Ether (MTBE)


Kerosene/Diesel (EPA Method 610)

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) 10





5.5 Solute Transport

Solutes (contaminants) migrate through soil due to three

processes: advection, diffusion, and dispersion. Advection

is contaminant flowing with the groundwater. Diffusion is the

process of spreading due to chemical gradients, i.e., moving

from a high concentration to a lower concentration. It can

take place when there is no flow of groundwater. Dispersion

is the spreading out of the contaminant longitudinally and

laterally due to velocity effects as it moves through the

tortuous paths through the soil pores. Water moves through

the center of pores faster than at the edges where it drags on

the soil particles.











The solute transport equation can be derived from the

continuity equation:



aM__ aJ
at ax



Where J, = Total solute flux

M-total mass-OC+pS
J,- -D C+qC
ax




and q = Darcy flux
D = Hydrodynamic Dispersion Coefficient (lumps
dispersion and diffusion together)
8 = Porosity (Volumetric Water Content when saturated)
p = Bulk Density of the Soil (ML-3)
S = Mass Adsorbed Solute/Mass of the Soil
C = Solution Concentration (ML-3)
Kd= Partition or Sorption Coefficient (LM-1)


+C _+p +s -p- [-OD +qC]
at 9t at 9t 9x ax




Assume: steady q
constant 8 (no change in water content)
constant p (no change in soil density)


ac 9s a C BC
8 +p =OD _-qa
at at a82 ax











For linear sorption S=KC

as_ ac
8t =dat



Substituting for S gives:


6t +pK- -D- -_q-
at atd X2 a x



Dividing through by 8 gives:


P+Kd aC -C q a
6 at ax2 E ax
pKJ
R-Retardation factor-l+ d

Vo-pore water velocity--




Substitution gives:

ac a2c ac
R -D ---V
at ax2 ax
V,-velocity of the solute- -
R



This shows that the contaminant will travel at a

velocity, Vs, which is slower than the velocity of water by a

factor R, the retardation factor. For any computer model

using the solute transport equation it is necessary to first

determine the partition coefficient, K,. This can be

determined by taking a soil sample from the field and










74
performing a laboratory test in which known contaminants at

known concentrations are passed through a column of the soil,

and measurements made of the concentrations in the effluent,

to determine how much was sorbed by the soil.

It is very important to realize the effect of diffusion

in this equation. For years landfills were designed just

considering advection. Contaminants were assumed to move just

with the water. Clay liners were built with a minimum

thickness of three feet and with a permeability of less than

10-7 cm/sec. The water velocity becomes negligible when the

permeability is small (v=ki). Eliminating this from the

transport equation shows that the contaminants will still move

through the clay barrier before the water will and can

contaminate the groundwater. Shackelford and Daniel (1991)

have found that in fine grained soils diffusion may be the

primary transport mechanism in solute transport. Contaminants

may show up below clay liners years earlier than predicted

from advection alone.

The retardation factor is a function of the sorption

between the contaminants and the soil particles. Sorption can

be due to ion exchange where higher valence cations replace

lower ones. It can also be due to the hydrophobic nature of

some contaminants which easily go out of solution. Clays can

retard contaminant migration due not only to their lower

permeability but also due to their negative charges which

allows for ion exchange unlike sand particles which have small









75

surfaces areas and no charge. Anions, negatively charged

ions, such as Cl-, NO,-, SO,-, can be repelled from clays and

will move with the water. Soils with a high percentage of

organic also retard many contaminants such as pesticides.

Acar and Haider (1990) give the partition coefficients

for several contaminants in some particular soils. Generally

the order of retardation for some contaminants from lowest to

highest is as follows: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and

o-xylene.















CHAPTER 6
FIELD STUDIES--CAVALIER PRODUCTS BUILDING SITE



6.1 Introduction


Field work with the BAT groundwater monitoring system was

performed at the Cavalier Products Building (previously a

Shell gasoline station). The site is located at the

intersections of SW 4th Avenue and S. Main Street in

Gainesville, Florida. Figure 6.1 shows the site plan. The

site is under the jurisdiction of the Alachua County Office of

Environmental Protection which contracted with the Handex

Company to complete a contamination assessment study. The

Handex company installed several 2 inch monitoring wells on

the site and also downgradient of the site in Lynch Park.

Two types of tests were performed at this site: BAT probe

sampling inside existing monitoring wells and BAT probe

sampling within the soil adjacent to the monitoring wells.

The purpose of the testing was to show that the BAT

groundwater monitoring system could recover VOCs. By

collecting samples with the BAT probe inside the monitoring

well they could be compared directly to samples obtained with

the Teflon bailer from the same monitoring well. The BAT MK2


















N



LYNCH PARK


DIRECTION OF FLOW


S. MAIN STREET


Figure 6.1 Cavalier Site Plan

probe with steel and HDPE filters were used to evaluate which

filter type sorbed lower amounts of VOCs.

6.2 Field Test 1

Monitoring well MW-17 was purged by removing 3 well

volumes of water with a three foot long teflon bailer. A one

foot Teflon bailer was then used to obtain groundwater

samples. The water was decanted from the bailer into 40 mL

septum vials and stored in a cooler with ice packs. Four

samples were obtained (BAILER1....BAILER4). The depth to the


MW-16


3
N

4 TH




MW-14


C
A
V
A
L

E
R


* *


MW-15
*


MW-17
0




































,. 1: ::l i~


Figure 6.2 View of Cavalier Site--Lynch Park on Left



water table in the well was approximately 9.5 feet. The smell

of petroleum was prevalent when sampling.

BAT sampling was performed with the University of

Florida's 20 ton electric cone penetration test truck

positioned as closely as possible to the well. Since several

obstacles (trees, shrubs, etc.) were present the proximity was

severely limited. A BAT MK2 probe with a steel filter was

pushed to a depth of 4 meters (13.1 feet) to obtain









79

groundwater samples. The probe was located 11.5 feet

horizontally away from the well. After purging the probe,

three 35 mL test tubes were filled using the cascaded sampling

technique (BAT1, BAT3 and BAT5) which required more than

thirty minutes per sample. The rods were then pulled, the

truck moved slightly and a second penetration performed. This

consisted of pushing a BAT MK2 probe with a HDPE filter to a

depth of 3.5 meters (11.5 feet). This penetration was located

12.0 feet horizontally away from the well. One BAT sample

(BAT7) without headspace was obtained at this location.

Chemical analyses were performed with a GC/MS in

accordance with EPA Methods 524/624. Compounds specifically

analyzed for were BTEX, trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2

dibromoethane (EDB), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and

tetrachlorothene (PERC). Only BTEX was detected. Results are

presented in Table 6.1.



6.3 Field Test 2

Additional testing at Lynch Park (Cavalier Site) was

performed on 23 October 1991. The depth to the water table in

monitoring well MW-17 was determined by two methods. Using a

bailer, the depth to the water table was determined from

hearing it touch the water level and measuring this distance.

This gave a value of 9 feet and 6 inches. Using an electronic

device (Soiltest, Inc., Model DR-760A Water level indicator)

gave a water table depth of 9 feet and 11 inches.









80

The monitoring well was purged by removing three well

volumes with a large Teflon bailer (1 L). While purging the

well a strong hydrocarbon odor was quite prevalent. A small

Teflon bailer (350 mL) was used for sampling. Two samples

were pulled and two 40 mL vials were filled from each. These

samples were designated BAILER1, BAILER2, BAILER3 and BAILER4

(which was not analyzed). BAILER1 and BAILER2 were obtained

from the same bailer, as were BAILER3 and BAILER4. The

samples were quite cloudy.

Distilled water was pulled through the BAT probe and

placed in a 40 mL vial to serve as an equipment blank to

ensure that no contamination remained from previous testing.

The probe had been decontaminated with boiled distilled water

after its previous use. The BAT probe was then penetrated 10

feet and 4 inches horizontally away from MW-17 and to a depth

of 10.5 feet. This depth was chosen to ensure that the probe

was extremely close to the actual water level where most of

the BTEX compounds should be, since they are lighter than

water. Before sampling, the pore pressure device was used to

measure the pore water pressure at the BAT probe as another

check on the water level. The digital readout gave a value of

0.1 meter. This meant that the probe was basically .1 m below

the water table.

The BAT probe was purged twice before sampling. The

first BAT cascaded sampling (BAT1) took 60 minutes and did not

yield a full sample. A second cascaded sampling (BAT3), took



















Table 6.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-17 at Cavalier Site


Benzene Toluene
ppb ppb


Ethylbenzene Xylenes
ppb ppb


Water Table--9'-6"


BAILER1
BAILER2
BAILER3

AVG BAILER


7198
4410
6724

6110


3120
2606
3301

3009


7880
6555
8048

7494


BAT Depth--13'-2"
BAT MK2 probe with
from MW-17.


steel filter was located 11'-6"


BAT1
BAT3
BAT5


AVG BAT


BAT Depth--11'-6"
BAT MK2 probe with
from MW-17.


HDPE filter was located 12'


BAT 7


All BAT samples contained no headspace









82

40 minutes and also did not yield a full sample. A third

sample was collected at this depth using a single test tube

(BATS) and had approximately 80% headspace.

The probe was then pushed down another meter to a depth

of 13 feet and 1 inch. Water was purged from the probe before

sampling. Two samples were obtained at this depth (BAT7 and

BAT8). Each of these samples yielded only 1 mL of fluid.

Time for each sample was 25 minutes.

All samples were iced at the site and then transferred to

a refrigerator. No preservatives were used since the analysis

would be performed within 7 days.

Chemical analyses were performed the following day with

the GC/MS. In order to run these samples on the GC/MS, they

had to be highly diluted since normally 20-30 ppb is the

maximum level that should be run on this equipment. Some

dilutions were made by placing 0.5 mL of the actual sample

into 100 mL of deionized water. Other samples were more

highly diluted by placing 0.5 mL of sample into 200 mL of

deionized water. The concentrations of BTEX are given in

Table 6.2. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) and methyl tert-butyl

ether (MTBE) were not present in the groundwater samples.

Trimethylbenzene was found but not quantitated. Naphthalene

was present in both BAT and bailer samples. In the bailer

samples the concentrations of naphthalene for the four samples

were 479 ppb, 525 ppb, 599 ppb, and 672 ppb.




Full Text
THE BAT GROUNDWATER MONITORING
SYSTEM IN CONTAMINANT STUDIES
By
BARRY SHAUN MINES
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1992

Copyright 1992
by
Barry Shaun Mines

This dissertation is dedicated to my loving wife, Wendy,
who put many of her dreams on hold so that I might achieve one
of mine.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
There are numerous individuals to whom I must express my
gratitude for their help and guidance in my academic
progression. It is definitely true that no man is an island
as I have been significantly influenced by those around me.
Dr. Bloomquist has served as a technical consultant. By
introducing high technology materials he has taught me to be
innovative and to think like an inventor. He has also given
me insight into many scientific principles.
Dr. Davidson has stressed to me the fundamentals of soil
behavior. He has listened with keen interest to my progress
reports after each field and laboratory test and has advised
me well. My gratitude to him for reading and editing my
research proposals and dissertation drafts are immeasurable.
Dr. Townsend has guided my professional development in
several ways—first, by giving me numerous scientific articles
dealing with my research which always seemed to come at an
appropriate time. His teaching methods instilled in his
students' confidence in their ability to design. Of all the
teachers I have had he has stressed the practical aspects of
design engineering, ensuring that students evaluate all
possible concerns to come up with the most effective and
economical designs. He has won me over to the teaching
IV

profession through his sincere involvement in the students'
development. He took groups to numerous construction sites to
see engineering works firsthand and to seminars and
conferences on new and innovative engineering technigues. As
part of his involvement with the Engineers' Fair, he had
students build reinforced earth walls with cardboard and paper
strips, giving them the opportunity to work as a group on a
engineering project as done in industry.
Charlie Schmidt enabled me to become a pseudo-chemist.
He taught me the theory of mass spectrometry and allowed me
hands-on use of the Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer for
chemical analyses. He honed my skills as a chemist and gave
me insight into the properties of hydrocarbons and chemical
solvents.
Dr. Tom Stauffer provided technical assistance and
arranged the financial support for this study. I am very
appreciative of his promptness in reading my drafts and
supplying helpful testing suggestions along with his hands on
approach of going to the site to view the field testing.
I am deeply appreciative of Dr. Don Myhre's sincere
interest in my project. He has always taken the time to
listen to the progress of my research and to make helpful
suggestions. From his soil chemistry class, he has stimulated
my interest in the sorption capacities of soils and the
partitioning of hydrophobic organic compounds.
v

Dr. Thompson and his staff have been most helpful in all
administrative affairs, from working with the Air Force to
obtain my funding, to ordering reguired equipment for my
research. Dr. Thompson has always had time to discuss my
research progress and provide liaison help with the Air Force.
His seminar course has been on target with various speakers on
current engineering issues. He has helped me to be a better
engineer/manager by showing me that it is not enough to be a
sound technical engineer; one must also be an informed citizen
and be aware of changing current events and how they affect
civil engineering.
My sincere appreciation is due to Ed Dobbson. Ed
accompanied me on many BAT and electric cone penetration
tests. He instructed me well on the use of the penetrometer
rig to the point where I could manage on my own. Ed would
always check to see when I would like to do more testing and
was always most helpful. I could always count on Ed to help
me fix any mechanical equipment with which I had problems.
Ed, along with Dr. Bloomquist, was great at thinking of
alternative ways to obtain groundwater samples.
I am grateful to the Handex Company, Geosolutions Inc.,
and the Alachua County Department of Environmental Control for
letting me use their contaminated sites for this study.
To my brother, Dr. Richard Mines, I am grateful for his
interest in my research. As a civil-environmental engineer,
vi

he was responsible for introducing me to this area of study
and for helping me develop into an engineer.
Richard and Dreama Mines, my parents, were responsible
for instilling a high regard for education in my life. From
my mother I have inherited an unguenchable desire for reading,
which, along with my father's high level of motivation and
determination, has allowed me to succeed in life. They taught
me that if you don't push yourself in life, you will never
know your limits.
I am most grateful to my wife, Wendy. She made several
edits to my dissertation and allowed me to work numerous
nights and weekends, sacrificing much of our time together.
She was always there to help me when testing did not go well
or eguipment did not arrive.
Vll

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF FIGURES xiv
ABSTRACT xvi
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Problem Statement 1
1.2 Objectives 3
2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5
2.1 Introduction 5
2.2 Direct Push Technology 6
2.2.1 Hydropunch 6
2.2.2 BAT Probe 9
2.3 DPT Field Studies 10
2.4 Sample Preservation 16
2.5 Necessity for Current Study 17
3 LAB PERMEABILITY TESTING 20
3.1 Permeability Limitations of the BAT System 20
3.2 Lab Permeability of Soils 22
4 BAT GROUNDWATER MONITORING SYSTEM LAB STUDIES . . 30
4.1 Introduction 30
4.2 Monitoring Well Model 31
4.3 Experiment 1 Inside Model Monitoring Well . 33
4.4 Experiment 2 Inside the Model Monitoring Well
38
4.5 Experiment 3 Inside the Model Monitoring Well
41
4.6 Experiment 4—Sampling Within Tank Spiked
Water 46
4.7 Experiment 5—Sampling Within Tank Spiked
Water 51
4.8 Experiment 6—Sampling Within Tank Spiked
Water 52
Vlll

4.9 Teflon Ball and Tube Sampling Apparatus . . 54
4.10 BAT Vadose Zone Probe Testing 56
4.11 Summary 58
5 ANALYSIS, TRANSPORT, AND PROPERTIES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS 61
5.1 Introduction 61
5.2 Organic Compounds 61
5.3 Chemical Analysis 64
5.4 Regulatory Contaminant Levels 70
5.5 Solute Transport 71
6 FIELD STUDIES—CAVALIER PRODUCTS BUILDING SITE . 76
6.1 Introduction 76
6.2 Field Test 1 77
6.3 Field Test 2 79
6.4 BAT Sampling Within MW-17 84
6.5 CPT Testing 86
6.6 BAT Sampling Within MW-15 87
6.7 BAT Field Test 5 90
6.8 Summary 93
7 FIELD STUDIES—TEXTILE TOWN 94
7.1 Introduction 94
7.2 BAT Test 1 95
7.3 BAT Test 2 98
7.4 BAT Testing at MW-7 100
7.5 Vertical Contamination Profile at MW-7 . 103
7.6 Vertical Profile Testing at MW-11 .... 104
7.7 BAT Probe testing in MW-11 107
7.8 Plume Chasing 109
7.9 CPT Testing Ill
7.10 Summary 112
8 BAT MODIFICATION TESTING 114
8.1 Vacuum Pump Test 1 114
8.2 Vacuum Pump Test 2 118
8.3 Field Testing of Drill Rods as a Monitoring
Well 122
8.4 Summary 124
9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 127
9.1 Conclusions 127
9.2 Recommendations for Future Testing . . . 130
9.3 Advantages of the BAT Groundwater Monitoring
System 132
IX

9.4 Disadvantages of the BAT Groundwater Monitoring
System 133
APPENDICES
A PERMEABILITY DATA 135
A.l Needle Permeability Without Filter . . . 136
A.2 Permeability of Needle and HDPE Filter . 141
A.3 Permeability of Needle and Steel Filter . 146
A.4 Permeability of Kaolin-Sand Mixture . . . 158
A.5 Permeability of Yellow Fine Mortar Sand . 163
A.6 Permeability of a Uniform Sand 169
A.7 Permeability Data from Lynch Park .... 175
A.8 Sieve Analysis Data 177
A. 9 Constant Head Permeability Data 178
A. 10 Falling Head Permeability Test 179
A. 11 Atterberg Limits 179
A.12 Derivation of Formulas for BAT Permeability
Calculations 180
B ORGANIC CHEMICAL DATA 187
C BAT FIELD SAMPLING LOG 190
C.l Cavalier Site 190
C.2 Textile Town Site 192
D CHEMICAL ANALYSES DATA 198
D.l GC/MS Data for Cavalier Site 198
D.2 GC/MS Data for Textile Town Site .... 200
E DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES 205
E.l Bailer Decontamination 205
E.2 Decontamination of BAT Glass Sample Vials 205
E. 3 BAT Probe Decontamination 206
E.4 Decontamination of Enviro probe 207
F CONE PENTRATION DATA 208
F.l CPT Sounding at Lynch Park Adjacent to
MW-17 208
F.2 CPT Sounding at Lynch Park Adjacent to
MW—15 208
F.3 CPT Sounding at Textile Town Around MW-11 209
F.4 CPT Sounding at Textile Town Around MW-7 209
G HEADSPACE CORRECTIONS 210
x

H OVERVIEW OF GROUNDWATER STRATEGIES 215
H.l Groundwater Studies 215
H.1.1 Planning 215
H.l.2 Conventional Sampling Mechanisms . . 216
H.2 Monitoring Well Design Considerations . . . 224
H.2.1 General 224
H.2.2 Monitoring Well Size 224
H.2.3 Expected Contaminants 225
H.2.4 Water Table Depth 225
H.2.5 Screen and Casing Materials .... 226
H.3 Well Development 229
H.4 Purging of Wells 230
H.5 Sampling Studies 231
H.5.1 Lab Studies 231
H.5.2 Field Studies 235
H.6 Underground Storage Tank Regulatory Programs 238
H.6.1 Congressional Acts 238
H.6.2 EPA's Underground Storage Tank
Program 239
H.6.3 Florida DER Programs 242
REFERENCE LIST 244
SUPPLEMENTAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 251
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 255
xi

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Permeability Limitation Values of BAT
System 23
Table 3.2 Permeability of Three Soils 29
Table 4.1 Chemical Analyses of Sampling Within Model
Monitoring Well 39
Table 4.2 Chemical Analyses of Experiment Two Inside
the Model Monitoring Well 40
Table 4.3 Chemical Analyses of BAT Probe Sampling
Inside the Model Monitoring Well 44
Table 4.4 Chemical Analyses of Sampling Within Tank
Spiked Water 50
Table 4.5 Chemical Analyses from Sampling Within Tank
Spiked Water 53
Table 4.6 Chemical Analyses of Experiment 6 55
Table 4.7 Vadose Probe Testing 59
Table 5.1 Henry's Constant for Selected VOCs 63
Table 5.2 Primary Drinking Water Standards (MCLs) ... 69
Table 5.3 Florida Ground Water Target Levels 71
Table 6.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-17 at Cavalier
Site 81
Table 6.2 Chemical Analyses from MW-17 at Cavalier
Site 83
Table 6.3 Chemical Analyses from BAT Sampling Within
MW-17 86
Table 6.4 Chemical Analyses from BAT Sampling Within
MW-15 89
Table 6.5 Chemical Analyses from Lab Insitu Class ... 92
Xll

Table 7.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-17 at Textile Town 103
Table 7.2 Chemical Analyses of Vertical Sampling at
MW-7 105
Table 7.3 Analyses from BAT Testing in MW-11 .... 110
Table 7.4 Chemical Analyses from Plume Chasing . . . 112
Table 8.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-7 119
Table 8.2 Total Times for Truck Set Up and Sampling . 120
Table 8.3 Chemical Analyses from Vacuum Pump Apparatus 121
Table 8.4 Chemical Analyses from BAT Testing around
MW-7 125
Table 9.1 Summary Comparison of BAT Versus BAiler
Recovery of VOCs 128
Table G.l Henry's Law Constants for Selected Organic
Compounds 212
xiii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 Hydropunch in Closed and Open Positions . . 8
Figure 2.2 BAT Enviroprobe in Closed and Open
Positions 11
Figure 3.1 Gradation Curve of Uniform White Fine Sand . 25
Figure 3.2 Gradation Curve of Fine Mortar Sand .... 26
Figure 4.1 Teflon Bailer 32
Figure 4.2 Model Monitoring Well Set-Up 34
Figure 4.3 BAT MK2 Probe 36
Figure 4.4 Cascaded Sampling for Zero Head Space
Sample 37
Figure 4.5 BAT Probe with Reaction Beam 4 3
Figure 4.6 Balloon and Test Tube Apparatus 47
Figure 4.7 BAT Sampling in Nalgene Container 48
Figure 4.8 Typical Soil Moisture Curve 60
Figure 5.1 Transport of a Typical LNAPL 62
Figure 5.2 Transport of a DNAPL 65
Figure 5.3 Typical Ion Chromatograph 67
Figure 5.4 Typical Mass Spectra 68
Figure 6.1 Cavalier Site Plan 77
Figure 6.2 View of Cavalier Site—Lynch Park on Left . 78
Figure 7.1 Textile Town Site Plan 95
Figure 7.2 View of Textile Town—Penetrometer Rig
near MW-7 96
xiv

Figure 7.3 Cone over MW-11 97
Figure 7.4 View of Stripping Tower for Remediation . 101
Figure 7.5 Penetrometer Rig around MW-7 102
Figure 7.6 Vertical Contamination Profile at MW-7 . . 106
Figure 7.7 Vertical Contamination Profile at MW-11 . 108
Figure 7.8 Lateral Plume Delineation 113
Figure 8.1 Brass Adaptor for Vacuum Pump Testing . . 115
Figure G.l Fraction Remaining C/CQ versus Vg/Vs for
Headspace Related Errors for Selected
Aromatics. Compounds Apply to 20 °C . . . 213
Figure G.2 Fraction Remaining C/C0 versus Vg/Vs for
Headspace Related Errors for Selected
Chlorinated Compounds. Compounds Apply
to 20 °C 214
Figure H.l Conventional Groundwater Sampling
Mechanisms 218
xv

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
THE BAT GROUNDWATER MONITORING SYSTEM IN
CONTAMINANT STUDIES
By
Barry Shaun Mines
August 1992
Chairperson: John L. Davidson
Major Department: Civil Engineering
Groundwater contamination continues to be a serious threat to
our environment. One prevalent cause of such contamination is
leakage from underground storage tanks. Detection and
assessment of contamination must be made before remediation of
any site can begin. This is traditionally accomplished by
sampling from monitoring wells. The BAT Groundwater
Monitoring System is a recently developed device which can
collect samples of pore fluid without the need for a drilled
well.
An experimental study was conducted on the BAT System,
with the major objective of evaluating its effectiveness in
sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Both large-scale
laboratory and field investigations were carried out. At many
locations BAT testing was compared to adjacent bailer sampling
from monitoring wells.
xvi

Neither the well bailer nor the BAT system consistently
recovered more VOCs, though concentrations recovered in most
cases were comparable. BAT samples recovered using a
stainless steel filter element consistently exhibited higher
concentrations of VOCs than did samples from probes with the
HDPE filter. Concentrations of volatile constituents in BAT
samples displayed a lower standard deviation than did samples
obtained using the bailer.
The effect of headspace in the BAT's sampling tubes was
investigated. VOCs measured in single tubes with small
amounts of headspace compared favorably with those in test
tubes obtained in a cascaded set-up which had no headspace.
The use of an inert material balloon within the sampling tube
to eliminate headspace and vacuum effects showed promise.
Modifications to the eguipment were made to investigate the
possibility of drawing the much larger fluid samples required
for some chemical tests.
The BAT System can be used to estimate a formation's
coefficient of permeability. It was found that this
capability is limited, by the pore size of the filter element,
to determinations in very fine material, specifically silts
and clays.
The BAT test is a relatively rapid, inexpensive
penetration test which provides high quality and reproducible
pore fluid samples. It has the potential for use in the
assessment of contaminated sites, especially in the
xvi 1

delineation of leakage plumes and in siting of
wells.
permanent
xviii

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Problem Statement
Groundwater contamination continues to be a serious
threat to our environment at a time when the demand for water
resources has never been greater. Many states, including
Florida, obtain the majority of their water from groundwater
(aquifers). Contamination of this water can occur from
numerous sources. Some of the more prevalent are the
application of pesticides for agricultural uses, leakage of
fuel from storage tanks (above or below ground), leakage of
leachate from sanitary landfills or hazardous waste sites, and
spillage/leakage from industrial plants. For, example the
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (Stuart, 1986)
estimates that 6000 of the state's 60,000 petroleum storage
tanks are leaking. Currently there are over 1.4 million
underground storage tanks in the United States that are
regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery ACT
(RCRA). Of these it is estimated that approximately 80% are
constructed of bare steel, which is easily corroded.
Determination of the presence of groundwater
contamination is typically performed by installing monitoring
1

2
wells for groundwater sampling. Alternative methods include
soil sampling for analysis, extraction of vapors from the
vadose zone, magnetic/resistivity surveys, and direct push
(or penetration) technology (DPT).
DPT makes use of a cone device which is pushed or
hammered into the ground. Some tips have sensors for
measuring the changes in the resistivity/conductivity of the
soil which can provide a measure of the total dissolved solids
through correlations. Others tips use fluorescence sensors to
detect contamination (Cooper and Malone, 1991). Fluorescence
sensors radiate ultraviolet light out into the soil where some
contaminants absorb the radiation and then fluoresce (emit
light). The emitted light is received by a fiber-optic link
which sends the information to an optical analzyer for
spectral analysis. Cooper and Malone (1991) state that these
sensors are only good for contamination concentrations greater
than 200 ppm. Another problem with this system is that not
all organic compounds fluoresce. Some that do are polynuclear
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenol, toluene, and the
xylenes. Naturally occuring materials also fluoresce causing
interference.
A relatively new penetrometer, the BAT probe
(Torstensson, 1984), allows groundwater samples to be taken
without installation of costly monitoring wells. A porous
element in the probe's tip connects via a hypodermic needle
and septum with an evacuated sample tube, which is lowered

3
down the center of the push rods from the surface. However,
considerable doubt has existed in the regulatory arena as to
whether such a sampling device would cause a loss of VOCs due
to the initial vacuum in the sample tube. Some environmental
regulatory agencies are not willing to use the BAT until a
larger data base has been established on its ability to obtain
a representative sample. Peristaltic pumps used to obtain
groundwater samples from monitoring wells have generally been
ineffective for sampling VOCs because the reduced pressure
causes the VOCs to volatilze away.
The question to be answered is whether the BAT probe can
be penetrated into the ground and recover groundwater samples
which contain contamination levels comparable as that obtained
using a monitoring well and bailer.
1.2 Objectives
The purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth,
comprehensive study to compare results from the BAT probe and
and Teflon bailers from nearby monitoring wells. VOCs are
typically the most difficult contaminants to sample. The
research was performed by taking samples within a small radius
around monitoring wells at two leaking underground storage
tank sites and taking bailer samples from the monitoring
wells. BAT sampling will also be performed inside the
monitoring wells to ensure basically the same water is being
sampled.

4
A secondary purpose of the study is to evaluate the
repeatability of BAT probe testing, i.e., what is the
precision of the device? Does it have a high or a low
standard deviation compared to the Teflon bailer? Other
objectives of the research are to:
1. Evaluate the significance of headspace in BAT sample
vials and look at possible modifications to eliminate this
headspace.
2. Perform laboratory testing to determine the limitations
of the BAT probe for the determination of the coefficient of
permeability. Does the BAT probe give reasonable values of
the coefficient of permeability?
3. Examine modifications which could be made to the BAT
groundwater monitoring system to allow collection of larger
sample sizes.
4. Perform BAT testing to determine the extent of vertical
and horizontal contamination at a site.
5. Determine typical sampling times for the BAT probe along
with time estimates for setting up a penetrometer rig and
taking groundwater samples with the BAT probe.
6. Provide an overall evaluation of the BAT system, its
advantages, disadvantages, and uses in groundwater studies
(specifically contamination assessments).
7. Reommend future possible research with the BAT system.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
The ability to characterize the quality of groundwater
adequately and economically is a major concern in all
contamination studies. In order to determine whether a site's
groundwater is contaminated, samples must be obtained for
chemical analysis to verify the presence of contaminants and
their concentrations. Engineers, owners, contractors, and
regulatory officials are concerned with obtaining groundwater
samples that are "representative" of actual insitu conditions.
Obtaining "representative" groundwater samples for chemical
analysis is extremely difficult, if not impossible. It
parallels the problem geotechnical engineers have in obtaining
"undisturbed" soil samples.
The literature review that follows first gives
descriptions of two DPT systems (BAT System and the
Hydropunch) used for performing groundwater contamination
assessment and then presents a critcal review of previous
testing of these devices. Lastly, a discussion of headspace
in sample vials is presented.
5

6
2.2 Direct Push Technology
Development of DPT within the past ten years has made it
possible to take groundwater samples without having to drill
and install a monitoring well. This is a significant
breakthrough since Pettyjohn et al. (1981) have shown that
drilling monitoring wells can alter the chemical and microbial
environment in the vicinity of the well. Drilling fluids can
especially alter the chemistry of the groundwater. Direct
push technology has been around for decades in the form of
cone penetration testing. Cone penetration testing is used to
determine soil stratigraphy by measuring the end bearing and
frictional resistance on a tip of standard dimensions, which
is pushed into the ground at a standard rate. ASTM D3441
governs the performance of the test. In DPT a sampling
device is attached to a string of drill rods and either
hammered or hydraulically pushed into the ground to the
required sampling depth. Two such commercial devices which
will be discussed below are the Hydropunch and the BAT
Groundwater Monitoring System.
2.2.1 Hvdropunch
The Hydropunch device was introduced in March 1985. Edge
and Cordry (1989) give an excellent overview of the system.
The device has a stainless steel drive cone, a stainless steel
perforated intake for sampling, and a stainless steel sample
chamber. To obtain a sample, the device is attached by means

7
of an adapter to either cone penetration rods or drill rods.
The device is pushed hydraulically to the required sampling
depth. The push rods are then pulled up 1.5 feet to expose
the stainless steel intake. The drive cone is held in place
by the friction of the soil. Once the intake is exposed,
water flows through the intake into the sample chamber due to
hydrostatic pressure. Once the chamber is filled (5 mL) the
device is pulled to the surface. A ball valve, similar to
that in a bailer, closes during extraction ensuring no loss of
sample. At the surface the device is disassembled and a
discharge tube inserted into the unit to allow transfer of the
fluid sample to a container for storage and transport to a
lab. Figure 2.1 is a diagram showing the Hydropunch
operation.
The device minimizes cross contamination. Since the
exterior of the device is smooth, contaminated soil is not
transported down as the sampler is advanced. It also has the
advantage of not exposing the sample to negative pressures
which could cause degassing and loss of VOCs. It has the
disadvantage of only obtaining a very small sample (5 mL). In
sandy soils, samples can be obtained in as little as 5
minutes. In clayey soils it may take 45 minutes or longer.
Like the bailer, the sample must be transferred to a sample
container, a process which could cause loss of VOCs. The
hydropunch requires no purging of water as is necessary in the
use of monitoring wells.

8
Figure 2.1 Hydropunch in Closed and Open Positions

9
2.2.2 BAT Probe
Torstensson (1984) describes another probe that was
developed for groundwater sampling using DPT. The standard
device, known as a BAT probe, consists of a tip with a porous
filter. The probe is attached to special drill rods (1 inch
minimum inner diameter) and then pushed hydraulically into the
ground to the required sampling depth. At the ground surface,
a vacuum pump is used to evacuate a test tube (35 mL) which is
placed within a housing. A chain of weights is attached to
the housing and to a steel cable, which is used to lower the
apparatus through the center of the drill rods. The housing
also contains a double-ended needle, which is installed within
a spring. Once the housing reaches the bottom of the drill
rod, the hypodermic needle first makes contact with a septum
in the BAT probe and is then pushed up through a septum in
the test tube. Water is thus drawn through the porous filter
of the BAT probe and into the evacuated test tube. When
equilibrium is reached the apparatus is manually pulled to the
surface and the test tube removed from the housing, labeled,
and placed in a cooler for transport to a laboratory. When
pulling up on the steel cable, the spring in the housing
causes the double-ended needle to simultaneously lose contact
with the test tube and the septum of the filter, ensuring no
sample loss. The BAT system has other attachments which can
be lowered down the drill rods to measure pore water pressure
and to perform hydraulic conductivity tests. Torstensson

10
(1984) describes the use of the system in monitoring C1‘
concentrations with depth and with time at a Stockholm,
Sweden, site in 1981. Figure 2.2 shows a diagram of the BAT
Enviroprobe.
2.3 DPT Field Studies
Edge and Cordry (1989) discuss several case histories in
which the Hydropunch was used in groundwater contamination
studies. It was used in 1985, 1986, and 1987 at a California
landfill for the detection of leaking, low level, VOCs. At a
schoolyard in the spring of 1986 in Los Angeles, California,
it was used on a weekend to confirm the presence of benzene,
toluene, and xylene contamination. The study was carried out
over the weekend to minimize disruption to the school and was
completed at a third of the cost of monitoring wells. In
1988, it was used at a petrochemical facility in Louisiana to
detect low levels of chlorinated organics. The concentration
and extent of contamination was determined which allowed
planning of remedial measures. Klopp et al. (1989) discuss
several case histories of the use of the BAT system in ground
water contamination studies. It was used to study the
stratification of arsenic near San Francisco in 1986. It was
also used for several projects in Texas under the review of
the USEPA and the Texas Water Commission. These included
sampling at a leaking storage tank, delineation of a plume,

11
Figure 2.2 BAT Enviroprobe in Closed and Open Positions

12
detection of buried hazardous waste, and sampling at an
abandoned land fill. This paper notes that the BAT system can
take a sample at one elevation, be decontaminated at that
elevation, then pushed to another depth for additional
sampling in order to vertically delineate the ground water
guality.
Smolley and Kappmeyer (1991) used the Hydropunch at
Silicon Valley, California for the plume delineation of VOCs
that had leaked from underground storage tanks. The
Hydropunch was first validated by pushing it beside an
existing monitoring well and taking ground samples from each
for comparison. The Hydropunch gave higher concentrations of
VOCs than samples from the monitoring well. The operators of
the Hydropunch only had a 70% sample collection success rate
at this site. They found that the check valve does not always
close properly, causing a loss of sample. The study concluded
that by using the Hydropunch samples could be collected at 20
to 40 percent of the projected cost of monitoring wells. The
work was also completed in a third of the time that would have
been reguired for monitoring wells. This paper states that
samples up to 500 mL can be taken with the sampler, which is
significantly larger than that stated by Edge and Cordry
(1989). This must be due to some modification to the system.
Strutynsky and Sainey (1990) discuss the use of both the
Hydropunch and the BAT system at an industrial site in
southern Ohio to delineate a trichloroethene plume. These

13
systems were chosen because the plume had moved off the
manufacturer's site onto the property of a farmer who did not
want monitoring wells installed on his property. At this site
the operators had an 81% sampling success rate with the
Hydropunch (22 samples out of 27 attempts). It was noted that
the tip had to be placed at least 4 feet below the water table
for sample collection. The BAT system was tried at two
locations at this site. The first was not successful as the
thin walled casing used to push the BAT probe buckled.
Normally, heavy duty steel drill rods are used to push the BAT
probe. At the second location the BAT Enviroprobe was
successful in obtaining multiple samples.
Lammons et al. (1991) discuss the use of the Hydropunch
at an industrial site in South Carolina to delineate the
vertical and horizontal extent of ground water contamination.
The Hydropunch took samples at several locations which were
then made into permanent monitoring wells. The Hydropunch was
able to take a significantly greater number of samples than
conventional methods for the same cost, which made it possible
to more effectively delineate the contaminant plume.
Torstensson and Petsonk (1988) discuss the work done by
the Earth Technology Corporation at two contaminated sites in
California. At one site samples were taken from a monitoring
well with a conventional teflon bailer. The BAT probe was
then placed inside the well and additional samples taken. The
samples were analyzed by EPA methods 601 and 602. The BAT

14
samples showed consistently higher concentrations of VOCs. For
one contaminant, tetrachloroethene, the BAT probe recovered
77% more than the bailer did. The actual concentrations of
contaminants were probably even greater than obtained with the
BAT probe, as the 35 mL sample vials had a slight headspace in
them. Torstensson suggested that two sample vials could be
used in conjunction to avoid having any headspace. Two test
tubes would be placed in a sample housing with a hypodermic
needle between them. During sampling, the bottom test tube
would fill completely with the overflow going up into the
second test tube. Therefore the second test tube would
contain water and headspace while the bottom one would be
completely filled.
Geomatrix Consultants (1986) used the BAT probe at East
Palo Alto, California, to delineate an arsenic plume.
Fourteen BAT soundings were made to determine the
concentration of arsenic with depth. Samples obtained from
the BAT system were in general agreement with those obtained
from the few monitoring wells that were already in place.
The BAT probe can also be used for vadose zone monitoring
as demonstrated by Haldorsen et al. (1985). A sintered
ceramic filter with an average pore size of 2 microns is used.
Since initially a vacuum is placed on a test tube, this device
can only obtain a ground water sample when the soil tension is
less than about 10 meters of water. By measuring the pore
pressure changes with time as the water flows into the

15
sampler, the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be
calculated. The saturated hydraulic conductivity in an
unsaturated zone can be determined by performing an outflow
test while measuring pore pressure changes with time. This is
done by partially filling a test tube with water and then
pressurizing it. The water is forced into the unsaturated
zone and gradually saturates the soil. In a fairly
homogeneous soil the probe can be used at different depths,
each having a different soil tension, to obtain the hydraulic
conductivity which can be used to plot the K(h) curve.
Petsonk (1985) discusses the theory for performing hydraulic
conductivity tests which is based upon work by Hvorslev,
Dachler, and from Boyle's Law.
A large scale field comparison of several ground water
sampling devices was performed at the Desert Research
Institute in Las Vegas, Nevada, in conjunction with the USEPA
Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (Blegen et al.,
1988). The sampling devices used in the comparison included
a teflon bailer, a bladder pump (Well Wizard), the West Bay MP
System, two in situ BAT probes, and a BAT well probe. Six
"monitoring" wells were installed at a site contaminated with
benzene and chlorobenzene. Three wells were of the
conventional type. Two others were constructed by drilling a
borehole, inserting a BAT probe into it, placing a gravel pack
around the probe, and backfilling the borehole. The last well
was a borehole in which the Westbay MP system was installed.

16
The wells were set up in a rectangular grid with a 20 foot
spacing between them. Samples were taken with each device
over an eight week period. The bladder pump and the BAT probe
generally obtained the highest recovery of organics; the
Westbay system obtained the lowest, with the teflon bailer in
between.
2.4 Sample Preservation
Johnson et al. (1987) looked at the effect of headspace
in sample bottles on the loss of VOCs. They found that if the
volume of the headspace is greater than 5% of the total volume
of the container, significant loss of VOCs could occur. In
one instance, a sample bottle only half filled with a sample
had a 50% reduction in 1,1,1-trichloroethane.
Pankow (1986) also studied the effect of headspace on the
loss of VOCs. He provides an excellent table and figure
relating the loss of VOCs to different headspace volumes for
numerous organic chemical compounds. Appendix G provides
expanded figures of the concentration remaining in solution
versus different headspace volumes for selected aromatic and
chlorinated organic compounds. He found that samples
containing benzene and toluene and with a ratio of volume of
headspace to volume of sample as great as .1 only suffered a
compound loss of 1%. However, with some other organics, such
as vinyl chloride and chloroethane, a .1 ratio of headspace to

17
sample would result in a loss of 25% or more. The effect of
headspace is thus very dependent upon the contaminant in
question.
Clesceri et al. (1989) recommend that sample vials for
volatile analysis have no headspace to avoid loss of volatiles
by volatization. Samples once taken in the field should be
placed in a cooler supplied with ice packs to maintain the
temperature at 4°C. By keeping the samples cool and dark
there is less chance of loss of volatiles and less chance of
growth of microorganisms.
2.5 Necessity for Current Study
Blegen et al. (1988) performed a study comparing seven
different samplers, including the BAT groundwater monitoring
system and a Teflon bailer, at a single site in Nevada.
Several issues were not addressed in this study. At no time
were BAT and Teflon bailer samples obtained from the same
monitoring well to be sure that basically the same water was
being sampled. In this study, a hole was predrilled, the BAT
probe installed, and the hole then backfilled with a gravel
pack, fine silica sand, and a cement-bentonite slurry. The
BAT probe in this case was basically an installed monitoring
well. This defeats the major purpose of the BAT, which is to
eliminate drilling and installation of a monitoring well. The
question is whether the BAT can be penetrated into the ground
and recover representative samples which contain contamination

18
comparable to that obtained using a monitoring well and
bailer.
In Blegen's study the BAT probe was installed 20 feet
from the monitoring well where Teflon bailer samples were
obtained. Such a significant distance in itself may cause a
discrepancy in the concentrations of contaminants measured.
Variations can also be caused by the sampling depth interval.
The BAT groundwater monitoring system samples over a length of
2 inches while the wells installed were screened over a 12
inch interval. No information in their study is given as to
whether or not BAT samples were obtained using cascaded
sampling techniques to eliminate headspace. No data was
presented where the BAT probe was used with a stainless steel
filter in comparison to a HDPE filter.
The current study is needed to develop a larger database
with the BAT groundwater monitoring system. Numerous
regulatory agencies are skeptical of new and innovative
systems until they are thoroughly tested to validate their
use. This study will provide sampling with the BAT probe
using both steel and HDPE filters to evaluate the better of
the two. BAT sampling will be performed inside monitoring
wells to allow comparison directly with Teflon bailer samples
to validate its ability to recover VOCs. BAT sampling will
also be performed adjacent to monitoring wells to show that it
can recover higher concentrations of VOCs than the teflon
bailer in monitoring wells due to the dilution effect which

19
can occur in monitoring wells. Statistics will be given to
show that the BAT system is a more precise device by showing
a lower standard deviation and relative standard deviation
(coefficient of variation) than the bailer.
BAT samples will be analyzed at different amounts of
headspace to see if significant losses of VOCs occur in the
BAT sample tubes due to headspace. Pankow (1986) has
previously shown that losses of BTEX in sample vials with
small amounts of headspace was minimal.

CHAPTER 3
LAB PERMEABILITY TESTING
3.1 Permeability Limitations of the BAT System
The insitu coefficient of permeability can be determined
using the BAT groundwater monitoring system. Both inflow and
outflow testing is possible. For inflow testing the BAT MK2
probe is hydraulically pushed to the desired depth. The pore
water pressure is determined by using the BAT pore water
pressure adaptor. The adaptor uses a single ended hypodermic
needle to make hydraulic connection between the BAT probe and
a pore pressure transducer which is connected to a digital
display unit. The insitu pore pressure is recorded from the
hand held display unit. A double ended test tube is then
placed in a housing and is connected to the pressure
transducer by means of a single ended hypodermic needle which
is connected to an extension cylinder. The extension cylinder
has a small port which contains a rubber septum. For inflow
testing a needle is used to pierce the septum and either a
syringe or vacuum pump is used to evacuate the test tube. For
outflow testing, water is placed into the test tube and then
pressurized using a syringe through the septum port. The
pressure in the test tube can be read on the display unit.
20

21
Once the desired pressure is attained the needle is removed
from the septum and the test tube remains sealed at that
pressure. The housing is then lowered down the drill rods
until connection is made with the probe. Upon connection a
stopwatch is started. Pressure readings should be taken from
the hand held digital read-out at regular intervals. In the
inflow test, as water is drawn into the test tube the pressure
becomes more positive. The initial pore pressure reading
along with the pressure readings with time are input into a
computer program "Perm" Version 13 developed by the BAT
company which calculates the coefficient of permeability.
Additional information on the program "Perm" is provided in
section A.12 of Appendix A.
In both the inflow and outflow tests water must pass
through the probe's porous filter and through the hypodermic
needle which provides connection between the sample tube and
the probe. It is apparent that there will be a maximum soil
permeability which can be correctly measured. In a more
permeable soil the flow of water will be governed not by the
soil but by the filter and/or the needle. The determined
"permeability" will be of the device and not of the penetrated
soil. This limiting permeability value was determined by
laboratory testing.
The BAT probe was placed in a bucket of water and inflow
permeability testing performed. An initial vacuum (negative
pressure) was applied to the test tube using a vacuum hand

22
pump. The test tube was then lowered down the drill rods
until needle contact was made with the probe's septum.
Because the test tube pressure was lower than the insitu
(bucket) water pressure, water was drawn into the tube. This
continued until equilibrium was reached, i.e. , the pressure in
the test tube was equal to the external water pressure.
Twelve tests were performed using the stainless steel
porous filter and five using the high density polyethylene
(HDPE) porous filter. To determine if the porous filter or
the needle actually provided the limiting permeability, five
additional tests were performed with no porous filter. The
results are shown in Table 3.1. The average permeability of
the set-up using the steel filter was 7.8E-04 cm/sec, using
the HDPE filter 1.7E-04 and with no filter 6.1E-03. This
demonstrates that it is the pore size of the probe filter
which is the limiting component.
The BAT groundwater monitoring system with the porous
filters tested is not suitable for permeability testing in
soils with a coefficient greater than approximately 1.0E-04
cm/sec, i.e., clean sands and sand-gravel mixes. The methods
may be suitable in such soils as clays, silts, and clay or
silt-sand mixes (Cedergren, 1977).
3.2 Lab Permeability of Soils
The coefficients of permeability of three soils were
determined in the laboratory using the BAT groundwater

23
Table 3.1 Permeability Limitation Values of BAT
System
PERM
PERM
PERM
W/STEEL
W/HDPE
NO
FILTER
FILTER
FILTER
TRIAL
(cm/sec)
(cm/sec)
(cm/sec)
1
9.6E-05
1.4E-04
5.0E-04
2
4.6E-04
1.6E-04
8.2E-03
3
4.1E-03
1.4E-04
2.1E-02
4
2.4E-03
1.5E-04
6.2E-05
5
6.2E-04
2.4E-04
7.2E-04
6
1.1E-04
7
1.1E-03
8
9.6E-05
9
8.3E-05
10
8.5E-05
11
9.0E-05
12
7.2E-05
AVERAGE
7.8E-04
1.7E-04
6.1E-03
STD DEV
1.2E-03
3.4E-05
7.3E-03
monitoring system and then compared with values obtained from
constant/falling head tests. The soils were a uniform white
silica sand, a fine yellow mortar sand, and a 50% silica sand-
50% kaolinite clay mixture. The uniform white silica sand was
obtained from the Feldspar Corporation of Edgar, Florida (EPK
Sand, CAS NO. 14808-60-7). It had an effective size (D10) of
.16 mm, a uniformity coefficient (Cu) of 1.7 and a
coefficient of curvature (Cz) of .93. Its grain size
distribution curve is shown in Figure 3.1. This soil also
classified as an A-3 according to the AASHTO system. The fine
yellow mortar sand (Figure 3.2) had a D10 of .19 mm, a Cu of
1.7 and a Cz of 1.08. This soil classified as an A-3 in the

24
AASHTO system. Both soils classified as a SP (poorly graded
sand) according to the Unified Soil Classification System
(USCS). The sand-clay mixture was obtained by blending the
EPK sand with pulverized kaolin that was also obtained from
the Feldspar Corporation (CAS No. 1332-58-7). The mixture had
a plastic limit of 20.0 and a liquid limit of 31.8.
Coefficients of permeabilities of the sands were also
estimated using Hazen's equation:
k-C* (D10) 2
where k = permeability in cm/sec
C = empirical factor with an average value of 1
D10 = effective diameter in mm
Hazen estimates are included in the table of results, Table
3.2
Before performing any BAT permeability testing in the lab
it was necessary to determine the size of container (bucket)
which would avoid any boundary effects that could influence
the results. Drawdown was estimated by assuming a porosity
of the sand, knowing the radius of the available containers
and knowing the volume of water which would be removed per
test (35 mL).

25
H-h
35
W o
tz*r¿*n
WHITE SEiCA SAND
1 uu
yu -
(
oU
% Z
1
Eh 50
z
w
B 401
H
â–¡l.
i
/
z 0 H
/
1 0 i
â– 
0
0 H
o.c
31
.1
LOG
DIAJ
CETE
S
M
M)
1
0
Figure 3.1 Gradation Curve of Uniform White Fine Sand
where H - h^ = drawdown in cm
n = porosity or saturated volumetric water content
r = radius of the container in cm
To be conservative a low porosity (n) of .3 was selected. A
low porosity would cause a greater drawdown. A bucket of
radius 5.5 inches (14 cm) was selected. For this bucket the
drawdown was calculated as:

26
Figure 3.2 Gradation Curve of Fine Mortar Sand
H-h„ — . 19 C77?= . 006 23 ft
w n*142*.3
To determine the upper limit of the coefficient of
permeability that could be used with this bucket the following
equation was used (Joint Technical Manual Departments of the
Army, Air Force, and Navy, 1983):
R-C* (H-hw) *VT

27
where R = radius of influence in feet
H = height of water level beyond the zone of influence
= height of water at the probe
H - hu = the drawdown in feet
C = empirical factor normally egual to 2 or 3
k = coefficient of permeability in units of 10~4 cm/sec
-5-JL-3* - 00623*v/T
12
K-6.01*1CT2-^-
sec
This coefficient of permeability is significantly greater
than the upper limit of the BAT system (1.0E-04 cm/sec). The
11 inch diameter bucket is therefore satisfactory as regards
to boundary affects.
The experiments with the sand consisted of placing a
known volume of water into the bucket, locating the BAT probe
in the center of the bucket and raining a known amount of dry
sand (by weight) in around it. The bucket was shaken to
vibrate and settle the soil thereby eliminating any large
voids. This procedure was followed until the bucket was
filled with sand (an approximate height of 13 inches) and the
water level was at the surface of the sand. This allowed the
exact water pressure and the unit weight of the material to be
known. The pore pressure was also checked with the BAT pore

28
pressure device. This gave water heights within 2 cm of the
known heights in the bucket. Since the steel filter had the
highest permeability it was used for all testing.
For the BAT permeability testing the white silica sand
had a dry unit weight of 80.6 pcf and a moist (saturated) unit
weight of 109 pcf. The yellow mortar sand had a dry unit
weight of 90.6 pcf and a moist unit weight of 114.4 pcf. The
same respective dry unit weights were used in the constant
head tests.
The sand-kaolin mixture was prepared by placing a known
amount of water into the bucket and adding a known dry amount
of kaolin. The water and kaolin were mechanically mixed.
Sand was mixed in gradually until a 50-50 mixture of sand-
kaolin had been made. The mixture had a dry unit weight of
67.5 pcf and a moist unit weight of 99.3 pcf. The moist unit
weight in the falling head test was 118 pcf.
The results of the permeability testing are shown in
Table 3.2. The kaolin-water mixture had the lowest
coefficient of permeability of the three soils as expected.
The BAT underestimated the coefficient of permeability by a
factor of 100 when compared with the falling head test even
though the material was in a denser state in the falling head
apparatus. The permeabilities' calculated using Hazen's
eguation for the sands compared rather well with the values
obtained from the constant head permeability tests. Values
obtained with the BAT probe did not compare well with the

29
constant head tests. It was evident that the fine sands were
more permeable than the steel filter used on the BAT probe.
The BAT testing in the fine sands was still a measure of the
permeability of the steel filter and not of the fine sand. It
is evident that the BAT is severely limited for permeability
testing. Further research could include comparison of the
coefficient of permeability from the BAT probe and from field
pumping tests since both measure predominantly the horizontal
coefficient of permeability.
Table 3.2 Permeability of Three Soils
PERM
PERM
PERM
SAND-KAOLIN
FINE MORTAR
UNIFORM
SAND
SAND
TRIAL
(cm/sec)
(cm/sec)
(cm/sec)
1
2.8E-07
4.2E-04
1.8E-05
2
2.1E-07
6.5E-04
2.0E-05
3
2.0E-07
5.9E-05
1.3E-05
4
2.0E-07
9.6E-05
7.4E-05
5
2.0E-07
5.3E-04
5.3E-05
6
2.6E-05
5.8E-05
AVERAGE
2.2E-07
3.0E-04
3.9E-05
STD DEV
2.9E-08
2.3E-04
2.2E-05
HAZEN'S
EQ
3.6E-02
2.6E-02
CONSTANT HEAD
—
2.3E-02
1.6E-02
FALLING
HEAD
6.3E-05
-
-

CHAPTER 4
BAT GROUNDWATER MONITORING SYSTEM LAB STUDIES
4.1 Introduction
This chapter discusses laboratory studies which were
performed to evaluate the BAT probe's ability to recover VOCs
as compared to that of the Teflon bailer in a controlled
environment. A model monitoring well was built to sample with
the BAT probe and with the Teflon bailer. Additional testing
with the BAT probe and the bailer was performed in a large
nalgene tank filled with water spiked with gasoline
constituents. This testing was performed to directly compare
the amount of VOCs recovered from the BAT probe and the Teflon
bailer to determine if the BAT performed comparable to the
bailer.
Each section describes in detail all set-up procedures
and testing sequences. All chemical analyses for this study
(both laboratory and field) were performed on a Gas
Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) in accordance with EPA
Methods 524/624 which allows water sample storage at 4 °C
without preservatives up to seven days. The equipment used
was a Hewlett-Packard 5985 GC/MS "benchtop" system with an HP
5840A gas chromatograph. The GC had a 30 meter capillary
30

31
column with a 0.3 2 mm inner diameter. Samples were purged for
11 minutes, desorbed for four minutes, and baked for 6
minutes.
Other topics include modifications of the BAT system to
provide samples with no headspace including the use of
balloons inside test tubes and Teflon tubes with Teflon balls.
A BAT probe with a ceramic filter is used in the laboratory to
simulate vadose zone testing.
4.2 Monitoring Well Model
A ground water monitoring well was constructed in the lab
to model a typical field installation. The purpose of the
model was to allow an evaluation of two types of groundwater
sampling mechanisms, a Teflon bailer (350 mL—Norwell
Company) and the BAT probe. The Teflon bailer is shown in
Figure 4.1.
The model was constructed within a metal 55-gallon drum
which was lined with a plastic nalgene container. The nalgene
container was used to decrease the chemical interaction
(sorption or leaching) that could occur between the
contaminants and either the metal drum or regular plastic
garbage cans. Because of the flexibility of the nalgene
container the metal drum was needed to provide rigid
containment. Since the nalgene tank had a flow valve on the
bottom, a small slit was made down the side of the metal drum
with a welding torch to allow its insertion. The monitoring

32
well was constructed of a 2.5 foot section of "triloc" slotted
pvc well screen with a #10 slot (.01 inch opening). This was
threaded onto a 2.5 foot section of pvc casing on one end and
a pointed tip on the other. The monitoring well had an inner
diameter of 2 inches. A uniform sand with an effective
diameter of .012 inches was rained in around the monitoring
Figure 4.1 Teflon Bailer

33
well. Figure 4.2 is a photograph of the model monitoring well
set-up.
4.3 Experiment 1 Inside Model Monitoring Well
In the first experiment a solution was prepared by mixing
50 liters of water with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, each
at a concentration of 20 /ig/1 (20 ppb) . This contaminated
water was then siphoned through a flexible tube into the
bottom of the monitoring well, from which it spread radially
into the sand-filled container. Filling took approximately
two and a half hours.
Several attempts to mix the chemicals directly with water
were unsuccessful due to the relative insolubility of these
volatile aromatics. Each attempt only provided a non-agueous
phase liguid (NAPL) above the water due to its lower specific
gravity and hydrophobic characteristics. To overcome this
problem 0.5 grams of benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were added
to 50 ml of methanol (CH3OH) to dissolve the aromatics. This
provided a solution with a concentration of 10,000 mg/1 (ppm).
. 5g 103r?L 103/ng - „ ___ mg
— x x — =10,000 ——
50mL L g L
To achieve a desired concentration of 20 ppb, 100 /¿I of
the above solution was injected into a tank containing 50
liters of water. The water and chemicals were gently
mechanically mixed with a wooden rod.

34
lOOH-Lx 1°6M-l
-1 O AAA m9 lO3!!^
xlO , 000 —— x i-2-
L mg
50 L
20 \ig
L
Figure 4.2 Model Monitoring Well Set-Up
When the filling of the tank with water was completed, a
Teflon bailer, which had been cleaned and stored in aluminum
foil, was lowered down the monitoring well to obtain a water
sample. This first bailer sample was discarded. The bailer

35
was again lowered down the well to obtain a sample. Upon
retrieval, two 40 mL glass vials (teflon sealed) were filled
using the bottom control flow valve. While inserting the flow
control valve into the bottom of the bailer, it appeared that
a small air bubble was introduced into the water and traveled
up through the bailer. Two 40 mL glass vials were also filled
by decanting the water through the top of the bailer. The
vials were refrigerated for sample preservation. A BAT probe
(Figure 4.3) was then lowered down through the center of the
well to obtain samples. The first sample was discarded
because 8 mL of the water in the sample was from the water
that was used to saturate the porous filter. Three attempts
were made to obtain samples using the cascaded type system of
two test tubes in series (Figure 4.4). This procedure was
used to collect a bottom tube sample with no headspace while
the upper sample will contain some headspace. Cascaded BAT
samples were numbered with odd integers for the lower (zero
headspace) tube samples, e.g BAT3, and with the next (even)
integer for the upper (with headspace) tube sample for the
same test. Only one of the three attempts yielded a sample
with no headspace. There appeared to be a bad connection
between the two test tubes. In the two unsuccessful attempts,
the bottom test tubes were partially filled while the upper
tubes were empty. The upper test tubes when opened still had
vacuums. Samples were stored for less than one day before
performing the chemical analyses. Results are shown in Table

36
SEPTUM
SEPTUM
POROUS FILTER
EUñCUñTED TEST
TUBE
DOUBLE ENDED
NEEDLE
Figure 4.3 BAT MK2 Probe

37
7^
UPPER SAMPLE TUBE
WITH SOME HEADSPACE
HYPODERMIC NEEDLE
LOWER SAMPLE TUBE
NO HEADSPACE
HYPODERMIC NEEDLE
TIP SEPTUM
Figure 4.4 Cascaded Sampling for Zero Head Space Sample

38
4.1. The bailer samples recovered more VOCs than did the BAT
samples. The single BAT sample with no headspace still
recovered 3% less benzene, 15% less toluene, and 24% less
xylene than did the average of all the bailer samples.
4.4 Experiment 2 Inside the Model Monitoring Well
After the chemicals had remained in the drum for three
days, additional samples were taken. Two full samples without
headspace were obtained using the cascaded technigue (BATI and
BAT3) and one sample was obtained using the single vial
technigue (BAT5). These samples were also taken by placing
the BAT probe down the center of the monitoring well. The
results are shown in Table 4.2.
These two rounds of sampling did show the effect that
headspace has on the loss of VOCs. Generally, the larger the
headspace the smaller the amount of VOCs observed. The sample
that was obtained during experiment 1 which was stored for
five days did not show any additional loss of VOCs as compared
to those stored for only one day.
A very important factor discovered was that the method of
extracting the water sample from the BAT test tubes played a
large role in the levels of observed contaminants. It was
determined that the best method to obtain the water from a
double-ended test tube was to hold the tube vertically, remove
the top end of the test tube, insert the needle of the syringe
through the bottom end and draw the water out of the test

39
Table 4.1 Chemical Analyses of Sampling Within Model
Monitoring Well
SAMPLE
HEAD
BENZENE
TOLUENE
XYLENE
COMMENTS
SPACE
%
ppb
ppb
ppb
TANK
WATER
14.6
11.8
12.1
BAT
15
13.7
8.8
7.8
SINGLE-
ENDED TEST
TUBE
BAILER
16.1
11.2
12.3
BOTTOM
FLOW
CONTROL
VALVE
BAT
57
10.3
8.0
7.3
DOUBLE-
ENDED TEST
TUBE
BAILER
TOP
16.0
11.8
12.4
DECANTED
BAILER
TOP
16.8
12.2
12.9
DECANTED
BAT
0
16.0
10.0
9.6
DOUBLE-
ENDED TEST
TUBE
BAT
50
11.9
6.7
6.4
DECANTED
THROUGH
NECK
BAILER
17.0
12.0
13.0
BOTTOM
FLOW
CONTROL
VALVE
AVG BAILER
16.5
11.8
12.7
True concentration of water in tank was to be 20 ppb (20
Mg/1)•
BAT samples obtained by lowering probe down the center of
the pvc monitoring well.

40
Table 4.2 Chemical Analyses of Experiment Two Inside the Model
Monitoring Well
SAMPLE
HEAD BENZENE
TOLUENE
XYLENE
COMMENTS
SPACE ppb
%
ppb
ppb
BATI 0 4.7 2.7 4.7 DOUBLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED
BAT 2 9 3.5 2.7 4.4 SINGLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED
BAT 3 0 2.6 1.5 3.7 DOUBLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED
BAT 4 43 2.8 1.8 3.8 SINGLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED
BAT 5 5 2.3 1.3 2.9 SINGLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED
BAT 39 11.8
STORED
FIVE
DAYS
(FROM EXPERIMENT 1)
7.2 5.0 DOUBLE-ENDED
TEST TUBE
NEEDLE
EXTRACTED
tube. When extracting the sample with both ends sealed
(also occurs when using a sealed single-ended test tube), it
becomes guite difficult to remove the sample and if the

41
analyst is not careful the sample can be pulled back into the
test tube. If an additional needle is placed in the bottom
test tube to relieve the vacuum while the sample is being
extracted with the syringe, little air bubbles move up through
the sample. This may cause a loss of VOCs. Water should be
slowly drawn out of the test tubes to allow the syringe to
gradually fill without any headspace. If the water is removed
too guickly, bubbling can occur as the water enters the
syringe. The most successful method for extracting the water
from a single-ended test tube is to remove the end of the test
tube and to hold the test tube in a near horizontal position.
The needle of the syringe is then placed in the test tube and
kept under the water level. As the water level is lowered,
the test tube is inverted slightly to keep the needle under
the water. Another method not attempted would be to remove
the seal and, holding the tube vertically, use a syringe with
a long enough needle to reach the bottom of the test tube. If
an adeguate needle is not available, it may be possible to
place a length of thin tubing over the needle which can be
lowered down the test tube.
4.5 Experiment 3 Inside the Model Monitoring Well
A third round of testing was performed after draining the
water from the tank the previous day. A new contaminated
solution of 20 ppb each of benzene, toluene, and o-xylene was
mixed and slowly siphoned by gravity down the monitoring well

42
to fill the model. A 40 mL vial was filled with the
contaminated water. A Teflon bailer was used to obtain two
samples from the well (BAILER1 and BAILER2) . This sampling
was performed within 5 minutes of the filling. Since there
was little time for interaction between the contaminants and
the pvc well, no purging was performed.
BAT probe sampling was performed for the first time in
the soil, adjacent to the monitoring well. The probe was
pushed to the bottom of the tank using a hydraulic jack. A
load frame constructed of four inch steel channel, and shown
in Figure 4.5, provided the reaction for the penetration push.
Two samples without headspace (BATI and BAT3) were obtained
after drawing the water out of the filter. The BAT probe was
then removed from the tank and a second probe inserted at a
different location and to a shallower depth. Two samples with
no headspace (BAT5 and BAT7) were obtained from this depth.
The results of the chemical analyses are shown in Table 4.3.
The bailer samples contained higher concentrations of
contaminants than the BAT samples. The BAT samples taken from
the very bottom of the tank were quite low. This was probably
due to incomplete draining of the tank which allowed the old
contaminated water to be sampled. The longer the water remains
in the tank, the greater the chance of sorption of the
contaminants onto the soil and loss of VOCs. The
concentrations of contaminants in the upper BAT samples were
closer to those obtained from the bailer samples, but were

43
Figure 4.5 BAT Probe with Reaction Frame
still generally around 35% lower.
At this time, it was believed that there were two
principal reasons why the BAT system was not recovering
similar levels of VOCs as the bailer. One reason was that the
bailer samples were taken within a few minutes of filling the
well, with little time for the VOCs to volatilize. The water
obtained from the BAT samples taken a couple of hours later,

44
Table 4.3 Chemical Analyses of BAT Probe Sampling Inside the
Model Monitoring Well
SAMPLE
HEAD
SPACE
%
BENZENE
ppb
TOLUENE
ppb
XYLENE
ppb
COMMENTS
TANK
WATER
18.1
21.3
24.3
BAILER
17.7
19.0
21.5
BAILER
15.5
16.4
18.6
BATI
0
4.4
3.4
2.1
BOTTOM OF
TANK
BAT 3
0
5.2
4.2
2.7
BOTTOM OF
TANK
BAT 5
0
10.6
10.6
9.4
UPPER PART
OF TANK
BAT 7
0
12.4
12.0
13.9
UPPER PART
OF TANK
BAT pushed into the soil with the use of Hydraulic Jack.
Water spiked to provide concentrations of 20 nq/1 (ppb)
for each contaminant.
however,had plenty of time to interact (sorb) with the soil
perhaps resulting in a lower recovery of VOCs. The second
possible explaination for the lower recovery of VOCs was that
the BAT's use of a vacuum causes a loss of VOCs. It was
thought that the water entering the BAT test tube would bubble
due to the vacuum which had been placed on the test tube. The
bubbling would cause a loss of volatiles as they would enter

45
the gaseous phase. A lab experiment was performed to see if
the water did bubble when entering the test tube. A vacuum
was placed on two test tubes which were then connected with a
double-ended needle. Another double-ended needle was placed
into the septum of the BAT probe, which had been placed in a
bucket of water. The bottom test tube was then placed in
contact with the exposed needle from the BAT probe. At the
instant contact was made, water was pulled into the test tube
and bubbling did occur. Bubbling occurred but it became less
dramatic as the test tube filled.
The test was repeated with the probe's porous filter
removed to see if it could have been only partially saturated.
In which case, the bubbles that formed would be due to air
entrapped in the porous filter and pulled into the test tube.
The test showed considerable bubbling, which eliminated the
filter as the responsible party.
Another test was performed using degassed water (boiled
water) to see if the bubbling effect was due to dissolved gas
being pulled out of solution by the vacuum. Less bubbling
occurred. Bubbling will probably always occur as long as
there is a head space when the water enters the test tube.
When a syringe without any headspace is used to slowly
withdraw water from a test tube or vial almost no bubbling
occurs. If the syringe is pulled strongly back and a
headspace is formed, the water will bubble when entering the
syringe due to the reduced pressure.

46
In order to eliminate headspace it was decided to make
use of a membrane inside a double-ended test tube. A balloon
was used as the membrane. The balloon was placed in the test
tube with its opening stretched over the neck of the test
tube. The top was then screwed on over the balloon (Figure
4.6). A syringe was inserted through this top to evacuate the
air from the balloon. This caused the balloon to collapse.
The top was then screwed onto the other end of the test tube
and the air evacuated with a syringe. This membrane test tube
was used with the probe in the lab with tap water with
virtually a 100% success rate. When sampling, the water would
enter the balloon and fill it. Once the unstretched length of
the balloon filled, it would continue to fill as the water
stretched the balloon until it came in contact with the walls
of the glass tube. The water would then continue to expand
the balloon upward. When viewing the test tube after
sampling, a small bubble was observed in the water filled
balloon.
4.6 Experiment 4—Sampling Within Tank Spiked Water
This experiment consisted of filling a nalgene container
with 200 liters of distilled water. The container had less
than 10% headspace. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were
injected into the tank to give it a concentration of 10 nq/1
of each contaminant. The tank was mechanically mixed with a
pvc slotted well screen. The objective here was to directly

47
Figure 4.6 Balloon and Test Tube Apparatus
compare the bailer and the BAT without the presence of the
sand. The sand was thought to sorb some of the contaminants,
resulting in the lower recovery of volatiles by the BAT system
in earlier experiments.
The BAT probe was lowered into the tank and suspended
slightly below the water level using two "C" clamps on the
drill rod, Figure 4.7. Tape was placed around the drill rod
to seal the hole and the escape of any gaseous fumes. The

48
Figure 4.7 BAT Sampling in Nalgene Container
first BAT sample was as usual discarded, as it contained at
least 8 mL of the distilled water which had been used to
saturate the probe. Three BAT samples (BATI, BAT3 and BAT5)
were collected without headspace by the cascaded technique.
A minimum of 10 minutes was required to completely fill the
bottom test tube before any filling of the upper test tube
occurred. Two BAT samples (BAT7 and BAT8) obtained using a
single-ended test tube, filled approximately 90% within 7

49
minutes. Two BAT samples, BAT9 and BATIO, were obtained using
the balloon technique. After sampling with the BAT system,
two samples of the tank water were obtained with the Teflon
bailer, BAILER1 and BAILER2.
Results of the chemical analyses are shown in Table 4.4.
The bailer samples again recovered the highest percentages of
VOCs. Samples using the balloon technique recovered the
lowest percentage of VOCs. This was undoubtedly due to
sorption of the contaminants onto the rubber balloon. There
was an extreme variation in the results obtained from the BAT
samples with and without headspace.
Statistical data such as the standard deviation (STD) and
the relative standard deviation (RSD) were calculated from the
equations given below. The relative standard deviation is
also known as the coefficient of variation. The standard
deviation and relative standard deviation are both measures of
skewness. They give us an idea on the precision of our data.
The smaller the skewness in the data the higher the precision
in the sampling procedure and device. This infers that the
sampling procedure is also highly reproducible and gives us a
high level of confidence.

50
Table 4.4 Chemical Analyses of Sampling Within Tank Spiked
Water
SAMPLE
HEAD
BENZENE
TOLUENE
XYLENE
COMMENTS
SPACE
%
ppb
ppb
ppb
BAT 9
0
2.49
1.29
0.56
BALLOON
BATIO
0
1.72
1.01
0.44
BALLOON
BATI
0
5.84
7.01
7.81
BAT 3
0
9.02
9.10
9.20
BAT 4
50
5.40
6.30
6.96
PRESSURIZED
BEFORE
EXTRACTING
BAT 5
0
7.68
8.65
9.13
BAT 7
11
8.20
7.69
8.21
BAT 8
10
8.61
8.30
9.50
AVG BAT
7.46
7.84
8.47
EXCLUDING
BALLOON
BAT-NO
HEAD SPACE (#1,3
,5)
SAMPLES
AVG
7.51
8.25
8.71
STD
1.3
0.9
0.6
RSD
17.3
10.8
6.9
BAILER1
9.08
9.80
11.20
BAILER2
9.60
9.99
11.90
AVG
BAILER
9.34
9.90
11.55
STD
0.3
0.1
0.3
RSD
3.2
1.0
2.6
Tank Spiked to give actual concentrations of 10 /¿g/1
(ppb) for each contaminant.

51
STD-
RSD=
N
2 (X-X)
N
xlOO
STD
X
2
X-actual concentration
X-wean concentration
N- numberofsamples
4.7 Experiment 5—Sampling Within Tank Spiked Water
This experiment consisted of spiking 225 liters of water
with benzene, toluene, and xylene to achieve a concentration
of 8.9 ppb for each contaminant. The chemicals were mixed
mechanically as in Experiment 4. The container had less than
2% headspace. Five samples (BATI, BAT3... BAT9) without
headspace were collected with the BAT probe using the cascaded
technique. Each test tube did contain a small bubble. Five
samples were obtained with the teflon bailer by decanting from
the top into 40 mL vials. Results of the chemical analyses
are shown in Table 4.5.
Since the results again showed that the BAT recovered
lower BTX concentrations, an attempt was made to obtain
samples using hydrostatic pressure rather than with reduced
pressure. This method is used by the Hydropunch system. A
cascaded type system was used with two modifications. Two
double-ended test tubes were used. A cap was not placed on
the top of the upper test tube. This allowed air to vent from
the test tubes as they filled. The second modification
consisted of grilling a hole into the top of the metal plug

52
which is screwed down on to the test tube container housing.
This allowed the air to vent from the test tube and from the
container housing.
The BAT probe was placed approximately three feet below
the container free water surface. After sixteen hours the
lower test tube was about 80% (28 mL) full. Such a length of
time would, in most situations be impractical. Also such a
long period of time would allow a significant amount of the
VOCs to vaporize.
Another attempt at collecting a sample hydrostatically
was performed. The threaded glass ends were removed from the
tube and fused onto a smaller diameter tube of approximately
the same length. The modified tube held approximately 12.5 mL
of water, about 1/3 the standard tube's volume. It was hoped
this would significantly reduce the time required for
sampling. The modified tube filled completely, with no
headspace, and approximately 10 mL entered the upper tube
within seventeen hours. This however was also considered
inadequate.
4.8 Experiment 6—Sampling Within Tank Spiked Water
This experiment again used the balloon technique.
Testing was as previously tried with the exception that the

53
Table 4.5 Chemical Analyses from Sampling Within Tank Spiked
Water
SAMPLE
HEAD
SPACE
BENZENE
ppb
TOLUENE
ppb
XYLENE
ppb
BAILER1
0
9.9
9.7
10.1
BAILER2
0
9.5
9.1
10.0
BAILER3
0
7.4
9.7
10.7
BAILER4
0
9.9
9.9
10.6
BAILER5
0
8.3
10.2
11.0
AVG BAILER
9.0
9.7
10.5
STANDARD
DEVIATION
1.0
0.4
0.4
RELATIVE
STANDARD
11.1
4.1
3.8
DEVIATION
BATI
0
6.9
9.1
9.1
BAT 3
0
7.6
9.1
9.4
BAT 5
0
8.4
8.7
8.7
BAT 7
0
6.7
9.0
9.3
BAT 9
0
6.7
8.4
8.4
AVG BAT
7.3
8.9
9.0
STANDARD
DEVIATION
0.7
0.3
0.4
RELATIVE
STANDARD
9.6
3.4
4.4
DEVIATION
BAT % LOWER
18.9
8.2
14.3
Tank spiked to provide actual concentrations of 10 ng/1
(10 ppb) for each of the contaminants.

54
inside of the balloon was sprayed with a dry film lubricant
and mold release agent, manufactured by Crown Industrial
Products of Hebron, Illinois (#6075). The product label
states that it is chemically similar to TFE (Teflon) as
manufactured by Dupont.
A solution of 10 ppb (10 jug/1) of benzene, toluene, and
xylene was made. Three BAT samples (BATI, BAT3 and BAT5) with
no headspace were taken using the cascade technigue. Two BAT
samples were collected using the balloon which had been coated
with the teflon spray. Two bailer samples (BAILER1 and
BAILER2) were obtained for comparison. The results are shown
in Table 4.6.
After performing the chemical analysis on the two bailer
samples and two of the no headspace BAT samples, analysis was
performed on the balloon sample. This sample overloaded the
GC/MS system due to the freon propellant that is used in the
teflon spray coating. The third BAT sample with no head space
was run directly after the balloon sample but could not be
properly interpreted. Analysis on the second balloon sample
was not performed. In this test the BAT samples, without any
headspace recovered more VOCs than did the Teflon bailer.
4.9 Teflon Ball and Tube Sampling Apparatus
Another modification to the BAT system was tried to
obtain zero headspace samples. Teflon tubes were manufactured

55
with a constant inner diameter of 1/4 inch and threads
machined on either end to fit the BAT test tube caps.
A Teflon ball, 1/4 inch in diameter, was placed inside
the Teflon tube. The ball was to be in contact with the walls
of the tube with no air space around the wall. After the ball
was placed in the end of the tube, one cap was screwed on and
a vacuum pulled on that side of the tube. The second cap was
then screwed onto the other end and a vacuum placed on that
side. When the hypodermic needle made contact with the BAT
septum and the septum of the Teflon tube, it was hoped that
the higher pressure of the water would push the teflon ball up
the tube and yield a sample without any head space.
Table 4.6 Chemical Analyses of Experiment 6
SAMPLE
HEAD
BENZENE
TOLUENE
XYLENE
SPACE
ppb
ppb
ppb
BAILER1
0
11.4
10.0
8.9
BAILER2
0
10.7
8.8
8.2
AVG BAILER
11.1
9.4
8.6
BATI
0
12.0
10.3
9.5
BAT 7
0
11.9
10.0
8.4
AVG BAT
0
12.0
10.2
9.0
BAILER % LOWER
THAN BAT
7.5
7.8
4.4
Water spiked to provide actual concentration levels of 10
Mg/1 (10 ppb) for each contaminant.

56
Several trials with this method met little success. Even
though Teflon has a very low coefficient of friction, the
water pressure was not sufficient to push the ball up the
tube. The diameter of the tube was slightly enlarged to see
if this would help. The ball did move slightly better, but
would typically become stuck somewhere in the middle of the
tube. This was probably due to the flexibility of the teflon
tube. If the tube became the slightest bit distorted in any
direction, the inner diameter would change and cause the ball
to become stuck.
4.10 BAT Vadose Zone Probe Testing
Laboratory testing was conducted with a BAT probe using
a ceramic filter. Such a filter, with its small pore size of
2 microns, is necessary if sampling is to be attempted in the
unsaturated zone. Standard BAT filters made of steel or HDPE
have larger pore sizes. These filters allow air to be pulled
into the filter which inhibits the flow of water because a
full vacuum cannot be maintained. This means sampling is
greatly hindered.
A uniform fine silica sand was placed in a plastic
concrete cylinder casing (12" high by 6" diameter) to a height
of 8 inches. Before placing the sand in the container a small
hole was made in the bottom of the casing to allow water to
drain out. A piece of white cotton sheet was taped over the
hole on the inside of the casing to serve as a filter. A

57
piece of strapping tape was placed over the hole on the
outside of the casing to inhibit flow.
The dry soil had a mass of 6012 grams. Water, with a
mass of 1555 grams was then poured into the soil. The
strapping tape was removed and the water allowed to drain into
a pan. When drainage was complete, 161 grams of water had
been collected, which left 1394 grams in the soil. The
initial water content (by weight) was then 23.2% and the moist
unit weight was 124.5 pcf. The BAT probe with ceramic filter
was then saturated in a bucket of water and pushed by hand
into the soil filled cylinder. Pore pressure readings were
taken and sampling performed with the BAT groundwater
monitoring system. Results are shown in Table 4.7.
Some problems were evident with the pore pressure
readings. By removing the water from the soil the pressure
should have become more negative as the test progressed. The
pore pressure reading problems could have been caused from all
the water in the ceramic filter being pulled out.
By taking a soil sample from the field and performing a
test like that above, the soil moisture curve could be
developed. A typical soil moisture curve is shown in Figure
4.8. With this information pore pressures could be read in
the field and correlated to the actual water content from this
graph. The soil water content profile is needed for all
unsaturated flow problems.

58
4.11 Summary
Testing within a tank filled with water spiked with
gasoline constituents proved to be a better method than
modeling a well inside a 55-gallon drum filled with sand. For
the two experiments in the tank filled water there was
conflicting data. In one test the bailer recovered more VOCs
than did the BAT probe and in the other test the BAT probe
recovered more than the bailer. The data from the BAT probe
showed it to be a more precise device than the bailer by
having a lower relative standard deviation.

59
Table 4.7 Vadose Probe Testing
Sampling
Time
Water
Recovered
mL
(Water content)
Pore
Pressure
cm of
Water
20 min
4
(23.1%)
-.42
40 min
1.5
(23.1%)
-.43
2 hrs
15 min
4
(23.0%)
-.42
24 hrs
15 min
23.5
(22.6%)
0.0
4 3 hrs
30 min
0.0
-.03
Evaporation was not considered in water calculations.
Water = 1 g/cm3
1 cm3
1 ml

WATER CONTENT
SANDY SOIL
Figure 4.8 Typical Soil Moisture Curve

CHAPTER 5
ANALYSIS, TRANSPORT, AND PROPERTIES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS
5.1 Introduction
This chapter is provided to give a overview of some basic
principles of geo-environmental engineering. Discussions are
provided on organic compounds, chemical analysis of water
samples, regulatory contaminant levels, and solute transport.
This background information is necessary before looking at the
field contaminant studies that were performed.
5.2 Organic Compounds
Organic compounds are defined as compounds which contain
some amount of carbon. Hydrocarbons are compounds which
contain only hydrogen and carbon. The most familiar
hydrocarbons are benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the
xylenes. These four compounds are typically known as BTEX.
All four are constituents in petroleum products such as
gasoline. Petroleum hydrocarbons typically have specific
gravities less than one making them float on top of the
groundwater in a separate phase. These compounds are
sometimes called LNAPLs (Light non aqueous phase liquids) or
floaters. Hydrocarbons such as BTEX which typically have low
solubilities in water and volatilize easily are known as VOCs.
Figure 5.1 illustrates the typical transport of a LNAPL.
61

62
Henry's Constant, H, is a coefficient which describes a
compound's partitioning between the liquid and vapor phases.
The higher the Henry's Constant the more likely the compound
is to come out of water and go into a vapor phase. Table 5.1
lists the Henry's Constant of several compounds, from Pankow
(1986).
Figure 5.1 Transport of a Typical LNAPL

63
Table 5.1 Henry's Constant for Selected VOCs
COMPOUND
H
COMPOUND
H
BENZENE
0.0055
METHYLENE CHLORIDE
0.0020
CHLOROBENZENE
0.0036
CHLOROFORM
0.0029
TOLUENE
0.0067
CHLOROETHANE
0.15
ETHYLBENZENE
0.0066
VINYL CHLORIDE
0.081
O-XYLENE
0.0050
TRICHLOROETHENE
0.0091
M-XYLENE
0.0070
TETRACHLOROETHENE
0.0153
P-XYLENE
0.0071
ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE
0.00082
H is in atm*m3/mol
If VOCs are present in groundwater they vaporize and
migrate vertically and horizontally in the gas phase through
the soil pores until they reach the atmosphere. This is a
natural remediation process. Ballestro et al. (1991) state
that nonhalogenated compounds such as BTEX, when present in
low concentrations in groundwater, readily degrade in
oxygenated soil. This does not occur, however, when large
concentrations are present.
Halogenated organic compounds contain hydrogen, carbon,
and one or more of the halogens, fluorine, chlorine, bromine,
or iodine.
Chlorinated compounds are typically denser than water and
are known as sinkers or dense non-aqueous phase liquids

64
(DNAPLs). These compounds will sink through groundwater until
they reach a confining layer and will then move laterally with
gravity. If the confining layer is angled, the contaminant
can even move upgradient. Figure 5.2 illustrates a simulated
transport of a DNAPL. Chlorinated DNAPLs include chloroform,
tetrachloroethene or perchloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene
(TCE), methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and,
1,1,2-trichlorotrifluorethane (freon). Trichloroethene is a
degreasing solvent and is the most common contaminant found in
groundwater. Tetrachloroethene is used in dry cleaning fluid.
5.3 Chemical Analysis
Once groundwater samples are taken they must be analyzed
to determine the presence and concentration of contaminants.
For gasoline spills or leaking underground storage tanks, EPA
Method 602 titled Purgeable Aromatics is run to determine the
presence and concentration of the aromatic chemicals. These
include benzene, chlorobenzene, the three dichlorobenzenes,
ethylbenzene, and toluene. This analysis consists of
injecting a sample into a purging device where an inert gas
such as helium is bubbled through the water sample to
volatilize the contaminants. These are then trapped on a
sorbant material. The trap is then heated and backflushed
with helium to desorb the contaminants which are then sent to
a gas chromatograph (GC) for separation and detection. Before

65
Figure 5.2 Transport of DNAPL
running any samples the gas chromatograph must be calibrated
for the contaminants of concern.
These contaminants are individually run through the gas
chromatograph since it cannot absolutely distinguish between
compounds. By running each compound separately the retention
time is determined for each compound. Compounds come off the
GC column in order of their boiling points. With this method
there can still be some error because several compounds may

66
elute (come off the column) at the same retention time.
Figure 5.3 shows a typical total ion chromatograph.
The state of the art for groundwater analysis makes use
of a gas chromatograph in conjunction with a mass spectrometer
(GC/MS). EPA Method 624 titled Purgeables makes use of the
GC/MS for the detection and quantitation of not only the seven
contaminants found in Method 602 but 24 other compounds. This
analysis is run in a similar manner to that of Method 602 with
the exception that after the sample leaves the GC it is sent
to the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer bombards the
compounds with electrons to try to ionize them by knocking off
electrons and some of the atoms. As the compound is bombarded
with electrons it is scanned several times a second to
determine the atomic mass units (AMUs) that are present and
their relative intensities. This allows better determination
of compounds. Each compound has a mass spectrum which is its
own unique fingerprint under the given conditions. The mass
spectrum of a compound shows the fragmentation ions that are
present and their relative amounts. A typical mass spectrum
is shown in Figure 5.4. The compound shown is o-xylene (1,2
dimethylbenzene). Its chemical formula is C8H10 resulting in
a molecular weight of 106. This is one of the peaks shown.
Another peak shown is 91 which comes when a methyl group
(CH3), having a weight of 15, is knocked off the compound.
The mass spectrum for each peak can be viewed to determine

67
Figure 5.3 Typical Ion Chromatograph
what compound or compounds are present at that particular
retention time.

68
Figure 5.4 Typical Mass Spectra
Before running any samples the GC/MS must be calibrated.
This is done by running known compounds at known
concentrations through the system to obtain response factors.
Response factors are the actual known concentrations divided
by the peak area for the compound in question. These factors
are obtained by running a wide range of concentrations of the
particular compounds such as 2 ppb, 4 ppb, 10 ppb, and 20 ppb.
These data are then averaged to give a response factor for
each compound to be analyzed.

69
Table 5.2 Primary Drinking Water Standards (MCLs)
Metals M9/1
Arsenic 50
Barium 1000
Cadmium 10
Chromium 50
Lead 50
Mercury 2
Selenium 10
Volatile Organics
Vinyl Chloride 2
Trichloroethene 5
Benzene 5
Carbon Tetrachloride 5
1,2-Dichloroethene 5
1.1-Dichloroethene 7
1.1.1-Trichloroethane 200
Semivolatiles
1.4-Dichlorobenzene 75
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 10
Pesticides/Herbicides
2.4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 100
gamma-BHC 4
Methoxychlor 100
Toxaphene 5
Additional Parameters
Nitrate 10,000
Fluoride 4,000
Method 524 titled Measurement of Purgeable Organic
Compounds in Water by Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry covers a total of sixty compounds. The method of

70
detection limit (MDL) depending upon the type of column ranges
from .02 to .35 ppb. The method of detection limit is the
minimum concentration above zero that is detected 99% of the
time.
5.4 Regulatory Contaminant Levels
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) which was passed in
1974 sets the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking
water. These levels are listed in Table 5.2. States may,
however, implement even more stringent reguirements. The
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (DER) has set
its own state ground water target levels. For closing an
underground storage facility in Florida the contaminant levels
must not exceed those listed in Table 5.3. Methyl tert-butyl
ether (MTBE) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) are fuel additives.
Ethylene dibromide is also used in soil fumigants. Neither of
these two compounds is listed in EPA Method 602.
EPA Method 610 is titled Polynuclear Aromatic
Hydrocarbons. This method covers sixteen organic compounds
that are associated with fuels other than gasoline such as
diesel, kerosene, jet fuel A, JP-4 (jet fuel), and No. 6
heating oil. This method reguires a minimum sample size of
250 ml. EPA Method 625 titled Base/Neutrals and Acids covers
61 compounds. It includes all the compounds from method 610
plus several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and several
pesticides including DDT, aldrin, chlordane, toxaphene, and
dieldrin.

71
Table 5.3 Florida Ground Water Target Levels
Mg/1
Gasoline (EPA Method 602)
Benzene 1
Total VOA 50
-Benzene
-Toluene
-Total Xylenes
-Ethylbenzene
Methyl Tert-Butyl 50
Ether (MTBE)
Kerosene/Diesel (EPA Method 610)
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) 10
5.5 Solute Transport
Solutes (contaminants) migrate through soil due to three
processes: advection, diffusion, and dispersion. Advection
is contaminant flowing with the groundwater. Diffusion is the
process of spreading due to chemical gradients, i.e., moving
from a high concentration to a lower concentration. It can
take place when there is no flow of groundwater. Dispersion
is the spreading out of the contaminant longitudinally and
laterally due to velocity effects as it moves through the
tortuous paths through the soil pores. Water moves through
the center of pores faster than at the edges where it drags on
the soil particles.

72
The solute transport equation can be derived from the
continuity equation:
dM _ dJT
dt dx
Where JT = Total solute flux
M- total /nass=0C+p5
JT—BD-2£ + qC
1 ox
and q =
D =
0 =
P =
S =
C =
Kd=
Darcy flux
Hydrodynamic Dispersion Coefficient (lumps
dispersion and diffusion together)
Porosity (Volumetric Water Content when saturated)
Bulk Density of the Soil (ML'3)
Mass Adsorbed Solute/Mass of the Soil
Solution Concentration (ML'3)
Partition or Sorption Coefficient (L3M~3)
Assume: steady q
constant 0 (no change in water content)
constant p (no change in soil density)
e|£tp _§s.eD_yc
dt K at dx2

73
For linear sorption S=KdC
dS_ dC
dt ' d dt
Substituting for S gives:
dt K d dt dx2
Dividing through by 0 gives:
, pKd dC nd2C _ g dC
V 0 ’ dt~ dx2 9 dx
p Kh
R-Retardation factor-1+ -
0
Vo-pore water velocity
0
Substitution gives:
dc_nd2c dc
V -velocity of the solute-
This shows that the contaminant will travel at a
velocity, Vs, which is slower than the velocity of water by a
factor R, the retardation factor. For any computer model
using the solute transport eguation it is necessary to first
determine the partition coefficient, Kd. This can be
determined by taking a soil sample from the field and

74
performing a laboratory test in which known contaminants at
known concentrations are passed through a column of the soil,
and measurements made of the concentrations in the effluent,
to determine how much was sorbed by the soil.
It is very important to realize the effect of diffusion
in this eguation. For years landfills were designed just
considering advection. Contaminants were assumed to move just
with the water. Clay liners were built with a minimum
thickness of three feet and with a permeability of less than
10"7 cm/sec. The water velocity becomes negligible when the
permeability is small (v=ki). Eliminating this from the
transport equation shows that the contaminants will still move
through the clay barrier before the water will and can
contaminate the groundwater. Shackelford and Daniel (1991)
have found that in fine grained soils diffusion may be the
primary transport mechanism in solute transport. Contaminants
may show up below clay liners years earlier than predicted
from advection alone.
The retardation factor is a function of the sorption
between the contaminants and the soil particles. Sorption can
be due to ion exchange where higher valence cations replace
lower ones. It can also be due to the hydrophobic nature of
some contaminants which easily go out of solution. Clays can
retard contaminant migration due not only to their lower
permeability but also due to their negative charges which
allows for ion exchange unlike sand particles which have small

75
surfaces areas and no charge. Anions, negatively charged
ions, such as Cl', N03", S04~, can be repelled from clays and
will move with the water. Soils with a high percentage of
organics also retard many contaminants such as pesticides.
Acar and Haider (1990) give the partition coefficients
for several contaminants in some particular soils. Generally
the order of retardation for some contaminants from lowest to
highest is as follows: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and
o-xylene.

CHAPTER 6
FIELD STUDIES—CAVALIER PRODUCTS BUILDING SITE
6.1 Introduction
Field work with the BAT groundwater monitoring system was
performed at the Cavalier Products Building (previously a
Shell gasoline station). The
site
is
located at
the
intersections of SW
4th Avenue
and
S.
Main
Street
in
Gainesville, Florida.
Figure 6.1
shows
the
site
plan.
The
site is under the jurisdiction of the Alachua County Office of
Environmental Protection which contracted with the Handex
Company to complete a contamination assessment study. The
Handex company installed several 2 inch monitoring wells on
the site and also downgradient of the site in Lynch Park.
Two types of tests were peformed at this site: BAT probe
sampling inside existing monitoring wells and BAT probe
sampling within the soil adjacent to the monitoring wells.
The purpose of the testing was to show that the BAT
groundwater monitoring system could recover VOCs. By
collecting samples with the BAT probe inside the monitoring
well they could be compared directly to samples obtained with
the Teflon bailer from the same monitoring well. The BAT MK2
76

77
S
W
5TH
LYNCH PARK
MW-16
MW—1 4
DIRECTION OF FLOW
MW-15
MW-17
S. MAIN STREET
S
W
4 TH
Figure 6.1 Cavalier Site Plan
probe with steel and HDPE filters were used to evaluate which
filter type sorbed lower amounts of VOCs.
6.2 Field Test 1
Monitoring well MW-17 was purged by removing 3 well
volumes of water with a three foot long teflon bailer. A one
foot Teflon bailer was then used to obtain groundwater
samples. The water was decanted from the bailer into 40 mL
septum vials and stored in a cooler with ice packs. Four
samples were obtained (BAILER1....BAILER4). The depth to the

78
Figure 6.2 View of Cavalier Site—Lynch Park on Left
water table in the well was approximately 9.5 feet. The smell
of petroleum was prevalent when sampling.
BAT sampling was performed with the University of
Florida's 20 ton electric cone penetration test truck
positioned as closely as possible to the well. Since several
obstacles (trees, shrubs, etc.) were present the proximity was
severely limited. A BAT MK2 probe with a steel filter was
pushed to a depth of 4 meters (13.1 feet) to obtain

79
groundwater samples. The probe was located 11.5 feet
horizontally away from the well. After purging the probe,
three 35 mL test tubes were filled using the cascaded sampling
technique (BATI, BAT 3 and BAT5) which required more than
thirty minutes per sample. The rods were then pulled, the
truck moved slightly and a second penetration performed. This
consisted of pushing a BAT MK2 probe with a HDPE filter to a
depth of 3.5 meters (11.5 feet). This penetration was located
12.0 feet horizontally away from the well. One BAT sample
(BAT7) without headspace was obtained at this location.
Chemical analyses were performed with a GC/MS in
accordance with EPA Methods 524/624. Compounds specifically
analyzed for were BTEX, trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2
dibromoethane (EDB), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and
tetrachlorothene (PERC). Only BTEX was detected. Results are
presented in Table 6.1.
6.3 Field Test 2
Additional testing at Lynch Park (Cavalier Site) was
performed on 23 October 1991. The depth to the water table in
monitoring well MW-17 was determined by two methods. Using a
bailer, the depth to the water table was determined from
hearing it touch the water level and measuring this distance.
This gave a value of 9 feet and 6 inches. Using an electronic
device (Soiltest, Inc., Model DR-760A Water level indicator)
gave a water table depth of 9 feet and 11 inches.

80
The monitoring well was purged by removing three well
volumes with a large Teflon bailer (1 L). While purging the
well a strong hydrocarbon odor was quite prevalent. A small
Teflon bailer (350 mL) was used for sampling. Two samples
were pulled and two 40 mL vials were filled from each. These
samples were designated BAILER1, BAILER2, BAILER3 and BAILER4
(which was not analyzed). BAILER1 and BAILER2 were obtained
from the same bailer, as were BAILER3 and BAILER4. The
samples were quite cloudy.
Distilled water was pulled through the BAT probe and
placed in a 40 mL vial to serve as an equipment blank to
ensure that no contamination remained from previous testing.
The probe had been decontaminated with boiled distilled water
after its previous use. The BAT probe was then penetrated 10
feet and 4 inches horizontally away from MW-17 and to a depth
of 10.5 feet. This depth was chosen to ensure that the probe
was extremely close to the actual water level where most of
the BTEX compounds should be, since they are lighter than
water. Before sampling, the pore pressure device was used to
measure the pore water pressure at the BAT probe as another
check on the water level. The digital readout gave a value of
0.1 meter. This meant that the probe was basically .1 m below
the water table.
The BAT probe was purged twice before sampling. The
first BAT cascaded sampling (BATI) took 60 minutes and did not
yield a full sample. A second cascaded sampling (BAT3), took

81
Table 6.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-17 at Cavalier Site
Benzene
ppb
Toluene
ppb
Ethylbenzene Xylenes
ppb ppb
Water Table—9'-6"
BAILER1
24
7198
3120
7880
BAILER2
20
4410
2606
6555
BAILER3
10
6724
3301
8048
AVG BAILER
18
6110
3009
7494
BAT Depth—13
' -2"
BAT MK2 probe
from MW-17.
with
steel filter
was located
11'
BATI
0
72
25
68
BAT 3
0
56
19
61
BAT 5
0
21
29
5
AVG BAT
0
50
24
45
BAT Depth—11'-6"
BAT MK2 probe with HDPE filter was located 12'
from MW-17.
BAT 7 0 31 29 9
All BAT samples contained no headspace

82
40 minutes and also did not yield a full sample. A third
sample was collected at this depth using a single test tube
(BAT5) and had approximately 80% headspace.
The probe was then pushed down another meter to a depth
of 13 feet and 1 inch. Water was purged from the probe before
sampling. Two samples were obtained at this depth (BAT7 and
BAT8). Each of these samples yielded only 1 mL of fluid.
Time for each sample was 25 minutes.
All samples were iced at the site and then transferred to
a refrigerator. No preservatives were used since the analysis
would be performed within 7 days.
Chemical analyses were performed the following day with
the GC/MS. In order to run these samples on the GC/MS, they
had to be highly diluted since normally 20-30 ppb is the
maximum level that should be run on this equipment. Some
dilutions were made by placing 0.5 mL of the actual sample
into 100 mL of deionized water. Other samples were more
highly diluted by placing 0.5 mL of sample into 200 mL of
deionized water. The concentrations of BTEX are given in
Table 6.2. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) and methyl tert-butyl
ether (MTBE) were not present in the groundwater samples.
Trimethylbenzene was found but not quantitated. Naphthalene
was present in both BAT and bailer samples. In the bailer
samples the concentrations of naphthalene for the four samples
were 479 ppb, 525 ppb, 599 ppb, and 672 ppb.

83
Table 6.2 Chemical Analyses from MW-17 at Cavalier Site
Benzene Toluene EB Xylenes Headspace
ppb ppb ppb ppb %
MW-17
Water Table—9'-6" (measuring bailer)
9'-ll" (electronic device)
BAILER1
3
5591
2751
6684
BAILER2
334
6470
2811
6698
(Spiked
BAILER3
Duplicate of
9
1)
6084
2946
7597
BAILER4
9
7912
2991
8127
AVG BAILER
6514
2875
7277
BAT Depth—10'-6"
BAT MK2 with steel filter located 10,-4" from
MW-17.
BATI
65
1426
148
478
60
BAT 2
93
1920
232
720
60
BAT 3
120
3060
601
1905
80
AVG BAT
93
2135
327
1034
BAT Depth—
â– 13' - 2"
Same probe
as above
pushed to
a deeper depth.
BAT 7
31
790
94
337
97
BAILER2 which was a duplicate of BAILER1 was spiked witha
matrix of VOCs all at a concentration of 4 ppb. This matrix
spike had been previously used that day for running

84
calibration checks of the GC/MS. Note that BAILER2 gave a
significantly higher value of benzene present.
Comparing Tables 6.1 and 6.2 it can be seen that the
concentrations in the bailer samples were approximately the
same. The concentrations recorded for the BAT samples in
Table 6.2 were substantially higher than those in Table 6.1
even though the former had tremendous amounts of headspace.
If BAT samples would have contained no headspace they would
have compared better with the bailer samples.
6.4 BAT Sampling Within MW-17
The water level in MW-17 was again determined by two
methods in MW-17. The electronic device placed the water
table at a depth of 9 feet and 10 inches while the bailer
placed it at 9 feet and 8 inches.
Four well volumes were removed from the monitoring well
with a Teflon bailer to purge it of stagnant water. A one
foot long teflon bailer was then used to obtain water samples.
From this one bailer, three samples (BAILER1, BAILER2 AND
BAILER3) were placed into 40 mL vials using a teflon bottom
emptying flow control valve. These samples were catalogued
and placed in a cooler.
BAT sampling was then performed in the monitoring well.
A BAT MK2 probe attached to 1 inch diameter pvc pipe was
lowered down inside MW-17. PVC pipe was used in lieu of the
steel drill rods due to the difficulty of lowering then

85
recovering the heavier steel rods. The center of the filter
of the probe was lowered to a depth of 10 feet in order to
keep it just below the measured water table. Two metal "C"
clamps were placed around the 1 inch pvc pipe at a height of
10 feet in order to suspend the pipe at the reguired depth.
Since the "C" clamps were larger than the 2 inch inner
diameter of the monitoring well the pvc pipe was held firm to
ensure the probe did not "fall" into the well.
The BAT probe was then purged of the distilled water
which had been used to saturate it. Sampling was performed by
the cascaded technique method. Four BAT samples were
obtained without any head space (samples BATI, BAT3, BAT5, and
BAT7). These samples did, however, each have a small air
bubble in them. BAT samples 2, 4, 6, and 8 were the
corresponding duplicates of 1,3,5, and 7 which contained 25%
head space. All samples were catalogued and placed in the
cooler and then transported to the laboratory and maintained
at 4 °C.
Lab blanks and calibration standards were run to ensure
that the GC/MS was running properly and that the contaminants
were within the control limits that had been established for
the calibration standards. The samples were run in the
following order: BATI, BAILER1, BAT3, BAILER2, BAT5, BAILER3,
BAT2, BAT4, and BAT6. Results are shown in Table 6.3.
Generally, the BAT samples without headspace recovered more
VOCs than did the Teflon bailer. This shows that there is not

86
Table 6.3 Chemical Analyses from BAT Sampling Within MW-17
BENZENE
TOLUENE ETHYLBENZENE XYLENES
HEAD
ppb
ppb
ppb
ppb
3?CE
%
Water Table—9'-10"
(electronic
device)
9'-8"
(measuring '
bailer)
BAILER1
7
5494
2270
6146
BAILER2
-
6147
2449
6583
BAILER3
—
6631
2235
6801
AVG BAILER
6091
2318
6510
BAT MK2 probe with
steel filter
lowered
inside MW-
17
to a depth
of 10'.
BATI
44
5700
2253
6282
0
BAT 3
-
6602
2546
7220
0
BAT 5
—
7514
2761
7742
0
AVG BAT
6605
2520
7081
BAT 2
6390
2015
6247
25
BAT 4
6233
1862
6109
25
BAT 6
8863
2547
8617
25
AVG BAT
7162
2141
6991
a significant decrease in the recovery of VOCs in the BAT due
to the initial negative pressure in the test tubes.
6.5 CPT Testing
An electric piezo cone was used at the Cavalier
Products/Lynch Park site. Two soundings were made with the
electric cone. The purpose of the soundings was to determine

87
the general soil stratigraphy at this site. Both soundings
were stopped at a depth of approximately 15 feet. It was
imperative that the soundings not cross a clay confining layer
which could cause cross contamination into the lower aguifer.
The first sounding was made in the general vicinity of
MW-17. The second sounding was made in the vicinity of MW-15.
The results of the cone testing are shown in Appendix F. No
clay was encountered in either sounding.
6.6 BAT Sampling Within MW-15
The water table depth in MW-15 was determined to be at a
depth of 8 feet and 6 inches. The well was purged of four
well volumes with the three foot long Teflon bailer. While
purging the well some plastic cuttings and pine needles were
retrieved in the bailer. The smell of aromatics and sulfur
was present while purging the well. Water was then retrieved
with the teflon bailer and decanted into two 40 mL vials
(BAILER1 and BAILER2).
A BAT MK2 probe with a new HDPE filter was attached to
one inch pvc pipe and lowered into MW-15. The top of the
porous filter of the probe was placed at a depth of 8'-6".
"C" clamps were used to maintain the reguired sampling depth.
The BAT probe was first purged before sampling even though it
was not pre-saturated. Two cascaded samplings were performed
and yielded two full BAT sample tubes (BATI and BAT3) and two

88
partially filled tubes. Another bailer sample was then taken
and two 40 mL vials filled (BAILER3 and BAILER4).
Three further cascaded samplings were performed (BAT5,
BAT7 and BAT9). The average time for sampling was 6 minutes
which yielded a full sample tube and an approximately 70%
filled upper tube.
The analyses were performed on the GC/MS on in accordance
with EPA Methods 524/624. The results of the analyses are
shown in Table 6.4. Specific contaminants analyzed for were
Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and the Xylenes (BTEX).
BAILER1 was the first sample tested but a guantitative
anlaysis was not possible as the sample overloaded the GC/MS.
Several blanks had to be run after this sample to clean the
system before running any additional samples. All other
samples were diluted by a factor of 100. Sample BAT9 was lost
(froze and burst while stored in the refrigerator). The order
of sample analyses was BAILER1, BAILER3, BATI, BAT3, BAILER2,
BAT5, and BAT7.
The bailer recovered higher amounts of VOCs than did the
BAT MK2 probe. This is just the opposite of that found in
Field Test 3 (Table 6.3). During this test the HDPE filter
was not pre-saturated before sampling in the well. It is
thought that a significant amount of sorption occurred in the
HDPE filter. Samples BAT 5 and BAT 7 showed a significant
increase in the levels of VOCs over samples BATI and BAT3.
Since samples BAT5 and BAT7 were taken at a later time the

89
Table 6.4 Chemical Analyses from BAT Sampling Within MW-15
SAMPLE TOLUENE ETHYLBENZENE M,P-XYLENES O-XYLENE
ppb ppb ppb ppb
Water Table—8'-6"
BAILER2
395
910
1317
1265
BAT MK2 probe with HDPE
8 ' - 6" inside MW-15.
filter
placed at a
depth of
BATI
70
58
92
115
BAT 3
84
72
114
140
AVG BAT
77
65
103
127.5
BAILER3
BAILER4
237
222
517 863
538 867
743
757
AVG BAILER
229.5
527.5 865
750
Same BAT
MW-15 at
MK2 probe with
a depth of 8'-
HDPE filter placed
6" for sampling.
again
inside
BAT 5
BAT 7
205
155
220 368
143 237
403
276
AVG BAT
180
181.5 302.
5
339.5
HDPE filter probably had reached its sorptive capacity ofthese
VOCs and allowed a more representative sample to be collected.
A possible cause of the disparity in results isthat the
bailer and sample vials are exposed to the atmosphere while
the BAT sample vials are hermetically sealed and do not allow
any atmospheric contamination. The well sampled (MW-15) was
located within 10 feet of South Main Street in Gainesville

90
where there is considerable automobile traffic. This makes it
very likely that the bailer and sample vials could be
contaminated with gasoline constituents (BTEX) while sampling.
6.7 BAT Field Test 5
Testing was performed at the site in conjunction with an
"insitu" lab course taught by the civil engineering department
at the University of Florida. The purpose was to familiarize
students with the BAT groundwater monitoring system.
A BAT MK2 probe with a steel filter was hydraulically
pushed to a depth of 11 feet. It was not presaturated with
water before insertion. The probe was located 15 feet
southeast of MW-17. A test tube was used to pull formation
water into the filter and the test tube. The test tube was
opened and aromatic vapors were present. A single test tube
sampling was then performed. It yielded a sample of 24 mL in
24 minutes (BATI). A cascaded sampling was then performed for
33 minutes. The bottom sample tube had approximately 35 mL
(BAT3). Since the tube holds 36 mL no water entered the upper
tube.
A pore pressure reading was then made to determine the
depth to the water table. The pore pressure reading was .68
meters (2/-3"). This put the water table at a depth of 8'-9”.
An inflow permeability test was performed next. This test
yielded a sample of 22 mL in 34 minutes (BAT4) . The
coefficient of permeability was calculated to be 3.1E~°7
cm/sec. The data sheet is shown in Appendix A. From the CPT

91
testing performed previously (Appendix F), the soil at this
depth classified as a sand to silty sand. This permeability
value should be that of the soil since it is considerably
lower than the permeability of the filter 1E“°4 cm/sec. The
value calculated is lower than the typical permeability of a
silty sand. It is more indicative of a clay soil.
The depth to the water table in MW-17 was then determined
by use of the electrical conductivity/resistivity meter. It
yielded a depth to the water table of 9'. The water table was
also checked by lowering a teflon bailer down the well until
it touched the water surface. This also gave a value of 9'.
This was in general agreement with that determined with the
BAT pore pressure device.
While performing the permeability test, MW-17 was purged
by use of a Teflon bailer. There was a strong odor of
hydrocarbons while purging the well. The same bailer was then
used to fill 2-40 mL vials (BAILER1 and BAILER2).
A second pore pressure reading taken from the BAT system
gave a value of .63 meters. A second inflow permeability test
was performed. It yielded a sample of 18 mL in 32 minutes
(BAT5). All samples were placed in a refrigerated cooler
immediately upon retrieval. The coefficient of permeability
was calculated to be 2.7E'°7 cm/sec (Appendix A).
The chemical analyses were peformed on the GC/MS in
accordance with EPA Methods 524/624. The results are shown in
Table 6.5. All samples had to be diluted to avoid overloading

92
Table 6.5 Chemical Analyses from Lab Insitu Class
SAMPLE BENZENE TOLUENE ETHYL- M,P XYLENE O-XYLENE
BENZENE
BAT Depth—11'
BAT 1
MK2 probe with
steel
filter
located 15'
from MW—17
BATI
22.6
708
375
390
330
(35%
Head
space)
BAT 3
22.0
400
296
279
219
(1% :
Head :
space)
BAT 4
20.6
237
222
186
138
(39%
Head
space)
BAT 5
22.6
217
210
172
136
(50%
Head
space)
AVG
21.9
391
276
257
206
Water Table—9'
BAILER1
22.2
3231
1849
1943
2530
BAILER2
19.8
4236
2090
2508
2789
AVG
21.0
3734
1970
2226
2660
All values are in ppb.
the GC/MS. Samples were diluted by a factor of 100 except
BAILER2 which was run at a dilution factor of 200.
Trimethylbenzene was also detected but not quantitated.
There was little difference in the recovery of benzene
between the bailer and the BAT, but there was a considerable
difference in the other contaminants (toluene, ethylbenzene,
m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). The bailer generally recovered 10
times as much. This again was probably due to the sampling at

93
different depths. BAT samples were obtained at a depth of 11
feet while the bailer was used at 9'. When free product is
present at a site its thickness in a monitoring well is
greater than what actual exists since the product floats on
top of the capillary fringe which is higher than the water
table in the monitoring well. BAT samples with less headspace
recovered more VOCs. Note that the BAT samples taken before
purging the monitoring well were also higher than those
obtained afterwards. By purging the well it may have pumped
less contaminated water to the BAT probe.
6.8 Summary
Testing with a BAT MK2 probe (steel filter) inside MW-17
showed that the BAT groundwater monitoring system could
recover higher concentration levels of VOCs than the bailer.
Use of a BAT MK2 probe (HDPE) inside MW-15 showed a lower
recovery of VOCs than the bailer due to sorption on the HDPE
filter. BAT samples obtained from the soil did not compare
favorably with those from the monitoring wells due to the
different depth at which the BAT was used to sample. Another
factor was the horizontal distance that the BAT probes were
placed from the monitoring wells due to vegetation (trees,
shrubs etc.).

CHAPTER 7
FIELD STUDIES—TEXTILE TOWN
7.1 Introduction
Field testing was performed at the Textile Town site
(formerly a Fina gas station) in Micanopy, Florida. The site
is located off of Interstate Highway 75 (exit 73) and State
Route 234. Monitoring wells had been installed at this site
by Geosolutions, Inc. of Gainesville, Florida. Figure 7.1 is
a plan of the site showing the locations of facilities and of
the monitoring wells. Figure 7.2 is a photo of Textile Town.
Testing was performed at this site to allow the
penetrometer truck to be placed closer to existing monitoring
wells. This allowed better comparison of the recovery of VOCs
from samples obtained with the BAT probe and the Teflon
bailer. One objective at this site was to demonstrate that
the BAT probe could be useful in determining the horizontal
and vertical extent of contamination. Another objective was
to show that the BAT testing was repeatable by making multiple
punches in the ground and obtaining samples with nearly the
same levels of contamination.
Sampling in monitoring wells was performed after the
standard procedure of removing three to four well volumes with
94

95
• MW-1 2
9 MW-1 4-
• MW-1 1
• MW-9
GENERAL DIRECTION OE ELOW
MW-^3
MW-1 0
MW-8
SEPTIC
#MW-7
• MW-
5
FORMER
TANK PIT
• MW-5
N
A
• MW-1 6
FINA
STATION
•MW-6
ROAD 234 EXIT 73 INTERSTATE 75
Figure 7.1 Textile Town Site Plan
a bailer. All samples were refrigerated at 4 "c until
analyses were performed on the GC/MS in accordance with EPA
Method 524/624.
7.2 BAT Test 1
Monitoring well number 11 (MW-11) was used for this test.
It is shown in Figure 7.3. This well had shown concentration
levels of tetrachloroethene (PERC) near 100 ppb the previous
month. The water table, measured by three different devices
(two electronic devices and by the bailer), was located at a

96
Figure 7.2 View of Textile Town—Penetrometer Rig near MW-7
depth of 6 feet. A one foot bailer was used for two
samplings. Two 40 mL vials (Samples BAILER1, BAILER2 and
BAILER3, BAILER4) were filled from each bailer using the
bottom flow control valve.
The penetrometer rig was placed adjacent to MW-11 and a
BAT MK2 probe was pushed to a depth of 6 feet 6 inches. The
sounding was 5 feet horizontally from MW-11. Several attempts
were made to purge the probe but only 5 mL of water was

97
Figure 7.3 Cone over MW-11
obtained. The probe was then pushed to a depth of 3 meters (9
feet 10 inches) to see if the additional hydraulic head would
allow sampling. Approximately 3 mL of water was obtained from
several attempts. The filter either had become clogged with
fine particles or had lost its saturation while being
deployed.
The drill rods were pulled and a second BAT MK2 probe was
pushed down the same hole to a depth of 6 feet 6 inches.
Several attempts were made to purge this probe but only around

98
5 mL of water was obtained. The drill rods and probe were
pulled and the penetrometer rig moved forward approximately
one foot.
The Enviro probe was then pushed to a depth of 6 feet 6
inches. The drill rods were pulled up 4 inches to allow the
shielded probe to become exposed to the groundwater. Again,
only small amounts of water were retrieved with each sampling
attempt.
7.3 BAT Test 2
A BAT MK2 probe with steel filter was pushed to a depth
of 7 feet 4 inches. The sounding was located 12 feet
horizontally from MW-11. The pore pressure reading device
gave a negative pressure of -.44 meters. This indicated one
of three things: the probe was above the water table
(unsaturated zone), the probe was below the water table but
had lost saturation, or the soil was a dense clay and negative
pore pressures had been generated when inserting the probe
into the ground. Two test tubes with water were pressurized
and sent down to the probe to help resaturate the probe.
Water was injected into the probe and the soil. An evacuated
test tube then was sent down but only retrieved 2 mL of water.
This same probe then was pushed to a depth of 8 feet 6
inches. A test tube was sent down for 7.5 minutes and
recovered 10 mL of water. This was sufficient to purge the
probe. The next test tube recovered approximately 8 mL of
water after 19 minutes and the following recovered 8 mL in 33

99
minutes. The drill rods and probe were retracted and the
penetrometer rig was moved to a new location 5 feet from the
well.
The Enviro probe was pushed to a depth of 8 feet 6
inches. The probe was purged twice, each time for 4 minutes,
and recovered 10 and 15 mL of water respectfully. Cascaded
sampling was then performed. The first sample recovered
approximately 3 0 mL of water in the bottom test tube in 29
minutes. The second sample recovered the same amount in 22
minutes. Both samples had approximately 10 to 15 percent head
space.
Chemical analyses were performed on 3 BAT samples and two
bailer samples. BTEX was not present in any of the samples.
Tetrachlorothene (PERC) was observed in both bailer samples
but not in the BAT samples. The two bailer samples had
concentration of 28 and 26 ppb respectively. The BAT samples
were taken at a depth of 8 feet 6 inches while the bailer
samples were taken at the water table (6 foot depth). Even
though tetrachloroethene is heavier than water, if in small
concentrations it will dissolve into the water and move with
the groundwater flow. If a tank full of pure
tetrachloroethene had leaked into the ground the contaminant
would move vertically through the groundwater due to gravity
until it reaches a confining layer. Since the concentrations
were small it is not unreasonable that the BAT did not detect
any PERC since it was 2.5 feet below the water table. By

100
purging the monitoring well with the Teflon bailer
considerable mixing occurs. This mixing could bring
tetrachloroethene up from the bottom of the well.
7.4 BAT Testing at MW-7
Testing was performed around MW-7 which had previously
shown concentrations of BTEX. Figures 7.4 and 7.5 show the
penetrometer truck around MW-7. The depth to the water table
was measured at 7 feet 6 inches. A small bailer was used for
sampling. Two samples were taken from two bailers for a total
of 4 samples (BAILER1 and BAILER2 were from the same bailer
and BAILER3 and BAILER4 likewise).
The BAT MK2 probe then was pushed beside the well but no
samples were obtained. Either the needles were not making
good connection with the bottom septum of the BAT or the
bottom septum of this BAT had deteriorated and needed
replacing.
The Enviro probe then was pushed to a depth of 8 feet 2
inches. This placed the bottom of the filter at 7 feet 7
inches. The sounding was located 8 feet horizontally from the
well. The probe was purged of the water used for saturation.
Two cascaded sampling attempts were made. The first sampling
yielded a full bottom test tube (BATI) and an upper test tube
80% filled (BAT2) . This sampling took 21 minutes. The
secondsampling attempt yielded the same results in 6 minutes
(BAT3 no headspace, BAT4 headspace). The rods were then

101
Figure 7.4 View of Stripping Tower for Remediation
retracted and the penetrometer rig moved to allow another
penetration.
The second BAT MK2 unit then was pushed to a depth of 7
feet 11 inches which placed the filter at 7 feet 9 inches.
This sounding was 6 feet from the well. The probe was purged
before sampling. The first cascaded sampling attempt yielded
the bottom test tube approximately 90% filled in 24 minutes
(BAT5). The second attempt yielded the bottom test tube only
60% filled in 32 minutes (BAT7).
Results of the chemical analyses are shown in Table 7.1.
Again the bailer showed higher concentrations than did the

102
Figure 7.5 Penetrometer Rig around MW-7
BAT. This is most likely due to the fact that a monitoring
well is screened over a large vertical interval while the BAT
samples at a discrete depth (filter length 2 to 4 inches).
When a well is purged a significant mixing of water takes
place. It is therefore more likely to obtain some
contaminated water when sampling. The BAT could be used to
determine the vertical extent of contamination to determine
the depth to where the maximum level of contamination occurs.
This type of testing was performed next.

103
Table 7.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-7 at Textile Town
BENZENE
TOLUENE
ETHYLBENZENE
XÃœENEB
ppb
ppb
ppb
ppb
Water table
Depth-
-7 feet 6
inches
BAILER1
107
49
45
85
BAILER2
49
0.3
15
7.8
BAILER3
65
0
0
0
BAILER4
0
0.3
13
7.7
AVG BAILER
55
12.4
18.3
25.1
Enviro probe Depth of filter 7 feet 7 inches
(HDPE filter)
BATI 0 0.6
BAT3 0 1.2
0.1
0.5
0.6
1.7
BAT MK2 probe
Depth
(HDPE filter)
BAT5 0.1
0.8
AVG BAT 0
0.9
filter 7 feet 9 inches
0.3 1.3
0.3 1.2
7.5 Vertical Contamination Profile at MW-7
On 6 December 1991 additional testing was performed
around MW-7 at the Textile Town site in Micanopy, Florida. A
BAT MK2 probe was pushed down 6 feet from MW-7 to a depth of
9 feet. Previous testing with the BAT had been performed
around MW-7 at a depth of approximately 8 feet and had yielded
small concentrations of BTEX (see Table 7.1). After purging

104
the probe at the 9 foot depth a sample was obtained. Since
there was no odor of gasoline this sample was discarded.
The same probe then was pushed to a depth of 10 feet,
purged and sampled (BATI), then to 11 feet, purged and
sampled (BAT2). This later purge water smelled of gasoline.
Sampling was also performed at the 12 foot depth (BAT4) after
purging. This purge water also smelled of gasoline (BAT3).
At 13 feet only 2 mL of water could be purged from the filter
in 7 minutes which meant the probe was probably in low
permeability soil. No odor was present in this water. The
rods then were retracted, the penetrometer rig moved and
another push was made.
The Enviro probe was pushed 7 feet from MW-7 to a depth
of 11 feet. The filter was not saturated before insertion.
The purge water was then actual formation water. This
purgewater smelled of gasoline. Two samples were then
obtained at this depth (BAT7 and BAT8). Chemical analyses
were performed on 9 December 1991. Results of chemical
analyses from this round of testing are shown in Table 7.2.
Figure 7.6 shows a profile of the vertical extent of
contamination around MW-7.
7.6 Vertical Profile Testing at MW-11
On 10 December 1991 additional testing was performed at
MW-11 to evaluate the vertical extent of tetrachloroethene
(PERC). The water table level in the well was measured at 6
feet 6 inches. Four bailer samples were decanted into 40 mL

105
Table 7.2 Chemical Analyses of Vertical Sampling at MW-7
BENZENE TOLUENE EB XYLENES HEAD DEPTH
ppb ppb ppb ppb SPACE feet
%
Sampling 6 feet horizontally from MW-7
BAT MK2 probe with HDPE filter
BATI
2.4
ND
ND
ND
57
10
BAT 2
18.0
1.0
1.5
2.2
14
11
BAT 4
38.0
0.8
0.7
1.4
0
12
BAT3 22.7
(Composite-
1.1
-purge for
0.8
BAT 4 )
1.6
52
11-12
Sampling 7 feet horizontally from MW-7
Enviro probe with HDPE filter
BAT 7
20.8
0.9
0.3
0.9
1
11
BAT 8
24.3
1.3
0.4
1.2
0
11
Depth
11 feet (BAT2,
BAT7, BAT8)
AVG
21.0
1.1
0.7
1.4
STD
DEV
2.6
0.2
0.5
0.6
REL
12.4
18.4
71.4
42.9
STD

106
DEPTH ground
FEET SURFACE
SAND
Figure 7.6 Vertical Contamination Profile at MW-7
vials, two samples from each bailer (BAILER1 and BAILER2
correspond as do BAILER3 and BAILER4).
The BAT MK2 probe with a HDPE filter was pushed 6 feet
from MW-7 on the down gradient side and to a depth of 7 feet.
Samples were taken at one foot depth intervals from 7 to 13
feet.

107
Sample analyses were performed with the GC/MS and no
contamination of PERC was detected in the BAT samples. The
two bailer samples from the monitoring well that were analyzed
showed concentrations of 21.7 and 20.5 ppb. Figure 7.7 shows
a Profile of MW-11.
7.7 BAT Probe Testing in MW-11
On 17 December 1991 additional testing was performed at
the Textile Town site around MW-11. Previous BAT testing
around this well did not recover any PERC while bailer samples
from the well did. This testing consisted of lowering a BAT
probe down inside the monitoring well to show that the BAT
could recover PERC. If the BAT did recover PERC from the well
then it meant that the previous testing with the BAT was
valid, simply there was no contamination at the discrete
locations sampled.
The water table was first determined to be at a depth of
6 feet 9 inches. Two bailers were retrieved and two samples
were decanted from each bailer into 40 mL vials (BAILER1 and
BAILER2 correspond as do BAILER3 and BAILER4).
A BAT MK2 probe with a steel filter was attached to pvc
pipe and lowered down inside MW-11 to a depth of 7 feet where
it was suspended using "C" clamps. The probe was purged for
30 seconds yielding a test tube of 30 mL of water. Cascaded
sampling was then performed. Two full samples (BATI and BAT3)

108
DEPTH
FEET
GROUND
SURFACE
0
BLACK/GRAY
MED SAND
TETRACHLOROETHENE (PERC)
ppb
3
BROWN/TAN
BAILER BAT MK2
FINE/MED
? 1 7 a ?n s "TE7
SAND 6' - 6”
â– vj
1
O
O
o
o
1
oo
9' - 0.0
10' - (in
10
11' - 0.0
LIGHT GRAY
12' - 0.0
MED/COARSE
13’ - 0.0
SAND
14
Figure 7.7 Vertical Contamination Profile at MW-11
without headspace were obtained at this depth. The time for
sampling was three minutes. The upper test tubes had
approximately 25-30 mL of water.
An additional length of pvc pipe was added and the probe
lowered to a depth of 10 feet where it was purged. One
cascaded sampling was performed at this depth (BAT5). The
probe was then lowered again and sampled (BAT7). This time
the top of the filter was placed at a depth of 12 feet 2

109
inches and the bottom at 12 feet 4 inches. The bottom slot of
the well was located at 12 feet 3.8 inches. The bottom slot
of the well is the deepest location where water can enter the
well. Since PERC is heavier then water, it was hoped that it
would be present at this depth.
If pure PERC is leaked or spilled into the ground it will
fall through the groundwater since it has a higher specific
gravity than water until it reaches a confining layer. Since
it is immiscible (low solubility) it will remain in a separate
phase. PERC is considered a dense non-agueous phase liguid
(DNAPL) . Once it reaches a confining layer the PERC will move
with gravity down any slope. If the confining layer is
relatively horizontal the pure PERC will remain essentially
stationary. Some will with time dissolve into the ground
water and move with it. Because of this slow dissolution of
the PERC it can show up at the monitoring well for a long
period of time. When PERC is reduced it becomes vinyl
chloride.
Chemical analyses are shown in Table 7.3. The bailer
recovered slightly higher concentrations of PERC than did the
BAT. However, the BAT was a more precise device as it yielded
a lower standard deviation and relative standard deviation.
7.8 Plume Chasing
BAT testing was performed at the Textile Town site to try
to determine a portion of the contaminant plume around MW-7.

110
Table 7.3 Analyses from BAT Testing in MW-11
TETRACHLOROETHENE (PERC)
ppb
BAILER1
23.8
BAILER3
20.5
BAILER4
25.0
AVERAGE
23.1
STD DEV
1.9
RSD
8.2
BATI—7'
17.2
BAT5—10'
17.8
BAT7—12'
16.1
AVERAGE
17.0
STD DEV
0.7
RSD
4.1
Testing performed six days earlier with the BAT seven feet
north of MW-7 gave benzene concentrations around 26 ppb.
The purpose of the testing was to gradually move away
from MW-7 in the down gradient direction and determine how far
the benzene contamination had extended. Since three BAT
probes were available, three separate penetrations were
possible without having to decontaminate the probes. Since
testing earlier in the week had been performed a distance of
7 feet from the well, the first new BAT penetration was made
using the Enviro probe at a distance of 14.5 feet. Sampling
was performed at a depth of 11 feet 6 inches from the surface.
A full sample was obtained in 32 minutes (BATI).

Ill
After sampling at the first location the rods were
pulled, the truck lowered from its hydraulic supports, and
moved to a distance which was 27 feet 6 inches away from MW-7.
A BAT MK2 probe with a steel filter was pushed to a depth of
11 feet for sampling. A sixty minute cascaded sampling
yielded a full lower test tube (BAT3) and approximately 12 mL
in the upper tube.
The third BAT sounding was performed 35 feet north of MW-
7. A BAT MK2 probe with a HDPE filter was pushed to a depth
of 11 feet. A cascaded sampling yielded a full test tube
(BAT5) and approximately 8 mL of another in 67 minutes.
In just 6 hours a single operator was able to sample at
three locations and obtain a sample without headspace from
each. All penetrations were made without first saturating the
porous filters of the probes. The Enviro probe reguired less
time to sample. This is either due to its larger filter area
or to the fact that the filter is shielded when being deployed
and thus protected from becoming clogged with fine material.
The results of the chemical analyses are shown in Table
7.4. Trace amounts of toluene and xylene were found (usually
less than 0.2 ppb) . Figure 7.8 shows the lateral plume
delineation.
7.9 CPT Testing
On 30 January 1992 two electric piezo cone soundings
were performed at the Textile Town site to determine the soil

112
Table 7.4 Chemical Analyses from Plume Chasing
SAMPLING
DISTANCE FROM
BENZENE
DEPTH
MW-7
PPb
ft
ft
BATI
11.5
14.5
3.5
(No
headspace)
BAT 2
11.5
14.5
3.0
(10%
headspace)
BAT 3
11.0
28.0
0.0
BAT 5
11.0
35.0
0.0
stratigraphy. Contaminants will migrate more guickly through
soil layers having large coefficients of permeability (sand
and gravel).
One sounding was performed in the vicinity of MW-7 and
the second in the vicinity of MW-11. Soils were identified
primarily as sands to silty sands. Clay was not encountered
in either sounding. Soundings were made to a depth of
approximately 15 feet. It was imperative that they not cross
the soil confining layer which could allow cross contamination
from the surficial aguifer into the confined aquifer. Cone
penetration data are presented in Appendix F.
7.10 Summary
BAT probe testing was proven to be useful in determining
both the horizontal and vertical extent of groundwater

113
MW-7
BENZENE CONCENTRATIONS
Figure 7.8 Lateral Plume Delineation
contamination at a site. While determining the vertical
extent of contamination around MW-7 an additional probe
sounding was made and the results showed that testing with the
BAT probe can be highly repeatable. Sampling with the BAT
probe inside MW-11 recovered slighlty lower concentration
levels of PERC than did the bailer, however, the BAT proved to
be more precise by showing a lower standard deviation and
relative standard deviation in the data.

CHAPTER 8
BAT MODIFICATION TESTING
8.1 Vacuum Pump Test 1
One disadvantage of the BAT system is that it retrieves
only a relatively small sample, 35 mL in a single sample test
tube and 70 mL in a cascaded sample. In order to obtain a
larger sample the BAT system was modified to allow continuous
sampling using a vacuum pump.
The design was to function in a manner similar to that
used with peristaltic pumps. The idea was to place tubing
from a vacuum pump through a rubber stopper into a Erlenmeyer
flask. A second length of tubing would pass from the flask
down the drill rods and make connection with the BAT probe.
When the vacuum pump was running it would pump water up
through the tubing and deposit it into the flask where it
could be transferred into 40 mL vials for storage and
transportation.
Flexible guarter inch diameter tubing was used so that it
could be run through the existing BAT weight chain. A
Swagelok, was attached to the end of the tubing and a brass
adaptor made to connect the swage lock to the existing BAT
pore transfer nipple. A needle was placed at the end of the
114

115
pore transfer nipple which was covered by the existing BAT
guide sleeve (Figure 8.1).
Figure 8.1 Brass Adaptor for Vacuum Pump Testing
The depth to the water table in this well was 7 feet 7
inches. The well was purged of four well volumes and then

116
sampled. Samples BAILER1 and BAILER2 were obtained from one
bailer. Sample BAILER3 was obtained from a second bailer.
All samples were decanted from the top of the bailers. While
bailing the well, a gasoline odor was noticeable.
The BAT Enviro probe was penetrated 7 feet north of MW-7
and pushed to a depth of 11 feet 6 inches. Previous sampling
at this depth had yielded benzene concentrations around 23 ppb
(see Section 7.6). The Enviro probe was not saturated before
insertion. One test tube was lowered down to saturate the
probe. A cascaded sampling was then attempted. Sampling for
ten minutes yielded a lower test tube 65% filled (BATI). The
next cascaded sampling attempt was left for 28 minutes. This
yielded a full lower sample plus another test tube 50% filled.
A third cascaded attempt yielded essentially identical samples
in 26 minutes(BAT5).
After this conventional sampling with the BAT, the vacuum
pump apparatus was used. The modified adaptor was lowered
down the drill rods and once connection was made to the probe
the vacuum pump was started. The vacuum pump was plugged into
one of the 110 volt sockets in the CPT truck powered by its
generator.
The
vacuum pump was a 60
HZ,
1/3 HP, unit
manufactured
by
Precision Scientific
Group
of Chicago,
Illinois.
After
a minute of pumping,
water
began being
deposited into the flask. One problem was there was
considerable air in the tubing which caused bubbling. These
bubbles caused a lot of turbulence in the water as it was

117
deposited into the flask. The collected water was thrown out.
It is known that suction type devices cause volatiles to be
pulled out of the water into a gaseous phase and lost to the
atmosphere. For this reason, regulatory agencies generally do
not allow peristaltic pumps to be used for sampling volatiles.
Another disadvantage of using a vacuum pump is that water can
only be pumped a maximum of 3 3 feet. This method could
however be applicable for the shallow sampling of other
contaminants that are not volatile, such as heavy metals.
A possible modification to the system would be to remove
the rubber septum in the BAT probe and place tape temporarily
over the end to keep water from entering the drill rods. Once
the probe was pushed to the sampling depth a needle could be
lowered down the well to puncture the tape and allow water to
enter the drill rods. The vacuum pump could then be used
without the necessity of the needle in the bottom. Another
possibility, instead of using the vacuum pump, would be to
lower a small diameter (less than one inch) Teflon bailer down
the drill rods and obtain samples. This would be similar in
nature to the Hydropunch method.
Chemical analyses were performed on the GC/MS on 9
January 1992. Results, in Table 8.1, show that the BAT
recovered higher concentrations of benzene than did the
bailer. The average BAT value of 29.9 ppb is of the same
order of magnitude as was recovered at the same depth a month
before (Section 7.6). The BAT recovered small concentrations

118
( less than 1 ppb) of toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylenes
while the bailer did not detect any.
8.2 Vacuum Pump Test 2
On 10 January 92, a second series of field tests using
the vacuum pump apparatus and conventional BAT sampling was
performed at the Micanopy Textile Town site. No well sampling
was performed. The probe was placed 7 feet 7 inches from MW-7
and pushed to a depth of 11 feet 6 inches.
To get an idea of the time reguired to retrieve a sample,
the setup and testing procedures were timed. These times
reflect the ability of a single operator trained to use the
penetrometer rig and the BAT groundwater monitoring system and
for this particular site. Table 8.2 includes the results of
this study.
Initially two conventional cascaded samplings (BATI and
BAT3) were performed. The vacuum pump apparatus then was used
to sample the groundwater. First the tubing was purged for 5
minutes and this water discarded. Water was then collected in
a Nalgene Erlenmeyer flask for 15 minutes. Finally, samples
were decanted from the flask into 40 mL vials and
refrigerated.
The vacuum pump was used again to collect water but this
time into a glass Erlenmeyer flask. This was to see if there
was any sorption on to the Nalgene flask. The pump was used

119
Table 8.1 Chemical Analyses from MW-7
BENZENE
ppb
Water Table Depth - 7 feet 7 inches
BAILER1 4.1
BAILER2 3.1
BAILER3 5.4
AVG BAILER 4.2
Depth - 11 feet -
6 inches
BATI
25.8
BAT 3
24.7
BAT 5
39.2
AVG BAT
29.9
Head Space
0
0
0
for 6 minutes and retrieved 100 mL in the flask. One final
conventional BAT cascaded sampling (BAT5) was performed to
obtain a full sample. Results of the chemical analyses are
shown in Table 8.3.
Upon returning to the laboratory it was decided to try
another modification to the eguipment. This consisted of
removing the septum nut and the rubber septum from the BAT MK2

120
Table 8.2 Total Times for Truck Set Up and Sampling
Total Running Time
Operation
5 minutes
Truck started and leveled
18 minutes
Enviroprobe pushed to a
depth of 11 feet 6 inches
25 minutes
BAT equipment
assembled for sampling
and purging initiated
30 minutes
Purging complete and
sampling initiated
53 minutes
Cascaded sampling completed
One full 35 ml sample and
one sample 65% filled
obtained
1 hour 20 minutes
Two full samples obtained
from cascaded sampling
probe. A piece of Scotch tape was placed over the top of the
probe to keep water out of the drill rods. The probe was then
lowered into the large nalgene tank filled with water. A
single BAT test tube was lowered down the drill rods. Upon
connection the needle penetrated the tape and the test tube
filled with water. When the sampling adaptor was removed from
the drill rods, water continued to enter the drill rods since
the tape seal had been broken. Water quickly filled the drill

121
Table 8.3 Chemical Analyses from Vacuum Pump Apparatus
BENZENE
ppb
Vacuum flask apparatus â– 
- sampling depth 11.5 feet
NALGENE FLASK
1.2
GLASS FLASK 1
0.9
GLASS FLASK 2
0.8
AVG
0.97
BAT cascaded sampling -
sampling depth 11.5 feet
BATI
23.3
BAT 3
16.6
BAT 5
37.6
AVG
25.8
rods. It was expected that this water could then be sampled
with a small Teflon bailer.
On 12 February 1992 a one foot long, 3/4" diameter
Norwell Teflon bailer (60 cc capacity) was obtained and the
above described test performed in the lab. Nylon string was
tied to the bailer to lower it down the drill rod. The bailer
performed as desired.

122
8.3 Field Testing of Drill Rods as a Monitoring Well
On 18 February 1992, field testing was performed at the
Textile Town site near the monitoring well containing BTEX
(MW-7). The purpose was to see if by removing the septum in
the BAT probe whether water could enter the drill rods and be
sampled with a 3/4 inch teflon bailer.
The depth to the water table in MW-7 was measured to be
6 feet 1 inch. The well was purged of four well volumes by
bailing with a 3 foot long Teflon bailer. The same bailer was
then used to fill two 40 mL vials (BAILER1 and BAILER2). The
smell of aromatics in the water was present.
The first modified BAT test was performed using a BAT MK2
probe with a HDPE filter and with the septum removed. Tape
was placed over the top of the probe to keep it water tight
until the desired sampling depth was reached. The probe was
pushed to a depth of 11 feet 6 inches (5 feet below the water
table). The 3/4 inch bailer was then lowered down the rods to
verify that the tape was water tight and that no water had
entered the drill rods. No water was recovered. The normal
BAT container housing was lowered down the drill rod in order
for the needle to puncture the tape and allow water to enter
the probe and drill rods. The bailer was then lowered down
the drill rod but no water was retrieved. When the probe was
retrieved the tape had been punctured severely yet no water
had entered the drill rods.

123
A second test was performed using a BAT MK2 probe with a
steel filter which had been pushed to a depth of 11 feet 6
inches. The septum had been removed from this probe and no
tape placed over the end. The 3/4 inch bailer again showed
that no water had entered the drill rods. At this point,
plastic tubing from the vacuum pump was placed down into the
drill rods and the top of the rods sealed with tape. The
vacuum pump was turned on in hopes of pulling water through
the porous filter and into the drill rods. This too was not
successful. Joints where drill rods connect may not have been
tight. This did not allow a full vacuum to be pulled.
It appears that the pore size of the porous filter
inhibits the flow of water into the drill rods. This test did
work in the laboratory without the presence of soil (4 feet of
water pressure). It is possible that this method would work
if the porous filter had a larger pore size.
Conventional BAT sampling then was performed. The BAT
MK2 probe with steel filter was pushed to a depth of 11 feet
6 inches at a distance 7 feet 5 inches from MW-7. The probe
was purged before sampling. The purge water did smell of
aromatics. Two cascaded samplings (BATI and BAT3) were
performed at this depth. Sampling times were 33 and 31
minutes respectively and yielded lower tubes with no
headspace.
The Enviro probe was then pushed 8 feet from MW-7 to a
depth of 11 feet 6 inches. The purge water also contained

124
aromatics. Two cascaded samplings were performed (BAT5 and
BAT7). Sampling times were 20 and 13 minutes respectively and
yielded tubes with no headspace. Finally, two single tube
samplings (BAT9 and BATIO) were performed. Sampling times of
6 and 3 minutes yielded tubes containing around 31 mL (12-14%
head space).
Chemical analyses were performed on the GC/MS on 19
February 1992. The results are shown in Table 8.4. The
concentrations of benzene recovered in all BAT samples were
almost double those found in the bailer samples. The BAT
samples obtained with the steel filter yielded the highest
concentrations of each of the BTEX components. The BAT
samples obtained with a HDPE filter showed slightly lower
concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylenes than
did those obtained with the bailer or the BAT with the steel
filter. This could be due to the fact that the HDPE filter
sorbs more of these contaminants than does the steel filter.
There were essentially no differences in the
concentrations of VOCs recovered between samples from the
cascaded no headspace lower tubes (BAT5 and BAT7) and those
for the single tubes with 17% headspace (BAT9 and BATIO).
8.4 Summary
The BAT groundwater monitoring system was modified to
allow collection of water into an Erlenmeyer flask in order to
obtain a larger size sample. The vacuum pump, however, caused

125
Table 8
.4 Chemical
Analyses
from BAT
Testing around
MW-7
Sample
Benzene
Toluene
Ethyl-
M,P-Xylene O
-Xylene
benzene
BAILER1
95
2
18
11
9
BAILER2
108
2
21
13
10
AVG BAILER 101.5
2
19.5
12
9.5
BAT MK2
probe with
Steel filter at 11
.5' depth.
No head
space.
BATI
247
13
88
42
91
BAT 3
323
14
110
52
109
AVG BAT
285
13.5
99
47
100
Enviro ]
probe with HDPE filter at 11.5
' depth.
No head
space.
BAT 5
210
4
5
4
7
BAT 7
176
5
6
5
6
AVG BAT
193
4.5
5.5
4.5
6.5
Single :
BAT samples
taken at
11.5' depth with Enviro
probe.
Sample '
vials contained 17% head space
•
BAT 9
205
4
5
4
6
BATIO
198
4
7
5
8
AVG BAT
201.5
4
6
4.5
7
All values are in /¿g/1.

126
the VOCs to come out of solution. This method may be
adequatefor other contaminants such as heavy metals.
Results from two tests (Tables 8.1 and 8.4) showed that
the BAT probe recovered higher concentrations of VOCs than did
the bailer. Testing also showed that the BAT probe with steel
filter recovered more VOCs than did the BAT probe with a HDPE
filter. BAT samples with and with headspace were compared and
showed no significant loss of BTEX in those with headspace.
This is in agreement with work done by Pankow (1986).

CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
9.1 Conclusions
In this research an experimental study was made of the
BAT groundwater monitoring device, with the major objective of
evaluating its effectiveness in sampling VOCs. Both large
scale laboratory and field investigations were carried out.
At many locations BAT testing was compared to adjacent bailer
sampling from monitoring wells. Several modifications to the
BAT equipment were attempted in order to improve the sampling
process. From the study performed the following conclusions
may be drawn.
1. Neither field test procedure, well bailer or BAT
system, consistently recovered more VOCs than the other.
Concentrations recovered in most cases were comparable. Often
variances could be explained by physical differences, e.g.
length of BAT porous filter versus length of well screening.
Table 9.1 is a summary of the bailer and BAT regarding which
sampler recovered higher concentrations of VOCs. Tests where
BAT samples were taken at considerable distances (lateral)
from the monitoring wells are not included.
2. BAT samples recovered using the stainless steel
filter element consistently exhibited higher concentrations of
127

128
Table 9.1 Summary Comparison of BAT Versus Bailer Recovery of
VOCs
TABLE
BAT VS BAILER
4.4 <
4.5 <
6.3 >
6.4 <
7.3 <
8.1 >
8.4 >
<—REPRESENTS BAILER RECOVERED HIGHER VOCs THAN BAT
>—REPRESENTS BAT RECOVERED HIGHER VOCs THAN BAILER
VOCs than did samples from probes with the HDPE filter. The
latter apparently sorbed significant quantities of the
contaminant (Table 8.4 illustrates this fact).
3. Concentrations of VOCs in BAT samples displayed a
lower standard deviation and lower relative standard deviation
than did samples obtained using the bailer (Tables 4.5 and
7.3). The BAT system exhibited high reproducability.
4. Use of a "balloon" within the BAT sampling tube to
eliminate any possible problems associated with headspace
appears promising if a flexible teflon inert balloon of the
correct dimensions could be found.
5. Concentrations of VOCs measured in single sample
tubes with small amounts of headspace compared favorably with
those in test tubes which were obtained by the cascaded method
and had no headspace.

129
6. Large groundwater samples can be drawn from the BAT
porous tip using a modification consisting of a vacuum pump,
Erlenmeyer flask and tubing tipped with a hypodermic needle
which makes contact by piercing the probe's septum. Large
samples can be collected in a relatively short time. However,
there was significant loss of contaminants as the VOCs were
pulled out of solution. The method is also limited, unlike
standard BAT testing, to sampling depths of less than 30 feet.
7. Large samples, under certain circumstances, may be
recovered from drill rods after the septum (actually in this
situation, a piece of tape) has been ruptured. The sample is
collected using a small diameter teflon bailer. This method
overcomes the two disadvantages listed for the procedure
described in conclusion 6.
8. From laboratory and field permeability testing it
was found that the BAT underestimates the coefficient of
permeability. Values obtained with the BAT system were
considerably lower than those obtained from Hazen's eguation
and from constant and falling head tests.
9. The BAT system is limited in permeability testing to
very fine material, specifically silts and clays. This is a
consequence of the low permeability of the probe's porous
filter which will govern when testing coarse soils.
10. At the sites investigated in this study, all of
which consisted primarily of sandy soils, typical sampling
times to obtain a sample with no headspace using the cascaded

130
technique, ranged around 30 minutes. Water pressure heads
were between one and five feet.
11. From a limited field study, it would appear that the
BAT system would be eminently suitable for determining both
the vertical and horizontal variations of contamination, i.e. ,
plume delineation. To avoid cross contamination the BAT
Enviro probe should be used and it should be removed and
cleaned between sampling depths and soundings.
9.2 Recommendations for Future Testing
A study should be performed on the sorption of different
compounds on the different BAT filter materials (HDPE, steel,
Teflon). It is important to know exactly how much sorption
takes place in these materials when they are used as filters
in the BAT groundwater monitoring system. It would also be of
importance to determine if pre-saturation of the filters
decreases the amount of sorption that takes place and to
quantify the amount if any. If the filter is not saturated it
may allow the hydrophobic contaminants to come out of the
water and to attach (sorb) on to the filter itself. If the
filter is presaturated the sorption may be greatly decreased
as the contaminants cannot displace the water.
Additional study needs to be made on the concentrations
of VOCs recovered in the two sampling tubes in cascaded
sampling. In the current study higher concentrations were
unexpectedly found in the upper tube which has headspace.

131
Additional field testing is needed to validate the BAT
groundwater monitoring system for pore fluid sampling in the
vadose zone. In areas such as the desert southwest the water
table can be at great depth. If monitoring wells are
installed and screened over the water table, contamination may
not be detected in them for decades due to the long period of
time for it to migrate to the water table. This can allow a
source of contamination to go unnoticed. Sampling the pore
fluid above the water table may result in much earlier
detection. Monitoring wells do not allow sampling of the pore
water in the vadose (unsaturated zone).
Field testing should be performed with the BAT
groundwater monitoring system to determine if it could be used
to validate the insitu permeability of slurry walls. This
would be accomplished by pushing the BAT MK2 probe down inside
a completed slurry wall at different depths and running inflow
or outflow permeability tests. Quality control guidelines
could be developed to determine the number of permeability
tests to be performed to validate that a slurry wall has been
constructed as prescribed and has met the reguired minimum
permeability.
Testing should be performed, perhaps initially in large
scale laboratory samples, to investigate the possibilities of
using the BAT system for hydraulic fracture testing. Such
testing provides an insitu measurement of the minor principal
stress and hence K0.

132
The BAT groundwater monitoring system could be used to
take samples at a site in order to validate the accuracy of
particular computer models developed for contaminant
transport.
9.3 Advantages of the BAT Groundwater Monitoring System
The BAT groundwater monitoring system has several
advantages over installation of permanent monitoring wells.
Some owners do not want monitoring wells installed because of
future financial considerations. These wells at some time
will have to be removed or filled with concrete, otherwise the
casings can deteriorate and become a pathway for more
contamination.
The cost of installation of a shallow monitoring well can
be $5000-$6000. The cost of using the BAT groundwater
monitoring system to obtain water samples is significantly
less.
The BAT system obtains water samples that are
hermetically sealed so that personnel do not come in contact
with the sample which may contain hazardous chemicals.
Personnel purging and sampling in monitoring wells may come in
contact with the sample, possibly compromising their safety
and health.
The BAT probe samples over a very discrete depth while a
monitoring well is usually screened over a large interval.
Such screening may cause a contaminant to go undetected
because it has become diluted.

133
After installation of a monitoring well, considerable
time (usually days to weeks) is required before sampling can
begin. This is needed to allow the groundwater to come back
to the equilibrium which has been disturbed by the drilling
process and the development of the well. With the BAT
groundwater monitoring system, water samples can be taken
immediately after penetration and purging. With a
penetrometer rig several locations can be sampled in the same
day.
In sampling a monitoring well, the water surface is
exposed to the atmosphere. This may allow VOCs to come out of
solution or possibly allow the monitoring well and sample to
become contaminated. Since the BAT probe is pushed into the
soil, the water that it retrieves is never exposed to the
atmosphere.
Considerable time may be required to properly purge a
monitoring well. Since it is recommended that four to five
well volumes be removed before sampling, a significant time
investment may be required especially for deep wells. Little
time is required to properly purge the BAT probe (typically 10
minutes or less).
9.4 Disadvantages of the BAT Groundwater Monitoring System
Unless BAT probes are permanently installed, the same
point cannot be repeatedly sampled, for comparison purposes,
as is done with a permanent monitoring well. Even if the BAT

134
probe is permanently installed, it samples over a very small
interval which can be a problem if placed near the water table
and the water table drops. The probe then could be rendered
useless by not being able to sample. If the BAT probe is not
placed at the proper depth, it may not ever intercept a
contamination plume which a monitoring well, screened over a
larger interval, would.
The BAT probe like any cone penetrometer cannot be
installed in soils with boulders and cobbles or in bedrock.
The installation depth with the BAT probe is also limited. It
cannot be pushed quite as deep as a standard cone penetrometer
since it is slightly larger. Since monitoring wells are
installed by drilling they can be placed in basically any type
of soil or rock and to significantly greater depths than can
the BAT probe.
The BAT probe only retrieves a small sample (35 mL) while
sampling from a monitoring well can yield significantly larger
samples. Many chemical analyses require samples as large as
1 liter (1000 mL).
If the BAT probe penetrates through a confining layer and
is retrieved it could allow possible cross-contamination into
the lower aquifer. The BAT needs to be modified to allow the
hole to be grouted as it is retrieved to avoid this
possibility. The BAT probe should currently only be used in
surficial aquifers.

APPENDIX A
PERMEABILITY DATA
This appendix contains the computer printouts for all
thirty-eight BAT system permeability tests performed. Section
A. 1 contains five printouts which calculate the permeability
just of the needle without any filter. Section A.2 has five
printouts of the permeability of the needle and the HDPE
filter. Twelve printouts of the permeability of the needle
and the steel filter are contained in Section A. 3. Five
printouts of the permeability of kaolin-sand mixture are
contained in Section A.4. Section A.5 contains six printouts
of the permeability of the fine mortar sand (yellow/organge
sand) and Section A.6 contains 6 printouts of the permeability
of the uniform white sand. Section A.7 contains permeability
data from Lynch Park. Section A.8 contains the sieve analysis
data for the uniform and fine mortar sands. Section A.9
contains constant head permeability test data while Section
A. 10 contains falling head permeability test data. Section
A. 11 contains the Atterberg limits of the kaolinite clay.
Section A. 12 is information on the computer program "Perm"
developed by the BAT Envitech Company.
135

136
A.1 Needle Permeability Without Filter
* * * *
***
k kkkk
* *
* *
k
****
*****
k
* *
* *
-k
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME: 10:00
TST ID: 1 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm) : 40.0
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm) : 40.0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
: 1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm): 285.15
INTERCEPT
: .00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL (ml): 36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
: .190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL (ml): .5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
: .21
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL (ml): .0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
: -9.15
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
: -1.66
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
: 75.81
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.15
1
00:00:05
-7.91
2.6x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-7.45
3.0x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-6.84
3.3x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-5.73
3.5x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-4.14
3.6x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-1.96
4.9x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.34
5.0x10 -4
8
00:00:40
-.11
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -32.3
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 28.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #1
PERMEABILITY OF THE NEEDLE WITHOUT ANY FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 5.0 x 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

137
****
***
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 2
DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME: 10:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
: 1.00
INTERCEPT
: .00
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
: .190
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
: .21
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
: -8.71
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
: -1.57
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
: 107.93
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-8.71
1
00:00:05
-8.43
4.1x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.08
4.8x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-7.55
5.5x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-6.71
6.6x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-5.19
5.9x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-2.13
8.2x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.21
8.2x10 -3
8
00:00:40
-.08
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -30.7
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 31.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #2
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE WITH NO FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
8.2 x 10 -3 (cm/s) ***

138
****
***
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME: 10:00
TST ID: 3
NAME: BARRY
MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm): 40.0
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm): 40.0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
: 1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm): 285.15
INTERCEPT
: .00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL (ml): 36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
: .190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL (ml): .5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
: . 21
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL (ml): .0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
: -8.45
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
: -1.52
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
: 126.91
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H2Q cm/s
0
00:00:00
in
•
00
l
1
00:00:05
-8.08
4.2x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-7.67
4.8x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-7.17
6.1x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-6.17
6.6x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-4.27
6.4x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-1.73
9.3x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.19
2.1x10 -2
8
00:00:40
CO
o
•
l
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -29.8
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 30.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #3
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE WITHOUT ANY FILTER
BARRY MINES— UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 2.1 x 10 -2 (cm/s) ***

139
* * * *
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME: 10:00
TST ID: 4 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm): 40.0
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm): 40.0
CALIBRATION SLOPE
1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm): 285.15
INTERCEPT
.00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL (ml): 36.0
LIQUID START LEVEL
(m)
.190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL (ml): .5
STATIC PORE PRESS
(m)
. 21
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL (ml): .0
INITIAL TEST PRESS
(m)
-9.17
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY PRESS
(m)
-1.67
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
74.35
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.17
1
00:00:05
-8.99
3.9x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.74
4.8x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-8.33
5.7x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.65
6.9x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-6.21
5.2x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-2.69
6.2x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.12
.0x10***
8
00:00:40
i
•
O
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -32.4
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 33.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #4
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE WITHOUT ANY FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
.0 x 10*** (cm/s) ***

140
****
***
*****
-k k
* *
*
k kk k
*****
*
k k
* *
*
kkkk
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 5
DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME: 10:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL
(ml) :
36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
•
190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL
(ml) :
.5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
.21
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL
(ml) :
.0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
-7
.95
CONTAINER X-AREA
(cm2):
1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
-1
.42
INITIAL GAS
VOL
(ml) :
36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
163
.41
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh z nun z s s
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H2Q cm/s
0
00:00:00
-7.95
1
00:00:05
-7.56
4.5x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-7.07
5.1x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-6.39
6.1x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-5.36
6.5x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-3.59
6.9x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-1.61
9.5x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.37
7.2x10 -4
8
00:00:40
o
•
i
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -28.0
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 28.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #5
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE WITHOUT ANY FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
7.2 X 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

141
A.2 Permeability of Needle and HDPE Filter
k k k k
kkk
kkk kk
* *
k k
k
****
k k k k k
k
k k
k k
k
k kkk
k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 1
DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME: 09:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
: 1.00
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
INTERCEPT
: .00
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
: .190
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
: .21
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
: -8.68
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
: -1.57
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
: 110.12
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
CO
^0
oo
1
1
00:00:05
-8.31
4.0x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-7.94
4.6x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-7.43
4.9x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-6.55
5.1x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-5.26
5.0x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-3.30
5.2x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-1.19
1.4X10 -4
8
00:00:40
-.23
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -30.5
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 30.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #1
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND HDPE FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
1.4 x 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

142
* * * *
***
-k iekicic
* *
* *
k
****
*****
k
* *
* *
k
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 2
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME
NAME: BARRY MINES
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD,
CALIBRATION SLOPE
INTERCEPT
LIQUID START LEVEL (m)
STATIC PORE PRESS (m)
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m)
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m)
MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m)
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20
0
00:00:00
-8.85
1
00:00:05
-8.61
3 ,
2
00:00:10
-8.32
4.5x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-7.90
5
4
00:00:20
-7.16
5.3x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-6.01
5
6
00:00:30
-4.03
5.2x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-1.13
1
8
00:00:40
-.20
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -31.2
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 31.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #2
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND HDPE FILTER
BARRY MINES— UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
: 09:00
IN FLOW
1.00
.00
. 190
. 21
-8.85
-1.60
97.71
PERMEAB
cm/s
7x10 -5
0x10 -5
5x10 -5
6x10 -4
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
1.6 x 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

143
* * * *
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 3
DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME: 09:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
LIQUID START LEVEL (m) : .190
STATIC PORE PRESS (m) : .21
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m) : -9.06
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m) : -1.64
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5 MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m)
: 82.38
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.06
1
00:00:05
-8.81
4.0x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.51
4.3x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-8.09
4.6x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.46
5.2x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-6.33
5.1x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-4.16
4.7x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-1.19
1.4x10 -4
8
00:00:40
-.16
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -31.9
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 32.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #3
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND AND HDPE FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
1.4 x 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

144
****
***
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 4
DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME:
NAME: BARRY MINES
09:00
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
LIQUID START LEVEL (m)
STATIC PORE PRESS (m)
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m)
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m)
. 190
.21
-8.92
-1.62
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX
FINAL PRESSURE (m)
: 92.60
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-8.92
1
00:00:05
-8.70
4.0x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.40
4.2x10 -
5
3
00:00:15
-8.00
5.0x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.39
5.4x10 -
5
5
00:00:25
-6.18
5.5x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-4.21
5.1x10 -
5
7
00:00:35
-1.20
1.5x10 -4
8
00:00:40
-.20
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml)
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml)
8
-31.4
31.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #4
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND HDPE FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 1.5 X 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

145
****
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
****
* ★ ★ ★ ★
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
-k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 5
DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME: 09:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL
(ml) :
36.0
LIQUID
START
LEVEL
(m)
: .190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL
(ml) :
.5
STATIC
PORE
PRESS
(m)
: . 21
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL
(ml) :
.0
INITIAL
TEST
PRESS
(m)
: -5.37
CONTAINER X-AREA
(cm2):
1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
: -.91
INITIAL GAS
VOL
(ml):
36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
: 351.75
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-5.37
1
00:00:05 -4.87
6.5x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-4.09
5.8x10 -5
3
00:00:15 -3.38
5.9x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-2.63
6.5x10 -5
5
00:00:25 -1.88
7.4x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-1.16
8.7x10 -5
7
00:00:35 -.68
1.0x10 -4
8
00:00:40
-.32
2.4x10 -4
9
00:00:45 -.18
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -18.7
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 18.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #5
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND HDPE FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
2.4 x 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

146
A.3 Permeability of Needle and Steel Filter
★ ★ * "k
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* ★
* *
*
* ★ ★ *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1991-06-18 TIME: 11:00
TST ID: 1 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm): 40.0
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm): 40.0
CALIBRATION SLOPE
1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm): 285.15
INTERCEPT
.00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL (ml): 36.0
LIQUID START LEVEL
(m)
. 190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL (ml): .5
STATIC PORE PRESS
(m)
.24
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL (ml): .0
INITIAL TEST PRESS
(m)
-9.16
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY PRESS
(m)
-1.64
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
75.08
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.16
1
00:00:05
-8.92
3.6x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.67
4.2x10
-5
3
00:00:15
-8.27
4.9x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.68
5.3x10
-5
5
00:00:25
-6.48
4.9x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-4.34
4.2x10
-5
7
00:00:35
-1.39
6.0x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.32
6.5x10
-5
9
00:00:45
-.24
9.6x10 -5
10
00:00:50
-.21
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS :
10
CALC VOLUME
CHANGE
(ml): -
32.
3
ACTUAL VOL
CHANGE
(ml):
32.
0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #1
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 9.6 x 10 -5 (cm/s) ***

147
* * * *
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 2
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
DATE: 1991-06-18
TIME
11:00
NAME: BARRY
MINES
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
1.00
INTERCEPT
.00
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
.190
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
.23
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
-9.10
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
-1.64
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
79.46
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.10
1
00:00:05
-8.92
2.7x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.75
4.5x10
-5
3
00:00:15
-8.32
4.8x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.77
5.7x10
-5
5
00:00:25
-6.83
5.6x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-4.60
4.7x10
-5
7
00:00:35
-1.44
7.1x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.23
1.7x10
-4
9
00:00:45
-.16
4.6x10 -4
10
00:00:50
-.14
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS :
10
CALC VOLUME
CHANGE
(ml): -
32.
1
ACTUAL VOL
CHANGE
(ml):
32.
5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #2
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
4.6 X 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

148
****
***
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 3
DATE: 1991-06-18 TIME: 11:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
LIQUID START LEVEL (m)
STATIC PORE PRESS (m)
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m)
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m)
MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m)
. 190
. 24
-9.05
-1.62
83.11
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.05
1
00:00:05 -
8.81
2.1x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.67
3.8x10 -5
3
00:00:15 -
8.31
4.9x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.81
5.5x10 -5
5
00:00:25 -
6.79
6.0x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-4.91
4.9x10 -5
7
00:00:35 -
1.41
8.4x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.16
4.1x10 -3
9
00:00:45
-.09
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -31.9
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 33.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #3
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
4.1 X 10 -3 (cm/s) ***

149
•kick*
k k k
*****
k k
k k
*
k kk k
k k k k k
*
k k
k k
*
k kk k
k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1991-06-21 TIME: 11:00
TST ID: 4
NAME: BARRY
MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm): 40.0
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm): 40.0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm): 285.15
INTERCEPT
.00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL (ml): 36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
.190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL (ml): .5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
. 24
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL (ml): .0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
-9.23
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
-1.65
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
69.97
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.23
1
00:00:05 -
9.09
2.2x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.97
4.1x10 -5
3
00:00:15 -
â– 8.64
5.1x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-8.20
5.8x10 -5
5
00:00:25 -
•7.28
6.4x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-5.39
4.5x10 -5
7
00:00:35 -
â– 1.30
8.4x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.16
2.4X10 -3
9
00:00:45
-.11
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -32.6
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 32.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #4
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
2.4 x 10 -3 (cm/s) ***

150
****
* ★ ★
*****
* *
* k
*
* * * *
* ★ ★ ★ *
*
* *
•k k
*
* * * *
k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 5
DATE: 1991-06-18 TIME: 11:30
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
LIQUID START LEVEL (m)
STATIC PORE PRESS (m)
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m)
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m)
. 190
.24
-9.09
-1.63
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5 MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m) : 80.19
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.09
1
00:00:05 -
8.91 2.6x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.75
4.1x10 -5
3
00:00:15 -
8.37 4.9x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.88
5.4X10 -5
5
00:00:25 -
6.89 5.8X10 -5
6
00:00:30
-5.11
4.7X10 -5
7
00:00:35 -
1.68 7.0x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.24
6.2X10 -4
9
00:00:45
-.15
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -32.1
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 33.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #5
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
6.2 X 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

151
****
***
★ ★ ★ ★ ★
★ *
* *
*
k k k k
*****
*
k k
* *
k
k k kk
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 6
DATE: 1991-06-18 TIME: 11:30
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
LIQUID START LEVEL (m)
STATIC PORE PRESS (m)
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m)
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m)
. 190
. 24
-9.38
-1.68
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX
FINAL PRESSURE (m)
: 59.02
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.38
1
00:00:05
-9.22
3.2x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-9.05
3.3x10 -
5
3
00:00:15
-8.90
4.6x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-8.52
5.8x10 -
5
5
00:00:25
-7.75
7.0x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-6.08
4.2x10 -
5
7
00:00:35
-1.42
1.1x10 -4
8
00:00:40
-.19
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -33.1
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 34.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #6
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
1.1 x 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

152
* * * *
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 7
DATE: 1991-06-18 TIME: 12:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
LIQUID START LEVEL (m)
STATIC PORE PRESS (m)
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m)
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m)
.190
.24
-9.35
-1.68
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5 MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m) : 61.21
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.35
1
00:00:05 -
9.16 2.7x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-9.01
3.7x10 -5
3
00:00:15 -
8.75 4.0x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-8.32
4.9x10 -5
5
00:00:25 -
7.70 5.9x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-6.18
4.3x10 -5
7
00:00:35 -
2.65 5.0x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.17
1.1x10 -3
9
00:00:45
-.16
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -33.0
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 34.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #7
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 1.1 X 10 -3 (cm/s) ***

153
****
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
DATE: 1991-06-18
TIME
12:00
TST ID: 8
NAME: BARRY
MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm): 40.0
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm): 40.0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm): 285.15
INTERCEPT
.00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL (ml): 36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
.190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL (ml): .5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
. 24
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL (ml): .0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
-9.29
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
-1.67
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
65.59
NO TIME
PRESS PERMEAB
NO TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
hh:mm
: ss m
H20
cm/s
3.6x10 -5
4.5x10 -5
6.0x10 -5
9.6x10 -5
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -32.8
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 33.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #8
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
0 00:00:00
2 00:00:10
4 00:00:20
6 00:00:30
8 00:00:40
-9.29 1 00:00:05 -9.12
-8.91 4.0x10 -5 3 00:00:15 -8.65
-8.16 5.2x10 -5 5 00:00:25 -7.34
-5.58 4.3x10 -5 7 00:00:35 -1.61
-.20
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
9.6 x 10 -5 (cm/s)
* * *

154
* ★ * *
***
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1991-06-18 TIME: 12:30
TST ID: 9 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm) :
40.0
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm) :
40.0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm) :
285.15
INTERCEPT
.00
TEST
CONTAINER
VOL (ml): 36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
.190
EXT
CYLINDER
VOL (ml): .5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
. 24
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL (ml): .0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
-9.22
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80%
RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
-1.65
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX
FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
70.70
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh: mm
ss m
H20
cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.22
1
00:00:05
-9.08 3.
2x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.90
3.9x10 -
5 3
00:00:15
-8.60 4.
7x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-8.18
5.9x10 -
5 5
00:00:25
-7.30 5.
8x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-5.33
4.4x10 -
5 7
00:00:35
-2.00 8.
3x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.20
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -32.5
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 33.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #9
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
8.3 x 10 -5 (cm/s)
***

155
* * * *
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 10
DATE: 1991-06-18 TIME: 12:30
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
LIQUID START LEVEL (m)
STATIC PORE PRESS (m)
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m)
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m)
. 190
. 24
-9.42
-1.69
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5 MAX
FINAL PRESSURE (m)
: 56.10
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.42
1
00:00:05
-9.29
2.5x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-9.17
3.6x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-8.94
4.7x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-8.60
4.7x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-7.85
7.6x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-6.77
4.3x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-1.80
8.5x10 -5
8
00:00:40
o
•
1
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -33.2
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 34.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #10
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
8.5 x 10 -5 (cm/s)
* * *

156
****
* *
****
* *
****
***
* *
* * * * *
* *
* *
*****
*
*
*
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 11
DATE: 1991-06-18 TIME: 12:30
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
LIQUID START LEVEL (m) : .190
STATIC PORE PRESS (m) : .24
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m) : -7.63
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m) : -1.33
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5 MAX
FINAL PRESSURE (m)
: 186.77
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-7.63
1
00:00:05
-7.23
4.0x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-6.78
4.5x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-6.20
4.8X10 -5
4
00:00:20
-5.33
5.2x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-4.31
5.4x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-2.88
5.8x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-1.63
9.0x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.74
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml)
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml)
8
-26.2
27.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #11
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 9.0 X 10 -5 (cm/s) ***

157
* * ★ ★
kk k
kkkk k
k k
k k
k
k k k k
k kk k k
k
k k
k k
k
kkkk
k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1991-06-18 TIME: 12:30
TST ID: 12 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (in or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm): 40.0
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm): 40.0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
: 1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm): 285.15
INTERCEPT
: .00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL (ml): 36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
: .190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL (ml): .5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
: .24
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL (ml) : .0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
: -7.35
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
: -1.28
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
: 207.21
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-7.35
1
00:00:05
-6.91
4.1x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-6.43
4.4x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-5.82
4.7x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-5.03
5.1x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-4.05
5.3x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-2.79
5.7x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-1.70
6.2x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.87
7.4x10 -5
9
00:00:45
-.38
7.8x10 -5
10
00:00:50
-.21
4.8x10 -5
11
00:00:55
-.19
7.2x10 -5
12
00:01:00
-.13
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS :
12
CALC VOLUME
CHANGE
(ml): -25
.8
ACTUAL VOL
CHANGE
(ml): 26
.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL #12
PERMEABILITY OF NEEDLE AND STEEL FILTER
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 7.2 X 10 -5 (cm/s) ***

158
A.4 Permeability of Kaolin-Sand Mixture
* * * *
***
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 1
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
DATE: 1992-03-09 TIME: 08:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
LIQUID START LEVEL (m) : .190
STATIC PORE PRESS (m) : .23
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m) : -8.84
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m) : -1.58
MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m) : 98.44
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-8.84
1
00:00:05 -
8.13
1.9x10 -6
2
00:00:30
-8.03
1.0x10 -6
3
00:01:00 -
7.96
7.7x10 -7
4
00:02:00
-7.85
6.4x10 -7
5
00:05:00 -
•7.52
4.8x10 -7
6
00:12:00
-6.77
3.8x10 -7
7
00:15:00 -
â– 6.44
3.3x10 -7
8
00:20:00
-5.88
2.8x10 -7
9
00:25:00
-5.35
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -25.6
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 12.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL 1
50% CLAY — 50% SAND
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 2.8 x 10 -7 (cm/s) ***

159
****
* * *
* * * * ★
* *
* *
•k
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 2
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
DATE: 1992-03-09 TIME: 08:30
NAME: BARRY MINES
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE: 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
LIQUID START LEVEL (m): .190
STATIC PORE PRESS (m): .23
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m): -8.81
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m): -1.58
MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m): 100.63
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H2Q cm/s
0
00:00:00
-8.81
1
00
: 00:05
-8.42
9.9X10 -7
2
00:00:30
-8.38
1.3x10 -
6
3
00
: 01:00
-8.30
9.8x10 -7
4
00:02:00
-8.18
7.8x10 -
7
5
00
: 05:00
-7.88
6.3x10 -7
6
00:08:00
-7.58
4.8x10 -
7
7
00
:15:00
-6.87
3.6x10 -7
8
00:20:00
-6.35
3.1x10 -
7
9
00
:25:00
-5.86
2.6x10 -7
10
00:30:00
-5.33
2.1x10
-7
11
00:50:
00 -3.39
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 11
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -28.5
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 12.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL 2
50% CLAY — 50% SAND
BaRRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
2.1 x 10 -7 (cm/s) ***

160
****
•kick
â– k * * * *
* *
k k
*
****
kkkkk
*
* *
k k
*
* * * *
k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1992-03-09 TIME: 09:30
TST ID: 3 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm) 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
LIQUID START LEVEL (m) : .190
STATIC PORE PRESS (m): .23
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m) : -8.85
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m): -1.59
MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m): 97.71
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
IT)
CO
•
00
1
1
00:00:05 -
8.61
2.0x10 -6
2
00:00:30
-8.54
1.1x10 -6
3
00:01:00 -
•8.49
1.1x10 -6
4
00:02:00
-8.41
9.6x10 -7
5
00:03:00 -
•8.28
9.1x10 -7
6
00:04:00
-8.20
8.3x10 -7
7
00:05:00 -
â– 8.09
2.9x10 -7
8
00:45:00
l
•
o
o
2.0x10 -7
9
00:50:00
-3.54
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -28.5
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 12.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL 3
50% CLAY — 50% SAND
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
2.0 x 10 -7 (cm/s) ***

161
* * * *
kkk
*****
* *
k k
*
kkkk
kkkk k
*
k k
k k
*
k kkk
k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1992-03-09 TIME: 10:00
TST ID: 4 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm)
: 40.0
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD
, IN
FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm)
: 40.0
CALIBRATION SLOPE
z
1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm)
: 285.15
INTERCEPT
:
.00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL
(ml): 36.
0 LIQUID START LEVEL
(m) :
. 190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL
(ml):
.5 STATIC PORE PRESS
(m) :
.23
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL
(ml) :
0 INITIAL TEST PRESS
(m) :
-9.07
CONTAINER X-AREA
(cm2):1.96 80% RECOVERY PRESS
(m) :
-1.63
INITIAL GAS
VOL
(ml): 36
.5 MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m):
81.65
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.07
1
00:00:05 -
8.85
3.4x10 -6
2
00:00:30
-8.74
1.4x10 -6
3
00:01:00 -
8.67
8.9x10 -7
4
00:02:00
-8.60
7.8x10 -7
5
00:05:00 -
•8.36
5.8X10 -7
6
00:11:00
-7.84
4.4x10 -7
7
00:17:00 -
â– 7.30
3.0x10 -7
8
00:29:30
-6.07
2.0x10 -7
9
00:45:00
-4.52
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -28.6
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 12.5
COMMENTS:
TRIAL 4
50% CLAY — 50% SAND
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 2.0 x 10 -7 (cm/s) ***

162
* * * *
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 5
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.1
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
DATE: 1992-03-09 TIME: 11:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
LIQUID START LEVEL (m): .190
STATIC PORE PRESS (m): .23
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m): -9.14
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m) : -1.64
MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m): 76.54
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.14
1
00:00:05 -
8.87
2.7x10 -6
2
00:00:30
-8.78
1.9x10 -6
3
00:01:00 -
8.69
1.5x10 -6
4
00:02:00
-8.55
1.0x10 -6
5
00:06:30 -
•7.86
5.7x10 -7
6
00:12:30
-6.96
2.7x10 -7
7
00:30:00 -
4.57
1.9x10 -7
8
00:48:00
-2.66
2.0x10 -7
9
00:52:00
-2.33
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -31.1
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 10.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL 5
50% CLAY — 50% SAND
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
2.0 x 10 -7 (cm/s) ***

163
A.5 Permeability of Yellow Fine Mortar Sand
* * * *
* * *
*****
* *
* k
*
****
-k k * ★ k
*
* *
k k
*
* * * *
k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 1
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml):
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml):
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml):
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2):
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml):
DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 09:00
NAME: BARRY MINES
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
36.0
LIQUID
START
LEVEL
(m) :
•
190
.5
STATIC
PORE
PRESS
(m) :
.22
.0
INITIAL
TEST
PRESS
(m) :
-8
.00
1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m) :
-1
.42
36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m) :
159
.76
NO TIME PRESS PERMEAB NO TIME PRESS PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss m H20 cm/s hh:mm:ss m H20 cm/s
5
5
5
4
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -28.1
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 28.5
COMMENTS:
YELLOW SAND
TRIAL 1
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
0 00:00:00
2 00:00:10
4 00:00:20
6 00:00:30
8 00:00:40
-8.00 1
-7.08 5.2x10 -5 3
-5.28 6.0x10 -5 5
-1.79 7.7x10 -5 7
-.21 4.2x10 -4
00:00:05 -7.59 4.6x10
00:00:15 -6.34 5.9x10
00:00:25 -3.56 6.3x10
00:00:35 -.52 1.2x10
00:00:45
-.16
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 4.2 x 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

164
****
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 2
DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME:
NAME: BARRY MINES
09 :10
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm)
: 40.0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
:
1
. 00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm)
: 285.15
INTERCEPT
•
. 00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL
(ml): 36.0
LIQUID
START
LEVEL
(m) :
190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL
(ml): .5
STATIC
PORE
PRESS
(m) :
.22
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL
(ml): .0
INITIAL
TEST
PRESS
(m) :
-8
.97
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m) :
-1
.62
INITIAL GAS
VOL
(ml): 36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m) :
88
.95
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-8.97
1
00:00:05
-8.72
4.2x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.40
5.2x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-7.84
5.7x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-6.96
6.4x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-5.26
5.2x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-1.87
7.3x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.28
6.5x10 -4
8
00:00:40
-.16
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -31.6
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 32.0
COMMENTS:
YELLOW SAND
TRIAL 2
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
6.5 x 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

165
* * * *
***
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 09:20
TST ID: 3 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD,
CALIBRATION SLOPE
INTERCEPT
IN FLOW
1.00
.00
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml):
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml):
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml):
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2):
36.0 LIQUID START LEVEL (m): .190
.5 STATIC PORE PRESS (m) : .22
.0 INITIAL TEST PRESS (m): -9.13
1.96 80% RECOVERY PRESS (m): -1.65
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5
MAX
FINAL PRESSURE (m): 77.27
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.13
1
00:00:05
-8.95
4.6x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.64
4.9x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-8.13
5.6x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.45
6.3x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-5.86
5.0x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-2.56
5.9x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.22
1.1x10 -3
8
00:00:40
-.15
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -32.2
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 32.5
COMMENTS:
YELLOW SAND
TRIAL 3
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
1.1 x 10 -3 (cm/s) ***

166
k k k *
***
*****
* *
* *
*
kkkk
*****
*
* *
* *
*
kkkk
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 09:30
TST ID: 4 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL
(ml) :
36.0
EXT CYLINDER
VOL
(ml) :
. 5
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL
(ml) :
. 0
CONTAINER X-AREA
(cm2):
1.96
INITIAL GAS
VOL
(ml) :
36.5
LIQUID START LEVEL (m) : .190
STATIC PORE PRESS (m) : .22
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m) : -8.99
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m) : -1.62
MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m) : 87.49
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-8.99
1
00:00:05
-8.77
4.0x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.48
5.6x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-7.94
5.6x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-6.96
6.0x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-5.48
5.1x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-2.40
6.4x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.24
9.6x10 -4
8
00:00:40
-.15
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -31.7
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 32.0
COMMENTS:
TRIAL 4
YELLOW SAND
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
9.6 X 10 -4 (cm/s) ***

167
k k * *
kkk
*****
"k k
k k
*
k kk k
kkkkk
*
k k
k k
*
kkkk
k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 5
DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 09:40
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm)
: 40.0
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm)
: 40.0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
: 1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm)
: 285.15
INTERCEPT
: .00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL
(ml): 72.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
: .190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL
(ml): .5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
: . 22
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL
(ml) : .0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
: -7.89
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
: -1.40
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 72.3
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
: 342.49
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-7.89
1
00:00:05
-7.56
4.6x10
-5
2
00:00:10
-7.33
5.0x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-7.05
5.3x10
-5
4
00:00:20
-6.70
5.4x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-6.28
5.1x10
-5
6
00:00:30
-5.81
4.0x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-5.35
2.9x10
-5
8
00:00:40
-5.10
2.2x10 -5
9
00:00:45
-4.86
2.3x10
-5
10
00:00:50
-4.60
2.7x10 -5
11
00:00:55
-4.30
2.5x10
-5
12
00:01:00
-3.90
2.3x10 -5
13
00:01:05
-3.70
2.3x10
-5
14
00:01:10
-3.40
2.1x10 -5
15
00:01:30
-2.25
2.2x10
-5
16
00:02:00
-.93
5.3x10 -5
17 00:02:30
-.49
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 17
CALC VOLUME
CHANGE
(ml): -54.
4
ACTUAL VOL
CHANGE
(ml): 54.
5
COMMENTS:
YELLOW SAND
TRIAL 5 USING CASCADEDED TECHNIQUE
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
5.3 x 10 -5 (cm/s)
***

168
****
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 6
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 72.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 72.5
DATE: 1992-03-05
TIME
: 09:50
NAME: BARRY MINES
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE
: 1.00
INTERCEPT
: .00
LIQUID START LEVEL
(m)
: .190
STATIC PORE PRESS
(m)
: .22
INITIAL TEST PRESS
(m)
: -8.03
80% RECOVERY PRESS
(m)
: -1.43
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
: 323.17
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss m H2Q cm/s
0
00:00:00
-8.03
1
00:00:05
-7.82
5.5x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-7.57
5.9x10 -
5
3
00:00:20
-7.00
4.4x10 -5
4
00:00:30
-6.11
3.0x10 -
5
5
00:00:40
-5.58
2.0x10 -5
6
00:00:50
-5.19
1.7x10 -
5
7
00:01:00
-4.79
1.8x10 -5
8
00:01:10
-4.35
1.8x10 -
5
9
00:01:30
-3.42
1.6x10 -5
10
00:02:00
1
•
vo
00
2.6x10
-5
11 00:02:45
-.66
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 11
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -55.3
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 55.0
COMMENTS:
YELLOW SAND
TRIAL 6 USING CASCADED TECHNIQUE
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
2.6 x 10 -5 (cm/s) ***

169
A.6 Permeability of a Uniform Sand
* * * *
* * ★
kkk k k
* *
* *
k
* * * *
★ * * * ★
k
* *
•k k
k
****
k k
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 08:00
TST ID: 1 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml):
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml):
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml):
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2):
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml):
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
36.0 LIQUID START LEVEL (m) : .190
.5 STATIC PORE PRESS (m) : .20
.0 INITIAL TEST PRESS (m) : -4.83
1.96 80% RECOVERY PRESS (m) : -.81
36.5 MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m) : 391.17
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-4.83
1
00:00:05 -
4.10
5.8X10 -5
2
00:00:10
-3.43
6.1x10 -5
3
00:00:15 -
â– 2.75
6.3x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-2.01
6.8x10 -5
5
00:00:25 -
•1.47
6.6x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-.92
6.2x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.72
4.1x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.54
3.2x10 -5
9
00:00:45
-.47
1.6x10 -5
10
00:00:50
-.43
1.8x10 -5
11 00:00:55
-.41
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 11
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -16.3
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 16.0
COMMENTS:
WHITE QUARTZ SAND
TRIAL 1
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
1.8 x 10 -5 (cm/s) ***

170
* * * *
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 08:10
TST ID: 2 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml):
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml):
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml):
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2):
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml):
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
36.0 LIQUID START LEVEL (m) : .190
.5 STATIC PORE PRESS (m) : .20
.0 INITIAL TEST PRESS (m) : -3.70
1.96 80% RECOVERY PRESS (m) : -.58
36.3 MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m) : 471.14
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-3.70
1
00:00:05 -
2.84
5.7x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-2.32
5.6x10 -
5
3
00:00:15 -
•1.85
5.7x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-1.45
5.6x10 -
5
5
00:00:25 -
â– 1.08
5.5x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-.86
4.6x10 -
5
7
00:00:35
-.65
3.9X10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.56
2.5x10 -
5
9
00:00:45
-.48
1.9x10 -5
10
00:00:50
-.45
2.0x10
-5
11 00:00:55
-.42
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 11
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -12.0
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 11.8
COMMENTS:
WHITE QUARTZ SAND
TRIAL 2
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
2.0 x 10 -5 (cm/s)
***

171
****
***
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 3
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.3
DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 08:15
NAME: BARRY MINES
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
LIQUID START LEVEL (m) : .190
STATIC PORE PRESS (m) : .20
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m) : -4.00
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m) : -.64
MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m) : 449.35
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
o
o
•
â– sr
l
1
00:00:05
-3.28
5.7x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-2.71
5.8x10 -5
3
00:00:15
-2.19
5.8x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-1.66
5.8x10 -5
5
00:00:25
-1.28
5.4x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-.98
4.9x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.74
4.1x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.62
2.7x10 -5
9
00:00:45
-.53
1.9X10 -5
10
00:00:50
-.49
1.2x10 -5
11
00:00:55
-.46
1.3x10 -5
12
00:01:00
-.44
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 12
CALC VOLUME
CHANGE
(ml): -13.
1
ACTUAL VOL
CHANGE
(ml): 12.
7
COMMENTS:
WHITE QUARTZ SAND
TRIAL 3
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
1.3 x 10 -5 (cm/s) ***

172
****
***
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
* * * *
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 08:20
TST ID: 4 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml):
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml):
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml):
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2):
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml):
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
.190
. 20
-8.66
-1.57
110.95
36.0 LIQUID START LEVEL (m)
.5 STATIC PORE PRESS (m)
.0 INITIAL TEST PRESS (m)
1.96 80% RECOVERY PRESS (m)
36.3 MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m)
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-8.66
1
00:00:05 -
8.30
4.2x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-7.91
4.7x10 -5
3
00:00:15 -
â– 7.34
5.0X10 -5
4
00:00:20
-6.46
5.5x10 -5
5
00:00:25 -
•5.04
5.1x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-2.69
5.2x10 -5
7
00:00:35 -
•1.05
4.8x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.58
7.4X10 -5
9
00:00:45
-.54
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -30.1
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 30.5
COMMENTS:
WHITE QUARTZ SAND
TRIAL 4
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
7.4 x 10 -5 (cm/s) ***

173
kkkk
***
*****
k k
* *
*
kkkk
*****
*
k k
* *
*
kkkk
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 5
DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 08:30
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL
(ml) :
36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m) :
.190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL
(ml) :
.5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m) :
.20
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL
(ml) :
.0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m) :
-9.23
CONTAINER X-AREA
cm2) :
1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m) :
-1.69
INITIAL GAS
VOL
(ml):
36.3
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m) :
69.55
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.23
1
00:00:05 -
8.96
3.7x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.70
4.4X10 -5
3
00:00:15 -
•8.30
5.6x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.60
5.9x10 -5
5
00:00:25 -
â– 5.98
4.5x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-2.99
4.3x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.67
4.7x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.57
5.3x10 -5
9
00:00:45
-.56
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -32.2
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 32.0
COMMENTS:
WHITE QUARTZ SAND
TRIAL 5
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
5.3 x 10 -5 (cm/s) ***

174
****
***
*****
* *
* *
*
****
*****
*
* *
* *
*
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
TST ID: 6
DATE: 1992-03-05 TIME: 08:35
NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 0
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD, IN FLOW
CALIBRATION SLOPE : 1.00
INTERCEPT : .00
LIQUID START LEVEL (m) : .190
STATIC PORE PRESS (m) : .20
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m) : -9.09
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m) : -1.66
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml): 36.5 MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m) : 80.19
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:ss
m H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.09
1
00:00:05 -
8.75 3.5x10 -5
2
00:00:10
-8.47
4.6x10 -5
3
00:00:15 -
7.97 5.4x10 -5
4
00:00:20
-7.18
5.5x10 -5
5
00:00:25 -
5.50 4.5x10 -5
6
00:00:30
-2.82
4.4x10 -5
7
00:00:35
-.84 4.4x10 -5
8
00:00:40
-.57
5.8x10 -5
9
00:00:45
-.55
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 9
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -31.9
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 32.0
COMMENTS:
WHITE QUARTZ SAND
TRIAL 6
BARRY MINES
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
5.8 x 10 -5 (cm/s) ***

175
A.7 Permeability Data from Lynch Park
****
* *
****
* *
* * * *
* * *
* *
*****
* *
* *
* * * * *
*
*
*
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: Lynch Park, Gainesville DATE: 1992-03-19 TIME: 13:20
TST ID: Group 1 NAME: Barry Mines
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 11 ft
FILTER: LENGTH
(mm): 40.
0
TEST TYPE:
VAR HEAD,
IN FLOW
DIAMETER
(mm): 40.
0
CALIBRATION
SLOPE
1.00
FLOW FACTOR
(mm): 285
. 15
INTERCEPT
.00
TEST CONTAINER
VOL (ml):
36.0
LIQUID START
LEVEL
(m)
.190
EXT CYLINDER
VOL (ml):
.5
STATIC PORE
PRESS
(m)
.68
INITIAL LIQUID
VOL (ml):
.0
INITIAL TEST
PRESS
(m)
-9.02
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2) :
1.96
80% RECOVERY
PRESS
(m)
-1.26
INITIAL GAS
VOL (ml):
36.5
MAX FINAL PRESSURE
(m)
85.30
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
NO
TIME
PRESS
PERMEAB
hh:mm:ss
m H20
cm/s
hh:mm:
ss m H2Q cm/s
0
00:00:00
-9.02
1
00:00:05
-8.50
9.7x10 -7
2
00:01:00
-8.40
6.9x10 -7
3
00:03:00
-8.24
7.7x10 -7
4
00:05:00
-8.06
8.7x10 -7
5
00:10:00
-7.41
4.7x10 -7
6
00:23:00
-4.91
3.2x10 -7
7
00:32:00
-2.99
3.1X10 -7
8
00:33:00
-2.80
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -30.2
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 27.0
COMMENTS:
Group 1 results
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY = 3.1 X 10 -7 (cm/s) ***

176
****
* * *
*****
* *
* *
*
* * * *
*****
*
* *
* *
*
****
* *
* R
IN SITU PERMEABILITY TEST
SITE: LYNCH PARK, GAINESVILLE DATE: 1992-03-19 TIME: 14:00
TST ID: 2 NAME: BARRY MINES
FILTER DEPTH (m or ft) : 11 FT
FILTER: LENGTH (mm): 40.0
DIAMETER (mm): 40.0
FLOW FACTOR (mm): 285.15
TEST TYPE: VAR HEAD,
CALIBRATION SLOPE
INTERCEPT
IN FLOW
1.00
.00
TEST CONTAINER VOL (ml): 36.0
EXT CYLINDER VOL (ml): .5
INITIAL LIQUID VOL (ml): .0
CONTAINER X-AREA (cm2): 1.96
INITIAL GAS VOL (ml): 36.5
LIQUID START LEVEL (m)
STATIC PORE PRESS (m)
INITIAL TEST PRESS (m)
80% RECOVERY PRESS (m)
MAX FINAL PRESSURE (m)
.190
.63
-9.45
-1.39
53.91
NO
TIME
hh:mm:ss
PRESS
m H20
PERMEAB
cm/s
NO
TIME
hh:mm:
PRESS PERMEAB
ss ra H20 cm/s
0
00:00:00
in
•
T
1
00:00:05
-8.97
9.0x10 -7
2
00:03:00
-8.68
7.3x10 -7
3
00:05:00
-8.50
6.2X10 -7
4
00:10:00
-7.93
4.7x10 -7
5
00:15:00
-7.17
3.9x10 -7
6
8
00:20:00
00:27:00
-6.20
-4.53
3.2x10 -7
7
00:25:00
-5.03
2.7x10 -7
NUMBER OF DATA POINTS : 8
CALC VOLUME CHANGE (ml): -31.0
ACTUAL VOL CHANGE (ml): 23.0
COMMENTS:
LYNCH PARK—LEAKING UNDEGROUND STORAGE TANK SITE
GROUNDWATER SAMPLING FOR BTEX
INSITU LAB CLASS
BARRY MINES—UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
*** FINAL CALCULATED PERMEABILITY
2.7 x 10 -7 (cm/s) ***

177
A.8
Sieve Analysis
Data
Sieve §
Percent
Passing
Opening
Uniform Sand
Fine
Mortar Sand
Size (mm)
White (EPK)
(Yellow)
4.0
4.75
100.0
100.0
8.0
2.36
100.0
100.0
10.0
2.00
100.0
100.0
16.0
1.19
100.0
100.0
20.0
0.838
100.0
99.0
30.0
0.60
99.0
97.7
40.0
0.425
94.6
87.9
50.0
0.297
64.9
36.5
60.0
0.250
61.0
32.2
100.0
0.149
3.4
3.7
120.0
0.125
2.4
2.8
140.0
0.105
0.5
1.4
200.0
0.075
0.0
0.0
% Coarse Sand 0
0
% Medium Sand 5.4
12.1
% Fine Sand
94.6
87.9
% Silt
0
0
D60
.27 mm
.33 mm
D30
.20 mm
.26 mm
D10
.18 mm
.19 mm
Cu
1.5
1.74
Cz
0.82
1.08
°u~ D.
60
D-
10
2
3 0
^10X^~>60
EPK Information on Sand
Si02—99.3 % minimum
Fe203—0.045% maximum
A1203—0.50%H—0.15
CaO—0.001%H—0.005
Ti02—0.03% maximum
Na20—0.01% maximum

178
A.9 Constant Head Permeability Test Data
AREA (A) = 32 SQ CM
SAMPLE
LENGTH (L) = 10 CM
CONSTANT
HEAD (h) = 37 CM
YELLOW SAND
DENSITY = 91 PCF
TIME
t
Q
sec
cc
90
175
90
235
90
248
90
268
90
255
90
260
AVG K =
AREA (A) = 32 SQ CM
SAMPLE
LENGTH (L) = 13 CM
CONSTANT
HEAD (h) = 30 CM
TIME
t
Q
sec
cc
90
108
90
113
90
108
90
110
90
109
QL
Aht
YELLOW SAND
K
cm/sec
1.69e-02
2.27e-02
2.40e-02
2.59e-02
2.47e-02
2.52e-02
2.32e-02
EPK WHITE
FINE SILICA
QUARTZ SAND
QL
K
Aht
WHITE SAND
DENSITY =81
K
cra/sec
1.61e-02
1.69e-02
1.61e-02
1.64e—02
1.63e-02
PCF
AVG K
1.64e-02

179
A.10 Falling Head Permeability Test Data
FALLING
HEAD
PERMEABILITY
50% KAOLINITE CLAY TEST
50% FINE SILICA SAND
SAMPLE LENGTH (L) = 4 CM
STANDPIPE AREA (a) =1.54 SQ CM
SAMPLE AREA (A) =31.7 SQ CM
aL hi
K LN
At h2
GRADUATED
CYLINDER
BURETTE
TIME
FLOW
FLOW
t
hi
h2
Q
Q
K
sec
cm
cm
ml
ml
cm/sec
88
94
92
6
4
5.69e-05
237
91
84
12
12
6.77e-05
445
82
70
17
20
6.87e-05
328
69
62
12
12
6.51e-05
129
61
58
5
4
6.07e-05
140
57
55
4
4
5.95e-05
147
54
51
4
4
6.06e—05
154
50
48
4
4
6.21e-05
AVERAGE K 6.27e-05
A.11 Atterbera Limits
50% Sand — 50% Kaolinite Clay
Plastic Limit PL=20.3
Liquid Limit LL=31.8

180
A.12 Derivation of Formulas for BAT Permeability Calculations
The following provides the derivation of the formulas that are
used by the program "Perm" Version 13 obtained from the BAT
Invitech Company for calculating the coefficient of
permeability. The derivations were provided by the BAT
Invitech Company.
Symbols:
K = permeability (m/s)
t = time (s)
g = flow of water per unit time (m3/s)
F = geometric flow factor (m)
1 = length of filter (m)
d = diameter of filter (m)
A = internal cross sectional area of system (m2)
g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2)
r = density of water (kg/m3)
u0 = absolute initial pore water pressure (kPa)
ut = absolute pore water pressure at time t (kPa)
hQ = initial water column height above filter (m)
ht = height of water column above filter at time t (m)
VQ = initial gas volume in system (m3)
Vt = gas volume at time t (m3)
Po = absolute initial measured gas pressure in system (kPa)
pt = absolute measure gas pressure at time t (kPa)
T0 = inital temperature of gas in system (°K)
Tt = temperature of gas at time t (°K)
Darcy's Law:(1)
Q -
, un-ut
kF—- Í
gr
Equation of Continuity:(2)
dVt - -qdt

181
Combining Darcy's Law and the Equation of Continuity
yields(3 ) :
k - -g 1
F Uo-Ue
dt
)
Given Boyle's - Marriotte's Law:(4)
Tt Pq
To P
Taking the derivative of Boyle's - Marriotte's Law yields
(5,6,7) :
dVt
dt
dV„
dVt
dT
dVt
dp
dT
dT | dVt
dt dp
1 p°vn
To Pt
Tt Po
o P,
2^0
dp
dt
By combining the above three equations yields (8,9):
dvt _ 1 Po dTt Tt p0 dpt
dt T0 pt 0 dt T0 p* 0 dt
dvt , { 1 dTt i dPt)
dt T0 pt 0 Tt dt pt dt

182
Definition of a water column height (10):
ht ~
h0 +
lVo~Vt)
Relationship between pore pressure and measured pressure (11):
" Pt + 9rht
Combining eguations (3), (9), (10), and (11) yields (12):
k . 9L Ml Tt ( 1 ) ( l dpt l dTt)
F T0 Pt uo-Pt-9rht pt dt Tt dt
For purpose of numerical calculation, k is calculated at a
time t which is midway between two measurements. ht, Vt, and
pt are assumed to have values midway between those computed
for the actual time of measurement. dpt/dt and dTt/dt are
approximated by the slope of the pt vs. t and Tt vs t curves,
computed by the least sguares method using four measured data
points, two from before and two from after time t (one before
and one after for the first and last calculation).
If temperature is neglected the eguation reduces to (13):
k gr_ PqVq
F Pt
(—
uo
1
Pt - 9rhc
) (
1
Pt
dPt,
dt
where the Flow Factor, F is calculated from the following
eguation (14):

183
F -
2 ni
ln[4 +N
i + <4>2J
d
A check of the units in equation 13 yields:
_JL_ * M
* m2 * "Ü * -J_
m ¿0V sec
Kg + m2
sec2 KJSi* sec
Kg*m2 t 1 JO/ t 1
sec3*KN 1000 iV Kg*m
sec2
Kg*m2 sec2 _ /n
sec3 iCgr*/?? sec
This check shows that the equation supplied by the BAT
developers does indeed have units of ra/sec. However, it also
shows a conversion factor of 0.001 is not readily noticeable
in the equation.
The following comments are provided by the developers of the
program "Perm" for use of their program.
1. The program will ask if temperature is measured. Reply
'Y' (for yes) or 'N' (for no). If the answer is no, the
program will be identical with the previous version.
2. The program asks for the cross-sectional area of the
(glass) test container in cm2. The standard value is 1.96 for
35 mL vials.
3. The start level is the height of the water column in the
vial, plus 0.19 m. For inflow test, this will normally be

184
0.00 + 0.19 = 0.19 m. For an outflow test, 30 mL of water in
a 35 mL vial usually gives a value near 0.17 + 0.19 = 0.36 m.
4. The start temperature is that read just prior to the
test, in degrees Celsius (°C).
5. The transducer correction factor is specific for each
transducer. It is usually determined by slowly changing the
temperature of a water bath in which the transducer is
submerged at constant depth, and observing the change in
displayed pressure per unit change in temperature (m H20/°C).
The program assumes that this factor is linear. A typical
value is 0.013 m H20/°C.
6. The data entry section of the program will ask first for
the time (in hours, minutes and seconds), then for the
pressure (m H20) at that time, and finally for the temperature
(°C). As before, a negative time will terminate data entry.
The option will then be given of examining the data, which may
be corrected. A chance to examine all the intermediate values
of calculated permeability will also be given, so that the
stability of the calculation may be ascertained.
7. When no more data is entered, the data is plotted and
optionally printed in tabular form. The plot contains four
axes; pressure, time, temperature and permeability. Pressure
vs time is plotted as a solid line. Temperature vs time is
plotted as a dotted line. Permeability vs time is plotted as
individual points (asterisks).
A hand solution to eguation (13) is provided for the first
trial of section A.3.
JZ£ EsOn. ( 1 , (A*£)
F pt u0 - pt - grht pt dt

185
Po
= -9.16m*
Pt
1000 Kg t 9.8 Nf 1 KN
/773 1 Kg 1000 N
- -8.92/73*9.8 - -87.4 kPa
-89.8 kPa
V.
Po* ^0
Pt
,T89.8* 3.65E-5 . 3.V5^_5/i?3
-87.4
h t -
- 0.19+ 3-65g-S - . ,185m
0 A 1.96F-4
- .185*^°-°-°-^* - 1-813
i77-
Un
1 Kg 1000 P
.24*9.8 = 2.35 kPa
gr _ 9,8*1000
F = .28515
34367
n
sec2*m3
— - 2.35 + 87.4 - 1.81 =
u0-pt-grhc
1 t ^Pt _ 1 t -89.8 + 87.4
pt dt ~ -87.4 5
/772
.001137 —
KN
- .005492
34367.9*3.7 5F-5*0.01137*0.005492 *.001
m
8E-8 â– 
- 8E-6
sec
cm
sec
A spreadsheet solution using equation 13 is shown below,
permeability is calculated between the two time readings,
least squares method is not used.
The
The

o
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
186
BAT PERM DATA
PRESSURE
vt=
PoVo/Pt
K
1
Uo-Pt-grh,.
l*dpt
Pt*dt
k
m H20
m3
m
m2/KN
1/sec
cm/sec
-9.16
-8.92
3.75E-5
0.185
0.0138
-0.0053
-9.63E-6
-8.67
3.86E-5
0.179
0.0142
-0.0056
-1.07E-5
-8.27
4.04E-5
0.170
0.0149
-0.0072
-1.49E-5
-7.68
4.35E-5
0.154
0.0159
-0.0096
-2.30E-5
-6.48
5.16E-5
0.113
0.0181
-0.0165
-5.33E-5
-4.34
7.70E-5
-0.017
0.0215
-0.0370
-2.11E-4
-1.39
2.41E-5
-0.851
0.0102
-0.1597
-1.35E-3
-0.32
1.04E-5
-4.954
0.0021
-0.6906
-5.15E-3
-0.24
1.39E-3
-6.731
0.0015
-0.8259
-6.07E-3
-0.21
1.59E-3
-7.747
0.0013
-0.8523
-6.23E-3

MW
78
156
128
162
250
134
134
134
152
112
118
126
126
206
234
186
172
146
146
APPENDIX B
ORGANIC CHEMICAL DATA
COMPOUND
ION
FORMULA
Benzene
78(52,71)
c6h6
Bromobenzene
77(156,158)
C6H5Br
Bromochloromethane
128(49,130)
CH2Br
Bromodichloromethane
83(85,127)
CHCl2Br
Bromoform
173(252,175)
CHBr3
n-Butylbenzene
91(92,134)
c1qh14
sec-Butylbenzene
105(134)
C1gH14
tert.-Butylbenzene
119(91,134)
C1qH14
Carbontetrachloride
117(119,121)
CC14
Chlorobenzene
112(114,77)
c6h5ci
Chloroform
83(85,47)
CHC13
2-Chlorotoluene
126(91)
C7H7C1
4-Chlorotoluene
126(91)
c7h7ci
Dibromochloromethane
127(129)
CHClBr2
1,2-Dibromo-
3-chloropropane
157(75,155)
C3H5ClBr2
1,2-Dibromoethane(EDB)
107(109,188)
C2H4Br2
Dibromomethane
93(95,174)
CH2Br2
1,2-Dichlorobenzene
146(111,148)
C6H4C12
1,3-Dichlorobenzene
146(111,148)
c6h4ci2
187

146
98
98
96
96
96
112
112
112
110
110
110
106
258
120
134
84
128
120
104
166
188
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
1.1-Dichloroethane
1.2-Dichloroethane
1.1-Dichloroethene
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene
1.2-Dichloropropane
1.3-Dichloropropane
2.2-Dichloropropane
1,1-Dichloropropene
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene
trans-1,3-Dichloro
propene
Ethylbenzene
Hexachlorobutadiene
Isopropylbenzene
p-Isopropyltoluene
Methylene chloride
Naphthalene
n-Propylbenzene
Styrene
1.1.1.2-
Tetrachloroethane
146(111,148)
C6H4C12
63(65,83)
c2h4ci2
62(64,98)
c2h4ci2
96(61,63)
c2h2ci2
96(61,98)
c2h2ci2
96(61,98)
c2h2ci2
63(112,62,41)
c3h6ci2
76(78)
c3h6ci2
77(97)
c3h6ci2
110(75,77)
c3h4ci2
75(77,110)
c3h4ci2
75(77,110)
c3h4ci2
106(91)
C8H10
225(260)
C4C16
105(120)
c9h12
119(134,91)
C1qH14
84(49,51,86)
ch2ci2
128
c10h8
120(91)
c9h12
104(103,78)
c8h8
131(133,119)
c2h2ci4

189
166 1,1,2,2-
Tetrachloroethane
83(131,85)
C2H2C14
164
Tetrachloroethene(PERC)
164(129,131)
C2C14
92
Toluene
92(91,65)
C7H8
180
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene
180(182)
c6h3ci3
180
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
180(182)
c6h3ci3
132
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
97(99,117)
c2h3ci3
132
1,1,2-Trichloroethane
97(83,85)
c2h3ci3
130
Trichloroethene(TCE)
130(95,97)
c2hci3
146
1,2,3-Trichloropropane
75(77,110)
c3h5ci3
120
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene
105(120)
c9h12
120
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene
105(120)
c9h12
106
(1,2
o-Xylene
Dimethyl benzene)
106(91)
c8h10
106
m,p-Xylene
106(91)
c8h10
174
INTERNAL STD/SURR
BROMOFLUOROBENZENE
95(174,176)
C6H4FBr
96
i FLUOROBENZENE
96(77)
c6h5f
128
! BROMOCHLOROMETHANE
128(49,130)
CH2Br

APPENDIX C
BAT FIELD SAMPLING LOG
C.l Cavalier Site
17 October 1991 MW-17 Water Table Depth-9'-6"
BAT MK2(Steel) pushed to depth of 13'-l"
Cascaded sampling
BATI full and BAT2 12 ml in 34 minutes.
BAT3 full and BAT4 2 ml in 65 minutes.
BAT5 full and BAT6 0.5 ml in 30 minutes.
BAT MK2(HDPE) pushed to depth of 11'-ó".
Cascaded sampling
BAT7 full and BAT8 3 ml in 40 minutes.
23 October 1991 MW-17 Water Table Depth 9'-6"
BAT MK2 pushed to depth of 10'-6".
Purged smelled aromatics.
Cascaded sampling
BATI recovered 15 ml in 60 minutes.
BAT2 recovered 15 ml in 40 minutes.
Single sampling-BAT3 recovered 8 ml in 16 minutes.
Same probe pushed to depth of 13'.
BAT samples 4 and 5 each recovered 1 ml in 25
minutes (single tube sampling).
190

191
29 October 1991 MW-17 Water Table Depth-9'-10"
BAT probe (steel) sampling inside MW-17 at 10'
depth.
BAT cascaded samples 1,3,5,7 contained no headspace.
BAT samples 2,4,6,8 contained 25% headspace.
Sampling time in minutes were 14,10,10, and 10
respectively.
10 February 1992 MW-15 Water Table Depth-8'-6"
MW—15 purged of 4 well volumes—smelled aromatics and
sulfur.
Sampled well with teflon bailer—2, 40 ml vials filled.
Placed BAT MK2 (HDPE) probe inside MW-15 and purged.
Cascaded Sampling
Sampled 4.5 minutes—BATI full—BAT2 50% full
Sampled 5.5 minutes—BAT3 full—BAT4 75% full
Sampled well with teflon bailer—2, 40 ml vials filled.
Cascaded Sampling
Sampled 6.5 minutes—BAT5 full—BAT6 80-85% full.
Sampled 6 minutes—BAT7 full—BAT8 75% full.
Sampled 6 minutes—BAT9 full—BATIO 40% full.

192
C.2 Textile Town Site
26 November 1991 MW-ll(PERC) Water Table Depth-6'
BAT MK2 pushed to depth of 6'-6".
Problem getting samples only approximately 5 ml.
BAT MK2 pushed to depth of 9'-10".
Problem filter clogged or septum needs replacing.
Enviroprobe pushed to a depth of 6.5 feet.
27 November 1991 MW-ll(PERC)
BAT MK2(Steel) pushed to a depth of T-4".
Problems obtaining samples only approximately 5 ml.
Same BAT MK2(Steel) pushed to a depth of 8'-6".
Still problems obtaining samples.
Enviroprobe pushed to a depth of 8'-6".
Purged 4 minutes recovered 10 ml.
Purged 4 minutes recovered 15 ml.
Cascaded Sampling BAT3 recovered 30 ml in 29 minutes.
Cascaded Sampling BAT5 recovered 30 ml in 22 minutes.
3 December 1991 MW-7(BTEX) Water Table Depth- 7'-8"
BAT MK2 pushed to a depth of 8'-2".
Problem with septum needs replacing no samples
obtained.
Enviroprobe pushed to a depth of 8'-2".
Cascaded sampling
BATI recovered full sample (35 ml) in 21 minutes.

193
BAT3 recovered full sample in 6 minutes.
Second BAT MK2 pushed to a depth of 7'-11".
Sample 1 recovered 32 ml in 24 minutes.
Sample 2 recovered 21 ml in 32 minutes.
6 December 1991 MW-7(BTEX)
Vertical contamination of Benzene
BAT MK2
9 foot depth
11 foot
12 foot
13 foot
Purged (no odor)
purged for 5 min (aromatics
present) retrieved 12 ml.
30 ml sample in 22 minutes,
purged for 5 min (aromatics
present) retrieved 18 ml.
35 ml (full) sample in 15 ml.
only recovered 2 ml in 7 minutes.
May have reached confining layer.
Enviroprobe
11 foot depth purged 4 min (aromatics present)
retrieved 15 ml.
Sample recovered 34.5 ml in 22 min.
Full sample recovered in 30 min
plus 2 ml in upper tube.
10 December 1991 MW-ll(PERC) Water Table Depth-6'-6"
Vertical contamination testing for PERC.

194
BAT MK2
7 foot depth
8 foot depth-purged 2.5 min retrieved 21 ml.
sample of 30 ml in 4.5 min.
9 foot depth-purged 2 min got 10 ml.
sample of 30 ml in 22.5 min.
10 foot depth-purged 2.75 min retrieved 10 ml.
sample of 12-15 ml in 36 min.
sample of 12 ml in 21 min.
11 foot depth-purged 3.75 min retrieved 7 ml.
sample of 30 ml in 35 min.
12 foot depth-purged 4 min retrieved 13 ml.
sample of 20 ml in 12 min.
13 foot depth-purged 3.5 min retrieved 17 ml.
sample of 33 ml in 9.5 min.
17 December 1991 MW-ll(PERC) Water Table Depth-6'-9"
BAT MK2 sampling inside MW-11 for PERC-depth 7'.
Purge 30 seconds recovered 30 ml.
Cascaded Sampling at 7' depth inside MW-11.
BATI full (35 ml) and BAT2 (25-30 ml) in 3 minutes.
BAT3 full (35 ml) and BAT4 (25-30 ml) in 3 minutes.
Cascaded Sampling at 10' depth inside MW-11.
Purged for 30 sec retrieved 30 ml.
Full sample in 3.5 minutes.
Cascaded Sampling at 12' depth inside MW-11.

195
Purged for 40 sec retrieved 30 ml.
Full sample in 3.75 minutes.
8 January 1992 MW-7(BTEX) Water Table Depth-7/-7"
Test one with Vacuum Pump/Erlenmeyer flask
Enviroprobe—depth 11'-6"
Purged 4 min obtained approximately 18 ml.
BAT recovered 23 ml in 10 minutes.
BATI recovered full sample in 28 minutes and upper
tube (BAT2) recovered 16 ml.
BAT3 recovered full sample in 26 minutes and upper
tube (BAT4) recovered 16 ml.
Sampled using Erlenmeyer flask and vacuum pump.
BAT5 recovered full sample in 105 min and BAT6
(upper tube) recovered 28 ml.
10 January 1992 MW-7(BTEX)
Testing with Vacuum Pump/Erlenmeyer Flask
BAT pushed to a depth of 11'-6"
Purged 4 min retrieved 22 ml (smelled aromatics)
Cascaded sampling
BATI full in 23 minutes-BAT2 recovered 20 ml.
BAT3 full in 20 minutes-BAT4 recovered 1 ml.
Vacuum pump testing
Purged 5 min approximately 50 ml.
Sampled 6 min into Nalgene flask recovered 100 ml.

196
Sampled 6 min into Glass flask recovered 100 ml.
Cascaded sampling
BAT5 full sample in 42 minutes.
16 January 1992 MW-7(BTEX)
Plume chasing
1st Penetration (Enviroprobe)
14'6" from MW-7 at a depth of 11'-6".
Purged 4 min retrieved 29 ml.
Full sample recovered in 32 minutes.
2nd Penetration (BAT MK2 w/steel filter)
27/-6" from MW-7 at a depth of 11'.
Purged 10 min retrieved 15 ml.
Full sample recovered in 60 minutes along with 12 ml of
upper test tube.
3rd Penetration (BAT MK2 w/HDPE filter)
35' from MW-7 at a depth of 11'.
Purged 7 min retrieved 10 ml.
Full sample recovered in 67 minutes along with 8 ml of
upper test tube.
18 February 1992 MW-7 (BTEX) Water Table Depth-6'-1"
Testing of 3/4" bailer inside drill rods.
MW-7 purged of 4 well volumes and then sampled—2 40 ml vials.
BAT MK2 HDPE filter no septum with tape pushed to 11'-6".
No sample.

197
BAT MK2 Steel filter no septum or tape pushed to 11'-6".
No sample.
Applied vacuum pump to drill rods but still no sample.
Conventional BAT sampling.
1. BAT MK2 Steel Filter pushed to depth of 11'-6".
2 cascaded samplings yielded vials with no head space.
Sampling times—33 and 31 minutes
2. Enviro probe with HDPE filter pushed to depth of 11'-6".
2 cascaded samplings yielded vials with no head space.
Sampling times—20 and 13 minutes
2 Single vial samplings
Sampling time 6 and 3 minutes yield 31 ml each (12-14%
head space).

APPENDIX D
CHEMICAL ANALYSES DATA
D.l GC/MS Data for Cavalier Site
Concentration = %BFB X Response Factor X Dilution Factor
BFB (Bromofluorobenzene)-Internal Standard
Response Factors
Benzene (B) .01077
Toluene (T) .01525
Ethylbenzene (EB) .02742
m,p-Xylene (m,p-X) .00157
o-Xylene (o-X) .02493
Tetrachloroethene (PERC) .04103
Trichloroethene (TCE) .03091
Napthalene (N) .05403
Analyses Date—19 Oct 91 Sampling Date—17 Oct 91
Bailerl
run at
200:1
dilution (.
5ml into
100 ml) all
other
samples
run at
100:1
dilution.
Sample
B
T
EB
m,p-X
o-X
Bailerl
24
7198
3120
3900
3980
(0.2)
(43.3)
(10.4)
(31.5)
(14.5)
BATI
0
71.5
25.0
33.1
35.3
(46.9)
(9.1)
(30.5)
(13.3)
Bailer2
20
4410
2606
3671
2884
(18.6)
(2892.3)
(950.6)
(2493.1)(1472.8)
BAT 3
0
56.3
18.6
25.6
35.4
(36.9)
(6.8)
(30.6)
(10.3)
BAT 7
0
30.5
28.8
8.7
0
(20.0)
(10.5)
(3.5)
BAT 5
0
21.0
28.5
4.7
0
(13.8)
(10.4)
(1.9)
198

199
BAT 9
0
8.3
0
0
3.4
Bailer3
9.9
6724
3301
4032.1
4015.5
(4.6)
(2204.7)
(602.0)
(1735.3)
(808.7)
Analyses Date—24 Oct 91 Sampling Date—23 Oct 91
All samples run at 1:200 dilution (.5 ml into 100 ml)
Dilution factor—200
Concentration in ppb
(% BFB)
Sample
B
T
EB
m,p-X
o-X
BATI
65
1426
148
235
243 2.2
(30.4)
(467.7)
(27.0)
(101.4)
(48.8) (0.2)
BAT 2
93
1920
232
353
367
(43.2)
(629.5)
(42.3)
(152.4)
(73.7)
BAT 3
120
3060
601
952
953
(55.6)
(1003.2)
(111.2)
(411.5)
(191.2)
BAT 4
31
790
94
165
172
(14.4)
(259.0)
(17.1)
(71.5)
(34.5)
Bailerl
3
5591
2751
3361
3323 479
(1.3)
(1833.1)
(501.7)
(1452.5)(666.4) (44.3)
Bailer2
334
6470
2811
3283
3415 599
(dupl)
(526.6)
(2383.7)
(658.5)
(1764.4)(845.4)(129.5)
Bailer3
9
6084
2946
3706
3891 525
(4.3)
(1995.0)
(537.2)
(1601.6)(780.3) (48.6)
Bailer4
4.7
7912
2991
4279
3848 672
(dup3)
(2.2)
(1297.1)
(272.7)
(924.5) (385.9) (31.1)
Analyses
Date—30
Oct 91
Sampling
Date—29
Oct 91
Samples
Bailer3,
BAT2, BAT4
, and BAT6 were
diluted by
injecting 200 ul
into 200 ml
(1:1000 dilution).
Samples
BATI, Bailerl, BAT3,
Bailer 2,
and BAT5
were diluted
by injecting 500
ul into 200
ml (1:400
dilution)
•
Concentration in ppb

200
(% BFB)
Sample
B
T
EB
m,p-X
O-X N
BATI
44
5700
2253
3479
2803 395
(10.3)
(934.4)
(205.4)
(751.7)
(281.1) (18.3)
Bailerl
7
5494
2270
3310
2836
(1-7)
(900.7)
(207.0)
(715.3)
(284.4)
BAT 3
0
6602
2546
3839
3381
(1082.3)
(232.1)
(829.5)
(339.0)
Bailer2
0
6147
2449
3552
3031
(1007.7)
(223.3)
(767.6)
(304.0)
BAT 5
0
7514
2761
4107
3635
(1231.9)
(252.7)
(887.5)
(364.5)
Bailer3
0
6631
2235
3834
2967
(434.8)
(81.5)
(331.4)
(119.0)
BAT 2
0
6390
2015
3420
2827
(419.0)
(73.5)
(295.6)
(113.4)
BAT 4
0
6233
1862
3374
2735
(408.7)
(67.9)
(291.6)
(109.7)
BAT 6
0
8863
2547
4753
3864
(581.2)
(92.9)
(410.8)
(155.0)
D.2 GC/MS Data for Textile Town Site
Concentration = %BFB X Response Factor
BFB (Bromofluorobenzene)
Response Factors
Benzene (B)
.01077
Toluene (T)
.01525
Ethylbenzene (EB)
.02742
m,p-Xylene (m,p-X)
.00157
o-Xylene (o-X)
.02493
Tetrachloroethene (PERC)
.04103
Trichloroethene (TCE)
.03091
Concentration in ppb
(% BFB)
Analyses Date—4 Dec 91 Sampling Date—3 Dec 91
Sample B T EB m,p-X o-X

201
Bailerl
107
(99.7)
49
(32.2)
45
(16.4)
45
(39.3)
40
(16.1)
BATI
0
0.6
(39.2)
0.05
(1.9)
0.33
(28.8)
0.28
(11.1)
Bailer3
65
(60.3)
0
0
0
0
BAT 3
0
1.2
(81.0)
0.45
(16.5)
0.91
(78.4)
0.83
(33.1)
BAT 5
0.1
(8.9)
0.8
(55.2)
0.30
(11.1)
0.65
(56.0)
0.61
(24.4)
Bailer2
48.6
(4518.4)
0.26
(17.2)
13.2
(543.5)
7.2
(621.4)
0.65
(26.2)
Bailer4
43.8
(4065.2)
0.26
(17.1)
13.2
(482.9)
7.0
(605.0)
0.72
(29.0)
BAT 2
0
0.12
(7.1)
0
0.06
(4.9)
0
Analyses
Date—9 Dec 91
Sampling
Date—6
Dec 91
Sample
B
T
EB
m,p-X
o-X
BATI
2.4
(225.2)
0
0
0
0
BAT 2
17.95
(1667.3)
0.98
(64.4)
1.51
(55.2)
1.42
(123.3)
0.81
(32.5)
BAT 4
38.0
(3532.3)
0.84
(54.8)
0.71
(25.8)
0.86
(74.1)
0.54
(21.4)
BAT 7
20.75
(1926.7)
0.93
(61.2)
0.26
(9.5)
0.50
(43.3)
0.4
(16.0)
BAT 8
24.3
(2258.8)
1.29
(84.9)
0.38
(13.9)
0.65
(56.4)
0.54
(21.8)
BAT 3
22.7
(3101.3)
1.1
(106.9)
0.79
(42.1)
1.00
(127.0)
0.61
(35.7)
Analyses
Date—11 ]
Dec 91
Sampling
Date—10
Dec 91
Bailer
PERC
TCE
BAT
PERC
TCE
1
21.7
(529.4)
0.48
(15.5)
7
0
0

202
20.48
(499.1)
0.43
(14.0)
2
4
6
5
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Analyses Date—18 Dec 91
Sampling Date—17 Dec 91
Bailerl
BATI BAT6
BAT9 Bailer3 Bailer4
PERC 23
.8
17.2 17
. 8
16.1 20.5
25
. 0
(579
•7)
(418.8) (433.3)
(392.3) (500.5) (610
•4)
Analyses
Date-
-9 Jan 92
Sampling Date—8 Jan 92
Sample
B
T
EB m,p-X
o-X
Bailerl
4.1
0
0.6 0.5
0
(377.2)
(0)
(21.0) (40.4)
(0)
Bailer2
3.1
0
0.5 0.4
0
(289.5)
(0)
(18.9) (33.5)
(0)
BAT 3
24.7
0.3
0.5 0.4
0.02
(2292.2)
(20.
9) (16.9) (34.2)
(0.9)
Bailer3
5.4
0
0.7 0.6
0
(497.4)
(0)
(24.4) (53.9)
(0)
BATI
25.8
(2395.7)
BAT 5
39.2
(3635.6)
Analyses
Date-
-13 Jan 92
Sampling Date—10 Jan
92
Sample
B
T
EB m,p-X
O-X
Vacuum
0.9
0
0 0
0
Flask3
(82.5)
(0)
(0) (0)
(0)

203
BATI
23.3
(2165.0)
0.2
(12.2
Nalgene
Flaskl
1.2
(114.1)
0
(0)
BAT3
16.6
(1543.7)
0.2
(13.0
Vacuum
Flask4
0.8
(78.2)
0
(0)
BAT5
37.6
(3495.7)
0.2
(15.2
Analyses Date—17 Jan 92
Sample B
T
BAT8 0.16
(14.8)
0.25
(16.3
BAT5 0
(0)
0.3
(21.5
BAT2 3.6
(333.3)
0.17
(11.2
BATI 2.95
(274.1)
0
(0)
Analysed Date—19 Feb 92
BATI diluted by factor
factor of 20.
of 10
Sample B
T
Bailer Equip
Blank 0
0
Enviro Probe
Blank 0
0
Bailerl 95
(442.4)
2
(5.9)
Bailer2 108
2
)
0.04
(1.4)
0.2
(17.4)
0.09
(3.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
)
0
(0)
0.15
(12.9)
0.11
(4.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
)
0.2
(8.6)
0.4
(38.5)
0.2
(7.1)
Sampling Date-
-16 Jan
92
EB
m, p-X
o-X
)
0
(0)
0.11
(9.3)
0.10
(4.1)
)
0
(0)
0.09
(7.6)
0.05
(2.2)
)
0
(0)
0.06
(5.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
Sampling Date-
-18 Feb
92
all
other samples diluted by
EB
m,p-X
o-X
0
0
0
0
0
0
18
(33.6)
11
(46.7)
9
(17.1)
21
13
10

204
(499.4)
(7.5)
(38.7)
(55.9)
(19.5)
BATI
247
13
88
42
91
(2297.3)
(84.9)
(319.5)
(366.5)
(367.0)
BAT 3
323
14
110
52
109
(1499.9)
(46.1)
(200.0)
(226.1)
(219.3)
BAT 5
210
4
5
4
7
(973.7)
(12.5)
(9.1)
(17.1)
(13.4)
BAT 7
176
5
6
5
6
(817.8)
(15.9)
(10.2)
(19.7)
(12.8)
BAT 9
205
4
5
4
6
(953.1)
(12.7)
(9.5)
(19.0)
(12.9)
BATIO
198
4
7
5
8
(917.0)
(14.1)
(12.6)
(22.9)
(16.1)

APPENDIX E
DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES
E.l Bailer Decontamination
1. Boil distilled/deionized water and mix with Alconox or
Sparkleen in a large container until sufficient soap is
present. Add additional distilled water to cool.
2. Disassemble the teflon bailer and place in the Sparkleen
solution. Using a brush with a long arm clean the exterior and
interior of the bailer along with the disassembled parts (top,
bottom, and ball).
3. Rinse three times with distilled/deionized water.
4. Spray with isopropyl alcohol. (optional)
5. Lay bailer on aluminum foil until air dryed.
6. Upon drying, wrap the bailer in the aluminum foil for
transport to the field.
E.2 Decontamination of BAT Glass Sample Vials
1. Boil distilled/deionized water and mix with Alconox or
Sparkleen in a large container until sufficient soap is
present. Add additional distilled water to cool.
2. Place glass vials in the solution. Clean the interior
and exterior of the vials with a test tube brush.
3. Rinse with distilled/deionized water at least three times
205

206
until no soap is present. If stubborn stains or deposits are
present a small amount of methanol may be placed in the vial,
shaken, and then discarded.
4. Place the glass vials in an oven at 90 degrees Celsius
until the glass is dried.
5. After removing the vials from the oven place ends over
the vials to avoid any contamination and store until use.
E.3 BAT Probe Decontamination
1. Upon retrieval, remove all soil deposits from the BAT
prove with a brush and water.
2. At the lab boil distilled/deionized water.
3. Place the BAT probe into a bucket and lean it against the
side. Fill the bucket with water but allow the top of the BAT
to extend above the water.
4. Using a 60 ml syringe pull several (5) full syringes of
water through the filter and the BAT probe.
5. Air dry the BAT probe and store for future use. The BAT
can be placed in another bucket of water and water pulled
through the sample to serve as an equipment blank which can be
analyzed to ensure the cleaning procedure was adequate. If
adequately cleaned, the BAT probe can also be wrapped in
aluminum foil for storage.
6. Additional cleaning inside the BAT probe can be done by
unscrewing the septum nut on top of the BAT along with the
rubber septum. A small test tube brush can be used to clean

207
this area.
E.4 Decontamination of Enviro Probe
1. Wash the Enviro probe with potable water to remove all
soil deposits.
2. Unscrew the septum locking device, remove the internal
metal rod, and remove the guide sleeve which covers the porous
filter while being deployed.
3. Remove the cone from the rod and remove the porous
filter.
4. Clean all metal parts with brush and warm soapy solution
as above. Ensure all threaded connections are dried with a
clean cloth to avoid rusting.
5. Reassemble device and change porous filter as required.

APPENDIX F
CONE PENTRATION DATA
F.l CPT Sounding at Lynch Park Adjacent to MW-17
LYNCH PARK 6 FEB 92
CPT115.CPD
DEPTH
m
qc
MN/SQM
f S
KN/SQM
Rf
%
SOIL TYPE
0.5
1.35
-1.67
-0.12
UNDEFINED
1.0
1.39
-0.83
-0.06
UNDEFINED
1.5
5.50
-2.57
-0.05
UNDEFINED
2.0
14.16
92.95
0.66
SAND
2.5
6.77
21.96
0.32
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
3.0
4.62
5.06
0.11
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
3.5
11.22
20.62
0.18
SAND
4.0
13.43
58.99
0.44
SAND
4.5
15.04
127.24
0.85
SAND
F.2 CPT Sounding at Lynch Park Adjacent to MM-15
LYNCH
PARK
6 FEB '
92
CPT116
. CPD
DEPTH
qc
f S
Rf
SOIL TYPE
m
MN/SQM
KN/SQM
%
0.5
1.97
-0.38
-0.02
UNDEFINED
1.0
2.35
-0.33
-0.01
UNDEFINED
1.5
6.91
0.52
0.01
SAND
2.0
11.66
12.29
0.11
SAND
2.5
10.83
75.80
0.70
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
3.0
5.39
40.70
0.75
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
3.5
8.64
52.91
0.61
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
4.0
13.28
216.80
1.63
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
4.5
24.98
158.97
0.64
SAND
208

209
F.3 CPT Sounding at Textile Town Around MW-11
TEXTILE TOWN
PERC MW
30 JAN 92
CPT113
. CPD
DEPTH
qc
f s
Rf
SOIL TYPE
m
MN/SQM
KN/SQM
%
0.5
3.44
4.07
0.12
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
1.0
2.87
-1.87
-0.07
UNDEFINED
1.5
3.18
-1.79
-0.06
UNDEFINED
2.0
1.56
-1.15
-0.07
UNDEFINED
2.5
3.00
-1.58
-0.05
UNDEFINED
3.0
8.98
58.05
0.65
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
3.5
4.54
22.79
0.50
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
4.0
10.89
101.84
0.94
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
4.5
14.05
339.00
2.41
SILTY SAND TO
SANDY SILT
F.4 CPT Sounding at Textile Town Around MW-7
TEXTILE TOWN
BTEX MW 30 JAN 92
CPT114.CPD
DEPTH
m
qc
MN/SQM
f S
KN/SQM
Rf
%
SOIL TYPE
0.5
2.59
-0.32
-0.01
UNDEFINED
1.0
2.96
-0.99
-0.03
UNDEFINED
1.5
4.05
-1.58
-0.04
UNDEFINED
2.0
2.28
-1.25
-0.05
UNDEFINED
2.5
6.98
20.35
0.29
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
3.0
19.62
123.99
0.63
SAND
3.5
12.85
104.76
0.82
SAND TO SILTY
SAND
4.0
13.32
46.06
0.35
SAND
4.5
15.88
319.94
2.02
SILTY SAND TO
SANDY SILT

APPENDIX G
HEADSPACE CORRECTIONS
This appendix shows the equations derived by Pankow
(1986) which estimate the percent losses of volatile organic
compounds that occur due to headspace left in sample vials.
The derivation is based on a total mass balance. When a
sample is placed in a vial with headspace present, some of the
compound will remain in solution while some will partition
into the gaseous phase in the headspace. The mass balance
equation is as follows:
C0Va - CgVg * CV3
where:
Vs = The volume of water solution (mL).
Vg = The volume of gaseous headspace (mL).
Cg = The concentration in the gaseous headspace (mol/mL).
C = The concentration detected in the water solution
(mol/mL).
C0 = True concentration which should be in the water
solution (mol/mL).
Henry's Law describes the partitioning of a compound
between the liquid and gaseous phases:
£V _ JL
C RT
210

211
where:
H = Henry's Law Constant (atm*m3/mol) •
R = The gas constant (8.2 X 1CT5 m3*atm/mol*deg).
T = Temperature (Kelvin).
Substitution of Henry's Law into the mass balance
eguation produces:
c0v-s = () cvg +cvs
:o H Vg
RT
+ 1
C
{ — ) (X?) + 1
RT Vi
This eguation was used to develop Figures G.l and G.2 which
show the remaining fraction in solution, C/C0> for selected
compounds versus various Vg/Vs ratios. Figure G.l shows some
values of several aromatic compounds. Ethylbenzene was emitted
for clarity as its results nearly paralleled those of toluene.
Figure G.2 shows several chlorinated compounds
(PERC=tetrachloroethene, TCE=trichloroethene, chlorobenzene,
carbon tetrachloride). Table G.l gives the Henry's Law
Constants which were used to prepare Figures G.l and G.2.
Figures G.l and G.2 were developed for a temperature of 20 "C
since water samples are normally warmed to room temperature
before analysis. An example is provided below to demonstrate
the use of the equation.

212
Example: What is the fraction of concentration of benzene
(H=.0055) left in a water solution when it is stored at 20 °C
and has a Vg/Vs = .1?
. 0055
8.2£’-05x293
x.l) +1
0.9776
Table G.l Henry's Law Constants for Selected Organic Compounds
COMPOUND
CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS
H
atm*m3/mol
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
CHLOROBENZENE
TETRACHLOROETHENE
TRICHLOROETHENE
0.023
0.0036
0.0153
0.0091
AROMATICS
BENZENE 0.0055
ETHYLBENZENE 0.0066
TOLUENE 0.0067
M-XYLENE 0.0070
O-XYLENE 0.0050
P-XYLENE 0.0071
Henry's Law Constants are at 20-25 °C.
Data from Pankow (1986).
The ratio of Vg/Vs for a given allowable % error at 20 °C can
be calculated by the following eguation:
/g _ (2.4E-02) (%ERR)
Vs H(100 - %ERR)

FRACTION REMAINING, C/Co
213
BENZENE -s- TOLUENE -e- 0-XYLENE M-XYLENE
Figure G.l Fraction Remaining C/CD versus Vg/Vs for Headspace
Related Errors for Selected Aromatic Compounds. Compounds
Apply to 20 "C.

FRACTION REMAINING, C/Co
214
PERC
•e- TCE
e- CHLOROBENZEN CARB TET
Figure G.2 Fraction Remaining 0/Co versus Vg/Vs for Headspace
Related Errors for Selected Chlorinated Compounds. Compounds
Apply to 20 °C.

APPENDIX H
OVERVIEW OF GROUNDWATER STRATEGIES
H.1 Groundwater Studies
H.1.1 Planning
Before any contamination assessment site work can be
performed, it is imperative that an effective groundwater
sampling protocol be developed. A protocol is a detailed list
of step-by-step procedures that govern the entire groundwater
study. The protocol is used to ensure guality
assurance/quality control (QA/QC) in contamination studies.
It normally includes the following:
1. Procedures for determining the soil stratigraphy
along with the hydrogeological conditions such as the water
table depth, the direction of flow, the hydraulic gradient,
and possibly the conductivity of the aquifer.
2. Specific locations (up and down gradient of
potential contaminant source) for groundwater sampling.
3. Drilling and construction methods for monitoring
well installation, disposal of contaminated soil cuttings, and
decontamination of equipment.
4. Construction materials to be used in the monitoring
wells.
215

216
5. Equipment and procedures for well development and
purging.
6. Devices to be used for sample collection, along with
quality control procedures.
7. The size and number of samples (including equipment
and trip blanks) to be taken and the chemical analysis to be
performed on each.
8. Details on the preservation and transport of
samples.
9. The chain of custody for samples.
Most regulatory agencies require a contamination
assessment plan which outlines the protocol to be submitted
and approved before any site work commences. Barcelona and
Gibb (1988) give an excellent generalized groundwater sampling
protocol. Barcelona et al. (1986) also wrote a practical guide
for groundwater sampling for the EPA. Nacht (1983) also
discusses factors to be considered when planning a ground-
water monitoring system.
H.1.2 Conventional Sampling Mechanisms
Groundwater samplers are normally placed into one of
three categories: grab, suction-lift, or positive
displacement (Nielsen and Yeates, 1985). Figure H.l (from
Nielsen and Yeates, 1985) shows conventional sampling
groundwater mechanisms. Grab samplers consist of bailers and
syringes. Suction-lift devices include centrifugal and
peristaltic pumps, while positive displacement samplers

217
consist of bladder pumps, submersible pumps, and gas-drive
devices.
Sampling devices should be manufactured of inert
materials to avoid reacting with the expected groundwater
contaminants. The sampling device should not leach any
contaminant nor should it adsorb contaminants from the
groundwater. A good sampling device will not subject the
sample to aeration or to large pressure changes. Studies by
Barcelona and Wehrmann (1990) give the following order of
preference of materials for groundwater sampling devices:
Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene), stainless steel 316,
stainless steel 304, polyvinylchloride (PVC), low-carbon
steel, galvanized steel, and carbon steel. Pettyjohn et al.
(1981) propose an order of preference: glass, Teflon,
stainless steel, polypropylene, and polyethylene.
Bailers are the simplest method of groundwater sampling
and are normally composed of either Teflon, PVC, or stainless
steel. Sampling is performed by attaching a nylon line to the
bailer and then lowering it down the monitoring well. The
bailer has a ball which is seated over a small hole in its
bottom. When the bailer reaches the water table, the water
unseats the ball from the hole and allows water to enter the
bailer. When the bailer is pulled up, the ball then covers
the hole, keeping the sample intact. At the surface, the
sample is decanted from the bailer to glass bottles or vials.

218
Discharge Choc*
Voto Assembly
(Instete Body!
Water Row
A
-1-1/4*0.D. * 1-l.D.
Rigid Tubing.
Usually 18 to 36' Long
KÚ
rs
&
Intake Check Vahm
Assembly
(Inside Screen)
Helical Roto» €lectnc
- 3/4" Diameter Ball Submersible Pump
1 * Di&meter Threaded Seal
- 6/16* Diameter Hole
Gas Entry Tube
Cut-Away Diagram
of a Ges-Opwated Bladder Pump
Sample Discharge Tube “*
1
Motes:
1 Sampler length can be increased
for special applications
2. Fabrication materials can be selected
to meet analysis requirements
and in situ chemical environment
3. Tubing sizes can be modified for
special applications
Tuflon Connector
6 mm ID
Tubing
Accees Cap
-PVC Pipe
Check Valve
Arrangement
Slotted Wei Sa
Simple Slotted Wei Point
Gas-Drive Sampling Device
Sloes Tubtng
6 mm OD
Tubing
Casing
Gas-Drive Sampler Oasigned
tot Permanent Insttetebon m a
Borehole (forced Systems)
Outlet
Peristaltic Pump
Sample Collection Bottle
Figure H.l Conventional Groundwater Sampling Mechanisms (Nielsen
and Yates, 1985)

219
Syringe devices make use of medical type syringes
fromwhich the plunger handle and finger grips have been
removed. Flexible tubing is attached to the syringe and at
the other end to a hand pump. To obtain a sample a stainless
steel ballast is placed on the device to allow the sampler to
go to depths below the water table. At the desired sampling
depth the hand pump is used at the ground surface to pull the
plunger back and allow the sample to enter the device via a
syringe needle. Gilliam (1982) discusses three syringe¬
sampling devices along with their advantages. The device is
inexpensive, manually operated, and can be used to obtain
samples at any depth. It has the disadvantage of only
obtaining a small sample (50 mL).
Suction lift mechanisms are generally of two types:
centrifugal and peristaltic. The devices are limited to
pumping water a height of approximately 25 feet. Centrifugal
pumps use a rotating impeller to discharge water by means of
centrifugal force. Unfortunately, centrifugal pumps need to
be primed and cause a significant amount of pressure change
and turbulence, resulting in degassing and loss of VOCs.
Peristaltic pumps make use of ball-bearing rollers, a rotor,
and flexible Teflon tubing. The tubing is placed around a
rotor, which is sgueezed by ball-bearing rollers. These
rollers rotate around the rotor, causing water to be pulled
into the flexible tubing. One end of a length of tubing is
lowered down the monitoring well into the water while the

220
other end is connected at the surface to an Erlenmeyer flask.
The Erlenmeyer flask is connected by further tubing to the
peristaltic pump. With this arrangement, water is drawn up
the Teflon tubing and trapped in the Erlenmeyer flask and does
not come into actual contact with the pump. Since pumps use
negative pressures, degassing and VOC losses are prevalent.
Positive displacement mechanisms or gas-drive devices
force positive pressure down tubing to a sampling chamber. The
water sample is displaced up another tube to the surface where
the water is collected. One simple device consists of a
slotted well screen with a ball check-valve. At the ground
surface, positive pressure (nitrogen gas) is applied to the
device through a gas entry tube which closes the check-valve.
The device is lowered to the sampling depth and the positive
pressure decreased, allowing water to enter through the check
valve. Once the chamber is filled with water, positive
pressure is again added to close the check valve. The
pressure is then increased to a value higher than the
hydrostatic pressure at the sampler to displace water in the
chamber through a discharge tube to the ground surface where
it is collected. Since positive pressure is used instead of
negative pressure, there is little possibility of degassing
and loss of volatiles. These devices are relatively
inexpensive and can be used at almost any depth. One
manufacturer's device (BARCAD) can be installed in a bore hole
and then backfilled, thus becoming a permanent monitoring

221
well. This allows the device to reach equilibrium with the
aquifer, eliminatinq the need for purqinq before sampling. It
is very difficult to determine whether these devices are
properly installed and once installed they cannot be removed
if repair is required. Robin et al. (1982) describe the use
of two types of gas-drive sampling devices. The installation
techniques and cost savings associated with this type of
sampling is discussed by Barvenik and Cadwgan (1983).
Gas-operated bladder or diaphragm pumps operate on the
same principle as the other positive displacement methods
except that the gas does not come in contact with the sample.
To obtain a sample, a positive pressure is applied, which
closes a check-valve in the bottom of the device. The device
is then lowered to the sampling depth and the pressure is
released, allowing water to enter the bladder through the
check valve. Once the bladder is filled, positive pressure is
added to close the check-valve and to displace the water in
the bladder by positive displacement into the discharge line
to the surface. The process can be repeated for additional
sampling. These samplers can be used to depths of
approximately 200 feet. They are designed for sampling low
contaminant levels. Bladder pumps are, however, relatively
expensive.
Another class of sampling mechanism is the submersible
pump, of which there are two types. The first is a helical-
rotor electric submersible pump. This has an enclosed

222
electric motor which runs a helical rotor. Water is pushed up
a discharge line to the surface by the centrifugal force
produced by the rotor. The pump has a diameter of 1.75 inches
and is 33 inches long. It has the capability of pumping to a
depth of 125 feet. The pump is, however, relatively expensive
and also the flow rate cannot be controlled. The second type
is the gear-drive electric submersible pump. It uses an
electric motor to run two Teflon gears, which push water up a
discharge line to the surface. The pump is 1.75 inches in
diameter and 7 inches long. It has a pumping rate of
approximately 0.5 gpm.
A discrete point sampler for use in monitoring wells 2
inches or greater in diameter is discussed by MacPherson and
Pankow (1988). This sampler allows groundwater samples to be
taken which are not exposed to headspace in the sampling
chamber. It also keeps the water at its insitu pressure.
Rannie and Nadon (1988) describe a pump sampling method
that does not fall into any of the three normal categories of
samplers. The pump is known as an inertial pump and is made
of a foot valve and Teflon tubing. The foot valve is placed
in the monitoring well at the desired sampling depth with the
Teflon tubing running from it to the surface and into a glass
bottle for sample collection. As the device is lowered in the
monitoring well, water enters the foot valve and rises into
the tube to the hydrostatic level. To sample, the tubing is
pulled upward and downward in a rhythmic fashion by use of

223
either a levered handle at the surface or a gas driven motor.
When the tubing is pulled upward, the foot valve closes and
the water in the tube rises a distance egual to the length of
the stroke applied. By pushing the tube downward, the foot
valve opens and allows more water to enter the tubing.
Constant, rapid motion pumps water to the surface where it is
collected. The greater the depth to be sampled, the more
rapid the stroke rate must be. The manual pump rate can vary
from 1 to 7 liters per minute. In a 1.5 inch diameter well,
the maximum lift is about 50 meters. As the size of the well
increases, the maximum lift decreases due to swaying of the
tube which makes the process less efficient. This mechanism
can also be used for well development by overpumping, purging
of monitoring wells, and for performing hydraulic conductivity
tests for soil with conductivities in the range of 10'6 to 10~4
m/sec.
Johnson et al. (1987) describe a groundwater sampler that
can be used in wells with an inner diameter greater than 1 cm.
The sampler is lowered down the well and water enters through
a bottom check valve into a sample reservoir. The device has
an overfill section for water which is exposed to headspace.
When the device is pulled up from the monitoring well, the
check valve ensures no loss of sample. At the surface,
sections are crimped on either side of the sample reservoir to
seal the sample. The sample is thus stored in the device for
transport to a lab. Decreased handling, reduces VOC loss.

224
Pohlmann and Hess (1988) published a matrix of twelve
different sampling devices with information on their
applicability to obtain representative samples for several
different groundwater parameters, including VOCs, pH,
electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC),
trace metals, and non-volatiles. It also gives operational
information, including the minimum well diameter required,
maximum depth of sampling, and sample delivery rates.
H.2 Monitoring Well Design Considerations
H.2.1 General
At the start of any groundwater monitoring program there
are a number of questions which must be answered to facilitate
the proper design of monitoring wells. Some of these
questions are:
1. What size of monitoring well is required?
2. What are the expected contaminants?
3. What are the soil stratigraphy and hydrogeological
data?
4. What construction materials should be used?
H.2.2 Monitoring Well Size
Many regulatory agencies require a minimum inner
diameter of 2 inches for monitoring wells. If the monitoring
well is also to be used for hydraulic conductivity testing, a
larger well will be required. A smaller diameter well will

225
lower the costs of drilling and will also decrease the volume
of stagnant water that has to be purged before sampling.
Normally wells should be of a length to penetrate the
first permeable downgradient water bearing unit. The more
complex the geology, the more wells are reguired at a site.
H.2.3 Expected Contaminants
The contaminants must be known to select properly the
materials for well construction in order to avoid possible
chemical reactivity. Some contaminants may interact with the
bentonite seal causing other compounds to leach out of the
bentonite. Some contaminants are less dense than water, while
others, such as trichloroethylene, chloroform, and
perchloroethylene, are denser. Dense solvents will sink until
they reach a confining stratum. This can affect the depth
required for the monitoring well.
H.2.4 Water Table Depth
It is standard practice to have a screened interval of at
least two feet above the water table to allow for fluctuation
in ground water levels. If the well screen does not intersect
the water table, contaminants that are lighter than water and
float on the water table would not be detected in the
monitoring wells.

226
H.2.5 Screen and Casing Materials
Normally, Teflon or stainless steel screens are used in
monitoring wells since they are relatively inert. PVC may be
used for the well casing with Teflon for the screened
interval. This can cut down on material costs. It is best
not to join materials by using glues or solvents, which could
leach into the well and contaminate it. Threaded materials
which provide a flush joint are more acceptable. Dablow et
al. (1988) have suggested the following for the design and
installation of monitoring wells when using Teflon. Due to
the strength of the male-female threaded joints of Teflon
screens, they should only be used to a depth of 107 meters.
The screen size may have to be increased by up to 25% to allow
for compression of the slots which occurs when they are under
compressive load. To ensure the well is vertical,
centralizers (spacers) spaced every 1.5 meters should be
placed around the well to keep it centered in the borehole.
Another more suitable technigue to ensure verticality is the
use of a rigid PVC pipe inside the well screen/casing. This
method is known as the insertion method. It consists of
placing a rigid PVC pipe of smaller outer diameter than the
inner diameter of the well casing/screen into the well casing
just before insertion into the borehole. Once in the borehole
it remains in place until backfilling is complete. If the
well is not vertical, obtaining samples from several different

227
mechanisms, such as bladder pumps or bailers, may not be
possible.
Jones and Miller (1988) discuss the adsorption of some
organic chemical contaminants onto different well casing
materials. They used well casings of PVC, three types of
Teflon (TFE-tetrafluoroethylene, PFA-perfluoroalkoxy, and FEP-
fluorinated ethylene propylene), stainless steel, and Kynar
(PVDF-polyvinylidene fluoride). They concluded that leaching
of adsorbed contaminants from these well casing materials did
not occur to any large extent. Sample representativeness was
more highly dependent upon well purging. Sorption of
contaminants onto well casing materials was a function of its
water solubility. The lower the water solubility of the
contaminant, the larger the amount of sorption that would
occur on the well casing. The polarity of the contaminant
also affected sorption. Polar contaminants did not sorb as
readily as less polar ones. This is due to the polar nature
of water. Polar materials such as water tend to prefer other
polar materials. Xylenes, toluene, and other benzene
derivatives are normally nonpolar.
PVC can be used for monitoring wells when organic
contamination is not expected. In the presence of organics,
PVC not only leaches but also loses considerable strength.
Nielsen (1988) believes that PVC can be used even for the
analysis of organic contaminants. He contends that before a
sample is taken from a monitoring well it is purged of

228
stagnant water, thereby bringing representative aquifer water
into the well. This representative water is sampled just
after well purging so that the water does not have sufficient
time to react significantly with the well casing or screen.
A steel casing should be placed around the well casing at
the ground surface to serve as a well protector. This
prevents vandalism to the monitoring well and possible damage
from vehicles. The well protector should be placed in
concrete and should project approximately 3 feet above the
ground surface. This makes it more visible to grass mowers.
This protector need only be installed a few feet into the
concrete cap.
Voytek (1983) and Riggs and Hatheway (1988) offer
excellent overviews of monitoring well construction and use.
Details on drilling methods for monitoring wells installation
are provided by Keely and Boateng (1987) and by Hackett
(1988). Decontamination of drilling equipment is discussed by
Mickam et al. (1989). Chapter 5 of EPA's Handbook:
Groundwater (USEPA, 1987) is an excellent reference for
monitoring well design and construction. Excellent textbooks
on well design include Water-Well Design and Construction
(Harlan et al., 1989), Handbook of Groundwater Development
(Roscoe Moss Company, 1990), and Practical Handbook of Ground-
Water Monitoring (Nielsen, 1991).

229
H.3 Well Development
After a well is installed, it must be developed for
proper use. When a well is installed using drilling muds,
fine particles can cake on the sides of the borehole and may
reduce the permeability and inhibit the flow of water into the
screened interval of the well. These particles are removed by
alternately moving water at high velocity in and out of the
well screen. This can be accomplished with the use of a surge
block or plunger. When the plunger is pushed down, water is
forced through the well screen into the aguifer formation.
When the plunger is pulled up it produces a suction which
pulls water from the formation along with fine particles. The
particles will settle out in the bottom of the monitoring well
and can be pumped out. If wells are not properly developed,
samples obtained may contain large amounts of suspended
solids. Using a surge block for well development can cause
the filter pack around the well screen to be driven into the
formation if excessive force is used.
Many engineeers prefer to develop wells by overpumping.
This consists of pumping the monitoring well almost completely
dry. This can be accomplished with bailers in low
permeability soils but will require a pump which can operate
at a fast rate in high permeability soils. After the well is
pumped dry it is normally allowed to recover and then it is
overpumped again. After two repetitions the water normally is
sufficiently clear, indicating that the well is developed.

230
Air development is yet another possible method for well
development. Using a jet device, compressed air can be forced
through the well screen to develop the well. This method can,
however, expose workers at the surface to hazardous vapors as
the compressed air can cause contaminants to volatilize.
H.4 Purging of Wells
Before sampling, monitoring wells must be purged of their
existing water, since the water in the monitoring well is not
representative of the actual insitu conditions. It is
stagnant and has been allowed to react with the well screen
and casing for a considerable amount of time. It has also
been allowed to interact with the atmosphere, causing loss of
some contaminants. If a well is capped, there is still a
significant amount of headspace in the well, which could cause
loss of VOCs. Contaminants may have leached from the well
materials into the water or contaminants may have sorbed onto
the well materials.
There is considerable debate over how stagnant water
should be purged from wells. Most regulatory agenices suggest
removing a certain number of well volumes, typically in the
range from 3 to 10. An important consideration in the purging
of the stagnant water is the rate at which it is removed.
Purging is best accomplished at slow rates on the order of 100
mL per minute. However, at slow rates it may take a
considerable amount of time to purge a well. If rates are too

231
fast and volumes too large, high concentrations of
contaminants may be brought to the well artificially by the
pumping action. Others suggest that purging be done while
monitoring pH, redox potential (Eh), specific conductance, and
temperature. Once values stabilize within 10%, sampling can
begin. For shallow depths, bailers are normally used to purge
the wells. Submersible pumps or bladder pumps may be used to
purge deep wells.
Keely and Boateng (1987) contend that only the water in
the casing above the screened section needs to be purged.
Since the well screens are very permeable, the natural
groundwater flow will purge the screen. Water will
continually be moving in and out of the screened section. In
some rare instances where almost no flow occurs the screened
area will have to be purged also.
H.5 Sampling Studies
H.5.1 Lab Studies
Several laboratory studies have been performed to
evaluate the effectiveness of particular groundwater sampling
mechanisms for obtaining reliable and repeatable
representative samples. Ho (1983) looked at the effect of
several different variables on the recovery of volatile
organics using a peristaltic pump. He found PTFE
(polytetrafluorothethylene) tubing was needed since
contaminants sorbed onto standard tubing. He also found a
decrease in the recovery of organics occurred as the pumping

232
rate increased. The initial concentration of the contaminants
also played a major role. Samples containing low initial
concentrations of VOCs had a small recovery. He also found
that the higher the lift of the sample, the lower the VOC
recovery. This was due to the organics being volatilized and
lost in the sampling line by the vacuum. Ho also evaluated
the effect that headspace and temperature had on the
concentrations of VOCs. He looked at nine compounds in
samples at three different temperatures (30°C, 24°C, and 4°C)
at 24 and 48 hours. Higher temperatures resulted in a greater
loss of VOCs. He found that partially filled bottles could be
stored at 4°C for two days without significant loss of
volatiles ( <10%).
Barcelona et al. (1984) performed a laboratory study to
evaluate the effectiveness of 14 sampling mechanisms using a
pvc standpipe. First the sampling mechanisms were evaluated
based upon such factors as availability, portability, sampling
rate, purging rate, range of operation, volatile compounds,
and adeguacy of manufacturer's operation instructions. Then
they were evaluated based upon their ability to evaluate the
chemical parameters of pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), TOC,
alkalinity, hardness, and ionic strength. Finally, samples
were taken to evaluate the recovery and precision of purgeable
organic compounds. The study ranked the bladder (no-gas
contact) pump as superior to the other methods, followed by
grab samplers (conventional bailer, dual check valve bailer,

233
and syringe pump), positive displacement (mechanical), gas
displacement, and suction (peristaltic pump) methods. The
peristaltic pump and gas displacement methods were not
recommended for ground water sampling of VOCs. Performance of
grab samplers such as bailers was found to be very dependent
on the ability of the operator. Barcelona et al. (1984)
suggested that a sampling rate of less than 100 mL per minute
would minimize degassing of VOCs.
Tai et al. (1991) performed a laboratory study using a
100 feet high stainless steel standpipe in order to evaluate
the effectiveness of certain sampling devices for the
retention of VOCs. The standpipe had 14 ports where samples
could be taken simultaneously with the different sampling
devices. Five chlorinated volatile organic chemicals were
used in the standpipe. Non-pumping and pumping samplers were
used. Among the non-pumping samplers the highest recovery of
organics was obtained by the manual-driven piston sampler,
followed by the motor-driven piston sampler and finally by the
bailer. A flow controlled bottom emptying device was used for
the bailer.
Unwin and Maltby (1988) used a 55-gallon drum filled with
spiked distilled water to evaluate four samplers. A floating
cover was placed over the liguid to reduce loss of VOCs. A
two inch diameter well casing was placed through the floating
cover to simulate a monitoring well. The compounds used in
the study were diethylether, chloroform,
toluene,

234
trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene. These compounds
cover a wide range of the Henry's Law Constant (H) which is a
measure of volatility. A compound with a large H value will
more readily leave the water phase and go into a gaseous
phase. Results of the testing showed the peristaltic pump to
have the highest loss of volatiles, followed by the
submersible pump, the bailer, and finally the bladder pump.
The testing also showed that as Henry's Constant increased so
did the loss of the volatiles.
Work done by Barker et al. (1987) showed that organic
solutes can penetrate teflon tubing and can contaminate water
samples being drawn to the surface causing false positives.
They found that BTX (benzene, toluene, and the xylenes) would
be sorbed by teflon tubing and could subseguently leach off
giving false positives.
Four sampling devices were tested with three chlorinated
hydrocarbons by Schalla et al. (1988) to evaluate the
sensitivity of these devices in sampling VOCs. The devices
used were a stainless steel and Teflon piston pump, a Teflon
bailer, a Teflon bladder pump, and a pvc airlift pump. They
found no significant statistical difference in the accuracy
and precision of these sampling devices, meaning all the
samplers studied, recovered VOCs equally as well.

235
H.5.2 Field Studies
Imbrigiotta et al. (1988) performed a field evaluation of
seven different sampling devices at three different sites.
The seven samplers used were a bladder pump, helical-rotor
submersible pump, gear submersible pump, bailer, point-source
bailer, syringe sampler, and peristaltic pump. The first site
studied was in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The results showed
the bladder pump, open bailer, and helical-rotor submersible
pump consistently recovered the highest concentrations of
volatiles while the peristaltic pump recovered the lowest. At
a northern New Jersey site, the point-source bailer and the
gear submersible
pump
were
the most
effective
with
the
peristaltic
pump
the
least
effective.
The bladder
pump
suprisingly
performed
just
slightly
better
than
the
peristaltic pump at this site. This was believed to have been
the result of operational problems. The third site in
southern New Jersey produced surprising results. At this
site, the peristaltic pump was slightly more effective than
the other methods. The bladder pump, point-source bailer,
open bailer, and the gear submersible pump all where in the
95% confidence level. Temperature was thought to have played
a major factor in the performance of the peristaltic pump.
Sampling at the northern New Jersey site was performed in
August and heating of the discharge line could have caused
degassing of the volatiles while the sampling at the southern
New Jersey site occurred in December when it was cloudy. The

236
authors also showed that the pumping rate used to purge a well
can have significant effects on the recovery of volatiles.
They showed that using a high pumping rate caused higher
concentrations to be pulled into the well than using a smaller
pumping rate. It is possible for higher pumping rates to
decrease the concentrations by pulling in a larger amount of
less-contaminated ground water. Ficken (1988) also
discusses a manual piston sampler and an electric gear pump
sampler that the U.S. Geological Survey is developing.
Low permeability soils can also affect losses of VOCs.
McAlary and Barker (1987) observed this when a monitoring
well is purged dry. In such a situation water will cascade
through the headspace which is in the sand filter around the
monitoring well. This causes the water to be exposed to the
atmosphere and will result in a loss of volatiles.
Field tests were performed at Long Island, New York, in
1983 to evaluate seven samplers (three submersible pumps, one
centrifugal pump, 2 peristaltic pumps, and one bailer).
Pearsall and Eckhardt (1987) made use of 6 inch diameter wells
to allow simultaneous sampling. Intakes of all the sampling
pumps were placed closely together at the same depth in the
monitoring well and all pumps were started at the same time in
order to accomplish simultaneous sampling. They found,
contrary to most researchers, that the peristaltic pump did
not significantly lower the VOC concentrations. It was also
observed that pumping a specified number of well volumes from

237
the monitoring wells did not ensure stable VOC concentrations
in the wells.
Barker and Dickhout (1988) evaluated three sampling
mechanisms for VOCs. The mechanisms used were a bladder pump
(Well Wizard), a peristaltic pump, and an inertial pump.
Field and lab evaluations were performed. The field testing
was performed in North Bay, Canada. A six inch diameter
monitoring well was used to allow the three sampling
mechanisms to be used for simultaneous sampling. The bladder
pump and the inertial pump gave comparable concentrations for
the volatile aromatic hydrocarbons with the exception of
benzene. The inertial pump gave benzene values that were 7%
lower. The peristaltic pump gave considerably lower values
for all compounds than the other two mechanisms. In lab
testing the inertial pump gave the highest concentrations
followed by the bladder pump and then the peristaltic pump.
Barcelona and Helfrich (1986) looked at the effect of
well construction and purging procedures on ground water
samples. They made use of 2 inch inner diameter monitoring
wells at a municipal landfill. At site one, three monitoring
wells were installed within 2 meters of each other. The three
wells were constructed of teflon (PTFE), stainless steel (SS),
and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). At site two, the wells
consisted of PVC, SS, and a BARCAD insitu sampler with teflon
tubing. All the wells were sampled with a bladder pump (Well
Wizard). There were significantly different values of

238
contamination in the PVC monitoring wells than in the teflon
and stainless steel wells. In one instance leaching of iron
from the stainless steel was also apparent. The authors
concluded that improper well purging can cause more bias in
results than the material effect or sampling mechanism.
H.6 Underground Storage Tank Regulatory Programs
H.6.1 Congressional Acts
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 covers
the proper management of hazardous and nonhazardous solid
wastes (USEPA, 1990). The act covers four programs: Subtitle
D governs the solid waste program, Subtitle C governs the
hazardous waste program, Subtitle I governs the underground
storage tank program, and Subtitle J governs the medical waste
program. The underground storage tank program is meant to
prevent leakage from tanks and to clean up sites where leakage
has occurred. In 1980 the Comprehensive, Environmental
Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), also known
as Superfund, was passed. Superfund set up a fund for the
investigation and remedy of abandoned uncontrolled hazardous
waste sites. The act made it possible to come up with a list
of abandoned hazardous waste sites and potential responsible
parties. The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA)
which were passed in November 1984 directed the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) under Subtitle I to develop standards

239
for the design, construction, and installation of new tanks
along with reguirements for owners regarding record keeping,
leak detection and reporting, corrective action, and
closure. On September 23, 1988, these standards were issued
by the EPA. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act
of 1986 (SARA) gave the EPA the authority to clean up releases
from underground storage tanks or to direct owners to clean up
their sites. This act also set up a trust fund to cover the
cleanup cost when it exceeded the coverage requirements of the
responsible party.
H.6.2 EPA's Underground Storage Tank Program
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act defined an
underground tank as one in which at least 10% of its volume,
including piping, was underground. Tanks that were exempt
from this program included farm and residential tanks holding
1100 gallons or less, tanks for heating oil that would be used
where they were stored, and septic tanks.
There are four major causes of leaks from underground
tanks. They are as follows:
1. Corrosion of tanks.
2. Poor installation, usually associated with loose
fittings on pipes.
3. Settlement causing pipe ruptures.
4. Overfilling of tanks.

240
USEPA (1986) described what it considered to be the
essential parts of a ground water monitoring program under
RCRA. The areas included:
1. Characterization of site hydrogeology.
2. Location and number of ground water monitoring
wells.
3. Design, construction and development of ground-water
monitoring wells.
4. Content and implementation of the sampling and
analysis plan.
5. Statistical analysis of ground water monitoring
data.
6. The content and implementation of the assessment
plan.
Under the RCRA Ground-Water Monitoring Technical
Enforcement Guidance Document (1986) the EPA required a
minimum of 4 monitoring wells (three downgradient and one
upgradient). It is highly suggested that monitoring wells be
put along the perimeter of an underground storage tank to
detect a leak in its initial stages. Normally more than one
upgradient well is required to give background water quality
data. For new underground storage tanks, the EPA requires a
written ground water sampling and analysis plan which spells
out sample collection procedures, sample preservation, and
chain of custody. This document is used by regulatory
personnel to see if an owner/operator is following his plan.
Other special items include the use of stainless steel wells
when looking for volatile organic compounds over a 30 year
period, since they have more structural integrity.

241
The HSWA Amendments to RCRA (Bellandi, 1988) provided for
the following:
1. Registration of new and existing tanks with state
and local agencies. Owners of existing tanks had until May
1986 to register their tanks. All tanks installed after May
8, 1986, also had to be registered (EPA form 7530-1).
2. Standards for new underground tanks to prevent
releases. Tanks are to be constructed of material compatible
with the product to be stored and steel tanks are to be
cathodically protected. All existing underground storage
tanks must meet the standard for new tanks by December 22,
1998. Existing underground tanks containing petroleum or
hazardous waste must install a release detection system by
December 22, 1993.
3. Under Subtitle J, all new underground tanks for the
storage of hazardous waste are reguired to have a secondary
containment system. The purpose of this system is to contain
a leak should the tank fail. The containment system must be
compatible with the material to be stored and must have a leak
detection system. The tank must have a base or foundation to
resist settlement. The secondary containment system must have
the capacity to contain 110% of the volume of the tank. The
secondary containment system must be constructed to avoid
infiltration. All existing underground tanks storing
hazardous material must install a secondary containment system

242
by December 22, 1993, or be replaced with a double-walled
tank.
Modern tank design requires leak detection by monitoring
wells or between doubled walled tanks. Tanks must be
corrosion resistant. Tanks should be constructed of either
steel which is cathodically protected or non-metallic
fiberglass. Double walled tanks are actually a tank within a
tank with a vacuum in between. The pressure is monitored
between the tanks in order to detect a leak. If a leak occurs
a pressure change will occur in the vacuumed space between the
tanks.
H.6.3 Florida PER Programs
The Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (FDER)
has been a leader in the regulation of underground storage
tanks. Chapter 17-61 of the rules of the FDER (1984) governs
storage tanks in the state of Florida. This chapter mandated
that by 1989 all underground storage tanks have a monitoring
system in place for the detection of leaks, and for
installation of overfill protection devices. It covers
minimum reguirements for monitoring wells. Schedule 40 PVC is
an acceptable material for monitoring well construction. This
chapter reguires monitoring wells to be sampled at least once
monthly if that is the detection system used. It also
reguires periodic testing of cathodically protected steel
tanks.

243
Chapter 17-63 (FDER, 1984) governs local tank regulation
programs. This chapter allows county or municipal tank
ordinances provided they are approved by FDER. Normally this
is done when the local ordinance is even more stringent than
the State's program.
Requirements for monitoring and contamination assessment
once a tank is known to have leaked are covered by Chapter 17-
70 (FDER, 1984). It lists the appropriate EPA method that is
to be performed for the chemical analysis of different
contaminants. Target concentration levels of contaminants are
listed which must be met to successfully remediate a
contaminated site. For underground storage tanks, benzene
must be less than 1 part per billion (ppb) and the total
volatile organic aromatics must be less than 50 ppb.

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SUPPLEMENTAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
Acar, Y.B. , Olivieri, I., and Field, S.D. (1985),
"Transport of Organic Contaminants and Geotechnical Properties
of Fine-Grained Soils," Proceedings of the Eleventh
International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation
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Bohn, Hinrich L., McNeal, Brian L., and O'Connor, George
A. (1985), Soil Chemistry, Second Edition, John Wiley and
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Chudyk, Wayne, Pohlig, Kenneth, Exarhoulakos, Kosta,
Holsinger, Jean, and Rico, Nicola (1990), "In Situ Analysis of
Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Fiber
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Nielsen and A. Ivan Johnson, editors, ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa.,
pages 266-271.
Cline, Patricia V. , Delfino, Joseph J. , and Rao, P.
Suresh (1991), "Partitioning of Aromatic Constituents into
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Environmental Science and Technology. Volume 25, no. 5,
American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.
Cooper, Stafford S. and Malone, Philip G. (1991), "Three-
Dimensional Mapping of Contaminant Distribution in Soil Using
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Daniel, David E. (1989), "In Situ Hydraulic Conductivity
Tests for Compacted Clay," Journal of Geotechnical
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Devinny, Joseph S., Everett, Lome G. , Lu, James C.S.,
and Stollar, Robert L. (1990), Subsurface Migration of
Hazardous Wastes. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, New York.
Dunford, D., Brookman, J. , Bilica, J. and Milligan, J.
(1991), "LNAPL Distribution in a Cohesionless Soil: A Field
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Review, Summer 1991, pages 115-122.
251

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Fenn, Dennis, Cocozza, Eugene, Isbister, John, Braids,
Olin, Yare, Bruce, and Roux, Paul (1977), Procedures Manual
for Ground Water Monitoring at Solid Waste Disposal
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Gillham, Robert W. and O'Hannesin, Stephanie F. (1990),
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1991, pages 76-87.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Barry S. Mines was born in the Allegheny Mountains of
Virginia in the small rural town of Hot Springs in July 1962.
He attended Bath County High School and graduated as its
valedictorian in 1980. At that time he accepted a 4-year Air
Force ROTC scholarship to attend the Virginia Military
Institute in nearby Lexington, Virginia, and to follow in the
footsteps of his brother and brother-in-law who were
graduates.
At the Virginia Military Institute he majored in civil
engineering and was involved in numerous activities. These
included being a member of the student chapter of the American
Society of Civil Engineers, serving as a company commander in
the Corps of Cadets, and, his greatest honor, serving two
years on its Honor Court, first as an assistant prosecutor and
then as its vice-president. While at VMI he became interested
in geotechnical and environmental engineering. His classmates
selected him to be valedictorian of the class of 1984. He
received the school's award for environmental engineering and
the American Society of Civil Engineering Award for the
outstanding civil engineering graduate.
Upon graduation from VMI he married the former Wendy
Leigh Dodson of Danville, Virginia, whom he had dated for five
255

256
years. He then began graduate studies at the Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University. He received a
masters degree in civil engineering in December 1985 under the
guidance of Dr. Wayne Clough and Dr. Mike Duncan.
He reported to active duty with the Air Force in February
1986. He served as a contract management engineer and a
design engineer at Dover AFB, Delaware, until the summer of
1989. While at Dover he took and passed the professional
engineer's examination, and his wife blessed him with the
birth of a son, Evan. While at Dover he was selected for the
Air Force Institute of Technology's Civilian Institution
program. This program sent him to the University of Florida
to obtain his Doctor of Philosophy degree in civil engineering
before returning to active duty.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the deqree of Doctcfixpf Philosophy.
John\L. Davidson, Chair
Pro'fepsor of Civil Enqineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
David Bloomqfr^st J Cochairman
Assistant Professor of
Civil Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, iiv-scppe and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Paul Thompson
Professor of Civil Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Frank Townsend
Professor of Civil Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
^2 Donald fayhr
Professor of Soil Science

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of the College of Engineering and to the Graduate School and
was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for
August 1992
1
Winfred M./1
Dean, Collei
Phillips
ge of Engineering
Madelyn M. Lockhart
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08556 9480




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$ 1HHGOH 3HUPHDELOLW\ :LWKRXW )LOWHU r r r r rrr rrrrr r r r r r rrrr rrrrr r r r r r r r r r r r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ '$7( 7,0( 767 ,' 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: ',$0(7(5 PPf &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( )/2: )$&725 PPf ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf /,48,' 67$57 /(9(/ Pf (;7 &
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rrrr rrr rrrrr r r r r r rrrr rrrrr r r r r r r rrrr r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ 767 ,' '$7( 7,0( 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf ',$0(7(5 PPf )/2: )$&725 PPf 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf (;7 &
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rrrr rrr rrrrr r r r r r r r r r rrrrr r r r r r r rrrr r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ '$7( 7,0( 767 ,' 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: ',$0(7(5 PPf &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( )/2: )$&725 PPf ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf /,48,' 67$57 /(9(/ Pf (;7 &
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PAGE 158

rrrr rrr N NNNN N N N N N N NN N NNN N N N N N N N N NNNN N N r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ 767 ,' '$7( 7,0( 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf ',$0(7(5 PPf )/2: )$&725 PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf /,48,' 67$57 /(9(/ Pf f (;7 &
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$ 3HUPHDELOLW\ RI 1HHGOH DQG +'3( )LOWHU rrrr fNLFN NNN NN r r N N N rrrr N N N N N N r r N N N r r r r N N r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ 767 ,' '$7( 7,0( 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: ',$0(7(5 PPf &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( )/2: )$&725 PPf ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf /,48,' 67$57 /(9(/ Pf (;7 &
PAGE 160

r r r r rrr N LFLHLFLF r r r r N rrrr rrrrr N r r r r N rrrr r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ 767 ,' ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf ',$0(7(5 PPf )/2: )$&725 PPf 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf (;7 &
PAGE 161

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PAGE 162

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PAGE 163

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$ 3HUPHDELOLW\ RI 1HHGOH DQG 6WHHO )LOWHU r r r r r rrrrr r r r r rrrr rrrrr r r r r r r r r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ '$7( 7,0( 767 ,' 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: ',$0(7(5 PPf &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( )/2: )$&725 PPf ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf /,48,' 67$57 /(9(/ Pf (;7 &
PAGE 165

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PAGE 166

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PAGE 167

fNLFNr N N N rrrrr N N N N r N NN N N N N N N r N N N N r N NN N N N r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ '$7( 7,0( 767 ,' 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: ',$0(7(5 PPf &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( )/2: )$&725 PPf ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf /,48,' 67$57 /(9(/ Pf (;7 &
PAGE 168

rrrr r rrrrr r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ 767 ,' '$7( 7,0( 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf ',$0(7(5 PPf )/2: )$&725 PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf (;7 &
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r r r r r r r rrrrr r r r r r r r r r rrrrr r r r r r r rrrr r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ 767 ,' '$7( 7,0( 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf ',$0(7(5 PPf )/2: )$&725 PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf (;7 &
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PAGE 172

r r r rrr rrrrr r r r r r NNN N rrrrr r N N r r r NNNN r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ 767 ,' '$7( 7,0( 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf ',$0(7(5 PPf )/2: )$&725 PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf (;7 &
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r r r r r r r rrrrr r r r r r r r r r rrrrr r r r r r r r r r r r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ 767 ,' '$7( 7,0( 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf ',$0(7(5 PPf )/2: )$&725 PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf (;7 &
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PAGE 175

r r NN N NNNN N N N N N N N N N N N NN N N N N N N N N NNNN N N r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ '$7( 7,0( 767 ,' 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: ',$0(7(5 PPf &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( )/2: )$&725 PPf ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf /,48,' 67$57 /(9(/ Pf (;7 &
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$ 3HUPHDELOLW\ RI .DROLQ6DQG 0L[WXUH r r r r rrr rrrrr r r r r r r r r r rrrrr r r r r r r rrrr r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ 767 ,' ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf ',$0(7(5 PPf )/2: )$&725 PPf 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf (;7 &
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r r r r NNN rrrrr r r N N r NNNN NNNN N r N N N N r N NNN N N r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ '$7( 7,0( 767 ,' 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: ',$0(7(5 PPf &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( )/2: )$&725 PPf ,17(5&(37 f 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf /,48,' 67$57 /(9(/ Pf (;7 &
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N NNN rrr rrrrr N r r r r NNNN rrrrr r r r r r r NNNN r r r 5 ,1 6,78 3(50($%,/,7< 7(67 6,7( *$,1(69,//( )/25,'$ '$7( 7,0( 767 ,' 1$0( %$55< 0,1(6 ),/7(5 '(37+ P RU IWf ),/7(5 /(1*7+ PPf ',$0(7(5 PPf )/2: )$&725 PPf 7(67 7<3( 9$5 +($' ,1 )/2: &$/,%5$7,21 6/23( ,17(5&(37 7(67 &217$,1(5 92/ POf (;7 &
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