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A knowledge-based system approach to work shift selection for multilane highway reconstruction and maintenance projects

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A knowledge-based system approach to work shift selection for multilane highway reconstruction and maintenance projects
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Ahmed, Q. Amin
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xi, 221 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Administrative expenses ( jstor )
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Highways ( jstor )
Roads ( jstor )
Total costs ( jstor )
Traffic congestion ( jstor )
Traffic estimation ( jstor )
Traffic volume ( jstor )
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Civil Engineering thesis Ph.D
Dissertations, Academic -- Civil Engineering -- UF
City of Gainesville ( local )
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1993.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 218-220).
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Typescript.
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Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Q. Amin Ahmed.

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A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM APPROACH TO WORK SHIFT SELECTION
FOR MULTILANE HIGHWAY RECONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE PROJECTS













By

Q. AMIN AHMED


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1993





























To my parents













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I would like to extend my deep gratitude to Dr. Ralph D. Ellis,

my supervisory committee chairman, for his guidance and dedicated

support, which made this study possible. A special thank you is due to

Dr. Zohar Herbsman for his encouragement and valuable recommendations

throughout my doctoral studies. My sincere appreciation goes to Dr.

Fazil T. Najafi, Dr. Paul Y. Thompson, and Dr. Ajay Shanker for serving

on my supervisory committee. Additionally, I am grateful to Dr. Ronald

A. Cook for serving as an observer in my committee.

I wish to thank Mr. Ananth Prasad and Mr. Henry Haggerty of the

Florida Department of Transportation for their personal efforts in

providing valuable information for this research. I am grateful to Mr.

Ashish Kumar, graduate assistant in construction engineering, for his

support and advice--particularly for the statistical part of this study.

Finally, much gratitude is owed to my parents for their love,

continuous encouragement, and support during the entire course of my

studies.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................... iii

LIST OF TABLES ......................................... vii

LIST OF FIGURES .......................................... ix

ABSTRACT .................. ................................ x

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT ................ 1

Work Shift Selection in Highway Construction ....... 1
Need to Identify Alternate Shift Times ............ 2
Day vs. Night Shift .............................. 3
Decision Factors ...................... ........... 6
Need for Decision Model ......................... 6
Research Objectives ................... ............ 9

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................ 11

Introduction ....................................... 11
Overview of Factors Attributable to Day and Night
Shift Work ....................................... 12
Traffic Volume ..................... .. ............ 13
Work Zone Safety ................................. 21
Public Relations ................................... 29
Noise Level ........................................ 30
Cost .......................................... 32
Quality of Work ................................ 41
Job Types in Highway Construction ................ 46
Human Factors ................................... 50
Productivity ........................................ 54
Other Factors ................................... 55
Summary ........................................... 57

3 KNOWLEDGE-BASED EXPERT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY .......... 58

Introduction ..................................... 58
Architecture of an Expert System ................. 59








Knowledge Representation ........................ 63
Inference Engine .................................. 69
Knowledge Acquisition ........................... 70
Expert System Development Shells ................. 72
Current Applications in Construction Engineering .. 74
Summary ........................................ 75

4 PROJECT COST AND PRODUCTIVITY DATA FOR DAY AND
NIGHT SHIFTS ................................... 77

Introduction .................................... 77
Project Cost Comparison ......................... 78
Productivity Comparison ......................... 86
Summary ........................................ 93

5 MODEL APPROACH FOR WORK SHIFT SELECTION ........... 94

Introduction .................................. 94
Lane Closure Traffic Analysis ................... 96
Accident Analysis ............................... 99
Project Cost Analysis ........................... 100
User Cost Analysis ............................ 102
Summary ........................................ 105

6 DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM MODEL ....... 107

Introduction ....................................... 107
Knowledge Acquisition ............................ 108
Knowledge Base Objective ........................ 110
Formulation of Rules ............................ 120
External Database Interface ..................... 123
Solution Search Technique ....................... 125
Explanation/Help Facility ....................... 125
Summary ........................................ 127

7 MODEL TESTING--CASE STUDY ....................... 128

Introduction .................................. 128
Case Study I .................................... 128
Case Study II .................................... 132

8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................. 135

Summary and Conclusions ......................... 135
Recommendations ................................. 138








APPENDICES

A


B

C

D

E

F

G


PROGRAM INTRODUCTION, QUALIFIERS, CHOICES, AND
VARIABLES ......................................

KNOWLEDGE BASE RULES ..............................

EXAMPLE OF EXTERNAL TRAFFIC COUNT DATABASE ........

PROGRAM HELP FILES ................................

EXAMPLE OF PROJECT DATA COLLECTION FORM ...........

PROGRAM INPUT DATA AND RESULTS ....................

INTERVIEW RESULTS .................................


REFERENCES ...................................................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................














LIST OF TABLES


Table page

1.1 Work Hour Restrictions (In Accordance to Traffic
Plan Developed by Maryland & Virginia)............... 4

1.2 Highway Construction Work Shift Selection--
Factors To Be Considered .......................... 7

2.1 Lane Capacities for Selected Metropolitan Areas ..... 15

2.2 Number of Accidents Before and During Construction
in Seven States ...................................... 23

2.3 Summary of Work Zone Accidents at Night ............. 24

2.4 Fatal Accidents on Urban Freeways by Time of Day
and Day of Week ................................... 28

2.5 Estimated Increase in Cost Differential
of Night Work .......................................... 34

2.6 1-70 Night Paving Project vs. 1-25 Day Paving
-- Percent Cost Differential ...................... 35

2.7 Costs to Purchase, Install, and Remove Light Posts .. 39

2.8 Paving Quality Test Results from Field Samples ...... 43

2.9 Quality Rating of Nighttime Operations .............. 45

2.10 Florida DOT Projects Using Night Work .............. 48

2.11 Construction Activities Performed Better At Night ... 49

3.1 Difference Between Expert System and
Conventional Program ............................... 60

4.1 Statistical Summary of Unit Costs for Selected Work
Items for All Daytime FDOT Projects in 1990 ......... 79

4.2 Statistical Summary of Unit Costs for Selected Work
Items for All Nighttime FDOT Projects in 1990 ....... 80








4.3 Difference Between Day and Night Unit Costs for
Selected Work Items for All FDOT Projects in 1990 ... 81

4.4 Quantities of Work Items for Eight Selected FDOT
Night Projects ...................................... 83

4.5 Effect of Quantity on Project Costs for Eight
Selected Work Items ............................... 84

4.6 Summary of Productivity Rates for FDOT Construction
Projects ................................... ... 87

4.7 Summary of Productivity Rates for FDOT Nighttime
Construction Project on I-95 in St. Johns County .... 88

4.8 Guidelines for Estimating Production Rates for
FDOT Projects ..................................... 89

4.9 Statistical Test for Day & Night Production Rate
of Plant Mixed Surface ............................. 91

4.10 Statistical Test for Day & Night Production Rate
of Milling Existing Surface ........................ 92

5.1 Decision Factors That Influence Shift Selection ..... 95

5.2 1-75 (North Bound) Average Weekday Hourly Traffic
Volumes. Location: Hamilton County ................ 98

5.3 Personal Cost of Time Delay for Queuing ............. 104


viii













LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page
1.1 Research Development Flowchart ...................... 10

2.1 Traffic Flow on a 4-Lane Freeway ..................... 17

2.2 Traffic Volume/Capacity Relations .................... 19

2.3 Effect of Lane Closure at Different Hours ............ 20

2.4 California Urban Freeway Fatal Accident Rates ........ 26

2.5 Triad of Shift Work Coping Factors ................... 51

3.1 The Expert System Architecture ...................... 61

3.2 A Frame Representation of Knowledge .................. 64

3.3 Knowledge Representation Using Semantic Network ...... 66

6.1 Decision Tree Segment for Work Shift Selection:
Congestion Analysis ................................. 114

6.2 Decision Tree Segment (Closed) for Work Shift
Selection: Accident Analysis ....................... 115

6.3 Decision Tree Segment (Open) for Work Shift
Selection: Accident Analysis ....................... 116

6.4 Decision Tree Segment (Open) for Work Shift
Selection:Noise, Quality, Productivity Considerations.. 117

6.5 Decision Tree Segment (Open) for Work Shift Selection:
Experience, Supply and Temperature Considerations ..... 118

6.6 Decision Tree Segment (Closed) for Work Shift Selection:
Supervision/Communication and Human Factors ........... 119













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM APPROACH TO WORK SHIFT SELECTION
FOR MULTILANE HIGHWAY RECONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE PROJECTS

By

Q. Amin Ahmed

August 1993

Chairman: Dr. Ralph D. Ellis
Major Department: Civil Engineering

The timely, efficient, and quality completion of highway projects

partly depends on the selection of the appropriate work shift. Certainly

there are advantages and disadvantages for both day and night shifts.

Daytime operations are generally considered to be safer for both workers

and motorists because of better visibility and a higher state of

alertness. However, to accommodate the flow of higher daytime traffic

volumes, work zone lane closures may not be possible--and the option to

work during the night becomes a serious consideration. A highway

project's characteristics may favor a particular work shift. Type of

work, lane capacity, average daily traffic (ADT), work zone accidents,

project duration, and project costs are some of the issues that may

dictate shift times.

This research is aimed towards the development of a decision model

that will incorporate all the factors that may influence the selection of

either a day or a night work shift. The process is based on a decision

x








tree representing qualitative and quantitative factors, ranked in the

order of importance. The shift selection methodology is similar to the

human reasoning process and that is why a knowledge-based system approach

has been chosen for this decision model. An expert system shell has been

utilized to develop the knowledge base, which consists of IF-THEN logic

rules. The rule-based knowledge structure also has the option to

interface with an external traffic count database for the purpose of lane

closure analysis.

The model approach to work shift selection includes mathematical

reasoning in the analysis of traffic congestion, vehicle accident numbers,

motorist (user) costs, and project (owner) costs. The final solution

offered by the knowledge-based system model consists of the recommended

work shift, number of daytime lane closures allowed, user cost savings for

a night shift option, and percent change in total owner cost for a

nighttime alternative.













CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT

Work Shift Selection in Highway Construction


In recent years, in Florida, as in many other states, the emphasis

in highway construction has primarily been on rehabilitating existing

facilities. Resurfacing, widening, multilane reconstruction, and bridge

repair are typical activities currently taking place in various states.

A major concern for state transportation agencies during construction and

rehabilitation of the nation's highway system is to minimize public

inconvenience. Work zone traffic accidents, congestion, noise, and cost

to the delayed motorists are issues that may lead to adverse public

reaction. In the urban areas, required lane closures during

rehabilitation work are resulting in heavy traffic congestion. This

problem is not limited to roads in urban locations, but also includes

freeways that become crowded during peak travel periods. For example, in

Florida, Interstate 75 is so crowded during holiday periods that it

resembles an urban main street. I-4 near Orlando often becomes a "local"

street due to congestion during tourist season.

Agency experience or mathematical reasoning can be utilized to

evaluate the acceptability of this congestion level. A recent survey of

ten state agencies done by researchers indicates a cutoff volume of

approximately 1500 vehicles per hour per lane at which backups are

expected (Shepard and Cottrell, 1985). As the traffic volume exceeds the










cutoff point, the agency is obliged to consider alternate working hours--

namely, night shift. However, noise ordinances in some areas may prevent

usage of heavy and noisy equipment during night hours. The selected shift

hours must be such that traffic congestion and public disturbance are kept

minimal and that overall safety requirements are adequately met during

those periods. After these preliminary criteria are satisfied, the state

agency will have to consider or weigh a variety of other factors (positive

and negative) that are associated with different shift times. In addition

to the many site-related variables, there are human and sociological

factors that can be attributed to a work shift and which in turn may

influence the timely, efficient, and quality completion of highway

projects. Different work shifts have different effects on a worker's

health, attitudes, and performance. Thus, the selection of appropriate

work shift hours is an important project management decision for the state

highway agency.


Need to Identify Alternate Shift Times

Unlike the manufacturing industry where production takes place in an

enclosed, controlled surrounding, highway construction takes place in a

dynamic environment, influenced by many external factors. Although the

highway work shift may be broadly classified by "day" and "night" shifts,

it is necessary also to identify the specific hours that provide the ideal

work environment. These shift times will no doubt vary from project to

project, when all the factors are taken into account. In some situations,

the work shift may even be a combination day and evening hours. When

working in major metropolitan areas, highway agencies typically restrict








3

their roadway construction and maintenance activities to hours of off-peak

traffic and weekends.

In certain areas, highway construction and maintenance work can

proceed unhindered during "off-peak" hours, i.e., 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.

However, there are situations where lanes cannot be closed during the day

at all due to high traffic volumes. Traffic congestion in some areas may

last up to 12 or 14 hours a day. Nighttime operation is now being

considered as a viable and necessary option, not only from the point of

view of project management, but also from the public relations

perspective. Table 1.1 shows work hour restrictions for varying traffic

conditions in accordance with the traffic control plan developed by

Maryland and Virginia highway agencies (Shepard and Cottrell, 1985). Each

traffic condition represents different lane closure situations.


Day vs. Night Shift

The obvious advantage of night work is that there is less

interference from heavy traffic, allowing efficient project scheduling.

According to Lee (1969), a concrete paving operation in California

conducted at night was finished in 16 working days, whereas the same

project would have taken a minimum of 35 days for completion during the

daytime. A day shift would have provided fewer working hours and more

interference from heavy traffic, resulting in delay of material delivery.

Quality of construction may or may not differ during day and night

shifts. Price, in his 1985 report on nighttime paving, has stated that

overall quality on a night paving job (1-70) in Denver, Colorado, was very

similar to a well done day job (1-25 north of Denver). Compaction did not














Table 1.1 Work Hour Restrictions (In Accordance with the Traffic Control
Plan Developed by Maryland & Virginia)


Traffic Condition
Day

I II III

Monday 6:00 am 9:00 am 9:00 am 3:30 pm 12:00 pm 6:00 am
through
Thursday 3:30 pm 8:00 pm 8:00 pm 12:00 pm

6:00 am 9:00 am 9:00 am 3:00 pm 12:00 pm 6:00 am
Friday
3:30 pm 8:00 pm 9:30 pm 12:00 pm

12:00 pm 6:00 am
Saturday N/A 7:30 am- 8:00 pm
8:00 pm 12:00 pm

10:30 am 10 pm* 12:00 pm 10:30 am
Sunday N/A 10:00 pm 12:00 pm*
10:30 am 8 pm** 8:00 pm 12:00 pm**


Traffic Condition I : No lane closures permitted, all lanes open
to traffic.
Traffic Condition II: Single lane closure (median, center, right)
permitted.
Traffic Condition III: Three, two or one lane closure permitted.

* After Easter weekend through second Sunday in September.
** Third Sunday in September through weekend before Easter.

Source: Shepard and Cottrell, 1985








5

suffer despite cooler night temperatures. The only aspect of quality that

deteriorated during night work was aesthetics.

There is a cost advantage in night operation in terms of user costs,

congestion and delay being less during night hours. A user cost analysis

done by Price revealed a total savings of $1,154,900 for the motorists in

an 1-70 night project compared to an equivalent 1-25 daytime project.

However, construction costs tend to be higher during the night shift.

Price (1985), in comparing the 1-70 and 1-25 projects, has stated that the

average cost per item was approximately 40% higher for the night paving

job (1-70). Material acquisition, extra personnel, and lighting fixtures

are some of the items that have additional costs during night work.

The issue of safety, for both construction workers and vehicular

traffic, is an important consideration in deciding shift times. Safety

records in highway work zones can indicate the factors that cause

accidents and whether they can be attributable to certain shift hours.

For a meaningful comparison of safety and accident characteristics of

night and day shifts, it is necessary to consider many variables, such as

duration of lane closure, proportion of closed lanes, job type, closure

length, traffic control devices, etc. At present, there are no general

conclusions regarding safety on various work shifts. According to Lum

(1980), in his study of 7 states, construction during night shift did not

increase the percentage of total night accidents to overall accidents

(constant at 30%). However, Lum's research did reveal that there was a

9.4% increase for night accidents as a result of construction, which means

that there is a similar increase for day accidents due to construction.








6

Another issue in project management, which may be of concern during

a particular work shift, is communication. Communication between the

highway agency and the contractor may be difficult during night work

hours. If the proper authority cannot be reached for consultation at a

certain time, construction work could come to a virtual halt. A similar

concern arises for equipment maintenance. Equipment failure would result

in production delay if parts or mechanics were unavailable during a work

shift.

Decision Factors

The highway agency, as a decision maker, will have to consider both

qualitative and quantitative factors in the work shift selection process.

Examples of qualitative factors are agency policy, public relations,

noise, job type, communication, worker morale, work quality, and

temperature (see Table 1.2). Highway capacity, traffic volume, motorist

delay resulting from traffic congestion, and accident rate are typical

quantitative variables. The cost differential factor, if it can be

quantified, may be categorized as quantitative; otherwise, it can be

qualitative in nature, being higher or lower.

Need for Decision Model

Currently there is no decision model available for state highway

agencies that will enable them to select work shifts quickly and

efficiently, taking all possible factors into consideration. For most

highway projects, state agency engineers select the work shift hours based

on judgment and experience, with some usage of mathematical models to


















Table 1.2 Highway Construction Work Shift Selection--Factors To
Be Considered


Quantitative

Traffic Volume vs. Roadway
Capacity

User Costs Due to Delay at
Work Zone
Vehicle
Fuel
Personal

Owner Costs
Project Item Cost
Administrative Cost

Work Zone Accidents


Qualitative

Agency Policy

Public Relations

Noise

Worker Morale

Work Quality

Temperature

Job Type

Communication








8
calculate expected traffic volumes and delay times. But there is no

systematic methodology to "optimize" the shift selection process. A

project may be done during the night unnecessarily, resulting in increased

project costs. Work shift selection by the state agency is aimed towards

public satisfaction mainly; owner costs are largely ignored. Some

projects remain behind schedule because of delays caused during a

particular work shift. For example, at night, materials or spare parts

may be available on a limited basis; during the day, work progress may

slow down due to traffic interference. An interactive consulting tool,

such as a knowledge-based expert system, would aid the highway agency in

optimizing the selection of a particular work shift and identify the

reasons for the selection. For instance, if daytime traffic volume

allowed lane closures and night work were determined to be unsafe, then

certainly the appropriate work period choice would be day shift, even if

cooler night temperature is preferred.

The knowledge of the experienced decision makers in various state

agencies is scattered in the form of literature in reports, journals,

survey results, and guidelines. Although various state agencies have

guidelines that determine allowable daytime lane closures based on traffic

analysis, there are many other qualitative factors that are not considered

in a formal manner. This information needs to be compiled and made

available to state highway engineers in the form of a knowledge base. A

rule-based expert system approach is ideally suited for the type of

decision-making problem discussed above. Its interactive feature and ease

of use makes it a suitable substitute for a human consultant.










Research Objectives

A systematic, focused research in a narrow domain will enable the

practical development of a prototype expert system model for work shift

selection in highway construction. Figure 1.1 illustrates the research

development flowchart. To this end, the goals of the research study are:

1. To visit several district offices of the Florida Department of

Transportation (FDOT) to investigate the decision-making

process used in selecting work shifts for highway construction

and interview experts in highway construction.

2. To review current procedures used by the FDOT and other state

agencies nationwide for construction projects during day and

night shifts. Cost differentials, accident and safety, human

performance, and case studies of successful night operations

are some of the areas for review.

3. To perform a statistical analysis/comparison to determine if

there are any significant differences in project related costs

and productivity rates between day and night shifts.

4. To identify the various parameters necessary for the

development of knowledge-base rules for an expert system model

for highway work shift selection.

5. To utilize PC-based shell EXSYS Professional in designing a

knowledge-base structure.

6. To evaluate the possible uses of the model by using a sample

case study approach.

7. To summarize the final outcomes and state the conclusions

drawn forth from this research.














INTRODUCTION &
PROBLEM STATEMENT


LITERATURE REVIEW
LITERATURE REVIEW


KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM
DEVELOPMENT


SKNOWLEDE-BASED SYSTEM
MODEL TESTING
Case Studies


SUMMARY AND
RECOMMENDATIONS





Figure 1.1 Research Development Flowchart


KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION
. Interview Experts
. Review Current Procedures
. Review Research Studies
. Data Analysis


KNOWLEDGE BASE STRUCTURE
SDecision Tree
Usage of ES Shell
SFormulation of Rules


I I


I













CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Introduction

Recent literature on highway construction emphasizes the need to

perform rehabilitation work during shifts other than the typical day shift

utilized in most industries. In urban areas the problem of congestion is

of particular concern. To accommodate rehabilitation and improvement

activities on the freeways, state agencies are required to close traffic

lanes, creating heavy congestion on roads already loaded to capacity. The

congestion has created problems for state agencies and contractors in

terms of safety and project scheduling. The situation is also hazardous,

costly, and inconvenient for the traveling public. As a result, more

construction and rehabilitation work is being performed during the night

shift, when traffic flow is minimum.

This literature search was done to identify the principal factors

involved in deciding shift times for highway construction projects.

Qualitative and quantitative attributes that are linked to activities

during different work periods were obtained from various highway

construction literature. Specifically, unique aspects of day and night

operations were targeted for identification. A computer database search

through the Southern Technology Applications Center (STAC) in Gainesville,

Florida, revealed over 25 published articles related directly to the

subject of nighttime highway construction.








12
In the following section, an overview of the factors attributable to

day or night shift work in highway construction is presented. The

literature review for each of the workshift selection factors is presented

in detail section by section in this chapter.

Overview of Factors Attributable to Day and Night Shift Work

Several published reports in the transportation area have provided

information on issues relating to the planning, safety, and traffic

control aspects of nighttime maintenance and construction work and their

advantages and disadvantages. Shepard and Cottrell (1985) conducted a

study that compiled information on current practices in nighttime highway

maintenance and construction operations. This information was used to

develop guidelines for determining when night work should be done and what

traffic control devices should be utilized. The authors have researched

the many variables, problems, decisions, and issues involved in nighttime

highway rehabilitation. Results from visits and discussions with 11 state

departments of transportation revealed the different strategies and

philosophies involved in nighttime operations. The major areas covered in

their nighttime construction feasibility study are scheduling of lane and

road closures, work zone costs, safety, public relations/user costs, and

traffic control. Hinze and Carlisle (1990) have done further evaluation

of the important variables in nighttime construction. The authors have

focused their research on rehabilitation and maintenance activities of

major metropolitan highways. Qualitative and quantitative factors related

to nighttime construction have been detailed in their study. Advantages

and disadvantages of a nighttime construction schedule are also discussed.








13
The following sections review information obtained on traffic

congestion, work-zone safety, public relations, noise, cost, quality

control, job type, human and sociological factors, and productivity. All

these are factors that need to be considered in the shift selection

process.


Traffic Volume

Typically, daytime traffic volume in metropolitan areas demands a

particular lane capacity to keep congestion low. Lane closures during

construction work are dictated by the comparison of observed traffic

volume and specified lane capacities. The determination of lane

capacities and actual traffic volume is necessary to estimate the level of

congestion created by lane or road closures. If this congestion is

unacceptably high during a certain time period, lane closures for

construction may be limited or not permitted at all, requiring agencies to

decide on alternate work shifts. Low volume periods should be identified

for scheduling work shifts. Night shift offers the advantage of low

traffic volume.

Shepard and Cottrell (1985) have discussed in some detail how

traffic volume and lane capacities are determined and how traffic flow can

be synchronized with road construction activities. Agencies rely on

mathematical models as well as past experience to make traffic capacity

forecasts. According to Dudek and Richards (1985), the State of Texas

expects a lane capacity of 1050 vehicles per hour (VPH) on a 3-lane urban

highway with 1 lane open, when resurfacing or removing asphalt. A study

of cumulative distributions and average capacities of similar work zones








14
allowed the Texas officials to make this capacity forecast. Based on

policies and experience, work location, job type, etc., some state

agencies have developed guidelines for lane capacities. Agency policy may

dictate that nighttime construction is necessary if the traffic volume

during the daytime hours for a certain location exceeds a "cutoff" value,

after which resulting delays are "unacceptable." Table 2.1 shows a

listing of cutoff values adopted by ten agencies surveyed by Shepard and

Cottrell. The Highway Capacity Manual (National Research Council, 1985)

provides one of the empirical formulas to estimate roadway capacity.

VPH (per lane) = Z f, fhv fp

where,

Z = capacity under ideal conditions at design speed.

f, = lane width / lateral clearance adjustment factor.

fh, = heavy vehicle adjustment factor.

fp = driver population factor.

The values for these adjustment factors may be obtained from tables

included in the manual.

To ensure good volume estimates, agencies supplement existing data
with special spot counts. In major cities such as Chicago, Los Angeles,

and Detroit, agencies have supplemented traffic volume data with real-time

traffic flow data from their freeway surveillance system. The estimation

of traffic volumes is also influenced by diversion. Motorists are often

induced to take alternate routes if prior publicity is made by the agency.

According to Shepard and Cottrell (1985), information from California

indicated that a traffic volume diversion up to 30% was possible for

local traffic when prior publicity on alternate routes was done.













Lane Capacities for Selected Metropolitan Areas


Area

Los Angeles



Atlanta


Chicago

Detroit


Raleigh

Philadelphia

Long Island

Dallas


Houston


VPH per Lane

1500-1800



1200-1500


1300-1500

1200-1500


1200-1600


1500

1300-1500


1200-1500


Comments

a) 1500--usually no congestion unless
more than one lane is closed.
b) Sometimes use 1800 (with some backups
to give contractor more time).

a) No daytime closure. Depending on the
area, no daytime closures if 2 or more
lanes need to be closed.

a) Depends on location, number of ramps.

a) 1200--volume before backup starts.
b) 1500--expect serious backups.

a) Depends on area and experience.

a) Closures based on experience.

a) If closure is 2 or more lanes, have to
detour traffic and work at night.

a) In many cases will accept daytime
backups rather than work at night.

a) >1200--start worrying.
b) =1500--requires detailed analysis.
c) >1500--only with special traffic control.


Source: Shepard and Cottrell (1985)


Table 2.1








16
A common method used by agencies to evaluate congestion is simply to
plot the hourly volumes for the work shift time period. Figure 2.1
indicates the volume distribution (curve) on a 4-lane highway during a
probable work period, along with estimated capacities (horizontal lines)
for 3 lane, 2 lane and 1 lane closures. From the graph it is apparent
that for 2 lane closure the traffic volume from 10:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.

and from 8:00 p.m. to 6;30 a.m. does not exceed the given capacity.
However, these work periods are very short in duration to allow major

repair activities. Statistics have shown that under normal daytime
operations, there are two peak traffic loads that actually cut the work
period to an inefficient 5-1/2 hour day (Abbott, 1978). Figure 2.1

indicates a lengthy work period during the night when 3 lanes are closed,

with only 1 lane required to remain open to handle traffic. By noting
when the traffic demand and the capacity are in the same range, it is
possible to determine the times at which the lanes can be closed and
reopened to traffic.

Vehicle delay costs is an important quantitative factor in the
workshift selection process. Highway construction literature has

indicated that nighttime construction greatly reduces user costs related

to vehicle delay. A research report by Price (1985) comparing two similar
paving projects (one nighttime, the other daytime) in Colorado, reveals a
reduction of vehicle cost from $119,100 (daytime) to $10,100 (nighttime).
The author obtained the dollar estimates from a 1977 report titled A
Manual on User Benefit Analysis of Highway and Bus Transit Improvement.
The values were estimated showing excess cost of vehicle speed change
cycles above cost of continuing at initial speed. For the daytime cost,













Volume VPH (thousands)


12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112
A.M.<--Time of Day-->P.M.

-Volume Curve 1-LANE CLOSURE
2-LANE CLOSURE --- 3-LANE CLOSURE
Source: Hinze & Carlisle (1990)
Figure 2.1 Traffic Flow on a 4-Lane Freeway








18

the author assumed an initial vehicle speed of 55 mph and a 10 minute

delay due to traffic stoppage, followed by resumption of speed. For the

daytime paving project analyzed by Price, a cost of $64.68 per 1000

vehicles was estimated. By using daytime traffic counts and considering

a project duration of 37 days, a cost of $119,100 was calculated (Price,

1985). For the nighttime paving project, traffic speed was assumed to

slow down to 30 mph, and the estimated vehicle cost was $10,100 for the

change in speed over the project duration.

Vehicle delay, length and size of vehicle queue can be calculated

from a mathematical model, as shown graphically in Figure 2.2 (Shepard &

Cottrell, 1985). The graph shows the arrival curve and the departure

curve indicating the upstream traffic volume and bottleneck capacity,

respectfully. At time t2 the number of vehicles in queue, Q, equals to the

corresponding ordinate on the arrival curve minus the corresponding

ordinate on the departure curve, the ordinate value being the total number

of vehicles. The queue begins to form when the arrival curve slope is

greater than the departure curve slope. The queue is at its maximum when

the two slopes are equal, and it starts to dissipate after that point

(Mannering & Kilareski, 1988). As shown in Figure 2.2, the longest

vehicle delay occurs at time t3. The length of this delay is given by the

horizontal line D, joining the two points where the two curves have equal

slopes. Agency planners can utilize the quantitative information from

this model to determine whether the traffic characteristics of a

particular workshift is acceptable or not. Figure 2.3 illustrates an

example usage of this model, based on a study done in California (Gillis,

1969).


















Bottleneck Capacity
DEPARTURE CURVE

V


Upstream Traf
ARRIVAL CU



No. of

Vehicles




Vehicles in
Queue /














St









Source: Shepard & Cottrell (1985)


fic Volume
RVE







Q

I/


Delay Time


t2 t3 t4


Time _


Figure 2.2 Traffic Volume / Capacity Relations















mu mum. I -,


10 AM Lane


No Delay A


Closure


AllM












9 AM L


Del


CAPACITY












4--CAPAC


witl


y (minutes)


Ei



ITY 3080


S2 lanes cl


mne Closure --Begin Delay


JI/ Cum. Vehicle a Using Rojad


S AM


(thouaandO)
Hour of Day









Source: Gillis (1969)

Figure 2.3 Effect of Lane Closure at Different Hours


Cum.


Vehicles


12 Noon
id Delay



vph


ised


1 PM








21
Vehicle delay in hours can also be measured by the following

equation noted by Hinze and Carlisle (1990):

Delay = D, / S, D/S

where,

D, = work zone route (detour) distance in miles.

S, = average work zone route (detour) speed in m.p.h.

D = normal route distance in miles.

S = average normal route speed in m.p.h.

This equation takes into consideration the fact that vehicle delay

can occur by speed changes through the work zone and also by distance

changes resulting from a detour. During highway construction work shift

selection, this type of detailed analysis allows planners to evaluate the

traffic impact objectively.


Work Zone Safety

One of the most important factors that state agencies consider when

deciding highway work shift periods is safety. The issue of safety during

nighttime construction has been addressed in several research reports.

These reports note the controversy over which work shift is safer than the

other. The obvious hazards during the night shift are reduced visibility,

higher speeds, and a higher frequency of drunk or inattentive drivers on

the roadway. But the night shift also offers a reduction of traffic

volume, which in turn results in safer working conditions. From reviewing

existing literature, it is difficult to compare the safety aspects of

night shift as opposed to those for day shift simply because of the lack

of comparable data.










Motorist Safety

The subject of highway work-zone accidents is covered by several

published reports. A report prepared by Graham, Paulsen, and Glennon

(1977) for the Federal Highway Administration includes results of a study

of construction zone traffic accidents. The study involved analysis of

traffic accidents occurring in 79 zones in seven states. In two states

the total number of accidents actually decreased during construction.

However, when data from all seven states were combined, results indicated

an overall "before work" to "during work" average accident rate increase

of 7.5%, with a corresponding 9.4% increase for night accidents (Graham et

al., 1977). Lum (1980) has shown these results in a tabular format (Table

2.2) in a paper published in the December issue of Public Roads.

Breakdowns by accident type, severity, light condition, roadway type, area

type, work area, job type and location are also included in the results.
The authors concluded that the number of traffic related night accidents

increased during construction, but the proportion of night accidents to

total accidents remained the same at 30% for before and during

construction.

Nemeth and Rathi (1983) published a work-zone accident report in the

Transportation Quarterly that contains accident data collected through a

28 month study by the Ohio Turnpike Commission. The report includes the

number and percent of total accidents in different portions of the work

zone that occurred during the night shift. Table 2.3 summarizes the

percent of night accidents in the work zone. The study concluded that the

crossover zone, where traffic is forced to shift over to other lanes, has

the highest accident rates.













Table 2.2 -


Number
States


of Accidents Before and During Construction in Seven


State and Before Construction During Construction % Change
Time


State 1:
Day
Night


State 2:
Day
Night


State 3:
Day
Night


State 4:
Day
Night


State 5:
Day
Night


State 6:
Day
Night


State 7:
Day
Night


All States
Day
Night


* = Statistically


971
561
1,532


N/A
N/A
1,023


1,075
744
1,819


708
271
979


1,540
659
2,199


340
183
523


61
32
93


4,695
2,454
7,149


892
592
1,484


733
280
1,013


1,216
778
1,994


723
353
1,076


1,726
729
2,455


439
196
635


91
37
128


5,087
2,685
7,772


-8.1
4.8
-3.1


N/A
N/A
-1.0


13.1*
4.6
9.6


2.1
30.3*
9.9


12.1*
10.6
11.6*


29.1*
7.1
21.4**


49.2*
15.6*
37.6*


8.3
9.4
8.7


L _______________ I


significant at the 5 % level


Source: Lum (1980)



















Table 2.3 Summary of Work Zone Accidents at Night
(Ohio Turnpike Commission)

Zone Total Number Number of Percent
of Accidents Accidents Night
at Night Accident

Advance 12 1 8.3
Taper 17 6 35.3
Single Lane 43 13 30.2
Crossover:
First Curve 49 34 69.4
Total 63 39 61.9
Bi-direction 41 18 43.9
Other Work 9 3
Zone Total 185 80 41.6
All Turnpike 3,429 1,431 41.7

Source: Nemeth and Rathi (1983)








25

A 1985 California accident study reveals that although the lightest

traffic congestion occurred between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m.,

the fatal accident rate (per 100 MVMT, million vehicle miles of travel)

during this period was very high. Figure 2.4 (Highway Maintenance

Activities During Low Volume Traffic Hours, Report to the Legislature,

1988) illustrates the California fatal accident rate expressed as a

function of hours of the day. The graph shows how the rate increases

sharply at night, peaking at about 3:00 a.m. A work zone vehicle accident

report by Hargroves and Martin (1980) indicates similar results in a 1977

study in Virginia, where for all accident categories the lowest number of

accidents occurred during the late night hours.

Shepard and Cottrell conducted interviews on the subject of safety

at night work zones with state agencies from Texas, California, Illinois,

Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania. Texas is taking extra measures to

ensure safety during night operations; for example, in Houston a special

crew was formed to manage traffic on high volume freeways. Another urban

area in Texas is more ready to accept long daytime traffic backups rather

than accept the high risk of night construction. The California

Department of Transportation (DOT) is prepared to accept daytime vehicle

delay up to a certain cutoff point, beyond which night work is considered.

In the Los Angeles area, the hours between 2:00 a.m. and 3:00 a.m. are

considered unsafe for workers due to the presence of irresponsible drivers

on the road. Safety is given the most priority in Chicago when the agency

selects work shifts for road maintenance operations. Illinois DOT

officials reported that nighttime accidents were more severe because of

higher vehicular speeds and more frequent encounters with drunk drivers.









URBAN FREEWAY FATAL ACCIDENT RATES PER
100 MILL. VEH. MILES OF TRAVEL (1985)


FATAL ACCIDENTS PER 100 MVMT


121 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011121 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112
A.M.(--TIME OF DAY --> P.M.


Accident Rate

Source: California DOT (1988)
Figure 2.4 California Urban Freeway Fatal Accident Rates








27
In Chicago, diversion of traffic volume by detours during highway work is

not considered very often because of the potential safety hazard in "bad"

neighborhoods. However, in Detroit, providing detours is not a problem,

due to the availability of convenient alternate routes such as express

lanes and service roads. As a result, Michigan DOT has been able to

close freeways entirely for nighttime maintenance, diverting traffic

through detours successfully. In New York State, agency officials realize

the importance of providing nighttime safety and the need for additional
spending on safety measures. Pennsylvania DOT, although initially

skeptical of the safety of nighttime operations, discovered that night

shift work could be less accident-prone if vehicular speeds are reduced by

the presence of a police car with flashing lights at the beginning of the

lane closure. Also, advance publicity through news media increased safety

for both day and night shift work.

Worker Safety

According to the California DOT report "Highway Maintenance
Activities During Low Volume Traffic Hours," nighttime construction

accounted for 60 percent of the injuries/fatalities sustained in highway

work zones. Table 2.4 shows the percentage of fatal accidents on urban

freeways by the time of day and day of week. A high percentage of fatal

accidents were noted during nightime and early morning hours. Most worker

fatalities (and major injuries) are related to errant drivers causing
these accidents. The California report concludes that the high fatal
accident rate during night hours creates a very hazardous environment for

the workers on site. The report cautions that a large scale move from day

maintenance to night maintenance could mean a significant increase in

worker injury and fatality rates.














Table 2.4 -


Fatal Accidents on Urban Freeways
and Day of Week (1986)


by Time of Day


Time No. of Percent Day of No. of Percent
of Day Accidents Week Accidents


Sunday *

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday *

Total


15.8

12.2

10.8

13.8

12.1

14.4

20.9

100.0 %


12 mid
1 a.m.*
2 a.m.*
3 a.m.
4 a.m.
5 a.m.
6 a.m.
7 a.m.
8 a.m
9 a.m.
10 a.m.
11 a.m.
12 noon
1 p.m.
2 p.m.
3 p.m.
4 p.m.
5 p.m.
6 p.m.
7 p.m.
8 p.m
9 p.m.
10 p.m.*
11 p.m.*
Unknown

Total


24
40
46
21
21
22
11
9
12
10
18
12
22
18
23
23
17
25
27
27
26
27
45
31
7

564


4.3
7.1
8.2
3.7
3.7
3.9
2.0
1.6
2.1
1.8
3.2
2.1
3.9
3.2
4.1
4.1
3.0
4.4
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.8
8.0
5.5
1.2

100.0 %


* High Percentage of Freeway Fatal Accidents

Source: Report to the Legislature, California DOT (March 1988)








29
The most effective way to protect workers is, of course, to divert

vehicular traffic away from the work zones through detours provided by

city streets. Although this will cause some inconvenience to the

motorists (5 to 10 minutes added to their travel time), it is not a high

price to pay to eliminate daytime congestion caused by maintenance

activities. Another protection method is to construct a physical barrier

separating the workers from the traffic. Better illumination of work

areas, highly visible clothing for workers, reflective cones/barriers,

police presence, etc., are additional ways to increase worker safety.


Public Relations

Public relations is an important element in the workshift selection

process for highway construction. Public inconvenience during road

construction operations is a major concern for the state agency. Public

acceptance of a particular work shift (day or night) means it warrants

high consideration by the decision makers. Good public relations can

facilitate the success of an operation in terms of reduced congestion,

increased safety, and goodwill (Shepard and Cottrell, 1985). Shepard and

Cottrell discuss various means of informing the public about nighttime

operations. The size of the project, location, traffic volume,

experience, and so forth dictate how extensive the coverage should be.

Certainly, the amount of publicity for a night project should be more

extensive for safety reasons. Survey results indicate that personal

contact (special signs, door-to-door contact, letters) is thought to be

the most effective method for publicity. The city of Chicago has an

elaborate plan to provide the public with information on upcoming freeway








30
operations. Local radio, television, and newspapers are effectively

utilized to increase public awareness. Detroit has successfully used

changeable message signs, permanently installed along freeway sections, as

a method of informing the public of lane closures.


Noise Level

A high level of noise, resulting from operation of heavy equipment

during road construction activities, may adversely affect public opinion.

Thus, noise is one of the important qualitative factors attributable to

shift work. During the night shift, the public might be particularly

sensitive to construction noise. Little information on the subject of

noise levels during road construction was found in the literature review.

According to Shepard and Cottrell, many states have noise ordinances that

limit noise levels in urban areas. Agency officials who were interviewed

by the authors reported that if equipment such as a jackhammer is

necessary during work near a residential area, the night shift is avoided.

Another cause for concern for the agency is that diversion of traffic

during freeway construction may increase noise levels on the detour

routes.

A research study (Hinze and Carlisle, 1990) included a survey of

project planners of various state highway agencies that found that noise

is of high importance next to congestion and safety. However, the same

study also concluded that resident engineers of the agencies do not

consider noise an important factor compared to other factors when planning

partial or full closure of freeways during construction.








31
The primary noise sources in road construction and maintenance can

be identified as (1) diesel engines, powering drive trains and cutting

heads; (2) the vacuum/blower system; and (3) grinding heads in contact

with pavement. According results obtained by the Arizona DOT (Kay, 1985),

these sources combine to produce a noise in the range of 82 to 95 dB (A)

at 50 feet from construction. Typically, noise generated during concrete

pavement construction is higher than noise during flexible pavement

construction. Many highways in the metropolitan areas are of rigid

pavement, thus the potential for construction noise in those areas appear

to be significantly high. The study done by the Arizona DOT (Kay, 1985)

notes an upper limit of 86 dB (A) for an acceptable noise level at a

distance of 50 feet. Other states also supported this finding, verifying

the acceptability of the limit. By using a full complement of silencers

it was estimated that noise levels could be reduced to 80 dB. Noise

reduction is also possible by the insertion of a portable sound barrier

between the source and any sensitive receivers.

Kay discusses about the problems encountered in setting and

enforcing noise-level limits for nighttime construction operations. In

the state of Arizona, a noise-abatement incentive was established to

encourage potential bidders to silence noisy construction equipment,

specifically the grinding machines. This noise-abatement incentive plan

was considered to be an alternate approach to including a relevant

specification in the contract. In some occasions, contractors have

threatened not to bid if specifications on noise levels were maintained or

tightened. The objective of the incentive plan was to provide

compensation for the additional cost incurred by the contractor. The








32

Arizona DOT set the ceiling for the incentive amount at $ 50,000 -- where

as the actual amount turned out to be $ 12,684 (for the first contract

using this plan) to maintain an average of 82 dB (A) noise level

throughout the project.

Some of the important findings in the research done by the Arizona

DOT, as mentioned by Kay in his paper published in the 1985 issue of the

Transportation Research Record, are as follows:

1. Fast completion of project results in less noise complaints

from public.

2. Accessory equipment, such as jackhammers, have a noise impact due

to their higher frequencies. Retrofitting on machines can result

in significant dampening of noise.

3. For large scale projects, it may be too expensive to

retrofit major components to maintain an overall

construction noise level to 86 dB(A). In such cases, public

relations can play a major role.

4. Typically, high productive equipment make more noise than

low productive equipment. Therefore, strict noise

restrictions may cause decrease in productivity and longer

project duration. A "trade-off" between project duration

and acceptable noise level can be considered.

Cost

Like any decision making process, the selection of day shift over

night shift or vice versa is influenced by the economic result of the

alternatives. Literature review indicated a lack of cost information for

an effective comparison between daytime and nighttime construction. In








33
highway construction, the costs attributable to a particular workshift can

be categorized into the following: owner/construction costs, user costs,

accident costs, and pavement maintenance costs. The latter cost refers to

post construction maintenance costs which depends on quality control

during a shift.

Owner Cost

Owner costs are essentially the costs borne by the state highway
agency, resulting from the construction of the specified facility The

cost of contract (labor, material, equipment and contractor) and agency

costs (planning, evaluating, monitoring) are included in this category.

Construction costs can vary from shift to shift. Additional construction

costs that can be attributed to night work include: lighting, additional

traffic control, inspection, labor premiums, overtime, and increased

material costs. A recent survey of agencies and contractors helped

identify the cost difference by project element for night construction

(Hinze & Carlisle, 1990). The results are shown in Table 2.5.

Material costs may be higher during the night shift due to batch

plants charging higher rates. Material prices are increased because of

hiring night employees at the plant and also because of shift differential

and overtime. Price (1985) in his report entitled Niqhttime Paving,

investigated a cost comparison between two similar overlay projects in the

Denver area. One job was done during the day on 1-25 north of Denver, and

the other was done during the night on 1-70. Table 2.6 (Price, 1985)

shows the material cost percentage that the night (1-70) job was over that

of the compared day (1-25) job. Although asphalt prices are subject to

variation, this table gives an idea of expected material cost increases.























Table 2.5 Estimated Increase in Cost Differential of Night Work

Project Element Increase in Cost

Lighting 63 %
Traffic Control 28 %
Engineering Inspection 22 %
Labor (Shift Premiums) 18 %
Overtime (Agency Personnel) 16 %
Material 5 %
Total Contract Amount 9 %


Source: Hinze and Carlisle (1990)





















Table 2.6 1-70 Night Paving Project vs. 1-25 Day Paving
Percent Cost Differential
Cost Item 1-70 Night Paving

HBP (Patching) (H-Asphalt) / ton 23 % Higher
HBP (GR EX) (H-Asphalt) / ton 23 % Higher
EMUL ASPH (CSS-1 H) / gallon 42 % Higher
Flagging / hour 71 % Higher


Total Costs
Average / Item


= 159 % higher at night
= 40 % higher at night


Source: Price (1985)








36

The table shows that for the night project, the price for hot bituminous

pavement (HBP) (patching) (haul and asphalt) per ton was 23% higher than

that of the day project. The price for emulsified asphalt (CSS-1H) per

gallon was 42% higher. From a survey of various state highway agencies,

Hinze and Carlisle (1990) concluded that the average percent cost

differential for materials during nighttime construction is approximately

5% higher. Special materials required for night work may also contribute

to greater cost. Conditions of the night, such as cooler temperature may

require a higher cost specific material.

A cost comparison study of asphalt and base widening roadway work

for day shift versus night shift was done by R. G. Layfield, resident

engineer of the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). The study

indicated a 2-3% increase in material costs for asphalt roadway work

during the night (Layfield, 1988). The daytime unit price for limerock

base (4 inch) was $4.50 per square yards compared to its nighttime unit

price of $6.34 per square yards, indicating a 3% increase in night cost.

The nighttime unit cost for asphalt was $33.07 per ton compared to $31.50

per ton for its daytime unit cost, resulting in an increase of 2% in night

cost.

For scheduling reasons, special material (e.g. rapid curing

concrete) may be utilized (Fallin, 1990). On the other hand, if the

contractor owns the batch plant, material acquisition costs may be lower

during the night shift due to less traffic interference on the road. When

materials can be stockpiled during the day, the only additional cost may

be the cost to double handle the material. Thus, material costs may or

may not be a factor during night operations.








37
Labor cost differential is another item that may increase during the

night shift. Literature review did not reveal detailed information on

this area. According to Willis (1982), labor is considered to be one of

the premium costs for nighttime paving. It could be expected that some

incentive should be used to influence the performance of nighttime

overlay. For example, if the contractor works 8 hours per night, the

contractor's workforce could be paid for 9 hours. Willis states that

there should not be any across-the-board pay increase for nighttime work.

If the contractor works 6 nights a week, there will be overtime on the

sixth night. The contractor may be subjected to specific union rules for

its use of labor force during nighttime work. This possibility should be

thoroughly investigated before preparing labor cost estimates (Willis,

1982). Labor and inspection costs are additional cost items for night

construction. Shift premiums accounted for an increase of 18% in direct

labor costs, while overtime costs for agency personnel required an

additional 16% (Fallin, 1990). A Florida contractor agreed to pay $0.50

per hour extra for all of his personnel involved in nighttime operations

(Layfield, 1988). The shift differential can vary depending upon the

specific time period. According to the 1988 report, "Highway Maintenance

Activities During Low Traffic Hours", prepared by the California DOT,

there is a 25 cent per hour differential if four or more hours are worked

in the swing shift (6:00 p.m. to 12 midnight). The pay differential for

four or more hours worked in the graveyard shift (midnight to 6:00 a.m.)

is 35 cent per hour.

The survey done by Hinze & Carlisle indicates that artificial

lighting is one of the most significant items in terms of differential








38

cost between day and night construction. Table 2.5 shows the estimated

increase (63% for lighting) in the cost differential of night work. Since

the cost of artificial lighting is unique to nighttime work, it can be

regarded as a project specific cost, when rented or leased lighting

equipment are used on an "as needed" basis. To minimize setup costs and

maximize efficiency, equipment mounted lighting is recommended. For

contractors involved regularly in night work, it is best to purchase their

own lighting systems. Fallin (1990) mentions the potential use of laser

technology to reduce the need for artificial lighting. Although currently

this alternative is very expensive, it may be a viable option in the near

future. Lum (1980), in his report published in Public Roads, investigates

the economic feasibility of lighting an entire construction zone to reduce

night traffic accidents. Table 2.7 (Lum, 1980) shows the costs to

purchase, install, and remove light posts. The cost information was

obtained from a number of utility companies and municipalities, and hence

not representative of cost data nationwide. Lum concludes from his

analysis that the benefit/cost ratio for lighting a construction project

is, at all situations, less than 1.

Another major cost factor in night work zone construction is traffic

control. According to Shepard and Cottrell (1985), the cost involved in

traffic control can approach an upper limit of the cost of the permanent

construction work itself. For nighttime construction, there is an added

cost for traffic control, due to the need for additional signs in a low

visibility environment. Additional signs for night shift work may include

changeable message signs, arrow boards, warning signs, and channelizing

devices. Homburger (1989) has written an investigative report detailing

















Install, and Remove Light Posts


Item


1. Unit cost of purchasing and
installing wooden pole,
foundation and bracket.
...........$ 598/each

2. Unit cost of luminaire.
...........$ 188/each

3. Unit cost of purchasing and
installing wiring.
...........$ I/ lin. ft.

4. Unit cost of energy and
maintenance.
...........$ 0.50/day

5. Cost of poles, foundations,
brackets, & luminaires.
...........$ 41,658

6. Cost of wiring.
......... ..$ 5,280

7. Cost of energy and
maintenance.
...........$ 115

8. Cost of removing poles.
...........$ 6,625

9. Total cost of lighting 1 mile
of roadway for 230 days.
...........$ 53,700


Information Source / Assumptions


Mounting height of 40 ft.; poles
located on one side of roadway.



High pressure sodium, 400 watt.


Overhead as opposed to underground
wiring; costs about twice as much.


Includes energy & minor replacement
or repair of lamps.


100 ft. spacing for 1 mile and one
side only, for a total of 53 units.


1 mile of wiring.


For 230 days.



Estimated at $ 125 per pole


Sum of items 5-8. Figure rounded to
the nearest $ 100.


Source: Lum (1980)


~ ~I~I


Table 2.7 Costs to Purchase,








40
traffic control measures in construction zones with nighttime activities.

Apart from signs, other traffic control measures are emergency/enforcement

controls (police and ambulance), and deterrent controls (barricades,

vehicle-mounted barriers). Literature review did not specifically reveal

cost differentials attributable to traffic control during the night.

However, Price (1985) in his analysis of two (night and day) paving

projects in Colorado, mentions that the flagging per hour cost was 71%

higher for the I-70 night paving project.

User Cost

The cost incurred by travelling motorists due to ongoing

construction and maintenance work on the roadway, can be classified as
"user" costs. Vehicle operating costs, personal costs, and accident costs

are the primary components of this category. Literature review indicates

the availability of detailed information on the first two components, but

very little on accident costs. It is difficult to estimate a cost for the

difference in accidents for night operations versus day operations. There

is a lack of nighttime accident data and considerable variability in

accidents between the types and locations of night projects. Vehicle

delay costs investigated by Price have been discussed previously in the

traffic volume section of the literature review. The calculation of unit

user costs is presented in A Manual on User Benefit Analysis of Highway

and Bus Transit Improvements (AASHTO, 1977). Tables for operating costs

and time value are utilized to determine unit user costs. Traffic volume

and work-zone capacity are used to calculate the vehicle operating cost

and the queuing cost due to time delays. This methodology allows the

comparison of alternate work shifts to evaluate the work zone cost impact

and the optimal shift time to affect a lane closure.








41

A method which combines user operating and time costs has been

discussed by Lytton and McFarland (1975). Using workzone location as a

parameter, tables are provided to calculate the user costs. The

limitation of their cost model is that it is applicable only for an

overlay type of road work. Dudek and Richards have developed a computer

model, using data from 14 work zone sites in Texas. Hourly traffic

volumes, capacity, traffic control method, and other parameters can be

entered into the QUEWZ model to determine user costs with precision and

efficiency (Dudek and Richards, 1985).


Quality of Work

In some situations, the quality of work during the night shift may

be lower than that on the day shift. Poor visibility during the night may

result in less than perfect finishing of paving jobs. Worker morale,

unsafe working conditions, and quality control for materials are factors

that are shift dependent and these may affect construction quality.

According to Shepard and Cottrell, the key word is "acceptable quality",

when considering the quality of work during night shift. Even if quality

is suspect during night operations, the product may be accepted under the

specifications.

From the literature review it is not possible to conclude that

quality is always adversely affected during the night shift. Some

resident engineers of the Arizona DOT have found better quality control

during the night for certain projects requiring cooler temperatures for

material and equipment (Kay, 1985). One state official noted that quality

during the night was better because the night hours allowed total road

closure, which provided safer working conditions.








42
The comparison of day and night paving jobs in Colorado done by

Price indicates that the overall quality of the nighttime work was very

similar to that of the daytime project. Test results from the 1-70 night

paving job and from a similar daytime job on 1-25 are compared in Table

2.8 (Price, 1985). The results indicate that compaction on the night job

was as high as that of the day job, and in some cases better. Quality was

affected mostly in aesthetics, such as roller marks being more apparent on

the finished product. The Colorado study was an indication of the success

of night paving operations from a quality standpoint regarding smoothness.

However, pavement densities during nighttime work were more difficult to

attain, possibly due to cooler temperatures. Because of limited

visibility during the night, crack filling and rolling operations were

identified as being more challenging tasks. High levels of illumination

were recommended for these activity types. One other point mentioned by

Price in his Colorado study was the difficulty in detecting approaching

rain storms which could affect the pavement material quality.

The night shift provides cooler temperatures which permits easy

placement of cement concrete or paving in certain locations during summer

time. High temperatures during the day may cause increased evaporation

and faster rate of set (Hinze & Carlisle, 1990). During the placement of

26 miles of single lane concrete roadway in California, it was realized

that the quality of concrete placed at night was better. The cooler night

temperatures allowed the concrete to be placed closer to its ideal

temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit. This resulted in good strength for

concrete and minimized any surface evaporation (Fallin, 1990).




















Paving Quality Test Results from Field Samples


Test Night Paving (1-70) Day Paving (1-25)


No.of Samples = 62 No.of Samples = 62
Compaction Mean = 96.1 Mean = 95.6
Specified = 95.0 Specified = 95.0
STD.* = 0.810 STD.* = 0.735

Asphalt No.of Samples = 47 No.of Samples = 47
Content Mean = 5.49 Mean = 5.81
Specified = 5.0-6. Specified = 5.3-6.3
STD.* = 0.267 STD.* = 0.222

Field No.of Samples = 62 No.of Samples = 62
Specific Mean = 2.22 Mean = 2.23
Gravity Specified = 2.31 Specified = 2.33
STD.* = 0.019 STD.* = 0.018

Standard Deviation of Samples


Source : Price (1985)


Tabl e 2.8 -








44
A recent survey of state highway agencies revealed that general

results of paving operations conducted during the night shift produced

less quality results (Hinze & Carlisle, 1990). Both portland cement

concrete and asphalt had apparent finish defects when placed during the

night. However, the results were acceptable to the state agencies and

satisfied the specification standards. The quality rating (on a scale of

1 to 7) of certain tasks performed during the night, is shown in Table 2.9

(Hinze & Carlisle, 1990). Compaction of subgrade is the highest rated

night construction task and all the crack sealing related activities are

rated lowest.

Literature study indicated the following problem areas in paving

quality during the night shift :

roughness of paving surface

S inconsistency in the mix

S poor compaction

S cold joints

S inspection of work

S less control on tack spread

S alignment

S repairing roller marks

Quality of work is highly dependent on visibility. Almost all of
the above quality related problems result from inadequate lighting at the

project site. In the Colorado project, shadows were reported as a problem

in the rolling and crack filling operations. Proper illumination with

additional portable flood lights can reduce many of these defects.





















Table 2.9 Quality Rating of Nighttime Operations

Activity Performed At Night Quality Rating

Compaction of Subgrade 4.88
Surface Compaction of Asphalt Concrete 4.77
Installing Guard Rails 4.73
Placing PCC Pavement 4.54
Pavement Marking 4.36
Crack-Sealing on PCC Pavement 4.19
Crack-Sealing on AC Pavement 4.10


Source: Hinze and Carlisle (1990)










Job Types in Highway Construction

The type of highway work to be done often dictates the selection of

workshift hours. Highway construction and rehabilitation activities can

be classified into two types: fixed-location projects and moving projects

(Homburger, 1989). Fixed-location projects are more commonly found --

they involve work on highway and freeway structures, new paving which

proceeds relatively slowly (e.g. adding lanes, completely rebuilding

existing pavement), revising interchanges, etc. Moving projects are

typically pavement overlay projects which move relatively quickly from one

end of the job to the other.

Moving projects require special alertness from both motorist and

worker since the control conditions change quickly. If traffic control is

not a factor, then moving projects are undoubtedly preferred to be

undertaken during daytime hours. At a fixed-location site, the control

change can be programmed in advance and signs can be posted alerting

motorists to the changes ahead of time. Thus, fixed-location projects are

relatively safer and suited for night shifts.

The following fixed-location and moving job types were identified

from literature review as being more appropriate for the night shift

because of comfortable working temperatures, scheduling, and ease of

traffic control:

(1) Widening and replacement of concrete deck (using precast slabs) for
multi-lane divided bridge in a metropolitan location. Usage of

polymer concrete -- which sets to 4000 psi in one hour at

temperature range of 20 to 100 degrees F (Fahrenheit) -- can allow

the bridge to remain fully open during the day (Pasko, 1985).








47

(2) Interstate widening and reconstruction (e.g. from 4 lane to 6 lane)
through a metropolitan city.

(3) Concrete median barriers safety upgrading, pavement (concrete joint)

patching, shoulder work, on multi-lane divided urban highway, with

one or two lanes closed.

(4) Resurfacing operation on a multi-lane divided urban freeway, with
all lanes closed, and detour set up to follow parallel arterial

routes (Strakovits, 1974).

(5) Installation of raised pavement markers on freeways.

(6) Grooving of concrete and asphalt pavement to improve friction
factor.

(7) Placing of D-mix asphalt on an urban interstate highway. D-mix

placement requires minimum temperature of 60 degrees F (Hudson,

1991). During cold seasons this operation may need to be done

during the day shift.

(8) Pavement overlay on multi-lane freeway (approximately 10 mile

stretch) involving an asphalt overlay on existing portland cement

concrete.

Table 2.10 contains a list of highway projects undertaken by the

Florida DOT for night schedule at various counties as of March, 1991.

Approximately half of these projects involved resurfacing operations.

Table 2.11 shows a list of tasks which have the potential of better

performance during the night shift. These activities are shown in

descending order of preference (Hinze and Carlisle, 1990).

Shifting all maintenance work in a given area to a night schedule

may not be considered practical. Certain types of roadway repair

activities which are temperature sensitive such as asphalt paving,
















Table 2.10 : Florida DOT Projects Using Night Work

Type of Work Road County


Resurfacing
Resurfacing
Repair 18 Bridges
Skid Hazard Resurfacing
Resurfacing
Add Turn Lanes
Milling and Resurfacing
Milling and Resurfacing
Resurfacing
Paving Shoulders and Resurfacing
Safety
Resurfacing
Intersection (Minor)
Resurfacing
Widening and Resurfacing
Multi-lane Reconstruction
Resurfacing
Add Lanes and Reconstruct
Multi-lane Reconstruction
Construct Grade Separation
Add Lanes and Resurface
Add Lanes and Resurface
Replace Low Level Bridge
Intersection (Major)
Add Lanes and Resurface
Multi-lane Reconstruction
Multi-lane Reconstruction
Bridge Rehabilitation
Resurfacing
Widen Bridge
Skid Hazard Resurfacing
Interchange (Major)
Multi-lane Reconstruction


US-90
I-4
1-75
US-90
SR-21
US-90
SR-60
SR-688
1-95
US-441
US-90
1-95
US-90
I-95
US-301
1-95
1-95
US-41
1-95
1-4
Turnpk
US-19
SR-934
US-92
I-95
US-98
US-98
SR-A1A
SR-933
I-95
SR-580
Turnpk
US-319


Duval
Orange
Marion
Duval
Clay
Duval
Hillsborough
Pinellas
Duval
Alachua
Duval
St. Johns
Leon
St. Johns
Hillsborough
Nassau
St. Johns
Dade
Duval
Seminole
Dade
Pasco
Dade
Hillsborough
Dade
Bay
Bay
St. Johns
Dade
Dade
Hillsborough
Broward
Leon


Source : F.D.O.T. (1991)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.



















Table 2.11 : Construction Activities Performed Better At Night

No. of Respondents
Construction Activity Naming The Activity

Asphalt Concrete Paving 6
Bridge Deck Rehabilitation 5
Pavement Marking 5
PCC Paving 4
Demolition 3
Setting Girders 2
Concrete Joint Repairs 2
PCC Pavement Spall Repairs 2
PCC Pavement Slab Repair 2
Latex Modified Concrete 2
Grooving PCC Concrete 1
Large Concrete Pours 1
Asphalt Concrete Removal 1
Loading and Hauling Dirt 1
Preparing for Structural Pours 1
Backfilling Structures 1
Shifting Traffic 1
Installing Guard Rails 1
Signals 1
Street Lighting 1
Grading/Crushing Aggregate 1


Source : Hinze and Carlisle (1990)








50
chip seals, and slurry seals may still need to be done by day shift crews.

Other activities, such as landscape work, can continue to be performed

during the day without causing traffic congestion. And certainly, daytime

emergency response to repair needs must continue. Work activities on the

pavement and shoulders are the obvious candidates for night schedule.


Human Factors

Worker behavior during a particular work shift is an important

consideration for project management. The human factor has a high

potential to adversely affect both productivity and safety. Worker

performance is significantly affected by the choice of work shift.

Several studies on human performance (related to shift work), particularly

in the manufacturing industry, were found during the literature search.

Based on this review, three principal factors were identified as having

the most impact on worker performance: 1) sleep; 2) human circadian

rhythms; and 3) social/domestic issues.

Monk uses a model for coping with shift work to illustrate the

relationship between the three human factors. The worker's internal

system and the condition of his external surroundings dictate his ability

to sleep. The human biological clock depends on the degree of

fragmentation of sleep and the daily social demands. Finally, the

worker's social harmony is dependent upon the degree of sleep deprivation

(Monk, 1989). Monk stresses the importance of understanding the

relationship between sleep, the worker's biological clock, and the

domestic aspects of the worker's life. Figure 2.5 (Monk, 1989) presents

a triad of factors for coping with shift work. The three interrelated





























Shift

Work

Coping


Social/
Domestic
Factors


Source: Monk (1989)

Figure 2.5 Triad of Shift Work Coping Factors


Clock

Factors


Sleep

Factors








52
factors determine the individual's ability to cope with shift work. All

three components complement each other, a failure in one can negate

advances made in the other two. During an atypical working environment,

such as nighttime construction, the project management should try to

maintain a proper balance of these factors among the workers.

Night shift workers have faced the problem of insufficient sleep

during the day because of the difficulty in physiological adjustments and

also because of the heat, light, and noise distruptions of daytime hours

(Delisle, 1990). Lack of adequate sleep can lead to physical and mental

disorders, which can lead to on-the-job accidents (Finn, 1981). A recent

survey has indicated that over 20% of night shift workers in the U.S.

suffer from insomnia, fatigue, digestive disorders, loss of alertness, and

other sleep-related problems. From the point of view of safety and

productivity, it is necessary for the project management to identify those

individuals who are more adaptable to the stresses of night shift work.

According to a study by Vidacek (1986), night productivity rises with

successive night shifts, but eventually declines, while afternoon shift

productivity remains high and consistent. In construction, safety is

dependent on the work habits of the crew. Rotating shift workers often

resort to usage of drugs and alcohol to overcome their sleep deprivation.

Compared to other industries, construction has produced higher accident

results, and thus, the need to have a well rested and properly adjusted

night worker cannot be over-emphasized.

Research indicates that most workers placed on a night shift,

eventually becomes adjusted, as long as the same pattern is followed every

day. Delisle (1990) has examined two basic issues regarding a rotating








53
shift system: the length of time that workers should be kept on a

particular shift before rotating, and, the steps that management should

follow when implementing a shift schedule to meet their needs. Opinions

are divided between rapid and slow rotating shift schedules. Rapid

rotation means that a person works two or three nights in a row before

going back to standard hours, while slow rotation involves working many

more shifts (20 or greater, with intervening rest days). Scheduling the

shift rotations should depend on the type of work to be performed. A

rapidly rotating shift is best for tasks requiring complex cognitive

performance, involving a high short-term memory load (Delisle, 1990). For

highway construction, however, slow rotating schedule is more appropriate,

since it involves the performance of more simple, non-memory type tasks.

This allows the worker's circadian rhythm (biological clock) adequate time

to adjust to different shift periods, and, as a result, increase work

performance. Delisle emphasizes that, in order to successfully implement

a slow rotating schedule, the project management should encourage the

workers to try to keep on a reversed schedule on their days off. A

complete internal readjustment, at the start of each new work week, will

present added stresses on the human body and negate the benefits of a slow

rotating scheduling system.

Management should consider the type of specialization workers are
trained for, when assigning them to certain shifts. Members of an asphalt

crew, who are accustomed to lengthy work periods, would probably be more

adaptable to atypical schedules such as night shifts. Also the night

shift provides a more comfortable temperature for the crew placing hot

asphalt.








54
Additional guidelines for management regarding rotating shifts are

outlined by Benjamin (1984). Night schedules should be planned in

advance, so the workers can prepare themselves adequately. The shift

workers require uninterrupted weekends off as often as possible, for

social reasons. Shift duration should be limited according to the type of

tasks performed. It is recommended that tasks involving intensive

physical labor be limited to 9-hour shifts. Management should avoid

scheduling peak work loads on the job site between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m for

safety reasons. Construction scheduling should be such that the critical

activities occur at the start of the night shift, when workers are at

their peak mental alertness.


Productivity

The unique aspects of night construction can have both negative and
positive effect on productivity. Productivity during a particular work

shift is impacted by several factors, such as traffic volume, job type,

material delivery, lighting, supervision, communication, worker morale,

etc. During typical daytime construction operations there are two peak

traffic loads that actually reduce a work day to a 5 1/2 hour work shift.

Whereas, during the night, the work shift and actual daily working hours

are extended (Layfield, 1988). Availability and supply of material,

equipment spare parts at night also has an effect on productivity.

Artificial lighting, which may vary with the type of project, has a

potential impact on the output of night construction workforce. Certain

human factors, such as the biological clock, also govern the crew

productivity during the night shift. Productivity also depends on the job








55
type. Projects allowing total road closure may save more than 50% of the

construction time. A state transportation official notes that for a job

requiring large number of road patches, daytime patching (closing one lane

at a time) would take much longer than nighttime patching, when total road

closure is permitted (Shepard & Cottrell, 1985).

In a recent ENR article "Barriers Remain to Safe Work Zones" a

contractor in Tampa, Florida stated that "productivity is 28 to 30% less

at night due to set up and take-down time" (Stussman, 1988). On the

positive side, night shift was reported to have allowed a certain project

in Long Beach, California to be completed in 16 working days, whereas it

would have taken at least 35 working days to complete the same project

during the day shift (Lee, 1969). During a Florida road project, asphalt

was laid down during the night shift at a rate of 147.03 tons per hour,

compared to 98.09 tons per hour for another daytime project (Layfield,

1988). In his feature ENR article "Paving After Dark Turns Profitable",

McConville stated that in a Indiana road project, the contractor reported

10% improvement in speed of hauling cycles and tonnage during night shift.

Another contractor in a Pennsylvania Interstate project reported that

nighttime production increases have been logged as high as 30%

(McConville, 1991). Cooler temperatures and less traffic interference

during the night shift allowed for this increased productivity.


Other Factors

When deciding work shift periods, other miscellaneous factors may

also need to be considered by the state agency. Since each construction

or maintenance task differs in some respect from others, these "other"








56
factors vary in importance. The areas covered in this section are

supervision/communication, labor unions, parts availability, and liability

(Shepard & Cottrell, 1985).

The ability to supervise and communicate effectively during night

shifts depends largely on the agency's experience. Communication between

on site personnel and higher authority is vital during late shifts. A

person capable of making decisions should either be present at the site or

be "on call", responding as needed. Another problem mentioned by Shepard

and Cottrel is the difficulty in communication after the transition

between night and day personnel. The night engineer-in-charge may be fast

asleep during the daylight hours when project management may require his

feedback.

Based on information obtained from literature review, labor unions

do not present big problems for night operations. However, if there are

any differences, they should be negotiated and any stipulations should

reflect in the contract bid price.

Availability of spare parts for construction equipment is necessary

in order to maintain steady production at the site. During the night

shift it may be difficult to obtain spare mechanical parts because of

equipment dealers being closed after normal business hours. Shepard and

Cottrell suggest that the highway agencies have extra parts and equipment

available at the project site to ensure continuity of work.

Work-zone safety is a matter of concern during both day and night

shifts. The possibility of lawsuits, resulting from accidents due to road

construction, is an important consideration for agency planners.

Selecting the "safe" working period for both the worker and motorist

reduces the owner's liability.










Summary

The number of available references relating directly to highway

nighttime construction, as a whole, are limited. Only a few studies

provide a comprehensive approach towards night shift operations and the

agency shift selection process. Most of the literature related to one

specific aspect of night work, such as traffic control, safety, lighting,

human factors, etc. Numerous research studies pertaining to shift work

have been conducted in the manufacturing industry, only a few are

applicable to the construction field. Several published reports in the

highway construction area have provided information on issues relating to

the planning, safety, and traffic maintenance aspects of nighttime

operations.

It can be concluded from the literature review that the work shift

selection by the agency is mostly based on personal experience of traffic

data and congestion analysis. There is no formal step-by-step methodology

that takes all the factors into consideration in order to arrive at a

particular decision. Most of the information obtained from the literature

study is based on opinions, and is not quantitative. Information on shift

work for the manufacturing sector is readily available, but other than the

data on human factors, it cannot be related to highway construction.

Research has been done in specific areas of highway nighttime construction

which can be used as a guideline for state transportation agencies.

However, a more comprehensive study of all the factors involved in day and

night operations needs to be conducted.














CHAPTER 3
KNOWLEDGE-BASED EXPERT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Knowledge-based expert system technology is a branch of artificial

intelligence (AI) that has seen rapid advancement in recent years. An

expert system is essentially a computer program using AI techniques to

assist users in solving complex problems involving knowledge, heuristics

(rules of thumb), and decision-making. The knowledge-based system

approach has received broad attention in construction engineering

literature. In a typical construction engineering environment there are

decision problems that simply cannot be solved by procedural, algorithmic

computer models. In construction, knowledge and experience are used more

often than complex mathematical formulas, making this field ideal for

expert system application.

A knowledge-based system has the ability to provide explanations of

its reasoning making it useful as a management decision making tool.

The objective of this approach is to create intelligent behavior on the

computer through stored knowledge acquired from human experts. The

knowledge-based system or expert system is an "interactive" program,

playing the role of a human expert by utilizing heuristic knowledge.

Heuristics allows the system to make educated guesses, recognize promising

approaches, and narrow down the search process in a solution space.








59

The goal during the development of an expert system is to capture

specialized knowledge. This knowledge must be within a narrow, well

defined domain, and it should simulate the expert's reasoning process to

provide consultation about a difficult task.

An important difference between an expert system (ES) and a

conventional program is the representation of knowledge or data.

Knowledge in an expert system is usually divided into separate entities or

rules, shielded from the application methodology. Conclusions are reached

from the knowledge-base by invoking inference reasoning techniques. In a

conventional program, data is typically stored in a data base and the data

is manipulated by usage of algorithms, giving numerical results. Table

3.1 shows the difference between expert systems and conventional programs.

Architecture of an Expert System

The typical expert system (ES) structure consists of four primary

components: a knowledge-base, an inference mechanism, a working memory,

and an input/output interface with explanation and help facility (Adeli,

1988). In addition, features to facilitate knowledge acquisition,

debugging, editing, and intelligent interfacing may also be included. The

structure is schematically shown in Figure 3.1.

The knowledge-base is a repository of information available in a

particular domain. It consists of well-established and documented

definitions, facts, rules, as well as heuristics or judgmental information

associated with the problem domain. Knowledge acquisition is the process

by which expert knowledge is obtained from various sources for the

representation in a knowledge-base. The structuring and development of

the knowledge-base is aided by the knowledge acquisition facility.

















Table 3.1 Difference Between Expert System and Conventional Program


Expert System


L. Representation and use of
knowledge

. Knowledge-base and control
strategy integrated

1. Inferential (heuristic)
process

i. Effective manipulation of
large knowledge-bases

i. Developed by knowledge
engineer with or without
programming expertise

i. Midrun explanation desirable
and possible

'. Modifications, additions
relatively easy

1. Oriented toward symbolic
processing


Conventional Program


Representation and use of data


Data and control
strategy separated

Repetitive (algorithmic)
process

Effective manipulation of
databases

Developed by programmer


Midrun explanation not
possible

Not as flexible to changes


Oriented toward numerical
processing


Source: Expert Systems for Civil Engineers, ASCE (1987)





































KNOWLEDGE BASE


Rules



Facts


INFERENCE

MECHANISM


Forward chaining

Backward chaining


Figure 3.1 The Expert System Architecture








62
The inference mechanism (or reasoning mechanism) controls the

reasoning strategy of the ES by attempting to match the input data with

the information available in the knowledge base, and subsequently draw

conclusions and produce explanations. In a rule-based ES, the inference

mechanism determines the order in which the rules should be fired, and

resolves any conflict among rules when several rules are satisfied. The

mechanism seeks to solve the problem by chaining the rules together, and

eventually provide a conclusion.

Working memory (or context database) is a temporary storage of

information pertaining to the state of the specific problem currently

being solved. It is a flexible database, its contents changing

dynamically. Included in the working memory is the problem information

provided by the user as well as data derived by the system. The context

database contains all the intermediate results of the problem solving

process as well as the solution upon completion of the ES processing.

The user interface provides a link between the user and the expert

system. The user may create or modify a knowledge-base through the

interface by using a editor facility. Access to the knowledge-base for

information utilization is governed by the user interface. The

explanation facility and the help facility are both attached with the

input-output interface. The former provides answers to questions and

justifies answers. The latter guides the user to use the system

effectively and easily. The intelligent interface is a feature that

allows the user to interact with the ES and query the ES. This may

include natural language processors, menus, multiple windows, icons or

graphics.










Knowledge Representation

The development of the knowledge-base is an important step in the

creation of an expert system. The developer must decide by which method

the knowledge is to be represented in the knowledge base. Procedural and

declarative representations are two different ways to represent knowledge

(Adeli, 1988). In procedural representation, the knowledge is context

dependent, unintelligible and difficult to modify--it is commonly used in

traditional algorithmic programming. Declarative representation permits

knowledge to be context independent, more understandable, and easily

accessible for modifications. For these reasons, expert systems usually

use declarative knowledge representation. The three most widely used

declarative knowledge representation approaches used in current expert

systems are rule-based, frame-based, and logic-based. Other schemes

include semantic networks, and object-oriented methods. The choice of

representation will depend on the type of problem to be solved and the

inference methods available.

The frame system is a network data structure that represents the

relations between concepts, objects, or events, and their attributes. A

frame consists of a number of attributes, called slots, in which different

characteristics of an object or a piece of information are described.

Slots may contain default values, pointers to other frames, or procedures.

A procedure consists of a set of instructions for determining the value of

the slot, which is known as procedural attachment. The frame structure

has advantages in representing sequences of events, and for knowledge

acquisition and modification (Adeli, 1988). An example of a frame

representation is shown in Figure 3.2, where the object represented is:



















SSlots Entries

Location Alachua County
Highway 1-75 North
Number of Lanes 2
Project Length 5 miles
Project Duration 250 days


Material Default: Asphalt Conc.


Traffic Analysis : If needed, determine
roadway capacity and
compare with traffic
count database


Figure 3.2 A Frame Representation of Knowledge








65
"resurfacing project". The properties (location, highway name, number of

lanes, project length, duration, material used, & traffic analysis) of

this object are contained in the slots. The material slot allows for a

default value. Default values are typically used when representing

knowledge in domains where exceptions are rare. The last slot (traffic

analysis) in the frame in Figure 3.2 illustrate a procedural attachment,

in which instructions for determining an entry are contained.

For representation of concepts, objects, events, etc., semantic

networks can be used. The network consists of a collection of nodes and

connecting links. Like frames, this system also has flexibility for

modification, allowing addition of new nodes and links. In this type of

representation, each node can "inherit" the characteristics of its

connected nodes. Figure 3.3 illustrates an example of a semantic network.

For example the statements "Resurfacing is_a Highway Construction

Activity" and "Vehicle Delay caused_by Lane Closures" can be represented

in a simple semantic net by using the is_a or caused_by relations.

Knowledge can also be represented by logic. The two most common

forms are: propositional logic and predicate calculus (Harmon and King,

1985). Each basic element of the proposition can be either true or false.

Propositions can be connected to each other by the connectives AND, OR,

NOT, EQUIVALENT, IMPLIES, etc. This type of logic is concerned with the

truthfulness of compound sentences. For example, if proposition A is true

and proposition B is false, then "A AND B" is false, but "A OR B" is true.

Predicate calculus is a special subset or extension of propositional logic

in which propositions can contain variables. In this scheme, the

knowledge is represented through a programming language (e.g. PROLOG) to

















is a


caused by


66





HIGHWAY
CONSTRUCTION
ACTIVITY
is a




) (RESURFACING




caused by




LANE CLOSURES




caused by




(VEHICLE DELAY


Figure 3.3 Knowledge Representation Using Semantic Network








67
describe the facts and relationships in the problem domain (Chen, 1987).

In PROLOG, a fact statement such as "Highway rehabilitation/construction

activity is a state agency responsibility" can be expressed as:

"is a (rehabilitation/construction activity, state agency
responsibility)".
This is an example of a predication that is presented by a predicate name

(i.e., "is a") followed by a list of arguments. A set of clauses

represents this rule.

The following form depicts each clause:

consequent: [antecedent-1, antecedent-2,...antecedent-n

Logic-based knowledge representation is shown in the example below:

is a (resurfacing, state agency task) :
[ is a (resurfacing, transit construction activity),
is a (transit construction activity, state agency task) ].

The antecedents and consequent in each clause are predictions. The

consequent is true if the antecedents are true.

The rule-based (or production rules) system has been the most

popular representation approach for developing expert systems. It is the

chosen scheme for the knowledge base structure of the ES decision model

described in this thesis. The knowledge base is a collection of rules

which consist of IF-(antecedent)-THEN-(consequent) statements. The

general form for this type of representation is as follows (Adeli, 1988):

Rule N

IF [(antecedent 1) ......................(antecedent n)]

THEN [(consequent 1 with certainty ci)...................

(consequent m with certainty cm)

( c = certainty factor )








68
Each rule is unique by its rule number. The order of rule application is

not specified by the rule number. A rule represents an independent piece

of knowledge. The antecedent can be regarded as a pattern and the

consequent as a conclusion reached or action to be taken. The antecedent

part of the rule is linked to the working memory of the ES. The rule is

fired when all the conditions of the antecedent part are satisfied. Since

the antecedent-consequent or IF-THEN rules can easily be transformed into

questions, this type of representation can facilitate the generation of

explanations. Certainty or confidence factors can be attached to rules in

a rule-based system. Each rule may be assigned a certainty factor

typically in the range of 0 to 10 or 0 to 100. These factors simply

indicate the level of confidence in a piece of information.

The following is an example of a production rule:

IF: Roadway type is 4-lane freeway
and location is urban
and construction activity type is resurfacing
and number of required lane closures >2
and expected day traffic VPH per lane > 1500

THEN: Work should be performed during 7 pm to 5 am.

The consequent part is executed when the condition part provides a match

with the available facts in the working memory.

The rule-based knowledge representation allows the ES to provide

explanations to its conclusions rather easily. This scheme also permits

a natural way for the developer to describe complex knowledge. However,

one drawback of the rule-based approach is that the addition of new rules

or modification of existing rules may introduce contradictions.










Inference Engine

The inference engine or mechanism is the heart of an expert system.

It is a built-in reasoning process that determines which rules are to be

fired to reach a conclusion. The three common search techniques used in

an inference mechanism are: forward chaining, backward chaining, and the

hybrid approach. The selection of a particular search strategy depends on

the application area. The details of these techniques will be discussed

in this section.

In the forward chaining technique, the rules are scanned until one

is found whose antecedents (IF-parts) match the information entered in the

working memory. The rule is then fired, updating the working memory. The

process is repeated until a goal state is reached. This search strategy

is recommended when the goal state is unknown and has to be constructed or

the number of possible outcomes is large. Complex planning problems,

particularly in construction management, are well suited for this

application method.

Backward-chaining is a goal-driven strategy, in which the rules are

scanned for those whose consequent (THEN-parts) actions lead to the goal

state. These rules are then checked to determine whether their

antecedents (IF-parts) match the information in the working memory. When

a match is obtained, the rule is applied and the solution is reached. For

an unmatched antecedent, a new subgoal is defined as "arrange conditions

to match that antecedent" (Adeli, 1988). The process is applied

recursively. This strategy is particularly efficient when the values of

the goal state are known and its number of possible outcomes is small.

Backward chaining strategy is appropriate for diagnostic expert systems.








70
The hybrid approach combines both forward-chaining and backward-

chaining to yield conclusions. The "blackboard" environment, as described

by Harmon and King (1985), utilizes this combined approach. The

blackboard model is essentially a central global database maintaining a

two-way communication with independent rule groups (knowledge sources).

An agenda-based control system continually examines all of the possible

pending actions and chooses the one to try next. Processing in the

blackboard model is based concept of independent cooperating experts.

This type of model is appropriate for structuring complex, problem-solving

tasks that require multiple experts.


Knowledge Acquisition

Knowledge acquisition is the process by which the ES developer

collects knowledge from expert sources. Personal contact with domain

experts, reviewing literature documenting the experiences of the domain

experts, are ways to acquire the required knowledge. This process may be

divided into five steps, as described by Hayes-Roth (1983).

The initial step is identification and characterizing the important

aspects of the problem: the problem domain, knowledge sources, and goals.

The next step is conceptualization, during which the key properties and

relations are made explicit. Knowledge representation ideas and tools are

considered at this stage. The formalization process is the third step.

The model of the task is mapped, its key properties and relations are

expressed into some representation schemes. The fourth step is

implementation, which involves mapping the knowledge into the

representation method associated with the tool (ES shell) chosen for the








71
model. The testing and revision of the prototype system is the final

step. The knowledge base may be refined, or the knowledge representation

scheme may be redesigned, depending on the results of the sample run.

Personal interview with the domain expert is a direct and efficient

way to extract information from the domain expert. The interview can

be in the form of questions and answers and example problem-solving

sessions. This process entirely depends on the amount of time and effort

the expert is willing to spend. Also, the domain expert may not know how

to describe the decision process, or may simply misunderstand the

questions. To minimize this difficulty, it is best to narrow the focus of

the problem domain.

Protocol analysis is another way to obtain knowledge (Hart, 1985).

Instead of making direct contact with the domain expert, the knowledge

engineer allows the domain expert to perform and record problem solving

procedures. The recorded transcript is then analyzed by the knowledge

engineer with assistance from the domain expert. The advantage of this

technique is that it gives the domain expert more freedom to express his

knowledge. However, in this process, a communication gap between the

developer and the expert will most likely exist.

Automated knowledge acquisition methods, such as the induction

method, may reduce the gaps between the domain expert and the ES developer

(Chen, 1987). This process uses algorithms to obtain the knowledge. The

system typically uses a spreadsheet interface to get examples (describing

a particular problem) in tabular format from the knowledge-base builder.

In this method, the expert provides a set of examples of different types

of decisions and the corresponding attributes influencing the decisions.








72
Rules are induced by the algorithm using the examples. By this method, it

is not necessary for the domain expert to detail the decision making

process himself.


Expert System Development Shells

Expert system programming environments or shells are recent

commercial developments, intended to facilitate the building of knowledge-

based expert systems. Programming languages, system-building aids can

also be used as ES development tools. Languages such as LISP, PROLOG, C,

PASCAL, or FORTRAN are typically used in AI applications. The ES

developer is expected to be proficient in computer programming in this

situation. Although LISP and PROLOG have been the most chosen languages

in ES development, currently the usage of C language is gaining popularity

since it reduces operational times for the ES (Barber, 1987). ES-building

aids have not seen much usage to date. Usually, these are knowledge

acquisition systems geared toward assisting the developer in obtaining and

structuring knowledge. Examples of existing knowledge acquisition systems

are ETS, TIMM, and RULEMASTER (Adeli, 1988).

The shell is a commercial ES development tool which is intended to

provide an opportunity for non-programmers to build prototype expert

systems. With shells, the developer can concentrate on the knowledge

representation and not be concerned about mastering a programming

language, or deal with complex inference strategies. The ES shell

consists of a domain-independent inference engine, an empty knowledge

base, and an user-friendly interface. Shells contain specific

representation methods and inference mechanisms, thus they are less








73

flexible than an AI language such as LISP or PROLOG. Adeli has provided

a detailed evaluation of a variety of shells (both personal computer-based

and main frame-based) currently in use.

ES shells are usually developed by taking out the original knowledge

content from domain-dependent expert systems. As a result, these shells

are suitable only for problems similar to that of the original ES. The

developer must bear this in mind when he or she selects a shell for a

particular application. For the decision problem described in this

dissertation, a PC-based ES shell, EXSYS-Professional, was selected as the

frame for the prototype model development. The software is available at

the University of Florida, Department of Civil Engineering.

EXSYS Professional is a generalized expert system development

package. The shell developed by EXSYS Inc., is written in C programming

language. The principal development tool in Professional is the Rule

Editor. The Rule Editor can be utilized to construct simple rule-based

systems or complex modular blackboard systems. The editor provides menus,

prompts and help -- eliminating the need to memorize complex rule syntax.

All input is in the form of normal English text or algebraic expression.

A command language can be used to control the rule execution, allowing the

developer increased flexibility and control for complex applications.

Hypertext, rule compiler, blackboarding, agenda managers, table lookup,

and interface with external databases (Lotus or dBase) are some of the

useful features of the EXSYS shell. EXSYS programs are able to respond to

an end user's query with a full explanation of the logic used to arrive at

a particular conclusion. The knowledge base of this shell can accommodate

upto 2500 rules in a personal computer. Programs written with EXSYS are

directly compatible between the IBM PC/XT/AT, VAX/VMS and UNIX computers.










Current Applications in Construction Engineering

Several successful ES prototypes have been developed in the area of

civil/construction engineering in recent years. Experts systems are most

effective in non-theoretical applications where judgment and experience

plays an important role and in which there are no single solutions. Some

of the areas which are appropriate for ES applications in construction

are: 1) diagnosis, 2) fault detection, 3) prediction, 4) interpretation,

5) monitoring, 6) instruction, 7) planning, and 8) design.

Levitt (1986) has developed an expert system, "Howsafe", that

evaluates the safety-related aspect of a construction contractor's

organization and operating procedures. A personal computer-based ES

shell, Deciding Factor, was used for this system. The knowledge base

contains documented results of construction safety studies obtained from

various technical reports and journals. By using Howsafe, a construction

manager can evaluate a project's or company's safety practices.

An expert system for the selection of materials handling equipment

for construction of concrete frame buildings is described by Wijesundera

and Harris (1985). The system suggests suitable categories of equipment

for materials handling based on factors such as ground type, soil

condition, structural features, site accessibility, etc. The ES utilizes

an external database containing supplemental equipment information, which

is able to provide more specific recommendations. The ES shell SAVOIR has

been used to develop this system.

The area of construction project monitoring has received some

attention by ES developers. McGartland and Hendrickson (1985) have done

research on cost/time control, and purchasing/inventory control. An








75
expert system would analyze and verify weekly input to a database of

activity schedules and estimates, recognize cost overruns, time slippage

problems, and diagnose probable causes and offer solutions such as

activity duration/cost adjustment. For purchasing and inventory control,

an ES would be able to minimize the overall materials cost and assist a

project manager to determine the most economical inventory levels. A

forward chaining inference mechanism has been suggested by McGartland and

Hendrickson for this type of application.

Stone & Webster have developed expert systems to solve a variety of

problems in the area of welded construction (Hathaway and Finn, 1986).

A PC-based ES available to field engineers on site allows the appropriate

selection of welding procedures, reducing potential construction delays

and problems. Other ES applications include welder qualification test

selection, weld estimating, and weld defect diagnosis.


Summary

The current ES technology has not yet reached the stage where expert

systems are able to completely substitute human experts. Only a few

systems have performed rather close to a human expert. MYCIN, a medical

diagnostic program, is considered to be the first major ES to perform at

a human expert's level. The term "knowledge-based system" may be more

appropriate for present day technology.

The architecture of an expert system differs from that of a

conventional computer program. The knowledge base of an ES is separate

from the methods of applying the knowledge to the problem, contained in

the inference engine. In a conventional program, the problem related








76

knowledge and the methods for using the knowledge are inter-mixed, which

makes it difficult to modify the program for changes and additions to the

knowledge. Processing in a conventional program is algorithmic in nature,

symbols are used to represent numbers, arithmetic properties, and

mathematical operations. In a knowledge-based system, the inference

engine governs the sequence of rules that are fired to lead to multiple

actions or to no action at all. The knowledge rules may include

heuristics as well as mathematical reasoning.

There are three ways knowledge can be represented in an expert

system: rules, frames, logic, and semantic network. Each method is suited

for a particular type of problem. The frame method is appropriate for a

complex knowledge system. The rule-based system is the most popular

method for knowledge representation, more applicable to a decision problem

with a narrow domain.

Due to availability of micro computer-based ES shells, knowledge

engineers are able to develop decision models without the usage of

programming languages such as PROLOG and LISP. However, shells are only

geared toward specific representation methods and are less flexible than

AI languages. There have been several successful knowledge-based systems

developed in the construction engineering field. The knowledge-based

approach represents engineering expertise, theory, and judgment in an

integrated manner and also offers flexibility in data modifications.













CHAPTER 4
PROJECT COST AND PRODUCTIVITY DATA FOR DAY AND NIGHT SHIFTS

Introduction

The selection of day shift over night shift or vice versa may be

influenced by the project costs of the alternatives. Literature review

indicated a lack of project cost information for an effective comparison

between daytime and nighttime construction. Project related cost is

essentially the contract cost (total work item cost) plus agency

administrative costs (planning, evaluating and monitoring). Most highway

projects are unique, and usually consist of different sets of work items.

This makes it difficult to compare the construction costs for day and

night projects.

Productivity may also influence shift selection. Shift productivity

is affected by several factors, which include traffic volume, type of

work, material delivery, lighting, supervision, communication and worker

morale. High daytime traffic volume affects productivity negatively.

During the day, the work shift is reduced to a 5 or 6 hour period due to

the morning and evening rush hours. While during the night, the actual

working hours are extended. However, poor lighting and low worker morale

during night can decrease crew productivity. In the following sections,

unit project costs and productivity rates are compared between day and

night shifts, based on data obtained from the Florida Department of

Transportation (FDOT).









Project Cost Comparison

Since no two highway projects are exactly the same, work items

may differ accordingly. To make an effective cost comparison, a set of

typical work items have been selected for this study. These work items
were selected based upon: a) their usage during a typical day as well as

night project, b) the significance of their contribution in project cost,

and c) their large quantities. The 8 common items are listed as follows:

1) Removal of existing pavement (unit of measure = square yard, SY)

2) Regular excavation (unit = cubic yard, CY)
3) Bituminous material-prime coat (unit = gallon, GA)

4) Bituminous material-tack coat (unit = GA)

5) Milling existing asphalt pavement-2" depth (unit = square yard, SY)

6) Class I concrete-miscellaneous (unit = CY)

7) Type S asphalt concrete-including bitumen (unit = ton, TN)
8) Asphalt concrete friction course-including bitumen (unit = SY)

The unit prices for the above work items were obtained from the FDOT

official cost estimate for road projects done in 1990. Table 4.1 shows

the statistical summary of the rates for these selected work items

performed during daytime (Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar 1991). A similar

statistical summary for the eight items done during nighttime is shown in
Table 4.2. In both tables, for each work item, columns 4 to 8 contain:

1) number of samples, 2) mean unit cost, 3) standard deviation of unit
cost, 4) highest unit cost, and 5) lowest unit cost, respectively.

The results of an item-by-item comparison of unit prices are

tabulated in Table 4.3, so that the variation in means between day and

night rates can be determined. Columns 4 and 5 of Table 4.3 show mean


















Table 4.1 Statistical Summary of Unit Costs for
All Daytime FDOT Projects in 1990


Selected Work Items for


Pay Item Number Mean Std.Dev. High Low
Number Name of Item Unit of
Samples $/unit $/unit $/unit $/unit

110-4 Rem. exist. pavt. SY 104 10.52 10.99 100.0 0.39

120-1 Regular excavation CY 151 7.41 7.71 60.0 0.42

300-1-1 Bit. mat'l-prime GA 55 2.30 1.70 6.5 0.01

300-1-3 Bit. mat'l-tack GA 190 1.36 1.36 12.6 0.01

327-70-5 Milling existing SY 23 0.68 0.26 1.5 0.32
asphalt pavt.

400-1-15 Class I concrete CY 70 348.38 234.42 1050 10

5331-2 Type S asph. conc. TN 188 45.88 34.14 382 19

5337-1-2 Asph. conc. fric. SY 102 1.26 0.82 5.54 0.65

Source: Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar, 1991




















Table 4.2 Statistical Summary of Unit Costs for
All Nighttime FDOT Projects in 1990


Selected Work Items for


Pay Item Number Mean Std.Dev. High Low
Number Name of Item Unit of
Samples $/unit $/unit $/unit $/unit
110-4 Rem. exist. pavt. SY 22 9.54 9.48 50.0 1.84

120-1 Regular excavation CY 20 4.59 2.83 14.1 1.13

300-1-1 Bit. mat'l-prime GA 12 5.19 3.89 15.0 1.00

300-1-3 Bit. mat'l-tack GA 26 1.00 0.33 2.1 0.68

327-70-5 Milling existing SY 19 0.81 0.49 1.65 0.27
asphalt pavt.

400-1-15 Class I concrete CY 17 401.48 153.11 800 125

5331-2 Type S asph. conc. TN 25 34.06 11.93 75 22

5337-1-2 Asph. cone. fric. SY 23 1.27 0.50 2.65 0.75


Source: Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar,


1991

















Table 4.3 Difference Between Day and Night Unit Costs for Selected
Work Items for All FDOT Projects in 1990.

Difference
Pay Item Name of Item Unit Mean Mean Test
Number (night) (day) Amount Per- Result
($/unit) ($/unit) cent
$/unit (%)

110-4 Rem. exist. pavt. SY 9.54 10.52 -0.98 -9.3

120-1 Regular excavation CY 4.59 7.41 -2.82 -38.1 *

300-1-1 Bit. mat'l-prime GA 5.19 2.30 2.89 125.6 *

300-1-3 Bit. mat'l-tack GA 1.00 1.36 -0.36 -26.5

327-70-5 Milling existing SY 0.81 0.68 0.13 19.1
asphalt pavt.
400-1-15 Class I concrete CY 401.48 348.38 53.1 15.2

5331-2 Type S asph. cone. TN 34.06 45.88 -11.82 -25.8 *

5337-1-2 Asph. conc. frict. SY 1.27 1.26 0.01 0.8


NOTE: An
in


asterisk (*) in the
the hypothesis test


last
for


column indicates significant difference
that work item at 95% confidence level.


Source: Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar, 1991








82

rates for nighttime and daytime projects respectively. Column 6 of the

table contains the difference in amount for means, where a negative value

indicates lower nighttime costs. For item, bituminous material-prime

coat, percent difference is as high as 125.6%, as shown in column 7. For

item, regular excavation, percent difference is -38.1%, indicating a lower

nighttime unit cost. Although the percent differences have high

variations, these variations are not necessarily conclusive from a

statistical point of view. The significance of these differences can be

tested by performing statistical t-tests for the eight work items at a 95%

confidence level. Many of these differences appear to be inconclusive

because of high standard deviations. The null hypothesis was rejected for

only three items: regular excavation, bituminous material-prime coat, and

type S asphalt concrete.

The total project item cost depends on what items are involved and

on the quantities of those work items. For this reason, further study of

the impact of shift work on project costs was done. Quantity data from

eight selected projects, utilizing most of the above mentioned work items,

was obtained from the FDOT. Table 4.4 lists the corresponding quantities

of work items of the selected projects. Respective item costs for the

eight projects were determined by multiplying the unit costs from columns

4 and 5 of Table 4.3 with the quantities from Table 4.4. The probable

difference in project costs for night and day operations due to the eight

work items, is given by the summation of such products. The total costs

of the work items for each of the selected eight projects is listed in

columns 2 and 3 of Table 4.5. Column 4 shows the difference of day and

night total costs, while the last column shows the percentage difference

with respect to daytime total cost.















Table 4.4 Quantities of Work Items for Eight Selected FDOT Night Projects

Name of Item Unit Projects

#1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8

Rem exist. pavt SY 416 50 1156 532 96 263 2200

Reg. excavation CY 13398 17909 9952 8279 9306 8595 8137 110041

Bit. mat'l prime GA 86 8888 50 50 50 50 660 -

Bit. mat'l tack GA 18205 44551 41197 13874 19211 31116 8748 74469

Milling asphalt SY 3228 553530 20613 20620 15523 7563 63601 84307

Class I concrete CY 5 1.4 4.58 0.8 9.6 3.2 5 50

Type S asph.conc TN 4403 23284 50010 22889 33935 40972 9275 2912

Asph. conc. fric SY 84008 465686 250955 99472 220267 230100 88005 348080

Source: Florida Department of Transportation, 1990


















Table 4.5


- Effect of Quantity on Project Costs for Eight
Selected Work Items


Project Total Cost of Eight Work Items Difference of Percentage
Night & Day Difference
# Night Cost ($) Day Cost ($) Costs of Day Cost

1 345,399 440,413 -95,014 -21.6

2 2,006,764 2,246,199 -239,435 -10.6

3 2,138,746 2,768,313 -629,567 -22.7

4 984,170 1,279,185 -295,015 -23.1

5 1,727,683 2,228,934 -501,251 -22.5

6 1,768,486 2,284,877 -516,391 -22.6

7 530,719 655,124 -124,405 -19.0

8 1,230,145 1,586,748 -356,603 -22.5

Source: Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar, 1991








85

According to the study described above, the degree of variation in

unit costs for the eight selected work items, for both daytime and

nighttime construction, is very high. Tables 4.1 and 4.2 reveal that the

standard deviation is in most cases nearly 100% of the mean. This

confirms that unit costs in highway construction are highly project-

oriented and are influenced more by project-related conditions rather than

on type of work shift (day or night). The study also rules out the

speculation that nighttime costs are exceptionally higher than daytime

costs. As seen in Tables 4.1 and 4.2, for most work items the maximum

daytime unit cost is higher than the maximum nighttime unit cost, and

conversely the minimum daytime costs are lower than the minimum nighttime

costs.

Table 4.3 shows that four items (remove existing pavement, regular

excavation, bituminous material-tack coat, and type S asphalt concrete)

have higher daytime mean unit cost. The other four items have a higher

nighttime mean unit cost. T-tests have confirmed significant differences

for only three work items. Two of these items (regular excavation, and

asphalt concrete) appear to have significantly lower mean unit costs

during nighttime. The third item (bituminous material-prime coat) has a

significantly higher nighttime unit cost. It is reasonable to conclude

that the work item characteristics are responsible for such a manner of

differences.

In this study, it is seen that the percentage difference is negative

for all eight of the selected FDOT projects. When the total costs of the

eight items for selected projects are compared, nighttime costs are

observed to be lower than the corresponding daytime costs in the range of








86
10 to 20%. Although the participation of these item costs to the total

contract cost varies, the pattern allows a prediction of a probable

nighttime cost. This prediction theory is utilized in the cost model of

the proposed expert system as described in a later chapter.


Productivity Comparison

A comparison of day and nighttime productivity rates for typical

highway construction activities was possible by obtaining information from

the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). Daytime production rates

were collected from a 1988 report, "Establishing Contract Duration Based

on Production Rates for FDOT Construction Projects", prepared by the

University of Florida Civil Engineering Department. The information

includes: 1) number of observations, 2) mean production rate, 3)

standard deviation, 4) maximum and 5) minimum production rates for each

operation, which are further categorized by project type, local

conditions, traffic conditions. Table 4.6 summarizes this data.

The FDOT provided nighttime production data, in form of daily

reports, for a highway project located on 1-95 in St. Johns County,

Florida. A summary of this data is presented in Table 4.7. Plant mixed

surface and milling existing pavement are the two work items for which

data was collected. The mean and standard deviation of production rates

for these work items are shown in columns 3 and 4 of Table 4.7. The

combined results of all the projects, as listed in this table, are used

for nighttime productivity values. Only limited access facility (e.g.

interstates) observations from Table 4.6 are utilized for daytime

productivity values, in order to make an accurate comparison with the 1-95

nighttime productivity values.











Table 4.6 Summary of Productivity Rates for FDOT Construction Projects

PLANT MIXED SURFACES: STRUCTURAL COURSE

Number of Mean Standard High Low
Category Observa- (Tons/ Deviation (Tons/ (Tons/
tions Day) (Tons/Day) Day) Day)
Project Type
Reconstruction 147 833 533 2,359 6
Construction 27 623 639 2,863 114
Intersection 15 122 111 356 10
Bridge 9 178 70 274 84

Local Condition
Rural 111 855 616 2,863 6
Urban 72 436 387 1,638 17
Limited 15 1,090 157 1,247 582

Traffic Condition
Light 20 1,189 761 2,359 119
Medium 81 822 562 2,863 14
Heavy 97 539 426 14 6

Total Combined 198 720 565 2,863 6


MILLING EXISTING PAVEMENT

Number of Mean Standard High Low
Category Observa- (SY/ Deviation (SY/ (SY/
tions Day) (SY/Day) Day) Day)
Project Type
Reconstruction 94 12,350 7,429 32,028 444
Construction 1 2,274 0 2,274 2,274
Intersection 0 0 0 0 0
Bridge 0 0 0 0 0

Local Condition
Rural 48 14,850 8,108 32,028 444
Urban 32 8,987 4,847 20,533 2,351
Limited 15 10,854 6,765 26,422 3,833

Traffic Condition
Light 14 20,306 8,159 32,028 5,488
Medium 32 12,137 7,680 29,376 444
Heavy 49 10,011 5,180 26,422 2,274

Total Combined 95 12,244 7,461 32,028 444

Source: Herbsman & Ellis, 1988













Table 4.7 Summary of Productivity Rates for FDOT Nighttime
Project on 1-95 in St. Johns County


Construction


PLANT MIXED SURFACES: STRUCTURAL COURSE

Project Number Mean Standard High Low
Number of (Tons/ Deviation (Tons/ (Tons/
Samples Day) (Tons/Day) Day) Day)

78080-3420 14 950.68 348.49 1,428.15 320.86

78080-3421 32 1,110.31 327.06 1,602.68 327.08

78080-3422 29 1,093.52 422.97 1,871.21 196.59

78080-3424 20 1,043.45 379.43 1,644.97 325.92

Total Combined 95 1,067.59 378.57 1,871.21 196.59





MILLING EXISTING PAVEMENT

Project Number Mean Standard High Low
Number of (SY/ Deviation (SY/ (SY/
Samples Day) (SY/Day) Day) Day)

78080-3420 7 11,246.42 5,582.80 16,840 2,766

78080-3421 10 7,379.40 1,061.80 9,080 5,333

78080-3424 12 8,256.40 2,957.20 13,864 4,170

Total Combined 29 8,675.70 3,711.90 16,840 2,766

Source: FDOT (1990)












Table 4.8 Guidelines for Estimating Production Rates for FDOT Projects

WORK ITEM DAILY COMMENTS
PRODUCTION


General Time
(Move in)

Clear & Grub

Excavation
(Regular)

Excavation
(Truck Haul)

Stabilized
Roadbed

Bases:
Sand-Clay
Limerock stabil.
Soil Cement

Surface Treatment

Cement Concrete


Milling Existing
Pavement

Plant Mixed
Surfaces

Guardrails


Compression Seal
Replacement

Breaking and
Compacting Exist-
ing Concrete
Pavement


15 days


3 acre


1400
5600
11200

900
3800
7500


4500 SY


900 SY

1800 SY

400 CY

2000 SY
4000 SY

6000 SY


500 TN
1200 TN

300 LF
1500 LF

100 LF

5000 SY


Normally for all projects unless specific
circumstances justify additional time.

Medium clearing (50 to 100 acres)

Small quantity jobs under 100,000 CY
Medium quantity jobs 100,000 300,000 CY
Large quantity jobs over 300,000 CY

Small quantity jobs under 100,000 CY
Medium quantity jobs 100,000 300,000 CY
Large quantity jobs over 300,000 CY

Normal.


Double lift installation.

Single lift installation.

Normal.

Average quantity jobs (under 25,000 CY)
Large quantity jobs (over 25,000 CY)

Average jobs.


Average jobs (less than 50,000 Tns)
Large jobs (over 50,000 Tns)


(less than 5000 LF)
(over 5000 LF)


Small jobs
Large jobs


Normal.


Normal


Source: Herbsman &


Ellis (1988)




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/,67 2) 58/(6 r 58/( 180%(5 ,) +,*+:$< 5(+$%0$,17(1$1&( 352-(&7 7<3( ,6 ^/$1( $'',7,21` 25 ^%5,'*( 5(+$%,/,7$7,21` 25 ^3$7&+,1*` 25 ^5(685)$&,1*` 25 ^0,//,1* t 5(685)$&,1*` 25 ^6.,' +$=$5' 5(685)$&,1*` 25 ^0(',$1 *8$5'5$,/ ,167$//5(3$,5` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` 25 ^27+(5` DQG >1@ DQG >/@ DQG >352-'@ DQG >'@ 7+(1 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` 127( $FFRUGLQJ WR JXLGHOLQHV GHYHORSHG E\ YDULRXV VWDWH '27V WKH HVWLPDWHG ODQH FDSDFLW\ IRU XUEDQ PXOWLODQH KLJKZD\V FDQ YDU\ EHWZHHQ DQG YHKLFOHV SHU KRXU SHU ODQH YSKOf GHSHQGLQJ RQ WUXFN ODQH ZLGWKODWHUDO FOHDUDQFH DQG ZRUN ]RQH IDFWRUV DV GHVFULEHG LQ WKH +&0 $ IORZ H[FHHGLQJ WKH YSKO FDSDFLW\ FDQ FDXVH VHULRXV EDFNXSV LQFUHDVLQJ XVHU SXEOLFf FRVWV LQ WHUPV RI WLPH DQG IXHO r 58/( 180%(5 ,) +,*+:$< 5(+$%0$,17(1$1&( 352-(&7 7<3( ,6 ^27+(5` DQG >-2%@R; DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` 25 ^27+(5` DQG >1@ DQG >/@ DQG >352-'@ DQG >'@ 7+(1 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` 127( $FFRUGLQJ WR JXLGHOLQHV GHYHORSHG E\ YDULRXV VWDWH '27V WKH HVWLPDWHG ODQH FDSDFLW\ IRU XUEDQ PXOWLODQH KLJKZD\V FDQ YDU\ EHWZHHQ DQG YHKLFOHV SHU KRXU SHU ODQH YSKOf GHSHQGLQJ RQ WUXFN ODQH ZLGWKODWHUDO FOHDUDQFH DQG ZRUN ]RQH IDFWRUV DV GHVFULEHG LQ WKH +&0 $ IORZ H[FHHGLQJ WKH YSKO FDSDFLW\ FDQ FDXVH VHULRXV EDFNXSV LQFUHDVLQJ XVHU SXEOLFf FRVWV LQ WHUPV RI WLPH DQG IXHO 5()(5(1&( 6KHSDUG t &RWWUHOO f SS

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' +$0,/721f DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( ` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 1257+` DQG 3($. :((.'$< 93+ &2817 3(5 ',5(&7,21f ,6 ^*,9(1 $ 1(: 9$/8(` 7+(1 ;! 66B:593+:. &OO >,1 +@f (/6( ;! 66B5'93+:. &OO >,1+@f 127( $YHUDJH ZHHNGD\ WUDIILF IORZ 93+ SHU GLUHFWLRQf FRXQW LV DXWRPDWLFDOO\ XSGDWHG LQ GDWDEDVH 93+:.f LI JLYHQ D QHZ YDOXH 2U WKH WUDIILF FRXQW FDQ EH REWDLQHG GLUHFWO\ IURP WKH VSUHDGVKHHW GDWDEDVH r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( ` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 1257+` DQG 3($. :((.'$< 93+ &2817 3(5 ',5(&7,21f ,6 ^*,9(1 $ 1(: 9$/8(` RU 3($. :((.'$< 93+ &2817 3(5 ',5(&7,21f ,6 2%7$,1(' )520 '$7$%$6(` DQG >,1+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 12 3$57,$/ '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >,1B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( ` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 1257+` DQG >,1B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >,1B+@!>/@r>1@ff

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7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >,1B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( ` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 1257+` DQG >,1 +@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >,1B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >,1 +@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( ` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 1257+` DQG >,1B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >,1+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >,1 +@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 &216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( `

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DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 6287+` DQG 3($. :((.'$< 93+ &2817 3(5 ',5(&7,21f ,6 ^*,9(1 $ 1(: 9$/8(f 7+(1 ;! 66B:593+:. & >,6B+@f (/6( ;! 66B5'93+:. & >,6B+@f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( ` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 6287+` DQG >,6B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^12 3$57,$/ '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >,6B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG >,6B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >,6B+@!>/@r>1@ff DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( ` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 6287+` 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >,6B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( `

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DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 6287+f DQG >,6B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >,6B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >,6 +@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG >,6B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >,6B+@!>/@r>1@ff DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^,17(567$7( ` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^ 6287+` 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >,6 +@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` DQG 3($. :((.'$< 93+ &2817 3(5 ',5(&7,21f ,6 ^*,9(1 $ 1(: 9$/8(` 7+(1 ;! 66B:593+:. & >861+@f (/6( ;! 66B5'93+:. & >861+@f

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` DQG >861+@!^>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^12 3$57,$/ '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >861 +@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` DQG >861B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >861B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >861B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG >861B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >861B+@!>/@r>1@ff DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >861B+@r

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG >861B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >861B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >861B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 6287+` DQG 3($. :((.'$< 93+ &2817 ^3(5 ',5(&7,21f ,6 ^*,9(1 $ 1(: 9$/8(` 7+(1 ;! 66B:593+:. & >866B+@f (/6( ;! 665'93+:. & >866B+@f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 6287+` DQG >866+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^12 3$57,$/ '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >866B+@r

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 6287+` DQG >866B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >866B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >866 +@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 6287+` DQG >866B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >866B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >866B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 6287+` DQG >866B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >866B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >866B+@r

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' +$0,/721f DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` DQG 3($. :((.'$< 93+ &2817 3(5 ',5(&7,21f ,6 ^*,9(1 $ 1(: 9$/8(` 7+(1 ;! 66B:593+:. & >861+@f (/6( ;! 66B5'93+:. & >861+@f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` DQG >861 +@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^12 3$57,$/ '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >861B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` DQG >861B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >861B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >861B+@r

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` DQG >861B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >861B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >861+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 1257+` DQG >861 +@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >861 +@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >861+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 &216,'(5('f DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^+$0,/721` DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 6287+` DQG 3($. :((.'$< 93+ &2817 3(5 ',5(&7,21f ,6 ^*,9(1 $ 1(: 9$/8(` 7+(1 ;! 66B:593+:. & >866B+@f (/6( ;! 66B5'93+:. & >866B+@f

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' +$0,/721f DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 86f DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 86 6287+f DQG >866+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 12 3$57,$/ '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6f DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >866B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 &216,'(5('f DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' +$0,/721f DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 86f DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 86 6287+f DQG >866B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >866B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >866B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 &216,'(5('f DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' +$0,/721f DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 86f DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 86 6287+f DQG >866B+@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >866B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >866B+@r

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' +$0,/721f DQG 52$':$< 352-(&7 ,6 21 ^86` DQG :25. =21( ,6 $7 ^86 6287+` DQG >866 +@ >/@r>1@ff DQG >866B+@!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 ^3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG >$'7@ ,6 *,9(1 7+( 9$/8( >866B+@r r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^27+(5` DQG >&/@R+;+ DQG >+<@!; DQG >$'7@! DQG >$'7@f!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^12 3$57,$/ '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 &216,'(5('f DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^27+(5` DQG >&/@R; DQG >+$'7@f >/@r>1@ff DQG >$'7@f!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f`

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^27+(5` DQG >&/@R+; DQG >+<@R; DQG >$'7@f >/@r>1@ff DQG >$'7@f!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 75$)),& &21*(67,21 ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG 1$0( 2) &2817< :+(5( 352-(&7 ,6 /2&$7(' ^27+(5` DQG >&/@!;+ DQG >+<@!+;+ DQG >$'7@f >/@r>1@ff DQG >$'7@f!>/@r>1@ff 7+(1 :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^12 3$57,$/ '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6` DQG :25. =21( 6$)(7< '(7(50,1(' %< ^(;3(57 -8'*(0(17f DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ,6 ^025( 6$)( 7+$1 '$< 6+,)7` 7+(1 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` 127( %DVHG RQ D VXUYH\ LQ &DOLIRUQLD LW ZDV GHWHUPLQHG WKDW WKHUH ZDV D JUHDWHU LQFUHDVH LQ DFFLGHQWV ZKLFK RFFXUUHG LQ FRQVWUXFWLRQ ]RQHV DQG QHDU QLJKWWLPH UHKDELOLWDWLRQ SURMHFWV WKDQ RFFXUUHG LQ WKH JHQHUDO VWDWHZLGH VWDWLVWLFV 7KH VWXG\ LQGLFDWHG WKDW QLJKW ZRUN KDG D KLJK UDWH FKDQJH ZKHQ FRPSDUHG ZLWK UDWH FKDQJHV LQ GD\WLPH ZRUN ]RQHV 5()(5(1&( &DOLIRUQLD 'HSW RI 7UDQVSRUWDWLRQ 0DUFK

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21ff DQG :25. =21( 6$)(7< '(7(50,1(' %< ^(;3(57 -8'*(0(17f DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ,6 ^127 6,*1,),&$17/< ',))(5(17 7+$1 '$< 6+,)7 ,1 7(506 2) 6$)(7'%@ DQG >''@ DQG >1%@ DQG >1'@ DQG >''@>'%@f>'%@f>1'@>1%@f>1%@ff DQG >1'@>1%@f>1%@f>''@>'%@f>'%@ff 7+(1 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^+$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7
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25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 )285 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 ),9( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG :25. =21( 6$)(7< '(7(50,1(' %< $&&,'(17 '$7$ $1$/<6,6` DQG >''@>'%@f>'%@f!>1'@>1%@f>1%@f DQG >''@>'%@f>'%@f>1'@>1%@f>1%@f! 7+(1 1,*+7 6+,)7 ,6 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG b &+$1*( 2) $&&,'(176 '8( 72 &216758&7,21 '85,1* 1,*+7 6+,)7 ,6 6,*1,),&$17/< 35()(55$%/( 29(5 7+$7 2) '85,1* '$< 6+,)7` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 )285 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 ),9( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG :25. =21( 6$)(7< '(7(50,1(' %< $&&,'(17 '$7$ $1$/<6,6` DQG >''@>'%@f>'%@f>1'@>1%@f>1%@f DQG >1'@>1%@f>1%@f>''@>'%@f>'%@f! 7+(1 1,*+7 6+,)7 ,6 127 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG b &+$1*( 2) $&&,'(176 '8( 72 &216758&7,21 '85,1* '$< 6+,)7 ,6 6,*1,),&$17/< 35()(55$%/( 29(5 7+$7 2) '85,1* 1,*+7 6+,)7` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ,6 127 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 127 $9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( (,7+(5 '$< 25 1,*+7 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 '2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 &216,'(5('` 127( 6DIHW\ FRQFHUQ UHTXLUHV ZRUN WR EH SHUIRUPHG GXULQJ WKH GD\ VKLIW RQO\ EHWZHHQ PRUQLQJ DQG HYHQLQJ UXVK KRXUV

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 127 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^127 $9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( (,7+(5 '$< 25 1,*+7 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^5(48,5(6 727$/ 52$' &/2685( 21( 25 %27+ ',5(&7,21f` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< :((.(1'6 1,*+7 30 $0 727$/ /$1( &/2685( 21( ',5f $&+,(9(' %< $//2:,1* :$< 23326,1* 75$)),& 21 /$1(6 23326,7( 2) :25. =21( &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` 127( 6LQFH QLJKW VKLIW LV XQVDIH ZRUN FDQ SURFHHG GXULQJ WKH GD\EXW RQO\ RQ ZHHNHQGV ZKHQ WUDIILF LV ORZ HQRXJK WR SHUPLW WRWDO ODQH FORVXUH RQH GLUHFWLRQf DQGRU GXULQJ WKH QLJKW XSWR $0 3RVVLELOLW\ RI DFFLGHQWV DUH KLJKHU DIWHU $0 GXH WR WLUHG GURZV\ RU LQWR[LFDWHG GULYHUV r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 127 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( /2:(5 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80( 21/<` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 5(48,5(6 727$/ 52$' &/2685( 21( 25 %27+ ',5(&7,21f` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 727$/ /$1( &/2685('(7285 86('f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` 127( ,I D MRE UHTXLUHV D ODUJH QXPEHU RI URDG SDWFKHV FORVLQJ RQH ODQH DW D WLPH ZRXOG WDNH PXFK ORQJHU IRU GD\OLJKW SDWFKLQJ WKDQ GRLQJ LW ZLWK WRWDO URDG FORVXUH DW QLJKW

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 127 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( /2:(5 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80( 21/<` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^'2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 127 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 $9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( '$<7,0( $1' 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^5(48,5(6 727$/ 52$' &/2685( 21( 25 %27+ ',5(&7,21f` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 727$/ /$1( &/2685('(7285 86('f &RQILGHQFH DQG :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 727$/ /$1( &/2685('(7285 86('f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` 127( $OWKRXJK LW KDV EHHQ GHWHUPLQHG WKDW QLJKW VKLIW LV XQVDIH E\ DFKLHYLQJ WRWDO URDG FORVXUH VDIHW\ LV QR ORQJHU D FRQFHUQ 7KLV LV EHFDXVH DOO WUDIILF WKURXJK ZRUN ]RQH LV GLYHUWHG E\ GHWRXU r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 127 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG

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DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( '$<7,0( $1' 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^'2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 ^3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( '$<7,0( $1' 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^5(48,5(6 727$/ 52$' &/2685( 21( 25 %27+ ',5(&7,21f` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 727$/ /$1( &/2685('(7285 86('f &RQILGHQFH DQG :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 727$/ /$1( &/2685('(7285 86('f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 &216,'(5('f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( '$<7,0( $1' 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 '2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('`

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( /2:(5 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80( 21/<` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^5(48,5(6 727$/ 52$' &/2685( 21( 25 %27+ ',5(&7,21f` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 727$/ /$1( &/2685('(7285 86('f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 &216,'(5('f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( /2:(5 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80( 21/<` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^'2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^,6 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^127 $9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( (,7+(5 '$< 25 1,*+7 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^'2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(`

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7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 &216,'(5('f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ,6 %(77(5 )25 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 ,6 127 $9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( (,7+(5 '$< 25 1,*+7 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 5(48,5(6 727$/ 52$' &/2685( 21( 25 %27+ ',5(&7,21f` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 727$/ /$1( &/2685( 21( ',5(&7,21f $&+,(9(' %< 0$,17$,1,1* :$< 23326,1* 75$)),& 21 /$1(6 23326,7( 2) :25. =21( &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 &216,'(5('f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 +$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` 7+(1 '(7285 $9$,/,%,/,7< ,6 &+(&.('f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f`

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25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^+$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 $9$,/,%,/,7< ,6 ^&+(&.('` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( '$<7,0( $1' 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^5(48,5(6 727$/ 52$' &/2685( 21( 25 %27+ ',5(&7,21f` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 727$/ /$1( &/2685('(7285 86('f &RQILGHQFH DQG :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 727$/ /$1( &/2685('(7285 86('f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^+$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 $9$,/,%,/,7< ,6 ^&+(&.('` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( /2:(5 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80( 21/<` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^5(48,5(6 727$/ 52$' &/2685( 21( 25 %27+ ',5(&7,21f` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 727$/ /$1( &/2685('(7285 86('f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^+$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 $9$,/,%,/,7< ,6 ^&+(&.('` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^127 $9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( (,7+(5 '$< 25 1,*+7 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^5(48,5(6 727$/ 52$' &/2685( 21( 25 %27+ ',5(&7,21f`

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7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 727$/ /$1( &/2685( 21( ',5(&7,21f $&+,(9(' %< 0$,17$,1,1* :$< 23326,1* 75$)),& 21 /$1(6 23326,7( 2) :25. =21( &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 &216,'(5('f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21ff 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 +$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 $9$,/,%,/,7< ,6 &+(&.('f DQG '(7285 ,6 127 $9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( (,7+(5 '$< 25 1,*+7 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 '2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(` DQG -2% 6&+('8/( :25. 7,0( $9$,/$%/(f 5(48,5(6 6+,)7 '85$7,21 72 %( $7/($67 +2856` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 &216,'(5('f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 +$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 $9$,/,%,/,7< ,6 &+(&.('f DQG '(7285 ,6 127 $9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( (,7+(5 '$< 25 1,*+7 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 '2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(` DQG -2% 6&+('8/( :25. 7,0( $9$,/$%/(f '2(6 127 5(48,5( $ 63(&,),& 6+,)7 '85$7,21` 7+(1 1,*+77,0( &216758&7,21 12,6( ,6 &216,'(5('f

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^+$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 $9$,/,%,/,7< ,6 ^&+(&.('` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( '$<7,0( $1' 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^'2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(` DQG -2% 6&+('8/( :25. 7,0( $9$,/$%/(f ^5(48,5(6 6+,)7 '85$7,21 72 %( $7/($67 +2856` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 ^+$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 $9$,/,%,/,7< ,6 ^&+(&.('` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( '$<7,0( $1' 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80(` DQG -2% 63(&,),&$7,21 ^'2(6 127 5(48,5( 727$/ 52$' &/2685(` DQG -2% 6&+('8/( :25. 7,0( $9$,/$%/(f '2(6 127 5(48,5( $ 63(&,),& 6+,)7 '85$7,21` 7+(1 1,*+77,0( &216758&7,21 12,6( ,6 ^&216,'(5('` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 1,*+7 6+,)7 +$6 12 6,*1,),&$17 ())(&7 21 :25.=21( 6$)(7<` DQG '(7285 $9$,/,%,/,7< ,6 ^&+(&.('` DQG '(7285 ,6 ^$9$,/$%/( 72 +$1'/( /2:(5 1,*+77,0( 75$)),& 92/80( 21/<`

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7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 &216,'(5('f 127( %XVLQHVV KRXUV RI PDWHULDOVSDUH SDUW VXSSOLHUV GR QRW FRPPRQO\ H[WHQG LQWR WKH QLJKW ,Q VRPH FDVHV QLJKWWLPH FRQVWUXFWLRQ PD\ QRW EH SRVVLEOH GXH HDUO\ FORVXUHV RI EDWFK SODQWV DQG HTXLSPHQW VXSSOLHUV r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 0$7(5,$/ t 3$576 6833/< ,6 &216,'(5('f DQG :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21ff 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21ff 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21ff DQG &216758&7,21 0$7(5,$/ t (48,30(17 3$57 6285&(6 $5( $9$,/$%/( $7 1,*+7f 7+(1 $*(1&<&2175$&725 (;3(5,(1&( ,6 &216,'(5('f r 58/( 180%(5 ,) $*(1&<&2175$&725 (;3(5,(1&( ,6 &216,'(5('f DQG :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21ff 25 8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21ff 25 8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21ff DQG $*(1&<&2175$&725 (;3(5,(1&( ,1 1,*+77,0( &216758&7,21 ,6 127 $'(48$7(f 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 '$< $0 30 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 &216,'(5('f 127( ,I DJHQF\FRQWUDFWRU LV XQIDPLOLDU ZLWK QLJKWWLPH FRQVWUXFWLRQ WKHQ WKHUH PD\ EH D GHFUHDVH LQ VDIHW\ DQG SURGXFWLYLW\ 2YHUDOO SURMHFW FRVWV ZRXOG PRVW OLNHO\ LQFUHDVH

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r 58/( 180%(5 ,) $*(1&<&2175$&725 (;3(5,(1&( ,6 ^&216,'(5('` DQG :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG $*(1&<&2175$&725 (;3(5,(1&( ,1 1,*+77,0( &216758&7,21 ,6 ^$'(48$7(` 7+(1 7(03(5$785( ',))(5(1&( %(7:((1 '$< $1' 1,*+7 6+,)76 ,6 ^$ &216,'(5$7,21` r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 7(03(5$785( ',))(5(1&( %(7:((1 '$< $1' 1,*+7 6+,)76 ,6 ^$ &216,'(5$7,21` DQG :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG 7(03(5$785( ',))(5(1&( %(7:((1 '$< t 1,*+7 6+,)76 ,6 ^6,*1,),&$17` DQG )25 :25. (19,5210(17 0$7(5,$/ $'$37$%,/,7< ^/2:(5 1,*+7 7(03(5$785( ,6 35()(55('` 7+(1 :25. 6+,)7 1,*+7 30 $0 3$57,$/ /$1( &/2685(f &RQILGHQFH DQG 727$/ &267 2:1(5 t 86(5f ,6 ^&216,'(5('` 127( 1LJKW VKLIW SURYLGHV FRROHU WHPSHUDWXUHV ZKLFK SHUPLW HDV\ SODFHPHQW RI 3RUWODQG FHPHQW FRQFUHWH SDUWLFXODUO\ GXULQJ VXPPHU +LJK GD\WLPH WHPSHUDWXUHV PD\ FDXVH LQFUHDVHG HYDSRUDWLRQ DQG D IDVWHU UDWH RI VHWWLQJ IRU 3&& PDNLQJ JRRG SODFHPHQW GLIILFXOW r 58/( 180%(5 ,) 7(03(5$785( ',))(5(1&( %(7:((1 '$< $1' 1,*+7 6+,)76 ,6 ^$ &216,'(5$7,21` :((.'$< 75$)),& 92/80( 3(50,76 ^21( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685( 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7:2 '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` 25 ^8372 7+5(( '$<7,0( /$1( &/2685(6 3(5 ',5(&7,21f` DQG

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81,9(56,7< 2) )/25,'$


A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM APPROACH TO WORK SHIFT SELECTION
FOR MULTILANE HIGHWAY RECONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE PROJECTS
By
Q. AMIN AHMED
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1993

To my parents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to extend my deep gratitude to Dr. Ralph D. Ellis,
my supervisory committee chairman, for his guidance and dedicated
support, which made this study possible. A special thank you is due to
Dr. Zohar Herbsman for his encouragement and valuable recommendations
throughout my doctoral studies. My sincere appreciation goes to Dr.
Fazil T. Najafi, Dr. Paul Y. Thompson, and Dr. Ajay Shanker for serving
on my supervisory committee. Additionally, I am grateful to Dr. Ronald
A. Cook for serving as an observer in my committee.
I wish to thank Mr. Ananth Prasad and Mr. Henry Haggerty of the
Florida Department of Transportation for their personal efforts in
providing valuable information for this research. I am grateful to Mr.
Ashish Kumar, graduate assistant in construction engineering, for his
support and advice--particularly for the statistical part of this study.
Finally, much gratitude is owed to my parents for their love,
continuous encouragement, and support during the entire course of my
studies.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
fiase
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
ABSTRACT x
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 1
Work Shift Selection in Highway Construction 1
Need to Identify Alternate Shift Times 2
Day vs. Night Shift 3
Decision Factors 6
Need for Decision Model 6
Research Objectives 9
2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 11
Introduction 11
Overview of Factors Attributable to Day and Night
Shift Work 12
Traffic Volume 13
Work Zone Safety 21
Public Relations 29
Noise Level 30
Cost 32
Quality of Work 41
Job Types in Highway Construction 46
Human Factors 50
Productivity 54
Other Factors 55
Summary 57
3 KNOWLEDGE-BASED EXPERT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY 58
Introduction 58
Architecture of an Expert System 59
i v

Knowledge Representation 63
Inference Engine 69
Knowledge Acquisition 70
Expert System Development Shells 72
Current Applications in Construction Engineering .. 74
Summary 75
4 PROJECT COST AND PRODUCTIVITY DATA FOR DAY AND
NIGHT SHIFTS 77
Introduction 77
Project Cost Comparison 78
Productivity Comparison 86
Summary 93
5 MODEL APPROACH FOR WORK SHIFT SELECTION 94
Introduction 94
Lane Closure Traffic Analysis 96
Accident Analysis 99
Project Cost Analysis 100
User Cost Analysis 102
Summary 105
6 DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM MODEL 107
Introduction 107
Knowledge Acquisition 108
Knowledge Base Objective 110
Formulation of Rules 120
External Database Interface 123
Solution Search Technique 125
Explanation/Help Facility 125
Summary 127
7 MODEL TESTING--CASE STUDY 128
Introduction 128
Case Study I 128
Case Study II 132
8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 135
Summary and Conclusions 135
Recommendations 138
v

APPENDICES
A PROGRAM INTRODUCTION, QUALIFIERS, CHOICES, AND
VARIABLES 141
B KNOWLEDGE BASE RULES 155
C EXAMPLE OF EXTERNAL TRAFFIC COUNT DATABASE 200
D PROGRAM HELP FILES 202
E EXAMPLE OF PROJECT DATA COLLECTION FORM 204
F PROGRAM INPUT DATA AND RESULTS 208
G INTERVIEW RESULTS 213
REFERENCES 218
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 221
vi

LIST OF TABLES
Table page
1.1 Work Hour Restrictions (In Accordance to Traffic
Plan Developed by Maryland & Virginia) 4
1.2 Highway Construction Work Shift Selection-
Factors To Be Considered 7
2.1 Lane Capacities for Selected Metropolitan Areas 15
2.2 Number of Accidents Before and During Construction
in Seven States 23
2.3 Summary of Work Zone Accidents at Night 24
2.4 Fatal Accidents on Urban Freeways by Time of Day
and Day of Week 28
2.5 Estimated Increase in Cost Differential
of Night Work 34
2.6 1-70 Night Paving Project vs. 1-25 Day Paving
-- Percent Cost Differential 35
2.7 Costs to Purchase, Install, and Remove Light Posts .. 39
2.8 Paving Quality Test Results from Field Samples 43
2.9 Quality Rating of Nighttime Operations 45
2.10 Florida DOT Projects Using Night Work 48
2.11 Construction Activities Performed Better At Night ... 49
3.1 Difference Between Expert System and
Conventional Program 60
4.1 Statistical Summary of Unit Costs for Selected Work
Items for All Daytime FDOT Projects in 1990 79
4.2 Statistical Summary of Unit Costs for Selected Work
Items for All Nighttime FDOT Projects in 1990 80
vi i

4.3 Difference Between Day and Night Unit Costs for
Selected Work Items for All FDOT Projects in 1990 ... 81
4.4 Quantities of Work Items for Eight Selected FDOT
Night Projects 83
4.5 Effect of Quantity on Project Costs for Eight
Selected Work Items 84
4.6 Summary of Productivity Rates for FDOT Construction
Projects 87
4.7 Summary of Productivity Rates for FDOT Nighttime
Construction Project on 1-95 in St. Johns County .... 88
4.8 Guidelines for Estimating Production Rates for
FDOT Projects 89
4.9 Statistical Test for Day & Night Production Rate
of Plant Mixed Surface 91
4.10 Statistical Test for Day & Night Production Rate
of Milling Existing Surface 92
5.1 Decision Factors That Influence Shift Selection 95
5.2 1-75 (North Bound) Average Weekday Hourly Traffic
Volumes. Location: Hamilton County 98
5.3 Personal Cost of Time Delay for Queuing 104
vi i i

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure page
1.1 Research Development Flowchart 10
2.1 Traffic Flow on a 4-Lane Freeway 17
2.2 Traffic Volume/Capacity Relations 19
2.3 Effect of Lane Closure at Different Hours 20
2.4 California Urban Freeway Fatal Accident Rates 26
2.5 Triad of Shift Work Coping Factors 51
3.1 The Expert System Architecture 61
3.2 A Frame Representation of Knowledge 64
3.3 Knowledge Representation Using Semantic Network 66
6.1 Decision Tree Segment for Work Shift Selection:
Congestion Analysis 114
6.2 Decision Tree Segment (Closed) for Work Shift
Selection: Accident Analysis 115
6.3 Decision Tree Segment (Open) for Work Shift
Selection: Accident Analysis 116
6.4 Decision Tree Segment (Open) for Work Shift
Selection:Noise, Quality, Productivity Considerations.. 117
6.5 Decision Tree Segment (Open) for Work Shift Selection:
Experience, Supply and Temperature Considerations 118
6.6 Decision Tree Segment (Closed) for Work Shift Selection:
Supervision/Communication and Human Factors 119
ix

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
A KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM APPROACH TO WORK SHIFT SELECTION
FOR MULTILANE HIGHWAY RECONSTRUCTION AND
MAINTENANCE PROJECTS
By
Q. Amin Ahmed
August 1993
Chairman: Dr. Ralph D. Ellis
Major Department: Civil Engineering
The timely, efficient, and quality completion of highway projects
partly depends on the selection of the appropriate work shift. Certainly
there are advantages and disadvantages for both day and night shifts.
Daytime operations are generally considered to be safer for both workers
and motorists because of better visibility and a higher state of
alertness. However, to accommodate the flow of higher daytime traffic
volumes, work zone lane closures may not be possible--and the option to
work during the night becomes a serious consideration. A highway
project's characteristics may favor a particular work shift. Type of
work, lane capacity, average daily traffic (ADT), work zone accidents,
project duration, and project costs are some of the issues that may
dictate shift times.
This research is aimed towards the development of a decision model
that will incorporate all the factors that may influence the selection of
either a day or a night work shift. The process is based on a decision
x

tree representing qualitative and quantitative factors, ranked in the
order of importance. The shift selection methodology is similar to the
human reasoning process and that is why a knowledge-based system approach
has been chosen for this decision model. An expert system shell has been
utilized to develop the knowledge base, which consists of IF-THEN logic
rules. The rule-based knowledge structure also has the option to
interface with an external traffic count database for the purpose of lane
closure analysis.
The model approach to work shift selection includes mathematical
reasoning in the analysis of traffic congestion, vehicle accident numbers,
motorist (user) costs, and project (owner) costs. The final solution
offered by the knowledge-based system model consists of the recommended
work shift, number of daytime lane closures allowed, user cost savings for
a night shift option, and percent change in total owner cost for a
nighttime alternative.
XI

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT
Work Shift Selection in Highway Construction
In recent years, in Florida, as in many other states, the emphasis
in highway construction has primarily been on rehabilitating existing
facilities. Resurfacing, widening, multilane reconstruction, and bridge
repair are typical activities currently taking place in various states.
A major concern for state transportation agencies during construction and
rehabilitation of the nation's highway system is to minimize public
inconvenience. Work zone traffic accidents, congestion, noise, and cost
to the delayed motorists are issues that may lead to adverse public
reaction. In the urban areas, required lane closures during
rehabilitation work are resulting in heavy traffic congestion. This
problem is not limited to roads in urban locations, but also includes
freeways that become crowded during peak travel periods. For example, in
Florida, Interstate 75 is so crowded during holiday periods that it
resembles an urban main street. 1-4 near Orlando often becomes a "local"
street due to congestion during tourist season.
Agency experience or mathematical reasoning can be utilized to
evaluate the acceptability of this congestion level. A recent survey of
ten state agencies done by researchers indicates a cutoff volume of
approximately 1500 vehicles per hour per lane at which backups are
expected (Shepard and Cottrell, 1985). As the traffic volume exceeds the
1

2
cutoff point, the agency is obliged to consider alternate working hours--
namely, night shift. However, noise ordinances in some areas may prevent
usage of heavy and noisy equipment during night hours. The selected shift
hours must be such that traffic congestion and public disturbance are kept
minimal and that overall safety requirements are adequately met during
those periods. After these preliminary criteria are satisfied, the state
agency will have to consider or weigh a variety of other factors (positive
and negative) that are associated with different shift times. In addition
to the many site-related variables, there are human and sociological
factors that can be attributed to a work shift and which in turn may
influence the timely, efficient, and quality completion of highway
projects. Different work shifts have different effects on a worker's
health, attitudes, and performance. Thus, the selection of appropriate
work shift hours is an important project management decision for the state
highway agency.
Need to Identify Alternate Shift Times
Unlike the manufacturing industry where production takes place in an
enclosed, controlled surrounding, highway construction takes place in a
dynamic environment, influenced by many external factors. Although the
highway work shift may be broadly classified by "day" and "night" shifts,
it is necessary also to identify the specific hours that provide the ideal
work environment. These shift times will no doubt vary from project to
project, when all the factors are taken into account. In some situations,
the work shift may even be a combination day and evening hours. When
working in major metropolitan areas, highway agencies typically restrict

3
their roadway construction and maintenance activities to hours of off-peak
traffic and weekends.
In certain areas, highway construction and maintenance work can
proceed unhindered during "off-peak" hours, i.e., 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.
However, there are situations where lanes cannot be closed during the day
at all due to high traffic volumes. Traffic congestion in some areas may
last up to 12 or 14 hours a day. Nighttime operation is now being
considered as a viable and necessary option, not only from the point of
view of project management, but also from the public relations
perspective. Table 1.1 shows work hour restrictions for varying traffic
conditions in accordance with the traffic control plan developed by
Maryland and Virginia highway agencies (Shepard and Cottrell, 1985). Each
traffic condition represents different lane closure situations.
Day vs. Night Shift
The obvious advantage of night work is that there is less
interference from heavy traffic, allowing efficient project scheduling.
According to Lee (1969), a concrete paving operation in California
conducted at night was finished in 16 working days, whereas the same
project would have taken a minimum of 35 days for completion during the
daytime. A day shift would have provided fewer working hours and more
interference from heavy traffic, resulting in delay of material delivery.
Quality of construction may or may not differ during day and night
shifts. Price, in his 1985 report on nighttime paving, has stated that
overall quality on a night paving job (1-70) in Denver, Colorado, was very
similar to a well done day job (1-25 north of Denver). Compaction did not

4
Table 1.1 - Work Hour Restrictions (In Accordance with the Traffic Control
Plan Developed by Maryland & Virginia)
Day
Traffic Condition
I
II
III
Monday
through
Thursday
6:00 am - 9:00 am
3:30 pm - 8:00 pm
9:00 am - 3:30 pm
12:00 pm - 6:00 am
8:00 pm - 12:00 pm
Friday
6:00 am - 9:00 am
3:30 pm - 8:00 pm
9:00 am - 3:00 pm
12:00 pm - 6:00 am
9:30 pm - 12:00 pm
Saturday
N/A
7:30 am- 8:00 pm
12:00 pm - 6:00 am
8:00 pm - 12:00 pm
Sunday
N/A
10:30 am - 10 pm*
10:30 am - 8 pm**
12:00 pm - 10:30 am
10:00 pm - 12:00 pm*
8:00 pm - 12:00 pm**
Traffic Condition I : No lane closures permitted, all lanes open
to traffic.
Traffic Condition II: Single lane closure (median, center, right)
permitted.
Traffic Condition III: Three, two or one lane closure permitted.
* After Easter weekend through second Sunday in September.
** Third Sunday in September through weekend before Easter.
Source: Shepard and Cottrell, 1985

5
suffer despite cooler night temperatures. The only aspect of quality that
deteriorated during night work was aesthetics.
There is a cost advantage in night operation in terms of user costs,
congestion and delay being less during night hours. A user cost analysis
done by Price revealed a total savings of $1,154,900 for the motorists in
an 1-70 night project compared to an equivalent 1-25 daytime project.
However, construction costs tend to be higher during the night shift.
Price (1985), in comparing the 1-70 and 1-25 projects, has stated that the
average cost per item was approximately 40% higher for the night paving
job (1-70). Material acquisition, extra personnel, and lighting fixtures
are some of the items that have additional costs during night work.
The issue of safety, for both construction workers and vehicular
traffic, is an important consideration in deciding shift times. Safety
records in highway work zones can indicate the factors that cause
accidents and whether they can be attributable to certain shift hours.
For a meaningful comparison of safety and accident characteristics of
night and day shifts, it is necessary to consider many variables, such as
duration of lane closure, proportion of closed lanes, job type, closure
length, traffic control devices, etc. At present, there are no general
conclusions regarding safety on various work shifts. According to Lum
(1980), in his study of 7 states, construction during night shift did not
increase the percentage of total night accidents to overall accidents
(constant at 30%). However, Lum's research did reveal that there was a
9.4% increase for night accidents as a result of construction, which means
that there is a similar increase for day accidents due to construction.

6
Another issue in project management, which may be of concern during
a particular work shift, is communication. Communication between the
highway agency and the contractor may be difficult during night work
hours. If the proper authority cannot be reached for consultation at a
certain time, construction work could come to a virtual halt. A similar
concern arises for equipment maintenance. Equipment failure would result
in production delay if parts or mechanics were unavailable during a work
shift.
Decision Factors
The highway agency, as a decision maker, will have to consider both
qualitative and quantitative factors in the work shift selection process.
Examples of qualitative factors are agency policy, public relations,
noise, job type, communication, worker morale, work quality, and
temperature (see Table 1.2). Highway capacity, traffic volume, motorist
delay resulting from traffic congestion, and accident rate are typical
quantitative variables. The cost differential factor, if it can be
quantified, may be categorized as quantitative; otherwise, it can be
qualitative in nature, being higher or lower.
Need for Decision Model
Currently there is no decision model available for state highway
agencies that will enable them to select work shifts quickly and
efficiently, taking all possible factors into consideration. For most
highway projects, state agency engineers select the work shift hours based
on judgment and experience, with some usage of mathematical models to

7
Table 1.2 - Highway Construction Work Shift Selection--Factors To
Be Considered
Quantitative
Qualitative
Traffic Volume vs. Roadway
Agency Policy
Capacity
Public Relations
User Costs Due to Delay at
Work Zone
Noise
- Vehicle
- Fuel
Worker Morale
- Personal
Work Quality
Owner Costs
- Project Item Cost
- Administrative Cost
Temperature
Job Type
Work Zone Accidents
Communication

8
calculate expected traffic volumes and delay times. But there is no
systematic methodology to "optimize" the shift selection process. A
project may be done during the night unnecessarily, resulting in increased
project costs. Work shift selection by the state agency is aimed towards
public satisfaction mainly; owner costs are largely ignored. Some
projects remain behind schedule because of delays caused during a
particular work shift. For example, at night, materials or spare parts
may be available on a limited basis; during the day, work progress may
slow down due to traffic interference. An interactive consulting tool,
such as a knowledge-based expert system, would aid the highway agency in
optimizing the selection of a particular work shift and identify the
reasons for the selection. For instance, if daytime traffic volume
allowed lane closures and night work were determined to be unsafe, then
certainly the appropriate work period choice would be day shift, even if
cooler night temperature is preferred.
The knowledge of the experienced decision makers in various state
agencies is scattered in the form of literature in reports, journals,
survey results, and guidelines. Although various state agencies have
guidelines that determine allowable daytime lane closures based on traffic
analysis, there are many other qualitative factors that are not considered
in a formal manner. This information needs to be compiled and made
available to state highway engineers in the form of a knowledge base. A
rule-based expert system approach is ideally suited for the type of
decision-making problem discussed above. Its interactive feature and ease
of use makes it a suitable substitute for a human consultant.

9
Research Objectives
A systematic, focused research in a narrow domain will enable the
practical development of a prototype expert system model for work shift
selection in highway construction. Figure 1.1 illustrates the research
development flowchart. To this end, the goals of the research study are:
1. To visit several district offices of the Florida Department of
Transportation (FDOT) to investigate the decision-making
process used in selecting work shifts for highway construction
and interview experts in highway construction.
2. To review current procedures used by the FDOT and other state
agencies nationwide for construction projects during day and
night shifts. Cost differentials, accident and safety, human
performance, and case studies of successful night operations
are some of the areas for review.
3. To perform a statistical analysis/comparison to determine if
there are any significant differences in project related costs
and productivity rates between day and night shifts.
4. To identify the various parameters necessary for the
development of knowledge-base rules for an expert system model
for highway work shift selection.
5. To utilize PC-based shell EXSYS Professional in designing a
knowledge-base structure.
6. To evaluate the possible uses of the model by using a sample
case study approach.
7. To summarize the final outcomes and state the conclusions
drawn forth from this research.

| INTRODUCTION &
I PROBLEM STATEMENT
LITERATURE REVIEW
KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM
DEVELOPMENT
KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION
KNOWLEDGE BASE STRUCTURE
Interview Expert*
Decision Tree
Review Current Procedures
Usage of ES Shell
Review Research Studies
Formulation of Rules
Data Analy9i9
1
KNOWLEDE-B
MODEL 1
Case
ASED SYSTEM
rESTING
Studies
SUMMARY AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Figure 1.1 - Research Development Flowchart
10

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Introduction
Recent literature on highway construction emphasizes the need to
perform rehabilitation work during shifts other than the typical day shift
utilized in most industries. In urban areas the problem of congestion is
of particular concern. To accommodate rehabilitation and improvement
activities on the freeways, state agencies are required to close traffic
lanes, creating heavy congestion on roads already loaded to capacity. The
congestion has created problems for state agencies and contractors in
terms of safety and project scheduling. The situation is also hazardous,
costly, and inconvenient for the traveling public. As a result, more
construction and rehabilitation work is being performed during the night
shift, when traffic flow is minimum.
This literature search was done to identify the principal factors
involved in deciding shift times for highway construction projects.
Qualitative and quantitative attributes that are linked to activities
during different work periods were obtained from various highway
construction literature. Specifically, unique aspects of day and night
operations were targeted for identification. A computer database search
through the Southern Technology Applications Center (STAC) in Gainesville,
Florida, revealed over 25 published articles related directly to the
subject of nighttime highway construction.
11

12
In the following section, an overview of the factors attributable to
day or night shift work in highway construction is presented. The
literature review for each of the workshift selection factors is presented
in detail section by section in this chapter.
Overview of Factors Attributable to Day and Night Shift Work
Several published reports in the transportation area have provided
information on issues relating to the planning, safety, and traffic
control aspects of nighttime maintenance and construction work and their
advantages and disadvantages. Shepard and Cottrell (1985) conducted a
study that compiled information on current practices in nighttime highway
maintenance and construction operations. This information was used to
develop guidelines for determining when night work should be done and what
traffic control devices should be utilized. The authors have researched
the many variables, problems, decisions, and issues involved in nighttime
highway rehabilitation. Results from visits and discussions with 11 state
departments of transportation revealed the different strategies and
philosophies involved in nighttime operations. The major areas covered in
their nighttime construction feasibility study are scheduling of lane and
road closures, work zone costs, safety, public relations/user costs, and
traffic control. Hinze and Carlisle (1990) have done further evaluation
of the important variables in nighttime construction. The authors have
focused their research on rehabilitation and maintenance activities of
major metropolitan highways. Qualitative and quantitative factors related
to nighttime construction have been detailed in their study. Advantages
and disadvantages of a nighttime construction schedule are also discussed.

13
The following sections review information obtained on traffic
congestion, work-zone safety, public relations, noise, cost, quality
control, job type, human and sociological factors, and productivity. All
these are factors that need to be considered in the shift selection
process.
Traffic Volume
Typically, daytime traffic volume in metropolitan areas demands a
particular lane capacity to keep congestion low. Lane closures during
construction work are dictated by the comparison of observed traffic
volume and specified lane capacities. The determination of lane
capacities and actual traffic volume is necessary to estimate the level of
congestion created by lane or road closures. If this congestion is
unacceptably high during a certain time period, lane closures for
construction may be limited or not permitted at all, requiring agencies to
decide on alternate work shifts. Low volume periods should be identified
for scheduling work shifts. Night shift offers the advantage of low
traffic volume.
Shepard and Cottrell (1985) have discussed in some detail how
traffic volume and lane capacities are determined and how traffic flow can
be synchronized with road construction activities. Agencies rely on
mathematical models as well as past experience to make traffic capacity
forecasts. According to Dudek and Richards (1985), the State of Texas
expects a lane capacity of 1050 vehicles per hour (VPH) on a 3-lane urban
highway with 1 lane open, when resurfacing or removing asphalt. A study
of cumulative distributions and average capacities of similar work zones

14
allowed the Texas officials to make this capacity forecast. Based on
policies and experience, work location, job type, etc., some state
agencies have developed guidelines for lane capacities. Agency policy may
dictate that nighttime construction is necessary if the traffic volume
during the daytime hours for a certain location exceeds a "cutoff" value,
after which resulting delays are "unacceptable." Table 2.1 shows a
listing of cutoff values adopted by ten agencies surveyed by Shepard and
Cottrell. The Highway Capacity Manual (National Research Council, 1985)
provides one of the empirical formulas to estimate roadway capacity.
VPH (per lane) = Z * fw * fhv * fp
where,
Z = capacity under ideal conditions at design speed.
fw = lane width / lateral clearance adjustment factor.
fhv = heavy vehicle adjustment factor.
fp = driver population factor.
The values for these adjustment factors may be obtained from tables
included in the manual.
To ensure good volume estimates, agencies supplement existing data
with special spot counts. In major cities such as Chicago, Los Angeles,
and Detroit, agencies have supplemented traffic volume data with real-time
traffic flow data from their freeway surveillance system. The estimation
of traffic volumes is also influenced by diversion. Motorists are often
induced to take alternate routes if prior publicity is made by the agency.
According to Shepard and Cottrell (1985), information from California
indicated that a traffic volume diversion up to 30% was possible for
local traffic when prior publicity on alternate routes was done.

15
Table 2.1 - Lane Capacities for Selected Metropolitan Areas
Area
VPH per Lane
Comments
Los Angeles
1500-1800
a)
b)
1500--usually no congestion unless
more than one lane is closed.
Sometimes use 1800 (with some backups
to give contractor more time).
Atlanta
1200-1500
a)
No daytime closure. Depending on the
area, no daytime closures if 2 or more
lanes need to be closed.
Chicago
1300-1500
a)
Depends on location, number of ramps.
Detroit
1200-1500
a)
b)
1200--volume before backup starts.
1500--expect serious backups.
Raleigh
1200-1600
a)
Depends on area and experience.
Philadelphia
—
a)
Closures based on experience.
Long Island
1500
a)
If closure is 2 or more lanes, have to
detour traffic and work at night.
Dallas
1300-1500
a)
In many cases will accept daytime
backups rather than work at night.
Houston
1200-1500
a) >1200--start worrying.
b) =1500--requires detailed analysis.
c) >1500--only with special traffic control.
Source: Shepard and Cottrell (1985)

16
A common method used by agencies to evaluate congestion is simply to
plot the hourly volumes for the work shift time period. Figure 2.1
indicates the volume distribution (curve) on a 4-lane highway during a
probable work period, along with estimated capacities (horizontal lines)
for 3 lane, 2 lane and 1 lane closures. From the graph it is apparent
that for 2 lane closure the traffic volume from 10:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.
and from 8:00 p.m. to 6:30 a.m. does not exceed the given capacity.
However, these work periods are very short in duration to allow major
repair activities. Statistics have shown that under normal daytime
operations, there are two peak traffic loads that actually cut the work
period to an inefficient 5-1/2 hour day (Abbott, 1978). Figure 2.1
indicates a lengthy work period during the night when 3 lanes are closed,
with only 1 lane required to remain open to handle traffic. By noting
when the traffic demand and the capacity are in the same range, it is
possible to determine the times at which the lanes can be closed and
reopened to traffic.
Vehicle delay costs is an important quantitative factor in the
workshift selection process. Highway construction literature has
indicated that nighttime construction greatly reduces user costs related
to vehicle delay. A research report by Price (1985) comparing two similar
paving projects (one nighttime, the other daytime) in Colorado, reveals a
reduction of vehicle cost from $119,100 (daytime) to $10,100 (nighttime).
The author obtained the dollar estimates from a 1977 report titled A
Manual on User Benefit Analysis of Highway and Bus Transit Improvement.
The values were estimated showing excess cost of vehicle speed change
cycles above cost of continuing at initial speed. For the daytime cost,

17
Volume VPH (thousands)
12 1 2345678 9101112 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112
A.M.<—Time of Day—>P.M.
Volume Curve —'— 1-LANE CLOSURE
*- 2-LANE CLOSURE ~B- 3-LANE CLOSURE
Source: Hinze & Carlisle (1990)
Figure 2.1 - Traffic Flow on a 4-Lane Freeway

18
the author assumed an initial vehicle speed of 55 mph and a 10 minute
delay due to traffic stoppage, followed by resumption of speed. For the
daytime paving project analyzed by Price, a cost of $64.68 per 1000
vehicles was estimated. By using daytime traffic counts and considering
a project duration of 37 days, a cost of $119,100 was calculated (Price,
1985). For the nighttime paving project, traffic speed was assumed to
slow down to 30 mph, and the estimated vehicle cost was $10,100 for the
change in speed over the project duration.
Vehicle delay, length and size of vehicle queue can be calculated
from a mathematical model, as shown graphically in Figure 2.2 (Shepard &
Cottrell, 1985). The graph shows the arrival curve and the departure
curve indicating the upstream traffic volume and bottleneck capacity,
respectfully. At time t2 the number of vehicles in queue, Q, equals to the
corresponding ordinate on the arrival curve minus the corresponding
ordinate on the departure curve, the ordinate value being the total number
of vehicles. The queue begins to form when the arrival curve slope is
greater than the departure curve slope. The queue is at its maximum when
the two slopes are equal, and it starts to dissipate after that point
(Mannering & Kilareski, 1988). As shown in Figure 2.2, the longest
vehicle delay occurs at time t3. The length of this delay is given by the
horizontal line D, joining the two points where the two curves have equal
slopes. Agency planners can utilize the quantitative information from
this model to determine whether the traffic characteristics of a
particular workshift is acceptable or not. Figure 2.3 illustrates an
example usage of this model, based on a study done in California (Gillis,
1969).

19
No. of
Vehicles
Source: Shepard & Cottrell (1985)
Figure 2.2 - Traffic Volume / Capacity Relations

20
Cum.
Vehicles
(thousands)
Hour of Day
Source: Gillis (1969)
Figure 2.3 - Effect of Lane Closure at Different Hours

21
Vehicle delay in hours can also be measured by the following
equation noted by Hinze and Carlisle (1990):
Delay =DW/SW - D/S
where,
Dw = work zone route (detour) distance in miles.
Sw = average work zone route (detour) speed in m.p.h.
D = normal route distance in miles.
S = average normal route speed in m.p.h.
This equation takes into consideration the fact that vehicle delay
can occur by speed changes through the work zone and also by distance
changes resulting from a detour. During highway construction work shift
selection, this type of detailed analysis allows planners to evaluate the
traffic impact objectively.
Work Zone Safety
One of the most important factors that state agencies consider when
deciding highway work shift periods is safety. The issue of safety during
nighttime construction has been addressed in several research reports.
These reports note the controversy over which work shift is safer than the
other. The obvious hazards during the night shift are reduced visibility,
higher speeds, and a higher frequency of drunk or inattentive drivers on
the roadway. But the night shift also offers a reduction of traffic
volume, which in turn results in safer working conditions. From reviewing
existing literature, it is difficult to compare the safety aspects of
night shift as opposed to those for day shift simply because of the lack
of comparable data.

22
Motorist Safety
The subject of highway work-zone accidents is covered by several
published reports. A report prepared by Graham, Paulsen, and Glennon
(1977) for the Federal Highway Administration includes results of a study
of construction zone traffic accidents. The study involved analysis of
traffic accidents occurring in 79 zones in seven states. In two states
the total number of accidents actually decreased during construction.
However, when data from all seven states were combined, results indicated
an overall "before work" to "during work" average accident rate increase
of 7.5%, with a corresponding 9.4% increase for night accidents (Graham et
al., 1977). Lum (1980) has shown these results in a tabular format (Table
2.2) in a paper published in the December issue of Public Roads.
Breakdowns by accident type, severity, light condition, roadway type, area
type, work area, job type and location are also included in the results.
The authors concluded that the number of traffic related night accidents
increased during construction, but the proportion of night accidents to
total accidents remained the same at 30% for before and during
construction.
Nemeth and Rathi (1983) published a work-zone accident report in the
Transportation Quarterly that contains accident data collected through a
28 month study by the Ohio Turnpike Commission. The report includes the
number and percent of total accidents in different portions of the work
zone that occurred during the night shift. Table 2.3 summarizes the
percent of night accidents in the work zone. The study concluded that the
crossover zone, where traffic is forced to shift over to other lanes, has
the highest accident rates.

23
Table 2.2 - Number of Accidents Before and During Construction in Seven
States
State and
Time
Before Construction
During Construction
% Change
State 1:
Day
971
892
-8.1
Night
561
592
4.8
1,532
1,484
-3.1
State 2:
Day
N/A
733
N/A
Night
N/A
280
N/A
1,023
1,013
-1.0
State 3:
Day
1,075
1,216
13.1*
Night
744
778
4.6
1,819
1,994
9.6
State 4:
Day
708
723
2.1
Night
271
353
30.3*
979
1,076
9.9
State 5:
Day
1,540
1,726
12.1*
Night
659
729
10.6
2,199
2,455
11.6*
State 6:
Day
340
439
29.1*
Night
183
196
7.1
523
635
21.4**
State 7:
Day
61
91
49.2*
Night
32
37
15.6*
93
128
37.6*
All States
Day
4,695
5,087
8.3
Night
2,454
2,685
9.4
7,149
7,772
8.7
* = Statistically significant at the 5 % level
Source: Lum (1980)

24
Table 2.3 - Summary of Work Zone Accidents at Night
(Ohio Turnpike Commission)
Zone
Total Number
of Accidents
Number of
Accidents
at Night
Percent
Night
Accident
Advance
12
1
8.3
Taper
17
6
35.3
Single Lane
Crossover:
43
13
30.2
First Curve
49
34
69.4
Total
63
39
61.9
Bi-direction
41
18
43.9
Other Work
9
3
Zone Total
185
80
41.6
All Turnpike
3,429
1,431
41.7
Source: Nemeth and Rathi (1983)

25
A 1985 California accident study reveals that although the lightest
traffic congestion occurred between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m.,
the fatal accident rate (per 100 MVMT, million vehicle miles of travel)
during this period was very high. Figure 2.4 (Highway Maintenance
Activities During Low Volume Traffic Hours, Report to the Legislature,
1988) illustrates the California fatal accident rate expressed as a
function of hours of the day. The graph shows how the rate increases
sharply at night, peaking at about 3:00 a.m. A work zone vehicle accident
report by Hargroves and Martin (1980) indicates similar results in a 1977
study in Virginia, where for all accident categories the lowest number of
accidents occurred during the late night hours.
Shepard and Cottrell conducted interviews on the subject of safety
at night work zones with state agencies from Texas, California, Illinois,
Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania. Texas is taking extra measures to
ensure safety during night operations; for example, in Houston a special
crew was formed to manage traffic on high volume freeways. Another urban
area in Texas is more ready to accept long daytime traffic backups rather
than accept the high risk of night construction. The California
Department of Transportation (DOT) is prepared to accept daytime vehicle
delay up to a certain cutoff point, beyond which night work is considered.
In the Los Angeles area, the hours between 2:00 a.m. and 3:00 a.m. are
considered unsafe for workers due to the presence of irresponsible drivers
on the road. Safety is given the most priority in Chicago when the agency
selects work shifts for road maintenance operations. Illinois DOT
officials reported that nighttime accidents were more severe because of
higher vehicular speeds and more frequent encounters with drunk drivers.

URBAN FREEWAY FATAL ACCIDENT RATES PER
100 MILL. VEH. MILES OF TRAVEL (1985)
26
FATAL ACCIDENTS PER 100 MVMT
A.M.<—TIME OF DAY —> P.M.
Accident Rate
Source: California DOT (1988)
Figure 2.4 - California Urban Freeway Fatal Accident Rates

27
In Chicago, diversion of traffic volume by detours during highway work is
not considered very often because of the potential safety hazard in "bad"
neighborhoods. However, in Detroit, providing detours is not a problem,
due to the availability of convenient alternate routes such as express
lanes and service roads. As a result, Michigan DOT has been able to
close freeways entirely for nighttime maintenance, diverting traffic
through detours successfully. In New York State, agency officials realize
the importance of providing nighttime safety and the need for additional
spending on safety measures. Pennsylvania DOT, although initially
skeptical of the safety of nighttime operations, discovered that night
shift work could be less accident-prone if vehicular speeds are reduced by
the presence of a police car with flashing lights at the beginning of the
lane closure. Also, advance publicity through news media increased safety
for both day and night shift work.
Worker Safety
According to the California DOT report "Highway Maintenance
Activities During Low Volume Traffic Hours," nighttime construction
accounted for 60 percent of the injuries/fatalities sustained in highway
work zones. Table 2.4 shows the percentage of fatal accidents on urban
freeways by the time of day and day of week. A high percentage of fatal
accidents were noted during nightime and early morning hours. Most worker
fatalities (and major injuries) are related to errant drivers causing
these accidents. The California report concludes that the high fatal
accident rate during night hours creates a very hazardous environment for
the workers on site. The report cautions that a large scale move from day
maintenance to night maintenance could mean a significant increase in
worker injury and fatality rates.

28
Table 2.4 - Fatal Accidents on Urban Freeways by Time of Day
and Day of Week (1986)
Time
of Day
No. of
Accidents
Percent
Day of
Week
No. of
Accidents
Percent
12 mid
24
4.3
Sunday *
89
15.8
1 a.m.*
40
7.1
2 a.m.*
46
8.2
Monday
69
12.2
3 a.m.
21
3.7
4 a.m.
21
3.7
Tuesday
61
10.8
5 a.m.
22
3.9
6 a.m.
11
2.0
Wednesday
78
13.8
7 a.m.
9
1.6
8 a.m
12
2.1
Thursday
68
12.1
9 a.m.
10
1.8
10 a.m.
18
3.2
Friday
81
14.4
11 a.m.
12
2.1
12 noon
22
3.9
Saturday *
118
20.9
1 p.m.
18
3.2
—
2 p.m.
23
4.1
Total
564
100.0 %
3 p.m.
23
4.1
4 p.m.
17
3.0
5 p.m.
25
4.4
6 p.m.
27
4.8
7 p.m.
27
4.8
8 p.m
26
4.6
9 p.m.
27
4.8
10 p.m.*
45
8.0
11 p.m.*
31
5.5
Unknown
7
1.2
Total
564
100.0 %
* = High Percentage of Freeway Fatal Accidents
Source: Report to the Legislature, California DOT (March 1988)

29
The most effective way to protect workers is, of course, to divert
vehicular traffic away from the work zones through detours provided by
city streets. Although this will cause some inconvenience to the
motorists (5 to 10 minutes added to their travel time), it is not a high
price to pay to eliminate daytime congestion caused by maintenance
activities. Another protection method is to construct a physical barrier
separating the workers from the traffic. Better illumination of work
areas, highly visible clothing for workers, reflective cones/barriers,
police presence, etc., are additional ways to increase worker safety.
Public Relations
Public relations is an important element in the workshift selection
process for highway construction. Public inconvenience during road
construction operations is a major concern for the state agency. Public
acceptance of a particular work shift (day or night) means it warrants
high consideration by the decision makers. Good public relations can
facilitate the success of an operation in terms of reduced congestion,
increased safety, and goodwill (Shepard and Cottrell, 1985). Shepard and
Cottrell discuss various means of informing the public about nighttime
operations. The size of the project, location, traffic volume,
experience, and so forth dictate how extensive the coverage should be.
Certainly, the amount of publicity for a night project should be more
extensive for safety reasons. Survey results indicate that personal
contact (special signs, door-to-door contact, letters) is thought to be
the most effective method for publicity. The city of Chicago has an
elaborate plan to provide the public with information on upcoming freeway

30
operations. Local radio, television, and newspapers are effectively
utilized to increase public awareness. Detroit has successfully used
changeable message signs, permanently installed along freeway sections, as
a method of informing the public of lane closures.
Noise Level
A high level of noise, resulting from operation of heavy equipment
during road construction activities, may adversely affect public opinion.
Thus, noise is one of the important qualitative factors attributable to
shift work. During the night shift, the public might be particularly
sensitive to construction noise. Little information on the subject of
noise levels during road construction was found in the literature review.
According to Shepard and Cottrell, many states have noise ordinances that
limit noise levels in urban areas. Agency officials who were interviewed
by the authors reported that if equipment such as a jackhammer is
necessary during work near a residential area, the night shift is avoided.
Another cause for concern for the agency is that diversion of traffic
during freeway construction may increase noise levels on the detour
routes.
A research study (Hinze and Carlisle, 1990) included a survey of
project planners of various state highway agencies that found that noise
is of high importance next to congestion and safety. However, the same
study also concluded that resident engineers of the agencies do not
consider noise an important factor compared to other factors when planning
partial or full closure of freeways during construction.

31
The primary noise sources in road construction and maintenance can
be identified as (1) diesel engines, powering drive trains and cutting
heads; (2) the vacuum/blower system; and (3) grinding heads in contact
with pavement. According results obtained by the Arizona DOT (Kay, 1985),
these sources combine to produce a noise in the range of 82 to 95 dB (A)
at 50 feet from construction. Typically, noise generated during concrete
pavement construction is higher than noise during flexible pavement
construction. Many highways in the metropolitan areas are of rigid
pavement, thus the potential for construction noise in those areas appear
to be significantly high. The study done by the Arizona DOT (Kay, 1985)
notes an upper limit of 86 dB (A) for an acceptable noise level at a
distance of 50 feet. Other states also supported this finding, verifying
the acceptability of the limit. By using a full complement of silencers
it was estimated that noise levels could be reduced to 80 dB. Noise
reduction is also possible by the insertion of a portable sound barrier
between the source and any sensitive receivers.
Kay discusses about the problems encountered in setting and
enforcing noise-level limits for nighttime construction operations. In
the state of Arizona, a noise-abatement incentive was established to
encourage potential bidders to silence noisy construction equipment,
specifically the grinding machines. This noise-abatement incentive plan
was considered to be an alternate approach to including a relevant
specification in the contract. In some occasions, contractors have
threatened not to bid if specifications on noise levels were maintained or
tightened. The objective of the incentive plan was to provide
compensation for the additional cost incurred by the contractor. The

32
Arizona DOT set the ceiling for the incentive amount at $ 50,000 -- where
as the actual amount turned out to be $ 12,684 (for the first contract
using this plan) to maintain an average of 82 dB (A) noise level
throughout the project.
Some of the important findings in the research done by the Arizona
DOT, as mentioned by Kay in his paper published in the 1985 issue of the
Transportation Research Record, are as follows:
1. Fast completion of project results in less noise complaints
from public.
2. Accessory equipment, such as jackhammers, have a noise impact due
to their higher frequencies. Retrofitting on machines can result
in significant dampening of noise.
3. For large scale projects, it may be too expensive to
retrofit major components to maintain an overall
construction noise level to 86 dB(A). In such cases, public
relations can play a major role.
4. Typically, high productive equipments make more noise than
low productive equipments. Therefore, strict noise
restrictions may cause decrease in productivity and longer
project duration. A "trade-off" between project duration
and acceptable noise level can be considered.
Cost
Like any decision making process, the selection of day shift over
night shift or vice versa is influenced by the economic result of the
alternatives. Literature review indicated a lack of cost information for
an effective comparison between daytime and nighttime construction. In

33
highway construction, the costs attributable to a particular workshift can
be categorized into the following: owner/construction costs, user costs,
accident costs, and pavement maintenance costs. The latter cost refers to
post construction maintenance costs which depends on quality control
during a shift.
Owner Cost
Owner costs are essentially the costs borne by the state highway
agency, resulting from the construction of the specified facility . The
cost of contract (labor, material, equipment and contractor) and agency
costs (planning, evaluating, monitoring) are included in this category.
Construction costs can vary from shift to shift. Additional construction
costs that can be attributed to night work include: lighting, additional
traffic control, inspection, labor premiums, overtime, and increased
material costs. A recent survey of agencies and contractors helped
identify the cost difference by project element for night construction
(Hinze & Carlisle, 1990). The results are shown in Table 2.5.
Material costs may be higher during the night shift due to batch
plants charging higher rates. Material prices are increased because of
hiring night employees at the plant and also because of shift differential
and overtime. Price (1985) in his report entitled Nighttime Paving,
investigated a cost comparison between two similar overlay projects in the
Denver area. One job was done during the day on 1-25 north of Denver, and
the other was done during the night on 1-70. Table 2.6 (Price, 1985)
shows the material cost percentage that the night (1-70) job was over that
of the compared day (1-25) job. Although asphalt prices are subject to
variation, this table gives an idea of expected material cost increases.

34
Table 2.5 - Estimated Increase in Cost Differential of Night Work
Project Element
Increase in Cost
Lighting
63 %
Traffic Control
28 %
Engineering Inspection
22 %
Labor (Shift Premiums)
18 %
Overtime (Agency Personnel)
16 %
Material
5 %
Total Contract Amount
9 %
Source: Hinze and Carlisle (1990)

35
Table 2.6 - 1-70 Night Paving Project vs. 1-25 Day Paving
Percent Cost Differential
Cost Item
1-70 Night Paving
HBP (Patching) (H-Asphalt) / ton
23 % Higher
HBP (GR EX) (H-Asphalt) / ton
23 % Higher
EMUL ASPH (CSS-1 H) / gallon
42 % Higher
Flagging / hour
71 % Higher
Total Costs = 159 % higher at night
Average / Item = 40 % higher at night
Source: Price (1985)

36
The table shows that for the night project, the price for hot bituminous
pavement (HBP) (patching) (haul and asphalt) per ton was 23% higher than
that of the day project. The price for emulsified asphalt (CSS-1H) per
gallon was 42% higher. From a survey of various state highway agencies,
Hinze and Carlisle (1990) concluded that the average percent cost
differential for materials during nighttime construction is approximately
5% higher. Special materials required for night work may also contribute
to greater cost. Conditions of the night, such as cooler temperature may
require a higher cost specific material.
A cost comparison study of asphalt and base widening roadway work
for day shift versus night shift was done by R. G. Layfield, resident
engineer of the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). The study
indicated a 2-3% increase in material costs for asphalt roadway work
during the night (Layfield, 1988). The daytime unit price for limerock
base (4 inch) was $4.50 per square yards compared to its nighttime unit
price of $6.34 per square yards, indicating a 3% increase in night cost.
The nighttime unit cost for asphalt was $33.07 per ton compared to $31.50
per ton for its daytime unit cost, resulting in an increase of 2% in night
cost.
For scheduling reasons, special material (e.g. rapid curing
concrete) may be utilized (Fallin, 1990). On the other hand, if the
contractor owns the batch plant, material acquisition costs may be lower
during the night shift due to less traffic interference on the road. When
materials can be stockpiled during the day, the only additional cost may
be the cost to double handle the material. Thus, material costs may or
may not be a factor during night operations.

37
Labor cost differential is another item that may increase during the
night shift. Literature review did not reveal detailed information on
this area. According to Willis (1982), labor is considered to be one of
the premium costs for nighttime paving. It could be expected that some
incentive should be used to influence the performance of nighttime
overlay. For example, if the contractor works 8 hours per night, the
contractor's workforce could be paid for 9 hours. Willis states that
there should not be any across-the-board pay increase for nighttime work.
If the contractor works 6 nights a week, there will be overtime on the
sixth night. The contractor may be subjected to specific union rules for
its use of labor force during nighttime work. This possibility should be
thoroughly investigated before preparing labor cost estimates (Willis,
1982). Labor and inspection costs are additional cost items for night
construction. Shift premiums accounted for an increase of 18% in direct
labor costs, while overtime costs for agency personnel required an
additional 16% (Fallin, 1990). A Florida contractor agreed to pay $0.50
per hour extra for all of his personnel involved in nighttime operations
(Layfield, 1988). The shift differential can vary depending upon the
specific time period. According to the 1988 report, "Highway Maintenance
Activities During Low Traffic Hours", prepared by the California DOT,
there is a 25 cent per hour differential if four or more hours are worked
in the swing shift (6:00 p.m. to 12 midnight). The pay differential for
four or more hours worked in the graveyard shift (midnight to 6:00 a.m.)
is 35 cent per hour.
The survey done by Hinze & Carlisle indicates that artificial
lighting is one of the most significant items in terms of differential

38
cost between day and night construction. Table 2.5 shows the estimated
increase (63% for lighting) in the cost differential of night work. Since
the cost of artificial lighting is unique to nighttime work, it can be
regarded as a project specific cost, when rented or leased lighting
equipment are used on an "as needed" basis. To minimize setup costs and
maximize efficiency, equipment mounted lighting is recommended. For
contractors involved regularly in night work, it is best to purchase their
own lighting systems. Fallin (1990) mentions the potential use of laser
technology to reduce the need for artificial lighting. Although currently
this alternative is very expensive, it may be a viable option in the near
future. Lum (1980), in his report published in Public Roads, investigates
the economic feasibility of lighting an entire construction zone to reduce
night traffic accidents. Table 2.7 (Lum, 1980) shows the costs to
purchase, install, and remove light posts. The cost information was
obtained from a number of utility companies and municipalities, and hence
not representative of cost data nationwide. Lum concludes from his
analysis that the benefit/cost ratio for lighting a construction project
is, at all situations, less than 1.
Another major cost factor in night work zone construction is traffic
control. According to Shepard and Cottrell (1985), the cost involved in
traffic control can approach an upper limit of the cost of the permanent
construction work itself. For nighttime construction, there is an added
cost for traffic control, due to the need for additional signs in a low
visibility environment. Additional signs for night shift work may include
changeable message signs, arrow boards, warning signs, and channelizing
devices. Homburger (1989) has written an investigative report detailing

39
Table 2.7 - Costs to Purchase, Install, and Remove Light Posts
Item
Information Source / Assumptions
1. Unit cost of purchasing and
installing wooden pole,
foundation and bracket.
$ 598/each
Mounting height of 40 ft.; poles
located on one side of roadway.
2. Unit cost of luminaire.
$ 188/each
High pressure sodium, 400 watt.
3. Unit cost of purchasing and
installing wiring.
$ 1/ lin. ft.
Overhead as opposed to underground
wiring; costs about twice as much.
4. Unit cost of energy and
maintenance.
$ 0.50/day
Includes energy & minor replacement
or repair of lamps.
5. Cost of poles, foundations,
brackets, & luminaires.
$ 41,658
100 ft. spacing for 1 mile and one
side only, for a total of 53 units.
6. Cost of wiring.
$ 5,280
1 mile of wiring.
7. Cost of energy and
maintenance.
$ 115
For 230 days.
8. Cost of removing poles.
$ 6,625
Estimated at $ 125 per pole
9. Total cost of lighting 1 mile
of roadway for 230 days.
$ 53,700
Sum of items 5-8. Figure rounded to
the nearest $ 100.
Source: Lum (1980)

40
traffic control measures in construction zones with nighttime activities.
Apart from signs, other traffic control measures are emergency/enforcement
controls (police and ambulance), and deterrent controls (barricades,
vehicle-mounted barriers). Literature review did not specifically reveal
cost differentials attributable to traffic control during the night.
However, Price (1985) in his analysis of two (night and day) paving
projects in Colorado, mentions that the flagging per hour cost was 71%
higher for the 1-70 night paving project.
User Cost
The cost incurred by travelling motorists due to ongoing
construction and maintenance work on the roadway, can be classified as
"user" costs. Vehicle operating costs, personal costs, and accident costs
are the primary components of this category. Literature review indicates
the availability of detailed information on the first two components, but
very little on accident costs. It is difficult to estimate a cost for the
difference in accidents for night operations versus day operations. There
is a lack of nighttime accident data and considerable variability in
accidents between the types and locations of night projects. Vehicle
delay costs investigated by Price have been discussed previously in the
traffic volume section of the literature review. The calculation of unit
user costs is presented in A Manual on User Benefit Analysis of Highway
and Bus Transit Improvements (AASHTO, 1977). Tables for operating costs
and time value are utilized to determine unit user costs. Traffic volume
and work-zone capacity are used to calculate the vehicle operating cost
and the queuing cost due to time delays. This methodology allows the
comparison of alternate work shifts to evaluate the work zone cost impact
and the optimal shift time to affect a lane closure.

41
A method which combines user operating and time costs has been
discussed by Lytton and McFarland (1975). Using workzone location as a
parameter, tables are provided to calculate the user costs. The
limitation of their cost model is that it is applicable only for an
overlay type of road work. Dudek and Richards have developed a computer
model, using data from 14 work zone sites in Texas. Hourly traffic
volumes, capacity, traffic control method, and other parameters can be
entered into the QUEWZ model to determine user costs with precision and
efficiency (Dudek and Richards, 1985).
Qua!ity of Work
In some situations, the quality of work during the night shift may
be lower than that on the day shift. Poor visibility during the night may
result in less than perfect finishing of paving jobs. Worker morale,
unsafe working conditions, and quality control for materials are factors
that are shift dependent and these may affect construction quality.
According to Shepard and Cottrell, the key word is "acceptable quality",
when considering the quality of work during night shift. Even if quality
is suspect during night operations, the product may be accepted under the
specifications.
From the literature review it is not possible to conclude that
quality is always adversely affected during the night shift. Some
resident engineers of the Arizona DOT have found better quality control
during the night for certain projects requiring cooler temperatures for
material and equipment (Kay, 1985). One state official noted that quality
during the night was better because the night hours allowed total road
closure, which provided safer working conditions.

42
The comparison of day and night paving jobs in Colorado done by
Price indicates that the overall quality of the nighttime work was very
similar to that of the daytime project. Test results from the 1-70 night
paving job and from a similar daytime job on 1-25 are compared in Table
2.8 (Price, 1985). The results indicate that compaction on the night job
was as high as that of the day job, and in some cases better. Quality was
affected mostly in aesthetics, such as roller marks being more apparent on
the finished product. The Colorado study was an indication of the success
of night paving operations from a quality standpoint regarding smoothness.
However, pavement densities during nighttime work were more difficult to
attain, possibly due to cooler temperatures. Because of limited
visibility during the night, crack filling and rolling operations were
identified as being more challenging tasks. High levels of illumination
were recommended for these activity types. One other point mentioned by
Price in his Colorado study was the difficulty in detecting approaching
rain storms which could affect the pavement material quality.
The night shift provides cooler temperatures which permits easy
placement of cement concrete or paving in certain locations during summer
time. High temperatures during the day may cause increased evaporation
and faster rate of set (Hinze & Carlisle, 1990). During the placement of
26 miles of single lane concrete roadway in California, it was realized
that the quality of concrete placed at night was better. The cooler night
temperatures allowed the concrete to be placed closer to its ideal
temperature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit. This resulted in good strength for
concrete and minimized any surface evaporation (Fallin, 1990).

43
Table 2.8 - Paving Quality Test Results from Field Samples
Test
Night Paving (1-70)
Day Paving (1-25)
Compaction
No.of Samples = 62
Mean = 96.1
Specified = 95.0
STD.* = 0.810
No.of Samples = 62
Mean = 95.6
Specified = 95.0
STD.* = 0.735
Asphalt
Content
No.of Samples = 47
Mean = 5.49
Specified = 5.0-6.
STD.* = 0.267
No.of Samples = 47
Mean = 5.81
Specified = 5.3-6.3
STD.* = 0.222
Field
Specific
Gravity
No.of Samples = 62
Mean =2.22
Specified = 2.31
STD.* = 0.019
No.of Samples = 62
Mean =2.23
Specified = 2.33
STD.* = 0.018
* Standard Deviation of Samples
Source : Price (1985)

44
A recent survey of state highway agencies revealed that general
results of paving operations conducted during the night shift produced
less quality results (Hinze & Carlisle, 1990). Both portland cement
concrete and asphalt had apparent finish defects when placed during the
night. However, the results were acceptable to the state agencies and
satisfied the specification standards. The quality rating (on a scale of
1 to 7) of certain tasks performed during the night, is shown in Table 2.9
(Hinze & Carlisle, 1990). Compaction of subgrade is the highest rated
night construction task and all the crack sealing related activities are
rated lowest.
Literature study indicated the following problem areas in paving
quality during the night shift :
. roughness of paving surface
. inconsistency in the mix
. poor compaction
cold joints
inspection of work
. less control on tack spread
. alignment
repairing roller marks
Quality of work is highly dependent on visibility. Almost all of
the above quality related problems result from inadequate lighting at the
project site. In the Colorado project, shadows were reported as a problem
in the rolling and crack filling operations. Proper illumination with
additional portable flood lights can reduce many of these defects.

45
Table 2.9 - Quality Rating of Nighttime Operations
Activity Performed At Night
Quality Rating
Compaction of Subgrade
Surface Compaction of Asphalt Concrete
Installing Guard Rails
Placing PCC Pavement
Pavement Marking
Crack-Sealing on PCC Pavement
Crack-Sealing on AC Pavement
4.88
4.77
4.73
4.54
4.36
4.19
4.10
Source: Hinze and Carlisle (1990)

46
Job Types in Highway Construction
The type of highway work to be done often dictates the selection of
workshift hours. Highway construction and rehabilitation activities can
be classified into two types: fixed-location projects and moving projects
(Homburger, 1989). Fixed-location projects are more commonly found --
they involve work on highway and freeway structures, new paving which
proceeds relatively slowly (e.g. adding lanes, completely rebuilding
existing pavement), revising interchanges, etc. Moving projects are
typically pavement overlay projects which move relatively quickly from one
end of the job to the other.
Moving projects require special alertness from both motorist and
worker since the control conditions change quickly. If traffic control is
not a factor, then moving projects are undoubtedly preferred to be
undertaken during daytime hours. At a fixed-location site, the control
change can be programmed in advance and signs can be posted alerting
motorists to the changes ahead of time. Thus, fixed-location projects are
relatively safer and suited for night shifts.
The following fixed-location and moving job types were identified
from literature review as being more appropriate for the night shift
because of comfortable working temperatures, scheduling, and ease of
traffic control:
(1) Widening and replacement of concrete deck (using precast slabs) for
multi-lane divided bridge in a metropolitan location. Usage of
polymer concrete -- which sets to 4000 psi in one hour at
temperature range of 20 to 100 degrees F (Fahrenheit) -- can allow
the bridge to remain fully open during the day (Pasko, 1985).

47
(2) Interstate widening and reconstruction (e.g. from 4 lane to 6 lane)
through a metropolitan city.
(3) Concrete median barriers safety upgrading, pavement (concrete joint)
patching, shoulder work, on multi-lane divided urban highway, with
one or two lanes closed.
(4) Resurfacing operation on a multi-lane divided urban freeway, with
all lanes closed, and detour set up to follow parallel arterial
routes (Strakovits, 1974).
(5) Installation of raised pavement markers on freeways.
(6) Grooving of concrete and asphalt pavement to improve friction
factor.
(7) Placing of D-mix asphalt on an urban interstate highway. D-mix
placement requires minimum temperature of 60 degrees F (Hudson,
1991). During cold seasons this operation may need to be done
during the day shift.
(8) Pavement overlay on multi-lane freeway (approximately 10 mile
stretch) involving an asphalt overlay on existing portland cement
concrete.
Table 2.10 contains a list of highway projects undertaken by the
Florida DOT for night schedule at various counties as of March, 1991.
Approximately half of these projects involved resurfacing operations.
Table 2.11 shows a list of tasks which have the potential of better
performance during the night shift. These activities are shown in
descending order of preference (Hinze and Carlisle, 1990).
Shifting all maintenance work in a given area to a night schedule
may not be considered practical. Certain types of roadway repair
activities which are temperature sensitive such as asphalt paving,

48
Table 2.10 : Florida DOT Projects Using Night Work
Type of Work
Road
County
1.
Resurfacing
US-90
Duval
2.
Resurfacing
1-4
Orange
3.
Repair 18 Bridges
1-75
Marion
4.
Skid Hazard Resurfacing
US-90
Duval
5.
Resurfacing
SR-21
Clay
6.
Add Turn Lanes
US-90
Duval
7.
Milling and Resurfacing
SR-60
Hillsborough
8.
Milling and Resurfacing
SR-688
Pinel1 as
9.
Resurfacing
1-95
Duval
10.
Paving Shoulders and Resurfacing
US-441
A1 achua
11.
Safety
US-90
Duval
12.
Resurfacing
1-95
St. Johns
13.
Intersection (Minor)
US-90
Leon
14.
Resurfacing
1-95
St. Johns
15.
Widening and Resurfacing
US-301
Hillsborough
16.
Multi-lane Reconstruction
1-95
Nassau
17.
Resurfacing
1-95
St. Johns
18.
Add Lanes and Reconstruct
US-41
Dade
19.
Multi-lane Reconstruction
1-95
Duval
20.
Construct Grade Separation
1-4
Seminole
21.
Add Lanes and Resurface
Turnpk
Dade
22.
Add Lanes and Resurface
US-19
Pasco
23.
Replace Low Level Bridge
SR-934
Dade
24.
Intersection (Major)
US-92
Hillsborough
25.
Add Lanes and Resurface
1-95
Dade
26.
Multi-lane Reconstruction
US-98
Bay
27.
Multi-lane Reconstruction
US-98
Bay
28.
Bridge Rehabilitation
SR-A1A
St. Johns
29.
Resurfacing
SR-933
Dade
30.
Widen Bridge
1-95
Dade
31.
Skid Hazard Resurfacing
SR-580
Hillsborough
32.
Interchange (Major)
Turnpk
Broward
33.
Multi-lane Reconstruction
US-319
Leon
Source : F.D.O.T. (1991)

49
Table 2.11 : Construction Activities Performed Better At Night
Construction Activity
No. of Respondents
Naming The Activity
Asphalt Concrete Paving
6
Bridge Deck Rehabilitation
5
Pavement Marking
5
PCC Paving
4
Demolition
3
Setting Girders
2
Concrete Joint Repairs
2
PCC Pavement Spall Repairs
2
PCC Pavement Slab Repair
2
Latex Modified Concrete
2
Grooving PCC Concrete
1
Large Concrete Pours
1
Asphalt Concrete Removal
1
Loading and Hauling Dirt
1
Preparing for Structural Pours
1
Backfilling Structures
1
Shifting Traffic
1
Installing Guard Rails
1
Signals
1
Street Lighting
1
Grading/Crushing Aggregate
1
Source : Hinze and Carlisle (1990)

50
chip seals, and slurry seals may still need to be done by day shift crews.
Other activities, such as landscape work, can continue to be performed
during the day without causing traffic congestion. And certainly, daytime
emergency response to repair needs must continue. Work activities on the
pavement and shoulders are the obvious candidates for night schedule.
Human Factors
Worker behavior during a particular work shift is an important
consideration for project management. The human factor has a high
potential to adversely affect both productivity and safety. Worker
performance is significantly affected by the choice of work shift.
Several studies on human performance (related to shift work), particularly
in the manufacturing industry, were found during the literature search.
Based on this review, three principal factors were identified as having
the most impact on worker performance: 1) sleep; 2) human circadian
rhythms; and 3) social/domestic issues.
Monk uses a model for coping with shift work to illustrate the
relationship between the three human factors. The worker's internal
system and the condition of his external surroundings dictate his ability
to sleep. The human biological clock depends on the degree of
fragmentation of sleep and the daily social demands. Finally, the
worker's social harmony is dependent upon the degree of sleep deprivation
(Monk, 1989). Monk stresses the importance of understanding the
relationship between sleep, the worker's biological clock, and the
domestic aspects of the worker's life. Figure 2.5 (Monk, 1989) presents
a triad of factors for coping with shift work. The three interrelated

Source: Monk (1989)
Figure 2.5 - Triad of Shift Work Coping Factors

52
factors determine the individual's ability to cope with shift work. All
three components complement each other, a failure in one can negate
advances made in the other two. During an atypical working environment,
such as nighttime construction, the project management should try to
maintain a proper balance of these factors among the workers.
Night shift workers have faced the problem of insufficient sleep
during the day because of the difficulty in physiological adjustments and
also because of the heat, light, and noise distruptions of daytime hours
(Delisle, 1990). Lack of adequate sleep can lead to physical and mental
disorders, which can lead to on-the-job accidents (Finn, 1981). A recent
survey has indicated that over 20% of night shift workers in the U.S.
suffer from insomnia, fatigue, digestive disorders, loss of alertness, and
other sleep-related problems. From the point of view of safety and
productivity, it is necessary for the project management to identify those
individuals who are more adaptable to the stresses of night shift work.
According to a study by Vidacek (1986), night productivity rises with
successive night shifts, but eventually declines, while afternoon shift
productivity remains high and consistent. In construction, safety is
dependent on the work habits of the crew. Rotating shift workers often
resort to usage of drugs and alcohol to overcome their sleep deprivation.
Compared to other industries, construction has produced higher accident
results, and thus, the need to have a well rested and properly adjusted
night worker cannot be over-emphasized.
Research indicates that most workers placed on a night shift,
eventually becomes adjusted, as long as the same pattern is followed every
day. Delisle (1990) has examined two basic issues regarding a rotating

53
shift system: the length of time that workers should be kept on a
particular shift before rotating, and, the steps that management should
follow when implementing a shift schedule to meet their needs. Opinions
are divided between rapid and slow rotating shift schedules. Rapid
rotation means that a person works two or three nights in a row before
going back to standard hours, while slow rotation involves working many
more shifts (20 or greater, with intervening rest days). Scheduling the
shift rotations should depend on the type of work to be performed. A
rapidly rotating shift is best for tasks requiring complex cognitive
performance, involving a high short-term memory load (Delisle, 1990). For
highway construction, however, slow rotating schedule is more appropriate,
since it involves the performance of more simple, non-memory type tasks.
This allows the worker's circadian rhythm (biological clock) adequate time
to adjust to different shift periods, and, as a result, increase work
performance. Delisle emphasizes that, in order to successfully implement
a slow rotating schedule, the project management should encourage the
workers to try to keep on a reversed schedule on their days off. A
complete internal readjustment, at the start of each new work week, will
present added stresses on the human body and negate the benefits of a slow
rotating scheduling system.
Management should consider the type of specialization workers are
trained for, when assigning them to certain shifts. Members of an asphalt
crew, who are accustomed to lengthy work periods, would probably be more
adaptable to atypical schedules such as night shifts. Also the night
shift provides a more comfortable temperature for the crew placing hot
asphalt.

54
Additional guidelines for management regarding rotating shifts are
outlined by Benjamin (1984). Night schedules should be planned in
advance, so the workers can prepare themselves adequately. The shift
workers require uninterrupted weekends off as often as possible, for
social reasons. Shift duration should be limited according to the type of
tasks performed. It is recommended that tasks involving intensive
physical labor be limited to 9-hour shifts. Management should avoid
scheduling peak work loads on the job site between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m for
safety reasons. Construction scheduling should be such that the critical
activities occur at the start of the night shift, when workers are at
their peak mental alertness.
Productivity
The unique aspects of night construction can have both negative and
positive effect on productivity. Productivity during a particular work
shift is impacted by several factors, such as traffic volume, job type,
material delivery, lighting, supervision, communication, worker morale,
etc. During typical daytime construction operations there are two peak
traffic loads that actually reduce a work day to a 5 1/2 hour work shift.
Whereas, during the night, the work shift and actual daily working hours
are extended (Layfield, 1988). Availability and supply of material,
equipment spare parts at night also has an effect on productivity.
Artificial lighting, which may vary with the type of project, has a
potential impact on the output of night construction workforce. Certain
human factors, such as the biological clock, also govern the crew
productivity during the night shift. Productivity also depends on the job

55
type. Projects allowing total road closure may save more than 50% of the
construction time. A state transportation official notes that for a job
requiring large number of road patches, daytime patching (closing one lane
at a time) would take much longer than nighttime patching, when total road
closure is permitted (Shepard & Cottrell, 1985).
In a recent ENR article "Barriers Remain to Safe Work Zones" a
contractor in Tampa, Florida stated that "productivity is 28 to 30% less
at night due to set up and take-down time" (Stussman, 1988). On the
positive side, night shift was reported to have allowed a certain project
in Long Beach, California to be completed in 16 working days, whereas it
would have taken at least 35 working days to complete the same project
during the day shift (Lee, 1969). During a Florida road project, asphalt
was laid down during the night shift at a rate of 147.03 tons per hour,
compared to 98.09 tons per hour for another daytime project (Layfield,
1988). In his feature ENR article "Paving After Dark Turns Profitable",
McConville stated that in a Indiana road project, the contractor reported
10% improvement in speed of hauling cycles and tonnage during night shift.
Another contractor in a Pennsylvania Interstate project reported that
nighttime production increases have been logged as high as 30%
(McConville, 1991). Cooler temperatures and less traffic interference
during the night shift allowed for this increased productivity.
Other Factors
When deciding work shift periods, other miscellaneous factors may
also need to be considered by the state agency. Since each construction
or maintenance task differs in some respect from others, these "other"

56
factors vary in importance. The areas covered in this section are
supervision/communication, labor unions, parts availability, and liability
(Shepard & Cottrell, 1985).
The ability to supervise and communicate effectively during night
shifts depends largely on the agency's experience. Communication between
on site personnel and higher authority is vital during late shifts. A
person capable of making decisions should either be present at the site or
be "on call", responding as needed. Another problem mentioned by Shepard
and Cottrel is the difficulty in communication after the transition
between night and day personnel. The night engineer-in-charge may be fast
asleep during the daylight hours when project management may require his
feedback.
Based on information obtained from literature review, labor unions
do not present big problems for night operations. However, if there are
any differences, they should be negotiated and any stipulations should
reflect in the contract bid price.
Availability of spare parts for construction equipment is necessary
in order to maintain steady production at the site. During the night
shift it may be difficult to obtain spare mechanical parts because of
equipment dealers being closed after normal business hours. Shepard and
Cottrell suggest that the highway agencies have extra parts and equipment
available at the project site to ensure continuity of work.
Work-zone safety is a matter of concern during both day and night
shifts. The possibility of lawsuits, resulting from accidents due to road
construction, is an important consideration for agency planners.
Selecting the "safe" working period for both the worker and motorist
reduces the owner's liability.

57
Summary
The number of available references relating directly to highway
nighttime construction, as a whole, are limited. Only a few studies
provide a comprehensive approach towards night shift operations and the
agency shift selection process. Most of the literature related to one
specific aspect of night work, such as traffic control, safety, lighting,
human factors, etc. Numerous research studies pertaining to shift work
have been conducted in the manufacturing industry, only a few are
applicable to the construction field. Several published reports in the
highway construction area have provided information on issues relating to
the planning, safety, and traffic maintenance aspects of nighttime
operations.
It can be concluded from the literature review that the work shift
selection by the agency is mostly based on personal experience of traffic
data and congestion analysis. There is no formal step-by-step methodology
that takes all the factors into consideration in order to arrive at a
particular decision. Most of the information obtained from the literature
study is based on opinions, and is not quantitative. Information on shift
work for the manufacturing sector is readily available, but other than the
data on human factors, it cannot be related to highway construction.
Research has been done in specific areas of highway nighttime construction
which can be used as a guideline for state transportation agencies.
However, a more comprehensive study of all the factors involved in day and
night operations needs to be conducted.

CHAPTER 3
KNOWLEDGE-BASED EXPERT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY
Introduction
Knowledge-based expert system technology is a branch of artificial
intelligence (AI) that has seen rapid advancement in recent years. An
expert system is essentially a computer program using AI techniques to
assist users in solving complex problems involving knowledge, heuristics
(rules of thumb), and decision-making. The knowledge-based system
approach has received broad attention in construction engineering
literature. In a typical construction engineering environment there are
decision problems that simply cannot be solved by procedural, algorithmic
computer models. In construction, knowledge and experience are used more
often than complex mathematical formulas, making this field ideal for
expert system application.
A knowledge-based system has the ability to provide explanations of
its reasoning , making it useful as a management decision making tool.
The objective of this approach is to create intelligent behavior on the
computer through stored knowledge acquired from human experts. The
knowledge-based system or expert system is an "interactive" program,
playing the role of a human expert by utilizing heuristic knowledge.
Heuristics allows the system to make educated guesses, recognize promising
approaches, and narrow down the search process in a solution space.
58

59
The goal during the development of an expert system is to capture
specialized knowledge. This knowledge must be within a narrow, well
defined domain, and it should simulate the expert's reasoning process to
provide consultation about a difficult task.
An important difference between an expert system (ES) and a
conventional program is the representation of knowledge or data.
Knowledge in an expert system is usually divided into separate entities or
rules, shielded from the application methodology. Conclusions are reached
from the knowledge-base by invoking inference reasoning techniques. In a
conventional program, data is typically stored in a data base and the data
is manipulated by usage of algorithms, giving numerical results. Table
3.1 shows the difference between expert systems and conventional programs.
Architecture of an Expert System
The typical expert system (ES) structure consists of four primary
components: a knowledge-base, an inference mechanism, a working memory,
and an input/output interface with explanation and help facility (Adeli,
1988). In addition, features to facilitate knowledge acquisition,
debugging, editing, and intelligent interfacing may also be included. The
structure is schematically shown in Figure 3.1.
The knowledge-base is a repository of information available in a
particular domain. It consists of well-established and documented
definitions, facts, rules, as well as heuristics or judgmental information
associated with the problem domain. Knowledge acquisition is the process
by which expert knowledge is obtained from various sources for the
representation in a knowledge-base. The structuring and development of
the knowledge-base is aided by the knowledge acquisition facility.

60
Table 3.1 - Difference Between Expert System and Conventional Program
Expert System
Conventional Program
1. Representation and use of
knowledge
Representation and use of data
2. Knowledge-base and control
strategy integrated
Data and control
strategy separated
3. Inferential (heuristic)
process
Repetitive (algorithmic)
process
4. Effective manipulation of
large knowledge-bases
Effective manipulation of
databases
5. Developed by knowledge
engineer with or without
programming expertise
Developed by programmer
6. Midrun explanation desirable
and possible
Midrun explanation not
possible
7. Modifications, additions
relatively easy
Not as flexible to changes
8. Oriented toward symbolic
processing
Oriented toward numerical
processing
Source: Expert Systems for Civil Engineers, ASCE (1987)

61
Human
Exparta
Literatura
Review :
Reaearch
Papera
Fea»ib i I it y
Reau 11 e
Journal
Ar t icl ea
Figure 3.1
The Expert System Architecture

62
The inference mechanism (or reasoning mechanism) controls the
reasoning strategy of the ES by attempting to match the input data with
the information available in the knowledge base, and subsequently draw
conclusions and produce explanations. In a rule-based ES, the inference
mechanism determines the order in which the rules should be fired, and
resolves any conflict among rules when several rules are satisfied. The
mechanism seeks to solve the problem by chaining the rules together, and
eventually provide a conclusion.
Working memory (or context database) is a temporary storage of
information pertaining to the state of the specific problem currently
being solved. It is a flexible database, its contents changing
dynamically. Included in the working memory is the problem information
provided by the user as well as data derived by the system. The context
database contains all the intermediate results of the problem solving
process as well as the solution upon completion of the ES processing.
The user interface provides a link between the user and the expert
system. The user may create or modify a knowledge-base through the
interface by using a editor facility. Access to the knowledge-base for
information utilization is governed by the user interface. The
explanation facility and the help facility are both attached with the
input-output interface. The former provides answers to questions and
justifies answers. The latter guides the user to use the system
effectively and easily. The intelligent interface is a feature that
allows the user to interact with the ES and query the ES. This may
include natural language processors, menus, multiple windows, icons or
graphics.

63
Knowledge Representation
The development of the knowledge-base is an important step in the
creation of an expert system. The developer must decide by which method
the knowledge is to be represented in the knowledge base. Procedural and
declarative representations are two different ways to represent knowledge
(Adeli, 1988). In procedural representation, the knowledge is context
dependent, unintelligible and difficult to modify--it is commonly used in
traditional algorithmic programming. Declarative representation permits
knowledge to be context independent, more understandable, and easily
accessible for modifications. For these reasons, expert systems usually
use declarative knowledge representation. The three most widely used
declarative knowledge representation approaches used in current expert
systems are rule-based, frame-based, and logic-based. Other schemes
include semantic networks, and object-oriented methods. The choice of
representation will depend on the type of problem to be solved and the
inference methods available.
The frame system is a network data structure that represents the
relations between concepts, objects, or events, and their attributes. A
frame consists of a number of attributes, called slots, in which different
characteristics of an object or a piece of information are described.
Slots may contain default values, pointers to other frames, or procedures.
A procedure consists of a set of instructions for determining the value of
the slot, which is known as procedural attachment. The frame structure
has advantages in representing sequences of events, and for knowledge
acquisition and modification (Adeli, 1988). An example of a frame
representation is shown in Figure 3.2, where the object represented is:

64
RESURFACING PROJECT
Slots
Entries
Location
Alachua County
Highway
1-75 North
Number of Lanes
2
Project Length
5 miles
Project Duration
250 days
Material
Default: Asphalt Cone.
Traffic Analysis :
If needed, determine
roadway capacity and
compare with traffic
count database
Figure 3.2 - A Frame Representation of Knowledge

65
"resurfacing project". The properties (location, highway name, number of
lanes, project length, duration, material used, & traffic analysis) of
this object are contained in the slots. The material slot allows for a
default value. Default values are typically used when representing
knowledge in domains where exceptions are rare. The last slot (traffic
analysis) in the frame in Figure 3.2 illustrate a procedural attachment,
in which instructions for determining an entry are contained.
For representation of concepts, objects, events, etc., semantic
networks can be used. The network consists of a collection of nodes and
connecting links. Like frames, this system also has flexibility for
modification, allowing addition of new nodes and links. In this type of
representation, each node can "inherit" the characteristics of its
connected nodes. Figure 3.3 illustrates an example of a semantic network.
For example the statements "Resurfacing isa Highway Construction
Activity" and "Vehicle Delay causedby Lane Closures" can be represented
in a simple semantic net by using the isa or causedby relations.
Knowledge can also be represented by logic. The two most common
forms are: propositional logic and predicate calculus (Harmon and King,
1985). Each basic element of the proposition can be either true or false.
Propositions can be connected to each other by the connectives AND, OR,
NOT, EQUIVALENT, IMPLIES, etc. This type of logic is concerned with the
truthfulness of compound sentences. For example, if proposition A is true
and proposition B is false, then "A AND B" is false, but "A OR B" is true.
Predicate calculus is a special subset or extension of propositional logic
in which propositions can contain variables. In this scheme, the
knowledge is represented through a programming language (e.g. PROLOG) to

66
LANE CLOSURES
A
caused _ by
(^VEHICLE DELAY^>
Figure 3.3 - Knowledge Representation Using Semantic Network

67
describe the facts and relationships in the problem domain (Chen, 1987).
In PROLOG, a fact statement such as "Highway rehabilitation/construction
activity is a state agency responsibility" can be expressed as:
"is a (rehabilitation/construction activity, state agency
responsibility)".
This is an example of a predication that is presented by a predicate name
(i.e., "is a") followed by a list of arguments. A set of clauses
represents this rule.
The following form depicts each clause:
consequent: [antecedent-1, antecedent-2,...antecedent-n
Logic-based knowledge representation is shown in the example below:
is a (resurfacing, state agency task) :
[ is a (resurfacing, transit construction activity),
is a (transit construction activity, state agency task) ].
The antecedents and consequent in each clause are predictions. The
consequent is true if the antecedents are true.
The rule-based (or production rules) system has been the most
popular representation approach for developing expert systems. It is the
chosen scheme for the knowledge base structure of the ES decision model
described in this thesis. The knowledge base is a collection of rules
which consist of IF-(antecedent)-THEN-(consequent) statements. The
general form for this type of representation is as follows (Adeli, 1988):
Rule N
IF [(antecedent 1) (antecedent n)]
THEN [(consequent 1 with certainty q)
(consequent m with certainty cm)
( c = certainty factor )

68
Each rule is unique by its rule number. The order of rule application is
not specified by the rule number. A rule represents an independent piece
of knowledge. The antecedent can be regarded as a pattern and the
consequent as a conclusion reached or action to be taken. The antecedent
part of the rule is linked to the working memory of the ES. The rule is
fired when all the conditions of the antecedent part are satisfied. Since
the antecedent-consequent or IF-THEN rules can easily be transformed into
questions, this type of representation can facilitate the generation of
explanations. Certainty or confidence factors can be attached to rules in
a rule-based system. Each rule may be assigned a certainty factor
typically in the range of 0 to 10 or 0 to 100. These factors simply
indicate the level of confidence in a piece of information.
The following is an example of a production rule:
IF: Roadway type is 4-lane freeway
and location is urban
and construction activity type is resurfacing
and number of required lane closures >2
and expected day traffic VPH per lane > 1500
THEN: Work should be performed during 7 pm to 5 am.
The consequent part is executed when the condition part provides a match
with the available facts in the working memory.
The rule-based knowledge representation allows the ES to provide
explanations to its conclusions rather easily. This scheme also permits
a natural way for the developer to describe complex knowledge. However,
one drawback of the rule-based approach is that the addition of new rules
or modification of existing rules may introduce contradictions.

69
Inference Engine
The inference engine or mechanism is the heart of an expert system.
It is a built-in reasoning process that determines which rules are to be
fired to reach a conclusion. The three common search techniques used in
an inference mechanism are: forward chaining, backward chaining, and the
hybrid approach. The selection of a particular search strategy depends on
the application area. The details of these techniques will be discussed
in this section.
In the forward chaining technique, the rules are scanned until one
is found whose antecedents (IF-parts) match the information entered in the
working memory. The rule is then fired, updating the working memory. The
process is repeated until a goal state is reached. This search strategy
is recommended when the goal state is unknown and has to be constructed or
the number of possible outcomes is large. Complex planning problems,
particularly in construction management, are well suited for this
application method.
Backward-chaining is a goal-driven strategy, in which the rules are
scanned for those whose consequent (THEN-parts) actions lead to the goal
state. These rules are then checked to determine whether their
antecedents (IF-parts) match the information in the working memory. When
a match is obtained, the rule is applied and the solution is reached. For
an unmatched antecedent, a new subgoal is defined as "arrange conditions
to match that antecedent" (Adeli, 1988). The process is applied
recursively. This strategy is particularly efficient when the values of
the goal state are known and its number of possible outcomes is small.
Backward chaining strategy is appropriate for diagnostic expert systems.

70
The hybrid approach combines both forward-chaining and backward¬
chaining to yield conclusions. The "blackboard" environment, as described
by Harmon and King (1985), utilizes this combined approach. The
blackboard model is essentially a central global database maintaining a
two-way communication with independent rule groups (knowledge sources).
An agenda-based control system continually examines all of the possible
pending actions and chooses the one to try next. Processing in the
blackboard model is based concept of independent cooperating experts.
This type of model is appropriate for structuring complex, problem-solving
tasks that require multiple experts.
Knowledge Acquisition
Knowledge acquisition is the process by which the ES developer
collects knowledge from expert sources. Personal contact with domain
experts, reviewing literature documenting the experiences of the domain
experts, are ways to acquire the required knowledge. This process may be
divided into five steps, as described by Hayes-Roth (1983).
The initial step is identification and characterizing the important
aspects of the problem: the problem domain, knowledge sources, and goals.
The next step is conceptualization, during which the key properties and
relations are made explicit. Knowledge representation ideas and tools are
considered at this stage. The formalization process is the third step.
The model of the task is mapped, its key properties and relations are
expressed into some representation schemes. The fourth step is
implementation, which involves mapping the knowledge into the
representation method associated with the tool (ES shell) chosen for the

71
model. The testing and revision of the prototype system is the final
step. The knowledge base may be refined, or the knowledge representation
scheme may be redesigned, depending on the results of the sample run.
Personal interview with the domain expert is a direct and efficient
way to extract information from the domain expert. The interview can
be in the form of questions and answers and example problem-solving
sessions. This process entirely depends on the amount of time and effort
the expert is willing to spend. Also, the domain expert may not know how
to describe the decision process, or may simply misunderstand the
questions. To minimize this difficulty, it is best to narrow the focus of
the problem domain.
Protocol analysis is another way to obtain knowledge (Hart, 1985).
Instead of making direct contact with the domain expert, the knowledge
engineer allows the domain expert to perform and record problem solving
procedures. The recorded transcript is then analyzed by the knowledge
engineer with assistance from the domain expert. The advantage of this
technique is that it gives the domain expert more freedom to express his
knowledge. However, in this process, a communication gap between the
developer and the expert will most likely exist.
Automated knowledge acquisition methods, such as the induction
method, may reduce the gaps between the domain expert and the ES developer
(Chen, 1987). This process uses algorithms to obtain the knowledge. The
system typically uses a spreadsheet interface to get examples (describing
a particular problem) in tabular format from the knowledge-base builder.
In this method, the expert provides a set of examples of different types
of decisions and the corresponding attributes influencing the decisions.

72
Rules are induced by the algorithm using the examples. By this method, it
is not necessary for the domain expert to detail the decision making
process himself.
Expert System Development Shells
Expert system programming environments or shells are recent
commercial developments, intended to facilitate the building of knowledge-
based expert systems. Programming languages, system-building aids can
also be used as ES development tools. Languages such as LISP, PROLOG, C,
PASCAL, or FORTRAN are typically used in AI applications. The ES
developer is expected to be proficient in computer programming in this
situation. Although LISP and PROLOG have been the most chosen languages
in ES development, currently the usage of C language is gaining popularity
since it reduces operational times for the ES (Barber, 1987). ES-building
aids have not seen much usage to date. Usually, these are knowledge
acquisition systems geared toward assisting the developer in obtaining and
structuring knowledge. Examples of existing knowledge acquisition systems
are ETS, TIMM, and RULEMASTER (Adeli, 1988).
The shell is a commercial ES development tool which is intended to
provide an opportunity for non-programmers to build prototype expert
systems. With shells, the developer can concentrate on the knowledge
representation and not be concerned about mastering a programming
language, or deal with complex inference strategies. The ES shell
consists of a domain-independent inference engine, an empty knowledge
base, and an user-friendly interface. Shells contain specific
representation methods and inference mechanisms, thus they are less

73
flexible than an AI language such as LISP or PROLOG. Adeli has provided
a detailed evaluation of a variety of shells (both personal computer-based
and main frame-based) currently in use.
ES shells are usually developed by taking out the original knowledge
content from domain-dependent expert systems. As a result, these shells
are suitable only for problems similar to that of the original ES. The
developer must bear this in mind when he or she selects a shell for a
particular application. For the decision problem described in this
dissertation, a PC-based ES shell, EXSYS-Professional, was selected as the
frame for the prototype model development. The software is available at
the University of Florida, Department of Civil Engineering.
EXSYS Professional is a generalized expert system development
package. The shell developed by EXSYS Inc., is written in C programming
language. The principal development tool in Professional is the Rule
Editor. The Rule Editor can be utilized to construct simple rule-based
systems or complex modular blackboard systems. The editor provides menus,
prompts and help -- eliminating the need to memorize complex rule syntax.
All input is in the form of normal English text or algebraic expression.
A command language can be used to control the rule execution, allowing the
developer increased flexibility and control for complex applications.
Hypertext, rule compiler, blackboarding, agenda managers, table lookup,
and interface with external databases (Lotus or dBase) are some of the
useful features of the EXSYS shell. EXSYS programs are able to respond to
an end user's query with a full explanation of the logic used to arrive at
a particular conclusion. The knowledge base of this shell can accommodate
upto 2500 rules in a personal computer. Programs written with EXSYS are
directly compatible between the IBM PC/XT/AT, VAX/VMS and UNIX computers.

74
Current Applications in Construction Engineering
Several successful ES prototypes have been developed in the area of
civil/construction engineering in recent years. Experts systems are most
effective in non-theoretical applications where judgment and experience
plays an important role and in which there are no single solutions. Some
of the areas which are appropriate for ES applications in construction
are: 1) diagnosis, 2) fault detection, 3) prediction, 4) interpretation,
5) monitoring, 6) instruction, 7) planning, and 8) design.
Levitt (1986) has developed an expert system, "Howsafe", that
evaluates the safety-related aspect of a construction contractor's
organization and operating procedures. A personal computer-based ES
shell, Deciding Factor, was used for this system. The knowledge base
contains documented results of construction safety studies obtained from
various technical reports and journals. By using Howsafe, a construction
manager can evaluate a project's or company's safety practices.
An expert system for the selection of materials handling equipment
for construction of concrete frame buildings is described by Wijesundera
and Harris (1985). The system suggests suitable categories of equipment
for materials handling based on factors such as ground type, soil
condition, structural features, site accessibility, etc. The ES utilizes
an external database containing supplemental equipment information, which
is able to provide more specific recommendations. The ES shell SAVOIR has
been used to develop this system.
The area of construction project monitoring has received some
attention by ES developers. McGartland and Hendrickson (1985) have done
research on cost/time control, and purchasing/inventory control. An

75
expert system would analyze and verify weekly input to a database of
activity schedules and estimates, recognize cost overruns, time slippage
problems, and diagnose probable causes and offer solutions such as
activity duration/cost adjustment. For purchasing and inventory control,
an ES would be able to minimize the overall materials cost and assist a
project manager to determine the most economical inventory levels. A
forward chaining inference mechanism has been suggested by McGartland and
Hendrickson for this type of application.
Stone & Webster have developed expert systems to solve a variety of
problems in the area of welded construction (Hathaway and Finn, 1986).
A PC-based ES available to field engineers on site allows the appropriate
selection of welding procedures, reducing potential construction delays
and problems. Other ES applications include welder qualification test
selection, weld estimating, and weld defect diagnosis.
Summary
The current ES technology has not yet reached the stage where expert
systems are able to completely substitute human experts. Only a few
systems have performed rather close to a human expert. MYCIN, a medical
diagnostic program, is considered to be the first major ES to perform at
a human expert's level. The term "knowledge-based system" may be more
appropriate for present day technology.
The architecture of an expert system differs from that of a
conventional computer program. The knowledge base of an ES is separate
from the methods of applying the knowledge to the problem, contained in
the inference engine. In a conventional program, the problem related

76
knowledge and the methods for using the knowledge are inter-mixed, which
makes it difficult to modify the program for changes and additions to the
knowledge. Processing in a conventional program is algorithmic in nature,
symbols are used to represent numbers, arithmetic properties, and
mathematical operations. In a knowledge-based system, the inference
engine governs the sequence of rules that are fired to lead to multiple
actions or to no action at all. The knowledge rules may include
heuristics as well as mathematical reasonings.
There are three ways knowledge can be represented in an expert
system: rules, frames, logic, and semantic network. Each method is suited
for a particular type of problem. The frame method is appropriate for a
complex knowledge system. The rule-based system is the most popular
method for knowledge representation, more applicable to a decision problem
with a narrow domain.
Due to availability of micro computer-based ES shells, knowledge
engineers are able to develop decision models without the usage of
programming languages such as PROLOG and LISP. However, shells are only
geared toward specific representation methods and are less flexible than
AI languages. There have been several successful knowledge-based systems
developed in the construction engineering field. The knowledge-based
approach represents engineering expertise, theory, and judgment in an
integrated manner and also offers flexibility in data modifications.

CHAPTER 4
PROJECT COST AND PRODUCTIVITY DATA FOR DAY AND NIGHT SHIFTS
Introduction
The selection of day shift over night shift or vice versa may be
influenced by the project costs of the alternatives. Literature review
indicated a lack of project cost information for an effective comparison
between daytime and nighttime construction. Project related cost is
essentially the contract cost (total work item cost) plus agency
administrative costs (planning, evaluating and monitoring). Most highway
projects are unique, and usually consist of different sets of work items.
This makes it difficult to compare the construction costs for day and
night projects.
Productivity may also influence shift selection. Shift productivity
is affected by several factors, which include traffic volume, type of
work, material delivery, lighting, supervision, communication and worker
morale. High daytime traffic volume affects productivity negatively.
During the day, the work shift is reduced to a 5 or 6 hour period due to
the morning and evening rush hours. While during the night, the actual
working hours are extended. However, poor lighting and low worker morale
during night can decrease crew productivity. In the following sections,
unit project costs and productivity rates are compared between day and
night shifts, based on data obtained from the Florida Department of
Transportation (FDOT).
77

78
Project Cost Comparison
Since no two highway projects are exactly the same, work items
may differ accordingly. To make an effective cost comparison, a set of
typical work items have been selected for this study. These work items
were selected based upon: a) their usage during a typical day as well as
night project, b) the significance of their contribution in project cost,
and c) their large quantities. The 8 common items are listed as follows:
1) Removal of existing pavement (unit of measure = square yard, SY)
2) Regular excavation (unit = cubic yard, CY)
3) Bituminous material-prime coat (unit = gallon, GA)
4) Bituminous material-tack coat (unit = GA)
5) Milling existing asphalt pavement-2" depth (unit = square yard, SY)
6) Class I concrete-miscellaneous (unit = CY)
7) Type S asphalt concrete-including bitumen (unit = ton, TN)
8) Asphalt concrete friction course-including bitumen (unit = SY)
The unit prices for the above work items were obtained from the FDOT
official cost estimate for road projects done in 1990. Table 4.1 shows
the statistical summary of the rates for these selected work items
performed during daytime (Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar 1991). A similar
statistical summary for the eight items done during nighttime is shown in
Table 4.2. In both tables, for each work item, columns 4 to 8 contain:
1) number of samples, 2) mean unit cost, 3) standard deviation of unit
cost, 4) highest unit cost, and 5) lowest unit cost, respectively.
The results of an item-by-item comparison of unit prices are
tabulated in Table 4.3, so that the variation in means between day and
night rates can be determined. Columns 4 and 5 of Table 4.3 show mean

79
Table 4.1 - Statistical Summary of Unit Costs for Selected Work Items for
All Daytime FDOT Projects in 1990
Pay Item
Number
Name of Item
Unit
Number
of
Samples
Mean
$/unit
Std.Dev.
$/unit
High
$/unit
Low
$/unit
110-4
Rem. exist, pavt.
SY
104
10.52
10.99
100.0
0.39
120-1
Regular excavation
CY
151
7.41
7.71
60.0
0.42
300-1-1
Bit. mat'l-prime
GA
55
2.30
1.70
6.5
0.01
300-1-3
Bit. mat'l-tack
GA
190
1.36
1.36
12.6
0.01
327-70-5
Milling existing
asphalt pavt.
SY
23
0.68
0.26
1.5
0.32
400-1-15
Class I concrete
CY
70
348.38
234.42
1050
10
5331-2
Type S asph. cone.
TN
188
45.88
34.14
382
19
5337-1-2
Asph. cone. fric.
SY
102
1.26
0.82
5.54
0.65
Source: Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar, 1991

80
Table 4.2 - Statistical Summary of Unit Costs for Selected Work Items for
All Nighttime FDOT Projects in 1990
Pay Item
Number
Name of Item
Unit
Number
of
Samples
Mean
$/unit
Std.Dev.
$/unit
High
$/unit
Low
$/unit
110-4
Rem. exist, pavt.
SY
22
9.54
9.48
50.0
1.84
120-1
Regular excavation
CY
20
4.59
2.83
14.1
1.13
300-1-1
Bit. mat'l-prime
GA
12
5.19
3.89
15.0
1.00
300-1-3
Bit. mat'l-tack
GA
26
1.00
0.33
2.1
0.68
327-70-5
Milling existing
asphalt pavt.
SY
19
0.81
0.49
1.65
0.27
400-1-15
Class I concrete
CY
17
401.48
153.11
800
125
5331-2
Type S asph. cone.
TN
25
34.06
11.93
75
22
5337-1-2
Asph. cone. fric.
SY
23
1.27
0.50
2.65
0.75
Source: Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar, 1991

81
Table 4.3 - Difference Between Day and Night Unit Costs for Selected
Work Items for All FDOT Projects in 1990.
Pay Item
Number
Name of Item
Unit
Mean
(night)
($/unit)
Mean
(day)
($/unit)
Difference
Test
Result
Amount
$/unit
Per¬
cent
(%)
110-4
Rem. exist, pavt.
SY
9.54
10.52
-0.98
-9.3
-
120-1
Regular excavation
CY
4.59
7.41
-2.82
-38.1
*
300-1-1
Bit. mat'l-prime
GA
5.19
2.30
2.89
125.6
*
300-1-3
Bit. mat'l-tack
GA
1.00
1.36
-0.36
-26.5
-
327-70-5
Milling existing
asphalt pavt.
SY
0.81
0.68
0.13
19.1
-
400-1-15
Class I concrete
CY
401.48
348.38
53.1
15.2
-
5331-2
Type S asph. cone.
TN
34.06
45.88
-11.82
-25.8
*
5337-1-2
Asph. cone, frict.
SY
1.27
1.26
0.01
0.8
-
NOTE: An asterisk (*) in the last column indicates significant difference
in the hypothesis test for that work item at 95% confidence level.
Source: Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar, 1991

82
rates for nighttime and daytime projects respectively. Column 6 of the
table contains the difference in amount for means, where a negative value
indicates lower nighttime costs. For item, bituminous material-prime
coat, percent difference is as high as 125.6%, as shown in column 7. For
item, regular excavation, percent difference is -38.1%, indicating a lower
nighttime unit cost. Although the percent differences have high
variations, these variations are not necessarily conclusive from a
statistical point of view. The significance of these differences can be
tested by performing statistical t-tests for the eight work items at a 95%
confidence level. Many of these differences appear to be inconclusive
because of high standard deviations. The null hypothesis was rejected for
only three items: regular excavation, bituminous material-prime coat, and
type S asphalt concrete.
The total project item cost depends on what items are involved and
on the quantities of those work items. For this reason, further study of
the impact of shift work on project costs was done. Quantity data from
eight selected projects, utilizing most of the above mentioned work items,
was obtained from the FDOT. Table 4.4 lists the corresponding quantities
of work items of the selected projects. Respective item costs for the
eight projects were determined by multiplying the unit costs from columns
4 and 5 of Table 4.3 with the quantities from Table 4.4. The probable
difference in project costs for night and day operations due to the eight
work items, is given by the summation of such products. The total costs
of the work items for each of the selected eight projects is listed in
columns 2 and 3 of Table 4.5. Column 4 shows the difference of day and
night total costs, while the last column shows the percentage difference
with respect to daytime total cost.

83
Table 4.4 - Quantities of Work Items for Eight Selected FDOT Night Projects
Name of Item
Unit
Projects
#1
#2
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8
Rem exist, pavt
SY
416
50
1156
532
96
263
-
2200
Reg. excavation
CY
13398
17909
9952
8279
9306
8595
8137
110041
Bit. mat'l prime
GA
86
8888
50
50
50
50
660
-
Bit. mat'l tack
GA
18205
44551
41197
13874
19211
31116
8748
74469
Milling asphalt
SY
3228
553530
20613
20620
15523
7563
63601
84307
Class I concrete
CY
5
1.4
4.58
0.8
9.6
3.2
5
50
Type S asph.conc
TN
4403
23284
50010
22889
33935
40972
9275
2912
Asph. cone, fric
SY
84008
465686
250955
99472
220267
230100
88005
348080
Source: Florida Department of Transportation, 1990

84
Table 4.5 - Effect of Quantity on Project Costs for Eight
Selected Work Items
Project
Total Cost of Eight Work Items
Difference of
Night & Day
Costs
Percentage
Difference
of Day Cost
#
Night Cost ($)
Day Cost ($)
1
345,399
440,413
-95,014
-21.6
2
2,006,764
2,246,199
-239,435
-10.6
3
2,138,746
2,768,313
-629,567
-22.7
4
984,170
1,279,185
-295,015
-23.1
5
1,727,683
2,228,934
-501,251
-22.5
6
1,768,486
2,284,877
-516,391
-22.6
7
530,719
655,124
-124,405
-19.0
8
1,230,145
1,586,748
-356,603
-22.5
Source: Ellis, Herbsman, & Kumar, 1991

85
According to the study described above, the degree of variation in
unit costs for the eight selected work items, for both daytime and
nighttime construction, is very high. Tables 4.1 and 4.2 reveal that the
standard deviation is in most cases nearly 100% of the mean. This
confirms that unit costs in highway construction are highly project-
oriented and are influenced more by project-related conditions rather than
on type of work shift (day or night). The study also rules out the
speculation that nighttime costs are exceptionally higher than daytime
costs. As seen in Tables 4.1 and 4.2, for most work items the maximum
daytime unit cost is higher than the maximum nighttime unit cost, and
conversely the minimum daytime costs are lower than the minimum nighttime
costs.
Table 4.3 shows that four items (remove existing pavement, regular
excavation, bituminous material-tack coat, and type S asphalt concrete)
have higher daytime mean unit cost. The other four items have a higher
nighttime mean unit cost. T-tests have confirmed significant differences
for only three work items. Two of these items (regular excavation, and
asphalt concrete) appear to have significantly lower mean unit costs
during nighttime. The third item (bituminous material-prime coat) has a
significantly higher nighttime unit cost. It is reasonable to conclude
that the work item characteristics are responsible for such a manner of
differences.
In this study, it is seen that the percentage difference is negative
for all eight of the selected FDOT projects. When the total costs of the
eight items for selected projects are compared, nighttime costs are
observed to be lower than the corresponding daytime costs in the range of

86
10 to 20%. Although the participation of these item costs to the total
contract cost varies, the pattern allows a prediction of a probable
nighttime cost. This prediction theory is utilized in the cost model of
the proposed expert system as described in a later chapter.
Productivity Comparison
A comparison of day and nighttime productivity rates for typical
highway construction activities was possible by obtaining information from
the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). Daytime production rates
were collected from a 1988 report, "Establishing Contract Duration Based
on Production Rates for FDOT Construction Projects", prepared by the
University of Florida Civil Engineering Department. The information
includes: 1) number of observations, 2) mean production rate, 3)
standard deviation, 4) maximum and 5) minimum production rates for each
operation, which are further categorized by project type, local
conditions, traffic conditions. Table 4.6 summarizes this data.
The FDOT provided nighttime production data, in form of daily
reports, for a highway project located on 1-95 in St. Johns County,
Florida. A summary of this data is presented in Table 4.7. Plant mixed
surface and milling existing pavement are the two work items for which
data was collected. The mean and standard deviation of production rates
for these work items are shown in columns 3 and 4 of Table 4.7. The
combined results of all the projects, as listed in this table, are used
for nighttime productivity values. Only limited access facility (e.g.
interstates) observations from Table 4.6 are utilized for daytime
productivity values, in order to make an accurate comparison with the 1-95
nighttime productivity values.

87
Table 4.6 - Summary of Productivity Rates for FDOT Construction Projects
PLANT MIXED SURFACES: STRUCTURAL COURSE
Number of
Mean
Standard
High
Low
Category
Observa-
(Tons/
Deviation
(Tons/
(Tons/
tions
Day)
(Tons/Day)
Day)
Day)
Project Type
Reconstruction
147
833
533
2,359
6
Construction
27
623
639
2,863
114
Intersection
15
122
111
356
10
Bridge
9
178
70
274
84
Local Condition
Rural
111
855
616
2,863
6
Urban
72
436
387
1,638
17
Limited
15
1,090
157
1,247
582
Traffic Condition
Light
20
1,189
761
2,359
119
Medium
81
822
562
2,863
14
Heavy
97
539
426
14
6
Total Combined
198
720
565
2,863
6
MILLING EXISTING PAVEMENT
Category
Number of
Observa¬
tions
Mean
(SY/
Day)
Standard
Deviation
(SY/Day)
High
(SY/
Day)
Low
(SY/
Day)
Project Type
Reconstruction
94
12,350
7,429
32,028
444
Construction
1
2,274
0
2,274
2,274
Intersection
0
0
0
0
0
Bridge
0
0
0
0
0
Local Condition
Rural
48
14,850
8,108
32,028
444
Urban
32
8,987
4,847
20,533
2,351
Limited
15
10,854
6,765
26,422
3,833
Traffic Condition
Light
14
20,306
8,159
32,028
5,488
Medium
32
12,137
7,680
29,376
444
Heavy
49
10,011
5,180
26,422
2,274
Total Combined
95
12,244
7,461
32,028
444
Source: Herbsman & Ellis, 1988

88
Table 4.7 - Summary of Productivity Rates for FDOT Nighttime Construction
Project on 1-95 in St. Johns County
PLANT MIXED SURFACES: STRUCTURAL COURSE
Project
Number
Number
of
Samples
Mean
(Tons/
Day)
Standard
Deviation
(Tons/Day)
High
(Tons/
Day)
Low
(Tons/
Day)
78080-3420
14
950.68
348.49
1,428.15
320.86
78080-3421
32
1,110.31
327.06
1,602.68
327.08
78080-3422
29
1,093.52
422.97
1,871.21
196.59
78080-3424
20
1,043.45
379.43
1,644.97
325.92
Total Combined
95
1,067.59
378.57
1,871.21
196.59
MILLING EXISTING PAVEMENT
Project
Number
Number
of
Samples
Mean
(SY/
Day)
Standard
Deviation
(SY/Day)
High
(SY/
Day)
Low
(SY/
Day)
78080-3420
7
11,246.42
5,582.80
16,840
2,766
78080-3421
10
7,379.40
1,061.80
9,080
5,333
78080-3424
12
8,256.40
2,957.20
13,864
4,170
Total Combined
29
8,675.70
3,711.90
16,840
2,766
Source: FDOT (1990)

89
Table 4.8 - Guidelines for Estimating Production Rates for FDOT Projects
WORK ITEM
DAILY
PRODUCTION
COMMENTS
General Time
(Move in)
15 days
Normally for all projects unless specific
circumstances justify additional time.
Clear & Grub
3 acre
Medium clearing - (50 to 100 acres)
Excavation
1400 CY
Small quantity jobs under 100,000 CY
(Regular)
5600 CY
11200 CY
Medium quantity jobs 100,000 - 300,000 CY
Large quantity jobs over 300,000 CY
Excavation
900 CY
Small quantity jobs under 100,000 CY
(Truck Haul)
3800 CY
7500 CY
Medium quantity jobs 100,000 - 300,000 CY
Large quantity jobs over 300,000 CY
Stabilized
Roadbed
Bases:
4500 SY
Normal.
Sand-Clay
Limerock stabil.
900 SY
Double lift installation.
Soil Cement
1800 SY
Single lift installation.
Surface Treatment
400 CY
Normal.
Cement Concrete
2000 SY
4000 SY
Average quantity jobs (under 25,000 CY)
Large quantity jobs (over 25,000 CY)
Milling Existing
Pavement
6000 SY
Average jobs.
Plant Mixed
500 TN
Average jobs (less than 50,000 Tns)
Surfaces
1200 TN
Large jobs (over 50,000 Tns)
Guardrails
300 LF
1500 LF
Small jobs (less than 5000 LF)
Large jobs (over 5000 LF)
Compression Seal
Replacement
100 LF
Normal.
Breaking and
Compacting Exist¬
ing Concrete
Pavement
5000 SY
Normal
Source: Herbsman & Ellis (1988)

90
To check the significance of difference between day and night rates
statistical (hypothesis) tests are performed, as shown in Figures 4.1 and
4.2. The day and night rates can also be compared with the rates
suggested in FDOT guidelines. Table 4.8 lists guidelines for estimating
production rates for selected work items on typical FDOT projects
(Herbsman & Ellis, 1988). These guidelines are the result of analysis of
actual production rates observed on FDOT highway projects.
The statistical t-tests performed on independent samples did not
confirm a significant difference of productivity rates for day and
nighttime jobs at a 95% confidence level for both work items, i.e., plant
mixed surface and milling existing surface. For plant mixed surface, the
nighttime mean rate is slightly less than that on daytime limited access
projects. The total combined rate for the 1-95 night project, however, is
much higher compared to the daytime combined rate (1068 tons/day vs. 720
tons/day). The guidelines in Table 4.8 indicate that daily production of
plant mixed surface ranges from 500 ton/day to 1,200 ton/day for average
and large quantity jobs respectively, which is in agreement with the study
production rates.
For the project item, milling existing pavement, the mean daytime
rate (limited access facility) is higher than the mean nighttime rate
(total combined). Compared to the rate of 6,000 sy/day suggested by the
guidelines, both these rates are higher. However, no definite conclusion
regarding the significance of these differences can be reached, because of
the smallness of the sample size and the high variation of production
rates for daytime jobs.

91
Table 4.9 - Statistical Test for Day & Night Production Rate of Plant
Mixed Surface
STATISTICAL DATA:
y, = sample mean production rate for day = 1,090 tons/day
y2 = sample mean production rate for night = 1,067.59 tons/day
n, = number of observations for day = 15
n2 = number of observations for night = 95
St = standard deviation for day rate = 157 tons/day
S2 = standard deviation for night rate = 378.57 tons/day
Df = degrees of freedom = n, + n2 - 2 = 108
HYPOTHESIS TEST (T-test):
H0: u, - u2 = 0 (null hypothesis), where u = population mean
Ha: u, - u2 > 0 or < 0 (assumed hypothesis)
Sp = common standard deviation estimate = 357.67
t = student's t = 0.225
ta = for RR (rejection region) = 1.661 (for 95% confidence level)
RESULT:
t < ta , therefore null hypothesis cannot be rejected
CONCLUSION:
It cannot be concluded that mean production of plant mixed surface
at daytime is significantly different from that of nighttime, at a
95% confidence level.

92
Table 4.10 - Statistical Test for Day & Night Production Rate of Milling
Existing Surface
STATISTICAL DATA:
y, = sample mean production rate for day = 10,854 sy/day
y2 = sample mean production rate for night = 8,675.7 sy/day
n, = number of observations for day = 15
n2 = number of observations for night = 29
S, = standard deviation for day rate = 6,765 sy/day
S2 = standard deviation for night rate = 3,711.9 sy/day
Df = degrees of freedom = n, + n2 - 2 = 42
HYPOTHESIS TEST (T-test):
Ho: u1 - u2 = 0 (null hypothesis), where u = population mean
Ha: Ut - u2 > 0 or < 0 (assumed hypothesis)
Sp = common standard deviation estimate = 4943.7
t = student's t = 1.38
ta = for RR (rejection region) = 1.684 (for 95% confidence level)
RESULT:
t < ta , therefore null hypothesis cannot be rejected
CONCLUSION:
It cannot be concluded that mean production of milling existing
surface at daytime is significantly different from that of nighttime,
at a 95% confidence level.

93
Summary
In the cost study, total costs of eight work items for selected FDOT
projects were compared between day and night shifts. It was found that
nighttime costs are less than the corresponding daytime costs. The
difference in night and day costs is negative for the eight typical
highway construction work items on all eight observed FDOT nighttime
projects. The percent difference ranges from -10.6% to -23.1%. This
indicates that nighttime project item costs are generally lower than
daytime costs for FDOT projects. However, possible increased costs in
nighttime traffic control, inspection, and administrative duties have not
been taken into account. From a statistical point of view, it could not
be confirmed that nighttime unit rates are significantly different than
daytime unit rates. The effect of variation in unit item rates on item
costs, however, is substantial. The results of the cost study do not
suggest a project item cost increase for nighttime construction.
The analysis of highway construction production rates between day
and night shifts indicates that night shift does not significantly affect
productivity. There may be production rate variations between projects
due to factors such as: 1) long working hours, 2) traffic interference,
3) road closures, 4) lighting conditions, 5) worker morale, and 6) spare
parts and material availability. However, while considering nighttime
projects in general, productivity does not appear to be a major deciding
criterion.

CHAPTER 5
MODEL APPROACH FOR WORK SHIFT SELECTION
Introduction
A model approach (using mathematical reasoning) to the selection of
work shifts is described in this chapter. The model parameters were
developed in accordance to information obtained by literature sources as
well as personal visitations to several district offices of the Florida
Department of Transportation. Discussions were held with management-level
engineers who represented the construction, traffic operations, and safety
divisions. The meetings were essential to the author's understanding of
the many variables, problems, decisions, and issues involved in the shift
selection process.
The objective of the proposed expert system approach (described in
the following chapter) is to develop a step by step method that considers
all the relevant factors in order of priority. Table 5.1 lists the
decision factors ranked in order of importance. This ranking has been
established for the purpose of developing the decision tree for the expert
system knowledge-base. The list is based on results of various literature
studies and personal views of highway experts interviewed by the author
(Appendix G). Among these various factors, traffic congestion, vehicle
safety, project costs, and user (motorist) costs can be analyzed by
numerical approach, as described in detail in this chapter.
94

95
Table 5.1 - Decision Factors That Influence Shift Selection
Rankinq
Factors
1
Traffic Congestion
2
Work Zone Safety
3
Job Schedule (# of hours
required for a work period)
4
Lane Closure Requirements
5
Noise
6
Quality
7
Productivity
8
Materials/parts Availability
9
Agency/contractor Experience
10
Temperature
11
Supervision/communication
12
Worker Morale
13
Project Costs

96
Lane Closure Traffic Analysis
The amount of allowable traffic backup, tolerance level of
travelling public, and lane capacities of roadways dictate the manner in
which traffic volumes are factored into the work shift selection process.
Typically, if roadway construction requires lane closures for more than
two days, and if the daytime traffic backs up over long distances, then
the night option is favored heavily. A series of daytime lane closures
resulting in continuous congestion leads to public dissatisfaction and
adverse media reaction.
The congestion created by lane or road closures can be estimated by
determining existing traffic volumes. State highway agencies typically
depend on reliable or recent traffic volume counts and subsequently
utilize these counts in conjunction with capacity guidelines to determine
the level of congestion. Depending on the geometries of the roadway, lane
capacities can range from 1000 vehicles per hour per lane (vphl) to 2000
vphl. Anytime the existing traffic volume exceeds the capacity of
roadway, congestion occurs. Vehicle delay, resulting from congestion, is
an important consideration. The FDOT has developed a Lane Closure
Procedure, based upon traffic volumes and roadway capacity, which allows
maintenance and design engineers to analyze when and if lane closures
should be permitted. A vehicle delay exceeding 20 minutes is considered
undesirable. If the allowable delay exceeds its cutoff point, night
work becomes necessary.
The first step for congestion analysis in a highway work zone is to
obtain traffic flow (volume) count through the work zone. For the
proposed model, the traffic count should be represented in terms of

97
vehicles per hour (vph) per direction. The FDOT keeps hourly traffic
count data on a directional basis for a 24 hour period from Monday through
Sunday. Table 5.2 displays a sample weekday traffic count database for a
1-75 project in Hamilton County. Daytime lane closure feasibility for a
particular day is based on the maximum hourly volume obtained from this
count. The number of lanes available per direction in the roadway and the
lane capacity (vph per lane), are two essential elements in the analysis.
If present traffic volume (vph) exceeds total roadway capacity (number of
lanes x lane capacity), then certainly there is a congestion problem.
Partial lane closures may be necessary to facilitate roadway repair and
rehabilitation. One of the purposes of the proposed model is to determine
whether the roadway capacity allows partial lane closures without creating
heavy backlog in the traffic flow. Based on the number of existing lanes
(per direction) available, capacity of lane (vph per lane),and peak
daytime (from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) traffic flow per hour, the model will
recommend the number of daytime lane closures permitted. If the daytime
traffic volume is sufficiently high, then the model will, of course,
recommend that all lanes remain open during the day, and that construction
work take place at night when traffic volume is low, allowing partial lane
closures. The following mathematical reasoning, used in the proposed
expert system model, determine allowable partial daytime closures for
multilane highways:
If, I75NH > [ L x (N-l) ] ,
i.e., if traffic volume exceeds roadway capacity with 1 lane
closure,
then, weekday traffic volume permits no partial daytime lane
closures.

98
Table 5.2 - 1-75 (North Bound) Average Weekday Hourly Traffic Volumes
Location: Hamilton County, Date: March 1991
AM
Volumes
PM Volumes
Time
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
Time
Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
1
189
179
211
221
253
1
1221
978
1081
1363
1800
2
156
171
167
189
211
2
1222
979
1033
1361
1679
3
127
147
159
149
181
3
1168
939
1080
1421
1780
4
105
114
126
160
148
4
1004
909
969
1109
1799
5
97
120
129
136
160
5
927
759
829
1109
1591
6
117
135
156
161
186
6
744
671
722
997
1410
7
214
229
237
274
311
7
616
557
622
845
1201
8
373
365
402
465
499
8
501
490
518
645
1065
9
547
514
559
717
803
9
399
356
410
629
977
10
798
755
800
1049
1171
10
343
312
381
584
881
11
1012
913
973
1300
1463
11
305
297
338
523
749
12
1154
1003
1092
1436
1640
12
255
249
262
402
564
Source: FDOT (1991)

99
where I75NH = Peak weekday traffic volume (vph) on Interstate 75
northbound direction in Hamilton County.
L = Lane capacity (vphl) for roadway.
N = Number of existing lanes per direction for roadway.
e.g. if, L = 1500 vphl (estimated)
and, N = 4 lanes per direction
then, [L x (N-l)] = [1500 x (4-1)] = 4500 vph
= Capacity (with 1 lane closed)
In this example, if peak weekday 1-75 northbound traffic volume
(per hour) is more than 4500 vph then no partial daytime lane
closures will be recommended.
If, I75NH < = [L x (N-l)] but > [L x (N-2)] ,
i.e., if traffic volume is less than or equal to roadway capacity
with 1 lane closure but exceeds roadway capacity with 2 lane
closures,
then, weekday traffic volume permits one daytime lane closure.
e.g. with L = 1500 vphl and N = 4 lanes,
If 1-75 traffic volume is less than or equal to 4500 vph but
greater than 3000 vph then only one daytime closure is
allowed.
Similarly, if I75NH < = [L x (N-2)] but > [L x (N-3)], then
weekday traffic permits upto two daytime lane closures.
And,if I75N_H < = [ L x (N-3) ] but > [ L x (N-4) ], then weekday
traffic permits upto three daytime lane closures.
Accident Analysis
The accident analysis component of the proposed model compares
safety between day and night work shifts by analyzing vehicular accident
numbers in the work zone. The number of day accidents on a roadway before
construction is compared with number of day accidents on that roadway
during construction, and the percent change in number of day accidents is
calculated. This percent change is, of course, attributable to work zone
construction during the day. Similarly, the percent change attributable
to work zone construction during the night is calculated.

100
If the accident percent changes for day and night construction are
not significantly different, then it can be concluded that shift safety is
not decisive factor in the shift selection process. The analysis includes
a certain acceptable difference range based on the judgment or decision of
the agency planner. A difference outside this range would be considered
significant, and either day or night shift is chosen for better safety.
The accident numbers used for comparison may be for a period of 1 year, or
if the construction period is 1 year or less, then the before-during
comparison can be performed on a month-to-month basis.
The following mathematical expressions, utilized in the model,
explain how the percent accident changes are compared for day and night
shifts:
If, absolute DP - DB _ ND - NB is less than or equal to _C_
value of DB NB 100
where, DD = no. of day accidents during construction
DB = no. of day accidents before construction
ND = no. of night accidents during construction
NB = no. of night accidents before construction
C = acceptable difference in accident percent changes (%)
then, there is no significant difference in safety for day and night
shift, otherwise:
If,
DD - DB
> ND - NB
then,
night shift is relatively safer.
DB
NB
If,
DD - DB
< ND - NB
then,
day shift is relatively safer.
DB
NB
Project Cost Analysis
Although presently project cost differential between day and night
shifts is not a major consideration for work shift selection, in the
future, economics may play an important role in agency decision making.

101
For that reason, the proposed model will perform a cost comparison between
a daytime and nighttime performance for a specific roadway project. The
percent change in total owner cost due to nighttime operation will be
provided as the final solution. A number of roadway work items may be
selected for the cost analysis, based on their common usage (on night and
day jobs) and significant contribution in project cost. Eight such items
have been identified in the previous chapter. The cost model incorporates
the daytime and nighttime mean unit costs for these items. The following
list of variables and equations describe the project cost model:
D, = day mean unit cost for item 1: Removal of Existing Pavement ($/SY)
D2= day mean unit cost for item 2: Regular Excavation ($/CY)
D3= day mean unit cost for item 3: Bituminous Matl-Prime Coat ($/GA)
D4= day mean unit cost for item 4: Bituminous Matl-Tack Coat ($/GA)
D5= day mean unit cost for item 5: Milling Exist. Asphalt (2") ($/SY)
De= day mean unit cost for item 6: Class I Concrete Mise. ($/CY)
D7= day mean unit cost for item 7: Type S Asphalt Concrete ($/TN)
D8= day mean unit cost for item 8: Asph. Cone. Friction Course ($/SY)
N,= night
mean
unit
cost
for
item
1
Q,= Item
1
quantity
(SY)
N2= night
mean
unit
cost
for
item
2
Q2= Item
2
quantity
(CY)
N3= night
mean
unit
cost
for
item
3
Q3= Item
3
quantity
(GA)
N4= night
mean
unit
cost
for
item
4
Q4= Item
4
quantity
(GA)
N5= night
mean
unit
cost
for
item
5
Q5= Item
5
quantity
(SY)
Ne= night
mean
unit
cost
for
item
6
Qg= Item
6
quantity
(CY)
N7= night
mean
unit
cost
for
item
7
Q7= Item
7
quantity
(TN)
N8= night
mean
unit
cost
for
item
8
Qg= Item
8
quantity
(SY)
PROJD ($) = Estimated Daytime Project Item Cost
PROJN ($) = Projected Nighttime Project Item Cost
D ($) = Total Cost for Selected Project Items (Daytime)
N ($) = Total Cost for Selected Project Items (Nighttime)
AD ($) = Administrative Costs (Daytime)
TC ($) = Traffic Control Costs (Daytime)
+/- ADPER = Percent change for nighttime administrative cost
+/- TCPER = Percent change for nighttime traffic control cost
D = (D,x Q,) + (D2 x Q2) + (D3 x Q3) + (D4 x Q4) + (D5 x Q5)
+ (Dg X Qg) + (D? X Q7) + (Dg X Qg)
N = (N, x Q,) + (N2 x Q2) + (N3 x Q3) + (N4 x Q4) + (N5 x Q5)
+ (N0 X Qg) + (N, X Q?) + (Ng X Qg)

102
DTC = Total Daytime Project Cost
NTC = Total Nighttime Project Cost
Fc = Cost multiplier to convert estimated total daytime project
item cost to projected total nighttime project item cost
= N/D
PROJN = Fc x PROJD
DTC = PROJD + AD + TC
NTC = PROJN + ((ADPER/100) + 1) x AD + ((TCPER/100) + 1) x TC
Percent Change (%) in Total Owner
Cost Due to Nighttime Construction = ((NTC - DTC)/NTC) x 100
The difference in daytime and nighttime unit costs of the selected
work items may result in substantial difference between the total project
costs for day shift and night shift, depending on the quantity of the work
item. According to cost data obtained from the FDOT, the night mean unit
cost for bituminous material prime coat is $2.89 higher than its day mean
unit cost. If a job requires usage of a large quantity of bituminous
material prime coat, then nighttime operations may not be economical. The
model, as described above, will indicate this in its end result.
User Cost Analysis
The user costs associated with additional motorist delay resulting
from construction activities on the roadway is an important consideration
for workshift selection. Depending on public acceptance, different states
have different allowable vehicle delays. The State of California
indicated that a 20 minute daytime vehicle delay due to construction is
unacceptable, and in the State of Texas a 15 minute delay is the cutoff
point, after which nighttime construction is considered (Shepard and

103
Cottrell, 1985). The length of vehicle delay is responsible for increases
in personal cost, vehicle cost due to speed change cycles, and fuel cost
due to vehicle idling.
The personal cost resulting from vehicle queuing can be calculated
by taking the average delay per vehicle and multiplying it to the
corresponding vehicle cost for that delay. Table 5.3 shows data from a
sample project in which the effect of average delays on personal cost per
vehicle each hour is calculated, beginning from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Personal
costs during nighttime is assumed to be negligible and is omitted from the
nighttime user cost calculation.
An estimate of the vehicle operating cost associated with queuing
can be obtained by determining the average vehicle speed within the queue
(e.g. 55 miles per hour on highways) and vehicle delay (minutes) from
stoppage (or speed reduction) to restoration of initial speed. The
vehicle operating cost is expressed in terms of dollars ($) per 1000
vehicles and is dependent on vehicle speed and length of delay.
Fuel cost due to vehicle idling can be calculated by multiplying the
expected daytime vehicle delay (minutes) with the fuel consumption rate
per vehicle (gallon per minute), the fuel price (dollar per gallon), and
the average daily traffic (ADT) count. Fuel consumption rates (for
idling) are available in a manual titled "Energy Requirements for
Transportation Systems". Again, like personal cost, this component of
user cost is assumed to be negligible during nighttime and hence not
included for the nighttime user cost calculation. The three user cost
components described above have been included in the proposed cost model.

104
Table 5.3 - Personal Cost of Time Delay for Queuing
Hour
Beginning
Hourly
Volume
Average
Delay (min.)
Cost per
Vehicle ($)
Total
Cost ($)
9 a.m.
3,700
6.5
0.050
185
10 a.m
2,650
12.8
0.600
1,590
11 a.m.
2,300
6.3
0.046
106
12 noon
1,950
0
0.0
0
1 p.m.
1,850
0
0.0
0
Total 1,881
Source: Shepard and Cottrell (1985)

105
Model Components:
(1)Personal Cost,
Variables:
T= average vehicle delay (minutes) during daytime
construction
Ct = cost ($) per vehicle based on T
P = project duration (days)
V = day/night traffic count (vehicles/day)
Cp = Ct ($/veh.) x V (veh./day) x P (days)
(2)Vehicle Cost due to speed change cycles, Cv
S = initial vehicle speed on highway (mph)
T = vehicle delay (minutes) from vehicle stoppage (or
speed reduction) resulting from construction, to
restoration of initial speed
C, = $ per 1000 vehicle based on S and T
Cv = Cs (S/1000 veh.) x V (veh./day) x P (days)
(3)Fuel Cost due to vehicle idling, Cf
T = vehicle delay (minutes)
R = fuel consumption rate per vehicle (gal/min.)
F = fuel price ($/gal.)
Cf = R (gal/min./veh) x T (min.) x F ($/gal.) x V
(veh./day) x P (days)
TOTAL USER COST = (l)+(2)+(3) = Cp + Cv + Cf
Summary
For work shift selection, highway agency decision makers rely on
individual experience and judgment as well as established methodologies
involving mathematical reasoning. Among the various factors considered
for the shift selection process, traffic congestion, work zone accidents,
project cost, and user cost can be analyzed in a quantitative manner.

106
The traffic congestion analysis element of the proposed model will
recommend the number of allowable daytime lane closures based on existing
number of lanes available, lane capacity, and peak hourly traffic flow.
The solution offered is a conservative one, based on the assumption that
additional daytime congestion caused by roadway capacity reduction is to
be avoided altogether.
The accident analysis component of the model compares the percent
change in number of work zone vehicle accidents before vs. during
construction for day shift and night shift. If the accident change
percent for night shift is significantly higher than the accident change
percent for day shift, then certainly daytime construction is preferable
over the nighttime option. Safety consideration is given equal importance
to traffic congestion in the decision tree of the proposed model.
Owner and user costs for day and night shifts are compared on
separate basis. The total owner cost comparison for daytime and nighttime
alternatives is determined based on project item unit cost differentials,
traffic control and agency administrative cost differentials . Although
project cost is low in ranking among the factors considered by the agency
decision makers, the model will provide, as an end solution, the percent
change in total owner cost for a nighttime alternative. The user
(motorist) cost comparison involves three components: 1) personal cost,
2) vehicle operating cost due to speed change cycles, and 3) vehicle fuel
cost. All three of these components is dependent on the length of vehicle
delay resulting from roadway construction work. Since the motorist cost
is directly related to congestion factor, daytime user costs can be
expected to be much higher than nighttime user costs.

CHAPTER 6
DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM MODEL
Introduction
The nation's highway infrastructure is in need of periodic
modifications due to the inevitable rise in traffic volumes resulting from
economic growth and population increase. It is important for the highway
system to be functional during rehabilitation and construction activities.
To avoid serious traffic backups resulting from work zone lane closures,
it is necessary for the highway agencies to restrict their roadway
reconstruction and maintenance activities to hours of off-peak traffic,
weekends, and nights. Generally, highway rehabilitation work can proceed
unhindered during off-peak hours, i.e., 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. In some urban
areas however, lanes cannot be closed during the day time at all due to
high traffic volumes. Highway agencies today, are favoring nighttime
construction, to keep the public inconvenience to a minimum. The decision
to work nighttime is largely influenced by the traffic congestion factor.
Apart from the congestion factor, accident analysis, specification
needs, duration of construction, reaction of the public, noise impact,
quality of work, productivity, material availability, temperature, worker
morale, project costs, etc. also influence work shift selection. This
dissertation presents an approach that will enable the highway agency to
integrate in all the variables (qualitative and quantitative) involved in
the decision process. A rule-based expert system will be able to
107

108
incorporate all these factors, whereas a conventional model would be
purely algorithmic in nature.
The proposed approach will optimize the selection of work shifts
(day or night) by analyzing the relevant factors step by step in the order
of their importance. For example, it may be appropriate for the decision
maker to consider congestion and safety as the two most important factors
in the selection process. If congestion and safety are not decisive
factors, then the other factors are examined. The knowledge-based system
can serve as a decision tool for work period selection, guiding the user
(agency planner) through a series of steps before arriving to a particular
conclusion, i.e., a shift time.
Knowledge Acquisition
Information was obtained from an extensive literature review which
included research studies performed for various state highway agencies
having a high proportion of road reconstruction expenditure and having
metropolitan areas with heavy traffic congestions. Based on data
provided by the FDOT, a comparative study between unit project costs and
productivity rates for day and night operations, was carried out.
Conclusions were drawn from statistical tests performed in this study.
Personal interviews with highway agency planners were also carried out
with the objective of determining the primary factors behind work shift
selection. The problems associated with day or nighttime construction,
traffic considerations, the effect on safety, production, quality, and
overall cost of projects were some of the key issues addressed.

109
Literature review was a major source for knowledge acquisition.
Existing guidelines for work shift selection were examined, and a list of
important factors that influence the selection process were compiled. A
preliminary ranking of these factors was established and subsequently some
adjustments were made during the discussions held with FDOT personnel.
The final listing of ranked factors (shown in Table 5.1) was generally
accepted by the agency engineers interviewed. Results of a project unit
item cost comparison between daytime and nighttime work, involving
potential extra costs, were incorporated into the knowledge-base cost
model. Mathematical equations and quantitative variables (e.g. volume vs.
capacity analysis) were also utilized and expressed as rules in the
knowledge-base.
Personal interviews with FDOT personnel were in form of structured
discussions (Appendix G). The problem boundaries were defined and the
officials freely expressed their views regarding the decision factors.
Other personnel were recommended whenever there was uncertainty. The
preliminary form of the knowledge-based system was loaded into a personal
computer and demonstrated with a sample run. Changes to the questioning
format of the model were suggested and adjustments were made accordingly.
The impact of traffic is the major factor in deciding whether
highway operations should be conducted during the night or day, according
the statements of key personnel at the District 2 office of the FDOT. On
a highway with significant traffic flow, closing a lane for construction
causes bottlenecking, which results in queuing and congestion, and
consequently, delays. The conversation with Henry Haggerty, District
Construction Engineer, reaffirmed the importance of a congestion free work

110
period, namely the night shift. According to Larry Stubbs, District 2
Plans Reviewer, the FDOT is finding the nighttime alternative a necessary
option, not only for urban roadways but also for non-urban interstate
stretches (e.g. 1-75) where traffic volume is high during the day at any
time. The recommendation made by the committee on traffic maintenance has
the most influence on work shift selection. Larry Littlefield, Assistant
District Construction Engineer of District 5, stated that the maintenance
of traffic committee's recommendation, typically, overrides other factor
considerations. The agency does consider other factors such as safety,
noise, effect on businesses, construction quality, productivity rate,
material/parts availability, etc., although he remarked that there is no
formal methodology that takes into account all these factors. Project
item costs are seldom given any consideration. However, the personnel
that were interviewed agreed that a project cost comparison between day
and night operations could be an important factor in the future.
Knowledge-Base Objective
The knowledge-base is structured to provide work shift information
for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Congestion, safety and cost
are the three factors that are in the quantitative analysis category.
Noise, quality of work, productivity, experience, parts/material
availability, temperature, communication, and human effects are the
factors that fall under the qualitative or heuristics category. The
safety factor can be analyzed either qualitatively or quantitatively.
For the congestion analysis, the user is asked to input the project
location (county), number of lanes per direction for the roadway, the lane

Ill
capacity (vehicles per hour per lane), and the average weekday traffic
volume (vehicles per hour) for the roadway. The user has the option of
either obtaining the traffic volume number from a database or giving it a
new value and automatically updating the database. The proposed model
suggests traffic count databases to be set up individually for each
county. The model will perform a lane closure analysis by comparing the
existing roadway capacity with the current traffic volume.
The safety analysis section of the knowledge-base requires the user
to either use expert judgment or go through a quantitative process. The
quantitative process is entirely dependent on historical or past accident
records. The number of accidents on the roadway before construction, and
the number of accidents during similar construction in the past, are asked
by the model, for both day shift and night shift. The model in its
current form requires a direct input by the user, although with additions
and changes to its knowledge-base the model can access the information
directly from an accident database. Based on the daytime and nighttime
accident numbers entered, the model will determine whether day shift is
safer than night shift or vice-versa.
For cost analysis the knowledge-base is structured so that project
related costs and motorist costs are calculated separately. The user is
asked to input the following information for owner cost determination:
. estimated daytime project item cost
administrative costs (daytime)
. traffic control costs (daytime)
. percent change for nighttime administrative costs
. percent change for nighttime traffic control costs
quantities (number of units) used for selected work items

112
The knowledge-base contains all the unit prices (day and night) for eight
selected project items. Motorist cost for day shift and night shift is
determined by entering the project duration (days), total traffic volumes
for day and night shifts, vehicle delay (minutes) during daytime
construction, fuel price ($/gallon), vehicle operating cost for day and
night shifts, and personal cost during daytime construction.
The Decision Process
The steps involved in the interactive session between the user and
computer model are outlined below:
1. Select Project Characteristics
A. Project Type
B. County location, highway name and direction
2. Input Roadway Characteristics
A. Number of lanes per direction
B. Estimated lane capacity (v.p.h.l.)
3. Perform Congestion Analysis
A. Obtain average weekday traffic volume (v.p.h.)
count from database, or,
B. Input new traffic count, updating database
C. Model determines allowable lane closures
D. Check detour availability
4. Perform Safety Analysis
A. Use expert judgement
B. Perform numerical analysis
5. Check Job Requirements
A. Lane closure requirements
B. Scheduling requirements
6. Check Other Factors (sequentially)
A. Work zone noise acceptability during night
B. Quality of work during night
C. Daytime and nighttime productivity
D. Material/spare parts availability during night
E. Agency/contractor experience in nighttime work
F. Preference of night or day temperature
G. Difficulties in nighttime supervision
H. Human (physiological & psychological) factors

113
Decision Tree Development
Prior to the formulation of IF-THEN rules, a knowledge tree was
constructed, depicting the decision process for the work shift selection
process. The end nodes of the tree are essentially the choices or goals
of the knowledge-base. Figures 6.1 through 6.7 are segments of a work
shift decision tree for a multi-lane highway with 2 lanes per direction.
Figure 6.1 shows how traffic congestion analysis determines whether
daytime lane closures are permitted or not. Safety is considered next,
along with detour availability and lane closure requirements, as shown in
Figures 6.2 and 6.3. If safety analysis concludes that night shift is
unsafe and congestion analysis determines that day shift is not
permissible, then the program suggests an alternate choice: work during
daytime on weekends when traffic may be less, or/and, work at night from
7 p.m. to 1 a.m. when accident probability is less.
In the next tree branch (Figure 6.4), "noise consideration" is at a
higher level than "quality of work". This indicates that noise
consideration has a higher priority in the decision process than quality
of work. If construction noise level during nighttime operation exceeds
local ordinances, then the decision flow stops and the program concludes
that daytime construction with 1 lane closure is preferred. In this
situation, the next factor, quality of work, is not considered. If noise
levels are insignificant, then, of course, quality is considered.
Productivity, experience, material/parts supply, temperature,
supervision/communication, and human effects are factors that are
considered in descending order of importance and are situated in
sequentially lower levels of the decision tree. When a higher factor
decides a particular shift time, the decision branch ends in a node.

114
PROJECT INFORMATION
County Location
Highway Name
Project Type
I ROADWAY CHARACTERISTICS
I No. of Lanes / direction • N
Lane Capacity • L
J
N
Daytime Lane ^Closures
Not Recommended
ACCIDENT ANALYSIS
( Figure 6.2 )
\
One Daytime Lane
Closure
Permitted
1
ACCIDENT ANALYSIS
( Figure 6.3 )
Figure 6.1 - Decision Tree Segment for Work Shift Selection:
Congestion Analysis

115
ACCIDENT ANALYSIS
DD â–  No. of day accidents during construction
DB • No. of day accidents before construction
ND • No. of night accidents during construction
NB • No. of night accidents before construction
C â–  Acceptable difference for accident % chgs
Absolute Value of:
DP - DB ND - NB
DB
NB
> C/100
YES
NO
SAFETY ANALYSIS
DP - DB < ND - NB ?
DB NB
YES
ITOTAL LANE CLOSURE
REQUIRED ?
TOTAL LANE CLOSURE
REQUIRED ?
Figure 6.2 - Decision Tree Segment (Closed) for Work Shift Selection:
Accident Analysis

116
ACCIDENT DATA ANALYSIS:
Comparison of Day S Night Accident Change %
DD • No. of day accidents during construction
DB • No. of day accidents before construction
ND - No. of night accidents during construction
NB â–  No. of night accidents before construction
C • Acceptable difference for accident % chgs
Absolute Value of:
DP B-B _ CLB__- NB
DB NB
> C/100
YES
DD - DB
DB
Day Shift
Safer
YES
NOISE CONSIDERATION
( Figure 6.4 )
SAFETY ANALYSIS
Night Shift Safer
NO
ND - NB
N B
Figure 6.3 - Decision Tree Segment (Open) for Work Shift Selection:
Accident Analysis

117
NOISE CONSIDERATION
Nighttime Construction Noise
Level Exceeds Local Ordinance ?
YES NO
DAY SHIFT:
10 AM -4 PM
( 1 LC )
QUALITY OF WORK
Quality of Work During
Night Acceptable ?
DAY SHIFT:
10 AM -4 PM
( 1 LC )
\ /
PRODUCTIVITY
Productivity Significantly
Differently for Day 4 Night Shifts ?
Figure 6.4 - Decision Tree Segment (Open) for Work Shift Selection:
Noise, Quality, and Productivity Considerations

118
AGENCY / CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE
Agency / Contractor Experience In
Night Conetruotlon Adequate 7
NO
YES
DAY SHIFT:
10 AM - 4 PM
( 1 LC )
MATERIAL / PARTS SUPPLY
Material / Parte Readily
Available at Night 7
NO
YES
/ \
NIGHT SHIFT:
7 PM - 6 AM
( 1 LC )
\ /
\
/ \
DAY SHIFT:
10 AM - 4 PM
( 1 LC )
\ /
J
SUPERVISION t
COMMUNICATION
( Figure 6.6 )
Figure 6.5 - Decision Tree Segment (Open) for Work Shift Selection:
Experience, Supply and Temperature Considerations

119
Figure 6.
YES NO
6 - Decision Tree Segment (Closed) for Work Shift Selection:
Supervision / Communication and Human Factors

120
Formulation of Rules
Expert systems work with knowledge to reach conclusions. The
knowledge for the proposed model is structured in the form of rules that
both the developer and the computer can understand. The knowledge-base is
essentially a set of rules that solve a particular problem. A rule
consists of the conditions and the conclusions that can be drawn from
them. It is written in the form of an IF statement (IF conditions THEN
conclusions). The conclusion of the THEN part is activated only when all
the conditions of the IF part are satisfied. There are two main types of
conditions in the knowledge-base: text and mathematical. A text condition
is a sentence that may be true or false. For example, WEEKDAY TRAFFIC
VOLUME PERMITS NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES or NIGHT SHIFT IS BETTER
FOR WORKZONE SAFETY.
The condition consists of two parts: a "qualifier" and one or more
"values". In the above example, NIGHT SHIFT IS and WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME
PERMITS are qualifiers. The values are the possible completions of the
sentence started by the qualifier. The value list associated with WEEKDAY
TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS would be NO PARTIAL LANE CLOSURES or ONE LANE
CLOSURE ONLY or UPTO TWO LANE CLOSURES or UPTO THREE LANE CLOSURES. When
a text condition is created in a rule, a qualifier is selected, and one or
more values are selected to form the sentence that will be the condition.
If more than one value is selected, the EXSYS program will include "or"
between the values and, if any one of the listed values is true the
condition will be true. The "or" connector is replaced by "and" in the
THEN and ELSE parts of a rule since all the values for these parts are
considered to be true if the rule is applied.

121
The other type of condition used in the knowledge-base structure is
a mathematical test in which variables are represented as an algebraic
expression such as:
[I75NH] > ([L] * ([N] - 1))
This condition can be mathematically tested for its validity. The
variable is a variable name enclosed in [ ]. In the above expression,
[I75NH] is the variable assigned for peak weekday traffic volume on
northbound 1-75 in Hamilton County. [L] is the lane capacity and [N] is
the number of lanes per direction for the roadway.
Design of Goals
Goals are all the possible choices offered by the knowledge-based
system to the problem conditions presented. The system will select the
most likely choice based on the data input, or will provide a list of
possible choices in order of likelihood. Confidence values are assigned
to the choices. For the proposed model, a confidence value system with a
range from 0 to 10 is used. The value of a choice at 0 or 10 is
equivalent to "absolutely no" or "absolutely yes". The values of 1 to 9
represent degrees of confidence ranging from "very probably no" to "very
probably yes". The following is an example rule from the knowledge-base,
showing the usage of confidence values in its choices:
RULE NUMBER: 74
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE PER
DIRECTION OR UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES PER DIRECTION OR
UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES PER DIRECTION
and: NIGHT SHIFT IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY
and: DETOUR IS AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME
and: JOB SPECIFICATION DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE

122
THEN:
WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence = 10/10
and: WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM ; (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence = 5/10
In this rule, the first choice has a confidence level of 10 assigned to
it, which means that nighttime work is highly recommended. The reason for
such a selection is, safety, as indicated in the second condition of the
rule. According to the rule, daytime construction is also possible,
although safety studies have shown that there is a higher percent increase
in work zone accidents during the day compared with night. Hence, the
choice of day shift has a confidence level of 5.
Rule Structure
A typical rule in the knowledge-base has five parts: an IF part, a
THEN part, an optional ELSE part, an optional NOTE and an optional
REFERENCE.
IF
Conditions
THEN
Conditions
and Choices
ELSE
Conditions
and Choices
NOTE:
REFERENCE:
The conditions in the IF part are statements (text or algebraic) which may
be true or false. The program tests these conditions against the data
provided by the user. The THEN part can be a series of conditions as well
as choices. But unlike the IF conditions, these are factual statements,
and not tests. The THEN conditions may also include statements that

123
assign a mathematical expression to a variable, allowing values to be
calculated during a program session and, optionally displayed at the end
of a run. Rule # 109, as shown in the program listing in Appendix B,
contains such a statement. Statement 8 of the THEN part of Rule # 109 is
the following:
[DIFF] IS GIVEN THE VALUE INT((([NTC] - [DTC])/[DTC])*100)
where [DIFF] = percent change for owner cost due to night work
[NTC] = total owner cost for nighttime construction
[DTC] = total owner cost for daytime construction
The NOTE part is added to a rule whenever it is desirable to provide
some special information to the user. If a user needs to see a rule
during an interactive session, the note may be helpful in understanding
that particular rule. Similarly the REFERENCE part of the rule is
intended for the user's information only and has no effect on the program.
It helps the user find the source of the knowledge contained in the rule.
External Database Interface
The usage of external databases in a knowledge-based system can
enhance user flexibility. A user can have the option of extracting data
from a separate database under a different program, instead of a direct
data input. A link between the proposed model and an external traffic
count database may be considered very useful for congestion analysis. The
expert system shell EXSYS Professional allows several ways to access data
from other programs, such as Lotus 123 and dBase III. For the model, a
traffic count database is created using Lotus 123. The data file, VPH.WK1
contains average weekday hourly traffic volumes for Interstate 75
(northbound and southbound directions) in Hamilton County, District 2.

124
The program will extract the maximum hourly traffic volume from the
database and perform a lane closure analysis. The database represents
actual traffic counts taken in March 1991 by the FDOT.
A two way link has been established between the EXSYS user interface
and the external database. One program command allows EXSYS Professional
to read data directly from the Lotus 123 file and another facilitates
direct updating of the data file through user input. The general form of
these commands, which are used within the rule structure in the knowledge
base, is shown below:
SSRD (ssname, cel 1,[varname], cel 12, rvarname21, ...)
SS_WR (ssname, cel 1,[varname], cel 12, rvarname21, ...)
(Note: underlined items can be repeated multiple times)
The first command reads cells from a spreadsheet and the second one writes
on a spreadsheet cell. "Ssname" is the name of the spread sheet to be
used, with a .wkl extension. The cell is specified in 123 form, column
letter followed by row number. "Varname" is the name of the program
variable to be used. If the SSRD command is used, the data read from the
Lotus cell is assigned to this variable. The SSWR command allows data to
be written from this variable to the Lotus cell. Rule # 3 from the
knowledge base, illustrates the usage of these commands in the THEN and
ELSE parts of the rule structure:
RULE NUMBER: 3
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS CONSIDERED
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED HAMILTON
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON INTERSTATE 75
and: WORK ZONE IS AT 175 NORTH
and: PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS GIVEN A NEW VALUE

125
THEN:
X > SS WR (VPH.WK1, C12, [I75N H])
ELSE:
X > SSRD (VPH.WK1, C12, [I75N_H])
Solution Search Technique
The inference engine in EXSYS Professional allows either forward
chaining or backward chaining methods in its solution search operations.
For the proposed system the forward chaining option is used. This method
involves data-driven reasoning. The system works from an initial state of
facts to a goal state. For the work shift selection model, the goal
states are the shift time (day or night), the number of permissible
daytime lane closures, and shift cost comparison. The model objective is
to go through a step-by-step procedure, considering factors in the order
of importance to reach the choices or goal states.
A configure file was created in the EXSYS Professional directory
that enabled the system to accept the forward chaining technique. The
file was named EXSYSP.CFG with the command line: FORWARD written in it.
This command line option prevents the system from doing a backward chain
on each of the choices, and instead examines each rule in the knowledge
base, in order of occurrence. Backward chaining is still used to derive
information needed in testing the IF conditions of a rule. This results
in much faster execution than backward chaining of the choices.
Explanation/Help Facility
The explanation and help facility are two important features of
the knowledge-based system that assist the user during an interactive
session. The objective of the help features is to allow the user to get

126
information on the importance and usefulness of the question asked. The
explanation feature is inherent with the EXSYS Professional shell used.
When a question is asked by the system model, the user may access the rule
or rules responsible for that question by simply typing "why". The user
then has an opportunity to see the logic of the questioning and to read
any notes or reference information assigned to the rule or rule groups.
Also, at the end of a run, the user can highlight the conclusions and view
all the pertaining rules involved, by pressing the enter key. The rules
that are found to be true are colored green, and the rules that are found
to be false are colored red. This allows the user to follow the path of
rules leading to a conclusion and identify any errors made during the
initial data input. The user can then make changes in those data inputs
and re-run the system to obtain new conclusions without having to repeat
the entire interactive session again.
Customized help screens are also available to the user for selected
on screen questions that may require additional information. This help
screen is displayed when the user types "?" to a question asked by the
system. One particular question, dealing with vehicle cost due to speed
changes, is attached to a help screen. The help screen explains how
vehicle cost is estimated with an example. A typical vehicle cost in
terms of dollars per 1000 vehicles is suggested for a delay of 10 minutes
resulting from vehicle stoppage when initial speed is 55 mph. The text
for this help screen is contained in an ASCII file named WORK.HLP. The
file is kept in the same directory as the rest of the system files. The
help file, however, has no effect on the program operation.

127
Summary
Knowledge-based systems are developed to aid in decision making for
a specified problem. The model described in this chapter addresses the
need to select a work shift based on a series of quantitative and
qualitative factors. Knowledge acquisition was the first step in the
development of such a model. Information on highway construction
variables was compiled through literature study, analysis of FDOT data,
and personal interviews. The impact of traffic congestion and work zone
safety is most important in determining whether day shift or night shift
is more suitable for a project.
Prior to the formulation of knowledge-base rules, a decision flow
chart is created, showing the sequence of steps involved in the work shift
selection process. The knowledge-base structure is essentially a long
list of IF-THEN statements arranged in accordance to the decision tree
logic. Appendix A contains a list of the qualifiers (with their values),
choices, and variables used in the knowledge-based system. A listing of
the rules is provided in Appendix B. A rule condition (IF part) consists
of a qualifier and one or more values. The rule condition can also be
represented as a mathematical (algebraic) expression with assigned
variables. A rule conclusion (THEN part) can be a series of choices as
well as factual conditions. An external traffic count database (Appendix
C) is accessed to through program commands attached to THEN and ELSE parts
of certain rules. Help files, which are included in the knowledge-base
directory, provide additional explanation to the user during interactive
sessions. A listing of help files is presented in Appendix D.

CHAPTER 7
MODEL TESTING--CASE STUDY
Introduction
The objective of the case study is to test the practical application
of the knowledge-based expert system approach for work shift selection.
Information from a sample highway rehabilitation project is applied to the
decision model through an interactive menu driven session. For a specific
question, the screen may display a list of choices for the user to select
or the user may enter a choice for a numerical or string variable.
Solutions are offered at the end of the data input, as determined by the
inference mechanism of the system. Modifications to the data can be made
by the user during or after the session. The program can be rerun to
obtain new results. For the testing of the model, a highway daytime
project and a nighttime project are chosen as case studies.
Case Study I
The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) had been conducting
bridge and pavement rehabilitation improvements on the segment of 1-75 /
SR 93 from I -10 north to the Florida/Georgia line (State Project No.
32100-3448, January 1992). The bridge rehabilitation project consisted of
widening for additional lane width and safety shoulders. Two travel lanes
per direction were maintained by lane narrowing with a protective barrier
wall. For the roadway rehabilitation work, which consisted of milling,
128

129
crack relief and resurfacing, one of two travel lanes were closed for
approximately 1 mile at a time.
Initially the Traffic Control Plan (TCP) for the project work zone
required bridge construction operations to take place during the daytime
hours and the roadway rehabilitation/resurfacing operations to take place
during the nighttime hours (7 PM to 7 AM). The contractor, Anderson
Columbia Company, however, suggested that the resurfacing project could be
done during the day and still meet the traffic control plan requirements
and lane closure policy. Based on this proposal, and a revised TCP, the
shift time for the project was changed to day.
Details:
Project No.: 32100-3448
Letting Date: 01-1992
Type of Work: Milling and Resurfacing
County : Hamilton
Highway : Interstate 75, Northbound
Number of Lanes per Direction: 2
Lane Capacity: 1692 vphl
Project Duration: 295 days
Project Cost (Daytime) Estimate: $3,402,504
Planned Work Shift: Day
ADT (peak) through Work Zone: 19,921 (1990 Count)
Nighttime Traffic Volume : 4,903
Expected Vehicle Delay due to
Daytime Construction: 15 minutes

130
Selected Project Work Items & Item Quantities:
Removal of Existing Pavement: 0 SY
Regular Excavation: 10,493 CY
Bituminous Material (Prime Coat): 50 GA
Bituminous Material (Tack Coat): 33,711 GA
Milling Existing Asphalt: 502,371 SY
Type S - Asphalt Concrete: 54,197 TN
Class I Concrete, Miscellaneous: 0.8 CY
Asphalt Concrete Friction Course: 295,001 SY
Other Costs:
Traffic Control Cost: $39,825
Administrative Cost: $510,376
Estimated percent (%) cost increase for night Work-
Traffic Control: 30 %
Administrative: 20 %
Other Information
Information on the case studies was obtained through a questionnaire
which was submitted to the District 2 office of the FD0T. A sample of the
questionnaire is presented in Appendix E. The answers, which reflect the
opinion and judgment of certain DOT personnel, were applied to the model
for testing purposes. The FD0T determined that night work shift for the
above project was acceptable from the point of view of safety. Although
daytime hours are generally preferable, nighttime construction did not
significantly increase safety concerns. The job requirements did not
specify a total road closure, and the possibility of detour utilization
was not considered. Single lane closure per direction was found to be

131
adequate. The work shift duration was not required to be 10 hours or
more, so the limited number of work hours during the day was permissible.
The work zone noise resulting from milling and resurfacing was considered
to be within local ordinance requirements, particularly for nighttime
hours. Quality of work during night shift was not a major concern.
Productivity is some instances can be higher during nighttime hours
because of less interference from traffic, and it can also be lower due to
the atypical nature of night shift. In this case, the difference in
productivity was judged to be insignificant. Supply of spare parts for
equipment and material delivery for night shift was not considered to be
a problem. The contractor was adequately experienced in nighttime
construction. Although the work force had shown preference for daytime
work hours, the effect of night hours did not have a significant impact on
human performance.
Results
The input data and results of the sample project are listed in
Appendix F. The program solution indicates that either a day work shift
(10 am to 4 pm), or a night work shift (7 pm to 5 am) would be appropriate
for the Hamilton County resurfacing project. Additionally, it points out
that the weekday traffic volume through the work zone allowed one daytime
lane closure, with no congestion problem. The solution includes a list of
statements that explain why either work shift is acceptable. Factors such
as work zone safety, noise, work quality, productivity, experience,
material availability, temperature preference, etc. are discussed.
Cost results are also included in the solution. The user (motorist)
costs due to daytime construction amounted to $3,565,505 for the 295 days
of project duration. For a nighttime operation, the user cost total would

132
have been $95,491, indicating a savings of $3,470,014. The total daytime
owner/project cost (including administrative and traffic control costs) is
$3,952,329, compared to the projected total nighttime owner cost of
$3,437,862. The solution suggests that a nighttime operation may have
resulted in 13% savings in owner costs. The primary reason for the higher
day cost is the usage of a large quantity (54,197 tons) of Type S Asphalt
Concrete in this project. The mean daytime unit cost for this particular
item is $45.88 per ton compared to the mean nighttime unit cost of $34.06.
The comparison of mean unit prices for day and night operations is the
basis for the savings estimation.
Case Study II
A second FDOT highway project is selected to test the model
effectiveness. This example is a resurfacing project (State Project No.
78080-3420, September 1990) located in St. Johns County, Florida. The
entire project was performed during nighttime hours. The objective of
this case study is to determine whether the model shift selection is in
agreement with the actual shift time, i.e., night shift.
Details:
Project No.: 78080-3420
Letting Date: 09-1990
Type of Work: Resurfacing
County : St. Johns
Highway : Interstate 95
Number of Lanes per Direction: 2
Lane Capacity: 1692 vphl

133
Project Duration: 530 days
Project Cost (Daytime) Estimate: $3,657,233
Planned Work Shift: Night
ADT (peak) through Work Zone: 31,000
Nighttime Traffic Volume : 9,300
Expected Vehicle Delay due to
Daytime Construction: 15 minutes
Selected Project Work Items & Item Quantities:
Removal of Existing Pavement: 532 SY
Regular Excavation: 8,279 CY
Bituminous Material (Prime Coat): 50 GA
Bituminous Material (Tack Coat): 13,874 GA
Milling Existing Asphalt: 115,278 SY
Type S - Asphalt Concrete: 22,889 TN
Class I Concrete, Miscellaneous: 10.8 CY
Asphalt Concrete Friction Course: 131,307 SY
Other Costs:
Traffic Control Cost: $45,122
Administrative Cost: $585,045
Estimated percent (%) cost increase for night work --
Traffic Control: 30 %
Administrative: 20 %
Other Information
For this project the agency determined that, for increased work zone
safety, nighttime construction was preferable. The high volume of daytime
traffic on 1-95 (St. Johns County) resulted in unsafe working conditions.

134
Job specifications did not require total roadway closure and the
possibility of detour utilization was not considered. Noise level for
this nighttime project was within acceptance standards. Although
productivity was considered to be lower for night operations, it was not
regarded as a decisive factor. The contractor, in this project, lacked
experience in nighttime construction, as a result, production rates were
low.
Results
The input data and results of the second case study are also listed
in Appendix F. The program solution indicates that a nighttime work
shift, from 7 pm to 5 am, would be appropriate for the 1-95 resurfacing
project. The solution points out that the high weekday traffic volume
through the work zone did not allow any daytime lane closures. The
solution explains why the night shift was chosen.
Cost results indicated that the user (motorist) costs due to a
daytime construction option, amounted to $9,304,309 for the 530 days of
project duration. For a nighttime operation, the user cost total is
estimated to be $320,385, indicating a savings of $8,983,924. The daytime
total project cost (including administrative and traffic control costs)
was estimated to be $4,287,400, compared to the projected total nighttime
owner cost of $3,671,541. The solution suggests that the selection of the
nighttime alternative may have resulted in 14% savings in owner costs. As
in the first case study, the main reason for the higher day cost is the
usage of a large quantity (22,889 tons) of Type S Asphalt Concrete in
this project.

CHAPTER 8
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary and Conclusions
The highway construction environment is influenced by many external
factors--for example, traffic congestion, motorist safety, public
reaction, weather condition, etc. Presently, an increasing number of
highway rehabilitation projects are being undertaken during nighttime
hours because of the scheduling interference created by the daytime
traffic flow. Nighttime construction also minimizes public inconvenience,
which is a major concern for state highway agencies. However, poor
visibility and negative human effects during the night shift may result in
safety problems for both workers and motorists. Other factors such as
productivity, quality of work, noise, and project costs need to be
considered as well. The objective of this study is to present a
computerized method that will serve as a consultant to agency decision
makers in the selection of either day or night shift for highway projects.
The method considers all the relevant factors in a formal manner,
incorporating judgmental and mathematical reasoning. A knowledge-based
expert system approach is well suited for this type of decision making
problem.
A cost study of project items used by the Florida Department of
Transportation (FDOT) reveals significant differences in day and night
mean unit costs for only three of eight items, namely regular excavation,
135

136
bituminous material prime, and type S asphalt concrete. An analysis of
FDOT highway construction production rates between day and night shifts
indicates that night shift does not significantly affect productivity.
Production rates may vary between projects due to factors such as: long
working hours, traffic interference, road closures, lighting conditions,
worker morale, and material availability. But, when considering night
projects in general, productivity does not appear to be a major deciding
criterion.
The qualitative and quantitative factors associated with the shift
selection process were identified through extensive literature review and
personal visitations with state highway officials. Among these factors,
traffic congestion, work zone accidents, project cost, and motorist cost
can be analyzed in a quantitative manner. The knowledge-based approach
includes a mathematical model for this purpose.
The traffic congestion analysis component of the model recommends
the number of allowable daytime lane closures based on roadway capacity
and peak hourly traffic flow. The solution is a conservative one,
assuming that additional daytime congestion caused by roadway capacity
reduction is to be avoided altogether.
Safety analysis is done by comparing the percent change in number of
work zone vehicle accidents before vs. during construction for day shift
and night shift. Certainly, daytime construction is preferable if the
accident change percent for night shift is significantly higher than the
accident change percent for day shift.
Project costs and motorist costs for day and night shifts are
compared separately. Total project cost comparison for day and night
options is determined based on project item cost differentials,

137
maintenance of traffic and administrative cost differentials. Although
owner cost is low in importance among the various factors considered by
agency decision makers, the cost model will provide, as an end solution,
the percent change in total project cost for a nighttime work option. The
motorist cost comparison involves: 1) personal cost, 2) vehicle operating
cost, and 3) vehicle fuel cost. The three components are dependent on the
length of vehicle delay caused by roadway construction. Daytime motorist
costs can be expected to be much higher than nighttime user costs because
of the congestion factor.
The first step in the development of the knowledge-based system
model is the acquisition of knowledge. Information was compiled through
literature review, analysis of FDOT data, and personal meetings. It is
determined that the impact of traffic congestion and work zone safety has
the most influence in the selection of work periods. A decision tree is
created prior to the formulation of rules, depicting the sequence of steps
in the shift selection process. The knowledge-base structure is
essentially a list of IF-THEN statements in accordance to the decision
tree logic. A personal computer-based expert system shell, EXSYS
Professional, is used in the development of this model.
To test the effectiveness of the knowledge-based system model, data
from two separate FDOT roadway projects (day and night) were applied. For
both case studies, the model results were in agreement with the actual
choice of work shift. For the day project, daytime traffic congestion was
not a problem and partial lane closures were permissible. The night
option was chosen for the second project because of high daytime
congestion.

138
Recommendations
Database Addition
The knowledge-based system approach presented in this study is
limited in its capabilities. The external traffic count database attached
to the system contains data for only interstate and federal roadways in
Hamilton County, Florida. An augmented database could include traffic
count data from all the counties in Florida for all roadways. It may be
possible to link the system to an existing statewide database with
modifications to the present rule base structure. State agencies other
than FDOT can also utilize this system model with their own statewide
databases.
The accident analysis component of the model requires direct data
(accident numbers) input by the user. For a fully developed system, it is
recommended that the user be given the option of extracting the accident
numbers from a database. A historical database containing daytime and
nighttime work zone vehicle accident numbers (before and during
construction) for all counties in Florida would be a very useful
attachment to the existing knowledge base.
Modifications to Rule Structure
The cost equation for project cost calculation is based on mean unit
item prices obtained from 1990 FDOT projects. Adjustments to the mean
unit prices should be made whenever necessary by simply editing the cost
rule in the knowledge base. The projected nighttime owner cost is
dependent on the cost multiplier factor, which takes into consideration
mean unit costs (day and night) from eight selected items. A larger
number of work items may be chosen to be included in the cost equation.

139
The ranking of the qualitative and quantitative decision factors is
also subject to change. For instance, the temperature factor may be more
important in northern states, particularly during winter. The rules in
the knowledge base can be easily rearranged to meet changing priorities.
Contractor Usage
The knowledge-based system model, in its present form, is a
consulting tool intended for usage by state highway agencies. However, by
readjusting the ranking of the decision factors and acquiring knowledge
from highway construction companies, it may be possible to develop a
similar model that will assist contractors in work shift selection. The
determination of contractor strategy and reasoning may be a challenging
area for future research.
Applicability to Other Forms of Construction
The decision model in this study is aimed towards highway
construction. However, this type of approach can be applied to other
construction categories such as building construction by developing new
model parameters or modifying the existing ones. Qualitative and
quantitative decision factors may be identified in accordance to the
building construction environment and their ranking may be ordered
differently.

APPENDIX A
PROGRAM INTRODUCTION, QUALIFIERS, CHOICES, AND VARIABLES

LIST ONLY
PROGRAM INTRODUCTION
Subject:
A Knowledge-Based System Approach to Work Shift Selection for
Multilane Highway Reconstruction & Maintenance Projects
Author:
by Q. AMIN AHMED
Starting text:
This Knowledge-Based Expert System Model will enable the DOT planner to
optimize the selection of a work shift (day or night) for highway
reconstruction and rehabilitation projects by considering relevant
factors step by step in order of importance. All possible solutions
will be offered for particular situations. If day shift is offered as
a solution, then the model will recommend the number of daytime lane
closures permissible. Based on cost data entered by the user, the ES
will display a cost comparison between a daytime operation and a
nighttime alternative. An explanation to the solution will also be
provided.
Ending text:
SOLUTIONS
Derivation: ALL RULES USED
PROBABILITY SYSTEM: 2
DISPLAY THRESHOLD: 1
141

142
QUALIFIERS:
LIST OF QUALIFIERS
/* Qualifier 1
Q> HIGHWAY REHAB/MAINTENANCE PROJECT TYPE IS
V> LANE ADDITION
V> BRIDGE REHABILITATION
V> PATCHING
V> RESURFACING
V> MILLING & RESURFACING
V> SKID HAZARD RESURFACING
V> MEDIAN GUARDRAIL INSTALL/REPAIR
V> OTHER
Name: JOBTYPE
/* Qualifier 2
Q> DISTRICT LOCATION FOR PROJECT IS
V> DISTRICT 1
V> OTHER
Name: LOC
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 3
Q> ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON
V> INTERSTATE 75
V> US-41
V> US-441
Name: HWY
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 4
Q> PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS
V> OBTAINED FROM DATABASE
V> GIVEN A NEW VALUE
Name: DB
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 5
Q> 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT
V> 1-75 NORTH
V> 1-75 SOUTH

143
Name: INTER
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 6
Q> WORK ZONE IS AT
V> US-41 NORTH
V> US-41 SOUTH
V> US-441 NORTH
V> US-441 SOUTH
Name: FED
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 7
Q> THE SAFER WORK SHIFT IS
V> DAY SHIFT
V> NIGHT SHIFT
V> EITHER SHIFT
Name: SAF
/* Qualifier 8
Q> WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY
V> EXPERT JUDGEMENT
V> ACCIDENT DATA ANALYSIS
Name: JUD
/* Qualifier 9
Q> % CHANGE OF ACCIDENTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION
V> DURING NIGHT SHIFT IS SIGNIFICANTLY PREFERRABLE OVER THAT OF DURING
DAY SHIFT
V> DURING DAY SHIFT IS SIGNIFICANTLY PREFERRABLE OVER THAT OF DURING
NIGHT SHIFT
V> DURING NIGHT SHIFT IS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN THAT OF DURING
DAY SHIFT
Name: PERC
Display at end
/* Qualifier 10
Q> JOB SCHEDULE (WORK TIME AVAILABLE)
V> REQUIRES SHIFT DURATION TO BE ATLEAST 8 HOURS
V> DOES NOT REQUIRE A SPECIFIC SHIFT DURATION
Name: HOURS

Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
144
/* Qualifier 11
Q> WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS
V> NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
V> ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER DIRECTION)
V> UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)
V> UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)
V> UPTO FOUR DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)
V> UPTO FIVE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)
Name: DAYLC
Display at end
Default value = 1
/* Qualifier 12
Q> NIGHT SHIFT IS
V> LESS SAFE THAN DAY SHIFT
V> MORE SAFE THAN DAY SHIFT
V> NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN DAY SHIFT IN TERMS OF SAFETY
Name: WZS
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 13
Q> NIGHT SHIFT
V> IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY
V> IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY
V> HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY
Name: NWS
Display at end
/* Qualifier 14
Q> DETOUR IS
V> AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
V> AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME ONLY
V> NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC VOLUME
Name: DET
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 15
Q> NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION NOISE IS

145
V> CONSIDERED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: NOISE
Default value = 2
/* Qualifier 16
Q> TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS
V> CONSIDERED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: TRAF
Default value = 1
/* Qualifier 17
Q> WORK ZONE NOISE DURING NIGHT
V> EXCEEDS LOCAL ORDINANCE
V> DOES NOT EXCEED LOCAL ORDINANCE
Name: SOUND
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 18
Q> QUALITY OF WORK IS
V> CONSIDERED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: QUAL
Default value = 2
/* Qualifier 19
Q> QUALITY OF WORK DURING NIGHT IS
V> ACCEPTABLE
V> NOT ACCEPTABLE
Name: QLTY
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 20
Q> SHIFT PRODUCTIVITY IS
V> CONSIDERED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: PROD
Default value = 2

146
/* Qualifier 21
Q> HIGH DAYTIME CONGESTION
V> IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR REQUIRING NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION -- OTHER
FACTORS MAY NOT BE IMPORTANT
V> IS ONE OF SEVERAL FACTORS THAT NEED TO BE CONSIDERED
Name: DOM
Display at end
/* Qualifier 22
Q> DETOUR AVAIL IBILITY IS
V> CHECKED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: AVAIL
/* Qualifier 23
Q> JOB SPECIFICATION
V> REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH DIRECTION)
V> DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE
Name: REQ
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 24
Q> PRODUCTIVITY IS
V> LOWER DURING NIGHT SHIFT
V> HIGHER DURING NIGHT SHIFT
V> NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FOR NIGHT vs DAY SHIFTS
Name: PR
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 25
Q> AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IS
V> CONSIDERED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: EXPER
Default value = 2
/* Qualifier 26
Q> AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IN NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION IS
V> ADEQUATE

147
V> NOT ADEQUATE
Name: EX
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 27
Q> MATERIAL & PARTS SUPPLY
V> IS CONSIDERED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: MAT
Default value = 2
/* Qualifier 28
Q> CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT PART SOURCES ARE
V> AVAILABLE AT NIGHT
V> NOT READILY AVAILABLE AT NIGHT
V> NOT AVAILABLE AT ALL DURING NIGHT
Name: MATER
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 29
Q> TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY AND NIGHT SHIFTS IS
V> A CONSIDERATION
V> NOT A CONSIDERATION
Name: TEMP
Default value = 2
/* Qualifier 30
Q> FOR WORK ENVIRONMENT / MATERIAL ADAPTABILITY
V> LOWER NIGHT TEMPERATURE IS PREFERRED
V> HIGHER DAY TEMPERATURE IS PREFERRED
V> THERE IS NO TEMPERATURE PREFERENCE
Name: TEMPER
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 31
Q> TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY & NIGHT SHIFTS IS
V> SIGNIFICANT
V> NOT SIGNIFICANT

148
Name: TEMPDIFF
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 32
Q> PROJECT COSTS ARE
V> CONSIDERED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: COST
Default value = 2
/* Qualifier 33
Q> NIGHTTIME SUPERVISION AND COMMUNICATION IS
V> CONSIDERED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: SUP
Default value = 2
/* Qualifier 34
Q> SUPERVISION/COMMUNICATION IS
V> SIGNIFICANTLY IMPAIRED DURING NIGHT SHIFT
V> NOT SIGNIFICANTLY IMPAIRED DURING NIGHT SHIFT
Name: SUPER
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 35
Q> HUMAN FACTORS ARE
V> CONSIDERED
V> NOT CONSIDERED
Name: HUM
Default value = 2
/* Qualifier 36
Q> NIGHT SHIFT HAS
V> CONSIDERABLE NEGATIVE EFFECT ON WORKER PHYSIOLOGICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL
CONDITION
V> POSITIVE EFFECT ON WORKER PHYSIOLOGICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION
V> NO SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE EFFECT ON WORKER PHYSIOLOGICAL &
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION
Name: PHYS

149
Display at end
Maximum acceptable = 1
/* Qualifier 37
Q> TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS
V> CONSIDERED
Name: USER
Default value = 1
/* Qualifier 38
Q> USER COST IS LOWER
V> DURING NIGHT SHIFT
Name: UC
Default value = 1
/* Qualifier 39
Q> NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED
V> HAMILTON
V> OTHER
Name: CL
LIST OF CHOICES
CHOICES:
/* Choice 1
C> WORK SHIFT: DAY 7 AM - 5 PM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
/* Choice 2
C> WORK SHIFT: DAY WEEKENDS, NIGHT 7 PM - 1 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE)
/* Choice 3
C> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
/* Choice 4
C> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE)
/* Choice 5
C> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE)
/* Choice 6
C> WORK SHIFT: DAY (WEEKENDS ONLY), NIGHT 7 PM - 12 MN, TOTAL LANE
CLOSURE (ONE DIRECTION) ACHIEVED BY MAINTAINING 2-WAY OPPOSING

150
TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE OF WORK ZONE.
/* Choice 7
C> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 6 AM (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
/* Choice 8
C> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; TOTAL LANE CLOSURE (ONE DIRECTION)
ACHIEVED BY MAINTAINING 2-WAY OPPOSING TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE OF
WORK ZONE
/* Choice 9
C> WORK SHIFT: DAY WEEKENDS, NIGHT 7 PM - 1 AM; TOTAL LANE CLOSURE (ONE
DIR.) ACHIEVED BY ALLOWING 2-WAY OPPOSING TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE
OF WORK ZONE
/* Choice 10
C> USER COST IS LOWER DURING NIGHT SHIFT
LIST OF VARIABLES
VARIABLES:
[JOB] HIGHWAY RECONSTRUCTION/MAINTENANCE PROJECT TYPE IS
Type = S
[CL] NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED IN
Type = S
[HY] NAME OF HIGHWAY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED
Type = S
[PROJD] ESTIMATED CONTRACT (PROJECT ITEM) COST FOR DAYTIME
CONSTRUCTION), $
Display at end
Type = N
[D] ESTIMATED PROJECT DURATION (days)
Type = N
[ADT] DAYTIME TRAFFIC THROUGH WORKZONE (# OF VEHICLES BETWEEN 6AM - 6
PM)
Type = N
[ANT] NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC THROUGH WORKZONE (# OF VEHICLES BETWEEN 6 PM -
6 AM)
Type = N
[N] NUMBER OF LANES PER DIRECTION FOR ROADWAY UNDER CONSIDERATION
Type = N
Upper limit = 4.000000

151
Lower limit = 2.000000
[L] ESTIMATED LANE CAPACITY IN TERMS OF VEHICLES PER HOUR PER LANE
(vphl)
Type = N
Upper limit = 1800.000000
Lower limit = 1000.000000
[I75NH] PEAK WEEKDAY TRAFFIC FLOW (VPH) FOR 1-75 (NORTHBOUND) IN
HAMILTON COUNTY
Type = N
[I75SH] PEAK WEEKDAY TRAFFIC FLOW (VPH) FOR 1-75 (SOUTHBOUND) IN
HAMILTON COUNTY
Type = N
[US41NH] PEAK WEEKDAY TRAFFIC FLOW (VPH) FOR US-41 (NORTHBOUND) IN
HAMILTON COUNTY
Type = N
[US41SH] PEAK WEEKDAY TRAFFIC FLOW (VPH) FOR US-41 (SOUTHBOUND) IN
HAMILTON COUNTY
Type = N
[US441NH] PEAK WEEKDAY TRAFFIC FLOW (VPH) FOR US-441 (NORTHBOUND) IN
HAMILTON COUNTY
Type = N
[US441S_H] PEAK WEEKDAY TRAFFIC FLOW (VPH) FOR US-441 (SOUTHBOUND) IN
HAMILTON COUNTY
Type = N
[DB] NO. OF DAYTIME ACCIDENTS ON THE ROADWAY BEFORE CONSTRUCTION
(RECORDED FOR A SPECIFIC PERIOD AT THE PROJECT LOCATION) BASED ON PRIOR
SAFETY STUDIES
Type = N
Lower limit = 1.000000
[DD] NO. OF DAYTIME ACCIDENTS (FOR THE SPECIFIC PERIOD) DURING SIMILAR
CONSTRUCTION ON THE ROADWAY, BASED ON PRIOR SAFETY STUDIES
Type = N
Lower limit = 1.000000
[NB] NO. OF NIGHTTIME ACCIDENTS ON THE ROADWAY BEFORE CONSTRUCTION
(FOR THE SPECIFIC PERIOD) BASED ON PRIOR SAFETY STUDIES
Type = N
Lower limit = 1.000000
[ND] NO. OF NIGHTTIME ACCIDENTS (FOR THE SPECIFIED PERIOD) DURING
SIMILAR CONSTRUCTION ON THE ROADWAY, BASED ON PAST RECORDS
Type = N
Lower limit = 1.000000

152
[T] EXPECTED ADDITIONAL VEHICLE DELAY DUE TO DAYTIME CONSTRUCTION
(minutes)
Type = N
[G] VEHICLE FUEL PRICE ($/gallon)
Type = N
[VD] ESTIMATED INCREASED DAYTIME VEHICLE OPERATING COST BASED ON DELAY
CAUSED BY CONSTRUCTION ($ per 1000 vehicles)
Type = N
[VN] ESTIMATED INCREASED NIGHTTIME VEHICLE OPERATING COST BASED ON
DELAY CAUSED BY NIGHT CONSTRUCTION ($ per 1000 vehicles)
Type = N
[P] ESTIMATED DAYTIME PERSONAL COST DUE TO DELAY CAUSED BY
CONSTRUCTION ($ per vehicle)
Type = N
[UCD] USER COST DURING DAY, $
Display at end
Type = N
[UCN] USER COST DURING NIGHT, $
Display at end
Type = N
[UCS] USER COST SAVINGS FOR NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION, $
Display at end
Type = N
[Ql] ENTER QUANTITY (SY) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Rem. Exist. Pavement
Type = N
[Q2] ENTER QUANTITY (CY) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Regular Excavation
Type = N
[Q3] ENTER QUANTITY (GA) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Bit. Mat'l Prime Coat
Type = N
[Q4] ENTER QUANTITY (GA) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Bit. Mat'l Tack Coat
Type = N
[Q5] ENTER QUANTITY (SY) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Milling Exist. Asphalt
Pavment
Type = N
[Q6] ENTER QUANTITY (CY) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Class 1 Concrete, Mise.
Type = N
[Q7] ENTER QUANTITY (TN) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Type S - Asphalt Concrete
Type = N

153
[Q8] ENTER QUANTITY (SY) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Asph. Cone. Friction
Type = N
[TR] ESTIMATED COST FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL (DAYTIME), $
Type = N
[AD] ENTER ESTIMATED AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE COST (DAYTIME), $
Type = N
[LT] ENTER ESTIMATED LIGHTING COST FOR NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION, $
Type = N
[TRPER] ENTER PERCENT CHANGE (+/-) FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL COST DURING
NIGHT SHIFT, %
Type = N
[ADPER] ENTER PERCENT CHANGE (+/-) FOR AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS
DURING NIGHT SHIFT, %
Type = N
[PROJN] PROJECTED CONTRACT (PROJECT ITEM) COST FOR NIGHTTIME
CONSTRUCTION, $
Display at end
Type = N
[NTC] TOTAL PROJECT RELATED COST (OWNER) FOR NIGHT CONSTRUCTION
ALTERNATIVE IS, $
Display at end
Type = N
[DTC] TOTAL PROJECT RELATED COST (OWNER) FOR DAYTIME CONSTRUCTION
ALTERNATIVE IS, $
Display at end
Type = N
[DIFF] PERCENT CHANGE (+/-) FOR OWNER COST DUE TO NIGHT CONSTRUCTION
(%)
Display at end
Type = N

APPENDIX B
KNOWLEDGE-BASE RULES

LIST OF RULES
/* RULE NUMBER: 1
IF:
HIGHWAY REHAB/MAINTENANCE PROJECT TYPE IS {LANE ADDITION} OR
{BRIDGE REHABILITATION} OR {PATCHING} OR {RESURFACING} OR
{MILLING & RESURFACING} OR {SKID HAZARD RESURFACING} OR {MEDIAN
GUARDRAIL INSTALL/REPAIR}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON} OR {OTHER}
and: [N]
and: [L]
and: [PROJD]
and: [D]
THEN:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
According to guidelines developed by various state DOTs, the estimated
lane capacity for urban multilane highways can vary between 1000 and
1800 vehicles per hour per lane (vphl), depending on truck, lane
width/lateral clearance, and work zone factors as described in the HCM.
- A flow exceeding the vphl capacity can cause serious backups,
increasing user (public) costs in terms of time and fuel.
/* RULE NUMBER: 2
IF:
HIGHWAY REHAB/MAINTENANCE PROJECT TYPE IS {OTHER}
and: [JOB]o"X"
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON} OR {OTHER}
and: [N]
and: [L]
and: [PROJD]
and: [D]
THEN:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
According to guidelines developed by various state DOTs, the estimated
lane capacity for urban multilane highways can vary between 1000 and
1800 vehicles per hour per lane (vphl), depending on truck, lane
width/lateral clearance, and work zone factors as described in the HCM.
- A flow exceeding the vphl capacity can cause serious backups,
increasing user (public) costs in terms of time and fuel.
REFERENCE:
Shepard & Cottrell (1984) pp.8-12
155

156
/* RULE NUMBER: 3
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED (HAMILTON)
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {INTERSTATE 75}
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT {1-75 NORTH}
and: PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS {GIVEN A NEW VALUE}
THEN:
X> SS_WR(VPH.WK1, Cll, [I75N H])
ELSE:
X> SS_RD(VPH.WK1, Cll, [I75NH])
NOTE:
Average weekday traffic flow (VPH per direction) count is automatically
updated in 123 database (VPH.WK1) if given a new value. Or, the
traffic count can be obtained directly from the spreadsheet database.
/* RULE NUMBER: 4
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {INTERSTATE 75}
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT {1-75 NORTH}
and: PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS {GIVEN A NEW VALUE}
or: PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS {OBTAINED FROM
DATABASE}
and: [I75NH]>([L]*([N]-1))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [I75N_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 5
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {INTERSTATE 75}
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT {1-75 NORTH}
and: [I75N_H]<=([L]*([N]-1))
and: [I75N_H]>([L]*([N]-2))

THEN:
157
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [I75N_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 6
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {INTERSTATE 75}
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT {1-75 NORTH}
and: [I75N_H]<=([L]*([N]-2))
and: [I75N_H]>([L]*([N]-3))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [I75N H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 7
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {INTERSTATE 75}
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT {1-75 NORTH}
and: [I75N_H]<=([L]*([N]-3))
and: [I75NH]>([L]*([N]-4))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [I75N H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 8
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {INTERSTATE 75}

158
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT {1-75 SOUTH}
and: PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS {GIVEN A NEW VALUE)
THEN:
X> SS_WR(VPH.WK1, C12, [I75S_H])
ELSE:
X> SS_RD(VPH.WK1, C12, [I75SH])
/* RULE NUMBER: 9
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED (HAMILTON)
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {INTERSTATE 75}
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT (1-75 SOUTH)
and: [I75S_H]>([L]*([N]-1))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES)
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [I75S_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 10
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS (CONSIDERED)
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED (HAMILTON)
and: [I75S_H]<=([L]*([N]-1))
and: [I75S_H]>([L]*([N]-2))
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {INTERSTATE 75}
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT {1-75 SOUTH)
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [I75S_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 11
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED (HAMILTON)
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON (INTERSTATE 75}

159
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT {1-75 SOUTH)
and: [I75S_H]<=([L]*([N]-2))
and: [I75S_H]>([L]*([N]-3))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [I75S_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 12
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: [I75S_H]<=([L]*([N]-3))
and: [I75S_H]>([L]*([N]-4))
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {INTERSTATE 75}
and: 1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT {1-75 SOUTH}
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [I75S H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 13
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 NORTH}
and: PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS {GIVEN A NEW VALUE}
THEN:
X> SS_WR(VPH.WK1, C13, [US41NH])
ELSE:
X> SS_RD(VPH.WK1, C13, [US41NH])

160
/* RULE NUMBER: 14
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 NORTH}
and: [US41N H]>([L]*([N]-1))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US41N H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 15
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 NORTH}
and: [US41N_H]<=([L]*([N]-1))
and: [US41N_H]>([L]*([N]-2))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US41N_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 16
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: [US41N_H]<=([L]*([N]-2))
and: [US41N_H]>([L]*([N]-3))
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 NORTH}
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US41N_H]*12

161
/* RULE NUMBER: 17
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 NORTH}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: [US41N_H]<=([L]*([N]-3))
and: [US41N_H]>([L]*([N]-4))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US41N_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 18
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 SOUTH}
and: PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT {PER DIRECTION) IS {GIVEN A NEW VALUE}
THEN:
X> SS_WR(VPH.WK1, C14, [US41S_H])
ELSE:
X> SSRD(VPH.WK1, C14, [US41SH])
/* RULE NUMBER: 19
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 SOUTH}
and: [US41SH]>([L]*([N]-1))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US41S_H]*12

162
/* RULE NUMBER: 20
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 SOUTH}
and: [US41S_H]<=([L]*([N]-1))
and: [US41S_H]>([L]*([N]-2))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US41S H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 21
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 SOUTH}
and: [US41S_H]<=([L]*([N]-2))
and: [US41S_H]>([L]*([N]-3))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US41S_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 22
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-41}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-41 SOUTH}
and: [US41S_H]<=([L]*([N]-3))
and: [US41S_H]>([L]*([N]-4))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US41S_H]*12

163
/* RULE NUMBER: 23
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED (HAMILTON)
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-441}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-441 NORTH}
and: PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS {GIVEN A NEW VALUE}
THEN:
X> SS_WR(VPH.WK1, C15, [US441NH])
ELSE:
X> SS_RD(VPH.WK1, C15, [US441NH])
/* RULE NUMBER: 24
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-441}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-441 NORTH}
and: [US441N H]>([L]*([N]-1))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US441N_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 25
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-441}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-441 NORTH}
and: [US441N_H]<=([L]*([N]-1))
and: [US441N_H]>([L]*([N]-2))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US441N_H]*12

164
/* RULE NUMBER: 26
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-441}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-441 NORTH}
and: [US441N_H]<=([L]*([N]-2))
and: [US441N_H]>([L]*([N]-3))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US441NH]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 27
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-441}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-441 NORTH}
and: [US441N H]<=([L]*([N]-3))
and: [US441N_H]>([L]*([N]-4))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US441NH]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 28
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS (CONSIDERED)
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-441}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-441 SOUTH}
and: PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS {GIVEN A NEW VALUE}
THEN:
X> SS_WR(VPH.WK1, C16, [US441S_H])
ELSE:
X> SS_RD(VPH.WK1, C16, [US441S_H])

165
/* RULE NUMBER: 29
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED (HAMILTON)
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON (US-441)
and: WORK ZONE IS AT (US-441 SOUTH)
and: [US441SH]>([L]*([N]-1))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES)
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US441S_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 30
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS (CONSIDERED)
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED (HAMILTON)
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON (US-441)
and: WORK ZONE IS AT (US-441 SOUTH)
and: [US441S_H]<=([L]*([N]-1))
and: [US441S_H]>([L]*([N]-2))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US441S_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 31
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS (CONSIDERED)
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED (HAMILTON)
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON (US-441)
and: WORK ZONE IS AT (US-441 SOUTH)
and: [US441S_H]<=([L]*([N]-2))
and: [US441S_H]>([L]*([N]-3))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US441S_H]*12

166
/* RULE NUMBER: 32
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {HAMILTON}
and: ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON {US-441}
and: WORK ZONE IS AT {US-441 SOUTH}
and: [US441S H]<=([L]*([N]-3))
and: [US441S_H]>([L]*([N]-4))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
{PER DIRECTION)}
and: [ADT] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [US441S_H]*12
/* RULE NUMBER: 33
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {OTHER}
and: [CL]oHXH
and: [HY]o"X"
and: [ADT]>0
and: ([ADT]/12)>([L]*([N]-1))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
/* RULE NUMBER: 34
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {OTHER}
and: [CL]o,,X"
and: [HYlo'^"
and: ([ADT]/12)<=([L]*([N]-1))
and: ([ADT]/12)>([L]*([N]-2))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)}

167
/* RULE NUMBER: 35
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {OTHER}
and: [CL]oHX"
and: [HY]o"X"
and: ([ADT]/12)<=([L]*([N]-2))
and: ([ADT]/12)>([L]*([N]-3))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER DIRECTION)}
/* RULE NUMBER: 36
IF:
TRAFFIC CONGESTION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED {OTHER}
and: [CL]<>"XH
and: [HY]<>HXH
and: ([ADT]/12)<=([L]*([N]-3))
and: ([ADT]/12)>([L]*([N]-4))
THEN:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES
(PER
DIRECTION)}
/* RULE NUMBER: 37
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY {EXPERT JUDGEMENT}
and: NIGHT SHIFT IS (MORE SAFE THAN DAY SHIFT}
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
NOTE:
Based on a 1985 survey in California, it was determined that there was
a greater increase in accidents which occurred in construction zones
and near nighttime rehabilitation projects than occurred in the general
statewide statistics. The study indicated that night work had a high
rate change when compared with rate changes in daytime work zones.
REFERENCE:
California Dept, of Transportation, March 1988.

168
/* RULE NUMBER: 38
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY {EXPERT JUDGEMENT}
and: NIGHT SHIFT IS {LESS SAFE THAN DAY SHIFT}
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT {IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
NOTE:
The best working window from a safety standpoint is from dawn to early
afternoon on Monday through Thursday.
/* RULE NUMBER: 39
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY {ACCIDENT DATA ANALYSIS}
and: [DB]
and: [DD]
and: [NB]
and: [ND]
and: ((([DD]-[DB])/[DB])-(([ND]-[NB])/[NB]))<=0.1
and: ((([ND]-[NB])/[NB])-(([DD]-[DB])/[DB]))<=0.1
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: HIGH DAYTIME CONGESTION {IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR REQUIRING
NIGHTTIME
CONSTRUCTION -- OTHER FACTORS MAY NOT BE IMPORTANT}
and: % CHANGE OF ACCIDENTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION {DURING NIGHT SHIFT IS
NOT
SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN THAT OF DURING DAY SHIFT}
NOTE:
If percent accident change due to daytime construction is within +/-
10% of percent accident change due to nighttime construction, then it
is assumed that there is no significant difference in safety between
day & night shift.
/* RULE NUMBER: 40
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY {ACCIDENT DATA ANALYSIS}
and: [DB]
and: [DD]

169
and: [NB]
and: [ND]
and: (([DD]-[DB])/[DB])>(([ND]-[NB])/[NB])
and: (([DD]-[DB])/[DB])-(([ND]-[NB])/[NB])>0.1
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY)
and: % CHANGE OF ACCIDENTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION {DURING NIGHT SHIFT IS
SIGNIFICANTLY PREFERRABLE OVER THAT OF DURING DAY SHIFT)
/* RULE NUMBER: 41
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES)
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY {ACCIDENT DATA ANALYSIS)
and: {([DD]-[DB])/[DB])<(([ND]-[NB])/[NB])
and: (([ND]-[NB])/[NB])-(([DD]-[DB])/[DB])>0.1
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT {IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY)
and: % CHANGE OF ACCIDENTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION {DURING DAY SHIFT IS
SIGNIFICANTLY PREFERRABLE OVER THAT OF DURING NIGHT SHIFT)
/* RULE NUMBER: 42
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES)
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY)
and: DETOUR IS {NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME)
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE)
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY WEEKENDS, NIGHT 7 PM - 1 AM (PARTIAL LANE
CLOSURE) -
Confidence=8/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
NOTE:
If day shift is preferred for safety, but weekday lane closures are not
permissible due to high weekday traffic volume -- then working on
weekends is a necessary option. If schedule requires more working
hours, then in addition to weekends, a restricted night shift (from 7
PM - 1 AM) may be utilized. The probability of night accidents
increase after 1 AM when drivers are more tired and inattentive.

170
/* RULE NUMBER: 43
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY (WEEKENDS ONLY), NIGHT 7 PM - 12 MN, TOTAL LANE
CLOSURE (ONE DIRECTION) ACHIEVED BY MAINTAINING 2-WAY OPPOSING
TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE OF WORK ZONE. - Confidence=8/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
NOTE:
If day shift is preferred for safety, but weekday lane closures are not
permissible due to high weekday traffic volume -- then working on
weekends is a necessary option. If schedule requires more working
hours, then in addition to weekends, a restricted night shift (from 7
PM - 1 AM) may be utilized. The probability of night accidents
increase after 1 AM when drivers are more tired and inattentive.
/* RULE NUMBER: 44
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES)
and: NIGHT SHIFT (IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY)
and: DETOUR IS (AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY)
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; TOTAL LANE CLOSURE (ONE
DIRECTION)
ACHIEVED BY MAINTAINING 2-WAY OPPOSING TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE
OF WORK ZONE - Confidence=5/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
NOTE:
Scheduling requirements may necessitate total road closure, which
allows a longer work period (8-10 hour). According to Shepard &
Cottrell, jobs requiring entire road closure can save more than 50% of
the construction time. Also, total road closure enhances work zone
safety regardless shift time.

171
/* RULE NUMBER: 45
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=5/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 6 AM (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
- Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
For safety reasons, partial lane closure during night shift is not
recommended. However, night work is permissible if detour is available
and total roadway closure is implemented.
/* RULE NUMBER: 46
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 7 AM - 5 PM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
- Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=8/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
If total roadway closure is permissible and implemented, then safety
difference between shifts is not a major issue, since no traffic will
move through the work zone because of diversion by detour. Work can
proceed during the night shift or day shift or a combined shift.

172
/* RULE NUMBER: 47
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 7 AM - 5 PM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
- Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=9/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=5/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Partial lane closure is not recommended during night shift for safety
reasons. However, nighttime construction can proceed relatively safely
if the entire roadway is closed, and traffic is diverted by detour.
/* RULE NUMBER: 48
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: DAY 7 AM - 5 PM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
- Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
If total roadway closure is allowed and implemented, then safety
difference between shifts is not a big concern. Both day and night
shift can be used.

173
/* RULE NUMBER: 49
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Flashing warning signs and site illumination during nighttime
construction may actually caution approaching motorists, increasing
their alertness. In this case, night shift can be more safe than day
shift.
/* RULE NUMBER: 50
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
NOTE:
According to Shepard & Cottrell, jobs requiring total road closure can
save more than 50% of the construction time.
REFERENCE:
Shepard & Cottrell (1984)

174
/* RULE NUMBER: 51
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS (AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 52
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Day shift is not recommended due to high daytime congestion, which
results in high user costs. Night shift has little or no traffic
congestion, resulting in dollar savings to public in terms of time and
fuel expenditure. Also night shift is determined to be safer.
/* RULE NUMBER: 53
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}

175
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; TOTAL LANE CLOSURE (ONE
DIRECTION)
ACHIEVED BY MAINTAINING 2-WAY OPPOSING TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE
OF WORK ZONE - Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
NOTE:
Day shift is not recommended due to high daytime congestion, which
results in high user costs. Night shift has little or no traffic
congestion, resulting in dollar savings to public in terms of time and
fuel expenditure. Also, night shift is determined to be safer.
/* RULE NUMBER: 54
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES)
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY (EXPERT JUDGEMENT)
and: NIGHT SHIFT IS (NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN DAY SHIFT IN
TERMS OF SAFETY)
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY)
and: HIGH DAYTIME CONGESTION (IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR REQUIRING
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION -- OTHER FACTORS MAY NOT BE IMPORTANT)
/* RULE NUMBER: 55
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES)
and: NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY)
and: HIGH DAYTIME CONGESTION (IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR REQUIRING
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION -- OTHER FACTORS MAY NOT BE IMPORTANT)
and: DETOUR IS (AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY)
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION))
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; TOTAL LANE CLOSURE (ONE
DIRECTION)
ACHIEVED BY MAINTAINING 2-WAY OPPOSING TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE
OF WORK ZONE - Confidence=7/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)

176
/* RULE NUMBER: 56
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: HIGH DAYTIME CONGESTION {IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR REQUIRING
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION -- OTHER FACTORS MAY NOT BE IMPORTANT}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Due to heavy traffic volume during the day, any lane closure for work
would result in serious backups, increasing user (motorist) costs.
Night shift has less traffic congestion, producing dollar savings to
the travelling public in terms of time and fuel.
/* RULE NUMBER: 57
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: HIGH DAYTIME CONGESTION (IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR REQUIRING
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION -- OTHER FACTORS MAY NOT BE IMPORTANT}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 7 AM - 5 PM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
- Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Available time in the job schedule may require the project to proceed
with total road closure to ensure timely completion.

177
/* RULE NUMBER: 58
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY)
and: HIGH DAYTIME CONGESTION {IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR REQUIRING
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION -- OTHER FACTORS MAY NOT BE IMPORTANT}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM {PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Due to heavy traffic volume during the day, any daytime lane closure
for work would result in serious backups, increasing user (motorist)
costs. Night shift has less traffic congestion, producing dollar
savings to the travelling public in terms of time and fuel. In this
situation, work should be done exclusively at night.
/* RULE NUMBER: 59
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: HIGH DAYTIME CONGESTION (IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR REQUIRING
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION -- OTHER FACTORS MAY NOT BE IMPORTANT}
and: DETOUR IS (NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Due to heavy traffic volume during the day, any daytime lane closure
for work would result in serious backups, increasing user (motorist)
costs. Night shift has less traffic congestion, producing dollar
savings to the travelling public in terms of time and fuel. In this
situation, work should be done exclusively at night.

178
/* RULE NUMBER: 60
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: HIGH DAYTIME CONGESTION {IS THE DOMINANT FACTOR REQUIRING
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION -- OTHER FACTORS MAY NOT BE IMPORTANT}
and: DETOUR IS {NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; TOTAL LANE CLOSURE (ONE
DIRECTION)
ACHIEVED BY MAINTAINING 2-WAY OPPOSING TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE
OF WORK ZONE - Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
All lanes during daytime should remain open to accomodate high traffic
volume. Construction/maintenance work should be done only during night
when low traffic permits reduction of lanes.
/* RULE NUMBER: 61
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY {EXPERT JUDGEMENT}
and: NIGHT SHIFT IS {LESS SAFE THAN DAY SHIFT}
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT {IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
/* RULE NUMBER: 62
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY (EXPERT JUDGEMENT}
and: NIGHT SHIFT IS (MORE SAFE THAN DAY SHIFT}
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT (IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}

179
/* RULE NUMBER: 63
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION))
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY {EXPERT JUDGEMENT)
and: NIGHT SHIFT IS {NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN DAY SHIFT IN
TERMS OF SAFETY)
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY)
/* RULE NUMBER: 64
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)) OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION))
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)) OR {UPTO
FOUR DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)) OR {UPTO FIVE
DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION))
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY {ACCIDENT DATA ANALYSIS)
and: [DB]
and: [DD]
and: [NB]
and: [ND]
and: ((([DD]-[DB])/[DB])-(([ND]-[NB])/[NB]))<=0.1
and: ((([ND]-[NB])/[NB])-(([DD]-[DB])/[DB]))<=0.1
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY)
and: % CHANGE OF ACCIDENTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION {DURING NIGHT SHIFT IS
NOT
SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN THAT OF DURING DAY SHIFT)
NOTE:
If the difference between accident change (%) due to day construction,
and accident change (%) due to night construction, is within +/-10
percent tolerance, then it is assumed that there is no significant
difference in safety between night & day shift.
/* RULE NUMBER: 65
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)) OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION))

180
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO
FOUR DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO FIVE
DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY (ACCIDENT DATA ANALYSIS}
and: (([DD]-[DB])/[DB])>(([ND]-[NB])/[NB])
and: (([DD]-[DB])/[DB])-(([ND]-[NB])/[NB])>0.1
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT (IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: % CHANGE OF ACCIDENTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION (DURING NIGHT SHIFT IS
SIGNIFICANTLY PREFERRABLE OVER THAT OF DURING DAY SHIFT}
/* RULE NUMBER: 66
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO
FOUR DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO FIVE
DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY (ACCIDENT DATA ANALYSIS}
and: (([DD]-[DB])/[DB])<(([ND]-[NB])/[NB])
and: (([ND]-[NB])/[NB])-(([DD]-[DB])/[DB])>0.1
THEN:
NIGHT SHIFT (IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: % CHANGE OF ACCIDENTS DUE TO CONSTRUCTION (DURING DAY SHIFT IS
SIGNIFICANTLY PREFERRABLE OVER THAT OF DURING NIGHT SHIFT}
/* RULE NUMBER: 67
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS (NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Safety concern requires work to be performed during the day shift only,
between morning and evening rush hours.

181
/* RULE NUMBER: 68
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY WEEKENDS, NIGHT 7 PM - 1 AM; TOTAL LANE CLOSURE
(ONE DIR.) ACHIEVED BY ALLOWING 2-WAY OPPOSING TRAFFIC ON LANES
OPPOSITE OF WORK ZONE - Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Since night shift is unsafe, work can proceed during the day--but only
on weekends when traffic is low enough to permit total lane closure
(one direction), and/or during the night upto 1 AM. Possibility of
accidents are higher after 1 AM, due to tired, drowsy or intoxicated
drivers.
/* RULE NUMBER: 69
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
If a job requires a large number of road patches, closing one lane at a
time would take much longer for daylight patching than doing it with
total road closure at night.

182
/* RULE NUMBER: 70
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS (AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 71
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS (AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 7 AM - 5 PM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
- Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
NOTE:
Although it has been determined that night shift is unsafe, by
achieving total road closure, safety is no longer a concern. This is
because all traffic through work zone is diverted by detour.
/* RULE NUMBER: 72
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
NIGHT SHIFT (IS NOT BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and:

183
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM {PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 73
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS (AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: DAY 7 AM - 5 PM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
- Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 74
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=5/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}

184
/* RULE NUMBER: 75
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 76
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=5/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 77
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS {NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}

185
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=5/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 78
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR IS (NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; TOTAL LANE CLOSURE (ONE
DIRECTION)
ACHIEVED BY MAINTAINING 2-WAY OPPOSING TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE
OF WORK ZONE - Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 79
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
THEN:
DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS (CHECKED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 80
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}

186
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS {CHECKED}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 7 AM - 5 PM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR USED)
- Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 81
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS {CHECKED}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; (TOTAL LANE CLOSURE--DETOUR
USED) - Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 82
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS {CHECKED}
and: DETOUR IS {NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {REQUIRES TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE (ONE OR BOTH
DIRECTION)}

187
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM ; TOTAL LANE CLOSURE (ONE
DIRECTION)
ACHIEVED BY MAINTAINING 2-WAY OPPOSING TRAFFIC ON LANES OPPOSITE
OF WORK ZONE - Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 83
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION))
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS (CHECKED)
and: DETOUR IS (NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
and: JOB SCHEDULE (WORK TIME AVAILABLE) (REQUIRES SHIFT DURATION TO BE
ATLEAST 8 HOURS}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 84
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS (CHECKED)
and: DETOUR IS (NOT AVAILABLE TO HANDLE EITHER DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
and: JOB SCHEDULE (WORK TIME AVAILABLE) (DOES NOT REQUIRE A SPECIFIC
SHIFT DURATION}
THEN:
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION NOISE IS (CONSIDERED)

188
/* RULE NUMBER: 85
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS {CHECKED}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
and: JOB SCHEDULE (WORK TIME AVAILABLE) {REQUIRES SHIFT DURATION TO BE
ATLEAST 8 HOURS}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 86
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS {CHECKED}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
and: JOB SCHEDULE (WORK TIME AVAILABLE) (DOES NOT REQUIRE A SPECIFIC
SHIFT DURATION}
THEN:
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION NOISE IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 87
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS {CHECKED}
and: DETOUR IS {AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}

189
and: JOB SPECIFICATION {DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
and: JOB SCHEDULE (WORK TIME AVAILABLE) {REQUIRES SHIFT DURATION TO BE
ATLEAST 8 HOURS}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 88
IF:
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS {CHECKED}
and: DETOUR IS (AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOWER NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME
ONLY}
and: JOB SPECIFICATION (DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE}
and: JOB SCHEDULE (WORK TIME AVAILABLE) (DOES NOT REQUIRE A SPECIFIC
SHIFT DURATION}
THEN:
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION NOISE IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 89
IF:
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION NOISE IS (CONSIDERED)
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: WORK ZONE NOISE DURING NIGHT (EXCEEDS LOCAL ORDINANCE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
NOTE:
A research study, which included a survey of planners of various DOTs,
concluded that construction noise is of high importance next to
congestion and safety (Hinze & Carlisle, 1990). A study done by the
Arizona DOT, notes an upper limit of 86 dB(A) for an acceptable noise
level at a distance of 50 feet (Kay, 1985).

190
/* RULE NUMBER: 90
IF:
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION NOISE IS {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS {CHECKED}
and: WORK ZONE NOISE DURING NIGHT {DOES NOT EXCEED LOCAL ORDINANCE}
THEN:
QUALITY OF WORK IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 91
IF:
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION NOISE IS {CONSIDERED}
and: QUALITY OF WORK IS {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT {HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: WORK ZONE NOISE DURING NIGHT {DOES NOT EXCEED LOCAL ORDINANCE}
and: QUALITY OF WORK DURING NIGHT IS (NOT ACCEPTABLE}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Night shift may adversely affect the quality of Portland cement
concrete in terms of good finish and mix consistency. Lower night
temperature may cool asphalt mix too rapidly, resulting in poor
compaction. It is difficult to install guard rail aesthetically under
nighttime conditions (Price, 1985)
/* RULE NUMBER: 92
IF:
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION NOISE IS {CONSIDERED}
and: QUALITY OF WORK IS {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT (HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKZONE SAFETY}
and: DETOUR AVAILIBILITY IS {CHECKED}
and: WORK ZONE NOISE DURING NIGHT (DOES NOT EXCEED LOCAL ORDINANCE}
and: QUALITY OF WORK DURING NIGHT IS {ACCEPTABLE}

191
THEN:
SHIFT PRODUCTIVITY IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 93
IF:
SHIFT PRODUCTIVITY IS {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: PRODUCTIVITY IS {LOWER DURING NIGHT SHIFT}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=8/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Nighttime productivity may be adversely affected by inadequacies in
material/spare parts supply, lighting, supervision, communication,
worker morale, etc. However, a lower night productivity rate can be
offset by the longer work period (8-10 hour) available during the
night.
/* RULE NUMBER: 94
IF:
SHIFT PRODUCTIVITY IS {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: PRODUCTIVITY IS (HIGHER DURING NIGHT SHIFT}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
During a recent FDOT road project, asphalt was laid down at a rate of
147.03 tons per hour, compared to 98.09 tons per hour for a similar
daytime project (Layfield, 1988). A road project in Indiana indicated
a 10% improvement in speed of hauling cylces and tonnage during night
shift. In a Pennsylvania interstate project nighttime production
increases have been logged as high as 30% (McConville, 1991).

192
/* RULE NUMBER: 95
IF:
SHIFT PRODUCTIVITY IS {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE {PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: PRODUCTIVITY IS {NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FOR NIGHT vs DAY
SHIFTS}
THEN:
MATERIAL & PARTS SUPPLY {IS CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 96
IF:
MATERIAL & PARTS SUPPLY {IS CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT PART SOURCES ARE (NOT AVAILABLE
AT ALL DURING NIGHT}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Business hours of material/spare part suppliers do not commonly extend
into the night. In some cases batch plants and equipment suppliers may
not be open at all during the night, allowing daytime construction
only.
/* RULE NUMBER: 97
IF:
MATERIAL & PARTS SUPPLY {IS CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT PART SOURCES ARE (NOT READILY
AVAILABLE AT NIGHT}

193
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=7/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
NOTE:
Business hours of material/spare part suppliers do not commonly extend
into the night. In some cases nighttime construction may not be
possible due early closures of batch plants and equipment suppliers.
/* RULE NUMBER: 98
IF:
MATERIAL & PARTS SUPPLY (IS CONSIDERED)
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)) OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION))
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION))
and: CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT PART SOURCES ARE (AVAILABLE AT
NIGHT)
THEN:
AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 99
IF:
AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IS (CONSIDERED)
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)) OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION))
OR (UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION))
and: AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IN NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION IS (NOT
ADEQUATE)
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=9/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
NOTE:
If agency/contractor is unfamiliar with nighttime construction, then
there may be a decrease in safety and productivity. Overall project
costs would most likely increase.

194
/* RULE NUMBER: 100
IF:
AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IS {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IN NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION IS
{ADEQUATE}
THEN:
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY AND NIGHT SHIFTS IS {A
CONSIDERATION}
/* RULE NUMBER: 101
IF:
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY AND NIGHT SHIFTS IS {A
CONSIDERATION}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY & NIGHT SHIFTS IS
{SIGNIFICANT}
and: FOR WORK ENVIRONMENT / MATERIAL ADAPTABILITY {LOWER NIGHT
TEMPERATURE IS PREFERRED}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
Night shift provides cooler temperatures, which permit easy placement
of Portland cement concrete, particularly during summer. High daytime
temperatures may cause increased evaporation and a faster rate of
setting for PCC, making good placement difficult.
/* RULE NUMBER: 102
IF:
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY AND NIGHT SHIFTS IS {A
CONSIDERATION}
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and:

195
and: TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY & NIGHT SHIFTS IS
{SIGNIFICANT}
and: FOR WORK ENVIRONMENT / MATERIAL ADAPTABILITY (HIGHER DAY
TEMPERATURE IS PREFERRED}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
NOTE:
During winter months low nighttime temperature may adversely affect
material characteristics and working environment. Low temperature may
cool asphalt mix too quickly before compaction is complete.
/* RULE NUMBER: 103
IF:
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY AND NIGHT SHIFTS IS {A
CONSIDERATION}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY & NIGHT SHIFTS IS
{SIGNIFICANT}
and: FOR WORK ENVIRONMENT / MATERIAL ADAPTABILITY {THERE IS NO
TEMPERATURE PREFERENCE}
THEN:
NIGHTTIME SUPERVISION AND COMMUNICATION IS {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 104
IF:
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY AND NIGHT SHIFTS IS {A
CONSIDERATION}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DAY & NIGHT SHIFTS IS {NOT
SIGNIFICANT}
THEN:
NIGHTTIME SUPERVISION AND COMMUNICATION IS {CONSIDERED}

196
/* RULE NUMBER: 105
IF:
NIGHTTIME SUPERVISION AND COMMUNICATION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO
FOUR DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO FIVE
DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: SUPERVISION/COMMUNICATION IS {SIGNIFICANTLY IMPAIRED DURING
NIGHT SHIFT}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 106
IF:
NIGHTTIME SUPERVISION AND COMMUNICATION IS {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO
FOUR DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO FIVE
DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: SUPERVISION/COMMUNICATION IS {NOT SIGNIFICANTLY IMPAIRED DURING
NIGHT SHIFT}
THEN:
HUMAN FACTORS ARE {CONSIDERED}
/* RULE NUMBER: 107
IF:
HUMAN FACTORS ARE {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS (ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR (UPTO
FOUR DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO FIVE
DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT HAS (CONSIDERABLE NEGATIVE EFFECT ON WORKER
PHYSIOLOGICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION)
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}

197
/* RULE NUMBER: 108
IF:
HUMAN FACTORS ARE {CONSIDERED}
and: WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS {ONE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURE (PER
DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO TWO DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
OR {UPTO THREE DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO
FOUR DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)} OR {UPTO FIVE
DAYTIME LANE CLOSURES (PER DIRECTION)}
and: NIGHT SHIFT HAS (NO SIGNIFICANT NEGATIVE EFFECT ON WORKER
PHYSIOLOGICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION}
or: NIGHT SHIFT HAS (POSITIVE EFFECT ON WORKER PHYSIOLOGICAL &
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION}
THEN:
> WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: > WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) -
Confidence=10/10
and: TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS (CONSIDERED)
/* RULE NUMBER: 109
IF:
TOTAL COST (OWNER & USER) IS {CONSIDERED}
and: [ANT]>=0
and: [T]>=0
and: [G]>0
and: [D]>0
and: [VD]>=0
and: [VN]>=0
and: [P]>=0
and: [Q1]>=0
and: [Q2]>=0
and: [Q3]>=0
and: [Q4]>=0
and: [Q5]>=0
and: [Q6]>=0
and: [Q7]>=0
and: [Q8]>=0
and: [PR0JD]>=0
and: [TR]>=0
and: [AD]>=0
and: [TRPER]>=0
and: [ADPER]>=0
THEN:
USER COST IS LOWER {DURING NIGHT SHIFT}
and: [UCD] IS GIVEN THE VALUE
(([VD]/1000)*[D]*[ADT])+([ADT]*[P]*[D])+((0.63/60)*[T]*[ADT]*[D]*

198
- [G])
and: [UCN] IS GIVEN THE VALUE ([VN]/1000)*[D]*[ANT]
and: [UCS] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [UCD]-[UCN]
and: [PROJN] IS GIVEN THE VALUE
INT(((9.54*[Q1]+4.59*[Q2]+5.19*[Q3]+1*[Q4]+0.81*[Q5]+401.48*[Q6]
+34.06*[Q7]+1.27*[Q8])/(10.52*[Q1]+7.41*[Q2]+2.30*[Q3]+1.36*[Q4]
+0.68*[Q5]+348.38*[Q6]+45.88*[Q7]+1.26*[Q8]))*[PR0JD])
and: [NTC] IS GIVEN THE VALUE
(([ADPER]/100)+l)*[AD]+(([TRPER]/100)+1)*[TR]+[PROJN]
and: [DTC] IS GIVEN THE VALUE [AD]+[TR]+[PROJD]
and: [DIFF] IS GIVEN THE VALUE INT((([NTC]-[DTC])/[DTC])*100)

APPENDIX C
EXAMPLE OF EXTERNAL TRAFFIC COUNT DATABASE

Average Weekday Hourly Traffic Volumes
Between 7 am - 7 pm
County: Hamilton
Highway: 1-75 (Northbound)
Time
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Average
7 am
214
229
237
274
311
253
8 am
373
365
402
465
499
421
9 am
547
514
559
717
803
628
10 am
798
755
800
1049
1171
915
11 am
1012
913
973
1300
1463
1132
12 noon
1154
1003
1092
1436
1640
1265
1 pm
1221
978
1081
1363
1800
1289
2 pm
1222
979
1033
1361
1679
1255
3 pm
1168
939
1080
1421
1780
1278
4 pm
1004
909
969
1109
1799
1158
5 pm
927
759
829
1109
1591
1043
6 pm
744
671
722
997
1410
909
7 pm
616
557
622
845
1201
798
PEAK
1222
1003
1092
1436
1800
1289
200

appendix
program help
D
FILES

-V 20
-CLS
HELP FILES
VEHICLE DELAY
-COLOR WHITE
During heavy traffic, a 10 to 20 minute vehicle delay may be
assumed. The maximum delay can vary depending on the roadway
location and geometry, advance public information and local policies.
-COLOR RED
PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE
-PAUSE
-V 22
-CLS
VEHICLE COST DUE TO SPEED CHANGE
-COLOR WHITE
Time and dollar savings to the public on a nighttime construction
project due to traffic congestion, detours, and delays is an important
consideration. Dollar estimates can be made using traffic counts along
with information obtained from a report titled: " A Manual for User
Benefit Analysis of Highway and Bus Transit Improvement". The costs may
be multiplied by a given factor to arrive at 1993 costs. For vehicle
cost, a value can be estimated showing excess cost of speed change
cycles above cost of continuing at initial speed. If initial speed is
55 mph and traffic is brought to a stop for an assumed 10 minute delay,
then resumes speed, a cost to the vehicle can be estimated using the
above mentioned manual. For example: during day, a cost of $ 65.00 per
1000 vehicles may be estimated.
-COLOR RED
PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINE
-PAUSE
-V 24
-CLS
PERSONAL COST
-COLOR WHITE
The public personal cost can be estimated based on the vehicle
delay caused by construction. According to "A Manual for User Benefit
Analysis of Highway and Bus Transit Improvement (1977)" a cost of $ 0.46
per vehicle is shown for a 10 minute delay. The manual provides
different costs for a range of vehicle delays. The costs can be
converted to present day value.
-COLOR RED
PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE
-PAUSE
202

APPENDIX E
EXAMPLE OF PROJECT DATA COLLECTION FORM

HIGHWAY REHABILITATION / RECONSTRUCTION PROJECT INFORMATION
1. (a)
PROJECT
NO.
(b)
LETTING
DATE:
(C)
PROJECT
TYPE:
2.COUNTY LOCATION:
3.HIGHWAY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED :
(e.g.I-75 North)
4.NUMBER OF LANES : (PER DIRECTION)
AT WORK ZONE
5.ESTIMATED LANE CAPACITY : vehicles per hour per lane
6.COST OF PROJECT : $
7.ESTIMATED PROJECT DURATION : DAYS
8. (a) ADT (AVG. DAILY TRAFFIC) THROUGH WORK ZONE:
vehicles
(b) NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC VOLUME THROUGH WORKZONE:
vehicles (OR % OF ADT)
(c) EXPECTED VEHICLE DELAY (MINUTES) DUE TO DAYTIME CONSTRUCTION:
10 MINUTES
15 MINUTES
OTHER MINUTES
9.PLANNED WORK SHIFT : DAY NIGHT EITHER
10.SAFTEY ANALYSIS INDICATES :
DAYTIME CONSTRUCTION PREFERABLE
NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION PREFERABLE
EITHER DAY OR NIGHT CONSTRUCTION IS OK
204

205
11.DETOUR IS :
AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAY OR NIGHT TRAFFIC VOLUME
AVAILABLE TO HANDLE LOW NIGHT TRAFFIC VOLUME
NOT AVAILABLE
12.JOB SPECIFICATIONS :
REQUIRE TOTAL LANE CLOSURE
DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL LANE CLOSURE
13.WORK SHIFT DURATION :
IS REQUIRED TO BE AT LEAST 8 HOURS
DOES NOT REQUIRE A SPECIFIC DURATION
14.EXPECTED WORK ZONE NOISE AT NIGHT :
EXCEEDS LOCAL ORDINANCE
DOES NOT EXCEED LOCAL ORDINANCE
15.QUALITY OF WORK DURING NIGHT IS :
ACCEPTABLE
NOT ACCEPTABLE
16.PRODUCTIVITY IS TYPICALLY :
LOWER DURING NIGHT
HIGHER DURING NIGHT
NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT
BETWEEN DAY & NIGHT SHIFT
17. MATERIAL & PARTS SOURCES ARE :
AVAILABLE AT NIGHT
NOT EASILY AVAILABLE AT NIGHT
NOT AVAILABLE AT NIGHT AT ALL
18. AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IN NIGHT CONSTRUCTION IS :
ADEQUATE
NOT ADEQUATE
19. FOR WORK ENVIRONMENT :
LOWER NIGHT TEMPERATURE PREFERRED
HIGHER DAY TEMPERATURE PREFERRED
THERE IS NO TEMPERATURE PREFERRED
20. SUPERVISION / COMMUNICATION IS :
SIGNIFICANTLY IMPAIRED AT NIGHT
NOT SIGNIFICANTLY IMPAIRED AT NIGHT

206
21.NIGHT SHIFT HAS:
NEGATIVE EFFECT ON HUMAN PERFORMANCE
POSITIVE EFFECT ON HUMAN PERFORMANCE
NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON HUMAN PERFORMANCE
PROJECT ITEM QUANTITY INFORMATION :
22.CHECK ANY PROJECT ITEMS LISTED BELOW THAT ARE INCLUDED IN
THE PROJECT, AND ENTER THEIR QUANTITIES :
PROJECT ITEM QUANTITY
REMOVAL OF EXISTING PAVEMENT: SY
REGULAR EXCAVATION : CY
BITUMINOUS MATERIAL PRIME COAT: GA
BITUMINOUS MATERIAL TACK COAT: GA
MILLING EXISTING ASPHALT PAVEMENT: SY
CLASS I CONCRETE , MISC.: CY
TYPE S - ASPHALT CONCRETE: TN
ASPHALT CONCRETE FRICTION: SY
ADDITIONAL COST INFORMATION :
23. ESTIMATED DAYTIME TRAFFIC CONTROL COST FOR PROJECT: $
24. ESTIMATED DAYTIME ADMINISTRATIVE COST FOR PROJECT: $
25. ESTIMATE % CHANGE FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL COST FOR NIGHT SHIFT: %
26. ESTIMATE % CHANGE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE COST FOR NIGHT SHIFT: %

APPENDIX F
PROGRAM INPUT DATA AND RESULTS

EXSYS Pro
Case Study I
** CHANGE INPUT DATA **
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
HIGHWAY REHAB/MAINTENANCE PROJECT IS MILLING & RESURFACING
ROADWAY PROJECT IS ON INTERSTATE 75
PEAK WEEKDAY VPH COUNT (PER DIRECTION) IS GIVEN A NEW VALUE
1-75 WORK ZONE IS AT 1-75 NORTH
WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY EXPERT JUDGMENT
JOB SCHEDULE (WORK TIME AVAILABLE) DOES NOT REQUIRE A SPECIFIC
SHIFT DURATION
NIGHT SHIFT IS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN DAY SHIFT IN
TERMS OF SAFETY
DETOUR IS AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME
WORK ZONE NOISE DURING NIGHT DOES NOT EXCEED LOCAL ORDINANCE
QUALITY OF WORK AT NIGHT IS ACCEPTABLE
JOB SPECIFICATION DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE
PRODUCTIVITY IS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FOR NIGHT vs DAY
SHIFTS
AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IN NIGHT CONSTRUCTION IS ADEQUATE
CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT PART SOURCES ARE AVAILABLE
DURING NIGHT
FOR WORK ENVIRONMENT/MATERIAL ADAPTABILITY THERE IS NO
TEMPERATURE PREFERENCE
NIGHT SHIFT HAS NO SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON WORKER CONDITION
NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED: HAMILTON
ESTIMATED PROJECT ITEM COST FOR DAYTIME
CONSTRUCTION, $ = 3,402,504
ESTIMATED PROJECT DURATION (days) = 295
NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC THROUGH WORKZONE (# OF VEHICLES BETWEEN 6 PM
TO 6 AM) = 4980
NO. OF LANES PER DIRECTION FOR ROADWAY UNDER CONSIDERATION = 2
ESTIMATED LANE CAPACITY IN TERMS OF VEHICLES PER HOUR PER LANE
(vphl) = 1692
PEAK WEEKDAY TRAFFIC FLOW (VPH) FOR 1-75 (NORTHBOUND) IN
HAMILTON COUNTY = 1245
EXPECTED ADDITIONAL VEHICLE DELAY DUE TO DAYTIME CONSTRUCTION
(minutes) = 15
VEHICLE FUEL PRICE (S/gallon) = 1.2
ESTIMATED INCREASED DAYTIME VEHICLE OPERATING COST BASED ON
DELAY CAUSED BY CONSTRUCTION ($ per 1000 vehicles) = 70
ESTIMATED INCREASED NIGHTTIME VEHICLE OPERATING COST BASED ON
DELAY CAUSED BY NIGHT CONSTRUCTION ($ per 1000 vehicles) = 65
ESTIMATED DAYTIME PERSONAL COST DUE TO DELAY CAUSED BY
CONSTRUCTION ($ per
ENTER QUANTITY (SY)
ENTER QUANTITY (CY)
10,493
ENTER QUANTITY (GA)
50
ENTER QUANTITY (GA)
33,711
vehicle) = 0.55
FOR PROJECT ITEM:
FOR PROJECT ITEM:
FOR PROJECT ITEM:
FOR PROJECT ITEM:
Rem. Exist Pavement = 0
Regular Excavation =
Bit. Mat'l Prime Coat =
Bit. Mat'l Tack Coat =
208

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
209
FOR PROJECT ITEM:
FOR PROJECT ITEM:
Class 1 Concrete = 0.8
Type S - Asphalt Concrete
ENTER QUANTITY (SY) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Milling Exist. Asphalt
Pavement = 502,371
ENTER QUANTITY (CY)
ENTER QUANTITY (TN)
= 54,197
ENTER QUANTITY (SY)
Course = 295,001
ESTIMATED COST FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL (DAYTIME),
ESTIMATED AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE COST (DAYTIME), $ = 510,000
ENTER PERCENT CHANGE (+/-) FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL COST DURING
NIGHT SHIFT, % = 30
ENTER PERCENT CHANGE (+/-) FOR AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS
DURING NIGHT SHIFT, % = 20
FOR PROJECT ITEM: Asphalt Concrete Friction
$ = 39,825
** RESULTS **
VALUE
WORK SHIFT: DAY 10 AM - 4 PM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) OR 10
WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS ONE DAYTIME LANE
CLOSURE (PER DIRECTION)
JOB SCHEDULE DOES NOT REQUIRE A SPECIFIC SHIFT DURATION
JOB SPECIFICATION DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE
NIGHT SHIFT IS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN DAY SHIFT IN
TERMS OF SAFETY
WORK ZONE NOISE DURING NIGHT DOES NOT EXCEED LOCAL ORDINANCE
QUALITY OF WORK AT NIGHT IS ACCEPTABLE
PRODUCTIVITY IS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FOR NIGHT vs DAY
AGENCY/CONTRACTOR EXPERIENCE IN NIGHT CONSTRUCTION IS ADEQUATE
CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL & EQUIPMENT PART SOURCES ARE AVAILABLE
DURING NIGHT
FOR WORK ENVIRONMENT/MATERIAL ADAPTABILITY THERE IS NO
TEMPERATURE PREFERENCE
ESTIMATED PROJECT ITEM COST FOR DAYTIME
CONSTRUCTION, $ = 3,402,504
USER COST DURING DAY, $ = 3,565,505
USER COST DURING NIGHT, $ = 95,491
USER COST SAVINGS FOR NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION, $ = 3,470,014
EXPECTED PROJECT ITEM COST FOR NIGHTTIME
CONSTRUCTION, $ = 2,774,090
TOTAL PROJECT RELATED COST (OWNER) FOR NIGHT CONSTRUCTION
ALTERNATIVE IS, $ = 3,437,862
TOTAL PROJECT RELATED COST (OWNER) FOR DAYTIME CONSTRUCTION
ALTERNATIVE IS, $ = 3,952,329
PERCENT CHANGE (+/-) FOR OWNER COST DUE TO NIGHT
CONSTRUCTION (%) = -13

EXSYS Pro
Case Study II
** CHANGE INPUT DATA **
210
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
HIGHWAY REHAB/MAINTENANCE PROJECT IS RESURFACING
WORK ZONE SAFETY DETERMINED BY EXPERT JUDGMENT
NIGHT SHIFT IS MORE SAFE THAN DAY SHIFT
DETOUR IS AVAILABLE TO HANDLE DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC
VOLUME
JOB SPECIFICATION DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE
NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED: OTHER
NAME OF COUNTY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED: ST. JOHNS
NAME OF HIGHWAY WHERE PROJECT IS LOCATED: 1-95
ESTIMATED PROJECT ITEM COST FOR DAYTIME
CONSTRUCTION, $ = 3,657,233
ESTIMATED PROJECT DURATION (days) = 530
DAYTTIME TRAFFIC THROUGH WORKZONE (# OF VEHICLES BETWEEN 6 AM
TO 6 PM) - 21,700
NIGHTTIME TRAFFIC THROUGH WORKZONE (# OF VEHICLES BETWEEN 6 PM
TO 6 AM) = 9300
NO. OF LANES PER DIRECTION FOR ROADWAY UNDER CONSIDERATION = 2
ESTIMATED LANE CAPACITY IN TERMS OF VEHICLES PER HOUR PER LANE
(vphl) = 1692
EXPECTED ADDITIONAL VEHICLE DELAY DUE TO DAYTIME CONSTRUCTION
(minutes) = 15
VEHICLE FUEL PRICE (S/gallon) = 1.2
ESTIMATED INCREASED DAYTIME VEHICLE OPERATING COST BASED ON
DELAY CAUSED BY CONSTRUTION ($ per 1000 vehicles) = 70
ESTIMATED INCREASED NIGHTTIME VEHICLE OPERATING COST BASED ON
DELAY CAUSED BY NIGHT CONSTRUCTION ($ per 1000 vehicles) = 65
ESTIMATED DAYTIME PERSONAL COST DUE TO DELAY CAUSED BY
CONSTRUCTION ($ per vehicle) = 0.55
ENTER QUANTITY (SY) FOR PROJECT ITEM:
FOR PROJECT ITEM:
(CY)
Rem. Exist Pavement = 532
Regular Excavation =
ENTER QUANTITY
8,279
ENTER QUANTITY (GA) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Bit. Mat'l Prime Coat =
50
ENTER QUANTITY (GA) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Bit. Mat'l Tack Coat =
13,874
ENTER QUANTITY (SY) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Milling Exist. Asphalt
Pavement = 115,278
ENTER QUANTITY (CY)
ENTER QUANTITY (TN)
_ 22 889
enter’QUANTITY (SY) FOR PROJECT ITEM: Asphalt Concrete Friction
Course = 131,307
ESTIMATED COST FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL (DAYTIME), $ = 45,122
ESTIMATED AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE COST (DAYTIME), $ = 585,045
ENTER PERCENT CHANGE (+/-) FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL COST DURING
NIGHT SHIFT, % = 30
ENTER PERCENT CHANGE (+/-) FOR AGENCY ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS
DURING NIGHT SHIFT, % = 20
FOR PROJECT ITEM:
FOR PROJECT ITEM:
Class 1 Concrete = 10.8
Type S - Asphalt Concrete

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
211
** RESULTS **
VALUE
WORK SHIFT: NIGHT 7 PM - 5 AM (PARTIAL LANE CLOSURE) 10
WEEKDAY TRAFFIC VOLUME PERMITS NO PARTIAL DAYTIME LANE
CLOSURES
NIGHT SHIFT IS BETTER FOR WORKZONE SAFETY
JOB SPECIFICATION DOES NOT REQUIRE TOTAL ROAD CLOSURE
ESTIMATED PROJECT ITEM COST FOR DAYTIME
CONSTRUCTION, $ = 3,657,233
USER COST DURING DAY, $ = 9,304,309
USER COST DURING NIGHT, $ = 320,305
USER COST SAVINGS FOR NIGHTTIME CONSTRUCTION, $ = 8,983,924
EXPECTED PROJECT ITEM COST FOR NIGHTTIME
CONSTRUCTION, $ = 2,910,829
TOTAL PROJECT RELATED COST (OWNER) FOR NIGHT CONSTRUCTION
ALTERNATIVE IS, $ = 3,671,541
TOTAL PROJECT RELATED COST (OWNER) FOR DAYTIME CONSTRUCTION
ALTERNATIVE IS, $ = 4,287,400
PERCENT CHANGE (+/-) FOR OWNER COST DUE TO NIGHT
CONSTRUCTION (%) = -14

APPENDIX G
INTERVIEW RESULTS

INTERVIEW I
Location: Florida Department of Transportation, District 2 Office
Lake City, Florida
Visit Date: 09/02/92
PARTICIPANTS
Henry Haggerty, District Construction Engineer
Larry Stubbs, District Plans Reviewer
Don Drury, District Traffic Operations Engineer
Topic: Traffic Impact
The manner in which traffic volumes are considered in the work
shift selection process, varies from state to state and is primarily
dependent on the amount of traffic backup allowed, tolerance of
motorists, and roadway characteristics. In the state of Florida,
traffic is expected to be maintained at all times during reconstruction
work. FDOT officials in District 2 indicated that they try not to
exceed a 15-minute vehicle delay due to roadway construction.
Interstate highways in Florida typically have lane capacities ranging
from 1500 to 1800 vehicles per hour per lane (vphl). Night construction
is considered whenever the daytime volume exceeds the roadway capacity.
Congestion is a problem not only in urban highways but also along major
interstate stretches throughout the state. Work shift selection is done
by the design section of the FDOT, and the selection is mainly based on
recommendations made by the Maintenance of Traffic Committee. This
committee conducts a detailed analysis in estimating congestion, relying
on recent traffic volume counts.
Topic: Costs
Mr. Haggerty and Mr. Stubbs agreed that the cost of a project is
not an important consideration when deciding whether the project should
be done either at day or night. However, a cost comparison between day
and night operations may play a more influential role in the future for
economic reasons. Nighttime unit costs for some project items are
actually lower than day unit costs -- which may result in lower night
project costs.
Additional motorist cost due to delay resulting from roadway
construction is an important factor and is directly tied to the
congestion factor.
Topic: Work Zone Noise
Work zone noise during night is a matter of concern particularly
in urban highways, where residential areas are located. If the noise
level exceeds local requirements in urban areas then night work is
avoided. Usually on interstate stretches construction noise is not a
problem. In commercial areas, however, daytime construction noise can
be a source of disturbance.
213

214
Topic: Agency/Contractor Experience
The FDOT is becoming increasing involved in nighttime operations
and because of this experience, nighttime costs are becoming lower.
Nighttime experience varies from contractor to contractor. A recent
nighttime resurfacing project in St. Johns County had an inexperienced
contractor (case study II) and the result was poor productivity.
Topic: Supervision and Communication
Top management-level agency officials are typically not present
during nighttime operations. On site supervisory personnel sometimes
have difficulty contacting their superiors at night. However, if the
person in charge at night is permitted to make his or her own decisions,
then work can proceed uninterrupted.
Topic: Human Performance
Agency officials agreed that workers had a general dislike for
night shift work. Whether this results in significant lower production
rates remains debatable. It is believed that with increased experience
in night shift, night productivity improves.
INTERVIEW II
Location: Florida Department of Transportation, District 5 Office
DeLand, Florida
Visit Date: 10/06/92
PARTICIPANTS: Larry Littlefield, Asst. District Construction Engineer
Lyle Powell, Maintenance Engineer
Topic: Traffic Impact
According to Mr. Littlefield, the recommendation made by the
committee of traffic maintenance has the most influence on work shift
selection. The Maintenance of Traffic Committee's recommendation,
typically overrides other factor considerations. The agency does
consider other factors such as safety, noise, effect on businesses,
quality of work, productivity, etc., although he remarked that there is
no rigid methodology involved in work shift selection.
Topic: Work Zone Safety
Both Mr. Littlefield and Mr. Powell have indicated that safety is
given a high consideration in the planning stage of projects. Safety
during nighttime maintenance and construction work is of utmost
importance. Day shift work is generally regarded to be safer for both
motorists and workers. An effective way to compare safety between day
and night shifts is to analyze vehicular accident numbers in the work
zone. The percent change in number of daytime accidents for before and
during construction can be compared to the percent change in number of
nighttime accidents for before and during construction. The FDOT, like
other highway agencies, retains a record of accident numbers for before
and during construction for various projects.

215
Topic: Quality of Work
Mr. Littlefield stated that, for quality reasons, paving
operations are preferred to be done during the day. However, under the
specification standards, the quality of night work is generally
acceptable.
Topic: Material Acquisition
Material supply is not considered to be a problem for nighttime
construction since most of contractors have their own batching plants.
Material delivery, in fact, can be more efficient during the night
because less congestion in the roadways.
Topic: Temperature
Temperature preference for work environment is dependent on the
construction season. During summer months, workers prefer cooler
nighttime temperatures -- while in winter, warmer day temperatures are
preferred.
INTERVIEW III
Location: Florida Department of Transportation, District 1 Office
Bartow. Florida
Visit Date: 01/05/93
PARTICIPANT: Marlon Bizerra, Design Engineer
Topic: Shift Selection Process
The design department of the FDOT, during preparation of plans and
specifications, makes the decision whether a certain project should be
performed at daytime or nighttime hours. This decision is primarily
based on the traffic maintenance committee's recommendation.
The shift selection process begins with the evaluation of the
proposed project, which involves project location, project type,
required lane closures. The maintenance of traffic committee examines
relevant traffic data: hourly traffic volumes, traffic characteristics,
detour utilization, special events, etc. The traffic data is compared
against the capacity of the proposed roadway and potential vehicle delay
is estimated. If daytime vehicle delay is excessive, then night work is
considered.
Other factors considered are: project schedule, safety, noise,
quality of work, supervision and communication. Before finalizing the
decision to work at night, the nighttime experience of both agency and
contractor, relevant to the proposed project, is considered.

216
Interview Questionnaire
For: FDOT Resident or Project Engineer
Subject: SHIFT SELECTION PROCESS FOR HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION
Rating of Factors:
Rate the following factors on a scale of 1 to 7 based on their
significance as concerns in deciding whether highway rehabilitation work
should be performed during day or night shift times. A rating of 1
implies little or no consideration is given on this factor in deciding day
or night shifts, a rating of 7 implies high consideration.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER
Traffic Congestion
User Cost
Workzone Safety
Required Closure Conditions
Required Shift Duration
Noise
Quality of Work
Productivity
Material/Parts Acquisition
Agency/Contractor Experience
Owner Cost
Temperature
Supervision/Communication
Workforce Morale
(Human Factors)
Effect of Factors on Shift Selection
Factor: Traffic Congestion
If traffic volume per lane for a typical multilane freeway is --
(a)Between 1500-1800 VPHL, then the preferred work shift is:
DAY NIGHT EITHER
(b)Between 1200-1500 VPHL, then the preferred work shift is:
DAY NIGHT EITHER
(c)Less than 1200 VPHL, then the preferred work shift is:
DAY NIGHT EITHER
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

217
Factor:
(
Factor:
Factor:
Factor:
Factor:
Factor:
Factor:
Safety
i) For optimum safety during highway construction
the preferred work shift period is:
DAY NIGHT EITHER
Noise
a) For better acceptance of noise during urban highway
construction the chosen work shift period is:
DAY NIGHT EITHER
Productivity
a) In highway construction, what work shift is generally
more productive ?
DAY NIGHT EITHER
Pro.iect Costs
a) In highway construction, during what work shift are
project costs higher ?
DAY NIGHT EITHER
Quality of Work
a) In highway construction, which work shift results in
better work quality ?
DAY NIGHT EITHER
Material Acquisition
a) In highway construction, which work shift allows more
efficient supply of material ?
DAY NIGHT EITHER
Workforce Morale
a) In highway construction, during which workshift is worker
morale a matter of concern ?
DAY NIGHT EITHER

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218

219
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
Q. Amin Ahmed obtained his Bachelor of Science degree in Civil
Engineering in 1984 and a Master of Construction Management degree in
1985 from Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.
From 1985 to 1987 he was employed by Lock 26 Constructors (a joint
venture company of Groves, Atkinson, and Dillingham) as a quality
control engineer during the construction of Lock and Dam # 26 in Alton,
Illinois.
He has obtained his Engineer Intern certification in the State of
Florida. He has served as a student member of the American Society of
Civil Engineers, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Transportation
Research Board, and Association of American Cost Engineers.
221

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Paul
Profes
neermg
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.
Assistant Professor of Building
Construction

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
College of Engineering and to the Graduate School and was accepted as
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy.
August 1993
fTñTred M. Phillips
Dean, College of Engineering
Madelyn M. Lockhart
Dean, Graduate School

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 08556 9787