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Development of a systematic approach for knowledge acquisition and experience capture of veteran practitioners in the highway construction industry

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Development of a systematic approach for knowledge acquisition and experience capture of veteran practitioners in the highway construction industry
Creator:
Epstein, William C
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English
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xiii, 316 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Bridge decks ( jstor )
Bridge engineering ( jstor )
Databases ( jstor )
Expert systems ( jstor )
Knowledge acquisition ( jstor )
Knowledge bases ( jstor )
Manuals ( jstor )
Questionnaires ( jstor )
Road construction ( jstor )
Steels ( jstor )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1995.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 310-315).
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by William C. Epstein.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright [name of dissertation author]. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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AKQ8489 ( NOTIS )
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DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR
KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION AND EXPERIENCE CAPTURE OF
VETERAN PRACTITIONERS IN THE HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY











By
WILLIAM C. EPSTEIN
















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1995















Dedicated to Jim


Jim,

Only the good die young, and you my brother
were the absolute very best. Say HI to mom,
and remember always, that I love you forever.


With all my heart and soul,


EPSTEIN
JAMES (JIM) TAYLOR, a
great lover of people and mu-
sic, passed away peacefully
at the age of 40, on Aug. 10,
1995. He has gone on to join
his mother, Edie, and is sur-
vived by wife Jill, son Justin,
father David, brothers Bill
and Bob, and sister Carolan,
and other loving family mem-
bers and friends. Graveside
Services to be held Sunday.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Dr. Zohar Herbsman, my mentor and

supervisory committee chairman, for all of his wisdom, guidance, and encouragement, both

on a professional level and a personal one. As for Dr. Ralph Ellis, my committee cochairman,

his dedication to the profession of academia is an inspiration. I would also like to take this

opportunity to thank my external committee member, Dr. Leon Wetherington, as well as my

other committee members, Dr. Paul Thompson and Dr. David Bloomquist, for their

continued support during my tenure at the University of Florida.

I would be remiss in not acknowledging the efforts of the many Florida Department

of Transportation (FDOT) personnel who gave freely of their time in assisting this research

endeavor. The members of the FDOT District 2 construction offices in both Lake City and

Jacksonville deserve special recognition, as their input and expertise was particularly

valuable. A special thank you also goes out to Ana Maria Elias and Daniel Baudino for all

of their assistance with respect to the IN REACH prototype system development.

Additionally, their friendship and humor helped me keep my sanity in the closing days of

writing this dissertation. I would also like to thank the makers of Cafe Bustelo; they too

were instrumental in the final drive to complete this research effort.

And finally I want to acknowledge my family and Hilda. I want to thank my dad for

just being my dad and my sister Carolan for handling everything recently. My mom and my

brother Jim, although no longer with me in body, will always be with me in spirit, and I thank

them for the time they gave me. And last but never least, I want to thank the lovely and

beautiful Hilda, my best friend and my soon to be bride.

iii














TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS ................................................. ................................ iii

LIST OF TABLES ..... .......................... ................ viii

LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................ ................. ix

A B ST R A C T ......................................................... ............... ....... ........................ x ii

CHAPTERS

1 IN TR O D U C T IO N .......................................... ........................................... 1

1.1 General Com m ents ............................. ..... .................................. 1
1.2 Problem Statem ent .............................. ............................................ 2
1.3 Research Objectives ............................ .... ........................... 4
1.3.1 General Comments ............................................................ 4
1.3.2 Breakdown of the Research Objectives .................................. 5
1.4 Research Methodology ......................................... 6
1.4.1 General Comments ................................. ................... 6
1.4.2 Breakdown of the Research Methodology Phases .................... 6

2 SURVEY OF CURRENT PRACTICES ....................................... ..... 11

2.1 Survey of Governmental Highway Agencies ...................................... 11
2.1.1 Introduction ................................... ............... 11
2.1.2 Breakdown of the KA & EC Questionnaire ............................ 11
2.1.3 Distribution of the KA & EC Questionnaire ............................ 13
2.1.4 Rates of Response to the KA & EC Questionnaire .............. 14
2.1.5 Section by Section Results of the KA & EC Questionnaire ....... 15
2.1.6 Selected Comments from the KA & EC Questionnaire ......... 26
2.1.7 Sum m ary .................................. ........ ..................... 27
2.2 TRB Information on Current Practices ............................ ........... 29
2.2.1 TRB Synthesis on Knowledge Based Expert Systems.............. 29
2.2.2 Survey of the TRB Construction Management Committee ........ 31
2.3 Current Practices Within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ............. 32
2.3.1 General Comm ents ........................................ ... ............ 32









2.3.2 Jacksonville District Corps of Engineers .............................. 33
2.3.3 U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories .... 34
2.4 Summary of the Survey of Current Practices ....................................... 40
2.4.1 The General Category of Work for Further Concentration ........ 40
2.4.2 Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture Methods ........ 41
2.5 Final Comments on the Survey of Current Practices ......................... 44

3 REVIEW OF PUBLISHED LITERATURE ............................ ......... 45

3.1 Introduction ........................................................ 45
3.2 Knowledge Based Expert System ................................................ 46
3.2.1 G general Com m ents ........................................ ..................... 46
3.2.2 H historical Background ......................... ....................... .... 47
3.2.3 Generalized Overview of Knowledge Based Expert Systems .... 48
3.3 Hypertext ....................................................... 54
3.3.1 General Comm ents ........................................ ... ............ 54
3.3.2 Historical Background ........................ .......... 55
3.3.3 Generalized Overview of Hypertext ........................................ 59
3.4 Database Management Systems .................................... 65
3.4.1 G general Com m ents ........................................ ..................... 65
3.4.2 H historical Background ............................................................. 66
3.4.3 Generalized Overview of Database Management Systems ........ 68
3.4.4 A Closer Look at Relational Database Management Systems ...... 74
3.5 Sum m ary and Conclusions ........................................ ...................... 77
3.5.1 General Comments ........................................ .......... ... 77
3.5.2 Considerations Regarding Proposed Integrated Environment .... 78
3.5.3 Software Requirements for Prototype System ..................... 82
3.5.4 Final Selection of Software Package for Prototype System ....... 83
3.5.5 Final Comments ........................................ 84

4 KNOWLEDGE BASE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE IN REACH SYSTEM .... 86

4 .1 Introduction .......................................... .............................. .......... 86
4.2 The Traditional Approach to Knowledge Acquisition ............................ 87
4.2.1 General Comments ................................................. 87
4.2.2 An Overview of the Traditional Approach ............................ 87
4.3 The IN REACH Modified Approach to Knowledge Acquisition ............ 89
4.3.1 General Comments ............................................. 89
4.3.2 An Overview of the Modified Approach ................................ 89
4.4 The IN REACH Base of Documented Knowledge and Experience ........ 91
4.4.1 General Statement ......................... ........................... 91
4.4.2 A Closer Look at the Document Base of IN REACH ........... 92
4.5 Lessons Learned from Post Construction Conferences .......................... 108
4.5.1 General Comments ........... ........ .................. 108









4.5.2 FDOT Process Performance Reviews Lessons Learned ......... 108
4.5.3 UF Post Construction Conferences Lessons Learned .............. 114
4.6 The Hierarchial Structure of the Hypertext Network of IN REACH .... 118
4.6.1 General Statement ................................................................ 118
4.6.2 A Graphical Representation of the Hierarchal Structure ........... 118
4.7 Final Comments .......................................... ................. 125

5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE IN REACH PROTOTYPE SYSTEM........... 130

5.1 General Comments ............................................................. ............... 130
5.2 A General Overview of KnowledgePro for Windows ......................... 131
5.3 Some Programming Details About Browsing and Searching ................ 132
5.3.1 General Comments ............................................................... 132
5.3.2 Developing the Browsing Capabilities of IN REACH .............. 133
5.3.3 The Windows Resource Archive Program .............................. 134
5.3.4 Developing the Searching Capabilities of IN REACH ............. 135
5.4 A Guided Tour of the IN REACH Prototype System ......................... 140
5.4.1 Introduction ..................................................................... 140
5.4.2 The IN REACH User Interface Layout and Basic Functions .... 143
5.4.3 A Closer Look at the Three "Search By" Routines ................ 148
5.5 Testing of the Prototype System ..................................................... 159
5.5.1 General Comments ....................... .. ................ 159
5.5.2 Structured Demonstrations of Preliminary Versions ............... 159
5.5.3 Distribution of Prototype System for Unsupervised Testing .... 160
5.6 Final Comments .................................... ....... ................. 162

6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................ 164

6.1 General Comments .................................................................. 164
6.2 A Summary of the Originally Stated Research Objectives .................... 165
6.2.1 General Comment ............................................... 165
6.2.2 Summarized Objective Number One ........................................ 165
6.2.3 Summarized Objective Number Two ...................................... 165
6.2.4 Summarized Objective Number Three .................................... 166
6.3 A Review of Whether or Not the Objectives were Accomplished ......... 166
6.3.1 General Com m ent .............................................................. 166
6.3.2 Reviewed Accomplishments as per Objective Number One ...... 166
6.3.3 Reviewed Accomplishments as per Objective Number Two ..... 166
6.3.4 Reviewed Accomplishments as per Objective Number Three .... 167
6.3.5 Final C om m ent ................................................................. 168
6.4 Recommendations for Future Enhancements to the Prototype System ... 168
6.4.1 Software Enhancements ........................................ ............. 168
6.4.2 Development of a More Sophisticated Rule Set ..................... 169
6.4.3 Incorporation of More Multimedia Features ........................... 169
6.5 Final Comments ..................................... ................. 170









APPENDICES

A KA & EC QUESTIONNAIRE ....................... ..... .................... ................ 172

B DISTRIBUTION LISTS FOR THE KA& EC QUESTIONNAIRE ............ 179

C CALIFORNIA DOT HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION CHECKLIST ........... 187

D TRB CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE SURVEY........... 193

E TWO REPRESENTATIVE RESPONSES TO THE TRB SURVEY ............. 197

F NEW YORK DOT CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL........... 201

G U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS INSPECTOR'S GUIDE ................... 219

H JACKSONVILLE CORPS OF ENGINEERS LESSONS LEARNED .............. 228

I USACERL FACT SHEETS OF TWO KBES PROGRAMS ............................. 236

J VENDOR PRODUCT SHEETS FOR I/C AND KPWin SOFTWARE ............. 241

K FDOT (DISTRICT 2) DEVELOPMENTAL INSPECTION CHECKLISTS .... 244

L PROPOSED PCC LESSONS LEARNED DATA ENTRY FORM ................. 258

M THE IN REACH PROTOTYPE SYSTEM KPWIN SOURCE CODE .......... 261

N THE "CLASSIFICATION" AND "CONFIGURATION" DATABASES ........ 295

O INREACH TESTING COVER LETTER AND COMMENT SHEET ......... 306

R E FE R E N C E S ................................................................................... ..................... 3 10

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...................... ......................... ....... .................... 316














LIST OF TABLES


page

TABLE

2.1 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section I) ................................ 16

2.2 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section I) ............................................ 17

2.3 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section II) ............................ 18

2.4 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section II) ............................................ 19

2.5 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section III) ........................... 21

2.6 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section II) .................... ............. 22

2.7 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section IV) ............................ 24

2.8 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section IV) ........................................ 25

2.9 Level ofKBES Activity Among the SHAs of the United States ..................... 30














LIST OF FIGURES

page

FIGURE

1.1 Research Development Flowchart .................... ...................... ................ 7

2.1 Comparison of Results from North America Versus Florida (Section II) ......... 19

2.2 Comparison of Results from North America Versus Florida (Section III) ......... 22

2.3 Schematic Flowchart of ARMS Operations ............................. ................. 37

2.4 Schematic Flowchart of BCOE Advisor Operations ....................................... 39

3.1 History of the Evolution of Expert Systems from Artificial Intelligence ......... 49

3.2 Architecture of a Generic Knowledge Based Expert System ......................... 51

3.3 Hypermedia as a Fusion of Hypertext and Multimedia .................................. 61

3.4 A Hypertext Network of Three Nodes Connected by Four Links ...................... 62

3.5 Correspondence Between Display Screen and the Hypertext Database ............ 64

3.6 Typical Representation of the Hierarchal Model ............................................. 71

3.7 Typical Representation of the Network M odel ............................................... 73

3.8 Typical Representation of the Relational Model ............................................. 75

3.9 Integrated Hypertext Network With Browsing and Searching Capabilities ......... 81

4.1 IN REACH Index of Sources Index Screen for BRIDGES .......................... 93

4.2 IN REACH FDOT Standard Specs Index Screen for BRIDGES ................. 94

4.3 IN REACH FDOT Supplemental Specs Index Screen for BRIDGES ............. 96









4.4 IN REACH FDOT Standard Drawings Index Screen for BRIDGES .............. 97

4.5 IN REACH FDOT Pile Splices Illustration Screen for BRIDGES .............. 98

4.6 IN REACH FDOT CPAM Manual Index Screen for BRIDGES .................... 99

4.7 IN REACH FDOT Inspection Manual Index Screen for BRIDGES ............... 101

4.8 IN REACH FDOT Tricks of theTrade Index Screen for BRIDGES ................ 102

4.9 IN REACH FDOT Armor Joint Void Topic Screen for BRIDGES ................ 103

4.10 IN REACH FDOT Inspection Checklists Index Screen for BRIDGES ......... 105

4.11 IN REACH CRSI Placing Rebar Index Screen for BRIDGES ....................... 106

4.12 IN REACH CRSI Bar Identification Illustration Screen for BRIDGES ............ 107

4.13 IN REACH FDOT PPR Lessons Learned Index Screen for BRIDGES ............ 109

4.14 IN REACH UF PCC Lessons Learned Index Screen for BRIDGES .............. 110

4.15 IN REACH Pole Vibration Lesson Learn Topic Screen for BRIDGES ............ 112

4.16 IN REACH Pole Vibration Project Data Topic Screen for BRIDGES ............. 113

4.17a IN REACH Pile Cap Lesson Learn Topic Screen (%) for BRIDGES ............. 116

4.17b IN REACH Pile Cap Lesson Learn Topic Screen (2/2) for BRIDGES ............. 117

4.18 IN REACH Pile Cap Meeting Data Topic Screen for BRIDGES ................... 119

4.19 IN REACH Pile Cap Project Data Topic Screen for BRIDGES ................... 120

4.20 Representation of IN REACH's Embedded Hierarchal Model ........................ 121

4.21 IN REACH IC-Preformed Pile Holes Topic Screen for BRIDGES .................. 123

4.22 IN REACH FDOT Inspecting Piles Index Screen for BRIDGES ..................... 124

4.23 IN REACH FDOT Inspection Checklists Index Screen for BRIDGES ............. 126

4.24 IN REACH Index of Sources Index Screen for BRIDGES ........................... 127









4.25 IN REACH Home Screen for General Category of BRIDGES ....................... 128

5.1 IN REACH "Classification" Database for the Subcategory of Bridge Deck ....... 137

5.2 IN REACH "Configuration" Database for the Subcategory of Bridge Deck ...... 138

5.3 IN REACH W welcome Screen .................................. ............. ........... ... 141

5.4 IN REACH General Categories Screen .......................................... ...... 142

5.5 IN REACH Home Screen for General Category of BRIDGES ....................... 144

5.6 IN REACH Zoomed In View of the Activated "Search By" Window .............. 146

5.7 IN REACH Example of Activation of the "Source" Pop Up Window ............. 147

5.8 IN REACH Example of "List of Topics" Search By Routine ....................... 149

5.9 IN REACH Example of "List of Topics" Scrolled Down to the Letter "I" ...... 150

5.10 IN REACH Example of Superimposed Subcategory "Search By" Options ...... 152

5.11 IN REACH Example of the "BRIDGE DECK" Subcategory Window ............ 153

5.12 IN REACH Selected Subjects for the "BRIDGE DECK" Example ................ 154

5.13 IN REACH "Result(s) of Search" for the "BRIDGE DECK" Example ......... 155

5.14 IN REACH Return of the "Result(s) of Search" to the Standard Interface ...... 157

5.15 IN REACH "Related Topics" Example for "415-5.13 Chairs & Bolsters" ........ 158














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR
KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION AND EXPERIENCE CAPTURE OF
VETERAN PRACTITIONERS IN THE HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

By

William C. Epstein

December, 1995

Chairman: Dr. Zohar J. Herbsman
Cochairman: Dr. Ralph D. Ellis
Major Department: Civil Engineering

Every company in every industry faces the prospect of the loss of knowledge and

experience through the departure of key personnel. This predicament created by the loss of

veteran employees is especially acute in the highway construction industry, where frequently

the experience is either undocumented or poorly documented, and the knowledge possessed

by these people is retained exclusively as personal property. This dissertation not only

explores the difficulties associated with pursuing an approach to acquire heretofore

undocumented construction knowledge and expertise, but it also recognizes the vast amounts

of highway construction data and information that are currently available within the

transportation industry. Any concerted effort attempting to capture the construction

knowledge and expertise of a large organization, such as a department of transportation,

would be severely remiss in not taking advantage of this existing base of documented

information.














This research endeavor represents a comprehensive study of the problems associated

with the development of a systematic approach for capturing the knowledge and experience

of a large organization, and establishing a computer delivery system for dissemination of this

encoded information. Fundamental to this delivery system is the creation of a user-friendly

computing environment that will provide an intuitive tool capable of assisting both veteran

and novice practitioners in fashioning more informed decisions concerning problems that may

arise during normal and abnormal highway construction operations.

One of the major accomplishments of this research effort, was the development of an

information management prototype system which was given the name IN REACH

(Intelligent iNformation Retrieval and Expert Advice for the Construction of Highways). IN

REACH is comprised of an underlying, fully functionally hypertext network which is

augmented by the integration of some innovative database management and expert systems

strategies. In an effort to add structure to the inherently unstructured world of a pure

hypertext system, IN REACH utilizes these integrated strategies to enhance the user's

capability of direct queries to the overall network, both statically and dynamically.














CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION



1.1 General Comments


Like many other general concepts, knowledge is a difficult term to quantify. A good

discussion of what constitutes knowledge should begin with characterization of the difference

between data and information. Commonly speaking, raw data are nothing more than a

collection of facts and figures, that by themselves lack any real significance. Only when

meaning is assigned to these facts and figures do these data evolve into information.

Knowledge, on the other hand, can be thought of as the cognitive storage of information

which is readily available for retrieval by the conscious human mind. Feigenbaum [1984]

makes a very interesting point about the relationship between knowledge and information.

He suggests that first it should be clarified that knowledge is not synonymous with

information, rather knowledge is information that has been implemented, categorized,

applied. According to Hayes-Roth, Waterman and Lenant [1983], knowledge consists of

(1) symbolic descriptions of definitions, (2) symbolic descriptions of relationships, and (3)

procedures to manipulate both type of descriptions.

Knowledge of a certain subject, in and of itself, does not constitute expertise in that

field. Expertise is a function of the skillful application of knowledge, and this skill is a direct

result of having experience in that particular domain. What differentiates a novice from an







2

expert is not the quantity of knowledge possessed, but rather the amount of experience using

that knowledge. More than ever, modem industry depends on the expertise of its work force

for success. No longer in today's complex world, can one man or woman possibly know

everything there is to know.

For an organization to prosper in this environment, not only must its members possess

a certain level of expertise on an individual basis, but this personal expertise must be

exchanged and transferred throughout the entire structure of the group. The wealth of

knowledge and experience accumulated by veteran employees through their years of service

is something which clearly should be utilized and taken advantage of for current operations.

Furthermore, the fact that these veteran personnel will not remain with the organization into

perpetuity suggests that, as is the case with any limited and valued possession, their

knowledge and experience must be captured and stored for future use.



1.2 Problem Statement


The research effort presented herein is focused upon the United States highway

construction industry from the perspective of the governmental state highway agencies

(SHAs). Every state in this country has a representative SHA which is responsible for the

construction of the transportation systems within their boundaries. Not unlike any other

large organization, SHAs continually face the unfavorable prospect of losing significant

amounts of accrued knowledge and experience as a result of ongoing departures of key

personnel. These veteran employees, many of whom have spent their entire professional

careers under the employ of a single SHA, aggregately represent thousands of years of







3

accumulated expertise. This predicament is especially acute in the realm of highway

construction operations, wherein frequently the knowledge and experience possessed by

these people is either undocumented or poorly documented, and is usually retained

exclusively as their personal property. What this implies is that, upon their departure, these

seasoned practioners will take with them the years of training and experience provided to

them by the SHA, and in return leave behind little if any of their knowledge and expertise.

To further exasperate this situation, currently and over the next several years, the

SHAs of this country are and will continue to experience an exceedingly concentrated loss

of veteran personnel. The reason why this is happening is due to the fact that many key

members of today's transportation workforce began their SHA careers during the highway

construction boom of the late 1960s and early 1970s, and unfortunately they are all

approaching retirement age at approximately the same time. This inevitable occurrence is

going to create a critical shortage of experienced practitioners. Time is therefore of the

essence for implementation of some sort of capture program that will not allow a whole

generation of highway construction experience to disappear. Failure to capture this expertise

and integrate it into the organizational and operational structures of the various SHAs will

result in an enormous loss of knowledge that may never fully be replaced. Being that

experience is such a valuable asset in the field of highway construction, research into a

methodology for securing this resource for future use is certainly a very practical and

worthwhile endeavor.

In conjunction with the development of a functional means of acquiring heretofore

undocumented construction expertise, recognition of the vast amounts of highway

construction data and information currently available within the transportation industry is







4

fundamental. Over the years, SHAs across the country have produced a wealth of quality

programs and publications presenting a variety of construction related topics. Any concerted

effort attempting to capture the highway construction knowledge and experience of this

country's SHAs would be severely remiss in not taking advantage of this existing base of

documented information.

Along with preserving potentially irreplaceable construction expertise and utilizing

existing data and documentation, the other critical aspect of a successful experience capture

program is the proposed method of disseminating the acquired information. This information

and the knowledge associated with this information must first be formalized and encoded

into some sort of communicable form. Then, through a computerized storage, management

and retrieval system, novice and veteran personnel alike would be able to easily refer to all

available information about a particular subject. This easy access to a wide variety of related

topics would provide the user a powerful tool from which to gather the appropriate

knowledge necessary for a more informed decision making process.



1.3 Research Objectives


1.3.1 General Comments

The overall goal of this research project was to develop a systematic approach for

gathering highway construction knowledge and experience, organizing this information,

storing it, and presenting it in such a fashion as to be readily accessible and useful to anyone

wishing to benefit from this knowledge base. This broad effort can be broken down into the

following research objectives as presented next.









1.3.2 Breakdown of the Research Objectives

1.3.2.1 Objective 1

The initial objective of this research was to identify and prioritize the general

categories of highway construction work and operations wherein the loss of experience was

felt to be most critical. The area distinguished as most acute was then focused upon for

further concentrated research.


1.3.2.2 Objective 2

Having determined the area of focus, the next objective was to identify and analyze

existing programs and published materials related to this selected field of concentration. The

appropriate information was then categorized and stored for incorporation into the final

system.


1.3.2.3 Objective 3

A fundamental objective of this research was the development of a systematic

approach for capturing and documenting the individual knowledge and experience of veteran

personnel. This information was then combined with the data as collected from Objective 2

to create an integrated base of individual and organizational highway construction

knowledge.


1.3.2.4 Objective 4

Having a functional knowledge base from which to draw from, the final objective was

the generation and subsequent prototype testing of the computerized delivery system. Key

to the creation of a useful and flexible information management system, was the development







6

of a highly intuitive and user-friendly environment that allows for relatively easy future

expansion to the basic system architecture.



1.4 Research Methodology


1.4.1 General Comments

At this point it should be noted that this dissertation is based on funded research

conducted for the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). As such, the data and

information collected and analyzed typically relate to FDOT highway construction

operations. Although this research effort concentrated on FDOT personnel and

documentation, any organization could utilize this basic approach in its generic form simply

by focusing the knowledge base development process on the needs specific to that

organization. Work on this particular study consisted of accomplishing the following phased

tasks, and is further illustrated by the schematic flowchart presented in Figure 1.1.


1.4.2 Breakdown of the Research Methodology Phases

1.4.2.1 Phase 1

Several preliminary interviews with various members of the FDOT were conducted

as a means of developing a comprehensive questionnaire that would fully address the issue

of knowledge acquisition and experience capture within the highway construction industry.

The resulting survey was then distributed to all SHAs in the United States, with the exception

of Florida, as well as to each of the Canadian provincial highway agencies. In Florida, rather

then mail the survey directly to the central state office in Tallahassee, it was sent out

individually to each district office. Conclusions drawn from all returned questionnaires were




















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then used to identify the most acute area of highway construction operations for further

concentrated research.


1.4.2.2 Phase 2

An extensive literature search was performed through a variety of state-of-the-art

electronic databases, in an attempt to uncover the most up-to-date literature written on this

subject. In addition to reviewing current publications, portions of the questionnaire from

Phase 1 were utilized to ascertain the level of similar endeavors that may be underway within

the different American and Canadian highway agencies. Furthermore, additional efforts were

made to communicate with other governmental and private organizations to identify the

possible existence of any type of knowledge acquisition and experience capture programs that

these contacted organizations may be implementing.


1.4.2.3 Phase 3

Once the area of focus was selected, as described in Phase 1, a detailed review of all

related FDOT documentation was effected. Numerous FDOT publications were

accumulated, and selected information from these documents was then electronically stored

as the foundation on which the final computer delivery system would be built.


1.4.2.4 Phase 4

The next phase was the development and implementation of a systematic approach

for capturing the undocumented experience possessed by veteran construction personnel.

Initially, as is standard with most knowledge acquisition programs, interviews with various

domain experts in the identified area of concentration were conducted. It was soon







9

discovered that although informative and useful in shaping the direction of the study, these

sessions were relatively inefficient for the task at hand, and the comments obtained were

often vague and unfocused Further into the research, a format for Post Construction

Conferences (PCC) was developed, wherein comments made by the field personnel specific

to a particular job could be integrated into the preliminary knowledge base that was being

compiled in Phase 3. Due to the fact that these meetings were centered around construction

related topics specific to the job that these people were currently working on, their

recollections and comments tended to be more thorough and useful. Additionally, the goal

of a systematic knowledge acquisition technique was more closely realized because the

proposed PCC approach minimized personality influences that are inherent in typical one-on-

one interview sessions.


1.4.2.5 Phase 5

Critical to the success of this project was the identification of the requirements of the

end user. Throughout the research process, close contacts with many key FDOT

construction personnel were maintained in order to establish the specific departmental needs

that the final prototype computer delivery system must address. Conclusions drawn from the

survey of current practices and the literature review from Phase 2, coupled with a functional

understanding of the needs of the FDOT, led to the determination that a hybrid

programming environment would be the best platform for the accomplishment of developing

a flexible, user-friendly information management and retrieval system. The established

independent software technologies of expert systems, hypertext, and database management

systems were utilized in creating an integrated computer program entitled IN REACH, which







10

is an acronym for "Intelligent iNformation Retrieval and Expert Advice in the Construction

of Highways."


1.4.2.6 Phase 6

Structured demonstration sessions for the presentation of preparatory versions of the

IN REACH program were organized for testing and validation purposes. Additionally,

executable files containing preliminary editions of IN REACH were distributed to selected

FDOT personnel for their unsupervised use. Comments and suggestions collected from these

different testing methods were evaluated and incorporated into the final IN REACH

prototype system.


1.4.2.7 Phase 7

Results from the total research effort encompassing Phase 1 through Phase 6 were

analyzed, and a final dissertation presenting these findings was prepared.














CHAPTER 2
SURVEY OF CURRENT PRACTICES



2.1 Survey of Governmental Highway Agencies


2.1.1 Introduction

As previously noted in Chapter 1, the initial objective of this research was to identify

and prioritize the general categories of construction work and operations wherein the loss

of experience was felt to be most critical from the perspective of governmental highway

agencies. To this end, several preliminary interviews were conducted with a number of

FDOT Construction and Resident Engineers. These sessions were instrumental in gaining

a better understanding of the problem as seen from the viewpoints of typical SHA

construction personnel. From these interviews, a comprehensive "Knowledge Acquisition

and Experience Capture" (KA & EC) questionnaire was developed for distribution to the

various state and provincial highway agencies throughout the United States and Canada. A

copy of this survey along with a generic cover letter are included in this dissertation as

Appendix A.


2.1.2 Breakdown of the KA & EC Questionnaire

2.1.2.1 Section I--Loss of Veteran Employees

The function of this section of the survey was twofold. One purpose was to

determine the level of importance that the different agencies placed on the loss of expert

11







12

knowledge due to the departure of veteran employees from the organization. The other

purpose served by this section was the quantification of the magnitude of loss with respect

to each agency.


2.1.2.2 Section II--General Categories of Construction Work

Section II was designed as a way to numerically measure the effect that the loss of

experience has on different general categories of highway construction work. From the

developmental survey interviews conducted with the FDOT, the following five major

categories of construction work were identified for inclusion into the survey:

1) Bridge Work

2) Roadway Work (other than asphalt)

3) Asphalt Work

4) Signaling and Lighting

5) Maintenance of Traffic

The categories of Bridge Work, Roadway Work (other than asphalt), and Asphalt Work were

further subdivided into two separate categories, namely new construction work, and

maintenance and repair work. Additionally, the respondents were encouraged to list and rate

any other general categories of construction work that they deemed appropriate.


2.1.2.3 Section III--General Areas of Construction Operations and Administration

Again from the preliminary interviews conducted with the FDOT, five major areas

of highway construction operative and administrative duties were distinguished as those that

typical construction personnel are most regularly involved in. These areas are as follows:









1) Constructability Analysis

2) Inspection

3) Quality Control

4) Construction Documentation

5) Departmental Documentation

As was the case with Section II, the respondents were asked to specify and rate any other

areas of construction operations and administration that were not listed but may apply to their

agency.


2.1.2.4 Section IV--Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture Methodology

The final section of the questionnaire was devoted to determining the current

existence of, or future development of, techniques by which the various polled highway

agencies were attempting to acquire and capture the knowledge and experience of their

veteran practitioners. If applicable, upon completion of the collection and capture phases of

the particular knowledge acquisition methods listed, the questionnaire also requested that the

responding agency please specify what type of system or systems they utilized for storing

and distributing this collected information to the appropriate personnel.


2.1.3 Distribution of the KA & EC Questionnaire

Given that the intended focus of the research was to be on FDOT highway

construction operations, it was desired to distribute the KA & EC questionnaire in such a

fashion as to obtain a set of comparative results between North America in general and the

state of Florida in particular. With this in mind, two separate survey packages were sent out.

The North American survey package was mailed to the attention of each SHA construction






14

department in the United States, with the exception of Florida. Additionally, every

provincial highway agency in Canada was included in this mailing. In order to contrast these

results with those in Florida, this same survey was transmitted to each of the district

construction offices within the FDOT. Distribution lists for the North American survey

package, as well as the Florida package, are given in Appendix B.


2.1.4 Rates of Response to the KA &EC Questionnaire

The North American survey was distributed to a total of 61 agencies (the 49 SHAs

of the United States, excluding Florida; the District of Columbia Department of Public

Works; and the 11 Canadian provincial highway agencies). From this mailing, a total of 34

responses were received. Neglecting multiple respondents from a single agency, the North

American survey realized an overall response of 28 out of 61 agencies for an approximate

rate of 46%. Although this was a relatively low rate of response, it was sufficient to serve

the intended purpose of identifying and framing the problem, thus shaping the direction of

subsequent research.

In Florida, the questionnaire was distributed to each of the seven FDOT district

offices, as well as to the construction office of the Florida Turnpike Authority. It should

be noted that copies of the questionnaire were specifically mailed to three different

individuals in District 2. This occurred because District 2 served as the main personnel

resource center for the research, and as such, there were several people who expressed an

interest in participating in the study. From this mailing, 10 responses were received. Using

the same elimination approach of multiple responses from a single district, the overall

response rate from Florida's district offices was 4 out of 8, which translates to a rate of 50%.







15

Although the rate of response was again somewhat disappointing, the number of

questionnaires received (10) was deemed suitable for deriving comparative results.


2.1.5 Section by Section Results of the KA & EC Questionnaire

2.1.5.1 Section I--Loss of Veteran Employees

Results for Section I from the North American KA & EC questionnaire are

summarized in Table 2.1, and those from the Florida survey are presented in Table 2.2. The

two numbers to focus on from this section's results are 1) the average value for the "General

Rating" of the importance of the loss of experience and 2) the average value of the "Average

Years / Person."

The "General Rating," measured on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being the lowest level

of importance and 5 being the highest, is an indication of the degree of significance the

respondent feels that his or her organization places on the loss of knowledge and experience

caused by the departure of veteran employees. The average value of this "General Rating"

from the North American survey was 3.39, which was slightly higher than the Florida average

of 3.20.

The second value that should be highlighted is the "Average Years / Person." This

number is important as verification that respondents were approaching the questionnaire from

the perspective of veteran personnel only. In other words, the research effort was concerned

exclusively with experienced based issues relating to those employees who possessed

significant years of service in the highway construction industry, and as such, the survey's

intent was to purposely neglect those departing personnel who had not yet accumulated

substantial years of industry experience. Referring again to Table 2.1 and Table 2.2, it is









Table 2.1 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section I)

SECTION I LOSS OF VETERAN EMPLOYEES

Responding General Veteran Employees Years of Experience
District Office Rating Lost per Year Lost per Year

Alaska (USA) 3 10 250
Alabama (USA) 2 60 2,100
Arkansas (USA) 3 ------
California (USA) 4 1,000 30,000
Colorado (USA) 4 85 2,550
Connecticut (USA) 20 240
Georgia (USA) 3 195 5,850
Idaho (USA) 4 45 900
Illinois (USA) 5 90 1,765
Kansas (USA) 5 --- --
Kentucky (USA) 3 15 500
Louisiana (USA) 1 25 625
Maryland -1 (USA) 3 14 294
Maryland 2 (USA) 4-- -
Maryland 3 (USA) 3 10 325
Maryland 4 (USA) 4 2 60
Maryland 5 (USA) 5 2 50
Maryland 6 (USA) 3 -------- ---
Mississippi (USA) 4 26 650
Missouri (USA) 3 27 960
New York (USA) 4 780 15,600
North Dakota (USA) 4 11 372
Ohio (USA) 2 30 675
Oklahoma (USA) 4 10 300
Pennsylvania (USA) 4 500 10,000
South Dakota (USA) 3 20 400
Tennessee (USA) 4 100 4,000
Texas (USA) 3 500 12,000
Virginia (USA) 3 67 1,807
Wyoming (USA) 5 10 300
Alberta (CAN) 3 143 2,750
British Columbia 1 (CAN) 3 30 750
British Columbia 2 (CAN) 2 8 240
Nova Scotia (CAN) 2 11 300
Number of Responses 33 30 30

Average Values 3.29 Average Years / Person = 25.12









Table 2.2 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section I)

SECTION I LOSS OF VETERAN EMPLOYEES

Responding General Veteran Employees Years of Experience
District Office Rating Lost per Year Lost per Year

Florida District 2 3 15 450
Florida District 2 1 1 35
Florida District 2 4 2 65
Florida District 2 5 --- ----
Florida- District 2 5 10 330
Florida- District 3 3 3 100
Florida District 7 3 2 50
Florida District 7 3 ----- --
Florida District 7 3 5 120
Florida District 7 2 10 300

Number of Responses 10 8 8

Average Values 3.20 Average Years / Person = 30.21



apparent from the tabulated results for the "Average Years / Person" values, that both the

North American respondents who reported an average of 25.12 years / person, as well as the

Florida respondents at an average of 30.21 years / person understood the requirements of

the survey and responded accordingly.


2.1.5.2 Section II--General Categories of Construction Work

The values presented in Table 2.3 (North America) and Table 2.4 (Florida) represent

the respondents' ratings of the effects of the loss of experience with respect to various

general categories of construction work as specified in Section II of the KA & EC

questionnaire. Ratings for this section were based on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the

lowest level of significance and 10 being the highest. Additionally, Figure 2.1 has been

generated as a means of graphically illustrating the average values of the North American

survey in comparison with those of the Florida survey.










Table 2.3 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section II)


SECTION II GENERAL CATEGORIES OF CONSTRUCTION WORK

Responding Bridge Bridge Road Road Asphalt Asphalt Sig & Maint of Other
Agency New R&M New R&M New R&M Light Traffic (#Only)

Alaska (USA) ---- ----- --- --- --- ----- ---- ----- -----
Alabama (USA) 6 5 6 5 7 6 7 6 ---
Arkansas (USA) 5 6 4 4 5 3 4 4 1
California (USA) 8 8 7 7 6 6 9 5 2
Colorado (USA) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 -----
Connecticut (USA) 9 9 9 9 9 9 7 9 2
Georgia (USA) 5 6 5 6 7 7 3 4 ---
Idaho (USA) 8 5 9 3 8 4 7 7 1
Illinois (USA) 8 7 7 6 8 6 9 9 ---
Kansas (USA) 10 10 10 10 10 10 7 5 1
Kentucky (USA) 7 8 10 8 7 9 5 5 2
Louisiana (USA) 7 6 5 5 5 5 3 2 -----
Maryland- 1(USA) 10 6 9 5 8 4 4 7 2
Maryland-2 (USA) --- 4 --- 4 ----- 4 ----- 4 --
Maryland 3 (USA) 5 4 5 4 6 5 5 1 ----
Maryland 4 (USA) --- ----- ---- --- ---- -- --- ----- ---
Maryland- 5 (USA) ----- --- ---- --- ----- ---- 1 2 3
Maryland -6 (USA) ----- ----- ---- ----- ----- ---- ----- ---- 3
Mississippi (USA) 8 8 7 8 8 7 8 9 ---
Missouri (USA) 5 5 5 3 5 3 3 3 ----
New York (USA) 8 7 8 7 7 6 6 6 ---
North Dakota (USA) 7 ---- 7 --- 7 ---- --- 7 --
Ohio (USA) 7 6 7 5 5 4 8 5 2
Oklahoma (USA) 9 ---- 9 ----- 10 ----- -- ---- --
Pennsylvania (USA) 10 10 9 9 9 9 7 5 ----
South Dakota (USA) ----- ---- ---- ----- ----- ---- --- ---- --
Tennessee (USA) 8 5 8 5 8 5 4 4 --
Texas (USA) 9 8 8 7 8 7 8 8 3
Virginia(USA) 8 8 8 8 8 8 1 5 --
Wyoming (USA) 8 8 10 10 10 10 7 7 ---
Alberta (CAN) 8 10 7 8 6 9 4 3 1
British Columbia- 1 (CAN) 7 6 8 5 7 7 4 8 1
British Columbia 2 (CAN) 9 1 10 1 5 1 2 2 ---
Nova Scotia (CAN) 6 8 6 9 6 8 7 8 ----

Number of Responses 28 27 28 27 28 27 27 29 13

Average Values 7.50 6.63 7.43 6.15 7.14 6.19 5.37 5.34 N/ A










Table 2.4 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section II)


SECTION II- RESULTS
General Categories of Construction Work


Li idg I .Jrc RoJad KIJd it pli .l ,liall \ I I lkII
N.-. 1 I:& I N .-... R & I NL N '. I & I .1 L l l Ili.li

North American Results Florida Results


L.


SFigure 2.1


- Comparison of Results from North America Versus Florida ISection II


SECTION II GENERAL CATEGORIES OF CONSTRUCTION WORK

Responding Bridge Bridge Road Road Asphalt Asphalt Sig & Maint of Other
Agency New R & M New R & M New R & M Light Traffic (# Only)

Florida District 2 7 3 ----- ------ ---- ----- ----- -----
Florida District 2 7 3 ...
Florida- District 2 10 9 10 8 10 8 8 10 2
Florida District 2 9 3 9 2 8 2 6 8 2
Florida District 2 9 ----- ----- ----- 9 ----- 8 9 1
Florida District 2 8 5 8 5 8 7 5 5 1
Florida District 3 8 8 7 6 8 5 6 6 ---
Florida District 7 10 ----- 7 -8 ---- 8 7 4
Florida- District 7 8 ----- ----- 8 ---- 5 5 -----
Florida- District 7 9 10 8 1 7 2 5 6 -----
Florida- District 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 5 7 ---

Number of Responses 10 7 8 6 9 6 9 9 5

Average Values 8.60 6.57 8.13 5.00 8.22 5.33 6.22 7.00 N / A







20

From Table 2.3, Table 2.4, and Figure 2.1 it can be seen that the loss of experience

with respect to new construction work consistently rated as more significant than that of

repair and maintenance within the same general category of work. In the North American

survey, "Signaling & Lighting" and "Maintenance of Traffic" clearly were perceived as the

two specified categories least affected by the loss of experience. Although these two

categories on average rated higher in the Florida survey, the level of importance of these

categories with respect to the loss of veteran expertise still fell far below those categories

associated with new construction work. The column labeled "Other (# Only)" designates

other categories of work not specified in the distributed questionnaire. The numbers that

appear in this column are not ratings, rather they refer only to how many additional

categories were noted by that particular respondent. In the North American survey, the most

common "Other" category selected was landscaping. Out of 23 responses on a total of 13

different questionnaires, seven people mentioned landscaping, with an average rating of 6.17.

The "Other" category in the Florida survey, on the other hand, showed little consensus of

opinion.


2.1.5.3 Section III--General Areas of Construction Operations and Administration

Section III responses are based on the same 1 to 10 rating scale as those from

Section II. Results of the North American survey and the Florida survey are summarized in

Table 2.5 and Table 2.6, respectively. A histogram that includes both sets of data has again

been included as Figure 2.2.

Analysis of the information presented in Table 2.5, Table 2.6, and Figure 2.2

demonstrated that, on average, "Constructability Analysis," "Inspection Operations," and










Table 2.5 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section III)


SECTION MI- GENERAL AREAS OF CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS

Responding Constructability Inspection Quality Construct Department Other
Agency Analysis Operations Control Docs Docs (# Only)

Alaska (USA) --- 8 8 6 5 --
Alabama (USA) 7 8 8 8 7 -
Arkansas (USA) 6 5 5 4 3 1
California (USA) --- 8 9 7 9 ---
Colorado(USA) 8 3 3 5 5 --
Connecticut (USA) 8 10 9 9 9 ---
Georgia (USA) 8 5 6 4 5 ---
Idaho (USA) 9 8 7 7 7 3
Illinois (USA) 9 8 8 10 10 --
Kansas (USA) 10 10 10 5 5 1
Kentucky (USA) 10 6 8 5 5 ---
Louisiana (USA) 6 7 6 6 6 --
Maryland -1 (USA) 10 8 8 7 4 ---
Maryland 2 (USA) ----- ---- -- -
Maryland 3 (USA) 10 10 10 5 5 --
Maryland 4 (USA) --- -- -- --
Maryland- 5 (USA) 10 8 9 8 8 3
Maryland 6 (USA) 5 7 7 7 7 ---
Mississippi (USA) 9 8 8 6 7 -----
Missouri (USA) 1 5 5 5 --- --
New York (USA) 8 8 8 8 8
North Dakota (USA) 7 8 7 5 10 1
Ohio (USA) 2 8 7 6 6 -
Oklahoma (USA) 8 -- 8 ---- -
Pennsylvania (USA) 8 10 10 7 7 2
South Dakota (USA) 8 6 6 2 -- --
Tennessee (USA) 4 9 9 8 7 1
Texas (USA) 8 8 8 8 8 ---
Virginia (USA) 10 8 10 8 7 -----
Wyoming (USA) ----- 10 10 10 10 ---
Alberta (CAN) 2 10 8 5 5 ---
British Columbia 1 (CAN) 10 9 7 8 7 1
British Columbia 2 (CAN) 7 5 4 3 2 --
Nova Scotia (CAN) --- 7 7 5 5 ---

Number of Responses 28 31 31 32 29 8

Average Values 7.43 7.68 7.58 6.41 6.52 N/A









Table 2.6 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section III)


SECTION III -GENERAL AREAS OF CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS

Responding Constructability Inspection Quality Construct Department Other
Agency Analysis Operations Control Does Does (# Only)

Florida District 2 7 7 7 5 5 -----
Florida District 2 9 10 9 8 8 1
Florida District 2 9 9 9 8 8 1
Florida District 2 ----- 8 7 8 7 -----
Florida District 2 6 7 7 7 6 -----
Florida District 3 8 9 8 8 7 2
Florida- District 7 8 7 8 9 9 I
Florida District 7 8 8 8 8 8 -----
Florida District 7 6 7 5 4 4 ----
Florida District 7 5 5 5 5 3 -----
Number of Responses 9 10 10 10 10 4

Average Values 7.33 7.70 7.30 7.00 6.50 N/ A







SECTION III RESULTS
General Areas of Construction Operations


7.5
8 --v -- ~ -




6.5




5.5

5
( 0 i i-ln bIlil l 1irp'i.inll I.111jll I.. oIir.lrlnlt Ion I )ir.' nlri ll I
Analysis Operations Control Documents Documents
SNorth American Results ] Florida Results


Figure 2.2 Comparison of Results from North America Versus Florida (Section III)







23

"Quality Control" were thought to be those general areas of construction operations and

administration wherein the loss of experience was deemed to be most critical. With respect

to selection of "Other" areas of operations, neither the North American nor the Florida

survey yielded any definitive results.


2.1.5.4 Section IV--Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture Methodology

Affirmative responses to the existence of the various specified knowledge acquisition

and experience capture programs are indicated by an "X" in Table 2.7, for the North

American survey, and Table 2.8 for the Florida survey. Referring to Table 2.7, the most

popular methods of acquiring knowledge, based on the North American survey, were the

"Mentor / Apprentice" approach and the use of retired veteran personnel as "Part-Time

Consultants." Results based on the Florida survey (Table 2.8) indicated that, at least among

those districts that responded, the only method that appears to be consistently utilized in

Florida is the "Mentor / Apprentice" system. Regarding applications of "Other Methods" for

acquiring knowledge, one particular technique that was mentioned by a total of five

respondents in the North American survey was the organization of training sessions

conducted by veteran practitioners. In Florida, on the other hand, no respondent gave any

information on any techniques, other than those specifically called out in the questionnaire.

With respect to dissemination of the captured construction knowledge and experience

throughout the structure of the organization, the overwhelming method of choice in both

surveys among those who chose to comment was the utilization of written construction and

inspection manuals. The Florida respondents, specifically those from District 2, commented










Table 2.7 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section IV)


SECTION IV KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION & EXPERIENCE CAPTURE METHODOLOGY

Responding on Round Depart Mentor / Post Construct Part-Time Other
Agency Interview Table Report Apprentice Conference Consultant Methods

Alaska (USA) X X X
Alabama (USA)
Arkansas (USA)
California (USA) X X X X X
Colorado (USA) X X X
Connecticut (USA) X X
Georgia (USA)
Idaho (USA) X X
Illinois (USA) X X X
Kansas (USA) X X X X
Kentucky (USA) X

Maryland -1 (USA)
Maryland- 2 (USA) X X X
Maryland- 3 (USA)
Maryland -4 (USA) X
Maryland- 5 (USA)
Maryland 6 (USA) X X X X X X X
Mississippi (USA) X X
Missouri (USA)
New York (USA) X
North Dakota (USA) X
Ohio (USA) X X X X X
Oklahoma (USA)
Pennsylvania (USA)
South Dakota (USA)
Tennessee (USA) X X
Texas (USA)
Virginia (USA) X X
Wyoming (USA) X
Alberta (CAN) X X X
British Columbia 1 (CAN)
British Columbia 2 (CAN) X X X X
Nova Scotia (CAN)

Number of Responses 6 1 2 13 9 15 9









Table 2.8 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section IV)

SECTION IV-KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION & EXPERIENCE CAPTURE METHODOLOGY

Responding 1 on 1 Round Depart Mentor / Post Construct Part-Time Other
Agency Interview Table Report Apprentice Conference Consultant Methods

Florida District 2 X X
Florida District 2
Florida District 2 X
Florida District 2 X
Florida District 2
Florida- District 3 X X
Florida District 7 X
Florida District 7
Florida District 7
Florida District 7
Number of Responses 0 1 0 5 1 0 0


on the existence of two particular in-house documents, one is a manual entitled Tricks of the

Trade [Jacksonville, 1992], and the other is a collection of inspection checklists which are

still presently under development. These documents along with several other FDOT

publications will be discussed in detail in Chapter 4 of this dissertation. In the North

American survey, there were a total of eight respondents who indicated that their

organization had developed some sort of procedural manual for highway construction

operations. An example of one such publication received through the questionnaire process

is a pocket-sized State of California Department of Transportation manual entitled Highway

Construction Checklist [State of California, 1985]. Appendix C includes selected excerpts

from this booklet, specifically, the cover, the Foreword, the Table of Contents, and the

complete section on Concrete Structures. Although this document is somewhat dated, it

does represent a comprehensive attempt by this agency at capturing the highway construction

knowledge and experience of its veteran practitioners.








2.1.6 Selected Comments from the KA & EC Questionnaire

Although the survey was rather complex and time consuming, many who participated

did take the time to give their final comments on the subject of knowledge acquisition and

experience capture as it related to their organization. The loss of valuable expertise through

the departure of veteran personnel clearly was of concern to a vast majority of the

respondents. Two comments, in particular, have been reproduced herein as an illustration

of how significant the problem is and how many perceive their agencies as highly deficient

with respect to the implementation of any type of methodology for the capture of the

construction knowledge and expertise possessed by veteran practitioners within their

organization.

The Chief of the Construction Division for the Louisiana Department of

Transportation and Development commented as follows:

I'm retiring with 33+ years of experience. Most of this has
been in structures, including all kinds of bridges and
foundation experience. When I leave, there will not be one
person in the Department that can approach my experience.
This state has done nothing, has no plans to do anything, and
probably never will address this matter.

A Resident Engineer in the FDOT made the following statement regarding the level

of importance he felt was given to this subject by his department:

The FDOT does not use any of these knowledge acquisition
and experience capture] methods in the construction offices.
They give them (departing veteran employees) a hand shake,
and say "Good Luck."

Another set of interesting comments that were made on several Florida

questionnaires had to do with the use of private construction engineering and inspection firms

known as CEIs. These CEI consultants are utilized for contract administration and







27

inspection operations on substantial amounts of the highway construction work that is

currently being contracted out by the FDOT. Typically CEI firms in the state of Florida

regularly hire retiring FDOT personnel and resell their services back to the Department.

Although these individuals are no longer technically employed by the FDOT, the Department

still benefits from their knowledge and expertise. Whereas some in the FDOT question

certain aspects of this practice, as evidenced by the following two comments, all agree that

today, the use of CEIs is an integral and established part of highway construction operations

within the state of Florida.

An FDOT Construction Training Engineer has this to say about CEI firms:

A lot of our employees retire with 30+ years of experience
and go to work for a consultant (CEI) that has a contract with
us. Thus we never loose their experience or knowledge, we
just pay them more for it.

A Project Manager with the FDOT made similar comments with respect to CEI firms

and departing veteran practitioners:

This experience is not truly lost because most (90%) of the
departing employees immediately go to work for CEI
consultants who work directly with the Department. The
Department, looses the opportunity to direct these personnel
in ways which would better benefit the people of Florida.


2.1.7 Summary

As previously noted in the research objectives, one of the fundamental purposes of

the KA & EC questionnaire was the identification and prioritization of the general categories

of highway construction work and operations wherein the loss of experience was felt to be

most critical. The area distinguished as most acute would then become the focus of

continued research and development. Analysis of Section II and Section III of the KA & EC







28

questionnaire indicated that in both the North American and Florida surveys, basically the

same general categories of work and areas of operations were rated as those most affected

by the loss of experience Based on these rather conclusive results, it was determined that

the research effort from this point forward would be concentrated on inspection operations

associated with the construction of new bridges. Although other categories of work and

areas of operations rated at near similar levels, it was felt that this particular selection offered

the best opportunity for the development of a prototype system that would appeal to the

widest audience within the FDOT.

Another observation that can be drawn from a final review of the KA & EC

questionnaire is the apparent lack of any kind of functional implementation of knowledge

based programs among the various responding transportation agencies. The survey was

distributed specifically to those personnel who were in positions of supervising the

construction operations within their agencies. The questionnaire purposely made no direct

references to the term "expert systems" (see Chapter 3 for a discussion of this technology),

in order to ascertain the practical level of use of these types of systems without unduly

prompting such responses. It is very interesting to note that from a total 44 completed

questionnaires, only two respondents made any mention at all of expert systems as a method

by which their department was attempting to capture and disseminate construction

knowledge and experience. One of the two, the New York State Department of

Transportation, actually commented on the fact that after participating in a research project

for the development of an asphalt paving expert system in the early 1990s [Williams et al.,

1990], the department reviewed the findings and decided not to pursue such an approach.

The other agency, however, the Alberta Department of Transportation and Utilities, did






29

report a significant commitment to the development of expert systems. Since 1990, this

organization has initiated the development of 16 expert systems, of which 11 have been fully

implemented. However, by their own admission, these systems require an inordinate

dedication of departmental resources and time, which has caused somewhat of a reduction

in the popularity of continuing these types of efforts in the future.



2.2 TRB Information on Current Practices


2.2.1 TRB Synthesis on Knowledge Based Expert Systems

During the literature review process, details of which are presented in Chapter 3, a

Transportation Research Board (TRB) report entitled "Knowledge Based Expert Systems

in Transportation, A Synthesis of Highway Practice" was uncovered [Cohn and Harris,

1992]. As part of this synthesis, a survey was conducted in an attempt to ascertain the

current level of development and implementation of knowledge based expert systems among

this country's SHAs. Table 2.9 represents the outcome of this survey. It should be noted

the numbers listed under the column heading "Stage of Development" indicate that the

responding state has been involved with one or more knowledge based expert systems

(KBES) at the designated stage of development as described in the table's legend (1 through

6). The numerical sequence, however, does not necessarily match the activity areas listed in

the last column entitled "KBES Activity Area." Examination of Table 2.9 suggests that the

transportation industry appears to be somewhat more involved in the development of KBES

technology than was evidenced by responses to this dissertation's KA & EC questionnaire.








Table 2.9 Level of KBES Activity Among the SHAs of the United States

Responding Stage of KBES
State Development Activity Areas

California 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Hazardous materials; Traffic incident
management; Water quality; Concrete
products; KBES priority
Connecticut 3, 5 Pavement rating;
Impact attenuator design
Illinois 1, 3 KBES priority
Emergency response
Kansas 1, 3 Concrete construction;
Concrete pavements
Maryland 3 Freeway incident management
Minnesota 4 Processing truck permits
New Jersey 3, 5 Noise barrier design;
Infrastructure risk management
New York 3, 4, 5, 6 Snow problem location; Asphalt paving
inspection; Pavement marking;
Concrete analysis; Infrastructure risk
management; Steel bridge inspection
Oklahoma 1 KBES state of the art
Oregon 3 Truck weight analysis
Pennsylvania 3, 5 Automated bridge design / drafting;
Structural failure analysis
South Dakota 3 Processing truck permits
Texas 2, 3, 4 Bridge rail retrofit;
Constructability enhancement;
Pavement analysis
Utah 3 Construction evaluation
Virginia 5 Traffic control in work zones;
Disposition of old bridges
LEGEND KBES = Knowledge Based Expert Systems
1= Conceptual; 2 = Prototype in development;
3 = Prototype under testing; 4 = Detailed KBES in development
5 = KBES in use; 6 = Project terminated


Source: [Cohn and Harris 1992]








2.2.2 Survey of the TRB Construction Management Committee

As a follow up to the KA & EC survey and influenced by the TRB synthesis on

knowledge based expert systems in transportation, it was decided that a subsequent letter of

inquiry would be transmitted to a slightly different focus group of industry practitioners, ones

who may have additional information with respect to the more theoretical aspects of

capturing highway construction knowledge and experience. To this end, a directory of names

was compiled from a current list of members of the Construction Management Committee

(A2F05) of the TRB. It was felt that these people represented a more research oriented cross

section of the highway construction industry. However, in keeping with the objectives of

surveying industry personnel specifically, all members of the Committee who were

academicians were eliminated from the list. This left a final total of 18 people from a variety

of different transportation related organizations. The breakdown of their affiliations is as

follows:

A) One person was from the Norway Public Roads Administration.

B) One member was employed by the TRB National Research Council.

C) One was from the Federal Highway Administration.

D) Six of the 18 worked for various SHAs.

E) One was from the L.A. County Transportation Authority.

F) Eight were from various private contracting and engineering firms.

Each of these 18 individuals was then sent a letter of inquiry, a generic copy of which

appears in Appendix D along with the associated distribution list. Two representative

examples of the responses received, one being from Parsons Brinckerhoff Construction

Services, Inc., and the other from Martin L Cawley & Associates, is included as Appendix







32

E. In all, nine out of the original 18 contacted members responded. As was the case with

the original KA & EC survey, expert systems were not specifically mentioned in order to

gauge their level of acceptance among this particular group. Although many of the

comments received were very interesting and well thought out, not a single respondent

referred to the existence of any type of expert systems as a method by which their

organization was attempting to capture construction knowledge and experience.

Another point of agreement between the information gathered through this letter of

inquiry, and that gleaned from the responses to the KA & EC questionnaire, was the

popularity of documenting construction knowledge through the development of construction

manuals. As an example of another such construction manual, Appendix F contains copies

of the cover, the Foreword, the Table of Contents, and subsections I to V of Section 550

(Structural Deck Inspection Guide), as reproduced from the New York State Department of

Transportation's Construction Supervision Manual [New York, 1984]. Although this

publication was received as a result of contact with the New York Department of

Transportation via the letter of inquiry, it should be noted that this manual was also

mentioned in the comments from the New York respondent to the KA & EC questionnaire.



2.3 Current Practices Within U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


2.3.1 General Comments

Although this research effort was focused on highway construction, communication

was established with several large construction organizations that were not specifically

affiliated with the transportation industry. From these preliminary investigations, the U.S.







33

Army Corps of Engineers clearly set itself apart from other construction entities by the level

of commitment this organization has placed on acquiring and capturing the construction

knowledge and expertise of its personnel.


2.3.2 Jacksonville District Corps of Engineers

Initial contact with the Corps was made through their district office in Jacksonville,

Florida. One outcome of preliminary interviews conducted with members of this office was

the reference to another sample of a construction inspection manual. Appendix G contains

the cover, the Foreword, the Table of Contents, and Sections 2G-01 (General) and 2G-02

(General Requirements) from Chapter 2G (Pile Construction), reproduced from Volume 2

of a four part handbook entitled Construction Inspector's Guide [U.S. Army Corps of

Engineers, 1986]. As was the case with the manuals obtained from the various SHAs, refer

to Appendix C and Appendix F for examples, this document also was written from the

position of managing construction work from the perspective of the government agency

charged with administering the contract.

Another interesting methodology initiated by the Corps in an effort to capture

construction knowledge and experience, is their program of developing "Lessons Learned

Reports" for the analysis of special problems associated with projects that were constructed

under their jurisdiction. An example of such a report appears in Appendix H of this

dissertation. This Lessons Learned Report, generated in the Jacksonville District Corps of

Engineers office, was based on a recently completed project known as the Cerrillos Dam

project. What makes this report especially useful, is the Corps' insistence on relating the

lessons learned from the Cerrillos Dam project to a similar upcoming project, known as the







34

Portuguese Dam. Not only does this report identify problematic areas encountered during

design, construction, and ongoing operations of a completed project, it also institutes a

procedural method for application of past lessons learned to a specific upcoming project.

What this program represents is a systematic approach, on the part of the Corps, attempting

to capture knowledge and expertise by documenting the experiences of their personnel with

respect to a specific construction project. Furthermore the establishment of a process which

requires that the lessons learned from the Cerrillos Dam project be implemented on the

upcoming Portuguese Dam project, is a very sound method that should help to mitigate the

repetitive occurrence of past problems on future projects.


2.3.3 U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories

2.3.3.1 General comments

The examples, as per Appendices G and H, of some of the techniques within the

Corps for capturing knowledge and experience which have been presented up to this point

are certainly worthwhile endeavors which document organizational construction expertise.

The key word here is "document" as it refers to the traditional paper-based methods of

storage and distribution of information. With the advent of the personal computer, and the

proliferation of electronically based information management systems, one would assume that

somewhere within the Corps there must exist more computerized approaches for the capture

and dissemination of construction knowledge and experience.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is the largest public engineering organization in

the world. Falling under their jurisdiction, is the administration of the construction programs

for both the Army and the Air Force, at an annual budget of over five billion dollars, not to







35

mention their duties associated with managing a myriad of domestic engineering concerns,

such as keeping this nation's waterways navigable [USACERL, 1993a]. In 1969, the Corps

established the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) in

an effort to develop new construction innovations that would serve to enhance the Corps'

future capabilities of managing their growing network of construction and maintenance

related operations. Over the years, USACERL has become one of this country's premier

construction research and development institutions, and as such, it seemed to be a likely place

to continue the search for more state-of-the-art systems that may possibly take advantage of

today's emerging technologies.


2.3.3.2 Developmental knowledge based expert systems

Preliminary discussions were initiated with the USACERL headquarters in

Champaign, Illinois. Results of these conversations led to the discovery of several knowledge

based expert systems (KBES) that were currently under development dealing with a variety

of construction related topics. Fact Sheets, provided by USACERL, describing two such

systems have been included in Appendix I. The first example is that of a KBES designed to

"assist Corps management and technical personnel in using the Design/Build method of

construction contracting" [USACERL, 1993b]. The second Fact sheet also describes an

expert system called Claims Guidance System (CGS). According to the documentation, CGS

analyzes the "relevant information regarding a particular claim" provided to the system by

the user, and based on current legal precedence, generates a set of expert recommendations

[USACERL, 1993c].









2.3.3.3 ARMS and the BCOE Advisor system

Although expert systems are one method by which USACERL is attempting to

electronically capture construction expertise, the inherent narrow focus, coupled with the

arduous task of creating KBES rule sets has led to research into alternate approaches. One

of the most interesting and comprehensive efforts underway at USACERL is their work on

the programs known as ARMS (Automated Review Management System), and the BCOE

(Biddability, Constructability, Operability, and Environmental compliance) Advisor system,

which is a developmental extension of ARMS.

In an initial step towards automating the design review process, the computer experts

at USACERL began developing ARMS. This program is basically an extensive database of

project review comments maintained by the Technical Center of Expertise (TCX) at the

Sacramento District, Corps of Engineers office in California. The fundamental purpose of

ARMS is to provide all members of a project team a "management tool for the collection,

resolution, and storage of comments generated during the design/construction life of a

project." Figure 2.3 presents a schematic flowchart which illustrates the method by which

ARMS manages the comments which arise as a result of the design review process. Quoting

again from the ARMS manual, "This program is tailored to replace the current system of

receiving and resolving hand written design comments" [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,

1992].

As a part of the overall design review process, that which ARMS was created to help

manage, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requires what is known as a BCOE (Biddability,

Constructability, Operability, and Environmental compliance) review on all of their projects.

The concept is to involve construction personnel in this BCOE review in order to identify the
























Request
Review





Review
Assignment


Source: [Roessler et al., 1993]


Figure 2.3 Schematic Flowchart of ARMS Operations


ELECTRONIC BASED DESIGN
REVIEW MANAGEMENT


ALL USERS CAN:

- CHECK WORK LOAD
-READ ALL COMMENTS

-DETERMINE DUE DATES
- -







38

construction related problems. Upon recognition of these problems, the designer is then

informed, and thus can modify the design so as to avoid costly construction contract

modifications and minimize the cost of building operations and maintenance. As a

computerized extension of ARMS, in the realm ofBCOE reviews, USACERL initiated work

on a program called the BCOE Advisor. It is interesting to note that the developers of this

system originally experimented with a rule based KBES upon which to build their BCOE

Advisor prototype, however, this approach soon was found to be inappropriate for the

unique nature of the construction projects being reviewed. Instead, it was decided that the

BCOE Advisor would be produced on rBASE, a commercially available relational database

software package marketed by the Microrim Corporation. According to the BCOE Advisor

programmers, rBASE was selected because at the time it was the only PC platform database

system that supported the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Query

Language (SQL) [Roessler et al., 1993]. Storing the BCOE Advisor data in SQL would

then make it possible to import and export comments to and from ARMS directly in a

standardized format.

What the developers of the BCOE Advisor system attempted to do was to augment

the BCOE process by creating a database system that could 1) conceptually access past

design review comments from ARMS, 2) modify these comments with respect to the current

project being reviewed, and 3) store these new modified comments for future use. Figure 2.4

illustrates the basic operations of the BCOE Advisor system and its interface capabilities with

ARMS. Fundamentally, as Roessler et al. [1993] suggest, what this established was a system

that provided a "lessons learned capturing program to assist in the generation of high quality,

ARMS compatible, design review comments."























































































0\

C.)
e c


0i









2.4 Summary of the Survey of Current Practices


2.4.1 The General Category of Work for Further Concentration

One of the fundamental purposes of surveying current practices within the highway

construction industry was to distinguish that area of highway construction work in which

those in the industry felt that the effects associated with the loss of experience due to the

departure of veteran personnel was most acute. From the responses to Section II of the KA

& EC questionnaire as presented in this chapter, the general category of "New Bridge

Construction" clearly established itself as the highest rated category in level of importance

given to experience based issues.

The survey also looked at those operative and administrative duties that typical

construction staff members are most regularly involved in. Again from the results of the KA

& EC questionnaire, the three areas from Section III that were identified as being most

affected by the loss of experience were "Constructability Analysis," "Inspection Operations,"

and "Quality Control." The area of "Constructability Analysis," although obviously related

to construction operations, is also heavily involved in the design aspects of highway work.

As such, and keeping in mind that the original scope of the study was specifically on that of

construction operations, it was decided that this area would not be singled out for further

concentration. With respect to construction operations, one of the primary functions of

"Quality Control" is accomplished by ensuring that the finished product has been built in

accordances with the plans and specifications, as well as all other applicable construction

related practices and requirements. Therefore, much of the burden of monitoring the field

quality and compliance of the finished product falls squarely on the shoulders of those people

who are in charge of the "Inspection Operations."







41

Taking into account the totality of the KA & EC questionnaire responses, coupled

with the original goals as set forth in the research objectives, it was decided that the

subsequent knowledge acquisition efforts were going to be limited to "New Bridge

Construction" with a focused attention on "Inspection Operations." Not only did the survey

bear out these results, but conversation with many FDOT personnel indicated that this

concentrated effort would reach the widest audience within the Department. And as has been

noted, since the end-user in this case was to be the FDOT, it only served to strengthen this

decision.


2.4.2 Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture Methods

2.4.2.1 Inspection and operational manuals

By far, the most popular technique of capturing construction expertise was the

utilization of written construction inspection and operational manuals. Although these types

of manuals were found to exist in most of the construction organizations contacted, many of

the comments received regarding these documents acknowledged their limited effectiveness.

It is not that these manuals do not contain significant amounts of quality information, rather

it is more a function of the cumbersome way in which this information is presented.


2.4.2.2 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lessons Learned reports

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lessons Learned reporting program was a

method of experience capture that appeared to be very productive. The concept of

documenting the problematic areas of a particular job creates a more systematic approach to

knowledge acquisition. The fact that project personnel are able to discuss relatively recent

occurrences ofa specific nature, yield comments that are more focused and ultimately more







42

useful. This technique was deemed to be one which demonstrated promise for

implementation with respect to this dissertation's efforts in regards to the capture of highway

construction knowledge and experience.


2.4.2.3 Current computerized developmental efforts

With respect to cutting-edge computer based technologies, the field of expert systems

seems to be the one that has attracted the most attention of late. Although there are a

number of transportation related KBES programs currently under development, as evidenced

by Table 2.9, results of the KA & EC questionnaire, along with the subsequent contacts made

with other organizations, both in and out of the highway construction industry, indicate that

the functional utilization of expert systems by those personnel who are directly associated

with day-to-day construction operations is very limited or nonexistent. Wentworth [1993]

suggests that an explanation for this lack of practical acceptance by the industry may be due

to the fact that in his opinion, highway applications of expert systems "appear to be more

developer-driven than user-demanded."

Another interesting computer application uncovered at the U.S. Army Construction

Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) was their conceptual database for the

management of comments generated through the BCOE (Biddability, Constructability,

Operability and Environmental compliance) portion of the design review process. The

program, which is called the BCOE Advisor is a very innovative method of storage and

retrieval of text based comments. Although not specifically related to the highway

construction industry, the idea of relating comments of similar subject matter and providing

conceptual access to this information certainly is an approach worth investigating.







43

One class of information software that has yet to be discussed but which shows great

promise for managing construction related text and graphics is the technology known as

hypertext. Williams [1991], in an article describing a hypertext asphalt paving system that

was developed in conjunction with the New York State Department of Transportation

(NYSDOT), defines hypertext as a "database system of text and graphics that allows a

reader to jump from idea to idea depending on one's interest." This article in particular was

chosen to quote because Williams is the same person who had participated in the previously

mentioned development of the asphalt paving expert system [Williams et al., 1990] that was

subsequently abandoned by the NYSDOT. According to the NYSDOT respondent to the

KA & EC questionnaire, after departmental review of the hypertext system as compared to

the expert system, the hypertext system was deemed to be more suited to their needs and is

currently being successfully utilized.

Another example of a hypertext application found within the transportation industry

is a program called the Highway Constructability Improvement System (HCIS), which was

developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). In an article

written for the Transportation Research Board, HCIS is described as database of information

extracted from five years worth of WSDOT change orders. The WSDOT felt that by using

HCIS, engineers at their design office could access knowledge from past construction related

experiences that resulted in change orders, and hopefully avoid similar errors in preparing

future design plans and specifications [Lee et al., 1991].









2.5 Final Comments on the Survey of Current Practices


In general, based on the survey of current practices, there did not appear to be any

comprehensive highway construction knowledge acquisition and experience capture

programs that had gained any significant levels of acceptance among those practitioners who

are intimately involved in the day-to-day operations of building this country's highway

systems. It was felt that for a knowledge acquisition and experience capture program to be

successful in an organization such as the FDOT, the information delivery system must cater

to the needs of the end user. Although some promising developments in the area of

information management were uncovered, further review into the current literature associated

with this field of study is required, and as such, will be pursued in detail in Chapter 3 of this

dissertation.














CHAPTER 3
REVIEW OF PUBLISHED LITERATURE



3.1 Introduction


Up to this point in the research endeavor, significant effort had been focused on the

identification of the methods by which different agencies within the highway construction

industry were attempting to acquire knowledge and experience, and disseminate this captured

knowledge to other members of the organization. Although no one singular system that fully

addressed all the issues of capturing construction knowledge and experience as set forth in

this dissertation's research objectives had been uncovered, in particular, the three information

management technologies of expert systems, hypertext, and database management systems

had emerged as likely candidates for utilization in one form or another as potential tools for

possible realization of the stated objectives. It was apparent that as stand alone entities,

none of these three branches of information management could be considered as fully

responsive to the needs of the proposed system. However, it was felt that by integrating

certain aspects of each type of computer software, a prototype computerized system could

be developed that would create an intuitive, user-friendly environment for the capture and

dissemination of highway construction knowledge and experience.

With this in mind and concurrent with the survey of current practices, as detailed in

Chapter 2, an extensive literature survey was undertaken utilizing the University of Florida's







46

on-line searching capabilities of the Library User Information Services (LUIS). Additionally,

a computer database search was conducted through the Southern Technology Applications

Center (STAC), which like the university, is also located in Gainesville, Florida. At STAC,

two of the most comprehensive, commercially available engineering index services, DIALOG

(File 63--TRIS) and COMPENDEX, were queried. These searches were focused on the

distinct fields of study relating to expert systems, hypertext, and database management

systems, in order to gain a better understanding of the various capabilities of each of these

information management techniques. With a firm grasp of the underlying functionality

associated with these technologies, intelligent decisions could then be made with respect to

the level and strategies of integration that would be pursued. The results of this review

process, along with conclusions for the proposed system integration, will be presented in the

following sections of this chapter.



3.2 Knowledge Based Expert Systems


3.2.1 General Comments

Although the standard knowledge based expert systems (KBES) that are currently

being developed in the highway construction industry have shown themselves to be inherently

narrowly focused and typically not well received by industry practitioners, it was felt that

there may be certain properties associated with expert systems that might turn out to be very

useful. In order to determine what aspects of the KBES approach may be worthwhile in the

context of this research effort, the concept of what an expert system is and exactly what it

does will be explored next.









3.2.2 Historical Background

Knowledge based expert systems (KBES), as they exist today, are a direct outgrowth

of the artificial intelligence techniques that began to develop after World War II. In 1956,

a group of scientists from such fields as electrical engineering, mathematics, neurology and,

psychology, got together at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to discuss the possibilities

of utilizing the computer as a means of simulating various aspects of human intelligence. The

proposed intent of the Dartmouth Conference was to explore the conceptual supposition

"that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so

precisely described, that a machine can be made to simulate it." They termed this new

technology Artificial Intelligence (AI) [Rose, 1984].

One result of the Dartmouth Conference was the establishment of future aspirations

for the AI field. It was forecasted that by 1970, a computer would be able to do the

following:

1) be a grandmaster at chess;

2) discover significant new mathematical theorems;

3) understand spoken languages, and provide language translations; and

4) compose music of classical quality.

By the mid 1960s, it had become painfully apparent that these lofty goals of true artificial

intelligence set by the Dartmouth Conference were not going to be met, and in hindsight they

were very unrealistic. The AI community regrouped and began to consider more modest

goals for the intelligent machine. They agreed that knowledge was the essential ingredient

of intelligence. They also realized that the computer, despite its sizeable capacity for data

storage, was not able to store and process the incredible amount of information that would







48

be necessary to simulate actual cognitive human intelligence. They therefore decided that for

the time being, they would focus their research and adopt the following strategies:

1) be more modest;

2) be more focused; and

3) direct system development towards a narrow sector (domain) of
expertise, rather than attempt to simulate general overall human
intelligence.

The name given to this new subfield ofAI was Expert Systems or Knowledge Based Expert

Systems (KBES) [Ignizio, 1989]. Figure 3.1 illustrates the history of expert systems as they

evolved from artificial intelligence [Harmon and King, 1985].


3.2.3 Generalized Overview of Knowledge Based Expert Systems

3.2.3.1 Definition

A KBES is a sophisticated computer program that manipulates knowledge of a

specific domain in such a way as to solve complex problems that would otherwise require

extensive human expertise [Waterman, 1986; Rolston, 1988]. Probably one of the most

frequently quoted and comprehensive definitions of what constitutes a KBES can be

attributed to Professor Edward Feigenbaum of Stanford University, a leading authority in

expert systems research. Feigenbaum defines an expert system as follows [Harmon and King,

1985]:

An expert system is an intelligent computer program that
uses knowledge and inference procedures to solve problems
that are difficult enough to require significant human expertise
for their solution. Knowledge necessary to perform at such
a level, plus the inference procedures used, can be thought of
as a model of the expertise of the best practitioners of the
field.



























































.o c
00
L0
U--n~


Ea
0 E


EEj0
3.5 2\









The knowledge of an expert system consists of facts and
heuristics. The 'facts' constitute a body of information that
is widely shared, publicly available, and generally agreed upon
by the experts in the field. The 'heuristics' are mostly private,
little-discussed rules of good judgement (rules of plausible
reasoning, rules of good guessing) that characterize expert-
level decision making in the field. The performance level of
an expert system is primarily a function of the size and the
quality of the knowledge base it possesses [p. 5].


3.2.3.2 Functional components of a generic KBES

3.2.3.2.1 General comments. The typical architecture of a generic KBES is

illustrated in Figure 3.2 [Ignizio, 1991]. Based on this figure, a brief discussion of each

component and its functional relationship to the overall system will be presented next.

3.2.3.2.2 The human/computer interface. The dotted horizontal line represents the

cut off point between human users and the computer operations. Below the line there is the

"User" who is the non-expert person utilizing the system. The "Knowledge Engineer" is the

person who interfaces with the domain expert, defines the expert's knowledge, and models

it in such a way so as it can be loaded into the computer. The process by which the

"Knowledge Engineer" seeks out and captures this knowledge and expertise is commonly

referred to as knowledge acquisition [Parsaye and Chignell, 1988]. Knowledge acquisition

has developed into a subspecialty in its own right, and will be discussed in more detail in

Chapter 4. Continuing with the human/computer interrelationship, the "Interface" is the

system's component that controls all input/output functions that take place between the

computer and either the "User" or the "Knowledge Engineer."

3.2.3.2.3 The knowledge base. The "Knowledge Base" is universally recognized

as the "heart and soul" of any KBES [Parsaye and Chignell, 1988; Ignizio, 1991]. As earlier

stated in Feigenbaum's eloquent description of an expert system, the "Knowledge Base"





































(U
60
tw
oo<
on
6ma


~I II







~II II


01
0\
of



O
It



0


















a)
okn


I 0







52

stores two types of knowledge (facts and rules). To reiterate, facts are statements whose

validity are widely accepted as truth. Facts are obviously significant in assuring the accuracy

of the system, but they alone cannot be used for reasoning. By relating facts together with

rules however, relationships can be represented, reasoning can then be inferred, and new facts

can be derived. Representation of the knowledge in the "Knowledge Base" can be achieved

utilizing a variety of methods which include production (IF...THEN...) rules, semantic

networks, object-attribute-value (OAV) triplets, and frames [Waterman, 1986; Adeli, 1988;

Dym and Levitt, 1991]. Of these knowledge representation schemes, the production rule

approach is by far the most widely used and easiest to understand. With this in mind, any

future reference to knowledge representation within this generalized overview presentation,

will concentrate on the production rule metaphor.

3.2.3.2.4 The working memory. The "Working Memory," which is often referred

to as the context component of the KBES, is similar to the "Knowledge Base" in that it also

contains facts. However, the difference is that the facts within the "Knowledge Base" are

statically imbedded, that is to say that these facts are existing and do not undergo change

during system utilization. The "Working Memory" on the other hand, dynamically stores

new facts which are generated by the system itself in one of two ways. "Working Memory"

facts are either derived from the cycling of the "Inference Engine," or they are produced as

a result of consultations with the "User."

3.2.3.2.5 The inference engine. The "Inference Engine" is the mechanism by which

the KBES locates existing knowledge and infers new knowledge from the "Knowledge

Base." The "Inference Engine" accomplishes two main objectives:

1) It examines the existing facts and rules within the "Knowledge Base," and
when possible it adds new facts to the "Working Memory."







53

2) It also controls the order in which the inferences are made. The most
common inference strategies are forward chaining, backward chaining,
or some type of combination of these two approaches.

3.2.3.2.6 Forward chaining. As noted previously, in a rule based KBES, the

knowledge is represented by a collection of IF... THEN... production rules. The concept of

forward chaining, also known as "bottom up" or "data driven" searching, can best be

explained by examining what happens within the generic KBES that has been under

discussion. In general terms, initial data is supplied to the KBES through consultation with

the "User." This data is then compared to the IF portion of the rules in the "Knowledge

Base." When a particular IF part of a rule is deemed to be true, that is to say that the KBES

matches supplied data to an IF condition, then the rule "fires," creating a new fact (the THEN

portion of the rule) which is immediately added to the "Working Memory." In an iterative

process, the rule base is reexamined continuing to utilize the initial supplied data in

conjunction with the new inferred facts in an attempt to deduce a solution to the problem at

hand. Forward chaining is therefore best suited for situations wherein the KBES is called on

to interpret a set of incoming facts, and reach some kind of conclusion based on this incoming

data [Maher, 1987].

3.2.3.2.7 Backward chaining. Backward chaining, which is also commonly referred

to as "top down" or "goal driven" searching, is a much more difficult strategy to understand,

but in simplistic terms, it can be thought of as basically the reverse of forward chaining.

Under the backward chaining approach, the KBES compares the desired goal (hypothesis)

to the THEN portion of the production rules in an attempt to evaluate whether or not the IF

part of the applicable rule or rules can be justified. If successful, the goal is established and

the KBES reports its results, otherwise another hypothesis is formed and the "Inference







54

Engine" repeats the procedure [Bielwaski and Lewand, 1991]. Backward chaining, due to

the fact that the inference strategy is goal driven rather than data driven, would therefore tend

to be more useful under those conditions where the number of possible solutions is limited.

3.2.3.2.8 The rule adjuster. The final module that will be discussed herein is the

"Rule Adjuster." This component is really nothing more than an editor for the rules. In other

words, the "Rule Adjuster" is the tool by which the "Knowledge Engineer" enters and

modifies the rules of the "Knowledge Base" during the KBES development and subsequent

maintenance.



3.3 Hypertext


3.3.1 General Statement

Further research into the standard KBES approach for capturing and disseminating

highway construction knowledge and experience revealed, as was preliminarily suspected,

that the basic architecture of such a system represented a rather restrictive developmental

environment. The effort required to capture the vast amounts of construction related

knowledge and expertise possessed by a large organization, such as the FDOT, would be

extremely cost prohibitive, and as such not very practical with respect to the stated objectives

of this research endeavor. As previously noted in the problem statement contained in

Chapter 1, and further confirmed by the results of the KA & EC questionnaire presented in

Chapter 2, most of the SHAs in the United States have invested significant dollars and time

over the years developing an assortment of construction related documents that are meant

to assist their personnel in supervising highway construction operations conducted within

their particular jurisdictions. Although it is generally agreed upon that these various







55

published materials contain considerable amounts of useful construction knowledge, most

industry practitioners acknowledge that timely and effective access of this information is

often a significant problem. The emerging technology of hypertext represents a very

practical solution to this predicament.

Hypertext, in generic terms, is a nonlinear information management system that

allows the user to access information in a more natural way, similar to the way in which that

user might store and access information in his or her own mind. This less impeded

methodology for accessing information creates a more free flowing environment that enables

the user to explore the knowledge base driven more by his or her own interests, rather than

by the predefined structure inherent in traditional paper based linear documents. Similar to

the discussion of the KBES approach, the balance of this section on hypertext will present

a historical background of hypertext, as well as a general overview of this rapidly developing

field of computerized technology.


3.3.2 Historical Background

The origin of the hypertext concept is universally attributed to Dr. Vannevar Bush,

who among his many accomplishments, served as the Director of the Office of Scientific

Research and Development under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during World War

II. In 1945, Bush published an article in The Atlantic Monthly in which he described a purely

theoretical device which he called the memex, short for memory extender [Bush, 1945].

Although he did not specifically use the term "hypertext" in any of his writings about the

memex, all of the experts in the field of hypertext development agree that Bush's imaginative

memex device was the non-computerized forerunner of all of today's computer hypertext

systems.







56

In his now famous article, entitled "As We May Think," Bush wrote of his concerns

about the post-war explosion of scientific information which would make it nearly impossible

for the research specialists of the day to follow all the new developments associated with a

particular field of study. Today this situation is geometrically worse, but even in 1945 Bush

realized the need to enable people to access information more effectively than was possible

via traditional paper based documentation. He envisioned the memex device, which he

explains as follows [Bush, 1945]:

A memex is a device in which an individual stores his books,
records, and communications, and which can be mechanized
so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and
flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory
[pp. 106-107].

The mechanism that Bush goes on to describe is an ingenious machine that would be

capable of storing millions upon millions of pages of written material reduced onto microfilm.

By inputting the code of a particular document into the memex, via a keyboard, the user

would instantly be able to view the document in question. Furthermore, the memex provided

the capability of creating links between various pages of a single document, as well as the

ability to access pages from other completely separate sources. This linking of items is

described by Bush [1945] as:

... associative indexing, the basic idea of which is a provision
by which any item may be caused at will to select immediately
and automatically another. This is the essential feature of the
memex. The process of tying two items together (by
association) is the important thing [p. 107].

Not much was done in the field of hypertext research until the early 1960s, when a

young electrical engineer by the name of Douglas C. Engelbart from the Stanford Research

Institute, influenced by Bush's article of 1945, began work on a similar vision in which he







57

saw computers as a means of assisting thought, or as he referred to it, "the augmentation of

the human intellect" [Nelson, 1992]. In an article, entitled "A Conceptual Framework for the

Augmentation of Man's Intellect," Engelbart [1963] writes of his beliefs that the computer

represented a new stage in human development.

In this stage, the symbols with which the human represents
the concepts he is manipulating can be arranged before his
eyes, moved, stored, recalled, operated upon according to
extremely complex rules--all in very rapid response to a
minimum amount of information supplied by the human, by
means of special cooperative technological devices. In the
limit of what we now imagine, this could be a computer, with
which individuals could communicate rapidly and easily,
coupled to a three dimensional color display with which
extremely sophisticated images could be constructed [p. 14].

Engelbart's ideas, as presented in his 1963 article, led to the development, in 1968,

of a system which he named NLS (oN Line System). NLS according to Engelbart, was an

experimental tool designed to aid his research group in their efforts by [Engelbart and

English, 1968]:

... placing in computer store all of our specifications, plans,
designs, programs, documentation, reports, memos,
bibliography and reference notes, etc., and doing all of our
scratch work, planning, designing, debugging, etc., and a
good deal of our intercommunication, via the consoles
[p.396].

These consoles were very sophisticated by the standards of the late 1960s and included

television imaging, as well as a variety of input devices, the most famous of which is known

today as a "mouse" [Conklin, 1987].

Concurrent with Engelbart's development of NLS, which has evolved over the years

and is now called Augment, another hypertext pioneer by the name of Ted Nelson began

work on his own personal concept of "augmentation," emphasizing "the creation of a literary

environment on a global scale." In 1965 Nelson coined the term "hypertext" in describing







58

the nonlinear nature of text based storage and retrieval represented by his conceptual "Project

Xanadu" [Conklin, 1987; Parsaye et al., 1989].

Some ofNelson's early efforts on Project Xanadu were accomplished while he was

affiliated with Brown University in the mid to late 1960s. Although Project Xanadu has only

recently begun to find limited commercial applications through its sale in 1988 to Autodesk,

Inc., a large software development company, the work conducted by Nelson while at Brown

University directly influenced the development of the world's first computerized working

hypertext system. A colleague of Nelson's, a man by the name of Andries van Dam, is

generally given credit for heading up the research group that unveiled this hypertext system

in 1967. This system, which was called "The Hypertext Editing System," ran in a 128K

memory partition of a small IBM System 360 mainframe computer and was funded by an

IBM research contract. Upon completion of the project, the system was sold by IBM to the

Houston Manned Spacecraft Center, where it was subsequently used to produce a variety of

documentation for the Apollo space missions [Conklin, 1987; Nielsen, 1990].

For the better part of the next twenty years, work continued on the development of

a number of hypertext systems, however, with the exception of very limited commercial

applications, these programs compromised in-house endeavors utilized only by the

institutions where the systems were originally designed. By the early 1980s commercial

versions of some of these research oriented projects did begin to come to the general

marketplace. These early hypertext systems, such as NoteCards, developed by the computer

scientists at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center), were designed to run on workstations

[Berk and Devlin, 1991]. The requirement of workstations was due to the fact that at this

time, personal computers, although in existence, had not yet developed enough internal

power to run such systems.







59

The first mass marketed, personal computer based, hypertext system that achieved

any level of commercial popularity was a program known as Guide. Guide, which began as

a research project at the University of Kent at Canterbury in 1982 [Parsaye et al., 1989], was

introduced in 1986 by a software company called OWL (Office Workstations Limited).

Originally, Guide only ran on Macintosh computers, but shortly after its release in 1986, a

version that would run on IBM compatible machines under the Windows operating system

was developed [White, 1992]. However, it was not until the release of Hypercard by Apple

in 1987 that the concept of hypertext truly became mainstream.

Although an adequate programing platform in its own right, the real impetus for

Hypercard's surge to the forefront of the hypertext industry was a decision by Apple to

bundle Hypercard, free of charge, into the operating system of every Macintosh computer

sold after 1987. What this has done obviously, is to ensure that every Macintosh user who

purchased their machines after 1987 has access to Hypercard whether or not they initially

showed any interest in the software. Apple's visionary marketing approach has led to

Hypercard becoming by far the most widely used hypertext system to date, claiming, as of

1991, a world wide user base of literally millions [Bielawski and Lewand, 1991;Woodhead,

1991].


3.3.3 Generalized Overview of Hypertext

3.3.3.1 Definitions

3.3.3.1.1 Hypertext. Any discussion of the term "hypertext" would be somewhat

remiss if it did not include the observations of Ted Nelson, the man who originally invented

the word. From one his early publications on the subject, Nelson [1967] suggests the

following definition:









Hypertext is the combination of natural-language text with the
computer's capacity for interactive branching or dynamic
display, when explicitly used as a medium. Or, to define it
more broadly, "hypertext" is the generic term for any text
which cannot be printed (or printed conveniently) on a
conventional page, or used conveniently when bound between
conventional covers. "Nonlinear text" might be a fair
approximation [p. 13].

Probably the easiest way to explain what hypertext is, is to contrast it with traditional text.

Traditional text, whether paper based or electronic, is sequential in nature, having a linear

structure defining the order by which the document is intended to be read. Hypertext, on the

other hand, is non-sequential, and therefore can allow the reader to explore the document in

any order he or she chooses, driven more by personal interest than document structure.

3.3.3.1.2 Hypermedia. Back when Nelson first began using the term hypertext, he

was basically describing plain-text electronic documents. However in today's multimedia

landscape, an electronic document has taken on a much wider definition. More than just

conventional text, contemporary computerized documents can also contain graphics

(drawings and pictures), animation, audio, video, as well as multitasking references to other

computer programing routines external to the particular document being viewed. Therefore,

considering this expanded version of what constitutes an electronic document, some of the

leading experts in the field of hypertext research, prefer to use the term "hypermedia" as a

means of highlighting the multimedia aspects of their developmental systems. Figure 3.3

presents an illustration representing this idea of hypermedia as being a fusion of hypertext

plus multimedia [Howell, 1992].









HYPERtext + MultiMEDIA






HYPERMEDIA

Source: [Howell, 1992]


Figure 3.3 Hypermedia as a Fusion of Hypertext and Multimedia



3.3.3.1.3 "Hypertext"--selected as the generic preference. Whether one calls it

hypertext or hypermedia, the theory is the same, that being the construction of a nonlinear

network of linked pieces of information which are presented in such a fashion as to enable

a user to navigate through this network, accessing desired information in a more natural and

associative manner. Given that there does not appear to be any overwhelming necessity to

distinguish between these two terms, it has been decided that the convention that will be

adopted for this dissertation will be that of utilizing these terms rather interchangeably, with

preference given to the more traditional terminology of "hypertext."


3.3.3.2 The basic concept of hypertext

The fundamental concept underlying hypertext is rather simple. Information is

organized or "chunked" into relatively small, self-contained "nodes" which are connected via

"links." Figure 3.4 [Bubbers and Christian, 1992] serves to illustrate this idea, while

simultaneously presenting some of the historical background of hypertext as previously

discussed. As can be noted from this figure, there are three separate nodes connected by four

associative links. The various words surrounded by boxes, for example the names of








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63

"Vannevar Bush" and "Douglas Engelbart" in Node 1, are known as "hot keys," "link

anchors" or "points." In virtually every contemporary, mouse driven hypertext system, when

the mouse is dragged across the hot keys, which are typically delineated from the rest of the

text by being displayed in a different color, the cursor changes from it standard shape (usually

an arrow head) to a special shape (often a closed right hand with an extended index finger).

At this point, the user only has to click the mouse, causing the system to jump automatically

via the link to the node that correlates to whichever hot key was clicked on.

Again looking at Figure 3.4, assume the user is located in Node 1 and is reading the

information about hypertext. If for example, the user determines that he or she would like

more information associated with the highlighted hot key of "Vannevar Bush," a simple click

of the mouse will cause Node 3 to immediately pop up for viewing. Although Figure 3.4

illustrates a case involving only plain-text based nodes, utilizing the new generation of

multimedia hypertext systems, a skilled developer could have programed the system to access

for example, a picture of Vannevar Bush, an audio recording of his voice, or maybe a film

clip, if one existed. Referring back to Dr. Bush's landmark article, "As We May Think"

[Bush, 1945], published over 50 years ago, it is truly amazing to note just how similar

today's hypertext systems are to his imaginative memex device.

As previously noted in the discussion of expert systems presented earlier in this

chapter, one of the standard methods for representing knowledge within the knowledge base

of a generic KBES was the utilization of semantic networks, also known as semantic nets.

Waterman [1986] describes these structures as a collection of points, which are called

"nodes," connected by various links, which are commonly termed "arcs" in the semantic

network vernacular. Figure 3.5, reproduced from Jeff Conklin's definitive article,










































5






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65

"Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey" [Conklin, 1987], illustrates what he describes as

the method by which a typical hypertext system establishes "correspondence between

windows and links in the display, and nodes and links in the database." From this figure it

can be seen quite readily that conceptually speaking, the notion of hypertext is intimately

related to the idea of semantic nets. This being the case, it is apparent that hypertext is more

than simply an innovative word processing paradigm. Rather hypertext is by all accounts a

knowledge representation tool in its own right, capable of storing and representing

knowledge both in the nodes themselves, and through the associative linkage structure that

connects these discrete nodes.



3.4 Database Management Systems


3.4.1 General Comments

As was established in the previously presented review of hypertext systems, one of

the fundamental and most appealing features associated with hypertext is the free flowing

environment this class of software provides for exploration and navigation through a

particular base of knowledge and information. However, this unstructured landscape can

often lead to a user experiencing a feeling of disorientation, commonly referred to as being

"lost in hyperspace." One possible method of overcoming this predicament is to incorporate

certain aspects of modern database management systems (DBMS), as a means of providing

structure to the inherently unstructured world of hypertext.

The following sections will present a closer look at the historical background

associated with the emergence and evolution of contemporary DBMS. Additionally, the

three most prominent models of data structuring will be discussed, with special attention






66

being paid to the relational model, since it is this model which has come dominate today's

personal computing DBMS software packages.


3.4.2 Historical Background

The history of DBMS dates back to the early 1960s, when a number of individual

corporations in the United States began to produce programs that were created in order to

solve in-house data related problems specifically encountered by these particular companies.

Probably the most famous of these early efforts was a system developed in 1962 by the

General Electric Company (GEC), which was called the Integrated Data Store (IDS)

[Beynon-Davies, 1991]. Several years later B.F. Goodrich expressed significant interest in

the IDS package, however IDS had been designed to only run on the GEC brand of

mainframe computers. Since these computers were not compatible with B.F. Goodrich's

IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) systems, they decided to rewrite IDS

so that it would operate on the newly released IBM System 360 family of computers. Soon

after beginning work on translating IDS, B.F. Goodrich entered into a marketing agreement

with a man by the name of John Cullinane, and together they launched the IDMS DBMS

which became one of the dominant DBMS for IBM mainframes throughout the 1970s and

1980s [Brodie and Manola, 1989; Beynon-Davies, 1991].

Development of IDS and the subsequent release of IDMS represented the maturation

of the network model of DBMS. The network model, however, was only one of three basic

models of data structuring that were evolving somewhat simultaneously. Another of these

data structuring techniques being researched during the 1960s was the hierarchal model. In

1965, in response to the massive information handling requirements associated with the

Apollo moon program, North American, which later became Rockwell International






67

Corporation, and IBM co-developed a hierarchal model DBMS that eventually was released

by IBM in 1970 under the name of IMS (Information Management System) [Cardenas, 1985;

Parsaye et al., 1989].

At about the same time that IBM was developing their IMS DBMS, another IBM

computer scientist by the name of Dr. E. F. Codd, located at the IBM Research Laboratory

in San Jose, California, began work on a general purpose programming language based on

set theory and logic, which he called relational programming [Brodie and Manola, 1989].

In 1970, Codd published his landmark article, "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared

Data Banks" [Codd, 1970], which established the relational model on which all subsequently

developed relational DBMS were to be based. The relational model did not initially meet

with wide spread acceptance, and by the mid 1970s the DBMS landscape had become

dominated by the other two models of the network and hierarchal data structuring

techniques.

Although originally not very popular, relational modeling gradually did become more

recognized as a legitimate structure for DBMS, and by 1976 IBM, through its research center

in San Jose, California, was able to develop System R [Astrahan et al., 1976], which became

the first working relational DBMS for mainframe computers. Another prominent

experimental mainframe relational DBMS released around the same time as System R, was

a program called INGRESS [Stonebraker et al., 1976], which was developed at the

University of California, Berkeley.

The relational model of DBMS continued its existence almost exclusively within the

bounds of university and other research institute settings, until 1983, at which time IBM

unveiled DB2, their first commercially released relational DBMS for mainframe computers,






68

which was a direct outgrowth of their earlier experimental work with System R [Salzberg,

1986]. Approximately at the same point in time, a software company by the name of Ashton-

Tate released dBASE II, which went on to become the dominant DBMS for the newly

emerging personal computing market. According to Brodie and Manola [1989], by 1988

over 2.7 million copies of the dBASE relational DBMS software package for personal

computers had been sold.


3.4.3 Generalized Overview of Database Management Systems

3.4.3.1 Definitions

3.4.3.1.1 General comments. To accurately describe exactly what is a database

management system (DBMS), a number of database terms and their usage will be presented

first, followed by a working definition of a DBMS.

3.4.3.1.2 Data. Data, independently speaking, are nothing more than a collection

of facts and figures, that by themselves lack any real significance. All data within a database

can be broken down into two main categories, namely alphanumeric data and numeric data

[Date, 1990]. Alphanumeric data consists of alphabetic characters (the letters A through Z)

and numerical characters (the numbers 0 through 9), as well as a variety of specialized

symbols such as the pound sign (#) and the dollar sign ($), to name two. Numeric data, on

the other hand, are strictly a set of numeric digits that can be quantified. Although when

stored in a database, both alphanumeric and numeric data represent information, these two

classifications take on different roles in their applications. The numeric data within a

database are used as numbers in computational operations, while alphanumeric data can only

be used as strings of text for identification and labeling purposes.







69

3.4.3.1.3 Fields, records, and files. In a database, the smallest unit of data, whether

alphanumeric or numeric, is commonly referred to as either a "field," a "data item" or an

"attribute." A collection of these "fields" constitutes a logical "record," also known as an

"entity." A "file" is an assortment of occurrences of the same "record" types [Cardenas,

1985].

3.4.3.1.4 Database. A database can be described as a bank of "records" stored in

"files" interrelated by a means of specific relationships. A database is basically a repository

for stored data which is both integrated and shared [Date, 1990]. All database systems can

be characterized by their efforts to achieve the following four properties [Beynon -Davies,

1991]:

1) Data Independence--Due to the concept of shared data, the data in a
database must be independent of the storage structure and access
strategies.

2) Data Integration--Again because of sharing capabilities, a database
should contain as little duplicated or unused data as possible.

3) Data Integrity--Given that numerous applications are intending to interact
with a particular database, it is extremely important that the data must be
maintained at a high level of consistency and accuracy [Cardenas, 1985].

4) Separate Logical and Physical Views--What this implies is that a database
systems should attempt to separate the end-user's view of the data from
the data's physical computerized representation.

3.4.3.1.4 Database management system. In its most generic form, a database

management system (DBMS) is a system capable of supporting and managing an integrated

database. This suggests, that basically a DBMS is a family of software applications which

have been developed to act as an interface between the end-user and all system interactions

with the database.








3.4.3.2 Data modeling structures for contemporary database management systems

3.4.3.2.1 General comments. The fundamental component of any DBMS is the

method by which the data within the database is organized and structured. In the commercial

world of DBMS, the marketplace is still dominated by the three traditional data modeling

techniques of the network model, the hierarchal model, and the relational model, with the

relational model having almost exclusively captured the personal computing market. It

should be noted at this point, that there does exist a number of other data modeling

techniques such as semantic models, entity-relationship diagrams, and most notably object-

oriented designs [Stonebraker, 1988 Martire and Nuttall, 1993], which recently have

experienced significant research attention [Parsaye and Chignell, 1993]. In fact currently

there are several commercially available object-oriented DBMS software packages available,

the first and probably most established of which is a program called GemStone, marketed by

a company by the name of Servologic [Beynon-Davies, 1991; Parsaye and Chignell, 1993].

However, for the purposes of the following discussion on data modeling, only the three

prominent techniques (network, hierarchal and relational) will be examined further.

3.4.3.2.2 The hierarchal model. The hierarchal model, sometimes referred to as the

file system, is the oldest and most rigid of the three standard database modeling techniques

[Date, 1990]. Figure 3.6 [Chou, 1985] illustrates a typical hierarchal representation of the

different relationships among the data fields associated with the instructors, the classes, and

the students. The relationships represented in this figure are limited to strictly one-to-one

associations. For example, the class "Business 101" is directly related to the instructor "Peter

Roberts" on a one-to-one basis. This connection can also be defined in terms of what is

known as a parent-child relationship [Martire and Nuttall, 1993]. Referring again to the





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figure, and in terms of the parent-child metaphor, the instructor "Peter Roberts" is said to be

the parent of the class "Business 101," which is the child.

3.4.3.2.3 The network model. One of the inherent disadvantages associated with

the hierarchal model is that of data redundancy, which is a result of this model's strict one-to-

one architectural structure. As an example of this, notice that in Figure 3.6, due to the rigid

structure, three of the student data items ("James Smith," "Eileen Hason," and "Danny

Walter") must be appear twice in order to satisfy the model. The network model of data

structuring was developed in large part to address this problem [Taylor, 1989]. Figure 3.7

[Chou, 1985] depicts the same database as that of Figure 3.6, except for the fact that in

Figure 3.7, the data is structured based on the network model. Examination of this figure

demonstrates that in fact this model does eliminate data redundancy, in other words, in the

network model, every data item is unique. However this aversion of data redundancy does

come with a price, namely a much more complex linkage structure.

3.4.3.2.4 The relational model in general. In both the hierarchal and network

models, relationships between data items are strictly controlled by their explicit links, or

record instances as they are sometimes referred to [Woodhead, 1991]. These links are

represented in Figures 3.6 and 3.7 as the solid lines connecting the various data items. This

static feature creates a situation wherein navigation through and/or manipulation of the data,

not to mention the problems associated with adding, deleting, or modifying a record, require

the services of a very skillful database programmer. These difficulties are all but eliminated

under the relational model, due to the fact that the data is structured in terms of a two

dimensional tabular matrix consisting of a set of named columns, or fields, and an arbitrary

number of rows, also known as records. This highly intuitive structure, which is simply a








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74

common table, enables a non-sophisticated user to rather easily set up and manipulate

considerable amounts of data in a very interactive and natural fashion [Chou, 1985;

Woodhead, 1991].

3.4.3.2.5 The relational model as illustrated in Figure 3.8. Figure 3.8 represents the

same set of data items as presented in Figures 3.6 and 3.7, except this database is structured

in terms of the relational model. The relational table in Figure 3.8 is organized into nine

rows, which are also called tuples [Beynon-Davies, 1991] or records, and three columns,

each corresponding to a distinct field of data, which in this case are labeled Instructor, Class,

and Student. As each data record is entered, it is sequentially and automatically given an

arbitrary number, which for this relational table would be a number between 1 and 9,

depending on the order of entry. Each of the nine records is assigned a single corresponding

attribute within each of the three data fields of Instructor, Class, and Student. This simple

tabular structure therefore serves as a methodology of creating nine uniquely identifiable

database records. Parsaye et al. [1989] rightfully note that it is this "theoretical purity" and

close relationship to natural logic that more than any other factor has propelled the relational

model to the forefront of today's DBMS software packages, especially in the realm of

personal computers where the users often tend to be less sophisticated.


3.4.4 A Closer Look at Relational Database Management Systems

3.4.4.1 General comments

Since the proposed information management prototype system intended for this

dissertation was to be developed under the IBM compatible personal computing

environment, and given that, as has previously been noted, relational DBMS have evolved

as the dominant force on this platform, logic dictated the selection of this model for further

































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examination. Presented next will be a closer look at some of the key points associated with

managing data in a relational DBMS.


3.4.4.2 Data manipulation within relational databases

3.4.4.2.1 Operating on relations. One of the distinguishing characteristics of the

relational model, as opposed to the hierarchal or network model, is that in relational

databases, the data manipulation is designed to operate on entire files (relational tables) of

data, rather than on individual records or fields within a file. The term manipulation, as used

here, refers to the types of operations that a user can perform on data stored in a relational

database. This manipulation of the relational model consists of a set of operators collectively

known as the relational algebra [Beynon-Davies, 1991].

3.4.4.2.2 The relational algebra. The relational model basically consists of a list of

relations and their associated attributes [Date, 1990]. Data retrieval within this model is

accomplished by using the relational algebra as a means of manipulating these relationships.

Parsaye and Chignell [1988] specify the five fundamental operations in the relational algebra

as follows:

1) Selection--Selects certain rows from a table.

2) Projection--Removes certain columns from a table.

3) Product--Multiplies two tables together.

4) Union-Adds two tables together.

5) Difference--Subtracts one table from another table.

3.4.4.2.2 Structured Query Language. With the evolution of the relational model,

came the development of higher-order languages designed to provide access to the relational

model and extract (retrieve) different data sets depending on the specified request of the user.







77

Of these data access languages, or commonly referred to as query languages, one in

particular, IBM's Structured Query Language (SQL), has come to be accepted as the

dominant approach for relational query languages. In fact, in 1986, SQL was adopted by the

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the official industry standard [Fleming and

von Halle, 1989].

3.4.4.2.2 An example of a generic SQL command. As an example of the most

fundamental SQL instruction, Date [1989] suggests a generic sample of the SQL command

(query) "SELECT" taking the following form:

select < Attribute,, Attribute2 ... Attribute >

from < Relation,, Relation2 ... Relation >

where < Condition >

In terms of the relational algebra, from which SQL is a direct descendant [Chorafas, 1989],

the SQL "SELECT" command is made up the select portion of the query clause which is

equivalent to the relational algebra operation of projection. The from segment of the

"SELECT' statement matches the relational algebra operation of product, while the relational

algebra counterpart of where is the operation of select.



3.5 Summary and Conclusions


3.5.1 General Comments

Having effected a comprehensive background study of the three technologies of

expert systems, hypertext, and database management systems, the next step was to determine

what aspects of each were useful for integration into the proposed prototype information

management system. The following sections will summarize these observations, focusing on







78

the aspects deemed worthwhile based on the stated needs of the end user and the anticipated

industry sector within which this system will be intended to function.


3.5.2 Considerations Regarding Proposed Integrated Environment

3.5.2.1 General programing requirements

Bielawski and Lewand [1991], co-authors of Intelligent Systems Design Integrating

Expert Systems. Hypermedia, and Database Technologies, recognized as one of the definitive

books in this newly emerging field of study, suggest that the power of today's IBM

compatible and Macintosh personal computers, coupled with the myriad of available

developmental tools or "shells," make this platform ideal for the development of integrated

computer software systems. This idea, along with the fact that the design of any prototype

system should be based on the needs of the end user, led to the selection of the IBM

compatible personal computer windows operating system, given that this is the system of

choice for practically all of the intended end users, who in the case of this research project,

are FDOT construction personnel.

Another point that should be emphasized, is that given that the nature of this research

endeavor was more geared towards developing a conceptual systematic approach, rather than

undertaking an exercise in conventional computer programming, it was determined that

higher levels of programing paradigms should be investigated and utilized whenever possible.

This notion will be revisited towards the end of this chapter under the discussion regarding

software requirements for the prototype system.


3.5.2.2 Intended knowledge base content as determining factor for hypertext underpinnings

Although this subject will be covered more thoroughly in Chapter 4, a preliminary







79

understanding of the structural makeup of the intended knowledge base would be required

in order to effectively identify which aspects of which technologies were to be utilized. As

has previously been mentioned, most of this country's SHAs have over the years amassed a

considerable base of construction related documentation, which in essence captures much of

the knowledge and expertise possessed by these particular organizations and their personnel.

In an effort to utilize the significant investment represented by these documents, it seemed

only prudent that the prototype system take advantage of this wealth of information. With

this in mind, and considering each of the three technologies analyzed, clearly the proposed

approach should utilize hypertext as the backbone of the developmental philosophy for

managing this naturally occurring text based bank of construction knowledge and experience.


3.5.2.3 Integrating database strategies for added structure

Nanard et al. [1993], conceptually describe hypertext as fundamentally a relational

database with unlimited and unrestricted links between the records, fields, and files. This

metaphor is highly appropriate to this dissertation's intention of employing database

strategies as a method of providing structure to the inherently unstructured environment of

a pure hypertext system. From the field of database management, two basic modeling

strategies were to be incorporated. The first, was a hierarchal structure based on the

traditional hierarchal model as presented earlier in this chapter. The idea here was to embed

a one-to-one, hard-wired, parent-child, relational linkage scheme throughout the entire

architecture of the hypertexed system of nodes. Details of how this was accomplished will

be examined further in Chapter 4.

Inspiration for the other database structuring strategy came from two sources, one

of which, the BCOE Advisor system [Roessler et al., 1993], was detailed in Chapter 2. This







80

system, developed by USACERL, utilizes the commercially available rBASE relational

DBMS, along with SQL querying capabilities, as a methodology for storing and retrieving

conceptually indexed design review comments. The second basis of influence was a paper,

uncovered as a result of this review of published literature, written by Dario Lucarella [1990].

In his article, entitled "A Model for Hypertext-Based Information Retrieval," Lucarella

presents an interesting discussion with respect to the difference between browsing and

searching. He describes browsing as characterized by the user knowing "where he is in a

network, and wanting to know what information exist at that location." While when

searching the user "presumably knows what he wants, and wishes to know where in the

database it is." Figure 3.9 illustrates Lucarella's proposed integrated tactic which provides

capabilities for both browsing and searching.

Borrowing from these two innovative approaches, the second of the database

strategies was formulated in an attempt to utilize the relational model of database

management as a method of indexing each node in the prototype hypertext network. In

theory, a node could be conceptually linked to a set of attributes based on the informational

content that it contained. These nodes could then be stored in a relational table enabling a

user to directly query the system in order to access a group of hypertext nodes, specifically

related to his or her area of interest, regardless of the nodes physical location within the

hypertext network. In other words, a user would not have to blindly explore the network

via the hard-wired links, node to node, in search of the desired information. Rather he or she

could retrieve all nodes within the system having to do with a particular subject, and then

continue navigational browsing from that point forward. Details of the implementation of

this strategy will be presented as part of Chapter 5.





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3.5.2.4 Utilization of a KBES inference engine for dynamic linking

Assuming that the relational database structuring strategy was attainable, the other

somewhat more ambitious proposal was to supplement this static structure with a form of

dynamic linking. To reiterate, each table would be established as a relational structure

compromised of individual records, each of which corresponding to a single node in the

network, conceptually organized in a "controlled indexed" [Carlson, 1989] format. Once

this was accomplished, it was envisioned that the system could recognize the particular node

where the user was located, search the entire network for all other nodes of related subject

matter, and then return a list for the user to browse. The determination of "related" nodes

could be accomplished utilizing an embedded generic rule set coupled with a forward

chaining inference strategy. Presentation of the fruition of this strategy is also included in

Chapter 5.


3.5.3 Software Requirements for Prototype System

Based on the discussion thus far, four general requirements of any potential software

development tool have been established as follows:

1) The software must operate under the IBM compatible personal computing
windows environment.

2) The software package must have rich and fundamentally underlying
hypertext capabilities.

3) The software package must support the relational database model and
preferable provide SQL capabilities for querying a relational database.
As noted previously, the benefit of SQL is that it has been accepted as the
industry standard relational database query language.

4) The software package must be capable of delivering an imbedded KBES
inference engine that can employ the forward chaining strategy.






83
One other item that was previously mentioned earlier in this section, and which will

be expanded on at this point, is the concept of fully integrated, higher-level developmental

programming tools. As was noted, one of the expressed objectives of the research's software

development efforts was the exploitation of commercially available packages, rather than

attempting to develop the prototype system using established conventional programming

languages such as C++, Pascal, LISP or PROLOG. Although these languages are very

powerful, they require inordinate amounts of programming time in relation to functional

return on this manpower investment. Under the guise of a construction research project, it

is far more important to identify the cutting edge computer technologies and attempt to

implement them with respect to construction related issues.

Along this same line of reasoning, it is also highly beneficial to utilize only one

vendor's software package rather then attempt to integrate distinct and separate packages

developed by different manufacturers. Although all systems that operate under the windows

environment theoretically inherit some basic level of platform wide integrative capabilities,

typically, experience shows that the dependence of fully seamless integration across software

vendors is usually not a recommended practice. The basis of this discussion on the

importance of maintaining a single developmental environment, led to the fifth and final

requirement for the potential software development tool, which is as follows:

5) If possible, all functional requirements established in points 1) through 4)
as listed above, should be accomplished by the use of a single vendor's
higher-level windows developmental programing software package.


3.5.4 Final Selection of Software Package for Prototype System

With the established requirements of the potential software package in mind, some

of the newest and commercially available developmental programming tools were evaluated.






84
This original review was accomplished via preliminary searches of appropriate articles found

in such computer trade publications as Infoworld, PC Magazine, and Byte. Results of this

preliminary review yielded the two candidates as listed below for final consideration for

selection as the software package to be utilized:

1) The Intelligence Compiler (I/C)--distributed by IntellegenceWare, Inc.,
whose president is Kamran Parsaye, principle author of three of the books
uncovered during this literature review and referenced throughout this
dissertation [Parsaye and Chignell, 1988; Parsaye et al., 1989; Parsaye
and Chignell, 1993].

2) KnowledgePro Windows (KPWin)--distributed by Knowledge Garden
Inc.

Both of these companies were contacted and from each, a set of demonstration diskettes and

a standard manufacture's information package was received. Appendix J contains a copy of

the general product sheets associated with these two highly integrated and powerful software

packages. Upon completion of the review of the demonstration diskettes and the associated

product literature, the final choice was made to proceed with the KPWin software package,

namely because it was felt that this programming tool supported a fuller hypertext

environment as compared to that of (I/C).


3.5.5 Final Comments

With the literature review complete and the software package selected, the focus of

this dissertation would now be shifted from evaluating the efforts of others to initiating work

specific to accomplishing the remaining stated objectives of this research endeavor.

Presented next in Chapter 4 will be the issues involved in developing the focused base of

highway construction knowledge and experience. Chapter 5 will follow with a

comprehensive explanation of the development and subsequent testing of the computerized






85
information delivery system, which from this point on will be referred to as the IN REACH

system, an acronym for Intelligent iNformation Retrieval and Expert Advice in the

Construction of Highways.













CHAPTER 4
KNOWLEDGE BASE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE IN REACH SYSTEM



4.1 Introduction


As was noted during the earlier discussions regarding knowledge based expert

systems (KBES), the task of capturing the knowledge and experience of the domain experts,

commonly referred to as knowledge acquisition [Parsaye and Chignell, 1988], is universally

recognized as the critical phase in the production of any successful knowledge based system

[Waterman, 1986; McGraw and Harbison-Briggs, 1989; Dym and Levitt, 1991].

Fiegenbaum's assessment of the late 1970s, in which he noted that at that time, knowledge

acquisition was the "bottleneck" in expert systems development [Fiegenbaum, 1977], still

holds true today. This chapter will present a brief look at the traditional approach as

compared to this dissertation's modified strategy, with respect to knowledge acquisition.

Additionally, this chapter will examine the foundational knowledge base developed for the

IN REACH system, as well as include a discussion of the documents utilized along with a

presentation of the embedded hierarchal model within the underlying hypertext system.








4.2 The Traditional Approach to Knowledge Acquisition


4.2.1 General Comments

With the proliferation of KBES developmental efforts over the last three decades, the

concept of knowledge acquisition has developed into its own separate field of study.

Evidence of this can be seen by the fact that today there exist numerous texts [Kidd, 1987;

McGraw and Harbison-Briggs, 1989; Adeli, 1990] completely dedicated to this subject.

Furthermore, reviews of any of the standard text books on KBES [Parsaye and Chignell,

1988; Dym and Levitt, 1991; Ignizio, 1991] indicate that invariably there are at least one or

two chapters on this critical area of expert system development. This representative list of

published books does not include the myriad of articles [Cohn et al., 1988; De La Garza et

al., 1988; Hanna et al., 1992] that have been published over the last several years in the

various technical engineering journals. Presented next will be a brief overview of some

aspects of the traditional approach to knowledge acquisition.


4.2.2 An Overview of the Traditional Approach

According to McGraw and Harbison-Briggs [1989, p. 8], knowledge acquisition can

be thought of as a process that encompasses "both 1) the task of reducing an exhaustive body

of diverse domain knowledge into a precise, easily modifiable set of facts and rules; and 2)

the tools and methods that support the system development." Hanna et al. [1992] also take

this approach of describing knowledge acquisition as involving the entire operation of

constructing a knowledge base. They go on to concisely define what they perceive as the

three basic stages of "extracting knowledge and creating a knowledge base" as follows:




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DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR
KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION AND EXPERIENCE CAPTURE OF
VETERAN PRACTITIONERS IN THE HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
By
WILLIAM C. EPSTEIN
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Dedicated to Jim
EPSTEIN
JAMES (JIM) TAYLOR, a
great lover of people and mu¬
sic, passed away peacefully
at the age of 40, on Aug. 10,
1995. He has gone on to }oin
his mother, Edle, and is sur¬
vived by wife Jill, son Justin,
father David, brothers Bill
and Bob, and sister Carolan,
and other loving family mem¬
bers and friends. Graveside
Services to be held Sunday.
Jim,
Only the good die young, and you my brother
were the absolute very best. Say HI to mom,
and remember always, that I love you forever.
With all my heart and soul,

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Dr. Zohar Herbsman, my mentor and
supervisory committee chairman, for all of his wisdom, guidance, and encouragement, both
on a professional level and a personal one. As for Dr. Ralph Ellis, my committee cochairman,
his dedication to the profession of academia is an inspiration. I would also like to take this
opportunity to thank my external committee member, Dr. Leon Wetherington, as well as my
other committee members, Dr. Paul Thompson and Dr. David Bloomquist, for their
continued support during my tenure at the University of Florida.
I would be remiss in not acknowledging the efforts of the many Florida Department
of Transportation (FDOT) personnel who gave freely of their time in assisting this research
endeavor. The members of the FDOT District 2 construction offices in both Lake City and
Jacksonville deserve special recognition, as their input and expertise was particularly
valuable. A special thank you also goes out to Ana Maria Elias and Daniel Baudino for all
of their assistance with respect to the IN REACH prototype system development.
Additionally, their friendship and humor helped me keep my sanity in the closing days of
writing this dissertation. I would also like to thank the makers of Cafe Bustelo; they too
were instrumental in the final drive to complete this research effort.
And finally I want to acknowledge my family and Hilda. I want to thank my dad for
just being my dad and my sister Carolan for handling everything recently. My mom and my
brother Jim, although no longer with me in body, will always be with me in spirit, and I thank
them for the time they gave me. And last but never least, I want to thank the lovely and
beautiful Hilda, my best friend and my soon to be bride.
iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
ABSTRACT xii
CHAPTERS
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 General Comments 1
1.2 Problem Statement 2
1.3 Research Objectives 4
1.3.1 General Comments 4
1.3.2 Breakdown of the Research Objectives 5
1.4 Research Methodology 6
1.4.1 General Comments 6
1.4.2 Breakdown of the Research Methodology Phases 6
2 SURVEY OF CURRENT PRACTICES 11
2.1 Survey of Governmental Highway Agencies 11
2.1.1 Introduction 11
2.1.2 Breakdown of the KA & EC Questionnaire 11
2.1.3 Distribution of the KA & EC Questionnaire 13
2.1.4 Rates of Response to the KA & EC Questionnaire 14
2.1.5 Section by Section Results of the KA & EC Questionnaire 15
2.1.6 Selected Comments from the KA & EC Questionnaire 26
2.1.7 Summary 27
2.2 TRB Information on Current Practices 29
2.2.1 TRB Synthesis on Knowledge Based Expert Systems 29
2.2.2 Survey of the TRB Construction Management Committee 31
2.3 Current Practices Within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 32
2.3.1 General Comments 32
IV

2.3.2 Jacksonville District Corps of Engineers 33
2.3.3 U S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories .... 34
2.4 Summary of the Survey of Current Practices 40
2.4.1 The General Category of Work for Further Concentration 40
2.4.2 Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture Methods 41
2.5 Final Comments on the Survey of Current Practices 44
3 REVIEW OF PUBLISHED LITERATURE 45
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 Knowledge Based Expert System 46
3.2.1 General Comments 46
3.2.2 Historical Background 47
3.2.3 Generalized Overview of Knowledge Based Expert Systems .... 48
3.3 Hypertext 54
3.3.1 General Comments 54
3.3.2 Historical Background 55
3.3.3 Generalized Overview of Hypertext 59
3.4 Database Management Systems 65
3.4.1 General Comments 65
3.4.2 Historical Background 66
3.4.3 Generalized Overview of Database Management Systems 68
3.4.4 A Closer Look at Relational Database Management Systems 74
3.5 Summary and Conclusions 77
3.5.1 General Comments 77
3.5.2 Considerations Regarding Proposed Integrated Environment.... 78
3.5.3 Software Requirements for Prototype System 82
3.5.4 Final Selection of Software Package for Prototype System 83
3.5.5 Final Comments 84
4 KNOWLEDGE BASE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE IN REACH SYSTEM .... 86
4.1 Introduction 86
4.2 The Traditional Approach to Knowledge Acquisition 87
4.2.1 General Comments 87
4.2.2 An Overview of the Traditional Approach 87
4.3 The IN REACH Modified Approach to Knowledge Acquisition 89
4.3.1 General Comments 89
4.3.2 An Overview of the Modified Approach 89
4.4 The IN REACH Base of Documented Knowledge and Experience 91
4.4.1 General Statement 91
4.4.2 A Closer Look at the Document Base of IN REACH 92
4.5 Lessons Learned from Post Construction Conferences 108
4.5.1General Comments 108
v

4.5.2 FDOT Process Performance Reviews Lessons Learned 108
4.5.3 UF Post Construction Conferences Lessons Learned 114
4.6 The Hierarchial Structure of the Hypertext Network of IN REACH .... 118
4.6.1 General Statement 118
4.6.2 A Graphical Representation of the Hierarchal Structure 118
4.7 Final Comments 125
5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE IN REACH PROTOTYPE SYSTEM 130
5.1 General Comments 130
5.2 A General Overview of KnowledgePro for Windows 131
5.3 Some Programming Details About Browsing and Searching 132
5.3.1 General Comments 132
5.3.2 Developing the Browsing Capabilities of IN REACH 133
5.3.3 The Windows Resource Archive Program 134
5.3.4 Developing the Searching Capabilities of IN REACH 135
5.4 A Guided Tour of the IN REACH Prototype System 140
5.4.1 Introduction 140
5.4.2 The IN REACH User Interface Layout and Basic Functions .... 143
5.4.3 A Closer Look at the Three “Search By” Routines 148
5.5 Testing of the Prototype System 159
5.5.1 General Comments 159
5.5.2 Structured Demonstrations of Preliminary Versions 159
5.5.3 Distribution of Prototype System for Unsupervised Testing .... 160
5.6 Final Comments 162
6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 164
6.1 General Comments 164
6.2 A Summary of the Originally Stated Research Objectives 165
6.2.1 General Comment 165
6.2.2 Summarized Objective Number One 165
6.2.3 Summarized Objective Number Two 165
6.2.4 Summarized Objective Number Three 166
6.3 A Review of Whether or Not the Objectives were Accomplished 166
6.3.1 General Comment 166
6.3.2 Reviewed Accomplishments as per Objective Number One 166
6.3.3 Reviewed Accomplishments as per Objective Number Two 166
6.3.4 Reviewed Accomplishments as per Objective Number Three .... 167
6.3.5 Final Comment 168
6.4 Recommendations for Future Enhancements to the Prototype System ... 168
6.4.1 Software Enhancements 168
6.4.2 Development of a More Sophisticated Rule Set 169
6.4.3 Incorporation of More Multimedia Features 169
6.5 Final Comments 170
vi

APPENDICES
A KA& EC QUESTIONNAIRE 172
B DISTRIBUTION LISTS FOR THE KA & EC QUESTIONNAIRE 179
C CALIFORNIA DOT HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION CHECKLIST 187
D TRB CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE SURVEY 193
E TWO REPRESENTATIVE RESPONSES TO THE TRB SURVEY 197
F NEW YORK DOT CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL 201
G U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS INSPECTOR’S GUIDE 219
H JACKSONVILLE CORPS OF ENGINEERS LESSONS LEARNED 228
I USACERL FACT SHEETS OF TWO KBES PROGRAMS 236
J VENDOR PRODUCT SHEETS FOR I/C AND KPWin SOFTWARE 241
K FDOT (DISTRICT 2) DEVELOPMENTAL INSPECTION CHECKLISTS .... 244
L PROPOSED PCC LESSONS LEARNED DATA ENTRY FORM 258
M THE IN REACH PROTOTYPE SYSTEM KPWIN SOURCE CODE 261
N THE “CLASSIFICATION” AND “CONFIGURATION” DATABASES 295
O IN REACH TESTING COVER LETTER AND COMMENT SHEET 306
REFERENCES 310
vii
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
316

LIST OF TABLES
page
TABLE
2.1 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section I) 16
2.2 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section I) 17
2.3 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section II) 18
2.4 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section II) 19
2.5 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section III) 21
2.6 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section III) 22
2.7 Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section IV) 24
2.8 Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section IV) 25
2.9 Level of KBES Activity Among the SHAs of the United States 30

LIST OF FIGURES
gage
FIGURE
1.1 Research Development Flowchart 7
2.1 Comparison of Results from North America Versus Florida (Section II) 19
2.2 Comparison of Results from North America Versus Florida (Section III) 22
2.3 Schematic Flowchart of ARMS Operations 37
2.4 Schematic Flowchart of BCOE Advisor Operations 39
3.1 History of the Evolution of Expert Systems from Artificial Intelligence 49
3.2 Architecture of a Generic Knowledge Based Expert System 51
3.3 Hypermedia as a Fusion of Hypertext and Multimedia 61
3.4 A Hypertext Network of Three Nodes Connected by Four Links 62
3.5 Correspondence Between Display Screen and the Hypertext Database 64
3.6 Typical Representation of the Hierarchal Model 71
3.7 Typical Representation of the Network Model 73
3.8 Typical Representation of the Relational Model 75
3.9 Integrated Hypertext Network With Browsing and Searching Capabilities 81
4.1 IN REACH Index of Sources Index Screen for BRIDGES 93
4.2 IN REACH FDOT Standard Specs Index Screen for BRIDGES 94
4.3 IN REACH FDOT Supplemental Specs Index Screen for BRIDGES 96
IX

4.4 IN REACH FDOT Standard Drawings Index Screen for BRIDGES 97
4.5 IN REACH FDOT Pile Splices Illustration Screen for BRIDGES 98
4.6 IN REACH FDOT CP AM Manual Index Screen for BRIDGES 99
4.7 IN REACH FDOT Inspection Manual Index Screen for BRIDGES 101
4.8 IN REACH FDOT Tricks of theTrade Index Screen for BRIDGES 102
4.9 IN REACH FDOT Armor Joint Void Topic Screen for BRIDGES 103
4.10 IN REACH FDOT Inspection Checklists Index Screen for BRIDGES 105
4.11 IN REACH CRSI Placing Rebar Index Screen for BRIDGES 106
4.12 IN REACH CRSI Bar Identification Illustration Screen for BRIDGES 107
4.13 IN REACH FDOT PPR Lessons Learned Index Screen for BRIDGES 109
4.14 IN REACH UF PCC Lessons Learned Index Screen for BRIDGES 110
4.15 IN REACH Pole Vibration Lesson Learn Topic Screen for BRIDGES 112
4.16 IN REACH Pole Vibration Project Data Topic Screen for BRIDGES 113
4.17a IN REACH Pile Cap Lesson Learn Topic Screen (V2) for BRIDGES 116
4.17b IN REACH Pile Cap Lesson Learn Topic Screen (2/2) for BRIDGES 117
4.18 IN REACH Pile Cap Meeting Data Topic Screen for BRIDGES 119
4.19 IN REACH Pile Cap Project Data Topic Screen for BRIDGES 120
4.20 Representation ofIN REACH’S Embedded Hierarchal Model 121
4.21 IN REACH IC-Preformed Pile Holes Topic Screen for BRIDGES 123
4.22 IN REACH FDOT Inspecting Piles Index Screen for BRIDGES 124
4.23 EN REACH FDOT Inspection Checklists Index Screen for BRIDGES 126
4.24 IN REACH Index of Sources Index Screen for BRIDGES 127
x

4.25 IN REACH Home Screen for General Category of BRIDGES 128
5.1 IN REACH “Classification” Database for the Subcategory of Bridge Deck 137
5.2 IN REACH “Configuration” Database for the Subcategory of Bridge Deck 138
5.3 IN REACH Welcome Screen 141
5.4 IN REACH General Categories Screen 142
5.5 IN REACH Home Screen for General Category of BRIDGES 144
5.6 IN REACH Zoomed In View of the Activated “Search By” Window 146
5.7 IN REACH Example of Activation of the “Source” Pop Up Window 147
5.8 IN REACH Example of “List of Topics” Search By Routine 149
5.9 IN REACH Example of “List of Topics” Scrolled Down to the Letter “I” 150
5.10 IN REACH Example of Superimposed Subcategory “Search By” Options 152
5.11 IN REACH Example of the “BRIDGE DECK” Subcategory Window 153
5.12 IN REACH Selected Subjects for the “BRIDGE DECK” Example 154
5.13 IN REACH “Result(s) of Search” for the “BRIDGE DECK” Example 155
5.14 IN REACH Return of the “Result(s) of Search” to the Standard Interface 157
5.15 IN REACH “Related Topics” Example for “415-5.13 Chairs & Bolsters” 158
xi

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH FOR
KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION AND EXPERIENCE CAPTURE OF
VETERAN PRACTITIONERS IN THE HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
By
William C. Epstein
December, 1995
Chairman: Dr. Zohar J. Herbsman
Cochairman: Dr. Ralph D. Ellis
Major Department: Civil Engineering
Every company in every industry faces the prospect of the loss of knowledge and
experience through the departure of key personnel. This predicament created by the loss of
veteran employees is especially acute in the highway construction industry, where frequently
the experience is either undocumented or poorly documented, and the knowledge possessed
by these people is retained exclusively as personal property. This dissertation not only
explores the difficulties associated with pursuing an approach to acquire heretofore
undocumented construction knowledge and expertise, but it also recognizes the vast amounts
of highway construction data and information that are currently available within the
transportation industry. Any concerted effort attempting to capture the construction
knowledge and expertise of a large organization, such as a department of transportation,
would be severely remiss in not taking advantage of this existing base of documented
information.
Xll

This research endeavor represents a comprehensive study of the problems associated
with the development of a systematic approach for capturing the knowledge and experience
of a large organization, and establishing a computer delivery system for dissemination of this
encoded information. Fundamental to this delivery system is the creation of a user-friendly
computing environment that will provide an intuitive tool capable of assisting both veteran
and novice practitioners in fashioning more informed decisions concerning problems that may
arise during normal and abnormal highway construction operations.
One of the major accomplishments of this research effort, was the development of an
information management prototype system which was given the name IN REACH
(Intelligent iNformation Retrieval and Expert Advice for the Construction of Highways). IN
REACH is comprised of an underlying, fully functionally hypertext network which is
augmented by the integration of some innovative database management and expert systems
strategies. In an effort to add structure to the inherently unstructured world of a pure
hypertext system, IN REACH utilizes these integrated strategies to enhance the user’s
capability of direct queries to the overall network, both statically and dynamically.
xiii

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 General Comments
Like many other general concepts, knowledge is a difficult term to quantify. A good
discussion of what constitutes knowledge should begin with characterization of the difference
between data and information. Commonly speaking, raw data are nothing more than a
collection of facts and figures, that by themselves lack any real significance. Only when
meaning is assigned to these facts and figures do these data evolve into information.
Knowledge, on the other hand, can be thought of as the cognitive storage of information
which is readily available for retrieval by the conscious human mind. Feigenbaum [1984]
makes a very interesting point about the relationship between knowledge and information.
He suggests that first it should be clarified that knowledge is not synonymous with
information, rather knowledge is information that has been implemented, categorized,
applied. According to Hayes-Roth, Waterman and Lenant [1983], knowledge consists of
(1) symbolic descriptions of definitions, (2) symbolic descriptions of relationships, and (3)
procedures to manipulate both type of descriptions.
Knowledge of a certain subject, in and of itself, does not constitute expertise in that
field. Expertise is a function of the skillful application of knowledge, and this skill is a direct
result of having experience in that particular domain. What differentiates a novice from an
1

2
expert is not the quantity of knowledge possessed, but rather the amount of experience using
that knowledge. More than ever, modem industry depends on the expertise of its work force
for success. No longer in today's complex world, can one man or woman possibly know
everything there is to know.
For an organization to prosper in this environment, not only must its members possess
a certain level of expertise on an individual basis, but this personal expertise must be
exchanged and transferred throughout the entire structure of the group. The wealth of
knowledge and experience accumulated by veteran employees through their years of service
is something which clearly should be utilized and taken advantage of for current operations.
Furthermore, the fact that these veteran personnel will not remain with the organization into
perpetuity suggests that, as is the case with any limited and valued possession, their
knowledge and experience must be captured and stored for future use.
1,2 Problem Statement
The research effort presented herein is focused upon the United States highway
construction industry from the perspective of the governmental state highway agencies
(SFIAs). Every state in this country has a representative SHA which is responsible for the
construction of the transportation systems within their boundaries. Not unlike any other
large organization, SHAs continually face the unfavorable prospect of losing significant
amounts of accrued knowledge and experience as a result of ongoing departures of key
personnel. These veteran employees, many of whom have spent their entire professional
careers under the employ of a single SHA, aggregately represent thousands of years of

3
accumulated expertise. This predicament is especially acute in the realm of highway
construction operations, wherein frequently the knowledge and experience possessed by
these people is either undocumented or poorly documented, and is usually retained
exclusively as their personal property. What this implies is that, upon their departure, these
seasoned practioners will take with them the years of training and experience provided to
them by the SHA, and in return leave behind little if any of their knowledge and expertise.
To further exasperate this situation, currently and over the next several years, the
SHAs of this country are and will continue to experience an exceedingly concentrated loss
of veteran personnel. The reason why this is happening is due to the fact that many key
members of today’s transportation workforce began their SHA careers during the highway
construction boom of the late 1960s and early 1970s, and unfortunately they are all
approaching retirement age at approximately the same time. This inevitable occurrence is
going to create a critical shortage of experienced practitioners. Time is therefore of the
essence for implementation of some sort of capture program that will not allow a whole
generation of highway construction experience to disappear. Failure to capture this expertise
and integrate it into the organizational and operational structures of the various SHAs will
result in an enormous loss of knowledge that may never fully be replaced. Being that
experience is such a valuable asset in the field of highway construction, research into a
methodology for securing this resource for future use is certainly a very practical and
worthwhile endeavor.
In conjunction with the development of a functional means of acquiring heretofore
undocumented construction expertise, recognition of the vast amounts of highway
construction data and information currently available within the transportation industry is

4
fundamental. Over the years, SHAs across the country have produced a wealth of quality
programs and publications presenting a variety of construction related topics. Any concerted
effort attempting to capture the highway construction knowledge and experience of this
country’s SHAs would be severely remiss in not taking advantage of this existing base of
documented information.
Along with preserving potentially irreplaceable construction expertise and utilizing
existing data and documentation, the other critical aspect of a successful experience capture
program is the proposed method of disseminating the acquired information. This information
and the knowledge associated with this information must first be formalized and encoded
into some sort of communicable form. Then, through a computerized storage, management
and retrieval system, novice and veteran personnel alike would be able to easily refer to all
available information about a particular subject. This easy access to a wide variety of related
topics would provide the user a powerful tool from which to gather the appropriate
knowledge necessary for a more informed decision making process.
1.3 Research Objectives
1,3.1 General Comments
The overall goal of this research project was to develop a systematic approach for
gathering highway construction knowledge and experience, organizing this information,
storing it, and presenting it in such a fashion as to be readily accessible and useful to anyone
wishing to benefit from this knowledge base. This broad effort can be broken down into the
following research objectives as presented next.

5
1.32 Breakdown of the Research Objectives
1.3.2.1 Objective 1
The initial objective of this research was to identify and prioritize the general
categories of highway construction work and operations wherein the loss of experience was
felt to be most critical. The area distinguished as most acute was then focused upon for
further concentrated research.
1.3.2.2 Objective 2
Having determined the area of focus, the next objective was to identify and analyze
existing programs and published materials related to this selected field of concentration. The
appropriate information was then categorized and stored for incorporation into the final
system.
1.3.2.3 Objective 3
A fundamental objective of this research was the development of a systematic
approach for capturing and documenting the individual knowledge and experience of veteran
personnel. This information was then combined with the data as collected from Objective 2
to create an integrated base of individual and organizational highway construction
knowledge.
1.3.2.4 Objective 4
Having a functional knowledge base from which to draw from, the final objective was
the generation and subsequent prototype testing of the computerized delivery system. Key
to the creation of a useful and flexible information management system, was the development

6
of a highly intuitive and user-friendly environment that allows for relatively easy future
expansion to the basic system architecture.
1.4 Research Methodology
1.4.1 General Comments
At this point it should be noted that this dissertation is based on funded research
conducted for the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT). As such, the data and
information collected and analyzed typically relate to FDOT highway construction
operations. Although this research effort concentrated on FDOT personnel and
documentation, any organization could utilize this basic approach in its generic form simply
by focusing the knowledge base development process on the needs specific to that
organization. Work on this particular study consisted of accomplishing the following phased
tasks, and is further illustrated by the schematic flowchart presented in Figure 1.1.
1.4.2 Breakdown of the Research Methodology Phases
1.4.21 Phase 1
Several preliminary interviews with various members of the FDOT were conducted
as a means of developing a comprehensive questionnaire that would fully address the issue
of knowledge acquisition and experience capture within the highway construction industry.
The resulting survey was then distributed to all SHAs in the United States, with the exception
of Florida, as well as to each of the Canadian provincial highway agencies. In Florida, rather
then mail the survey directly to the central state office in Tallahassee, it was sent out
individually to each district office. Conclusions drawn from all returned questionnaires were

Intro duction
SURVEY OF
CURRENT
PRACTICES
Problem
Statement
REVIEW OF
PUBLISHED
LITERATURE
SELECTION OF THE
KNOWLEDGE AND
EXPERIENCE AREA OF FOCUS
SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS U
SURVEY OF
REVIEW OF H
CURRENT
PUBLISHED ¡I
V
PRACTICES
LITERATURE g
>
SELECTION OF THE
INTEGRATED SOFTWARE
APPROACH
DEVELOPMENT OF THE FOCUSED BASE OF
KNOWLEDGE & EXPERIENCE
DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF THE
IN REACH PROTOTYPE SYSTEM
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
Figure 1.1 - Research Development Flowchart

8
then used to identify the most acute area of highway construction operations for further
concentrated research.
1.4 2.2 Phase 2
An extensive literature search was performed through a variety of state-of-the-art
electronic databases, in an attempt to uncover the most up-to-date literature written on this
subject. In addition to reviewing current publications, portions of the questionnaire from
Phase 1 were utilized to ascertain the level of similar endeavors that may be underway within
the different American and Canadian highway agencies. Furthermore, additional efforts were
made to communicate with other governmental and private organizations to identify the
possible existence of any type of knowledge acquisition and experience capture programs that
these contacted organizations may be implementing.
1.4.2 3 Phase 3
Once the area of focus was selected, as described in Phase 1, a detailed review of all
related FDOT documentation was effected. Numerous FDOT publications were
accumulated, and selected information from these documents was then electronically stored
as the foundation on which the final computer delivery system would be built.
1.4.2.4 Phase 4
The next phase was the development and implementation of a systematic approach
for capturing the undocumented experience possessed by veteran construction personnel.
Initially, as is standard with most knowledge acquisition programs, interviews with various
domain experts in the identified area of concentration were conducted. It was soon

9
discovered that although informative and useful in shaping the direction of the study, these
sessions were relatively inefficient for the task at hand, and the comments obtained were
often vague and unfocused . Further into the research, a format for Post Construction
Conferences (PCC) was developed, wherein comments made by the field personnel specific
to a particular job could be integrated into the preliminary knowledge base that was being
compiled in Phase 3. Due to the fact that these meetings were centered around construction
related topics specific to the job that these people were currently working on, their
recollections and comments tended to be more thorough and useful. Additionally, the goal
of a systematic knowledge acquisition technique was more closely realized because the
proposed PCC approach minimized personality influences that are inherent in typical one-on-
one interview sessions.
1,4 2.5 Phase 5
Critical to the success of this project was the identification of the requirements of the
end user. Throughout the research process, close contacts with many key FDOT
construction personnel were maintained in order to establish the specific departmental needs
that the final prototype computer delivery system must address. Conclusions drawn from the
survey of current practices and the literature review from Phase 2, coupled with a functional
understanding of the needs of the FDOT, led to the determination that a hybrid
programming environment would be the best platform for the accomplishment of developing
a flexible, user-friendly information management and retrieval system. The established
independent software technologies of expert systems, hypertext, and database management
systems were utilized in creating an integrated computer program entitled IN REACH, which

10
is an acronym for “Intelligent iNformation Retrieval and Expert Advice in the Construction
of Highways.”
1.4.2.6 Phase 6
Structured demonstration sessions for the presentation of preparatory versions of the
IN REACH program were organized for testing and validation purposes. Additionally,
executable files containing preliminary editions of IN REACH were distributed to selected
FOOT personnel for their unsupervised use. Comments and suggestions collected from these
different testing methods were evaluated and incorporated into the final IN REACH
prototype system.
1.4 2,7 Phase 7
Results from the total research effort encompassing Phase 1 through Phase 6 were
analyzed, and a final dissertation presenting these findings was prepared.

CHAPTER 2
SURVEY OF CURRENT PRACTICES
2.1Survey of Governmental Highway Agencies
2.1.1 Introduction
As previously noted in Chapter 1, the initial objective of this research was to identify
and prioritize the general categories of construction work and operations wherein the loss
of experience was felt to be most critical from the perspective of governmental highway
agencies. To this end, several preliminary interviews were conducted with a number of
FDOT Construction and Resident Engineers. These sessions were instrumental in gaining
a better understanding of the problem as seen from the viewpoints of typical SHA
construction personnel. From these interviews, a comprehensive “Knowledge Acquisition
and Experience Capture” (KA & EC) questionnaire was developed for distribution to the
various state and provincial highway agencies throughout the United States and Canada. A
copy of this survey along with a generic cover letter are included in this dissertation as
Appendix A.
2.1.2 Breakdown of the KA & EC Questionnaire
2,1,2,1 Section I—Loss of Veteran Employees
The function of this section of the survey was twofold. One purpose was to
determine the level of importance that the different agencies placed on the loss of expert
11

12
knowledge due to the departure of veteran employees from the organization. The other
purpose served by this section was the quantification of the magnitude of loss with respect
to each agency.
2,1,2,2 Section II—General Categories of Construction Work
Section II was designed as a way to numerically measure the effect that the loss of
experience has on different general categories of highway construction work. From the
developmental survey interviews conducted with the FDOT, the following five major
categories of construction work were identified for inclusion into the survey:
1) Bridge Work
2) Roadway Work (other than asphalt)
3) Asphalt Work
4) Signaling and Lighting
5) Maintenance of Traffic
The categories of Bridge Work, Roadway Work (other than asphalt), and Asphalt Work were
further subdivided into two separate categories, namely new construction work, and
maintenance and repair work. Additionally, the respondents were encouraged to list and rate
any other general categories of construction work that they deemed appropriate.
2,1 2.3 Section III—General Areas of Construction Operations and Administration
Again from the preliminary interviews conducted with the FDOT, five major areas
of highway construction operative and administrative duties were distinguished as those that
typical construction personnel are most regularly involved in. These areas are as follows:

13
1) Constructability Analysis
2) Inspection
3) Quality Control
4) Construction Documentation
5) Departmental Documentation
As was the case with Section II, the respondents were asked to specify and rate any other
areas of construction operations and administration that were not listed but may apply to their
agency.
2,1 2 4 Section IV—Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture Methodology
The final section of the questionnaire was devoted to determining the current
existence of, or future development of, techniques by which the various polled highway
agencies were attempting to acquire and capture the knowledge and experience of their
veteran practitioners. If applicable, upon completion of the collection and capture phases of
the particular knowledge acquisition methods listed, the questionnaire also requested that the
responding agency please specify what type of system or systems they utilized for storing
and distributing this collected information to the appropriate personnel.
2.1.3 Distribution of the KA & EC Questionnaire
Given that the intended focus of the research was to be on FDOT highway
construction operations, it was desired to distribute the KA & EC questionnaire in such a
fashion as to obtain a set of comparative results between North America in general and the
state of Florida in particular. With this in mind, two separate survey packages were sent out.
The North American survey package was mailed to the attention of each SHA construction

14
department in the United States, with the exception of Florida. Additionally, every
provincial highway agency in Canada was included in this mailing. In order to contrast these
results with those in Florida, this same survey was transmitted to each of the district
construction offices within the FDOT. Distribution lists for the North American survey
package, as well as the Florida package, are given in Appendix B.
2.1.4 Rates of Response to the KA &EC Questionnaire
The North American survey was distributed to a total of 61 agencies (the 49 SHAs
of the United States, excluding Florida; the District of Columbia Department of Public
Works; and the 11 Canadian provincial highway agencies). From this mailing, a total of 34
responses were received. Neglecting multiple respondents from a single agency, the North
American survey realized an overall response of 28 out of 61 agencies for an approximate
rate of 46%. Although this was a relatively low rate of response, it was sufficient to serve
the intended purpose of identifying and framing the problem, thus shaping the direction of
subsequent research.
In Florida, the questionnaire was distributed to each of the seven FDOT district
offices, as well as to the construction office of the Florida Turnpike Authority. It should
be noted that copies of the questionnaire were specifically mailed to three different
individuals in District 2. This occurred because District 2 served as the main personnel
resource center for the research, and as such, there were several people who expressed an
interest in participating in the study. From this mailing, 10 responses were received. Using
the same elimination approach of multiple responses from a single district, the overall
response rate from Florida’s district offices was 4 out of 8, which translates to a rate of 50%.

15
Although the rate of response was again somewhat disappointing, the number of
questionnaires received (10) was deemed suitable for deriving comparative results.
2.1,5 Section by Section Results of the KA & EC Questionnaire
2.1.5.1 Section I—Loss of Veteran Employees
Results for Section I from the North American KA & EC questionnaire are
summarized in Table 2.1, and those from the Florida survey are presented in Table 2.2. The
two numbers to focus on from this section’s results are 1) the average value for the “General
Rating” of the importance of the loss of experience and 2) the average value of the “Average
Years / Person.”
The “General Rating,” measured on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being the lowest level
of importance and 5 being the highest, is an indication of the degree of significance the
respondent feels that his or her organization places on the loss of knowledge and experience
caused by the departure of veteran employees. The average value of this “General Rating”
from the North American survey was 3.39, which was slightly higher than the Florida average
of 3.20.
The second value that should be highlighted is the “Average Years / Person.” This
number is important as verification that respondents were approaching the questionnaire from
the perspective of veteran personnel only. In other words, the research effort was concerned
exclusively with experienced based issues relating to those employees who possessed
significant years of service in the highway construction industry, and as such, the survey’s
intent was to purposely neglect those departing personnel who had not yet accumulated
substantial years of industry experience. Referring again to Table 2.1 and Table 2.2, it is

16
Table 2.1 - Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section I)
SECTION I - LOSS OF VETERAN EMPLOYEES
Responding
District Office
General
Rating
Veteran Employees
Lost per Year
Years of Experience
Lost per Year
Alaska (USA)
3
10
250
Alabama (USA)
2
60
2,100
Arkansas (USA)
3
—
California (USA)
4
1,000
30,000
Colorado (USA)
4
85
2,550
Connecticut (USA)
20
240
Georgia (USA)
3
195
5,850
Idaho (USA)
4
45
900
Illinois (USA)
5
90
1,765
Kansas (USA)
5
Kentucky (USA)
3
15
500
Louisiana (USA)
1
25
625
Maryland - 1 (USA)
3
14
294
Maryland - 2 (USA)
4
Maryland - 3 (USA)
3
10
325
Maryland - 4 (USA)
4
2
60
Maryland - 5 (USA)
5
2
50
Maryland - 6 (USA)
3
Mississippi (USA)
4
26
650
Missouri (USA)
3
27
960
New York (USA)
4
780
15,600
North Dakota (USA)
4
11
372
Ohio (USA)
2
30
675
Oklahoma (USA)
4
10
300
Pennsylvania (USA)
4
500
10,000
South Dakota (USA)
3
20
400
Tennessee (USA)
4
100
4,000
Texas (USA)
3
500
12,000
Virginia (USA)
3
67
1,807
Wyoming (USA)
5
10
300
Alberta (CAN)
3
143
2,750
British Columbia -1 (CAN)
3
30
750
British Columbia - 2 (CAN)
2
8
240
Nova Scotia (CAN)
2
11
300
Number of Responses
33
30
30
Average Values
3.29
Average Years / Person = 25.12

17
Table 2.2 - Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section I)
SECTION I - LOSS OF VETERAN EMPLOYEES
Responding
District Office
General
Rating
Veteran Employees
Lost per Year
Years of Experience
Lost per Year
Florida - District 2
3
15
450
Florida - District 2
1
1
35
Florida - District 2
4
2
65
Florida - District 2
5
Florida - District 2
5
10
330
Florida - District 3
3
3
100
Florida - District 7
3
2
50
Florida - District 7
3
Florida - District 7
3
5
120
F lorida - District 7
2
10
300
Number of Responses
10
8
8
Average Values
3.20
Average Years / Person = 30.21
apparent from the tabulated results for the “Average Years / Person” values, that both the
North American respondents who reported an average of 25.12 years / person, as well as the
Florida respondents at an average of 30.21 years / person understood the requirements of
the survey and responded accordingly.
2.1.5 2 Section II—General Categories of Construction Work
The values presented in Table 2.3 (North America) and Table 2.4 (Florida) represent
the respondents’ ratings of the effects of the loss of experience with respect to various
general categories of construction work as specified in Section II of the KA & EC
questionnaire. Ratings for this section were based on a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the
lowest level of significance and 10 being the highest. Additionally, Figure 2.1 has been
generated as a means of graphically illustrating the average values of the North American
survey in comparison with those of the Florida survey.

18
Table 2.3 - Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section II)
SECTION n - GENERAL CATEGORIES OF CONSTRUCTION WORK
Responding
Agency
Bridge
New
Bridge
R&M
Road
New
Road
R&M
Asphalt
New
Asphalt
R&M
Slg&
Light
Maint of
Traffic
Other
(# Only)
Alaska (USA)
—
—
—
Alabama (USA)
6
5
6
5
7
6
7
6
Arkansas (USA)
5
6
4
4
5
3
4
4
1
California (USA)
8
8
7
7
6
6
9
5
2
Colorado (USA)
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
Connecticut (USA)
9
9
9
9
9
9
7
9
2
Georgia (USA)
5
6
5
6
7
7
3
4
Idaho (USA)
8
5
9
3
8
4
7
7
1
Illinois (USA)
8
7
7
6
8
6
9
9
Kansas (USA)
10
10
10
10
10
10
7
5
1
Kentucky (USA)
7
8
10
8
7
9
5
5
2
Louisiana (USA)
7
6
5
5
5
5
3
2
Maryland - 1 (USA)
10
6
9
5
8
4
4
7
2
Maryland - 2 (USA)
4
4
4
4
Maryland - 3 (USA)
5
4
5
4
6
5
5
1
Maryland - 4 (USA)
—
—
—
Maryland - 5 (USA)
1
2
3
Maryland - 6 (USA)
3
Mississippi (USA)
8
8
7
8
8
7
8
9
Missouri (USA)
5
5
5
3
5
3
3
3
New York (USA)
8
7
8
7
7
6
6
6
North Dakota (USA)
7
7
7
7
Ohio (USA)
7
6
7
5
5
4
8
5
2
Oklahoma (USA)
9
9
10
Pennsylvania (USA)
10
10
9
9
9
9
7
5
South Dakota (USA)
Tennessee (USA)
8
5
8
5
8
5
4
4
Texas (USA)
9
8
8
7
8
7
8
8
3
Virginia (USA)
8
8
8
8
8
8
1
5
Wyoming (USA)
8
8
10
10
10
10
7
7
Alberta (CAN)
8
10
7
8
6
9
4
3
1
British Columbia - 1 (CAN)
7
6
8
5
7
7
4
8
1
British Columbia - 2 (CAN)
9
1
10
1
5
1
2
2
Nova Scotia (CAN)
6
8
6
9
6
8
7
8
Number of ResDonses
28
27
28
27
28
27
27
29
13
Averaee Values
7.50
6.63
7.43
6.15
7.14
6.19
5.37
5.34
N/A

19
Table 2.4 - Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section II)
SECTION IT - GENERAL CATEGORIES OF CONSTRUCTION WORK
Responding
Agency
Bridge
New
Bridge
R& M
Road
New
Road
R & M
Asphalt
New
Asphalt
R & M
Sig &
Light
Maint of
Traffic
Other
(U Only)
Florida - District 2
7
3
Florida - District 2
10
9
10
8
10
8
8
10
2
Florida - District 2
9
3
9
2
8
2
6
8
2
Florida - District 2
9
9
8
9
1
Florida - District 2
8
5
8
5
8
7
5
5
1
Florida - District 3
8
8
7
6
8
5
6
6
Florida - District 7
10
7
8
8
7
4
Florida - District 7
8
8
8
5
5
Florida - District 7
9
10
8
1
7
2
5
6
Florida - District 7
8
8
8
8
8
8
5
7
Number of Responses
10
7
8
6
9
6
9
9
5
Average Values
8.60
6.57
8.13
5.00
8.22
5.33
6.22
7.00
N/A
â– SECTION n - RESULTS
General Categories of Construction Work
10
New R & M New R & M New R & M Light of Traffic
North American Results | | Florida Results
Figure 2.1 - Comparison of Results from North America Versus Florida (Section II)

20
From Table 2.3, Table 2.4, and Figure 2.1 it can be seen that the loss of experience
with respect to new construction work consistently rated as more significant than that of
repair and maintenance within the same general category of work. In the North American
survey, “Signaling & Lighting” and “Maintenance of Traffic” clearly were perceived as the
two specified categories least affected by the loss of experience. Although these two
categories on average rated higher in the Florida survey, the level of importance of these
categories with respect to the loss of veteran expertise still fell far below those categories
associated with new construction work. The column labeled “Other (# Only)” designates
other categories of work not specified in the distributed questionnaire. The numbers that
appear in this column are not ratings, rather they refer only to how many additional
categories were noted by that particular respondent. In the North American survey, the most
common “Other” category selected was landscaping. Out of 23 responses on a total of 13
different questionnaires, seven people mentioned landscaping, with an average rating of 6.17.
The “Other” category in the Florida survey, on the other hand, showed little consensus of
opinion.
2,1,5,3 Section III—General Areas of Construction Operations and Administration
Section III responses are based on the same 1 to 10 rating scale as those from
Section II. Results of the North American survey and the Florida survey are summarized in
Table 2.5 and Table 2.6, respectively. A histogram that includes both sets of data has again
been included as Figure 2.2.
Analysis of the information presented in Table 2.5, Table 2.6, and Figure 2.2
demonstrated that, on average, “Constructability Analysis,” “Inspection Operations,” and

21
Table 2.5 - Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section III)
SECTION m - GENERAL AREAS OF CONSTRUCTION
OPERATIONS
Responding
Constructability
Inspection
Quality
Construct
Department
Other
Agency
Analysis
Operations
Control
Docs
Docs
(# Only)
Alaska (USA)
8
8
6
5
Alabama (USA)
7
8
8
8
7
Arkansas (USA)
6
5
5
4
3
1
California (USA)
8
9
7
9
Colorado (USA)
8
3
3
5
5
Connecticut (USA)
8
10
9
9
9
Georgia (USA)
8
5
6
4
5
—
Idaho (USA)
9
8
7
7
7
3
Illinois (USA)
9
8
8
10
10
Kansas (USA)
10
10
10
5
5
1
Kentucky (USA)
10
6
8
5
5
Louisiana (USA)
6
7
6
6
6
Maryland -1 (USA)
10
8
8
7
4
Maryland - 2 (USA)
Maryland - 3 (USA)
10
10
10
5
5
Maryland - 4 (USA)
—
Maryland - 5 (USA)
10
8
9
8
8
3
Maryland - 6 (USA)
5
7
7
7
7
Mississippi (USA)
9
8
8
6
7
Missouri (USA)
1
5
5
5
New York (USA)
8
8
8
8
8
North Dakota (USA)
7
8
7
5
10
1
Ohio (USA)
2
8
7
6
6
Oklahoma (USA)
8
8
—
Pennsylvania (USA)
8
10
10
7
7
2
South Dakota (USA)
8
6
6
2
Tennessee (USA)
4
9
9
8
7
1
Texas (USA)
8
8
8
8
8
Virginia (USA)
10
8
10
8
7
Wyoming (USA)
10
10
10
10
Alberta (CAN)
2
10
8
5
5
British Columbia - 1 (CAN)
10
9
7
8
7
1
British Columbia - 2 (CAN)
7
5
4
3
2
Nova Scotia (CAN)
7
7
5
5
Number of Responses
28
31
31
32
29
8
Average Values
7.43
7.68
7.58
6.41
6.52
N/A

22
Table 2.6 - Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section III)
SECTION III-GENERAL AREAS OE CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS
Responding
Agency
Constructability
Analysis
Inspection
Operations
Quality
Control
Construct
Docs
Department
Docs
Other
(# Only)
Florida - District 2
7
7
7
5
5
Florida - District 2
9
10
9
8
8
1
Florida - District 2
9
9
9
8
8
1
Florida - District 2
8
7
8
7
Florida - District 2
6
7
7
7
6
Florida - District 3
8
9
8
8
7
2
Florida - District 7
8
7
8
9
9
1
Florida - District 7
8
8
8
8
8
Florida - District 7
6
7
5
4
4
Florida - District 7
5
5
5
5
3
Number of Responses
9
10
10
10
10
4
Average Values
7.33
7.70
7.30
7.00
6.50
N/A
SECTION III - RESULTS
General Areas of Construction Onerations
Analysis Operations Control Documents Documents
vj North American Results â–¡ Florida Results
Figure 2.2 - Comparison of Results from North America Versus Florida (Section III)

23
“Quality Control” were thought to be those general areas of construction operations and
administration wherein the loss of experience was deemed to be most critical. With respect
to selection of “Other” areas of operations, neither the North American nor the Florida
survey yielded any definitive results.
2,1,5,4 Section IV—Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture Methodology
Affirmative responses to the existence of the various specified knowledge acquisition
and experience capture programs are indicated by an “X” in Table 2.7, for the North
American survey, and Table 2.8 for the Florida survey. Referring to Table 2.7, the most
popular methods of acquiring knowledge, based on the North American survey, were the
“Mentor / Apprentice” approach and the use of retired veteran personnel as “Part-Time
Consultants.” Results based on the Florida survey (Table 2.8) indicated that, at least among
those districts that responded, the only method that appears to be consistently utilized in
Florida is the “Mentor / Apprentice” system. Regarding applications of “Other Methods” for
acquiring knowledge, one particular technique that was mentioned by a total of five
respondents in the North American survey was the organization of training sessions
conducted by veteran practitioners. In Florida, on the other hand, no respondent gave any
information on any techniques, other than those specifically called out in the questionnaire.
With respect to dissemination of the captured construction knowledge and experience
throughout the structure of the organization, the overwhelming method of choice in both
surveys among those who chose to comment was the utilization of written construction and
inspection manuals. The Florida respondents, specifically those from District 2, commented

24
Table 2.7 - Results of the North American Questionnaire (Section IV)
SECTION IV - KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION & EXPERIENCE CAPTURE
METHODOLOGY
Responding
1 on 1
Round
Depart
Mentor /
Post Construct
Part-Time
Other
Agency
Interview
Table
Report
Apprentice
Conference
Consultant
Methods
Alaska (USA)
X
X
X
Alabama (USA)
Arkansas (USA)
California (USA)
X
X
X
X
X
Colorado (USA)
X
X
X
Connecticut (USA)
X
X
Georgia (USA)
Idaho (USA)
X
X
Illinois (USA)
X
X
X
Kansas (USA)
X
X
X
X
Kentucky (USA)
X
Maryland -1 (USA)
Maryland - 2 (USA)
X
X
X
Maryland - 3 (USA)
Maryland - 4 (USA)
X
Maryland - 5 (USA)
Maryland - 6 (USA)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Mississippi (USA)
X
X
Missouri (USA)
New York (USA)
X
North Dakota (USA)
X
Ohio (USA)
X
X
X
X
X
Oklahoma (USA)
Pennsylvania (USA)
South Dakota (USA)
Tennessee (USA)
X
X
Texas (USA)
Virginia (USA)
X
X
Wyoming (USA)
X
Alberta (CAN)
X
X
X
British Columbia -1 (CAN)
British Columbia - 2 (CAN)
X
X
X
X
Nova Scotia (CAN)
Number of Responses
6
1
2
13
9
15
9

25
Table 2.8 - Results of the Florida Questionnaire (Section IV)
SECTION IV - KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION & EXPERIENCE CAPTURE METHODOLOGY
Responding
Agency
1 on 1
Interview
Round
Table
Depart
Report
Mentor /
Apprentice
Post Construct
Conference
Part-Time
Consultant
Other
Methods
Florida - District 2
X
X
Florida - District 2
Florida - District 2
X
Florida - District 2
X
Florida - District 2
Florida - District 3
X
X
Florida - District 7
X
Florida - District 7
Florida - District 7
Florida - District 7
Number of Responses
0
1
0
5
1
0
0
on the existence of two particular in-house documents, one is a manual entitled Tricks of the
Trade [Jacksonville, 1992], and the other is a collection of inspection checklists which are
still presently under development. These documents along with several other FDOT
publications will be discussed in detail in Chapter 4 of this dissertation. In the North
American survey, there were a total of eight respondents who indicated that their
organization had developed some sort of procedural manual for highway construction
operations. An example of one such publication received through the questionnaire process
is a pocket-sized State of California Department of Transportation manual entitled Highway
Construction Checklist [State of California, 1985], Appendix C includes selected excerpts
from this booklet, specifically, the cover, the Foreword, the Table of Contents, and the
complete section on Concrete Structures. Although this document is somewhat dated, it
does represent a comprehensive attempt by this agency at capturing the highway construction
knowledge and experience of its veteran practitioners.

26
2.1.6 Selected Comments from the KA & EC Questionnaire
Although the survey was rather complex and time consuming, many who participated
did take the time to give their final comments on the subject of knowledge acquisition and
experience capture as it related to their organization. The loss of valuable expertise through
the departure of veteran personnel clearly was of concern to a vast majority of the
respondents. Two comments, in particular, have been reproduced herein as an illustration
of how significant the problem is and how many perceive their agencies as highly deficient
with respect to the implementation of any type of methodology for the capture of the
construction knowledge and expertise possessed by veteran practitioners within their
organization.
The Chief of the Construction Division for the Louisiana Department of
Transportation and Development commented as follows:
I’m retiring with 33+ years of experience. Most of this has
been in structures, including all kinds of bridges and
foundation experience. When I leave, there will not be one
person in the Department that can approach my experience.
This state has done nothing, has no plans to do anything, and
probably never will address this matter.
A Resident Engineer in the FDOT made the following statement regarding the level
of importance he felt was given to this subject by his department:
The FDOT does not use any of these knowledge acquisition
and experience capture] methods in the construction offices.
They give them (departing veteran employees) a hand shake,
and say “Good Luck.”
Another set of interesting comments that were made on several Florida
questionnaires had to do with the use of private construction engineering and inspection firms
known as CEIs. These CEI consultants are utilized for contract administration and

27
inspection operations on substantial amounts of the highway construction work that is
currently being contracted out by the FDOT. Typically CEI firms in the state of Florida
regularly hire retiring FDOT personnel and resell their services back to the Department.
Although these individuals are no longer technically employed by the FDOT, the Department
still benefits from their knowledge and expertise. Whereas some in the FDOT question
certain aspects of this practice, as evidenced by the following two comments, all agree that
today, the use of CEIs is an integral and established part of highway construction operations
within the state of Florida.
An FDOT Construction Training Engineer has this to say about CEI firms:
A lot of our employees retire with 30+ years of experience
and go to work for a consultant (CEI) that has a contract with
us. Thus we never loose their experience or knowledge, we
just pay them more for it.
A Project Manager with the FDOT made similar comments with respect to CEI firms
and departing veteran practitioners:
This experience is not truly lost because most (90%) of the
departing employees immediately go to work for CEI
consultants who work directly with the Department. The
Department, looses the opportunity to direct these personnel
in ways which would better benefit the people of Florida.
2.1.7 Summary
As previously noted in the research objectives, one of the fundamental purposes of
the KA & EC questionnaire was the identification and prioritization of the general categories
of highway construction work and operations wherein the loss of experience was felt to be
most critical. The area distinguished as most acute would then become the focus of
continued research and development. Analysis of Section II and Section III of the KA & EC

28
questionnaire indicated that in both the North American and Florida surveys, basically the
same general categories of work and areas of operations were rated as those most affected
by the loss of experience . Based on these rather conclusive results, it was determined that
the research effort from this point forward would be concentrated on inspection operations
associated with the construction of new bridges. Although other categories of work and
areas of operations rated at near similar levels, it was felt that this particular selection offered
the best opportunity for the development of a prototype system that would appeal to the
widest audience within the FDOT.
Another observation that can be drawn from a final review of the KA & EC
questionnaire is the apparent lack of any kind of functional implementation of knowledge
based programs among the various responding transportation agencies. The survey was
distributed specifically to those personnel who were in positions of supervising the
construction operations within their agencies. The questionnaire purposely made no direct
references to the term “expert systems” (see Chapter 3 for a discussion of this technology),
in order to ascertain the practical level of use of these types of systems without unduly
prompting such responses. It is very interesting to note that from a total 44 completed
questionnaires, only two respondents made any mention at all of expert systems as a method
by which their department was attempting to capture and disseminate construction
knowledge and experience. One of the two, the New York State Department of
Transportation, actually commented on the fact that after participating in a research project
for the development of an asphalt paving expert system in the early 1990s [Williams et al.,
1990], the department reviewed the findings and decided not to pursue such an approach.
The other agency, however, the Alberta Department of Transportation and Utilities, did

29
report a significant commitment to the development of expert systems. Since 1990, this
organization has initiated the development of 16 expert systems, of which 11 have been fully
implemented. However, by their own admission, these systems require an inordinate
dedication of departmental resources and time, which has caused somewhat of a reduction
in the popularity of continuing these types of efforts in the future.
2.2 TRB Information on Current Practices
2,2,1 TRB Synthesis on Knowledge Based Expert Systems
During the literature review process, details of which are presented in Chapter 3, a
Transportation Research Board (TRB) report entitled “Knowledge Based Expert Systems
in Transportation, A Synthesis of Highway Practice” was uncovered [Cohn and Harris,
1992], As part of this synthesis, a survey was conducted in an attempt to ascertain the
current level of development and implementation of knowledge based expert systems among
this country’s SHAs. Table 2.9 represents the outcome of this survey. It should be noted
the numbers listed under the column heading “Stage of Development” indicate that the
responding state has been involved with one or more knowledge based expert systems
(KBES) at the designated stage of development as described in the table’s legend (1 through
6). The numerical sequence, however, does not necessarily match the activity areas listed in
the last column entitled “KBES Activity Area.” Examination of Table 2.9 suggests that the
transportation industry appears to be somewhat more involved in the development of KBES
technology than was evidenced by responses to this dissertation’s KA & EC questionnaire.

30
Table 2.9 - Level of KBES Activity Among the SHAs of the United States
Responding
State
Stage of
Development
KBES
Activity Areas
California
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Hazardous materials; Traffic incident
management; Water quality; Concrete
products; KBES priority
Connecticut
3,5
Pavement rating;
Impact attenuator design
Illinois
1,3
KBES priority
Emergency response
Kansas
1,3
Concrete construction;
Concrete pavements
Maryland
3
Freeway incident management
Minnesota
4
Processing truck permits
New Jersey
3,5
Noise barrier design;
Infrastructure risk management
New York
3, 4, 5, 6
Snow problem location; Asphalt paving
inspection; Pavement marking;
Concrete analysis; Infrastructure risk
management; Steel bridge inspection
Oklahoma
1
KBES state of the art
Oregon
3
Truck weight analysis
Pennsylvania
3,5
Automated bridge design / drafting;
Structural failure analysis
South Dakota
3
Processing truck permits
Texas
2,3,4
Bridge rail retrofit;
Constructability enhancement;
Pavement analysis
Utah
3
Construction evaluation
Virginia
5
Traffic control in work zones;
Disposition of old bridges
LEGEND KBES = Knowledge Based Expert Systems
1= Conceptual; 2 = Prototype in development;
3 = Prototype under testing; 4 = Detailed KBES in development
5 = KBES in use; 6 = Project terminated
Source: [Cohn and Harris 1992]

31
2.2.2 Survey of the TRB Construction Management Committee
As a follow up to the KA & EC survey and influenced by the TRB synthesis on
knowledge based expert systems in transportation, it was decided that a subsequent letter of
inquiry would be transmitted to a slightly different focus group of industry practitioners, ones
who may have additional information with respect to the more theoretical aspects of
capturing highway construction knowledge and experience. To this end, a directory of names
was compiled from a current list of members of the Construction Management Committee
(A2F05) of the TRB. It was felt that these people represented a more research oriented cross
section of the highway construction industry. However, in keeping with the objectives of
surveying industry personnel specifically, all members of the Committee who were
academicians were eliminated from the list. This left a final total of 18 people from a variety
of different transportation related organizations. The breakdown of their affiliations is as
follows:
A) One person was from the Norway Public Roads Administration.
B) One member was employed by the TRB National Research Council.
C) One was from the Federal Highway Administration.
D) Sjx of the 18 worked for various SHAs.
E) One was from the L.A. County Transportation Authority.
F) Eight were from various private contracting and engineering firms.
Each of these 18 individuals was then sent a letter of inquiry, a generic copy of which
appears in Appendix D along with the associated distribution list. Two representative
examples of the responses received, one being from Parsons Brinckerhoff Construction
Services, Inc., and the other from Martin L Cawley & Associates, is included as Appendix

32
E. In all, nine out of the original 18 contacted members responded. As was the case with
the original KA & EC survey, expert systems were not specifically mentioned in order to
gauge their level of acceptance among this particular group. Although many of the
comments received were very interesting and well thought out, not a single respondent
referred to the existence of any type of expert systems as a method by which their
organization was attempting to capture construction knowledge and experience.
Another point of agreement between the information gathered through this letter of
inquiry, and that gleaned from the responses to the KA & EC questionnaire, was the
popularity of documenting construction knowledge through the development of construction
manuals. As an example of another such construction manual, Appendix F contains copies
of the cover, the Foreword, the Table of Contents, and subsections I to V of Section 550
(Structural Deck Inspection Guide), as reproduced from the New York State Department of
Transportation’s Construction Supervision Manual [New York, 1984], Although this
publication was received as a result of contact with the New York Department of
Transportation via the letter of inquiry, it should be noted that this manual was also
mentioned in the comments from the New York respondent to the KA & EC questionnaire.
2,3 Current Practices Within U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
2.3.1 General Comments
Although this research effort was focused on highway construction, communication
was established with several large construction organizations that were not specifically
affiliated with the transportation industry. From these preliminary investigations, the U.S.

33
Army Corps of Engineers clearly set itself apart from other construction entities by the level
of commitment this organization has placed on acquiring and capturing the construction
knowledge and expertise of its personnel.
2,3.2 Jacksonville District Corps of Engineers
Initial contact with the Corps was made through their district office in Jacksonville,
Florida. One outcome of preliminary interviews conducted with members of this office was
the reference to another sample of a construction inspection manual. Appendix G contains
the cover, the Foreword, the Table of Contents, and Sections 2G-01 (General) and 2G-02
(General Requirements) from Chapter 2G (Pile Construction), reproduced from Volume 2
of a four part handbook entitled Construction Inspector’s Guide [U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, 1986], As was the case with the manuals obtained from the various SHAs, refer
to Appendix C and Appendix F for examples, this document also was written from the
position of managing construction work from the perspective of the government agency
charged with administering the contract.
Another interesting methodology initiated by the Corps in an effort to capture
construction knowledge and experience, is their program of developing “Lessons Learned
Reports” for the analysis of special problems associated with projects that were constructed
under their jurisdiction. An example of such a report appears in Appendix H of this
dissertation. This Lessons Learned Report, generated in the Jacksonville District Corps of
Engineers office, was based on a recently completed project known as the Cerrillos Dam
project. What makes this report especially useful, is the Corps’ insistence on relating the
lessons learned from the Cerrillos Dam project to a similar upcoming project, known as the

34
Portuguese Dam. Not only does this report identify problematic areas encountered during
design, construction, and ongoing operations of a completed project, it also institutes a
procedural method for application of past lessons learned to a specific upcoming project.
What this program represents is a systematic approach, on the part of the Corps, attempting
to capture knowledge and expertise by documenting the experiences of their personnel with
respect to a specific construction project. Furthermore the establishment of a process which
requires that the lessons learned from the Cerrillos Dam project be implemented on the
upcoming Portuguese Dam project, is a very sound method that should help to mitigate the
repetitive occurrence of past problems on future projects.
2.3.3 U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories
2.3.3,1 General comments
The examples, as per Appendices G and H, of some of the techniques within the
Corps for capturing knowledge and experience which have been presented up to this point
are certainly worthwhile endeavors which document organizational construction expertise.
The key word here is “document” as it refers to the traditional paper-based methods of
storage and distribution of information. With the advent of the personal computer, and the
proliferation of electronically based information management systems, one would assume that
somewhere within the Corps there must exist more computerized approaches for the capture
and dissemination of construction knowledge and experience.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is the largest public engineering organization in
the world. Falling under their jurisdiction, is the administration of the construction programs
for both the Army and the Air Force, at an annual budget of over five billion dollars, not to

35
mention their duties associated with managing a myriad of domestic engineering concerns,
such as keeping this nation’s waterways navigable [USACERL, 1993a], In 1969, the Corps
established the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) in
an effort to develop new construction innovations that would serve to enhance the Corps’
future capabilities of managing their growing network of construction and maintenance
related operations. Over the years, USACERL has become one of this country’s premier
construction research and development institutions, and as such, it seemed to be a likely place
to continue the search for more state-of-the-art systems that may possibly take advantage of
today’s emerging technologies.
2,3,3,2 Developmental knowledge based expert systems
Preliminary discussions were initiated with the USACERL headquarters in
Champaign, Illinois. Results of these conversations led to the discovery of several knowledge
based expert systems (KBES) that were currently under development dealing with a variety
of construction related topics. Fact Sheets, provided by USACERL, describing two such
systems have been included in Appendix I. The first example is that of a KBES designed to
“assist Corps management and technical personnel in using the Design/Build method of
construction contracting” [USACERL, 1993b], The second Fact sheet also describes an
expert system called Claims Guidance System (CGS). According to the documentation, CGS
analyzes the “relevant information regarding a particular claim” provided to the system by
the user, and based on current legal precedence, generates a set of expert recommendations
[USACERL, 1993c],

36
2.3.3.3 ARMS and the BCOE Advisor system
Although expert systems are one method by which USACERL is attempting to
electronically capture construction expertise, the inherent narrow focus, coupled with the
arduous task of creating KBES rule sets has led to research into alternate approaches. One
of the most interesting and comprehensive efforts underway at USACERL is their work on
the programs known as ARMS (Automated Review Management System), and the BCOE
(Biddability, Constructability, Operability, and Environmental compliance) Advisor system,
which is a developmental extension of ARMS.
In an initial step towards automating the design review process, the computer experts
at USACERL began developing ARMS. This program is basically an extensive database of
project review comments maintained by the Technical Center of Expertise (TCX) at the
Sacramento District, Corps of Engineers office in California. The fundamental purpose of
ARMS is to provide all members of a project team a “management tool for the collection,
resolution, and storage of comments generated during the design/construction life of a
project.” Figure 2.3 presents a schematic flowchart which illustrates the method by which
ARMS manages the comments which arise as a result of the design review process. Quoting
again from the ARMS manual, “This program is tailored to replace the current system of
receiving and resolving hand written design comments” [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
1992],
As a part of the overall design review process, that which ARMS was created to help
manage, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requires what is known as a BCOE (Biddability,
Constructability, Operability, and Environmental compliance) review on all of their projects.
The concept is to involve construction personnel in this BCOE review in order to identify the

37
ELECTRONIC BASED DESIGN
REVIEW MANAGEMENT
Request
Review
Review
Assignment
f Comments
ALL USERS CAN:
- CHECK WORK LOAD
- READ ALL COMMENTS
-DETERMINE DUE DATES
Source: [Roessler et al., 1993]
Figure 2.3 - Schematic Flowchart of ARMS Operations

38
construction related problems. Upon recognition of these problems, the designer is then
informed, and thus can modify the design so as to avoid costly construction contract
modifications and minimize the cost of building operations and maintenance. As a
computerized extension of ARMS, in the realm of BCOE reviews, USACERL initiated work
on a program called the BCOE Advisor. It is interesting to note that the developers of this
system originally experimented with a rule based KBES upon which to build their BCOE
Advisor prototype, however, this approach soon was found to be inappropriate for the
unique nature of the construction projects being reviewed. Instead, it was decided that the
BCOE Advisor would be produced on rBASE, a commercially available relational database
software package marketed by the Microrim Corporation. According to the BCOE Advisor
programmers, rBASE was selected because at the time it was the only PC platform database
system that supported the American National Standard Institute’s (ANSI) Standard Query
Language (SQL) [Roessler et al., 1993], Storing the BCOE Advisor data in SQL would
then make it possible to import and export comments to and from ARMS directly in a
standardized format.
What the developers of the BCOE Advisor system attempted to do was to augment
the BCOE process by creating a database system that could 1) conceptually access past
design review comments from ARMS, 2) modify these comments with respect to the current
project being reviewed, and 3) store these new modified comments for future use. Figure 2.4
illustrates the basic operations of the BCOE Advisor system and its interface capabilities with
ARMS. Fundamentally, as Roessler et al. [1993] suggest, what this established was a system
that provided a “lessons learned capturing program to assist in the generation of high quality,
ARMS compatible, design review comments.”

BCOE Advisor - Flow Chart:
Title/Data
Source: [Roessler et al., 1993]
Figure 2.4 - Schematic Flowchart of BCOE Advisor Operations
LO

40
2 4 Summary of the Survey of Current Practices
2.4.1 The General Category of Work for Further Concentration
One of the fundamental purposes of surveying current practices within the highway
construction industry was to distinguish that area of highway construction work in which
those in the industry felt that the effects associated with the loss of experience due to the
departure of veteran personnel was most acute. From the responses to Section II of the KA
& EC questionnaire as presented in this chapter, the general category of “New Bridge
Construction” clearly established itself as the highest rated category in level of importance
given to experience based issues.
The survey also looked at those operative and administrative duties that typical
construction staff members are most regularly involved in. Again from the results of the KA
& EC questionnaire, the three areas from Section III that were identified as being most
affected by the loss of experience were “Constructability Analysis,” “Inspection Operations,”
and “Quality Control.” The area of “Constructability Analysis,” although obviously related
to construction operations, is also heavily involved in the design aspects of highway work.
As such, and keeping in mind that the original scope of the study was specifically on that of
construction operations, it was decided that this area would not be singled out for further
concentration. With respect to construction operations, one of the primary functions of
“Quality Control” is accomplished by ensuring that the finished product has been built in
accordances with the plans and specifications, as well as all other applicable construction
related practices and requirements. Therefore, much of the burden of monitoring the field
quality and compliance of the finished product falls squarely on the shoulders of those people
who are in charge of the “Inspection Operations.”

41
Taking into account the totality of the KA & EC questionnaire responses, coupled
with the original goals as set forth in the research objectives, it was decided that the
subsequent knowledge acquisition efforts were going to be limited to “New Bridge
Construction” with a focused attention on “Inspection Operations.” Not only did the survey
bear out these results, but conversation with many FDOT personnel indicated that this
concentrated effort would reach the widest audience within the Department. And as has been
noted, since the end-user in this case was to be the FDOT, it only served to strengthen this
decision.
2,4,2 Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture Methods
2.4.2.1 Inspection and operational manuals
By far, the most popular technique of capturing construction expertise was the
utilization of written construction inspection and operational manuals. Although these types
of manuals were found to exist in most of the construction organizations contacted, many of
the comments received regarding these documents acknowledged their limited effectiveness.
It is not that these manuals do not contain significant amounts of quality information, rather
it is more a function of the cumbersome way in which this information is presented.
2.4.2.2 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lessons Learned reports
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lessons Learned reporting program was a
method of experience capture that appeared to be very productive. The concept of
documenting the problematic areas of a particular job creates a more systematic approach to
knowledge acquisition. The fact that project personnel are able to discuss relatively recent
occurrences of a specific nature, yield comments that are more focused and ultimately more

42
useful. This technique was deemed to be one which demonstrated promise for
implementation with respect to this dissertation’s efforts in regards to the capture of highway
construction knowledge and experience.
2.4,2.3 Current computerized developmental efforts
With respect to cutting-edge computer based technologies, the field of expert systems
seems to be the one that has attracted the most attention of late. Although there are a
number of transportation related KBES programs currently under development, as evidenced
by Table 2.9, results of the KA & EC questionnaire, along with the subsequent contacts made
with other organizations, both in and out of the highway construction industry, indicate that
the functional utilization of expert systems by those personnel who are directly associated
with day-to-day construction operations is very limited or nonexistent. Wentworth [1993]
suggests that an explanation for this lack of practical acceptance by the industry may be due
to the fact that in his opinion, highway applications of expert systems “appear to be more
developer-driven than user-demanded.”
Another interesting computer application uncovered at the U.S. Army Construction
Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) was their conceptual database for the
management of comments generated through the BCOE (Biddability, Constructability,
Operability and Environmental compliance) portion of the design review process. The
program, which is called the BCOE Advisor is a very innovative method of storage and
retrieval of text based comments. Although not specifically related to the highway
construction industry, the idea of relating comments of similar subject matter and providing
conceptual access to this information certainly is an approach worth investigating.

43
One class of information software that has yet to be discussed but which shows great
promise for managing construction related text and graphics is the technology known as
hypertext. Williams [1991], in an article describing a hypertext asphalt paving system that
was developed in conjunction with the New York State Department of Transportation
(NYSDOT), defines hypertext as a “database system of text and graphics that allows a
reader to jump from idea to idea depending on one’s interest.” This article in particular was
chosen to quote because Williams is the same person who had participated in the previously
mentioned development of the asphalt paving expert system [Williams et al., 1990] that was
subsequently abandoned by the NYSDOT. According to the NYSDOT respondent to the
KA & EC questionnaire, after departmental review of the hypertext system as compared to
the expert system, the hypertext system was deemed to be more suited to their needs and is
currently being successfully utilized.
Another example of a hypertext application found within the transportation industry
is a program called the Highway Constructability Improvement System (HCIS), which was
developed for the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). In an article
written for the Transportation Research Board, HCIS is described as database of information
extracted from five years worth of WSDOT change orders. The WSDOT felt that by using
HCIS, engineers at their design office could access knowledge from past construction related
experiences that resulted in change orders, and hopefully avoid similar errors in preparing
future design plans and specifications [Lee et al., 1991],

44
2.5 Final Comments on the Survey of Current Practices
In general, based on the survey of current practices, there did not appear to be any
comprehensive highway construction knowledge acquisition and experience capture
programs that had gained any significant levels of acceptance among those practitioners who
are intimately involved in the day-to-day operations of building this country’s highway
systems. It was felt that for a knowledge acquisition and experience capture program to be
successful in an organization such as the FDOT, the information delivery system must cater
to the needs of the end user. Although some promising developments in the area of
information management were uncovered, further review into the current literature associated
with this field of study is required, and as such, will be pursued in detail in Chapter 3 of this
dissertation.

CHAPTER 3
REVIEW OF PUBLISHED LITERATURE
3.1 Introduction
Up to this point in the research endeavor, significant effort had been focused on the
identification of the methods by which different agencies within the highway construction
industry were attempting to acquire knowledge and experience, and disseminate this captured
knowledge to other members of the organization. Although no one singular system that fully
addressed all the issues of capturing construction knowledge and experience as set forth in
this dissertation’s research objectives had been uncovered, in particular, the three information
management technologies of expert systems, hypertext, and database management systems
had emerged as likely candidates for utilization in one form or another as potential tools for
possible realization of the stated objectives. It was apparent that as stand alone entities,
none of these three branches of information management could be considered as fully
responsive to the needs of the proposed system. However, it was felt that by integrating
certain aspects of each type of computer software, a prototype computerized system could
be developed that would create an intuitive, user-friendly environment for the capture and
dissemination of highway construction knowledge and experience.
With this in mind and concurrent with the survey of current practices, as detailed in
Chapter 2, an extensive literature survey was undertaken utilizing the University of Florida’s
45

46
on-line searching capabilities of the Library User Information Services (LUIS). Additionally,
a computer database search was conducted through the Southern Technology Applications
Center (STAC), which like the university, is also located in Gainesville, Florida. At STAC,
two of the most comprehensive, commercially available engineering index services, DIALOG
(File 63—TRIS) and COMPENDEX, were queried. These searches were focused on the
distinct fields of study relating to expert systems, hypertext, and database management
systems, in order to gain a better understanding of the various capabilities of each of these
information management techniques. With a firm grasp of the underlying functionality
associated with these technologies, intelligent decisions could then be made with respect to
the level and strategies of integration that would be pursued. The results of this review
process, along with conclusions for the proposed system integration, will be presented in the
following sections of this chapter.
3.2 Knowledge Based Expert Systems
3.2,1 General Comments
Although the standard knowledge based expert systems (KBES) that are currently
being developed in the highway construction industry have shown themselves to be inherently
narrowly focused and typically not well received by industry practitioners, it was felt that
there may be certain properties associated with expert systems that might turn out to be very
useful. In order to determine what aspects of the KBES approach may be worthwhile in the
context of this research effort, the concept of what an expert system is and exactly what it
does will be explored next.

47
3.2,2 Historical Background
Knowledge based expert systems (KBES), as they exist today, are a direct outgrowth
of the artificial intelligence techniques that began to develop after World War II. In 1956,
a group of scientists from such fields as electrical engineering, mathematics, neurology and,
psychology, got together at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to discuss the possibilities
of utilizing the computer as a means of simulating various aspects of human intelligence. The
proposed intent of the Dartmouth Conference was to explore the conceptual supposition
"that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so
precisely described, that a machine can be made to simulate it." They termed this new
technology Artificial Intelligence (AI) [Rose, 1984],
One result of the Dartmouth Conference was the establishment of future aspirations
for the AI field. It was forecasted that by 1970, a computer would be able to do the
following:
1) be a grandmaster at chess;
2) discover significant new mathematical theorems;
3) understand spoken languages, and provide language translations; and
4) compose music of classical quality.
By the mid 1960s, it had become painfully apparent that these lofty goals of true artificial
intelligence set by the Dartmouth Conference were not going to be met, and in hindsight they
were very unrealistic. The AI community regrouped and began to consider more modest
goals for the intelligent machine. They agreed that knowledge was the essential ingredient
of intelligence. They also realized that the computer, despite its sizeable capacity for data
storage, was not able to store and process the incredible amount of information that would

48
be necessary to simulate actual cognitive human intelligence. They therefore decided that for
the time being, they would focus their research and adopt the following strategies:
1) be more modest;
2) be more focused; and
3) direct system development towards a narrow sector (domain) of
expertise, rather than attempt to simulate general overall human
intelligence.
The name given to this new subfield of AI was Expert Systems or Knowledge Based Expert
Systems (KBES) [Ignizio,1989], Figure 3.1 illustrates the history of expert systems as they
evolved from artificial intelligence [Harmon and King, 1985],
3,2,3 Generalized Overview of Knowledge Based Expert Systems
3.2,3,1 Definition
A KBES is a sophisticated computer program that manipulates knowledge of a
specific domain in such a way as to solve complex problems that would otherwise require
extensive human expertise [Waterman, 1986; Rolston, 1988], Probably one of the most
frequently quoted and comprehensive definitions of what constitutes a KBES can be
attributed to Professor Edward Feigenbaum of Stanford University, a leading authority in
expert systems research. Feigenbaum defines an expert system as follows [Harmon and King,
1985]:
An expert system is an intelligent computer program that
uses knowledge and inference procedures to solve problems
that are difficult enough to require significant human expertise
for their solution. Knowledge necessary to perform at such
a level, plus the inference procedures used, can be thought of
as a model of the expertise of the best practitioners of the
field.

Cognitive
psychology
Formal
l 1 1 1 1 1
1940 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990
Figure 3.1 - History of the Evolution of Expert Systems from Artificial Intelligence
-u
VO

50
The knowledge of an expert system consists of facts and
heuristics. The ‘facts’ constitute a body of information that
is widely shared, publicly available, and generally agreed upon
by the experts in the field. The ‘heuristics’ are mostly private,
little-discussed rules of good judgement (rules of plausible
reasoning, rules of good guessing) that characterize expert-
level decision making in the field. The performance level of
an expert system is primarily a function of the size and the
quality of the knowledge base it possesses [p. 5],
3,2,3,2Functional components of a generic KBES
3.2.3.2.1 General comments. The typical architecture of a generic KBES is
illustrated in Figure 3.2 [Ignizio, 1991], Based on this figure, a brief discussion of each
component and its functional relationship to the overall system will be presented next.
3.2.3.2.2 The human/computer interface. The dotted horizontal line represents the
cut off point between human users and the computer operations. Below the line there is the
“User” who is the non-expert person utilizing the system. The “Knowledge Engineer” is the
person who interfaces with the domain expert, defines the expert’s knowledge, and models
it in such a way so as it can be loaded into the computer. The process by which the
“Knowledge Engineer” seeks out and captures this knowledge and expertise is commonly
referred to as knowledge acquisition [Parsaye and Chignell, 1988], Knowledge acquisition
has developed into a subspecialty in its own right, and will be discussed in more detail in
Chapter 4. Continuing with the human/computer interrelationship, the “Interface” is the
system’s component that controls all input/output functions that take place between the
computer and either the “User” or the “Knowledge Engineer.”
3.2.3.2.3 The knowledge base. The “Knowledge Base” is universally recognized
as the “heart and soul” of any KBES [Parsaye and Chignell, 1988; Ignizio, 1991], As earlier
stated in Feigenbaum’s eloquent description of an expert system, the “Knowledge Base”

Working
i
Knowledge
Memory
1
1
Base
Rule
Adjuster
Interface
I-
User
Knowledge
Engineer
Source: [Ignizio, 1991]
Figure 3.2 - Architecture of a Generic Knowledge Based Expert System

52
stores two types of knowledge (facts and rules). To reiterate, facts are statements whose
validity are widely accepted as truth. Facts are obviously significant in assuring the accuracy
of the system, but they alone cannot be used for reasoning. By relating facts together with
rules however, relationships can be represented, reasoning can then be inferred, and new facts
can be derived. Representation of the knowledge in the “Knowledge Base” can be achieved
utilizing a variety of methods which include production (IF...THEN...) rules, semantic
networks, object-attribute-value (OAV) triplets, and frames [Waterman, 1986; Adeli, 1988;
Dym and Levitt, 1991], Of these knowledge representation schemes, the production rule
approach is by far the most widely used and easiest to understand. With this in mind, any
future reference to knowledge representation within this generalized overview presentation,
will concentrate on the production rule metaphor.
3.2.3.2.4 The working memory. The “Working Memory,” which is often referred
to as the context component of the KBES, is similar to the “Knowledge Base” in that it also
contains facts. However, the difference is that the facts within the “Knowledge Base” are
statically imbedded, that is to say that these facts are existing and do not undergo change
during system utilization. The “Working Memory” , on the other hand, dynamically stores
new facts which are generated by the system itself in one of two ways. “Working Memory”
facts are either derived from the cycling of the “Inference Engine,” or they are produced as
a result of consultations with the “User.”
3.2.3.2.5 The inference engine. The “Inference Engine” is the mechanism by which
the KBES locates existing knowledge and infers new knowledge from the “Knowledge
Base.” The “Inference Engine” accomplishes two main objectives:
1) It examines the existing facts and rules within the “Knowledge Base,” and
when possible it adds new facts to the “Working Memory.”

53
2) It also controls the order in which the inferences are made. The most
common inference strategies are forward chaining , backward chaining,
or some type of combination of these two approaches.
3.2.3.2.6 Forward chaining. As noted previously, in a rule based KBES, the
knowledge is represented by a collection of IF... THEN... production rules. The concept of
forward chaining, also known as “bottom up” or “data driven” searching, can best be
explained by examining what happens within the generic KBES that has been under
discussion. In general terms, initial data is supplied to the KBES through consultation with
the “User.” This data is then compared to the IF portion of the rules in the “Knowledge
Base.” When a particular IF part of a rule is deemed to be true, that is to say that the KBES
matches supplied data to an IF condition, then the rule “fires,” creating a new fact (the THEN
portion of the rule) which is immediately added to the “Working Memory.” In an iterative
process, the rule base is reexamined continuing to utilize the initial supplied data in
conjunction with the new inferred facts in an attempt to deduce a solution to the problem at
hand. Forward chaining is therefore best suited for situations wherein the KBES is called on
to interpret a set of incoming facts, and reach some kind of conclusion based on this incoming
data [Maher, 1987],
3.2.3.2.7 Backward chaining. Backward chaining, which is also commonly referred
to as “top down” or “goal driven” searching, is a much more difficult strategy to understand,
but in simplistic terms, it can be thought of as basically the reverse of forward chaining.
Under the backward chaining approach, the KBES compares the desired goal (hypothesis)
to the THEN portion of the production rules in an attempt to evaluate whether or not the IF
part of the applicable rule or rules can be justified. If successful, the goal is established and
the KBES reports its results, otherwise another hypothesis is formed and the “Inference

54
Engine” repeats the procedure [Bielwaski and Lewand, 1991], Backward chaining, due to
the fact that the inference strategy is goal driven rather than data driven, would therefore tend
to be more useful under those conditions where the number of possible solutions is limited.
3,2.3.2.8 The rule adjuster. The final module that will be discussed herein is the
“Rule Adjuster.” This component is really nothing more than an editor for the rules. In other
words, the “Rule Adjuster” is the tool by which the “Knowledge Engineer” enters and
modifies the rules of the “Knowledge Base” during the KBES development and subsequent
maintenance.
3.3 Hypertext
3,3,1 General Statement
Further research into the standard KBES approach for capturing and disseminating
highway construction knowledge and experience revealed, as was preliminarily suspected,
that the basic architecture of such a system represented a rather restrictive developmental
environment. The effort required to capture the vast amounts of construction related
knowledge and expertise possessed by a large organization, such as the FDOT, would be
extremely cost prohibitive, and as such not very practical with respect to the stated objectives
of this research endeavor. As previously noted in the problem statement contained in
Chapter 1, and further confirmed by the results of the KA & EC questionnaire presented in
Chapter 2, most of the SHAs in the United States have invested significant dollars and time
over the years developing an assortment of construction related documents that are meant
to assist their personnel in supervising highway construction operations conducted within
their particular jurisdictions. Although it is generally agreed upon that these various

55
published materials contain considerable amounts of useful construction knowledge, most
industry practitioners acknowledge that timely and effective access of this information is
often a significant problem. The emerging technology of hypertext represents a very
practical solution to this predicament.
Hypertext, in generic terms, is a nonlinear information management system that
allows the user to access information in a more natural way, similar to the way in which that
user might store and access information in his or her own mind. This less impeded
methodology for accessing information creates a more free flowing environment that enables
the user to explore the knowledge base driven more by his or her own interests, rather than
by the predefined structure inherent in traditional paper based linear documents. Similar to
the discussion of the KBES approach, the balance of this section on hypertext will present
a historical background of hypertext, as well as a general overview of this rapidly developing
field of computerized technology.
3.3.2 Historical Background
The origin of the hypertext concept is universally attributed to Dr. Vannevar Bush,
who among his many accomplishments, served as the Director of the Office of Scientific
Research and Development under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during World War
II. In 1945, Bush published an article in The Atlantic Monthly in which he described a purely
theoretical device which he called the memex, short for memory extender [Bush, 1945],
Although he did not specifically use the term “hypertext” in any of his writings about the
memex, all of the experts in the field of hypertext development agree that Bush’s imaginative
memex device was the non-computerized forerunner of all of today’s computer hypertext
systems.

56
In his now famous article, entitled “As We May Think,” Bush wrote of his concerns
about the post-war explosion of scientific information which would make it nearly impossible
for the research specialists of the day to follow all the new developments associated with a
particular field of study. Today this situation is geometrically worse, but even in 1945 Bush
realized the need to enable people to access information more effectively than was possible
via traditional paper based documentation. He envisioned the memex device, which he
explains as follows [Bush, 1945]:
A memex is a device in which an individual stores his books,
records, and communications, and which can be mechanized
so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and
flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory
[pp. 106-107],
The mechanism that Bush goes on to describe is an ingenious machine that would be
capable of storing millions upon millions of pages of written material reduced onto microfilm.
By inputting the code of a particular document into the memex, via a keyboard, the user
would instantly be able to view the document in question. Furthermore, the memex provided
the capability of creating links between various pages of a single document, as well as the
ability to access pages from other completely separate sources. This linking of items is
described by Bush [1945] as:
... associative indexing, the basic idea of which is a provision
by which any item may be caused at will to select immediately
and automatically another. This is the essential feature of the
memex. The process of tying two items together (by
association) is the important thing [p. 107],
Not much was done in the field of hypertext research until the early 1960s, when a
young electrical engineer by the name of Douglas C. Engelbart from the Stanford Research
Institute, influenced by Bush’s article of 1945, began work on a similar vision in which he

57
saw computers as a means of assisting thought, or as he referred to it, “the augmentation of
the human intellect” [Nelson, 1992], In an article, entitled “A Conceptual Framework for the
Augmentation of Man’s Intellect,” Engelbart [1963] writes of his beliefs that the computer
represented a new stage in human development.
In this stage, the symbols with which the human represents
the concepts he is manipulating can be arranged before his
eyes, moved, stored, recalled, operated upon according to
extremely complex rules—all in very rapid response to a
minimum amount of information supplied by the human, by
means of special cooperative technological devices. In the
limit of what we now imagine, this could be a computer, with
which individuals could communicate rapidly and easily,
coupled to a three dimensional color display with which
extremely sophisticated images could be constructed [p. 14],
Engelbart’s ideas, as presented in his 1963 article, led to the development, in 1968,
of a system which he named NLS (oN Line System). NLS according to Engelbart, was an
experimental tool designed to aid his research group in their efforts by [Engelbart and
English, 1968]:
... placing in computer store all of our specifications, plans,
designs, programs, documentation, reports, memos,
bibliography and reference notes, etc., and doing all of our
scratch work, planning, designing, debugging, etc., and a
good deal of our intercommunication, via the consoles
[p.396].
These consoles were very sophisticated by the standards of the late 1960s and included
television imaging, as well as a variety of input devices, the most famous of which is known
today as a “mouse” [Conklin, 1987],
Concurrent with Engelbart’s development of NLS, which has evolved over the years
and is now called Augment, another hypertext pioneer by the name of Ted Nelson began
work on his own personal concept of “augmentation,” emphasizing “the creation of a literary
environment on a global scale.” In 1965 Nelson coined the term “hypertext” in describing

58
the nonlinear nature of text based storage and retrieval represented by his conceptual “Project
Xanadu” [Conklin, 1987; Parsaye et al., 1989],
Some of Nelson’s early efforts on Project Xanadu were accomplished while he was
affiliated with Brown University in the mid to late 1960s. Although Project Xanadu has only
recently begun to find limited commercial applications through its sale in 1988 to Autodesk,
Inc., a large software development company, the work conducted by Nelson while at Brown
University directly influenced the development of the world’s first computerized working
hypertext system. A colleague of Nelson’s, a man by the name of Andries van Dam, is
generally given credit for heading up the research group that unveiled this hypertext system
in 1967. This system, which was called “The Hypertext Editing System,” ran in a 128K
memory partition of a small IBM System 360 mainframe computer and was funded by an
IBM research contract. Upon completion of the project, the system was sold by IBM to the
Houston Manned Spacecraft Center, where it was subsequently used to produce a variety of
documentation for the Apollo space missions [Conklin, 1987; Nielsen, 1990],
For the better part of the next twenty years, work continued on the development of
a number of hypertext systems, however, with the exception of very limited commercial
applications, these programs compromised in-house endeavors utilized only by the
institutions where the systems were originally designed. By the early 1980s commercial
versions of some of these research oriented projects did begin to come to the general
marketplace. These early hypertext systems, such as NoteCards, developed by the computer
scientists at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center), were designed to run on workstations
[Berk and Devlin, 1991], The requirement of workstations was due to the fact that at this
time, personal computers, although in existence, had not yet developed enough internal
power to run such systems.

59
The first mass marketed, personal computer based, hypertext system that achieved
any level of commercial popularity was a program known as Guide. Guide, which began as
a research project at the University of Kent at Canterbury in 1982 [Parsaye et al., 1989], was
introduced in 1986 by a software company called OWL (Office Workstations Limited).
Originally, Guide only ran on Macintosh computers, but shortly after its release in 1986, a
version that would run on IBM compatible machines under the Windows operating system
was developed [White, 1992], However, it was not until the release of HyperCard by Apple
in 1987 that the concept of hypertext truly became mainstream.
Although an adequate programing platform in its own right, the real impetus for
HyperCard’s surge to the forefront of the hypertext industry was a decision by Apple to
bundle HyperCard, free of charge, into the operating system of every Macintosh computer
sold after 1987. What this has done obviously, is to ensure that every Macintosh user who
purchased their machines after 1987 has access to HyperCard whether or not they initially
showed any interest in the software. Apple’s visionary marketing approach has led to
HyperCard becoming by far the most widely used hypertext system to date, claiming, as of
1991, a world wide user base of literally millions [Bielawski and Lewand, 1991;Woodhead,
1991],
3.3.3 Generalized Overview of Hypertext
3.3.3.1 Definitions
33,3.1.1 Hypertext. Any discussion of the term “hypertext” would be somewhat
remiss if it did not include the observations of Ted Nelson, the man who originally invented
the word. From one his early publications on the subject, Nelson [1967] suggests the
following definition:

60
Hypertext is the combination of natural-language text with the
computer’s capacity for interactive branching or dynamic
display, when explicitly used as a medium. Or, to define it
more broadly, “hypertext” is the generic term for any text
which cannot be printed (or printed conveniently) on a
conventional page, or used conveniently when bound between
conventional covers. “Nonlinear text” might be a fair
approximation [p. 13],
Probably the easiest way to explain what hypertext is, is to contrast it with traditional text.
Traditional text, whether paper based or electronic, is sequential in nature, having a linear
structure defining the order by which the document is intended to be read. Hypertext, on the
other hand, is non-sequential, and therefore can allow the reader to explore the document in
any order he or she chooses, driven more by personal interest than document structure.
3,3.3.1,2 Hypermedia. Back when Nelson first began using the term hypertext, he
was basically describing plain-text electronic documents. However in today’s multimedia
landscape, an electronic document has taken on a much wider definition. More than just
conventional text, contemporary computerized documents can also contain graphics
(drawings and pictures), animation, audio, video, as well as multitasking references to other
computer programing routines external to the particular document being viewed. Therefore,
considering this expanded version of what constitutes an electronic document, some of the
leading experts in the field of hypertext research, prefer to use the term “hypermedia” as a
means of highlighting the multimedia aspects of their developmental systems. Figure 3.3
presents an illustration representing this idea of hypermedia as being a fusion of hypertext
plus multimedia [Howell, 1992],

61
HYPERtext + MultiMEDIA
HYPERMEDIA
Source: [Howell, 1992]
Figure 3.3 - Hypermedia as a Fusion of Hypertext and Multimedia
3.3.3.1.3 “Hypertext”—selected as the generic preference. Whether one calls it
hypertext or hypermedia, the theory is the same, that being the construction of a nonlinear
network of linked pieces of information which are presented in such a fashion as to enable
a user to navigate through this network, accessing desired information in a more natural and
associative manner. Given that there does not appear to be any overwhelming necessity to
distinguish between these two terms, it has been decided that the convention that will be
adopted for this dissertation will be that of utilizing these terms rather interchangeably, with
preference given to the more traditional terminology of “hypertext.”
3.3.3.2 The basic concept of hypertext
The fundamental concept underlying hypertext is rather simple. Information is
organized or “chunked” into relatively small, self-contained “nodes” which are connected via
“links.” Figure 3.4 [Bubbers and Christian, 1992] serves to illustrate this idea, while
simultaneously presenting some of the historical background of hypertext as previously
discussed. As can be noted from this figure, there are three separate nodes connected by four
associative links. The various words surrounded by boxes, for example the names of

Node 1 - Hypertext
Hypertext is a method of text storage and
retrieval wich uses short nodes of text
rather than conventional text wich is
usually long and linear. The idea for
hypertext came from! Vannevar BusH in~~
the mid-1940s. The term hypertext was
coined by Ted Nelson and first
implemented on pomputer by
iDoug Engelbart
Link
^Link^-
Node 2 - Doug Engelbart
Doug Engelbart will be remembered for
inventing the "mouse" pointing device for
computers and for implementing
4
Vannevar Bushl's imaginary "Memex"
machine on a Computer. He predicts that
computers will usher in a new stage of
human evolution characterized by
"automated external symbol manipulation".
Node 3 - Vannevar Bush
Vannevar Bush was the director of the
U.S. Office of Scientific Research and
Development in de mid 1940s. He is
primarily remembered for his imaginary
"Memex" machine for data storage and
retrieval. His idea led to the development
of Ihvnertextl. wich is a coputer
implementation iof his memex device.
Source: [Bubbers and Christian, 1992]
Figure 3.4 - A Hypertext Network of Three Nodes Connected by Four Links

63
“Vannevar Bush” and “Douglas Engelbart” in Node 1, are known as “hot keys,” “link
anchors” or “points.” In virtually every contemporary, mouse driven hypertext system, when
the mouse is dragged across the hot keys, which are typically delineated from the rest of the
text by being displayed in a different color, the cursor changes from it standard shape (usually
an arrow head) to a special shape (often a closed right hand with an extended index finger).
At this point, the user only has to click the mouse, causing the system to jump automatically
via the link to the node that correlates to whichever hot key was clicked on.
Again looking at Figure 3.4, assume the user is located in Node 1 and is reading the
information about hypertext. If for example, the user determines that he or she would like
more information associated with the highlighted hot key of “Vannevar Bush,” a simple click
of the mouse will cause Node 3 to immediately pop up for viewing. Although Figure 3.4
illustrates a case involving only plain-text based nodes, utilizing the new generation of
multimedia hypertext systems, a skilled developer could have programed the system to access
for example, a picture of Vannevar Bush, an audio recording of his voice, or maybe a film
clip, if one existed. Referring back to Dr. Bush’s landmark article, “As We May Think”
[Bush, 1945], published over 50 years ago, it is truly amazing to note just how similar
today’s hypertext systems are to his imaginative memex device.
As previously noted in the discussion of expert systems presented earlier in this
chapter, one of the standard methods for representing knowledge within the knowledge base
of a generic KBES was the utilization of semantic networks, also known as semantic nets.
Waterman [1986] describes these structures as a collection of points, which are called
“nodes,” connected by various links, which are commonly termed “arcs” in the semantic
network vernacular. Figure 3.5, reproduced from Jeff Conklin’s definitive article,

Figure 3.5 - Correspondence Between Display Screen and the Hypertext Database
CT\

65
“Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey” [Conklin, 1987], illustrates what he describes as
the method by which a typical hypertext system establishes “correspondence between
windows and links in the display, and nodes and links in the database.” From this figure it
can be seen quite readily that conceptually speaking, the notion of hypertext is intimately
related to the idea of semantic nets. This being the case, it is apparent that hypertext is more
than simply an innovative word processing paradigm. Rather hypertext is by all accounts a
knowledge representation tool in its own right, capable of storing and representing
knowledge both in the nodes themselves, and through the associative linkage structure that
connects these discrete nodes.
3.4 Database Management Systems
3.4.1 General Comments
As was established in the previously presented review of hypertext systems, one of
the fundamental and most appealing features associated with hypertext is the free flowing
environment this class of software provides for exploration and navigation through a
particular base of knowledge and information. However, this unstructured landscape can
often lead to a user experiencing a feeling of disorientation, commonly referred to as being
“lost in hyperspace.” One possible method of overcoming this predicament is to incorporate
certain aspects of modem database management systems (DBMS), as a means of providing
structure to the inherently unstructured world of hypertext.
The following sections will present a closer look at the historical background
associated with the emergence and evolution of contemporary DBMS. Additionally, the
three most prominent models of data structuring will be discussed, with special attention

66
being paid to the relational model, since it is this model which has come dominate today’s
personal computing DBMS software packages.
3,4,2 Historical Background
The history of DBMS dates back to the early 1960s, when a number of individual
corporations in the United States began to produce programs that were created in order to
solve in-house data related problems specifically encountered by these particular companies.
Probably the most famous of these early efforts was a system developed in 1962 by the
General Electric Company (GEC), which was called the Integrated Data Store (IDS)
[Beynon-Davies, 1991], Several years later B.F. Goodrich expressed significant interest in
the IDS package, however IDS had been designed to only run on the GEC brand of
mainframe computers. Since these computers were not compatible with B.F. Goodrich’s
IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) systems, they decided to rewrite IDS
so that it would operate on the newly released IBM System 360 family of computers. Soon
after beginning work on translating IDS, B.F. Goodrich entered into a marketing agreement
with a man by the name of John Cullinane, and together they launched the IDMS DBMS
which became one of the dominant DBMS for IBM mainframes throughout the 1970s and
1980s [Brodie and Manola, 1989; Beynon-Davies, 1991],
Development of IDS and the subsequent release of IDMS represented the maturation
of the network model of DBMS. The network model, however, was only one of three basic
models of data structuring that were evolving somewhat simultaneously. Another of these
data structuring techniques being researched during the 1960s was the hierarchal model. In
1965, in response to the massive information handling requirements associated with the
Apollo moon program, North American, which later became Rockwell International

67
Corporation, and IBM co-developed a hierarchal model DBMS that eventually was released
by EBM in 1970 under the name of IMS (Information Management System) [Cardenas, 1985;
Parsaye et al., 1989],
At about the same time that IBM was developing their IMS DBMS, another IBM
computer scientist by the name of Dr. E. F. Codd, located at the IBM Research Laboratory
in San Jose, California , began work on a general purpose programming language based on
set theory and logic, which he called relational programming [Brodie and Manola, 1989],
In 1970, Codd published his landmark article, “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared
Data Banks” [Codd, 1970], which established the relational model on which all subsequently
developed relational DBMS were to be based. The relational model did not initially meet
with wide spread acceptance, and by the mid 1970s the DBMS landscape had become
dominated by the other two models of the network and hierarchal data structuring
techniques.
Although originally not very popular, relational modeling gradually did become more
recognized as a legitimate structure for DBMS, and by 1976 IBM, through its research center
in San Jose, California, was able to develop System R [Astrahan et al., 1976], which became
the first working relational DBMS for mainframe computers. Another prominent
experimental mainframe relational DBMS released around the same time as System R, was
a program called INGRESS [Stonebraker et al., 1976], which was developed at the
University of California, Berkeley.
The relational model of DBMS continued its existence almost exclusively within the
bounds of university and other research institute settings, until 1983, at which time IBM
unveiled DB2, their first commercially released relational DBMS for mainframe computers,

68
which was a direct outgrowth of their earlier experimental work with System R [Salzberg,
1986], Approximately at the same point in time, a software company by the name of Ashton¬
Tate released dBASE II, which went on to become the dominant DBMS for the newly
emerging personal computing market. According to Brodie and Manola [1989], by 1988
over 2.7 million copies of the dBASE relational DBMS software package for personal
computers had been sold.
3,4,3 Generalized Overview of Database Management Systems
3.4,3.1 Definitions
3.4 3.1.1 General comments. To accurately describe exactly what is a database
management system (DBMS), a number of database terms and their usage will be presented
first, followed by a working definition of a DBMS.
3.4,3.1,2 Data. Data, independently speaking, are nothing more than a collection
of facts and figures, that by themselves lack any real significance. All data within a database
can be broken down into two main categories, namely alphanumeric data and numeric data
[Date, 1990], Alphanumeric data consists of alphabetic characters (the letters A through Z)
and numerical characters (the numbers 0 through 9), as well as a variety of specialized
symbols such as the pound sign (#) and the dollar sign ($), to name two. Numeric data, on
the other hand, are strictly a set of numeric digits that can be quantified. Although when
stored in a database, both alphanumeric and numeric data represent information, these two
classifications take on different roles in their applications. The numeric data within a
database are used as numbers in computational operations, while alphanumeric data can only
be used as strings of text for identification and labeling purposes.

69
3.4.3.1.3Fields, records, and files. In a database, the smallest unit of data, whether
alphanumeric or numeric, is commonly referred to as either a “field,” a “data item” or an
“attribute.” A collection of these “fields” constitutes a logical “record,” also known as an
“entity.” A “file” is an assortment of occurrences of the same “record” types [Cardenas,
1985],
3,4,3,1,4Database. A database can be described as a bank of “records” stored in
“files” interrelated by a means of specific relationships. A database is basically a repository
for stored data which is both integrated and shared [Date, 1990], All database systems can
be characterized by their efforts to achieve the following four properties [Beynon -Davies,
1991]:
1) Data Independence—Due to the concept of shared data, the data in a
database must be independent of the storage structure and access
strategies.
2) Data Integration—Again because of sharing capabilities, a database
should contain as little duplicated or unused data as possible.
3) Data Integrity-Given that numerous applications are intending to interact
with a particular database, it is extremely important that the data must be
maintained at a high level of consistency and accuracy [Cardenas, 1985],
4) Separate Logical and Physical Views-What this implies is that a database
systems should attempt to separate the end-user’s view of the data from
the data’s physical computerized representation.
3.4.3.1.4Database management system. In its most generic form, a database
management system (DBMS) is a system capable of supporting and managing an integrated
database. This suggests, that basically a DBMS is a family of software applications which
have been developed to act as an interface between the end-user and all system interactions
with the database.

70
3.4.3.2 Data modeling structures for contemporary database management systems
3.4.3.2.1 General comments. The fundamental component of any DBMS is the
method by which the data within the database is organized and structured. In the commercial
world of DBMS, the marketplace is still dominated by the three traditional data modeling
techniques of the network model, the hierarchal model, and the relational model, with the
relational model having almost exclusively captured the personal computing market. It
should be noted at this point, that there does exist a number of other data modeling
techniques such as semantic models, entity-relationship diagrams, and most notably object-
oriented designs [Stonebraker, 1988 Martire and Nuttall, 1993], which recently have
experienced significant research attention [Parsaye and Chignell, 1993], In fact currently
there are several commercially available object-oriented DBMS software packages available,
the first and probably most established of which is a program called GemStone, marketed by
a company by the name of Servologic [Beynon-Davies, 1991; Parsaye and Chignell, 1993],
However, for the purposes of the following discussion on data modeling, only the three
prominent techniques (network, hierarchal and relational) will be examined further.
3.4.3.2.2 The hierarchal model. The hierarchal model, sometimes referred to as the
file system, is the oldest and most rigid of the three standard database modeling techniques
[Date, 1990], Figure 3.6 [Chou, 1985] illustrates a typical hierarchal representation of the
different relationships among the data fields associated with the instructors, the classes, and
the students. The relationships represented in this figure are limited to strictly one-to-one
associations. For example, the class “Business 101” is directly related to the instructor “Peter
Roberts” on a one-to-one basis. This connection can also be defined in terms of what is
known as a parent-child relationship [Martire and Nuttall, 1993], Referring again to the

Source: [Chou, 1985]
Figure 3.6 - Typical Representation of the Hierarchal Model

72
figure, and in terms of the parent-child metaphor, the instructor “Peter Roberts” is said to be
the parent of the class “Business 101,” which is the child.
3.4.3.2.3 The network model. One of the inherent disadvantages associated with
the hierarchal model is that of data redundancy, which is a result of this model’s strict one-to-
one architectural structure. As an example of this, notice that in Figure 3.6, due to the rigid
structure, three of the student data items (“James Smith,” “Eileen Hason,” and “Danny
Walter”) must be appear twice in order to satisfy the model. The network model of data
structuring was developed in large part to address this problem [Taylor, 1989], Figure 3.7
[Chou, 1985] depicts the same database as that of Figure 3.6, except for the fact that in
Figure 3.7, the data is structured based on the network model. Examination of this figure
demonstrates that in fact this model does eliminate data redundancy, in other words, in the
network model, every data item is unique. However this aversion of data redundancy does
come with a price, namely a much more complex linkage structure.
3.4.3.2.4 The relational model in general. In both the hierarchal and network
models, relationships between data items are strictly controlled by their explicit links, or
record instances as they are sometimes referred to [Woodhead, 1991], These links are
represented in Figures 3.6 and 3.7 as the solid lines connecting the various data items. This
static feature creates a situation wherein navigation through and/or manipulation of the data,
not to mention the problems associated with adding, deleting, or modifying a record, require
the services of a very skillful database programmer. These difficulties are all but eliminated
under the relational model, due to the fact that the data is structured in terms of a two
dimensional tabular matrix consisting of a set of named columns, or fields, and an arbitrary
number of rows, also known as records. This highly intuitive structure, which is simply a

Source: [Chou, 1985]
Figure 3.7 - Typical Representation of the Network Model
lO

74
common table, enables a non-sophisticated user to rather easily set up and manipulate
considerable amounts of data in a very interactive and natural fashion [Chou, 1985;
Woodhead, 1991],
3.4.3.2.5 The relational model as illustrated in Figure 3.8. Figure 3.8 represents the
same set of data items as presented in Figures 3.6 and 3.7, except this database is structured
in terms of the relational model. The relational table in Figure 3.8 is organized into nine
rows, which are also called tuples [Beynon-Davies, 1991] or records, and three columns,
each corresponding to a distinct field of data, which in this case are labeled Instructor, Class,
and Student. As each data record is entered, it is sequentially and automatically given an
arbitrary number, which for this relational table would be a number between 1 and 9,
depending on the order of entry. Each of the nine records is assigned a single corresponding
attribute within each of the three data fields of Instructor, Class, and Student. This simple
tabular structure therefore serves as a methodology of creating nine uniquely identifiable
database records. Parsaye et al. [1989] rightfully note that it is this “theoretical purity” and
close relationship to natural logic that more than any other factor has propelled the relational
model to the forefront of today’s DBMS software packages, especially in the realm of
personal computers where the users often tend to be less sophisticated.
3,4,4 A Closer Look at Relational Database Management Systems
3.4,4.1 General comments
Since the proposed information management prototype system intended for this
dissertation was to be developed under the IBM compatible personal computing
environment, and given that, as has previously been noted, relational DBMS have evolved
as the dominant force on this platform, logic dictated the selection of this model for further

Column #7
Row # Instructor
Column #2
Class
Column U3
Student
1
Peter Roberts
Business 101
Alice Baker
2
Peter Roberts
Business 101
James Smith
3
Peter Roberts
Business 101
Eileen Hason
4
Peter Roberts
Economics 100
James Smith
5
Peter Roberts
Economics 100
Danny Walter
6
Peter Roberts
Economics 100
Eileen Hason
7
Peter Roberts
Economics 100
Floyd Nixon
8
Sam Wyse
History 101
Danny Walter
9
San Wyse
History 101
George Davis
Source: [Chou, 1985]
Figure 3.8 - Typical Representation of the Relational Model

76
examination. Presented next will be a closer look at some of the key points associated with
managing data in a relational DBMS.
3,4.4.2 Data manipulation within relational databases
3.4.4.2.1 Operating on relations. One of the distinguishing characteristics of the
relational model, as opposed to the hierarchal or network model, is that in relational
databases, the data manipulation is designed to operate on entire files (relational tables) of
data, rather than on individual records or fields within a file. The term manipulation, as used
here, refers to the types of operations that a user can perform on data stored in a relational
database. This manipulation of the relational model consists of a set of operators collectively
known as the relational algebra [Beynon-Davies, 1991],
3.4.4 2.2 The relational algebra. The relational model basically consists of a list of
relations and their associated attributes [Date, 1990], Data retrieval within this model is
accomplished by using the relational algebra as a means of manipulating these relationships.
Parsaye and Chignell [1988] specify the five fundamental operations in the relational algebra
as follows:
1) Selection—Selects certain rows from a table.
2) Projection—Removes certain columns from a table.
3) Product—Multiplies two tables together.
4) Union—Adds two tables together.
5) Difference—Subtracts one table from another table.
3.4.4.2.2 Structured Query Language. With the evolution of the relational model,
came the development of higher-order languages designed to provide access to the relational
model and extract (retrieve) different data sets depending on the specified request of the user.

77
Of these data access languages, or commonly referred to as query languages, one in
particular, IBM’s Structured Query Language (SQL), has come to be accepted as the
dominant approach for relational query languages. In fact, in 1986, SQL was adopted by the
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the official industry standard [Fleming and
von Halle, 1989],
3,4,4,2.2 An example of a generic SQL command. As an example of the most
fundamental SQL instruction, Date [1989] suggests a generic sample of the SQL command
(query) “SELECT” taking the following form:
select < Attributej, Attribute2 ... Attribute,,>
from < Relationj, Relation2 ... Relation>
where < Condition >
In terms of the relational algebra, from which SQL is a direct descendant [Chorafas, 1989],
the SQL “SELECT” command is made up the select portion of the query clause which is
equivalent to the relational algebra operation of projection. The from segment of the
“SELECT’ statement matches the relational algebra operation of product, while the relational
algebra counterpart of where is the operation of select.
3.5 Summary and Conclusions
3,5.1 General Comments
Having effected a comprehensive background study of the three technologies of
expert systems, hypertext, and database management systems, the next step was to determine
what aspects of each were useful for integration into the proposed prototype information
management system. The following sections will summarize these observations, focusing on

78
the aspects deemed worthwhile based on the stated needs of the end user and the anticipated
industry sector within which this system will be intended to function.
3.5,2 Considerations Regarding Proposed Integrated Environment
3.5.2.1 General programing requirements
Bielawski and Lewand [1991], co-authors of Intelligent Systems Design Integrating
Expert Systems, Hypermedia, and Database Technologies, recognized as one of the definitive
books in this newly emerging field of study, suggest that the power of today’s IBM
compatible and Macintosh personal computers, coupled with the myriad of available
developmental tools or “shells,” make this platform ideal for the development of integrated
computer software systems. This idea, along with the fact that the design of any prototype
system should be based on the needs of the end user, led to the selection of the IBM
compatible personal computer windows operating system, given that this is the system of
choice for practically all of the intended end users, who in the case of this research project,
are FDOT construction personnel.
Another point that should be emphasized, is that given that the nature of this research
endeavor was more geared towards developing a conceptual systematic approach, rather than
undertaking an exercise in conventional computer programming, it was determined that
higher levels of programing paradigms should be investigated and utilized whenever possible.
This notion will be revisited towards the end of this chapter under the discussion regarding
software requirements for the prototype system.
3.5.2.2 Intended knowledge base content as determining factor for hypertext underpinnings
Although this subject will be covered more thoroughly in Chapter 4, a preliminary

79
understanding of the structural makeup of the intended knowledge base would be required
in order to effectively identify which aspects of which technologies were to be utilized. As
has previously been mentioned, most of this country’s SHAs have over the years amassed a
considerable base of construction related documentation, which in essence captures much of
the knowledge and expertise possessed by these particular organizations and their personnel.
In an effort to utilize the significant investment represented by these documents, it seemed
only prudent that the prototype system take advantage of this wealth of information. With
this in mind, and considering each of the three technologies analyzed, clearly the proposed
approach should utilize hypertext as the backbone of the developmental philosophy for
managing this naturally occurring text based bank of construction knowledge and experience.
3.5.2,3 Integrating database strategies for added structure
Nanard et al. [1993], conceptually describe hypertext as fundamentally a relational
database with unlimited and unrestricted links between the records, fields, and files. This
metaphor is highly appropriate to this dissertation’s intention of employing database
strategies as a method of providing structure to the inherently unstructured environment of
a pure hypertext system. From the field of database management, two basic modeling
strategies were to be incorporated. The first, was a hierarchal structure based on the
traditional hierarchal model as presented earlier in this chapter. The idea here was to embed
a one-to-one, hard-wired, parent-child, relational linkage scheme throughout the entire
architecture of the hypertexed system of nodes. Details of how this was accomplished will
be examined further in Chapter 4.
Inspiration for the other database structuring strategy came from two sources, one
ofwhich, the BCOE Advisor system [Roessler et al., 1993], was detailed in Chapter 2. This

80
system, developed by USACERL, utilizes the commercially available rBASE relational
DBMS, along with SQL querying capabilities, as a methodology for storing and retrieving
conceptually indexed design review comments. The second basis of influence was a paper,
uncovered as a result of this review of published literature, written by Dario Lucarella [1990],
In his article, entitled “A Model for Hypertext-Based Information Retrieval,” Lucarella
presents an interesting discussion with respect to the difference between browsing and
searching. He describes browsing as characterized by the user knowing “where he is in a
network, and wanting to know what information exist at that location.” While when
searching the user “presumably knows what he wants, and wishes to know where in the
database it is.” Figure 3.9 illustrates Lucarella’s proposed integrated tactic which provides
capabilities for both browsing and searching.
Borrowing from these two innovative approaches, the second of the database
strategies was formulated in an attempt to utilize the relational model of database
management as a method of indexing each node in the prototype hypertext network. In
theory, a node could be conceptually linked to a set of attributes based on the informational
content that it contained. These nodes could then be stored in a relational table enabling a
user to directly query the system in order to access a group of hypertext nodes, specifically
related to his or her area of interest, regardless of the nodes physical location within the
hypertext network. In other words, a user would not have to blindly explore the network
via the hard-wired links, node to node, in search of the desired information. Rather he or she
could retrieve all nodes within the system having to do with a particular subject, and then
continue navigational browsing from that point forward. Details of the implementation of
this strategy will be presented as part of Chapter 5.

SEARCHING
Figure 3.9 - Integrated Hypertext Network With Browsing and Searching Capabilities
oo
o 2: ^ o td

82
3.5.2.4 Utilization of a KBES inference engine for dynamic linking
Assuming that the relational database structuring strategy was attainable, the other
somewhat more ambitious proposal was to supplement this static structure with a form of
dynamic linking. To reiterate, each table would be established as a relational structure
compromised of individual records, each of which corresponding to a single node in the
network, conceptually organized in a “controlled indexed” [Carlson, 1989] format. Once
this was accomplished, it was envisioned that the system could recognize the particular node
where the user was located, search the entire network for all other nodes of related subject
matter, and then return a list for the user to browse. The determination of “related” nodes
could be accomplished utilizing an embedded generic rule set coupled with a forward
chaining inference strategy. Presentation of the fruition of this strategy is also included in
Chapter 5.
3,5,3 Software Requirements for Prototype System
Based on the discussion thus far, four general requirements of any potential software
development tool have been established as follows:
1) The software must operate under the IBM compatible personal computing
windows environment.
2) The software package must have rich and fundamentally underlying
hypertext capabilities.
3) The software package must support the relational database model and
preferable provide SQL capabilities for querying a relational database.
As noted previously, the benefit of SQL is that it has been accepted as the
industry standard relational database query language.
4) The software package must be capable of delivering an imbedded KBES
inference engine that can employ the forward chaining strategy.

83
One other item that was previously mentioned earlier in this section, and which will
be expanded on at this point, is the concept of fully integrated, higher-level developmental
programming tools. As was noted, one of the expressed objectives of the research’s software
development efforts was the exploitation of commercially available packages, rather than
attempting to develop the prototype system using established conventional programming
languages such as C++, Pascal, LISP or PROLOG. Although these languages are very
powerful, they require inordinate amounts of programming time in relation to functional
return on this manpower investment. Under the guise of a construction research project, it
is far more important to identify the cutting edge computer technologies and attempt to
implement them with respect to construction related issues.
Along this same line of reasoning, it is also highly beneficial to utilize only one
vendor’s software package rather then attempt to integrate distinct and separate packages
developed by different manufacturers. Although all systems that operate under the windows
environment theoretically inherit some basic level of platform wide integrative capabilities,
typically, experience shows that the dependence of fully seamless integration across software
vendors is usually not a recommended practice. The basis of this discussion on the
importance of maintaining a single developmental environment, led to the fifth and final
requirement for the potential software development tool, which is as follows:
5) If possible, all functional requirements established in points 1) through 4)
as listed above, should be accomplished by the use of a single vendor’s
higher-level windows developmental programing software package.
3,5,4 Final Selection of Software Package for Prototype System
With the established requirements of the potential software package in mind, some
of the newest and commercially available developmental programming tools were evaluated.

84
This original review was accomplished via preliminary searches of appropriate articles found
in such computer trade publications as Infoworld. PC Magazine, and Byte. Results of this
preliminary review yielded the two candidates as listed below for final consideration for
selection as the software package to be utilized:
1) The Intelligence Compiler (I/O—distributed by IntellegenceWare, Inc.,
whose president is Kamran Parsaye, principle author of three of the books
uncovered during this literature review and referenced throughout this
dissertation [Parsaye and Chignell, 1988; Parsaye et al., 1989; Parsaye
and Chignell, 1993],
2) KnowledgePro Windows (KPWin)—distributed by Knowledge Garden
Inc.
Both of these companies were contacted and from each, a set of demonstration diskettes and
a standard manufacture’s information package was received. Appendix J contains a copy of
the general product sheets associated with these two highly integrated and powerful software
packages. Upon completion of the review of the demonstration diskettes and the associated
product literature, the final choice was made to proceed with the KPWin software package,
namely because it was felt that this programming tool supported a fuller hypertext
environment as compared to that of (I/C).
3,5,5 Final Comments
With the literature review complete and the software package selected, the focus of
this dissertation would now be shifted from evaluating the efforts of others to initiating work
specific to accomplishing the remaining stated objectives of this research endeavor.
Presented next in Chapter 4 will be the issues involved in developing the focused base of
highway construction knowledge and experience. Chapter 5 will follow with a
comprehensive explanation of the development and subsequent testing of the computerized

85
information delivery system, which from this point on will be referred to as the IN REACH
system, an acronym for Intelligent iNformation Retrieval and Expert Advice in the
Construction of Highways.

CHAPTER 4
KNOWLEDGE BASE DEVELOPMENT FOR TEE IN REACH SYSTEM
41 Introduction
As was noted during the earlier discussions regarding knowledge based expert
systems (KBES), the task of capturing the knowledge and experience of the domain experts,
commonly referred to as knowledge acquisition [Parsaye and Chignell, 1988], is universally
recognized as the critical phase in the production of any successful knowledge based system
[Waterman, 1986; McGraw and Harbison-Briggs, 1989; Dym and Levitt, 1991],
Fiegenbaum’s assessment of the late 1970s, in which he noted that at that time, knowledge
acquisition was the “bottleneck” in expert systems development [Fiegenbaum, 1977], still
holds true today. This chapter will present a brief look at the traditional approach as
compared to this dissertation’s modified strategy, with respect to knowledge acquisition.
Additionally, this chapter will examine the foundational knowledge base developed for the
IN REACH system, as well as include a discussion of the documents utilized along with a
presentation of the embedded hierarchal model within the underlying hypertext system.
86

87
4 2 The Traditional Approach to Knowledge Acquisition
4.21 General Comments
With the proliferation of KBES developmental efforts over the last three decades, the
concept of knowledge acquisition has developed into its own separate field of study.
Evidence of this can be seen by the fact that today there exist numerous texts [Kidd, 1987;
McGraw and Harbison-Briggs, 1989; Adeli, 1990] completely dedicated to this subject.
Furthermore, reviews of any of the standard text books on KBES [Parsaye and Chignell,
1988; Dym and Levitt, 1991; Ignizio, 1991] indicate that invariably there are at least one or
two chapters on this critical area of expert system development . This representative list of
published books does not include the myriad of articles [Cohn et al., 1988; De La Garza et
al., 1988; Hanna et al., 1992] that have been published over the last several years in the
various technical engineering journals. Presented next will be a brief overview of some
aspects of the traditional approach to knowledge acquisition.
4.2.2 An Overview of the Traditional Approach
According to McGraw and Harbison-Briggs [1989, p. 8], knowledge acquisition can
be thought of as a process that encompasses “both 1) the task of reducing an exhaustive body
of diverse domain knowledge into a precise, easily modifiable set of facts and rules; and 2)
the tools and methods that support the system development.” Hanna et al. [1992] also take
this approach of describing knowledge acquisition as involving the entire operation of
constructing a knowledge base. They go on to concisely define what they perceive as the
three basic stages of “extracting knowledge and creating a knowledge base” as follows:

88
1) Familiarization and domain definition stage.
2) Elicitation stage.
3) Organization, encoding and representation.
In their article, entitled “Knowledge Acquisition and Development for Formwork
Selection System,” Hanna et al. [1992] describe the structured interviewing method, which
is by far the most common technique utilized in KBES development, that they employed with
respect to the elicitation stage for their knowledge acquisition strategy. Although the
“interview” is the method of choice for most knowledge engineers, several other techniques
exist. Slatter [1987] presents an overview of what he deems as the six most commonly
accepted knowledge elicitation techniques. A summary and short description of his list is as
follows:
1) Interviews—The most familiar and widely used method. They can be
either structured or unstructured individual or group sessions that can be
recorded by hand, audio, or video.
2) Verbal Protocols—The expert is required to give a verbal commentary on
his or her thought process while working through a problem.
3) Machine Induction—Generate a database of preclassified examples and
allow the machine to induce the rules for the solution of the problem.
4) Observatiotral Studies— Similar to verbal protocol, only the expert is not
required to maintain a running commentary, rather the expert is simply
observed in problem solving situations.
5) Conceptual Sorting— This is a cognitive psychology technique of asking
the expert to sort individual concepts into groups to form solutional
hierarchies.
6) Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS)—This is another psychology tool that
takes conceptual sorting one step further, and attempts to differentiate
between closely related concepts within a group.

89
4.3 The IN REACH Modified Approach to Knowledge Acquisition
4.3.1 General Comments
Referring again to the three stages (Familiarization, Elicitation, and Organization) as
set forth by Hanna et al. [1992], the modified approach to knowledge acquisition, as pursued
under this research effort, initially paralleled the traditional approach by defining the domain,
as detailed in Chapter 2, as “New Bridge Construction” with an emphasis on “Inspection
Operations.” Continuing on a analogous path, the next step was to become familiar with the
domain selected. Concurrent with the research of the literature associated with the selected
domain, preliminary interview sessions were begun as part of the elicitation phase. It was at
this point that it became apparent that typical structured interviewing techniques would not
be feasible for the domain selected due to the breadth of the subject matter encountered.
Additionally, during review of FDOT documentation, numerous sources of captured
construction knowledge, in the form of FDOT published materials, were uncovered. Given
the difficulty with the preliminary interviews, coupled with the wealth of existing
departmental documentation, it was decided to modify the traditional approach to the
knowledge base development as will be presented next.
4.3.2 An Overview of the Modified Approach
As was just stated, early into this research effort it was determined that a standard
rule based expert system would not fully address the stated objectives. It was felt that the
inordinate amount of time that would be required to develop a comprehensive bank of
knowledge strictly represented as production rules would be very cost ineffective. Based on
the preliminary findings, a modified approach to the task associated with developing the

90
knowledge base was formulated. Deviating from the standard approach, this research effort
proposed utilization of existing FDOT published materials as the functional core for the
knowledge base of the IN REACH system. In other words, rather than simply using FDOT
documentation as a means of domain familiarization, selected sections from these manuscripts
were scanned and input directly into IN REACH. These electronic documents would then
serve as the foundational basis for the IN REACH system.
As for elicitation techniques for the acquisition of heretofore undocumented
construction expertise, it was decided to pursue the development of a post construction
conferencing program similar to the that of the U S. Army Corps of Engineers, as detailed
previously in Chapter 2. The particulars of the lessons learned strategy utilized in the
knowledge base development for IN REACH will be presented later in this chapter, however,
in general, the idea was to supplement the documented base of knowledge with selected
lessons learned derived from various post construction conferences. The concept of post
construction conferencing seemed to more closely relate to the stated objective of
accomplishing a systematic approach to knowledge acquisition, than did traditional interview
techniques. In typical one-on-one interview sessions, the information gathered is often highly
influenced by the personalities involved, thus generating a rather unsystematic procedural
approach. It was felt that in a large organization, such as the FDOT, implementation of a
program that would require the members of a particular project team to conduct a meeting
at the end of the job, could yield more highly focused comments by means of a more
organization-wide systematic process.
As noted in Hanna et al [1992], the third basic stage in the development of a
knowledge based system is the organization and presentation of the acquired knowledge. In

91
a typical KBES this is accomplished by an exhaustive task of encoding the knowledge into
a complicated set of production rules. Here again the approach of IN REACH deviated from
that of a traditional KBES. Rather than attempt to represent all of the information contained
in the document base in terms of rules, the documents themselves, along with the comments
collected from the post construction conferences, were utilized to represent the captured
knowledge of the organization. IN REACH utilized an underlying hypertext system as a
method of storing this collection of text based knowledge. Supplementing this network of
nodes were a variety of linking techniques and searching strategies incorporating various
aspects of both expert systems and database management systems, as was already discussed
in theory in Chapter 3, and whose practical implementation will be presented in Chapter 5.
4.4 The IN REACH Base of Documented Knowledge and Experience
4,4,1 General Comments
As has now been noted several times, a vast majority of the highway construction
information that compromises the IN REACH knowledge base is contained in a variety of
existing FDOT documents. As part of the process of developing the IN REACH knowledge
base, a myriad of Departmental publications were examined for useful information,
specifically relating to new bridge construction. The next section presents an overview of
the document base of IN REACH, utilizing captured computer screens from the prototype
system.

92
4.4.2 A Closer Look at the Document Base of IN REACH
4.4.2.1 Index of sources index screen for “BRIDGES”
Figure 4.1 illustrates an IN REACH captured screen of the index of sources for the
general category of “BRIDGES.” As will become readily apparent, the IN REACH
prototype system, although capable of handling any number of general categories, for the
purposes of this research effort, only the general category of “BRIDGES” has been
developed. With this in mind, all references to all screens for the rest of this chapter will
always come from within the general category of “BRIDGES.” Two important IN REACH
conventions should be noted at this point. First, any text that is underlined represents a hot
key that when clicked on with the mouse will access that particular node. Additionally, these
underlined strings of text actually appear on the IN REACH computer screen as green in
color, although obviously this can not be illustrated in a black and white figure. Another
convention of IN REACH is that any green underlined string of text in which all characters
are capitalized represents an index screen. An index screen, in the IN REACH terminology,
is a node that contains a list of other screens that can be accessed from this point. In other
words, they are basically menu screens. Referring again to Figure 4.1, which is an example
of just such an index screen, an inventory is listed of the ten sources that make up the IN
REACH document base. Two of these entries will be covered in the next section of this
chapter, lessons learned from post construction conferences. The other eight will be
presented next.
4.4.2.2 FDQT Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction
Figure 4.2 represents all of the specification sections from the FDQT Standard
Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction [Florida, 1991] that were electronically

IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES)
Homf0 I trim ^ ci»»% Bt
v** Back | Forward] y {Ctij j Source | History * ExiC^
1 Abridges - source index
BRIDGES - INDEX OF SOURCES (BRIDGES!
FOOT STANDARD SPECS
FDOT Standard Road & Bridge Specs (Tallahassee, 1991)
FOOT SUPPLEMENT SPECS
FDOT Supplemental Specs to 1991 Specs (Tallahassee, 1994)
FDOT STANDRD DRAWINGS
FDOT Structural Standard Drawings (Tallahassee, 1994)
FDOT CPAM MANUAL
FDOT Construction Office CPAM Manual (Tallahassee, 1993)
FDOT INSPECTION MANUAL
FDOT Structures Inspection Manual, Part 3 (Jorgensen, 1990)
FDOT TRICK OF THE TRA.DE
FDOT Tricks of The Trade Manual (District 2,1993)
INSPECTION CHECKLISTS
FDOT Inspection Checklists-Draft Version (District. 2,1995)
FDOT PPR LESSONS LEARN
FDOT VE Process Performance Reviews (DOTNET, 1995)
UF PCC LESSONS LEARNED
UF Post Construction Conferences (IN REACH, 1995)
CRSI PLACING REBAR
CRSI Placing Reinforcing Bars (CRSI, 1983)
♦
Figure 4.1 - IN REACH Index of Sources Index Screen for BRIDGES
VO
Ik)

= | IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES) | *
+1 I e* 1 Tc4r ^ c,eai%. EHfc
Back |Forward| y {¡M Source Historjr* ExiT%5i¿
Navigational History
BRIDGES - SOURCE INDEX
♦j
RRIDGFS - INDEX OF SOURCES fBRIDG'ESi
FDOTSTANDARD SPECS
FDOT Standard Road & Bridge Specs (Tallahassee, 1991)
FDOT SUPPLEMENT SPECS
■»
♦
'
+
FDOT Supplemental Specs to 1991 Specs (Tallahassee, 1994)
FDOT STANDRD DRAWINGS
FDOT Structural Standard Drawings (Tallahassee, 1994)
FDOT CPAM MANUAL
FDOT Construction Office CPAM Manual (Tallahassee, 1993)
FDOT INSPECTION MANUAL
FDOT Structures Inspection Manual Part 3 (Jorgensen, 1990)
FDOT TRICK OF THE TRADE
FDOT Tricks of The Trade Manual (District 2,1993)
INSPECTION CHECKLISTS
FDOT Inspection Checklists-DraftVersion (District 2,1995)
FDOT PPR LESSONS LEARN
FDOT VE Process Performance Reviews (DOTNET, 1995)
UF PCC LESSONS LEARNED
Search By
♦
♦
Related Topics
♦
*l
UF Post Construction Conferences (IN REACH, 1995)
CRSI PLACING REBAR
CRSI Placing Reinforcing Bars (CRSI, 1983)
Figure 4.2 - IN REACH FDOT Standard Specs Index Screen for BRIDGES
VO
4^

95
loaded into the IN REACH document base. This screen is also an index screen, and can be
accessed by clicking on its corresponding hot key from Figure 4.1. Given that one of the
primary functions of FDOT construction personnel is to insure that construction conducted
under their jurisdiction is done so in strict conformance with the plans and specifications, this
particular document was heavily utilized in the IN REACH system.
4.4.2.3 FDOT Supplemental Specifications to the 1991 Standard Specifications
Figure 4.3, also an index screen that again can be accessed from the index of sources
(Figure 4.1), lists all the sections from the FDOT Supplemental Specifications to the 1991
Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction [Florida, 1994a] that were
incorporated into the IN REACH system. The supplemental specifications, as the name
implies, are specifications that were developed post release of the 1991 specification book,
and as such carry a higher priority.
4.4.2.4 FDOT Structural Standard Drawings
Figure 4.4 is the index screen that provides one method of access to Figure 4.5, which
is an image of a portion of the FDOT Design Standard Index Drawing No. 600, sheet 1 of
2 [Florida, 1994b], detailing design standards for precast pile splices. It should be noted that
the hot key, listed on Figure 4.4, that corresponds to the image of Figure 4.5, begins with the
word “Illustration.” Another of the IN REACH conventions is to identify any graphical
image by beginning the hot key string name with this word.
4.4.2.5 Office of Construction—Construction Project Administration Manual
Figure 4.6, is the captured index screen for the Office of Construction—Construction
Project Administration Manual [Florida, 1993], To quote from this manual’s introduction,

IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES)
Home
Back Forward
Search
by
ékrj Clea^¿ [Oil
Ü1 Source iHistoryilEKit^j
BRIDGES-SOURCE INDEX
FDOT SUPPLEMENTAL SPECS fBRIDGES - SOURCE INDEX)
FOOT Supplemental Specs to 1991 Specs (Tallahassee, 1994)
Section 346 - Portland Cement Concrete
Paragraph 346-3.1 fa) concrete classes
Subarticle346-3.3 Mass Concrete
Section 400 - Concrete Structures
Article400-14 Removal of Forms
Section A455 - Structures Foundations [Piling]
SubarticleA455-3.1 Protect Existing
Paragraph A455-3.2 1 excavation
Paragraph A455-3.3.2 diesel hammers
Paragraph A455-3.10.3 pay conditions
Paragraph A455-3.1 1.4 set-check/drive
Subarticle A455-3.17 DRIVE TOLRANCE
Article A455-8 Pile Installation Plan
Section 929 - FLY ASH CONCRETE
FDOT SUPPLEMENT SPECS
Figure 4.3 - IN REACH FDOT Supplemental Specs Index Screen for BRIDGES
VO
Ov
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Figure 4.4 - IN REACH FDOT Standard Drawings Index Screen for BRIDGES

¡Clear
5^ 1 ^
Source I Must
Search
by iif
Back Forward
BRIDGES - SOURCE INDEX
Illustration-Precst Pile Splice
fíetoterceti Prtcasl 3ulVmP
V
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MfEiDnrVi stv*n for VO Pie. Set Sect A-A re
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PEMFORCEO PRECAST SPACES
fit Itns lo*a VO im Min. tut It* 1 toco 5Í5 (otiftf>: 0r o adir J
TABLE OF DC* OLD SPLICE DATA
Drivobte Sylce
vil, Slf!C! left} 1 a
ho. 5 Sil Co* ct L tnQ 'ti
tES
3.C50 o
2.5 it>
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A for '.itr.ee! less toco ¡JOS * 'no-' OrheUti. use tte
tte'nferced Ptmxst Space
Prestieaest Pitcrsf BUiO-ttc
ecctrd’n) to Specifications A
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Figure 4.5 - IN REACH FDOT Pile Splices Illustration Screen for BRIDGES
\D
oo

Figure 4.6 - IN REACH FDOT CPAM Manual Index Screen for BRIDGES
vO
VO

100
“This manual is intended to be used by Construction Inspectors, Project Engineers, Resident
Engineers, and other Department personnel involved in the administration of construction
contracts.” This manual is similar in concept to the New York State Department of
Transportation’s Construction Supervision Manual [New York, 1984], sections of which
were reproduced as Appendix F.
4.4.2.6 Structures Inspection Manual. Part 3
Figure 4.7 is the index screen for the Structures Inspection Manual. Part 3
[Jorgensen, 1990], This manual is a one of three volumes of a structures inspection self study
training course developed by Roy Jorgensen Associates, Inc., a consulting firm out of
Buckeystown Maryland.
4.4.2.7 Tricks of the Trade manual
Figure 4.8 displays the index screen for the selected notes gleaned from the bridge
section (Section IV) of the Tricks of the Trade [Jacksonville, 1992] manual. This booklet
was developed by a Quality Improvement (QI) task team out of the Jacksonville, Florida
FDOT District 2 construction office. According to the introductory page of this document,
the purpose of this manual was to “establish a list of valuable construction ‘tricks of the
trade’ which will benefit all new FDOT construction employees, including P.E. Trainees.”
Figure 4.9 details one particular trick of the trade associated with a method for ensuring that
the concrete around embedded bridge deck armor joints is properly vibrated. It is interesting
to note that the QI task team was made up of eight veteran FDOT construction personnel,
who aggregately represented over 270 years of accumulated construction experience.

Figure 4.7 - IN REACH FDOT Inspection Manual Index Screen for BRIDGES
o

Figure 4.8 - IN REACH FDOT Tricks of the Trade Index Screen for BRIDGES
o
to

Figure 4.9 - IN REACH FDOT Armor Joint Void Topic Screen for BRIDGES
o
Lk)

104
4.4.2.8 Inspection checklists
Figure 4.10 is the index screen for a collection of inspection checklists currently under
development by the FDOT District 2 construction office in Jacksonville, Florida. Given that
these documents have not yet been published, coupled with the fact that they represented a
significant portion of the overall document base of the IN REACH system, the three
checklists, as indexed in Figure 4.10, have been included as Appendix K of this dissertation.
Additionally, this screen will be revisited later in the chapter under the discussion of the
embedded hierarchal model.
4.4.2.9 CRSI Placing Reinforcing Bars Recommended Practices
Figure 4.11 represents the only document source presented thus far that is not
proprietary FDOT published materials. Excerpts from this book, Placing Reinforcing Bars
Recommended Practices [Concrete, 1983], were included as part of the IN REACH
document base to illustrate the value of other non-FDOT documents. The pages from this
industry standard, published by the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI), represent
typical details that any structural inspector should be familiar with. An example of one such
informative image can be seen in Figure 4.12, wherein the field ASTM identification markings
for typical standard reinforcing bars are pictured. This particular image is linked to the hot
key “Illustration-Bar Identification” from the list displayed in Figure 4.11. Again note the
convention of IN REACH delineating graphical images by using the word “Illustration.”

Figure 4.10 - IN REACH FDOT Inspection Checklists Index Screen for BRIDGES
o

Figure 4 11 - IN REACH CRSI Placing Rebar Index Screen for BRIDGES
o
ON

Figure 4.12 - IN REACH CRSI Bar Identification Illustration Screen for BRIDGES

108
4.5 Lessons Learned from Post Construction Conferences
4.5.1 General Comments
As was stated previously, the method that was proposed for capturing heretofore
undocumented construction knowledge and experience, was the establishment of a post
construction conferencing program within the FDOT, requiring project teams at the end of
a job to generate some type of report detailing the problematic areas encountered during the
life of the project. Presented next will be two different sources from which lessons learned
were generated for inclusion into the IN REACH knowledge base. The first lessons learned
source is represented by Figure 4.13. This program was initiated by the Quality Initiatives
Office (QIO) in Tallahassee, and is maintained on the DOTNET, an FDOT network of
computers that can be accessed through the Internet given that the user has an authorized
code and password. The second source for lessons learned comments is the proposed post
construction conferencing program developed under this research endeavor, examples of
which are listed on the index screen as illustrated by Figure 4.14. Each of these two lessons
learned sources will be covered next, with special attention being paid to the post
construction conferencing method of Figure 4.14.
4.5.2 FDOT Process Performance Reviews Lessons Learned
4.5.2.1 General Comments
The Process Performance Reviews (PPR) program was developed in 1991 as a result
of a State of Florida Mandate (Procedure Number 455-000-025-b) which read in part
[Quality, 1994, p. 3]:

Figure 4.13 - IN REACH FDOT PPR Lessons Learned Index Screen for BRIDGES
o

Figure 4.14 - IN REACH UF PCC Lessons Learned Index Screen for BRIDGES
o

Ill
The intent of the PPR procedure is to assure that Department
teams regularly observe samples of completed projects, and
through an organized approach systematically develop
methods to ensure that all opportunities for improvement are
identified and incorporated in future projects.
Although the PPR’s are centered around a value engineering perspective and are conducted
between one and two years after the project completion date, the conceptual approach that
they represent may be modified and implemented in the field of construction operations.
Next, one particular comment set will be presented in detail as an example of the type of
information available via access to the PPR database.
4,5,2,2 PPR lessons learned comment referencing light pole vibrations
Although a variety of construction related comments were found to exist upon a
detailed search of the PPR database, only the three indexed comment sets as listed in Figure
4.13 were selected as representative examples. From this list of three, one has been chosen
to be expanded upon herein. Figure 4.15 represents this particular comment garnered from
the DOTNET associated with new bridge construction. Notice that the descriptions follow
the standard value engineering format of “Problem Statement—Problem Cause.” This
comment references the condition of excessive vibration of bridge mounted light poles when
placed at mid points along typical bridge spans. Although to an experienced field engineer,
this may seem rather self evident, most novice practitioners probably would never identify
this condition as a potential problem. Figure 4.16, which can be called up by clicking on the
hot key of “PPR 9301—Project Study” as shown in Figure 4.15, allows the user access to
more detailed information concerning the project study from which this comment was
generated.

IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES)
Horn
w
Back
&
Forward
Search
Source
Icieai^
¡
Exit”
Pit
Vibration of Bridge Light Poles (FDQT PPR LESSONS LEARN)
PPR STUDY DETAILS: PPR 9301 - Project Study
PROBLEM STATEMENT:
Vibration of bridge mounted light poles creating night
time vision problems for the motoring public, as well as
potential vibration damage to support structures.
PROBLEM CAUSE:
Study Team concluded that vibrations are caused by
passing traffic.
PROBLEM RESOLUTION:
Clark Scott State Traffic Plans Engineer, recommends
that poles mounted on bridges should be located as near to
the pier supports as possible to avoid traffic induced
vibration.
SPECIAL NOTES:
Clark Scott also points out that existing vibration
dampers are designed to prevent wind induced vibration,
and will not prevent, damage from traffic induced vibration
Navigational History
BRIDGES - SOURCE INDEX
FDQT PPR LESSONS LEARN
LL01 R.9301-Lite PoleVibratn
Search By
Related Topics
Figure 4.15 - IN REACH Pole Vibration Lesson Learn Topic Screen for BRIDGES

Figure 4.16 - IN REACH Pole Vibration Project Data Topic Screen for BRIDGES

114
4.5.3 UF Post Construction Conferences Lessons Learned
4,5.3.1 General comments
This section embodies the efforts of this research endeavor with respect to developing
a systematic approach for acquiring and capturing heretofore undocumented construction
knowledge and expertise. As opposed to the standard interviewing techniques discussed
earlier, it was felt that this process could lead to more focused comments that would tend to
be less influenced by the personalities of the various participants. Given that IN REACH is
admittedly restricted in scope and was developed specifically as a prototype system, only a
limited number of experimental post construction conferences (PCC) were conducted. Of
these test sessions the three most productive meetings, as illustrated by Figure 4.14, were
chosen for inclusion into the IN REACH document base.
The proposed PCC approach would mandate such a meeting be held at the end of
every significant project let and constructed under the jurisdiction of the FDOT. Appropriate
and worthwhile comments gleaned from these meetings could then be integrated into the
existing knowledge base of an IN REACH type system. Even if, for example, only a few
useful comments were obtained per project, in a relatively short time the Department could
amass several hundred comments, based on the current number of ongoing projects within
the state of Florida. As part of the development of the PCC approach, a preliminary form
was generated as a means of recording pertinent project and meeting data, as well as
providing some guidelines for modeling potential lessons learned comments. Appendix L
contains the form utilized during the various post construction conferences conducted as part
of this research effort. Presented next will be an example of one particular PCC meeting and
the lesson learned comment generated from this meeting.

115
4.5.3.2 UF PCC lessons learned comment referencing top of pile cap elevations
Figures 4.17a and 4.17b represent an example of a lesson learned comment generated
from an experimental PCC conducted at the jobsite of the Vilano Beach Bridge located in
Saint Augustine, Florida. These two figures are actually one node that can be viewed in its
entirety by manipulating the scroll bar located on the right edge of the window. Figure 4.17a
is the view that the user would see when the scroll bar control button is dragged all the way
to the top of the scroll bar (note the position of the little square directly under the up arrow
of the scroll bar), while Figure 4.17b is the view when the scroll bar button is dragged to the
extreme bottom of the scroll bar. The format developed for organizing the lessons learned
comments is a variation of that used by the value engineering PPR approach. First a short
description of the background of the particular problem is presented, followed by a “Problem
Resolution” statement and then any applicable “Special Notes.”
Specifically relating to Figures 4.17a and 4.17b, the situation being discussed centers
around a design error with respect to the specified pile cap thicknesses and top of cap
elevations. This particular bridge, although classified by an inland location, is within one mile
of the Saint Augustine inlet, thus subjecting it to coastal tidal variations. Apparently the
designers overlooked this fact, and as a result, during extreme high tides, such as those that
occur under full moons during the Spring Tide time of year, the pile caps actually become
submerged under several inches of water which is an obvious navigational hazard. Although
it is not the responsibility of construction personnel to specify pile cap elevations, a
conscientious Project Engineer would be wise to verify tidal elevations with the Coast Guard
prior to beginning construction, in order to avoid the problems now being experienced at the
Vilano Bridge.

IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES)
Home
!
«3
Back
C*
Forward
Search
By
Source
Clear^
History^
EJ
_
&
Top of Pile Cap Elevation fUF PCC LESSONS LEARN EDI
PCC MEETING DETAILS: PCC 9502 - Meeting
PCC PROJECT DETAILS: PCC 9502 - Project
PROBLEM BACKGROUND:
Plans called for the tops of the pile caps to be set at
an elevation of 2.0' above the MH'vV mark and the
bottoms to be set at an elevation of 1.0' below the MLW
mark. Based on the data provided by the Coast Guard
(MHW= +2.5' and MLW= -1.75').. the design engineers
established top of caps at elevation +4.5' and the bottom
of caps at elevation -2.75', yielding a total cap thickness of
6'-9". Unfortunately, during full moons at Spring tides, the
water level rises to a high water mark of 5.0' and falls to a
low water mark of -1.5'. At low tide the water level is
within design parameters and therefore causes no
problems, however at high tide, the top of the cap is
typically under upwards of 6 inches of water, 'which is an
obvious navigational hazard to the boating public.
PROBLEM RESOLUTION:
Although to date, this problem has not been resolved.
-i .~.n ,ni, ^ ~ ;
Navigational History
BRIDGES - SOURCE INDEX
UF PCC LESSONS LEARNED
LL01 C9502-Pile Cao Elevatn
Search By
Related Topics
Figure 4.17a - IN REACH Pile Cap Lesson Learn Topic Screen (1/2) for BRIDGES

IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES)
—
llorín
m
<3
Back
&
Forward
Search
By
Source
Clea
History
Exit
obvious navigational hazard to the boating public.
PROBLEM RESOLUTION:
Although to date, this problem has not been resolved,
the Coast Guard has notified all involved parlies that this is
an unacceptable situation, and something needs to be done.
Possible solutions are either to add a lightweight concrete
topping to bring the top of cap elevations to within
acceptable parameters, orto post navigational warning
lights at the edges of all pile caps. In either case this will
result in a substantial additional cost to the Department.
SPECIAL NOTES:
It appears that extreme Spring Tide tidal variations at
this location (+5.0' to -1.51) require pile caps to be
designed at more than 6-9" in thickness. A good lesson to
be learned from this occurrence is to verify Coast Guard
tidal data with respect to proposed bridge location.
Although this particular bridge is somewhat inland, it is
within one mile from the Atlantic Ocean at the St.
Augustine Inlet and is obviously affected by the coastal
tidal variations.
Navigational History
BRIDGES - SOURCE INDEX
UF PCC LESSONS LEARNED
LL01C9502-Pile Cap Elevatn
Search By
Related Topics
Figure 4.17b - IN REACH Pile Cap Lesson Learn Topic Screen (2/2) for BRIDGES

118
Finishing up this example, Figure 4.18 contains a variety of information specific to
the actual PCC meeting, and can be accessed from the top of the lessons learned node
(Figures 4.17a). Figure 4.19, which also can be accessed from Figures 4.17a, as well as from
the node represented by Figure 4.18, is a screen from which the user can access vital project
specific information, if so desired.
4.6 The Hierarchial Structured Hypertext Network of IN REACH
4.6.1 General Comments
As part of the discussions in Chapter 3 relating to integrating database modeling with
hypertext systems, the concept of imbedding a hard-wired, hierarchal structure was
presented. The term hard-wired refers to the creation of a hot key string of alphanumeric
characters placed within the text of a particular node that is directly linked to another node
in the hypertext network. The particulars of creating hot keys utilizing the IN REACH
software package (KnowledgePro Windows) will be examined later in Chapter 5. Presented
next is a review of the hierarchal structure of IN REACH, augmented by several captured
screens from the prototype system.
4.6.2 A Graphical Representation of the Hierarchal Structure
4 6.21 General comments
Figure 4.20 depicts the nodal network of the IN REACH prototype system
interconnected via the one-to-one, parent-child linkage structure. Although the network
contains a myriad of other links, or hot keys, for the purposes of this discussion, only the
parent-child linkage structure has been illustrated in this figure. One particular path through

IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES)
Horn
m
*3
Back
C
Forward
Search
By
Source
Ciea
History
Exit
Navigational History
BRIDGES-SOURCE INDEX
PCC 9502 Meeting Details (LLQ1 C9502-Pile Cap Elevatri)
UF PCC LESSONS LEARNED
PCC 9502-Meeting
MEETING DATE: April 10,1935
(% complete as of this date) = 71 %
PROJECT: Vilano Beach Bridge Replacement over the
TomoIato River. Refer to PCC 9502 - Project
for more detailed project information.
MEETING LOCATION: Jobsite
Meeting Attendees
Affiliation
Project Role
Thomas Mobley
FOOT
Quality Engineer
Harold Dubon
FDOT
Project Manager
Cindy Kelley
FOOT
P.E. Trainee
Douglas Geiger
RS&H, Inc.
CEI - Project Engineer
Zohar J. Herbsman
U of FLA
Research Invesigator
William C. Epstein
U of FLA
Research Assistant
Search By
Related Topics
♦
Figure 4.18 - IN REACH Pile Cap Meeting Data Topic Screen for BRIDGES

Figure 4.19 - IN REACH Pile Cap Project Data Topic Screen for BRIDGES
to
o

to
Figure 4.20
Representation of IN REACH’S Embedded Hierarchal Model

122
the network, represented by the shaded rectangular nodes and the thicker outlines and link
arrows, will be followed from the bottom up utilizing the five related screens captured from
IN REACH. Furthermore, ellipses containing the corresponding figure numbers have been
inserted next to each node that will be illustrated. One additional note with respect to Figure
4.20, is that the arrow head convention of the link lines is arbitrary and was done so only so
as to be able to distinguish one end from the other. In other words because of the imbedded
parent-child linkage structure, the user has the added option of navigating upwards through
the hierarchal tree (arrow head to arrow tail), which supplements the naturally downward
navigation (arrow tail to arrow head) driven by the system’s use of index type screens.
4,6,2,2 A detailed look via a parent-child path through the IN REACH hypertext network
This example will begin with the shaded node at the bottom of Figure 4.20 having the
name “IC-Pile Preformed Holes” (“IC” stands for Inspection Checklist). Given that the
system was based on documented information, the hierarchal structure natural followed this
model. To illustrate, Figure 4.21 is the captured screen associated with this particular node.
Notice that every screen has a title line, in this particular case the title is “Preforming Pile
Holes (IC—INSPECTING PILES).” The underlined text contained within the parenthesis,
“(IC--INSPECTING PILES)” indicates the parent node of the Figure 4.21 node based on the
source document origin. In other words, Figure 4.21 is the child, or the subpart, of the node
called “IC--INSPECTING PILES.” The user only has to click on this hot to display Figure
4.22, the node called “IC—INSPECTING PILES.” Remembering the IN REACH convention
of all capital letters signifying an index screen, Figure 4.22 is just such a screen listing the
various checklist subparts that are available under the category of inspecting piles.

Figure 4.21 - IN REACH IC-Preformed Pile Holes Topic Screen for BRIDGES
N>
Ui

Figure 4.22 - IN REACH FDOT Inspecting Piles Index Screen for BRIDGES
to
-t*.

125
Again just as in Figure 4.21, the node represented in Figure 4.22 also has a parent,
namely “(INSPECTION CHECKLISTS').” If the user so desires, he or she can continue
navigating up the hierarchal tree towards the origin of the source document by clicking on
this hot key which will access this node located one level up, depicted by Figure 4.23, and
which was also presented earlier in this chapter as Figure 4.10. Clicking on the parent of this
screen “(BRIDGES—SOURCE INDEXV’ will display Figure 4.24, which is the same screen
as Figure 4.1. Completing this example, if the user clicks on the parent of Figure 4.24,
“(BRIDGES').” the node illustrated in Figure 4.25 will pop up for viewing. This node
represents the top of the hierarchal tree, and as such is referred to as the “Home” screen, or
page, of the general category of BRIDGES. One other note, the image displayed (the
Skyway Bridge in Tampa, Florida) as part of this screen has no particular significance, other
than the fact that it is one of the premiere bridges in all the world, and a structure that the
FDOT should be very proud of.
4.7 Final Comments
This chapter has presented a comprehensive discussion of the strategies and
documents utilized in developing the knowledge base of the IN REACH prototype system.
As an additional point, and in reference to one of the originally stated research objectives,
namely “creating a system that allowed for relatively easy future expansion to the basic
system architecture,” the modular design of the IN REACH prototype system should be
emphasized. Noted several times already, and illustrated during the hierarchal structuring
example beginning with Figure 4.20, only the general category of BRIDGES was developed

Figure 4.23 - IN REACH FDOT Inspection Checklists Index Screen for BRIDGES
N)
o\

Figure 4.24 - IN REACH Index of Sources Index Screen for BRIDGES
to
-j

Forward
Related Topics
Ctea
%
Source
History
RIDGE
Welcome to the General Category of BRIDGES
From this screen, you can either:
1. - Click on BRIDGES - SOURCE INDEX to enter BRIDGES
directly via a hypertexed index of sources, or
2. - Run the other search rountines by clicking the "Search By"
button located within the button bar at the top of the screen.
; -
Figure 4.25 - IN REACH Home Screen for General Category of BRIDGES
ro
oo

129
under this research effort. Thinking of “BRIDGES” as a single module, other modules, such
as “ROADWAY” or “ASPHALT,” which have already been accounted for, can be developed
in the future, and simply plugged into the system in their appropriate locations. Additionally,
due to the underlying hypertext format, any hot key text string describing an existing network
node can be imbedded in a newly developed node and require no additional programming for
direct access to the existing node in question because that existing node has already been
associated with that particular hot key elsewhere in the network. Not only is the basic
architecture of IN REACH’S hypertext network easily expandable, but the modular design
of the relational tables utilized for the more advanced searching techniques also will provide
for relatively easy future expansion to the system. Particulars of these relational tables, along
with the other aspects of the IN REACH developmental system will be fully addressed next
in Chapter 5.

CHAPTER 5
DEVELOPMENT OF THE IN REACH PROTOTYPE SYSTEM
51 General Comments
As set forth earlier in the research objectives, one of the fundamental goals of this
research endeavor was the development of an information and knowledge computer delivery
system which would be both intuitive and user-friendly. The underlying hypertext network,
as presented in Chapter 4, certainly accomplishes this objective by the way in which it allows
the user to navigate naturally and freely through the knowledge base merely by pointing and
clicking the mouse. However, the IN REACH prototype system is more than just simple
hypertext system, rather IN REACH has been designed as an integrated environment which
utilizes various database management and expert systems strategies as a means of
supplementing the basic hypertext network in order to provide a set of structured searching
capabilities.
Although these searching routines incorporate rather complicated programming
techniques, in keeping with the stated objectives, the interface with the user was required to
maintain a friendly appearance. Given that the targeted audience for IN REACH was FDOT
construction personnel, many of whom posses only a limited knowledge of computers, the
concept of creating a user-friendly environment was even that much more critical, if the
prototype system was to be successful. With this in mind, the IN REACH environment was
130

131
constructed, always with the needs and requirements of the end-user at the forefront of the
developmental strategies. This chapter will present an overview of the prototype system,
concentrating on some of the technical aspects of the programming language, as well as
attempting to demonstrate the look and feel of IN REACH by capturing a variety of
computer screens, similar to the approach taken in Chapter 4.
5.2 A General Overview of KnowledgePro Windows
KnowledgePro Windows (KPWin) is a Windows development tool distributed by a
company called Knowledge Garden Inc. located in Setauket, New York. KPWin was
introduced to the marketplace in May of 1990, and since that time, a number of prominent
organizations, such as Avis, Hewlett Packard, and the United States Department of
Agriculture, have incorporated into their daily operations, systems developed under the
KPWin environment. KPWin seamlessly integrates a number of cutting edge computer
technologies, such as object-oriented programing (OOP), expert systems, and hypertext, all
within one visual programming environment. The backbone of the KPWin developmental
tool is its proprietary, high-level, event driven language, appropriately enough called the
KnowledgePro Language. The strength of the KnowledgePro Language lies in not only its
flexibility, but also the significant power derived from its embedded OOP features, such as
multiple inheritance [Shaw, 1992; Knowledge, 1994a],
One point of interest that should be emphasized at this time is KPWin’s usage of the
expression “topic.” Although, throughout this dissertation the word topic has been, and will
be, used from time to time in describing the chunked information contained within a

132
particular node of the hypertext network, this term in the KnowledgePro Language has its
own specialized meaning. Shaw [1992] calls the “topic” the building block of the
KnowledgePro Language, having similar attributes to a “function” or “procedure” in C++ or
Pascal. The KnowledgePro user manual [Knowledge, 1991] suggests that the “topic model”
was created as a means of overcoming the inflexibility of the expert systems shells, while at
the same time adding structure and intelligence to the “informational spaghetti” problem
often associated with pure hypertext systems.
Another important feature of the KPWin package is the embedded C++ code
generator called KPWin++. The importance of this feature, is that it allows the developer
to write his or her entire program using the high-level KnowledgePro Language, which is
relatively easy to learn, and then compile this finished application by means of an external
C++ compiler, such as Microsoft Visual C++ or Borland C++, to create a generic, industry
standard executable (.EXE) file which can then be run on any IBM compatible computer that
is running under the Windows operating system. This ability to create a self-contained
executable file was critical for this research effort, given the unsupervised prototype testing
that was to be conducted, details of which will be presented towards the end of this chapter.
5.3 Some Programming Details About Browsing and Searching
5.3.1 General Comments
The IN REACH prototype system provides two basic categories of information
retrieval, one which is a free form of browsing, or navigating, and the other incorporates
more structured methods of searching strategies. The browsing capabilities of the IN

133
REACH system are supported by the underlying hypertext network, which allows for
navigation through the knowledge base by clicking on various hot keys depending on
personal interest. The second category involves more advanced searching techniques which
enable a user to query the system in an attempt locate himself or herself in the
“neighborhood” of where that user wants to be, and then continue to browse from that point
forward. These more advanced features utilize a combination of relational database
techniques, SQL query statements, and expert systems inference strategies as a means of
accomplishing the searching routines. Presented next will be a more detailed discussion of
each of these general categories as they relate to the IN REACH prototype system.
5.3,2 Developing the Browsing Capabilities of IN REACH
In the KnowledgePro Language, any string of text displayed in a window can be
defined as a hot key by simply placing the character set “#m” immediately to the left and
immediately to the right of that particular string of text. For example, the word hypertext
can be made into a hot key as follows: ttmhypertexttim. As was noted earlier, hot keys are
typically displayed in a different color (green and underlined in the case of IN REACH), so
as to provide the user with a visual indication that there is more information (another separate
node) associated with this particular string of text.
From a programming perspective, when the user clicks on a hot key, IN REACH
attempts to call the special topic “mark,” which is actually an imbedded routine. This routine
searches the hypertext network looking for the node whose stored name exactly matches this
particular hot key, and then if found, displays this new node for viewing. The topic “mark”
is also used by IN REACH to create an array, or list, which chronologically stores the text

134
strings of every node visited by the user during a particular session. This array called
“ANTES,” in terms of the IN REACH program code, a copy of which is included in its
entirety as Appendix M of this dissertation, is used for three of the system’s basic
navigational aids, namely the “Navigational History” window, the “Forward” navigational
button, and the “Back” navigational button. These features, along with the other user
oriented aspects of the system, will be addressed later in this chapter during the presentation
of a guided tour of the IN REACH prototype system.
5,3,3 The Windows Resource Archive Program
Referring back for a moment to the discussion of hot keys, their importance to the
hypertext network can not be overemphasized. The strings of text marked as hot keys are
actually exact character-by-character matches of a named file which contains the chunked
information viewed as an individual node by the user. Given that the functionality of the
network depends on the integrity of these imbedded hot keys, as well as the nodal
information itself, the makers of KPWin provide an add-on program called WRAP
(Windows Resource Archive Program), which in effect “wraps” these files up and archives
them in a separate compressed file which can not be accessed by the user. What this does
in essence is to create a “read only” environment under which the user can not accidentally
modify a hot key, thereby making it unrecognizable to the system.
WRAP is a Dynamic Link Library (DLL) which enables the developer to provide a
method of data compression, file security, and structural organization to his or her Windows
developmental strategy. According to the WRAP user manual [Knowledge, 1994b], WRAP
is based on a high performance data compression algorithm that has the capability of

135
combining bitmaps, cursors, icons, binary files, and text files all together in a secured
resource archive for easy access from within any KPWin application. Depending on the
needs of a particular application, WRAP can be optimized for maximum compression or
maximum speed. The greater the level of compression, the longer it takes to handle the
wrapped file, while on the other hand, one can speed up the process by reducing the amount
of compression. For the purposes of the IN REACH prototype, considering the limited
knowledge base, the system was therefore optimized for speed.
Under the IN REACH strategy, the creation of the resource file was accomplished
by using the WRAP utility which is called Wrapper. This utility allows the developer to
create new archives and modify existing ones. Wrapper can either be built directly into the
application, or utilized externally, the latter being the case with the development of IN
REACH. As was noted, by wrapping the various information files (nodes), the integrity of
the system is maintained, and the operations associated with the topic “mark” are protected
from user manipulation. The inclusion of the WRAP commands can be seen within the
program code as listed in Appendix M.
5,3,4 Developing the Searching Capabilities of IN REACH
5.3,4.1 General comments
Although the browsing capability of hypertext is the underlying concept upon which
IN REACH has been designed, the system also supports more direct methods of searching
for information. As has been previously mentioned, properties of both the technologies of
database management systems and expert systems have been incorporated into the overall
programming strategy in an effort to add a sense of structure to the inherently unstructured

136
environment of a pure hypertext system. Presented next will be further discussion with
respect to some of the programming strategies developed for integrating the functionality of
both database management systems and expert systems as a means of supplementing the
basic hypertext network.
5.3.4.2 Relational database management programming strategies
One of the fundamental developmental approaches utilized by IN REACH was to
conceptually classify every node in the hypertext network in terms of a set of predefined
subject headings. Upon completion of this task, each node was then stored in one of three
relational subcategory tables (databases) as an individual and unique record. Figure 5.1 is
an example of one such relational database for the subcategory of “Bridge Deck.”
Examination of this table indicates that the labels for the subject headings are single letter
entries. These letters are actually representative of the corresponding predefined subject
headings for the subcategory of “Bridge Deck” as shown in Figure 5.2. For the purposes of
differentiating between these two types of IN REACH relational tables, further discussions
will refer to the class of tables illustrated by Figure 5.1 as “classification” tables or databases,
while those represented by Figure 5.2 will be referred to as the corresponding “configuration”
tables. The reason for codifying the subject heading fields of the “classification” tables was
strictly for efficiency purposes. In other words, as an example from Figure 5.1 and Figure
5.2, rather than requiring the system to continually search for the field entry of “Materials and
Accessories,” the utilization of the “configuration” table strategy reduces this relatively long
string to a single character, the letter “J” in this case.
Another point to be made with respect to “classification” tables (Figure 5.1), is the
labels associated with the fields that appear under the title “SOURCES” (the last ten columns

| BRIDGE PECK CLASSIFICATION DATABASE
SUBCATEGORY - Bridge Deck
SUBJECT HEADINGS
SOURCES
Node#
Node Description
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
1
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
1
400-5.7 SIP METAL FORMS
T
T
T
T
T
2
400-5.7.1 general
T
T
T
T
T
3
400-5.7.2 materials
T
T
T
T
T
4
400-5.7.3 design
T
T
T
T
T
5
400-5 7 4 construction
T
T
T
T
T
6
400-5.7.5 placing concrete
T
T
T
T
T
T
7
400-5.7.6 inspection
T
T
T
T
T
8
400-5.8 SIP CONC FORMS
T
T
T
T
T
9
400-5.8.1 general
T
T
T
T
T
10
400-5.8.2 materials
T
T
T
T
T
11
400-5.8.3 design
T
T
T
T
T
12
400-5.8.4 construction
T
T
T
T
T
13
400-5.8.5 placing concrete
T
T
T
T
T
14
400-5.8.6 inspection
T
T
T
T
T
16
400-7.15 BRIDGE FLOORS
T
T
T
T
T
17
400-7.15.1 bufchead/screed
T
T
T
T
T
T
18
400-7.15.2 design of screed
T
T
T
T
T
T
19
400-7.15.3 screeding
T
T
T
T
T
20
400-9.7 Concrete Deck Joint
T
T
21
400-15.2.5 class 4 finish
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
22
400-15.2.8 bridge sidewalks
T
T
T
T
T
23
400-16.2 Cure Bridge Decks
T
T
T
24
400-17.2 Deck Mtri Storage
T
T
T
T
25
415-5.10 Deck Slabs
T
T
T
T
T
26
415-5.13 Chairs & Bolsters
T
T
T
T
T
27
710-6.2 Weather Limitations
T
T
T
28
710-6.3 Surface Preparation
T
T
T
29
711-1 Description
T
T
T
30
711-2.2 Sealing Primer
T
T
T
31
711-4.2 Apply Seal Primer
T
T
T
T
32
925-2 Membrane Curing
T
T
T
T
T
33
IC - INSPECT BRIDGE DECK
T
T
34
IC-Bridge Deck Curing
T
T
T
T
T
35
IC-Bridge Deck Dry Screed
T
T
T
T
T
T
36
IC-Bridge Deck Form Remvl
T
T
T
T
37
IC-Bridge Deck Forming
T
T
T
T
T
T
38
IC-Bridge Deck General Prep
T
T
T
39
IC-Bridge Deck Grooving
T
T
T
T
T
T
40
IC-Bridge Deck Place Concrt
T
T
T
T
T
1
41
IC-Bridge Deck Place Rebar
T
T
T
T
T
42
IC-Bridge Deck Screed/Finsh
T
T
~T~
~T~
T
T
T
43
CPAM 9-3 Deck Thickness
T
T
T
T ;
T
“T
44
TOT[IV-20.21,22] Screeding
T
T
~T~
T
~^T~
T
T
45
TOT[IV-39] Cure Corrpound
T
~T~
T
T
~
T
46
TOTJIV-44] Armor Joint Void
T
T
T
47
Illustration-Metal Bar Chairs
T
T
T
"T"
~T~
48
Illustration-Screed Machine
T
T
T"
~T~
T
49
LL01R9301-Lite Pole Vibratn
T
T
~T
50
LL01R9401 -Deck Striping
T
T
T
Figure 5.1 - IN REACH “Classification” Database for the Subcategory of Bridge Deck
Lk>

138
BRIDGE DECK
CONFIGURATION DATABASE
CODES
SUBJECT HEADINGS
A
Placement
B
Curing
C
Finishing
D
Surfaces
E
Equipment
F
Rebar
G
Formwork
H
Removal
I
Stay-in-place
J
Materials and Accessories
K
Concrete
L
Metal
M
Screeding
N
Grooving
0
Inspection
P
Special; Requirements
Q
General Requirements
Figure 5.2 - IN REACH “Configuration” Database for the Subcategory of Bridge Deck

139
on the right side of the table). These entries (R1 through RIO) are matched to the ten source
documents as reviewed in Chapter 4. The corresponding description for each these source
entries is imbedded within IN REACH’S program code as listed in Appendix M. Copies of
all three “classification” tables and their corresponding “configuration” tables have been
included in this dissertation as Appendix N.
With respect to the searching routines associated with these databases, the IN
REACH prototype system made use of another add on package developed by Knowledge
Garden Inc. called KPWin SQLKIT. As was presented in Chapter 3, IN REACH employs
the standard SQL “SELECT” command for retrieval of network nodes matching user
supplied criteria. Each data field in the classification table is marked as either true (T) are
false (blank) thus linking each node to a set of distinct attributes. These attributes along with
their corresponding node description (the second column from the left in Figure 5.1) make
up the individual record. Details of how these queries or searches are preformed, from the
perspective of the user, will be demonstrated latter in this chapter when a guided tour of the
IN REACH system is presented.
5,3,4.3 Expert systems programming strategies
As was noted in Chapter 3, the integration of expert systems into the prototype
system would be accomplished by utilizing a forward chaining inference strategy on a generic
set of IF...THEN rules. Details of the actual system code can be found in Appendix M,
documented as the “RELATED TOPICS SUBROUTINE.” However, in general
programming terms, the following steps occur upon activation by the user of the related
topics search routine:

140
1) IN REACH identifies the particular node that the user is on when the
related topics routine is activated.
2) The system locates this node in one of the three subcategory classification
databases.
3) IN REACH counts the number of fields under the subject headings where
a value of true (T) appears.
4) Chaining through a set of generic rules specific to the number of true
occurrences, IN REACH returns an array of all other nodes in the
network that qualify as related based on this rule set. The rules have been
developed so as to give a higher priority to the nodes that reside within
the same classification database as the one that contained that node from
which the user initially activated the related topics search routine.
As was the case with the relational database management programming strategies, details
of the performance of this routine, from the perspective of the user, will also be
demonstrated latter in the next section of this chapter which will present an overall guided
tour of the IN REACH prototype system.
5.4 A Guided Tour of the IN REACH Prototype System
5,4,1 Introduction
This guided tour of the IN REACH prototype system will begin at the beginning.
Figure 5.3 illustrates the very first screen that the user encounters upon activating the IN
REACH program. From this point, the user can either “CONTINUE,” read an online
“INTRODUCTION” of the system’s features, or “EXIT” by clicking on the appropriate
button. Assuming the user clicks on “CONTINUE,” the next screen that will appear is
depicted in Figure 5.4. From this screen the user can select one of the six “General

IN REACH
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Figure 5.3 - IN REACH Welcome Screen

Figure 5.4 - IN REACH General Categories Screen
4*.
to

143
Categories” listed. As has been noted on numerous occasions however, if the user clicks on
anything other than “BRIDGES,” a message will pop up saying that the general category
selected is not yet available under this version of IN REACH. Therefore, it will be assumed
that the user chooses “BRIDGES,” which will cause IN REACH to display Figure 5.5, which
is the same image as displayed in Chapter 4 (Figure 4.25).
5.4.2 The IN REACH User Interface Layout and Basic Functions
5,4.2.1 The four viewing windows
Continuing as per Figure 5.5, the screen is divided up into four main windows. The
largest window, in which the Skyway Bridge image along with some text presently is
displayed, is the main viewing window wherein IN REACH displays the current hypertext
node. This window has a vertical scroll bar for viewing nodes that require more than one
screen of display area, as was the case with Figures 4.17a and 4.17b of Chapter 4. The
smaller window at the top right comer of the overall display screen contains the listing of the
“Navigational History.” This window in essence keeps track of where the user has been, in
this instance he or she has only been to one screen “BRIDGES.” As is the case with all four
of the windows, this window also has vertical scroll capabilities. The next smaller window,
in the middle of the stack of three, is called the “Search By” window, and is activated when
the user clicks on the “Search By” button contained in the button bar (located directly above
the Skyway Bridge image). Details of this windows functions will be presented latter in this
section. The fourth window is the “Related Topics” window, activated when the user selects
the “Related Topics” searching routine, details of which will also be demonstrated later in this
section.

Source [History
Back
Forwan
3 RIDGES
Related Topics
Welcome to the General Category of BRIDGES
From this screen, you can either:
1. - Click on BRIDGES - SOURCE INDEX to enter BRIDGES
directly via a hypertexed index of sources, or
2. - Run the other search rountines by clicking the "Search By"
button located within the button bar at the top of the screen.
Figure 5.5 - IN REACH Home Screen for General Category of BRIDGES

145
5.4.2.2 A brief look at each of the seven buttons contained in the button bar
The button bar, located at the top of the main viewing window, contains seven
buttons. A brief review of each is presented as follows working left to right across the button
bar:
1) “Home”—This button takes the user back to the home (front) screen of
whichever general category that user happens to be in. Figure 5.5
displays the home screen of the general category of “BRIDGES.”
2) “Back”—This navigational feature takes the user back one screen to the
previously occupied screen.
3) “Forward”—This button only works if the “Back” button has been used,
and if so, it drives the user forward one screen from his or her present
location along the same path traveled via use of the “Back” button.
4) “Search By”—Clicking on this button activates the “Search By” window
as illustrated in the zoomed in image of Figure 5.6. The three basic search
routines (“List of Topics,” “Sub Categories,” and “Related Topics”) can
be activated at this point. Again further discussion on these routines will
be visited later in this section. IN REACH also provides a “Cancel”
button in case the user wishes to cancel his or her initiation of the “Search
By” routine.
5) “Source”—This button can be clicked on at any time to display a pop up
window which informs the user from what source the current node was
obtained. Figure 5.7 is an example of the user activating the “Source”
button from the topic (node) whose file name is “A455-3.2.1 excavation.”
and document source is the FDOT Supplemental Specifications.
6) “Clear History”—This button allows the user to clear the “Navigational
History” window at any time during use of the program. This same
button changes to read “Clear Illust.” when the user clicks on a graphical
hot key (a string of text whose name begins with “Illustration-”). After
viewing the graphical image, the user can click on this button to clear the
illustration, and return to the topic screen from where the illustration was
originally accessed.
7) “Exit”—this button will take the user completely out of IN REACH and
returns him or her to the Windows Program Manager.

pm
*
Search By
L Topics! 2
«Msmmmtwx *****»?> X*”*.-... ■ :--^-
Sub
Categories:
Related..
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Related Topics
M
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Figure 5.6 - IN REACH Zoomed In View of the Activated “Search By” Window
-u
On

IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGESJ
Home
Back
Forward
Search
ICIeai
Source [History
FDOT Supplemental Specs to 1991 Specs (Tallahassee, 199-1)
begins. After driving is completed, all loose and displaced
materials shall be removed from around the piles leaving a
clean, solid surface. The soil surface on which concrete is
to be placed or which will support the forming system for
the concrete shall be compacted to a density not less than
90 percent of the maximum density as determined by
AASHTOT180 and which will support the load of the
plastic concrete without settling or causing the concrete to
crack or as shown in the Contract Documents. No
compaction will be required for excavations made below
water for seals or when the footing or cap or forming
system (including supports) do not rest on the ground
surface unless shown in the plans.
Figure 5.7 - FN REACH Example of Activation of the “Source” Pop Up Window
4^

148
5.4.3 A Closer Look at the Three “Search By” Routines
5.4.3.1 General comments
As was previously noted, when the “Search By” button in the button bar is clicked
on, the three search routines (“List of Topics,” “Sub Categories,” and “Related Topics”) as
illustrated in Figure 5.6 become available to the user. Presented next will be a closer look
at each of these three options.
5.4.3.2 The “List of Topics” routine
This routine was developed as a method of assisting an experienced IN REACH user
to quickly localize the topic (node) which he or she is looking for. The user simply clicks on
the “List of Topics” button in the activated “Search By” window of Figure 5.6, and the
screen as displayed by Figure 5.8 will automatically pop up in the main viewing area. From
this routine, the user can begin typing a topic name in the entry box (the blank box at the top
of the list ). It should be noted that this list contains every topic currently in the system
sorted in alphanumeric order. This list has been programed to be progressively character
sensitive so that as the user types in characters, the list automatically scrolls to that particular
location. In other words if the user typed in for example an “I,” then the list would scroll
down from its present position, as shown in Figure 5.8, to its new position as depicted by
Figure 5.9. The user also has the option of manually manipulating the scroll bar until the
desired topic is within the viewing area. Either way, once the user has found a particular
topic, he or she only needs to highlight it so it appears in the entry box. At this point a simple
click of the “GO TO” button will display this selected node in the main viewing area.

IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES]
Horn
Back
Forward
Search
By U
Source
Clea£¡*v
History
Exir ^
ACT.
â– 
Search By "List of Topics"
üi
Select a topic from the list below or type the
topic name, and then click on the "GO TO" button
125-4 EXCAVATION
125-4.1 General Requiremnt
125-4.2 Earth Excavation
125-4.3 Rock Excavation
125-4.4 Trench Excavation
346-3.1 (a) concrete classes
346-3.3 Mass Concrete
4-3.2.1 changes in work
4-4 Unforeseeable Work
400 - CONCRETE STRUCTRS
400-14 Removal of Forms
400-15 FINISH CONCRETE
400-15.1 General Finish
400-15.2.1 general
400-15.2.2 class 1 finish
Navigational History
i RIDGES
Search By
Related Topics
GOTO
CANCEL
Figure 5.8 - IN REACH Example of “List of Topics” Serach By Routine
â– c-
VO

â– =
IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES}
Home Bail
Forward
Search
'A*
Source
Clear^K
History i
Navigational History
BRIDGES
Search By "List of Topics"
Select a topic from the list below or type the
topic name, and then click on the "GO TO" button
1C- INSPECT BRIDGE DECK
♦
1C-INSPECTING CONCRETE
1C-INSPECTING PILES
IC-Barrier Rebar Placement
IC-Beam/Cap Rebar Placing
IC-Belt Conveyor Placement
IC-Bridge Deck Curing
IC-Bridge Deck Dry Screed
IC-Bridge Deck Form Remvl
IC-Bridge Deck Forming
IC-Bridge Deck General Prep
IC-Bridge Deck Grooving
IC-Bridge Deck Place Concrt
IC-Bridge Deck Place Rebar
IC-Bridge Deck Screed/Finsh
♦
GOTO
CANCEL
♦
Search By
1
♦
Related Topics
+»!
±¡
Figure 5.9 - IN REACH Example of “List of Topics” Scrolled Down to the Letter “I”
C/1
o

151
5.4.3.3 The “Sub Categories” routine
This routine directly accesses the three “classification” databases that were discussed
earlier. Clicking on the “Sub Categories” button, as shown in Figure 5.6, causes the system
to superimpose the three subcategory buttons of “Piles,” “Bridge Decks,” and “General
Concrete,” as illustrated by Figure 5.10. As an example of how this routine functions,
assume the user selects the “Bridge Deck” subcategory button. Given that this is the case,
the entire viewing screen will then be occupied by the “BRIDGE DECK” subcategory
window as shown in Figure 5.11. The box on the left contains the predefined decoded list
of subjects contained in the classification database, as per Figure 5.1. The box on the right
contains the list of the ten document sources.
At this point in the routine, the user can define his or her query by simply highlighting
those subjects of interest. The IN REACH search pattern is based on the Boolean “AND”
querying strategy. In other words, if for example, the user wanted to select all records within
the “Bridge Deck” subcategory that were linked to at least the subjects of “Placement” and
“Rebar,” he or she would highlight those two subjects, as illustrated in Figure 5.12. The user
can then either filter the results of the search by selecting (highlighting) a particular source
in the “Sources” box on the right, or allow IN REACH to apply the default setting, which
searches through all source documents. Assume the user in this example choose the latter
(all sources), he or she need only then to click on the “GO” button. This action will cause
IN REACH to return the “Result(s) of Search” as a list of topics that match the user’s query.
Continuing with this example, Figure 5.13 illustrates the scenario just described. If these
results are unacceptable, the user can rerun the search, which will return the system to the
earlier viewed screen of Figure 5.11 by clicking the “TRY AGAIN” button. However, if the

BRIDGE DECK
Subjects
Concrete
Curing
Equipment
Finishing
Formwork
General Requirements
Grooving
Inspection
Materials and Accesories
Metal
Placement
Rebar
Removal
Screeding
Special Requirements
Statin-place
Surfaces
Sources
CRSI Placing Rebar (1993)
FDOT CPAM Manual (1993)
FDOT Inspection Checklists (1 995)
FDOT Inspection Manual-Part 3 (1990)
FDOT PPR Lessons Learned (1995)
FDOT Standard Drawings (1994)
FDOT Standard Specs (1991)
FDOT Supplemental Specs (1994)
FDOT Tricks of The Trade (1993)
UF PCC Lessons Learned (1995)
â– 
. â– â–  |
GO
INSTRUCTIONS |
Figure 5.10 - IN REACH Example of Superimposed Subcategory “Search By” Options
cyi
K>

BRIDGE DECK
Jl;
Subjects
Concrete
Sources
Curing
CRSI Placing Rebar (1993)
Equipment
FOOT CPAM Manual (1993)
Finishing
FOOT Inspection Checklists (1995)
Formwork
FDOT Inspection Manual-Part 3 (1990)
General Requirements
FDOT RPR Lessons Learned (1995)
Grooving
FDOT Standard Drawings (1994)
Inspection
FDOT Standard Specs (1991)
Materials and Accesories
FDOT Supplemental Specs (1994)
Metal
FDOT Tricks of The Trade (1993)
Placement
LJF PCC Lessons Learned (1995)
Rebar
Removal
Screeding
Special Requirements
Stay-in-place
Surfaces
GO
INSTRUCTIONS j
♦ ;
Figure 5.11 - IN REACH Example of the “BRIDGE DECK” Subcategory Window
u>

BRIDGE DECK
Subjects
Concrete
Curing
Equipment
Finishing
Formwork
General Requirements
Grooving
Inspection
Materials and Accesories
Metal
Placement
Rebar
Removal
Screeding
Special Requirements
Statin-place
Surfaces
Sources
CRSI Placing Rebar (1993)
FDOT CPAM Manual (1993)
FOOT Inspection Checklists (1995)
FDOT Inspection Manual-Part 3 (1990)
FDOT PPR Lessons Learned (1995)
FDOT Standard Drawings (1994)
FDOT Standard Specs (1991)
FDOT Supplemental Specs (1994)
FDOT Tricks of The Trade (1993)
UF PCC Lessons Learned (1 995)
GO
INSTRUCTIONS
Figure 5.12 - IN REACH Selected Subjects for the “BRIDGE DECK” Example
cyi
4^

BRIDGE DECK
Subjects
Concrete
Curing
Equipment
Finishing
Formwork
General Requirements
Grooving
Inspection
Materials and Accesories
Metal
Placement
Rebar
Removal
Screeding
Special Requirements
Stay-in-place
Surfaces
Result(s) of Search
<115-5.10 Deck Slabs
415-5.13 Chairs & Bolsters
CPAM 9-3 Deck Thickness
IC-Bridge Deck Dry Screed
IC-Bridge Deck Place Rebar
Illustration-Metal Bar Chairs
CLEAR
CONTINUE
TRY AGAIN
INSTRUCTIONS
Figure 5.13 - IN REACH “Result(s) of Search” for the “BRIDGE DECK” Example
C/t

156
results are satisfactory, the user can either highlight certain topics, are highlight them all by
clicking the “ALL” button, which is the case in this example as shown in Figure 5.13.
Finally, by clicking on the “CONTINUE” button, these results are returned back to the
standard IN REACH user interface for continued hypertexted browsing as illustrated by
Figure 5.14. One other note to this example, is that the user can click on the
“INSTRUCTIONS” button at any time from the subcategory search screen (Figure 5.11
through Figure 5.13) to receive online instructions with respect to how this routine operates.
5.4.3.4 The “Related Topics” routine
This is the third and most ambitious of the advanced searching routines available from
the “Search By” window, as per Figure 5.6. As was previously explained, the concept of this
routine is to identify the current node, and return to the user all other nodes within the IN
REACH system that are determined to be related. To demonstrate how this routine works,
the “BRIDGE DECK” example represented in Figure 5.10 through Figure 5.14 will be
continued. Assume that upon return of the “Result(s) of Search” to the standard IN REACH
interface (Figure 5.14), the user decides to look at the topic called “415-5.13 Chairs &
Bolsters” by clicking on the hot key as it appears in the “Result(s) of Search” window (Figure
5.14). This action will cause IN REACH to display this topic in the main viewing window
as shown in Figure 5.15. This figure also incorporates the additional “Related Topics” search
that was performed, whose results now appear in the “Related Topics” window. Figure 5.15
now contains the results of the subject search in the subcategory of “BRIDGE DECKS,” as
well as the related topics search, which encompasses the whole system. Notice how the
“Related Topics” list differs from the “Result(s) of Search list, focusing more directly on bar

Result(s) of Search
41 5-5.1 0 Deck Slabs
±l
41 5-5.1 3 Chairs & Bolsters
CRAM 9-3 Deck Thickness
IC-Bridae Deck Dtv Screed
IC-Bridae Deck Place Fie bar
Illustration-Metal Bar Chairs
+
Related Topics
*| §
i!
Figure 5.14 - IN REACH Return of the “Result(s) of Search” to the Standard Interface

IN REACH (General Category - BRIDGES)
Home
Back
Forward
Search
By i:
Source
Clear^
History i
',
I
Navigational History
BRIDGES
41 5-5.13 Metal Chairs & Bolsters Ml 5-5 PLACE & FASTEN)
415-5.1 3 Chairs & Bolsters
Reinforcing steel bar supports which are in contact
with stay-in-place forms and bar Supports in contact with
the boundary surfaces of the concrete to be cast shall be
constructed with molded plastic legs or plastic protected
steel legs so that no portion of the bar support other than
the molded plastic leg or plastic protected portion of the
steel leg will be closer than 1/2 inch from the boundary
surface of the concrete to be cast.
When bar supports are used to support epoxy coated
reinforcing, the bar supports shall be epoxy coated in
accordance with the requirements of Section 416.
Bar supports used in locations other than those
specified above require no protection or coating.
All bar supports shall be manufactured from cold drawn
steel wire in accordance with the wire sizes and
geometrical dimensions shown in Table II of the Manual of
Standard Practice of the Concrete Reinforcing Steel
Institute (see Illustration-Metal Bar Chairsl The
plastic used for protection of the steel legs shall have a
thickness of 3/32 inch or greater at points of contact with
the form work. Plastic protection may be provided by a
dipping operation, the addition of premolded plastic tips to
4U m | ama ni 4Ua ai tmn . v Ui • nlnnkn ImMn
Result(s) of Search
415-5.10 Deck Slabs
♦
♦
415-5.13 Chairs 8. Bolsters
CRAM 3-3 Deck Thickness
IC-Bridqe Deck Dry Screed
IC-Bridge Deck Place Rebar
Illustration-Metal Bar Chairs
Related Topics
415-5.10 Deck Slabs
415-5.2 Blocks for Spacing
415-5.3 Wire for Tying
IC-Bridge Deck Place Rebar
♦
mmm*
Illustration-Metal Bar Chairs
11
♦
:
Figure 5.15 - IN REACH “Related Topics” Example for “415-5.13 Chairs & Bolsters”
oo

159
chairs, as well as actually accessing two new related topics (“415-5.2 Blocks for Spacing”
and “415-5,3 Wire for Tying”) from the subcategory of “General Concrete.”
5,5 Testing of the Prototype System
5.5.1 General Comments
The IN REACH prototype system is exactly as its name implies, a “prototype
system.” What this suggests is that the current version of IN REACH is relatively limited
and experimental, developed as an illustrative tool for displaying this dissertation’s proposed
approach. As such, a full-blown testing strategy would not necessarily be the most prudent
path to follow. However, it was felt that it would be worthwhile to conduct a variety of
structured demonstration sessions, as well as distribute prototype copies of IN REACH to
selected FOOT personnel for their unsupervised use. Both of these strategies were effected,
details of which will be presented next.
5.5.2 Structured Demonstrations of Preliminary Versions
Preliminary versions of the IN REACH prototype system were demonstrated to a
number of FOOT personnel in an effort to solicit their suggestions for possible enhancements
to the final prototype version. Albeit the system is geared towards novice practitioners, it
was felt that developmental demonstration sessions, for the purposes of system
improvements, would be more effective when conducted among veteran practitioners,
namely because they are more familiar with the requirements of the Department and its
workforce. Although at the time of these structured demonstrations, the preliminary versions
of IN REACH were still experiencing minor operational difficulties, or more commonly
known as bugs, these sessions proved to be very useful.

160
Of all the comments gleaned from the demonstration sessions, the most common
suggestions were centered around the provision of more information with respect to the
sources of the various hypertext topics (nodes). Early versions of IN REACH did not furnish
this type of information to the user. These comments directly led to the development of two
of the now established features of the current IN REACH prototype system. One result of
these demonstration meetings was the creation of the “Source” button, which was detailed
in earlier commentaries and illustrated in Figure 5.7. The other source related feature that
evolved from preliminary FDOT comments was the concept of allowing the user to filter the
“Sub Category” “Search By” routine by specifying desired document requirements. This idea
has also already been presented with respect to the discussions associated with Figure 5.11
through Figure 5.13. Whereas the value of the structured demonstration sessions certainly
was realized, the true measure of the system’s success would come from distribution of the
IN REACH program for unsupervised testing by those personnel who would ultimately be
using the system.
5.5.3 Distribution of Prototype System for Unsupervised Testing
This phase of the testing process would more clearly indicate the relative success or
failure of the developmental system. The thought was to distribute to the target audience,
a self-contained minimal diskette package, along with a set of limited instructions, and then
ask them to install the program and run it at their convenience. Upon completion of their
trial use of IN REACH, it was requested that they answer a couple of short questions
regarding their impressions of the prototype system. The makeup of the selected distribution
list was as follows:

161
One FDOT Professional Engineer Trainee
One FDOT Assistant Resident Engineer
One FDOT Construction Quality Engineer
One FDOT Resident Engineer
One CEI Office Engineer
One CEI Project Engineer
For distribution purposes, the IN REACH KPWin programming code, as per
Appendix M, was complied using KPWin ++ in conjunction with Microsoft Visual C++
version 1.52. In addition to this generated executable (.EXE) file, all other required external
files and libraries were copied onto a set of four 3-1/2 inch, high density diskettes. In order
to be able to load these diskettes, the potential user’s computer needed to have at least five
megabytes of free space on the hard drive. Additionally, as has been noted, the Windows
operating system was also a requirement. Along with the diskettes, a two page cover letter
explaining how to install and run IN REACH, as well as a Reviewer’s Comment Sheet, both
of which are contained in Appendix 0 of this dissertation, were included in the overall
distribution package. Of the six packets that were mailed out, four completed comment
sheets were received. The results from the respondents to the four basic Comment Sheet
questions were as follows:
1) Question A—This first question measured the reviewer’s opinion on the
“user- friendliness” of IN REACH. All four reviewers answered that this
category rated as Above Average.
2) Question //—This question wanted to determine the reviewers opinion on
the effectiveness of the strategies employed by IN REACH regarding
organizing and accessing highway construction information. Two of the
reviewers rated IN REACH as Superior in this regard, while two rated
the program as Above Average.

162
3) Question C 7—Here the question requested a rating on the potential
effectiveness of an IN REACH type system with respect to assisting the
reviewer in accomplishing his or her typical job description duties. The
results of this question were that one reviewer rated the system as
superior and three said it was Above Average.
4) Question C 2—This question was only meant for veteran practitioners, and
it asked them their opinion regarding IN REACH’S potential for assisting
novice personnel. On this particular point, all three veteran reviewers
agreed that IN REACH represented a Superior approach for assisting
novice practitioners.
As for the individual, unprompted comments, there appeared a consensus among
three of the four reviewers with respect to graphical images. In essence, the reviewers felt
that the system would be greatly enhanced by the use of more illustrative information. In fact
one reviewer suggested fully incorporating other multimedia features such as sound and
video. Unfortunately, at this point, development of the first IN REACH prototype system
has been completed, and these requests for more multimedia capabilities will have to be
addressed in future versions of IN REACH, if so sponsored.
5,6 Final Comments
Results of the testing and demonstration procedures associated with the IN REACH
prototype system basically confirm that on a common level, the targeted end user, FDOT
construction personnel, generally appreciated the research effort and recognized the future
potential for intelligent information management systems. This dissertation’s originally stated
objective of integrating the three distinct computer technologies of expert systems,
hypertext, and database management systems, into one user-friendly, intuitive programming
environment, seems to have been realized.

163
Although by no means conclusive, all indications from preliminary interactions with
FDOT construction personnel have demonstrated that there may be a place in the Department
for an IN REACH type of system which could assist veteran and novice practitioners alike.
This is not to say that there is no room for improvement of the IN REACH prototype system.
On the contrary, this research endeavor essentially solved as many problems as it uncovered.
Chapter 6, along with a overview of the entire project, will present several recommendations
for proposed enhancements to the basic IN REACH prototype system.

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
6.1 General Comments
This research endeavor represented a comprehensive study of the problems associated
with the development of a systematic approach for capturing the knowledge and experience
of a large organization, and establishing a computer delivery system for dissemination of this
encoded information. Fundamental to this delivery system was the creation of a user-friendly
computing environment that would provide an intuitive tool capable of assisting both veteran
and novice practitioners in fashioning more informed decisions concerning problems that may
arise during normal and abnormal highway construction operations. Presented next will be
a final overview of this dissertation’s effort, incorporating a look back at the original research
objectives, coupled with a comparative discussion of whether or not these stated objectives
were actually accomplished. Additionally, this chapter will include a section on
recommendations for future enhancements to the current version of the IN REACH
prototype system.
164

165
6.2A Summary of the Originally Stated Research Ob jectives
6.2.1 General Comment
The originally stated overall goal of this research project was to develop a systematic
approach for gathering highway construction knowledge and experience, organizing this
information, storing it, and presenting it in such a fashion as to be readily accessible and
usefiil to anyone wishing to benefit from this captured base of knowledge and expertise. This
broad effort will now be summarized in terms of three basic objectives for further review.
6.2.2 Summarized Objective Number One
The first basic stated objective can be summarized as the requirement for the
identification of the specific area of highway construction operations wherein there was
industry consensus that the particular domain identified represented acute dependence on
veteran knowledge and experience for successful job performance.
6.2.3 Summarized Objective Number Two
Once the specific domain was established, the second basic research objective was the
development of the focused knowledge base, with emphasis on a systematic effort that would
enable ease of future expansions.

166
6,2.4 Summarized Objective Number Three
With the knowledge base in place, the third objective was to research and develop an
information management system that would operate under a user-friendly environment
wherein novice and expert personnel alike, would be able to effectively utilize the system.
6.3 A Review of Whether or Not the Objectives were Accomplished
6.3.1 General Comment
Although this research encompassed more than just simply addressing the stated
objectives, a review of the efforts required to accomplish these objectives will allow for
discussion of most of the major topics covered in this dissertation.
6.3.2 Reviewed Accomplishments as per Objective Number One
From the results of the KA & EC questionnaire, a consensus, both nationally and
within the FDOT, was realized. The identification of new bridge construction with an
emphasis on inspection operations was a clear choice for the focused domain. Additionally,
by means of a survey of current practices, utilizing both the KA & EC questionnaire results,
as well as a variety of other resources, this dissertation was able to ascertain what programs
existed and were being implemented within the industry for the acquisition and capture of
highway construction knowledge and experience.
6.3.3 Reviewed Accomplishments as per Objective Number Two
As has been noted, originally, research efforts were concentrated on the expert
systems approach. However, soon into the project, it was determined that this strategy

167
would not effectively accomplish the stated objective. With this in mind, the direction of the
research was reevaluated and it was decided that the applied approach of developing a
specialized preliminary knowledge base of documented information, supplemented by PCC
lessons learned comments would be pursued. Chapter 4 of this dissertation does a very
thorough job of covering this particular topic, and as such there is no need to discuss this
approach in detail again. However, it should be emphasized that the knowledge base
structure was developed with a modular design in mind so as to facilitate ease of future
expansion to the system. Another point to be made, is that both the documented knowledge
base developmental strategy, and the proposed implementation of a state wide PCC program,
addressed the stated objective with respect to a systematic approach.
6,3.4 Reviewed Accomplishments as per Objective Number Three
Probably the most ambitious of the three stated objectives, was this dissertation’s
decision to attempt a computerized integration of the distinct software technologies of expert
systems, hypertext and database management systems. Given that a fundamental
understanding of these systems did not exist at the start of this research effort, the literature
review, as detailed in Chapter 3, was focused heavily on developing a underlay
comprehension of each of these information management techniques, in order that an
informed determination could be made on which aspects of which technologies should be
utilized. Although not to belabor the point, it will be reiterated herein that the basic decision
was to develop an underlying hypertext system augmented by the database modeling
concepts of both the hierarchal and relational models, with the relational tables enabling the
user to directly query the hypertext network. Additionally, as has been noted, the expert

168
systems approach was incorporated as a method of developing the “Related Topics” routine
utilizing an imbedded forward chaining inference strategy.
Again the idea of a modular design should be emphasized with respect to the
relational “classification” databases. From reading this dissertation, it should be apparent that
the limited base of the IN REACH prototype system only contained the three subcategory
databases of “Bridge Deck,” “Piles,” and “General Concrete,” within the single general
category of “BRIDGES.” However the modular nature of relational tables makes expansion
of the system’s database functions a relatively painless experience.
6,3.5 Final Comments
The discussion of whether or not the originally stated research objectives were
accomplished, seems to suggest that in general terms they were. However, as noted earlier,
accomplishment of the research objectives does not necessarily indicate that there is not room
for improvement. This being the case, the next section will examine a few of the
recommendations for future enhancements to the current IN REACH prototype system.
6,4 Recommendations for Future Enhancements to the Prototype System
6,4,1 Software Enhancements
Although selection of KPWin as this dissertation’s developmental environment was
well researched, it is next to impossible to fully appreciate all aspects of a particular software
package until work is actually done on the system. Originally, the SQLKIT was utilized for
database querying. In retrospect, albeit that this add on package accomplished the task at
hand, it probably would have been more effective to develop the relational query aspects of

169
the IN REACH prototype system with an alternate KPWin add on package which they call
KPWin DBASE Kit.
6.4.2 Development of a More Sophisticated Rule Set
Use of the expert systems capabilities for the IN REACH prototype system were
relatively elementary due to the fact that the knowledge base, with respect to the number of
hypertext nodes (approximately 300), was rather limited. In other words, due to the fact that
there were only 300 or so nodes to manipulate, the rule set with respect to the “Related
Topics” routine had to remain somewhat unsophisticated so as to allow for topic matches.
This unfortunately created the undesirable occurrence from time to time of returned related
topics that were not that closely related. However, given that the research was conceptual,
the idea of dynamic linking via the “Related Topics” routine is still valid.
6.4.3 Incorporation of More Multimedia Features
As was noted in the comments received during the testing of the IN REACH
prototype system, there certainly is an industry demand for more multimedia type features,
such as more graphics, as well as the inclusion of audio and video. Under the current
Windows operating system, IN REACH probably could not handle much more graphical
capabilities, as the system already was pushing against the conventional memory ceiling of
640K. However with the impending release of Windows 95, this inherent limitation probably
would be resolved.

170
6.5 Final Comments on the Overall Research Effort
Today we find ourselves in the midst of the "Age of Information,” poised to begin our
travels along the information highway. For the highway construction industry, as well as
society in general, the present scope of the electronic availability of information is
staggering, and this is not even considering iuture projections. One might think that universal
access to unlimited technical information would answer all the questions of how to acquire,
store, transfer and exchange highway construction knowledge. But unfortunately, the answer
is not so simple. This explosion of data has actually created an informational glut, and new
technologies are developing in response to this deluge. The challenge has become how to
organize and index all of this information in order to more intelligently access and utilize this
enormous base of knowledge. IN REACH, although only a prototype system, may hold
some of the answers to future strategies for intelligently managing information and
knowledge.

APPENDIX A
KA&EC QUESTIONNAIRE

College
of
University of Florida
Engineering
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 32611
DEPARTMENT CHAIRMAN
AREA CODE 904 PHONE 392-9537
STUDENT RECORDS
AREA CODE 904 PHONE 392-0933
Date:
Respondent's Name
Respondent's Title
Respondent's Organization
Address of Organization
RE: Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture Questionnaire
Dear Respondent's Name:
The Florida Department of Transportation, like many other state highway agencies, is facing a major problem of
losing the acquired knowledge of veteran employees who leave the department through retirement, change of jobs,
or for a variety of other reasons. These employees possess the equivalent of hundreds of years of accumulated
experience, and if their expertise is not somehow collected and transferred, this valuable source of information will
be lost forever. This predicament is especially acute in the realm of construction operations, where frequently the
experience is not documented in any written form and usually kept only as personal knowledge.
The University of Florida is conducting research with the goal of developing a systematic procedure for gathering
personal knowledge and experience, organizing this data, and storing it for future use. The attached questionnaire
has been sent to you in an effort to ascertain how your organization addresses this problem of capturing the
experience of veteran employees. At your discretion, please feel free to forward a copy of this survey to any
departmental personnel, as well as anyone else, who you feel may be able to contribute additional information and
insight with respect to this survey in particular, and the topic of knowledge acquisition and experience capture in
general.
We realize that response to our survey will require the time and effort of some of the key personnel in your agency,
and we fully understand the demands already placed upon your department. However, we feel that your
participation is vital, and our study would be significantly deficient without your input. Upon completion of our
research and publication of our findings, we will gladly forward you a copy of our report for your use.
Thank you in advance for all your cooperation, it will be greatly appreciated. We look forward to receipt of your
questionnaire and encourage you to contact us directly to discuss any other ideas you may have regarding this study.
Please send any other pertinent information along with your completed questionnaire to:
Dr. Zohar Herbsman
University of Florida
Department of Civil Engineering
345 Weil Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611-2083
Telephone: (904) 392-0935
FAX: (904) 392-3394
E Mail: 20HAR@CE.UFL.EDU
Sincerely,
Dr. Zohar Herbsman
FLORIDA'S CENTER FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT O P PO R TUN 1 T V / A F F I R M A T I V E ACTION EMPLOYEE
172

173
KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION AND EXPERIENCE CAPTURE
Respondent Information: Date:
Name: Agency: ___
Title: Address:
Division/Unit:
Telephone:
I. Loss of Veteran Employees
A.On a scale of 1 (lowest level of importance) to 5 (highest level of importance), what level of
importance does your organization place on the loss of the acquired knowledge of veteran
employees wno leave vour department through retirement, change of jobs or any other reason?
1. Lowest Level of Importance
2.
3.
4.
5. Highest Level of Importance
B.On average, how many veteran employees would you estimate that your agency looses per year?
C.What would be vour best estimate of the gross number of years of experience lost due to this
yearly departure of veteran employees?
Part I. Comments: (please use an additional sheet, if necessary)
Please send any additional wntten or statistical data that your agencv may have
in regaras to loss of experience due to the aeoarture of veteran employees.

174
II. General Categories of Construction Work
A. Please rate on a scale of 1 (lowest significance) to 10 (highest significance) the effect to your
agency that the loss of exDenence aue to the departure of veteran employees has on the following
general categories of construction work.
1. Bridge repairs & maintenance: Rating
2. New bridge construction: Rating
3. Roadway repairs & maintenance (other than asphalt): Rating
4. New roadway construction (other than asphalt): Rating
5. Asphalt repairs & maintenance: Rating
6. New asphalt construction: Rating
7. Signaling & lighting: Rating
8. Maintenance of traffic: Rating
B. Please list and rate any other general categories of construction work not specified above that may
apply to your agency.
1. Rating
2. Rating
3. Rating
4. Rating
Part II. Comments: (please use an additional sheet, if necessary)
Person Completing Part II. (If different from Part I.)
Name:
Telephone:

175
III. General Areas of Construction Operations & Administration
A. Please rate on a scale of 1 (lowest significance) to 10 (highest significance) the effect to your
agency that the loss of exDerience due to the departure of veteran employees has on the following
general areas of construction operations and administration.
1. Constructability analysis: Rating
2. Inspection: Rating
3. Quality Control: Rating
4. Construction Documentation: Rating
5. Departmental Documentation: Rating
B. Please list and rate any other general areas of construction operations and administration not
specified above that may apply to your agency.
1. Rating
2. Rating
3. Rating
4. Rating
Part III. Comments: (please use an additional sheet, if necessary)
Person Completing Part III. (if different from Part I.)
Name:
Telepnone:

176
IV. Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture
A. Has your agency ever developed in the past. Is currently developing, or Intends to develop in the
future any written documentation or systematic procedure attempting to acquire and capture the
experience and personal knowledge possessed by your veteran employees? If yes, please describe
the program and indicate whether it was past, present or future.
If your answer to this question is NO, please feet free to continue with the
questionnaire commenting on any of the remaining questions as you deem appropriate.
(please use an additional sheet, if necessary)
B. What methods did (or will) your agency utilize in its attempt to collect and capture for future use,
the personal knowledge and experience of your veteran employees prior to their departure?
â–¡ One on one interviews with departing veteran employees
Q Group roundtable discussions with departing veteran employees
Q Requirement for all departing veteran employees to generate some sort of written
operational / construction / inspection manual based on personal experiences
Q Mentor / Apprentice (veteran employee / inexperienced employee) training system
Q Requirement for all key personnel directly involved in a project to participate in post
construction conferences and generate written reports based on these meetings
Q Encouragement for all departing veteran employees to remain with the agency in some sort
of part-time consultant capacity available as required by the agency
Q Other:
Q Other:
Please use the space below to briefly comment upon how the selected method(s) above were
(or will be) specifically established and administered by your agency.
ipiease use an additional sheet, if necessary)

177
IV. Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture (corn.)
C. After completion of the collection and capture phase of the knowledge acquisition effort, how did
(or will! your agency store and distribute this information to the appropriate personnel?
(please use an additional sheet, if necessary)
Part IV. Comments: (please use an additional sheet, if necessary)
Person Completing Part IV. (if different from Part I.)
Name:
Telephone:
Final Comments: (please use an additional sheet, if necessary)
If vour agencv has any written material concerning Knowledge acquisition and transfer, such as
inspection manuals, experience manuals, construction check lists, or any other documentation,
reports or papers addressing this suPiect matter, the University of Florida and the Fiorioa
Department of Transportation would greatly appreciate you sending us a copy of any pertinent
information along with your completen survey. Tnanx you again for all of your time and effort"

APPENDIX B
DISTRIBUTION LISTS FOR THE KA & EC QUESTIONNAIRE

United States Distribution List for the North American Survey
1. State of Alabama Highway Department
State Construction Engineer
1409 Coliseum Boulevard
Montgomery, AL 36130
2. Alaska Department of Transportation
Chief Engineer
3132 Channel Drive
Juneau, AK 99801-7898
3. Arizona Department of Transportation
Transportation Engineer Supervisor
7755 S. Research Park Dr. - Suite # 106
Tempe, AZ 85284
4. Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department
Training Engineer (Construction Division)
PO Box 2261
Little Rock, AR 72203
5. California Department of Transportation
Chief - Division of Construction
1120 N Street - Room # 3440
Sacramento, CA 95814
6. Colorado Department of Highways
ChiefEngineer
4201 East Arkansas Avenue
Denver, CO 80222
7. State of Connecticut Department of Transportation
Construction Administrator
2800 Berlin Turnpike
PO Box 317546-SE4
Newington, CT 06131-7546
8. Deleware Department of Transportation
North District Engineer
250 Bear / Christiana Road
Christiana, DE 19701
9. District of Columbia Department of Public Works
Chief - Bureau of Transportation Construction Services
2000 NW 14th Street - 5th Floor
Washington, D C. 20009
10. Georgia Department of Transportation
Division Director - Construction
2 Capitol Square, S.W.
Atlanta, GA 30334
179

180
United States Distribution List for the North American Survey (continued!
11. Hawaii Department of Transportation
Chief - Highway Division
869 Punchbowl Street
Honolulu, HI 96813
12. Idaho Department of Transportation
Chief of Highway Operations
311 West State Street
Boise, ID 83703
13. Illinois Department of Transportation
Director - Division of Highways
Room # 300
2300 S. Dirksen Parkway
Springfield, IL 62764
14. Indiana Department of Transportation
Chief Engmeer
100 North Senate Avenue
Indianapolis, IN 46204
15. Iowa Department of Transportation
Construction Engineer
800 Lincoln Way
Ames, IA 50010
16. Kentucky Transportation Cabinet
Assistant State Highway Engmeer for Construction
10th Floor - State Office Building
501 High Street
Fankfort, KY 40622
17. Kansas Department of Transportation
Bureau Chief of Construction and Maintenance
8th Floor - Docking State Office Building
Topeka, KS 66612
18. Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development
Chief - Construction Division
PO Box 94245
Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9245
19. Maine Department of Transportation
Engineer of Construction
State House Station 16
Augusta, ME 04333-0016
20. Maryland Department of Transportation
Chief Engineer for State Highway Administration
707 North Calvert Street
Baltimore, MD 21201

181
United States Distribution List for the North American Survey (continued)
21. Massachusetts Highway Department
Chief Engineer
10 Park Plaza
Boston, MA 02116
22. Michigan Department of Transportation
Engineer of Construction - Construction Division
PO Box 30050
Lansing, MI 48909
23. Minnesota Department of Transportation
Construction Engineer - Office of Construction
MS 650 - Transportation Building
St. Paul, MN 55115
24. Mississippi Department of Transportation
Deputy Director of Pre-Construction
PO Box 1850
Jackson, MS 39215-1850
25. Missouri Highway and Transportation Department
Division Engineer of Construction
PO Box 270
Jefferson City, MO 65102
26. Montana Department of Transportation
Acting Construction Engineer
2701 Prospect Avenue
Helena, MT 59620
27. Nebraska Department of Roads
Construction Engineer
PO Box 94759
Lincoln, NE 68509
28. Nevada Department of Transportation
Chief Construction Engineer
1263 S. Stewart Street
Carson City, NV 89712
29. New Hampshire Department of Transportation
Department Head of Construction
1 Hazen Drive
Concord, NH 03302-0483
30. New Jersey Department of Transportation
Executive Director of Regional Operations (Region 5)
1035 Parkway Avenue
Trenton, NJ 08625

182
United States Distribution List for the North American Survey (continued)
31. New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department
Division Director - Design and Construction
PO Box 1149
South Building # 4
Santa Fe,NM 87504-1149
32. New York Department of Transportation
Deputy Chief Engineer - Construction Division
Building #4 - Room #101
1220 Washington Avenue
Albany, NY 12232
3 3. North C arolina Department of Transportation
State Highway Construction and Materials Engineer
PO Box 25201
Raleigh, NC 27611
34. North Dakota Department of Transportation
Construction Engineer
608 East Boulevard Avenue
Bismarck, ND 58505-0700
3 5. Ohio Department of Transportation
Engineer of Construction
25 South Front Street - Room # 404
Columbus, OH 43216
36. Oklahoma Department of Transportation
Assistant Director - Operations
200 N.E. 21 st Street
Oklahoma City, OK 73105
37. Oregon Department of Transportation
Manager - Operations Section
800 Airport Road S.E.
Salem, OR 97310
38. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
Deputy Secretary for Highway Administration
Transportation and Safety Building - Room # 1200
Harrisburg, PA 17120
39. Rhode Island Department of Transportation
Chief Engineer of Transportation
2 Capitol Hill
Providence, RI 02903
40. South Carolina Department of Transportation
Director of Construction
POBox 1912 Capitol Hill
Columbia, SC 29202

183
United States Distribution List for the North American Survey (continued)
41. South Dakota Department of Transportation
Construction Engineer
700 Broadway Avenue East
Pierre, SD 57501
42. Tennessee Department of Transportation
Executive Director - Bureau of Operations
James K Polk Building - Suite # 700
Nashville, TN 37243
43. Texas Department of Transportation
Assistant Executive Director for Field Operations
125 East 11th
Austin, TX 78701-2483
44. Engineer for Construction
Construction Division
Utah Department of Transportation
4501 South 2700 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
45. Vermont Agency of Transportation
Director of Construction and Maintenance
133 State Street
Montpelier, VT 05633
46. Virginia Department of Transportation
Construction Engineer
1401 East Broad Street
Richmond, VA 23219
47. Washington State Department of Transportation
Chief Construction Engineer
PO Box 47354
Olympia, WA 98504-7354
48. West Virginia Department of Transportation
Chief Engineer - Operations
1900 Kanawha Boulevard East
Building # 5 - State Capitol Complex
Charleston, WV 25305
49. Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Director - Office of Construction
Construction Room # 601
PO Box 7916
Madison, WI 53707-7916
50. Wyoming Department of Transportation
State Construction and Maintenance Engineer
PO Box 1708
Cheyenne, WY 82002-9019

184
Canada Distribution List for the North American Survey
1. Alberta Department of Transportation and Utilities
Assistant Deputy Minister of Regional Operations
4999 98th Avenue
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6B 2X3
2. British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Highways
Chief Highway Engineer
940 Blanshard Street
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8W 3E6
3. Manitoba Department of Highways and Transportation
Assistant Deputy Minister
215 Garry Street, 16th Floor
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3C 3Z1
4. New Brunswick Department of Transportation
Director of Construction
PO Box 6000
Fredericton, N.B., Canada E3B 5H1
5. Newfoundland Department of Works, Services and Transportation
Construction Engineer
PO Box 8700
St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1B 4J6
6. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
Office of the Director of Public Works
Saipan, CM 96950
7. Northwest Territories Department of Transportation
Head - Design Services
Box 1320
Yellowknife, N.W.T., Canada X1A2L9
8. Nova Scotia Department of Transportation and Communications
Director of Construction
PO Box 186
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 2N2
9. Ontario Ministry of Transportation
Manager - Contract Management Office
1201 Wilson Avenue - 2nd Floor, West Building
Downsview, Ontario, Canada M3M 1J8
10. Quebec Ministry of Transportation
Executive Director - Construction Branch
700 East Street Cvrille Boulevard - 28th Floor
Quebec City, Canada G1R 5H1
11. Saskatchewan Highway and Transportation Department
Assistant Deputy Minister of Operations
1855 Victoria Avenue
Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4P 3V5

185
District Office Distribution List for the Florida Survey
1. District Construction Engineer (District # 1)
Florida Department of Transportation
PO Box 1249
Bartow, FL 33830-1249
2. District Contract Compliance Officer
& Construction Utility Engineer (District # 2)
Florida Department of Transportation
PO Box 6669
Jacksonville, FL 32236-6669
3. District Construction Engineer (District # 2)
Florida Department of Transportation
POBox 1089
Lake City, FL 32055-1089
4. Jacksonville Construction Engineer (District # 2)
Florida Department of Transportation
PO Box 6669
Jacksonville, FL 32236-6669
5. District Construction Engineer (District # 3)
Florida Department of Transportation
PO Box 607
Highway 90 East
Chipley, FL 32428-0607
6. District Construction Engineer (District # 4)
Florida Department of Transportation
3400 West Commercial Boulevard
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309
7. District Construction Engineer (District # 5)
Florida Department of Transportation
719 South Woodland Boulevard - MS 3-506
Deland, FL 32720-6800
8. District Construction Engineer (District # 6)
Florida Department of Transportation
1000 NW 111th Avenue
Miami, FL 33172
9. District Construction Engineer (District # 7)
District # 7
Florida Department of Transportation
11201 N. McKinley Drive - MS 7-1100
Tampa, FL 33612
10. Turnpike Construction Engineer (The Florida Turnpike Authority)
Florida Department of Transportation
PO Box 17870
Plantation, FL 33318-7870

APPENDIX C
CALIFORNIA DOT HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION CHECKLIST

HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION
CHECKLIST
(nitrons
STATE OF CALIFORNIA
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FOREWORD
This checklist is a revision of the 1971
issue.
This edition is not intended to be a substitute
for any other publication of the Department. It is
to be used as a guide to engineering judgement.
Assuch, itwill be of value to the experienced field
engineer as a reminder; it will be valuable to the
inexperienced person as a training aid and a
checklist to assure that contract administration
is being performed adequately.
The California Department of Transportation
has an enviable reputation for the administration
of its program and the quality of its finished
product. This booklet is designed to serve as an
aid not only in maintaining that reputation but
in improving it.
Leo J. Trombatore
Director, Department of Transportation

CONTENTS
FOREWORD 5
CONTENTS 7
ASSISTANT RESIDENT ENGINEER'S DAILY
REPORT HC-10A. HC-1 OB 9
PUBLIC SAFETY AND CONVENIENCE 11
SCALE WEIGHTS 13
EXTRA WORK 15
CLEARING AND GRUBBING 16
DUST CONTROL 17
EARTHWORK 18
Roadway Excavation
Structure Excavation and Backfill
Embankment Construction
Borrow Excavation
EROSION CONTROL AND HIGHWAY
PLANTING 21
Erosion Control
Highway Planting
Irrigation Systems
LIME TREATMENT 25
AGGREGATE SUBBASE 27
AGGREGATE BASE 29
CEMENT TREATED BASES 31
LEAN CONCRETE BASE 34
PENETRATION TFtEATMENT 36
BITUMINOUS SEALS 37
ASPHALT CONCRETE - PRODUCTION
OPERATIONS 40
ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVING - STREET
OPERATIONS 43
PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE
PRODUCTION OPERATIONS 46
PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE
PAVEMENT 49
7
P. C. C. PAVEMENT
REHABILITATION 53
Repair Corner Breaks
Repair Spalled Joints
Pavement Subsealing & Jacking
Seal Joints
Edge Drains
CONCRETE STRUCTURES 57
Safety
Excavations, Foundations
Forms
Reinforcing
Placing Concrete
AIR BLOWN MORTAR 63
SIGNS (PERMANENT) 64
CULVERTS 67
SUBSURFACE DRAINS 71
Underdrains
Horizontal Drains
Edge Drains
OVERSIDE DRAINS 74
CONCRETE CURBS AND SIDEWALKS 75
FENCES 77
RAILINGS AND BARRIERS 79
SIGNALS AND LIGHTING 82
FINISHING ROADWAY 87
8
oo
oo

CONCRETE STRUCTURES
REFERENCES
Standard Specifications,
Sections 51,52, 90
Construction Manual,
Sections 6-51,6-52,
6-90
Portland Cement Con¬
crete - Production
Operations, this
Checklist
ACTIVITIES BEFORE
CONSTRUCTION
Review structure
locations - compatibility
with planned locations,
existing conditions,
utilities; ready for stakes
(rough graded)
Prepare 4-scale
drawings (major bridge
structures) - falsework,
abutment bent,
deck and rail grades
Obtain contractor's
“Request For Construc¬
tion Staking" - order
stakes
Check engineer's stakes -
lines, offsets,
references, elevations,
grades, adequate for
quantity measurements,
conform with existing
curbs, inlets, pavement;
review with contractor
Review contractor's
progress schedule -
compatibility with water
pollution control plan
Obtain contractor's
falsework drawings,
design calculations,
contractor's certificate
for use of
manufactured assemblies
(when used) - advise
contractor when
approved
Obtain contractor's
trench shoring and
sloping data - advise
contractor when
approved; remind him
of DOSH excavation
permit requirement
Determine whether the
contractor has submitted
prestress working
drawings - advise
contractor when
approved (obtain
microfilms at end of job)
Ensure that railroad
insurance is in order
(Const. Man. 2-07)
Review the contractor's
code of safe
practices and accident
prevention program
57
Report impaired clear¬
ances - notify district
office, local agencies
Obtain the Notice
of Materials To Be
Used. HC-30 - review,
send to Translab
Obtain initial samples,
tests (see Portland
Cement Concrete-
Production Operations,
of this Checklist)
Look for potential
overloads - increase
structural capacity
Examine forming system -
request data on design
and materials (if
necessary)
Examine pile driving
equipment - proper
types, capacities,
other specified attributes
ACTIVITIES DURING
CONSTRUCTION
Safety
Review lane closures -
advise maintenance,
local agencies, CHP
Be safety conscious
Observe operations -
comply with code of
safe practices; hardhats
worn, work areas clean,
railings in place,
ladders used properly,
scaffolding O.K.,
overhead wires noted,
safety belts used,
proper clothing worn,
safety meetings
Note imminent hazards,
dangerous conditions -
discuss with contractor,
take action (Const. Man.
1-60)
Excavations,
Foundations
Observe excavations -
sloping, shoring as
required
Examine foundations-
firm, stable, adequate
bearing capacity
(field test as
necessary)
Piling
Ensure predrilling of
holes for piling to be
driven through new
embankments - proper
diameter, proper filling
after driving
Examine pile driving
equipment - proper
hammer for type of piling
Check for required
driving heads - no
damage to piling, use
of cushion blocks
58
00
M3

Check for proper
restraint from lateral
movement during driving
of piling
Ensure that precast
concrete piles are not
driven until 1 4 days
after casting; timber
piles driven within
6 months after
treatment
Examine piling - proper
evidence of inspection,
no damage during
shipment
Maintain "Pile Quantity
& Driving Record" and
"Log Record" (or
“Drilling Record") -
calculate blow count,
check specified tip;
observe placement of
reinforcing and concrete
Pedorm load tests -
maintain records for
payment
Ensure that steel pile
splicing is performed
as specified -
welder qualified
Check holes for
cast-in-place
concrete piles - proper
dimensions, alignment,
de-watering
Falsework and Forms
Observe falsework
construction - compliance
with DOSH Section
1717, continous
inspection during
erection, during and
after concrete pour;
proper member location
and quality, adequate
foundation
Examine form material -
rigidity, smoothness,
cleanliness, proper
grade of plywood
Observe placement -
mortar-tight, braced,
provision for utilities;
proper dimensions,
lines, grades; triangular
fillets in place,
weep holes in,
forms oiled, expansion
joints and joint keys
provided
Ensure proper placement
of electrical facilities,
drainage features,
cathodic protection,
falsework supports
Reinforcing
Obtain certificates of
compliance
59
Check wire mesh - wire
size, mesh size
Examine bars - proper
grade, free of grease,
excessive rust or
scale; proper hook
dimensions, no kinks
or cracks
Observe placement -
compare with plans;
proper size and shape,
spacing, length,
clearance; securely held
in place; chairs, anchors,
spacers, stirrups, wiring
Ensure proper splicing -
wired laps, welding,
mechanical; properly
staggered
Consult with Translab
for splice testing,
certification of welders
Maintain Bar Reinforcing
Steel Placing Record,
DS-C76 (major
structures)
Prestressing
Check placement of
ducts for prestressing
steel - proper material,
placement, clearances,
mortar-tight, securely
fastened; vents of
proper size and located
as specified
Examine prestressing
steel - properly
packaged, free of
excessive rust or other
damage, required
evidence of inspection
(TL624 or other
markings)
Obtain contractor's
jack data, calibration
charts
Calculate required
elongation of prestress
steel - adequate con¬
crete strength before
stressing
Observe prestressing -
proper sequence and
loading
Observe grouting - check
for proper material,
grout efflux time;
valves installed and
operated as specified
Placing Concrete
Examine forms and
reinforcing - clean up
chips, sawdust, foreign
matter; dewater
Ensure proper construc¬
tion joints - sandblasted,
moistened
Check ambient and/or
concrete temperatures -
availability of protective
devices
60
VO
o

Ensure that embedded
fixtures are in place •
anchor bolts, pipes,
sleeves, metal inserts,
weep holes, drains,
electrical, restrainer
components
Establish communication
with concrete production
facility
Ensure that compressive
strength concrete is
prequalified, production
and materials in
accordance with pre¬
qualification
Obtain load slips for
ready-mixed concrete -
check mixer revolu¬
tions, time limits,
cement content
Observe concrete place¬
ment - no retempering;
proper use of pipes,
tubes, belts; no
excessive drops, no
segregation; adequate
vibration within time
limit, proper sequence
for vertical and
horizontal members;
tremie for underwater
placement
Sample concrete - test
for temperature,
penetration, air content,
yield, cement factor;
fabricate test cylinders,
identify, cure and store
properly; send to lab
with required paperwork
Observe curing method -
forms in place,
exposed surfaces moist
continuously or curing
compound applied;
proper curing material
Ensure that forms
and/or falsework remain
in place as specified -
length of time, results
of compressive strength
tests, prestressing
steel tensioned
Measure surface of
bridge decks -
within straightedge
tolerance, profilograph,
surface crack intensity,
coefficient of friction
Ensure proper sequence
of falsework removal -
adequate protection for
public traffic (detour
if necessary)
Check surface finishing,
ordinary, Class 1,
Class 2 - holes filled,
rock pockets repaired,
fins removed, matching
61
color, uniform texture
Maintain Concrete Pour
Record, DS-C73 (major
structures)
Joint Seals
Observe installation -
proper methods, proper
materials and
workmanship
RECORDS
Include in the Asst. Res.
Engrs. Daily Report
(HC-10A)
Instructions and/or
significant discussions
with contractor
Notes on your
inspections
Hours worked by
personnel and
equipment
Records for force
account payment
Measure and/or calculate
quantities - complete
Structure Summary
HC-53; (minor
structures); complete
Quantity Calc. Sheet
HC-52
Retain/file
Certificates of
compliance, load tickets,
inspection tags, test
reports
Report of Completion
(Structures) - include
list of materials,
quantities, costs, utility
report, joint seal report,
paint records
Deck protection reports
Railroad Reports
Microfilms of shop
drawings
As built plans
62

APPENDIX D
TRB CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE SURVEY

College
of
University of Florida
Engineering
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 32611
DEPARTMENT CHAIRMAN
AREA CODE 904 PHONE 392-9537
STUDENT RECORDS
AREA CODE 904 PHONE 392-0933
Date:
Respondent's Name
Respondent's Title
Respondent's Organization
Address of Organization
RE: Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture
Dear Respondent's Name:
The Florida Department of Transportation, like many other state highway agencies, is facing a major problem of
losing the acquired knowledge of veteran employees who leave the department through retirement, change of jobs,
or for a variety of other reasons. These employees possess the equivalent of hundreds of years of accumulated
experience, and if their expertise is not somehow collected and transferred, this valuable source of information will
be lost forever. This predicament is especially acute in the realm of construction operations, where frequently the
experience is not documented in any written form and usually kept only as personal knowledge.
The University of Florida is conducting research with the goal of developing a systematic procedure for gathering
construction knowledge and experience, organizing this data, and storing it for future use. Our purpose for
contacting you is to ask if you know of any similar efforts either within your own organization or elsewhere. We
are very interested in any information, documentation or computer software that you may have or are aware of
concerning this topic.
We realize that a response to our request will require your time and effort, and we fully understand the demands
already placed upon your time. However, we feel that your participation is vital, and our study would be
significantly deficient without your participation. Upon completion of our research and publication of our findings,
we will gladly forward you a copy of our report tor your use.
Thank you in advance for all your cooperation, it will be greatly appreciated. We look forward to hearing from you
and encourage you to contact us anytime to discuss any ideas you may have regarding this study.
Please send any pertinent information to:
Dr. Zohar Herbsman
University of Florida
Department of Civil Engineering
345 Weil Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611-2083
Telephone: (904) 392-0935
FAX: (904) 392-3394
E Mail: ZOHAR@CE.UFL.EDU
Sincerely,
Dr. Zohar Herbsman
FLORIDA'S CENTER FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY/4FFIRM4TIVE ACTION EMPLOYE^
193

194
Distribution List for the TRB Letter of Inquiry
1. Arizona Department of Transportation
Deputy Director
206 S. 17th Avenue, Room 101A
Phoenix, AR 85007
2. Ballenger Paving Company, Inc.
President
Post Office Box 127
Greenville, SC 29602
3. Bechtel Parsons Brinckerhoff
Project Manager
One South Station
Boston, MA 02110
4. Bergstralh-Shaw-Newman, Inc.
Senior Vice President
5300 Westview Drive, Suite 107
Frederick, MD 21701
5. Federal Highway Administration
Highway Engineer, C&M Division
HNG-21, Room 3211
400 Seventh Street S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20590
6. Kansas Department of Transportation
CPMS Administrator
10th and Topeka
Docking State Office Building, 7th Floor
Topeka, KS 66612
7. L.A. County Metropolitan Transp. Authority
Section Manager - Engineering
818 West 7th Street
Los Angeles, CA 90017
8. Martin L. Cawley & Associates
Consultant
2330 Greenwood Road
Glenview, IL 60025-1151
9. Micheál Baker Jr., Inc.
Vice President
Airport Office Park, Building 3
420 Rouser Road
Coraopolis, PA 15108

195
Distribution List for the TRB Letter of Inquiry (continued)
10. Montana Department of Highways
Operations Engineer - Highway Division
2701 Prospect Avenue
P.0 Box 201001
Helana, MT 59620-1001
11. New Jersey Department of Transportation
Director, Operations Engineering,
Construction and Maintenance
1035 Parkway Avenue
CN 600
Trenton, New Jersey 08625
12. New York State Department of Transportation
Deputy Chief Engineer (Structures)
1220 Washington Avenue
Bldg. 5, State Campus, 6th Floor
Albany, NY 12232
13. North Carolina Department of Transportation
Divisions of Highways
State Road Construction Engineer
Highway Building, P.0. Box 25201
Raliegh, NC 27611
14. Norway Public Roads Administration
Directorate of Public Roads
Senior Engineer
Grenseveien 92
Post Office Box 6390-Etterstad
N-0604 Oslo 6, Norway
15. Orin Riley, P.E., P.C.
President
80 Wall Street, Suite 1016
New York, NY 10005-3602
16. Parsons Brinckerhoff Construction Services, Inc.
President
475 Spring Park Place, Suite 500
Herndon, VA 22070
17. Richard Felsinger International
President
Triesterstre 2-40
Post Office Box 206
A-2500 Baden, Austria
18. Transportation Research Board
National Research Council
Engineer of Materials and Construction
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20418

APPENDIX E
TWO REPRESENTATIVE RESPONSES TO THE TRB SURVEY

Parsons
Brinckerhoff
ion
year-;
January 5. 1995
Dr. Zohar J. Herbsman
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Department of Civil Engineering
345 Weil Hall
Gainesville. FL 32611-2083
Re: Knowledge Acquisition and Experience Capture
Dear Dr. Herbsman:
With regards to your letter dated December 1. 1994, you are accurate in your assessment of the
tremendous loss any construction organization feels when a veteran employee leaves the firm.
Parsons Brinckerhoff Construction Services, Inc. fPBCS) faces this same scenario.
PBCS has strived to educate and train each of our own employees at a considerable price in ever)
avenue of construction through nationally recognized organizations such as ATSSA. ACI. Troxier
and NICET.
PBCS takes great pride in placing qualified employees on every project knowing that each
individual has the multiple certifications and experience necessary to complete any task required by
our clients.
At this time we do not posses any way of gathering and documenting the construction knowledge
and experience obtained by our own employees. However, we would be very interested to review
any of your findings or recommendations on this issue.
Sincerely.
PARSONS BRINCKERHOFF CONSTRUCTION SERVICES, INC.
n
>
Christopher E. Reseigh. PE
President
CER/glh
197

198
MARTIN L. CAWLEY
2330 Greenwood Road
Glenview, Illinois 60025
(708) 272-2392
(708) 272-2393 Fax
December 16,1994
Dr. Zohar J. Herbsman
U of Florida, Dept, of Civil Engineering
345 Weil Hall
Gainsville, FL 32611-2083
Dear Dr. Herbsman: Fax (904) 392 3394
Re; Y our ltr DEC 1,1994-Knowledge recapture DOT/ Civil Experience
During the past 35 years I have been involved in following the progress and
development of Concrete Pavements while employed by the Corps of
Engineers, Officer in the Navy CEC, Sr. Airfield Engineer for the PCA,
Director and VP of the CRSI, and as a Pavement Consultant and Program
Manager for multi-billion dollar development programs at Chicago's O’Hare,
Newark,and Cincinnati International airports during the last decade.
I will briefly share some observations drawn over a reasonably long period of
time, relative to continuity of management and perpetuation of technical
knowledge. I was fortunate to have had a career that enabled me to
progressively grow in each position and travel widely throughout the U.S.
and Canada, during the heyday of the Interstate Highway construction and
boom of the 60-70's in aviation and airport expansion. During those years
most young engineers had opportunities to enter formalized training
programs and to understudy well trained and experienced engineers who
knew their profession. In recent years the mobility, transient work and
shortened time in positions have led to less documentation and carryover of
skills./ The emphasis has been on document for legal purposes rather than
building a reservoir of solid knowledge of do's and don'ts. One only has to
look at the emphasis oi publish or perish in the quality and theoretical nature
of papers submitted to the TRB each year. There is less and less improvement
and too obvious a re-inventing the wheel because prior experience was not
tapped. Shoddily done , or literature searches which tend to perpetuate one
narrow school oi thought, or lack oi effort in bibliography development
illustrates that practical experience is not being documented or modem
computer retrieval files don't get the right input. The cause may be that
organizations like the PCA, AI, and mvriad of other industry trade
associations no longer have the itnancial support nor staffs to record and
publish the technical progress that is made.

199
For years the Europeans, and other emerging nations have looked to the U.S.
and our associations as the experts for knowledge, but that is becoming less
the case-as these ven' industries like cement, oil, and steel have foreign
ownership in our country. The cost of gaining knowledge is becoming very
expensive, and sorting through the maze of information gathered in the
technical libraries still requires separating the tried and true from the
impractical, theoretical or long proven failed methods that keep resurfacing
for who knows why?
Another factor has been the politicizing of the engineering industry in the
public sector, and the obvious impacts environmental and social concerns
have had on project accomplishment. By the time a project is completed the
staff has changed and no one is around to close it out who knew why it got
planned the way it did, designed the way it did, changed the way it did, and
built the way it didi The marketing and legal documentation survive but the
engineers involved in making the project happen don't have or take the time
to record history, and they are on to the next job or assignment in a new
organization. A case of the old cliché' the humer we go the behinder we get.
One suggestion I have for large projects is to require a summary report from
the design and construction project managers outlining the unique or
unusual features of the project, or those lessons learned to make the next go -
around easier. Obviously such a report would be limited to the experience of
those who have a clear and comprehensive perspective after completion, but
a properly designed questionnaire for various types of projects might prove
valuable to those charged with undertaking the next similar project.
Frankly there is a wealth of information that can be gleaned if time is
allocated at the outset to explore state of the art publications in the technical
trade press, from associations, by networking with other airport, highway
department, and consulting engineers through local, regional and national
organizations and committees. The trend of States toward requiring
continuing education and Professional Development Hours to maintain PE
licenses will encourage individuals to attend more seminars where technical
information is exchanged outside the day to day routine of business. This
interchange will improve technology transfer but not necessarily preserve
the knowledge within the individuals organization. There must be a
conscious effort on the part of management and clients to capture the right
knowledge, and not just archive it; the format for retrieval is the key to
computerized systems. If the effort required is too complex and laborious-it
won t get the input that is worth preserving.
I trust mv thoughts and comments may be helpful in your very challenging
task.
Very truly yours,
Martin L. Cawley, P.E.

APPENDIX F
NEW YORK DOT CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL

Construction
Supervision
CONSTRUCTION DIVISION
' NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ^
MARIO M. CUOMO, Governor |OHN C. EGAN, Commissioner -
rwrrtt ^¡r-
w I w toâ– n
201

202
NEW YORK STATE
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
FOREWORD
This manual is designed to provide guidance and establish uniform procedures to be
followed in the supervision and inspection of projects under construction by contract
with the New York State Department of Transportation.
This manual provides a ready reference to administrative policies of the Department
related to highway construction. All personnel of the Department and consultant
forces involved in any phase of the contract administration should refer to this manual
for guidance in the performance of their duties
This manual svas prepared in loose-leaf format to permit ready updating. The holder
of the manual is responsible for inserting all additions and revisions as they are issued.
Any errata noted should be brought to the attention of the Construction Division.

203
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
10/1/84
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Section
100 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Page No.
Date
102 -
Bidding Requirement* and Conditions
102—04
No Misunderstanding
102—1
4/1/82
(continued)
102—2
0
m
102—3
4/1/81
•
102—4
4/1/82
102—05
Subsurfsce Information
102—5
4/1/83
102—08
Contract Clauses Required in Public Work
102—6
10/1/84
(continued)
102—7
4/1/82
m
102—8
0
m
102—9
4/1/81
0
102—10
0
m
102—11
0
m
102—12
10/1/84
m
102—13
0
m
102—14
0
0
102—15
0
•
102—16
0
102—09
Other Contracts
102—16a
4/1/82
(continued)
102—16b
0
m
102—16c
0
0
102—16d
0
102—10
Labor and Employment
102—17
4/1/83
(continued)
102—18
4/1/81
»
102—19
0
0
102—19a
4/1/82
0
102—20
4/1/81
0
102—21
4/1/83
0
102—22
0
102—11
Forms
102—23
0
102—12
Engineering Charges
102—24
0
(continued)
102—25
4/1/81
102—14
Sample Form of Proposal
102—26
10/1/82
102—17
Sample Form of Agreement
102—27
4/1/83
(continued)
102—28
4/1/81
103 -
Award end Execution of Contract
103—01
Award of Contract
103—1
4/1/82
(continued)
103—2
m
0
103—3
m
0
103—3a
0
103—02
Execution of Contract
103—4
4/1/83
103—03
Right to Suspend Work and Cancel Contract
103—5
0
103—04
Bonds
103—6
4/1/81
104 -
Scop* of Work
104—01
Work Required
104—1
10/1/82
104—02
Alterations and Omissions
104—2

204
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
10/1/84
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page II
Section
100 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Page No.
Date
104 -
Scope of Work (cont'd)
104—03
Contingencies, Extra Work, Deductions
104—3
10/1/82
(continued)
104 4
4/1/82
*
104—4a
4/1/83
m
104—4b
4/1/82
0
104—4c
m
104—04
Closing of Highway
104—5
4/1/81
104—05
Restricted Use of Highway
104—6
4/1/81
(continued)
104—7
0
m
104—8
0
0
104—9
0
0
104—10
0
0
104—11
0
104—06
Cleaning Up
104—12
0
104—07
Methods and Equipment
104—13
0
105 -
Control of Work
105—01
Stopping Work
105—1
4/1/81
(continued)
105—2
0
105—03
Accuracy of Plans and Specifications
105—3
10/1/82
105—04
Conformity with Plans and Specifications
105—4
4/1/81
105—05
Project Records
105—5
0
105—06
Interpretation of Plans
105—6
0
105—07
Termination Clause
105—7
0
105—08
Cooperation by the Contractor
105—8
4/1/83
105—12
Construction Equipment
105—9
4/1/82
(continued)
105—9a
0
105—13
Winter Earthwork Operations
105—10
4/1/81
105—14
Disputed Work
105—11
4/1/83
(continued)
105—12
4/1/81
0
105—13
0
106 -
Control of Material
106—01
Source of Supply and Quality Requirements
106—1
4/1/81
106—02
Samples, Tests and Cited Specifications
106—2
0
107 -
LegBl Relations end Responsibility to Public
107—01
Laws, Permits and Licenses
107—1
10/1/84
(continued)
107—2
0
107—03
Federal Aid
107—3
(continued)
107—4
0
•
107—5
4/1/81
m
107—6
0
m
107—6a
4/1/82
0
107—6b
0
•
107—7
4/1/81

205
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
10/1/84
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Section
100 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Page No.
Data
107 -
107—03
Legal Relations and Responsibility to Public (cont'd)
Federal Aid
107—8
4/1/82
(continued)
107—9
4/1/83
0
107—10
0
m
107—11
4/1/81
0
107—12
0
0
107—13
0
0
107—14
0
0
107—15
m
0
107—16
0
0
107—17
0
0
107—18
0
0
107—19
•
0
107—20
0
0
107—20a
10/1/84
107—05
Safety and Health Requirements
107—21
10/1/82
(continued)
107—22
4/1/81
0
107—23
10/1/82
0
107—24
0
0
107—25
0
107—06
Insurance
107—26
4/1/83
(continued)
107—27
4/1/81
0
107—28
0
107—08
Preservation of Property
107—29
0
107—09
Damage
107—30
4/1/82
(continued)
107—31
0
107—10
Restoration of Disturbed Areas Outside the R.O.W.
107—32
4/1/81
(continued)
107—33
0
107—34
4/1/82
0
107—35
0
0
107—36
0
0
107—37
0
0
107—38
0
0
107—39
0
107—11
Restoration of Disturbed Areas Within the R.O.W.
107—40
4/1/81
107—12
Soil Erosion, Water and Air Pollution Abatement
107—41
0
107—13
Opening Highway to Traffic Prior to Acceptance
107—42
0
108 -
108—01
Prosecution and Progress
Stan and Progress of Work
108—1
4/1/83
(continued)
108—2
4/1/81
0
108—3
0
0
108—4
0
0
108—5
108—03
Failure to Complete Work on Time
108—6
0
108—04
Extension of Time
108—7
4/1/82
(continued)
108—8
0
0
108—9
10/1/84

206
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
10/1/84 TABLE OF CONTENTS Pagt ,v
Section
100 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Page No.
Date
108 -
Prosecution and Progress Icont'd)
108—04
Extension of Tune
108—9a
10/1/84
(continued)
108—10
4/1/82
*
108—11
m
108—05
Subletting or Assigning the Contract
108—12
4/1/81
(continued)
108—13
10/1/84
m
108—14
m
m
108—15
4/1/82
m
108—16
4/1/81
m
108—17
10/1/84
m
108—18
m
0
108—19
0
m
108—20
m
109 -
Measurement and Payment
109—02
Final Additions or Deductions
109—1
4/1/81
(continued)
109—2
0
m
109—3
0
109—03
Payments on Contract
109—4
0
(continued)
109—5
0
109—04
Partial Payments
109—6
0
(continued)
109—7
0
m
109—8
0
m
109—9
0
109—05
Extra and Force Account Work
109—10
4/1/82
(continued)
109—11
0
m
109—12
P
m
109—13
P
m
109—14
P
m
109—15
0
m
109—16
0
m
109—17
0
p
109—18
P
m
109—19
0
ft
109—20
0
m
109—21
0
109—06
Progress Payments
109—22
4/1/83
(continued)
109—23
p
109—07
Payment of Estimates
109—24
4/1/81
109—08
No Estimate on Contractor’s Non-Compliance
109—25
0
109—09
Final Acceptance of W ork
109—26
r
(continued)
109—27
m
0
109—28
P
p
109—29
4/1/82
m
109—30
0
m
109—31
0

NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
207
4/1/85
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pape v
Section
100 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Papa No.
Date
109 — Measurement and Payment (cont’d)
109—09
Final Acceptance of Work
109—32
4/1/82
(continued)
109—33
a
a
109—34
4/1/81
109—10
Uncompleted Work Agreement
109—35
a
(continued)
109—36
a
a
109—37
a
a
109—38
a
a
109—39
a
a
109—40
4/1/83
a
109—41
4/1/81
a
109—42
a
109—11
Final Agreement
109—43
a
(continued)
109—44
a
a
109—45
a
109—12
Final Estimate
109—46
a
109—13
Final Payment
109—47
a
109—14
Acceptance of Final Payment
10^—48
•
a
200 - EARTHWORK
1*
201 — Clearing and Grubbing
201—3.01
Limits of Work Area
201—1
4/1/82
203 — Excavation and Embankment
1
203—2.01
Tests and Control Methods
203—1
4/1/85
(continued)
203—2
4/1/82
a
203—2a
a
203—3.01
General
203—3
4/1/81
203—3.08
Disposal of Surplus Excavated Materials
203—4
a
203—3.12
Compaction
203—5
a
(continued)
203—6
4/1/85
a
203—7
a
a
203—8
a
a
203—9
a
a
203—10
a
a
203—11
a
a
203—12
a
a
203—13
a
a
203—14
a
a
203—15
a
a
203—16
a
a
203—17
a
a
203—18
â– a
a
203—19
a
a
203—20
4/1/82

208
new YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANE PORT ATIDN
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
4/1/85 TABLE OF CONTENTS Pape v<
Section
200 - EARTHWORK
Pape Ho.
Data
203 — Excavation and Embankment (cont'd)
203—3.12
Compaction
203—21
4/1/82
(continued)
203—22
•
9
203—23
9
9
203—24
9
203—3.17
Select Granular Fill, Slope Protection
203—24a
10/1/82
203—4
Method of Measurement
203—25
4/1/81
203—4.01
General
203—26
9
203—4.14
Applying Water
203—27
9
206 — Trench, Culvert and Structure Excavation
206—4
Method of Measurement
206—1
4/1/81
206—4.02
Trench and Culvert Excavation
206—2
9
209 — Temporary Soil Erosion and Water Pollution Control
209—1
Description
209—1
4/1/81
209—3
Construction Details
209—2
-M
(continued)
209—3
9
209—4
W
209—4
Method of Measurement
209—5
9
209—5.01
Genera]
209—6
»
300 - BASES AND SUBBASES
302 Bituminous Stabilized Course
302—3.04
Mixing for Option A
302—1
4/1/81
302—jS.
Basis of Payment
302—2
9
304 — Subbase Course
304—2.04
Stockpiling
304—1
4/1/85
400 - BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS
401 Plant Mix Pavements - General
401-3 Construction Details
Placement and Compaction
Heather and Seasonal Concerns
Cold Weather Paving
Hot Weather Paving
Traffic Control Suggestions
401-1 4/1/89
401-2 4/1/89
401-3 4/1/89
401-4 4/1/89
401-5 4/1/89
407 — Tack Coat
407—3 Construction Details
407—1
4/1/82

209
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
4/1/85
TABLE OF CONTENTS
—
Page vil
Saction
500 - RIGID PAVEMENTS
Page No.
Date
601 — Portland Cement Concrete — Gana ral
501—2
Materials
501—1
4/1/81
501—3.04D
Transit Mixed Concrete
501—2
9
602 — Portland Camant Concreta Pavement
502—3.09A
Mechanical Finishing
502—1
4/1/81
502—3.16
Thickness Tolerance
502—2
9
650 - STRUCTURES
550
Structural Deck Inspection Guide
550—1
4/1/85
(continued)
550—2
m
m
550—3
4/1/82
m
550—4
9
0
550—5
0
m
550—6
»
m
550—7
0
B
550—8
0
m
550—9
0
m
550—10
9
B
550—11
4/1/85
9
550—12
9
0
550—13
4/1/82
0
550—14
0
9
550—15
4/1/85
B
550—16
9
0
550—17
0
0
550—18
0
0
550—19
9
0
550—20
0
0
550—21
9
555 — Structural Concrate
555—3.03C
Permanent Corrugated Metal Forms for Concrete
Bridge Slabs
555—1
4/1/81
555—3.07
Concrete Joints
555—2
9
(continued)
555—3
0
15555.20
High Density Concrete Overlay
555—4
•
684 — Specialized Concrete Overlays for Structural Slabs
584—3.09
Placing and Finishing Overlay
584—1
4/1/83
(continued)
584—2
0
600 - INCIDENTAL CONSTRUCTION
60S—1
603 — Culvert* and 8torm Drain*
603—3.02 Laying Pipe
4/1/81

210
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OP TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
4/1/86 TABLE OP CONTENTS
Page vfll
Section 600 — INCIDENTAL CONSTRUCTION
Page No.
Date
606 — Guide Railing
606—3 Construction Details
606—1
4/1/81
(continued)
606—2
4/1/82
0
606—3
m
606—3.02 Cable Guide Railing
606—4
4/1/81
611 — Planting
611—3 Construction Details
611—1
4/1/81
(continued)
611—2
9
615 — Landscape Miscellaneous
156)3.15 Comfort Stations
615—1
4/1/81
(continued)
615—2
m
619 — Maintenance and Protection of Traffic
619—1.01 General
619—1
4/1/82
(continued)
619—2
m
»
619—3
•
•
619—4
10/1/82
0
619—5
-9
0
619—6
m
0
619—7
P
619—1.02 Basic Maintenance and Protection of Traffic
619—8
4/1/81
619—2 Materials
619—9
P
(continued)
619—10
m
619—3.01 Removable Refiectorized Pavement Markings
619—11
10/1/84
(continued)
619—12
m
0
619—13
P
619—3.02 Construction Signs
619—14
ar
626 Bank and Channel Protection
620-1
7/5/89
634 — Miscellaneous
620-2
7/5/89
15634.0503 Training Special Provision
634—1
4/1/82
(continued)
634—2
m
0
634—3
0
0
634—4
0
637 — Engineer's Office end Laboratory Building
637—3.01 General Requirements
637—1
10/1/E2
644 — Sign Structures
644—2.05 Stainless Steel Bolts, Nuts, Washers, and Set Screws
644—1
4/1/81
(continued)
644—2
0
646 — Delinea tort. Reference Markers and Snowplowing Markers
646—1 Description
646—1
4/1/81
646—3 Construction Details
646-2
9
665 — Frames and Grates
655—2.02 Frames and Grates (Fabricated)
635—1
4/1/81

211
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
4/1/85
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page lx
Section
600 - INCIDENTAL CONSTRUCTION
Pag* No.
Date
687 -
Thermoplastic Raflectorizad Pavement Markings
687—3
Construction Details
687—1
4/1/85
(continued)
687—2
0
m
687—3
0
0
687—3a
0
a
687—4
0
a
687—5
0
0
687—6
0
0
687—7
0
0
687—8
0
700 - MATERIALS DETAILS
702 -
Bituminous Materials
702
Identification of Bituminous Material Samples
702—1
4/1/81
703 -
Aggregates
703
Basis of Acceptance
703—1
4/1/81
703—01
Fine Aggregate
703—2
0
703—02
Coarse Aggregate
703—3
0
900 - GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES
910
Instructions to Inspectors
910—1
4/1/82
915
Contract Supervision by Consultant Agreement
915—1
4/1/82
(continued)
915—2
m
920
Capita] Grant Projects
920—1
10/1/82
(continued)
920—2
0
925
Conflict of Interest
925—1
4/1/82
(continued)
925—2
0
m
925—3
0
m
925—4
0
m
925—5
0
m
925—6
0
930
Overtime Policy
930—1
10/1/82
(continued)
930—2
0

212
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
STRUCTURES
550
550 STRUCTURAL DECK INSPECTION GUIDE
Adequate supervision of bridge deck construction is critical to insure a safe and durable product,
particularly in view of its high cost for construction and maintenance. The following inspection guide
has been reviewed with Main Office Structures and Materials staff and should be studied carefully
by the E1C and his inspectors well in advance of the work.
POINTS TO LOOK FOR WHEN INSPECTING THE PLACING, FINISHING
AND CURING OF INTEGRAL WEARING COURSE BRIDGE DECKS
(A Do’s and Don’ts List)
A properly constructed bridge deck should be durable, safe, and ride well. This means it should
be of the best quality construction, true to line and grade, ride smoothly, and have the proper sur¬
face texture so that it will perform its intended function in proper fashion throughout its intended
life with little or no maintenance. This is a “tall order” for any structure and requires careful atten¬
tion to detail throughout the design and construction phases. The construction phase is even more
demanding when integral wearing course design is used because with it you only get one chance.
Both the triumphs and the enors remain for all to see and feel during the useful life of the structure.
Some of the more common failings of our integral wearing course bridge decks have been cracking,
spalling, rqugh ride (both short bumps and long ones), and relatively slick or slippery surface. These
can be minimized or eliminated by following proper construction practices and procedures. Accord¬
ingly, there follows a list of some of the many practices and procedures that should be followed
or avoided, as the case may be, in the placing, finishing, and curing of integral wearing course bridge
decks. They have been grouped as follows:
I- General
II- Structural Steel Operations
III - Forming Operations
IV - Reinforcing Steel Operations
V- Bridge Finishing Machine Preparation
VI - Concrete Operations
A. Prior to Placing Concrete
B. Placing Concrete
C. Finishing Concrete
D. Curing of Concrete
E. Transverse Sawcut Grooving of
Structural Slab Surfaces
550-1

213
NEW YORK. STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
4/1/85 STRUCTURES 5B0
550 STRUCTURAL DECK INSPECTION GUIDE (continued)
I GENERAL
All operations in the construction of a bridge deck have their effect on the final product but TWO
of the MOST CRITICAL FACTORS on the durability of the structure are the PROPER CON¬
CRETE AIR ENTRAINMENT and the PROPER CONCRETE COVER OVER THE REINFOR¬
CING STEEL. Be sure that the contractor and his material supplier understand that the specifica¬
tions and Materials Method 9.2 will be followed to the letter. Be equally sure that the contractor
places his reinforcing steel according to the plans and adequately ties and anchors it in accordance
with the specifications, so that it will remain in that location throughout the concreting operations.
It should be physically restrained from floating in the plastic concrete. The placement of concrete
shall not be allowed if the above conditions are not met.
A. Proper planning should be undertaken by both the contractor and the inspection force in
advance of actual construction. Such planning should include a job meeting to discuss in
detail the equipment and procedures that will be employed by the contractor. A major point
of discussion should be the provision of adequate delivery of concrete and sufficient placing
equipment to insure that the placement can be accomplished in sufficient time to avoid con¬
crete set prior to completion of finishing operations.
in addition, agreement should be reached on contingency plans to handle unanticipated equip¬
ment breakdowns or interruptions in concrete supply.
B. As at. engineer or inspector, make sure that you are completely familiar with the specifica¬
tions for the work, including any special specifications, special notes, addenda to the specifica¬
tions .propriate Materials Methods, and all related information.
II STRUCTURAL STEEL OPERATIONS AS RELATED TO PLACING, FINISHING AND
CURING
A. The specifications and the Steel Construction Manual should be reviewed.
B. Approved shop l wings for the structural steel should be studied and the fabricated members
checked for conform—ce to them. Particular attention should be paid to proper camber.
Be alen for out of tolerance sweeps, bends, or twists in the members both before and after
they are in their final position and bolted up.
C. Studs or other types of shear connectors should be checked for correct size. Spacing and
weld quality should be checked during installation.
D. Plans for steel bridges contain the following note: “No welding shall be allowed within the
tension zones shown, unless specifically noted. The attachment of forming devices or other
construction aids by welding within the tension areas shown is prohibited.”
Plans for continuous steel bridges (those having top flange tension zones) will have the ten¬
sion zones defined. The tension zone areas are the areas in which no welding, other than
that shown on the plans, will be allowed. Stud Shear Connectors may be continued through
550-2

214
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
4/1/82 STRUCTURES 550
550 STRUCTURAL DECK INSPECTION GUIDE (continued)
areas to approximately the point of D.L. contraflexure, which will also be shown on the
plans. Stud Shear Connectors shall not be continuous across these tension zone areas.
Only welding for the purpose of repairing a steel stringer will be allowed in a tension zone,
and this welding will only be allowed in conjunction with a repair procedure approved by the
Deputy Chief Engineer, Structures.
If the plans for any bridge being constructed under your direction appear ambiguous or in¬
complete with regard to the definition of the tension zone, contact the Structures Division
for clarification or interpretation of the plans.
Failure to comply with this requirement may lead to serious fatigue cracking of steel
stringers and resultant shortened bridge life and/or high repair costs.
Ill FORMING OPERATIONS AS RELATED TO PLACING. FINISHING AND CURING
A. Forms should be adequate to support the loads to be applied and they should be properly
supported. Minor movements in forms or brackets can cause an unacceptable change in
dimension "X” in Figure 1. The stability of dimension "X” is essential to the final riding
quality and rebar cover of the finished deck. The forms are the contractor’s responsibility
but you should be alert to any obvious weaknesses in the installation and call them to his at¬
tention. Other problem points are shown in Figure 1.
The Engineer should compare commercially manufactured support system installations for
conformance to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Other support systems should be
checked for good workmanship in accordance with Figure 1.
B. Make sure that you and the contractor are in agreement on haunch depths before setting
forms. This is especially critical on stay-in-place forms since the support angles which con¬
trol the haunch depth are permanently welded to the beams, see Il-D. Check and record
haunch depths after installation of forms.
C. When stay-in-place forms are used, be sure the direction of lap in the forms is correct
relative to the direction of concrete placement (See V1-A.2). The form section being loaded
with concrete should lap over the unloaded section of form just ahead in order to prevent
separation of the two sections.
D. At bridge joints, the forms at the end of the deck slab must be supported solely on the
superstructure steel for the span being formed. There should be no formwork support or
connection across a joint between independent spans or between an abutment and the span.
This allows the joint forms to move with the top of the girders through dead load applica¬
tion and any temperature movement that may occur.
E. Drill weeps in corrugated metal form joints as required by the specifications.
550-?

215
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
4/1/82 STRUCTURES 550
550 STRUCTURAL DECK INSPECTION GUIDE (continued)
Figure No. I
x = Top Flange Thickness + Haunch Depth + Deck Thickness
+ Rail Height.
A * Hanger on ream (No weld in tension area.)
B 1 Washer or nui worn.
C * Joints not properly nailed.
D â–  Pin or holes worn.
E * Bracket not seated on beam.
F « Warped form.
G * Warped stringer.
H * Pipe bracket not seated.
I = Pipe or rail bent.
J = No top diapnragm strut in bay adjacent.
T » Nominal concrete slab thickness.
550-4

216
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
4/1/82 STRUCTURES 550
550 STRUCTURAL DECK INSPECTION GUIDE (continuad)
IV REINFORCING STEEL OPERATIONS AS RELATED TO PLACING. FINISHING AND
CURING
A. Reinforcing bars should be properly handled, stored and installed. Proper bar spacing
should be maintained both horizontally and vertically. This means that all straight bars must
be reasonably straight. Bars should be free of loose scale, grease, dirt and mortar.
B. Use only appropriate chairs to support reinforcing steel. They should be of the proper height
to provide the correa bar spacing, clearance and cover. They should be used in sufficient
numbers to insure adequate and proper support, and to insure that proper clearance and
spacing will be maintained when concrete is placed. Bar mats should not sag excessively
when walked on by workmen and inspectors. Remember that at least four or five workmen
will be standing on the bar mat during placement operations. Make sure the reinforcing steel
is adequately secured to insure that it will follow the forms as the camber comes out of the
beams, thereby insuring the proper cover on the bars. This is especially important in the area
of maximum dead load camber (mid-span for simple beams). Mats shall be tied together and
may be tied to forms and/or struaural steel or shear studs to achieve the above results.
C. Make sure that bars are supported at transverse joints so they will not flex down into the end
haunch area when walked upon. A plywood walkway placed over the reinforcing steel at
joints and heavy traffic areas will prevent excessive sag. Chairs should be placed at points of
slope change.
D. Make sure that plan clearances are maintained between bars, joint assemblies and side
forms.
V BRIDGE FINISHING MACHINE PREPARATION
A. Make sure that the finishing machine is approved by the Deputy Chief Engineer (Structures)
and that it is in satisfaaory operating condition.
B. Obtain a copy of the operating instruaions for the finishing machine and become familiar
with it before making the dry run. It is the contraaor’s responsibility to adjust and operate
the machine but inspeaor familiarization can be beneficial.
C. Remember that screed rail positioning and support is one of the critical faaors in deck con¬
struction. Rails should not sag or wobble under the weight or anion of the finishing
machine. Use the recommended screed rail support spacing as shown in the manufaaurer’s
manual.
D. If screed rails are to be supported on the fascia forms, bracing should be supplied to proper¬
ly resist both the deflection under the load of the finishing machine and the lateral move¬
ment caused by the oscillation of the machine. Check “X” distance (See Figure l) before,
during, and after the dry run of the machine.
550-5

217
NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION MANUAL
4/1/82 STRUCTURES 550
550 STRUCTURAL DECK INSPECTION GUIDE (continuad)
E. The longitudinal wheelbase of the finishing machine must be considered when adjusting
screed rails on multi-span structures. In setting the rails, take into account the fact that, with
a long wheelbase finishing machine, one end will be on the adjacent unloaded span while the
other end will be on the loaded span (where the dead load camber has or will come out) as
you load the end of the span with fresh concrete.
F. In setting up the finishing machine and making the dry run be sure you take into account
possible differences in dead load deflection characteristics between the fascia girders and in¬
tenor girders. This is particularly important for deck replacements. It is recommended that
finishing machines be oriented parallel to the skew angle up to skews of 35°. For greater
skew angles, the machine should be operated at a skew angle of 35 °.
G. Check clearances in a dry run over the entire span to be paved the day before the placement.
It is recommended that the adjustment controls be locked or sealed in some manner so they
will not be altered before placement begins. Some last minute clearance checks just before
placing may be good insurance and reassuring to all involved. If it is necessary to raise the
machine to back it off the span after the dry run, record this change so that the machine can
be reset when moved back on the span for finishing.
H. If the finishing machine has hydraulically operated actions, take care to see that they do not
leak fluid onto or into the concrete. The machine should be monitored for hydraulic fluid
leaks tu- ughout the placing and finishing operations as well. The same holds true for grease
or fuel that may drip onto or into the concrete. See that gobs of excess grease are removed
before th-v get into the concrete.
550-6

APPENDIX G
U S ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS INSPECTOR’S GUIDE

EP 415-1-261
Volume 2
May 1986
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Office of the Chief
of Engineers
Construction
Inspector’s
Guide
Pile Driving, Dams, Levees and
Related Items
" ■ ¡0
219

220
DAEN-ECC-Q
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, D. C. 20314-1000
EP 415-1-261
Pamphlet
No. 415-1-261
16 June 1986
Construction
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTOR'S GUIDE
FOREWORD
This guide is one of four volumes reprinted with revisions
fran guides first published in 1964. The reason for their
existence and continuance is to provide for construction
quality assurance personnel, a reliable checklist type
reference for each phase of construction.
Used as a reference and study document this guide will
prove invaluable to quality assurance personnel in the types of
construction covered herein. The guide will serve to refresh
your memory and alert you to potential problems. It is not
intended to replace contract plans and specifications, your
experience, training, and common sense, but to supplement them.
Conscientious use of this guide will assist you in
providing better quality assurance and, as a result, quality
construction for our customers throughout the world.
FOR THE COMMANDER:
ARTHUR E. WILLIAMS
Colonel, Corps of Engineers
Chief of Staff
This Volume 2 of EP 415-1-261 supersedes EP 415-1-264, October
1970.

EP 415-1-261
16 Jun 86
221
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
NUMBER
2G
2H
21
2J
2K
2L
2M
2N
20
2P
Pile Construction
Levee Construction and Earth
Embankment Construction for Dams
Relief Well Construction
Drilling for Subsurface Investigation
Lock Gate Erection
Dam Gate Erection
Penstocks, Surge Tanks and Tunnel Lines
Revetments
Dredgi ng
Jetty, Breakwater and Groins
Chapters numbered in the guides contain the same subject
information as the numbered divisions in the specifications for
both military and civil works construction projects. They are
identified by specific volume as follows:
Chapter
Number
Volume 1
Subject
1
General Requirements
2
Sitework: earthwork,
2
Volume 2
underground utilities,
paving, plantings, and
railroads
3
Volume 3
Sitework (continued):
piles, levees, dams,
relief wells, drilling,
lock and dam gates,
penstocks, revetments,
dredging, jetty,
breakwater, and groin
construction.
Concrete
4
Masonry
5
Metals
6
Wood and Plastics
7
Thermal & Moisture
8
Protect ion
9
Door & Windows
9
Finishes
10
Accessories &
12
Specialties
Furnishing & Casework
13
Volume 4
Special Construction
14
Conveying Systems
15
Mechanical
16
Electrical

222
Para.
2G-01
2G-02
2G-03
2G-04
2G-05
EP 415-1-261
16 Jun 86
CHAPTER 2G
PILE CONSTRUCTION
INDEX
Ti ti e Page
GENERAL 2G-1
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 2G-1
TESTS AND RECORDS 2G-4
a. Tests
b. Records
INSPECTION 2G-5
a. Steel Pile - H Piles,
Pipe Piles, Sheet
Piling
b. Timber Pile (Round)
c. Timber Pile (Sheet)
d. Concrete Sheet Piling
e. Precast Concrete Piling
f. Cast-In-Place Concrete
Piles
INSTALLATION 2G-8
a. General
b. Concrete Pile
c. Driving for Resistance
d. Overdriving
e. Tolerances
i

EP 415-1-261
16 Jun 86
223
CHAPTER 2G
PILE CONSTRUCTION
2G-01. GENERAL
Information contained in this chapter applies in general to
pile driving on any project; specific information pertaining to
a particular project should be obtained from your supervisor
and from the plans and specifications. If a conflict exists
between this chapter and the contract plans and specifications,
the contract will govern.
2G-02, GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
a. Check use of pile, i.e., point bearing or friction.
b. Check whether piles are to be driven to refusal, a
specified bearing or depth.
c. Check workmanship, materials, and line and grade of
completed work.
d. Maintain all required records.
e. Reject unsatisfactory materials.
f. Check testing of materials.
(1) At source of supply
(2) On site
g. Checks Prior to Driving
(1) Check pile lengths required and bearing capacity of
piles.
(2) Check borings to determine the driving resistances to
be expected and types of material to be encountered.
(3) Check piles as delivered to site and mark piles which
are not acceptable.
(4) Check piles for length and have lengths indicated on
piles near top.
(5) Check piles made up for specific locations; have the
pile location number painted on the pile.
(6) Check out pile driving equipment for size and
condition. Check boiler inspection certificate and other
safety requirements where steam or compressed air is used.
Continue checking daily.
(7) Obtain and study the brochure printed by the pile
hammer manufacturer pertaining to the hammer being used in
order to learn of hammer capabilities and limitations.
(8) Check types of special piles and obtain the brochures
or pamphlets put out by the manufacturers of these piles to
become familiar with the methods of handling, inspecting and
driving.
2G-1

224
EP 415-1-261
16 Jim 86
(9) Check for pile numbering plan. Enter in your report
the order driven.
(10) Check that heads are flat and smooth and are normal
to the longitudinal axis.
h. Checks During Driving
(1) Check care in handling piles, overdriving, hitting
obstructions, driving out of plumb, retardation of stroke and
sequence of drivi ng.
(2) Check strata into which piles are driven and depths.
Check against profile of borings.
(3) Check that records include type of pile, length used,
type and size of hammer, manufacturer, strokes per minute,
blows per foot, number of blows per inch of penetration,
elevations of pile butt and tip after driving.
(4) Check that approval is obtained for relocation of
piles or driving additional piles.
(5) Check the behavior of the pile during driving.
(a) Check hardness of driving at various depths against
the strata shown on the boring log.
(b) Check for deviations which indicate broken piles,
obstructions or driving irregularities. Check inside length
against outside markings.
(6) Check steel driving shoes used on wood or concrete
piles. Check damage to pile tip by pulling an occasional pile.
(7) Check that piles are driven continuously. If driving
is suspended, note the tip grade at the time of the shutdown
and the duration of the delay.
(8) Check uplift on piles.
(a) Check when piles are driven in groups or clusters for
heaving of earth around the piles.
(b) Check grades on piles after they are driven and later
rechecked.
(c) Check with your supervisor if heaving occurs.
(9) Check that use of small tips is avoided. Check damage
to tips on wood piles by pulling an occasional pile.
(10) Check for preparation of pile schedule and lengths.
(a) Drive several piles adjacent to boring locations.
(b) Note blows per foot for each foot.
(c) Compare (b) with boring data.
(11) Check that piles are set vertically, or, if batter
piles, on the axis which they are to follow. Check that the
hammer is centered over the pile.
2G-2

EP 415-1-261
16 Jun 86
225
(12) Check use of templates or timber bracing for guiding
piles when driving without leads.
(a) Check deviation from
abandon and drive new pile.
proper
location.
Cut off
and
(b) Pull and
redrive.
(13) Check
jetting is
used
only with
approval
of
supervisor.
(a) Check depth jetting permitted.
(b) Check for walking out of plumb and loosening of piles
previously driven.
(c) Check piles are redriven after jetting in area is
completed.
(d) Check possibility of damage to existing structures if
jetting permitted.
(14) Check lagging is used only with prior approval.
(15) Check piles are not driven within 100 feet of
concrete less than 7 days old.
(16) Check ownership and payment of pile cut-offs. Check
if cut-off lenghts are excessive.
(17) Check your records indicate pay lengths.
(18) Check deviations from pile schedule; notify your
supervi sor.
(19) Check pile driving is not started until approval is
secured as to the type and weight of the hammer to be used.
i. Site Conditions. Inspection of Equipment
(1) Check for unfavorable conditions such as rock, ledge,
boulders not indicated on drawings, excessive soft spots,
crusts, old foundations disclosed during construction, and
report to your supervisor.
(2) Check site conditions, including lines, grades,
foundation preparation, all available boring information,
right-of-way, roadways, streams or other waterways, terrain,
and all driving conditions.
(3) Check equipment proposed for use by the contractor
will produce the finished work of required standards within the
scheduled time.
(a) Check size of hammer.
(b) Check type of driving hammer bases, anvils and caps
against type of piling.
(c) Check followers are used only with the approval of
your supervisor.
2G-3

226
EP 415-1-261
16 Jun 86
(d) Check condition of hammer for wear, improper
adjustment, poor lubrication, long hose lenghts, leaks and
drops in steam pressure.
(e) Check double-acting and di fferential-acting hammers
are run at manufacturer's rated speeds.
j. Pile Driving Procedure
(1) Check with supervisor procedure to be followed.
(2) Check formula to be used as a guide in determining
bearing capacity.
(3) Check minimum bearing value to be obtained if not
stated.
(4) Check with supervisor for blows per inch (or fraction
of an inch penetration) for the last ten blows to be obtained
when driving to refusal.
2G-4

APPENDIX H
JACKSONVILLE CORPS OF ENGINEERS LESSONS LEARNED

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
JACKSONVILLE DISTRICT CORPS OF ENGINEERS
P. O. BOX 4970
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA 32232-0019
CESAJ-DD (1110-2-1150a)
2 December 1993
MEMORANDUM FOR Commander, South Atlantic Division, Atlanta, GA
30335-6801
SUBJECT: Cerrillos Dam Lessons Learned Report
1. The enclosed Cerrillos Dam Lessons Learned Report was
prepared by the Cerrillos Lessons Learned Committee and is
organized into five general categories; seepage through the
foundation, leaks in the intake structure, instrumentation,
organization, and safety. The Lessons Learned Committee
initially developed the report by gathering input from team
members involved in the planning, design, construction and
operation of the Cerrillos Dam Project. The report was further
refined through several iterations to identify and consolidate
key problems. These key problems are shown in the left column of
the summary table for each category. Once the key problems were
determined, the committee identified the lessons learned, a
process to implement the lesson learned on the upcoming Portugués
Dam, the action office that will insure the process is
implemented, and the responsible disciplines involved. The action
office has ownership and follow-up responsibility for assuring
that each lesson learned is used on the Portugués Dam Project.
2. To assure a quality project is developed on the Portugués
Dam, several actions have already been initiated. These actions
include extensive coordination and review of the design with arch
dam consultants, in-house partnering meetings between disciplines
involved in the project, and trips to arch dams both in operation
and under construction. Furthermore, a Portugués Action Group
(PAG) is currently being organized. The need for the PAG was
identified during a District partnering meeting and will be used
to efficiently resolve technical issues that develop during the
Portugués Dam construction.
3. We have initiated a quarterly review to monitor the status of
pending actions identified in this report. This process will be
initiated as a key addition to our project management plan for
the Portugués Dam.
Enel
Colonel, Corps of Engineers
Commanding
228

CERRILLOS DAM LESSONS LEARNED
A. FOUNDATION SEEPAGE
LESSONS LEARNED ACTION GROUP
6 DEC 1993
PROBLEM
LEsáoíj'learned
ACTION OFFICE
PROCESS TO IMPLEMENT
DISCIPLINE -
A-01 Classification of the foundation and
engineering properties was incomplete.
Conduct sufficient testing of the foundation rock
to establish geological classification and
engineering properties.
CESAJ-EN-G
a. For the Portugués Dam, the foundation hos been
extensively tested and geologically mapped. To
date, there has been more testing at Portuguos
then at the Cerrillos site. More mapping and testing
will be done during excavation contracts.
Design
A-02 Seepage quantities through
foundation were greator than predicted by
conventional analysis.
Use the latest and most advanced methods and
tools to predict foundation seepage quantities.
CESAJ-ENG
a. The Portugués Darn foundation has boon
analyzed for stability and seepage using stoto-of-
the-art analysis techniques. After tho foundation
and test grouting program, the foundation will be
reanalyzed using actual pressure tests pormoability
values in the 3-D finite element 9eepago modol.
Design
Available expertise from the Waterways
Experiment Station (WES) should be sought early
In the design process.
CESAJ-ENG
b. WES will be tasked with the 3-D finite elemont
soepoge analysis. Scope of work will includo
analysis of different scenarios to volidnto tho
grouting program.
Design
A-03 Maintaining onsily accessible and
understandable data on testing and grouting
W09 difficult.
An organized database, preferobly computerized,
for testing and grouting Is required, during and
after grouting.
CESAJ-EN-G
CESAJ-CO
a. Sot up and maintoin a computerized datoboso for
grouting and testing. This will provide more timely
information for necessary adjustments to tho
Design/
Contract
Admin.
grouting plan. It will also allow a cloor and
organized documentation of the grouting records
for current and future reference. The development
of a database Is currently In progress.
Final Review:
£c ' Paul Shafer
Chief. Geotechnical Bronch
Mdwiud C. Middleton. Ph|D., P.E.
T I Chief, Engineering I
229

CERRILLOS DAM LESSONS LEARNED
B. CONCRETE LEAKS
LESSONS LEARNED ACTION GROUP
6 DEC 1993
PROBLEM
lesson Learned
ACTION OFFICE
process to implement' ”
DISCIPLINE
B 01 Inadequate concreto consolidation.
Emphasis must bo given to propor concroto
consolidation to ovoid leakage through tho
concroto. Lift joint preparation should bo given
special considerations. Spociol measures should
also bo used to assure consolidation in
congested areas.
CESAJ-END
CESAJCO
a Engineering and Construction will work with
SAD Lab to assure workebla concroto mixos. Final
adjustment of the mixos will bo made in the field
using local processing of the aggregates, on-sito
botch plant, and in coordination with SAD Lnb.
Dosign /
Contract
Admin.
Ditto.
b. Consolidation issues are to be resolved by the
rocnntly formed Portugués Action Group.
Ditto.
Ditto.
c. The Portugués dam contract will include o
concrete test plocemont (including o lilt joint) to
ossure propor placement end consolidation methods
are used. Coring and pressure testing will bo
incorporated into tho test placement. Tho to*.t
plocemont end coring will provide troining lor
government end contractor peraonnol as woll os o
meons of adjusting the design concrote mixes.
Oitto.
Ditto.
d. Coring and pressure testing will be incorporated
into the Portugués dam contract to assure proper
consolidation and lift Joint bonding. Necessary
changes to tho coring and pressure testing
procedures will be mode es a result of obovo tost
plocement.
Ditto.
CESAJ-CO
e. Ensure QA/QC plans address and enforce lilt
thickness and consolidation requirements.
Contract
Admin.
CESAJCO
1. A contractor quality control (QC) representative
will be required at the site during concrete
operations.
Contract
Admin.
230

Special consideration should be given during
placement of concrete against irregular
foundation rock and existing lift surfaces.
B-02 Failure to adequately Inspect prior to
placement.
B-03 Specific highly specialized expertise
not available within the district.
Quality assurance personnel should assure that
QC personnel are performing adequate
Inspections.
Vast technical expertise is available throughout
the Corpa to assist In the resolution of complex
engineering problems.
CESAJ-EN-D
CESAJ-EN-D
CESAJ-CO
CESAJ-END
CESAJ-EN-D
CESAJ-EN-D
CESAJ-CO
CESAJ-EN-D
CESAJ-CO
g. A maximum size aggregate (MSA) concrote mix
compatible with rebar spacing will be specified in
the contract documente. MSA will be specified to
assure proper consolidation In congested areas.
h. Pumped concrete and other alternate placing
methods will be specified In the controct
documents where appropriate. These actions will
be coordinated during the partnering process
afforded by the Portugués Action Group.
a. A smell MSA concrete mix may bo used on tho
initial pass to fill voids In the existing lift surfeco
and to minimize rebounding and segregation of the
large aggregate mix.
b. A small MSA concrete mix will be specified on
the initial leveling pas9 of the first lift off tho
foundation rock. This will minimize rebounding and
segregation of the large aggregate mix.
a. Specal emphasis will be placed on partnering,
scheduling and coordination with the contractor to
prevent or resolve problems during concrete
placement.
a. PAG will develop a database of required
specialized expertise applicable to design and
construction of arch dams. This databaso will
consist of resources available within USACE, USBR,
etc.
Final Review:
Don Carter
Chief. Dosign Branch
-¿^EdvVení E. Middl
U Chief, Engineerii
.JL-
Middleton, frn.D., P.E.
gineering Division
Dosign
Design/
Contract
Admin.
Design
Design
Dosign/
Contract
Admin.
Design/
Contract
Admin

CERRILLOS DAM LESSONS LEARNED
C. INSTRUMENTATION
LESSONS LEARNED ACTION GROUP
6 DEC 1993
*
PROBLEM
LessoN léArNed
ACTION OFFICE
PROCESS TO IMPLEMENT
DISCIPLINE
C 01 Instrumentation design was not well
suited for automotion.
When automation Is to be used, a basic
Instrumentation plan should be developed that
satisfies the project requirements. Design of the
Instrumentation program should follow the
established plan.
CESAJ-EN G
a. The automation concept will be developed jointly
with the instrumentation design. Instrumentation
Design Memorandum (DM-23) will address
automation and instrument selection.
Design
C-02 Piezometers malfunctioned during and
after construction.
Make sure that the instrumentation and
associated equipment (i.o. riser pipes, couplings,
etc) is properly designed for its intonded
application and is installed correctly.
CESAJ EN G
CESAJCO
a. Seme ns above. In addition, purposa and pools
of the instrumentation program will bo odrossnd in
the Engineering instructions to field personnel to
assure e good understanding of the instrumentation
program by those responsible for Its installation and
initiol monitoring.
Design/
Contract
Admin.
Instrumentation design should accomodate the
product of various suppliers. Sole sources of
Instrumentation devices should be avoided.
CESAJ-EN-G
b. Adequate flexibility will be Incorporated in tho
instrumentation program to assure that various
suppliers can be used to the maximum possible
extent. Risers, etc. will be alzed to accomodate
several models of Instrument. Risor pipes should
be minimum 1" flush joint tubing. Slip joint casing
should bo of sufficient diameter to accomodoto freo
movement of riser pipes.
Design
Manufacturers/suppliers should be brought in
early In tha process in case of instrumentation
malfunctioning.
CESAJENG
CESAJCO
c. Instrumentation design will Include a list of
points of contact at the manufacturers/suppliors
office to assure a quick response when and if the
Design
Finnl Review:
C^W ClctJcAtiL.
Don Carter
Chief, Design Branch
noed arises. The District will be Involved with the
mnnufacturors/suppliers to the maximum possiblo
cxtont.
Paul Shafer
Chiof, Geotechnicol Bronch
CfiiefL/Construction Branch
232

CERRILLOS DAM LESSONS LEARNED
D. SAFETY
LESSONS LEARNED ACTION GROUP
6 DEC 1993
PROBLEM
LESSON LEARMED
ACTION OFFICE
PROCESS TO IMPLEMENT
DISCIPLINE
D-01 Contractor's safety plan and COE
safety management ineffective (numorous
fatalities)
Poor communication ond enforcement reduces
effectiveness of sefoty requirements. Need a
strong system of communication, proactive
enforcement end accountability.
CESAJ-SO
CESAJ-CO
a. Require a full time contractor safety onginocr
with experience in mass concrete construction.
Safety/
Controct
Admin.
CESAJ-SO
b. Regular site visits from the Antilles Offico safety
officer, with quarterly visits from the district's
sofety officer.
Ditto.
CESAJ-CO
c. Tho Rosidont Enginoor shall attond monthly
mootings with the contractor's projoct mnnn(]',mmit
staff in which solely is o rogular ogomJn item.
Ditto.
CESAJ-CO
d. Roquiro construction representativas to attend
contractor's weekly sofoty meotlngs.
Ditto.
CESAJ-CO
o. Contractor's Accident Prevention Plan (APP) will
include e effective systemic reporting, enforcement,
ond follow-up system that includes occidonts.
countor-moosuros. ond tho complote reporting of
noor-misses to all project personnel. Tho district
will stipulate the requirements In tho controct plans
ond specifications.
Ditto.
CESAJ-CO
f. Documentation to includo actions identifiod by
inspections, Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA's), ond
monthly sofety mootings will be coordinotod
Safety /
Contract
Admin
riñe! Ha vio y*:
through tho: Suporintondont and Rooidont Engineer;
Foroman ond CE inspector; and tho contractor's
ond CE professional.
programe & Proj9ct Marvaa^ns^ot
Ski esa,
LTC
Deputy Corootomfci f¿ir Antilka Offlor>
N>
LO
LO

CERRILLOS DAM LESSONS LEARNED
E. ORGANIZATION
LESSONS LEARNED ACTION GROUP
6 DEC 1993
PROBLEM <
LESSON LEARNED
ACTION OFFICE
PROCESS TO IMPLEMENT â– 
DISCIPLINE
E-01 Disagreement existed in various
stovepipes.
Partnering within the organization contributes
greatly to a better product.
CESAJCO
a. Initiated efforts to better partner within district.
Portugués Action Group (PAG) established. PAG
through periodic meetings will address technical
issues.
Design/
Contract
Admin.
E 02 Slow resolution of problems.
Having periodic meetings at the district level will
result In more efficient resolutions to problems.
CESAJCO
a. Same os above.
Design/
Contract
Admin.
E 03 Numerous claims.
Claims that are not efficiently and fairly resolved
can erode the relationships between the
government and contractor.
CESAJCO
a. Improve communication with contractor through
partnering. Resolve issues at lowest possible level.
Use ADR technique if claims cannot be rcsolvod.
Contract
Admin./
Contracting
Legal
E-04 Field personnel did not hove a
thorough understanding of Engineering
Considerations end bosis of design.
It is very Important that tho field personnel
understand the Intent of the designers.
CESAJ-EN D
a. Schedule workshops between design ongincors
and field personnel prior to Portugués Dam
construction. We have conducted one EN/CO
Dosign/
Contract
Admin.
workshop. Anticipate conducting additional
workshops to continuo this.
Finnl Review:
^erd E. Middleton, P)ID., P.E.
"Chief, Engineering Divisió
Nick Etheridge
Chief, Contracting Division
^^-tloyd Pika
District Counsel
K>
Lk)
4^

APPENDIX I
USACERL FACT SHEETS OF TWO KBES PROGRAMS

US Army Corps
of Engineers
Construction Engineering
Research Laooratories
Fact Sheet
P.O. Box 9005
Champaign, IL 61826-9005
Public Attairs and Marketing
Communications Office
Phone (217)352-6511
June 1993 (FF 10)
KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR ALTERNATIVE CONSTRUCTION METHODS
The Problem
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) usually takes a single approach in its
acquisition (design, procurement, and construction) of military facilities. However, other
private and public construction markets are increasingly accepting and using other facility
acquisition methods and innovative building technologies. Developments, such as new
management systems, new materials, and new processes in construction, are increasingly
being explored. The House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations recognized
potential advantages in these alternative construction methods and asked that the Department
of Defense use them more often where advantageous. The Corps does not have much
experience using some of these different approaches. Therefore, a system is needed to
provide guidance and track experiences using alternative construction methods on military
projects and to transmit that knowledge to others who will use these methods in the future.
The Technology
The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has
developed a Knowledge Based Expert System (KEBS) to assist Corps management and
technical personnel in using the Design/Build method of construction contracting. KEBS is
an intelligent computer program that uses knowledge and inference to solve problems.
Developing a way for the program to process, identify, and represent knowledge is essential
for making KEBS a useful advisory tool.
The Design/Build Advisor KEBS uses an object-oriented representation scheme, which
means that the steps in its "thinking" process and the decisions it makes are represented as
objects. Elements of project-independent and project-dependent knowledge are represented as
attributes of each process step. Relationships and heuristics are represented by rulesets.
Capturing, organizing, and synthesizing process knowledge and providing it to a project
planner or manager for any activity, at any time, is the primary goal of the Design/Build
Advisor.
The Design/Build Advisor provides advice in three levels of detail. The first level is a
graphic "road map" of the Design/Build process that describes the activities and decisions
encountered throughout a Design/Build project. The second level contains general advice
about conducting each activity. Tms advice would apply to any Design/Build project and
236

237
would contain guidance similar to that found in a text guidance document. Examples would
include general information on selecting a project for a Design/Build approach, preparing
specification documents, or evaluating the technical merits of a Design/Build proposal. While
this advice is useful, it often does not address all the specific conditions of each individual
project. For example, specification content, proposal content, and the criteria on which a
contractor will be selected may differ from project to project. The third level of advice
provides project-specific guidance. In response to queries from the system, the user provides
information representing specific project conditions, such as local Design/Build practices, the
applicability of commercial engineering standards, and mission-critical project features.
Advice is then provided that reflects the specific project conditions.
The overall structure of the Design/Build Advisor will allow for updating and
upgrading of knowledge as greater expertise is developed. It will also allow for the inclusion
of additional types of alternative construction methods.
Benefits/Savings
KEBS will support decision-making and management of military projects using alternative
construction methods by making advice and lessons-leamed available from those who have
conducted similar projects. Personnel with little first-hand experience in a particular
alternative construction method will benefit from the expertise gained through others’
experiences. As a result, a project will have a greater chance for success, even though those
managing it may have limited experience. Furthermore, the system generates a
comprehensive record of a project’s progress and results, allowing for a more accurate
assessment of an alternative construction method’s effectiveness, and enabling the upgrading
of advice and guidance.
Status
Military Construction, Army (MCA) and other selected military construction projects
currently using Design/Build construction are being monitored. USACE has had positive
experience with the MCA projects. Two Physical Fitness Centers were designed and
constructed for approximately 29 percent and 16 percent less than estimated for conventional
procedures. The design and construction of a commissary was accomplished in approximately
half the time that it would have taken using conventional procedures. Design/Build
procedures enabled an Unaccompanied Officers’ Quarters to be built when using conventional
procedures might have jeopardized the project.
USACERL Technical Report P-90/05, Concept Knowledge Base for Alternative
Construction Methods, was published in FY90. A prototype Design/Build Advisor was
completed in FY92. The prototype system is being upgraded in preparation for fielding by
Headquarters, USACE.
Point of Contact
USACERL POC is Mr. Thomas R. Napier, COMM 217-373-7263; toll-free 800-USA-
CERL (outside Illinois). 800-252-7122 (within Illinois); or USACERL ATTN: CECER-FFC,
P.O. Box 9005, Champaign, IL 61826-9005.

238
US Army Corps
of Engineers
Construction Engineering
Research Laboratories
Fact Sheet
P.O. Box 9005
Champaign, IL 61826-9005
Public Affair* and Marketing
Communications Office
Phone (217)352-6511
October 1993
The Problem
CLAIMS GUIDANCE SYSTEM (CGS)
(FF 31)
Experienced project engineers are familiar with the general concepts that govern
various types of legal situations as well as the definition of the language necessary to
communicate with the District Office legal counsel. An inexperienced project engineer,
however, faces numerous problems: what information is required when dealing with a
potential claim, what information should be documented, and what type of contract documents
should be reviewed prior to discussions with legal counsel? A new project engineer lacks the
understanding of the legal issues involved in potential claims. With a readily available source
for this information, lengthy claims and litigations caused by incorrect decisions and/or
actions can be avoided.
The Technology
The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) is
developing the Claims Guidance System (CGS), an expert system to provide Corps
construction project engineers a training tool and assistance in making decisions on potential
claims. This project uses the expert system approach of Artificial Intelligence. An expert
system is a computer software that contains intuitive and judgmental knowledge of a human
expert in some specific application. The four modules of CGS deal with the Differing Site
Conditions, Changes, Default, and Suspension of Work Clauses.
To use CGS, the project engineer provides relevant information regarding a particular
claim that he wishes to evaluate; CGS analyzes this information and provides
recommendations based on the legal precedence. By using this system, the new project
engineer will develop a sense of what information should be documented and reviewed in
order to consult with legal counsel. CGS also produces a report that documents all relevant
information.
Benefits/Savings
CGS will help Corps project engineers document necessary information and make
appropriate decisions so that lengthy claims and litigations can be avoided, thus saving time

239
and money. It also may be used as a training device for inexperienced project engineers,
assisting them in learning the legal issues related to different types of claims.
Status
The first and second modules were developed and reviewed by the CGS Steering
Committee and field-tested at Fort Drum, NY, Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN, Baltimore District,
and Louisville District. All four modules are currently being tested at the following offices:
Southern California Area Office, Redstone Arsenal Area Office, Central Oklahoma Area
Office, Omaha District, Fort Lewis Area Office, and North Eastern Area Office. Distribution
of the system with a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) is also
being considered.
Points of Contact
USACERL POCs are Don Hicks, COMM 217-373-6712, and Moonja P. Kim, COMM
217-373-7205. Both can be reached toll-free 800-USA-CERL (outside Illinois), 800-252-7122
(within Illinois); FAX 217-373-6724; or USACERL, ATTN: CECER-FFR, P.O. Box 9005,
Champaign, IL 61826-9005.

APPENDIX J
VENDOR PRODUCT SHEETS FOR I/C AND KPWIN SOFTWARE

The Challenge:
To produce quality software fast. There are
lust not enough programmers to meet applica¬
tion needs. Existing languages and tools offer
no hope. Low-level and time-intensive pro¬
gramming must be replaced with higher-level
programming constructs, intelligent develop¬
ment environments, and portable software
architectures.
The Solution:
lntelligence/Compiler (I/C) is the highest-level
quick-turn-around development environment
available todav It integrates multiple program-
mine paradigms within an intelligent develop¬
ment and compilation environment. Applica¬
tions are generated effortlessly with J/C's
embedded obiect-oriented database, rule-based
logic, and dynamic hypertext
How it Works:
Building an I/C application involves three steps.
First, vou generate sophisticated interlaces with
the Automatic Dialoft Generator. With a few
clicks vou create impressive mouse and/or
cursor-driven dialogs in a graphic muln-
window environment. I/C dialogs are flexible,
they call each other, or are fired by objects,
rules, and hypertext
Next, vou use the Intelhvcnt Editor to construct
a knowledge-base. You specify complex pro¬
cesses with a tew simple built-in tunctions.
LINK TO PROCEDURA:
PROGRAMS
With dynamic hypertext vou define links between items via kevword
search or by firing rules and accessing elements in databases,
objects, and frames.
Finally, following incremental compilation, vou trace vour applica¬
tion's behavior in the Interactive Execution Environment For¬
ward/backward chaining, inexact reasoning, and procedure calls
are supported, all with uniform control. The tracing environment
is extremely flexible, and provides dynamic views ot trace pattern-
You can call external programs and read external database files
Your I/C application ports across platforms without modification
Applications/Benefits:
With I/C you accomplish in days what many programmers might struggle to accomplish in months. You'll ceneratc
dynamic dialogs. You'll create object-oriented networks of actions w ith attached predicates. You'll impress users with
dvnanne hvpertext which is linked to rules and SQL
I/C's comprehensive combination or multiple programming paradigms is not available in any other development en¬
vironment. By combining object-oriented databases, intelligent dialogs, hypertext, rules, and SQL. I C allows vou
to solve problems quickly by using a difieren! programming paradigm tor each application sub-task.
I/C has been successfully used in a multitude ot application areas, ranging trom inventory control and chemical encineer-
ing to financial analysis and field service planning, it nas never been easier to build applications. Use I C and develop
quality software fast
241

Product overview
242
KnowledgePro Windows, KPWin, is a fully object onented, event dnven programming language
supplying a rich, powerful and flexible development environment for Windows applications.
Its intuitive natural feel and unique combination of expert system, list processing, hypertext functions, GUI
design tools and multimedia facilities provide an essential integration of modem programming power and
productivity.
KPWin shortens delivery cycles and improves the performance of experienced programmers with its OOP
and list processing features and support for DDE and DLL. Its short learning curve allows professionals,
experts and power users to build systems and exploit their own knowledge.
KPWin++ is the first complete high level language to generate efficient, reliable, error free, object onented
C++ code for the entire application.
KPWin is now the chosen tool of developers in a wide range of organisations, with delivery times being cut
dramatically. An unparalleled ability to combine rule based systems with large amounts of data make it
particularly suitable for rapid creation of multimedia applications, computer based learning and intelligent
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With its broad appeal to mainstream application development KPW'in has won numerous international
awards since being named PC Magazine's Product of the Year.
KPWin SQLKH is a fast and powerful tool providing KPW’in and KPWm++ developers with easy access to
many important database formats using SQL statements.
KPWin DBASE Kit lets you create and modify multi-user database files in dBASE III and IV format using
dBASE or Qipper indexes.
The KPWin Maths Toolkit adds numerous mathematical functions to KPWin
WRAP, the Windows Resource Archive Program, provides on-the-fly file compression and data
management for text, image, sound and binarv data. It is used for installation routines, security, application
distribution and network data access.
The products are available as Bouquets in various combmatioas with training and support
Knowledge
GARDEN
All of the bells and whistles...

APPENDIX K
FDOT (DISTRICT 2) DEVELOPMENTAL INSPECTION CHECKLISTS

01/18/95
1 - PRODUCTION PILE INSTALLATION GUIDELINE
1-1 OFFICE PREPARATION
1.1 Review The Following Documents:
(a) Standard and supplemental spec. A455, special and technical special
provisions.
(b) Plans, plans notes and soil borings.
(c) Pile Driving Inspection Manual, Structures Foundation Construction
Manual, and Construction Project Administration Manual (CPAM).
(d) Contractor's Pile Installation Plan (PIP).
(e) Geotechnical Engr's. Pile Driving Criteria (PDC).
(f) Computation book.
1.2 Prepare Pile Driving Records Book and Field Driving Log.
1.3 Notify affected utilities and permitting agencies before driving
begins.
1.4 Discuss special pile driving operations with Proj. Engr.
1.5 Review the status and location of overhead and underground utilities
and underground obstructions.
1.6 Review the Accident Prevention Procedures Manual sections that cover
safe practice during pile driving operations.
1-2 FIELD PREPARATION
2.1 Verify pile locations and survey staking.
2.2 Verify FOOT pile approval stamp on pile end: also age, strength and any
deficiencies.
2.3 Check pick-up point patches for soundness.
2.4 Accurate foot marks on piles.
2.5 Contractor's eguipment as per PIP.
2.6 Establish reference elev. for pile cut off.
2.7 Footing excavation per spec. 125-4.
2.8 Protection of existing structures per spec. A455-3.1.
2.9 Template per PIP and within 5' of CUT OFF
2.10 Prior to the first pile driving operation, a meeting should be
held with the contractor to discuss governing specifications and
contingency plans during the operation. Minutes of this meeting
should be taken and distributed to contractor and CEI personnel.
1-3 PREFORMING PILE HOLES (A455-3.2.3)
3.1 Hole size greater than or equal to max. pile size except in rock, than
2" or greater.
3.2 Drill or punch must be guided by template or other device.
3.3 Hole depth shall not exceed pile penetration requirements.
3.4 Void between pile and hole must be filled with approved sand.
3.5 Grouted piles require min. void diameter between pile and hole of 2"
greater than max. pile dimension.
244

245
Page 2 of 3
PILE GUIDELINE
1-4 PILE PLACEMENT
4.1 Check for proper no. of lifting points (see Prestressed Concrete Pile
sheets in plans).
4.2 Jetting requirements (A455-3.8).
(a) No jetting in completed embankments.
(b) Jetting and driving with external jets requires 2 jets.
(c) Jet nozzle should be approx. 3' above pile tip or as per engr.
(d) All piles in a group shall be jetted prior to driving: when
impractical, set checks are required.
(e) Pumps, supply lines and jet pipes per PIP: min. pump capacity-250
gpm @ 50 psi, jet pipe min. 2" ID, feedlines min. 3" ID.
4.3 End Bent Pile Placement (A455-3.2.2 & 3.2.3).
(a) Compacted fill shall be placed prior to driving piles except for
reinforced earth walls or variations.
(b) Preformed holes through embankment down to original ground elev. or
an optional 4' below original ground, must be provided prior to
pile driving: drill dia. spec. 455-3.2.3.
(c) Preformed hole location and alignment tolerances shall be the same
as for piles.
(d) For caving soils, hole must be cased from original ground to grade
and casing shall be filled with approved sand and removed.
(e) When piles are placed prior to fill (RE walls, VSL walls, etc.)
equipment weighing over 1000 lbs. must not be within a 15’ radius of
a pile and pile alignment shall be checked at 3 equal intervals
during fill placement.
1-5 PILE DRIVING
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.1 Wear all personal safety equipment.
5.2 Choose optimum location to count hammer blows.
5.3 Fuel or slide bar settings must comply with PDC.
5.4 Verify that Contractor is checking and maintaining proper alignment of
leads and pile (A455-3.17.3).
Fill out Pile Driving log keeping special driving procedures and
precautions in mind.
For open end diesel hammers, the contractor is to provide a saxometer
(A4 55-3.3.2) .
Set Check Procedures (A455-3.11.4)
(a) Review set check procedures in PDC.
(b) Set check may be used when pile is within 1* of cut off and
required resistance not reached.
(c) At least 15 minutes must pass between stopping of production driving
and the start of set check driving.
Very accurate penetration measurements must be taken by Contractor:
blows counted at 1/8", 1/4", 1/2", 1", 2" and 3".
Original pile cushion should be used or a precompressed cushion.
Diesel hammers must be warmed up prior to set check driving: min. 20
blows.
(d)
(e)
(f)

246
Page 3 of 3
PILE GUIDELINE
5.8 Bearing and Penetration must be determined by meeting any of the
following (A455-3.9):
(a) Pile tip at or below min. penetration and 2 consecutive feet of blow
count required by PDC obtained.
(b) Min. penetration obtained and practical refusal reached (20 bpi for
2" or 30 to 40 blows in less than 2").
(c) Min. penetration obtained and set check criteria met per PDC.
1-6 PILE SPLICES AND BUILDUPS: Review splice details in plans and standards
6.1 CONCRETE PILES (A455-5.12)
(a) No greater than 5' below cut off, non-driven.
(i)Non-PS, precast reinforced, with same concrete mix, cross section
and form material as existing section.
(ii)If 2' or less below cut off, same as (i) except CIP.
(b) Greater than or equal to 5' below cut off, driven or non-driven.
(i) Splice must be PS & PC, min. 10' long if driven.
(ii) Pile cut off with original head may be used for splice.
(c) Splice Inspection
(i) Damage to existing pile head must be cut off.
(ii) Dowel holes drilled with approved steel template, 2" deeper than
dowel length.
(iii) Dowel holes must be cleaned by high pressure air jet and splice
faces must be completely clean; holes and faces must be
completely dry.
(iv) Epoxy adhesive mixed in accordance with manufacturer's specs.(see
epoxy spec. 926): no sand or other filler material unless
manufacturer includes in mix.
(v) If a pile cut off is used for a splice, the epoxy must be fully
cured per manufacturer's specs, prior to attachment to existing
pile.
(vi) Forms around splice joint should not leak and alignment of two
sections must be precisely maintained until joint cures.
(vii) A spliced pile must not be driven until epoxy has cured for 48
hrs. or per manufacturer's specs, whichever is longer.
6.2 STEEL PILES (A455-6.3).
(a) Splice material must meet spec. 962-2.
(b) No splices permitted if driven length 40' or less.
(c) Welded splices by certified welder and per spec. 460-6.
(d) Splice Inspection
(i) Dress pile top with grinder so that edges are beveled for
welding.
(ii) If used, tack weld backing plate with 1" overlap.
(iii) Joined sections receive full butt welds.
1-7 INSPECTION WRAP-UP
7.1 Verify final pile top elev. and alignment are within tolerance.
7.2 Verify that strands and reinforcement are severed prior to breaking
of piles that require cut off.
7.3 Visually check pile for deficiencies.

247
01/2S/95
2
- GENERAL
CONCRETE
GUIDELINE
Footings, Columns, Caps, Beams, Walls
Traffic
Barriers, Flat
Slabs
2-1 PREPARATION
1.1 Review the following documents
(a) standard & supplemental specs., special & tech,
special provisions.
(b) Plans and plan notes.
(c) Level II quality control plan.
(d) Mass concrete quality control plan.
(e) Concrete design mixes.
(f) Computation book.
(g) Tricks of the Trade.
(h) Job guide schedule.
(i) The following publications covering concrete sampling procedures
should be reviewed: ACT Certification Manual, pages 15, 21, 28,
35, 47, 53 and 63; FDOT Field Sampling and Testing Manual,
sections FM 1-T023, T119, T121, T141, T152, T196, and 5-501.
1.2 Prepare the following records:
(a) Materials sample log book (concrete, rebar).
(b) Daily quantities sheet.
1.3 Prior to first concrete placements, a meeting should be held
with the Contractor to discuss governing specifications and
contingency plans during the operation. Minutes of this meeting
should be taken and distributed to Contractor and CEI personnel.
1.4 Safety: Review the FDOT Accident Prevention Procedures Manual (1990)
for all proper construction safety procedures. If an overhanging work
platform is being used, check for its compliance with all OSHA and
FDOT safety regulations.
2-2 PILE FOOTING PREPARATION
2.1 If bottom of excavation is too wet, excess water must be
removed using any of these methods: well points, perforated sock or
a rim ditch with or without pumping.
2.2 Natural soil bed must be firm enough to support plastic concrete.
If not, soil must be replaced with suitable material.
2.3 Density of soil bed must be as per Supplemental Spec. 455-3.2.1.
2-3 FORMING
3.1 Forms must be dressed wood or metal of uniform thickness (400-5.1).
3.2 Verify correct line, grade, plumbness, levelness, mortar tightness and
dimensions of forms (400-5.1).
3.3 Forms must be braced so that the vibrated concrete will not cause
bulging between supports or an alignment shift. This is particularly
critical for columns and walls (400-5.1).
3.4 Verify that friction collars for cap support are properly secured.
3.5 For type, quality and dimensions required for wood forms see spec.
400-5.3.

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GENERAL CONCRETE GUIDELINE
3.6 All concrete corners must have 3/4" x 3/4" chamfer unless otherwise
shown, in plan (400-5.4.1).
3.7 All form surfaces in contact with concrete shall be treated with an
approved form release product and be free of dirt o,r any other debris
(400-5.6) .
3.8 All inspection and cleanout holes shall be closed and secured (400-
5.6) .
3.9 Traffic Barriers: Ensure that top of form elevations are adjusted to
account for high and low spots in the deck. Sight along top chamfer
line with eye or with mirror to ensure a uniform top of barrier
alignment.
3.10 Traffic Barriers: Check for proper horizontal alignment of wall
relative to survey offset every 10' using a level or plumb bob by
measuring to the back of the barrier wall.
3.11 Slip Forming Traffic Barriers
(a) Check guide string for proper line and grade.
(b) Verify that machine's vibrator is working properly.
(c) Contractor must clean deck surface in path of slip forming
machine.
(d) Contractor's worker and the inspector should walk ahead of slip
forming machine during placement to ensure that rebar cover
adjustments are made before the slip former passes.
3.12 For flat slabs, the project engineer should review the contractor's
falsework plans and calculations prior to any concrete placements.
2-4 PLACING AND TYING REBAR
4.1 Reinforcing steel shall be stored above the ground surface and
shall be free of loose rust, scale, dirt, paint, oil and other
foreign matter (415-3).
4.2 Hot bending, welding or flame cutting will not be allowed unless
otherwise specified (415-4).
4.3 Placing and Tying
(a) Each bar shall be tied within 1" of plan position unless otherwise
specified (415-5.1).
(b) Splices shall be securely clamped or tied. Minimum lap is 24 bar
diameters unless otherwise specified (415-5.4).
(c) Mortar blocks shall be composed of one part cement to two parts
concrete sand and shall have wires cast into them for fastening to
the steel. The blocks shall be moist cured at least three days
(415-5.2) .
(d) Reinforcing steel must be secured so as not to move or rack (415-
5.3) .
4.4 Footings
(a) Mortar blocks, if used, shall have dimensions not greater than 4"
x 4" x plan clearance. Footing mat steel shall be placed within
1/2" vertically from the plan bottom clearance and within 1" from
the plan side clearance (415-5.5.1 & 415.5.5.2).
(b) Footing mat steel shall have double strand single tie at
all perimeter intersections, and at alternating interior
intersections (415-5.5.3).
4.5 Columns
(a) Column dowel bars shall be placed within 1/2" of plan position,
except that side clearance tolerance shall not exceed 1/4" from
plan. Dowel bars shall not be set prior to concrete placement.
Verify lap length for conformance with the plans (415-5.6.1,5.6.2)

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GENERAL CONCRETE GUIDELINE
(b) Column vertical bars shall be placed within 1/2" of plan
position. Side form clearance shall be within 1/4" of that
specified. Column steel shall be spaced off from that side
forms by mortar blocks with dimensions not greater that 2" x 2"
x plan clearance (415-5.7.1 & 415-5.7.29).
(c) Each column hoop shall be placed within 1" of its plan
position. Side form clearance shall be within 1/2" of that
specified (415-5.7.26).
(d) Column hoops shall be tied to the verticals at every intersection
by a cross or figure 8 tie (415-5.7.3).
4.6 Wall Steel
(a) Wall steel shall be spaced off from the side forms by mortar
blocks of dimensions not greater that 2" x 2" x plan clearance.
Spacing between the mats shall be maintained by means
satisfactory to the Engineer (415-5.8.1).
(b) Wall steel shall be tied with a cross or figure 8 tie at all
perimeter intersections and at every third interior intersection
at a minimum (415-5.8.3).
4.7 Beams and Caps
(a) Bottom clearance shall be maintained by approved heavy beam
bolsters. Additional layers of main longitudinal steel shall
be supported from the lower layers by heavy beam bolsters
placed directly over the lower supports (415-5.9.1).
(b) The spacing of beam bolsters shall begin at not more than two
feet from the end of the beam or cap and additional bolsters
shall be spaced at not more that 4' (415-5.9.1).
(c) Mortar blocks having dimensions not greater than 2" x 2" x plan
clearance and fastened to the steel by cast-in- wires, shall be
used for spacing the upper main longitudinal steel below the top
bars (415-5.9.1).
(d) The side clearance shall be maintained by mortar blocks of
dimensions not greater that 2" x 2" x plan clearance and fastened
to the steel by cast-in-wires (415-5.9.1).
(e) Main longitudinal steel shall be placed such as to provide a
bottom and top clearance within 1/4" of the plan vertical
dimensions for all layers. Spacing from side forms shall be
within 1/2" of the specified spacing (415-5.9.2).
(f) Each stirrup shall be spaced and tied within 1" of its plan
position (415-5.9.2).
(g) Tying shall be double strand single ties at all intersections
(415-5.9.3) .
4.8 Traffic Barriers
(a) Rebar should be free of hardened concrete and curing compound
deposited during the deck pour.
(b) Tie wires must not extend into the concrete cover layer.
(c) Check for excessive longitudinal misalignment of rebar prior to
placing the forms.
(d) Deck surface below barrier rebars must be cleaned of all foreign
and loose matter and must be at proper grade to ensure full cover
of top rebar.
(e) Utility conduits and embedments must be separated from rebar to
allow concrete to flow between and around them.
(f) Verify that utility conduit slip joints and junction boxes are
properly installed.

250
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GENERAL CONCRETE GUIDELINE
2-5 PLACING CONCRETE
5.1 Temperature Restrictions (400-7.1)
(a) Concrete shall not be placed if the outside air temperature is
35 degrees F and falling or if the concrete temperature is below
45 degrees F or above 90 degrees F (100 degrees F if a hot weather
mix is approved).
(b) Once concrete is placed, if the air temperature falls below 35
degrees F for 12 or more hours, the air and concrete must be
heated to 60 degrees F.
(c) If concrete temperature is above 75 degrees F, retarder must be
used.
(d) When the plans call for mass concrete, special temperature
monitoring must be performed by the Contractor which should be
verified by the Inspector (Supplemental Spec. 346-3.3).
5.2 Night placement requires an approved lighting system (400-7.2).
5.3 Concrete shall not be placed until foundations, forms, falsework and
rebars have been inspected and approved (400-7.3).
5.4 Placement (400-7.5)
(a) Concrete shall be placed, as near as possible, in its final
position and in level layers. Concrete should not be placed in
mounds and then leveled or moved with a vibrator.
(b) Concrete should flow under and around rebars without displacing
them.
(c) Aggregates must not be segregated or separated.
(d) Concrete can be dropped a maximum of 5' if not contained by a
chute, tremie pipe or trough.
(e) Troughs and chutes must be metal or metal lined and if steeply
sloped, baffles or reversals are required. Troughs, chutes and
pipes longer then 30' must be authorized. All of these must be
free of coatings of hardened materials.
(f) Contractor operations such as pile driving or other sources, such
as motor vehicle traffic, must not produce vibrations that are
detrimental to proper concrete curing.
(g) A backup concrete placement system must be immediately available
in case pumps, conveyors, cranes, etc. fail.
5.5 Belt conveyors must be authorized, not exceed 550' in length and
discharge into a hopper at belt end (400-7.6).
5.6 If concrete is pumped, the discharge pipe must have a minimum pipe
diameter of 4", concrete must not be in contact with aluminum and test
samples must be taken at the discharge end (400-7.7).
5.7 Layers (400-7.10)
(a) Layers of concrete should be horizontal, approximately 12" thick
and placed within 20 minutes. The layer immediately below the
layer being placed must not have an initial set and should have a
rough surface.
(b) Joints between layers can be avoided if the vibrator penetrates
through the top layer and well into the underlaying layer.
(c) Feather edges must not be produced at joints between layers.
5.8 Vibration (400-7.11)
(a) All concrete placements must receive mechanical vibration with
exceptions covered in the specifications.
(b) Number of, type and size of vibrators must be approved and must
have a minimum of 4500 IPM. A spare vibrator must be available.

251
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GENERAL CONCRETE GUIDELINE
(c) Vibrators shall not be used to move concrete but shall be
inserted and withdrawn as near to plumb as possible in a slow and
steady manner. Circles of vibrator influence shall overlap to
ensure that the entire placement is adequately vibrated.
(d) Placements that can not be vibrated, shall be rodded or spaded by
hand.
5.9 Columns (400-7.12)
(a) Column concrete shall be placed in one continuous operation unless
construction joints are shown in the plans.
(b) Columns must cure at least 12 hours prior to cap form placement.
5.10 Slabs (400-7.13.1)
(a) Screeding system must be approved prior to placement.
(b) Concrete must be placed in continuous strips (transverse or
longitudinal) with no time for initial set between strips except
at planned joints.
5.11 Weather Protection (400-7.13.5)
(a) Unhardened concrete must be completely protected from rain and
runoff by a system that does not come in contact with the
concrete.
(b) A rain protection system must be demonstrated prior to placement
and must be located close enough to placement site to be
immediately available if rain is forecast.
(c) Concrete placement shall not begin if rain is likely to fall
during operation.
2-6 CURING
6.1 No further curing is required if forms are kept in place, without
loosening, for a least 3 days. (400-16.1)
6.2 Acceptable curing methods include continuous-moisture curing, steam
curing, membrane curing compound or an impervious covering.
(400-16.1.2)
6.3 Membrane Curing Compound (400-16.1.2)
(a) Mechanical mixing must take place just prior to each application
of compound.
(b) Application shall be according to manufacturer's recommendations,
at a rate of a least 200 sf per gallon and be sprayed as a uniform
mist.
(c) Application by spraying shall be by compressor driven equipment
and standby equipment shall be available.
(d) Hand held pump-up sprayers are not permitted except for standby
use or on Class I concrete (non-pavement).
(e) Curing compound must be a type that does not reduce the bond
between the concrete and class V applied finish.
6.4 Covers for continuous-moisture curing shall be kept continuously wet
for at least 72 hours (400-16.1.2).
6.5 Construction Joints (400-16.3)
(a) Curing methods shall include leaving forms in place or continuous-
moisture.
(b) Continuous-moisture may be applied by at least three layers of
burlap or equal kept wet, covering with 1/2" layer of wet sand
or sawdust or complete sealing with an impervious plastic cover.
(c) Where projecting rebars conflict with covers, membrane curing
compound may be used.

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GENERAL CONCRETE GUIDELINE
6.6 If forms are left in place for traffic barriers, an approved curing
method must be used for the exposed top surface.
2-7 FORM REMOVAL
7.1 Time of removal of forms shall be per plans, determined from
compressive strength tests as per table in Special Provisions article
400 forms-removal, or as directed.
7.2 Compressive strength to be determined from cylinders cast from same
conditions as concrete in corresponding bridge component (400-14).
7.3 Casting, curing and testing of cylinders shall be performed by
Contractor at his expense, in accordance with AASHTO T22 and T23 and
under observation of the Department (400-14).
7.4 Forms may be removed when compressive strength is equal or greater
than percentage of specified design strength as shown in the table in
Special Provisions article 400 forms-removal.
7.5 Concrete in cofferdams must not be exposed to the action of water
prior to final set and must not be exposed to salt or brackish water
for 7 days after placement. Protection of concrete must be
accomplished by pumping salt or brackish water out of cofferdams (400-
7.4) .
2-8 FINAL FINISHING
8.1 Remove form tie ends. Remove irregular projections. Patch void,
honeycomb and form tie holes (400-15).
8.2 Mortar for patching shall comply with spec. 400-15.1 and generally be
3 parts concrete sand to 1 part Portland cement. Surface to be
patched shall be roughened and free of all foreign matter.
8.3 If a Class I-IV surface finish is required, refer to spec. 400-15.2.2
through 400-15.2.5.
8.4 Class V Coating (textured paint) (400-15.2.6)
(a) Must arrive in manufacturer's container bearing the manufacturer's
original labels. A copy of the manufacturer's instructions shall
be made available to the engineer.
(b) Surfaces must be prepared in accordance with manufacturer's specs.
(c) Must be applied in accordance with manufacturer's specs.
Application rate of 40-50 SF/GAL.
(d) Finished surface must have a uniform texture and color, and not
exceed 1/8" thickness.
(e) For material test and certification procedure, see spec. 400-
15.2.6.7.

253
4
BRIDGE DECK GUIDELINE
01/25/95
4-1 PREPARATION
1.1 Review the following documents:
(a) Std. and supp. specs., special and technical special provisions.
(b) Plans, plan notes and shop drawings.
(c) Level II quality control plan.
(d) Concrete mix designs.
(e) Computation book.
(f) Tricks of the trade manual.
(g) Job guide schedule.
(h) Proper concrete sampling procedures: ACI Certification Manual,
pages 15, 21, 28, 35, 47, 53 and 63; FDOT Field Sampling and
Testing Manual, sections FM 1-T023, T119, T121, T141, T152, T196
and 5-501.
1.2 Prepare the following records:
(a) Daily quantities sheets.
(b) Materials sample log book (concrete and rebar).
(c) Deck thickness, clearance and straight edging verification log.
(d) Prepare a pour map that will identify where each concrete truck's
load is located in the deck.
1.3 Prior to the first deck placement, a meeting should be held with the
Contractor to discuss governing specifications and contingency plans
during the operation. Minutes of this meeting should be distributed
to Contractor and CEI personnel.
1.4 Safety: Review the FDOT Accident Prevention Procedures Manual(1990)
for the proper construction safety practices. Do not walk beams
without a safety belt attached to a safety line.
4-2 FORMING
2.1 Removable forms
(a) Forms must be dressed wood or metal of uniform thickness
(400-5.1).
(b) Verify correct line, grade, plumbness, levelness, mortar tightness
and dimensions of forms (400-5.1).
(c) Forms must be braced so that the vibrated concrete will not cause
bulging between supports or an alignment shift. (400-5.1).
(d) For type, quality and dimensions required for wood forms see spec.
400-5.3 .
(e) All concrete corners must have 3/4" x 3/4" chamfer unless
otherwise shown in plans (400-5.4.1).
(f) Verify with Engineer that forms and/or falsework are adequate for
supporting the load.
2.2 Stay in Place (SIP) Metal Forms (400-5.7.1 thru 5.7.6)
(a) Prior to erection of SIP forms, the following must be approved by
the FDOT: materials, forming system, fabrication, erection method
and shop drawings.
(b) Rebar cover must be minimum shown in plans.
(c) Form flutes do not count as cover.
(d) SIP forms are not permitted in bays with longitudinal deck joints.
(e) Forms shall not be welded to beams or support angles but instead
shall be securely fastened by bolts, clips, etc.

254
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BRIDGE DECK GUIDELINE
(f) The welding process for connecting the support angle to the flange
strap must not come in contact with beam flange steel.
(g) Flange straps must be in direct contact with the beam flange.
(h) Form panel ends must overlap support angles by at least 1".
(i) Damaged galvanizing must be touched up per specifications.
(J) Transverse deck joints should be over flute bottoms and the
bottoms shall have 1/4" dia. weep holes on 12" centers.
(k) It is desirable to verify form locations with a stringline prior
to rebar placement.
(l) After concrete has hardened, SIP forms should be tapped (sounded)
with a mallet to check for proper bond and for the existence of
voids.
4-3 PLACING AND TYING REBAR (415-5.10 & 13)
3.1 Reinforcing steel shall be stored above the ground surface and
shall be free of loose rust, scale, dirt, paint, oil and other
foreign matter (415-3).
3.2 Hot bending, welding or flame cutting will not be allowed unless
otherwise specified (415-4).
3.3 Each bar shall be tied within 1" of plan position unless otherwise
specified (415-5.1).
3.4 Splices shall be securely clamped or tied. Minimum lap is 24 bar
diameters unless otherwise specified (415-5.4).
3.5 Mortar blocks shall be composed of one part cement to two parts
concrete sand and shall have wires cast into them for fastening to
the steel. The blocks shall be moist cured at least three days
(415-5.2).
3.6 Bottom rebar mat support: When bolsters are used, at least 2 rows
must be placed between beams and the spacing between rows must
not exceed 4'. One bolster row shall be placed 6" from the coping.
With approval of the Engineer, mortar blocks may be used in lieu of
bolsters and must be spaced on 4' centers maximum. Blocks must be
2" x 2" x concrete cover.
3.7 Top rebar mat support: 2 rows of continuous high chairs shall be used
between beams and shall be spaced 6" from beam flange edges and
one continuous row shall be 6" from the coping. If individual
high chairs are used they shall be spaced as are continuous ones but
longitudinal spacings shall not exceed 48". For prestressed beams,
shear connector rebars may be used for top mat support with one row of
high chairs between beams.
3.8 Rebar placement tolerance is 1/4" for all clearance.
3.9 Tying for each mat: a double strand single tie must be used at every
intersection on the periphery and for all other intersections at
every third location.
Metal rebar supports: Metal rebar supports in contact with SIP forms
or that bear on removable forms must be protected from corrosion by a
plastic coating at least 1/2" from the form or by solid plastic legs.
Materials for rebar supports shall be in compliance with specification
415-5.13.
3.10

255
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BRIDGE DECK GUIDELINE
4-4 SCREED DRY RUN (Recommended procedure for checking deck thickness and
rebar clearance)
4.1 Should be performed after rebars have been placed and screed rails and
headers are set.
4.2 Thicknesses and clearances should be checked in every bay at
longitudinal intervals not greater than 10'.
4.3 Check with Project Engineer for deck thickness variances due to:
curved girders, multiple beam depths and/or lengths within one span,
or for variations in beam loading, particularly for steel beam spans.
4.4 Deck thickness and rebar clearance measurements should be taken from
the bottom of the screed rollers.
4.5 The screed rollers should be directly over the point where the
measurement is to be taken.
4-5 PLACING DECK CONCRETE (400-7.13 & 7.1.2)
5.1 Approvals: screed or strike off device.
5.2 Concrete placed in continuous strips (transverse or longitudinal with
no time for initial set between strips except at planned joints.
Continuous beam decks must be placed according to pouring sequence in
the plans. Concrete placement rate l6CY/hour or greater. (7.13.2)
5.3 Temporary erection supports must be removed for steel beams before
deck placement. (7.13.3)
5.4 Intermediate diaphragms must be poured at least 48 hours before deck.
(7.13.4)
5.5 Unhardened concrete must be completely protected from rain and runoff
by a system that does not make contact with the concrete. (7.13.5)
5.6 Rain protection system must be demonstrated prior to pour and must be
immediately available if rain is forecast. (7.13.5)
5.7 Forms and rebar shall be sprayed with cool fresh water just prior to
deck placement of concrete in hot weather. (400-7.1.2)
4-6 SCREEDING AND FINISHING (400-7.15) & (400-15.2.5 & 9.7)
6.1 Prior to all concrete placement all bulkheads and rails must be set to
proper grade - screed must adjust for all variances (vertical curve,
camber, grade breaks, etc.), intermediate rails not permitted.
(7.15.1)
6.2 Screed shall be mechanical, vibratory and must retain its shape and be
approved prior to use. (7.15.2)
6.3 Screed passes shall be as many as required for an acceptable surface.
(7.15.3)
6.4 After screeding and before finishing, deck must be longitudinally
straight edged with 10' bar, half lapped, 5' transversely. If
unevenness is more that 1/8" then deck surface shall be corrected
immediately.
6.5 After water sheen and before initial set, the deck surface must be
finished with burlap, fine broom, belt, or float. No grooves, marks,
or scratches are allowed greater that 1/16" in depth.
6.6 Required saw joints must be installed the day after concrete placement
(400-9.7) .

256
Page 4 of 4
BRIDGE DECK GUIDELINE
4-7 DECK CURING (400-16.2 & 17.2)
7.1 Apply Type H (white) curing compound to deck surface immediately after
finishing.
7.2 Saturated, properly sealed curing blankets must be placed as soon as
possible without affecting surface texture for a minimum of 7 days -
blanket materials must meet specifications.
7.3 Deck must be protected if lightly loaded during 7 days curing and
loading must be authorized.
7.4 Temporarily uncovered surfaces during curing period must be sprayed
with water during entire exposure.
7.5 Heavy loads must not be applied during 14 days after concrete
placement and if applied, shall be only after the Department's
approval.
4-8 FORM REMOVAL
8.1 Time of removal of forms shall be per plans, determined from
compressive strength tests as per table in Supplemental Specifications
article 400 forms-removal, or as directed.
8.2 Compressive strength to be determined from cylinders cast from same
conditions as concrete in corresponding bridge component (400-14).
8.3 Casting, curing and testing of cylinders shall be performed by
Contractor at his expense, in accordance with AASHTO T22 and T23 and
under observation of the Department (400-14).
8.4 Forms may be removed when compressive strength is equal or greater
than percentage of specified design strength as shown in the table in
Supplemental Specifications article 400 forms-removal.
4-9 GROOVING
9.1 Grooving shall take place only after the concrete has cured for 7
days, has reached minimum required strength and before opening
to traffic.
9.2 Prior to grooving, straight edging as denoted in 4-6.4 (above), shall
be done. Irregularities over 3/16" must be ground down by abrasive
method to 1/8" unevenness or less.
9.3 Grooves sawcut to 1/8" - 3/16" wide and 1/8" - 1/4" deep with detailed
spacing and tolerances per specifications. Grooves must be continuous
from gutter to gutter and within 18" of gutter.
9.4 Grooves must be per specifications at joints and for skews.

APPENDIX L
PROPOSED PCC LESSONS LEARNED DATA ENTRY FORM

UF PCC-LL (Sheet 1)
No. 95
POST CONSTRUCTION CONFERENCE
LESSONS LEARNED
I.GENERAL CONFERENCE INFORMATION
Recorded by: Location: Date:
II. CONFERENCE ATTENDEES
Name
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
III. GENERAL PROJECT INFORMATION
Affiliation Project Role
WPI Number:
State Project Number:
Contract Number:
Contract Amount:
Project Start Date:
Current Percent Complete:
Anticipated Finish Date: —
Project Title:
Project Scope:
Project Location:
District:
258

259
UF PCC-LL (Sheet 2)
No. 95
III. LESSON LEARNED
Problem Backround:
Problem Resolution:
Special Notes:

APPENDIX M
THE IN REACH PROTOTYPE SYSTEM KPWIN SOURCE CODE

(* load library *)
^include qelibb.tpx
#include unitl 1 .kb related
j-********************************************************-)
(* Main Program *)
^********************************************************^
(* IN - REACH *)
(-*******************************************************»•)
(* Set up of variables *)
tlnfo is system_info 0
Col is first (Ttlnfo).
Row is element (Ttlnfo, 2 ).
First_time is true,
dele is true.
(* Init dataBase Connection *)
qe_initO-
hdbc = qeConnect ('DRV=QEDBF').
if Thdbc = 0
then
window 0 and
text ('FILES HAVE BEEN CORRUPTED !!!', #n, 'please EXIT, and start over') and
button (EXIT, clear, 15,6) and
wait 0-
First_time2 is true.
(* open first screen - Main Menu *)
wprese is window (, 1,1 ,?col,?row,TN
REA CH',[thickfr ame,maximized,maximizebox,popup,titlebar,controlmenu],„darkgray).
prese = load_bitmap ('prese.bmp').
Button2(' CONTINUE ',foll,l 2.7,25.5).
Button2(' INTRODUCTION ’,mtrod,37.2,25.5).
Button2(' EXIT ’,EXITL,61.3,25.5).
bitmap (?prese,l,l).
show_window(?wprese,8).
waitO-
(* end Main Menu *)
(* Exit Procedure *)
TOPIC EXITL().
RetCode = qeDisconnect (Thdbc).
clear().
END.
261

262
(* Introduction procedure *)
TOPIC INTRODO-
intr is window (
,l,l,?col-0,?row-2.3,'INTRODUCTION',[thickframe„popup,titlebar,controlmenu,vertscroll],„lightgray).
show_window(?intr).
text_int is read('introl .txt').
text(?text_int).
wait(' CONTINUE ').
close('introl .txt').
close_window(?intr).
text_int is [].
END. (* end introduction procedure *)
(* General Categories Menu *)
TOPIC FOLLO-
text(#e).
prese = load_bitmap ('prese 1 bmp').
Button2(' BRIDGES '.MAIN, 10,21).
Button2(' ROADWAY ',MESS,35.9,21).
Button2(' ASPHALT '.MESS,64.1,21).
Button2('SIGNALING && LIGHTING’,MESS, 10,24).
Button2(MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC’,MESS,36,24).
Button2(' OTHER MESS,64.15,24).
bitmap (?prese,I,l).
waitO-
END. (* end General Categories Menu *)
(* Options Under Development *)
TOPIC MESS().
D IS WINDOW( ,9.9,20.2,73.9,6.4,'SORRY
!!',[child,siblings,showChildren,visible,thinfr ame,titlebar],?WPRESE„LIGHTGRAY„).
TEXT('
The "General Category" that you have chosen is still under development.
Please wait a moment, and then select another "General Category".').
WAIT(,6).
CLOSE_WINDOW(?D).
FOLL().
END.
^*********************************************************^
(* Main Program *)
TOPIC MAINO-
(* Set up variables *)
set_error_topic (err).
close_window(?wprese).
GEN_P IS 1.

263
Set_event_topic (exitl,close_event).
illust is false.
hyper_display(green2).
back_for is [].
whichfile is [].
cfgfile is []
(* open main screen *)
wbatata is window (,1,1 ,?col,?row,'IN REACH (General Category -
BRIDGES)',[thickframe,maximized>maximizebox,popup,titlebar,controlmenu]„,darkgray).
show_window(?wbatata,8).
(* load Buttons *)
resetbmp = load_bitmap ('resetu.bmp').
backbmp = load_bitmap ('backu.bmp').
searchbmp = load_bitmap ('searchu.bmp').
forbmp = load_bitmap ('foru.bmp').
sorbmp = load_bitmap ('souru.bmp').
clearbmp = load_bitmap ('clearu.bmp').
exitbmp = load_bitmap ('exitu.bmp').
clearibmp = load_bitmap ('cleariu.bmp').
new (ii, GraphicButton, [?clearibmp, close_illust,8.3+7.3+7.3+7.3+7.3,1]).
hide_window(?ii).
new (bl, GraphicButton, [?resetbmp,reset,l, 1]).
new (b2, GraphicButton, [?backbmp,back, 8.3, 1]).
new (b3, GraphicButton, [?searchbmp, bsearch,8.3+7.3+7.3,l]).
new (b5, GraphicButton, [Tforbmp, forprod,8.3+7.3,l]).
new (b6, GraphicButton, [?sorbmp, sorprod,8.3+7.3+7.3+7.3,1]).
new (b7, GraphicButton, [?clearbmp, clearprod,8.3+7.3+7.3+7.3+7.3,l]).
new (b4, GraphicButton, [?exitbmp, exitl,8.3+7.3+7.3+7.3+7.3+7.3,1]).
(* initialize main screen *)
initO-
(* open all windows *)
w5 is window (,?col-30.2, ?row-27.75,30.5,10.7,'Navigational
History',[popup,showChildren,titlebar,thinfr ame,vertscroll],?wbatata„lightgray).
wbasep is window(,?col-30.2, ?row-27.75+10.7,30.5,9,'Search
By',[popup,showChildren,titlebar,thinframe,vertscroll],?wbatata„lightgray).
wbaser is window(,?col-30.2, ?row-27.75+10.7,30.5,9, 'Search
By1,[popup,showChildren,titlebar,thinfr ame,vertscroll],?wbatata„lightgray).
hide_window(?wbaser).
wbases is window(,?col-30.2, ?row-27.75+10.7+9,30.5,9,'Related
Topics',[popup,showChildren,titlebar,thinfr ame,vertscroll],?wbatata„lightgray).
show_window (?w5).
show_window (?WBASEp).
show_window (7WBASES).
set_acti ve_windo w(?wmain).

264
(* initialize main list *)
ANTES is 'BRIDGES'.
BRIDGESO-
(* first screen of Bridges *)
TOPIC BRIDGESO-
set_display_window(?wmain).
text(#e).
(* load bridge image *)
PT = load_bitmap ('IMAGE7.bmp').
bitmap (TPT.1,1).
set_display_window(?wmain).
(* Write m screen bridge information *)
TEXT('#x2#y20.7 Welcome to the General Category of BRIDGES
#y22 From this screen, you can either:
#y23.1 1. - Click on #mBRIDGES - SOURCE INDEX#m to enter BRIDGES
directly via a hypertexed index of sources, or
#y25.25 2. - Run the other search rountines by clicking the "Search By"
button located within the button bar at the top of the screen.').
set_display_window(?w5).
text('#m#lBRIDGES#m#N').
END. (* end Bridges *)
(* initialize wrap library *)
topic wrap_load_text (RAPFILE, DESCRIPTION).
wrap_load_text is user (?WRAPLib, wrap_load_text, [7RAPFILE, 7DESCRIPTION]).
end.
topic WRAPLib.
WRAPLib is loadjibrary ('kpwrap.dll').
end.
topic err(number,command,parms).
if ?number is 'WRAP_CANT_LOAD' or 'I_V_TOPIC_NOT_FOUND'
then
D IS WINDOW( ,1.54,3.4,56.3,26.3,'SORRY
!!',[child,siblings,showChildren,visible,thinframe,titlebar],?WBATATA„LIGHTGRAY,,) and
TEXTC
You have attempted to retrieve a topic name that does not
exist. Please wait a moment, and IN REACH will return you
to the screen where you were previously at prior to your
clicking on the "Search By" and "List of Topics" buttons.').

265
WAIT(,11) and
CLOSE_WINDOW(?D) and
ERROR = 1.
end.
(* Main Buttons Procedures *)
(* Home Procedure *)
topic reset.
if ?illust is true then close_illustO-
BRIDGESO
end.
(* Clear History Procedure *)
topic clearprod().
antes is".
GEN_P IS 1.
set_display_window(?w5).
GEN_P IS 2.
text(#e).
text('#m#lBRIDGES #m#N').
end.
(* Source Procedure *)
topic sorprodO-
if ?illust is true then W15 IS WINDOW(, 1.54,3.4,(?col-35.1), 5,, [child, siblings,thinffame, showChildren,
visible], ?wl,„) else
W15 IS WINDOW(, 1.54,3.4,(?col-35.1), 5,, [child, siblings,thinframe, showChildren, visible], Twbatata,,,).
INFO IS".
sorjs is concatC'SELECT SOURCE FROM SOURCESS.DBF WHERE TOP DESCRP =
’",LAST(?ANTES),"").
hstmt = qeExecSQL(?HDBC,?SOR_LS).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
INFO = get_string (qeValChar (?hstmt, 1,,)).
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
SHOW_WINDOW(?Wl 5).
SET_DISPLAY_POS(l .3,2).
TEXT(?INFO).
button ('OK',CONTINUE,45, 3.5).
wait 0-
close_WINDOW(?Wl 5).
end.
(* Back Procedure *)
topic back().
if ?illust is true then close_illust().
if list_length(?ANTES) = 1
then BRIDGESO
ELSE
back_for gets(last(?antes)) and

266
ANTES is sublist (7ANTES, 1, list_length (7ANTES) -1) and
item is last (7ANTES) AND
ANTES is sublist (7ANTES, 1, listjength (7ANTES) - 1) and
dele is false and
MARK(?ITEM).
end.
(* forward Procedure *)
topic forprod().
if ?back_for o [] then
dele is false and
mark(last(?back Jor)) and
back_for is different(?back_for,last(?back_for)).
end.
(* end BUTTONS Procedures *)
(* Hypertext Handler *)
topic mark (item).
if ?illust is true then close_illust().
if ?dele is true then back_for is [] else dele is true.
ANTES GETS7ITEM.
if list_length(?ANTES) = 1
then palabra is 'BRIDGES'
ELSE
ANTES is sublist (7ANTES, 1, listjength (7ANTES)) and
item is last (7ANTES) AND
ANTES is sublist (7ANTES, 1, listjength (7ANTES)) and
palabra is ?item.
(* write in History Windows *)
set_display_window(?w5).
text('#m#l', ?palabra ,'#m ').
GEN_P IS ?GEN_P +1.
VERT_SCROLL_TEXT(7w5,1000).
set_display_window(?wmain).
text(#e).
(* Check for Ilustration *)
x = string_where(?item, 'Illustration'),
pepe is ?item.
if ?x> 0
then figura(). (* load Illustration *)
if ?x = 0 then

IF 7ITEM = 'BRIDGES' THEN BRIDGES()
ELSE
267
(* Load from wrap file *)
input is wrap_load_text (dot457,?item) and
set_text (7wmain,[#n,#n,?input ]).
input is [].
(* Load Illustration *)
topic figura(item).
show_window(?ii).
W1 IS WINDOW(, 1,4.5,?col,?row-4,?pepe,[popup,showChildren,titlebar ,thinfr ame,vertscroll],?wbatata„„).
SHOW_WINDOW(?Wl).
if ?pepe is 'Illustration-Metal Bar Chairs' then gilda is load_bitmap ('image 1 .bmp'),
if ?pepe is 'Illustration-Precst Pile Splice' then gilda is load_bitmap ('image2.bmp').
if ?pepe is 'Illustration-Screed Machine' then gilda is load_bitmap fimage3.bmp').
if ?pepe is 'Illustration-Bar Identification’ then gilda is load_bitmap ('image4.bmp').
if ?pepe is 'Illustration-Table of Bar Size' then gilda is load_bitmap ('image5 .bmp').
if ?pepe is 'Illustration-Pile Driving Form' then gilda is load_bitmap ('image6.bmp').
bitmap (?gilda, 1,1 ,,)â– 
illust is true.
disable_window(?b7).
hide_window(?b7).
end.
end. (* end Mark*)
(* topic From Close Illustration Button *)
topic Close_illust().
CLO SE_ WIND O W(? W1).
illust is false.
hide_window(?ii).
enable_window(?b7).
show_window(?b7).
backO-
end.
(* Object definitions for Graphics Buttons *)
topic GraphicButton (bmpObject, event, col, row, type, tParent).
:gbEvent is ?event.
:gbType is ?type.
:gbBitmap is ?bmpObject.
[:gbWidth, :gbHeight] is_c bitmap_info(?bmpObject).
:gbSelected is False.
tParent is get_display_window ().
(*73*)
:handle is window (mouse_select_object, ?col, ?row, (7gbWidth)+0.3, 7gbHeight+0.18„
[child,siblings,showChildren,thinframe], 7tParent„lightgray,[mouse_down_event,mouse_up_event]).
parent (handle) is ?handle.

268
bitmap(?gbBitmap).
show_window (?handle).
set_display_window(?tParent).
topic mouse_select_object(i, event, h).
do (?event).
topic mouse_down_event.
set_dispiay_window(?handle).
text(#e).
bitmap(?gbBitmap).
update_window(?handle).
set_event_topic (mouse_off_object, [ mouse_up_event, mouse_drag_event]).
gbSelected is True.
topic mouse_off_object (i, event, h).
if ?h is ?handle then (
if ?gbSelected is False then
set_display_window(?handle) and
text(#e) and
bitmap(?gbBitmap) and
update_window(?handle) and
gbSelected is True)
else (
if ?gbSelected is True then
set_display_window(?handle) and
text(#e) and
bitmap(?gbBitmap) and
update_window(?handle) and
gbSelected is False).
if ?event is mouse_up_event then (
if ?h is ?handle then
mouse_off_object is False
else
Set_Event_Topic() and
mouse_off_object is True)
else
mouse_off_object is True,
end.
end.
topic mouse_up_event.
if ?gbSelected is True then
set_display_window(?handle) and
text(#e) and
bitmap(?gbBitmap) and
update_window(?handle) and
Set_Event_Topic() and
gbSelected is False and
do (?gbEvent, ?gbType).
end.
end
end.

269
(* Main Search Procedure *)
topic bsearchO
if ?illust is true then close_illust().
disable_window(?b 1).
disable_window(?b2).
disable_window(?b3).
disable_window(?b4).
disable_window(?b5).
disable_window(?b6).
disable_window(?b7).
set_active_window(?wbatata).
set_display_window(?wbatata).
set_active_window(?wbasep).
set_display_window(?wbasep).
show_window(?wbasep).
set_title(?wbasep,'Search By').
bmpserl = load_bitmap ('topics.bmp').
bmpser2 = load_bitmap ('topicsl.bmp').
bmpser3 = load_bitmap ('topics2.bmp').
bmpser4 = load_bitmap ('cancelu.bmp').
if ?first_time is 'true' then
(* Load Search Buttons *)
new (basel, GraphicButton, [?bmpser 1,search, 1, 1]) and
new (base2, GraphicButton, [?bmpser2,search2,9.8+8.8,l]) and
new (base3, GraphicButton, [?bmpser3,searchl,9.8, 1]) and
new (base4, GraphicButton, [?bmpser4,search3,9.8+8.8,6]) and
first_tune is false
else
show_window(?basel) and
show_window(?base2) and
show_window(?base3) and
show_window(?base4).
disable_window(?wmain).
disable_window(?wbases).
disable_window(?w5).
(* Cancel Procedure *)
topic search30-
hide_window(?base 1).
hide_window(?base2).
hide_window(?base3).
hide_window(?base4).
enable_window(?wbasep).
enable_window(?wbaser).
enable_window(?wbases).
enable_window(?w5).
enable_window(?wmain).

270
enable_window(?b 1).
enable_window(?b2).
enable_window(?b3).
enable_window(?b4).
enable_window(?b5).
enable_window(?b6).
enable_window(?b7).
Show_window(?wb aser).
set_title(?wbasep,").
end.
(* General Categories Procedure *)
Topic searchl().
hide_window(?base 1).
hide_window(?base2).
hide_window(?base3).
hide_window(?base4).
enable_window(?wbasep).
enable_window(?wbaser).
set_active_window(?wbasep).
set_display_window(?wbasep).
bmpdbfl = load_bitmap ('foll.bmp').
bmpdbf2 = load_bitmap ('fol2.bmp').
bmpdbfi = load_bitmap ('fol3.bmp').
bmpdbf4 = load_bitmap ('cancelu.bmp').
if ?first_time2 is 'true' then
new (bas 1, GraphicButton, [?bmpdbfl ,dbfl ,1,1]) and
new (bas2, GraphicButton, [?bmpdbO,dbi2,9.8,1]) and
new (bas3, GraphicButton, [?bmpdbf2,dbf3,9.8+8.8,l])and
new (bas4, GraphicButton, [?bmpdbf4,dbf4,9.8+8.8,6]) and
first_time2 is true
else
show_window(?basl) and
show_window(?bas2) and
show_window(?bas3) and
show_window(?bas4).
(* Cancel *)
topic dbf4().
hide_window(?bas 1).
hide_window(?b as2).
hide_window(?bas3).
hide_window(?bas4).
enable_window(?wbasep).
enable_window(?wbaser).
enable_window(?wbases).
enable_window(?w5).
enable_window(?wmain).

271
enable_window(?b 1).
enable_window(?b2).
enable_window(?b3).
enable_window(?b4).
enable_window(?b5).
enable_window(?b6).
enable_window(?b7).
Show_window(?wbaser).
set_title(?wbasep,").
end.
(* Serach in Piles.dbf *)
Topic dbfl().
hide_window(?bas 1).
hide_window(?bas2).
hide_window(?bas3).
hide_window(?bas4).
WhichFile is 'piles.dbf.
cfgfile is 'pilescfg.dbf.
NewTitle is 'PILES'.
dbfO.
end.
(* Serach in Bndge.dbf *)
Topic dbf2().
hide_window(?basl).
hide_window(?bas2).
hide_window(?bas3).
hide_window(?bas4).
WhichFile is ’bndge.dbf.
cfgfile is 'bridcfg.dbf.
NewTitle is 'BRIDGE DECK'.
DBFO-
end.
(* Serach in General.dbf *)
Topic dbf30-
hide_window(?basl).
hide_window(?bas2).
hide_window(?bas3).
hide_window(?bas4).
WhichFile is 'general.dbf.
cfgfile is 'genecfg.dbf.
NewTitle is 'GENERAL CONCRETE'.
dbfO-
end.
end. (* end General Categories *)

272
(Related Topics Search *)
Topic search2()-
hide_window(?base 1).
hide_window(?base2).
hide_window(?base3).
hide_window(?b ase4).
wait(,0).
(* set_active_window(?wbatata).
show_window(?wbatata,8). *)
set_acti ve_window(?wmain).
set_display_window(?wmain).
show_window(?wmain).
set_acti ve_window(?wb ases).
set_displ ay_window( ?wb ases).
Last_list is [].
do(related).
q is 1.
LAST_LIST IS sort(?last_list,UP,ascii).
SET_DISPLAY_POS(2,l).
IF list_length(?LAST_LIST) IS 0 THEN MESSAGETO ELSE
repeat
q is ?q+l and
text('#m#r, first(?last_list),'#m ') and
last_list is rest(?last_list)
until ?last_list is [].
enabie_window(?b 1).
enable_window(?b2).
enable_window(?b3).
enable_window(?b4).
enable_window(?b5).
enable_window(?b6).
enable_window(?b7).
enab le_window(?wb ases).
enable_window(?w5).
show_window(?wbaser).
(* Error Message *)
topic MessageT().
D IS WINDOW( ,1.54,3.4,56.3,26.3,'SORRY
!!',[child,siblings,showChildren,visible,thinframe,titlebar],?WBATATA„LIGHTGRAY,,).
TEXTC
IN REACH has determined that this topic is either too general or
too specific, and has therefore terminated the "Related Topics"
routine based on the lack of credible results.
Please wait a moment, and IN REACH will return
you back to the topic from where you just came.').

273
WAIT(,11).
CLOSE_WINDOW(?D).
enable_window(?wmain).
set_display_window(?wmain).
end.
end. (* Related Topics Search *)
(* - Search List of topics -— *)
topic Search.
hide_window(?base 1).
hide_window(?base2).
hide_window(?base3).
hide_window(?b ase4).
SearchList is ?Savelist.
wSearch is window (,l,4.6,(?col-32), (?row)*0.95,'Search By "List of
Topics'",[popup,thinFrame,titleBar,showChildren],?WBATAT A),
text ('
Select a topic from the list below or type the
topic name, and then click on the "GO TO" button').
bGoTo is button2 ('GO TO', GoTo, 7, 22.5, 12,1.5 ).
bCancel is button2 ( CANCEL, Cancel, 27, 22.5,12,1.5 ).
show_window (TwSearch).
cbl is combo_box (?searchList, GoTo, 4.75,4.8„17,", [simple,sort,vertscroll], double_click_event).
set_focus (?cbl).
topic GoTo.
enable_window(?b 1).
enable_window(?b2).
enable_window(?b3).
enable_window(?b4).
enable_window(?b5).
enable_window(?b6).
enable_window(?b7).
enable_window(?wmain).
enable_window(?wbases).
enable_window(?wbasep).
enable_window(?w5).
searchText is get_combo_box (?cb 1).
if ?searchText is [] then
exit 0-
close_window(?wsearch).
Show_window(?wbaser).
x = string_where(?searchtext, 'Illustration'),
if ?x = 0 then
vacio is wrap_load_text (dot457,?searchtext) and
if Tvacio o [] then
mark (?searchtext).
if ?x o 0 then mark (?searchtext).
if not (?mark) then
smallList is [].

274
vacio is [].
end.
topic Cancel.
smallList is [].
close_window (TwSearch).
enable_window(?b 1).
enable_window(?b2).
enable_window(?b 3).
enable_window(?b4).
enable_window(?b5).
enable_window(?b6).
enable_window(?b7).
enable_window(?wniain)
enable_window(?wbasep).
enable_window(?wbases).
enable_window(?wbaser).
enable_window(?w5).
Show_window(?wbaser).
set_title(?wb asep,").
end.
end. (* Search *)
end. (* General Search *)
^*******************************************************
(* General Categories Procedures *)
topic dbf().
Show_window(?wbaser).
enable_window(?wbaser).
set_acti ve_window(?wb aser).
set_display_window(?wbaser).
text('#e').
set_title(?wbaser,?NewT itle).
(*q is 1.
repeat
move_window(?wbaser,?col-30.2-?q,?row-27.5+l 4.5) and
q is ?q + 5
until ?q > ?col-30.2-1.2.
q is 1.
repeat
move_window(?wbaser,1.2,?row-27.5+14.5-?q) and
q is ?q + 5
until ?q> ?row-27.5+14.5 +1.2.
move_window(?wbaser, 1,1).
last_title is concat('Subcategory [',?NewTitle,']').
set_title(?wbaser,?last_title).
q is 1.
repeat
resize_window(?wbaser,1.3+30.5+?q,l 3+?q+13.8) and
q is ?q+3

275
until ?q > 7.
q is 1.
repeat
resize_window(?wbaser,l.2+30.5+15+?q,l.2+15+13.8) and
q is ?q+3
until ?q> 45.*)
move_window(?wbaser, 1,1).
resize_window(?wbaser>?col,?row).
gil is [].
set_display_window (Twbaser).
set_active_window(?wbaser).
hand(gil).
topic hand(managl).
text(#e).
managl is [].
dat_list is [].
Read_base().
topic read_base.
filer is concat( 'SELECT descript FROM ',?cfgfile).
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc,?filer).
if ?hstmt = 0
then
window 0 and
text ('FILES HAVE BEEN CORRUPTED !!!', #n, 'please EXIT, and start over') and
button (EXIT, clear, 15, 6) and
wait 0-
more ().
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
dat_nil is [].
adi is button2 (' INSTRUCTIONS ',inst, 60, 27.5, 18,1.5 ).
ad is button2 ('GO ', add, 2.77, 27.5, 10,1.5 ).
U SE_F ONT (7BOLDF ONT).
SET_DISPLAY_POS(2.77,2.5).
text('Subjects').
use_font (?mainFont, [Window,Control]),
boxl is [].
boxl is list_box (?dat_list,add, 2.75,3.8„23.8,T,T, double_click_event).
res_list is ['FDOT Standard Specs (1991)','FDOT Supplemental Specs (1994)','FDOT Standard Drawings
(1994)','FDOT CP AM Manual (1993)','FDOT Inspection Manual-Part 3 (1990)','FDOT Tricks of The Trade
(1993)','FDOT Inspection Checklists (1995)','FDOT PPR Lessons Learned (1995)','UF PCC Lessons Learned
(1995)’,'CRSI Placing Rebar (1993)'].
U SE_F ONT (7BOLDF ONT).
SET_DISPLAY_POS(42.77,3.8).
text('Sources').
USE_FONT(?mainFont, [Window,Control]),
boxl is [].
boxl is list_box (?res_list,add, 42.5,4.8„14„T, double_click_event).

276
topic add().
hide_window(?ad).
RES_EXIT IS []
RES_LIST IS GET_LIST_BOX(?BOXL).
CLOSE_WINDOW(?BOXL).
IF ONE_OF(?RES_LIST,'FDOT Standard Specs (1991)') THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'Rl'.
IF ONE_OF(?RES_LIST,TDOT Supplemental Specs (1994)’) THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'R2'.
IF ONE_OF(?RES_LIST,'FDOT Standard Drawings (1994)') THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'R6'.
IF ONE OF(?RES_LIST,’FDOT CPAM Manual (1993)') THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'R5'.
IF ONE_OF(?RES_LIST,'FDOT Inspection Manual-Part 3 (1990)') THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'R7\
IF ONE_OF(?RES_LIST,’FDOT Tricks of The Trade (1993)') THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'R4'.
IF ONE_OF(?RES_LIST,'FDOT Inspection Checklists (1995)') THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'R3'.
IF ONE_OF(?RES_LIST,'FDOT PPR Lessons Learned (1995)') THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'R9'.
IF ONE_OF(?RES_LIST,'UF PCC Lessons Learned (1995)') THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'RIO'.
IF ONE_OF(?RES_LIST,'CRSI Placing Rebar (1993)') THEN RES_EXIT GETS 'R8'.
IF RES_LIST IS [] THEN RES_EXIT IS [].
data_nil is get_list_box(?boxl).
pat is [].
ult is last(?data_nil).
dat_list is [].
field2 is [].
apply(bum,?data_nil).
largo is list_length(?dat_list).
if ?largo - 0 then
List_Full is concat(’SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ’) else
List_Full is concat('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ,,first(?dat_list),'= .T.').
if list_length(?dat_list)oO then
repeat
List_Full is concat(?List_Full,' and ',first(?dat_list),'= ,T.') and
dat list is rest(?dat_list)
until ?Dat_list is [].
if list_LENGTH(?RES_EXIT)oO then
if ?largo = 0 then List_Full is concat(?List_Full,first(?res_exit), - T.')
else List_Full is concat(?List_Full,' and ',first(?res_exit), - .T.').
manag is [].
hstmt = qeExecSQL(?hdbc,?List_Full).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
PAT = get_string (qeValChar (?hstmt, 1,,)) and
manag gets ?pat.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
Til is button2 ('TRY AGAIN', try, 42.75, 27.5, 13,1.5 ).
pii isbutton2 ('CONTINUE', cont, 60, 25, 18,1.5 ).
an is button2 ('ALL', All, 42.75, 25, 13,1.5 ).

277
dii is button2 ('CLEAR', Clear, 42.75, 25, 13,1.5 ).
hide_window(?dii).
USE_FONT(?BOLDFONT).
SET_DISPLAY_POS(42.77,2.5).
text(Result#40s#41 of Search').
USE_FONT(?mainFont, [Window,Control]).
box2 is [].
box2 is list_box (?manag,cont, 42.75,3.8,30,20,T,T, double_click_event).
exitO-
end.
topic instO •
ins_ac IS WINDOW(,39,2.6,48.5,21.6„ [child, siblings,thinframe, showChildren,visible], Twbaser,,,).
U SE_F ONT (7BOLDF ONT).
SET_DISPLAY_POS(2,l .3).
text(' INSTRUCTIONS#!').
USE_FONT(?mainFont).
SET_DI SPL A Y_PO S(2,2.9).
text(' 1.- Select one or more items from the
list of "Subjects".
2.- If you want to search through #fred ALL#f Sources,
then simply click on the "GO" button.
3.- If you want to search through only #fred ONE#f Source,
select desired item from the list of "Sources"
and then click on the "GO" button.
4.- If results are not satisfactory, you can restart the
search by clicking on the "TRY AGAIN" button.
5 - If results are satisfactory, select one or more
topics from the "Result#40s#41 of Search" list, or
choose all topics by clicking on the "ALL” button.
6.- To return selected topics back to the IN REACH
work area click on the "CONTINUE" button.'),
button (' OK ', Continue, 43,1 ) and
wait 0-
close_window(?ins_ac).
end.
topic tryO-
Close_window(?tii).
Close_window(?di i).
Close_window(?aii).
Close_window(?pii).
Close_window(?box 1).
Close_window(?box2).

278
HandO.
exitO-
end.
topic allO-
set_list_box(?box2,?manag).
Hide_window(?aii).
show_window(?dii).
end.
topic clearO-
close_window(?box2).
box2 is list_box (?manag,cont,42.75,3.8,30,20,T,T,doubie_click_event).
Hide_window(?dii).
show_window(?aii).
end.
end.
topic bum(lisil).
field2 is first(?lisil).
sqlstmt is concat('SELECT field FROM ’,?cfgfile,' where descript = tnm('",?field2,'")').
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc,?sqlstmt).
RetCode = qeFetchnext (?hstmt).
pAT = get_stnng (qeValChar (?hstmt, 1,,)).
dat list gets ?pat.
lisil is rest(?lisil).
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
end.
topic ok_ayO-
window 0-
text ('no se que pasa', #n, ?SQLstmt).
button (OK, Continue, 10, 6).
wait ().
end.
topic more().
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
get_data ().
end.
topic get_data().
dat is get_record(l).
dat list gets ?dat.
topic get_record (count).
get_record = get_string (qeValChar (?hstmt, ?count,", 0)).
end. (* get_record *)
end.
end.
end. (* End General Categories *)

279
(* Write in general categories windows *)
topic contO-
hide_window(?wbasep).
manag is get_list_box(?box2).
close_window(?boxl).
close_window(?box2).
close_window(?ad).
close_window(?aii).
close_window(?dii).
close_window(?pii).
resize_window(?wbaser,30.5>9).
move_window(?wbaser,?col-30.2,?row-27.75+10.7).
set_active_window(?wbatata).
show_window(?wbatata)8).
set_acti ve_window(?wbaser).
set_display_window(?wbaser).
q is 1.
if ?manag is [] then namet is 'Search By1 else namet is 'Result(s) of Search'.
set_title(7wbaser,?namet).
text(#e).
SET_DISPLAY_POS(2,l).
repeat
q is ?q+l and
text('#m#l', first(?manag),'#m ') and
manag is rest(?manag)
until ?manag is [].
enable_window(?b 1).
enable_window(?b2).
enable_window(?b3).
enable_window(?b4).
enable_window(?b5).
enable_window(?b6).
enable_window(?b5).
enable_window(?wmain).
enable_window(?wbasep).
enable_window(?wbases).
enable_window(?w5).
EXITO-
end.
(* Initialize Main Screen *)
topic init().
filesearch is 'search.rap'.
SaveList is wrap_load_text(?filesearch, lista),
smalllist is [].
searchlist is [].
helvSmall is create_char_font ([0.82,0.71428,700,F,F,F,0,l,34,helv]).
mainFont is create_char_font ([l,l,400,'F','F7F',0,l,34,'Helv']).

280
boldFont is create_char_font ([1,1 JOO.'FVFVF'.0,1,34,'Helv']).
wraain is window (,1.1,3.3,(?col-32), (?row)*0.89,, [child, siblings,thinframe, vertScroll, showChildren,
visible], ?wbatata„lightgray,).
show_window(?wmain).
use_font (TmainFont, [Window,Control]).
use_font (?mainFont, [Window,Control]).
ICON IS LOAD ICON('INREACH.ICO').
attach_icon (TwBATATA, ?icon ).
end. (* End Init *)
(* End Main Program *)

281
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
********************************************************1
* RELATED TOPICS SUBROUTINE *)
* *)
********************************************************)
* Select infonnation from related topics *)
* *)
********************************************************j
topic relatedO-
(* Set variables *)
set_active_window(?wbases).
set_display_window(?wbases).
text('#e').
ff is
pilesl is ,topic_desc,a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k>l,tn,n,o;p,q,r,s1t,u,v'.
pilesf is [a,b,c,d,e/,g,h,ijJc,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v].
concretel is 'topic_desc,a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h>i,j,k,l,iTi>n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u'.
concretef is [a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h>i j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u].
bridgel is 'topic_desc>a,b,c,d,e,f,g)h>i>j,k,l,m>n>o>p,q'.
bridgef is [a,b,c,d,eXg,h,ij,k,l,m,n,o,p,q].
quat is 1.
general is [].
control is 1.
(* read record from database piles.dbf *)
whichfile is 'piles.dbf.
longer is concat ('SELECT ',?pilesl,' FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE topic_desc= "',last(?antes),"").
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
whichfile is 'pilescfg.dbf and
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
apply(extract,?pilesi).
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
quat is 1.
if ?general is [] then
control is 2 and
(* read record from database general.dbf *)
whichfile is 'general.dbf and
longer is concat ('SELECT ',?concretel,' FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE topic_desc= '",last(?antes),"") and
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer) and
whichfile is 'genecfg.dbf and
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
apply(extracta,?concretei).
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
quat is 1.
if ?general is [] then
control is 3 and

282
(* read record from database bridge.dbf *)
whichfile is "bridge.dbf and
longer is concat ('SELECT ',?bridgel,' FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE topic_desc= '",last(?antes)>"") and
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer) and
whichfile is 'bridcfg.dbf and
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
apply(extractb,?bridgef).
rc = qeendsql(?hstmt).
(* if list is empty return to main program *)
if ?general is [] then exit().
(* look for fields in each database *)
quat is 1.
gen_list is [].
apply(extract2,?general).
whichfile is 'pilescfg.dbf.
quat is 1.
generalO is [].
fif is
apply(extract5,?gen_list).
whichfile is 'bridcfg.dbf.
quat is 1.
general 1 is [].
fifis".
apply(extract3 ,?gen_list).
whichfile is 'genecfg.dbf.
quat is 1.
general2 is [].
fifis
apply(extract4,?gen_list).
if ?control is 1 then count is list_length(?generalO).
if ?control is 2 then count is list_length(?general2).
if ?control is 3 then count is list_length(?generall).
quat is 1.
(* look for final information in Piles.dbf *)
general is ?general0.
Whichfile is 'piles.dbf.
if?countisl thenMessage().
if ?count is 2 then if ?control is 1
if ?count is 3 then if ?control is 1
if ?count is 4 then Look4().
if ?count is 5 then if ?control is 1
if ?count is 6 then Look6().
then Look2() else
message()
then Look3() else
exact().
then Look5() else
lookx().

283
(* look for final information in General.dbf *)
Whichfile is 'general.dbf.
general is ?general2.
if ?count is 1 then Message().
if ?count is 2 then if ?control is 2 then Look2() else
if ?count is 3 then if ?control is 2 then Look3() else
if ?count is 4 then Look4().
if ?count is 5 then if ?control is 2 then Look5() else
if ?count is 6 then Look6().
(* look for final information in Bridge.dbf *)
Whichfile is "bridge.dbf.
general is ?generall.
if?countis 1 then Message().
if ?count is 2 then if ?control is 3 then Look2() else
if ?count is 3 then if ?control is 3 then Look3() else
if ?count is 4 then Look4().
if ?count is 5 then if ?control is 3 then Look5() else
if ?count is 6 then Look6()
(* clear final list *)
enable_window(?wbases).
solo is different(?last_list,?antes).
last_list is ?solo.
LAST_LIST IS sort(?last_list,up,ascii).
Temporary is ?last_list.
Temporary2 is ?last_list.
c is [].
repeat
b is first(?last_list) and
c is different(?last_list,?b) and
c gets ?b and
last_list is [] and
last_list is ?c and
temporary is rest(Ttemporary) and
cis []
until Ttemporary is [].
enable_window(?wmain).
enable_window(?wbasep).
enable_window(?wbases).
enable_window(?w5).
(* clear all *)
general is [].
control is 1.
whichfile is
longer is".
quat is 1.
genlist is [].
message().
exact().
lookxQ.
message().
exact().
lookxQ.

284
generalO is [].
generall is [].
general2 is [].
fifis
(* end of related *)
(* Look for 2 combinations *)
Topic Look2().
ff is
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TOPIC_DESC FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = .T. and
’,element(?general,2),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc .Tlonger).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
end.
(* Look for 3 combinations *)
Topic Look3()
ff is
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,2),' = .T.').
quat is Tquat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (Thdbc .Tlonger).
while (qeFetchNext (Thstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(Thstmt).
ff is ",
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ’,element(Tgeneral,l),' = T.
and ',element(Tgeneral,3),' = .T.'). quat is Tquat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (Thdbc .Tlonger).
while (qeFetchNext (Thstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets Tff.
ffis". ‘
rc is qeendsql(Thstmt).
longer is ”,
longer is concat (’SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(Tgeneral,2),' = .T.
and ',element(Tgeneral,3),' = .T.').
quat is Tquat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (Thdbc .Tlonger).
while (qeFetchNext (Thstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets Tff.
rc is qeendsql(Thstmt).
end.

285
(* Look for 4 combinations *)
Topic Look4().
fifis
longer is
longer is concat (’SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ’,element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ’,element(?general,2),' = .T.and ',element(Tgeneral,3),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fifis get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?fif.
re is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ',element(Tgeneral,3),'= .T.and ’,element(Tgeneral,4),' = ,T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?fif.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis".
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM',Twhichfile,' WHERE ’,element(?general,l),' = T.
and ',element(?general,2),' = .T.and ’,element(?general,4),' = .T.').
quat is Tquat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (Thdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (Thstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets Tfif.
rc is qeendsql(Thstmt).
fifis".
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM',Twhichfile,' WHERE ’,element(Tgeneral,2),' = .T.
and ',element(Tgeneral,3),' = T.and ’,element(Tgeneral,4),' = ,T.').
quat is Tquat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (Thdbc ,Tlonger).
while (qeFetchNext (Thstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets Tfif.
rc is qeendsql(Thstmt).
end.
(* Look for 5 combinations *)
Topic Look50
fifis".
longer is".
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(Tgeneral,l),' = ,T.
and ',element(Tgeneral,2),' = .T. and ',element(Tgeneral,3),' = ,T.').
quat is Tquat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (Thdbc .Tlonger).
while (qeFetchNext (Thstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets Tfif.
rc is qeendsql(Thstmt).
fifis",

286
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,2),' = .T.
and ,,element(?general>3),’ = .T. and ',element(?general,4),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
flf is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?fif.
re is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis"
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ’.Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,3),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,4),’ = .T. and ',element(?general,5),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
flf is get_rec(l) and lastjist gets ?fif.
fifis". "
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = ,T.
and ',element(?general,4),' = .T. and ',element(?general,5)>' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?flf.
fif is
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
longer is",
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,2),’ = .T. and ',element(?general,5),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fifis get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?flf.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis ",
longer is",
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ’,element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,2),' = .T. and ’,element(?general,4),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
flf is get_rec(l) and last list gets ?fif.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichiile,' WHERE ',element(?general,2),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,3),'= -T. and ',element(?general,5),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).

287
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
if is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,3),' = .T. and ',element(?general,4),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l)/ = .T.
and ',element(?general,3),' = .T. and ',element(?general,5),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?£f.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE '>element(?general,2)>' = .T.
and ’,element(?general,4),' = .T. and ',element(?general,5),' = T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fifis get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?fif.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
end.
(* Look for 6 combinations *)
Topic Look6().
fifis"
longer is",
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = ,T.
and ',element(?general,2),' = .T. and ',element(?general(3),' = .T. and ',element(?general,4),' = ,T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?fif.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis",
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile;' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = ,T.
and ',element(?general,2)>' = .T. and ',element(?general,3),' = .T. and ',element(?general,5),' = ,T.').

288
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = T.
and ',element(?general,2),' = .T. and ',element(?general,3),' = .T. and ',element(?general,6),' = ,T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
if is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?fF.
ffis". "
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ’,element(?general,l),' = ,T.
and ',element(?general,2),' = .T. and ’,element(?general,4),' = .T. and ',element(?general,5),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichlile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = T.
and ,,element(?general>2),' = ,T. and ',element(?general,4),' = .T. and ’,element(?general,6),' = ,T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec( 1) and last_list gets ?flf.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fifis
longer is",
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = ,T.
and ',element(?general,2),' = .T. and ',element(?general,5),' = ,T. and ’,element(?general,6),' = T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
fif is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
fif is
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ’,element(?general,3),' = .T. and ',element(?general,4),' = T. and ',element(?general,5),' = .T.’).
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then

289
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
re is qeendsql(?hstmt).
ff is
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l)>' = .T.
and ',element(?general,3),' = T. and ',element(?general,4),' = T. and ',element(?general>6),' = T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last list gets ?ff
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
ff is
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE '>element(?general,l)>' = T.
and ’,element(Tgeneral,3),' = T. and ',element(?general,5),' = .T. and ',element(?general,6),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
ff is
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ’,element(Tgeneral,l),' = .T.
and ',element(?general>4)>' = T. and ',element(?general,5),' = .T. and ',element(?general,6),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
ffis". "
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,2),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,3),' = ,T. and ’,element(?general,4),' = .T. and ',element(?general,5),' = .T.').
quat is Tquat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (Thdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (Thstmt) = 0) then
ffis get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff
rc is qeendsql(Thstmt).
ff is
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',Twhichfile,' WHERE ’,element(Tgeneral,2),' = .T.
and ',element(Tgeneral,3),' = .T. and ',element(Tgeneral,4),' = T. and ',element(Tgeneral,6),' = .T.').
quat is Tquat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (Thdbc ,Tlonger).
while (qeFetchNext (Thstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets Tff.
rc is qeendsql(Thstmt).
ff is
longer is

290
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM \7whichfile,' WHERE ,,element(?general>2),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,3),' = .T. and ',element(?generaL5),' = .T. and ',element(?general,6),' = T.’).
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
if is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
ff is
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,2),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,4),' = T. and ',element(?general,5)>' = .T. and ’,element(?general,6),' = ,T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
if is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
fifis". "
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,3),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,4),' = .T. and ',element(?general,5),' = T. and ',element(?general,6),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
£f is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
end.
(* look for 2 combinations *)
topic exact().
fifis".
longer is".
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichiile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,2),' = .T. and ',element(?general,3),' = T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
end.
(* look for 3 combinations *)
topic lookx().
fifis".
longer is",
longer is concat (’SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ’,?whichiile,' WHERE '>element(?general,l)>' = .T.
and ',element(?general>2)>' = .T. and ',element(?general,3),' = .T.and ',element(?general,4),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).

291
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
ffis
re is qeendsql(?hstmt).
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general, 1),' = .T.
and ’,element(Tgeneral,2),' = T. and ',element(?general,3),' = .T.and ',element(?general,5)>' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
ffis".
longer is",
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE ',element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ',element(Tgeneral,3),' = T. and ',element(?general,4)>' = .T.and '>element(?general,5),' = ,T.’).
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
ffis",
longer is",
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE '>element(?general>2)>' = .T.
and ’,element(?general,3),'= T.and ',element(?general,4),' = .T.and ',element(Tgeneral,5),' = .T.').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
ffis".
longer is".
longer is concat ('SELECT TRIM(TOPIC_DESC) FROM Twhichfile,' WFIERE ',element(?general,l),' = .T.
and ',element(?general,2),' = .T. and ’,element(?general,4),' = .T.and ',element(?general,5),' = .T.').
quat is Tquat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (Thdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (Thstmt) = 0) then
ff is get_rec(l) and last_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(Thstmt).
end.

292
topic MessageO-
end.
(* read final information from each database *)
topic extract5 ().
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT field FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE descript= "',element(?gen_list,?quat),"").
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ffis get_rec(l).
if ?íf o " then generalO gets ?ff.
ffis
re is qeendsql(?hstmt).
end.
topic extract4().
longer is
longer is concat ('SELECT field FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE descript= "',element(?gen_list,?quat),"").
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ffis get_rec(l).
if ?ff o " then general2 gets ?ff.
ffis
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
end.
topic extract3().
longer is".
longer is concat ('SELECT field FROM '.Twhichfile,' WHERE descript= '",element(?gen_list>?quat),'"').
quat is ?quat +1.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ffis get_rec(l).
if ?ff o " then general 1 gets ?ff.
ffis
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
end.
topic extract2().
longer is".
longer is concat ('SELECT descript FROM ',?whichfile,' WHERE field= '",element(?general,?quat)>"").
quat is ?quat+l.
hstmt = qeExecSQL (?hdbc ,?longer).
while (qeFetchNext (?hstmt) = 0) then
ffis get_rec(l).
gen_list gets ?ff.
rc is qeendsql(?hstmt).
end.

293
topic extractO-
quat is ?quat +1.
rfield is get_rec(?quat).
if Trfield is T then rfield is element(?PILESF,?quat-l) and general gets ?rfield.
end.
topic extractbO-
quat is ?quat +1.
rfield is get_rec(?quat).
if ?rfield is T then rfield is element(?bridgef,?quat-l) and general gets ?rfield.
end.
topic extractaO-
quat is ?quat +1.
rfield is get_rec(?quat).
if ?rfield is T then rfield is element(?concretef,?quat-l) and general gets ?rfield.
end.
(* get records from database *)
topic get_rec (count).
get_rec = get_string (qeValChar (?hstmt, ?count,", 0)).
end. (* get_record *)
end. (* end of related topics *)

APPENDIX N
THE “CLASSIFICATION” AND “CONFIGURATION” DATABASES

295
| BRIDGE DECK CLASSIFICATION DATABASE
SUBCATEGORY - Bridge Deck
SUBJECT HEADINGS
SOURCES
Node*
Node Description
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
In
o
P
Q
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
1
400-5.7 SIP METAL FORMS
T
T
T
T
T
2
400-5.7.1 general
T
T
T
T
T
3
400-5.7.2 materials
T
T
T
T
T
4
400-5.7.3 desiqn
T
T
T
T
T
5
400-5.7.4 construction
T
T
T
T
T
6
400-5.7.5 placing concrete
T
T
T
T
T
T
7
400-5.7.6 inspection
T
t
X
X
t
8
400-5.8 SIP CONC FORMS
T
T
T
T
T
9
400-5.8.1 general
T
T
T
T
T
10
400-5.8.2 materials
T
T
T
T
T
11
400-5.8.3 design
X
Y
Y
T
Y
12
400-5.8.4 construction
T
T
T
T
T
13
400-5.8.5 placinq concrete
T
T
T
T
T
14
400-5.8.6 inspection
T
T
T
T
T
16
400-7.15 BRIDGE FLOORS
T
T
T
t
T
17
400-7.15.1 bulkhead/screed
T
T
T
T
T
T
18
400-7.15.2 desiqn of screed
T
T
T
T
T
T
19
400-7.15.3 screeding
T
T
T
T
T
20
400-9.7 Concrete Deck Joint
X
T
21
400-15.2.5 class 4 finish
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
22
400-15.2.8 bridqe sidewalks
T
T
T
T
T
23
400-16.2 Cure Bridqe Decks
T
T
T
24
400-17.2 Deck Mtrl Storaqe
T
T
T
t
25
415-5.10 Deck Slabs
T
T
T
T
T
26
415-5.13 Chairs & Bolsters
T
T
T
T
T
¡
27
710-6.2 Weather Limitations
T
T
T
28
710-6 3 Surface Preparation
T
T
T
29
711-1 Description
T
T
T
30
711-2.2 Sealing Primer
T
T
T
31
711-4.2 Apply Seal Primer
T
T
T
T
32
925-2 Membrane Curinq
T
T
T
T
Y
33
IC - INSPECT BRIDGE DECK
T
T
34
IC-Bridqe Deck Curing
T
T
T
T
T
35
IC-Bridqe Deck Dry Screed
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
36
IC-Bridge Deck Form Remvl
T
X
X
T
37
IC-Bridqe Deck Forming
T
T
T
T
T
T
38
IC-Bridge Deck General Prep
T
T
T
!
39
IC-Bridge Deck Groovinq
T
T
XI
T
T
T
40
IC-Bridge Deck Place Concrt
T
T
X
X
t
1
41
IC-Bridge Deck Place Rebar
T
x
x
T
T
42
IC-Bridge Deck Screed/Finsh
T~
X
x
T
T~
T
T
43
CPAM 9-3 Deck Thickness
T
x
T
T
T
x~
44
TOT[IV-20,21.221 Screeding
x
x
x
T
T
X
T
45
TOTNV-39] Cure Compound
X
~T~i
x
T
T
T
46
TOTNV-441 Armor Joint Void
~T~
T
T
X
T
47
Illustration-Metal Bar Chairs
T
x
T
x
X^
48
Illustration-Screed Machine
T ~
x
x
T
T
T
49
LL01R9301-Lite Pole Vibratn
X
X
X~
50
LL01R9401 -Deck Striping
T
T
X
T
T

296
BRIDGE DECK
CONFIGURATION DATABASE
CODES
SUBJECT HEADINGS
A
Placement
B
Curing
C
Finishing
D
Surfaces
E
Equipment
F
Rebar
G
Formwork
H
Removal
I
Stay-in-place
J
Materials and Accessories
K
Concrete
L
Metal
M
Screeding
N
Grooving
0
Inspection
P
Special Requirements
Q
General Requirements

| GENERAL CONCRETE CLASSIFICATION DATABASE
SUBCATEGORY - General Concrete
SUBJECT HEADINGS
SOURCES |
Node #
Node Description
A
B
c
D
E
F
o
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
o
P
Q
R
s
T
u
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
1
126-4 EXCAVATION
T
T
T
2
125-4.1 General Requiremnt
T
T
T
T
3
125-4.2 Earth Excavation
T
T
T
T
4
125-4.3 Rock Excavation
T
T
T
T
5
125-4.4 Trench Excavation
T
T
T
T
6
400 - CONCRETE STRUCTRS
T
T
T
7
400-6 FORMS
T
T
T
8
400-5.1 General
T
T
T
9
400-5.2 Inspection/Approval
T
T
T
10
400-5.3 Non-metallic Forms
T
T
T
T
T
11
400-6.4 SPECIAL REQMNT
T
T
T
j
12
400-5.4.1 re-entrant angles
T
T
T
13
400-5.4.2 handrails/parapet
T
T
T
T
14
400-5.4.3 end-bent caps
T1
T
T
T
15
400-5.4.4 footings
T
T
T
T
16
400-5.5 Form Align / Braces
T
T
T
T
17
400-5 6 Prep & Cleaning
T
T
T
18
400-7 PLACE CONCRETE
T
T
T
T
19
400-7.1.1 cold concreting
T
T
T
T
20
400-7.1.2 hot concreting
T
T
T
T
21
400-7.2 Liqht Requirements
T
T
T
T
22
400-7.3 Placing Inspections
T
T
T
T
23
400-7.4 Exposure to Water
T
T
T
T
24
400-7.5 General Requirmnts
T
T
T
T
25
400-7.6 Belt Conveyor Place
T
T
T
T
26
400-7.7 Placing by Pumping
T
T
T
T
27
400-7.8 Consolidation
T
T
T
T
T
i
28
400-7.9 Obstructions
T
T
T
T
T
29
400-7.10 Successive Layers
T
T
T
T
30
400-7.11 Concrete Vibration
T
T
T
T
T
31
400-7.12 Columns
T
T
T
T
32
400-7.13 SLABS
T
T
T
T
T
33
400-7.13.1 finishing device
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
34
400-7.13.2 placing operation
T
T
T
T
T
35
400-7.13.4 intermediate web
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
36
400-7.13.5 weather protect
T
T
T
T
T
37
400-7.14 Deck Girders
T
X
T
T
T
T
38
400-7.16 Box Culverts
x
T
T
T
39
400-16 FINISH CONCRETE
~
T~
T
T
T
40
400-15.1 General Finish
T
T
T
T
T
41
400-15.2.1 general
T
T
T
T
T
42
400-15.2.2 class 1 finish
T
T
T
T"
T
43
400-15.2.3 class 2 finish
T
T
T
T
T
44
400-15.2.4 class 3 finish
T
T
T
T
T
45
400-16.2.6 CLASS 6 FINISH
T
T
T
T
T
297

| GENERAL CONCRETE CLASSIFICATION DATABASE
SUBCATEGORY - General Concrete
SUBJECT HEADINGS
SOURCES !
Node*
Node Description
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
1
J
K
L
M
N
o
p
Q
R
S
T
U
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
46
400-151.6.1 general
T
T
T1
T
T
47
400-15.2.6.2 material
T
T
T
T
T
T
48
400-15.2.6.3 surface prep
T
T
T
T
T
49
400-15.2.6.4 application
T
T
T
T
T
50
400-15.2.6.5 finish product
T
T
T
T
T
51
400-15.2.6 6 color
T
T
T
T
T
52
400-15.2.6.7 tests & certify
T
T
T
T
T
53
400-15.2.7 asphalt concrete
T
T
T
T
T
54
400-16 CURE CONCRETE
T
T
T
T
55
400-16.1.1 curing time
T
T
T
T
56
400-16.1.2 curing methods
T
T
T
T
57
400-16.3 Cure Constrct Joint
T
T
T
T
58
415 - REINFORCING STEEL
T
T
T
59
415-3 Protection of Material
T
T
T
T
60
415-4 Bend, Splice & Cut
T
T
T
T
61
415-5 PLACE & FASTEN
T
T
T
T
62
415-5.1 Bar Space - General
T
T
T
T
63
415-5.2 Blocks for Spacing
T
T
T
T
T
64
415-5.3 Wire for Tying
T
T
T
T
T
65
415-5.4 Splices
T1
T
T
T
66
415-5.5 Footings
T
T
T
T
67
415-5.6 Column/Wall Dowel
T
T
T
T
T
T
68
415-5.7 Col Verticals/Hoops
T
T
T
T
69
415-5.8 Wall Steel
T
T
T
T
70
415-5.9 Beams and Caps
T
T
T
T
71
415-5.11 Box Culverts
T
T
T
T
72
415-5.12 Cleaning
T
T
T
T
73
521 - BARRIER WALLS
T
T
T
T
74
521-1 Barrier Description
T
T
T
T
75
521-3.1 Stationary Forming
T
T
T
T
T
T
76
521-3.2 Slip Forming
T
T
T
T
T
T
77
521-4 Barrier Curing
T
T
T
T
78
521-5.1 Joints, General
T
T
T
T
79
521-5.2 Contraction Joints
T
T
T
T
80
521-5.3 Expansion Joints
T
T
T
T
81
346-3.3 Mass Concrete
T
T
T"
82
400-14 Removal of Forms
T~
~T~
T
|
83
929 - FLY ASH CONCRETE
T~
T
T
T
84
929-1.1 General Requirmnts
T
T
T
T
85
929-2.1 Source Approval
T
T
T
T
86
929-3.1 Special Requiremnts
T
T
T
T
87
929-4.1 Exceptions
T
T
T
T
88
929-5.1 Acceptance Testing
T
T
T
T
K)
VO
oo

GENERAL CONCRETE CLASSIFICATION DATABASE
SUBCATEGORY - General Concrete
SUBJECT HEADINGS
Node#
Node Description
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
i
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
89
IC - INSPECTING CONCRETE
T
T
T
"T”
90
IC-Concrete Curing
T
T
T
T
T
91
IC-Concrete Final Finishing
T
T
T
T
T
92
IC-Concrete Form Removal
T
T
T
T
T
93
IC-Concrete Forming
T
T
T
T
T
94
IC-Concrete General Prep
T
T
T
T
95
IC-Concrete Pile Footing Prep
T
T
T
T
T
T
96
IC-CONCRETE PLACEMENT
T
T
T
T
T
97
IC-Bolt Conveyor Placement
T
T
T
T
T
98
IC-Night Placement
T
T
T
T
T
99
IC-Placement by Pumping
T
T
T
T
T
100
IC-Placement in Columns
T
T
T
T
T
101
IC-Placement in Slabs
T
T
T
T
T
102
IC-Placement Inspections
T
T
T
T
T
103
IC-Placement Requirements
T
T
T
T
T
104
IC-Successive Layers
T
T
T
T
T
105
IC-Temperature Restrictions
T
T
T
T
T
106
IC-Vibration Requirements
T
T
T
T
T
107
IC-Weather Protection
T
T
T
T
T
108
IC-CONCRETE REBAR
T
T
T
T
T
109
IC-Barrier Rebar Placement
T
T
T
T
T
110
IC-Beam/Cap Rebar Placement
T
T
T
T
T
111
IC-Column Rebar Placement
T
T
T
T
T
112
IC-Footing Rebar Placement
T~
T
T
T
T
113
IC-General Rebar Placement
T
_
T
T
~T~
T
114
IC-Wall Rebar Placement
~T~
T
T
T
T
115
TOT[IV-3] Vibrate Concrete
T
~T~
T]
T
T
116
Illustration-Bar Identification
T
T"
T-
T
117
Illustration-Table of Bar Size
T
T
T
118
LL01C9502-Pile Cap Elevatn
~T~
~T~
T
~
~
J
119
LL01 R9402-Barier Wall Crck
T~
~T~
T
T
120
400-7.13.3 steel span decks
T
T
T
T
~
121
LL01C9503-Concrete Classes
T~
~
T
T"
T
T
122
346-3.1 (a) concrete classes
T
T
T
~T
T
SOURCES
299

300
GENERAL CONCRETE
CONFIGURATION DATABASE
CODES
SUBJECT HEADINGS
A
Slabs
B
Columns
C
Beams and Caps
D
Footings and Foundations
E
Walls and Barriers
F
Mise. Structural Components
0
Placement
H
Vibration
I
Curing
J
Finishing
K
Surfaces
L
Equipment
M
Rebar
N
Formwork
0
Removal
P
Materials and Accessories
Q
Concrete
R
Excavation
S
Inspection
T
Special Requirements
U
General Requirements

I PILES CLASSIFICATION DATABASE
SUBCATEGORY - Piles
SUBJECT HEADINGS
SOURCES
Node#
Node Description
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
j
K
M
N
O
R
s
T
U
V
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
1
4-3.2.1 changes in work
T
T
T
2
4-4 Unforeseeable Work
T
T
T
3
455 - PILING
T
T
4
455-1 Description
T
T
5
455-2 Classification
T
T
6
455-3 GEN REQUIREMENT
T
T
7
455-3.1 Foundation Piling
T
T
T
8
455-3.2 Bearing
T
T
T
9
455-3.3 Bearing Formulas
T
T
T
—
10
455-3.4 Pile Lengths
“T-1
T
T
11
455-3.5 Penetration
T
T
T
T
j
12
455-3.6 End Bent/Abutment
T
T
T
T
T
13
455-3.7 Lead/Follow/Temp
T
T
T
T
14
455-3 8 Predrill Pile Holes
T
T
T
T
15
455-3.9 Driving Variation
T
T
T
T
T
16
455-3 10 Water Jets
T
T
T
T
T
17
455-3.11 Pile Hammers
T
T
T
T
18
455-4 TIMBER PILING
T
T
T
19
455-4.1 Description
T
T
T
20
455-4 2 Materials
T
T
T
21
455-4.3 Driving Preparation
T
T
T
T
22
455-4.4 Driving Hammers
T
T
T
T
23
455-4.5 Method of Driving
T
T1
T
T
T
T
24
455-4 6 Storage & Handling
T
T
T
25
455-4.7 Cutting Off
T
T
T
“—H
26
455-4 8 Pile Heads
T
T
T
T
27
455-5 PRESTRESS / COMP
T
T
T
T
28
455-5.1 Description
T
T
T
T
I
29
455-5.2 Materials
~T~
T
T
T
30
455-5.3 Manufacture
T
T
T
T
31
455-5.4 Forms
T
T
T
T
32
455-5.5 Casting
T
T
T
T
T
33
455-5.6 Finish
T
T
T
T
34
455-5.7 Curing
T
T
T
T
35
455-5.8 Storage & Handling
T
T
T
T
36
455-5.9 Driving Preparation
T
T
T
T
37
455-5.10 Method of Driving
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
38
455-5 11 Driving Equipment
T
T
T
T
T
T
39
455-5 12 Extension/Buildup
T
T
T
40
455-6 STEEL PILING
T~
T
T
41
455-6.1 Description
T
T
T
42
455-6.2 Material
T
T
T
43
455-6.3 Pile Splices
T
~T~
T
44
455-6 4 Welding
T
T
T
45
455-6.5 Pile Heads & Tips
T
~T~
T
46
455-6.6 Pile Bent Bracing
T
~T~
~T~
T
47
455-6.7 Driving Equipment
T
_
~T~
~
T
T
48
455-6.8 Painting
T
~T~
~
T

I PILES CLASSIFICATION DATABASE
SUBCATEGORY - Piles
SUBJECT HEADINGS
...
SOURCES
Node#
Node Description
A
B
c
D
E
G
H
i
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
49
455-/ I LSI PILES / LOADS
nr
T
-r-
50
455-7.1 Description
T
T
T
51
455-7.2 Pile/Load Location
T
T
T
52
455-7.3 Materials
T
T
T
53
455-7.4 Driving Hammers
T
T
T
T
54
455-7.5 Method of Testing
T
T
T
T
T
T
55
455-7.6 Pile/Load Disposal
T
T
T
56
455-8 CIP CONCRETE
T
T
T
T
T
57
455-8.1 Description
T
T
T
T
58
455-8.2 Length / Dimension
T
T
T
T
59
455-8.3 Driving
T
T
T
T
7i
T
60
455-8.4 Predrilling
T
“7-1
T
T
61
455-8.5 Concrete for Piles
T
T
T
T
62
455-8.6 Reinforcement
T
T
T
T
63
455-8.7 Inspection
T
T
T
T
64
455-8.8 Splices
T
“T1
T
T
65
455-9 SHEET PILING
T
T
T
66
455-9.1 Description
T
T
T
67
455-9.2 Materials
T
T
T
T
68
455-9.3 Timber Sheet Piling
T
T
T
T
T
69
455-9.4 Steel Sheet Piling
T
T
T
T
70
455-9.5 Concrete Sheet Pile
~T~
T
T
T
T
71
455-10 PREFORMED HOLE
T
T
T
72
455-10 1 Description
T1
T
T
73
455-10 2 Use of Pile Holes
T
T
T
74
455-10 3 Payment Condition
T
T
T
75
455-10 4 Construct Methods
T
T
T
T
76
455-11 MEASUREMENT
T
T
T
77
455-11.1 Timber Piling
T
T
T
78
455-11 2 Prestress/Compos
T
T
T
T
T
79
455-11.2 6 cut-off build-ups
T
T
T
T
T
80
455-11.3 Steel Piling
T
T
T
T
81
455-11.4 Test Piles
T
T
T
82
455-11.5 Test Loads
T
T
T
83
455-11 6 Timber Sheet Pile
T
T
T
T
84
455-11 7 Steel Sheet Pile
T
T
T
T
85
455-11.8 Concrt Sheet Pile
T
T
T
T
86
455-11.9 Preformed Holes
T
~T~
T
87
455-11.10 Pile Splices
~
T
~T~
T
88
455-11 11 CIP Concrete Pile
~T~
T
T
89
455-12 PAYMENT BASIS
T"
~
T
90
455-12.1 Timber Piling
~T~
T
T
91
455-12.2 Prestress/Compos
~
~T~
T
T
92
455-12.3 Steel Piling
T~
T
T
93
455-12.4 Test Piles
T"
T
T
94
455-12.5 Test Loads
~
T
T
T
95
455-12.6 Timber Sheet Pile
T
T
T
96
455-12 7 Steel Sheet Pile
T
T
T
ZD
T
302

1 PILES CLASSIFICATION DATABASE
SUBCATEGORY - Piles
SUBJECT HEADINGS
SOURCES
Node#
Node Description
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
1
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
97
455-12.8 Concrt Sheet Pile
T
i-
*T“
“T-
98
455-12.9 Preformed Holes
T
T
T
99
455-12.10 Pile Splices
T
T
T
100
455-12.11 CIP Concrete Pile
T
T
T
T
101
455-12.12 General Payment
T
T
T
102
460-6 Welds
T
T
T
103
A455-3 1 Protect Existing
T
T
T
104
A455-3.2.1 excavation
T
T
T
105
A455-3 3.2 diesel hammers
T
T
T
T
106
A455-3.10.3 pay conditions
T
T
T
107
A455-3.11.4 set-check/drive
T
T
T
T
108
A455-3.17 DRIVE TOLRANCE
T
tz
T
T
T
109
A455-3.17.1 general
T
T
T
T
110
A455-3.17.2 position
T'
T
T
T
111
A455-3.17.3 axial alignment
T
T
T
112
A455-3.17.4 elevation
T
T
T
T
113
A455-3.17.5 tolrance deviate
T
T
T
T
T
114
A455-8 Pile Installation Plan
T
T
T
T
115
IC - INSPECTING PILES
T
T
T
116
IC-Pile Driving
T
T
T
T
T
117
IC-Pile Field Preparation
T
T
T
118
IC-Pile Inspection Wrap-up
T
T
T
119
IC-Pile Office Preparation
T
T
T
120
IC-Pile Placement
T“
T
H
T
T
T
121
IC-Pile Preformed Holes
~
~
;
T
T
T
T
122
IC-Pile Splices & Buildups
_
T
T
T
123
CPAM 9-1 Pile Drive Criteria
T
~r~
T
T
124
TOTPV-1,2] Drive Precst Pile
T"
T
~T~
~T~
~
T
T
125
LL01C9501-Pile Tolerances
T
T
T
~
T
T
126
Illustration-Precst Pile Splice
T
T
~
T
127
Illustration-Pile Driving Form
tz
T
T
T
T
U>
O

304
PILES
CONFIGURATION DATABASE
CODES
SUBJECT HEADINGS
A
Steel
B
Timber
C
Prestress and Composite
D
Cast-in-Place
E
Concrete
F
Materials and Accessories
G
Sheet Piles
H
Test Piles and Loads
I
Measurement
J
Payment
K
Preformed Holes
L
Jetting
M
Driving
N
Predrilled Holes
0
Bearing
P
Equipment
Q
Splices and Buildups
R
Head and Tips
S
Footings and Foundations
T
Inspection
U
Special Requirements
V
General Requirements

APPENDIX O
IN REACH TESTING COVER LETTER AND COMMENT SHEET

University of Florida
College
of
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
Engineering
GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 32611
DEPARTMENT CHAIRMAN
AREA CODE 904 PHONE 392-9537
STUDENT RECORDS
AREA CODE 904 PHONE 392-0933
Date:
Reviewer’s Name
Reviewer’s Title
Reviewer’s Organization
Address of Organization
RE: Software Review of the IN REACH prototype system
Dear Reviewer:
Enclosed, are the four diskettes containing the IN REACH prototype system, along with a comment
sheet to record your impressions of IN REACH upon completion of your review. If there is anyone else at
your office who wants to review IN REACH, please feel free to give them a copy of the diskettes and
comment sheet. If you experience any difficulties installing or running IN REACH, please do not hesitate
to give me a call at (904) 392 - 2560. Additionally, my FAX number is (904) 392 - 3394 for returning your
completed Reviewer’s Comment Sheet.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR INSTALLING AND RUNNING IN REACH:
1. Create a subdirectory within the root directory (for example c:\ INREACH>) of your hard drive
2. Copy all files on all 4 disks directly into this new subdirectory (IN REACH requires 4.42 meg on your
hard drive).
3.From the Windows “File Manager”,open up the IN REACH subdirectory, and double click on the
executable file (INREACH.EXE) to initialize the program
SPECIAL NOTES:
1. If you get any type of system, window or programming error during IN REACH operations, or the
mouse becomes unresponsive, i.e. the cursor does not change from the standard arrow head to the
index finger when passed across a hypertexed word (green underlined text), the best course of action
at this point is to completely exit IN REACH and reinitialize from the Windows “File Manager” by
double clicking on the INREACH.EXE file. One exception to the mouse not responding is when you
click on the “Search By” button. As you will see, when you click “Search By”, IN REACH is waiting
for you to search and the hypertext links are temporarily deactivated.
FLORIDA'S CENTER FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
306

307
Page - 2
Date:
SPECIAL NOTES (corn.):
2. From the Welcome screen of IN REACH, you can click on the “INTRODUCTION” button to view
a brief preview screen of the basic layout and general functions of IN REACH.
3. Currently, only the General Category of BRIDGES is operational, the other 5 General Category
buttons are in place for future developmental purposes. Additionally, please note that at this point
within the General Category of BRIDGES, the concentration of the knowledge base is on new bridge
construction with a focus on inspection operations associated with, for now, only the Subcategories
of Piles, Bridge Decks, and General Concrete. As this system is only in the prototype stage, it
required a very limited focus to start with.
4 When selecting “Subjects” to search within one of the 3 available Subcategories (Piles, Bridge Deck
or General Concrete), keep in mind that the search is based on Boolean “AND” queries. What this
means is that if for example, you select the three subject areas of “Slabs”, “Rebar” and “Placement”
within the Subcategory of “General Concrete”, IN REACH will only return those topics which are
specifically linked to at least all three of these subjects. What this implies is that you should start off
your searches more general and then get more specific.
Enjoy your foray into the world of IN REACH and again I want to encourage you to please contact me
if you experience any problems. Also I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for your continued
efforts in helping use develop the IN REACH prototype system.
William C. Epstein, P.E.

308
REVIEWER’S COMMENT SHEET
DATE:
I. REVIEWER’S GENERAL INFORMATION
Name:
Employer:
District of Normal Operations:
Years of Highway Construction Experience:
Title:
Description of Duties:
II. COMMENTS
A. Based on the choices below, please select the most appropriate response that reflects your
personal opinion with respect to the level of “user-friendliness” demonstrated by the IN
REACH prototype system that you have been asked to review.
Superior
Above Average
Average
Below Average
Poor
B. Assuming that the knowledge base (i.e, the number of topic screens) could be unlimitedly
expanded, what is your personal opinion of the effectiveness of the methods IN REACH
represents with respect to organizing, accessing and relating highway construction
knowledge and information.
Superior
Above Average
Average
Below Average
Poor

309
UF PCC-LL (Sheet 2)
No. 95
III. LESSON LEARNED
Problem Backround:
Problem Resolution:
Special Notes:

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH
William (Bill) C. Epstein is a Florida native, born and raised in Miami, Fla. He is a
registered professional engineer and a certified general contractor in the State of Florida.
Bill specializes in construction engineering management, holding bachelor’s degrees in both
civil and architectural engineering from the University of Miami, as well as a master’s degree
and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in civil engineering from the University of Florida. Mr.
Epstein is returning to Miami, where he has accepted a faculty position at Florida
International University in the Department of Construction Management.
316

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Zohar J.
Professor of Civil Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Ralph D. Ellis
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Ralph D. Ellis, Cochairman
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Paul Y. Tjrorpp^on
Professor and Chairman of Civil Engineering
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
David Bloomquts
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to acceptable
standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a
dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Leon Wetherington
Assistant Professor of Building Construction
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Engineering and
to the Graduate School and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
December, 1995
Karen A. Holbrook
Dean, Graduate School

3 1262 08556 8169




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