Contemporary buildings for the Seville Square Historic District, Pensacola, Florida


Material Information

Contemporary buildings for the Seville Square Historic District, Pensacola, Florida
Physical Description:
227p. : ill., photocopies, tour guide
Brown, Lewis Jr.
Lewis Jr. Brown
College of Architecture, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:


General Note:
AFA Historic Preservation document 509

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:

Full Text

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Map of the Historic District


Fabric of the District

Existing Buildings Within the District
Without Architectural Significance

Recent New Construction Within the Historic
District G

Exterior Factors Influencing the District aG;

Guidelines 1

Summary 3


Letter from George Demmy to Lewis Brown

Letter from Hugh Leitch to Lewis Brown

Tour Guide of Historic Pensacola

Historic Zoning Ordinance

A Uniform System for Official Signs in
Pensacola's Seville Square

Design Guidelines from Historic Preservation
Plan, Savannah, Georgia

Material Standards for Mobile Historic

Planning Board Subcommittee and Planning
Staff Report ]21

I-110 Commercial Park Information

Pensacola History i3

Municipal Services 41

The Houses of St. Augustine 1565-1821,
by Albert Manucy, pages 70-71

Recommendation for a Comprehensive
Historical Development Plan- February 1967

House Bill Number 163 7)

Senate Bill Number 1124 '27

Lewis Brown Jr.

Residential Designer and Planner

3 August 1978

Professor F. Blair Reeves
Preservation Institute
Post Office Box 1139
Nantucket, Massachusetts 02554

Dear Mr. Reeves:

Here is a copy of my terminal project for your review.
As you will notice there are several typographical errors and
misspelled words in the Text section. I am having these errors
corrected,and by the time you return from Nantucket the corrections
will have been made. At that time I will remove the existing
Text and replace it with the corrected one.

The photographs did not xerox very well, so I am having
another set printed. I will replace the xerox copies with

Ed Crain asked that you call him after you have had time
to review the project. I will look forward to receiving your
comments after you read the project.

Your, very truly,
o / !/ ",

Lewis Brown Ktr.

enclosure: Terminal Project
copy to Ed Crain

1212 Northwest 12th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

(904) 372-1378

i-' I-


Garden Street


Aragon Court

Pensacola Bay

Pitt's Slip

~RO L.4h4 L } V


PL ~i" I i



Since I first moved to Pensacola in 1973, I have watched the growth

of the Seville Square Historic District with interest. As a draftsman

with Hugh Leitch, Architect, I participated in some of the architectural

projects within the district, and the exposure I received to the Seville

Square District heightened my sensivity to the idea of preservation in

general and the future of Seville Square Historic District in particular.

The work that has been done within the District to date, for the

most part, has been of the highest caliber; and future plans for the

District, in general, are well thought out and are toward the well being

of the District.

There is an area of concern in planning the District that needs

more investigation before the District can continue to grow. This area

is the placement of buildings of contemporary design within the boundary

of the Historic District. It will be the purpose of this paper to

investigate thefacts surrounding this problem, draw a conclusion based on

the facts, and offer suggestions.

The average citizen of Pensacola who is sensitive to the Historical

Heritage of the city might well ask, "Why would anyone even consider

mixing contemporary buildings with buildings that are historically

significant?" This question will be the key theme throughout this paper.

The question is a good one, and goes to the heart of what a Historic

District really is. One employee of the Pensacola Preservation Board

referred to the District as an architectural museum. I know of no one

who would disagree with that idea. One way of examining the validity of the

architectural museum concept is to compare it with established museums.

The Smithsonian Institution in Washington D. C. is probably the most

famous collector of American ingenuity and invention. The greatest examples

of past accomplishments are housed there, but right beside them are their

contemporary counter parts. The Smithsonian recognizes the significance of

displaying new with old. Another example of this idea is right in the

Pensacola area. The Naval Air Museum at Sherman Field was recently

finished and is dedicated to documenting the history of Naval Air power.

In this museum there is a rich mixture of old and new. The first example

of a Navy Airplane is on display within eyesight of one of the manned

space modules. World War II fighters hover next to Modern Mach 2 War Jets.

This idea of mixing old with new in a Museum can be used as a yard-

stick to measure how far we have come from where we have been. In order to

fully appreciate the old it is necessary to compare it to the new. It is

possible to make this comparison to buildings outside the District,

but the comparison isn't as accurate as it would be if it took place

between buildings of similar fabric and scale within the District.

It is extremely difficult to compare and contrast the new multi-storied

Century Bank of Pensacola with is sharp corners and crisp white color,

with the gentle scale and soft fabric of the Dorr House on the west side

of Seville Square. In order to make a true comparison of the Dorr House

and other Historic structures within the District Contemporary Buildings

should be within close proximity and should be of similar scale and fabric.

The Historic District should be a place where buildings of Historical

significance should be gathered. In its Recommendation to the council of the

City of Pensacola for a Comprehensive Historical Development plan the

Council's Historical Advisory Committee defined Historical significance

as "that out of our past which has bearing on what we are today as a community and

how we arrived at what we are.1 This idea is very easily carried into modern

times. Today's Contemporary Architecture will be the Heritage of tomorrow.

Some buildings around the country that are considered Historically significant

are relatively new and are considered contemporary. The Dulles Airport

in Washington D. C. by Eero Sahrinen and the Florida Southern Campus

buildings by Frank Lloyd Wright are good examples. It would be good if we could

make a statement in Architecture about our present lifestyle, and what

better way is there than examples of Pensacola in the Seventies

Contemporary Architecture, and what better place for these buildings than in

the Historic District alongside other significant buildings from another


Contemporary buildings in any Historic District bring forth an

emotional response from almost anyone concerned. Frequently the response is

negative, but the issue does need investigation by probing the problem in five

areas of importance. It is my hope to draw a conclusion based on fact and

subjective input. Within the summary I intend to recap the facts shown, make

suggestions as to what action should be taken, and give some indication as to

what action should be taken, and give some indication as to what effect the

action will cause. In this manner I will be able to state a clear case either

for or against Contemporary Buildings within the District. I don't feel that

this paper should be the last world, I only hope that it will stir some

controversy and thereby be a cause for further investigation into the subject.

1. See page 12 of referenced material.

If this investigative process can be spurred on as a result of this paper

then it will have been a successful undertaking.


The area around Seville Square is ajoyous place. A visitor can step

back in time 100 years by parking his car and walking a few blocks. Within

a few minutes walk is a generous smattering of Pensacola Architecture dating

from as early as 18042 up through the Civil War3 and into post Civil War

years of the Lumber Boom.4 An observer is constantly stimulated by the

variation of building type and scale with which he is confronted.

For the most part the buildings around Seville Square are residential

in scale. Their construction normally of wood painted of earth tones or white.

Fancy work in wood is not unusual in these buildings while at the same time

Architectural expression as simple as a Romanesque Church is also present.

The buildings show a variety of influences. The Barkley House5 (see photo #40),

which is thought to be the first Masonry house built in Pensacola, seems to be

derived from the great townhouses of Charleston, South Carolina with their

raised main floor and their longitudinal entry. The Axelson House6 (see

photo #39), which is across Zarragossa Street from the Barkley House, is

a two story wood lap siding house which brings to mind the moderately affulent

Farmers' houses of North Florida and South Alabama and Georgia of the late

Nineteenth Century. The Dorr House7 (see photo #16) has the strong lines of

a Pre-Civil War Greek Revival Mansion but these lines are broken by the

rich Ante Bellum Lumber Boom Victorian Design of detail. The half hexagon

2. See item #39 "Tour Guide of Historic Pensacola"
3. See item #30 and #34 "Tour Guide of Historic Pens'.'
4. See item #25 and #28 "Tour Guide of Historic Pens."
5. See item #36 "Tour Guide of Historic Pensacola"
6. See item #37 "Tour Guide of Historic Pensacola"
7. See item # 28 "Tour Guide of Historic Pensacola"


Bay window on the south elevation pleasantly breaks with pure Greek Revival

simplicity, and sets the house off as "New Rich" Victorian. The Moreno Cottage8

(see photo #19) is a small architectural jewel with its simple body and

its much adorned entry and fascia. The scale of this tiny building is very pleasing

to the observer.

Although the majority of the Historic Buildings within the District are

residential, there are some commercial structures that are notable and help

set the character of the District. Probably the most prominent building in

the Historic District is the old Christ Church9 (see photos #17,18) which faces

onto Seville Square from the west. This brick Romanesque Revival Church dates

from 1832 and stands as the Pennicle for the Historic District, and is

the symbol of Seville Square and old Pensacola.10 Three blocks to the west

and in a direct axis relationship to the old Christ Church stands the Pensacola

City Hall11 (see photo #1). This building is the boldest piece of architecture

in the District with its brick turrents and acts as a gateway to the Historic

District from the west. It is one of the newest Historically significant

buildings within the District having been built in 1907. This building is

unique in the District in that it is the only example of the Spanish Rocollo

style. In 1903 the Louisiville and Nashville Railroad built its Terminal

buildingl2 (see photos #7,8) in Pensacola adjacent to the Docks. This two

story wood structure with perimeter balcony stood on this location until 1969

when it was moved to its present site on the south side of Seville Square

8. See item #25 "Tour Guide of Historic Pensacola"
9. See item #26 "Tour Guide of Historic Pensacola"
10. See page #36 Comprehensive Historical Development Plan
11. See item #17 "Tour Guide of Historic Pensacola" and page #37
Comprehensive Historical Development Plan
12. See item #22 "Tour Guide of Historic Pensacola"


near Pitts Slip.

The above buildings are in a developed area surrounding Seville Square.

This area comprises about one-third of the total District. To the North of

Seville Square, and still within the boundaries of the District, the fabric

of the Architecture changes. Rather than the delightful Historic Buildings,

just discussed, the scene shifts to more austere modern buildings such as the

Police Station and the Edwards Plumbing Company (see photo). Contrasting

with these buildings though, is St. Michael's Elementary which is listed on the

National Register of Historic Places (see Photo #28). It is in this area

where the Historic District interfaces with the busy downtown area of

Pensacola. This part of the District is a contrast to the peaceful setting

around Seville Square.

To the East of Seville Square is a part of the Historic District which is not

on a tour map. This part of the District does have good examples of early

Pensacola Architecture, but for the most part they are in a bad state of

repair (see photos #34,35). It has been common practice to pick these

buildings up, intact, move them to another part of the District and restore

them (see photo #34). This moving has left several vacant lots in the

East portion of the District along with other expanses of land which were already

vacant (see photos #30,32).


Scattered throughout the Historic District are buildings that are

of fairly recent construction (dating from the 1940's until the late 1950's).

None of these buildings have Archietectural significance, but they are within the

boundaries of the Historic District and must be dealt with in some manner.

The best maintained and the most visually pleasing of these buildings is

the Pensacola Police Station (see photo #28) which was built in the 1950's.

Although this building is not Architecturally significant, it is Historically

significant and should be maintanied in its position in the District. This

Red Brick Building was the first modern Police Station and Jail that Pensacola

had, and it should remain in order so that the visitors in the future may

compare Police methods of the future with those of today. As part of the

Police Station Complex there are several outbuildings (see photo #29) which are

used for storage and Crime Lab Functions. As soon as the proposed new

Police Station and Jail are built, the outbuildings should be either removed

or torn down making way for other buildings more important to the District.

One block south of the Police Station is the Concrete Block Box Building

of the G. W. Edwards Plumbing Company. The building has neither Architectural

nor Historic significance, and it stands directly adjacent to the Quina

Apothocary Building which is significant. The Plumbing Company Building is an

Architectural eyesore and should be removed because it detracts from the

importance and prestige of the Historic Buildings around it and breaks the

continuity of the East side of Alcawiz Street.

At the corner of Romana and 8th Street stands a small Masonry Building

(see photo #30) which was used as a paint store and is now vacant. Although

the building has no Architectural or Historic significance it is a sound

building and could easily be remodeled and used for some purpose. Unlike


the Edwards Plumbing Company Building this former Paint Store Building does

not compete with any Historic structures for space or visual importance, and

for this reason it becomes servicable for adaptive use. Because of the

building's simplicity it would be inexpensive to redesign the exterior to be

in harmony with the Historic District, and adapt it to some use which could

serve Aragon Court, (low rent housing) which is immediately across the street.

This could be the first step toward including the population of Aragon Court in

the planning of the District rather than excluding them by building offices or

Medium density high rent housing which is proposed for this area of the District.13

The three buildings mentioned above are not the only buildings in the

Historic District without significance, but they represent the various problems

brought about by buildings that do not fit into the Historic District. Each

one of these building types within the District presents its own individual

set of problems which must be dealt with on an individual basis. The analysis

that was used to determine the fate of the three above buildings should be

a guide to help establish a methodology of determining whether a building

within the District should remain intact, be completely removed or be remodeled

and slated for adaptive use.

13. See page 6, "Planning Board Subcommittee & Planning Staff Report"


The Seville Square Historic District is only nine years old. Much of that

time was spent in actually planning and setting up the District and renovating

existing significant buildings. Due to all this setting-up activity, there has

been very little new construction activity within its boundaries. Since 1968

there have been only three new construction projects; and forutnately, for the

purposes of this paper, thethree construction projects are of varied building

categories, each of which is of extreme importance to the concept of a Historic

District. The three projects are: A small contemporary office building for

a Pensacola Architect, a new housing project that attempts to copy Pensacola

Historic Architectural styles, and a complete reconstruction of a demolished

Historic structure.

In 1968 Carlton Noblin; Architect, looking for a quiet area to build

his new office, chose the corner of Government Street and Florida Blanca Street.

At that time, a year before Seville Square Historic District came into

being, this was the perfect place for his office. It was a quiet, residential

area; but it was in the center of town and close to the Commercial Amenities

that any business office should be close to. When Noblin was designing his

building he felt a sensitivity to the old houses which surrounded his property,

and since there were no guidelines or Architectural review committee at the

time he went about the task of designing a small commercial building for an

area primarily made up of old wood houses, most of which were built prior

to the turn of the century. The result of his effort is a two story brick

office building, the second story of which is concealed within the roof

structure. (see photo #38) The building is obviously a contemporary office

building, but by the-way Noblin handled the roof line and the front entry

the building fits into the neighborhood very well. The scale of this

building compared to its neighbors is very pleasing. In talking with

Noblin I found that he had some misgivings about the use of brick as an ex-

terior surfacing material in an area that is predominately wood siding

buildings. With this feeling I must disagree for I find the use of brick an

excellent choice for this building in this setting. The use of brick in

Contemporary Office Buildings in Pensacola is very commonplace, and this is

a Contemporary Office Building. The color of the brick was a good choice for

the Earth Tone Brick color relates the building to the ground, a feeling that is

further emphasized by the overhanging, wood shingled roof. This roof is one

of the boldest Architectural elements of the building because of its proportion

to the building and goes the farthest toward relating the building with its

Historically significant neighbors. The only criticism I have of Noblin's office

is the design of the four columns of the front of the building. I feel that

these columns are not only too big for the building, but also out of scale

for the Architecture of the District. A contemporary expression of the slender

wood column types used on the neighboring Historic Buildings would have been

more appropriate.

Since his office is the most recent Contemporary Building Design within

the District I asked Carlton Noblim if he felt that his building should set

an example for other Contemporary Buildings within the District. His answer

was an emphatic NO. He stated that if he were trying to have the design of his

building approved today by the Architectural Review Committee it would

probably be turned down. Noblin feels that there are too many conflicts


between the design of his building and the intent of the Architectural Review

Committee to allow, within the District, only that new construction that is

harmonious with the existing significant buildings. Noblin feels that the

two biggest problem areas of the acceptance of his building were the Brick

Masonry Exterior and the Asphaltic Concrete Drive and parking area behind the

building. Architect Ken Woolfe, a member of the Architectural Review Committee,

verified Noblin's feelings about the building not being accepted into the

Historic District. Woolfe stated that if the building were proposed today for

construction the Architectural Review Committee would probably turn it down.

I must disagree with Carlton Noblin and Ken Woolfe over the use of the

Noblin Architectural Office as a guide for other Contemporary Buildings

to be built within the District. This building is a Professional Business

Office and traditionally Business Offices and other Commercial Buildings of

Pensacola have been constructed of Masonry. This is due to the fact that

Masonry Construction is more fire resistive than other materials and also

because brick has Historically been easy to obtain. Brick Masonry Construction

is no stranger to Pensacola during any era. The Barkley House, which is right

around the corner from Noblin's office, is on of Slave-made Brick Construction

that predates the Nineteenth Century. The old Christ Church, which is the

symbol of the Historic District, is of Brick Construction and it dates from

1832. The Pensacola City Hall, which was the seat of Municipal Government

from 1907 until 1978, is of Brick Construction. These three buildings, all

of which are within the Historic District, set a precedent which no one should


The Asphaltic Concrete Drive and Parking Area behind Noblin's office do not

blend into the general harmonious scheme of design with the Historic District,

according to Noblin. Although Asphaltic Concrete isn't a handsome paving

material I do find that it fits into the Historic District since the city

streets that lead to the drive are of the same material. The Architectural

Review Board for the city of Mobile, Alabama Historic Districts agrees that

Asphaltic Concrete Driveways are acceptable.14

Carlton Noblin has done a commendable job of desingning a Contemporary

Building that is in harmony with its Historic surroundings. For reasons stated

I believe this building should be used as an example for the Architectural

Review Board to use in pointing out how Contemporary Design can take place

within the fixed enviornment of a Historic District, and fit in.

In the early 1970's the late Pat Dodson conceived an idea to provide

upper middle income housing within the boundaries of the Historic District.

His concept was that the housing would be a mix of selectiv new houses and

renovated existing old houses. Before commissioning an Architect, Dodson

researched the origin of the early Pensacola house, for he felt that if the

project was to have any value it should be Historically accurate. At the

completion of this research he commissioned Hugh Leitch, Architect, to design

three different house types for construction within "The Intendent", the

name Dodson gave the Project. Leitch assigned the design duties of the

project to Bill Proctor, a draftsman in his office who had a great deal of

experience in the design of such projects. The combination of Proctor's

talent and Dodson's research brought about three house types that would

14. Page 12, Material Standards for Mobile Historic Districts


be built within the intendent. (see photos #26,41,42,43)

While the three houses all fall into the general vernacular of Gulf

Coast Architecture of the Pre-Civil War Era they do not all fall into the

category of Pensacola Gulf Coast Architecture. The Type "A" house ia a

three-story building with exterior stair to the second floor, which is the main

floor of the house. Entry to the third floor is VIA another exterior stair,

which is traditional in Pensacola Architecture around the middle of the Nine-

teenth century. The upper two floors are of wood frame while the ground

floor is depressed below grade which is the result of height and story

limitations of the Zoning Ordinance.15 The building as a whole is not

Historically accurate although there are some Architectural elements that

are borrowed from Pensacola Buildings and the Type "A" Building has three

expressed floors. There is not a Historically significant building in the

district that clearly expresses three individual floors. Normally the

third floor of Pensacola Houses of the Nineteenth Century are hidden within the

roof structure and are expressed by Dormers.16 While there is Historic

precendent for the use of a piano Nobilel7 in the type "A" house, there is

not a precedent for the use of the Lower floor as a living space, furthermore

there is no precedent which allows for stopping the brickwork at the lower

floor and continuing from there on with wood siding.

The type "B" house is a two-story wood frame house with center front

entry flanked on each side by windows. The second floor is concealed within

the roof structure and is expressed by three Dormers which are placed symmetrically

15. See HR-2 Zoning "Building Height Limit" Article III "Historical Zoning"
Pensacola Zoning Ordinance in the appendix.
16. See photo of the Barkley House. (photo #40).
17. In Italian Renaissance Palaces this is the principal floor which is
raised one story above the ground.

in the front elevation. The first floor of the house is raised off grade with

Brick Piers. To the side of the building is attached a smaller building

which is a garage. Discounting the garage, the Type "B" house is an

accurate replica of a Nineteenth Century Pensacola House. A walk through the

Historic District will reveal several existing Historically significant houses

with similar Architectural Lines.18 The only objection to the Type "B" house

is the three roof Dormers which do not appear as original construction on

Pensacola Houses of this Era.

The Type "C" house is, by admission of Pat Dodson, a replica of a New

Orleans Slave Quarters. There is not any single Historic building in Pensacola

that even distantly resembles it. The Type "C" house may have borrowed from

authentic New Orleans Architecture, but this has no place in a Pensacola

Historic District.

The Original concept that Pat Dodson had for the Intendent is good. While

many Architects may cringe at the idea of trying to copy directly from the past

in order to provide housing in the Historic District I feel that it is a worthy

undertaking. The task of buying an Historically significant house and renovating

it to a point where it is suitable to live in is very expensive. It is

not the type of project the average Pensacola homeowner is willing to under-

take. Pat Dodson, by doing the work needed, hoped to provide housing with

an Historic flavor to homeowners of Pensacola. The goal of the intendent had

three parts: First, Dodson wished to make a profit from Real Estate Speculation;

Second, Dodson and the Pensacola Preservation Board wished to pump new life

18. See photos of Walton House #20, Lavelle House #24, Quina House #14.

into the Historic District by encouraging middle income homeowners into

the District; and third, the project was the salvation for some old

Pensacola houses that otherwise would have been destroyed. The three

new building types were to be used to help fill in between other older structures.

If Pat Dodson had modeled the Type "A" and Type "C" houses after Pensacola

Residential Architecture of the Nineteenth Century the project would have

been an Architectural success rather than a group of unrelated buildings.

In 1805 three Frenchmen, Juan Baptiste Cazenave, Pedro Bardevane, and

Rene Chandiveneau built the Tivoli High House with a Ballroom, Kitchen, and

other outbuildings. The High House was a two and a half story building,

the ground floor was flush with the sidewalk and the upper gallery extended

over the sidewalk in European Fashion. On the ground floor a large room

and several smaller rooms were used for gambling. Later, when the High House

was acquired by Don Francisco Moreno, it was operated as a Boarding House

and was dubbed Hotel Paree. The Spanish-speaking Morenos still owned the

house during the Civil War and Union Officers billeted there added a third

name, calling it the "Spanish Barracks". The Tivoli High House was torn

down during the 1930's.19

In the early 1970's the Tivoli House site was excavated by Archeologists

in order to determine: The precise site of the original house, Archeological

Data that would be relevent to the reconstruction of the house, and Data

relative to the interpretation of the house and its occupants with respect to

their place in Pensacola's History.20

19. Tivoli House History Taken from, Tour Guide Historic Pensacola
20. See Letter from George G. Demmy to Lewis Brown Dated June 5, 1978.

After the Archeological research was completed, reconstruction

began, the new building was built on the same site as the demolished

original. The construction of the new building is Concrete Block lower

floor with wood frame upper floor construction. The new building is similar

in appearance to the original Tivoli High House, the biggest difference being

the construction of the second floor balcony (see photos #21,22,44).

Jim Moody, who is the Director of the Historic Pensacola Preservation

Board, stated that extreme accuracy in the reconstruction of this building

was impossible due to the lack of adequate research material to document

the original building. A great deal of guesswork went into this reconstruction.

The Tivoli High House is the only complete reconstruction of an

Historically significant building in the Historic District. In addition,

it is owned by the Preservation Baord and is the site of their offices. In

this capacity it is held as an example of what is expected within the District.

Due to its position as an example to Developers of correct procedure

within the Historic District. The concept of the Tivoli High House reconstruction

should have been examined more closely before construction. When a destroyed

building is chosen for reconstruction it must first be of extreme value

either Historically or Architecturally. The building to be reconstructed

must be extensively researched to the point of determination of the type

fasteners that were used to hold the building together. And the building

must be reconstructed using materials that are the same as original material or

at lease as close to the same as modern technology will allow.

The Tivoli Reconstruction is the result of the political power of the late

Pat Dodson.21 While the building does have Historic value to the city of

21. See letter from George Demmy to Lewis Brown dated 5 June, 1978.

Pensacola, there are several other notable buildings existing within the

Historic District which could have been refurbished and used in lieu of

reconstruction. Political pull of one powerful man is not justification

for undertaking a reconstruction project. The research that was done as part

of the reconstruction was partially good and partially not good. The Archeolo-

gical work done at the site was professionally carried out to determine the

exact placement of the building on the site and to obtain any other Data that

might be important.22 From this point on the research was very limited by the

shortage of hard Data on the building. There were few photographs, and the

ones that were available were taken in the late years of the building's life.

After questionable research the actual reconstruction began. Over the

existing foundations were built concrete block walls to the height of the

second floor. Over these walls was placed stucco which was tooled to resemble

large blocks of stone. The tooling of stucco was not unusual to Florida, and

was used in St. Augustine.23 Although it is not clear what the original wall

material was; concrete block was not available until the twentieth century.

The second floor balcony and the roof on the reconstruction are held up by six

wood posts placed symmetrically across the front facade with the upper posts

matching the lower posts in detail. In the original building the posts were

asymmetrically placed with the second floor posts not aligning with the ground

floor posts. The posts of the original building were not the same design

from ground floor to second floor. The second floor balcony of the original

Tivoli High House wrapped around the east side of the building to an exterior

22. See Letter from George Demmy to Lewis Brown dated 5 June, 1978.
23. See The Houses of St. Augustine by Albert Manucy Pages 70-71 (in the appendix)

stair. The balcony of the reconstruction terminates at each side of the

front facade, and there is no exterior stair.

As the Tivoli reconstruction stands it is not a true reconstruction. It

is a building that claims to be a reconstruction of a past building, but

upon casual examination one can find several discrepancies between original

and new. As an Historic reconstruction in an Historic District, this

lack of attention is unforgivible.

The above three projects share one common aspect. They are all new

construction within the Historic District. While they are all three

different in concept they express varying attitudes of construction within

the District. Carlton Noblin's office is a very good example of how contemp-

orary Architecture can "fit-in" with the rigid constraints of an Historic

District and still produce a fine building. The intendent is a two fold

object lesson. The "B" house is an example of how new construction tuned to

to Architecture of the past can produce a building that is pleasing visually and

heighten awareness of Historic structures around it, while the "A" house and the

"C" house are a disrupting influence due to their lack of Historic Precedent

in the area. The Tivoli reconstruction is variable in that it stands as an

example of what not to do when attempting Architectural reconstruction.


Surrounding the Historic District are several features that have an

effect upon the planning of the District. Some of the features, such as

the new Judicial Complex, have an impact upon the District, but the impact

is not enough to radically alter the fabric of the District. It is the

intent of this section to investigate those influences from outside the

District that will have or already have an impact of magnitude on Seville


Ten years ago the I-110 spur of Highway 1-10 was begun. The purpose

of this spur is to unite the cross country Highway 1-10 to U.W. Highway 98,

which is Gregory Street in Pensacola. The connection point between 1-10

and U. S. 98/Gregory Street is at the extreme North boundary of St. Michael's

Cemetary which is the Northern most feature of the Historic District. Although

it is not yet complete, the impact is already being felt within the District.

(see photos #27,36) Hugh Leitch, an Architect who has done a great deal

of work in the District, presently is in the process of moving a Victorian Residence

from the path of the new expressway and situating it on a site opposite Seville

Square. It is Leitch's purpose to adapt the House for office use.24 Without

Leitch's concern the house would have been destroyed. In addition to the

destruction caused by this Highway Project it also is disrupting visually

and audibly to visitors of St. Michael's Cemetary, which is on the National

Register of Historic Places. The Cementary provides visitors with a pleasant

stroll through Pensacola's History VIA inscriptions on Tombstones. The

24. See letter from Hugh Leitch to Lewis Brown dated 15, June, 1978.

atmosphere of the Cemetary is quiet and serene with large Oak trees providing

a protective canopy against invasion from the Florida Gulf Coast Sun. Against

this background is the I-110 spur, immediately adjacent to the Cementary,

which conduct high speed automobiles all day every day. The constant

distraction to a visitor of the Cemetary can not be avoided. In light of the

bad points discussed there isone major good point for the I-110 spur. At

the terminals of the Highway there has been set aside a seven acre tract of

land that has been designated as a site for a motel. This motel site is within

walking distance of the Historic District. This will encourage tourists into

the District, which will give the merchants an economic boost and encourage

more investment in the Historic District. 25 This investment will be the

lifeblood of significant buildings in and around the District that otherwise

would be lost.

On the South Side of the District will run the new Bayfront Parkway,

which is presently under construction. This Parkway will route on the

roadbed of existing Main Street. (see photos 2, 34,5,6,) The impact of the

Parkway upon the District has two bad points and one good one. Due to the

great traffic-carrying characteristic of the Parkway, it will act as a physical

South Boundary to the District, thus detaching the L & N Terminal Building,

which is on the National Register of Historic Places, from the rest of the

District. It will also make pedestrian access to the Bay Front Park, which is

across the Parkway from Seville Square, extremely difficult. The second bad

point is that the new parkway, with its increased high-speed traffic load, will

damage the view of Pensacola Bay by interrupting site lines from Seville Square

with traffic. The good point about the Parkway is that it relieves the

cross town traffic from Government Street which runs east-west through the
25. See illustration "A" and accompanying material on the I-110 spur

heart of the District. Since the Historic District began, this Government

Street traffic artery has been a constant interrupter of the serenity of

the District. With the Advnet of the Bayfront Parkway this crosstown traffic

will be shifted three blocks to the south, away from the heart of the District

and toward the south boundary of it.

Flanking the northeast corner of the Historic District is a low rent

housing project called Aragon Court. (see photos (#31,33,37) The project is

mixed Black and White, with Blacks being predominant. The consensus among

Pensacola planners is that in the next few years the residents of Aragon Court

will be displaced and the land reclaimed for commercial use. This reclamation

project is a very expensive undertaking. Some estimates run as high as 10 Million

Dollars; and in light of this one housing authority employee stated that he

thought the project would be as far as 10 to 20 years in the future if ever un-


The Aragon Court, as it exists, presents a security problem to the adjacent

property owners of Seville Square. People who have the money to invest in

Historic property are slow to do so due to fear of robbery, vandalism and

other security problems. The Pensacola Police, whose station is across

the street from Aragon Court, state that Aragon Court and the area around it

have the highest crime ratio in the city.

In order for adequate development of the Eastern part of the Historic District

to take place, the Aragon Court problem must be dealt with. In the book

Tight Spaces by Richard Sommer the author feels that beauty in building can

go a long way toward stopping the problems associated with living conditions

such as Aragon Court. With this idea it would seem clear that the solution

would be to develop the East side of the District with "Beautiful Architecture",

and no one would dare spoil it with vandalism. Professor Carl Feiss of the

University of Florida's Graduate School of Urban and Regional Planning

disagrees with this idea. Feiss claims that there are no clear cut solutions;

and that the erection of Beautiful Architecture has never, by itself, solved

such problems. History seems to agree with Professor Feiss. For example,

the Pruitt-Iago Housing Development of St. Louis, Missouri was acclaimed

in its day as a major breakthrough in housing inner city poor people, the same

people that inhabit Aragon Court. The Architecture was handsome and project

seemingly well planned. Within a few years the housing project was nearly

all closed, and was methodically being torn down as a result of total failure.

This Pruitt-Iago Development acts as a graphic example of what could

happen if development of the Eastern part of the Historic District is not care-

fully planned to include the desires, needs and wishes of the inhabitants of

Aragon Court. If these people are not included it could ruin the entire

Historic District by causing about half of it to sit in abandonment and ruin.

It is not very complementary statement to the excellent job done with the

District since its beginning job done with the District since its beginning in



Whenever new construction is allowed in an Historic District there are

always guidelines that are used to accept or reject a proposed project. In

some cases these guidelines are clear-cut and are published in order that there

be little ambiguity in their interpretation. In other cases they are not so

clear. In the Seville Square Historic District there are no published guidelines to

direct a designer; instead it is left to the interpretation of the individual

designer and the Architectural Review Board to Determine appropriate design

based on Historic buildings already in the District. As an aid in determining

how appropriate the Seville Square Design Review System is it is necessary

to compare and contrast it with the guidelines used by two other Historic

Districts. These Districts are Savannah, Georgia and Mobile, Alabama. Each

of these Historic Districts has a Different way in which they approach guidelines

for new construction.

Savannah, Georgia is a city that is rich in Architectural Character. In

1966 the city began a general neighborhood renewal study of a significant

portion of the old Savannah area. The result of the study was an Historic

preservation plan that is felt by many preservationists to be the best of its

kind. The plan is in three parts. The first part is an Historic area analysis

by a city planner. It is intended that this section give local residents

an insight into how visitors view the Historic area, and an examination of

the components that make up the ares's character. The second part sets up

recommended criteria for developemnt within Historic Areas, particularly in

relation to design standards to assure that new construction and the rehabili-

tation and relocation of existing structures are in keeping with the

surrounding environment. It is this particular portion of the preservation

plan that has gained such fame among preservationists.26 within part two

are demonstrated sixteen characteristics of Architectural relatedness

with each one being assigned a point value of one. In order that new or

renovated construction be accepted into the District it must acheive an evaluation

rating of at least six of these points. The advent of these design criteria

have allowed for the successful insertion of contemporary design into the

fixed environment of the Historic District. The third section makes specific

recommendations based on observed problems, knowledge of Rehabilitation and

Restoration Programs, and Professional experience.

The city of Mobile, Alabama uses a guide which is much simpler for the

designer to use, but is just as stringent in concept. Rather than setting

up specific proportion, rythems and scales, the Mobile guidelines deal with

materials in an acceptable/not acceptable manner.27 In addition the guidelines

deal with scale, materials, details, elements, roofs and grounds in a general

fashion outlining what should be expected of a designer, but not putting extreme

concrete restrictions on him. It is not the intention of these guidelines to

produce new Architecture that duplicates past styles, but to bring about a

harmony where all buildings in the Historic District add to the Beauty of the


Pensacola's Seville Square Historic District has no published guidelines

to aid a designer. All proposals for new or renovated construction

within the District must be submitted to the Architectural Review Board which is

made up of seven citizens, two of which must be Architects and members of the

26. See "Historic Preservation Plan for Savannah, Georgia,"in the appendix
27. See Material Standards for Mobile Historic Districts, in the appendix.

American Institute of Architects. This Review Board has the final approval

of the project, and rejection by it has never been challenged. Since the

District will grow and the need for more new construction will become

mandatory soon, it is necessary that a more clear-cut method of determining

the acceptability of determining the acceptability of new construction be


Unlike the ordered rhythm of the Architecture of Savannah, the notable

buildings of Seville Square vary in scale, texture, color and other factors

that influence design. In Savannah it is possible to insert a contemporary building

between two Historically significant buildings and have each of the three

complement the others as long as the new building adheres to the rules of

order set by its adjacent neighbors. In some cases this would be possible

in Seville Square, but in most cases it would not. For this reason it should

become mandatory that anyone planning a new structure in the Historic District

should have to present his project to the board with extensive photographs of

neighboring property so thatthe board may determine the ultimate impact of the

new construction.

The material guidelines of the city of Mobile, Alabama are a good

model for Seville Square to use in developing guidelines. The varying scales

and fabrics of the individual buildings in the Seville Square Historic

District make it impossible to implement guidelines similar to Savannah's. As

mentioned in another section Carlton Noblin's Architectural office is a

good example of how contemporary architecture can fit into Seville Square.

The criteria that make Noblin's office good design are the same as Mobile's


In the Eastern part of the Historic District is an area that is, for the


most part, vacant land. Eventually this part of the District will be

developed. Before that begins it is important that the Historic

Preservation Board review the area carefully and determine how it should be

built-up. At present there is a study being made to determine if the area

is suitable for new townhouses. If these townhouses are built the Preservation

board feels that the design concerns will be along the usual scale, color,

texture, etc.28 This method of determining design restrictions is unacceptable.

In the District there is no "usual" scale, color or texture. The evidence

of this is discussed the "Fabric of the District" part of this paper.

The Eastern part of the District offers a design challenge that few other

Historic Districts ever encounter. This mass of vacant land offers and

opportunity to mix old and new buildings in such a manner that comparison and

contrast between them cannot be avoided. As discussed in the introduction of this

paper this is a very worthwhile goal. Allowing the construction of contemporary

buildings in the Eastern part of the District does not lessen the importance

of Design Guidelines. A special set of Design Restrictions should be imposed

on this particular area. These restrictions should limit the scale of new

construction to be in harmony with an "average" scale of Historically notable

buildings in the District. A materials restriction should also be imposed in

order that only materials common to contemporary Pensacola construction be allowed.

These rules would serve to allow for ready comparison of old and new, and

future generations would have a collection of buildings in one group that

would be cross section of Pensacola Architecture in the last quarter of

the Twentieth Century.

28. See letter form George Demmy to Lewis Brown dated 5 June, 1978.



The placing of contemporary architecture within the boundaries of the Seville

Square Historic District is necessary to bring about the success of the District.

The introduction of this paper dealt with the need for contemporary design to be

placed within close proximity of the Historic Buildings in order that an

observer could easily make a comparison between old and new. In order for this

concept to work it is necessary for the new architecture to be comparable

with the old.

Scale is a term that is used to designate a building's relationship to its

enviromnet. Frequently Architects will speak of a building's scale in terms

of how it relates to man. Normally a building in scale with man will have

Architectural elements that a single Human being can feel enclosed by as an

individual. With few elections the buildings of the Historic District are to

the scale of man. This being the case it is necessary that new buildings in the

District maintain this same scale. Violations of this rule would result

in the gradual loss of identity of the District as a whole, and eventually

the Historic District would be reclaimed by the Architecture of downtown


The texture of a building is a quality unique to each building.

A building's texture is how it "feels" visually. The Century Bank in

downtown Pensacola, with its crisp white skin visually feels slick and smooth

while in actuality the precast panels that make up the exterior skin are

rough to the touch. The wood lap siding that is used on many of the houses

in the Historic District gives the visual impression of being a rough surface

while in actuality each board is smooth to the touch. In some cases when

buildings are grouped together there is a texture harmony that is expressed.

In areas of the District where these patterns are set up, new construction

should reflect the texture of surrounding Architecture.

Along the many streetscapes of the Historic District there emerges a rhythm

set up by the repetition of Architectural elements from building to building.

These elements might be whole building facades or they might be the

individual elements of each building such as windows or doors or individual

members of a balcony rail. When this rythum is broken the effect can

sometimes be disastrous. A break in the Architectural rhythm along Government

Street between Adams Street and Florida Blanca Street would cause degredation of

each individual building much the same way that a sour violin note can ruin an entire

musical movement. Architectural rhythm is an important element to be considered

when additions to existing buildings or Architectural infill is being considered.

These three elements; scale, texture, and rhythm are the basis for

Architectural compatability. It is essential that the importance of

these elements be emphasized in all new construction. Failure to recognize

these will result in complete loss of continuity around buildings in the


As discussed in another part of this paper, great changes are taking place

around the perimeter of the district. The 1-110 spur and the Bayfront

Parkway will bring a great deal of traffic in the vicinity of the Historic District.

This traffic generation is attractive to merchants and the merchants will

want to develop property for business. This is good since it will create

an ever stronger economic base for the District to grow upon. Since there

is a limited number of Historically notable buildings available in and around

the Historic District and a limited number of merchants willing to invest the

time and money necessary for preservation and the need for an economic

backbone exists, the solution is obvious. Allow for controlled Contemporary

Architecture to be built in the District to fill the need for the new influx

of commercial uses. It will seem to some people that the solution would

be to allow for new construction that copies Historic Pensacola Architecture.

At first glance this might seem to be a viable solution, but experience

has shown that it will not work. The Tivoli House is supposed to be a

reconstruction of the original Tivoli House, but too many liberties were taken

during design, and the building as an accurate reconstruction is a failure.

The intendent project by Pat Dodson is another example of the extreme

liberties taken when new construction tries to copy old. The Historic

District is not a place like Disneyland where modern copies of old buildings

are acceptable since every visitor knows that he is surrounded by make

believe. Architectural accuracy is essential in Seville Square for that is

the whole reason for the Historic District, a museum where examples of

Historically significant architecture can be allowed to flourish without

fear of destruction or intrusion. For this reason, projects which try to

copy Historic Architecture can not be acceptable.

As the Historic District ages and future generations begin to appreciate

what was done there it will be important that these people of the future

recognize the role that Pensacola Architecture of the Seventies played

in the development of the city. This idea is a direct out growth of the

concept of comparing old and new. A visitor to the Historic District in

the year 2078 should be able to compare and contrast the Christ Church,

built in 1832, with its handmade brick bearing wall structural system and

wood truss roof system with a 1970's Pensacola Church of similar scale

built in the Historic District. A contemporary Church would probably have

a structural steel structural system with brick used as a non-structural skin.

This same visitor would quickly note the difference between the handmade

brick of the Christ Church and the manufactured brick used in the 1970's

church. This is only one example, but it is to the point. Controlled

building of Contemporary Architecture within the District will allow for

the constant growth of the District in a manner that will continuously allow

for comparasions between old and new.

Since the need for Contemporary Architecture has been established for the

Historic District it is necessary that a definate plan of action be implemented.

There are three stages that the plan of action must go through in sequence

if the concept is to be a success. The three stages are one: setting up of

definate planning goals for the District, two: make an in depth survey of

the existing architecture of the District, and three: set up a definate

method of new project submittal.

Definate planning goals are very important to the life of Seville

Square. There has been some thought toward future goals, but no definate

goals have been set. The only land planning that has been done is the

Historic Zoning that now exists. This Zoning is broken into three parts;

two Residential Zones and one Commercial Zone. While this was a good start it

is time to reevaluate this system and make changes. If the District is

going to allow new construction it must assume the responsibility of telling

developers exactly how to proceed. Generalized zoning as it exists can not

do this. Planning restrictions must be implemented on a block by block basis,

and in some cases a lot by lot basis. This type planning will put complete

control of the District in the hands of the Architectural Review Board which

will act with advise of the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board. This

Pinpoint Planning can be used to encourage new building types into the

District which will be of value for comparison purposes. One building

type that should be encouraged is Religious building. The only building

of this type in the District is Christ Church which is 146 years old.

It is necessary that another church of this scale be introduced into the

District. With Aragon Court bordering the Historic District to the

North and East it is imperative that the District recognize the existence

of this project rather than turn its back, which it is now doing and plans

to keep on doing. Social Services, and Governmental Agencies that deal

with the residents of Aragon Court should be encouraged into the East

part of the District to serve its neighbors to the North. By admitting

that Aragon Court exists and attempting to deal with its problems there is

a hope that the security problem associated with it may be lessened.

While the setting up of planning goals is important it is just as

important to set up a timetable to go along with them. This timetable

is used to determine if the development of the District is on schedule and if

not, it will give district planners a chance to determine why not. This

timetable should be loose enough to allow for changes, but tight enough

to keep planning goals on schedule. The goals should be set up with three

parts, immediate goals on a year to year basis; intermediate goals which

occur every five to seven years; and long range goals, fifteen to twenty

years from now.

A survey of buildings existing in the District is an area which the Historic

Pensacola Preservation Board is actively working on. The value of this

survey can not be understated since it will be used in the planning of the

District and the design of guidelines for new construction. In any Museum it

is important to take inventory, and in the case of Seville Square Historic

District, a detailed inventory is what the survey is.

Upon completion of the survey of the District the Preservation Board

and the Architectural Review Board should join efforts to set up a method of

submittal and review for new projects within the District. Step one will be

to publish a manual for preservationists who will be dealing with Historic

properties. Presently there are as many interpretations of what is genuine

Pensacola design as there are interpreters. This manual of preservation

should be authored by a joint effort between a preservation architect

and an historian. The work would deal with the history of Pensacola relating

to is architecture, and would parallel political, socialogical and other

historic facts with the development of architectural examples. This part

of the preservation manual would be the responsibility of the historian. The

architect would deal with the buildings themselves. He would describe the

various building types and explain the systems, materials and methods used

in construction. This jointly prepared preservation manual should begin

with the earliest known examples of Pensacola and come forward to the

present day. As necessary this manual should be reviewed and brought up to

date. The book would be used as a point of beginning for people who wish

to restore Historic buildings, make additions to Historic buildings, or

build new buildings within the District. The Preservation Manual would

be used as a common springboard for discussion of appropriate design for the

Historic District.

As a continuation of the Preservation manual a published set of architectural

guidelines should be adopted in order that architects designing buildings for

the Historic District will have a clear understanding of what will be acceptable by

the Architectural Review Board at the time of project evaluation. Due to

the complex nature of the Seville Square Historic District it will be necessary


to design two sets of guidelines. The first set will deal with new

construction in the East part of the District. As discussed earlier this

part of the District is for the most part vacant land. New construction in

this part of the District would be of contemporary design and would for the

most part be single, freestanding buildings. Guidelines for this part of

the District would control scale, rhythm, landscaping and materials in

such a way that the contemporary architecture that would result would be

harmonious with the Historic Architecture that exists a few blocks away.

The Historic Preservation plan of Savannah, Georgia should be used as a

guide to the development of this guideline. The second part of the

published guidelines would deal with additions to Historic buildings and

Architectural infill between historic buildings. Due to the difference in scale,

age, texture and other design features between Historic properties grouped in

the Seville Square area each building project in this area should be

controlled by guidelines that deal with the use of Architectural materials.

If a project is proposed for a site that is between two properties of different

scales or texture it is difficult to relate to one without offending the other.

In this case the new building would assume an identity of its ownrestricted

only in material usage. The material guidelines set up by the city of Mobile,

Alabama should act as a guide for the design of Seville Square's material


All building projects in this Historic District should continue to be

submitted to the Architectural Review Board for approval. In the future,

all requests for building approval should be accompanied by a model of the

project, a rendering or other graphic aids which will relate the proposed

project to all its neighbors in terms of scale, texture, color and materials.

The board would either approve or disapprove the project based on adhereance

to published guidelines and compatibility with surrounding architecture. If

a project were disapproved the board would be compelled to give specific

reasons why so the owner could make the necessary changes and re-submit his


Throughout the course of this Thesis the reader will note that I have

done much criticism. This criticism is used to point out areas of weakness

I have detected in the Historic District. It is my hope that by pointing

out weakness that I can encourage other persons with sensitivity to the

Seville Square Historic District to act and make the Historic District

an even better place. This spurring of others into action was one of the

main reasons for this paper. I am aware that many decisions made within the

District have been made from expediency, and in general were the best directions

under a particular set of circumstances. It is my honest opinion that the

Historic Pensacola Preservation Board, the Architectural Review Board and the

citizens of Pensacola have done a commendable job with Seville Square Historic





1. Pensacola City Hall, West Elevation, built 1907.

2. Looking West down Main Street from Adams Street.

3. Looking East down Main Street from Adams Street.

4. Looking North across Main Street from Barracks Street.

5. Looking South to Pitt's Slip from Main Street

6. Looking South Across Pensacola Bay from Main Street.

7. L & N Terminal building, North elevation, built 1903.

8. L & N Terminal building, West elevation, built 1903.

9. Lee House, West elevation, built 1866.

10. Looking West across Seville Square from Alcaniz Street, Christ Church
in background.

11. Looking Southwest across Seville Square from corner of Alcaniz Street
and Government Street.

12. Smith House, West elevation, built 1870's.

13. St. Michael's Creole Benevolent Association meeting hall, South elevation
built 1895-96.

14. Quina House, West elevation, built about 1910.

15. Looking Southeast across Seville Square from corner of Government Street
and Adams Street.

16. Dorr House, East elevation, built 1871.

17. Christ Church, from Southeast, built 1832.

18. Same as 17.

19. Moreno Cottage, North elevation, built 1879.

20. Dorothy Walton House, from Northwest, built-unsure.

21. Tivoli House reconstruction, from Northeast, built 1976.

22. Tivoli House reconstruction, from North west, built 1976.

23. Julee Cottage, from Southwest, built about 1970.

24. Lavalle House, from Northwest, built about 1810.

25. Christ Church, from Northwest, built 1832.

26. The "Intendent", type "C" house, built 1975.

27. Looking North up Alcaniz Street toward St. Michael's Cemetary and
1-110 Spur.

28. Looking South down Alcaniz Street toward Police Station and G. W.
Edwards Plumbing Company.

29. Looking North from corner of Romana Street and Florida Blanca Street.

30. Looking West down Romana Street from 8th Street.

31. Aragon Court from corner of 8th Street and Romana Street.

32. Looking Southeast from corner of 8th Street and Romana Street.

33. Looking North up 8th Street from Intendencia Street.

34. Looking West down Intendencia Street from Florida Blanca Street.

35. Looking North up Florida Blanca Street from Intendencia Street.

36. North boundary of St. Michael's Cemetary, Chase Street in foreground.

37. Aragon Court Northwest boundary corner of Chase Street and Florida
Blanca Street.

38. Office of Carlton Noblin, Architect, Government Street at Florida
Blanca Street, Built 1968.

39. Axelson House, from Southwest, built 1892.

40. Barkley House, from Northwest, built about 1815.

41. The Intendent, Type "A" house.

42. The Intendent, Type "B" house.

43. The Intendent, Type "C" house.


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-,;..n..c~ ~~u. a~ V : 5<77

SECRETARY OF SATE Historic Pensacola


205 E. ZARAGOZA ST. PENSACOLA, FLORIDA 32501 0 AC 904 434-1042

June 5, 1978

Mr. Lewis Brown, Jr.
Residential Designer and Planner
1212 Northwest 12th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Dear Mr. Brown:

Jim Moody has asked me to respond to your letter of May 27 in which
you requested clarification of the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board's
role in the matter of design and construction in the Seville Square Historic
District. Architectural controls were vested in an Architectural Review
Board established by city ordinance in 1968. This group consists of seven
citizens, two of which must be architects and members of the AIA. The
Historic Pensacola Preservation Board's role is an advisory one only, with
the direct responsibility for advice vested in my position as Chief of the
Bureau of Architecture and Construction. The Historic Pensacola Preservation
Board's official role, therefore, is that of a concerned observer.

With respect to new construction in the district, I feel the Board's
position would be to support contemporary proposals that displayed respect
for the historic character of the area the well known concerns for:
scale, color, texture, fenestration patterns, corniceheights, etc., etc.

As far as the Tivoli House is concerned, I must point out to you that
the entire site was professionally excavated prior to construction to
establish: (1) the precise site of the original house; (2) archaeological
data that would be relevant to the reconstruction of the house; and, (3)
data relative to the interpretation of the house and its occupants with
respect to their place in Pensacola's history.

Your question concerning the "why" of the Tivoli House identifies
a "fact of life" concerning architecture and an area rarely, if ever,
discussed in the course of academic training. I am referring to the role
of politics in the architectural process. You should be aware of the
premiere role the late Pat Dodson played in establishing this district and
the plans for the general direction of its growth. An avid historian, Pat
had his own ideas about the significance of the Tivoli House and adjacent
ballroom, which was a social center of the early community. This project
was a pet of his and its execution, the result of his drive and influence.

The Allen/Watson plan for the Pitts Slip area is in reality Steve
Watson's thesis project. It is both dynamic and attractive and would be
an asset to this area were it built. The area that it was proposed for,
however, represented the district's only large open area on the Bay, a fact
recognized on the 1971 Bateman Master Plan for the district and when an

Mr. Lewis Brown, Jr.
Page 2
June 5, 1978

acquisition grant became available in 1976, the Board developed the plan
whereby the property was finally secured. A requirement of the grant is
that the land be committed to open space, therefore, a discussion of
development on it is moot.

With respect to the vacant land in the east part of the District, this
Board is studying a proposed zoning change which would allow for the
construction of town houses. Again, I believe their design concerns will
be along the usual scale, color, texture, etc., guidelines.

The question of non-conforming buildings is a very difficult one to
respond to briefly. The fact that we call them non-conforming and you
call them "contemporary" identifies a different philosophical outlook.
There is no doubt that these buildings are products of their time. The
problem is that their time is 50-100 years in advance of the period that
produced the distinct area of our concern and while the Board, I feel,
has no problem with the concept of architecture of and in its time, I
believe their policy would follow the general concept of modification of
non-conforming structures to reduce the impact of their appearance and/or
their demolition, a course of action established in the zoning ordinance
of the City of Pensacola. The latter law I suspect will probably never
be enforced; however, its existence on the books does represent a position
supported by this organization.

In regard to your question about the Board's goals for the District,
I would say that beyond the expected preservation and restoration of the
area's architecture, that we are striving to establish the District as a
viable residential neighborhood including a healthy representation of
commercial and office usages. As you know, the latter activities are
growing steadily while our residential efforts still lag.

I trust this information meets your needs and if I can be of further
service, please contact me. You have chosen an are of architecture that
is growing in interest and debate. I look forward to your work.


George G. Demmy
Restoration Director


PENSACOLA, FLORIDA 32502 904/432-6196

15 June 1978

Mr. Lewis Brown, Jr.
1212 Northwest 12th Avenue
Gainesville, FL 32601

Dear Lewis:

In keeping with your recent request that we provide you with some
information as to our involvement in restoration in Pensacola's
Historic District, I am setting out below a few thoughts as to our
experience to date.

As you may recall, we worked closely with Pat Dodson who was a pioneer
in preserving and restoring historic buildings in the District here in
Pensacola. Our work with him, in addition to assisting in the
restoration of a number of individual buildings in our District, was
the development of the drawings and specifications for a large scale
project known as The Intendent. This project, if realized, would have
resulted in restoration and reconstruction of a number of similar
residences on a square block in the heart of Pensacola's Historical
District bounded by Alcaniz, Intendencia, Tarragona and Romana Streets.
Additionally, the development projected restorations on the south side
of Intendencia Street which would have resulted in a street-scene of
directed and well-designed organization. Unfortunately, due to Mr.
Dodson's untimely death, the project did not become a reality in the
spirit in which it was designed. Although Dodson's son has purportedly
taken over the Project, the original scheme has been abandoned entirely
and the development of Intendencia Street, while not unpleasant, is not
at all what was projected in our design. Buildings now in place along
this block on Intendencia Street are of disparate vintage and
historical value and in contrast to the original design, which would
have resulted in a very attractive residential neighborhood, include a
mix which is primarily commercial (offices and shops) interspersed with
a few remaining residences. Our role in the project as envisioned by
Pat Dodson was planner and architect, and our contribution to the
project, if it had been realized, would have been considerable in those

As you know, we have located our office in a restored building of 1860

vintage. This was a typical Gulf Coast cottage and our work in
restoring it required the removal of some portions of the structure
which were added (considerably later than the original construction)
and were of considerably less quality as to materials and workmanship.
We replaced these removed portions with new area which closely
resembles the original construction and, we believe, ties together to
present a creditable result. You may be aware that we were awarded an
Honor Award by our Chapter of AIA for this effort. We have also
participated in the restoration of individual buildings around the
District, including a large project we are now working on. This is a
Victorian residence which was endangered by the construction of the
terminus of I-110 in Downtown Pensacola and was, therefore, moved
several blocks to a vacant site in the heart of the District,
immediately opposite Seville Square. The restoration of this project,
a two-story building of about 1,900 sq. ft. on each floor, is partially
complete. We intend to make it available for lease for office usage
and we are now considering moving our office into a portion of this
building thereby making our present building available for lease or

We have been involved to some degree in the restoration of about a
dozen buildings in the District, not including the several dozen
buildings designed to be a part of The Intendent development. We find
the work to have considerable appeal, although due to the scale of each
individual project, not especially rewarding from a return point of
view. Our experience working with the Architectural Review Board for
the City of Pensacola has been very pleasant. We find that this Board
generally agrees with our approach to the restoration processes. We
have also found that the Inspection Department of the City of Pensacola
has been very cooperative in that they have not insisted on complete
compliance with the Code in all matters, especially those where such
compliance would degrade the original design of the building as in
stairways, etc. Possibly due to our experience, we have fewer problems
with approvals than other persons engaged in restoration or adaptive
modification work. However, our rapport with both the Architectural
Review Board and the City of Pensacola Building and Inspection
Departments has been outstanding and has, we believe, allowed for
results which would not have been possible without this favorable

More constraints relating to Architectural detailing would, we believe,
be in order. For example, some buildings have been allowed to be
restored using asphalt shingle roofs, poorly detailed railings, and

other inappropriate or non-representative features. There must,
however, always be compromise between authenticity (and resulting
higher costs) and financial feasibility to assure a reasonable return
on investment. In general, it appears that this return is attractive
in the District at the present time. Values continue to increase and,
as a result, the atmosphere of the District is enhanced. For example,
one recent sale of a one and one-half story frame building of 2,800
square feet on a lot with an area of 9,257 square feet sold for

I hope the above may be of some use to you in your work. If you have
any specific questions that I have failed to answer, please give me a
call and I will try to help further.

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Historic Pensacola offers a lot to see from her colorful past.

More than four centuries of rule by five nations-
Spain, France, Great Britain, the Confederacy, and the
United States- have left visible traces on West Florida's
landscape. This folder is designed to help you see the
most significant landmarks in the southern part of
Escambia County. They are in four areas-two historical
districts near downtown; the U.S. Naval Air Station;
and Fort Pickens.
The inside of this folder is your guide for an automo-
bile tour which starts at the Tourist Information Center
at Palafox and Cervantes streets and ends in a walk-
ing tour in the Seville Square Historic District. In the
Gulf Islands National Seashore, park rangers offer

guided tours of Fort Pickens (1829-1835), a Civil War
bastion which also served as a prison for the Apache,
At the Naval Air Sut,,-.n you can take a self-guided
tour which includes the Naval Aviation Museum and
another part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore
which encompasses Fort San Carlos de Barrancas,
built by the Spanish about 1790; Fort Barrancas (1834-
1844); the Pensacola Lighthouse (1858); and Fort
Redoubt (1840s). If you need help in your historical
pursuits, call the Information Center at 433-3065,
the Pensacola Historical Museum at 433-1559, or the
Historic Pensacola Preservation Board at 434-1042.

Gulf teeme N rate Strip Park% a%

Sant Rosa Sound

Santa Rosa Sound

Eavl Pensacola

Charter Fishing




Highlights of the walking

tour of the Seville Square

Historical District.

SEVILLE SQUARE (bounded by Government, Alcaniz,
Zaragoza, and Adams Streets)
Spanish colonists in 1752 established Pensacola as a
permanent settlement near present-day Seville Square.
Three earlier attempts had been made to colonize this area.
The first settlement in 1559, which pre-dated the establish-
ment of St. Augustine, Florida, was in the vicinity of Fort
Barrancas, now a part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore.
A second, strictly military occupation of that same area oc-
curred in 1698, and in 1722, after a short period of occupa-
tion by and skirmishing with the French, the Spanish es-
tablished a third settlement on Santa Rosa Island, near Fort
Pickens. A hurricane destroyed this settlement in 1752 and
the survivors moved to the mainland to an outpost called
Fort San Miguel.
After the French and Indian War in 1763, the British took
West Florida and occupied the crude stockade at "Panza-
cola." British surveyors in the early 1770s platted the Old
City area and delineated the basic street system used today
in the Historic District. Many of the lots in this area had cor-
responding garden lots located along present-day Garden
After Bernardo de Galvez defeated the British in 1781.
the Spaniards returned to Pensacola. The British stockade
that covered the area between Seville Square and Plaza
Ferdinand VII gradually deteriorated. When Andrew Jackson
made his controversial forays into Spanish Florida against
runaway slaves and renegade Indians," he occupied Pensa-
cola in 1814 and again in 1818. In 1821 Jackson accepted
Florida from Spain in ceremonies in Plaza Ferdinand.
During the Civil War. Union soldiers rode their horses
across Seville Square. and most of the homes facing the
square were built during the decades after that conflict.
Historical and civic groups as well as private investors
are participating in the restoration of old structures in the

Pensacola Historical District. The Architectural Review Board
of the City of Pensacola must approve exterior modifications
of existing structures, construction of new buildings, or de-
struction of an old house or outbuilding. The Historic Pensa-
cola Preservation Board, a state agency established in 1967,
provides leadership in the development of an overall resto-
ration program for the district.

OLD CHRIST CHURCH (Zaragoza and Adams Streets-
#26 on the Walking Tour)
In 1830, construction of Old Christ Church was begun.
Today it is the oldest church in West Florida. The building
is constructed of local brick and hand-hewed heart pine
beams. In 1879 the back wall was removed and the church
extended to the rear, and a new roof, floor, windows, and a
different tower were added. During the Civil War Federal
troops seized the church and used it as a hospital and later
as a chapel. Beneath the floors are the graves of three of its
Episcopal ministers, two of whom died of Yellow Fever, once
the scourge of the Gulf Coast. When the parish moved to
another location in 1903, the church for a time housed a
Negro congregation. Then, in 1936, it was deeded to the
City of Pensacola which used the building as the public
library until 1957. Today it houses the Pensacola Historical
Museum operated by the Pensacola Historical Society in co-
operation with the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board.
The museum is open Tuesday through Saturday 10:30 AM
to 4:30 PM, Sunday 1:30 to 4:30 PM, and closed Mondays.

HISPANIC BUILDING, West Florida Museum of History
(Zaragoza and Tarragona Streets, Site of the British Bar-
racks #20 on the Walking Tour)
The north section of this Spanish-style building was con-
structed about 1877 and was used as a warehouse. A decade
later the south portion was added; this is now used as the
main gallery of the museum. Exhibits depict the history of
West Florida. During the British occupation, a large Barracks
was on this site. The Hispanic Museum is open to the public
daily; admission is free.

Sts., blt. 1898-1903-#21 on the Walking Tour)
The Historic Pensacola Preservation Board's Transporta-

tion Museum displays wagons, carriages and fire engines out
of Pensacola's past. Exhibits include a variety of vehicles, an
"old time" gas station, and a turn-of-the-century railroad
station waiting room. Open daily; admission is free.

CHARLES LAVALLE HOUSE (203 E. Church Street,
#29 on the Walking Tour)
This early nineteenth-century home was constructed by
Charles LaValle, a local builder who had another home five
miles north of town near Gaberonne Point on Escambia Bay
and operated a brick kiln there. LaValle typifies the French
artisans who built most of the local homes toward the end of
the last Spanish period (1781-1821). This house was moved
to its present location in 1969 from East Government Street
and restored by the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board. It
is a museum piece in itself, featuring brick noggin in the walls,
a large overhanging "apron" room creating a large loft area,
steep stairway to loft, and a "Bahama" railing and side en-
trance typical of the West Indies. The house is open to visi-
tors on a spring and summer schedule. Listed in the National
Register of Historic Places.

SITE OF THE TIVOLI COMPLEX (Barracks and Zaragoza
Streets- #23 on the Walking Tour)
On this corner on the site of the Spanish Governor's old
residence, three Frenchmen, Juan Baptiste Cazenave, Pedro
Bardevane, and Rene Chandiveneau built in 1805 a high
house, a ballroom, a kitchen, and other outbuildings. The
Tivoli High House was a two-and-a-half story building, the
ground floor was flush with the sidewalk and the upper gal-
lery extended over the sidewalk in European fashion. On the
ground floor a large room and several smaller rooms were
used for gambling. Later, about 1843, when the property
was acquired by Don Francisco Moreno, the High House was
operated as a boarding house and was dubbed Hotel Paree.
The Spanish-speaking Morenos still owned the house during
the Civil War and Union officers billeted there added a third
name, calling it the "Spanish Barracks." Both this building
and the Moreno home adjacent were torn down during the
1930s. The Historic Pensacola Preservation Board in coop-
eration with the American Revolution Bicentennial Commis-
sion of Florida has reconstructed the Tivoli High House as a
stop on Florida's Bicentennial Trail.

The Tivoli Dance Hall was built in 1805 by the same three
Frenchmen and was an octagonal building with about a 25
foot radius. It was used for dancing, cock fights, and as a
theatre. The entrepreneur-owner of the theatre renamed it
the Jacksonian Commonwealth Theatre in 1821 in honor of
Territorial Governor, Andrew Jackson. Rachel Jackson com-
plained of dancing in Pensacola on Sunday and some of this
took place at the Tivoli. As late as 1837, the Tivoli was still
operating, for Bishop Jackson Kemper, who came here to
dedicate Old Christ Church complained, in his sermon about
noisy dancing nearby.

PINEY WOODS SAWMILL (Barracks and Main Streets-
#22 on the Walking Tour)
Sawmills similar to this one operated in Florida's "piney
woods" during the late nineteenth and early twentieth cen-
tury. Although most early sawmills were powered by steam
engines, this mill, previously owned by Herbert Hicks of
Barth, Florida, is powered by two diesel engines. Before Mr.
Hicks purchased the Worthington diesel engine, it supplied
all electric power for the city of Crestview, Florida. The His-
torical Pensacola Preservation Board purchased the saw-
mill in 1970 and moved it to its present site where an earlier
sawmill stood at the waterfront in the 19th century. The saw-
mill is the first feature in an exhibit complex showing the in-
dustrial development of West Florida.

ST. MICHAEL'S CEMETERY (Alcaniz and Garden
Streets-#43 on the Walking Tour)
St. Michael's Cemetery survives as a visible record of
Pensacola's early years. Don Juan Ventura Morales, Spanish
Intendent, gave the Catholic inhabitants of Pensacola title
to this land in 1807 for use as a burial ground, although the
area was probably used for that purpose as early as 1781.
St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church deeded the cemetery
to the City of Pensacola in 1964, and the Historic Pensacola
Preservation Board now administers this historic site. Pensa-
cola's varied history is represented here, and special flags
fly over the graves of Stephen R. Mallory, Secretary of the
Confederate Navy, and Dorothy Walton, widow of a signer
of the Declaration of Independence.

Ine -Hispanic Museum displays relics ot Uult Coast history.

The Charles Lavalle House, constructed in the early 1800's, was
restored in 1974 by the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board.

svany or me tombstones in baint Michael s Cemetery are inscribed
in Spanish.

Take this free tour

in your automobile.

This self guided tour. which you can take in your own automobile.
is provided to the public without charge and is sponsored by the
Pensacola-Escambia Development Commission. Simply follow
the route marked in orange on the map to the right. Signs, as
shown in the inset here. will help you stay on the route.
Cervantes Sts.. bit. 1915)-Stop here
TOUR and receive free brochures and
directions for area tours and local attrac-
tions. The offices of the Pensacola-
Escambia Development Commission are
open weekdays from 8 AM until 5 PM.
and Saturday from 9 AM to 5 PM.
PALAFOX STREET-In the 1770s the
British named this street George Street.
and later the Spanish changed the name
to Palafox Street in honor of General
Josd de Palafox y Melzi. who defended
Zaragoza. Spain, in the Peninsular War (1808 SIS14).
CERVANTES STREET-Pensacolians in the late 19th .... i.
named this street in honor of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra I .4-
1616). whose best-known work is Don Quixote.
2. LEE SQUARE (Palafox & Gadsden Sts.)-Previously known
as Florida Square. this park in 1891 was renamed Lee Square and
dedicated as Pensacola's tribute to the Confederacy. The 50-foot
high monument was modeled after Egan's painting. "After Ap-
pomattox," and is a duplicate of the figure standing in Alexandria.
GADSDEN STREET-Named for James Gadsden. a lieutenant
under Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812 who later served as
minister to Mexico and negotiated the Gadsden Purchase.
JACKSON STREET-Named in honor of President Andrew
Jackson, who as an American general, took Pensacola by force
from the Spanish in 181a and again in 1818 and by treaty in 1821.
3. SITE OF FORT GEORGE (NW corner of Palafox & LaRua Sts.,
bit. 1770s) -The British constructed the fort that stood on this site
in the 1770s: in 1781 a significant Revolutionary War battle was
fought here when Spanish troops under Bernardo de Galvez oust-
ed the British and took possession of the Province of West Florida.
Listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
LA RUA STREET-Named after a Spanish family, residents of
Pensacola since the early 1800s.
BELMONT STREET-A New Yorker who invested in Pensacola
in the 1830s is believed to have named this street for an area near
New York City.
4. EDWARD A. PERRY HOUSE (NE corner of Palafox & Wright
Sts., bit. 1867- 82) -Charles E. Boysen. Swedish Consul to Pensa-
cola, began this house, and it was completed by Edward A. Perry.
Confederate general and Governor of Florida. The Scottish Rite
now owns the building.
5. CHRIST CHURCH (NW corner of Palafox & Wright Sts.. bit.
1902)-This unusual Episcopal church is built in Spanish Baroque
architectural style.
WRIGHT STREET-Named for Benjamin Drake Wright. who was
prominent in local and state affairs from the 1820s until the 1860s.
GREGORY STREET-Named for Walter Gregory. president of
the first chartered territorial bank.
6. UNITED STATES POST OFFICE (NE corner of Palafox &
Chase Sts.. bit. 1939)-Except for a break during the Civil War.
the United States Postal Service has served Pensacola continuously
since 1823. This building reflects Pensacola's Spanish heritage.
CHASE STREET-Named for Col. William H. Chase. who de-
signed and built most of the forts at the mouth of Pensacola Bay.
7. ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH (SW corner of Palafox & Chase
Sts.. bit. 1885)-This Catholic church. the oldest of its denomina-
tion in Pensacola. was originally established under the Spanish in
1781 near City Hall.
8. SAN CARLOS HOTEL (NW corner of Palafox & Garden Sts..
bit. 1910)-This local landmark was the center of the city's business
and social life for more than half a century.
GARDEN STREET-The Spanish after 1781 named this street
Calle de Jardines or Street of Gardens because garden plots, that
matched house lots in the Old City area around Seville Square,
lined the north side of the street. Earlier the British had called this
Grafton Street.
ROMANA STREET-The British called this Prince's Street: the
Spanish renamed it Calle de la Romana.
fox and Intendencia Sts.)-In 1821 General Andrew Jackson. first
Territorial Governor of Florida, and his wife. Rachel. occupied the
residence that previously stood on this corner.
INTENDENCIA STREET-This street had two names during the
British period: west of the stockade it was called Granby Street
and east of the stockade it was Harcourt Street. The Spanish re
named the street Calle de la Intendencia for the Intendent or royal
fox & Government Sts.. bit. 1883)-Built on the old Customs
House site. this French Renaissance Revival structure was originally
intended as a Post Office.
11. PLAZA FERDINAND VII (Palafox at Government & Zara-
goza Sts.)-This plaza, named for Spanish King Ferdinand VII.
served as the center of Spanish community life and public cere-
mony. Here Andrew Jackson received Florida from Spain in
1821. The monument honors W. D. Chipley. who connected Pen-
sacola to the East by rail.
12. BEAR BUILDING (404 South Palafox St., bit. 1892)-This
building is an excellent example of late 19th century commercial
architecture. The second floor exhibits cast iron filigree work.
MAIN STREET-Originally the shoreline of the Bay ran along
Main Street. All property south is "made land." consisting of ballast
from sailing vessels from around the world during the 19th and
early 20th centuries.
13. McKENZIE-OERTING COMPANY (601 South Palafox
St.. opened here 1888)-This ship's chandlery or mariner's supply
company served Pensacola's fishermen and sailors from 1868
until 1971. Until 1966 schooners which fished off the Yucatan
Peninsula of Mexico berthed at the rear.
14. BUCCANEER (moored at Municipal Pier, bit. 1910)-This
two-masted. knock-about Gloucester schooner, originally named
the VIRGINIA, was constructed in Essex, Mass.. in 1910. She is
one of the few remaining vessels once used in the snapper fishing
industry in this region from 1890-1965. Restoration is now in prog-
ress by the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board. Open to visi-
tors on a seasonal basis. Listed in the National Register of His-
toric Places.
15. MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM (blt. 1951)-The Auditorium is
the scene of many concerts, plays, dances, conventions, and other
special events.
16. PENSACOLA ART CENTER (NW corner of Jefferson &
Main Sts.. bit. 1906)-Used as a jail until 1954. this building now
houses the Pensacola Art Center. Open Tuesday through Satur-
day. from 9 AM to 5 PM: Sunday from 2-5 PM: and closed Monday.
JEFFERSON STREET-Named for Thomas Jefferson, third
president of the United States (1801-1809).
17. PENSACOLA CITY HALL (NE corner of Jefferson & Zara-
goza Sts.. bit. 1907)-This structure is Spanish Baroque style.
18. SITE OF THE OPERA HOUSE (SE corner of Jefferson &
Government Sts.. bit. 1883)-D. F. Sullivan. a local lumber rmag-
nate. built Pensacola's Opera House during the lumber boom of
the late 19th century. The building was demolished in 1917 after
being damaged by a hurricane.
GOVERNMENT STREET- Under the British this was Pitt Street
at the west end of the stockade and Bute Street at the east end.
19. SEVILLE QUARTER (130 East Government St.. bit. 1870s)-
Now a period entertainment center, the structure housing "Rosie
O Gradv s Warehouse was originally a hotel and later a tobacco
TARRAGONA STREET-Named for the town of Tarragona in
Catalonia. Spain.


't ; -


While in Florida...
see as much of Florida as you can


Suzannah's Cottage, built around 1804, was restored in 1973
using old-time building methods.

At this point we suggest

you begin a walking tour.

The Walking Tour of the Seville Square Historical District is spon-
sored be the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board.
ZARAGOZA STREET-Named after Zaragoza (Zaragossa).
Spain. the ciit which repulsed the attack of Napoleon in the Penin-
sular War (108-1814). Although locally the name is spelled Zarra-
gossa. properly it should be spelled Zaragoza.
HISTORY (Tarragona & Zarragossa Sts.) -See full sketch on other
side of this folder.
21. TRANSPORTATION BUILDING (Tarragona & Zarragossa
Sts.)-See full sketch on other side of this folder.
MILL (Barracks and Main Sts.)-The railroad constructed the ter-
minal building at the port in 1903. The Preservation Board moved it
to this site in 1969. See full sketch of sawmill on other side of this
folder. The Terminal is listed in the National Register of Historic
23. TIVOLI COMPLEX (SE corner of Zarragossa and Barracks
Sts.)-See full sketch on other side of this folder.
24. DOROTHY WALTON HOUSE (221 E. Zarragossa St.)-
Dorothy Walton. widow of George Walton, a signer of the Declara-
tion of Independence from Georgia, is believed to have resided
here from 1822-1832. The house was deeded to Pensacola in
1964. moved to this location in 1966 by the Dorothy Walton Foun-
dation which began restoration which was completed by the His-
toric Pensacola Preservation Board.
25. MORENO COTTAGE (221 E. Zarragossa St., bit. 1879)-
Don Francisco Moreno, a local Spanish patriarch, built this "hon-
eymoon cottage" for his daughter, Perle, one of his 27 children,
when she married 0. H. Smith. The Historic Pensacola Preserva-
tion Board owns the house.
26. OLD CHRIST CHURCH (Zarragossa & Adams Sts.)-See
full sketch on other side of this folder.
27. SEVILLE SQUARE (Adams & Zarragossa Sts.)-See full
sketch on other side of this folder.
ADAMS STREET-This street was created in the 1820s and
named in honor of John Quincy Adams, sixth President of the
United States (1825-1829).
28. DORR HOUSE (311 South Adams St., bit. 1871)-An ex-
ample of modified post-Civil War classic revival architecture, this
house reflects the lumber boom era through its high ceilings, wide
pine floors, jib windows, and straight wooden staircase. Clara Bark-
ley Dorr, widow of a prominent Pensacolian, had the house built in
1871 and lived there with her children until about 1895. The house
is open to visitors daily except Monday in spring and summer. List-
ed in the National Register of Historic Places.
29. IAVALLE HOUSE (203 E. Church St., bit. about 1810)-
Listed in the National Register of Historic Places. See full sketch
on other side of this folder.
30. MORENO-ANDERSON HOUSE (300 East Government
St., bit. 1859-68)-Theodore Moreno, a civil engineer and son of
Don Francisco Moreno, built this two-story home, typical of Gulf
Coast architecture, between 1859 and 1868. Moreno sold the house
in 1873 to William E. Anderson. Anderson lived in the house until
1898 during both terms he served as mayor of Pensacola (1893-
94 and 1896).
31. McLELLAND HOUSE (304 East Government St., bit. about
1879)-William H. McLelland built this house in about 1879 and
in 1886 constructed an addition with a bay window. In 1896, he
deeded it to Mary E. Stokes, wife of a local sea captain.
ALCANIZ STREET-Although the British called this Charlotte
Street, the Spanish named it Calle de Alcaniz.
iz St., bit. 1870s) -Jose Noriega, Sr., a Spanish officer who helped
rebuild Fort San Carlos in the 1790s, once owned this lot. Jose
Noriega, Jr., last Spanish Alcalde or mayor of Pensacola in 1821,
inherited the property. He sold the lot in 1818 to Capt John Don-
elson, Jr., Rachel Jackson's nephew, who fought under Old Hick-
ory in the Battle of New Orleans. Mary Susan Cavanaugh Smith
in the 1870s built the house which Musician's Local 253 now owns.
33. GRAY HOUSE (314 S. Alcaniz St., bit. 1881-84)-According
to the owners who report hearing strange footsteps in the hall, an
early resident haunts this house. This structure reflects a Key West
34. LEE HOUSE (420 S. Alcaniz St., bit. 1866)-William Franklin
Lee, an engineer and Confederate officer, who lost an arm in the
Battle of Chancellorsville in the Civil War, built this home in 1866.
While acting as a surveyor and land developer, he named Lee
Street for his family and Lloyd Street for his wife's. The Historic
Pensacola Preservation Board purchased the building and moved it
to this site, and the Pensacola Board of Realtors restored the home
for its office.
35. MARY PERRY HOUSE (434 E. Zaragossa St., blt. early
1880s ) -Pensacola harbor pilot, Charles Perry, built this house for
his wife, Mary Thackeray Perry.
36. BARKLEY HOUSE (410 S. Florida Blanca St., blt. about
1815)- George Barkley is believed to have built this house, the old-
est masonry building in Pensacola, in 1815. Barkley, a prominent
local merchant, made this his home until his death in 1854.
37. AXELSON HOUSE (314 and 318 S. Florida Blanca St., blt
1892 and 1888)-Gustave Axelson, captain of a three-masted
schooner that carried lumber from Pensacola to Latin America,
built the house at the comer of Florida Blanca and Zaragossa streets
in 1888. In about 1892, his brother, Birger Axelson, built the house
next door at 314 S. Florida Blanca.
38. BONIFAY HOUSE (435 E. Government St., bit. about
1815)-This cottage was built in the last Spanish period, but like
the Suzannah Cottage, the Bonifay House is of French West Indian
design. It received a severe restoration in 1974 using early nine-
teenth century methods and retaining such features as hand-hewn
floor joists and hand-made brick held by "oyster shell" mortar.
39. SUZANNAH'S COTTAGE (433 Government St., bit. about
1804 -Built under the Spanish for a free woman of color. Suzan-
nah Crespo, this cottage is a French West Indian style and was
"saved" in 1973 by a severe restoration using old-time building
methods. Features include the original ceiling joists and hand-
made interior doors with colonial hardware.
MEETING HALL (416 East Government St., bit. 1895-96)-
Benevolent associations designed to aid members during sickness
and trouble were one of the many Creole contributions to Pensa-
cola's culture. This building was the meeting hall for St. Michael's
Creole Benevolent Association, organized in 1878 and disbanded
in 1971. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
41. QUINA HOUSE (204 S. Alcaniz St., bit. about 1810)-De-
siderio Quina. Sr.. a Spanish army veteran, purchased this house in
1827. It retains many original features typical of the Gulf Coast
architectural style including a double chimney. apron roof and re-
cessed front porch.
42. SITE OF THE CALABOZA (SW corner of Alcaniz & Inten-
dencia Sts.)-In the 1770s the British constructed on this site a
small "gaol" that the Spanish also used as their "calaboza" from
1781 until 1821. Andrew Jackson locked up Lt. Col. Jose Callava.
the last Spanish Governor, here in a dispute over transfer of gov-
erning power. Later, local authorities imprisoned Jonathan Walker,
a Massachusetts shipwright accused of stealing slaves, in this jail.
Walker's imprisonment and subsequent branding with "SS" in-
spired John Greenleaf Whittier's poem "The Branded Hand."
43. ST. MICHAEL'S CEMETERY (Alcaniz & Garden Sts.)-
See full sketch on other side of this folder.

NOTE: If you want to see more of old Pensacola, you can wander
through the North Hill Preservation District, bounded by Gregory,
DeVilliers, Blount, and Palafox Streets. (See southeast comer of
district in map at left). Between the 1870s and 1920s, during the
days of Pensacola's prosperous lumber boom, residents built homes
in the most popular styles: "Queen Anne," Spanish Mission Reviv-
al, Classical Revival, and some in typical Gulf Coast style. In 1973
the Pensacola City Council at the request of homeowners in the
area established the Preservation District to preserve the unique
architectural character of their neighborhood. The "development"
of this district will require several years.








a. Uses permitted.

(1) Single-family and two-family (duplex) dwellings.

(2) Libraries, community centers and buildings used exclusively
by the federal, state, county, or city government for public purposes.

(3) Churches, Sunday School buildings and Parish houses.

(4) Accessory buildings and uses customarily incidental to the
above uses not involving the conduct of a business.

(5) Home occupations.

(6) Publicly owned or operated parks and playgrounds.

(7) Special exceptions.

(7-1) Tourist homes.

(7-2) Antique shops.

(7-3) Art Galleries.

(7-4) Apartments.

b. Building height limit. NQ building shall exceed two and one halt'
stories or thirty-five feet in height,'.

c. Building site area required (intensity of use). The minimum
building site area shall be on a lot or a parcel of land five thousand square
feet-in area for each single-family dwelling and six thousand square feet in
area for each two-family dwelling. Such parcels shall have a width of not
less than fifty feet at the minimum building setback line for a single-family
dwelling and not less than sixty feet for each two-family dwelling.

d. Front yard required. There shall be a front yard having a depth
of not less than fifteen feet. On through lots, the required front yard shall
be provided on both streets.

e. Side yard required. There shall be a side yard on each side of
the building having a width of not less than five feet.


f. Rear yard required. There shall be a rear yard having a depth of
not less than twenty-five feet,


a. Uses permitted.

(1) Any use permitted in the preceding district.

(2) Multiple family dwellings.

(3) Private clubs and lodges except those operated primarily as
commercial enterprises.

(4) Boarding and lodging houses.

(5) Guest houses and tourist homes.

(6) Office buildings.

(7) Accessory buildings. Buildings and use customarily incident
to any of the above uses, including storage garages, when located on the same
lot and not involving the conduct of a business.

b. Building height limit. No building shall exceed two and one-half
stories or thirty-five feet in height.

c. Front yard required. There shall be a front yard having a depth of
not less than fifteen feet. On through lots, the required front yard shall be
provided on both streets.

d. Side yard required. There shall be a side yard on each side of the
building having a width of not less than five feet.

e. Rear yard required. There shall be a rear yard having a depth of
not less than twenty-five feet.


a. Uses permitted.

(1) Any use permitted in the preceding districts.

(2) Antique shops.

(3) Bakeries whose products are sold at retail and only on the

(4) Banks.


(5) Barbershops and beauty parlors.

(6) Shops for the collection and distribution of garments and similar
materials, for dyeing and cleaning establishments.

(7) Other retail shops with a maximum floor area of three thousand
square feet.

(8) Studios.

(9) Vending machines when an accessory to a business establishment
and located in the same building as the business.

(10) Small appliance repair shops.

(11) Floral gardens.

(12) Hand craft shops for custom work or making the custom items
not involving noise, odor, or chemical waste.

(13) Pawn shops or second hand stores.

(14) Small printing shops.

(15) Special exceptions.

(15-1) Taverns, lounges, nightclubs, cocktail bars.

(15-2) Marinas.

(15-3) Restaurants (except drive-ins).

(15-4) Motels.

(15-5) Commercial parking lots.

(15-6) New car agencies (Ord. No. 21-72, 4/27/72)

(16) Accessory buildings and uses customarily incident to the above

c. Building height limit, No building shall exceed four stories in height.

d. Side and rear yard required. There shall be no minimum front yard
requirement. There shall be no side yard required except for dwellings or for
frame structures in which case five feet shall be required. There shall be a
rear yard of at least fifteen feet.



The following requirements or regulations qualify or supplement as
the case may be, the district regulations or requirements appearing else-
where in this chapter:

a. Chimneys, water tanks or towers, elevator bulkheads, stacks,
and necessary mechanical appurtenances may be erected to a height in ac-
cordance with existing or hereafter adopted ordinances of the City.

b. The side yard requirements for dwellings shall be waived where
dwellings are erected above stores or shops.

c. Every part of a required yard shall be open from its lowest point
to the sky unobstructed; except for the ordinary projection of sills, belt
courses, cornices, buttresses, ornamental features and eaves; provided,
however, none of the above projection shall project into a minimum side
yard more than twenty-four inches.

d. Open or enclosed fire escapes, fireproof outside stairways and
balconies projecting into a minimum yard or court not more than three and
one-half feet and the ordinary projections of chimneys and flues may be
permitted by the Architectural Review Board where the same are so placed
as not to obstruct the light and ventilation.

e. On corner lots in residential districts, the side yard regulations
shall apply on the street side as well as on the inside;, but otn-a corner lot
owned as a separate unit as shown of record on date of passage of this or-
dinance, a building at least twenty-eight feet wide may be constructed not-
withstanding the side yard regulations. If a building on a corner lot shall
not face in the same direction as the building on the adjoining lot on either
street, there shall be a side yard adjacent to the street on which the build-
ing does not face not less in width than fifty percent of the front yard re-
quired on that street and no accessory building on such corner lot shall ex-
tend beyond the front line on that street; but this regulation shall not prevent
the erection of an accessory building in any case where the regulation can-
not reasonably be complied with.


a. Off-street parking is required in all zoning districts. The follow-
ing off-street parking is required by this Ordinance:

(1) Single family dwellings None required.

(2) Libraries, community centers, and buildings of federal, state,
county and city government 1 space for each two employees plus 1 space
for each 500 square feet of gross floor area in the building.


(3) Churches 1 space for each four seats.

(4) Multiple family buildings 1 1/2 space for each unit.

(5) Private clubs, fraternities and lodges 1 parking space for
each 200 square feet of gross floor area.

(6) Boarding and lodging homes 1 space for each unit.

(7) Guest houses and tourist houses 1 space for each sleeping
room for the first four sleeping rooms plus 1 space for each additional two
sleeping rooms.

(8) Office buildings One space for each 200 square feet of gross
floor area in the buildings.

(9) Banks, stores, and shops for the conduct of a retail business -
1 space for each 300 square feet of gross floor area in the building plus 1
space for each two full-time employees.

(10) Barbershops and beauty parlors One space for each chair
plus 1 space for each employee.

(11) Restaurants One space for each five seats, plus 1 space for
each three employees.

(12) Studios One space for each 200 square feet of gross floor
area in the building, plus 1 space for each two employees.

(13) Motels One space per unit, plus 1 space for each three em-

(14) Taverns, cocktail bars, and night clubs 1 space for each
two employees plus 1 space for each three seats.

(15) Any use not covered by this ordinance shall require one
parking space for each 300 square feet of gross floor area in the building.

b. Parking Lots Design of parking lots, spaces, and driveways
shall be subject to approval of the Architectural Review Board.

For all parking lots, a solid wall, fence or compact hedge not less
than four (4) feet high shall be erected along the lot lines) when autos or
lots are visible from the street.

All parking stalls shall measure not less than nine (9) feet by eighteen
(18) feet. Proper ingress and egress from the lot shall be required and ade-
quate interior drives shall be required for all parking lots.


Where the required number of parking spaces result in a fraction, an
extra space shall be provided.

c. Uses not providing minimum number of spaces Those individuals,
firms, or corporations who develop one of the perrri tted uses in the Historical
District and do not provide the minimum number of off-street parking spaces
as required by the Ordinance shall pay to the Historical Commission such sum
of money equal to the difference of the value of the cost of land and improve-
ments needed to construct a parking lot of a size that would be needed to furnish
the minimum number of parking spaces required by this ordinance and the value
of the land and improvements actually used as a parking lot in partial compliance
with this ordinance. Such sum shall be held in escrow and used by the Histori-
cal Commission for the purpose of acquiring land and constructing parking lots
and shall be used for this purpose and no other.

The aforementioned value shall be determined jointly by the City Manager
and the Developer. If the City Manager and the developer cannot agree on a
value, then the value shall be established by arbitration. The City Manager
shall appoint a professional appraiser and the developer shall appoint a profes-
sional appraiser and these two shall appoint a third.


a. The following signs shall be permitted in the Historical District:

(1) One non-illuminated sign advertising the sale, lease, or rental
of the lot or building, said sign not exceeding six square feet in area.

(2) One sign per lot for churches, schools, apartment buildings,
boarding or lodging houses, libraries, and community centers, and historic
sites serving as identification and/or bulletin boards not to exceed twelve
square feet in area, The signs may be placed flat against the wall of the build-
ing or may be free-standing provided that it be no closer to any property line
than ten feet. Such signs may be illuminated provided the source of light
shall not be visible beyond the property line of the lot on which the sign is lo-

(3) A non-illuminated sign not more than 100 square feet in area
in connection with new construction work and displayed only during such time
as the actual construction work is in progress.

(4) One non-illuminated name plat designating the name of the oc-
cupant of the property; the name plate shall not be larger than 100 square inches
and may be attached to the dwelling or be free-standing except the top of a
free-standing name plate shall not be more than 18 inches above ground level.

(5) Municipal or state installed directional signs, historical mark-
ers and other signs of a general public interest when approved by the City


(6) Any accessory sign, attached to a building or free standing.

b. Signs generally The design and materials of all signs shall be
subject to approval by the Architectural Review Board.


A non-conforming building or structure may be used and maintained
as provided in this section.

a. Structural alterations additions:

(1) That in a non-conforming building or structure which is non-
conforming as to USE regulations, in addition to being non-conforming as to
other provisions) of this Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance, no structural
alterations or additions shall be made.

(2) A building or structure non-conforming as to floor area ratio
and/or lot coverage shall not be structurally altered or added to.

(3) A building or structure non-conforming as to lot area may be
added to or structurally altered, provided that any additions shall conform
to the regulations of the zone in which it is located.

(4) A building or structure non-conforming as to height regula-
tions may be structurally altered and/or added to, provided any additions
shall conform to the regulations of the District in which located.

(5) A non-conforming building, non-conforming only as to the
yard regulations, may not be added to or enlarged in any manner, unless
the additions or enlargements conform to all the regulations of the zone in
which they are located.

b. Extension of Use:

The non-conforming use of a non-conforming building may be ex-
tended throughout any part of the building clearly designated for such use,
but not so used at the effective date of this ordinance.

c. Restoration of damaged buildings:

(1) A non-conforming building or structure which is damaged or
partially destroyed by fire, floor, wind, earthquake, or other calamity or
act of God or the public enemy, to the extend of not more than fifty percent
(50%) of its value at that time, may be restored and the occupancy or use of
such building, structure, or part thereof, which existed at the time of such
partial destruction, may be continued or resumed, provided restoration shall
be started within a period of six (6) months.


d. Continuation and Change of Use:

(1) The non-conforming use of a non-conforming building or struc-
ture may be continued, any non-conforming building or structure which was
designed and arranged, and which is used for a use not permitted within the
Historical District, shall be removed or it shall be altered and converted to
a conforming building or structure designed for and used for a use permitted
in the District in which it is located, within six (6) months after the termina-
tion of the respective periods of time set out hereinafter, such periods shall
be computed from the effective date of this Ordinance. The following are
hereby established as the reasonable periods for amortization of the normal,
useful life of each class of building and type of construction above the founda-
tions, said types of construction being as defined and specified in the Southern
Standard Building Code.

(a) Type I Fireproof Construction 25 years

(b) Type II Fire Resistive Construction 20 years

(c) Type III Heavy Timber Construction 15 years

(d) Type IV Non Combustible Frame
Construction 10 years

(e) Type V Ordinary Construction 10 years

(f) Type VI Wood Frame Construction 5 years

(2) The non-conforming use of a non-conforming building or struc-
ture may be replaced by a different use permissible in the same zoning dis-
trict as the original non-conforming use or a use in a more restricted zoning
district provided the change of use occurs within six (6) months. Any such
non-conforming building or structure which is vacant for a continuous period
of more than six (6) months shall not thereafter be occupied except by a use
which conforms to the use regulations of the zone in which such non-conform-
ing building is located.


The non-conforming use of a conforming building or structure is provided
for in this Section.

a. Continuation and change of use.

(1) The non-conforming use of a conforming building or structure
may be continued, except that in the residential zones any non-conforming
commercial or industrial use of a residential building or residential accessory


building shall be discontinued within five (5) years of the effective date of this

(2) The non-conforming use of a conforming building or structure
may be replaced by a different use permissible in the same zoning district
as the original non-conforming use or a use in a more restricted zoning dis-
trict provided the change of use occurs within six (6) months.

b. Extension of use.

Any non-conforming use which occupies a portion of a conforming
building, shall not be extended to any other part of the building or extended
to occupy any land outside the building nor any additional building on the
same plot.


a. Continuation Limitation

(1) The non-conforming use of land shall be discontinued within
five (5) years from the date the use became non-conforming, in each of the
following cases;

(a) Where no buildings are employed in connection with such

(b) Where the only buildings employed are accessory or in-
cidental to such use;

(c) Where such use is maintained in connection with a con-
forming building.

(2) A non-conforming use of land which is accessory or inciden-
tal to the non-conforming use of a non-conforming building, shall be discon-
tinued on the same date the non-conforming use of the building is discontinued.

(3) Except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2) above, the non-
conforming use of land may be continued, but shall be subject to the follow-
ing limitations:

(a) Such use shall not be changed., except to a use which con-
forms to the regulations of the zone in which such land is located; and

(b) If such use is discontinued it shall not thereafter be re-

b. Extension of use

Such use shall not be expanded or extended in any way either on the
same or adjoining land.


c. Continuation of Signs Billboards

Any sign, billboard, commercial advertising structure or statuary
which lawfully existed and was maintained at the time this Article became ef-
fective, may be continued, although such structures do not conform to all the
provisions thereof; provided that no structural alterations are made thereto
and that all such non-conforming signs, billboards, commercial advertising
structures and statuary and their supporting members shall be completely re-
moved from the premises not later than two (2) years from the effective date
of this Ordinance.


Any lawful use of land or structure existing at the effective date of this
Ordinance, and which by its terms has become a non-conforming use, is
hereby declared not to be in violation at this Ordinance's effective date.
Such a non-conforming use shall be subject to all of the provisions of this
Ordinance pertaining to its continuance, change and discontinuance.


The casual, temporary, or illegal use of land, building or structure
shall not be sufficient to establish the existence of a non-conforming use or
to create any rights in the continuance of such use.


Whenever a building or structure or a use of a building, structure, or
land becomes non-conforming because of a change of zone or change in the
regulations, and a period of time is specified in this Section for the removal
of such non-conforming building, structure, or use, said period of time
shall be computed from the effective date of such change.


a. Height of fences. In all zoning districts a fence no higher than
three (3) feet may be constructed and maintained within the front yard.
Fences may be built to a maximum of six feet on the side and to the rear
of the front yard setback line. Fences shall be permitted to the sidewalk,
or if there is no sidewalk, to the right-of-way line of a public street. Solid
fences on corner lots shall observe the minimum setback requirements if
the fence exceeds three (3) feet in height.

b. Fences generally. No chain link, concrete block or barbed wire
will be permitted. Approved materials will include but not necessarily be
limited to wood, brick, stone, and wrought iron. Fences are subject to
approval by the Architectural Review Board.



No provision of this Ordinance shall be interpreted to prevent the restora-
tion or reconstruction of any historic building or feature (as listed by the Pensa-
cola Historical Restoration and Preservation Commission) in its original style,
dimensions or position, or on its original archeological foundations.


The Zoning Board of Adjustment will hear and decide only such special ex-
ceptions as specifically authorized by the terms of this Ordinance; to decide
such questions as are involved in determining whether special exceptions should
be granted; and to grant special exceptions with such conditions and safeguards
as are appropriate under this ordinance, or to deny special exceptions when not
in harmony with the purpose and intent of this ordinance. A special exception
shall not be granted by the Zoning Board of Adjustment unless and until:

a. A written application for a special exception is submitted indicating
the section of this Ordinance under which the special exception is sought and
stating the grounds on which it is requested.

b. Notice shall be given at least ten (10) days in advance of public hear-
ing. The owner of the property for which special exception is sought or his
agent shall be notified by mail. Notice of such hearings shall be posted on the
property for which special exception is sought, at the City Hall, and in one
other public place at least 10 days prior to the public hearing;

c. The public hearing shall be held. Any party may appear in person,
or by agent or attorney;

d. The Zoning Board of Adjustment shall make a finding that it is em-
powered under the section of this Ordinance described in the application to
grant the special exception, and that the granting of the special exception will
not adversely affect the public interest.

e. Before any special exception shall issue, the Board shall make writ-
ten findings certifying compliance with the specific rules governing individual
special exceptions and that satisfactory provision and arrangement has been
made concerning the.following, where applicable:

(1) Ingress and egress to property and proposed structures thereon
with particular reference to automotive and pedestrian safety and convenience,
traffic flow and control, and access in case of fire or catastrophe;

(2) Off-street parking and loading areas where required, with par-
ticular attention to the items in (1) above and the economic, noise, glare, or
odor effects of the special exception on adjoining properties and properties
generally in the district;



(3) Refuse and service areas, with particular reference to the
items in (1) and (2) above;

(4) Utilities, with reference to locations, availability, and com-

(5) Screening and buffering with reference to type, dimension,
and character;

(6) Signs, if any, and proposed exterior lighting with reference
to glare, traffic safety, economic effect, and compatibility and harmony with
properties in the district;

(7) Requi red yards and other open space;

(8) Use compatibility with adjacent properties and other property
in the district.

f. Procedure for Review. Any person aggrieved by a decision of
the Board, may, within 15 days thereafter, apply to the Council of the City
of Pensacola for review of the Board's decision. He shall file with the
City Manager a written notice requesting the Council to review said decision.

ARTICLE III Adopted: 11/14/68


/s/ Charles Soule


/s/ Kenneth K. Conrey
City Clerk

Legal in form and valid if enacted;

/s/ Dave Caton
City Attorney


1. Petitioner submits a letter to the Director of Planning, stating: (1)
a legal description of the property; (2) existing zoning; (3) desired
zoning; and (4) reason for rezoning request.

2. A non-refundable fee of $100 shall be paid to the City at the time said
rezoning application is made to cover the administrative, advertising
and mailing costs of processing same.

3. The City Planning Board cannot legally approve "spot zoning" and
discourages zoning for speculation. If the rezoning request is for
speculation, the potential buyer should have an option on the land and
a specific use in mind.

4. It is advantageous for the petitioner to obtain a signed petition from the
property owners within a five hundred (500) foot radius of the property
to be rezoned, indicating they do not object to the proposed zoning

5. The Planning Board meets on the first Thursday of each month. Re-
zoning requests should be submitted no later than 5:00 p.m. of the
preceding Thursday.

6. The petitioner or a representative is required to be present at the Plan-
ning Board meeting, as the Planning Board will not consider applications
not represented.

7. The Planning Board's recommendation to either approve or deny the
rezoning request will be submitted to the City Council not later than
sixty (60) days after submission of the application to the City Planning

8. The Planning Board Secretary will then review the Planning Board's
recommendation to approve or deny the request with the Planning and
Zoning Committee of City Council.

9. When City Council calls a public hearing, everyone within five hundred
(500) feet of the boundaries of the area to be rezoned are notified by
mail and invited to appear to register their approval or objection, if so
desired. If more than 20% of the notified property owners object by
petition submitted 48 hours prior to the Council meeting, eight (8)
Council votes are required to approve the request. Otherwise, six (6)
votes are a majority to approve the change.

10. If City Council approves the rezoning request at the public hearing,
an ordinance is drawn and read at two separate meetings following the
public hearing. The rezoning is then effective immediately after the
second reading of the ordinance.

11. Minimum time required for the total rezoning process is 90 days.


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The mission of signs erected by governmental agencies in the District is to
communicate with and be helpful to the visitor with a minimum of detraction
from the restored nineteenth-century environment that is the District goal.
A uniform signing system helps give order and unity to the District, and
its proper use helps minimize the number of signs. Necessary signs should
communicate concisely and with dignity and become the signature and
authority of the District. They provide continuity of image throughout the
An effective uniform signing system includes specific designs, styles,
shapes, sizes, typefaces, colors, construction, and symbols with universal
understanding. The components and finished signs must harmonize with the
environment and yet motivate the visitor. They must be warm and human
rather than impose upon the visitor.
The signing system in this manual attempts to cover most of the signs
necessary for the area as a living part of the City or which are part of the
interpretative effort of the Historical District. However, other needs will arise
and additional pages for this manual are anticipated.
This manual also includes the regulations for commercial signs in the
District, under the direct supervision of the City of Pensacola's Architectural
Review Board. These regulations have been supplemented by some examples
of appropriate commercial signs, which in some cases, can actually enrich
the historical atmosphere of the District rather than detract from it. Imple-
mentation of both programs is a vital element in creating an historical
district which will merit the respect of both the visitor and the professional

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1. All official signs will be authorized, created,
erected, and maintained by the City of Pensacola
or the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board. No
other governmental agency, organization, or individ-
ual has authority to erect any other sign of an
official nature or to alter, deface, remove, or destroy
a sign erected under this system, subject to legal
action by the City of Pensacola.

2. Official signs may be suggested or requested by
letter to the Director, Historic Pensacola Preserva-
tion Board, 200 E. Zaragoza Street, Pensacola,
Florida, 32501. Other communications concerning
official signs should be made to the Director, also.

3. All official signs remain the property of the
City of Pensacola or the Historic Pensacola Pres-
ervation Board, as the case may be, even if erected
on private property, and are subject to the regula-
tions in this manual.

4. The Historic Pensacola Preservation Board,
through its staff, will establish (1) a periodic system
of inspection of all official signs for maintenance,
proper information, and replacement as needed and
(2) an annual review of the entire system to evaluate
need for both existing signs and additional signs.

5. A committee will be appointed by the chairman
of the Historic Pensacola Preservation Board to
establish a specific schedule and content for signs
for this program, to plan funding for such a
schedule and its maintenance, and to carry out the
intent and spirit of the program as outlined in this
manual. The committee will seek professional
design services provided by the Pensacola-Escambia
Development Commission as needed and will keep
liaison with the Pensacola Architectural Review
Board as necessary to control the various signs of
all types within the Historical District.

6. In no case will the building, lettering, erection,
repair, maintenance, or alteration of the signs in
this program be carried out by personnel other than
experienced carpenters or cabinet makers, sign
letterers or commercial artists. Labor by lay per-
sonnel or personnel not specifically qualified for
such work will render the program ineffective and
an embarrassment to the entire restoration move-
ment in Pensacola.

Type Style for Letters
Type style for all lettering is Clarendon, an old,
well-established typeface, unaffected and easy to
read. The example below is a modified version of
Clarendon upper case letters, which will be used
on all street signs. This is the only modified use of
the Clarendon face in this manual. All other
lettering will be rendered in Clarendon Italic and/or
Clarendon Italic shaded.

Sign Colors
-The three colors for sign faces are brown (base
color), white (for lettering and trim), and black (for
shading and trim). These colors can be used to
minimize disturbing or unnatural qualities intro-
duced by signs, yet can enhance legibility and target
value. Letters and sign borders will be white on a
brown background, with black shading as desirable.
A paint sample of the official brown is below. It can
be matched exactly by Merritt Paint Company in
Pensacola, and it is recommended that several
gallons be stocked by the Historic Pensacola Pres-
ervation Board for use by signpainters. Standard
printing sample for this color is PMS-463. Match-
ing paper stock is Strathmore Grandee (Cordoba


A modification of the standard
city street sign will be used in
the Historic District. The
shaded Clarendon lettering will
be furnished to the 3M
Company, which supplies the
sign material. The existing steel
posts will either be painted
brown to match the sign or
possibly encased with a wood
sleeve as illustrated-which-
ever method is determined to
be most practicable.



Sign Face Materials
-The basic sign materials are woods-
either cypress or fir.

Clarendon Italic
Clarendon Italic is to be used on all hand-
lettered signs. The Clarendon Italic shaded
will be used on sizes as indicated on the first
two lines of the sign illustrated below. In
sizes smaller than that illustrated on the
opposite page, the approved form is Claren-
don Italic without shading, for ease of
lettering and economy.

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tti E"A'mp c o approved, upper case Clarendon Italic.
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B. -? ._

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Page 84

Signs previously shown can be mounted by
different methods.

A Here, this 19" x 15" sign is mounted on a 30" cypress
or fir post (embedded in poured concrete to prevent theft).

j -



B This 30" x 24" sign is mounted on twin wood posts and
is appropriate for marking such sites as the British
Kitchen Foundation in the southwest corner of Seville
Square. Any sign smaller than this would not be visually

C Here, the 19" x 15" sign is embedded in a brick column
to show the size relationship between the bricks and
the 19" x 15" sign.

This shows how a 19" x 15" sign
can be placed in relationship
to the building it identifies.


The sketches on these two pages
indicate other ways
of positioning signs in
relation to the structures
they identify. Each case
is determined by the
appearance, scale, and
positioning of the house
on its lot.

1/ r

House Numbers
-This is the actual size reproduction
of a typical house number sign.
The numerals on the opposite page
are to be used as approved examples
of the Clarendon typeface.
The sketch below indicates one way
to position the house number at
an entrance. Care should be taken
not to shield the house number
with shrubbery, lights, porch columns,
or any other element.




I 3'.-


-Eample of approvIed,
powerr case Clcarendon Itlic

l~f-.a .. .

_- ..- -
:.- ,_.


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Commercial signs, drawing attention to a
business or a profession, have been a prominent
feature of townscapes since at least Roman times
and by the 19th century buildings in the central
areas of most cities had become in part back-
ground structures for innumerable painted signs.
Old photographs of Pensacola's Palafox Street
show a great variety of painted signs-on brick
walls, on building cornices, on canopies, between
horizontal rows of windows, on sign boards
applied to buildings or perpendicular to them,
and even on sidewalk curbs. The result was a
19th-century visual clutter whose only virtue was
absence of lighting at night.
It would not be valid today to attempt a
reproduction of all original 19th-century signing
in the Historical District. Close inspection of old
photographs shows that much signing was re-
dundant; that is, new commercial signs were
installed from time to time, but the old ones,
especially those painted on brick walls, were not
removed. Further, the Historical District of today
has been preserved largely because of interest in
the architecture of extant structures. That archi-
tecture should be seen without the distraction of
large signs. Also, many buildings in the Seville
Square area originally were residences; where
these have been converted to offices and businesses,
necessary signs should harmonize with the
The existing "Guidelines for Signs Permitted
in City of Pensacola Historical District," which
are a part of this manual, govern signs and types
of signs to be erected. Within these regulations a
wide variety of commercial signs becomes ac-
ceptable. If the "official signs" for historic struc-
tures were used on all businesses and offices, they
would bring to the District a monotony which has
no historical precedent. In order to encourage
creativity and imagination in commercial signs,
illustrations are included in this section to serve
as examples which could add to the unique charm
of the Seville Square area.
In conceiving a commercial sign the designer
can utilize as a primary source old illustrations
of Pensacola buildings. The most desirable route
is to reproduce an original sign with wording
adapted to the current use of the structure involved.

Also recommended is utilizing an original sign
from another old Pensacola building to give a
design for a structure with a new use. Using such
local precedents for designing reconstructed com-
mercial signs is compatible with building restora-
tion in an historic district. Carefully re-creating
an authentic 19th-century structure and then
marring its integrity with plastic or flashing neon
signs would be wasteful. Also inappropriate to
the Seville Square area are the so-called "Colonial"
signs with curves, broken pediment tops and
various "old" letter styles. These are mid-18th
century in origin, reflecting the popularity of
Chippendale furniture style at the time, and are
not proper to 19th century Pensacola. The
Architectural Review Board shall not approve
installation of these pseudo-antique signs.
Signs of the past used representational pictures,
symbols, or words to convey a message, with the
use of words on signs being dependent upon the
extent of literacy in any period. The same
elements are employed today but the additional
factor of sign shape (for quick identification by
the swiftly moving motorists) has become im-
portant. In the Pensacola Historical District, for
example, official signs for historic sites listed on
the visitor's "Walking Tour" will have a distinct
shape and color scheme that will be identifiable
even before their message can be read.
Commercial signs, however, should have no
such uniformity, but instead be individually dis-
tinctive within limits of authenticity and taste as
determined by the Architectural Review Board. A
good sign will enhance the visual flavor of the
When contemplating the installation of a
commercial sign, a property owner should first
consult the staff of the Historic Pensacola
Preservation Board for reference to helpful illus-
trations. The proposed sign must then be drawn
up with exact dimensions shown and with color
scheme included. The sign proposal shall then be
presented to the Architectural Review Board for
approval before construction will be permitted.
Signs erected without this approval shall be
subject to immediate removal by demand of the
City of Pensacola.

Zoning Ordinance of the City of Pensacola, July 24, 1965 (as amended)
Article III-Historical Zoning, Section 6. Sign Regulations

a. The following signs shall be permitted in the
Historical District:
(1) One non-illuminated sign advertising the sale,
lease, or rental of the lot or building, said sign not
exceeding six square feet in area.
(2) One sign per lot for churches, schools, apart-
ment buildings, boarding or lodging houses, libraries,
and community centers, and historic sites serving as
identification and/or bulletin boards not to exceed
twelve square feet in area. The signs may be placed
flat against the wall of the building or may be free-
standing provided that it be no closer to any property
line than ten feet. Such signs may be illuminated
provided the source of light shall not be visible beyond
the property line of the lot on which the sign is located.
(3) A non-illuminated sign not more than 100
square feet in area in connection with new construc-

tion work and displayed only during such time as the
actual construction work is in progress.
(4) One non-illuminated name plate designating
the name of the occupant of the property; the name
plate shall not be larger than 100 square inches and
may be attached to the dwelling or be free-standing
except the top of a free-standing name plate shall not
be more than 18 inches above ground level.
(5) f Municipal or state installed directional signs,
historical markers and other signs of a general public
interest when approved by the City Manager.
(6) Any accessory sign, attached to a building or
free standing.
b. Signs generally-The design and materials of
all signs shall be subject to approval by the Architec-
tural Review Board.

Guidelines for Signs in the Seville Square Historical District as approved
by The Architectural Review Board of the City of Pensacola, April 14, 1972.

The following guidelines have been adopted by the
City of Pensacola Architectural Review Board as a
guide in assisting persons and businesses within the
district to determine if signs presently erected do
conform to the requirements and assisting in design
of future signs that will probably conform to the
requirements as set forth by the Architectural Review
This guide is in addition to any and all requirements
set forth in the current edition of the City of Pensacola
Zoning Ordinance.
For signs to be erected within the Pensacola
Historical District, each application for a permit for
a sign must be approved by the Architectural Review
Board prior to a permit being issued. Each applica-
tion shall be accompanied by a scaled drawing of the
sign, including the location of the sign on the building
or other structure, or on the lot, and including such
designation of the copy as is needed to determine that
the location, area and other provisions of this code are
met. Style of lettering, materials used, method of
illumination (if any) and colors to be used are to be
submitted to the Architectural Review Board.

1. No sign shall have or consist of any moving,
rotating or otherwise animated part, or any flashing,
blinking, fluctuating or otherwise animated light.
2. No roof sign, wind sign, or general advertising
sign shall be permitted.
3. No sign shall extend above the eave line of a
building to which it is attached, or above a height of

40 feet, whichever is the lesser, or extend beyond
property line.
4. No directly illuminated sign (light source
within or behind sign) shall be permitted.
5. No portable sign shall be permitted.
6. No sign with audio shall have sound level heard
beyond property line.
7. All signs affixed to a building shall be parallel
or perpendicular to the wall to which they are attached
with a sign projecting no more than 18 inches and
bracket no longer than 24 inches.
8. No sign shall be posted, painted, or otherwise
affixed to any rock, fence, tree or utility pole.
Old English, Roman, and Period lettering shall be
permitted. Size of signs permitted shall be in keeping
with the size, location, and purpose of the building
and in no case greater than 30 square feet.
In general, wood, brick, stucco are materials
preferred for background. In some instances, other
materials simulating the above shall be allowed.
Wood, metal, paint and in some instances, plastic
shall be permitted for lettering.
The above serves only as a guide and the Archi-
tectural Review Board reserves the right to review
each application on its own merit and to permit
deviations from the above guide when it is deemed in
the best interests of the Historical District.


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Designed by D/C/B, Pensacola. Florida



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